THE HOI\ORABLE FRANK ORREN LOWDENTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDVOLUME VII JULY 1921 NUMBER 3THE PROBLEM OF TAXATION IN ADEMOCRACYIBy THE HONORABLE FRANK ORREN LOWDENDuring recent years there has been a reawakening of interest inthe ssudy of government. This was greatly stimulated by the world­war. We saw how a powerful, efficient, military autocracy couldwell-nigh wreck the civilized world. This turned men's thoughts tothe democratic principle in government. They began to re-examinethe democracies of the world. There are vast territories to which itwas sought to apply this principle for the first time and therefore thequestion was no longer academic but had become intensely practical.Wherein had political democracy realized the hopes of its champions?In what respects had it failed? What are its limitations? These aresome of the questions men everywhere are asking.The champions of democracy have been divided always into twoclasses. There are those who believe that government by the peopleis a sort of divinely ordained principle, universal in its application.To such the ignorance or the character of the people is of no concern.Individually the people may be incapable of thinking clearly or honestlyupon public questions, but in the mass they are infallible. These arethey who invented the phrase vox populi vox dei, and who thereforebelieve that the nearer a government approaches a pure democracy,the better that government is. To men and women of this class democ­racy seems an end in itself.The other class of those who believe in democratic institutionsrecognize the fact that man has been unable yet to construct a govern­ment which has no imperfections. To them there is neither wisdom norI Address delivered on the occasion of the One Hundred Twentieth Convocationof the University, held in Hutchinson Court, June 14, 1921.143144 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDvirtue in mere numbers alone. They cannot see how you can multiplythe ignorance or the vice of one by a million and get perfect virtue orperfect wisdom. I once heard Henry Ward Beecher say-and I thrilledas I listened-" A brick! What is a brick! But a million and youhave the stately cathedral." The men of whom I am now speaking,however, cannot see how any like dramatic exclamation can be madewhere wisdom or virtue and not bricks are being considered. And thenBeecher must be supposed to have had in mind a perfect brick.These men too, if they live in America, have faith in the people,not because they are many, but because they are generally intelligentand just. They believe that democratic government will be successfulin proportion to the intelligence and character of the electorate. If,however, they live in Mexico, they have no great faith in the successof popular government.To men of this class, government is not an end in itself but only ameans. To them the end of all government is the happiness and-well­being of the people. Unless democracy can insure this in a largermeasure than any other form of government, it has failed. The politi­cian assumes that government is the first interest of the citizen. This isnot true. His business, his domestic concerns, his amusements, alltake precedence in his mind over the mere form of government. Perhapsit is unfortunate that the politician is not correct.The framers of the constitution generally belonged to the secondclass of democracy's defenders. They were familiar with history. Theysaw that the democracies of antiquity, one after another, had failed andthat for centuries there was no such thing anywhere as rule of the people.They had had too recent experience of the tyranny of a king to thinkfor a moment of setting up a monarchy. They therefore sought someplan under which the democratic principle could be preserved withoutthe excesses or the impotence that had marked the democracies ofthe past. The result was the federal constitution-the most importantsingle contribution ever made to the art of self-government.The framers of the constitution recognized the imperfections ofdemocracy and sought to guard against them in the instrument theyframed. They proceeded upon the theory that full sovereign powerresided in the people. But they did not confer all that power upon thegovernment. There were some rights so precious that they would notintrust them even to a government of their own creation, such as theright of freedom of religious worship and freedom of speech. Theyguarded the life and the liberty and the property of the individual andTHE PROBLEM OF TAXATION IN A DEMOCRACY 145placed them forever, as they hoped, beyond the whim or malice of amajority, no matter how large. They knew that the tyranny of amajority was no less intolerable than the tyranny of a king. Completesovereign power today abides, not in any government, either federal orstate, o,r in all governments combined, but is found in its fulness onlyin the people of the United States. This is the real significance of awritten constitution such as ours. The lesson of history is that noindividual, as a king in a kingdom, and no selected group, as in an aristoc­racy, and no majority, as in a democracy, can be trusted with supremepower. The outstanding merit, therefore, of our constitution is thatthe people so far have refused to divest themselves of their own inherentsovereign power over the fundamental rights of the individual.Among the subjects upon which our federal and our state constitu­tions have imposed limitations upon the government they created isthe subject of taxation. These constitutional limitations have been ofimmense value. And yet taxation is increasing much more rapidlythan wealth itself.If democracy then is but an imperfect instrument like all humannstitutions, "eternal vigilance is" still" the price of liberty." We mustconstantly inquire for the weak places in the practical working of democ­racy if we are to preserve democratic institutions. The real friendof popular government is not he who constantly tells the people thatthey can do no wrong, but he who warns them against dangers of theirown creation. If democracy is failing in any respect, let us point itout. In that way only shall we be able to correct it. History teachesus that one of the most fruitful causes of the downfall of nations hasbeen increasing cost of government until it became too great to be borneby the people. The advocates of the democratic form for a long timebelieved that this was less likely to be true in a democracy than in otherforms of government. It was thought that, where the people governed,they would see to it that the expenses of government, which they them­selves must bear, were kept well within the ability of the people to pay.Does experience justify these hopes? James Bryce recently has pub­lished his great work called Modern Democracies. That work is anaccurate, exhaustive study of the democracies of the world. Its authorall his life has been a distinguished champion of the democratic principlein government. A more sympathetic critic hardly could be found.The one thing he concludes in which democracy is most disappoint­ing to its friends is in the waste and extravagance which seem generallyto attend democratic government. This thought is found running allTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDthrough the two volumes of his work. Among other things, he says:"So far from securing economy, as John Bright and the English Radicalsof his time fondly expected, democracy has proved a more costly thoughless incompetent form of government than was the autocracy of LouisXV in France or that of the Czars in Russia."One prolific cause of rapidly increasing cost of government is tobe found in the number of public agencies that have authority to levytaxes. There is the federal government; there is the state government;there is the local, municipal government. In many states, there is theschool board. All of these have the power independently of one anotherto impose taxes. In addition, where the bonding power has beenreached by the municipality, there has been a growing tendency tocreate a new district for some new purpose covering the same territoryalready occupied by other municipalities. And then in many states,besides all these, there are so-called improvement districts. The taxeslevied by anyone may seem insignificant, but when all the taxes aretotaled, they already dangerously approach confiscation in many cases.Nor is the line of demarcation between these several jurisdictionsclearly observed. More and more the government appropriates forpurposes which properly belong to the state. The state is urged allthe while to appropriate for objects for which the local communitiesthemselves should care. This results in endless duplication in cost ofadministration and consequent extravagance.What has come to be known as "pork barrel" legislation is generallycondemned. However, whenever it is proposed to expend public moneyupon any object whatsoever in any community, we find the people ofthat community as a whole back of the project. Representatives andsenators in Congress are held responsible for "pork barrel" legislation.The fact is that severally they are yielding only to the importunities oftheir own constituents. Everybody is against all "pork barrel" legisla­tion except that in favor of his own community. In fact, the people ofa congressional district or a legislative district frequently by a re-electionreward their member for securing an appropriation for their district,while condemning "pork barrel" legislation as a whole. Since, however,they have no influence in the election of members beyond their owndistrict, this general condemnation is of no avail.While I was serving as governor of Illinois, at the first session ofthe legislature following the war, bills were introduced from all overthe state for the erection of armories. Chambers of Commerce andcivic organizations of every kind from each city seeking an armoryTHE PROBLEM OF TAXATION IN A DEMOCRACY I47united in demanding that the appropriation be made for the armory intheir particular town or city. Of course, in many of the places therewas no need whatever for such armories, but that fact did not weighwith the people of the place. To grant all of these requests wouldgreatly increase the state tax-rate. I made public the exact amount ofsuch increase. When this fact was brought before the people of thestate, interest in armories considerably abated. I then told the membersof the legislature interested in the several bills that unless they werecontent with appropriations for such armories as had been found neces­saryfor the actual needs of the service, I would veto all armoryappropria­tions. The result was the actual appropriation of something like IO percent of the total amount asked in the several bills and the military armof the state did not suffer in the slightest degree. I relate this experiencebecause it suggests that if we can make the people of the several com­munities understand that while in any particular case the amount askedmay be relatively small, if that amount is granted, innumerable othersimilar grants will be made and in the end the people of the severalcommunities are themselves actually paying the amount which atfirst seemed to them to come from some extraneous source.The people seem to act on the theory that it is always laudable toget whatever money they can from the public treasury for their owncommunity. They seem to feel that this costs them nothing. Theywill ask for an armory, for a post-office building, or improvement ofa creek which one time contained water enough to bear an Indian canoe,with all the earnestness in the world. At the same time they would notthink of voting taxes upon themselves to defray the cost of the project.They forget that while they are doing this other communities all overthe state, or all over the nation, as the case may be, are doing preciselythe same thing. So the cost in the end to them is just as great as thoughthey had voted the taxes upon themselves for the improvement.The farther removed the particular public treasury be, the more thepeople appear to believe they are getting something for nothing whenthey seek an appropriation. It follows that the local municipality shouldbe required to provide its own revenues for its own needs and should notbe given aid by the state. Likewise, the state should be compelledto provide its own funds for purely state needs. Lastly, the federalgovernment should appropriate only for those interests which are purelyof national concern and clearly within the purposes for which the federalunion was established. No more expensive phrases have been inventedin recent years than "state aid" and "federal aid."148 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDDuring the war, the federal government engaged in all sorts ofactivities which theretofore had been carried on by the states. Thisperhaps was inevitable. The bureaus in Washington then tasted thedelights of power over fields which before had been exclusively occupiedby the states. They were loath to give up this power. Propaganda,that new-found weapon of all causes, good and bad, was employed toperpetuate these new powers. Federal aid was the potent phrase withwhich they conjured. They sought to break down the oppositionwhich naturally existed among state officials to encroachment upon theirown proper fields of activity. They found the most effective weapon attheir hands was the offer of federal aid. Federal aid, generally speaking,is a bribe offered to state governments to surrender their own proper func­tions. There is scarce a domain in the field of government properly be­longing to the municipality or the state which the federal government isnot seeking to invade by the use of the specious phrase "federalaid." Education, public health, private employment are a few in­stances which readily come to mind. The bureaucrats who initiatethese movements for an extension of their own power draw great strengthfrom the class specially affected. This rapid extension of federaladministration not only means greatly increased expenses because ofduplication of efforts, but it means the gradual breaking down oflocal self-government in America. For the bureaucrat at Washingtonassumes to control not only his own administration in that field butthat of the state as well. There was not a department of state govern­ment in Springfield even during the war that did not protest that ifthe government would withold its hands it could better and moreefficiently administer its affairs without this governmental aid andinterference.And whatever tends to atrophy local self-government weakens therepublic. Again I quote from Bryce in Modern Democracies: "Democ­racy needs local self-government as its foundation. That is the schoolin which the citizen acquires the habit of independent action, learnswhat is his duty to the state, and learns also how to discharge it."The employees of the city or the state or the nation all the whilebecome a more important factor in increasing the cost of government.Where numerous, they now are generally organized in the severalbranches of the public service. Whatever the nominal purpose of theorganization, their keenest activities are directed toward an increasein pay. These organizations have come to be so powerful that theyexercise a very great influence upon legislative bodies. The differentorganizations are usually found co-operating closely when the questionTHE'PROBLEM OF TAXATION IN A DEMOCRACY I49is an increase of salary for members of anyone of them. Though alarge majority of our people still earn their own livelihood in privatepursuits, the minority which derives its sustenance from the publictreasury has become large enough, thoroughly as that minority isorganized, to frighten city councils, state legislatures, and even Congressinto complying with their demands. It is unfortunate that nearlyalways those who seek for any purpose to get money out of the publictreasury are thoroughly organized. The taxpayers as such never are.It thus happens that the militant minority is often more powerful thanthe unorganized and perplexed majority. This fact in itself is thestrongest argument of which I know against extending governmentalactivities beyond absolute need. It generally is better to put up withall the imperfections in private operation of any agency or industrythan to increase the number of public employees. I tremble when Ithink of the consequences if the number of public employees shall begreatly increased. I recall an instance which illustrates the point.Several years ago I was a member of Congress. For part of the timewhile there I served as a member of the House Committee on Post­offices. After exhaustive hearings, and with much care, the post­office appropriation bill was framed. The bill had the unanimoussupport of all members of the Committee, whether Republicans orDemocrats. It was necessarily voluminous as it covered a great numberof subjects. When it was submitted to the House and read paragraphby paragraph, though of course it met frequent objections, it was sus­tained by an overwhelming vote upon every proposition but one. Inthe preparation of the bill, the salaries of the different classes of employeeshad received much consideration and the Committee unanimouslybelieved that it had done the right and equitable thing. One numer­ous class of post-office employees, however, had not been accorded theincrease it demanded. When this provision was reached, a memberwas found to move a very considerable increase in the salary of thatparticular class. This motion swept the House. The amendment wasvoted, not because the men who favored it had any less confidence inthe Committee's action in fixing this particular salary than they hadin the action of the Committee with reference to other provisions ofthe bill. In this particular case, however, the members were afraid ofthe organized opposition of this class of employees, scattered as theywere throughout the districts of most of the members of the House.Let the proportion of public employees continue to increase as rapidlyas they have in late years and we will within a reasonable time witnessthis phenomenon: Our population divided into two classes, those holdingTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDpublic office, still a minority it is true, and all others working to sup­port the minority in office. From that condition to the soviet form ofgovernment it is but a single step.Also there is no doubt but that progressive income taxes, pro­gressive inheritance taxes, and excess profits taxes tend to extravagancein public expenditures. They furnish the selfish demagogue his mosteffective weapon. He advocates legislation in favor of one class andtells the people that the cost will be borne by the rich alone. If hewere right, in his assumption, that because the tax is paid by a smallminority in the first instance, the body of the people escape its con­sequences, the end of the Republic would indeed be near. For no bodyof men anywhere have the virtue to be safely trusted with the power ofimposing taxes upon others for their own benefit. In the developmentof Anglo-Saxon institutions of self-government, the greatest battleshave always raged around the principle of "no taxation without rep­resentation." Because of the denial of this principle, one Englishking lost America and another lost his head. And this assumes thatthose who bear the burdens of taxation should have a controlling voicein levying taxes. If, therefore, the demagogues were right and if thebody of the people did escape these taxes, our boasted liberties wouldbe at an end. But happily for us there is a great economic law, superiorto all man-made laws, under which taxes generally, by whomsoeverpaid in the first instance, are diffused throughout society as a whole.Fortunately this is a law which the legislative bodies cannot repeal.It follows that any unjust or excessive tax, while it may injure or ruinthe individual upon whom it first falls, injures society equally in theend. Taxes generally enter into the cost of production. Therefore,the consumer in the end pays the tax. It has been thought there wasan exception to this rule when taxes have amounted to confiscation.Though this may be questioned, grant that it is true and you are evenin a worse case. For you, then, have destroyed one source of futurerevenue to the government. The tax-rate then upon the remainingsources would be correspondingly increased and to that degree thecost of production would again be further augmented. The supremeneed of the time is in a better understanding on the part of the elector­ate of this great truth. If there is one subject pertaining to govern­ment upon which the electorate is less informed than upon any other,it is the laws and principles relating to taxation. The reason is obvious.It is only of recent years that the taxes in America have been heavyenough to be of real concern to the people. N ow all is changed. Thereis not a domestic question into which some consideration of taxes doesTHE PROBLEM OF TAXATION IN A DEMOCRACY lSInot enter. We are in a period of depression. There is not a planbeing formed anywhere for the resumption of production in whichsome phase of the taxation problem does not play an important part.I have endeavored to point out some of the principles which must beobserved if we are to check the rapidly increasing cost of government.But after all nothing will be effective toward this end unless the peoplecan be made to understand that this is their problem. Some waymust be found to create an intelligent and genuine public opinionupon the danger we face, or we shall awake too late to the menace ofmore and more burdensome taxation.The profoundest students of democratic government generally havecome to the view that democracies have been successful only whenthe real controlling force was a healthy and sound public opinion.The machinery of self-government may be perfect but it will fail unlessback of it all and directing it there is that invisible force-correct publicsentiment. As a recent writer has said, "Democracy will not operateitself. Its success will depend on the public opinion which it reflects.The most that can be said for democratic forms of government is thatthey reflect public opinion accurately. It does not make public opinion.It does not solve problems."Public sentiment is more powerful in America than its chosenofficials. It even over-rides temporary majorities. And public senti­ment is created largely by a relatively small part of the electorate.You who are about to go out from this University and take yourplaces in the world may, if you will, enter this select group. Yourcountry needs you and today is calling upon you. Mere scholasticattainments, or intelligent grasp of problems, are of no avail to societyunless they are actively employed. We often hear it said that what thecountry needs is more education. This is but half the truth. Therepublics of antiquity lost their liberties when they were at the veryheight of their intellectual accomplishments.If you are to contribute to the public opinion of which I speak,your gifts and your attainments must find constant expression in thecommunity in which you shall live. There will be never-failing oppor­tunities for you. In your church, in your schools, in your politicalmeetings, through the press, wherever men are gathered to considerthe welfare of the community your words will be potent. You willthus become without knowing it leaders among your fellows, and therebyhelp to create and maintain that vital and high public sentiment withoutwhich this Republic cannot endure. It is indeed a noble destiny towhich you this day are called.THE BOARD OF TRUSTEESBy J. SPENCER DICKERSON, SecretaryAPPOINTMENTSIn addition to reappointments the following appointments havebeen made:t-: Howard Adler, Ph.D. (Columbia University) to an instructorship inthe Department of Chemistry from July I, 1921.I � Robert V. Merrill, B.A., to an instructorship in French fromOctober I, 1921.t---/L. W. Parr to an associateship in the Department of Hygiene andBacteriology from October I, 192I.V j,t:' (/'Morris Kharasch, George L. Clark, Martin C. E. Hanke, and RobertS. Mulliken, National Research Fellows, to research fellowships in theDepartment of Chemistry.� William C. Reavis, Superintendent of Schools, Alton, Ill., as Principalof the University High School from August I, 1921...,r Roswell Foster Magill as Instructor in the Law School fromOctober I, 1921.C Winfred E. Garrison as Dean of the Disciples Divinity House andAssociate Professor of Church History from July I, 1921.Martha J. McCoy as teacher in Department of English of the Uni­versity High School from October I, 1921.Margaret McEwan as teacher in the Department of Latin of theUniversity High School from October I, 1921.t-: J. O. McKinsey to an assistant professorship in the School of Com­merce and Administration from October I, 1921.PROMOTIONSr Associate Professor William Scott Gray to a professorship in theDepartment of Education from October I, 1921.Assistant Professor E. W. Burgess to an associate professorship inthe Department of Sociology from July I, 1921.Assistant Professor J Harlen Bretz to an associate professorshipin the Department of Geology from October I, 1921.THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 153V Assistant Professor Gerald Louis Wendt to an associate professor­ship in the department of Chemistry from October 1, 192I.Associate Mayme 1. Logsdon to an instructorship in the Departmentof Mathematics from October I, 1921.v'Assistant Walter Louis Dorn to an associateship in the Departmentof History from October I, 1921.i-> Assistant Professor H. B. Lemon to an associate professorshipin the Department of Physics from October 1, 1921.�fistructor Merle C. Coulter to an assistant professorship fromOctober 1, 1921.t/ Assistant Scott V. Eaton to an instructorship in the Departmentof Botany from October 1, 1921.1--/ Assistant Professor John F. Norton to an associate professorship inthe Department of Hygiene and Bacteriology from October 1, 192I.J Associate W. E. Gouwens to an instructorship in the Departmentof Hygiene and Bacteriology from October I, 1921.i-: Assistant Frank V. Sander to an instructorship in the Departmentof Physiological Chemistry from October 1,;' Assistant Eloise Parsons ,to an associateship in the Department ofPhysiological Chemistry from July I, 1921.c. Instructor Esmond R. Long to an assistant professorship in theDepartment of Pathology from October 1, 1921.� Instructor Lewis C. Sorrell to an assistant professorship in theSchool of Commerce and Administration from October I, 192I.t.,...--Assistant Stuart P. Meech to an instructorship in the School ofCommerce and Administration from October I, 1921.vAssistant John F. Pyle to an instructorship in the School of Com­merce and Administration from October 1, 1921.L- Assistant Audie J. Lynn to an instructorship in the School of Com­merce and Administration from October 1, 1921.RESIGNATIONSThe Board of Trustees has accepted the resignations of the followingmembers of the faculties:Inez M. Boyce, Instructor in the Department of Home Economics,effective April 1, 1921.Rutledge T. Wiltbank, Assistant Professor in the Department ofPsychology, to take effect September 30, 1921. He becomes head ofthe department of psychology at Knox College, Galesburg, Ill.154 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDHerman Oliphant, Professor in the Law School, to take effect Septem­ber 30, 1921. He accepts appointment on the faculty of the Law Schoolof Columbia University.GIFTSMr. W. E. Wrather, Ph.B., University of Chicago, I908, has given$450 for the purchase of ten acres of land in Missouri for the use of theDepartment of Geology. He has also given $I,OOO for buildings on thisland.Mr. L. M. Smith has given $300 for the Lewis M. Smith Loan Fundfor students in the Department of Geology. This fund makes temporaryloans to graduate students in this department and is expected to becontinued from year to year until it can be capitalized.The National Tuberculosis Association has made an appropriationof $4,000 to 'be used by Dr. Esmond R. Long of the Department ofPathology to pursue his investigation on tuberculosis.The French Consul in Chicago announces a gift of 2,000 francs tothe Maison Francaise of the University.Miss Carolyn Hoefer, a graduate of the School of Education, hasgiven $250 as a nucleus for an alumni research fund for the Departmentof Education.The Wig and Robe, a Law School society, has given $100 a year asa prize to the student doing the best work during the first two years in theLaw School.Professor Floyd R. Mechem, of the Law School, has given $200 as anucleus for the "F. R. Mechem Loan Fund" which is to be loaned tolaw students.The Wyvern Club, an undergraduate women's organization, hasgiven $r,50o in Liberty Bonds to the University for the purpose ofestablishing a scholarship to be known as "The Wyvern Scholarship."The amount is sufficient to pay the tuition of one student for one quartereach year. It is hoped that the scholar may be appointed from themembership of the club.The University accepts the bequest of Mrs. Eleanor Levering Hender­son, deceased, widow of Professor Charles R. Henderson.Dr. George A. Reisner, Director of the Boston Museum of FineArts, has presented to the University a prehistoric body from a burial,some 6,000 years old, on the Upper Nile, together with the equipmentof pottery and utensils which accompanied the burial.THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 155By the will of Seymour T. Coman, of Chicago, the residuumof his estate, the value of which in its entirety is estimated at$200,000, is bequeathed to the University for scientific research withspecial reference to preventive medicine, and the cause, prevention,and cure of disease. The fund is to be known as the Seymour ComanResearch Fund.MEMORIAL OF DR. FRANK W. GUNSAULUSAt the meeting of the Board of Trustees held June 2I, 1921, thefollowing memorial of Dr. Frank W. Gunsaulus was adopted:Frank Wakeley Gunsaulus died March 17, 192I. He was a member of theFaculty of the University of Chicago as Professorial Lecturer since 19I2. He hadbeen a warm friend of the University from its foundation. His zealous interest inmany forms of artistic and intellectual achievement and his spirit of unstinted gener­osity led him to enrich the University collections with many rare books and manuscriptsand with other valuable material both by his own gift and by gifts which he inspired.He also gave freely of his eloquence to kindle the imagination and inflame the enthusi­asm of the University community. His passing from life leaves a void in the Univer­sity as well as in the city at large. We remember him with affection and with high honor.It is recommended that this memorial be spread in the minutes and that a copybe sent to the family. ,HONORARY DEGREESAt the close of the Spring Quarter honorary degrees, by vote of theTrustees, were conferred as follows:The Honorary degree of Doctor of Laws upon James RowlandAngell, President-elect of Yale University, for distinguished service ineducational administration.The Honorary degree" of Doctor of Laws upon Frank Orren Lowden,for distinguished services in public administration, as Governor ofIllinois, and especially for carrying through the Civil AdministrativeCode of the state.The Honorary degree of Doctor of Science on Mme MarieSklodowska Curie, professor of radiology in the University of Warsawand professor in the University of Paris, for distinguished attainmentsin science and especially in the development of radio-activity.TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS OF THE BOARDAt the meeting of the Board of Trustees held June 28, 1921, thefollowing were elected as Trustees for three years: Adolphus C. Bartlett,J. Spencer Dickerson, Charles W. Gilkey, Howard G. Grey, Charles R.Holden, Charles L. Hutchinson, Francis W. Parker.THE UNIVERSITY RECORDAt the same meeting the following were elected officers of the Boardof Trustees: Martin A. Ryerson, president; Andrew MacLeish, firstvice-president; Howard G. Grey, second vice-president; C. L. Hutchinson,treasurer; J. Spencer Dickerson, secretary; John F. Moulds, assistantsecretary; Thomas W. Goodspeed, corresponding secretary.The following were also appointed: Wallace Heckman, counsel andbusiness manager; Trevor Arnett, auditor; Nathan C. Plimpton,assistant auditor.E. NELSON BLAKEE. NELSON BLAKEBy THOMAS W. GOODSPEEDThe first settlers of New England no sooner set their feet on theshores of our continent than they began, not only to make, but also towrite, history. There may have been other pioneers in other landswho did this before their day, but I do not recall any. The fathers ofPlymouth, even before they landed, began the record of their dailyexperiences and continued it through the eventful years that followed.The Puritan successors of the Pilgrims, in apparently every earlysettlement in New England, seem to have shared this desire to preservethe annals of their times. Sometimes this was done in the records ofthe boards of selectmen and sometimes by chroniclers who were movedby their own historical impulse,What made our early progenitors historians? Were they impelledby some instinctive consciousness that they were engaged in no ordinaryenterprise, but were, rather, laying the foundations of a mighty empireand opening a new historic era?They had this advantage, that they wrote of things that were goingon about them and of men of whose lives they had, for the most part,personal knowledge. And therefore these old stories are in such detailthat we can make out some sort of biography of almost every man inevery town. It is this that makes them such invaluable historical sourcesand enables every man of New England ancestry, not only to tracehis genealogy, but to learn what manner of men his forebears were.The ancestors of E. Nelson Blake came to America from Somerset­shire, England, and settled in the town of Dorchester, which, lyingsouth of Boston, after being a separate municipality for two hundredand forty years, is now a part of that city. William Blake, the first ofthe family to come to the new world, was born in 1594. His great­grandfather, Humphrey, was also the great-grandfather of the famousAdmiral Blake who, during the protectorate of Cromwell, drove all ofEngland's enemies from the sea and established that British supremacyon the water that has never been lost.William Blake migrated to New England in 1635. In that yearthe Rev. Richard Mather, father of a famous son, Increase, and grand­father of the still more famous Cotton Mather, came over with one157THE UNIVERSITY RECORDhundred other immigrants and became pastor of the church inDorchester, remaining its minister till his death in I669. These new­comers, happier than those who preceded them, arrived just in timeto take the places made vacant in Dorchester by that historic migrationof the earlier settlers to the Connecticut Valley. They thus foundhouses already built which they purchased. The History of Dorchesterrecords that William Blake and his wife came over "probably in thesame ship" with Mr. Mather. Mr. Blake was a man of such character,ability, and education that he was not only an officer of the church,but was three times chosen selectman and was also town recorder. InI656 he was made clerk of the writs for the county of Suffolk and wascontinued in that office till his death in 1663. His son, James, born in1623, coming over with his father when twelve years old and inheritinghis father's abilities, became very prominent in the church and thetown. After serving the church as deacon for fourteen years, he waspromoted against his protest and served a like period as ruling eldertill his death in I700. He was selectman for thirteen years, assessor,deputy to the General Court, clerk of the writs, recorder, and, indeed,spent his life in the service of the church and the community.There is this curious entry in the town records. A new house wasordered built for the minister, to be "such a house as James Blake's."This house, considered a model for the residence of the minister, whowas the most important man in the community, was built previous toI650. It remained in possession of the family till I829. It is still stand­ing and is now owned by the Dorchester Historical Society and hasbeen fitted for its uses. Pictures of the "Blake House" show that whatwas thought a fit residence for the minister was a building of sevenrooms, two stories high, and after the style of two hundred and fiftyyears ago, with walls as well as roof shingled.The great name among the Blakes of the eighteenth century wasthat of James Blake, of whom the History of Dorchester, speaking ofthe year 1750, says:On the 4th of December of this year died James Blake, author of the Annals ofDorchester. He was the .... great-grandson of William Blake ..... It is trulywonderful . . . . to see how much writing and work this man accomplished. . . . .He had the principal charge of the affairs of the Proprietors of the Undivided Landsfor many years and drafted with great ingenuity the tables for collecting the Provinceand town taxes, many of which are now in existence.Mr. Blake was clerk of the town for twenty-four years and one of themost accurate surveyors of his time. Through many years and up toE. NELSON BLAKE 159the very end of his life he labored on the history of his native town,making as complete as possible the record of every year, and this is thework that has come down to us as the Annals of Dorchester. As suggestedat the beginning of this sketch, he was one of those men who wrote historyunder an inner urge he had to obey.Such was the line to which E. Nelson Blake .belonged, He is inthe eighth generation in direct descent from the pioneer-William,James, James, Increase, Benjamin, Nathaniel, Ellis, and E. NelsonBlake. Ellis Gray Blake, his father, was a printer of Boston. Physi­cally he was a man of extraordinary activity, a very rapid walker, amember of two Boston military companies and the Boston Fire Depart­ment of which he was clerk. He had enjoyed few early educationaladvantages, but he had a most alert, inquiring, and acquisitive mind.He was for many years marine reporter for the Boston Journal, andNathan Robbins, president of the Faneuil Hall National Bank, declaredMr. Blake to be "the best informed man on all topics he had ever met."He was a devout man, a member of the Baptist church, exerted a strongreligious influence, and "was singularly unselfish and was greatlybeloved." His habit of working to the limit of his endurance brought onan illness which resulted in his death at the early age of forty-five.Most of his married life was spent in Arlington. There, in 1808, wasbuilt the house in which E. Nelson Blake was born. Known as theBlake House, it is still standing on Massachusetts Avenue, which isthe principal street of Arlington. It was along this historic street,then a country road, that Paul Revere rode to warn the people of thecoming of the British forces on that April day in 1775 which saw theopening of the Revolution. It was through this street the enemymarched on Lexington and along it that they later retreated, defeatedand decimated by the American militia and the farmers of the country­side. The Blake house of Arlington was built a hundred and sixty yearslater than the Blake house of Dorchester, but it looks like a replica of it.The pictures of these two ancient houses may be seen in the publishedhistories of the two towns.The second wife of Ellis Gray Blake was Ann Elizabeth Wyman,who was descended from John Wyman, one of the founders of the townof Woburn in 1640. Woburn is only a few miles north of Arlington andWymans early found their way to the latter place, known successivelyas Cambridge, West Cambridge, and Arlington. The brothers, Abner P.and John P. Wyman, owned the farm on which the Blake house stoodand which had been bought by their father Samuel F. Wyman in 1804.160 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDTheir sister, Ann Elizabeth, was the mother of E. Nelson Blake. Therewere seven children of this marriage, a brother and two sisters olderand three sisters younger than E. Nelson. He was born in the Blakehouse February 9, 1831. His mother was a devout woman, and, havingas her pastor one of the leading Baptist ministers of that day in Massa­chusetts, Rev. Ebenezer Nelson, she called her son by his name.The father, dying while yet a young man, did not leave such accumu­lations as would properly care for the seven children of his secondmarriage, only one of whom was old enough to make his own way.This was Stephen P., who, except for six years spent in California,followed the sea from 1838 to 1871 rising from cabin-boy to captain.At the time of his father's death E. Nelson was only ten years old,and, young as he was, it soon became necessary for him to assist hismother in the care of her large family. At the age of twelve, therefore,he went to work for a neighboring farmer. His wages were four dollarsa month, about fifteen cents a day. He worked six months, and,returning home at the end of that time, he handed over to his mother $24,the entire proceeds of the season's work. For six years thereafter, fromhis twelfth to his eighteenth year, he spent his summers working onthe farm of his uncles, Abner and John Wyman, on which the Blakehouse stood. His uncles were themselves hard-working men and theiremployees were expected to keep up with them. Such a thing as theeight-hour day was then, not only unknown, but undreamed of, andwould have been scouted had it even been mentioned. The hours werefrom sunrise to sunset. In the longest days of the summer one of theuncles used to say to the boy: "Nelson, the days are short and thenights are mere nothing." With such men enough work could not becrowded into the hours of the day. They were among the best men ofthe community and naturally prospered. But the boy who workedwith and for them throughout his boyhood had little time to spare forplay and the sports of youth. His own phrase aptly tells the wholestory of the recreations of his boyhood: "little or none." There wassome fun in winter when he went to school and met the other boys atrecess and before and after school. But his youth was spent in sixmonths of hard work each year and six months of hard study. He wasendowed by nature with scholarly instincts and earnest study was asnatural to him as any other kind of industry and thus he was busysummer and winter.The boy was fortunate in having a discerning teacher, Daniel C.Brown, who soon recognized his unusual abilities and serious applicationE. NELSON BLAKE 161to his studies, gave him every encouragement, and became his life­long friend. The school was a district school, but the teacher discoveredin the boy such gifts of acquisition and of imparting instruction that heurged Nelson to take up teaching as a profession. It was from thisteacher that Mr. Blake acquired the finished penmanship that distin­guishes him at ninety years of age. He developed a gift for mathematicsand commended himself to his teacher by the facility with which heacquired mental arithmetic, doing the most difficult figuring in his head.When the boy reached eighteen, Mr. Brown secured a school for him, andduring the winter of 1849-50 he taught the Wyman district school inthe northern part of the town. It was a difficult school. The teacherthat preceded him had sent an unruly boy out to cut a switch with whichto be flogged. He cut two and managed to pass one of them to hisolder brother without being detected. When the teacher began toflog the boy, the brother attacked and overpowered him, and the youngerboy used on him the extra whip. Naturally, young Blake undertookthe school with some misgivings, but he was by nature both a teacherand an administrator, and he never had the slightest trouble.Mr. Blake was born and brought up almost under the shadow ofHarvard College. Only two generations before, one of the DorchesterBlakes had graduated from that ancient seat of learning at eighteen,"an eminen t pa ttern of studiousness and proficiency in learning. "E. Nelson Blake had all the instincts and native endowments of a scholar.Had the circumstances of the family permitted, he would naturallyhave gone on from the lower to the higher schools, at sixteen wouldhave entered college and with his scholarly gifts and habits of applica­tion would have been a brilliant student. It is vain to speculate wherethis would have led him. I am quite sure, however, that it would nothave led him into a more widely useful career than he has had. But suchburdens fell upon the shoulders of the boy, in the support of the family,that not even preparation for college was practicable and the teachingof district schools was not profitable enough to assist particularly incarrying these burdens.The year 1850 was a most important one in Mr. Blake's life. Inthe second month of that year he became nineteen years old. Whatevermay have been his previous spiritual experiences, he had not enteredthe church. Now, however, he made a public profession of religionand united with the First Baptist Church of Arlington. This meantvery much more to him than it means to most men. For him it cameto mean everything. Whatever other interest in his life has been second,THE UNIVERSITY RECORDreligion, with all the meaning that word holds, came to be first. Hebecame one of those who believe in evangelical Christianity, not onlywith the mind, but also with the heart, and he has devoted his life toChristian service. This whole-hearted devotion to the Christian causehas made him a leader in that cause wherever he has been. It is aprivilege for me, who knew him long and well and through many tryingyears, to testify that I have known almost no man who, always sonaturally and inevitably, because it was the supreme law of his life,responded to the Christian motive.There was another thing that made I850 a memorable year in Mr.Blake's life. Two years before, the great California gold discoverieshad been made. The interest and excitement aroused throughout thecountry was unparalleled. Reports of riches lying ready for all comersin that land of gold started vast numbers westward. In my youth themembers of this great migration were known as "the forty-niners."In r8so nearly or quite 100,000 of these immigrants arrived in California.Many thousands took the long and perilous journey across the plainsand over the mountains. Other thousands took ship for the Isthmusof Panama and, crossing, sailed up the Coast to San Francisco. YoungBlake, feeling, perhaps, that here was an opportunity to make quickprovision for his mother and her family as well as himself, joined themigration among those who took the Panama route. The money forthe great adventure he borrowed from his Grandmother Wyman. Sheloaned him $200, which he brought back to her two and a half yearslater. He started in September, I850, sailing from New York on thesteamer" Cherokee," which was crowded with a thousand other gold­seekers. The young Argonaut found $200 a small allowance for thelong journey of 7,000 miles and was compelled to take passage in thesteerage. He proved a very poor sailor and was sick for most of thevoyage. The steerage passengers were a rough crowd, and when hewas able to eat he was too weak to join the scramble for provisions, butsatisfied such appetite as he had on a diet of peaches. Landing atChagres on the Isthmus, the passengers were carried in dugouts upthe river of that name to Gorgona, nearly halfway across, where thetrail began over the hills and through the tropical forests. Mr. Blakerode a pony which, stepping in the tracks of countless other ponies andmules which had traveled this ancient trail and made deep holes, allowedhis feet frequently to touch the ground. Arriving at the city of Panama,he found that the San Francisco boat had just left and he was delayed aweek in that city. He was so sick again on the voyage up the coast as toE. NELSON BLAKEbe quite helpless, and a missionary became good Samaritan to him andministered to his necessities. He passed through the Golden Gate inOctober on the steamer "Oregon," which carried to California the newsof the admission of the state into the Union.Mr. Blake's older brother Stephen had preceded him to the landof gold. He had naturally taken the all-sea route and had sailed roundCape Horn. He was now cultivating a farm near Nicolaus which wason the Feather River about fifty miles north of Sacramento. Afterspending four miserable days in a vermin-infested so-called hotel inSan Francisco, Nelson took a boat up the Sacramento to its junctionwith the Feather and up that river to Nicolaus and found his brother"who had not yet got round to building a cabin, living in a tent andtrying to start his farm. Though worn out and sick, Nelson soughtand found employment with Mr. Nicolaus at $30 a month, living forsix weeks with his brother in the tent. He grew weaker and moremiserable and conferred with Stephen as to how he might regain his,health. His brother, who had sailed all over the world, recommendedthe genial climate of the Sandwich Islands. He thought of trying themountains, but perhaps most of all he thought of home. He hadreached the lowest ebb of the tide in his fortunes. He was sick andpoor and discouraged.But he found the old saying, "It is darkest just before dawn," atrue one in his case. In this darkest hour of his fortunes a man appearedwho turned his darkness into day. This was Major, later General,John Bidwell, a well-known figure in the history of California. Bidwellmigrated to the coast in I84I with the first overland party, when hewas twenty-two years old. He became associated with Captain J. A.Sutter and, through this connection, with the first discovery of gold.The Mexican War found him in charge of Sutter's fort. Serving throughthat war he returned to Sutter's settlement and later, locating a richgold deposit on the Feather River, which came to be known as "Bid­well's Bar," he acquired wealth. With the proceeds of the mine hebought the Rancho Chico, an estate of perhaps 40,000 acres, extendingeast from the Sacramento River fourteen miles. He became a briga­dier general in the Civil War, was elected to Congress, and in 1892 wasProhibition candidate for president. He was so sincere a Prohibitionistthat in I867 he uprooted all his wine-producing grapevines. His ranch,Chico, was about fifty miles north of Nicolaus where young Blake sick,discouraged, and uncertain which way to turn, was trying to work onthe ranch of Mr. Nicolaus. Early in December, 1850, General Bidwell,THE UNIVERSITY RECORDcalling on his friend, Mr. Nicolaus, found Mr. Blake. They had metonce before at Gorgona on the Isthmus, both happening to be crossingat the same time. There would seem to have been a mutual attraction.The General invited the young man to return with him to his ranch andthe invitation was gladly accepted. A warm friendship grew up betweenthe two which continued for fifty years, till the death of the older manin 1900. General Bidwell was not slow to recognize the high characterand rare abilities of his young friend and sought in every way to attachMr. Blake to his fortunes. Shortly after their association began, theywent together to the San Jose Mission, two hundred miles south ofRancho Chico. Here Mr. Blake's training as a farmer and gardenerasserted itself. From an old fig tree in the garden of the Mission hecut five canes, took them back to the ranch, stuck them into the groundof the garden, and by his care gave them such a start that they grewinto great trees of from fifteen to twenty feet in circumference, someof them with a spread of branches of over a hundred feet. "One ofthese trees still stands [1920] in front of the late General's home and isused by Sunday-school parties from Chico as a picnic ground. Some ofthe branches have reached to the ground and have taken root like abanyan tree."Five months after his younger brother had gone to the Rancho Chico,Captain Stephen Blake went to visit him, and such a transformationhad been wrought in his health and appearance that his brother walkedstraight past him without recognizing him. He had gained many poundsin weight and the pallor of sickness had been succeeded by the bloom ofhealth. A friendly climate, nourishing food, and congenial employ­ment in the open had made another man of him. The winter of hisdiscontent had passed. The world again looked good to him and hecontinued on the great ranch through the year I8S!.He had gone to California, however, to look for gold, and in theearly part of 1852 he adventured into the mining region. With twopartners he went forty miles northeastward from Chico to the headwaters of Chico Creek and undertook placer mining. Many dayswould be spent in laboriously clearing away the surface filling beforegetting to the bed of black sand where the placer gold was to be lookedfor. So much, however, depended on chance that it seemed to himtoo much like gambling. While the partners had fair success, youngBlake, after six weeks, concluded to return to sure and steady employ­ment of a sort he liked much better. He returned, therefore, and waswarmly welcomed back to the ranch by General Bidwell.E. NELSON BLAKEPerhaps one of the things that influenced him in giving up miningand returning to the ranch was the interest he felt in an experiment ingardening, the preliminary steps in which he had already taken.General Bidwell treated him as a younger brother rather than as anemployee and gave him free scope for the exercise of his gifts. Allgarden stuff was very rare and very costly. The farm of the uncles inArlington had been gradually changing with the growth of Bostoninto a great market garden. To supply the lack of vegetables in Cali­fornia it had occurred to Nelson to send to them for seeds of their ownraising and these, hermetically sealed, reached him in February, 1852,the express charges being a dollar a pound.The planting of these fresh, high grade seeds produced such a garden in the summerof I852 that miners would go miles to see it. In the same box were seed of a naturalstrain of peaches, not requiring grafting or budding-a most ex ellent quality offruit. These were planted, carefully tended and grew into trees from four to six feetin height the first summer. In the fall the first peach orchard in Sacramento Valleywas set out, bearing fruit the following summer. The sandy loam washed from themountain sides was the natural home of the peach and the yield of luscious fruitwas abundant.While in California, the boy became a man, reaching his majorityin February, 1852. But distance and long absence did not weaken theties that bound him to his home. He sent money, as he was able, tohis mother, $500 in a single draft. The attachment of General Bidwellto him increased. He was highly intelligent, a fine reader, an interest­ing conversationalist, with great business talents, and had proved himselfso useful and congenial that his employer had become his friend andcompanion. General Bidwell had found him so alert and capable, sohigh-minded and trust-compelling that he greatly desired to keep himin association with himself. The young man had promised his motherthat he would return to her. The time came when he had to decidebetween keeping this promise to her or making California his permanentresidence. As a final inducement General Bidwell offered to deed tohim a thousand acres on Chico Creek, "a never failing stream fed bythe melting snows of the Sierra Nevadas, if he would remain with himon his 40,000 acre ranch." It was a great offer and a great opportunityfor a young man of twenty-one, well-nigh incredible except to thosewho knew the qualities of the mature man. General Bidwell hadsufficient insight 'to know that he himself would be making a goodbargain if his young friend accepted his offer. He knew also that hewas offering the chance of a fortune.When Mr. Blake declined the offer that he might fulfil his promiseto his mother it 'was not the only time, as will appear later in this story,166 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDthat he turned his back on brilliant prospects for the acquisition of largewealth. On his trips to California in later years he was accustomed tovisit the General at Rancho Chico. In their last interview in 1900,the General, who, "generous, unsuspicious, easy and hospitable tostrangers" had become, in his old age, the victim of designing men, saidto him, "Had you remained with me in 1853 it would have meantmillions of dollars to us both."Starting on his return journey in February, 1853, he met in SanFrancisco, Cyrus Wood, of Arlington, who later married his sister Harriet.They talked over their prospects, and, as they sat on Telegraph Hilloverlooking the bay and the city, Mr. Wood suggested that they shouldgo into what was then the profitable business of raising vegetables forthe San Francisco market. This business Mr. Blake knew perfectly,but he had set his face for home, and home he went. Not this time washe a steerage, but a cabin, passenger. As before, the passage was brokenby the journey across the Isthmus, but it brought him weakened bythe sea voyage into the harsh climate of Massachusetts in March, theworst month of the year. The shock to his health was well-nigh fatal,and he was long in regaining his physical vigor. One wonders, not onlythat he returned in the winter from the mild climate of California tothe severe one of New England, but still more that he returned at all,for he left the prospects of certain affluence for no prospects at all.No opening awaited his return to health, which was very slow, save thatof driving the market wagon of his uncles Wyman to Boston and sellingthe produce. This he did for the next three years, gaining some valuablebusiness experience in disposing of his merchandise on the Bostonmarket.His real entrance into business took place in 1856, when he wastwenty-five years old. The door by which he entered was humble,indeed, but it was a door of opportunity and it led him directly to hisbusiness career. In June, 1856, he saw an advertisement of HarveyScudder and Company, flour and grain commission merchants, for aclerk and a porter. Upon applying he found that the position of clerkhad been filled. The member of the firm he interviewed saw at aglance that he did not look like a porter and was evidently surprisedwhen he asked for that position. He took the place at $35 a monthwhich was later increased to $50. He soon made it apparent that he wasmuch more than a porter. He studied the stock. He learned thedifferent qualities of flour. IJe coopered broken barrels. He appliedhimself to learning the basic principles underlying the buying and sellingof flour. He never watched the clock, being engaged in studying theE. NELSON BLAKEbusiness as though it were his own. He unobtrusively transformed thebusiness office of the firm, making it clean and attractive with flowersbrought from home. He was indeed a new kind of porter. He wasthe kind of employee that cannot help becoming an employer. Hehad found the open sesame to business advancement. He did notregard his employers as his natural enemies, but as friends. He andthey were engaged together in a co-operative enterprise. They werepartners. Their interests were common. He had discovered the secretof success in all business-eo-operation between employer and employee.When Harvey Scudder and Company's interests demanded extra timeand labor it was freely given without stint and without reward. Whenhe saw a thing that needed to be done, whether in the office or thebasement, he never waited to be told to do it. He simply did it. Asa result the firm came to trust him implicitly and to rely upon him formany things outside the duties of his position. And thus it came topass that the year was one of the most important in Mr. Blake's life,and that the outcome of his portership was somewhat extraordinary.But possibly it did not surprise his 'employers, for they had come toknow what manner of man he was.The firm occupied a five-story building, leasing the first floor to aflour-jobber for $900 a year. Toward the end of the year of Mr. Blake'sservices as porter, this tenant failed, and Mr. Blake immediately proposedto Scudder and Company that he be permitted to rent the floor andcarryon the flour-jobbing business. They asked him how much moneyhe had. "I have about $I,500 saved up," he replied. Their answer tothis was perfectly true: "Not much capital on which to do a flourbusiness." But they had learned to appreciate the character andabilities of the new aspirant for an independent business career, theyhad come to have unbounded confidence in him and they finally saidto him: "Well, Nelson, we will back you in this enterprise, and we willbe your silent partners and will give you access to all our surplus stocksof flour, to be drawn from as sold." They assisted him by giving himthe use of their name as reference, by recommending him to customers,by standing back of him with their great credit, and in every way intheir power, all of which was of inestimable service to him. And thiswas the new firm's card.E. N. Blake & Co.,Commercial Wharf,Boston.References:Harvey Scudder & Co., Faneuil Hall Bank168 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDIn January, 1858, Mr. Kilby Page entered the firm and some yearslater the firm name became Blake and Page. This partnership con­tinued for twenty-one years. The business was successful and thepartners prospered.In the same year in which this partnership was formed, 1858, Mr.Blake married Miss Annie E. Whitten, of Arlington, daughter of aBoston merchant. For five years they made their home in Arlington.In 1863 they moved to East Boston. Here Mr. Blake passed six yearsof great religious activity. All his gifts and acquirements he placed atthe disposal of the church and in the conduct of its business affairs, inthe prayer meetings, in the Sunday school and in the teaching of Bibleclasses gave himself unstintedly to Christian service. This was so truethat it was a current saying that he was busier on Sundays than in hisbusiness on week days.The business, however, prospered, and the time came when thepartners had such accumulations that they began to look for an opportu­nity to extend their operations. Such an opportunity came in 1869through Chicago firms from whom Blake and Page bought flour andthey purchased a half-interest in the Dake Bakery, the largest crackermanufacturing concern in the western metropolis. Mr. Blake went toChicago to care for the interests of the firm in that city and Mr. Pageremained in Boston. Ten years later in r879 their twenty-one yearpartnership was dissolved, Mr. Blake taking over the exclusive owner­ship of the firm's interest in the Chicago business. From 1869 to 1890,another period of twenty-one years, he was the head and general managerof the Dake Bakery, the firm names being successively, Blake, Herdmanand Company, Blake, Walker and Company, and Blake, Shaw andCompany. As the head of the concern was a man of uncommonbusiness ability the Dake Bakery was a prosperous enterprise.When he entered on the Chicago business, Mr. Blake, with hisfamily, his wife and little daughter Mabel, who had been born inArlington, moved to that city. After ali auspicious beginning in thenew business came the disaster of the great fire of 187I, in the sweep ofwhich through Chicago the Dake Bakery, with all its contents, wascompletely destroyed. This gave the business a very serious setback,causing a loss to the firm of $100,000. Within ten days after the fire,however, a new building was under way, and in three months the businesswas once more in good running order. From that time it continuedwith uninterrupted and increasing success.When Mr. Blake became a large employer of labor he did not forgetthat he had once been an employee and he desired to cultivate amongE. NELSON BLAKEhis workmen the spirit that had inspired him when he was workingfor wages. His attitude toward them was considerate, sympathetic,and democratic. Fifty years ago he proposed to his partners a plan ofdividing profits in proportion to ability and service, making employeespartners, thus developing among them a personal interest in the business,an assurance that they were getting all that was due them, as well aspromoting good feeling and securing the best service. The followingincident will illustrate his consideration for the feelings of his' employees.Being in his office one day when the hour for closing arrived, I was askedto ride home with him. There was no carriage before the door and heled me some distance down the street. Here we found his carriagewaiting and as we entered it he explained that he never had it drivento the factory for him as he shrank. from having his employees see himriding from his office while they walked. He was one of them andwanted them to feel that he was. I was calling on him for a subscrip­tion and he treated me as though I were doing him a favor.The large dealings in flour, incident to the business, naturally ledthe head of the firm into the Chicago Board of Trade. Wherever hewas, his abilities could not fail to be recognized. In 1880 he was electeda member of the Board of Directors and served three years. TheBoard of Trade then occupied the Chamber of Commerce building onthe corner of Washington and La Salle Streets. With the growth ofbusiness and the great increase in the membership of the Board, largerquarters became necessary, and toward the close of 1882 the new build­ing, now occupied by the Board of Trade, at La Salle Street and JacksonBoulevard was begun. While this great enterprise was under way, inJanuary, 1884, Mr. Blake was elected president of the Board of Trade.A year later the unusual compliment of a re-election was given him. Thenew building was completed during his presidency. It was constructed ofgranite, I7AX2I3 feet, with a tower rising to a height of 310 feet. Thecost, in that day of low building prices, was about $2,000,000. Thebuilding was dedicated on April 29, 1885, Mr. Blake presiding, and theexercises were held in the great main trading hall. The Board of Trade,incorporated in 1850 by a handful of men, the early sessions oftenattended by one man only, had grown in thirty-five years to be thegreatest organization of its kind in the world, with a membership ofmore than two thousand. The dedication of the new building was agreat occasion. Delegates were present from a score of cities, includ­ing Toronto, Canada, and Liverpool, England. Four thousand peopleattended the dedicatory exercises in the great hall. Mr. Blake receivedthe keys of the new building from the chairman of the Board of RealTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDEstate Managers, paid a high tribute to the members of the Board ofTrade, welcomed the delegates and, surveying the great hall, gaveexpression to the enthusiastic feelings of his fellow-members in this clos­ing apostrophe, "Magnificent hall! Splendid temple! Beautiful home!May peace be within thy walls and prosperity within thy gates!" Atthe banquet which concluded the celebration, Mr. Blake again presidedand introduced the speakers. On retiring from the presidency in 1886he received from the directors a handsome gold medal.For several years Mr. Blake served as president of the WesternCracker Bakers' Association which covered more than half the country.He was its first president and continued to be re-elected as long as hewould serve. And he was not permitted to retire without receivingas a token of the Association's appreciation of him and of his servicesa very valuable watch which he still carries.Mr. Blake was frequently urged to enter politics. There was verygreat need of a man of character and brains to represent his district inCongress and he was asked to accept the nomination as the one manwho could unite the Republican factions of the district. He made aserious mistake for his constituents when he insisted that another mandeserved the nomination.During the long Democratic dominance in Chicago, when the elderCarter If. Harrison regularly succeeded himself as mayor, some of thegreat dailies named Mr. Blake as the one Republican in the city whocould be elected. Mr. Harrison himself, who was Mr. Blake's neighbor,was reported to have said; "There would be some glory in beatingMr. Blake, but none in winning over the others named." But Mr.Blake could not be tempted to give up the care of business and theother activities in which he was increasingly influential and useful.On making Chicago his home Mr. Blake naturally and, being whathe was, inevitably connected himself at once with the Christian forcesof the city. He and Mrs. Blake became members of the Second BaptistChurch, on the west side, which, under the pastoral care of my brother,Dr. Edgar J. Goodspeed, was having a quite phenomenal development,growing in ten years from a membership of 300 to above 1,600, andbeing very active in sustaining missions and founding new churches.Into all departments of the life of this great church Mr. Blake enteredwith all his spiritual interest and his unusual gifts. He soon became andcontinued a trustee of the church. His presence added interest to thegreat prayer meetings. He engaged in the work of the church missions.He became the teacher of a young women's Bible class, which was apart of the morning Sunday school, and had a membership of more thanE. NELSON BLAKE 171sixty. For twelve years he conducted a great afternoon class of morethan a hundred and fifty which attracted men and women of all denomi­nations. He was prominent in the social and literary life of the congrega­tion. Both he and the pastor were exceptionally fine Shakespeareanreaders and sometimes read together to the great delight of the people.He had belonged, while in Arlington, to a Shakespeare Club and haddeveloped exceptional gifts as a reader. At the close of a reading inChicago my brother would grasp his hand, enthusiastic approval light­ing up his face, and applaud and thank him.During all the years of his residence in Chicago he was the right­hand man of his pastors. No one knows this better than I, since I wasone of them for more than four years, from 1871 to 1876. It goeswithout saying to anyone who knows Mr. Blake that his purse wasalways open to any need of the church and of other good causes. Heis one of the few men who literally holds his possessions as a trustfrom God to be used for the spread of his kingdom and the good ofthe community. He has been the most generous giver I have everknown.It was, of course, impossible for such a man to confine his religiousand philanthropic interest and activities to his church. And this bringsme to those extraordinary services to education in Chicago-college,university, and theological education-which were continued throughmany trying years and which, in their results, have made his life vastlyand enduringly significant.There were two educational institutions in Chicago under Baptistauspices, the first University of Chicago and the Baptist Union The­ological Seminary. In 1872 he was made a trustee of the Old Univer­sity and in 1880 vice-president of the Board of Trustees, and he servedin these positions till 1885. Had not that institution become hope­lessly involved in financial difficulties before his connection with itbegan, his liberality would have saved it. He gave to it continuouslyand liberally through many years. But the time never came wheneven his liberality (for he was not a rich man) was equal to the taskof extricating it from its difficulties, and its existence ended in 1886.Of the other institution, the Theological Seminary, he became atrustee in 181.5, 'and two years later he was made president of the BaptistTheological Union, the corporation which owned and controlled theinstitution. These positions he continued to occupy till 1893, threeyears after his removal from Chicago. Until the final breakdown ofthe University the Baptists of Chicago and the West had entertainedhigh hopes that through these two institutions they would be able toTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDdo a great service to education and religion. After that time Mr. Blakewas one of the men who recognized that even a partial realization ofthese hopes depended on the preservation and permanent establish­ment of the Theological Seminary. The outlook, indeed, of thatinstitution was desperate, but it was not hopeless. It was withinthe power of one exceptionally liberal giver to lead the movementwhich would save and establish it. Mr. Blake proved to be that giver.There were other Baptists in Chicago and the West of much largermeans, but, unhappily, they were not endowed with either his insight,his public spirit, or his liberality. All these things he had in the highestdegree. He was comparatively a newcomer in Chicago, but he wasalmost the only Baptist layman of any considerable resources whosensed the situation and was ready to respond to it. When an opportu­nity came to the Seminary to secure a valuable collection of books,the Hengstenberg library, he provided the money to pay for it. Inevery crisis, and crises were frequent, he stepped into the breach.In 1876 what was known as the Centennial Movement wasstarted to raise an endowment for the Seminary. I was called upon,and, being profoundly interested, left the pastorate to lead the move­ment. It was inaugurated by a banquet at the old Grand PacificHotel. There was a large attendance and a subscription was madeaggregating $40,000, Mr. Blake leading the way with a cash contribu­tion of $10,000. One of the by-products of this gathering was theorganization, proposed by Mr. Blake and approved by the meeting,of the Chicago Baptist Social Union, which has continued and flourishedand proved to be the great unifying and inspiring influence among thechurches from that day to this-a period of forty-five years. A totalof $80,000 was secured as the result of this financial campaign, of which$50,000 went into the permanent endowment fund of the Seminary.The monetary stringency following the Centennial year defeated thelarge hopes with which it was inaugurated, and four years passed beforethe way opened for a new movement. Meantime Mr. Blake, by largeannual contributions, continued to lead all others in keeping the Seminaryon its feet.In 1881 the urgency of the situation compelled us to undertake anew effort for an endowment and we planned to raise $100,000 in Chicagoand a second $100,000 in the rest of the country. As a matter of courseour first appeal was to Mr. Blake. I recall that I said to him:In starting this effort we are asking you to subscribe far more than your fairshare of the first $IOO,OOO. We know this is unjust to you. But it is the only possibleway. You are the only man from whom we can hope to get the sum we must have toE. NELSON BLAKE 173start with. The success of the movement, the life of the Seminary, the continuanceof our educational work in Chicago all depend on whether you feel able to subscribesuch a sum.Mr. Blake knew the situation as well as we did. He knew this was alltrue. And he gave us a subscription of $30,000 on condition that theamount was increased to $75,000 within three months in Chicago. Weworked very hard, through the heat of summer, to fulfil these conditions,and the fact that we failed indicates how very few men of light andleading and liberality there were among the Baptists of Chicago ofthat day. There were some like Charles N. Holden, Andrew MacLeish,and John A. Reichelt, and they aided us liberally. We came so nearsuccess that Mr. Blake immediately renewed his pledge with the condi­tion that the total amount secured should be increased to $100,000,in the region west of Ohio within the succeeding nine months. Thiswas successfully accomplished and was followed by the raising of another$100,000, Mr. John D. Rockefeller having followed Mr. Blake's exampleby a similar conditional SUbscription. Counting the results of theCentennial Movement, the Theological Seminary emerged from thesecampaigns with a clear endowment of $250,000 in addition to its otherassets. The institution was saved, not at all adequately endowed, butpermanently established as a going institution. And it was univer­sally understood that the man to whom this great result was primarilydue was Mr. Blake.In my report of the success of the campaign, a report entered inthe minutes of the Board of Trustees, I said, "To the action of Mr.Blake we owe the grand success achieved." This judgment is not onearrived at for recording in this sketch, but was the judgment at thatday of myself, of the trustees, and of the public.In 1877 the Seminary had changed its location from the city tothe suburb of Morgan Park, and in recognition of the great servicesrendered to the institution and to the cause of education the chapeland classroom building erected there was named Blake Hall. When theSeminary returned to the city in 1892 as the Divinity School of thenew University of Chicago, this building which still retains the name ofBlake Hall became the chapel and recitation building of the MorganPark Academy for Boys.Mr. Blake sought no position of leadership in his denomination.But leadership was thrust upon him. In many denominational activitieshe took no part. But in any great emergency all his religious associatesin Chicago looked to him as their natural leader.It was so when, through the enlightened liberality of Mr. Rocke­feller, the opportunity came to them to more than re-establish their174 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDeducational work in the founding of the new University of Chicago. In1887 the American Baptist Education Society was organized and Mr.Blake was made the first chairman of its Executive Board. The secre­tary of the Society, Dr. F. T. Gates, soon reached the conclusion thatits first work should be the founding of an institution of higher learningin Chicago. In December, 1888, a meeting of the Executive Board washeld in the city of Washington to consider this subject. Mr. Blake, aschairman of the Board, and Dr. William R. Harper, then a professorat Yale University, attended the meeting and the Board instructedits secretary" to use every means in his power" to secure the foundingof a "well-equipped institution in Chicago." In writing me an accountof this important meeting, Dr. Harper said: "Mr. E. Nelson Blakemade a most excellent speech in behalf of Chicago."It will be recalled that the great opportunity for the founding ofthe University came through the subscription in May, 1889, of $600,000made by Mr. Rockefeller on condition that the additional sum of$400,000 should be subscribed by others within one year from June I,1889. To me, who had learned by hard experience the difficulty ofraising money for education, this seemed an almost impossible sum tosecure in a single year Being asked, in connection with F. T. Gates,the secretary, to undertake this well-nigh impossible task, it was onlyon Mr. Blake's encouragement that I consented. A conference wascalled and seventy men assembled in the Grand Pacific Hotel, June 5,1889. Mr. Blake was called by acclamation to the chair. A CollegeCommittee of Thirty-six was selected to co-operate with the activeagents, Dr. Gates and myself. One very significant thing occurredin the appointment of these thirty-six men. Their selection was leftto a nominating committee, but before this committee retired forconsultation the meeting itself directed that Mr. Blake should be thechairman of the Committee of Thirty-six. And it was characteristic ofthe man that he did not wait to be solicited for a subscription, but beganhis services as chairman of the College Committee by voluntarilysubscribing $25,000. This was one-sixteenth of the entire amount tobe raised, and two and one-half times as much as was given by anyother Baptist except Mr. Rockefeller. Mr. Blake was one of the sixmen who signed the Articles of Incorporation of the University, hisname following that of Mr. Rockefeller, the founder. He was the firstman decided on as a member of the first Board of Trustees. Thefirst meeting of the trustees was held July 9, 1890, and Mr. Blake waselected the first president of the Board. He was then about to leaveChicago to make his home in Arlington, Massachusetts, but his fellow-E. NELSON BLAKE I75trustees felt that not only his character, standing, and ability, but hisrelation to the founding of the new institution and to the general reha­bilitation of the educational work of his denomination in Chicagodemanded that the presidency of the Board should be conferred uponhim. At his own expense he made frequent trips from Boston to Chicagoto be present at the Board meetings, often prolonging his stay to attendto pressing matters of University business. The subscriptions to themillion-dollar fund for founding the new institution had all been madeto the American Baptist Education Society, and that Society had takentitle to the site. In August, I89I, the institution being regarded as"solidly founded," the Society, through Mr. Blake as chairman of itsExecutive Board, conveyed the title to the real estate and assignedall the unpaid subscriptions to the University and left it to the solecare of its own trustees. Over his protest Mr. Blake was re-electedpresident of the Board in I89I, so unwilling were the trustees to losehim and so anxious were they to signalize their appreciation of hisinvaluable services in the founding of the University.No one can be so sensible as I am of the inadequacy of this accountof those services and of Mr. Blake's relation to the entire Chicagoeducational situation during twenty critical years. One could hardlybe excused for doubting that he was sent to Chicago by the good provi­dence of God for the purpose of rendering these great services. In noparticular did he fail in fulfilling the trust committed to him.The Divinity School which he saved forty years ago has grown tobe one of the leading schools of theology of our country, enroling 400students annually, and being the favorite resort for study of foreignmissionaries returning home for their well-earned furloughs.The University, to the founding of which he was so intimatelyrelated, has increased the 742 students of its first year to an annualenrolment of �ore than II,OOO and its assets from $I,OOO,ooo thirtyyears ago to $S?,OOO,ooo in I92I, and is recognized as one of the greatuniversities of the world.Inadequate as this statement as to Mr. Blake's relations to theseinterests is, it is I trust, stifficiently adequate to show that the distin­guished services he rendered must be held in perpetual remembrance.I must now turn back from this notable history of public serviceto I880. In that year Mr. Blake's daughter Mabel E. was married toMr. Herman H. Kohlsaat, a young man who later became well known inChicago and throughout the country as owner and editor of the ChicagoTimes-Herald, the Record-Herald, the Chicago Evening Post, and theChicago Inter-Ocean. In I880 Mr. Kohlsaat was a junior partner inTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDBlake, Shaw and Company and became manager of a bakery lunchwhich the firm established. They later sold this part of the businessto Mr. Kohlsaat, who made his bakery lunchrooms famous under thefirm name of H. H. Kohlsaat and Company.Though I never knew Mr. Blake to seek recognition or position,these have been often thrust upon him. In addition to the positionsof which this story has already told, the Baptist Social Union of Chicago,which owed its existence to his suggestion, made him its first presidentand re-elected him annually as long as he would serve. His great servicesto his own denomination in Chicago attracted the attention of thechurches throughout the country and he was made vice-president ofthe American Baptist Home Mission Society and later was electedpresident of that organization.Mr. Blake was not a club man. He had too many other absorbinginterests. But he did become one of the charter members of the LaSalleClub on the West Side of Chicago and was elected its first president.After having made his home in Chicago for twenty-one years, Mr.Blake in 1890 sold his interest in the Dake Bakery to his partner W. W.Shaw and returned with his wife and son to the place of his birth, Arling­ton, Massachusetts. In making this great change he was not self-moved;but yielded to the earnest wishes of Mrs. Blake. They were entirely ableto make the sacrifices required and she had a strong desire to spend theremainder of her life in the old home. The sacrifices Mr. Blake madewere unspeakably great, but he felt that he could make them if he couldthus insure the happiness of Mrs. Blake. All his activities and rela­tions were more than satisfactory to him. He was highly useful andsuccessful, universally trusted and honored, not yet sixty years of age,in the full maturity of his powers, the chosen leader of his religiousassociates, and the president of the Board of Trustees of the new Uni­versity with its splendid future of prosperity and power. He under­stood perfectly well that he was making a great business sacrifice, and,had his heart been fixed on accumulating a great fortune, the way waswide open before him for doing this. The cracker concerns of thecountry were just beginning that series of combinations which resultedin the organization of the National Biscuit Company and there weregreat business possibilities just before him. But while not ambitiousfor great wealth, it is quite certain that in giving up the intense businessand public life he had been leading for thirty-five years he had failedto take into account his extraordinarily active temperament, the cravingof his intense nature for expression in energetic action. It has beenmy privilege to receive occasional letters from him. These letters tellE. NELSON BLAKE 177the story of how he himself came to the same opinion that was held byall who were acquainted with his superabounding energy, namely, thatin leaving Chicago and his active business career he thwarted the require­ments of his own nature and did himself a grave injustice. In a letter oflast year he wrote me what he had in substance said to me before: "InChicago were spent the best twenty years of my life." In 1918 a letterfrom me recalling his busy and useful Chicago life led him to writeto me from Florida as follows:My busiest business life in Chicago was my busiest religious period. A largeadult Bible class (100 to 150) on Sunday afternoon, a large class of young women inthe morning (over 60), president of Board of Trade, president of American BaptistHome Mission Society at the same time, president of Western Cracker Bakers' Associa­tion at the same time, reaching from New Orleans to Minneapolis, from Pittsburghto Omaha, I enjoyed it. I wish I could live it over again. [This when he was eighty­seven years old!] I would try to do my work better. I well remember the timewhen, as president of your board of trustees, I met, almost daily, you and Dr. Harperin that office in the Chamber of Commerce Building, corner Washington and La SalleStreets. Busy was I, here and there. Mrs. Blake's love for old Boston compelled meto leave it all. Perhaps it was all for the best.It is certain he had done his full share of the world's work. Hehad worked as few men work for nearly fifty years, since his eleventhyear. His twenty-one years in Chicago, busy, happy, prosperous forhimself, had been of immense significance to the denomination to whichhe belonged. He had saved the educational situation for that denomina­tion and in doing this had helped to open the way for the splendiddevelopment which followed in the history of the new University.During this period his contributions to religious and educational causeshad exceeded $100,000.It is probable that most men would have thought themselves happyto be in Mr. Blake's position. After fifty years of labor he now hadleisure. He was released from heavy responsibilities and, havingacquired a competence, was free to employ himself in any way he pleased.The world was before him and he could go where he liked. He engagedin affairs that were more of a recreation than a labor. He traveled,passing many winters in Florida and California. His orange grovesgave him physical exercise and mental occupation. He had leisurefor reading and knew how to enjoy it. He spent happy hours in hisgarden and made it blossom and bear fruit. He was in an ideal situa­tion for a man who loved a quiet life. The only trouble was he did notcrave a quiet life.On returning to Arlington, the home of their youth, Mr. and Mrs.Blake found themselves among relatives. Mr. Blake's next olderTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDsister had married Mr. William T. Wood and it is to her son, WilliamE. Wood, a life-long resident of Arlington, that I am indebted for muchof the material of this sketch. Mr. Blake made his home in Arlington,at 808 Massachusetts Avenue, the street on which he was born. Itbeing impossible for him to live without employment, he soo1,1 interestedhimself in the organization of the First National Bank of Arlington,of which he was made president, serving for twenty-one years until1912, when the bank became merged in the Menotomy Trust Company.He has continued on the Board of Directors of the latter bank eversince the merger.His religious activities were naturally interrupted by the removalto a wholly new environment. He was, however, made a deacon ofthe old church into which he had been first received forty years before.This was an office he could never be persuaded to accept in Chicago. Hisvoice was heard in the midweek meetings of the church. After a timehe again became a Bible-class teacher and finally returned to much ofhis old-time religious activity. The time came when he was occasionallycalled upon to occupy the pulpit on Sunday. He has an exalted concep­tion of the work of the Christian minister. He once wrote me as follows:"I view the calling of a minister as the highest on earth, the noblest,the grandest, the most sacred, the most holy. No other can comparewith it. An ambassador for Christ! Breaking the bread of life tostarving, dying men! What a calling!" When in 1900 the woodenchurch building was destroyed by fire, Mr. Blake was made chairmanof the building committee, and set about the task of rebuildingin stone with characterisitc energy. As Mr. Wood says: "Thepeople were inspired and educated by the example he set to makeheavy contributions for the entire undertaking in order to fulfilhis insistent requirement that the building, including its fine organ,should be dedicated free of debt." There was much liberal giv­ing, but his aggregate contributions exceeding $17,000, includingthe gift of a bell in his daughter Mabel's name, "greatly overtoppedany other single contribution, being nearly three times the size of anyother, and his efforts during the two years' period of rebuilding wereun tiring. "In 1893 Mr. and Mrs. Blake met with an overwhelming bereave­ment in the death of their only son, E. Nelson Blake, Jr. This sonwas born in Chicago in 1875 and was eighteen years old at the time ofhis death. The father signified his affectionate remembrance of hisson in acts of beneficence for others. The year after this sorrow fellupon himE. NELSON BLAKE I79He bought a suitable site in Lake Helen, Florida, [where he spent many winters],and built a beautiful church and chapel, fitted with stained glass windows and allappointments, dedicated in memory of his son, which he presented to the Baptistfellowship. He also created the E. Nelson Blake, Jr., Memorial Fund of $3,000, theincome of which is used for the purchase of prizes-books-given to graduates ofArlington High School for meritorious work and deportment during their course.He was also very largely instrumental in having a home built for the Grand Army ofthe Republic, and the purchase of the lot and the erection of the building at No.370 Massachusetts Avenue as a memorial to his son was made possible by his concep­tion of the project and by his generous donation.And thus the son, though dead, continues to live and speak. On thewalls of the Grand Army Hall a portrait of Mr. Blake has been hung.Entering into the business, educational, and religious life of Arlingtonhe served for many years as a member of the Board of Trustees of theRobbins Library. His religious services and standing were recognizedsoon after his return to his native state by his election and re-electionto the presidency of the Massachusetts Baptist State Missionary Society.For some years before leaving Chicago, Mr. Blake had been spendingsome months of each winter in Florida. He had become interestedin and attached to Lake Helen which is near the east coast, a few milessouth of De Land. His brother, Captain Stephen P. Blake, had enteredhis employment in I87I, after leaving the sea. In the late eighties hewas approaching seventy and, with his son Ellis, was not entirely welLFeeling that the soft air of the Florida climate would benefit them both,Mr. Blake bought orang� groves in and near Lake Helen, to which hisbrother and nephew, with their families, moved in I888 and found thenew life in every way beneficial and profitable. Stephen spent theremainder of his life there, living till I9IO, his eighty-eighth year, andthe son continues to follow fruit culture with success. Captain Blakehad one other son, John Bidwell Blake, now a Chicago architect andengineer. Mr. Blake made considerable investments in orange grovesin and about Lake Helen, and for many years they gave him enjoyableemployment during his vacations, and the study of methods of fruit­growing and experimentation in fruit-culture gave him delightful mentalactivity.In addition to building the memorial church, his interest in LakeHelen led him to present to that little city a large public park-knownas Blake Park. And this also was only an expression of his nature.He could not long be identified with any place without enriching itWith his benefactions. No man could know him long and understand­ingly without having his life enriched by that affluent nature.In I903, after forty-five years of married life, Mr. Blake lost thewife of his youth. Mrs. Blake had survived her son, E. Nelson, jr.,180 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDten years. She was herself survived by her daughter, Mrs. H. H.Kohlsaat, and by her granddaughters Mrs. Potter Palmer, Jr., of Chicago, .and Mrs. Roger Shepard, of St. Paul. The children of Mrs. Palmer andMrs. Shepard give Mr. Blake seven great-grandchildren.On February 9, 1905, Mr. Blake married Miss Lucie A. Tucker,a woman, as Mr. Wood says,of charming personality and many accomplishments. During the sixteen years oftheir married life .... she has been a most devoted and inspiring helper. Herfather was a G. A. R. veteran and her sympathy with Mr. Blake's interest in the localPost and in his annual entertainment of the marchers on Memorial Day at "TheMaples "-their Massachusetts Avenue residence-has made it congenial to her tocontinue the same co-operation with her husband which was so earnestly given bythe former Mrs. Blake.The present Mrs. Blake is an accomplished musician and is gifted withan unusual voice for singing which has been finely cultivated. Mr.Blake being an exceptionally good reader, the gifts of one supplementthose of the other, and the two together have furnished many delightfulevenings of entertainment for their friends and others. Mrs. Blake hadbeen an oratorio singer and had sung in Boston, Baltimore, Providence,and other cities. Since 1903 she has given the Arlington church thebenefit of her musical gifts.I have already referred to the whole-hearted devotion of Mr. Blake'sreligious life. Perhaps I cannot justly bring this sketch to a closewithout speaking of one aspect of this faith and devotion to which Ihave not yet referred. With his zeal in and for practical Christianliving he combines an equal zeal for the purity of Christian doctrine.It may seem strange that a layman should take any deep interest indoctrinal discussions and tendencies. But it must be rememberedthat he has been for sixty years or more a teacher of Bible classes, someof them very large discussion classes, so that he necessarily became astudent of the Christian doctrines. He naturally came to have definiteand well-settled doctrinal views which he taught through so many yearsthat they came to be an essential part of his thinking. He was notlooking for a new theology. The old satisfied him. He did not likethe new terms that came into use to describe methods of Bible study.He feared that the young and unlearned would feel, perhaps instinctively,that" critical" study of the Bible must be inspired by a spirit of hostilecriticism. While he has had no fears as to the ultimate triumph of thetruth, he has feared that what was called the "historical" study ofthe Bible would lead many of the present generation astray. He maybe said to be a man of one book, the Bible; and few men, in or out ofE. NELSON BLAKE 181the schools, know it so well. He has indeed read much and is familiarwith good literature, but the Bible he has studied, and the more he hasstudied it, the more he has trusted and loved it. It is to him the veryword of God, revealing to men the way of salvation and the path ofduty. He does not, indeed, believe that intellectual assent to scripturaltruth, without a corresponding renewal of the heart and life, constitutereligion or make anyone a Christian. True religion is a matter of theheart and daily Christian living, the real dominance in the soul and lifeof the spirit of Jesus, but he who would grow up into the stature of thefulness of Christ must know and feed upon the truth which is revealed inthe Bible. The word of God is the word of life."The days of our years are three-score years and ten; and if byreason of strength they be four-score years, yet is their strength laborand sorrow; for it is soon cut off and we flyaway." True as thesewords are for most of those who live beyond seventy, Mr. Blake hasbeen the exception to the rule. With bodily strength almost unim­paired he passed seventy and then eighty. And then he went on strongtoward ninety with his mental powers undimmed and his physicalstrength only slowly giving way.On Wednesday, February 9, 1921, his relatives and other friendscelebrated at "The Maples," his residence, his ninetieth birthday. "Alarge number of relatives in the Wyman, the Crosby, the Wood, theRichardson, the Hurst, and the Hart families united in their joy that'Uncle Nelson' had been privileged to span these ninety years of sucha useful and active life with his mental forces bright and keen." Theday was pleasantly passed "amid a shower of congratulations by tele­graph, telephone, letters, and personal messages." Greetings andofferings of flowers were sent by the officers and employees of the Menot­omy Trust Company, the First Baptist Church, the Sunday school,and many friends. About a hundred and fifty greetings, congratula­tions, and good wishes were received through the mail. Many friendscalled, among them three members of his East Boston Sunday Schoolclass which he taught fifty-five years before. Mr. H. H. Kohlsaat,his son-in-law, went from New York to spend the day with him. Andso amid affectionate greetings and good wishes he passed the ninetiethmilestone in the journey of life, and started toward the hundredth.I would that the gratitude and good wishes of one, who, through thefifteen trying years of our educational struggle in Chicago, was encour­aged and helped by him so wonderfully in the days of his splendidactivity and power, could make him physically strong again for theten years that would carry him beyond the century mark.FRANK WAKELEY GUNSAULUSThe sudden death of Dr. Gunsaulus, President of the ArmourInstitute of Technology, in the early morning of March 17,1921, broughtgrief to every part of the country. I� the University his loss wasespecially felt. From its beginnings he had been its friend. He hadlent it his great influence in its earliest campaigns for funds. He hadoften served the University as University preacher, especially at theConvocation Religious Service, sometimes bringing with him his greatchoir from Central Church. From the first year of the University'shistory, he had often lectured before it on patriotic, aesthetic, and liter­ary subjects. For nine years he had been a Professorial Lecturer inPractical Theology in the Divinity Faculty. No speaker was morewelcome at the University than he.Dr. Gunsaulus served the University not only as lecturer andpreacher however; he delighted in making himself one of its patrons.He very early began to make it the object of his gifts, and after a timedetermined to limit these to manuscripts and rare and early printings,In 1912 he was instrumental in securing for the University the Butler­Gunsaulus collection of manuscripts, consisting chiefly of letters ofAmerican statesmen-Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and others. In1914 he gave to the University a fourteenth-century manuscript ofgreat beauty-Brocardus: Descriptio seu declaratio Terrae Sanctae. In1915 he presented the superb manuscript of Boccaccio: De GenealogiaDeorum-certainly one of the most notable manuscripts in America,which has already been made the subject of a number of publishedstudies by Professor Ernest Hatch Wilkins. About the same time Dr.Gunsaulus presented to the University thirty unusually fine specimensof the work of early presses, among them St. Augustine: De Civitate Dei,printed by Sweynheim and Pannartz, 1470; Cicero: De Officiis, Venice,1470, printed by Johann and Vendelin of Speier; Cyprianus: Epistolae,Rome, 1471, printed by Sweynheim and Pannartz; and the St. Alban'sChronicle, printed in 1483 by an unknown printer known as the OldSchoolmaster, this being one of the finest specimens of early Englishtypography in the possession' of any American library. In 1916 hisgifts included autograph letters of various American statesmen, afifteenth-century manuscript of the Sonnets of Petrarch, and furtherr82FRANK WAKELEY GUNSAULUSadditions to the collection of early printed books. In I9I7 he presentedto the Libraries an autograph letter of Mendelssohn and the proofsheets of the oratorio Elijah, with the corrections in the composer'shandwriting. About the same time he presented also a striking groupof incunabula comprising Carcanus, Quadragesimale, I487; Plutarch,Vitae Illustrium Virorum, I49I; and Poliziano, Opuscula, seven worksprinted chiefly at Florence during the years I485-92. His gifts for thatyear aggregated twenty-seven printed books and seven manuscripts,beside a number of autographed letters of Eugene Field.Dr. Gunsaulus' keen interest in developing this side of the Uni­versity's collections stirred his friends to similar interest. Among thevaluable gifts which have come to the University Library from others,'but for which Dr. Gunsaulus has been in part responsible, are the collec­tion of Napoleon relics, prints, and books collected by Erskine M.Phelps and presented to the University by Mrs. Phelps; a large numberof manuscripts and books of the Reformation Period, presented byMrs. Emma B. Hodge; and an early printing of Milton's ParadiseLost given by Miss Helen C. Gunsaulus.In these collections, in his portrait painted by Louis Betts andhanging in Hutchinson Hall, and in the affection of all of us who camein contact with him, Dr. Gunsaulus has his monuments at the Universityof Chicago.PROFESSOR EINSTEIN AT THEUNIVERSITYThrough the kind offices of Mr. Max Epstein, of Chicago, ProfessorAlbert Einstein, of the University of Berlin, was brought to the Uni­versity in May for a series of lectures on the Theory of Relativity withwhich his name is so widely associated. The lectures were given in LeonMandel Assembly Hall at 4:30 P.M. on May 3, 4, and 5, and were verylargely attended. The scientific faculties of institutions of learning inthe vicinity of Chicago were invited to attend, and there was a notablegathering of teachers of science at all the lectures. In the absence ofPresident Judson, Professor Einstein was introduced at the first lectureby Professor Rollin D. Salisbury, Dean of the Ogden Graduate Schoolof Science. Professor Einstein spoke in German with a simplicity andskill of presentation which were commented upon by many-amongothers, editorially, by the Chicago Evening Post.In preparation for Professor Einstein's lecture Associate ProfessorArthur C. Lunn gave an introductory sketch of Professor Einstein'stheory on the afternoon of May 2 in Kent Theater. A complimentarydinner in honor of Professor Einstein was given at the QuadrangleClub on Tuesday evening, May 3. On Friday, May 6, at the invitationof Professor Edwin B. Frost, Director of the Yerkes Observatory,Professor Einstein visited the Observatory at Williams Bay. The partyincluded Professor Pflueger, of Bonn, Dr. Ginsberg, of London, Pro­fessor Einstein's secretary, and Dr. Dempster and Dr. Lunn, of theUniversity of Chicago. Professor Einstein expressed the keenest inter­est in all that he saw at the Observatory. In the course of his visit aphotograph was taken of him and his party with the ObservatoryStaff gathered under the great forty-inch telescope.THE ONE HUNDRED TWENTIETHCONVOCATIONThe One Hundred Twentieth Convocation of the University ofChicago was held in Hutchinson Court at four o'clock on the afternoonof June 14. The whole Court was sheltered from the sun by a tent andawnings, and the candidates for degrees were placed directly in front ofthe platform. The Convocation Address was delivered by the HonorableFrank Orren Lowden, former governor of Illinois.After the conferring of degrees Professor Robert Andrews Millikanpresented Madame Marie Sklodowska �urie for the Honorary Degree ofDoctor of Science" on the ground of great achievement in radiology."In conferring the degree the President said:Marie Sklodowska Curie, Professor of Radiology at Warsaw and Professor ofScience in the University of Paris, scientist, discoverer, and author of internationalreputation, significant figure in the development of the new science of radioactivity,Nobel laureate both in 1903 and 19II, discoverer of the new elements polonium andradium; for these services and especially for the new insight which your discoverieshave given into the nature of matter, and the new stimulus which they have been tothe development of human thought, on nomination by the University Senate fordistinguished service in science, by authority of the Board of Trustees, I confer uponyou the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Science in the University of Chicago; in testi­mony of which I give you these symbols of the same. Cherish them as a loyal daughterof Alma Mater.Professor George Herbert Mead then presented President-electJames Rowland Angell of Yale University for the Honorary Degree ofDoctor of Laws" on the ground of eminent service in educational admin­istration." In conferring the degree President Judson said:James Rowland Angell, psychologist and administrator, twenty-five years amember of the Faculty of the University of Chicago, Dean of the Faculties of Arts,Literature, and Science, Acting President of the University in the absence of the Presi­dent from the country, Chairman of the National Research Council, President of theCarnegie Corporation, President-elect of Yale University, on nomination by theUniversity Senate for distinguished service in science and educational administra­tion, by authority of the Board of Trustees, I confer upon you the Honorary Degree ofDoctor of Laws in the University of Chicago; in testimony of which I give you thesesymbols of the same. Cherish them as a loyal son of Alma Mater.Professor Frederic Campbell Woodward then presented the Con­vocation Orator, former Governor Lowden for the Honorary Degree ofI8S186 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDDoctor of Laws" on the ground of exceptional public administration."In conferring the degree President Judson said:Frank Orren Lowden, former Trustee of the University of Chicago, lawyer.member of Congress, Governor of the Commonwealth of Illinois in war and peace,for distinguished service in public administration, and especially in unifying andmaking effective the administrative government of our state, on nomination by theUniversity Senate, by authority of the Board of Trustees, I confer upon you the Hon­orary Degree of Doctor of Laws in the University of Chicago, in testimony of whichI give you these symbols of the same. Cherish them as a loyal son of Alma Mater.After the conferring of the honorary degrees the President calledattention to the death since the last Convocation of Dr. Frank WakeleyGunsaulus, Professorial Lecturer in Practical Theology, and the audiencestood a few moments while the chimes in Mitchell Tower played Pleyel '5Hymn.The President then said:The University has been privileged today by the thoughtful words of a greatadministrator who is also a deep student of the science of government. In conferringon him our highest degree the University welcomes to its fellowship one whom all truecitizens of Illinois and all true Americans delight to honor.We also gladly receive as an honorary alumnus our former colleague and ourfriend, who in becoming president of a famous university has joined "the noble armyof martyrs." He can be assured of the martyr's crown, but with it or without it, hehas our cordial best wishes.The dear woman from Paris, daughter of Poland and of France, has been indeeda handmaid of science. Her achievements are of inestimable worth and we trust thatthe long years to come with her may be fruitful in new revelations of truth. In theclash of selfish interests which make up so much of the visible world, the quiet pursuitof science is like" the shadow of a great rock in a weary land." We are honored inhonoring her.The award of honors was as follows: Honorable Mention forexcellence in the work of the Junior Colleges: Helena Flexner Baldauf,Theodore Charles Bartholomae, Norman Wood Beck, Mary Ann Benson,Samuel Moses Berg, Elizabeth Donald Bowen, Ruth Pauline Bowra,Isadore Bronstein, Donald Grobe Brower, James Leininger Browning,Louis Boydston Butterfield, Charles Wendell Carnahan, Stella MarieCoesfeld, Aaron Cohn, Louise Margaret Comstock, Warren Alvin Culp,Emma Virginia Delaney, Jeanette Mae Dickerson, Arthur Dinwiddie,Clara Louise Doerr, Norman Lawrence Ellison, Katherine Ensminger,Louise Fletcher, Louis Barkhouse Flexner, William Jacob Friedman,Myron Sidney Gutman, Livingston Hall, John Peter Harris, NathanHarrison, Eunice May Hill, Henry David Hirsch, Eleanor Emma Hirsh,THE ONE HUNDRED TWENTIETH CONVOCATION 187Walter Frederick Hoeppner, Dorothy Sophia Barbara Hoffmann, AlverEugene Holmes, Clyde Homan, James Leverett Homire, Granville HurnHoward, Helen Carolyn Howard, Reuben Hurwitz, Willard Albert John­ston, James Carl Kamplain, Louis Kartoon, Thomas Donald Keckich,Priscilla Mary Kinsman, Olive Mary Koch, Harold Korogodsky, JaunitaHazel Kramer, Alice Louise Larson, Everett Jacob Lewis, Thomas HobbsLong, Helen Caroline Mang,Agnes M. Montgomerie, Earl Edward Myers,Myron Isidor Myers, Edward Arthur Nudelman, Edgar Henry Palmer,Meyer Aaron Perlstein, Kenneth Phillips, Alma Helen Prucha, Marie AnnaPrucha, Adolph Joseph Radosta, Edward Hess Rakow, Edward FlandersRicketts, Irene Roberts, Pearl Louise Robertson, Max Sherman, ArthurWeston Small, Doris Mahala Strail, William Palmer Taylor, Jae RussellWard, Signe Margot Wennerblad, Virginia Wheeler, Ethel Oleta Wood­ring, David Ziskind. Honorable Mention for excellence in the work lead­ing to the Certifica te of the College of Ed uca tion: Louise Wilhilmina Pu tzke.Scholarships in the Senior Colleges for excellence in the Junior Colleges:Mary Ann Benson, Botany; Samuel Moses Berg, Mathematics; LauraElizabeth Bodebender, Greek; Thomas Carlin, German; Richard Hamil­ton Eliel, English; Benjamin Benjamin Garbovitz, Latin; James CarlKamplain, Physics; Merritt Johnson Little, Political Science; EdwardGowan Lunn, Chemistry; Catherine Adams Moore, Sociology; EdwardArthur Nudelman, French (half scholarship); Alma Helen Prucha,French (half scholarship); Pearl Louise Robertson, History; VirginiaWheeler, Geography; Royal Robert Ziv, Political Economy. The JosephTriner Scholarship in Chemistry: Bohumil Foucek. The Julius Rosen­wald Prizes for excellence in Oratory: Royal Ewert Montgomery, first;David Robertson Watson, second. The Florence James Adams Prizesfor excellence in Artistic Reading: Theodore Rosenak, first; RuthMorgan Trice, second. The Milo P. Jewett Prize for excellence in BibleReading: Lucy Whitney Markley. The David Blair McLaughlinPrize for excellence in the Writing of English Prose: Samuel Marmor.The Wig and Robe Prize for excellence in the work of the first two yearsin the Law School: George Kenney Bowden. The Conference Medalfor excellence in Athletics and Scholarship: Harold Lewis Hanisch.Scholarships in the Senior Colleges for excellence in the work of the firstthree years of the College Course: Charles Albert Beckwith, Chemistry;Maurice Louis Cohen, Mathematics; Benjamin Burton Cox, Geology(half scholarship); Stanley Dodge, Geography; Alexander Carstairs Find­lay, Physics; Richard Foster Flint Geology (half scholarship); PercivalTaylor Gates, Botany; John Joseph Gunther, English; Amy Marjorie188 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDGustafson, History; Emanuel Henry Hildebrandt, German; Allan Tits­worth Kenyon, Psychology; Harold Dwight Lasswell, Political Science;Charles Ernest Lee, Sociology; George Helenus Lusk, Philosophy.The Bachelor's Degree conferred with Honors: George WilliamAdams, Sandford Ellsworth Allerton, Erik Andersen, Arthur Anderson,Anna Baker, Howard Kennedy Beale, Isaac Bencowitz, Herbert FrankBinswanger, Levi Vernon Bowyer, Merrick Roblee Breck, Ruth JohnstonBrowne, Katherine Elizabeth Clark, Frances D'Andrea, Alfred Dia­mond, Irma Eareckson, Margery Alice Ellis, Alta Evans, Lewis LathropFisher, Emmeline Fricke, John Gifford, Mary Amanda Gingrich, KennethHancock Goode, Katharine Seymour Greene, Joseph Bates Hall, FloraMabel Hammitt, Arthur Henry Hansen, Dorothea Marguerite Harjes,Ruth Miriam Harris, Elinor Guthrie Hayes, Carl Olof Nathaniel Hedeen,Vincent Jerome Hefferman, Ben Herzberg, Harald Groth Oxholm Holck,Emily Josephine Hollowell, Dorothy Evelynne Huebner, Harry VictorHume, Francis Arthur Jenkins, Dora Kirschenbaum, Harold LeoKlawans, Minnie Katheryn Kline, Sadie Lindenbaum, Mary ElizabethLink, Hannah Logasa, Frederick Carl Edmund Lundgren, Leila LorettoLydon, Hazel Matilda Mattick, Anne Laura Milburn, Renwick HoustonMitten, Royal Ewart Montgomery, Emily Elizabeth Moore, CharlotteEugenia Murray, Charlotte McCarthy, Martha Jane McCoy, LouiseMacNeal, Harold Elliott Nicely, Rae Preece, Jess Shelton Raban,Walter Cade Reckless, Irving Carey Reynolds, Elizabeth Eleanor MadoxRoberts, Towner Bowditch Root, Ben Bell Rosen, Jose K. Santos,Sydney Kaufman Schiff, Lloyd Schmiedeskamp, Mary Agatha Scott,Edith Elizabeth Shepherd, Edith Porter Shepherd, Miriam EleanorSimons, Ralph Laverne Small, Mary Lillian Stevenson, JosephineMarguerite Strode, Mary Caroline Taylor, Enid Townley, MargaretAdele Turner, William John Vynalek, Judith Ingeborg CarleveaWallen, Zok Tsung Wang, Margaret Jane Wright, Arnold LewisYates. Honors for excellence in particular departments of the SeniorColleges: Sandford Ellsworth Allerton, History; Erik Andersen,Physics and Mathematics; Arthur Anderson, Law; Howard KennedyBeale, History; Howard Kennedy Beale, English; Isaac Bencowitz,Chemistry; David Samuel Cole, Geology; Frances D'Andrea, Mathe­matics; Alfred Diamond, Chemistry; Irma Eareckson, English; MargeryAlice Ellis, Romance; Rosina Frances Forch, French; Emmeline Fricke,German; Emmeline Fricke, English; John Gifford, Political Economy;Kenneth Hancock Goode, Chemistry; Joseph Bates Hall, PoliticalEconomy; Flora Mabel Hammitt, Romance; Laurentza Schantz Hansen,THE ONE HUNDRED TWENTIETH CONVOCATION 189Home Economics; Dorothea Marguerite Harjes, German; VincentJerome Hefferman, Laso; Ben Herzberg, Geology; Karl Hesley, Education;Harald Groth Oxholm Holck, Chemistry; Emily Josephine Hollowell,Romance; Dorothy Evelynne Huebner, Botany; Harry Victor Hume,Chemistry; Francis Arthur Jenkins, Chemistry; Dora Kirschenbaum,Chemistry; Harold Leo Klawans, Anatomy and Physiology; MaryElizabeth Link, English; Hannah Logasa, General Literature; LeilaLoretto Lydon, History; Anne Laura Milburn, History; CharlotteEugenia Murray, French; Martha Jane McCoy, English; Lois Olson,Geography; Vera Esther Pence, History; Rae Preece, Geology; FaithPrentice, Spanish; Walter Cade Reckless, History and Political Economy;Walter Cade Reckless, Sociology; Irving Carey Reynolds, PoliticalEconomy; Elizabeth Eleanor Madox Roberts, English; Towner Bow­ditch Root, Geology; Ben Bell Rosen, Chemistry; Ben Bell Rosen,Physics and Mathematics; Jose K. Santos, Botany; Sydney KaufmanSchiff, Law; Sydney Kaufman Schiff, History; Lloyd Schmiedeskamp,Chemistry; Lloyd Schmiedeskamp, Physics and Mathematics; MartinWilliam Schultz, History; Mary Agatha Scott, German; Edith PorterShepherd, English; Miriam Eleanor Simons, English, Ralph LaverneSmall, Physics; Mary Lillian Stevenson, Home Economics and House­hold Art; Josephine Marguerite Strode, English; Josephine MargueriteStrode, Sociology; Mary Caroline Taylor, Physics; Enid Townley,Geology; Enid Townley, French; King Sin Wang, Philosophy; MargaretJane Wright, History; Arnold Lewis Yates, Chemistry; Arnold LewisYates, Physics. Scholarships in the Graduate Schools for excellencein the work of the Senior Colleges: Erik Andersen, Physics; HowardKennedy Beale, English; Harry Wesley Cartwright, Latin; KennethHancock Goode, Chemistry; William Herbert Grant, French; HaraldGroth Oxholm Holck, Anatomy; Nancy Jackson, Sociology; HermanKurz, Botany; Royal Ewert Montgomery, Political Economy; RaePreece, Geology; Walter Cade Reckless, History. Election to theChicago Chapter of the Order of the Coif on nomination by the Facultyof the Law School for high distinction in the professional work of theLaw School: George Kenney Bowden, Chester Emery Cleveland, Jr.,Louis Samuel Hardin, Bernard Nath, Samuel Watkins Overton, Benja­min Rothbaum, Harry Nathaniel Weinberg. Election as associate mem ..bers to Sigma Xi on nomination of two Departments of Science for evidence of promise of ability in research work in Science: Nathaniel JohnBeaber, Rachel Fuller Brown, Benjamin Burton Cox, Donald J. Munroe,Rae Preece, Towner Bowditch Root, Ben Bell Rosen, Jose K. Santos,THE UNIVERSITY RECORDLloyd Schmiedeskamp, Alfred Walter Simon, Mary Caroline Taylor,Walter Elsworth Wynne; election of members to Sigma Xi: Alice AllenBailey, John Herbert Beaumont, Sara Elizabeth Branham, ClarenceFrank Gunsaulus Brown, Harriett Huldah Fillinger, Mont RobertsonGabbert, Noel Paul Hudson, Sumner Albert Ives, Herman Kurz, PatsyHughes Lupo, Benjamin Tell Nelson, Louisa Ella Rhine, John JosephZavertnik. Election of members to the Beta of Illinois Chapter of PhiBeta Kappa: George William Adams, Erik Andersen (September, '20),Louise Bonstedt Apt, Foster King Ballard, Howard Kennedy Beale,Isaac Bencowitz, Frances Elaine Crozier, Frances D'Andrea, RichardFoster Flint, Emmeline Fricke (September, '20), Percival Taylor Gates,Kenneth Hancock Goode, Amy Marjorie Gustafson, Joseph Bates Hall,Flora Mabel Hammitt, Wilbur Jackson Hatch, Elinor Guthrie Hayes, BenHerzberg (December, '19), Harald Groth Oxholm Holck (September, ' 20)Dorothy Evelyn Huebner (June, '20), Harry Victor Hume, Harold LeoKlawans (March, '20), Harold Dwight Lasswell, Sadie Lindenbaum(December, '20), Mary Elizabeth Link (June, '20), Hannah Logasa,Leila Loretto Lydon, Charles James Merriam, George Dewey Mills,Charlotte Eugenia Murray, Martha Jane McCoy (March, '21),Harold Elliott Nicely (J une, ' 20), Marie Vivian Niergarth, HarryNevins Omer, Valeska Pfeiffer, Jean Montgomery Pickett, RaePreece, Walter Cade Reckless (June, '20), Irving Carey Reynolds,Richard Biddle Richter, Elizabeth Eleanor Madox Roberts, SydneyKaufman Schiff (June, '20), Lloyd Schmiedeskamp, Miriam EleanorSimons, Ralph Laverne Small, Mary Lillian Stevenson (June, '20),Josephine Marguerite Strode, Dorothy Victoria Sugden, Mary Caro­line Taylor, Sarah Sheldon Tower, Enid Townley, William John Vynalek,Zok Tsung Wang (March, '21), Adelaide Marie Werner, ArnoldLewis Yates. The Howard Taylor Ricketts Prize for research inPathology: Louis Leiter. The National Research Fellowships in Physics,provided by the Rockefeller Foundation: Leonard Benedict Loeb, JohnPreston Minton. The National Research Fellowship in Chemistry,provided by the Rockefeller Foundation: George Lindenburg Clark.Degrees were conferred as follows: The Colleges: Bachelor of Arts, 4;Bachelor of Philosophy, 185; Bachelor of Science, l03; Bachelor ofPhilosophy in Education, 45; Bachelor of Science in Education, I;Bachelor of Philosophy in Commerce and Administration, 39; Bachelorof Philosophy in Social Service Administration, 4; The Divinity School:Master of Arts, IS; Bachelor of Divinity, I; Doctor of Philosophy, I;The Law School: Bachelor of Laws, II; Doctor of Law, 41; TheTHE ONE HUNDRED TWENTIETH CONVOCATION I9IGraduate Schools of Arts, Literature, and Science: Master of Arts, 30;Master of Science, 30; Doctor of Philosophy, 26. The total numberof degrees conferred was 536.During the academic year I920-2I the following certificates anddegrees have been conferred:The Certificate of the Two Year's Course in the College of Education 25The Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Philosophy, or Science. . . . . . . . . . .. 639The Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Philosophy, or Science, in Education I02The Degree of Bachelor of Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. I6The Degree of Master of Arts in the Divinity School. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 34The Degree of Master of Arts or Science in the Graduate Schools. . .. I79The Degree of Bachelor of Divinity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. IOThe Degree of Doctor of Law (J.D.) .. · · . . .. 55The Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Divinity School. . . . . . . . . 2The Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate Schools 74The Convocation Prayer Service was held in Harper Assembly Roomon Sunday morning, June I2, at IO:30 A.M. The Convocation ReligiousService was held in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall at I I : 00. The sermonwas preached by the Reverend Clarence A. Barbour, D.D., President ofRochester Theological Seminary,The Convocation Reception was held on Monday evening, JuneI3, in the Mandel cloister and Hutchinson Court. The receiving lineconsisted of President and Mrs. Harry Pratt Judson, former GovernorFrank Orren Lowden, and Mrs. James Rowland Angell.The Beta of illinois Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa held its annual meetingat 5:00 P.M. June 6 at the Quadrangle Club. After dinner at six o'clock,addresses were made by Professor John Merle Coulter on "The Relationof Food Production to American Progress," and Professor Charles E.Merriam on "Pressing Problems in American Government." Thefollowing officers were elected: president, Professor Herbert EllsworthSlaught; vice-president, Dr. Katherine Blunt; secretary, Dr. EsmondRay Long.The Alumni Reunion on Friday and Saturday, June II and I2, was anotable success. In spite of threatening weather Hutchinson Courton Friday night was crowded with people for the University Sing, whichmaintained its high tradition as a distinctive University celebration.The Alumni Committee had secured the use of University Avenuebetween Fifty-seventh and Fifty-eighth streets for an open-air danceimmediately after the Sing and decorated it with canvas umbrellas, smallTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDtables, and colored lights. Until twelve o'clock it was thronged withstudents, alumni, and their friends, The Alumnae Breakfast took placeat Ida Noyes Hall at eleven-thirty on Saturday morning. A greatparade of floats and classes in costume from Ida Noyes Hall to the standin Stagg Field began the afternoon festivities. A detachment of theUniversity artillery company led the procession, escorting the Presidentof the University and the Japanese Consul. Two members of the classof '62 led the alumni of the Old University. The more recent classeswere distinguished by striking class costumes. A very clever andinteresting series of floats provided by the fraternities, halls, and otherorganizations of the University followed. The procession was reviewedon Stagg Field by President Judson, and the judges awarded the prizefor the best float to the Chinese Club.The President then presented a maroon banner suitably inscribedto Professor Abe who brought the Waseda University team to thiscountry and Mr. Stagg presented souvenirs to each member of the team.The third game of the Waseda-Chicago series followed and was wonby Chicago 7-5. Immediately after the game the members of thechampion Chicago team of 1896 played a few innings with the Universityteam to the great enjoyment of the great throng of alumni whose tentsand canvas umbrellas filled the south end of the field. It is a note­worthy fact that at the "C" Dinner on Thursday night all the membersof the '96 team except Mr. George Sawyer were present.The Alumni Picnic was held in Stagg Field at 6:00 P.M. and in theevening a circus arranged by the Undergraduate Committee broughtthe Alumni celebration to an end.EVENTS: PAST AND FUTUREGENERAL ITEMSThe U niversi ty Preachers for theSpring Quarter were: April 3, DeanWilliam Wallace Fenn, S.T.D., HarvardDivinity School, Cambridge, Massachu­setts; April 10, Dean Fenn; April 17,the Reverend Lynn Harold Hough, D.D.,Central Methodist Episcopal Church,Detroit, Michigan; April 24, Dr. Hough;May I, Professor Harry Emerson Fos­dick, D.D., Union Theological Seminary,New York City; May 8, Dean CharlesR. Brown, D.D., LL.D., Yale DivinitySchool, New Haven, Connecticut; May15, the Reverend Cornelius Woelfkin,D.D., LL.D., Fifth Avenue BaptistChurch, New York City; May 22, Dr.Woelfkin; May 29, the Reverend Fred­eric W. Perkins, D.D., First Church,Lynn, Massachusetts ; June 5, the Rever­end John Kelman, D.D., Fifth AvenuePresbyterian Church, New York City;June 12, President Clarence A. Barbour,D.D., Rochester Theological Seminary,Rochester, New York.Professor Theodore Gerald Soaresgave the Library Foundation Lecturesat Haverford College on February 10 andII on "The Social Expression of Reli­gion." He preached at Bryn MawrCollege on February 13.On April 14, Louis Untermeyer, poetand critic, lectured in Mandel Hall on theWilliam Vaughn Moody Foundation on"The New Era in American Poetry."Dr. Ralph B. Seem left the U niver­si ty in the latter part of April to takecharge of the Peking Union MedicalCollege Hospital. As superintendent,Dr. Seem will open the Hospital and par­ticipate in shaping the organization ofthe institution. The hospital, medicalschool, and premedical school buildings,along with the quarters for the faculty,have been built by the Rockefeller Foun­dation at a cost of about $7,000,000. Itwas expected that the hospital would beready by the first of July and that theformal opening of the college will take place in September. Dr. Seem has beenreleased by the University authorities forapproximately one year for this service.Mr. Jay Hambidge, author ofDynamic Symmetry in Greek Vases gavean illustrated lecture before the Renais­sance Society of the University, April 19,on the application of his theory to Greektemples. Mr. Hambidge has just re­turned from Greece, where he was sentby Yale University to examine the princi­pal temples, and if possible to discovertheir plans. His efforts were entirelysuccessful and of great significance forthe theory with which his name is associ­ated. Mr. Hambidge spoke particularlyof the two great temples by the architectIctinus, the Parthenon at Athens, and thetemple of Apollo at Bassae, showing thelight these buildings throw upon histheory of the essential proportions ofGreek art."Following the Trail of Our EarliestAncestors" was the subject of an illus­trated address before the American Philo­sophical Society on April 22 in the hallof the Historical-Society of Pennsylvania,in Philadelphia, by Dr . James HenryBreasted, Director of the Oriental Insti­tute of the University.Professor E. Baldwin Smith, ofPrinceton University, gave a series oflectures in Harper Assembly Room underthe auspices of the Renaissance Society,April 26-29, on "Italian Sculpture."Professor Franz Cumont, the famousBelgian scholar and authority on orientalreligions in the Roman Empire, gave alecture on the Haskell F ounda tion at theUniversity, April 28, on "The Revival ofthe Belief in Immortality under theRoman Emperors."On May I, the University of Chi­cago Press published a notable newGeography of Illinois, by Douglas C.Ridgley, with 240 illustrations and ninecolored maps. I t is the first volume in193194 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDthe series of " Regional Geographies ofthe United States," the editor of which isProfessor J. Paul Goode, of the Depart­ment of Geography.At the Thirty-third EducationalConference held at the University onThursday and Friday, May 5 and 6,1921,about 1,900 persons were in attendance.Three hundred fifty high-school studentstook the competitive examinations. Theattendance was the largest in the historyof these educational conferences.J. Fred Rippy, Instructor in History,recently contributed an article on "TheNegro and the Spanish Pioneers in theNew World," to the Journal of NegroHistory, Vol. VI, No. 2 (April, 1921),PP·183-89·J. Holland Rose, Litt.D., professorof history in Cambridge University,England, began on May 2 at the Univer­sity a series of lectures on "The GreatWar." He discussed "The Armamentsand Alliances" in the first lecture; "TheRupture of July," May 3; "The War inthe East and Its Results," May 4; and"The Analogy of 1803-15 and 1914-18,"May 6.On May 5, the hundredth anniver­sary of the death of Napoleon, ProfessorRose gave a lecture on "Napoleon," onthe William Vaughn Moody Foundation.He is a recognized authority on this sub­ject, having written a Life of Napoleon,Napoleonic Studies, and The Personality ofNapoleon. The Napoleon Room in theHarper Memorial Library, containing theErskine M. Phelps collection of picturesand souvenirs of Napoleon, was open onthe afternoon of May 5.The brilliant author of The Principlesand Progress of English Poetry and ofShakspere and the Founder of AmericanLiberty, Charles Mills Gayley, professorof English and recently dean in the Uni­versity of California, gave a public lectureat the University, May 9, on "TheEnglish Poetry of the War." ProfessorGayley was formerly connected with theUniversity of Michigan and wrote itsuniversity song, "The Yellow and Blue.""New Factors in World-Problems"was the general subject of three lectureson the William Vaughn Moody Founda- tion given May 10, II, and 12 at theUniversity by Dr. Edwin Emery Slosson,editor of Science Service and formerlymanaging editor of the Independent.Dr. Slosson, the versatile authorof Creative Chemistry, discussed in thefirst lecture "The Sinking Foundation ofCivilization"; in the second "The Shift­ing Map of the World"; and in the third"The Changing Mind of Man." Dr.Slosson who received his Doctor's degreefrom the University, gave a notable PhiBeta Kappa address at the University ayear ago.At the exercises in honor of MadameCurie held in the National Museum atWashington on the evening of May 20,1921, Professor Robert Andrews Millikan,of the U niversi ty , gave an address uponthe significance of the discovery of ra­dium, in the course of which he presentedbefore the audience various experimentswith the gram of radium which had beenpresented tha t afternoon to MadameCurie by President Harding, one of whichconsisted in discharging an electroscopeby the Gamma Rays from it after theyhad passed through more than half aninch of lead.The remarkable collection of orientalantiquities recently brought back fromEgypt and Western Asia by the first expe­dition of the Oriental Institute of theUniversity of Chicago was exhibited forthe first time to members and friends ofthe Rennaissance Society of the U niver­sity in Haskell Museum on the evening ofMay 20. The exhibition was precededby a lecture in Haskell Assembly Roomby Professor James Henry Breasted, thedirector of the expedition, who discussedthe more important monuments withlantern-slides. The exhibition continuedfor two .. weeks. I t included many royalmonuments of stone, rare mortuarystatuettes, and relief sculptures; exten­sive series of carved stone vases (fourthmillennium B.C.), the Timins collectionof alabasters, the well-known Timins col­lection of prehistoric stone implements;wooden furniture, statues, and tombequipment, magnificent series of bronzes,weapons, glazed ware, earliest knownglass vases, papyrus manuscripts, includ­ing the new Papyrus Ryerson and Pa­pyrus Milbank, and many cuneiformdocuments, including the Royal Annalsof Sennacherib.EVENTS: PAST AND FUTUREProfessor Wilhelm Stekel, of Vienna,formerly editor of the Centralblatt furPsychoanalyse, lectured in Harper Assem­bly Room, Wednesday, May 25, on"Psychoanalysis, Its Limitations andAbuses."The former vice-president of theDante League of America, ProfessorErnest Hatch Wilkins, of the Departmentof Romance Languages and Literaturesat the University gave an illustratedlecture on "The Early Portraits ofDante" before the Renaissance Societyof the University on May 26.The campaign undertaken in Mayby the University students for Near EastRelief and China Famine Relief resultedin cash and pledges for the N ear EastRelief of $1,584.00 and for the ChinaFamine Fund of $1,739.85, making agrand total of $3,323.85. Mr. M. GlennHarding was chairman of the studentcommittee.In honor of the seventieth brithdayof Dr. Emil G. Hirsch, rabbi of SinaiCongregation, Chicago, the Reform Advo­cate for May 21, 1921, was made an anni­versary number and given up to tributesto Dr. Hirsch from his great circle offriends and admirers. Dr. Hirsch hasserved the University since its foundation,as Professor of Rabbinical Literature andPhilosophy.Mr. Winfred E. Garrison, Ph.D.,1897, has been appointed Dean of theDisciples' Divinity House and enteredupon his duties in the Spring Quarter.The Kappa Mu Sigma organizationof graduate women students in chemistry,named in honor of Mme Curie, raised atotal of $215.25 for the Curie RadiumFund.Rudolph Altrocchi, Assistant Pro­fessor of Romance Languages in the U ni­versity, has contributed an article on"D' Annunzio's Latest Dramatic Exploit"to the May number of The Drama. Inthe June number, Mr. Altrocchi writeson "The Scoffer: a new Italian Success, "discussing Bersini's Il Beffardo.Professor William P. Harkins, of theDepartment of Chemistry, was elected amember of the National Academy of Sci- I95ences at its recent meeting in Washing­ton, D.C.The University of Chicago Press hasannounced the names of the successful'competitors in the Press Prize Contest.The first prize of $25 has been awarded toEsther Louise Ruble, who is a student inthe School of Education, and the secondto Mr. Carroll L. Fenton, a student in theSenior College of the University. Thecontest was for the best paper of not morethan 3,000 words on the subject, "ThePlace of the University Press in ModernEducation. " The judges were ProfessorGordon J. Laing, Chairman of the LatinDepartment, who is also general editorof the University Press, and J. SpencerDickerson, Secretary of the Board ofTrustees.The International Institute of Soci­ology has announced the election, asassociate, of Scott E. W. Bedford,Associate Professor of Sociology in theUniversity. Professor Bedford has beenfor ten years secretary-treasurer ofthe American Sociological Society andfor the same time managing editor ofits Publications. For six months he wasdevelopment expert in general educationfor the War Department, with head ..quarters at Camp Grant, where he pre­pared the general course for soldiers incivics and citizenship. He is now con­sulting specialist in the Education andRecreation Branch of the War Depart­ment, Eastern Division.The Albert Medal of the RoyalSociety of Arts was recently presented toProfessor Albert A. Michelson, Head ofthe Department of Physics at the Univer­sity, for his discovery of a natural constantwhich has provided a basis for a standardlength. "The award was made last year,but the actual presentation was deferreduntil Professor Michelson could go toEngland to receive it. The honorarydegree of Doctor of Science was recentlyconferred on Professor Michelson by theUniversity of Dublin. During the SpringQuarter he has been acting as exchangeprofessor at the University of Paris,where he lectured on the general sub­ject of "Physics," with special considera­tion of the uses of the interferometer.Under the auspices of the CommerceClub at the University, the first numberI96 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDof Commerce and Administration hasappeared, with a remarkable list of �on­tributors, including President Harding,Secretary Hoover, Mr. Roger W. Babson,the statistician, Mr. Charles Piez, formermanager of the Emergency Fleet Cor­poration and Dean Leon C. Marshall, ofthe School of Commerce and Administra­tion. The purpose of the new mont�lyis to promote harmony and co-operationbetween business and collegiate businesstraining. The editor-in-chief is Frank H.Anderson, and the managing editor,Harold Noyes.In recognition of the successfullaboratory research accomplished byDr. Esmond R. Long, of the Departmentof Pathology at the University, on "TheFundamental Problems in the Nutritionof the Tubercle Bacillus," the NationalTuberculosis Association with headquar­ters in New York, has appropriated$4,000 for the further prosecution by Dr.Long of this important work. Dr. Longwas asked to present a paper on the workaccomplished up to the present time atthe meeting of the National Associationon June 17 in New York City. Dr. Longreceived both his Bachelor's and his Doc­tor's degree from the University.The Chinese Students' Alliance inAmerica recently appointed a specialcommittee of five members, all of themstudents in the University of Chicago, toarrange a campaign among the Chinesestudents in America for the ChinaFamine Relief, and has raised about$14,000.Mr. W. E. Wrather, of Dallas, Texas,a graduate of the University, class of1908, has given to the University tenacres of land in Missouri for the use ofthe Department of Geology. In additionto the land he is providing for the con­struction of a building to house studentswhile engaged in studies in this section,which is regarded as particularly suitedto geological investigation.The University baseball team playedfifteen games in the course of the SpringQuarter, from April 23 to June II, asfollows: Illinois 2-8; Northwestern5-0; Wisconsin 1-7; Ohio State 5-20;Michigan 6-7; Waseda 4-2; Illinois1-10; Purdue 1-2; Waseda 7-8; Michigan 3- I I ;Wisconsin 0-12;7-4; Waseda 7-5· Northwestern 9-10;Purdue 13-12; IowaWilliam Romaine Newbold, pro­fessor of philosophy in the Universityof Pennsylvania, gave an illustrated lec­ture at the University on June 3, his sub­ject being "The Decipherment of theRoger Bacon Manuscript. " His results,previously presented before the College ofPhysicians and Surgeons in Philadelphiaand the American Philosophical Society,were of great interest both to men ofscience and to men of letters.Dr. Harold Glenn Moulton, Associ­ate Professor of Political Economy in theUniversity, has been appointed a delegateto the first meeting of the InternationalAssociation of Commerce held in Londonfrom June 27 to July 2. The object ofthe meeting is to consider the problemsof international financial and economicreadjustment.Professor Moulton has also acceptedan invitation to give courses at ColumbiaUniversity during its summer session andwill lecture on "Unsettled Problems ofFinancial Organization" aIld "BankingPractice. "Ernest DeWitt Burton, Director ofthe University Libraries and Head of theDepartment of New Testament and EarlyChristian Literature at the University,has been granted leave of absence for sixmonths to act as chairman of a Com­mission on Christian Education in China.The Commission, which is sent by theForeign Missions Conference of NorthAmerica, is to make a thorough study ofChristian education as it has beendeveloped in China and to make sug­gestions as to future educational policies.Professor Burton is already familiar witheducational conditions in China, havingbeen a member of the Oriental Educa­tional Investigation Commission sent outseveral years ago by the University ofChicago.The Commission will include fivepersons from the United States and onefrom England, and on the arrival of thesesix in China, six more will be added fromthat country. Of the latter six, threewill be Chinese, and three Americanresidents in the country. The enterpriseis expected to have significance not onlyEVENTS: PAST AND FUTUREfor the development of Christian institu­tions in China, but for the cultivation ofdesirable relations between the UnitedStates and oriental nations.The Commission sails from Van­couver August 18 and will be gone fromthe United States about six months.At the annual meeting of the Renais­sance Society, held June 9, in IdaNoyes Hall, the following officers were 197elected for the year �9ZI-Z2: president,Mr. David Allan Robertson; vice­presidents, Mr. Lorado Taft, Mr. JamesSpencer Dickerson, Miss Elizabeth Wal­lace, Mr. James H. Breasted, Mrs. PaulShorey; secretary, Mr. Ludlow S.Bull; treasurer, Mrs. Edward O. Jordan;executive committee: Miss Lucy Dris­coll, Mr. Edgar J. Goodspeed, Mr.William G. Whitford, Mr. James West­fall Thompson, Mr. Benjamin March.ATTENDANCE IN SPRING QUARTER 19211921 1920Gain LossMen Women Total Men Women Total--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---I. ARTS, LITERATURE, AND SCIENCE:I. Graduate Schools-Arts, Literature .....••.... 187 145 332 2I2 184 396 ...... 64Science ................... 261 86 347 248 75 323 24--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---Total ..............•. 448 231 679 460 259 719 402. The Colleges-Senior .................... 635 481 I,lI6 573 461 1,034 82Junior ................... 696 513 1,209 732 501 1,233 24Unclassified ..........•..•. 39 41 80 57 46 103 23--- --- _"_- --- --- --- --- ---Total ................ 1,370 1,035 2,405 1,362 1,008 2,370 35Total Arts, Literature,and Science ...•••... 1,818 1,266 3,084 1,822 1,267 3,089 5II. PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS:I. Divinity School-Graduate ...•..•...•....•. III 21 132 97 13 110 22Unclassified ............... 6 9 15 II 8 19 4Chicago Theological ....•.. 20 6 26 23 9 32 6--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---Total .••.•..•...•.•.. 137 36 173 131 30 161 12*2. Medicine-Graduate .•.•.•....••..... 85 25 lIO 73 20 93 17Senior ...........•..•..... 122 14 136 II2 14 126 10Junior ............•...... ... '6· I IUnclassified ............... 4 8 8--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---Total ...•....•....... 2II 41 252 194 34 228 243. Law School-Graduate .......••.. � ..... 142 4 146 II6 6 122 24*Senior ..............••.... 54 I 55 56 56 ICandidates for LL.B ....... 76 77 83 3 86 9Unclassified ...••••••.•••.. I--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---Total .......•••.••••• 273 6 279 255 9 264 154. College of Education ......... 17 181 198 17 193 210 125. School of Commerce and Ad-ministration-Graduate .........•..•.... 26 3 29 ° ° °Senior .....•.•.. " •...•.... 166 34 200Junior ... " ••...•..•.••... 267 43 310Unclassified. " " •••• " . " •••.. 29 I 30 . '386. . "68··Total .............•.. 488 81 569 II5 5016. Graduate School of SocialServ-ice Administration .••.••. 6 42 48 48--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---Total Professional .•••. 1,132 387 1,519 983 381 1,364 155--- _-- --- --- --- --- --- ---Total University •••••. 2,950 1,653 4,603 2,805 1,648 4,453 150--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---*Deduct for Duplication ..•••. 271 45 316 255 37 292 ...... ......--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---Net Totals in .. Quadrangles ...•.•••.•••. 2,679 1,608 4,287 2,550 1,6II 4,161 126University College •.•••••••.. 223 741 964 213 806 1,019 55--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---Totals in the University 2,902 2,349 5,251 2,763 �,417 5,180 71198