GEORGE CLARKE WALKERTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDVOLUME VII OCTOBER 1921 NUMBER 4PERSONAL CULTURE AND THEPRESENT TIMEIBy WILLIAM DARNALL MAC CLINTOCKProfessor of English Literature, U ni versi ty of ChicagoIA new enthusiasm for personal culture and individual morality seemsindicated at this moment of mental confusion in our higher thinking,when so many ideals for a peaceful society of all mankind seem broken,and when we are all living rather on our hopes than on our convictions.A.nd on this platform, though devoted to a rich and varied interpreta­tion of social and mental problems, it cannot be said that the claims ofsuch culture have too often or recently been presented, On the con­trary, it has seemed needful continuously to consider here our recentproblems of political and social welfare, to think in terms of the wideworld and not in those of our own nest.And when it has not been consideration of political and generalsocial anxieties, we have long been absorbed in the work of intensespecialization and the doctrine of training for immediate efficiencies inthe practical world. Whatever their functions in our ongoing civiliza­tion, these interests are not intimate friends-indeed oftener harassingenemies-of a culture that springs from a liberal education.I trust I recognize with right modesty the temerity of treating solarge and general a subject, the difficulty of finding any logical threadthrough its mazes. I am justified only if in our academic circles there isneed to restudy some vital element in life neglected or thwarted.I Address delivered on the occasion of the One Hundred Twenty-first Convo­cation of the University, held in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, September 2, 1921.199200 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDMy address is frankly an appeal, not a body of facts nor a contention.Like Burns's poem it may turn out a song, it may turn out a sermon.I can only hope bravely that it is not one-to paraphrase AnatoleFrance-in which" God reveals himself only in platitudes." I wish tostir the imaginations and sympathies of students-and these as to theirown natures, not their employments. A liberal culture is never despair­ing nor even pessimistic. It knows that a trained mind is an endlessand unfailing pleasure to itself. It is therefore creative and propagating.It adorns defeat, it re-embodies distracted ideals, and it steadies thesoul in times of hesi ta tion.At this anxious moment of pause after the great storm we arewitnessing a phenomenon familiar in culture history, a criticism ofall our large social and political institutions and programs, and a returnto emphasize personal refinement and righteousness as "the only perma­nent shore, the cape never rounded nor wandered o'er." Here thereforeI phrase for this occasion what many are vaguely aware of, rather thanreveal a hidden fact. Indeed the amount and quality of such thinkingis truly significant. Lord Bryce recently phrased it thus: "The prospectof improving the relations of states and peoples to one another dependson the possibility of improving human nature itself." In this currentmajor sport of salvaging civilization the ever ready H. G. Wells alsoproposes as the program for our immediate activity this production ofa new personal morality, to be secured by concentrating all attentionupon the education of the young.The conviction that wide and international communication withsequent profitable exchange of goods and persons, or that the expertefficiencies with the vast new powers of men, or that wealth and leisurefor everybody would save mankind from fundamental conflicts, has atleast been suspended. On the contrary, these vast new gifts of humannature rather hastened and prolonged the conflict. Men must see againthat the nation or internation is no more just nor generous nor humanenor good-willed than the mass of individuals that compose it. Themore efficient is the brute in man, the more expert the mechanics of hisintelligence, the more dangerous he is in combination and in control.Hence has arisen this widespreading wave of thought that public salva­tion must be founded on that of individuals, that the culture of the singleman is still the high work of all centers of learning and influence, andthat the production of men capable of the difficult task of living at peacewith others cannot be left to the natural selection of competition andexchange.PERSONAL CULTURE AND THE PRESENT TIME 20IThe advocate of such humanization has at least the intense satisfac­tion of knowing that his ideals did not even assist in bringing on the warand the subsequent anarchy. Dominance of men and peoples overothers, the costly accumulations among one people of riches and advan­tages others cannot share, the reduction of men to be regimented toolsin vast organizations, are all antagonistic to the very nature of culture,which first frees and then socializes men. And he has this furthersatisfaction that his ideals are the first to begin to function well afterthe catastrophe. Education proceeds, the schools are filled, the youngat least must go on, things of beauty are still a joy forever, whose loveli­ness increases, and a sound culture "soothes the cares and lifts thethoughts of men."But more urgent even than this refuge in time of trouble is the needthat cultivated men at these permanent centers of social equipmentshould stand against the wave of commonness, of popular barbarism,due to the rapid extension of freedom, power, and riches to uncultivatedpeople. We are swaying at our anchors in a flood of primitive, coarsepleasure, of whimsicality, of violence, of Caliban and South Sea Islandemotions, of Main Street and all its alleys. A rampant coarseness fillsour organs of publicity and waves the rank air of exposure from coastto coast. All are aware of the suffering caused by the idle curiosity ofthe rude liberal communism of the present day-as noted by Rolland­violating the moral privacy of men. This violence of undisciplinedenergy is hostile to the very principle of education, to say nothing of aliberal training. The sight of popular pleasures is so often saddeningbecause they are so lazy, so cheap, so wasteful, so unintelligent-"peopleall dressed up and nowhere to go "-wherein the amenities of life sufferalong with the humanities.In this struggle of culture against its chief enemies-that of externalcontrol which subjugates men to the alien interests of others, that ofinternal lack of control which subjects the nature to its elementaryinstincts and behaviors, and that of surfeit and confusion due to toogreat riches-it is the college and its disciplines which are the unmovingrock. Here at least we have, as in Shakespeare's last beautiful andthoughtful play, a model and going society constituted by wisdomand science, with practical power as its instrument and benevolencetoward the young as its end. This college world is able to protectitself equally from the cruel exploitation of upper-class villainy and thebrutal destructiveness of physical vice at the bottom. Here we have aceaseless gathering and co-ordination" of the best said and done among202 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDmen." Here we have some "shelter to grow ripe, some leisure to growwise."In this building of humane culture as the best defensive againstdespair over world-affairs and against the destruction of civilization bywaves of barbarism, its advocates have too often been divided as to thebest material and means. But in the emergencies of the present itwould look as if we could unite on a cultivation produced by liberalstudy of the best that men have thought and done without sacrificingthe peculiar contribution of any single field.IIBecause personal culture is the highest ideal of the training process,the highest pleasure of the completed man, it is timely now to analyzeand re-emphasize its elements and its functions. In developing thisculture we recognize and provide for three processes: (I) enrichment ofconsciousness by new material; (2) intellectual organization and control;(3) refinement and aesthetic adornment.I. Culture as enrichment means the gaining of new experiences, theaccumulations of the world's riches in things and ideas. It is curios­ity, intellectual adventure, and experiment. It means the use of newpowers, the appearance of types of pleasure.But culture history shows how quickly such enrichment swamps themind with materials and gifts which it cannot subordinate nor use, howeasily "we are rich one moment to be poor forever." Even the bestminds are soon smaller than their possessions and again the old cryrings out, "What profits it a man if he gain the whole 'world and losehis own soul ?"So it is that this aspect of culture needs no emphasis here and now.We are already too rich; we are rather surfeited than starved, are thevictims of our abundance-such as it is. Culturally we are new, rawpeople whose possessions, energies, and desires are larger than ourreason, our taste, or our control.2. Culture as intellectual control, as a mastery of material, as a criti­cal tool and standard, is sharply opposed to the teaching that there is noactual independent self, no real self -directing center of awareness, ofcriticism, of choice, and that we are each only a vortex of accidentalenergies and externally directed impulses. This doctrine is easy to teachand deadly easy to profess and act upon. One effect therefore of a longera of emphasizing" society" as the given, absolute, first unit of humanlife, is the glad acceptance of it by our lazy selves which hastens to un-PERSONAL CULTURE AND THE PRESENT TIME 203load responsibility for improvement upon this society, heredity, environ­ment. The ideals of culture call for individual, personal responsibility,for the creation first of a self fit for social uses.This intellectual aspect of culture has too often in the past resultedin "classical" eras, building up a vast machinery of mental rules, orders,taboos, logics, and preventing the expansion and the refinement of thesoul. But not recently, and the dangers from it need not now beemphasized. Indeed the production of trained men-reasonable,balanced, considerate, judicial-is what public society now most requires.Culture is in a sense intellectual aviation, founded on the hardestfacts and laws of a real world, but select, with perfected skill, balancedand proportionate, courageous and venturesome, poised but alert andmasterful, believing and hopeful, the very highest example of scientific,intellectual, and living beauty.One of the standard methods of testing the candidates for sanityat the asylums is that of giving each a wheelbarrow; one group cantrundle to a line, turn and come home, another cannot turn but goesstraight on to the barriers, while a third group merely goes followingthe accidental meanderings of its wheels. There is food for cynicismat the sight of the hosts of uncultivated people helplessly following theirwandering wheelbarrows of instincts or possessions about the lawns ofthe world-abundant energy but no control.3. Culture as refinement means the ability to produce and enjoythings beautiful-the choice of the rare, the pure in quality, thedecorated, and the charming. Refinement does not mean artificialdecoration or unsubstantial delicacy or exclusiveness. It loves theessential in objects, in speech, in manners, in conduct, and in thinking.It delights in the peculiar quality of each object it deals with-thebrilliancy and hardness of gems, the living colors of plants, the peculiarquality of each of the sexes, the sweetness of song, and it permits onlythe decorations and combinations which emphasize these qualities.Hence it is temperate and choice both in things and in pleasures. LikeKeats it "loves the principle of beauty in all things."In the past the whole of culture has been too often identified withthis aesthetic aspect of refinement. This fact has led to the feeling thatculture is not the best equipment for a working world of actual humanexperience. However erroneous and one-sided, it is still clear thatthis aspect of culture can never be absent from the completed man,though it must be proportioned and co-ordinated with the other two.The mind as it completes itself finds that it must have states and activities204 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDwhich are self-satisfying, which have no ends but their own being. Thisis the love of beauty. If the whole world were ours and we had the mindsto master and use it, we should still need activities of creation and enjoy­ment which have no purposes beyond themselves, are without wearinessor surfeit. Such are play and the love of beauty. And this aspect ofculture needs emphasis today when such vast worlds of emancipatedpeople have tastes that are coarse and violent and wasteful, huntingpleasures that inevitably leave regret.Now this culture is impossible without wide education in men andtheir ways. It does not arise in simple human relations or amonguntrained people. Benevolence, good sense, and sweetness of characterare possible there-but not culture. It cannot, either, be produced inmere schools of urbanity. It is a product of a long and wide trainingthrough science, criticism, and endless conference. It is not the productof a ritual or of direct teaching. Its manufacturing and radiatingsource must be an equipped center of learning, where are gatheredthe best that men have thought and done and the most cultivatedexpounders of it.We may not dismiss lightly the old opposition between this ideal ofculture and that of social expertness and benevolence as the first ormain purposes of education. In a troubled and needy world the firstimpulse of kindly souls is to bend all effort toward training for immediate"social service." Personal culture may be made then to appear selfish,aloof, indifferent. And, to be sure, the cultivated man, like all therest, is ultimately responsible for the "secular melioration," as Emersoncalled it, of all men. He can be, he must be, socially benevolent anduseful. His personal choice of and training in the best must not everseparate him emotionally from those who cannot take or use it. Butas competing principles in the immediate business of training the relationof these ideals is still difficult. About the impulse and doctrine ofsocial service there is perhaps always something of pity and con­descension, of working with the broken and unhappy, which is dangerousto young minds which should be trained only in the best, so as first toarouse in them admiration and creative co-operation.The way out of such contradiction is to hold firmly by the law thatculture comes first, it must produce a mind and heart worth giving toothers, fit to serve. We are daily witnesses of young people urged onemotionally to serve others, who have not the intelligence to solve theirproblems or patience and refinement worth imitating. This service forour fellow-men is a corollary and application of a trained mind, not aPERSONAL CULTURE AND THE PRESENT TIME 205substitute for it, or even its handmaid. It is the gift which must precedethe giving.And we keep in mind too that while we cannot adequately train theindividual to be socially minded except on actual social materials and inliving social relations, it is equally true that for the young these mustbe under school conditions with selected, normalized materials, withlaboratory control, the use of books and critical conference. Especiallyfor understanding mankind must there be constant call upon the sympa­thetic imagination, for which history and the art of literature are thebest food and embodiment.It is the same with the ancient antinomy between a well-developedpersonal culture and efficiency in the competitive business of earning alivelihood-it is a question of times, of which is first and which sequenttraining. Whatever we are to do, this ideal of training the man forhimself before we set him to work should excite our enthusiasm, just asthe frequent sight of experts in narrow fields of practical and professionallife who are without refinement or humane training should sadden anddisconcert us. It cannot be but it is these men who drive us all on therocks of inhuman competition, the unsympathizing struggle to dominateover other men.In this labor of the schools to develop a refined personal culturerests the only possible plan and technique for training adequate leadersfor general society. All are aware that the general democratic publicinstinctively resists following trained leaders, either inherited or recentlyproduced. It is due to a jealous fear of masters, an ignorance of meritand of their deepest need, a dislike of inequalities produced by experteducation. Consequently the type of demagogue of the French Revolu­tion days who loudly proclaimed that he must follow the mob becausehe was their leader, is not yet gone from society. We must and willhave leaders either autocratic, representative, or independently expert.But any leader is futile unless he is larger, calmer, more widely cultivatedthan the work he has to do or the people whom he serves, and it is idleto depend on one who is no better than his origins, no wiser than hissupporters.IIIEnthusiasm for personal culture and individual responsibility seemsindicated then in our times of intellectual crisis, confusion, and anarchy.It is a moment when the well-nigh standard feeling is one of discourage­ment over the working of our social public systems, over the blindingwaste and corruption in our states, over the fierce confederated storm206 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDof vices (to vary Coleridge's line) barricadoed within the walls ofcities.I remind you again that now in speech and print men's minds turnoften from suggestions for public reform of their social systems tothoughts of individual training and responsibility, of which those I havequoted from Lord Bryce and Mr. Wells are only typical. Men beginto repeat again from many angles the teaching of Jesus in the presence ofthe mechanical, Prussianized, cruel, and saddening world of the Caesars,that we seek first the Kingdom of God. We must save the units beforethere can be any social salvation. International and national relationsare but those of individuals enlarged and more powerful. Hence nomultiplying of unfit units can make a harmonious whole. Man selfish,coarse, brutal, cunning by himself, is only that as nation or empire.There is no such thing as a cultured, reasonable, friendly state exceptone in which the majority of its members are as individuals. Indeedthe law holds that a nation acts more selfishly than its average citizens.But this movement at the present time only parallels and repeatsthose of other times of similar mental and spiritual confusion.I. It happened so when Christianity first fired the world with itsteaching of man's first duty as that of personal morality-the quiet, peace­ful, assured individual culture, which asks for itself only what it is happyothers should have. To people asking where the new kingdom of perfec­tion was to be found among the great mechanisms of states and religions,it taught that "the kingdom of heaven is within you." So might itsay now to an inquirer after Christian civilization among the competi­tions of states and commerces. It taught then that" as a man thinkethor intends, so is he" and that good will toward others is the first law of aremade society. To the suggestion that all power over all the kingdomsof the world might be had by worshiping at the old shrines of organizedevil, the cry rang out that man should worship only at the altar of hissoul's creator. Thoughtful self-salvation and after that benevolentco-operation is Jesus' plan for a new society.2. It is observable that when barbarism swept down over Romaninstitutions and customs, many of the higher minds of the empire tookrefuge in exclusive self-cultivation and refinement. But this culture waslargely of the aesthetic type, a refuge from trouble, not a liberal under­standing of its causes. This frightened and injured retreat did notsave them:No easier and no quicker passedThe impracticable hours.PERSONAL CULTURE AND THE PRESENT TIME 207Nor will so narrow a refinement, however exquisite and beautiful, saveus today. But Roman civilization suffered most because it had noadequate system of education, no self-propagating center of individualrenewal and criticism. It feared popular education and trusted toarmed control and efficient administration, with slavery as the supportof its state.3. One is impressed again with the similarities to our own day of theconfused, unhappy, reactionary years following the defeat of Napoleon,with the badly working leagues for peace just a hundred years ago.Typical behaviors of literary men were these: generous and enthusiasticyoung men like Byron, expecting a new political heaven now that theexploiting emperor was destroyed, fell into despair and cynicism whenthey saw selfishness and unintelligence rise to power among theconquerors; Keats and Landor "strove with none for none were worththe strife," taking refuge in nature and art and the absorbing loveof beauty; Wordsworth, wisest of them all, while unhappily led by hisfear of public disorder to compromise with reaction, and accept anuncultivated government because of its strength, knew deep in his ownheart that salvation must lie first in the perfecting of the single soul,done largely "in retirement." Weary of strife he secured peace bysleeping and brooding on his own heart, saying early and late that wemust build social upon individual culture.4. Another instructive moment is that in England of about 1870,the one that produced 'a great monument of thinking and expressionin Matthew Arnold's Culture and Anarchy. If it were not presumptuous,this address might fairly be entitled" A New Culture and Anarchy."After a quarter-century of fine influence on the better minds of England,this quiet, wise, constructive book passed into a changed and hostileatmosphere. But the great similarity of moods between ours today andthose of 1865 to 1875, times both of spiritual and political confusion,make it worth while to recall Arnold's teaching. He felt that his daywas especially anarchistic because, among others, of the followingtendencies:a) The breakdown of all authority and standards due to the icono­clastic criticism of the middle of the century, and to the rise in allclasses of a fierce spirit of doing "what one likes," and not what oneshould.b) The portrayal of all and every aspect of life as equally importantin the extreme realism and detail of historians like Michelet and Carlyle,208 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDand in the realistic literature in France and England. Arnold felt that ourimaginations and emotions were swamped by this mass of crude, mean­ingless material-that all sense of the choice, the best, had been lost.Gossip, warts on noses, endlessly detailed pictures of lowly and low lifeprevented refinement, the growth of taste, and anything like an organizedmental life or social order.c) The rise to power of a noisy, thoughtless democracy, resistingeducation and vulgarized by violent pleasures. The triumph of thepopular cause in the American Civil War and its partial triumph in therevolutions in Europe at the middle of the century had seemed tohave a secondary and bad effect of establishing the rule of whimsical,passionate majorities.This Arnold called "anarchy"-the higher life without law or order,and with no passion for perfection. Arnold then endeavored to establisha new center of authority, of reasonableness and love of perfection. Hecould find it only in the cultivated, independent, beauty-loving soul ofthe individual man.In order to accomplish this, Arnold set as a goal of training andexperience no less a task than the perfection of human nature-just asthe great English statesman phrases it today. This perfection has tocome through culture-a culture derived from a liberal training, usingas material" the best that has been thought and said" in all the world,and using as its tool and instrument" criticism" or the free play offresh ideas over our stock notions.Arnold's constructive contributions may be summed up thus:a) He helped to make culture a matter of the whole mind, of itsin telligence and choice as well as its refinement.b) He showed clearly that the only possible guide in a free societytimes of "anarchy" is just this liberally trained, independent mind.c) He established as the principal tool for this higher mental training,the art of criticism-the disinterested desire to know and to propagatethe best that has been said and done.d) And in this doctrine of the "best" he gave a convincing suggestionfor obtaining the materials for this costly work. He found the bestideas of the best men in the quintessence of their thinking which isphilosophy, and of their experience which is literature. It is thismaterial which binds all mankind to its essential past, which frees fromlocal and provincial prejudice, which refines taste by familiarity withthe universally choice and beautiful.PERSONAL CULTURE AND THE PRESENT TIME 209But today many limitations and even errors are apparent in Arnold'ssuggestions:a) He drew his "best" materials for producing culture almostwholly from the distant past of the classical world.b) He drew them too generally from literature. He did not leaveplace for contributions from pure science, social theory, and the idealsof government by majorities.c) He was frightened at the iconoclastic dogmatism of the newevolutionary science-its scornful attack on the principles and historyof religion, and especially its substitution of a theory of developmenttoward no predicable goal by the competition of mechanical forces,instead of a growth under the will of God toward a humane Kingdomof Heaven.d) He sawall too keenly the faults of British liberalism in politicsand social affairs-its sordidness, its mob appeals in the place ofintelligent discussions, its ideal of material prosperity instead of spiritual,its principle of laissez faire in social competition by which the strongestshould inherit the earth, its endowment of popular pleasure and excite­ment rather than the higher interests of its people. He did not see thecleansing that comes from popular criticism nor the moral refreshmentthat comes to culture from the feeling that nowhere in the world shallmen be denied the opportunities of development, or be systematicallycondemned to the service of others.e) Arnold saw keenly the new vulgarizing of upper society by the vastincrease of wealth and the consequent increase of leisure, sport, luxury,and ennui; and the equal vulgarization of the lower classes by rudeluxury and waste. But he did not perceive adequately the new socializa­tion of wealth then on the wing, nor the value of freeing even unintelligentmen from the slavery of toil by the development of power and thecrea tion of leisure.j) And in the arts he could not see through to the new realism of ourday combining a radical sense of fact and of all the facts with a freshperception of the ideal tendencies running through them all.From today's point of view, then, Arnold's culture seems academic,bookish, absolute, and retired, as if it were something to be once for allattained or constructed and then firmly held as a finished standard.We are equally passionate for the same spiritual qualities and fineeffects, but we see and hold them in a new unstable equilibrium, moreliving than static, a flying machine not a statue. We have equal respect210 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDwith him for what mankind has already done, but more expectation ofnew truth, of new beauty, from the unending processes of creativeevolution.IVNow to the supercultivated and critical mind perhaps all eras seemin this way transitional and confused. But our exact moment is cer­tainly such, an era with repetition of the old features-" anarchy" inthe higher levels of consciousness, while the greater mass of men continuein selfishness, violence, and waste, with leaders more than commonlyusing community interests to advance their own. Indeed it is writtendown by those who represent us, that we take all the rights and priv­ileges but none of the obligations of a distracted and half-establishedpeace, making us a state wastefully generous in its emotions but cruellyprovincial and selfish in its thinking.But this lack of a cultivated public opinion and popular interestsare not caused by the Great War. The historian sees mental movementsof half a century flowering now:a) The long cult of power, of might as the ideal and law of bothindividuals and peoples, helped produce it. Nothing can be moredestructive to culture than this particular worship of power and forceas a substitute for reason, for right decided in contemplation and dis­cussion. Pushed to its limits by the Teuton realists in the name ofevolution by natural selection, it caused even if it did not precipitatethe great catastrophe.b) We recognize too as causal a cult of violence, of speed and extrava­gance. In art men claim, as does John Masefield, that only in violentstates of mind can we know what human nature really is, see_ its realtragedies and its possible joys and romance. To most mere men how­ever it is the primitive pleasure in violent and wasteful activity, in excessand indulgence even though followed by collapse, in the crudeMacbethian way of acting first and thinking afterward. It is thevery denial of culture-yet it has filled our books, and all our art, andour younger people's pleasures.c) We have had, too, a long cult of primitivism. This has been aweariness of civilization, a reaction against control, a revival of primitivetastes and pleasures-the African and South Sea Islander come againwith their orgiastic dance and music and dress. It is Caliban and thedrunken sailors, roaring destructively across the difficult culture Prosperohas builded-the original forces and desires of the untrained mind putonce more into violent circulation.PERSONAL CULTURE AND THE PRESENT TIME 2IId) The unhappy historian must speak of the long age of the"common'<+the prevailing of Main Street ideals, the cheap, second­hand, machine-made modern town. Here we have again uncultivatedpeople "on wheels." Ruskin, perhaps a bit unfairly, but righteouslyexpressed it in his indignation over a needless railway down the pic­turesque, uncommercial valley of the Dove. "And now they have it;now any fool in Buxton can be in Braxton in a half hour, and any f061 inBraxton can be in Buxton-and that's all they got for it." Our news­papers, our schools, our streets, are filled with multiplied commonness,and cultivated taste does not grow in the stuffy atmosphere of enrichedignorance and coarseness.e) To this attaches the cult of popularity as a sufficient test for therepresentatives of our public interests and welfare. It is democracynot of its best elements but merely of its majorities. It promotes wavesof untrained, irresponsible speech, that of the demagogue and pastoralstatesmen+-men with no vested rights in the best traditions and attain ..ments of the race.j) Culture, finally, has been long prevented in circles of training bythe passion for early specialization and the education for immediateefficiency. N ow the term "efficiency" like "social service" seems tofall into disfavor, to be used only by advertisers and their spokesmen.This is due partly to repetition and commercialization, but more to thefact that with all honest effort to give reality to education and help solvethe problem of quickly preparing men for self-support, the doctrine hasperverted education by preventing the production of men worthy inthemselves to be offered to society, delaying thus the conscious improve­ment of human nature itself.Finally we must place here an effect of pragmatic philosophy, whichdestroyed-though more in the service of logic than of aesthetics-thesalutory effect in the uncultivated of the disciplinary older idealism,and has not been able to give its civilian followers any principle urgingthe indulgent soul of man to take pains. It was perhaps metaphysicallywholesome but culturally unproductive.Not to the war then, but to the vast uprising and stormy working ofnineteenth-century democracy do we owe the fact that culture has notprospered in our times. The culture historian recognizes gladly democ­racy's righteous, wholesome triumph. But he grieves over its evils, itsslow willingness to train itself. And it is clear to him that merely in thenumbers of the people, in their vast power, in their general good nature(when not crossed), in their natural and hasty tastes, there is no principle212 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDof improvement or salvation. Multiplying coarseness and ignorance,giving it money for enjoyment, spinning it around the world on wheelsproduces no elevation, no choice of better things, no self-cleansing orcontrol.VIf this sketch is even measurably correct of the large absorption ofour public consciousness in the unfriendly struggle for power and wealth,national and local, this confusion and anarchy due to the dominanceamong us of mediocrity and commonness, is it surprising that we turnto think constructively of another Renaissance of the cultivated, respon­sible, individual man, of possible better leaders in the ever reneweddreams of human brotherhood, and of a society not only peaceful butrefined? While we stagger under our institutional and public burdensthe culture of the individual can be the daily action and successful con­cern of homes and schools.Fortunately our very common confusion and distress make friendsof those who in the past have thwarted one another over the bestmaterials and processes for gaining and giving a wide and freeing educa­tion and its consequent culture. We unite or we perish. In thisswamping democratic moment when so few people get beyond the bareelements of education to where conscious liberal training can begin toflower into culture, when there are as many people in jails and asylumsas in colleges and universities, when we spend as much for cosmetics asfor education, there is more than all together can do to produce leaderswho are skilled and independent enough to serve the rest, to over­balance the instinctive conspiracies of selfishness, and prevent thedeluging of all under the floods of primitive pleasure.But personal culture is thwarted still by too early specialization,before the mind has given itself a view of the experiences of men beforeus and of the organization of life about us. However acute and real andvital it may make mental work, it narrows at the one moment whenbreadth is most needed. Is it to be wondered at that so many of thebest specialists in our time become at once the servants of exploitingselfishness, that every discovery of new power is taken first not for thepublic but for private use-our very laboratories mobilized for theservice of predatory interests?Culture cannot exist in an atmosphere single or collective ofenthusiasm for the accumulation of property or the multiplicationof adventure or the mere increase of pleasure. Abundance is its verybane. The finest fruit grows on the northernmost limit of its production,PERSONAL CULTURE AND THE PRESENT TIME 213where the plant must attend hardily to the essence of its life. Whereverexistence is easy, fibrous and coarse growths flourish-among men asamong plants.In producing a cultivated mind we are further deeply injured by theearly differentiations that either make a child a workman before he isa man, a cog in an endless machine, or by the emotional urgings thatmake us wish to bestow ourselves in social service before we have any­thing worth giving-our very benevolence made a feeble spiritualconceit.There are many new positive elements and revaluations in culturesince Arnold's helpful formula of fifty years ago.His principle of disinterestedness remains absolute, but he did notallow that it could grow in and out of an enriched personality producedin a living social activity, an acute but unbiased sympathy for socialwelfare. Culture to us is not an artificial structure built apart fromreality, to be applied to it from outside. Independence to us is notisolation, but intelligent and controlled participation in life.The enormous enrichment of man by the scientists' discovery andorganization of new power, Arnold did not allow for. It has providedus however with a physical freedom from the control of locality andmere toil that has made possible rapidity of experiment and mobilityof experience which Arnold called in mental matters" the free play ofideas." The very children play safely with high-powered engines andtools that outdo the fairy dreams of wishing-caps and seven-leagueboots. We easily foresee a generation whose minds will have masteredthe violence of this power and the over-abundance of its riches.And we have no such fear as he that haughty" science" will dominatethe mental life and dictate the settlement of all human problems.Instructed and modest natural science has steadied and made wiseall mankind, given us the tools and processes for the endless bettermentof life. But the primary motives and ends of living are still settledelsewhere. He would have rejoiced at the spectacle of a distinguishedscientist of our own group who spent many intellectual days girding atfaith in the name of the new rampant science of the seventies, turningin his own seventies to place an indestructible cornerstone for faith byshowing in the name of later science that the old oftseeming unfriendlyearth is an endlessly building, creating world, fit home and helper of aslowly but surely perfecting humanity.We see as no age before us was able to see the increment to thecultured mind coming from the mixture and interpenetration of races,2I4 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDsexes, ages-making a new social mind. Here too flourishes in ourconsciousness the passion for the education and socialization of allmen-to the uttermost, so that none are left out. At present thisorganizes a task so huge as to delay and confuse all workers. But themotives and joys of our hearts are not chilled by the knowledge that weprosper at the expense of any other soul, that we seek what we areunwilling others should have.The positive creating elements of a fine culture thus stand forth:1. A wide knowledge of other men's thoughts and deeds-at firstwide rather than intense, avoiding thus personal whim and provincia1ity.2. The highest possible self-criticism, a passion for inner consistency,for reasonableness, where destructive evil and untruthfulness are impos­sible. This is the beauty which Keats saw as truth.3. The highest possible enjoyment of the self, which is beauty func­tioning as pleasure.4. Culture promotes and uses each deed and object for its pure self,that which it peculiarly is. It perceives the law of beauty in differentiat­ing all things into concrete individual entities each with its own spiritualcharacter and gifts.5. Culture working as good taste means an increasing choice of thebest in the world and the passion for extending it to all men.My wheel comes full circle if I point out that after this culturebecomes the complete possession of cultivated men, it sets forwardinstinctively and necessarily along with the other perfections of powerand good will, toward the salvation of all mankind.THE PRESIDENT'S CONVOCATIONSTATEMENTICONVOCATION ORATORThe speaker today, Professor MacClintock, is one of those whom weare accustomed to call, in the University, our" aborigines." In otherwords he belonged to the original faculty of the University and joinedin the opening exercises of the new institution on the first day of October,1892. We thank him for the service with which he has favored us today,as indeed we thank him for the long years of faithful service to scholar­ship and to the University to which we have referred.RETROSPECTWithin those years he has seen some changes in the developmentof the University. On the occasion of that opening meeting thenew institution had four buildings, if we count Cobb Hall and theadjacent residence halls as forming four separate buildings. Wehave now the spacious Quadrangles and the very gracious lines ofarchitecture which we see around us. The new University had theland bounded by Fifty-seventh and Fifty-ninth Streets, Ellis Avenue,and University Avenue, amounting to about twenty-four acres. Ithas now in its Quadrangles on both sides of the Midway nearly ninety­eight acres. In that year which opened on the first of October, I892,the University enrolled 742 resident students; 302 of these were gradu­ates, 440 were undergraduates. In the year which closed June 30, I92I,the enrolment was II,479 resident students, of whom 3,404 were gradu­ates and 8,075 undergraduates. At the end of that first year I892-93the University gave one degree of Doctor of Philosophy. During theyear I920-2I it gave seventy-six degrees of Doctor of Philosophy.There was no Summer Quarter in the summer of I893, its place being.taken by a somewhat larger function, which at that time aroused theinterest of Chicago and many parts of the world outside, namely theWorld's Fair. The first Summer Quarter was that of I894 in which597 different students were registered. During the Summer Quarterwhich closed today there have been registered 6,479 different students,a gain of I,073 over the attendance of the summer of I920. Of these6,479, 2,967 were graduate students.I Read at the One Hundred Twenty-first Convocation, in Leon Mandel AssemblyHall, September 2, 1921•215216 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDThe University's total assets within its first year ending in thesummer of 1893 were $2,778,I66.37. The budget expenditures of theyear which closed June 30, 1921, were $3,23I,216.78.FUTUREThere is one respect in which the University of today and the Uni­versityof I892 have made virtually no change whatever. This is foundin the fact that we are looking forward to imperative needs which mustbe supplied by generous gifts of funds in order that the University mayperform its proper functions. In other words, when an institution oflearning ceases to need, it really ceases to be in existence. Life impliesgrowth.Of course the war and the conditions following the war delayed theexecution of very definite plans which the University formed andannounced some years ago. There is, however, reason to hope that atan early date in the future these plans may see their fruition. Groundhas been broken for the Quadrangle Club and if our hopes are realizedthe structure will be under roof before the snow flies this winter.Other buildings for which money has been provided and is in the treasurywill also proceed, if building conditions warrant, at an early date. Irefer particularly to the buildings for which plans have already beenadopted, the Theology Building and the Bond Memorial Chapel forthe Divinity School.An elaborate and very interesting plan for the medical building tobe erected on the Midway has been completed and we shall hope soonto have an estimate of costs. If these estimates exceed those madewhen the medical fund was raised in 19I6-I7 it is obvious thatfriends of the University will be called on to provide what is needed.It is obvious also that the medical plans involve, under present condi­tions, additional funds for endowment. What these additional fundswill be, beyond those provided four years ago, we shall hope to announceshortly. Our great medical plans must be carried out, and must be car­ried out on a scale appropriate to the ideals of the University of Chicago.That there are other large and pressing needs has already beenpointed out in previous statements, and I will not take time today fortheir discussion, as the vital thing in the immediate future is the earlycompletion of the plans for the medical schools.THE BOARD OF TRUSTEESBy J. SPENCER DICKERSON, SecretaryAPPOINTMENTSC. A. Shull, professor in the University of Kentucky, to an associateprofessorship in the Department of Botany from October I, 1921.Howard R. Mayberry to an instructorship in the Department ofPsychology from October I, 1921.Emily White to an instructorship in the Department of PhysicalCulture from October I, 192I.E. A. Henry as head of Readers' Department in the UniversityLibraries, from September I, 1921.Howard S. Bechtolt to an instructorship in the Department ofSpanish in the School of Education from October I, 192I.Bonno Tapper as teacher in the Department of German of theUniversity High School from October 1, 192I.Elizabeth McPike as teacher in the Department of Romance Lan­guages of the University High School from October I, 1921.Corina R. Rodriguez as teacher in the Department of Romance Lan­guages of the University High School from October I, 192I.Emma M. Moore as woman physician in the Laboratory Schools,School of Education, from October I, 192I.F. R. Hanley as teacher in the University High School from OctoberI, 192I.Karl Hesley as teacher in the University High School from OctoberI, 1921.J. W. Hoge as teacher in the University High School from OctoberI, 1921.O. D. Frank. as teacher in the University High School from October1, 192I.Dorothy Supple as teacher in the University High School fromOctober I, 1921.Ruth Watson as teacher in the Elementary School from October I,192I.Evangeline Colburn as teacher in the Elementary School fromOctober I, 1921.First Lieutenant Lawrence B. Bixby, U.S.A., to an instructorshipin the Department of Military Science and Tactics from October I, 1921•217218 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDSecond Lieutenant John Hinton, U.S.A., to an instructorship inthe Department of Military Science and Tactics from October I, I92I.RESIGNATIONSThe Board of Trustees has accepted the resignations of the followingmembers of the faculties:James Kessler, instructor in the Department of Romance, effectiveSeptember 30, I92I.C. F. Taeusch, instructor in the Department of Philosophy, effectiveSeptember 30, I921.M. Ethel Brown, teacher of language in the Elementary School,effective September 30, I921.Major J. C. Lewis, Jr., of the Department of Military Science andTactics, effective September 30, I921.Robert A. Millikan, professor in the Department of Physics, ef­fective September 30, I92I.E. N. Manchester, head of Readers' Department in the UniversityLibraries, effective September I, I92I.PROMOTIONSAssociate Professor Tom Peete Cross to a professorship in theDepartment of English and Comparative Literature from October I,I92I.Instructor J. C. Ransmeier to an assistant professorship in theDepartment of Romance Languages in the University High Schoolfrom October I, I921.STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE BOARDAt the meeting of the Board of Trustees held July I2, I92I, thePresident of the Board appointed the following standing committeeswhich were subsequently confirmed by the Board:Committee on Finance and Investment: Messrs. Howard G. Grey,chairman; Julius Rosenwald, vice-chairman; Charles L. Hutchinson,Jesse A. Baldwin, Robert L. Scott.Committee on Buildings and Grounds: Messrs. Charles L. Hutchin­son, chairman; Jesse A. Baldwin, vice-chairman; Harold F. McCormick,T. E. Donnelley, Charles R. Holden.Committee on Instruction and Equipment: Messrs. Charles R.Holden, chairman; Harold H. Swift, vice-chairman; F. W. Parker,Charles W. Gilkey, E. B. Felsenthal.THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 219Committee on Press and Extension: Messrs. T. E. Donnelley,chairman; F. W. Parker, vice-chairman; Willard A. Smith, Wilber E.Post, Charles W. Gilkey.Committee on Audit and Securities: Messrs. Robert L. Scott,chairman; E. B. Felsenthal, vice-chairman; Willard A. Smith, WilberE. Post, Harold H. Swift.GIFTMrs. Alice Shirk Edwards, of Peru, Indiana, and Mrs. Milton Shirk,of Chicago, have contributed an additional $1,000 to the Elbert H. ShirkScholarship Fund, making it now $4,000, an amount large enough toproduce income sufficient to meet the present required tuition fee in theColleges of Arts, Literature, and Science.STANTON A. FRIEDBERG FELLOWSHIPThe Business Manager of the University, at the meeting of theBoard of Trustees held August 9, 1921, reported the acceptance fromMrs, Stanton A. Friedberg of a gift of $8,000, to establish a fellowshipto be awarded to a Graduate in Medicine devoting his entire time toOtolaryngology, the fellowship to be known as the Stanton A. FriedbergFellowship.MISCELLANEOUSThe matriculation fee has been increased from $5 to $10, effectivebeginning with the Summer Quarter, 1922.Repairs and alterations in Kent Chemical Laboratory, to costapproximately $4,500; have been authorized in order to provide labora­tory facilities for the increased number of students in chemistry.The Lewis M. Smith Loan Fund is intended to be of assistance tostudents in the Department of Geography, not in the Department ofGeology, as was at first reported. .A bronze tablet in honor of Joseph Reynolds, donor of the ReynoldsClub building, has recently, by order of the Board of Trustees, beeninstalled over the fireplace of the club.GEORGE CLARKE WALKERBy THOMAS W. GOODSPEEDLike most of the men of whom these sketches treat, George C. Walkerwas of Puritan or Pilgrim ancestry. His more remote forefathers be­longed to that hardy race who, in the county of Northumberland alongthe Tweed and the Tyne, defended the English border, and under thediscipline of trying conditions became men of endurance, courage, andpower. That the Walkers built their name into the history of the coun­try is made evident by the fact that one of the populous cities of the coalregion bears their name, and several of the lesser towns, as HeatonWalker, Low Walker, and Walker Quay, repeat it.Members of the family were in Massachusetts within a few yearsafter the landing of the Pilgrims. One of them made his way to NewHampshire, and a son of his, later known as Colonel W. W. Walker,enamored of the wilderness, found his way in the closing years of theeighteenth century to central New York and made his home in Plain­field, Otsego County, living to a great age and bringing up on his farm,not only his own, but in part his son's sons as well.Colonel Walker was but twenty-one when he sought a home in thatwilderness. There he found a wife, and being only a few miles fromCooperstown, we may well suppose he bought his farm from JudgeCooper, the father of James Fenimore Cooper, who owned this country,or at least some eighteen thousand acres of it.On the Plainfield farm was born, in 1802, Charles Walker, who be­came one of the big men of early Chicago. He was a member of thatmemorable group including William B. Ogden, Judge Drummond,Tuthill King, George Armour, Julien S. Rumsey, and J. Young Scam­mon, who first saw Chicago in r835 and had much to do with its earlydevelopment. Charles Walker was the peer of any of these men. Itwas he who made the first shipment of wheat from Chicago to the East,sending in 1838 seventy-eight bushels to his own mill in Otsego County,N ew York, and the time came when he was the largest shipper of grainin the United States. In r848 he was one of the organizers of the ChicagoBoard of Trade, of which he was made vice-president and was later twiceelected president. He was one of the builders and owners of Chicago'sfirst railroad, the Galena and Chicago Union, in r848, and in r856 actingpresident of the Chicago, Iowa, and Nebraska Railroad, which was220GEORGE CLARKE WALKER 221intended to be a continuation of the Galena line. At the opening of theIllinois and Michigan Canal, which was the great event for Chicago in1848, he was chosen to deliver the address which was the chief featureof the celebration. Chicago was then a little town of about twentythousand people, and he made the astonishing forecast that, if permittedto live to a good old age, he expected to see its population increase to amillion. Twenty-five years later, although the city then numbered fourhundred thousand, a Mr. A. H. Walker made a forecast of its probablegrowth and ventured the prediction that the million mark would bepassed by the end of the century. As a matter of fact that mark waspassed in 1889. If Charles Walker had lived to the good old age ofeighty-seven he would have seen the city of a million people whose futuregrowth he had so accurately foretold.Charles Walker was one of the founders of the old University ofChicago. It is related of him that, being present at a dinner when SenatorStephen A. Douglas expressed the purpose of offering a site for a univer­sity to any denomination that would establish such an institution, Mr.Walker rose from his seat and after walking up and down the room for afew minutes stopped and said, "Judge Douglas, I will accept your offeron behalf of the Baptists of Chicago." Whether the story is true or not,he became one of the leaders of his denomination in receiving from Mr.Douglas the gift of the site of the University in 1856 and remained oneof the leaders of the University movement and vice-president of theBoard of Trustees as long as he lived.The unfortunate failure of his health compelled his retirement fromthe active control of his largest business enterprises in the early fifties,though he lived active and influential many years longer, till 1869.These things were said of Charles Walker: "He was the foremost grainmerchant of America." There was "no man whose commercial standingwas higher." "No other man living or dead ever did more towardbuilding up and beautifying our city, or for the moral and social prosper­ity of this community, than he did." So said the Evening Journal.The Republican, another Chicago paper of that day, said: "Mr. Walkerwas a citizen of noble type. Believing in Chicago as the future home of amillion people and the fact destined to be realized within the period ofhis own lifetime, or its possible span, all his devisings were for that futurecity which he saw beyond the straggling and temporary buildings abouthim." Able, public-spirited, far-sighted, successful, devout, embodyingthe virility, the uprightness, the religious zeal of his ancestry+-such wasthe father of George C. Walker.222 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDHe was twice married and had five children. His first wife was MaryClarke of a neighboring township in Otsego County, New York, whomhe married in 1827, and her children were Charles H., Mary C., andGeorge C. Walker. After the death of his first wife he married in 184INancy Bentley, of Lebanon Springs, Columbia County, the sister ofCyrus Bentley, well known to all early Chicagoans, and her childrenwere William B. and Cornelia Walker. These children all came to bewell known in the business and society world of Chicago. In the middleof this group of five children was George C., having an older brother andsister and a younger brother and sister, he forming the link binding thetwo groups together. He was born at Burlington Flats, Otsego County,New York, November 5, 1835, the same year in which his father firstwent to Chicago and began business in that city. Being already engagedin several business enterprises extending from Otsego County to NewYork City, Charles Walker did not transfer his home to Chicago tillmuch later. In I839 he was a member of the New York legislature.No state or country has more attractive places in which to be bornand live than New York. George C. Walker had the good fortune to beborn and spend his boyhood in one of these favored regions. No readerof Cooper's Leather Stocking stories can doubt the natural attractivenessof the Otsego country. So enthralled was the youthful Deerslayer by itsattractions that they are said to have drawn him back to it after half acentury. It is no longer the wilderness he loved, but when George C.Walker was a boy it was still not only the same land of brooks and riversand lakes, hills and mountains and valleys, but extensive forests stillcovered the hills and it remained the paradise of the hunter and the fisher­man, a land of enchantment for boys who feel the Jure of the wild.Fortunate in the place of his birth, he was unfortunate eriough to losehis mother when a child of only three years. The grandparents, ColonelW. W. Walker and his wife, took the child, little more than an infant, tothe old farm in Plainfield, a few miles north of Burlington, and were fatherand mother to him till after his father's second marriage. These werestrenuous years for the father. He was a legislator for his native state.He was doing business in Chicago and the East. At first Albany, andlater New York City, Otsego County, and Chicago claimed part of histime each year. He was laying the foundations of his fortune, branchingout in new directions, forming new connections, and finally in 1845 estab­lishing a new home in Chicago. It is said that on the removal of thefamily to the West, George was left for a year or two with his grand­parents. He was a great lover of the forests and streams of the OtsegoGEORGE CLARKE WALKER 223country. It was during these years of his early boyhood that he con­ceived the passion for hunting and fishing that remained with him throughlife. The hearts of his grandparents were bound up in him and they werereluctant to give him up.The father had bought three lots of the old Fort Dearborn Reserva­tion at the corner of Michigan Avenue and Water Street, paying $85 forthe three. On one of these he built a house and made his home, and inthe autumn of 1847 brought George, then twelve years old, to Chicago.There were no railroads from the East to Chicago in 1847, noneindeed for five years thereafter, and at Buffalo they took a steamboat forthe boy's new home. The trip through the lakes took seven days, butits monotony was broken by one interesting incident. The mind of theboy was very alert, keenly susceptible to external impressions. Whenthe boat arrived at Mackinaw the annual distribution of blankets,ammunition, etc. to the Indians was taking place. The red men hadgathered from far and near and the spectacle was one of great interest tothe boy. The captain delayed the voyage for several hours that thepassengers might enjoy an incident to most of them so new and strange.No one was more interested than the twelve-year-old boy, who neverforgot the events of the day.On arriving at his new home and investigating his surroundings hefound that the garden behind the house ran down to the shore of LakeMichigan, so near was the lake in that day to Michigan Avenue. Onthe north the river was just as near. All this led to a joyous adventurein which he had a part that was naturally unforgettable. The winterafter he reached home, a deer, swimming in the lake, landed exhaustedat the foot of the Walker garden, and to the great delight of the boy wascaptured alive.Chicago in 1848 was still a part of the Western wilderness. FortDearborn was still standing just north of the Walker residence and wasa place of great interest and frequent resort to George and his brothers.The' population of Chicago was then less than 17,000. There were norailroads east or west, though Charles Walker, with William B. Ogden,J. Y. Scammon, and others was making plans for the Galena and ChicagoUnion. It was in 1847 that the Chicago Tribune was established. Therewas no high school in the young city.The first home of the Walkers on Michigan Avenue was number 42on the east side of the avenue and immediately south of South WaterStreet. One is interested to learn that the first school George Walkerattended was the private" academy" of a young man named Benjamin224 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDF. Taylor. The school was a temporary expedient of the brilliant youngteacher who later became an editorial writer and literary critic and warcorrespondent on the Chicago Evening Journal and acquired a nationalreputation as a poet and the author of many volumes of poetry and prose.During the school year r847-48 the boy George profited by the instructionof this teacher who was to become a light in the literary world.The First Presbyterian Church of that day was located on the south­west corner of Washington and Clark streets and in its basement a schoolwas conducted called Temple's Academy. I have not been able to learnwhether or not this school was one of the many enterprises of Dr. John T.Temple, who was a most notable man of early Chicago, the chief founderof the First Baptist Church and one of the organizers of Rush MedicalCollege. Nor do I know how long it continued in existence, but GeorgeWalker enjoyed its advantages during his second school year in Chicago.To keep him from idleness through the summer his father employed himabout his lumber yard, this being one branch of his varied business inter­ests.Perhaps the father introduced the boy thus early to business becausehe recognized his natural aptitude for a business life. One suspects thathe had developed unusual abilities in business affairs while still with hisgrandfather, who in the forties was beginning to be an old man and mayhave well depended on his small grandson for help in his affairs. It cer­tainly is evident that the boy developed at a very early age a sense ofresponsibility, self-reliance, independence, and powers of initiative veryrarely found in one so young. And yet, granting this, circumstantialaccounts are related of his early achievements in business that are almostunbelievable.It is said, for example, that in the spring of r849, or possibly 1850,when he was thirteen or fourteen years old, his father provided him with$3,000 in currency and sent him to Kenosha, Wisconsin (then known asSouthport), instructing him to purchase wheat and ship it to Buffalo onone of the company's vessels which would meet him at Kenosha. Every­body in those days wore boots, and he stuffed the money into the hightops which came nearly to his knees and drove along the lake shore toKenosha, a journey of about sixty miles. Within four days he boughteight thousand bushels of wheat, a full cargo for the schooner" CharlesWalker." The wheat had cost him thirty-three cents a bushel and wassent on for sale to Buffalo and the eastern market.The next story belongs to the summer of the following year, 1850 or1851, when he was fourteen or fifteen years old. His father furnishedhim with a canal boat and a cargo of hard coal and dressed flooring, andGEORGE CLARKE WALKER 225he started for St. Louis by way of the newly completed Illinois andMichigan Canal, and the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. The journeywas made in safety through the canal and the Illinois River, but justabove St. Louis a Mississippi steamboat ran into the canal boat andalmost wrecked it, carrying away the cabin. The cargo was saved, how­ever, and sold in St. Louis for nearly or quite twice as much as it had costin Chicago. The boat was repaired, doubtless at the cost of the steam­boat company, and the fifteen-year-old merchant invested the proceedsof the sale of the coal and lumber in a full cargo of sugar and New Orleansmolasses, luxuries which sold readily in Chicago for twice what they hadcost him in St. Louis.It seems strange that a boy with such a pronounced gift for business,who was sure to be needed and to find the largest scope for his powersin his father's widely extended affairs should have looked forward to any­thing but a business career. But for some reason his life began to beshaped for a college education and a legal career. Opportunities for aliberal education were few in the West, but in r847 Beloit College hadbeen organized and to its preparatory department young Walker wassent in the autumn of 1849. His people, however, were Baptists, andafter one year's work at Beloit he was sent to New England to continuehis academy work preparatory to entering Brown University, then theleading institution of the country under Baptist auspices. His studieswere brought to an end by illness in the family. In r85! his father'shealth was so shattered that the responsibilities of his great business fellupon his oldest son Charles, then twenty-three or -four years old, and thefather soon after retired from the firm.In r853 George's sister Mary, who was four years older than himselfand who had become the wife of S. C. Griggs, the well-known booksellerof that day, was seized with what proved to be a fatal illness. She wastaken to Mackinaw and George and his mother went with her in the hopeof nursing her back to health. The hope was vain and she died in thespring of r854.When Charles Walker retired from the great business he had foundedand developed, he was little more than fifty years old, at the height of hisbusiness ability, and head of widely extended and successful enterprises.But though he recovered his health he did not return to the grain andforwarding business, finding in his other interests ample scope for hisactivities.Charles H. Walker inherited the business abilities of his father. Hehad been connected with the business for some years, growing more andmore into active control as his father's health gave way. He was alreadyTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDprominent in the mercantile life of the city. His standing was indicatedby his election in I856 to the presidency of the Board of Trade.Knowing the business abilities of his younger brother, Charles H., onthe retirement of the father, called on George to come to, his assistance,give up his college course, and take his natural place in the business. Thefather adding his persuasions, the young student surrendered his scholarlyambitions and his purpose to follow the law and in I855 entered the firmwhen he was not yet twenty-one years old. Charles Walker and Son nowbecame Charles Walker and Sons, Forwarding and Commission Mer­chants, 472 South Water Street. It is said that the firm did the largestgrain and provision purchasing and forwarding business in the UnitedStates. They were also very extensive dealers in lumber, having lumberyards not only in Chicago but also at Peoria, La Salle, Morris, and otherplaces. The firm built one of the early large grain elevators, continuingthe elevator business for about ten years.George C. Walker was the embodiment of energy and enterprise. Hehad an alert, eager mind. It was not long after his entrance into the firmthat the partners established the first through freight line from the sea­board to the Mississippi. They had barges on the Hudson River andErie Canal, propellers on the Great Lakes, boats on the Illinois andMichigan Canal, and steamboats on the Illinois and Mississippi rivers,all under the ownership or control of Charles Walker and Sons, andpartners located at the principal points on the line. They were thusable to give bills of lading and through prices on freight which theytransported on their own boats from New York to St. Louis and inter­mediate points.It was a year or two after Mr. Walker's entrance into business thatan event occurred that had far-reaching consequences in his future life.Of a very social nature, he entered with zest into the life of the youngpeople of the little city. He was at the same time a member of the FirstBaptist Church of Chicago, the house of worship then standing on thesoutheast corner of Washington and La Salle streets, where the Chamberof Commerce Building now stands. There the first church wedding inChicago was solemnized September 24, I856, when Mr. and Mrs. ArthurB. Meeker were married, and young Walker, cousin of the bride, MissGriggs, was one of the ushers. A craze for dancing, unusually intense,seems to have seized upon the young people of the town and so alarmedthe churches that severe measures were adopted to moderate the frenzy.One dance in particular was made the occasion for bringing young Walkerand others up for discipline. The demand that they must give up dan-GEORGE CLARKE WALKER 227cing or surrender their church membership was acceded to by some, butGeorge Walker refused to submit to compulsion and was excluded. Weshall see before we end that gentler and wiser treatment would have savedto his church a man of tremendous capacities for good. I mention theincident for the sake of the sequel appearing on a later page.It was only two years after Mr. Walker entered the partnership thatthe panic of 1857 prostrated the business of the country. The firmweathered the storm successfully, as its founder had weathered precedingfinancial tempests but it led to important changes in George C. Walker'slife. It happened that a firm in Buffalo to which a large consignment ofgrain was in transit became involved in the failure of a trust company.This took him to Buffalo, as he supposed for a few days or a few weeksat most. In the end, however, to protect the interests of the companyand care for their great shipments of grain through that city he foundhimself compelled to open an office and settle in Buffalo till he could findsomeone to whom he could safely commit so important a trust. Thistook more than two years. But at the end of one year he found what hehad not gone to Buffalo to seek-a wife. This was Miss Ada Chapmanwhom he married December 8, 1858. Not many months later the healthof Mrs. Walker began to fail. On their return to Chicago they madetheir home with the rest of the family at the new home of the father,Charles Walker, at 201 Michigan Avenue. The unity of the family waswell illustrated by the fact that all of its members continued to live underthe same roof. But in 1861 the health of Mrs. George C. Walker becameso precarious that her husband was advised to take her abroad. Shecontinued however to fail and died in France in October, 1861. He hadmarried Miss Chapman when he was twenty-three and lost her just beforehis twenty-sixth birthday.For about twelve years, from 1858 to 1870, the Walker family livedat 201 Michigan Avenue in what was known to all Chicago as TerraceRow, a very handsome stone block of residences, four stories in height,extending from Van Buren Street south, covering the space now occupiedby the Chicago Club, the Fine Arts Building, and the northern part of theAuditorium Hotel. It was the most famous block of houses existing inChicago before the fire of 1871 and was sometimes called the MarbleTerrace. In the biographies of the men who made their homes in TerraceRow, could they be fully written, would be found the history of earlyChicago. Here is the list, beginning at No. 199 and running south toNo. 209: Denton Gurnee, P. L. Yoe, Charles Walker, William Bross,P. F. W. Peck, S. C. Griggs, Tuthill King, Hugh T. Dickey, General Cook,THE UNIVERSITY RECORDJohn L. Clark, and J. Y. Scammon. This famous block was destroyedin the great fire, marking the southernmost limits of the confla­gration on Michigan Avenue. It was in the Terrace Row home thatCharles Walker, the father, died in 1869 at the age of sixty-seven.In 1866 the oldest brother, Charles H., had withdrawn from thebusiness and become a sugar planter in Louisiana, seventy or eightymiles west of New Orleans. The firm which had been C. H. and G. C.Walker became George C. Walker and Company, the place of the oldestson o£ the family being taken for a time by the youngest, William B.Walker.Though George C. Walker had surrendered his college career becauseduty called him into business he manifested throughout the whole courseof his life a quite unusual interest in higher education and in the progressof science. This will appear constantly as this story goes on. The firstpublic exhibition of this interest appeared in his twenty-second year whenhe served on the committee of arrangements for laying the cornerstoneof the building of the first University of Chicago, which took place July 4,1857. His interest in that institution thus early manifested neverceased. His father was first vice-president of the Board of Trustees fromits organization to his own death in 1869. Immediately after his deathhis son George was elected to fin his place as a trustee, and continued inthat position as long as the old University lived and its Board of Trusteesmaintained an existence, a period of more than twenty years.Mr. Walker was one of the founders and the earliest promoters of theChicago Academy of Sciences. He was the warm personal friend ofRobert Kennicott, the first director of the Academy. In 1864 he was thechief factor in raising $62,500 for the purchase of collections, and for thirty­four years he was a trustee. He was secretary and treasurer for morethan twenty years and president for three years. When the new Univer­sity of Chicago was founded he made strenuous efforts to bring about aunion between the Academy, which was then practically defunct, thoughpossessing valuable collections, and the new University. The terms ofunion were agreed upon by the representatives of both institutions whenopposition developed. For the first time in many years a popular inter ....est in the Academy of Sciences was aroused. The plan of union fellthrough, but the efforts o£ Mr. Walker resulted in recalling the Academyto new life, securing for it a building in Lincoln Park and launching it ona new career of enlarged and enduring usefulness. Dr. EdmundAndrews, president of the Academy, said of him:Mr. Walker has been the moving spirit of the Chicago Academy of Sciencesfrom the beginning. He was the man who by his personal activity first raised theGEORGE CLARKE WALKER 229money to put the Academy on a sound financial basis, giving liberally himself andinducing others to do likewise. He has been the active guiding spirit in the boardof trustees and in the Academy itself, not as a scientist, but in the administration ofits business affairs, and he has been from first to last a mainstay of that institution.In 1869 he was one of the incorporators of the Illinois HumaneSociety, in the work of which he took an enduring interest. Originallyknown as the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, it extendedits work to the protection of children and in 1882 became the IllinoisHumane Society. Mr. Walker was a very tender-hearted man, sym­pathizing with suffering, and ready in its relief. He was a many-sidedman with interests reaching out in many directions. In 1867-69 he wasone of a committee of twelve men who originated the South Park systemof Chicago. It was in his home in Terrace Row that the final plans forthe park system were adopted. Through the efforts of Mr. Walker andhis associates in 1869 acts of incorporation were secured from the legisla­ture, and during the next few years the lands constituting Washingtonand Jackson parks and the Midway Plaisance were purchased. I do notintend to suggest that Mr. Walker was the leading spirit or the principalactor in this great public movement, but simply that he was one of thegroup of far-sighted men who led the way in an improvement then bit­terlyopposed by many but now universally recognized as an inestimablebenefi t to the people.One of the interesting things in the life of Mr. Walker was his connec­tion with Graceland Cemetery. The Cemetery Company was incorpor­ated in 1861. One of its officers proposed to Mr. Walker that he shouldbuy a lot. He replied that if the company would set aside 10 per centof the price of each lot to establish a fund for the perpetual care andmaintenance of the cemetery he would not only buy a lot but would paythe additional 10 per cent or 100 per cent for the assurance of the per­petuity of its dedication to burial purposes and the care of the lots. Thethought and plan grew and were followed up with his accustomed eager­ness and determination and with most interesting results. In the firstplace, a new corporation was organized, charged with the perpetualimprovement and adornment of the cemetery, and in the second place,in I865 the act of incorporation of the cemetery was amended, requiringit "out of the proceeds of all lots sold . . . . to set apart 10 per centthereof as a reserve fund." The same act incorporated the "Trusteesof the Graceland Cemetery Improvement Fund," and provided thatthese trustees should receive the above-named 10 per cent and any otherfunds contributed to them to be used under the direction of the trustees"in the improvement, ornamentation, preservation, and maintenance of23° THE UNIVERSITY RECORDthe grounds, walks, shrubberies, inclosures, structures, monuments andmemorials" of the cemetery, "so that the same may be properly kept,adorned, and preserved, and said grounds be and continue as cemeterygrounds forever." Mr. Walker was one of the charter members of thiscorporation. For many years he was its treasurer and for more thanthirty years its secretary. He was deeply interested in the objects it hadin view; he had seen graves desecrated in the removal and destructionof cemeteries and hoped that in this organization he had provided for theperpetual perservation of Graceland. He labored for the increase of theImprovement Fund which now amounts to a million dollars. The trus­tees have always been and continue to be leading citizens of Chicago.Among the first trustees were William Blair, E. W. Blatchford, JamesH. Bowen, Erastus S. Williams, Van H. Higgins, and George C. Walker,and among its latest are Martin A. Ryerson, Charles H. Walker, HenryA. Blair, Charles L. Hutchinson, Chauncey Keep, and Ernest A. Hamill.I imagine that few things in Mr. Walker's life gave him greater satisfac­tion than connection with this movement in the inception and progressof which he was so important a factor.In 1869 the Chicago Club was organized. It was the beginning ofthe era of clubs. This one came into being in a peculiar way. At a meet­ing of a few gentlemen a committee was appointed "to select a hundredmen to form a club to be known as the Chicago Club." The Committeecarefully picked out one hundred of the leading men in the business andsocial life of the city. Among those selected were the three brothers,Charles H., George C., and William B. Walker.Two notable clubs came into existence in Chicago in 1878. TheCalumet was a purely social organization and rendered a real service tothe city in gathering up and preserving much of the early history ofChicago through a series of old settlers' receptions. Mr. Walker was oneof its early members. In the same way he was almost from the beginninga member of the Commercial Club which has always been made up of theleaders in the business life of Chicago. He was not a great politician buthis connection with the Iroquois Club would indicate that his politicalaffilia tions were democratic.It is said of Otsego County, New York, where Mr. Walker was bornand spent his boyhood, that it "was a superb hunting ground in earlydays, the home of the deer, elk, moose and bear, the otter, martin, wolf,fox and squirrel and of many waterfowl, while salmon, trout and manyother fish abounded in the rivers and lakes." In that sportsman's para­dise he learned while a boy to love the woods and water, and this love forGEORGE CLARKE WALKERthe open and the sports of the open he never lost. He was one of thefounders of the Tolleston Club which hunted ducks on the Calumet andKankakee marshes. It is said that he was also one of the constituentmembers of the Nee-pee-nauk Club on Puckaway Lake in Wisconsin.Throughout his life he delighted in field sports. He was a devotee ofgolf. His summer home was at Lake Geneva where he had a fine yacht,was largely instrumental in organizing the Golf and Country Club, andfound exercise and enjoyment on the golf links. It was always a joy tohim to get away from business to the marshes, lakes, or streams for recrea­tion with rod or gun. At Lake Geneva Mrs. Walker interested herselfin the Fresh Air Association which gave to five hundred poor boys andgirls and young working women from Chicago an annual fortnight's out­ing. During these weeks the yachts of Mr. Walker and other summerresidents about the lakes were very busy.During the sixties he was active on the Board of Trade. He playedthe leading role in at least one of the great wheat deals which were socommon during the later half of the last century. A business associate,going over Mr. Walker's old papers many years later tells me that he cameon a cancelled check of that deal for a million dollars. A pool of dealersgot together $r,250,000 for the purpose of forcing him to the wall, andthemselves reaping the profits of the deal. They went to a bank toborrow $250,000 more so as to make assurance doubly sure. The bankertold them that Mr. Walker had $2,000,000 on deposit in his bank andthey wisely concluded to abandon their purpose. He was at that timeone of the rich men of Chicago. He was not always so fortunate andprobably in the long run lost on the Board of Trade more than he madeand finally he gave up speculation and retired from the grain business.In r86r Mr. Walker entered on one of the great business undertakingsof his life, one indeed which took much of his time and attention through­out the rest of his life, a period of thirty-seven years. As he engaged inthis enterprise only twelve or thirteen years after his entrance into busi­ness, and when he was not yet thirty-three years old, it will be seen thatit occupied nearly half his life. This enterprise was the Blue Island Landand Building Company, a corporation which with a few associates heorganized into one of the greatest of Chicago's real-estate undertakings.The company purchased, twelve miles south of the city, fifteen hundredacres of land, paying for it $r50,000 or $roo per acre.This great tract they subdivided, laid out streets along which theyplanted thousands of trees, built sidewalks, and sought in every way tomake it attractive to people who preferred a suburban life. The main232 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDlines of the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific Railroad ran through theeastern part of the subdivision. Half a mile west the land rose in whatwas known as the Blue Island Ridge, which is perhaps eighty feet abovethe level of Lake Michigan. This ridge running south from about nine­tieth Street to Blue Island, a distance of five miles, was beautified bynatural groves of oak. Alongside this ridge the land company byarrangement with the railroad built what was called a "dummy line"which left the main line near Ninetieth Street and rejoined it at BlueIsland. This line served the people above and below the ridge along itsentire length. In the western part of the tract the village of MorganPark was built. For the first four years Mr. Walker was secretary andtreasurer of the company. In 1872 he became president and so remainedtill the expiration of the company's charter, when he became trustee ofthat part of the tract still unsold.It was his ambition to make Morgan Park an educational center. Heencouraged and assisted the founding of the Morgan Park Military Acad­emy. He put up a building in which the Chicago Female College wasconducted. He assisted the Baptist Union Theological Seminary tosecure lands and buildings which led to the transfer of the Seminary fromthe city to Morgan Park. It was in connection with this removal that Ibecame acquainted with Mr. Walker. This was in 1876-77, and fromthat time I came to know him better every year to the end of his life, aperiod of nearly thirty years. He was a masterful man, quick in his deci­sions, strong in his convictions, sometimes abrupt in manner, and at theoutset, being seven years his junior and an obscure individual, I was alittle afraid of him. But as I came to know him well I found him to be sowarm-hearted, cordial, gentle, generous, and considerate that I conceivedfor him a strong affection. I did not come into close touch with him,however, until ten years after our acquaintance began.The old University of Chicago closed its doors in 1886. What thenseemed an irremediable disaster led me with others to begin to lay plansand institute efforts to establish a new institution to take the place of theold one. It was this that brought me into more intimate relations withMr. Walker. He took an immediate and as time went on a more andmore liberal interest in establishing a new University in Morgan Park.The offers of help from Mr. Walker and the Company finally aggregatedmore than $roo,ooo, and in the year 1888 there seemed to be every proba­bility that the new University of Chicago would be established at MorganPark. As soon, however, as it came to be known that John D. Rocke­feller was proposing to give a large initial subscription toward the found-GEORGE CLARKE WALKER 233ing of the University, not in a suburb, but in the city itself, the MorganPark project was laid aside and all joined in the larger undertaking.Mr. Walker had the project of establishing the University at MorganPark very much at heart. It would not have been strange if his inter­est had ceased when his liberal proffers were set aside and new and largerplans adopted. But he was a big man, sincerely interested in the re­establishment of the University work with which he had been connectedfor twenty years as a trustee, and he entered whole-heartedly into thegreater undertaking. I cannot show this more convincingly than byquoting a letter I wrote to him in June, 1889. I happened to be thesecretary of a meeting held in the Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago, whichinaugurated the movement to increase the $600,000 subscribed for thenew institution by Mr. Rockefeller to $1,000,000. This meeting ap­pointed a committee which nominated a college committee of thirty-sixmen to take the work in charge. As secretary I wrote to Mr. Walker asfollows: ".... After the committee of nomination was appointed andbefore it had retired to prepare its report, the Conference excused it fromnaming two men and itself elected them by acclamation. These twowere yourself and [Mr. E. Nelson] Blake, so earnest and unanimous wasthe desire that you should serve on the committee."Mr. Walker sent us a subscription of $5,000, manifested deep interestin our success, and on the completion of the $1,000,000 subscription thatfounded the University was made a member of the first Board of Trus­tees and continued a Trustee to the end of his life. I think it may betruly said of Mr. Walker that during all of his later years the Universityof Chicago was, outside his home, the chief interest of his life.I have before me as I write a large morocco-bound, gilt-lettered bookof three hundred pages, prepared with the utmost care by Mr. Walker­"The University of Chicago Scrap Book." In this book he placed every­thing that concerned the University project and his relation to it, every­thing in his correspondence, and everything that he could find in printrelating to the institution that seemed to him of value. This volumewith its original documents is a source book for the University Historian,but it also speaks eloquently of his profound interest in the institution towhich during the last fifteen years of his life he devoted thought and timeand money.During the twenty years following the beginning of the Blue IslandLand and Building Company Mr. Walker was active in many directions.The operations of the company were remarkably successful. Their landshad cost only $100 per acre. Large sums were spent in improving them.234 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDA liberal policy was pursued toward those making their homes in MorganPark in the earlier years. When, for example, I followed the TheologicalSeminary there in 1877 Mr. Walker gave me half an acre of ground, alarge lot 100 feet front by 200 feet deep on which to establish my home.This was my first experience in owning any real property and was thefoundation of any savings I have since made. Somewhat slowly, butnone the less surely, did the subdivision fill up. The lands were sold ata large advance. The city steadily extended southward and finally whatI knew as a countryside or a small village became part of the greatmetropolis. 'During all these years, but particularly the earlier of them, Mr.Walker was influential in the Board of Trade and in the Chamber of Com­merce, an organization formed for the purpose of erecting the Board ofTrade Building on the southeast corner of Washington and LaSallestreets. This building was consumed in the great fire of 1871. Mr.Walker was made a member of a building committee of three to erect anew building. It was needed in a hurry. Chicago was so impoverishedthat the temptation was great to rebuild, not only hastily, but cheaply.Mr. Walker strongly urged that in putting up the new building for theBoard of Trade they should set a pattern for finer, more enduring con­struction. This view prevailed and there followed an extraordinaryachievement. The old building was burned October 9, 1871. On Oc­tober 14, "while the stone and brick were yet warm," the clearing awayof the debris began. "The first stone in the foundation was laid No­vember 6, the first brick in the wall December 6, and the first cut stoneDecember 12." On October 9, 1872, the anniversary of the great fire,the new building was dedicated. Accepting it for the Board of Trade,the vice-president declared it to be "a structure which for the use in­tended is not surpassed in size, beauty, and convenience by any other onthis or on the eastern continent." It had its influence in causing avastly improved new Chicago to rise from the ashes of the old.In 1880, more than eighteen years after the death of the wife of hisyouth, Mr. Walker again married. On February 10 of that year, in NewYork City, Mrs. Mary M. Keen became his wife. He had no children ofhis own and welcomed those Mrs. Keen brought to him, both sons anddaughters, treating them as his own and loved by them as a father.Their home was and continued to be at 228 Michigan Avenue, where theCongress Hotel now stands.By this time Mr. Walker's business interests had been both curtailedand extended. The multiplication of railroads had greatly modified theGEORGE CLARKE WALKER 235transportation business and other changes in his affairs followed. InI880 he became a member of the New York Stock Exchange, of the NewYork Cotton Exchange, and later of the Chicago Stock Exchange.Among many other pieces of city real estate, he owned a number of lotson the shore of the lake contiguous to Twenty-fifth Street. Noting thelarge population in the neighborhood it seemed to him that it would be aboon to the people to have free access to the water and he gave the use ofhis water front to the city for a bathing beach. Never content to dothings by halves he assisted in providing bath houses that the peoplemight have every facility for the use of the beach.His benevolence was almost unbounded. I am assured by one whohad immediate knowledge of these things that for years he took uponhimself the partial or entire support of a dozen families in which he be­came interested. Every month regularly checks of $IOO, $I50, $200, andin one or more cases $250 were made out and sent to them. And this wasdone not only when he was abundantly able, but also during years whenhe could ill afford it.In I886 Charles H. Walker, the older brother who had retired fromthe business in I866, died at his sugar plantation in Louisiana. Charleswas barely past middle age and his death was unexpected. It took Mr.Walker to Louisiana as administrator of the estate and compelled him tospend much of his time there for several years. His friends were oftenreminded that he was in the south by receiving from him southern fruitsor nuts. My own family cherishes grateful memories of such friendlyremembrances. Mr. Walker was a friendly man. He loved to expresshis friendliness and to address his friends in endearing forms of expression,not common among men. There were within him deep wells of feeling.He loved his friends and they could not fail to give him a tender affectionin return.One of the most graceful acts of Mr. Walker was his provision of a vil­lage library for Morgan Park. In I889-90 on a lot above the ridge in thecenter of the village he built a small but very attractive stone librarybuilding and filled it with books. A library association was formed, alibrarian appointed, and the Walker Library has been a feature of thecommunity life for the past thirty years.The story of the gift of the chemical laboratory to the Universityof Chicago in I892 by Sidney A. Kent has already been told in thesesketches. But in telling it no reference was made to Mr. Walker's partin it. How much he had to do in leading Mr. Kent to make his great prof­fer I do not know. The two were warm friends. They began their activeTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDcareers in Chicago at about the same time and a business acquaintanceof nearly forty years had grown into intimacy and friendship. When Mr.Kent was ready to make his proposition to build the laboratory he choseMr. Walker to communicate it to the trustees. The relations betweenthe two men were so intimate indeed that the proffer of the laboratorywas made in Mr. Kent's behalf over Mr. Walker's signature. Mr.Walker submitted this letter to the Board of Trustees March 7, 1892.Himself a Trustee, he had been from the beginning a member of the Com­mittee on Buildings and Grounds, and had been deeply engaged inenlarging and rendering more compact the University site, in securing theplans for the earlier University structures, and considering the locationof the first and future buildings on the site then consisting of twenty­four acres. All these things had been matters of importance. Con­sidering the smallness of its funds, the temptation of the University wasto content itself with a small site and small and cheap buildings. Therecan be no doubt that Mr. Walker often talked these matters over withMr. Kent. The Committee and the Trustees adopted the larger view,and Mr. Kent indicated his approval of their decision by authorizing Mr.Walker to communicate to them his offer to build the Kent ChemicalLaboratory, which eventually cost him $235,000.The way was thus opened for that audacious attempt of the Univer­sity which soon followed to raise a million dollars in ninety days. Inthis effort Mr. Walker was profoundly interested. He first put into itthe Female College Building and two acres of land at Morgan Park as anaddition to the University's Academy plant in that place. The gift wasestimated at $30,000.He had for many years cherished a purpose to erect a building for theAcademy of Sciences. This purpose had been in his mind when hesought to bring the Academy into connection with the University. Henow began to feel his way toward carrying out this long-cherished plan inconnection with the University itself. He informally broached it to theTrustees. They encouraged his purpose. Although it would require alarge contribution, his purpose rapidly matured and on July 7, 1892, hewrote to the Trustees: "As heretofore informally suggested, I will fur­nish the means to erect the Museum Building in accordance with plans tobe approved by your Board and myself, said building to be of fireproofconstruction, and to cost one hundred thousand dollars."This great proffer came in the closing week of the campaign for themillion dollars in ninety days. It closely followed a subscription of$150,000 from S. B. Cobb, the father-in-law of William B. Walker, theGEORGE CLARKE WALKER 237younger brother. Three days later President Harper wrote the followingletter:Sunday, July 10, 1892Mr. George C. WalkerDEAR SIR: Will you permit me to express to you just a little of the overwhelmingsense of gratitude which I feel toward you and the other noble (you will allow me touse that word) men who have done the great work finished yesterday. Nothing likeit was ever known in the history of education. And when I think of the importantpart which you have performed, no words seem strong enough to describe my feelings.Your contribution to the Academy at Morgan Park, your generous gift for theMuseum, one of the most needed buildings, your help in securing Mr. Kent's giftwithout which it would not have come, your aid, also, in connection with your brotherto whom we are indebted for Mr. Cobb's gift-all this, and besides your many encoura­ging words in the Board and out of the Board, have contributed, need I say how largely,toward making this year's work of the University the great success it has become.Personally and officially I am very, very grateful to you, and I think that mysense of gratitude will grow deeper and deeper as the years go by, and as we beginto see what it all means.Yours sincerely,WILLIAM R. HARPERWalker Museum was completed in 1893, and was dedicated in connec­tion with the fourth University Convocation on October 2 of that year.In presenting the building to the Trustees Mr. Walker made the followingquotation from the address of his father at the opening of the Illinois andMichigan Canal in 1848, to which I have referred in the early part of thissketch: "That portion of the earth's surface which can support the mosthuman life, will, in the end, have the most human life, and nowhere onthe earth's surface is there so much good land and so little waste land asin the territory known as the Mississippi Valley of the Northwest." Hewent on to say: "This made a deep impression on my young mind, and Ihave lived to see our city grow from a little over fifteen thousand then toover fifteen hundred thousand now, and today the evidences are strongerthan ever of the final and full realization of my father's confident predic­tions." After speaking of the Chicago Academy of Sciences, and his pro­found interest in it through many years he continued: "During all theseyears I never could relinquish the idea that here in our city was the bestlocation west of the Alleghany Mountains for a great museum of naturalhistory," and he had come to believe" that it would be of the most valuein connection with some great institution of learning." He said therewas one reason why the University should have the building withoutdelay. The great Columbian Fair was going to be held here, and ofnecessity there would be a large amount of scientific material which couldTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDbe retained here if there was a suitable fireproof home provided and theproper effort made to secure it. At the conclusion of the World's Fairmuch valuable material for the Museum was received and the collectionshave constantly grown.With the donor's consent the museum building was, for many years,used also as the recitation and lecture hall of the Departments of Geology,Geography, and Anthropology, owing to the imperative demand forrooms for classes. Mr. Walker fully appreciated this need, but he de­sired earnestly to see the building devoted to museum purposes only. Inthe best spirit he kept this before the Trustees. Collections were beingaccumulated and stored in the basement. This chafed Mr. Walker'sardent spirit and at the close of 1902, nine years after the completion ofthe museum, he addressed his fellow-trustees on the subject in a formalstatement. He said, among other things:The housing of no other department has crowded out the original intention of abuilding. The use that has been made of the Museum Building has been a greathelp to the growth of the University and I am very glad indeed that this has beenthe case and realize most fully that in no other way could it have been so useful­in fact I do not see how the University could have otherwise made provision for theclasses that have been located there up to this date.I urgently suggest that suitable appropriations be made in the present budgetso that now the work can go forward as originally planned, and so that I can see moreof the good results in my own lifetime.Four months later the Board of Trustees, though carrying at thattime overwhelming burdens, made the following response to Mr. Walker'sappeal resolving, among other things,That the Trustees will provide as soon as possible other quarters for the classesnow being held in Walker.That the Committee on Buildings and Grounds be requested to form plans for theextension of the Museum and the erection in connection with such extension of a build­ing for Geology and Geography.The Trustees at the same time expressed their warm appreciation ofMr. Walker's generous consent for the use of the building for classesthrough so many years and their earnest wish that arrangements couldsoon be made to carry out the original plan.For the years immediately following 1903, however, their hands weretied. The health of President Harper was failing, and he died January10, 1906. Another year passed before the election of President Judson.Meantime Mr. Walker himself had most unexpectedly passed away in1905. If he could have lived seven and a half years longer he would haveknown of the splendid contribution of Mr. Julius Rosenwald which pro-GEORGE CLARKE WALKER 239vided $250,000 for the erection of Rosenwald Hall, the great classroombuilding for Geology and Geography. Built in immediate connectionwith the Museum it exactly met the wishes and fulfilled the hopes Mr.Walker had expressed in his appeal for a building" to accommodate per­manently the departments of Geology, Geography, and kindred sciences,so that they may continue to use portions of the building of the GeneralMuseum for their own specimens and collections."Mr. Walker's later years were not so strenuous as those of his earlyand middle business life. He gradually contracted his activities, devot­ing himself largely to conducting toward a conclusion the business of theLand and Building Company whose affairs had occupied him for morethan thirty years.His interest in and labors for the University, however, suffered nodiminution. In 1894 he gave $2,5°0 for new cases for the Museum col­lections. Soon after he was requested by the President to ask Silas B.Cobb in a special exigency for $I5,000 and immediately reported that Mr.Cobb would give the money. He frequently added to the Museum col­lections and library. Mrs. Walker gave lots at Morgan Park valued at$3,000. He was busy on the plans for the house of the President of theUniversity. He spent much time in securing the vacation of streets onthe observatory site at Lake Geneva, in building houses for the astrono­mers, and in locating and erecting the Observatory. He particularlyconcerned himself with the University's system of accounting, with itsinvestments, and with the management of its funds.Mr. Walker's death occurred on April I2, I905. He had spent thepreceding months in the south and at Atlantic City. Reaching home hepresented himself the same day at his office. He was in good spirits andin apparently good health, telling Mr. J. F. Connery that they wouldundertake no serious work, that day, but that he would return the nextday ready for business. On reaching the office the next morning, Mr.Connery was called to the telephone and told that Mr. Walker hadpassed away. He had died suddenly, but quietly, of heart failure. Ihave spoken on a previous page of Mr. Walker's early connection withthe church and of his exclusion for refusing to agree to give up dancingparties. He regarded himself as having been treated foolishly andunjustly, became alienated from the church and for many years may,perhaps, be said to have led a worldly life. But during the last twentyyears of his life we find him again closely connected with the church ofhis youth. He never ceased to feel that he had been hardly dealt withand could not bring himself to ask for or accept restoration. He was theTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDwarm friend and generous helper of Dr. George C. Lorimer. He had apew in the Immanuel Baptist Church and was a regular attendant on themorning service, though he lived nearly two miles away. When Dr.Johnston Myers came to the pastorate, Mr. Walker told him that when­ever he needed anything for the work of the church to come to him andsometimes rebuked him for not coming oftener. For fifteen years thepastor felt fortified and safe in his large work by the knowledge that Mr.Walker was behind him. The sermons that interested and pleased himwere the most spiritual gospel messages the pastor could preach. Onhearing one of them he would seek the minister out and say, "That wasmost helpful." His pastor tells me that it was his custom to read a chap­ter of Scripture with his wife every night and pray before retiring. Iwell recall a statement he made to me which was this: "I never lay myhead on my pillow at night without earnestly praying for God's blessingon President Harper and the University." His last act was this ofprayer. On the last night of his life he read a chapter and prayed withhis wife, as his custom was, and retired to his own room to sleep. As hedid not appear in the morning, they went to his room and found himapparently sleeping quietly with his hand under his head. An hour laterthey found him in the same easy position. It was difficult to believethat he was dead. Thus quietly, in the hours of sleep following his lastprayer, he passed away. This is the sequel to the story of his early pro­fession of religion, and demonstrates how certainly wise treatment thenwould have given Mr. Walker's whole life to the church and the Kingdomof God.On hearing of his death the Administrative Board of the Museumof the University held a meeting and adopted a warm tribute of admira­tion and affection, saying, among other things:Mr. Walker became, in a special sense, the founder and patron saint of the Uni­versity's museums.We desire to record our admiration of the many other noble sympathies and gener­ous endeavors that characterized the life of our patron. We rejoice that three scoreyears and ten were allotted to him for active participation in the world's higher workand that these were crowned by so many enduring tokens of his broad interest in thewelfare of his fellow-beings.While we profoundly mourn his loss, we are gratified that generous health andunrestrained activity were granted him to the last, and that the end came as a peacefulsleep.It will ever be a source of grateful remembrance that we have been permitted tobe, in some sense, associates and participants in the noble endeavors of a noble life.A special meeting of the Board of Trustees of the University was heldon the day following Mr. Walker's death, April 13, 1905. Perhaps thisGEORGE CLARKE WALKERsketch may appropriately close with the statement which I then wroteand which was adopted and entered on the record and sent to Mr. Walk­er's family.The Trustees record with profound sorrow the death of Mr. George C. Walker, amember of the Board for nearly fifteen years. From the very beginning of the effortto establish the University in 1889, Mr. Walker manifested a warm and generousinterest in the undertaking. The very first $5,000 contribution was made by him.He was one of the men with whom those charged with seeking subscriptions counselled,and from whom they received helpful suggestions.When the time arrived for choosing a Board of Trustees for the University, hisname was one of the fir�t agreed upon. His standing in the business community, hisliberal spirit and profound interest in the work of higher education all pointed him outas one of the men to whom the care of the new University should be intrusted.As a Trustee, his devotion to this great public enterprise has been sincere, gener­ous, and ever increasing. He gave to it the library property and Walker Hall atMorgan Park, and afterward the' Walker Museum on the University Quadrangles,and many minor contributions. The total of his gifts to the University exceeds$1:50,000. But large as have been Mr. Walker's gifts of money and property, hiscontributions of time, thought, attention, counsel, and effort have been of still greatervalue.He has given to the accounts and' finances the long-continued and most usefulattention of an expert.For several years he was chairman of the Committee on Buildings and Grounds.In every effort to secure funds he has given the President most valuable adviceand active assistance, securing gifts from his friends by personal solicitation or addinghis own contributions.He carried the University constantly in his heart. It would be difficult to over­state his interest in its welfare. It was his own declaration that he never laid hishead on his pillow at night without earnestly invoking the blessing of God on theUniversity of Chicago.In Mr. Walker's death the University has lost an invaluable friend and bene­factor. The Board of Trustees has lost one of its most zealous, faithful, and usefulmembers. His memory will long be cherished by his fellow-trustees as a genial andfaithful fellow-worker, and by all the friends of the University as one who gave theinstitution most liberal benefactions and most unselfish arid useful service.THE DISCIPLES DIVINITY HOUSERevised plans for the Disciples Divinity House and for the UniversityChurch of Disciples of Christ, to be erected on the northeast corner of57th Street and University Avenue, have been completed by Mr. HowardShaw and Mr. Henry K. Holsman. The group consists of three build­ings, grouped around a court, or garth. The Educational Building willFIRST FLOOR PLAN OF COURTi-··-----r­��� .. �-=�����occupy the east third of the 57th Street front, and the church the westthird. A Refectory Building wil1 form the north side of the quadrangle.The plan of the church is suggested by the old moot halls of Englandrather than by any recognized ecclesiastical form. It is simply a rectangu­lar room, with a raised platform at one end and a great window at theother; there is no transept Qr chancel effect, and no chancel arch.242THE UKIVERSITY CHURCH OF THE DISCIPLES, AXD THE DISCIPLES DIVINITY HOUSEProposed DesignTHE DISCIPLES DIVINITY HOUSE 243Separated from the auditorium by tall columns and arches, is a longgallery with a huge fireplace, visible from every part of the chapel.This will be a meeting place for the congregation and, filled with chairs,will add materially to the seating capacity.The choir and organ are in the balcony over the minister's room.On the University Avenue side three large bays, with m1:l1lioned windows,add to the welcome of the fireplace.EDUCATIONAL BUILDING• •II t Ii \ Ii G Il..OO M• •• •BASE¥ENT SECOND FLOORTechnically the building is in perpendicular Gothic, of warm cream,grey, and yellow limestone with Bedford stone trim. The timberedceiling will have some color on the beams and the oblique walls of thebays offer an opportunity for mural painting and rich color.The Educational Building houses the church offices, classrooms, andSunday school, and until the north building is built will include a dining­room and kitchen. Architecturally it will harmonize with and balancethe chapel. The two are connected with a five-arched cloister, closingin the garth or court.A fund of $200,000 has been secured for the erection of this group.The Educational Building will be erected first, and work upon it willprobably begin in the spring.THE JOSEPH REYNOLDS MEMORIALTABLETA bronze tablet in memory of Joseph Reynolds was put in positionabove the fireplace in the main hall of the Reynolds Club, in July.The tablet is the work of Mr. Paul Fjelde, a rising New York sculptor.It bears a portrait of Mr. Reynolds in low relief, with the followinginscription:JOSEPH REYNOLDS18r9 r891A BUILDER OF THE MIDDLE WESTTRADER MINER MASTER OF TRANSPORTATIONBY RIVER AND BY RAIL. HIS LOVE FORHIS SON BLAKE REYNOLDS WHO DIED IN YOUTHWIDENING TO GENEROUS INTEREST IN ALL YOUNGMEN LED TO THE ERECTION OF THIS BUILDINGA sketch of Mr. Reynolds' life by Dr. T. W. Goodspeed was publishedin the January number of the Record. The gift of the Reynolds estateto the University eventually amounted to $rr3,I23.45. Of this sum,$80,000 was applied to the erection of the Reynolds Clubhouse, and theremainder to the establishment of the Joseph Reynolds scholarships.Mr. Fjelde's tablet is a distinguished addition to the University'sworks of art, and will suggest to future visitors to the Reynolds Clubwhat manner of man Mr. Reynolds was.244TlIE JOSEPH H.EY:\OLDS l\lK\lORL\L T.\BLETEVENTS: PAST AND FUTURETHE ONE HUNDRED TWENTY­FIRST CONVOCATIONThe One Hundred Twenty-first Con­vocation was held in Leon MandelAssembly Hall, Friday, September 2, at4: 00 P.M. The Convocation Address,"Personal Culture and the PresentTime," was delivered by William DarnallMacClintock, Professor of English Litera­ture in the University of Chicago.The a ward of honors was as follows:the Lillian Gertrude Selz Scholarshipto Betty Gatewood Johnson. Honor­able mention for excellence in the work ofthe Junior Colleges to: Abe Brozowsky,Alexander Eichel Brunschwig, Marga­rette Boyd Campbell, Franklin I vesCarter, Henry Irving Commager, AnnaMildred Crews, Norma Anita Deane,Thurman Monroe Huebner, NathanFreudenthal Leopold, Jr., Helen McPike,Grace Blayney Olive, Elizabeth Penick,John Horace Ransom, Adah ElizabethVerder. The Bachelor's Degree withHonors: Phyllis Baker, William Theo­dore Beauchamp, Thomas Edward Black­well, Jr., Charles Henry Butler, GeorgeHarold Caldwell, Sybil Clark, BessieOctavia Dillon, Edmond Isaac Eger,Carroll Lane Fenton, Alexander CarstairsFindlay, Lucile Gafford, Julius Gordon,Julia Mary Hartwell, Pao-chun I, LouiseHenrietta John, Sibyl Eleanor Kemp,Jean Kimber, Alfred Livingstone Me­Cartney, Helen McMillan, Jessie RebeccaMann, Elizabeth Louise Martin, Mil­dred Mary Minogue, Edith GuilfordPeeker, Theodora Goldsun Pottle, EmilyMarie Puder, Henry Albert Rabe, SophiaPearl Reed, Agnes Dorothea Reichmann,Isaac Schour, Harry Raymond Shepherd,Carol Earle Smith, Norma KatharineStelford, Alice Clare Stewart, EmmaElizabeth Straub, Mary Kathryn Stub­bins, Harper Councill Trenholm, Char­lotte Ella Truman, Harry Winkler, MaudAurilla Wood. Honors for excellence inparticular departments of the SeniorColleges: Phyllis Baker, French; PhyllisBaker, English; Nina Evelyn Baum­gardner, Education; William TheodoreBeauchamp, English,· Thomas Edward Blackwell, Jr., Political Economy;George Harold Caldwell, Chemistry; Ed­mond Isaac Eger, Chemistry; CarrollLane Fenton, Geology and Zoology; LucileGafford, English and General Literature;Julius Gordon, Political Economy; MargiaBelva Haugh, Household Art; MarionEugene Herriott, Education; Pao-chun I,Zoology; Sibyl Eleanor Kemp, Education;Sibyl Eleanor Kemp, Home Economics;Jean Kimber, Education; Bertha Eliza­beth Kraeger, Home Economics; LeoneKenton Lowden, English; Alfred Living­stone McCartney, Political Economy;Helen McMillan, Political Economy;Elizabeth Louise Martin, Geography andBotany; Rheua Hazel Miller, History;Mildred Mary Minogue, Mathematics;Theodora Goldsun Pottle, Art Education;Henry Albert Rabe, Sociology and Po­litical Economy; Sophia Pearl Reed,Home Economics; Agnes Dorothea Reich­mann, French; Harry Raymond Shep ..herd, Education; Norma Katharine Stel­ford, Mathematics; Alice Clare Stewart,Education; Alice Clare Stewart, English;Emma Elizabeth Straub, Mathematics;Mary Kathryn Stubbins, Home Eco­nomics; Harper Councill Trenholm,Education; Gem Sayers Tyler, Botany;John Brownson Watkins. Political Econ­omy; Mary Winkler, Chemistry; MaudAurilIa Wood, Music.The following were elected to theBeta of Illinois Chapter of Phi BetaKappa for especial distinction in generalscholarship: Edmond Isaac Eger, FredWilbert Emerson, Carroll Lane Fenton,Sibyl Eleanor Kemp, Harry Perl Klier,Elizabeth Louise Martin, Elizabeth Wil­helmina Miller, Georgine Adolph Moerke,Edith Guilford Peeker, Isaac Schour,Charlotte Ella Truman, Harry Winkler.The National Research Fellowships inChemistry, provided by the RockefellerFoundation, to Martin Charles EdwardHanke, and Robert Sanderson Mulliken.Degrees and certificates were conferredas follows: The Colleges: the certificateof the College of Education, 3; the degreeof Bachelor of Arts, 2; the degree ofBachelor of Philosophy, 77; the degree ofBachelor of Science, 54; the degree of245THE UNIVERSITY RECORDBachelor of Philosophy in Education, 46;the degree of Bachelor of Science inEducation, 2; the degree of Bachelor ofPhilosophy in Commerce and Adminis­tration, 19. The Graduate School of SocialService Administration: the degree ofMaster of Arts, I. The Divinity School:the degree of Master of Arts, 14; thedegree of Bachelor of Divinity, 3; there-enacted degree of Bachelor of Divinity,I. The Law School: the degree of Bache­lor of Laws, 7; the degree of Doctor ofLaw, 16. The Graduate Schools of Arts,Literature, and Science: the degree ofMaster of Arts, 76; the degree of Masterof Science, 24; the degree of Doctor ofPhilosophy, 28.The Convocation Prayer Service washeld at 10: 30 A.M., Sunday, August 28, inHarper Assembly Room. At 11: 00 A.M.,in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, the Con­vocation Religious Service was held.The Preacher was the Reverend CarterHelm Jones, D.D., First Baptist Church,Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.GENERAL ITEMSThe University Preachers for the Sum­mer Quarter were: June 26, ProfessorHarris Franklin Ran, Garrett BiblicalInstitute, Evanston, Illinois; July 3,Professor James H. Snowden, WesternTheological Seminary, Pittsburgh, Penn­sylvania; July 10, Professor Theodore G.Soares, University of Chicago; July 17,Professor Allan Hoben, Carleton College,Northfield, Minnesota; July 24, ProfessorGerald B. Smith, University of Chicago;July 3 I, Professor Herbert L. Willett, U ni­versity of Chicago; August 7, ProfessorOzora S. Davis, University of Chicago;August 14, Rev. J. Bradford Pengelly,St. Paul's Church, Flint, Michigan; Au­gust 2 I, Reverend Carter Helm Jones,First Baptist Church, Philadelphia, Penn­sylvania; August 28, Reverend CarterHelm Jones, First Baptist Church, Phila­delphia, Pennsylvania.The Shakspere Playhouse of New York,which has been giving remarkable per­formances of Shakspere and other playsat the Plymouth, Cort, and Fultontheaters in New York, presented TwelfthNight in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall onthe evening of July 5, and As You LikeIt on the evening of July 6. Amongthe notable players in the casts wereFrank McEntee, director of the Shak- spere Playhouse; Agnes Elliott Scott,formerly leading woman for RobertMantell; Elsie Herndon Kerns, nowplaying leading parts with Walter Hamp­den; Ernest Rowan, in the production ofJulius Caesar with William Faversham;P. J. Kelley, formerly with Sothern andMarlowe; John S. O'Brien, who playedin Justice with John Barrymore; andCharles Webster, with Margaret Anglinin Jeanne D'Arc.Professor Harold G. Moulton, ofthe Department of Political Economy,attended the first meeting of the Inter­national Chamber of Commerce, atLondon, in June 1921. The Inter­national Chamber of Commerce wasorganized two years ago, as a resultof the War. Professor Moulton gavea report of his impressions at the FacultyDinner held in Hutchinson Hall,October 14.The theological Library of the lateProfessor George Burman Foster hasbeen purchased for the Sinai Congrega­tion of Chicago, and has been installedin the Social Building of the Congregationon Grand Boulevard. At the installationof the Library, addresses were deliveredby Mrs. Foster and by Dr. Emil G.Hirsch.Dr. Henry Gordon Gale, Professor ofPhysics, has been made chairman of theDivision of Physical Science ill theNational Research Council, Washington,D.C.Dr. Preston Kyes, Professor of Pre­ventive Medicine in the University ofChicago, has recently been given thehonorary degree of Doctor of Science byBowdoin College, of which he is analumnus.At the inauguration of James RowlandAngell as president of Yale University,June 22, Professor J. Laurence Laughlinrepresented the University of Chicago.The medallion with which the Wiscon­sin Academy of Sciences, Arts, andLetters commemorated its recent semi­centennial, bears the portraits of sixdistinguished members of the academy,among them that of Professor T. C.Chamberlin, former head of the Depart­ment of Geology at the Universityand now professor emeritus. Dr.Chamberlin, who was president of theEVENTS: PAST AND FUTUREUniversity of Wisconsin when called toChicago, was a charter member of theWisconsin Academy and also served as itspresident.Professor Chamberlin's latest volumein geology is The Origin of the Earth,published by the University of ChicagoPress, and he 'is now contributing withhis son, Associate Professor Rollin T.Chamberlin, a series of articles to theJournal of Geology.Professor John Merle Coulter, of theDepartment of Botany, has been electedforeign member of the Linnean Societyof London.Professor Lewis Bayles Paton, Hart­ford Theological Seminary, delivered apublic lecture at the University on June22 on "Jerusalem, the Holy City of FourReligions," and on June 23, one on"Palestine in the Times of the Prophets."On July 26 and 27 Professor Paton deliv­ered two lectures on "The Social Prob­lem in Ancient Israel."Dr. Owen Reed Lovejoy, general secre­tary, National Child Labor Committee,New York City, lectured at the Univer­sity on June 2 2 on "Child Labor andEducation."Dr. Helen Thompson Woolley, of theVocational Bureau, Cincinnati Board ofEducation, delivered a public lecture atthe University on June 23 on "ScientificMethods and Social Service: The Psycho­logical Clinic."Mr. E. A. Horne of the Indian Educa­tional Service, India, delivered a seriesof lectures, June 27- July I, at the Uni­versity, on "The Movement towardResponsible Government in India."Mr. Kenneth J. Saunders, PacificSchool of Religion, Berkeley, California,delivered a course of nine lectures on theHaskell Foundation, from July S to 21on "Buddhism."Dr. Robert Mearns Yerkes, of theNational Research Council, Washington,D.C., lectured at the University onJuly 6 and 7 on "Psychology as History;I. The Animal Mind. II. The HumanMind."Lorado Taft, sculptor of the "Foun­tain of Time" on the Midway Plaisance 247delivered a series of illustrated lecturesat the University in July. The first, onJuly 8 discussed "American Sculpture ofToday." The series included "AugusteRodin" (July II), "French Sculpture"(July 12), "Recent Sculpture of North­ern and Southern Europe " (July 14),and "Augustus Saint-Gaudens and HisInfluence" (July IS).On July 12, Mr. Elmer A. Sperry, theinventor of the gyroscope, gave an illus­trated lecture in Mandel Hall on "TheGyroscope at Work."Dr. Leon Henry Vincent, of Boston,gave his first lecture on American Men ofLetters at the University July 18, thesubject being "Kings of the Pulpit inColonial Days." On July 19 Dr. Vincentspoke on "Franklin as a Man of Letters";July 20, on "Washington Irving's EarlyWork"; July 21, on "Whittier's Legend­ary and Historical Verse"; and July 2 2,on "American Humor: Artemus Wardto Mark Twain."The famous French pianist and con­ductor, E. Robert Schmitz, the pioneerinterpreter of Debussy, gave a pianorecital in Leon Mandel Assembly Hallon the evening of July 29. At the sameplace on August S, Mina Hager, contralto,of the Chicago Opera Company, and LeoSowerby, pianist and composer, gave arecital; August 12 Lillian Eubank,mezzo-soprano, of the Chicago OperaCompany, gave a concert; August 19Louis Kreidler, baritone, also of theChicago Opera Company, gave a concert;and August 26 Edna Swanson Ver Haar,contralto, and Vera Poppe, Englishcellist, gave a recital.Associate Professor Roderick DuncanMcKenzie, of the University of Washing­ton, gave a series of lectures at the Uni­versity, July 19, 22, 25, August 16, and19, on "Social Progress."Carl Sandburg, the widely knownChicago poet, who won the Levinsonprize offered by the Poetry magazine inI9I4 and shared in the prize award of thePoetry Society of America in I9I9, spokeat the University on the evening of July22 on "Is There a New Poetry?" Mr.Sandburg also read some of his ownverse and gave some of the AmericanTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDfolk-songs he has discovered. In addi­tion to his volumes, Chicago Poems andCorn Huskers, he has recently publisheda striking new collection of verse entitledSmoke and Steel.Antranig Arakel Bedikian, minister ofthe Armenian Evangelical Church inNew York City, lectured at the Univer­sity on August 2 on "What America HasDone in the Near East." On August 3 hedescribed "The National Church ofArmenia," and August 4 "Folk Mannersand Traditions in Asia Minor." Mr.Bedikian has taken the degrees of Bachelorof Philosophy, Bachelor of Divinity, andMaster of Arts at the University.Professor Fiske Kimball, of the U niver­sity of Virginia, delivered an illustratedpublic lecture in Mandel Hall on August 4on "The Beginnings of Sculpture inAmerica."Professor William Ezra Lingelbach, ofthe University of Pennsylvania, gave apublic lecture August 17 at the Univer­sit yon "Essentials of Democracy."Professor George Sylvester Counts, ofYale University, gave a public lectureAugust 17 at the University, on "TheSociological Character of the High-SchoolPopulation." On August 19 ProfessorLeonard V. Koos, of the University ofMinnesota, gave a public lecture on"Aspects of the Junior-College Prob­lem"; and August 22 James Fairgrieve,F.R.G.S., of the London Day TrainingCollege lectured on "The Grammar ofGeography."On August 26 Dr. James Eustace Shaw,professor of Romance Languages in theUniversity of Toronto, gave an addresson "Dante" in Mandel Hall, as part of thegeneral recognition of the six-hundredthanniversary of the poet's death.As chairman of the new China Educa­tional Commission of the Foreign Mis­sions Conference of North America, Pro­fessor Ernest DeWitt Burton, Directorof the University Libraries and Head ofthe Department of New Testament andEarly Christian Literature, sailed withseven other members of the Commissionon the "Empress of Asia" from Van­couver, August 18. The Commission includes Dean William F. Russell, ofthe State University of Iowa; ProfessorPercy M. Roxby, of the University ofLiverpool; President Kenyon L. Butter­field of the Massachusetts AgriculturalCollege; and President Mary E. Woolley,of Mount Holyoke College. BishopFrancis J. McConnell, of Pittsburgh, willjoin the Commission later.The party from America will spendsome time in Japan, visiting Tokyo inparticular, and will then travel by way ofSeoul, Korea, and Mukden, Manchuria,to Peking, where they will be joined bythe Chinese members of the Commissionfor a general conference. It is likely thatthe Commission will then be divided intotwo or more sections for the purpose ofvisiting the various educational institu­tions conducted under missionary aus­pices. Afterward the Commission willreassemble in Shanghai for further confer­ence, and is expected to return to Americaearly in January, 1922.Dr. George H. Reisner, Director ofthe Boston Museum of Fine Arts, haspresented to the University a prehistoricbody from a burial, some 6,000 years old,on the Upper Nile, together with theequipment of pottery and utensils whichaccompanied the burial.By the bequest of Frank Bigelow Tar­bell, late Professor of Classical Archae­ology the University has recently comeinto possession of interesting fragmentsof pottery and other antiques collectedby Professor Tarbell. He had beenconnected with the University fortwenty-five years when he retired in 1918.He died in New Haven, Connecticut,December 4, 1920.Professor Robert Morss Lovett, of theDepartment of English who was editor-of The Dial in 1919, has recently becomea member of the editorial staff of T he NewRepublic, and will be absent from theUniversity till the Winter Quarter of1922. Professor Lovett has recentlygiven to the University Library the manu­script of a sonnet by William VaughnMoody, who was once a member of theEnglish Department.Professor Robert Herrick, of the Eng ..lish Department, the author of numerousnovels, has become a contributing ed­itor to the New York Nation.EVENTS: PAST AND FUTUREFour important manuscript lettersfrom the sixteenth century have recentlybeen placed in the Manuscript Room ofthe University. Two are letters of KingHenry III of France, notorious in con­nection with the massacre of St. Bartholo­mew, and are dated in I574. One is aletter of his successor, King Henry IV ofNavarre, signed by him in I589. Twoof these letters are on parchment and onebears the royal seal. A fourth letter inthe collection is that of Cardinal de Ram­bouillet addressed to King Charles IXof France and dated in Rome December 2,I570. These original letters are impor­tant documents bearing upon the religiouswars in France in the sixteenth centuryand were discovered in Paris by ProfessorJames Westfall Thompson of the Uni­versity in the course of his investigationson the Huguenots. Professor Thompsonhas presented them to the University.A unique literary prod uction, a masqueof ISO pages by Professor Thompson, hasjust been published under the title ofThe Lost Oracles, a dramatization of thetragic struggle between the cults ofantiquity and historical Christianity.The masque, which is interspersed withodes, hymns, and songs, is presented insix acts."Tropical Holland," a new volume byH. A. Van Coenen Torchiana, ConsulGeneral of the Netherlands for the PacificCoast States, was issued by the Univer­sity of Chicago Press in September.President Judson writes the preface.After some account of the physicalconditions in the Islands, the author dis­cusses the historical title of the N ether­lands to the East Indian colonies anddescribes the Insulinde of the nineteenthcentury and of today. "Insulinde todayprovides a shining example of good whiteman's government among a native popu­lation. Insulinde of tomorrow is boundto become a still more brilliant star in theconstellation of colonial governments."The book is provided with maps, illus­tra tions, and an index.The rapid development of the Univer­sity is illustrated by the fact that in thelast five years, four editions of The U ni­versity of Chicago: An Official Guide, havebeen published. The fourth edition,recently issued from the University ofChicago Press, has been revised andenlarged by the author, David Allan 249Robertson, Dean of the Colleges of Arts,Literature, and Science, and a numberof striking new illustrations added,among them a sketch of the quadranglesin I92I, the Harper Memorial Library,a model of the Theological Building andBond Chapel, designs proposed for theUniversity Chapel (exterior and interior),and the Ryder Divinity House.Law and Business is the title of a newvolume just published by the Universityof Chicago Press, by William H. Spencer,Assistant Professor of Business Law in theSchool of Commerce and Administration.This is the initial volume in a series ofthree under the same title.Announcement is just made of a revisedand enlarged edition of the volume onWoodrow Wilson and His Work, by Dr.William E. Dodd, Professor of AmericanHistory in the University. This willbe the fifth impression of the book andwill be issued in the autumn.The Macmillan Company has justpublished a Dictionary of Religion andEthics in one large volume of some fivehundred pages, edited by Dean ShailerMathews and Professor Gerald B. Smith,of the University. More than a hundredother scholars ha ve contributed specialarticles to it.Gold Shod is the striking title of anew novel by a University of Chicagoalumnus, Mr. Newton A. Fuessle, of NewYork City. Like his first novel, TheFlail, which proved to be one of the bestsellers, the present novel has part of itsbackground in Chicago, where the authorwas born and educated. At the Univer­sity he was managing editor of The DailyMaroon.Since graduation Mr. Fuessle has beenon the staff of numerous newspapersfrom Seattle to New York and was forseveral years editor of a magazine inCleveland. Recently he has been con­nected with the National City Company,with headquarters in Wall Street, but heis now associated with The Outlook.Madeline McDowell Breckinridge is thetitle of a new illustrated volume by Dr.Sophonisba P. Breckinridge, AssociateProfessor of Social Economy, publishedby the University of Chicago Press inTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDOctober. The wife of Desha Breckin­ridge, the widely known lawyer and editorof Lexington, Ky., Madeline McDowellBreckinridge was conspicuous in herpublic service to her city and state; andthe purpose of this appreciation is to setforth her activities in the Lexington CivicLeague, the campaign against tubercu­losis, and the Associated Charities, andher strenuous efforts for equal suffragein Kentucky and the nation.Another book by Professor Breckin­ridge, the most recent volume in theHarper Americanization Series, is entitledNew Homes for Old, in which she advo­cates the creation of a national agencyfor public assistance to the poor, theilliterate, and the incompetent.Professor Herman Oliphant, who re­ceived the degree of Doctor of Law (J.D.)from the University in I9I4 and has beena member of the Law School faculty, hasaccepted a position in the law school ofColumbia University, his work beginningin the autumn.Assistant Professor Rutledge T. Wilt­bank, of the Department of Psychology,who received the Doctor's degree in I9I7,has been made head of the department ofpsychology at Knox College.Dr. Perry J. Stackhouse, a graduate ofthe Divinity School in the class of I904,now pastor of the Tabernacle BaptistChurch of Utica, New York, has accepteda call to the First Baptist Church ofChicago.Dr. Oscar Douglas Skelton, professor ofpolitical science in Queen's University,Canada, who received his Doctor's degreefrom the University in I908, has beenmade the official biographer of Sir WilfridLaurier, former premier of Canada.Algernon Coleman, Professor of Frenchin the University, has been appointedMarshal of the University, and beganhis service in that office at the OneHundred and Twentieth Convocation.In reply to the invitation of the Uni­versity of Bologna, where Dante is saidto have studied, to participate in itscelebration of the six hundredth anni­versary of the death of Dante, theUniversity has sent the following messagewritten by Professor Wilkins: "The University of Chicago to theUniversity of Bologna, Greeting!"The Poet's message that sounded firstso long ago in your fair land transcendsthe Alps and the centuries, and bearseven to us its beauty and its power."The life of mind and heart is thericher, here and today, for his revelationof the human spirit, and for his apostle­ship of the joys temporal and eternal."We turn in gratitude to his belovedcountry, with which our country shareshis resolute hope that all the nations ofthe earth may dwell together in justice,peace, and unity."And we salute with filial honor thegracious University of his youth, withthanks for her invitation that we partici­pate in her observance of the sixthcentenary of his death, and with regretthat we may not accept her hospitality."May she be ever, as she has been solong, the worthy champion of that'nobilissima e bellissima Filosofia' whichis verily 'piena di dolcezza, orna tad' onestade, mirabile di sa vere, gloriosadi liberta te ' ! "The pilgrimage of American studentsto Italy, and especially Ravenna, organ­ized by the Italy America Society as onepart of the celebration of the six­hundredth anniversary of the death ofDante, resulted in a party of one hundredand seventy members, representing forty­four colleges and thirty-eight states.Fifty of the party came from Vassar,and thirty-five from the University ofChicago. They reached Italy July I3,and were everywhere welcomed by stu­dents of the local universities who enter­tained them at teas and luncheons.Many official courtesies were extendedto them, particularly at Ravenna, wherethe day of their visit was made a holiday,and they were greeted by the "Star­Spangled Banner," and conducted inprocession to the tomb of Dante, wherea bronze wreath sent by the DanteSociety was deposited. In Rome theparty was given a reception at the Capitolwhere the Lord Mayor made an address ofwelcome. A tea was given by the CordesFratelli on the Palatine, where the partywas recei ved by Prince Caetana andGeneral Diaz. The whole expeditionseems to have been a very pronouncedsuccess.Among the improvements made at theUniversity during the September vacationEVENTS: PAST AND FUTUREwere the new equipment and. repairs inDivinity and Snell Halls and the con­struction of four new tennis courts,making thirty-five in all. Includingthe alterations in Kent Chemical Labo­ratory to meet the needs of a greatlyincreased number of students, and thebuilding of a new animal house in con­nection with the Ricketts Laboratory, thecost of the improvements was about$36,000.Concrete foundations for the newQuadrangle Club at the corner of Fifty­seventh Street and University Avenuehave already been laid. The buildingwhen completed will be twice the size ofthe present club house and will costapproximately $200,000. Howard Shaw,of Chicago, is the architect.President Judson delivered the addresson Dante at the Dante Commemorationheld in Chicago on September I I.The September number of the Publica­tions of the Modern Language Associationcontains a paper on "The Calumny ofApelles in the Literature of the Quattro­cento," by Assistant Professor RudolphAltrocchi, of the Romance Department. Mr. Altrocchi was a member of the Execu­tive Committee for the Dante Commemo­ration held in Chicago on September II,and spoke at the subsequent banquet.At the Inauguration of Major GeneralSir Arthur Currie as principal of McGillUniversity at Montreal, Canada, onSeptember IS, the University of Chicagowas represented by Professor Gordon J.Laing.The University of Chicago OrchestralAssociation announces for the season of1921-22 ten Tuesday afternoon concerts,eight of which will be given by the Chi­cago Symphony Orchestra under Direc­tor Frederick Stock. The dates forthese concerts are October 25, Novem­ber 22, December 6, January '31, Febru­ary 14 and 28, March 14, and April I I.Louis Gra veure, baritone, will give thefirst recital of the season on November I,and Serge Prokofieff, Russian pianist,will give the second on January 10.In addition to this series, for whichnine hundred season tickets have alreadybeen sold, there will be two children'sconcerts by the Chicago SymphonyOrchestra on November 8 and January 17.ATTENDANCE IN SUMMER QUARTER 1921FIRST TERM SECOND TERM FIRST TERMONLYT M MBOTH TERMS TOTAL 1921w TOTAL 19201 I I 1 1 1 I ,GAINI LossTM w T M w T M w SECOND TERMONLYw T w T M T M________________ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ . __ . __ 1 __ . __ .--.--1--1--,--1-_.--1--'--1----1-_1--1-_1-_1--1--.--1--1--1--1--1--1-. __ 1--1--.--1--,-_,--1--1--1--I. ARTS, LITERATURE, AND SCIENCE:1. The Graduate Schools-Arts and Literature .Science . 71.71 7001 1,4171 5721 4031 9751 2641 4281 692558 272 830 481 179 660 100 132 232 II91 1311 2501 4531 2721 7251 8361 83111,6671 6541 81011,4641 203j •••••23 39 62 458 140 598 581 3II 892 414 199 613 279· .•..wTotal. " 1,275 972 2,247 1,053 582 1,635 364 560 924 142 170 312 9II 412 1,323 1,417 1,142 2,559 1,068 1,009 2,077 482, .2. The Colleges-Senior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 284 582 275 222 497 40 82 122 17 20 37 258 202 460 315 304 619 261 293 554 651' .Junior.. .. .. .. .. . .... .. .. .. .. .. 146 95 241 124 78 202 32 24 56 10 7 17 114 71 185 156 102 258 136 107 243 IS ..Unclassified. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 267 496 203 176 379 54 133 187 28 42 70 175 134 309 257 309 566 281 329 61o. . . . . 44Total.............. 673 646 1,319 602 -;6 1,078-;-;6--;; 365 �-;��-�; 954 -;8--;;; 1,443 �� 1,407--;6=Total Arts, Literature, andScience " 1,948 1,618 3,566 1,655 1,058 2,713 490 799 1,289 197 239 436 1,458 819 2,277 2,145 1,857 4,002 1,746 1,738 3,484 518 •.....II. PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS:I. Divinity School-Graduate "1 145Unclassified.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Chicago Theological. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 I 12106 1575137 1655038 1419I 1796939 24II8 235 26 441 420 1215 ..... 4832IS 1213023 107 1313724 1896146 16 2058352 ISS4837 23154__ 1 __ 1 __ , __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ 1 __ , __ . -1--.-_.--1--1--1--1--1--1--1--1--178\ '1" .63 .41 .1413 226Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 28 245 253 34 '287 43 10 53 79 16 95 174 18 192 296 44 340 240 42 282 58, .....2. Courses in Medicine-Graduate. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 19 116 95 16 III 2 3 5 .. . .. ..... ..... 95 16 III 97 19 II6 73 22 95· ... '1' .Senior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5 45 40 3 43 .. . . . 2 2 ••••• ••••• ••••• 40 3 43 40 5 45 38 . . . . . 38 .. . .. . .���\���ifi�d:::::::::::::::::::: '''36 .... 4 "'4� "'33 .... 4 '''37 .... 3 ::::: .... 3 ::::: ::::: ::::: "'33 .... 4 "'37 "'36 .... 4 "'4� "'65 .....� '''68 :.::: :::::--1--_1--.--. __ ,--1--1-_1--1--1--1-...--.--, __ .--1--.--1--.--1--1--'--'--Total .3. Law School-Graduate .Senior .Candidates for LL.B .Unclassified . 1731 281062259I, ..... 2011072362 168 2396 523 I58 32 ••••• 1911011 151 .....24 2 •••••61 5 .....2 •••••••••• 101 ..... 1 .....•.....1525 �I"":4 .I . 1681 23934 ;�I I5i .... � 191922157 1731 28III251 I"63 32, ••••• 2011 176116 9826 2066 48 251 2011 .....1051 .21 .51 .91 2101 16621 ••••• 1 ••••• 1 ••••• 1 •••••33,···· .'Total 1 188_-1--'_-1-_1--1--1--1-_1--1 __ 1_-1---1--.--1--1--.--1--'--1--'--'--'--3°11 .....4. College of Education .5. School of Commerce and Adminis-tration-Graduate .Senior .Junior .Unclassified . 14611,19411,34038725450 IIII921 1931 17949836371 10635665040 91 1885551059 6614176.,5549 22 .7377514 8711 94461 132 94 917 3122 13 4 171 16673 323 171 I 20117911,42611,6051 II91 1,1851 1,304II I 17739636745440 421 121 54\ .73 12 85· .55 9 64 .54 26 80 .Total .6. Graduate School of Social ServiceAdministratlon . _-1_-1_-1-_1_-1--1--1--1--1--1--.--1-_1--1--1--'--'--'--1--'--'--'--4°, .....214 52 26632 191 3023 2211 33251 ..... 29IS 331 23241�I" "5621 10151 ..•.. 2652I98 178 18131654936 595420417 224 5938 2831 1454°1 ..... 1 .... ·.1 •••••411 186 971 ..••.__ ,--1-_1-_,--1--1--1--,_-1--1_-1--1--'--'--'--'--'--'--,--,--,--.--30 23ISTotal Professional. .•........ 1 94011,33712,2771 8991 67411,5731 1761 93011,1061 1351 2671 4021 7641 40711,17111,07511,60412,6791 84611,30412,1501 5291 ..•••Deduct duplicates .......•..•.••... , 192_-1_-.--.-_.--.--1--1--._-1_-1--._-1--.-_.--1--1--1--'_-1--'--'--'--Total University ...........• 12,88812,95515,84312,55411,73214,2861 66611,72912,3951 3321 5061 83812,2221 1,22613,44813,22013,46116,6811 2,59213,04215,6341 I,0471' ....--.--. __ .-_.--.--1--1--, __ 1-_.-_.--1 __ . __ .--1-_1--'--'--1--.--,--1--291 2211 187 241 2II 12 2, .•••• 185 241 2091 194 291 2231 198 281 2261 ..... I' ••••-_._-,-_.-_._-.--1--1--.--1--1-_1--1-_1--1--.--1--'--'_-.--1--1--'--Net Total. •••...•••••.••••. 12,69612,92615,62212,3671 1,70814,0751 65911,72412,3831 3301 5061 83612,0371 1,20213,23913,02613,43216,45812,39413,0141 5,40811,0501' .•••INDEXAmerican Association for the Advance­ment of Science, The Meetings of(Gilbert Ames Bliss), 47 -Attendance: Autumn, 73; Winter, I42;Spring, I98; Summer, 252.{3 (Sherburne Wesley Burnham) (EdwinBrant Frost), Il7.Blake, E. Nelson (Thomas W. Good­speed), 157.Bliss, Gilbert Ames, The Meetings of theAmerican Association for the Advance­ment of Science, 47.Board of Trustees: Appointments, 4, 88,152, 217; contributory retiring allow­ances, 218; gifts, 4, 88, 154, 219;honorary degrees, 155; leaves ofabsence,88; memorial of Dr. Frank W.Gunsaulus, 155; miscellaneous, 5, 89,219; promotions, 4, 152, 218; resigna­tions, 4, 153, 218; standing com­mittees of the Board, 218; Stanton A.Friedberg Fellowship, 219.Breasted, James Henry, The Universityof Chicago Expedition to the NearEast (1919-1920), 6.Coleman, Algernon, and Theodore GeraldSoares, General Nivelle at the Uni­versity, 43.Convocation, The One Hundred Twenti­eth, 85Disciples Divinity House, The, 242.Einstein, Professor, at the University,184Events, Past and Future: General items,68, 136, 193, 246; One HundredEighteenth Convocation, 67; OneHundred Nineteenth Convocation,135 (see also 75); One HundredTwenty-first Convocation, 245 (seealso 199).Fellowships, Award of, 1921-22, 131.Free Speech in War Time (James ParkerHall), 75. Frost, Edwin Brant, {3 (SherburneWesley Burnham), I 17.General Nivelle at the University (Alger­non Coleman and Theodore GeraldSoares), 43.Giant Star, A. (George Ellery Hale), 55.Goodspeed, Thomas W., JosephReynolds, 26; Gustavus FranklinSwift, 90; E. Nelson Blake, 157 ;George Clarke Walker, 220.Gunsaulus, Frank Wakeley, 183.Hale, George Ellery, A Giant Star,55.Hall, James Parker, Free Speech in WarTime, 75.Herrick, Robert, Frank Bigelow Tarbell,58.Illustrations : Joseph Reynolds, facingp. I; An Egyptian Official's Householdabout the 26th Century B.C., facingp. 10; Royal Annals of Sennacherib,facing p. 21; Gustavus FranklinSmith, facing p. 75; The UniversityChapel: Exterior, facing p. 124; TheUniversity Chapel: Interior, facingp. 125; Frank Orren Lowden, facingp. 143; E. Nelson Blake, facing p. 157;Professor Einstein with the Staff of theYerkes Observatory, Williams Bay,May 6, 1921, facing p. 184; GeorgeClarke Walker, facing p. 199; TheUniversity Church of the Disciples,and the Disciples Divinity House,facing p. 242; First Floor Plan ofCourt (Disciples Divinity HouseGroup), 242; Plan of EducationalBuilding (Disciples Divinity HouseGroup), 243; The Joseph ReynoldsMemorial Tablet, facing p. 244.John Billings Fiske Prize Poem, The:"Under the Tree" (Elizabeth MadoxRoberts), 127.John Billings Fiske Prize, The, 126.Joseph Reynolds Memorial Tablet, The244·253254 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDLa Verne Noyes Scholarships, The(Rollin D. Salisbury), 130.Lowden, The Honorable Frank Orren,The Problem of Taxation in a Democ­racy, 143.MacClintock, William Darnall, PersonalCulture and the Present Time, 199.Marsh, Charles Allen, 65-Meetings of the American Association forthe Advancement of Science, The(Gilbert Ames Bliss), 47.Nivelle, General, at the University(Algernon Coleman and TheodoreGerald Soares), 43.One Hundred Twentieth Convocation,The, 185-Personal Culture and the PresentTime (William Darnall MacClintock),199·President's Convocation Statement, The:at the One Hundred Eighteenth Con­vocation, I; at the One HundredTwentieth Convocation, 215. Problem of Taxation in a Democracy,The (The Honorable Frank OrrenLow i n), 143.Professor Einstein at the University, 184.Reynolds, Joseph (Thomas W. Good­speed L ao.Roberts, Elizabeth Madox, The JohnBillings Fiske Prize Poem: "Underthe Tree," 127.Salisbury, Rollin D., The La VerneNoyes Scholarships, 130.Soares, Theodore Gerald, and AlgernonColeman, General Nivelle at theUniversity, 43.Swift, Gustavus Franklin (Thomas W.Goodspeed), 90.Tarbell, Frank Bigelow (Robert Herrick),58.University of Chicago Expedition to theNear East (1919-1920), The (JamesHenry Breasted), 6.University Chapel, The, 124.Walker, George Clarke (Thomas W.Goodspeed), 220.