GUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIFTTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDVOLUME VII APRIL 1921 NUMBER 2FREE SPEECH IN WAR TIMEIBy JAMES PARKER HALL"Free Speech" is a very large and formidable title for an afternoontalk to a gathering of friends such as compose a Convocation audiencein March. But I pray you not to be disturbed. I shall neither try tocover the entire subject after the fashion of H. G. Wells, striding withseven-league boots from mountain top to mountain top of controversy,nor shall I emulate our aspiring candidates for the doctorate of philosophyby sifting exceeding fine all of the soil in some tiny garden plot of doctrine.And yet my purpose is not without ambition. I wish to discuss a narrowlylimited and yet important phase of the general subject of free speech-onethat occupies that twilight zone where constitutional law and public opin­ion so often seem to strive with each other mightily, amid the mists ofpassion and fear and misunderstanding. I wish to discuss it somewhatas a lawyer must, and yet without technicalities; somewhat as a states­man should, despite my obvious lack of qualifications; and most ofall as a problem for the practical comI1l:on sense of those everydayintelligent citizens of the Republic, whose sober second thoughtforms the background of public opinion against which our institutionsfunction.Free speech and a free press, like freedom of the body, of occupation,of contract, and of religious belief, have long been proclaimed ascharacteristic of American institutions, and have been specifically pro­tected in our constitutions, state and federal. The meaning of "liberty"as applied to occupation, contract, and the use of property has been thesubject of much litigation, and, by a multitude of decisions, certain lines'I Address delivered on the occasion of the One Hundred Nineteenth Convocationof the University, held in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, March I5, I92I.75THE UWIVERSITY RECORDhave been pricked out, which, though perhaps temporarily and provision­ally, do separate, with some present certainty and according to a fairconsensus of informed opinion, the receding domain of individualityfrom the expanding empire of social regulation. Definitions graduallyworked out, like these, in the never ending conflict of social interests andconstantly obliged to meet the tests of everyday life, are likely to embodythe practical wisdom of their time and adequately to supply its pragmaticneeds.But the meaning of free speech has enjoyed no such gradual elabora­tion on the loom of time and circumstance. For a brief period at theend of the eighteenth century controversy flamed up, as the expiringFederalist party enacted the Alien and Sedition laws of 1798. Itsauthors were doomed in any event before the rising tide of the Jeffer­sonian Democracy, but these unpopular laws furnished additionalprovocation to the opposition and inspired new epithets in their vocabu­lary of political abuse. This was probably due far less to any carefulanalysis and condemnation of them upon permanent constitutional andpolitical grounds than to the general temper of the times and to a burningdesire decisively to repudiate the Federalists and all their works. Ifthe echoes of their unpopularity have perhaps been mistaken for theclarion notes of a proclamation of unlimited freedom, that is not strangein view of the constant effort of political theories to identify themselveswith constitutional principles. At any rate, for the next 120 years theexigencies of American life only once produced any real occasion foran interference with free speech, and, for political reasons, this was chieflydealt with very irregularly by the executive instead of by Congress andthe courts.The American Civil War was a contest that bitterly divided notonly the North from the South but large sections of public opinionwithin the border states and some of the middle western ones. Therewere thousands of men in the states not in secession who were opposedto the war, and who inveighed against it in terms that unquestionably hadan effect upon the morale of their sections and discouraged recruiting.And yet Congress passed no legislation curbing disloyal utterances ingeneral, though the statutes against criminal conspiracies to hamperthe government were strengthened.Those who have criticized the recent Espionage Acts have sometimesreferred to the lack of similar legislation in the Civil War as proof thatsuch laws were unnecessary and unwise. But there is more than oneway to skin a cat-or, in the more dignified language of political science,FREE SPEECH IN WAR TIME 77a powerful government in war time can find other means of dealing withdisloyalty than through the courts. During the Civil War it was deemedpolitically inexpedient to legislate against disloyal utterances in general.In the earlier stages of the contest Lincoln earnestly sought to hold theborder slave states in the Union. He was represented as praying: "Oh,Lord, we earnestly hope that Thou wilt favor our cause, but we musthave Kentucky." Men not irreconcilably of southern sympathies wereto be won over, if possible, by the methods of persuasion. Manyutterances that in Massachusetts would have been treated as clearlyindicative of disloyalty, in Kentucky were the natural expressions ofmen sorely perplexed and reluctant to make a decision that either waywas fraught with such sorrow. Legislation applying to all alike wouldhave been unjust and alienating to the border-state doubters, and wouldhave been widely criticized as an illustration of the despotism so oftencharged against Lincoln by his opponents. But without the sanctionof legislation the federal government arrested by the thousand menwhom it knew or suspected to be dangerous or disaffected, and confinedthem, without charges and without trial, in military prisons as long asit saw fit-and public opinion generally acquiesced in this as a fairlynecessary measure of war-time precaution. The number of such execu­tive arrests has been variously estimated at from 20,000 to 38,000. TheWar Department records, confessedly very incomplete, show over13,000. Our recent record of about 2,000 prosecutions under the Espio­nage Acts, with perhaps half as many convictions, compares very favorablywith this, and gives no ground for saying that freedom of any sort wasmore interfered with in the war with Germany than in the war betweenthe states.Shortly after the commencement of hostilities between the UnitedStates and Germany, Congress passed a statute forbidding certain kindsof utterances as prejudicial to the effective conduct of the war. Thefollowing year this statute was extended and strengthened, the twotogether being known as the Espionage Acts. During the war about2,000 persons are said to have been arrested.for the violation of theseacts, and perhaps 900 were convicted. Several of the convictions weretaken to the United States Supreme Court, and all portions of the lawinvolved in these cases were upheld, although, as to part, with somedissent.The Espionage Acts and the policy they represent have been bitterlyattacked as a violation of our constitutional guaranties of free speech,and as as un-American departure from one of our greatest politicalTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDtraditions. They have been defended in language equally strong andundiscriminating. The needs and passions of war time create anatmosphere unfavorable to the discussion of such questions with acalmness likely to lead to judgments of permanent value. Two yearsafter the cessation of armed conflict we can do better, and I am takingadvantage of the President's courtesy and of the occasion, which, undera gentle academic compulsion, brings together this learned audience, toessay a beginning. Let us then, in the light of common sense andwithout technicalities, examine this doctrine of free speech, which, likeall doctrines that seek to limit the desires and actions of men, receivessuch diverse interpretations.And first let us consider what are the purposes for which free speechis conceived to exist and to be worthy of protection against the will ofgovernments and of hostile majorities. Doubtless it is sometimesimaged by its ardent advocates as an abstract good in itself, directlybeneficial to individuals as are light and air. To a limited extent thismay be true. That is, the utterer of ideas may obtain a very real sat­isfaction from the mere utterance, in relieving his feelings-in "gettingit out of his system," as it were-irrespective of its effects upon others.If this were the chief purpose or result of free speech, there would belittle controversy over the subject. Such personal gratifications of theutterer would be largely a matter of indifference ,to his neighbors, andit needs no very mature political philosophy to tolerate opinions and actstha t are really ma Hers of indifference.But, as an eminent judge has lately phrased it: "Words are notonly the keys of persuasion, they are the triggers of action." Freedomof speech is demanded by those who wish to use it to urge others toaction, and often to momentous action; and its restriction is advocatedby those who point out the undesirable character of some of the actionsthus urged. The real controversy is over the desirability of the actionthat it is hoped or feared a certain degree of free speech will promote.It is but to utter pale and anemic words in a world of robust deeds tosay that to the genuine advocate of free speech the ends of such freedomshould be so far matters of indifference that the urging of any and allof them should be equally permissible. This has been so well put byWalter Lippmann, himself generally accounted as one of the leaders ofintelligent radicalism in America, that I quote his words:There are, so far as I can discover, no absolutist? of liberty; I can recall no doctrineof liberty, which, under the acid test, does not become contingent upon some otherideal. The goal is never liberty, but liberty for something or other. For liberty isFREE SPEECH' IN WAR TI¥E 79a condition under which activity takes place, and men's interests attach themselvesprimarily to their activities and what is necessary to fulfil them, and not to the abstractrequirements of any activity that might be conceived. . . . .There are at the present time, for instance, no more fervent champions of libertythan the western sympathizers with the Russian Soviet government. Why is it thatthey are indignant when Mr. Burleson suppresses a newspaper and complacent whenLenin does? And, vice versa, why is it that the anti-Bolshevist forces in the world arein favor of restricting constitutional liberty as a preliminary to establishing genuineliberty in Russia? Clearly the argument about liberty has little actual relation tothe existence of it. It is the purpose of the social conflict, not the freedom of opinion,that lies close to the heart of the partisans. The word liberty is a weapon and anadvertisement, but certainly not an ideal which transcends all special aims.If there were any man who believed in liberty apart from particular purposes,that man would be a hermit contemplating all existence with a hopeful and neutraleye. For him, in the last analysis, there could be nothing worth resisting, nothingparticularly worth attaining, nothing particularly worth defending, not everi the tightof hermits to contemplate existence with a cold and neutral eye. He would be loyalsimply to the possibilities of the human spirit, even to those possibilities which mostseriously impair its variety and its health. No such man has yet counted much in thehistory of politics. For what every theorist of liberty has meant is that certain typesof behavior and classes of opinion hitherto regulated should be somewhat differentlyregulated in the future. What each seems to say is that opinion and action should befree; that liberty is the highest and most sacred interest of life. But somewhere each ofthem inserts a weasel clause that" of course" the freedom granted shall not be employedtoo destructively. It is this clause which checks exuberance and reminds us that, inspite of appearances, we are listening to finite men pleading a special cause.Now, when the First Amendment to the United States Constitutionprovides that "Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom ofspeech or of the press," what does it mean in terms of practical restraint?In approaching this problem of interpretation, we may first put outof consideration certain obvious limitations upon the generality of allguaranties of free speech. An occasional unthinking malcontent mayurge that the only meaning not fraught with danger to liberty is theliteral one that no utterance may be forbidden, no matter what itsintent or result; but in fact it is nowhere seriously argued by anyonewhose opinion is entitled to respect that direct and intentional incitationsto crime may not be forbidden by the state. If a state may properlyforbid murder or robbery or treason, it may also punish those whoinduce or counsel the commission of such crimes. Any other viewmakes a mockery of the state's power to declare and punish offenses.And what the state may do to prevent the incitement of serious crimeswhich are universally condemned, it may also do to prevent the incite­ment of lesser crimes, or of those in regard to the bad tendency of whichpublic opinion is divided. That is, if the state may punish John for80 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDburning straw in an alley, it may also constitutionally punish Frank forinciting John to do it, though Frank did so by speech or writing. Andif, in 1857, the United States could punish john for helping a fugitiveslave to escape, it could also punish Frank for inducing John to do this,even though a large section of public opinion might applaud Johnand condemn the Fugitive Slave Law.It will at once be perceived how great a concession against thedoctrine of any absolute right of free speech are the qualifications justmade. Nor is that all that must be yielded before serious debate can begin.The state may not only forbid the counseling of crimes, great or small,but it may forbid certain direct interferences with the free will of men,who, if left alone, might make a choice beneficial to the objects of thegovernment, though they are not bound to do so. Thus, to illustrateand contrast the two different situations in regard to both of which thegovernment may lawfully forbid literal freedom of speech, the DraftAct made evasion of the draft a crime. Directly to urge or counselanother to evade the draft could then be made a crime, and was so made.But if a man were not within the draft age, it was perfectly lawful forhim not to volunteer, and he was at liberty freely to decide what he shoulddo, so far as governmental coercion was concerned. But his neighborswere not allowed the same freedom in urging him not to volunteer. Thiswas forbidden, if intended to obstruct recruiting, on the ground thatthe United States had such an interest in the freedom of its citizens tochoose to enlist, if they would, that it could curtail the freedom ofopponents of its policies directly to urge them not to enlist. Similarly,the United States forbade certain kinds of intentional interferences byspeech with the sale of Liberty bonds, although it was not made a crimenot to subscribe for them. Here again the United States had a suffi­ciently vital interest in the freedom of choice of those who mightsubscribe to enable it to override the freedom of those who might try byspeech to oppose its aims and to induce others not to buy bonds. A similarprinciple is well known in the private law of torts, where one man oftenhas a legal interest in preserving the freedom of choice of a second manfrom the inducements of a third.We see, then, that without a violation of constitutional free speecha government may further its policies, either by commanding certainconduct and punishing those who disobey or who incite disobedience, orby encouraging certain conduct and punishing those who directly seekto discourage it. So much is admitted by those advocates of free speechwho challenge their opponents at a later stage in the argument.FREE SPEECH IN WAR TIMENow, in practical life, and particularly in a war that enlists .cunningas well as passion, what actually happens when the lawyers have workedthe matter out to this point? A certain number of naive and down­right souls will express themselves with fearless candor; they will urgemen to disobey the draft and not to buy bonds; and they will promptlyand without a hitch in the machinery of justice be convicted and sent toprison, as an object-lesson that disloyal frankness of that character getsnowhere except to jail. Then follow their shrewder brethren whofight from cover. Instead of urging resistance to the draft, they arguein passionate and extravagant language how outrageous and intolerableand tyrannical a draft law is, and how unfairly its exemptions areadministered; they extol the virtue and firmness of those who haveresisted it, and compare them favorably with the world's great moralheroes; they bitterly and mendaciously attack the motives of theiropponents; and they picture the undeniable risks of battle and diseaseto the soldier in colors as lurid and frightful as imagination can conceivethem. They say they are only arguing to influence public opinion torepeal or amend the draft law, and that, so long as they do not directlycounsel resistance to it as it stands, they are protected in whatever theysay as political agitation for its alteration. But in fact what they say,and particularly the manner in which they say it, does induce in some ormany persons exactly the same resistance to the draft as if it were moredirectly urged, and, in probably seven or eight cases out of ten, this isexactly what is intended by the utterer.But the theoretical case the utterer makes for himself compelssome pause to those who do not wish to conduct even a war wholly uponan emotional basis. A genuine believer in constitutional governmentcan hardly afford to take the position that in war time men can lawfullybe forbidden to attempt in good faith to secure changes in the laws,unless such attempts have a modicum of popularity. And the formulahe brings forward to escape the dilemma is theoretically simple andsatisfactory: If the utterer in fact intends his language to induce evasionsof the draft, or to discourage volunteering or subscriptions to Libertyloans, he shall be liable to punishment; but if in fact he intends onlyto influence public opinion to bring about a change of law or governmentalpolicy, then he shall go free.There are legal precedents in abundance for such a distinction asthis. It is a commonplace in the criminal law that a man is ordinarilyliable for a certain result only if he intends it, and that if he does intendit and brings it about, or does appropriate acts leading toward it, heTHE UNIVERSITY RECORDshall be liable no matter how cleverly he conceals his intent, providedthat its existence can be established to a jury. Civil liability in impor­tant fields of the law depends on the same distinction. It is true thatintention, being a mental state, is often not unmistakably exhibited bywords and acts, and that human judgment will be more fallible herethan in ascertaining some other classes of facts. Indeed, a few hundredyears ago, when English law was just emerging from that primitive stageof legal culture where a man was rigorously held for the consequencesof his acts, regardless of care or intention, one of the greatest judges ofhis time said that the intention of an act was not triable by a court, "forthe Devil himself knoweth not the mind of man." But this idea has beenlong abandoned, and there is now not a court in the English-speakingworld that does not daily pass on the intentions of men with reason­ably acceptable results. Upon this position, then, our believer inconstitutional government plants himself, and passes the EspionageActs, which, in the main, forbid utterances intended to produce certainresults injurious to the conduct of the war.But at this point the argument of his opponent fairly begins. Grant,he says, the theoretical soundness of your distinction between utterancesdesigned to cause resistance to the law or to discourage acts beneficialtoward a policy, and perhaps the same utterances designed only tosecure a change in the law or the policy-how does it really work inpractice? Such a law does not administer itself, nor can it' beadministered by omniscience, nor even by men of unusual acumen andfairness. Some human beings must decide on fallible evidence theintent of the utterer, and, if the evidence is conflicting, as it usuallywill be, a jury of twelve ordinary men decides this. Such men, in wartime, particularly if public opinion favors the war, are almost alwaysimpatient of adverse criticism, and almost certain to regard it as inspiredby improper motives if the evidence lends any support to this. Aconsiderable proportion of those in opposition will be generally believedto be disloyal or cranks, and their reputation is readily extended toinclude others. Such evidence of intention as is available generallyconsists of other utterances by the defendant, made at other times andunder other circumstances, but admitted as bearing on his general stateof mind, and of such inferences as can reasonably be drawn from thefact that the utterances for which he is prosecuted are likely to influencesome people to disobey the government or not to support it. All of thisevidence is likely to be unfairly prejudicial to the defendant, particularlythe inference of a bad intent from the probable results of his utterances.FREE SPEECH IN WAR TIMEWhile, logically, it is perfectly true that you may often properly infer asa fact that a man actually intends the probable results of his utterances,yet, when another and innocent intent may have accompanied them,it is a grave hardship readily to permit the inference most likely to bedrawn when his words are unpopular. He is all too likely to be con­demned chiefly because what he says is disliked, rather than because heactually intends to induce unlawful conduct. The distinction betweentrying to induce men to change a law rather than to disobey it does notbite deeply into the minds of a jury who personally think as badly ofone effort as of the other, and particularly when the defendant has usedvigorous language. And yet, only by vigorous language can publicopinion already fixed be moved. .Moreover, the disadvantages of such a rule do not stop with theprobable erroneous conviction of a number of persons who espouse theunpopular side. Others, with perfectly loyal intentions, become afraidto criticize the acts and policies of the government, .even when suchcriticism would be beneficial to the public, lest they run the risk ofpunishment or at least prosecution; and so valuable discussion is stifled.In all candor it must be admitted that our advocate of free speechscores on all of these points. It is practically certain that a law punish­ing speech of harmful tendency, when uttered with a bad intent, willin fact result in .a good many errors and in some abuses. It is alsocertain that it will cut off some useful criticism. Is it therefore neces­sarily unconstitutional or even unwise? To answer this, we mustexamine the alternative. If speech, in fact likely to incite acts injuriousto the conduct of the war, cannot be forbidden unless couched in thelanguage of direct counselor advice, it is also perfectly certain thatill-disposed persons, by utterances cleverly designed to keep just withinany objective tests, will actually interfere to a considerable extentwith governmental operations. The entire setting of modern war,with its complex military, economic, social, and political factors, rendersthis easy and likely of accomplishment. The famous speech thatShakespeare puts into the mouth of Antony, over the dead body ofCaesar, contains not a word of direct incitement to riot. The literalimport of its language is all to the contrary:Oh masters! if I were disposed to stirYour hearts and minds to mutiny and rage,I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong,Who you all know are honorable men.I will not do them wrong; I rather chooseTo wrong the dead, to wrong myself, and you,Than I will wrong such honorable men.THE UNIVERSITY RECORDAnd then, when, after listening to some more of these "indirections,"his hearers are on tiptoe to burn and slay, he adds:. . . . Let me not stir you upTo such a sudden flood of mutiny ....I am no orator as Brutus is,But .... a plain blunt manThat love my friend ...... . • • I only speak right on;I tell you that which you yourselves do know;• . . . but were I BrutusAnd Brutus Antony, there were an AntonyWould . . . . put a tongueIn every wound of Caesar, that should moveThe stones of Rome to rise and mutiny.If he had been drafting an Espionage Act, would a loyal supporterof Brutus, albeit a staunch believer in free speech, have thought it safeand proper to leave Antony at large ? You can match the thinly veiledspirit and purpose of this speech, if not its eloquence, in many of theutterances during our war. Of course it would be absurd to say thatmost convictions were secured on evidence as clear as this, but, once yougrant that you can punish a speaker not merely for literally direct incite­ment, but for language likely to incite and so intended, some cases aresure to be doubtful and perhaps to be decided erroneously.As so often in human affairs, we have to choose between competinggoods and ills. In war time, speech for everyone cannot be as free asin time of peace without the certainty of its abuse to the detriment ofour war policies. Likewise, speech cannot be restricted in time of warto prevent this danger save by methods so drastic as to be also readilysusceptible of mistakes and abuse. Which is for the time being themore important social interest-a speedier successful ending of the war,or a freer public discussion of it ? It may be that no finite mind can becertain of the answer, but answered it must be, and by such minds asare responsible for what is going on. And we can take such comfort aswe may in the observation that, whenever there has been a genuine fearof hostile propaganda, speech has been correspondingly restricted.Methods have differed, but the results have been the same. In ordinarytimes the social interest in free discussion so plainly outweighs all possiblegains from its suppression that probably only somewhat direct incite­ments to illegal or injurious conduct may be forbidden; but, in theemergency of an important war or grave social disturbance, the prosand cons of suppressing utterances which, though indirect in form, areFREE SPEECH IN WAR TIME 85reasonably likely in fact to incite such conduct and are so intended, areat least evenly enough balanced to sustain a legislative decision eitherway.Free speech is not the only or the predominant interest enshrined inour constitutions. Life, liberty, and property in ordinary times a�ealso expressly and adequately protected. And just as "due process oflaw" in time of war means something different as regards governmentalcontrol over life, liberty, and property from its meaning in time ofpeace, so permissible "freedom" of speech in war time is differentfrom that in peace time. The reasonable necessities of the situationqualify the war-time application of all our constitutional guarantiessave a few that are obviously intended to be perfectly precise andabsolute, and the right to free speech is no exception.To the suggestion that advantage might be taken of a war withHaiti or Liberia to impose the same restrictions on free speech as in thewar with Germany, the obvious answer is that it is not alone a technicalstate of war, but a reasonably conceived necessity for the restrictions,that justifies them. During an important war and for a reasonable periodthereafter, while the passions engendered are still hot and the disturb­ances of the economic and social order unhealed, the state may lawfullylimit the ordinary freedom of speech and of transactions, if this can bethought reasonably necessary for the public welfare; but the mereexistence of distant or trifling military operations that have no sensibleeffect upon our economic or social fabric would not justify such inter­ferences.Finally it may be urged that, granting the theoretical correctnessof this argument, it is really inapplicable to a large part of our war-timerestrictions, because they were not really reasonably needed, but werethe product of an excitement and quasi-panic that deprived men of thepower of judging in calmness both as to the restrictions needed and asto the probable effect of particular words used. But surely the mean­ing that may reasonably be placed upon language, and the effects thatmay reasonably be feared to result from it depend largely upon thecircumstances under which it is uttered, including the states of mind ofits hearers and the public. One who is repelling assault and battery isnot required at his peril to judge of the proper limits of self-defensewith the detachment of a bystander. In appraising the correctnessof his decision the court will take into account his naturally excited stateof mind. He need only decide as well as could fairly be expectedfrom the average man under such circumstances of provocation and86 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDexcitement. At least as much latitude must be allowed in estimating theprobable effect of words in war time. It is doubtless true that, duringthe late war, men of average intelligence and credulity believed therewas much greater danger from pro-German and treasonable activitiesthan was in sober truth the case, but this did not stamp such beliefs asunreasonable, considering the emergency and the imperfect informationavailable. If public opinion of average intelligence generally sharedthe belief that certain types of utterances were reasonably likely sub­stantially to interfere with the effective conduct of the war, it was wellwithin a proper legislative discretion to forbid such utterances, and totake the verdict of a jury upon this inference of fact and upon the inten­tion of the defendant in making the utterance. The practical certaintythat some mistakes and abuses would occur in the administration ofsuch a law was to be weighed by Congress against the equally practicalcertainty that without it a good deal of ill-intentioned and actuallymischievous propaganda could not be checked by lawful means and waspretty certain to be dealt with by unlawful violence. To me it seems im­possible to say that the judgment Congress passed upon this question wasin its essential features unreasonable, in view of the existing informationand temper of the country, nor that it was even unwise, in any othersense than that much that is done in every field, under stress of war,. could be bettered in the light of experience.It is of course not difficult to find some regrettable errors and excessesin both the judicial and the executive administration of the EspionageActs. The action taken under them, however, was far less arbitraryand unjust than were the executive arrests of the Civil War, which tookthe place of repressive legislation. The' ordinary processes of law werefollowed, and the usual safeguards afforded to the accused. The actswere administered in no such high-handed and oppressive manner aswas the Deportation Act. Many of the sentences were doubtless toosevere. This can be and is being remedied. It has been observed thatpolitical crimes here, being a novelty, have not yet acquired a recognizedplace in the hierarchy of offenses. Our judges have inclined to placethem somewhere between highway robbery and murder in the seconddegree. Countries in which they are more familiar rate them muchmore leniently. Perhaps we shall learn this too.After a war comes muckraking. Some of it, when conducted inthe proper spirit, may afford useful lessons for the future. Most of itserves only a personal and a partisan end. There has been generaldisappointment that a new heaven and a new earth have not more speedilyFREE SPEECH IN WAR TIMEfollowed the war. Bitterness and disillusion are untrustworthy commen­tators, whether upon army administration or the denial of free speech.Most criticisms of the Espionage Acts which I have read seem utterlyextravagant. TO' me they seem only an episode, entirely natural andreasonable, in the gigantic struggle through which we have passed.They are chiefly significant as showing the adaptability of modernsociety to' emergency needs, and as exemplifying in constitutional lawthe important doctrine of the relativity of values. Private property,liberty of person, of contract, and of occupation, free speech, even lifeitself, are not absolute goods to' be preserved rigidly under all circum­stances alike. Their value and the protection they receive are alwaysrelative to' the dominant social needs. If they are less useful to' a societyat war than in peace, they will merit and will receive less protection.But when peace returns the old values reassert themselves, shorn, itmay be not undesirably, of a little of their traditional prestige. Themen of the North believed that liberty was safe with 'Lincoln, despitethe thousands of arrests made under his authority in the Civil War.They were right. I think we may believe that peace-time freedom ofspeech is as secure in American public opinion today as ever, and a recentmoving proof of this is the general condemnation that greeted theexpulsion of the Socialist members from the New York Assembly.The Espionage Acts, like the draft, were war measures, tolerated andapproved as such. Neither is in the least likely to' become a permanentpolicy of peace, and those who are pro claiming the former as a deadlyblow at free speech are, in my judgment, but engaging in the age-oldoccupation of tilting at windmills.THE BOARD OF TRUSTEESBy J. SPENCER DICKERSON, SecretaryAPPOINTMENTSIn addition to reappointments the following appointment has beenmade by the Board of Trustees:Mauritis W. Senstius, assistant professor in Syracuse University,Instructor in the Department of Geography.LEAVES OF ABSENCELeaves of absence have been granted to:Professor Ernest D. Burton, Director of the Libraries and Head ofthe Department of New Testament and Early Christian Literature, forsix months from July 28, 1921, to act as chairman of a commission onChristian Education in China.Professor A. A. Michelson to serve as Exchange Professor' in Parisduring the Spring Quarter, 1921.GIFTSMr. Charles R. Crane has given $2,000 a year for three years forinstruction in the Armenian Language and Institutions for the SummerQuarters of I921, I922, and I923.Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., has given to the University a copy ofthe portrait of his father by John S. Sargent. The copy was painted byMr. Alexander R. James.Mr. R. A. F. Penrose, Jr., of Philadelphia, has given $500 for theJournal of Geology.The Gypsum Industries Association has renewed its Fellowship inthe Department of Geology and increased the amount from $I,OOO to$I,50o.Mr. Herant Telfeyan, of New York City, has given $360 a year forthree years to provide scholarships for two Armenian students.The E. I. du Pont de Nemours Company has renewed its Fellow­ship of $750 in the Department of Chemistry for the year I921-22.The Commonwealth Fund has appropriated $I5,000 for the Uni­versity to be expended for a laboratory study of reading to be conductedby Professor Charles H. Judd, Director of the School of Education, and88THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES$1,500 for the preparation and application of a series of tests in Frenchunder the direction of Professor H. C. Morrison.MISCELLANEOUSAssociate Professor William Crocker, Ph.D., 1906, of the Depart­ment of Botany, has been made director of the Thompson Institute forPlant Research at Yonkers, N.Y., and enters on his duties next autumn.Professor John M. Coulter, Head of the Department, is to be one ofthe trustees of the Institute, which is to play an important part in thedevelopment of botanical science.GUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIFTBy THOMAS W. GOODSPEEDThe only time I ever saw G. F. Swift, the first week in April, 1890, hegave me a subscription of a thousand dollars toward the fund for thefounding of the University of Chicago. The personality of the man,the sympathy with which he listened to the appeal of a stranger,and the readiness of his response stamped themselves on the memorywith a vividness that made the brief interview unforgettable. Mr.Swift was then only potentially wealthy. In the thirty-one years thathave passed since that first gift the family of Mr. Swift has contributednearly $900,000 to the various needs of the Univ-ersity. Mrs. Swift hasendowed the Gustavus F. Swift Fellowship in Chemistry as a memorialof her husband and has given large sums for the medical and otherdepartments. Two sons, Charles H. and Harold H., and a daughter,Mrs. Helen Swift Neilson, have made contributions aggregating morethan $425,000.For years preceding his death Mr. Swift was one of the great figuresin the business world of Chicago-great, in spite of his persistent avoid­ance of any sort of display, by the sheer force of his achievements. Itis a curious coincidence that P. D. Armour and G. F. Swift, both in thesame business, both displaying the same type of genius, both foundersof enterprises that have expanded to proportions of such bewilderingimmensity, began their careers in Chicago at the same time, settling inthat city in the same year, 1875. Thus they were not pioneers, but latecomers, and worked out their spectacular successes in a comparativelybrief period of business activity in Chicago..Mr. Swift was a native of New England, where his forefathers hadlived since 1630. In that year the first of the Massachusetts Swiftscame from England and after a few years in Boston or its vicinity settledin Sandwich, Barnstable County, Cape Cod, near the point where theCape joins the mainland. G. F. Swift was in the seventh generationfrom William and Elizabeth "Swyft" who in 1630 made their home inthe New World. Their sympathies would seem to have been with thePilgrims of Plymouth, since they finally settled far from the Puritans ofBoston and less than twenty miles south of Plymouth Bay. At thesame time it must be said that they formed a part of that first greatmigration in which about three hundred of the "best Puritan families"GUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIFT 91of England came to the new world and founded the colony of Massa­chusetts Bay and the city of Boston. They were not adventurers,but pioneers who came to America to find new homes and who beganthe building of a new empire. The Swifts were for the most part farmers,and G. F. Swift was in the direct line which for more than two hundredyears clung to the soil where the family first settled. /William, the progenitor of the house, bought the largest farm in thetown of Sandwich, Only a few years since, the house built two hundredand eighty years ago was still the family residence. It was one storyin height, but wide enough to give ample space under the roof for second­story rooms. Like so many other Cape Cod houses, the side walls aswell as the roof were shingled.G. F. Swift was born in West Sandwich, sometimes called Scussett,now known as Sagamore, a few miles north of Buzzards Bay, and onlya mile or two from the southeastern boundary of Plymouth County, onwhat is called the shoulder of Cape Cod. The new ship canal connectingCape Cod or Barnstable Bay with Buzzards Bay passes within half amile of the place of his birth.Sandwich was the first of the Cape townships to be settled. It wasnearest to Plymouth and became, on its organization, a part of PlymouthColony. Captain Miles Standish used to be sent to regulate its affairs.n"is about ten miles square, reaching across the isthmus and running afew miles down the eastern shore of Buzzards Bay. On the north itlooks out on Cape Cod Bay, and on the east adjoins the township ofBarnstable. The soil, except along the shores of the bays, is not sand,but a sandy loam and fairly fertile. It is a region of hills, brooks, smalllakes, and ponds. In its hundred square miles there are perhaps fortylakelets. Before the railroad locomotives had repeatedly set fire to theforests it was a diversified, attractive, and delightful region havingfifteen miles of waterfront on the two bays and filled with farms, oldhomesteads, tracts of woodland, water courses and lakes, and pleasantvillages where retired sea captains built their substantial homes. Onewriter of that day said of it: "A delightsome location, and no town inour extended country can boast of a more salubrious atmosphere, purerwater, greater healthfulness, or more of the general comforts and con­veniences of life. Sandwich is one of the most pleasant villages inMassachusetts. To persons fond of fishing, sporting or riding it offersgreater resources than any other spot in this country." Near the north­eastern corner of this pleasant land was West Sandwich, or Sagamore,where G. F. Swift was born.92 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDThe town was first occupied by white men in 1637, a grant of landhaving been made by Plymouth Colony to a company formed in Lynn.The original settlers were joined by others from Duxbury and Plymouth,among whom was William Swyft, who is believed to have been one ofthe earliest among them. He lived only to 1642-43, but in r643 his sonWilliam is recorded as one of the sixty-eight men between the ages ofsixteen and sixty liable to bear arms. In 1655 this William Swift and threeothers were engaged to build the town mill, and the same year his nameappeared on a subscription for building a new meetinghouse. Therewere forty subscribers, and only seven gave more than William Swift.The family was religious. Soon after the subscription was made Williamunited with eighteen others in a request to a minister to supply themwith preaching, giving him this assurance: "We will not be backwardto recompense your labors of love." In r672 the same William Swiftwas one of a committee of seven prominent men who were "requestedto go forward settling and confirming the township" with the Indianchiefs and to prevent the town of Barnstable from encroaching on thedomains of Sandwich. The trouble with Barnstable again called forhis services a few years later, this time with only one associate. In1730, among one hundred and thirty-six heads of families ten wereSwifts. These were the recognized people "besides Friends andQuakers." But there were Swifts among them also, and Jane Swift hadthe honor of being fined ten shillings by this Pilgrim colony for attendingQuaker meetings.The family sent deputies to the General Court and furnished itsshare of selectmen for the town. They were ardent patriots in the Warfor Independence, supplying members of the committees of publicsafety and soldiers and officers. The Swifts were noted for large families.In Freeman's History of Cape Cod the author writes: "The Swiftsdescended from Mr. William Swyft are like the stars for multitude."Like other families they are now found in every part of our wide domain.But many of them lingered long in Cape Cod, and among these werethe forebears of G. F. Swift.His father William was a farmer, and his mother, Sally Sears Crowell,was a descendant of Elder William Brewster, one of the best known ofthe Pilgrim Fathers, and was related, as her name indicates, to two ofthe leading families of the Cape. Perhaps the most illustrious amongher relatives was Barnas Sears, president of Brown University and firstsecretary or agent of the Peabody Fund, who seventy years ago was oneof our great men.GUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIFT 93Mr. Swift was born June 24, 1839, the ninth child and the fifth sonin a family of twelve children. Brought up on the farm, he enjoyedonly the advantages of a common-school education. The school couldhardly have been of a high standard. The months of attendance for afarmer's boy must have been restricted. And unfortunately the years ofhis schooling were all too few, ending at fourteen. But he had the practicaleducation of the farm, and of a family life characterized by industry,piety, aneestral self-respect, and mutual affection. The large familywas a community in itself. The boys were active, energetic, resourceful.If any of them were lacking in these qualities G. F. had enough for adozen ordinary boys. Their youth was not all work on the farm.There were frequent periods of freedom. Then calls for recreation camefrom every direction. Barnstable Bay, only a little way north, calledwith its opportunities for swimming, sailing, and fishing. BuzzardsBay, only three miles south, invited with its different aspect, its othersorts of boating, and new varieties of salt-water fish. And east andwest were the woods for hunting or nutting excursions, and the streamsand ponds which, at the very time of which I write, young Swift's boy­hood, Daniel Webster found attractive enough to tempt him fromMarshfield for a try at the trout. In winter there were unexcelledopportunities for sleighing, coasting, and skating. Winter, too, was theperiod of school when the boy was brought into daily fellowship with allthe boys of the neighborhood, with whom he enjoyed the winter sportsof boys in a region where the snow covered the ground from late autumnto early spring. That he had a happy boyhood, affectionate parentaldiscipline, enough work to keep him pleasantly employed, the youthfulpleasures that every boy ought to have, is evident from, the fact that he"attributed all his success and happiness in life to the habits of industryand love for work, together with the fundamental Christian training"of his boyhood.That he was born for business became evident while he was a lad.A cousin, Mr. E. W. Ellis, now eighty-three years old, brought up in thesame neighborhood and in mature life in Mr. Swift's employ in Chicago,tells me many interesting things of his early and later life, among otherthings the following: "I well remember I was at grandfather Crowell'sone day when Gustavus came in. He did not notice me, but 'said,'Grandpa, I will give you forty cents for that old white hen. ' He gotthe hen and was soon gone. I said, 'Grandma, isn't that new businessfor Stave, buying hens?' 'Why,' she said, 'he is here most every dayfor one. He finds a customer somewhere. Seems to get enough out94 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDof the transaction to pay him. ' Thus he started early in life;" continuesMr. Ellis, "only nine years old, but ambitious.",The family, as has been said, was large. There was not room for allon the farm. It was doubtless an inborn, impelling urge toward businessactivity that started Stave, as he was called, on his career at the age offourteen. At that time he went to work for his brother Noble, nineyears his senior and the village butcher, the wages being one dollar aweek. His pay was gradually increased to two dollars a week, and thereis a tradition that before he left his brother's employment at the end oftwo or two and a half years he was receiving three dollars a week. Hewas not the sort who could long remain an employee, and at sixteen hestarted out to make his own way. He differed from other boys and dif­fered in an extraordinary degree in initiative, ambition, self-reliance, andan intuitive genius for business. There were millions of boys in Americain 1855 who were better educated, had more money, were backed by moreinfluential friends, and had larger opportunities and far more brilliantprospects. This boy had little education, no money, and no influentialfriends. The business opportunities offered on Cape Cod to a farmer'sboy were next to nothing, and prospects for any brilliant business successdid not exist-not even possibilities, save for the entirely exceptionalyoung man, the one boy in a million. And young Swift was thatexceptional one boy in a million. Already at sixteen he was a boyof vision. He saw, no certainties, but possibilities, and had the ambitionand courage to attempt them. This he did, and his initial efforts werenecessarily of the humblest sort.The common story of G. F. Swift's beginning in business for himself,the story which has become a classic, is as follows. He was developinga purpose to try his fortune in New York City, when his father said:"Don't go, Stave. Stay at home and I'll buy you an animal to killand you can start in the meat-market business for yourself." This hisfather' did, advancing him $20.00, which was the original cash capital ofthe business which, since incorporated as Swift & Co., has carried itsoperations around the world. With this capital the boy bought a heifer,which he killed and dressed in one of the farm outbuildings. A horseand wagon were, of course, at his disposal, and taking his merchandiseabout the neighborhood to the doors of possible customers, withall of whom he was well acquainted, he readily disposed of it soprofitably that he cleared $10.00 on the transaction. This is agood story and well introduces the history of Mr. Swift's business life.It leads naturally to the following from Mr. Ellis, the cousin alreadyGUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIFT 95quoted, who tells his story from personal and vivid remembrance of allthe details. Both incidents may well have occurred at about the samedate, the spring of 1855, the transaction of the heifer opening the wayfor the more ambitious one. Here is the story of his cousin Ellis, thenapproaching eighteen, while young Swift was sixteen.He called on Uncle Paul Crowell [son of Grandfather Crowell and village store­keeper]. I obtained this information a few days after from Uncle Paul himself.Stave said, "I want to borrow some money. Will you lend it to me?" "Oh," saidUncle Paul, "how much do you want?" "Four hundred dollars," said Stave."Whew," said Uncle Paul, "what you going to do with it?" "I want to go to Brightonstockyards and buy some pigs." "Why, that will be quite an undertaking for aboy." "Yes," said Uncle Paul to me, "I could but admire his ambition." BrightonYards, located northwest of Boston, sixty miles distant! Just imagine it! The worstkind of sandy, crooked roads. . . . . Well, in about ten days, he, with his drove, hovein sight at my father's horne. He had sold some, but about 35 shoats were still withhim. I looked over his outfit, which consisted of an old horse and a democrat wagonin which a few tired or lame pigs were enjoying a ride and .a rest with their legs tiedtogether. With him was another lad as helper, who was trying to keep the shoats fromstraying. There was Stave, a tall, lank youth, with a rope and steelyards on hisshoulder, also a short pole he carried in his hand that might do duty from which tosuspend the squealers and steelyards between his shoulders and those of the customer.Father: had made his selection and purchase, and, going to the house said, "There is agood exhibition of ambition. Gustavus Swift will make a success in whatever businesshe undertakes. For he has the right make up." Gustavus made several such tripsto Brighton for pigs, spring and fall, for two or three years. Several years later I hadlearned he was in business in Barnstable. While on the train from Boston to Scussett[West Sandwich or Sagamore] I noticed a man riding on the car platform all the way.Finally I recognized him as G. F. Swift. I went out and learned he was on his wayhome. He had been doing some business in Brighton. I could not prevail on himto come into the car. He was not dressed up.He was a modest, diffident youth, very reticent, with an unusualface, the features being exceptionally refined. But he was, at the sametime, self-reliant, with an irrepressible business aggressiveness that ledhim into new paths that other young men had neither the initiative northe courage to enter.The business of buying and selling pigs was confined for the mostpart to two or three months in the spring, when the people were buyingpigs to fatten for their own use. What use did the young dealer inpigs make of the rest of the year? Naturally enough he followed thebusiness he had learned of butcher and meat seller. He had found theway to the big stockyards at Brighton outside of Boston and made somekind of a place for himself there. He was no doubt hard pressed forcapital, but he managed to keep going and little by little to forgeahead.TiIE UNIVERSITY RECORDHis method of procedure was as follows. On Friday he bought afat steer in the Brighton market outside of Boston. On Saturday heslaughtered the steer and hung up the quarters over Sunday. Mondayhe loaded the meat into his democrat wagon and started for Cape Cod,fifty miles away. During the week he peddled the meat from house tohouse and wherever he could dispose of it to the best advantage and hav­ing sold out returned on the following Friday to Brighton and repeatedthe process the next week. If he returned on Friday with more moneythan he had on the preceding Friday, this was his profit on the trans­actions of the week. It was in this way that he got together a littlecapital and finally began to look for a place in which to establish himselfas a village butcher. This search led to developments he did not, atthe time, anticipate and made the choice he arrived at one of the mostimportant decisions of his life. Southeast from Plymouth, across thegreat bay, forty miles away, midway of the long arm of Cape Cod, isEastham. In 1643 the Pilgrims seriously contemplated the abandon­ment of Plymouth and removal to this region. After full examina­tion the plan was rejected, but a small colony, seven men and theirfamilies, settled there, and the place flourished. The principal villageof the town was also called Eastham, and there in the winter of 1859-60G. F. Swift opened a meat market. He took with him as partner orassistant his brother Nathaniel, who was his senior by two years and wholike himself had learned the business with the still older brother Noble.Eastham was a very small village, and he remained there little morethan a year. But this was long enough to do two of the most importantthings he did during his entire life. He fell in love and married a wife.On January 3, 1861, he became the husband of Annie Maria Higgins.Mrs. Swift was a descendant of Richard Higgins, one of the seven originalproprietors who settled in Eastham in 1643-44.Mr. Swift matured early, entered business early, and married earIy�when he was twenty-one years and six months old. Surrendering theEastham business to his brother Nathaniel, he returned with his brideto Sagamore and entered into the same business. In. Sagamore hiseldest son was born, Louis F. Swift, for many years past head ofSwift & Co.He soon 'concluded that there was not room for him and his brotherNoble in Sagamore. Finding that there was an opening in the villageof Barnstable, a few miles east, he established himself in that place asthe local butcher. He had, for years, been studying cattle, and he soonacquired the reputation of being one of the best judges of cattle inGUSTA VUS FRANKLIN SWIFT 97Barnstable County. With this reputation there came to him the revela­tion that this expert knowledge was capital that should be investedoutside the walls of a retail butcher shop. Barnstable was a smallvillage. It had little more than five hundred inhabitants. Therewas no outlook for enlarging the business of the meat market. But therewere cattle for sale on Cape Cod farms, and the farmers could not getthem to market profitably. The young butcher therefore, eager for alarger field of activity, began to study the question whether he could notdo this with profit to the farmers and to himself. He already knew thetowns between Barnstable and Boston, and his acquaintance with themwould be a help in the new business. Once entered upon, it took himagain to the large stockyards at Brighton and Waterto�n outside ofBoston. A clerk looked after the meat market in Barnstable, andMr. Swift bought and sold cattle. He knew cattle, no one better, andwhat he bought he sold readily at a profit. The business grew, and hebegan, in a small way, to prosper. The buying and selling of cattlesoon became his real business and the meat market a side issue. Hewas no longer a village butcher but a cattle dealer.Mr. and Mrs. Swift remained in Barnstable about eight years.There their second son, Edward Foster, was born. A third son, Lincoln,was born and died there. In Barnstable were born also two daughters,Annie May and Helen Louise.In 1869 Mr. Swift's increasing business called the family away fromBarnstable, and they made their home first in Clinton and later inLancaster, about forty miles west of Boston, in Worcester County. Itwas in Lancaster that the fourth son, Charles Henry, was born in 1872.Meantime, cattle-buying not occupying all Mr. Swift's energies, he hadestablished a meat market in Clinton, a few miles south of Lancaster,putting his brother Nathaniel in charge. From this point as a center hesent his meat in wagons to the cities and villages of Worcester County.A little later he opened another market in Freetown, between Fall Riverand Taunton. This enterprise he put in charge of a lieutenant, who senthis wagons out among the towns of Bristol County. This man provedso efficient that Mr. Swift later advanced him to positions of largeresponsibility, In these undertakings, sending out dressed meats fromchosen centers through districts as wide as wagons could reach, Mr.Swift was unconsciously preparing himself for that future, then quiteundreamed of, when the field of his operations should embrace the world.Meantime, however, he did begin to get a new vision of the possibledevelopment of the cattle-buying business into which he had been feeling9� THE UNIVERSITY RECORDhis way. The trend toward the cities had begun. Population inindustrial centers was multiplying. The demand for meat was increas­ing. He looked into the future and saw it growing more and more.The purpose of greatly enlarging the field of his operations began to takeshape in his mind. Massachusetts, New England, began to seem toosmall for him. He looked west toward Albany and Buffalo, wherethere were now great cattle yards with their enlarged opportunities forprofitable business. In 1872 the opportunity came to enter on therealization of his dreams.In that year he entered into partnership with James A. Hathaway,who was doing a large meat business in Boston. The firm was Hathaway& Swift and combined the dressed-meat business with that of buying andselling cattle for the Boston market. Mr. Hathaway looked after themeat business and the selling in Boston, while Mr. Swift managed thebuying end of the enterprise. This part of the business, in accordancewith his previously matured plans, he soon extended to Albany and afew months later to Buffalo. This rapid extension westward was oneof the indications of that extraordinary revolution then taking place inthe business of the country and particularly in the meat industry.The needs of the cities of the East had outgrown the home supply.Europe was calling for American food. There had been a time, only afew years before that of which I write, when the products of the Westcould not be brought to the East and sold at a profit. A hundred yearsago it cost five dollars to transport a hundred pounds of freight fromBuffalo to New York. The cost of transportation was prohibitive, andcommerce hardly existed. Then began the new era of railways, andeverything was changed. The country was covered with railroad linesand competition reduced freight rates to so Iowa figure that an ever­increasing flood of western products filled the eastern markets. In theearly seven ties the meaning of all this and its relation to him began tobe clear to Mr. Swift. He saw the primary cattle market move west toAlbany and then, almost without pause, west again to Buffalo. Andhe had the business sagacity to see that the real and permanent primarymarket was Chicago. He studied the matter carefully, as he wasaccustomed-to examine beforehand every step in his career. The morehe thought of it the clearer it became to him that if he aspired to leader­ship in the cattle business he must make Chicago his headquarters.And it seems evident that before the seventies of the last centurywere half over he had definitely made up his mind to strike for leadershipin the cattle business. Every step in his future career was taken withGUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIFT 99that end in view. He intended to be in the first rank. Why, otherwise,was he not content with" the prosperity he was enjoying? The firm ofHathaway & Swift was exceptionally successful. Mr. Swift was a youngman in I874-thirty-five years old+already fairly well off and estab­lished in a good business. But when he came to a full comprehension ofthe new conditions of the cattle trade he sensed the fact that the realfield of his operations was Chicago, and to Chicago he determined to go.The firm of Hathaway & Swift was doing well, but Mr. Swift per­suaded his partner to consent to the transfer of the cattle-buying partof their business to that city, and the year 1875 found him among thecattle buyers in the Chicago Stock Yards.The family found a home on Emerald Avenue near the Yards andthere Mr. Swift continued among his employees for twenty-three years.His going to Chicago was, of course, the turning-point in his businesslife. He did not go to Chicago as a packer, but as a cattle buyer. Thecattle raisers brought their cattle to the Chicago Stock Yards and soldthem to the buyers for the best price they could get. In 1875 the"Yards" was a small affair in comparison with what it is today. Thepacking business was smaller still as compared with the stupendousenterprises of our time. But small as it then was it did not takeMr. Swift long to discover that the future belonged, not to the buyerand seller of cattle, but to the packer, and he quickly decided to enterthe meat-packing business.As has been already said, the two men who were destined to becomethe leading figures in the packing industry, P. D. Armour and G. F.Swift, became citizens of Chicago in the same year, 1875. Mr. Armourwas Mr. Swift's senior by seven years, being forty-three years old.Each man had certain advantages on his side in the business race beforethem. Mr. Armour had been longer in business, was already a manof large wealth, and for eight years had had packing interests in Chicagowhich had finally become-so large and profitable as to make his residencein that city necessary. The sale advantage Mr. Swift had was his age.He was only thirty-six years old. Though he had some accumulations,his wealth did not compare with that of Mr. Armour. Probably in nativebusiness genius and acquired abilities two men were never more equallymatched.The packing business of 1877, when Mr. Swift entered it, was atotally different affair from what it has since become-different not insize only but in kind. The packers were essentially pork packers-porkcurers and packers. Curing and packing were winter jobs only, and100 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDthe distributing of the product followed during the succeeding warmweather, when killing and curing could not be done. But already thatmarvelous, yet simple, invention was being perfected which revolution­ized or rather entirely made over the meat industry-the refrigeratorcar. It was this car that transformed the packing industry into thefresh-meat industry and opened the way for the undreamed-of develop­ment of the business. I say undreamed-of development, and yet it wasG. F. Swift's prevision of developments that seemed to him possible thatled him to enter, not so much the packing, as the fresh-meat, industry.It is said that this vision came to him very soon after he beganbuying cattle in the Chicago Stock Yards to ship east. A picture isdrawn of him sitting on a fence at the Yards with Herbert Barnes,urging Mr. Barnes to receive [from .him consignments of dressed beeffor the eastern market. These were to be at the outset cars of chilledbeef sent during the winter months. The agent was to "break downthe prejudice incident to all innovations and undertake the building upof an eastern market for western beef." Mr. Swift was full of thesubject, and his enthusiasm prevailed. Having thus found an efficientagent, in I877 he entered the new business and became a packer.I11 its beginnings the new business was preparing dressed beef andsending it to eastern markets. The economy of sending dressed beefinstead of live cattle was enormous. It did not have to be fed andwatered on the way. A steer in the shape of dressed beef weighed morethan 40 per cent less than when alive. But obstacles in the way of mak­ing the new business successful were well-nigh insurmountable. Therailroads were opposed to it because it reduced freight bills nearly one­half. The eastern stockyards were hostile because it threatened theirbusiness. The eastern butchers fought against it for the same reason.Every sort of misrepresentation was employed to prejudice the easternpublic against Chicago dressed beef. It could, at that time, 1877, besent only in the winter, and even during the winter the eastern consumerwould have none of it. Mr. Swift, through his agents on the AtlanticCoast, set to work to break down this prejudice and build up an easternmarket for western beef. And meantime, in the opening of the winterof 1877, he began to make shipments. He took the greatest personalpains with the cars in which they were made. As Charles Winanstells the story:He rigged up a car after his own ideas. He superintended the loading of it him ..self. He even took an active part in hanging the quarters of beef by ropes from the2X4 timbers he had arranged. The car was sealed up and started on its journeyGUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIFT 101eastward. . . . . Barnes was waiting for it when it came. It was with grave doubtsand misgivings that he opened it. But when, at last, he did open it and the quartersof beef stood revealed as fresh and sweet and in better condition for food than whenthey left Chicago, then Barnes knew that western dressed beef had got to the east tostay there. � ..• He knew that the task. of uprooting the prejudices that were sostrongly planted was no easy one. But he set about it with the true New Englandenergy and persistence, and he kept at it until it was a fact accomplished.The success achieved was such that Mr. Swift became more andmore determined that the eastern market must be supplied the wholeyear round, spring, summer, and autumn, as well as winter.This was to be the work of the refrigerator car, upon which his mindhad been fixed from the beginning. The devising of that car datedback more than ten years. It had not been entirely successful. Fromyear to year it had been improved but was still far from the perfectionit has since attained. Other packers were studying it with interest, butperhaps Mr. Swift's mind comprehended its vast potentialities a littlesooner than did the minds of other men. But if the difficulties in theway of introducing Chicago dressed beef into the eastern market in thewinter had been great, those confronting its introduction in the summerby means of the refrigerator cars were immensely greater. To allthose before encountered were now added new ones with the railroads.They were equipped to handle live stock. They had an abundance ofcars for shipping cattle. But they had no refrigerator cars, and theywould not have any. They doubted their value. They were not organ­ized to run them and were skeptical about their ability to do it. Suchcars must be kept immaculately clean. Any speck of decay wouldmake them worse than worthless by tainting and thus destroying thebeef they carried. The older roads running most directly to the Eastwere particularly averse to having anything whatever to do with therefrigera tor car. .But with Mr. Swift difficulties existed only to be overcome. Hewent to the Grand Trunk Railway, which, owing to its longer line tothe East, had little live-stock business, and proposed that the roadshould unite with him in building up a business in shipping dressed beef,providing refrigerator cars that would carry the product the year round.He would furnish the business if they would provide the cars. Theroad welcomed the proposal to accept the new business, but they wouldnot build refrigerator cars. "Will you haul the cars, if I build themmyself?" said Mr. Swift. The management answering "yes," hearranged for the building of ten of the best refrigerator cars then made,and put them into immediate use. This was the origin of his privateI02 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDcar lines. During the twenty-five years' that followed, that is duringMr. Swift's lifetime, these ten cars grew into thousands.For the dressed-beef industry, which was the original business, didnot remain that alone. Eastern prejudice once broken down and Chicagodressed beef being recognized as the best in the world, an insistentdemand arose for fresh mutton and then for fresh pork and finally for allsorts of fresh meats, transported in refrigerator cars, and the dressed­beef business expanded into the vast fresh-meat industry. Few thingsin industrial and commercial history have wrought such a revolution inbusiness methods and expansion as the refrigerator car.In I905 Charles E. Russell, in Everybody's Magazine, told the storyof Mr. Swift's relation to the first successful use of the refrigerator car.His articles were written in a far from friendly spirit, and this makesall the more interesting the following enforced tribute to Mr. Swift:A man named Tiffany had lately invented and was trying to introduce a refri­gerator car ..... Mr. Swift studied this scheme and gradually unfolded in his minda plan having the prospect of enormous profits-or enormous disaster. When hisplan was matured he offered it to certain railroad companies. It was merely that therailroads should operate the refrigerator cars summer and winter, and that he shouldfurnish them with fresh dressed meats for the Eastern market. This proposal therailroads promptly rejected.Thus thrown upon his own resources Mr. Swift determined to make the desperatecast alone. Commercial history has few instances of a courage more genuine. Therisk involved was great. The project was wholly new: not only demand and supplyhad to be created, but all the vast and intricate machinery- �f marketing. Failuremeant utter ruin. Mr. Swift accepted the hazard. He built refrigerator cars underthe Tiffany and other patents and began to ship out dressed meats, winter andsummer.The trade regarded the innovation as little less than insanity. Mr. Swift'simmediate downfall was generally prophesied on all sides, and truly only a giant inwill and resources could have triumphed, so beset. He must needs demonstrate thatthe refrigerator car would do its work, that the meat would be perfectly preservedand then he must overcome the deep-seated prejudices of the people, combat theopposition of local butchers, establish markets and distribute products. All this hedid. People in the East found that Chicago dressed beef was better and cheaperthan theirs, the business slowly spread, branch houses were established in everyEastern city and the Swift establishment began to thrive. By 1880 the experimentwas an indubitable success.As soon as it was discovered that Mr. Swift was right a great revolution sweptover the meat and cattle industries, and eventually over the whole business of supplyingthe public with perishable food products. The other packing houses at the stock­yards went into the dressed-meat trade, refrigerator cars ran in every direction, ship­ments of cattle on the hoof declined, the great economy of the new process broughtsaving to the customer and profit to the producer, and the new order began to workvast and unforeseen changes in the life and customs of the nation.GUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIFT 103Mr. Russell goes on to declare "Gustavus F. Swift the chief founderand almost the creator of the refrigator car as a factor in modern condi­tions" and "really the most remarkable figure H in the packing industryof Chicago. It is certain that the man who made the refrigerator carthe factor it has become in business was a benefactor of mankind, forin the conditions of our modern life he feeds the world, carrying to everypart of it perishable foods of every other part.The firm of Hathaway & Swift was no longer in existence. When in1877-78 Mr. Swift decided that the future belonged, not to the cattlebuyers, but to the packers, and decided that the firm must enter the. packing business or take a back seat in the developments he foresaw,Mr. Hathawaydrew back. He refused to enter the packing business.He clung to the idea that the true theory was to buy cattle in Chicagoand ship them alive to the eastern market. With his clear foresightof impending changes Mr. Swift knew that this would be a fatal policyto follow for any firm aspiring to the largest success. The partnerstherefore separated.This change did not immediately take Mr. Swift out of the businessof buying cattle. In an interview some years ago Louis F. Swift wasreported as saying:I can remember when my father bought all the cattle we handled. He did notneed any help. Then came the time when he had to go to the packing house andoffices and I took up the buying alone and did all of it. My five brothers followed me.I well remember when we were able to ship one whole car of beef in one day. Itmarked an epoch in our business. ·But while this evolution was going forward and the father was train­ing his sons to assist him in Chicago, other important developmentswere taking place. He saw that he needed a partner to care for theeastern end of the business, someone in whose integrity and businessability he had confidence. His mind turned to his brother Edwin C.Swift, who was ten years his junior. Edwin had some time before goneto the Pacific Coast. Letters sent to his last address in San Franciscodid not find him. They were returned. He had left San Franciscowithout directions for forwarding his mail. But Mr. Swift had set hismind on securing him as a partner, and he now did a characteristicthing. He called in one of his cousins who was in his employ, handedhim a large sum of money, and said: "Take this, you will need it. Iwant you to find Edwin. Last heard from he was in San Francisco.Where he went from there it is up to you to find out. But fail not tobring him to me. He may refuse and put up all kinds of objections, butI04 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDfail not to bring himjust the same." The messenger spent a week in SanFrancisco without result. Finally he found the name he was after in arailroad contractor's office and learned that the gang Swift was with wasseveral hundred miles away following the engineers across the RockyMountains. After weeks of travel and many adventures he found his manin charge of the gang with the engineers and explained to him his errand.Edwin said, "What does G. F. want of me?" The cousin answered, "Icannot tell. I know this. He wanted you enough to foot the expenses ofthis trip. He charged me, ' Bring him without fail.' " Edwin said, "I amhere bound by contract. I cannot go if I would; so do not bother mefurther." But the cousin had the impressive and imperative charge ofG. F. so impressed on his mind that he continued, as he says, "to remindhim of his duty" daily, saying to him, "You must know G. F. wouldnot have gon�e to this trouble and expense unless it meant something ofgreat importance to you as well as to himself. You know Gustave. Youknow he would not have done all this without good reasons. I havebeen more than two months on this trip thus far and I will not returnwithout you." It took two weeks to part Edwin from his job and gethim started for Chicago and the fortune his brother was offering him.An old horse was found, and they started through the wilderness forOgden, two hundred miles away, riding and walking alternately-theold-time method, perhaps, of "ride and tie." I regret that I do not knowthe story of the meeting of the brothers when the cousin delivered Edwinat the office of his older brother. Edwin was then twenty-nine and G. F.thirty-nine. Mr. Swift must have had a good deal of confidence in bisyoung brother, for he made him his partner and sent him to representthe firm in the East, with headquarters in Boston. The business at theeastern end was done under the trade name of Swift Brothers, but thename of the company was G. F. Swift & Company.It could not have been long after the refrigerator cars of Mr. Swiftbegan to appear in Boston that the following incident is said to haveoccurred. I give it in the words of the cousin already quoted in a letterwritten August 20, 1920, forty years after the event. Referring to thefact that when Mr. Swift was an operator in Brighton he had dealtquite extensively with the Stock-Yards Bank at that place, frequentlyborrowing money and having a well-established credit, the letter says:When it became known that G. F. Swift was actually shipping dressed beef intoNew England he happened to be in Brighton. He called at the bank for accommoda­tion. They declined to loan him any more money. He said, "What is the matter?Do lowe you anything?" "No." "How have I lost my credit?" The presidentof the bank said, "If we lend you money you would probably use it in furthering yourGUST A VUS FRANKLIN SWIFT 105scheme to injure our business." G. F. Swift told me this little story, enjoying itvery much. The parties got rather warm, when Mr. Swift started to leave the bank."Gentlemen," he called loudly, " Yes, I will cause grass to grow and flourish iri youryards "-a prediction which has long since been fulfilled. The opposition he foundin Lowell, Boston, New York, Baltimore, and other places and how he overcame itis history.He did not leave the task of finding an eastern market entirely to others.His brother Edwin C. and he himself worked the field together andseparately. They adopted a liberal policy toward the trade. In themore important centers they either engaged the leading meat dealer astheir agent or entered into partnership with him, to his great advantage.They formed in a few years nearly a hundred of these partnerships.They shared their prosperity with the trade. This policy was popularand gained them both friends and business. It was a part of the servicethey rendered the community, and not less a service because it provedprofitable. Mr. Swift had no sympathy with the practice of somepackers, whose first appearance in a town was as rivals to the butchers ofthe place whom they were powerful enough to drive out of business.In the early years Mr. Swift himself or his brother visited all the largercities and many smaller ones and arranged these agencies or businessassociations, and wherever they went the refrigerator car followed. Atthe beginning that car was far from perfect and occasioned many losses,but every year it was improved. I have referred to the confidentprophecies of Mr. Swift's certain failure. Few now living know thestruggle through which he fought his way to success during the firstfive years. But he did not fail. Every year found him on firmerground. Business increased. Operations expanded, and in 1885 thefirm was incorporated as Swift & Company with a capital stock of$300,000. Mr. Swift became and remained president. This was onlyseven or eight years after the founding of the business, and it w�s still,in comparison with what it has since become, an infant industry. Butless than two years later, so rapid was the development, the capital wasincreased to $3,000,000, a tenfold increase.After the refrigerator car came the refrigerator ship, and with thatthe extension of the business to England and the Continent. If theintroduction of Western dressed meat to the American seaboard hadbeen difficult, it can easily be understood that putting it on the overseasmarket would seem impossible. But this tremendous achievement wasaccomplished, not by Mr. Swift alone, but by all the packers. It issaid that Mr. Swift made as many as twenty trips abroad in this <greatundertaking. He is pictured as getting up every morning in LondonI06 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDfor weeks together at three o'clock and going to the great market andattending personally to the handling of his beef, keeping it so openlydisplayed that it could not be overlooked. The story is told of a great"dinner where the finest roast of beef that could be found was to be served.It was prodigiously relished. "The Scotchmen claimed it for Scotland,the Englishmen for England." The dealer who furnished it was sentfor and asked to tell the diners whether it was English beef or Scotch."Well, gentlemen," said the dealer, "that beef isn't English, nor yetagain is it Scotch. That beef is American chilled beef, dressed inChicago and sent here by refrigerator car and refrigerator steamer."The campaign to conquer the English market was long and hard,requiring immense courage, tact, and perseverance, but in the end itwas brilliantly successful.This is not the story of a great business but of the man who made ita great business. And yet the man so identified himself with thebusiness that it is difficult to differentiate the two. Mr. Swift origi­nated the business, made it, worked out its marvelous success, anddominated it to the end of his life. It is one of the marvels of the storythat this extraordinary man developed with the business that grew fromnothing to such gigantic proportions and expanded in so many directions-a business that in the course of twenty-five years unfolded into sucha bewildering multiplicity of undertakings. But it never became toogreat or multiform for this quiet, masterful man.One of the most remarkable things in this evolution relates to theby-products of the packing industry, In the early days the only by­products to which any attention was given were the hides, tallow, andtongues. Everything else that was not edible was sheer waste. Gradu­ally in 1880 began the transformation of this waste into profitableby-products. One of the first of these was oleomargarine. Thenfollowed glue. In the last year of Mr. Swift's life the company turnedout eight million pounds of glue. Beef extract, pepsin, soap, oil, fertili­zer, and more than a score of other by-products followed, until every­thing in or on a meat animal was utilized. All this meant vastly morethan profit to the packer. It meant more money to the. farmer for hislive stock and to the public cheaper meat, and at the same time providedmany things, some never known before, that contribute to the generalwelfare.Mr. Swift began business in Chicago with little capital. He was ayoung man, and one wonders where and how he acquired the skill thatenabled him to launch his new packing enterprise and meet the demandsGUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIFT 107its growth laid upon him. The first few years must have been filledwith anxiety, as they also were with unremitting toil. He workedmuch longer hours than any of his employees. Mr. Ellis, the cousin,joined him in Chicago in 1880 and before going to work was a guest inhis house. He says: "I found Mr. Swift a very busy man. He didpractically all the buying at that period. Five o'clock in the morn­ing he was off on horseback, pants tucked into, his bOQts-a streakof dust visible much longer than he was." It was only extraordinaryfinancial ability and daily overtime toil that achieved the success ofthose early years. He was matched against some of the ablest businessmen of his day, or, for that matter, of any day, all of whom were strug­gling for supremacy in what was a new industry in the world of business.They drove each other to well-nigh superhuman efforts to carry theirproducts around the globe. Expansion and ever greater expansionwas called for. The outstanding illustration of this is the successiveestablishment of branch houses. As has been said, Swift & Companywas incorporated in 1885 and within two years increased its capitalstock tenfold. Its first branch was established in :t888 in Kansas City,Missouri, Two years later the Omaha branch followed. In 1892another was built at St. Louis. Then followed St. Joseph, Missouri, in1896-97, St. Paul ,in 1897, and Fort Worth, Texas, in 1902. These wereall completely equipped packing-plants, with stockyards adjacent,each of which developed into a great enterprise. They were, in everycase, opened only after the most painstaking and exhaustive examination.The establishment of the branch plant at St. Joseph illustrates Mr. Swift'smethods. His attention had been repeatedly called to St. Joseph as aplace presenting peculiar advantages for a Swift & Company packing­house before he began to consider the matter seriously. When hedecided to take it up he accepted the views of no one else, but wenthimself to St. Joseph to look the ground over. He not only examinedthe town, .its location, and its people, but," drove in a road wagon fordays and days in all directions, examined the quality of the soil, got factsand figures about corn production, studied the transportation facilities,made minute inquiries as to the character of the farming population,"and only after this careful personal investigation decided to establishthe St. Joseph branch.Meanwhile by this time, 1896, the, capitalization of the company hadbeen increased to $15,000,oc)0. From time to time it continued to growas the business expanded, reaching before 1903, $25,000,000 In thatyear, the last year of his life, Mr. Swift had been in the packing business108 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDtwenty-five years. One ought to say, only twenty-five years. ForInthat brief peroid he had not only founded an industry which in 1918transacted a volume of business second only to that of the United StatesSteel Corporation, but had himseif built it up to vast proportions andestablished the policies and methods which have led to its extraordinarydevelopment.It is not surprising that Mr. Swift did not live to an advanced age.The physical, mental, and nervous strain of the twenty-five yearsfollowing 1877 were enough to wear out any man. He worked harderthan any man in his employ. His mind was incessantly .engaged oilthe new and perplexing problems of a business that developed andexpanded in every direction with bewildering rapidity. To meet thedemands for new capital to finance a business that grew with such leapsand bounds and every day called aloud for more and more money whichmust be supplied would have driven an ordinary man mad. Mr. Swiftgrew with his business into an extraordinary man, but the Gargantuanappetite of the business he had created for more and ever more fundsto finance it must have exhausted even his store of nervous energy.He ought to be alive today, eighty-two years old. BuJ he died, when hewas in the full maturity of his powers, at sixty-three, March 29, 1903-At that time there were in the various establishments controlled by hiscompany above 7,000 employees, and the yearly business exceeded$160,000,000."A man of vast and various capabilities, his genius for commercialtransactions and his excellent judgment placed him high among thecaptains of industry." This was among the things said of him afterhis death. "He began life in the humblest way among the sand dunesof Cape Cod and closed it as one of the .great powers in the indus­trial world." The newspapers spoke of his industry, frugality, sharp­sightedness, clear-headedness, cleverness in molding circumstances andmanaging affairs, quiet resoluteness, concentration upon a given purpose,reticence, and almost diffidence. It was said: "He talked little andaccomplished much and let the results talk for him. He was averseto publicity, preferring to be unknown in any other way than throughhis ordinary business connections. He was attentive to details and akeen critic of the men in his employment." The pains he took in caringfor his meats is illustrated by the story of his calling a driver from theseat of his wagon one day to show him where aninch or so of meat wasexposed and making him carefully cover it. If he was a keen critic ofhis men he usually helped the victim by giving the criticism a humorousGUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIFT 109turn. He had a good salesman, sharp as a tack, but untidy in hisappearance. One day Mr. Swift met him when he had on a woolenfrock with a world of grease on it, which had not seen the laundryfor several weeks. Mr. Swift inquired what the market for tallow was.Being told that it was about 4! cents he said he thought the price wasgoing lower, and if he were the salesman he would have the frock renderedout in order to get the full market value of the tallow in it. The sales­man took the lesson to heart, but he must have had, in later years, manya laugh over the humorous way in which it had been taught. This veinof humor was often in evidence. One of his buyers rode up to him inthe Yards one day and reminded him that he had told the buyer he mighttake his vacation at any convenient time on giving a few days' notice,and said he would like to go the following Monday. Just then a veryunlikely bunch of cattle passed. Mr. Swift asked who owned them.The buyer said, "Swift & Company and I bought them." "Whenare they going to be used?" / Mr. Swift asked. The buyer said, "Theyare cutters for Russell." Mr. Swift quickly responded that he wassorry for Russell, and he was also sorry the cattle buyer had not startedon his vacation the Monday before.One who grew up under Mr. Swift and is still a part of the greatbusiness says of him: "While his criticisms were severe, they seemedalways based on a desire to build up a bigger, broader, and more self­reliant manhood. He was one of those rare individuals whose contactwith his fellow-men was a constructive and beneficent influence." Itwas this that "invariably made the criticism palatable."There was something very human in this big man's relations withhis employees and sometimes something very Christian. A not verydesirable employee resigned and went to one of his competitors. Apublic controversy springing up about the packers, this former employeesent an anonymous letter to one of the daily papers assailing Mr. Swiftin a scandalous way. The original letter signed with the ex-employee'sname came into his hands. Time passed, and finally a minister came toMr. Swift to ask him to give this man a job, as he had lost his positionand was in desperate need. When shown the letter in which the manhad so misrepresented Mr. Swift the minister was dumbfounded andreturning to his protege told him he could do nothing for him. Theman himself then wrote to Mr. Swift, admitting that he had writtenthe letter, and appealed to him as a Christian to forgive him and ifpossible give him the means of supporting his family. This Mr. Swiftdid, and he remained on the pay-roll long after his employer's death.IIO THE UNIVERSITY RECORDThere was once published a collection of maxims attributed toMr. Swift. The three that follow are, I think, authentic.The best a man ever did shouldn't be his standard for the rest of his life.When a clerk tells you that he must leave the office because it is 5 o'clock, restassured that you will never see his name over a front door.The secret of all great undertakings is hard work and self-reliance. Given thesetwo qualities and a residence in the United States of America, a young man has nothingelse to ask for.In beginning this sketch I spoke of the enduring impression madeon me by Mr. Swift's personality in the only interview I ever had withhim. I went to the Stock Yards rather expecting he would be toobusy to see me. He was not in his office, and I found him outsideapparently at leisure. His talk was that of any ordinary man of business.But his face took me wholly by surprise. It was not the face of a typicalbusiness man, but that of a scholar, or a poet, or an artist. It looked likethe face of a man who might see visions and dream dreams. And his fun­damental characteristic as a man of affairs was his business imagination.From his youth up he was always seeing possibilities that other men couldnot see. He was like an explorer in a new country. Every step in advanceopened up new vistas. Every new achievement gave him a vision ofsomething bigger beyond. He was a man of business vision. Othermen sometimes scoffed at what they called his dreams. His partner lefthim when he proposed to sell Chicago dressed beef in eastern cities.When he saw the possibilities of the refrigerator car and had to borrowmoney he applied to a relative who had it to lend and who made thisreply to his appeal for a loan, "Stave, I will not trust you with a dollar inyour wild west scheme." Men about the Stock Yards referred to himas "that crazy man, Swift." But his visions were not of the "baselessfabric" sort. His idealism was of the most severely practical kind.His business imagination never played him false. It might soar amongthe clouds, but his Cape Cod conservatism kept his feet firmly on theground, and he walked with sure steps to his high achievements.Behind all his plans was the driving-power of tremendous and tirelessenergy. He worked early and late. When he was his own cattle buyerhe was up and off on horseback at five o'clock in the morning. Hisindomitable energy and purpose were never more in evidence than inthe triumphant campaign to make a market, against powerful combina­tions, for his superior product in eastern cities and in England. Forexample, having sent two or three carloads of dressed beef to Lowell,Massachusetts, which were readily sold, the market men combinedGUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIET IIIagainst him, agreeing to buy no more meat from him, signing a bond tothat effect. The next carload, therefore, at the end of the first dayhad made no sales. The agent in charge of the car wired to Mr. Swiftthe information of what had taken place and said, "No sale for beef inLowell. Shall I ship the car to Lawrence or where ?" As quick as thetelegraph wires could bring it, the message came back, "Sell it in Lowell."The second night the agent again wired, "No sales," and again asked,"Where shall I sell it?" He had hardly got his message away when Mr.Swift flashed back, "Sell it in Lowell." The next day anyone in Lowellcould buy Chicago dressed beef at his own price, and the carload was sold.A few days later Mr. Swift arrived in Lowell, in a few hours had a lotpurchased, trackage secured, and lumber for a market on the ground.Before the building was finished, Mr. Swift being again in town, oneof the principal market men called on him, acknowledged that he hadbeen in the combination against him, and having assumed the $500 losson the carload of meat that had been sacrificed, was received into associa­tion, and took charge of the new market. It was such purpose andenergy, combined with the superiority of his product, that Won for hima place in the eastern market. His success was no happy accident.He was no lucky child of fortune. He toiled as few men toil. Hecontended with difficulties such as few men meet, and he did it withsurpassing courage, patience, perseverance, purpose, and success.While all this was true, it was also true that he knew how to relax,and when the time came for rest he did not wish his rest to be disturbed.Like so many other men of tremendous driving-power he was a goodsleeper when the time for sleep came. "It was one of his chiefpoints,"says one who knows, �'that it was necessary to have plenty of sleep tobe efficient." He was therefore usually in bed by ten o'clock andrefused to have his hours of rest broken into even by calls that to theordinary man would have seemed imperative. There is a well­authenticated story that late one night the telephone rang persistentlyand roused one of the maids. She called Mr. Swift, but he refused to go tothe telephone. The maid, however, was troubled and said they wantedto tell him that "his packing-house was burning down." All he saidwas, "Have them tell me what happened at seven o'clock in themorning." Extinguishing the fire was not his part of the business.That would not begin till after breakfast. He knew how to conservehis strength and to apply it when it would be effective.It must be added to all this that he had an undoubted genius forbusiness. Some men gain wealth because opportunities are thrustII2 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDupon them. But opportunity never knocked at G. F. Swift's door.It was he that knocked at her door, or, rather, he beat the door downand forced an entrance. It was so when, to the astonishment of allthe other boys of the neighborhood, he borro�ed money and went toBrighton for his first drove of pigs. It was so when, hardly more thana boy, he invested his small savings in the business of buying and sellingcattle. He forced the door of opportunity when he took his family toChicago and risked the capital he acquired in matching his skill as adealer against the veteran traders of the Stock Yards. Most of all wasthis true when he conceived the daring project of sending Chicago chilledbeef to the eastern market and immediately afterward ventured every­thing on the success of the refrigerator car. What looks now like avictorious march to great success was in reality a ceaseless struggleagainst odds in which, every step was won by a stroke of sheer businessgenius.He developed as a business man naturally and surely with everynew enlargement of his affairs. For the first twenty years this was agradual growth. But when in 1877-78 he founded an enterprise whichquickly and beyond any possible forecast developed into a vast businessindustry the situation changed suddenly and radically. The difficultieswere enormous, the complications beyond measure, the demands onhis business abilities new, complex, incalculable. His power to borrowmoney in large sums, his inventive genius in connection with his, chilling­rooms and the imperfect refrigerator car, his tact and resourcefulnessin finding markets for his goods, his ability to manage a new, and greatand rapidly growing business, all were taxed to the utmost. Thewonder is that he grew as fast as the business did and at every stage ofits development measured up to its demands. He had a microscopicand a telescopic mind. He had an eye on and kept in touch with thesmallest details of his business. The color ofthe paint on his wagonsand cars he determined. He wrote explicit directions to his representa­tives everywhere, usually closing his letters with these words: "Pleaseanswer and say that you have carried out these instructions." In thesame way he -decided the great questions of policy. He was equallyat home in the least things and the-greatest. He saw clearly the thingsunder his eye, but just as clearly the things far off.Mr. Swift became a man of large wealth. But the accumulation ofwealth was by no means his supreme aim in life. He was enamored notof money but of achievement. For many years he lived in a modesthome on Emerald A venue near the Stock Yards and among his em-GUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIFT 1I3ployees. He had no taste for display. He had none of the arrogance ofwealth. He valued money for what he could do with it in his developingbusiness and in helping others. The extraordinary expansion of hisbusiness with its ever-growing demands for the investment of new capitalabsorbed his profits for some years, but as soon as he began to see hisway clearly he began to give widely and freely. Possibly 1890, the year Imet him, was not far from the beginning of this period of larger andfreer giving. He gave a large sum toward building the Annie MaySwift Hall at Northwestern University, a memorial of a daughter Mr.and Mrs. Swift had lost in 1889, when she was twenty-two years old.He gave the initial $25,000 for the Hyde Park y.M.C.A. building.The wideness of his philanthropies may be judged by the followingstatement made at his funeral: "His name is hidden in the cornerstones of a thousand churches and colleges." Allowing for exaggeration,the words suggest the liberality and catholicity of his giving. What hasbeen said to me by the best-informed man on the subject in Chicago isundoubtedly true, that if he had lived to a more advanced age he wouldhave been known as one of our greatest Chicago givers.The last paragraph indicates that Mr. Swift had interests outside hisbusiness. That, indeed, was absorbing enough to leave little room foranything else. It left him scant time for general society. He was toobusy for club life. He shrank from publicity and did not take thatinterest or that place in public affairs which a man of his abilities andwealth, perhaps, should have taken. It is not impossible that he wouldhave done this had his life been prolonged. It was unfortunately cutshort just as he was reaching the time when his sons began to relievehim from the more absorbing cares and labors of business. Had helived they would have given him opportunities for leisure he had notenjoyed since he was fourteen years old. Whether he would havetaken these opportunities I do not know.But he had two great interests outside his business. These werehis family and the church. I have already spoken of the birth of sixchildren who came to Mr. and Mrs. Swift before they made their homein Chicago in r875. Five more came to them in that city, Herbert L.,George Hastings, Gustavus F., Jr., Ruth May, and Harold Higgins­the last a trustee of the University of Chicago, of which he is an alumnus.Ten of these children lived to maturity. This large family was, initself, enough to keep a father and a mother both busy. That they werenot neglected is evident from the way in which the sons grew up to taketheir father's place in the great and growing industry he had established.II4 '{HE UNIVERSITY RECORDThe oldest son, Louis F. Swift, succeeded to the presidency, and hisyounger brothers were united with him in the management. It is anunusual example of family solidarity, with the mother still living as thecenter of the family life. I do not need to point out how efficiently thesons have guided the remarkable development of the great business leftin their hands. Their father left it when the annual transactions were$160,000,000, and the sons have increased these to over $1,200,000,000.The children not only inherited a great business from their father, buthis spirit of liberality seems also to have descended to them, the secondinheritance being better than the first.When Mr. Swift died he said in his will that Mrs. Swift understoodhis views and wishes as to benevolences, and he fully trusted her tocarry them out. She has very nobly done this and has been asunobtrusive in her large benevolences as was her husband before her.Mr. Swift was as devoted a son as he was a husband and father.His father dying soon after he made his home in Chicago, his motherbecame the object of his tender care. The old house was taken downand a new and much finer one built for his mother, and her decliningyears made comfortable by his constant care.Mr. Swift united with the Methodist church of his native place inhis youth, and religion was as we have seen one of the three great interestsof his life. The husband and wife were one in their devotion to thechurch. On February 18, 1877, less than two years after they settledin Chicago, the Winter Street, now Union Avenue, Methodist Churchwas organized with a membership of nine persons. Among these wereMr. and Mrs. Swift. Mr. Swift was made a trustee and also a steward.His home on Emerald Avenue was within three blocks of the church,and the meetings of the official boards of the church were frequentlyheld there. He gave the church the same wise thought and faithfulservice he gave to his business. He was not only most faithful in hisattendance at church services but manifested a living interest in theattendance of his employees. Rev. J. F. Clancy, of the Union AvenueChurch, says:It was no unusual thing for him, in case of absence from church services of hisemployes who were members or attendants of the church, to call them into his officeand in a fatherly way impress .on them the value of the church and its services; andthrough his strong and far-reaching influence many persons were brought into a Chris­tian experience and into useful membership in the ch�rch ..... Mr. Swift was nevertoo busy for the work of the church ..... He was much interested in the problemsand work of city missions and he gave valuable aid in establishing and strengtheningchurches in needy places.GUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIFT lISFor twenty years Mr. Swift continued to live on Emerald Avenueamong or very near his employees. In 1898 he moved two miles directlyeast and built a spacious house in a spacious lot at 4848 Ellis Avenue.His attention was immediately centered on a new religious enterprise,but he neither forgot nor neglected the little church near the StockYards but continued his official relations with it and his liberal interestin it.The new religious work that followed his removal was the foundingof the St. James Methodist Church, which has become one of the greatchurches of Chicago. He and the late N. W. Harris were intimatelyassociated in the origin and development of St. James. The first meet­ing of the first board of trustees was held in Mr. Swift's house, Septem­ber 7, I895, while he still lived on Emerald Avenue. He and Mr. Harrisgave themselves without stint to the upbuilding of the church. Whena thing needed to be done which seemed to him to depend on the two ofthem, it is said that Mr. Swift would say, "Well I will give half of itand, Harris, you give the other half." I have no doubt it was sometimesthe other way round. After his death, in token of their affectionateremembrance of him, the people made the north window of the churcha memorial of Mr. Swift. Six years later his portrait was hung in one ofthe church rooms, and in 1914-15 Mrs. Swift and her children presentedto the church the great memorial organ. Seven years before this,in 1907 the Union Avenue Parish House, consisting of a parsonage, gymnasium,baths, bowling alleys, library, and reading room, and, later, a playground, both con­nected with the Union Avenue Church, were given and endowed by Mrs. G. F. Swiftand the other members of her family, as a memorial to Mr. Swift, in the place where,and among the people with whom he had lived for many years and raised his family.These institutions are now ministering in a very helpful way to many young peopleand are open to Protestant, Roman Catholic and Jew alike,It is interesting to hear the pastor, Mr. Clancy, add to this statement thatMrs. G. F. Swift, the daughter, Mrs. Helen Swift Neilson and the six sons, all maintaina fine, strong interest in Union Avenue Church and Parish House, and contributeregularly and liberally for the support of the church. Mr. Louis F. Swift is one of thetrustees of the church and Mr. Edward F. Swift and Mr. G. F. Swift, Jr., are membersof the Parish House Board of Managers.Devotion to a great memory has not exhausted itself in these acts ofbeneficence, but has added one of the most beautiful of all in the G. F.Swift Memorial Church in Sagamore, the home of his boyhood and theplace of his spiritual birth.In the final estimate of a man's life the decisive question is not,Did he gain wealth and power? but, Did he serve mankind? Mr. SwiftII6 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDcertainly achieved an illustrious success in business, and in doingthis displayed extraordinary qualities. But of him also it must be asked,Did he serve his fellow-men? One thing is clear, that Mr. Swift andhis associates in the packing industry, in the best way that has so farbeen devised, did one inestimable service, among many others, in feed­ing the world. It is difficult to see how this could have been donewithout the packer so economically and successfully, if indeed it couldhave been done at all. Mr. Swift was consciously striving to serve hisgeneration, and his gigantic labors were a service beyond estimate tothe public welfare.This sketch began with an account of a gift by Mr. Swift towardthe founding of the University of Chicago and of later frequent andmost generous contributions by his wife and children to the same institu­tion. But these contributions. only hint at the ceaseless flow of similargifts to churches, colleges, universities, missions, the Y.M.C.A., theY.W.C.A., hospitals, charities. The fountain of benevolence openedby Mr. Swift during his own lifetime has never ceased to flow but hasrather sent out increasing and widening streams to bless the world.An old employee and trusted friend, having read this sketch, wishesme to conclude it with these words: "A rugged faith in his Christianbelief, a self-reliant hope and confidence in life and its problems, anda thoughtful charity for mankind sum up the lovable characteristics ofthis splendid man."f3By EDWIN BRANT FROSTIt is the lot of few men to be known by a symbol to all their fellow­workers in their particular branch of endeavor. Such was the case forSherburne Wesley Burnham, for many years senior partner in theastronomical work at the Yerkes Observatory and titular professor ofpractical astronomy in the University of Chicago. It was a symbol ofscientific precision, of remarkable visual discrimination, of painstaking,tireless observation. If followed by a number, as � 732, it denoted adouble star, discovered as such by Mr. Burnham; if standing by ameasurement, it signified that he had made it and vouched for it. Beforehim three great observers of double stars had been symbolized by Greekletters: � for Wilhelm Struve of Pulkowa, the great pioneer in thediscovery of binary stars; O� for his equally eminent son and successor,Otto; � for Baron Dembowski. It would be presumption for most mento dignify themselves by the simplicity of a Greek letter, but it was notso for Mr. Burnham, and the symbol will endure in the history ofastronomy.The son of Roswell O. Burnham and Miranda Foote Burnham,Sherburne W. was born on December 12, 1838, in the town of Thet­ford, Vermont, which was also the birthplace of his father. Across theConnecticut, if the wind was up the valley, the chapel bell at Dart­mouth could be faintly heard from their house. The winding road tothe north led to the Academy on Thetford Hill. Hither the youthcame after the years at the little red schoolhouse near his home. Theyhad an outlook from the "Hill": from Mount Ascutney, 30 miles downthe river, the view included the New Hampshire mountains, Croydon,Cardigan, Smart's, Mount Cube, Moosilauke, and even MountLafayette, 40 miles to the northeast. They could see the heavens, too,and were well grounded in Burritt's Geography of the Heavens. I donot doubt that it was here that Mr. Burnham's first interest wasawakened for astronomy and for nature in its grander forms. TheAcademy sent many youths to college; but not Mr. Burnham. Hestudied shorthand at home, and found his way to New York, where hesecured a position as stenographer long before the invention of the'caligraph.' While in the employ of Fowler and Wells, then of phreno­logic note, Burnham went to London, in 1861; there he bought his firsttelescope. It was good enough to view the earth, but not the heavens,II7!I8 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDDuring the Civil War we find Burnham serving as stenographicreporter for the military courts during the occupancy of New Orleansby the Union troops. He also reported the Constitutional Conventionsin Louisiana and other states.In 1866 he came to Chicago, where he established a partnership withJames T. Ely and A. L. Bartlett as "Short Hand Writers, 'OfficialReporters of the Courts of Chicago.'"On March 24, 1868, in Chicago, he married Mary Cleland, daughterof Matthew and Nancy Quigg Cleland.An accidental meeting in Chicago with Mr. Alvan G. Clark in 1869,as the latter was returning from the total eclipse, led him to orderhis third telescope from the celebrated firm of Alvan Clark & Sons.This was to be of 6-inch aperture, and the only stipulation was that itshould "do on double stars all that it was possible for any instrumentof that aperture to do." Mr. Burnham's interest in astronomy hadbeen directed almost exclusively to double stars, he could not say why,only that "it came about naturally, without effort or direction on mypart." The new instrument was received early in 1870 and was housedin a simple building, known as the "cheese box" to the neighbors, backof his house on Vincennes Avenue.Mr. Burnham's vision was extraordinary, particularly in detectingthe duplicity of stars. With that small instrument, which was a master­piece of optical skill, he discovered 451 stars to be double which had thusfar escaped detection with more powerful telescopes in any other observa­tory. In 1873 and 1874 he sent five lists of new double stars to theRoyal Astronomical Society of London, which were published in theMonthly Notices of that society. These covered the first 300 of hisdiscoveries in this field. He was elected a 'Fellow of the Society inNovember, 1874, before he had received scientific recognition at home.At first he was not in a position to measure the separation andangles of the components of his double stars, but he entered into cor­respondence with the skilful Polish observer, Baron Ercole Dembowski,then living at Gallarate in Italy. �'s vision was better adapted tomeasurement than to discovery, and he sent his measures to Mr. Burn­ham so that they could be included in these catalogues. All of Dem­bowski's measurements of the Burnham stars were published at Romein 1883, after the Baron's death, under the auspices of the AccademiaReale dei Lincei, under the editorship of the eminent astronomersSchiaparelli and Otto Struve. Dembowski had a larger telescope thanBurnham, but one of the most frequent notes in his observations of theSHERBURNE WESLEY BURNHAM II9Burnham stars is "difficilissima." The distinguished editors of thatvolume make the notable comment which may be translated: "Thedouble and multiple stars discovered in recent years by Mr. S. W.Burnham constitute the most important addition that has been made tothis department of astronomy since the catalogues of Dorpat and ofPulkowa." Similar lists of new discoveries were published in theAstronomische N achrichten or the publications of the Royal AstronomicalSociety until 1879, when the number of � doubles had increased to 733.It should be borne in mind that Mr. Burnham's work at the telescopewas done at the close of the exacting labors of the day, usually not lessthan eight hours on six days in the week. It has been said of him that"in the evening, he went into his 'cheese box' and studied the heavenstill daylightdrove him to his bed."Meanwhile, he had been given access to the splendid 18.s-inchDearborn telescope of the Chicago Astronomical Society, which throughthe generosity of Judge Scammon had been mounted on a special towerconnected with the old University of Chicago at Thirty-fourth Street.For a time, in fact, he acted as director of the Dearborn Observatory.With this 18.s-inch he began his accurate measurements of angles anddistances, besides discovering 413 new double stars. He had used alarger telescope than the 6-inch on at least two other occasions: in 1874,the 9.4-inch Clark refractor at Dartmouth for ten nights, discovering24 new double stars; on one night, in 1874, he had the privilege of usingthe 26-inch refractor of the Naval Observatory at Washington, anddiscovered 14 new double stars. For some months in 1881, he wasattached to the new Washburn Observatory at the University of Wis­consin, as astronomer. Perhaps he regarded this as a test of whetherhe would care to follow astronomy as a vocation rather than as anavocation; but he soon resumed his court work in Chicago and it wasnot until the opening of the Lick Observatory in 1888 that he definitelybecame a professional astronomer, when the position of "astronomer"was offered to him. He had been on Mount Hamilton before, at therequest of the Lick trustees, to test its suitability for the site of the LickObservatory, observing there on 57 nights in the autumn of 1879.His highly favorable report fixed the choice of the site.It must have been a wonderful satisfaction to him to be able to usethe greatest refractor that had been built up to that time. The 36-inchobject-glass not only had the perfection of the smaller lenses which theClarks had made, but also had vastly greater power for revealing faintobjects and resolving close stars.120 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDThe life of California was very agreeable to Mr. Burnham. Heenjoyed roaming about the mountains and canyons, and in his trips toSan Francisco was associated with many very interesting men of variedexperience. He was an expert rifle shot, and, since the dry plates hadbecome available for photography, he had developed marked skill inphotography, and on occasions received prizes in competitions.Owing to certain internal conditions which developed at MountHamilton, Mr. Burnham resigned his position in 1892 and returned toChicago, where the life-position of clerk of the United States DistrictCourt was offered to him. His respect for some of the judges withwhom he had been intimately associated, Judge Blodgett, Judge Drum­mond, Judge Gresham, and Judge Fuller, afterward chief justice of theUnited States Supreme Court, amounted to veneration. He had a greatcircle of friends among the lawyers, but few knew him to be Burnham,the astronomer. Mr. Burnham was always hospitable to astronomerspassing through Chicago, and it was almost a breach of politeness forsuch a visitor not to call at the Federal Building and go to lunch withMr. Burnham=-not at one of the clubs, but at some restaurant in theLoop supposed to have a slight flavor of Bohemia.From 1897 to 1902 Mr. Burnham was receiver of the Chicago &Northern Pacific Railroad.Upon the opening of the Yerkes Observatory in 1897, Mr. Burnhamresumed active observations with a large telescope, coming to WilliamsBay on Saturday afternoon and observing the whole of Saturday andSunday nights, if the weather permitted, and then returning on Mondaymorning for his work as clerk of the courts. It was a familiar sight tosee a small, wiry figure coming up the hill from the station, after stoppingat the local hardware emporium to secure a bag of doughnuts. Whileresting over Sunday, or on cloudy nights, he preferred the couch in hisoffice to the bedchambers at his disposal in the houses of his friends, andit was only by some ruse that he could occasionally be induced to cometo Sunday dinner on the hill. His bodily vigor and endurance were amarvel to his associates. When he was nearly seventy, he wouldobserve for eight, ten, and even thirteen hours on a winter's night. Irecall two full, successive nights of his observing when the temperatureoutside touched 17° and IS° below zero, and it was not much warmerinside the dome. On such occasions a red circle was likely to appeararound his eye, where the cold eyepiece had almost frozen the skin.Mr. Burnham was ingenious and essentially "practical." He hadlittle interest in pure science and he had no patience with the school ofSHERBURNE WESLEY BURNHAM 121astronomers who carried the refinement of their observation and com­putations beyond the point of common sense+beyond the accuracy oftheir premises. He had pronounced opinions of highly trainedastronomers, on duty with fine instruments, who would spend manymonths or years in investigating their micrometer to the finest detail,but never afterward made any notable measurements with it. Hisvery systematic method of observing and careful arrangement of theprogram made it possible for him to accomplish an almost incredibleamount of observational work. He has measured on one night withthe great 40-inch telescope as many as 100 pairs, aside from settings onothers which could not be resolved on the particular night. Such anamount of observing would be regarded as a good season's work by someobservers. Mr. Burnham deserves the credit of introducing into hisbranch of astronomy the practical method of working as long as thenight lasted -rather as an engineering proposition than an academicaccomplishment. In fact, Mr. Burnham was rather sensitive aboutbeing called a "professor," because of some of its implications in thepublic mind. His tastes did not run to academic ceremony or gatheringsand I do not know that he ever gave a public lecture. Although henever did any teaching, nevertheless by his methods and example heset the pace for the world in the observation of double stars, andthanks to his example American leadership in this field is universallyconceded.In his work at the Lick Observatory and afterward at the Yerkes,he recognized it to be more important to secure accurate measurementsof known double stars than to discover new ones. Thus at MountHamilton he increased his list by only 254 new doubles, and at theYerkes he recorded only 8. In later years, in fact, he avoided them,occasionally mentioning that he had seen an interesting new doublebut had made no record of it. The total number of {3 stars is 1,336.His published work was very extensive; computations for currentdouble-star work are not long, and before he left the observatory toreturn to Chicago he had generally recorded and tabulated his workcompletely for the two nights previous.In his earliest work he realized the great importance of having acatalogue of all known double stars and began such a compilation inmanuscript. This was twice revised and extended and attempts wereearly made to secure its publication. These finally resulted in thegreat General Catalogue of Double Stars within I2IO of the North Pole,the publication of which was undertaken by the Carnegie Institution122 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDof Washington. During 1905 and 1906 the composition of this volu­minous quarto in two parts, with a total of 1,361 pages, was begun bythe University of Chicago Press, under Mr. Burnham's personal super­vision; his very neat and complete manuscript made the accomplishmentof this difficult task relatively short. The work contains the positionand history of 13,665 double stars.The first volume of the "Publications of the Yerkes Observatory,"issued in 1900, was a General Catalogue of 1290 Double Stars, discoveredby Mr. Burnham between 1871 and 1899. A similar quarto, Volume IIof the "Publications of the Lick Observatory," issued in 1894, recordedhis observations made there with the 36-inch and r z-inch refractorsbetween 1888 and 1892.Much of the work of the observer in astronomy consists in layingfoundations from which future observers, perhaps after the lapse ofscores of years, may derive important conclusions. This is also true inrespect to double stars. Accordingly Mr. Burnham's work will con­tinue to be fundamental for the greater number of objects which heobserved. Conscious of the superiority of the method of fixing therelative position of a star with the micrometer attached to a long tele­scope, he made in recent years many observations which should serveas the basis for the future determination of the so-called proper motionsof the stars. These results were contained in the volume, also publishedby the Carnegie Institution of Washington, in 1913, entitled Measuresof Proper-Motion Stars Made with the Forty-Inch Refractor of the YerkesObservatory in the Years 1907 to 19I2.His own observations were of course very largely incorporated intothe great General Catalogue; but after that was printed, during the lastyears of his observation, he contributed six long papers of measures ofdouble stars to the Astronomische Nachrichten, 1907 to 19II, and a finalpaper appeared in the Astronomical Journal in 1918.Although Mr. Burnham measured micrometrically some nebulaewhile at the Lick Observatory, in general he was steadfast in his attentionto double stars. Seldom could he be diverted from his program, evenby the position of an interesting comet near the' field which he wasobserving. It was Suess, the eminent Austrian geologist, who calledthe comets "the vermin of the sky"; but we were very much pleasedwhen, on September 15, 1909, Mr. Burnham did relax enough to huntup the excessively faint speck which was Halley's comet and which hadbeen discovered on a photograph at Heidelberg two days before; thusMr. Burnham's eye was the first to see it on its return for its perihelionof 1910.SHERBURNE WESLEY BURNHAM 123The date of Mr. Burnham's retirement from active duty as a pro­fessor in the University under the present statute would have been atthe end of 1908; but somehow or other we avoided that matter until1914, when he was made emeritus. Although the 4o-inch telescope wasstill at his disposal, he did not come to use it. At seventy-six years thewear and tear of his busy life began to show slightly in his physicalstrength; we were sometimes able to persuade him not to observe allnight. His eye retained much of its keenness, but not quite all. Thiswas naturally not a matter for discussion with him; but whether ornot he recognized a slight failing in his wonderful vision, he ceased inthe last years to work on very close stars and adapted his programaccordingly to the proper-motion stars.He was no recluse, and readily made new acquaintances. He wasfond �f sports, and generally carried with him well-worn packs forduplicate whist; he did not play so well as to worry himself or hispartners, and it was customary for him on his return trip to Chicago,usually via the trolley to Harvard and the main line, to pick up a groupof three commercial travelers whose day coincided with his and thuspass the time of the trip.In his family life Professor Burnham was singularly happy. Hecelebrated his golden wedding three years ago with Mrs. Burnham,who survives him, as do his whole family of three sons and threedaughters, together with eight grandchildren.Mr. Burnham received the honorary degree of Master of Arts fromYale in 1878 and of Doctor of Science from Northwestern Universityin 1915. The Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society wasawarded to him in I894 and the Lalande Prize of the Academic desSciences in 1904.The funeral service was conducted by the University chaplain,Professor Soares, on March I4, I921, at Oakwood Chapel.1'HE UNIVERSITY CHAPELWhen, in December, 1910, the founder of the University announcedhis final gift of ten million dollars payable in ten annual instalments,he.expressed the desire that at least the sum of one million five hundredthousand dollars be used for the erection and furnishing of a UniversityChapel which should be a central and dominant feature of the Universitygroup. With a view to carrying out Mr. Rockefeller's wish the Boardof Trustees set apart the block between Woodlawn and Universityavenues and Fifty-eighth and Fifty-ninth streets as the site for theChapel group, and on July 5, 1918, authorized Mr. Bertram G. Goodhue,of New York, to prepare plans for the Founder's Chapel.Mr. Goodhue studied architecture under James Renwick. In 1891he entered the architectural firm of Cram and Wentworth which laterbecame Cram, Goodhue, and Ferguson. Since 1914, however, Mr.Goodhue has practiced by himself. Among the notable buildings inthe designing of which Mr. Goodhue has had an important part are theChapel of the United States Military Academy at West Point, and theChapel of the Intercession and the churches of St. Thomas, St. Bar­tholomew, and St. Vincent Ferrer, in New York City. The FirstBaptist Church of Pittsburgh was designed by him. Mr. Goodhuedesigned the Panama-California Exposition, at San Diego, in theSpanish style. The exquisite country club at Santa Barbara IS alsohis work. He recently won the competition for the new NebraskaState Capitol.While Mr. Goodhue's plans are not yet in final form they are sofar advanced that it is possible to publish proposed designs of the Chapeland the adjacent buildings. The Chapel will stand near the southeastcorner of the block but will be set back one hundred feet from Fifty­ninth Street and Woodlawn Avenue. Its outside extreme length will betwo hundred and eighty feet. Its length inside will be two hundred andthirty-two feet. The width of the nave between the piers will be forty­one feet and its height eighty-four feet six inches. It is interesting tocompare these dimensions with those of King's College Chapel, Cam­bridge, which is forty feet wide, eighty feet high, and two hundredeighty-nine feet long. The interior width through the transepts will beone hundred feet. The vaulting above the crossing will rise to a height124THE UNIVERSITY CHAPEL: EXTERIORProposed Design Rertram G. Goodlzut., Arrht'lertBertrant G. Goodhue, ArchitectTHE UNIVERSITY CHAPEL: INTERIORProposed DesignTHE UNIVERSITY CHAPEL I25of one hundred twenty-two feet six inches. The seating capacity willbe about two thousand.Above the crossing will rise a massive tower two hundred andsixteen feet in height, which will dominate not only the Chapel groupbut the adjacent quadrangles as well. The massive character of thebuilding within and without are best suggested by the accompanyingillustrations.It is proposed to include in the Chapel group a President's House,standing a: little to the east and north: of the present one, and alsobuildings for religious work among men and women of the University.These various buildings will be connected with cloisters which will unifythem architecturally with the great Chapel. A small chapel, thirty-sixfeet wide and eighty feet long, directly north of the great Chapel willprovide for smaller religious meetings. The buildings and cloisters willinclose a garden between the President's House and the nave of thechapel, and west of the choir a cloister garth one hundred ten feet byone hundred twenty-eight, with a stone pulpit and platform, for outdoormeetings and services.When, in the not distant future, just east of the completed HarperLibrary group the University Chapel will rise in massive beauty, withIda Noyes Hall beyond it and Emmons Blaine Hall still farther to theeast, and with the great Billings Hospital standing on the south sideof the Midway, we shall begin to realize the extraordinary architecturalpossibilities of the University's situation. .THE JOHN BILLINGS FISKE PRIZEThe Committee of Award for the John Billings Fiske Prize in Poetry,consisting of Mr. Llewellyn Jones, of Chicago, Mr. Louis Untermeyer,of New York, and Professor John Matthews Manly, of the University,on April 5 presented the following report to President Judson:As chairman of the Committee to award the John Billings Fiske Prize for PoetryI have the honor to report that the Committee unanimously awards the prize for thepresent year to Elizabeth Madox Roberts for a group of poems entitled " Under theTree."Three other contestants submitted compositions which-either for accomplish­ment or for promise-deserve honorable mention. Their names, arranged in alpha­beticalorder, are: Marian E. Manly, Jessica Nelson North, and Forrest Rosaire.The number of contestants was twenty-three. The number of separate poemswas approximately one hundred.The Committee is confident that the fine poetic quality of the winning groupof poems will again gratify both the founder of the prize and all other members of theUniversity community.JOHN M. MANLYChairmanI26UNDER THE TREETHE JOHN BILLINGS FISKE PRIZE POEMBy ELiZAB:ETH MADOX ROBERTSFrom the cycle of forty short poems submitted under this title, th� followinggroup of six (Nos. 6, 13, 33, 26, 30, and 32 of the cycle) has been chosen by MissRoberts for publication in the Record. Other poems from "Under the Tree" willbe found in Poetry and the Atlantic Monthly.ITHE BUTTERBEAN TENTAll through the garden I went and went,And I walked in under the butterbean tent.The poles leaned up like a good tepee,And .made a nice little house for me.I had a hard brown clod for a seat,And all outside was a cool green street.A little green worm and a butterflyAnd a cricket-like thing that could hop went by.Hidden a way there were flocks and flocksOf bugs that could go like little clocks.Such a good day it was when I spentA long, long while in the butterbean tent.IITHE PULPiTOn Sunday when I go to church,I wear my dress that's trimmed with lace.I sit beside my mother andAm very quiet in my place.When Dr. Brown is reading hymnsTo make the people want to sing,Or when he preaches loud and makesThe shivery bells begin to ring,I watch the little pulpit house-It isn't very tall or wide-And then r wonder all aboutThe Little Ones that live inside.127128 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDWhen Dr. Brown has preached enough,And when he is about to stop,He stands behind the little houseAnd shuts the Bible on the top.I wonder if They sit inside,And if They cook and walk up stairs.I wonder if They have a catAnd say some kind of little prayers.I wonder if They're. ever scaredBecause the bedroom lamp goes out,And what Their little dreams are like,And what They wonder all about.IIIIMR. PENNYBAKER AT CHURCHHe holds his songbook very low,And then he stretches down his face,And Mother said, "You mustn't watch,He's only singing bass."He makes his voice go walking down,Or else he hurries twice as fastAs all the rest, but even thenHe finishes the song the last.And when I see him singing there,I wonder if he knows it allAbout Leviticus and ShemAnd Deuteronomy and Saul.IVlTHE BRANCHWe stopped at the branch on the way to the hill.We stopped by the water a while and played.We hid our things by the osage tree,And took off our shoes and stockings to wade.There is sand in the bottom that bites at your feet,And there is a rock where the waterfall goes.You can poke your foot in the foamy partAnd feel how the water runs over your toes.The little black spiders that walk on the topOf the water are hard and stiff and cool,� And I saw some wiggletails going around,And the slippery minnows that live in the pool.I Copyright I920 by E. D. Sherwin. Published by permission.UNDER THE TREEAnd where it is smooth there is moss on a stone,And where it is shallow and almost dry,The rocks are broken and hot in the sun,And a rough little water goes hurrying by.VAT THE WATERI liked to go to the branch to-day,I liked to play with the wiggletails there.And five little smells and one big smellWere going around in the air.And one was the water, a little cold smell,And one was mud and that was more,And one was the smell of cool wet moss,And one was some fennel up on the shore.And the one big smell came out of the mint,And one was something I couldn't tell.And the five little ones and the one big oneAll went together very well.VIAMONG THE RUSHESI saw a curly leaf, and it was caught against the grassy side,And it was tangled in the watery grasses where the branch isJwide;I had it for my little ark of rushes that must wait and hide.I had it for my little Moses hidden where no one could see,The little baby Moses that nobody knew about but me.And I was hiding in the flags, and I was waiting all the day,And watching on the bank to see if Pharaoh's daughter came that way. I29THE LA VERNE NOYES SCHOLAR­SHIPSBy ROLLIN D. SALISBURYDuring the Winter Quarter, 1921 (January to March, inclusive),320 students in the University of Chicago have received help from thefoundation established by Mr. La Verne Noyes in aid of ex-service menstudying in the University. Some of the men receiving assistancefrom this fund would be unable to remain in the University without it.Some are relieved of the necessity of outside work which would inter­fere with their work as students, and others are obliged to do less earning­work because of the help received. In no case does the amount of thescholarship exceed the amount of the student's tuition, and those whowere in service a longer time receive more than those whose term ofservice was short.A considerable number of men technically eligible to help from thisfund, but not in urgent need of it, have not asked for it or have with­drawn their applications in favor of those who are in need.The students receiving help from the Noyes fund during the pastquarter come from 36 states. Illinois has the largest number, 126.Iowa is second with 29, Indiana third with 26. Kansas, Ohio, andMissouri each have more than 12. No other state is represented by somany as IO. The states not represented are: Maine, Connecticut,Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, South Carolina, Georgia,Mississippi, Louisiana, Nevada, Washington.Of the 320 students, 206 are undergraduates, and 1I4 graduates.They are distributed as follows in the various divisions of the University:Arts, Literature, and Science, 204, of whom 40 are graduate stu­dents; Law, 78, of whom 5I are graduate students; Medicine, 29, ofwhom I8 are graduate students; Education, 9, of whom 5 are graduatestudents.130AWARD OF FELLOWSHIPS 1921-1922MARY BERNARD ALLENPh.B., 1918A.M., Radcliffe College, 1920SAMUEL KING ALLISONB.S., I92IVAN METER AMESPh.B., 1919ALICE MARY BALDWINA.B., Cornell University, 1900A.M., ibid., 1902KENNETH EDWIN BARNHARTA.B., Southwestern University, I9I5B.D., Southern Methodist University, 1920KELLOGG FINLEY BASCOMS.B., Fargo College, 1916VIOLA P. BLACKBURNA.B., Wellesley College, 19I6WILLIAM EMET BLATZA.B., Toronto University, 19I6A.M., ibid., 1917CHARLES WILLIS BOARDMANPh.B., Grinnell College, I908CARL CASSETT BOWMANA.B., Miami University, 1909BLANCHE BEATRICE BOYERA.B., 1920ADOLF AUGUST BatrxConcordia College, 1907-I3Concordia Seminary, 1913-17HENRY KELLY BUCKNERA.B., Vanderbilt University, 1919LUDLOW S. BULLA.B., Yale University, 1907LL.B., ibid., 1910ETHEL FLORENCE COOPERS.B., 1916WILLIAM DIAMONDA.B., University of Manitoba, 1915A.M., ibid., 1916WILLIAM FRANKLIN EDGERTONA.B., Cornell University, 1915JAMES MILTON EGLINA.B., Oberlin College, 1919131 HistoryChemistrySociologyHistorySociologyZoologyEnglishPsychologyEducationEducationLatinOld TestamentChemistryOriental LanguagesPhysiologyGermanicsOld TestamentPhysics132 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDNew TestamentMARY REDINGTON ELYA.B., Mt. Holyoke College, 19IID.B., Union Theological Seminary, 1919JACOB MARTIN ESSENBERGS.B., Valparaiso University, 1913HARRY SCHEIDY EVERETTA.B., Bucknell University, 1912A.M., ibid., 1913S.M., ibid., 1914MEREDITH B. GIVENSA.B., Drake University, 1920HAROLD CLIFFORD GOLDTHORPE, S.B., Utah Agricultural College', 1917HAROLD FOOTE GOSNELLA.B., University of Rochester, 1918LOIS D. GREEN,A.B., Grinnell College, 1919KATHARINE LUCILE HAGEMANA.B., Oberlin College, 1919DAVID M. HALFANTPh.B., 1920FRANK RUSSELL HAMBLINA.B., Bucknell College, 1914A.M., ibid., 1915HERBERT e. HANSONA.B., University of Minnesota, 1914WILLIAM VERl.OLLION HOUSTONA.B., Ohio State University, 1920CURTIS JUDSON HUMPHREYSA.B., Ohio Wesleyan University, 1918ROBERT ORLAND HUTCHINSONA.B., Indiana University, 19I4CLYO JACKSONA.B., University of Toronto, 1905A.M., Victoria College, 1909D.B., Alberta College, 1920FREDERICK DEAN MCCLUSKYA.B., Park College, 1917A.M., 1920ARTHUR CRANE McFARLANA.B., University of Cincinnati, 1919IRENE P. MCKEEHANA.B., University of Minnesota, 1903A.M., University of Colorado, 19-17GEORGE WILLARD MARTINLitt.B., Rutgers College, 1912S.M., ibid., 1915EDGAR D. MEACHAMA.B., University of Oklahoma, 1914CHU SENG MIAOA.B., Shanghai Baptist College, 1916 ZoologyMathematicsPolitical EconomyPhysiological ChemistryPolitical ScienceAnatomyPhilosophyPolitical EconomyLatinBotanyPhysicsPhysicsPhysicsNew TestamentEducationGeologyEnglishBotanyMathematicsPractical TheologyAWARD OF FELLOWSHIPS J921�1922PRENTISS D. MOORES.B., University of Indiana, 1921WILLIAM ELDER MOOREA.B., Maryville College, 1913PAUL GRADY MOORHEADA.B., University of South Carolina, 1913A.M., 1914EVERITT EMERSON MORLEYA.B., Valparaiso University, 19I5A.�I., University of Indiana, 1917ERNEST RUSSELL MOWRERA.B., University of Kansas, 1918ARTHUR HOBART NETHERCOTA.B., Northwestern University, 1915A.M., ibid., 1916HILDA LAURA NORMANA.B., University of Texas, 1913A.M., ibid., 191$HUBERT WILBUR NUTTPh.B., 19I4A.M., 19I6JOHN OLAF OLSONA.B., University of South Dakota, 1915A.M., University of Minnesota, 19I8DONALD AYERS PIATTPh.B., 1919LILLIAN GRACE REYNOLDSS.B., 1919WILLIAM V. ROOSAA.B., Drake University, I9I5A.M., 1916MEYER SALKOVERA.B., University of Cincinnati, 1917A.M., ibid., 1919Roy SCHOFIELDEd. B., Illinois State Normal University, 1919PAUL JOSEPH S_EDGWICKS.B., 1918FRANCIS PARKER SHEPARDA.B., Harvard University, 1919HERMAN BERNHARD SIEMSS.B., 1919RIETTA SIMMONSA.B., Tulane University, :£'915PRANIS BATTRAS SIVICKISS.B., Valparaiso University, 19IIA.B., University of Missouri, 1917 GeologyHistoryLatinEducationSociologyEnglishRomanceEducationHistoryPhilosophyBotanyNew TestamentMathematicsGeographyBotanyGeologyChemistryPsychologyZoology 133134 THE UNIVERSITY RECORDJULIAN FRANCIS SMITHS.B., University of Illinois, 1916S.M., University of California, 1920THOMAS VERNON SMITHA.B., University of Texas, 1915A.M., ibid., 1916FLOYD ALBERT SPENCERA.B., University of Colorado, 1919GRACE ANNE STEW ARTA.B., University of Alberta, 1918A.M., ibid., 1920JAMES KIDDER STEWARTA.B., University of Kansas, 1915S.M., Purdue University, t920ERNEST LINCOLN STOVERS.B., Ohio State University, 1917HERMANN LLOYD TRACYA.B., University of Toronto, 192 IWILLIAM DANIEL TRAUTMANA.B., Western Reserve University, 1914A.M., Harvard University, 1915MARGARET FITCH WILLCOXA.B., Mt. Holyoke College, 1919CARL OSCAR WILLIAMSS.B., Valparaiso University, 1916A.M., 1918HAROLD RIDEOUT WILLOUGHBYA.B., Wesleyan University, 1915A.M., ibid., 1916MONTA ELDO WINGA.B., University of Kansas, 1920LELAND FOSTER WOODA.B., University of Rochester, 1908A.M., ibid., 1914HELEN R. WRIGHTA.B., Smith College, 1912 ChemistryPhilosophyGreekGeologyChemistryBotanyGreekRomanceChemistryGermanicsNew TestamentGeologyPractical TheologyPolitical EconomyEVENTS: PAST AND FUTUREONE HUNDRED NINETEENTHCONVOCATIONThe One Hundred Nineteenth Convo­cation was held in Leon Mandel AssemblyHall, Tuesday, March J;5, at 4:00 P.M.The Convocation Address, "Free Speechin War Time," was delivered by JamesParker Hall, Professor of Law and Deanofthe Law School, University of Chicago.In the award of honors, the election ofthe following students as associate mem­bers to Sigma Xi was announced: HowesBodfish, Harriet Carter, George Babcock.Cressey, Arthur Cayley Davis, JohnRobert Charles Evans, Alice Foster,Francis Graham Frese, Walker McCon­nell Hinman, Dorothy Josephine Krause,John Mesick, Gail Francis Moulton,Albert Emmett Oldham, Edith PutnamParker, Lucena Knight Robinson, SamuelRobert Shumaker, Grace Anne Stewart,Norman Louis Thomas, MargueriteElizabeth Uttley. The election of thefollowing students as members of SigmaXi was announced: Kellogg FinleyBascom, Charles Heiny Behre, Jr., LeoKempf Campbell, Lyman Chalkley, Jr.,Albert Edwin Coxe, Kenneth Fowler,Ralph Waldo Gerard, Grant MelvinKloster, Margarete Meta Hedwig Kunde,Harold Earl Miner, Eloise Parsons,Francis Parker Shepard. The electionof the following students to the Beta ofIllinois Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa wasannounced: Samuel King Allison (March, 20), Josephine Haswell Ardrey (June,'20), Ina Bartells, Charles Albert Beck­with, Cecile Winifred Dore, BenjaminWilbur Goldman, Martha Jane McCoy,Luella Esther Nadelhoffer (March, '20),Bertha Beatrice Needham (June, .' 20),Olive Henriette Rabe, Milton Steinberg,Zok Tsung Wang.Honorable mention for excellence in thework of the Junior Colleges was a wardedto: Konstantin Tamias Argoe.. LoisBennett, Queenie Harriet Black, LauraElizabeth Bodebender, Chauncey GreeleyBurke, Thomas Carlin, Annabel JosephineMarie Clark, Ralph Davis, Elinor RuthDeutsch, Harold Edwin Eby, LeilaEichberg, Richard Hamilton Eliel, Carl Percival Fales, Benjamin BenjaminGarbovitz, Charles Golding, Lester Ray­mond Gray, Lennox Bouton Grey,Elizabeth Ross Harrison, Arthur LloydHigbee, Harold Bertrand Hogue, CliffordStephen Johnson, Esther Lucille Lade­wick, Jessie Bertha Lambrechts, ManuelEmil Lichtenstein, Margaret HalstedLillie, Abraham Mazer, Evar HerbertNelson, Samuel Louis Perzik, AronerNeal Petty, Olive Henriette Rabe, MarieHall Rodig, Jack Rose, Isaiah. ReedSalladay, Harold Silver, Esther Somer­feld, Henry C. Spruth, Edna AnnaPauline Staudinger, Dwight F. Vandel,Lowell Curtis Wadmond, George EarleWakerlin, Florence Hammersly Walker,John Daniel Wild, Jr., Jacob DanielWillems, Karl Edward Zener, RoyalRobert Ziv. The Bachelor's degree wasconferred with honors on the followingstudents. Samuel King Allison, Jose­phine Haswell Ardrey, Ina Bartells,Harry Wesley Cartwright, Cecile Wini­fred Dore, Benjamin Wilbur Goldman,William Herbert Grant, Helen. Guest,Frank John Heiner, Anne Koopman,Rose Lovenhart, George Dewey Mills,Luella Esther Nadelhoffer, Bertha Bea­trice Needham, Arthur Eugene Schuh,Harry Manuel Shulman, Alfred WalterSimon, Pauline Ruth Strode, Ko NienYang. Honors for excellence in particu­lar departments of the Senior Collegeswere awarded to the following students:Samuel King Allison, Chemistry; SamuelKing Allison, Mathematics and Physics;Josephine Haswell Ardrey, Romance; InaBartells, Romance; Ina Bartells, German;Cecile Winifred Dore, Romance; CecileWinifred Dore, History; Benjamin Wil­bur Goldman, 'Chemistry; William Her­bert Grant, Romance; Gertrude EdithGriffin, History; Helen Guest, Psychologyand Sociology; Hattie Gulledge, English;Frank John Heiner, History; AliceIngham, Sociology; Anne Koopman,History of Art; Samuel Albert Leader,Chemistry; Rose Lovenhart, German;George Dewey Mills, Law; Luella EstherNadelhoffer, Anatomy and Zoology; Ber­tha Beatrice Needham, Sociology; BerthaBeatrice Needham, M aihematics; Pauline135THE UNIVERSITY RECORDRuth Strode, Sociology; Ko Nien Yang,Zoology.Degrees and titles were conferred asfollows: The Colleges: the certificate ofthe College of Education, 3; the degreeof Bachelor of Arts, I; the degree ofBachelor of Philosophy, 43; the degreeof Bachelor of Science, 37; the degree ofBachelor of Philosophy in Education, 5;the degree of Bachelor of Science inEducation, I; the degree of Bachelor ofPhilosophy in Commerce and Administra­tion,8; The Divinity School: the degree ofMaster of Arts, 2; the degree of Bachelorof Divinity, 3; The Laso School: thedegreeof Bachelor of Laws, 2; the degree ofDoctor of Law, I; The Graduate Schoolsof Arts, Literature, and Science: thedegree of Master of Arts, 9; the degree ofMaster of Science, 2; the degree ofDoctor of Philosophy, 6. The totalnumber of degrees conferred was 123.The Convocation Prayer Service washeld at 10: 30 A.M., Sunday, March 13,in the Reynolds Club. At I I: 00 A.M.,in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, theConvocation Religious Service was held.The preacher was the Reverend Henryvan Dyke, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L., Pro­fessor English Literature, PrincetonUniversity.GENERAL ITEMSThe University Preachers for theWinter Quarter were: January 9, BishopWilliam F. McDowell, Washington, D.C.;January 16, Bishop McDowell; January23, the Reverend John Wellington Hoag,Woodward Avenue Baptist Church,Detroit, Michigan;· January 30, PresidentWilliam Herbert Perry Faunce, BrownUniversity; February 6, President J.Ross Stevenson, Princeton TheologicalSeminary; February 13, the ReverendJoseph . Fort Newton, Church of theDivine Paternity, New York City;February 20, the Reverend George C.Pidgeon, Bloor Street PresbyterianChurch, Toronto, Canada; February 27,Dr. Pidgeon; March 6, the ReverendHugh Thomson Kerr, Shadyside Pres­byterian Church, Pittsburgh, Pennsyl­vania; March 13, Professor Henry vanDyke, Princeton University.Professor Arthur O. Lovejoy, professorof philosophy in Johns Hopkins Uni­versity, gave instruction in philosophy during the Winter Quarter, in the absenceof Professor James H. Tufts, Head of theDepartment of Philosophy, who is givingcourses at Columbia.Victor Andres Belatinde, professor ofinternational law in the University ofSan Marcos, Lima, Peru, lectured at theUniversity on January 4 and 5 on "His­panic American Culture and Ideals" and"South American Problems." ProfessorBelatinde was entertained at luncheonat the Quadrangle Club on January 5.Professor Belau.nde has had a dis­tinguished career in diplomacy as wellas in education. The University of SanMarcos is the oldest in America, havingbeen founded in 1551.A memorial meeting for ProfessorFrank Bigelow Tarbell was held inClassics Common Rooms on the eveningof January 12, 1921. President Judsonpresided and said a few words of intro­duction. Professor Carl D. Buck spokeof Professor Tarbell's work as a teacherat Yale, Harvard, Athens, and Chicago,and as a scholar. Professor ErnstFreund spoke of his qualities as a man,and Professo-r James Parker Hall pre­sented an appreciation of him as a friend.The rooms were filled with ProfessorTarbell's old friends and neighbors, andthe addresses made a deep and beautifulimpression.In a letter to President Judson, thepermanent secretary of the AmericanAssociation for the Advancement ofScience, Dr. Burton E. Livingston, writesthat the recent Chicago meeting was themost successful the Association has everheld .. The attendance was much largerthan at any previous meeting. Over2,400 persons were registered, and it wasestimated that 3,200 were in attendance.Especial praise was given by the membersof the Association to the very efficientway in which Professor J. Paul Goode,of the Department of Geography, andother members of the local committeehad prepared for the meeting and hadforeseen practically all of the needs thatarose. "The material equipment andthe spirit and personnel of your U ni ver­sity were of such a type as to make it oneof the most desirable and satisfactoryplaces in the country for the holding ofour Association meetings."EVENTS: PAST AND FUTUREMr. Charles J. Connick of Boston gavean illustrated lecture under the auspicesof the Renaissance Society in HarperAssembly Room on January I8 on "TheArt of Stained Glass."A promising new periodical, Chanticleer,appeared at the University in January,its first issue containing a contributionon "The Meaning of the Recent Presi­dential Election," by William E. Dodd,Professor of American History, andone on "The Inspiration of Ignorance,"by Gerald A. Wendt, Assistant Professorof Chemistry. One of the attractivefeatures of the number is a departmentof poetry, including contributions fromJessica North and Elizabeth Roberts.The editor-in-chief is Harry Shulman,and the staff is made up of editorsrepresenting literature, the social sciences,science, and news. The cover is by oneof the staff artists, Clovis Fouche. Thenew journal will have the news serviceof the Federated Press.Dr. Frederick Jones Bliss, AnnualLecturer for I92I of the American Com­mittee for Lectures on the History ofReligions, gave four lectures on "TheSecret Cults of Syria" in Haskell As­sembly Room January 25-28. Thelectures were on the Haskell Founda­tion.Dr . Joseph C. Hoppin, formerly of theAmerican School of Classical Studies inAthens, lectured on "Crete and theMinoan Age" in Harper Assembly Roomon January I2 under the auspices ofthe Archaeological Society.Professor James Rowland Angell, for­mer Dean of the Faculties and now headof the Carnegie Corporation of New York,has accepted the presidency of YaleUniversity. President Angell was con­nected with the University of Chicago formore than twenty-five years. He cameto Chicago from the University ofMinnesota as Assistant Professor ofExperimental Psychology in I894. Hewas made Professor and Director of thePsychological Laboratory in I904, Headof the Department of Psychology in I905,Dean of the Senior Colleges in I908, andDean of the Faculties of Arts, Literature,and Science in I9 I I. During the absenceof President Judson in Persia as Chair­man of the Commission on Relief in the 137Near East, Dean Angell was vice ... presi­dent and acting head of the University.President Judson, made an address, atthe inauguration of Professor Wallace W.Atwood, of Harvard University, as presi­dent of Clark University, Worcester,Massachusetts, on February I.President Atwood who was graduatedwith the degree of S.B. from the Uni­versity of Chicago in I897 and receivedhis Doctor's degree in I903, was con­nected with this institution as a memberof the Faculty for fourteen years, andwas called to Harvard University inI9I3 as professor of physiography. Heis a member of the United States Geo­logical Survey, was formerly director ofthe Chicago Academy of Sciences, andhas written among other scientific worksthe Geology and Mineral Resources ofAlaska.In February the University receivedfrom Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., a fullsize copy in oil of the portrait of John D.Rockefeller, painted by John S. Sargentin I9I7. The copy was made by Mr.Alexander R. James under the directionof Mr. Sargent. It has been temporarilyplaced in the President's Office butprobably will eventually hang in theFaculty Room of the new UniversityChapel.A public lecture on "The W aldensiansin Historic and Modern Italy" was givenon February I in Harper Assembly Roomby the Reverend V. Alberto Costabel, ofMilan, Italy.Bishop Nicholai of Serbia gave anaddress in Harper Assembly Room onFebruary 2 on the history and spirit ofSerbia.More than one hundred women pre­sented a musical comedy, The Joy ofSinghai, at the University on the eve­nings of February 4, 5, I I, and 12, underthe auspices of the Portfolio, an organi­zation connected with the Women'sAthletic Association. The Joy of Singhaiwas written by Josephine Strode, '21,aided by several University women whoassisted with the lyrics; and it was givenunder the direction of the author andMiss Bertha Iles, a former student, nowconnected with the Chicago School ofDramatic Art ..TilE UNIVERSITY RECORDProfessor Nathaniel Butler contributedan article to the Saturday Evening Postfor February 5 on the subject "What aMan Gains in Going to College."Professor Albert A. Michelson leftChicago on February 15 to spend thespring in Paris as Exchange Professor atthe Sorbonne.The Alden-Tuthill Lectures before theChicago Theological Seminary on "TheInfluence of Foreign Missions on theRemaking of China" were delivered byPresident Willard L. Beard of FoochowCollege, China, in Haskell AssemblyRoom February 15-17.Dr. Conyers Read, Non-Resident Pro­fessor of History in the University gavea series of three lectures on the BritishEmpire at the University, February 16-18. His first lecture was on "GeneralProblems," the second lecture on "India,"and the third on "Ireland."Alexis Kall, formerly Professor of theHistory of Music in the University ofPetrograd, delivered a lecture on "Tschai­kowsky" in Leon Mandel Assembly Hallon February 17.Professor Paul Shorey, Head of theDepartment of the Greek Language aridLiterature at the University, was theorator at the University of Pennsyl­vania on Washington's Birthday. Hisaddress was on "Our National Unity,"and the honorary degree of Doctor ofLaws was conferred upon him by theprovost of the University.Professor J. Franklin Jameson, Di­rector of the Department of HistoricalResearch, Carnegie Institution of Wash­ington, gave two lectures at the Uni­versity, February 24 and 25, on "TheAmerican Revolution as a Social Move­ment." Dr. Jameson, who for five yearswas Head of the Department of Historyat the University of Chicago, is theeditor of the A merican Historical Reviewand author of the History of HistoricalWriting in America.In connection with the meeting of theDepartment of Superintendence of theNational Education Association, onehundred twenty alumni and formerstudents of the University attended the Chicago Dinner at the Hotel Traymore,Atlantic City, Monday evening', Febru­ary 28. Dean Dodson described theplans for the enlargement of the medicalwork. Dr. Charles H. Judd concludedthe program of the evening by describingthe work which is now going on at theSchool of Education and the importanceof careful detailed studies of the problemswhich present themselves in every field ofeducational activity.Professor Gilbert Ames Bliss, of theDepartment of Mathematics, has beenelected president of the American Mathe­matical Society. Professor Bliss, whoreceived his Bachelor's, Master's, andDoctor's degrees at Chicago, has been atvarious times connected with the Uni­versity of Minnesota, Princeton Uni­versity, and the University of Chicago,where he has been for twelve years associ­ated with the mathematical department.For a number of years also he was associ­ate editor of the Annals of Mathe­matics and the Transactions of theAmerican Mathematical Society. He is amember of the National Academy ofSciences.Hon. Charles Evans Hughes, formerjustice of the Supreme Court, governor ofNew York, and Republican candidate forthe presidency, and a trustee of theUniversity, has accepted the Secretary­ship of State, in President Harding'scabinet. Secretary Hughes, who is agraduate of Brown University, has beena Trustee of the University of Chicagosince 1914.Mr. D. G. Hogarth, Keeper of theAshmolean Museum, Oxford, a dis­tinguished archaeologist and author,lectured at the University on March 9,10, and II under the auspices of theOriental Institute and the WilliamVaughn Moody foundation. Mr. Ho­garth is famous for his excavations inEphesus, Carchemish, and Crete. Amonghis more notable books are his Philip andAlexander of Macedon, Accidents of anAntiquary's Life, and The Penetration ofArabia. The subject of his lectures was"The Hittites."Dr. Edward H. Hume, Head of theMedical School of Yale in China atChangsha, China, lectured in HarperAssembly Room on March 10 on "Poli­tics and Education in China."EVENTS: PAST AND FUTUREProfessor Theodore Gerald Soares waselected president of the Religious Educa­tion Association at its annual conventionheld at Rochester, New York, March 12,1921. The Association was inauguratedby Dr. Harper in 1903 and PresidentJudson has served as one of its presidents.Professors Burton, Mathews, and Willettwere re-elected members of the ExecutiveBoard.Dean Shailer Mathews delivered theBennett Lectures at Wesleyan University,Middletown, Connecticut, on March9-16, on "The Validity of AmericanIdeals."Professor Gerald B. Smith deliveredthe Earle Lectures at the Pacific Schoolof Religion, Berkeley, California, onMarch 14-22, 1921.Dr. Frank Wakeley Gunsaulus, Pro­fessorial Lecturer in the University andPresident of Armour Institute of Tech­nology, died suddenly on March 17, 1921.Dr. Gunsaulus had been a firm friendof the University from its beginningandin recent years it was often the objectof his benefactions. An account of hislife and his services to education willappear in a later number of theRecord.The late Judge Frederick A. Smith,a graduate of the old University ofChicago and for many years a very ableand faithful member of the Board ofTrustees of the present University, leftthe residue of his estate to the Universityfor scholarships. This fund of $25,000has now become available.Dr. Henry Rand Hatfield, who receivedthe degree of Doctor of Philosophy fromthe University in 1897, has been ap­pointed Dean of the Faculties of theUniversity of California. For ten yearsDr. Hatfield has been Dean of theCollege of Commerce in the latterinstitution.Another graduate of Chicago, Mr.Allen T. Burns, '98, has recently beenelected president of the National Con­ference of Social Work for the year1921; while Professor Earle BrownellBabcock, of New York University, whotook both his Bachelor's and Doctor's 139degrees at Chicago, has become headof the American University Union inFrance, with headquarters in Paris.The University has recently receivedadditions to its funds from donors whohave made the University trustee oflarge amounts, the income of which, or aportion of it, is to be expended for thebenefit of specific persons. during theirlifetime, and which,. at their death,become part of the University endow­ment. The latest instance of this sort,just reported, placed in the- University'streasury a trust fund of $110,000.The present intense interest in theOrient and its relations to the rest ofthe world makes peculiarly timely theappearance of a new volume on The Pressand Politics in Japan, which has justbeen issued by the University of ChicagoPress. The volume has greater signifi­cance from the fact that it was writtenby a Japanese in America, Dr. Kisabu�oKawabe, a recent graduate student Inthe University of Chicago.The author's purpose in the book hasbeen to show the influence .of the pressupon the political life of Japan, and he hashad the great advantage of co-operationfrom his brother in Japan who hassupplied him with the necessary informa ...tion and materials from original Japanesesources. Among the phases of thesubject discussed are "Development ofCommunication and Education in NewJapan," "Amateur Journalism," "PoIitic�1Journals and the Movement for a Consti­tu tional Government," " CommercialJournals," "Independent Journals andthe Rise of Public Opinion," and "ThePolitical Awakening of the Masses."Professor Ernest Hatch Wilkins, of theDepartment of Romance Languages andLiteratures, is one of the judges in a prize­essay contest on the subject of "Italy'sContributions to Modern Culture." Theprize, a trip to Italy, with all expensespaid, is offered by the Italy-AmericaSociety, whose presiden t is SecretaryCharles E. Hughes, a trustee of theUniversity. The contest is open to allundergraduates in American colleges oruniversities, and the prize will be awardedin connection with a proposed tour ofItaly for college students during the com­ing summer.THE UNIVERSITY RECORD, The Autumn Quarter marked thelargest enrolment of foreign-born stu­dents in the history of the University.There are 463 such students, represent­ing forty-two countries.Russia leads with 100, while Chinacomes second with 75. Canada and thePhilippines follow next in order with 44and 39 respectively. Other countriesrepresented are: Japan, 34; England, 27;Germany, 18; Hawaii, II; Poland, II;Sweden, 10; Italy, 7; Scotland, 7;Bohemia, 7; Austria, 7; India, 6;Greece, 6; Norway, 5; Mexico, 5;Roumania, 5; Finland, 4; Hungary, 4;Armenia, 3; . Syria, 2; France, 2; Pales­tine, 2; Porto Rico, 2; British WestIndies, 2; Turkey, 2; Denmark, 2;Ireland, 2; and Guatemala, Alaska,Lithuania, Slovakia, Panama, CostaRica, Egypt, Korea, New Zealand, Bel­gium, Spain, and Caucasia with oneeach.Professor Robert A. Millikan, who hasspent the Winter Quarter at the Cali­fornia Institute of Technology at Pasa­dena; California, sailed on March 19for Europe to attend the Solvay Congresson the Quantum Theory, at Brussels.During March a little book of thirty­two pages descriptive of the conditionand aims of the University has been sentout by the President to ten thousandalumni. The booklet is entitled "TheUniversity of Chicago in 1921" and isillustrated with a general view of theUniversity and views of some of the build­ings for which funds have been provided.In April the University of ChicagoPress will publish two important bookson art, both of them very fully illustratedand both by well-known authorities.One of the volumes is Joseph Pennell'sGrapbic Arts, and the other Lorado Taft'sModern Tendencies in Sculpture.Among other books announced forearly publication are Parables of Jesus inRelation to H is Ministry, by Willard H.Robinson; Funeral Management, byQuincy L. Dowd; and The Geography ofIllinois, by D. C. Ridgley.A unique prize contest is announced bythe University of Chicago Press forundergraduates in the University ofChicago. The Press offers to the writerof the best paper on the subject, "The Place of the University Press in ModemEducation," a first prize of twenty-fivedollars, and to the writer of the secondbest paper ten dollars. The manuscripts,which are to be not over 3,000 words inlength, must be submitted by April IS.So far as known this is the first time auniversity press has made any seriousattempt to encourage college students tobecome familiar with the history andimportant functions of such an institu­tion.Announcement is just made that Mr.Herant Telfeyan, of New York City, hasgiven the University of Chicago $360a year for three years to provide for thetuition of two Armenian students. Thisgift, the first instalment of which hasbeen received, is made to the Universitythrough Mr. A. A. Bedikian, an alumnusof the University and a member of theteaching staff for the Summer Quarter,who is now minister of the ArmenianEvangelical Church, New York City.Professor Paul Shorey, of the Depart­ment of Greek, recently gave the McNairLectures at the University of North Caro­lina on the general subject of "Plato'sRelation to the Religious Problem."The first lecture was on "Plato and theIrreligion of Pseudo-Science"; the secondon "Plato and Natural Theology"; andthe third on "Plato and Ethical Religion."The purpose of the lecture foundation is toshow the mutual bearing of science andreligion.In March Professor Shorey gave two'addresses on Dante, one before the PhiBeta Kappa chapter of Knox College,Illinois, and one at Bowdoin College,Maine.Dr. Charles McLean Andrews, FarnamProfessor of American History in YaleU niversi ty , gave two lectures a t theUniversity of Chicago, March 30 and3 I, the first on "Conditions Leading tothe Revolt of the American Colonies,"and the second on "The Causes of theAmerican Revolution." Professor An­dews is the author of many historicalworks, including The Historical Develop­ment of Modern Europe and ColonialSelf-Government, a volume in "TheAmerican Nation" series.The newest foundation, namely, theCommonwealth Fund, has recently estab-EVENTS: PAST AND FUTURElished a research committee which is tohave $IbO,OOO a year to expend in edu­cational research. - The laboratory. of theDepartment of Education at the Univer­sity has contributed in recent years anumber of notable studies in reading, us­ing the method of photographing the eyesof children and adults during the processof reading. So significant are the re­sults that the Commonwealth Fund hasgiven the educational laboratory of theUniversity of Chicago a subvention of$15,000 for the next calendar year topush forward these investigations. Thiswill make possible a material enlarge­ment of the equipment for photographingthe eyes, and several members of thestaff of the School of Education willdevote a part of their time during thecoming year to special researches alongthese lines. In addition several ad­vanced students have been employed tocarry on the work continuously underthe supervision of members of theFaculties. 'A further appropriation of $I,500 hasbeen made by the Commonwealth Fund 141for a series of French tests in the Schoolof Education at Chicago.In line with the recent movements forthe scientific study of education, a surveyof the schools of the villages and ruraldistricts of the state of New York hasbeen undertaken, and the Department ofEducation of the University has been askedto supply experts for the division dealingwith school supervision and administra­tion. Dr. John F. Bobbitt, Professorof School Administration, and DirectorCharles H. Judd, of the School of Educa­tion, have been put in charge of thisdivision, and two of the graduate studentsin the Department are now in Albanyco-operating with them in working upthe detailed information.Professor Bobbitt spent the WinterQuarter in Albany and in visiting thevarious school districts throughout thestate, and Director Judd, who is fre­quently in Albany for purposes ofconsultation and organization of thisdivision of the survey, .will spend themonth of September in New York.ATTENDANCE IN WINTER QUARTER, 1921Totalinthe University 3,139 2,670 5,800 2,974 2,590 5,5641921 I920 Gain LossMen Women Total Men Women Total--- --- --- --- --'_ --- ---196 148 344 205 175 380 ....... 36258 78 336 253 83 336 ......--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---454 226 680 458 258 716 36616 440 1,056 538 432 970 86813 587 1,400 803 530 1,333 67 ····;8·42 43 85 62 51 113--- --- --- --- --- ------ ---1,471 1�07° 2,541 1,403 1,013 2,416 1251,925 1,296 3,221 1,861 1,271 3,132 89 .......106 20 126 96 14 no 16(5dup.) (1 dup.) (5 dup.) (a dup.)12 8 20 IS 9 24 4(I dup.) (1 dup.)20 9 29 25 6 31--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---138 37 175 136 29 165 1087 26 1I3 74 23 97 16lI8 14 132 98 10 108 242 :23 4 3--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---I. ARTS,LITERATURE,ANDSCIENCE:I. Graduate Schools-Arts, Literature .Science .Total .2. Colleges-Senior .......•.•.•......Junior ...........•......Unclassified .Total 00 0 ••••••••Total Arts, Litera­ture, and Science ...II. PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS:I. Divinity-Graduate ............•..Unclassified .Chicago Theological .Total ...•.•..••..•..*.2. Medicine--Graduate ....••....•....Senior .. 0 •••••••••••••••Junior o •••••••••Unclassified ....•.•.•....Total ....•••.•.•....3. Law-Graduate .......•.......*Senior .Candidates for LL.B .Unclassified .Total .......•..•....4. College of Education .s. Commerce and Administra-tion-Graduate .....•....•.•..Senior .......••.........Junior .........•....•...Unclassified ..•.•........Total .•..•..........6. Graduate School of SocialService AdministrationUniversity College .••• , .... 212 40 252 177 34 211 41154 159 143 8 151 8 .. ···S·59 60 68 6882 83 90 3 93 10I 2 :2--- --- --- --- --- --- ---296 303 303 II 314 II17 174 191 21 193 214 2321 4 25 0 0 0150 34 184307 45 35226 4 30--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---504 87 591 434 125 559 3:26 38 44 ....... 111 •••••• ....... 44--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---1,173 383 1,556 1,071 392 1,463 93 .......3,098 1,679 4,777 2,032 1,663 4,595 182 .......277 43 320 250 38 288 ....... .......--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---2,821 1,636 4,457 2,682 1,625 4,307 ISO .......--- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---318 1,034 1,352 292 965 1,257 OS .......Total Professional. .Total University .*Deduct for Duplication .Net Totals in Quad-rangles ....•...•..-----_ --- ------------- ---245 .