The pMning ofAmerica's game*,-.rt>-&, i*-s3t%Chicago>'^S^tW^i VOLUME 87, NUMBER 5 JUNE 1995 ^l^B^^^DEPARTMENTS2 Letters7 EventsSummer on tfe quads: Plus, fellswill be ringing during theCarillon Festival.8 Course workNo easy answers; HaroldRichman teaches "Social V/elfare. in the United States."10 Chicago journalChicago tries to "pool" Us. resources; debatmgthe future of \. Civilization; Bernard. Brown's 16years guiding Rockefeller Chapel.14 InvestigationsKris Hammond gets practicalwith the Internet Also: Sex,genes, and justice; Chicago'swatery roots; and the skinny onmass extinction. . •34 Class news42 Deaths45 Books by alumni48 Other voicesHomer Goldberg, AB'17, AM'48,PhD'61, on the lessons encodedin a professorial file cabinet. 1824 FEATURESBottom-line driveTalk of overpaid players, overpriced tickets, and ownerson the verge of ruin has kept baseball's fans from focusing on the true financial score.ALLEN R. SANDERSONComp timeForget papers and class participation. In the Hutchins College, students were judged solely by comprehensive exams.TIM ANDREW OBERMILLERMoving picturesPlanes, trains, and automobiles transformed the modemworld. They also changed the look of children's books.MARY RUTH YOEBlonde faithAUofC grad who admits he likes Madonna, MatthewRettenmund turns his encylopedic knowledge of thecultural icon into, well, an encyclopedia.JACLYN H. PARKCover: Baseball is business as usual (page18); illustration by Steve Brodner.Opposite: "On the broad surface of theriver they could see steamboats. ..andalong the shore railway tracksextended on which trains were rushingat full speed." — Railroad Story Book(New York: McLoughlin Brothers,1907); page 26. Page 24Page 30EditorMary Ruth YoeManaging EditorTim Andrew ObermillerAssociate EditorAndrew CampbellArt DirectorAllen CarrollEditorial AssistantKimberly SweetStudent AssistantQiana Johnson, '98Contributing EditorsJamie Kalven, Joe LevineEditorial office: The University of ChicagoMagazine, Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-2163; fax (312) 702-2166. The Magazine is sent to all University of Chicago alumni.The University of Chicago Alumni Associationhas its offices at Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-2150; fax (312) 702-2166.World Wide Web address: University of Chicago AlumniAssociation Board of Governors:Officers: Linda Thoren Neal, AB'64, JD'67, president; Bob Levey, AB'66, vice president; Gregory G. Wrobel, AB'75, JD'78, MBA'79,treasurer; Michael J. Klingensmith, AB'75,MBA76, secretary; Jeanne Buiter, MBA'86,'executive director.Andrew M. Alper, AB'80, MBA'81; Dennis M.Barden, "Assistant Vice President for Development; Richard L. Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; JackJ. Carlson, AB'40; N. Gwyn Cready, AB'83,MBA'86; Trina N. Frankel, AB'64; CarolineHeck, AB'71 ; Le Roy J. Hines, AM'78; RandyHolgate, *Vice President, Development andAlumni Relations', Susan Carlson Hull, AB'82;Patricia Klowden, AB'67; Michael C. Krauss,AB'75, MBA'76; Joseph D. LaRue, AM'59;Katherine Dusak Miller, AB'65, MBA'68,PhD'71; William C. Naumann, MBA'75;Theodore A. O'Neill, AM'70, *Dean of CollegeAdmissions; Susan W. Parker, AB'65; Frederick O. Paulsell, Jr., AB'62, MBA'63; Harvey B.Plotnick, AB'63; Louise E. Rehling, AM'70,SM'74; Jean Maclean Snyder, AB'63, JD'79;David M. Terman, AB'55, SB'56, MD'59; MaryB. Van Meerendonk, AB'64; Peter O. Vander-voort, AB'54, SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60; Mary RuthYoe, "Editor, University of Chicago Magazine." Ex OfficioMagazine Advisory Committee: Michael J.Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76, chair, Richard L.Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; Susan Carlson Hull,AB'82; Michael C. Krauss, AB'75, MBA'76; BobLevey, AB'66; Katherine Dusak Miller, AB'65,MBA'68, PhD'71 ; Peter 0. Vandervoort, AB'54,SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60; Marva Watkins, AB'63.The University of Chicago Magazine (ISSN-0041-9508) is published bimonthly (October,December, February, April, June, and August)by the University of Chicago in cooperation withthe Alumni Association, Robie House, 5757Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago IL 60637. Published continuously since 1907. Second-classpostage paid at Chicago and additional mailingoffices. POSTMASTER: Send address changesto the University of Chicago Magazine, AlumniRecords, Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. © 1995 Universityof Chicago. LettersThe world turned upside downEileen Ryan's photograph on the backcover ol the April/95 Magazine, captioned "Found Art: Botany Pond a laClaude Monet," should have been titled"Botany Pond a la Rene Magritte." Unlessyou printed the photo upside down (perishthe thought!), the building reflected in thepond, when viewed directly, is suspendedin midair, upside down.Allen M. Lenchek, SB'57Rockvtlle, MarylandSeveral other sharp-eyed readers caught themistake (photos, right) — although there aresome members of the editorial staff who preferto think of the original positioning as artisticlicense. — Ed.One for the booksriters' Blocks," by Jane Chapman Martin, AM'90 (April/95),was a delightful piece for thoseof us who long again to be in the grasp olthe Hyde Park/University of Chicago mystique. I would only like to recommend tomy fellow readers another tome thatdeserves a place in Chicago's "bookcase fullof potboilers, mysteries, [and] satires."Coming to the Divinity School a few yearsago — fresh off the back of a Midwesternpotato truck, if you will — I was quite surprised to see a novel assigned for reading inArthur Droge's "Introduction to the NewTestament." In slow order, however, thiscountry bumpkin came to learn more thanhe thought possible from such anapproach. I have, in turn, recommendedMartin Gardner's The Flight of Peter Fromm(Prometheus Books, Amherst) to many,both in and out of the Divinity School'sfamily.Almost autobiographically so for somestudents, the novel tells of a Karl Barth-loving, bumpkinish boy wonder from Oklahoma who comes to the Divinity School atmid-century. He becomes so divided in hisloyalties — between the biblical faith of hischildhood and the seemingly cold reason ofhis professors — that like his biblical namesake, Peter, he does not know whether he'scoming or going. In the process of traversing from Wilmette to Woodlawn, he findshimself. Or does he lose himself? 1 guess A la Rent Magritte?A la Claude Monet?that is for "you all" to decide.Donald E. Heckman, MDV94New Bedford, MassachusettsOther readers noted the omission of TheFlight of Peter Fromm, including Julian R.Goldsmith, SB'40, PhD'47, distinguished service professor emeritus of geophysical science.Goldsmith also wrote the author, MartinGardner, AB'36, and received this response:"Thanks for writing the alumni magazineabout my novel.... When 1 worked in thepress-relations office at the U of C beforeWorld War II, I contributed an article tothe Magazine on novels about the U ofChicago. ...The anonymous Gray Towers,about the sex lives of faculty members, isnow a rare item. The professors have theirnames changed, but are easily recognizable.Maroon Tales, by the humorist Will Cuppy,is another curious volume...."Tragic omissionJ enjoyed the article on the University ofChicago in literature, but was surprisednot to have seen some mention ofNative Son, by Richard Wright. A powerfulstory by a serious and often overlookedauthor, the book recounts the misadventures of a native son of Woodlawn whofinds himself, due to a succession of devel-2 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995opments increasingly beyond his control,drawn into the maelstrom of left-wing politics and race relations in Hyde Park, circa1940. Despite the self-consciously noblesentiments of the U of C professor's familyfor which he works, Wright's antiheroeventually pays with his life for accidentallykilling the professor's daughter as she wastrying to seduce him.Native Son was made into a movie severalyears ago. I think it would make a fineaddition to the Common Core reading lists.Chuck Pollack, X'86Hartsdale, New YorkIn characterRegarding University-based fiction, Iwas amused in the 1960s when Isaw myself portrayed in Saul Bellow's Herzog. Must have been I — who elsetaught comparative anatomy at the U of Cin the early '60s and had a pet monkey? 1did not know Bellow, but I used to takeexotic animals out to the quadrangles in theearly evening to play, and I am sure I wasregarded as a campus character.As if that were not enough, I apparentlywas a minor character in a TV movie, asomewhat fictionalized account of University students and their life in the U of Cneighborhood (Marriage: Year One, 1971,with Sally Field.) It was written by Steve andElinor Karpf, who later went to Hollywoodand wrote some other movies and a soapopera. Well do I remember the scene inwhich they moved (with the help of theirpals) into an apartment in a mixed neighborhood (gasp), actually on 61st Street. And Iwant to say that I may have been the geekybiologist buddy but I did not come on toSally Field.Richard A. Spieler, AB'52, PhD'62Fresno, CaliforniaCampus beatJ would like to bring to your attentionthe novel Presumed Dead by HughHolton. He is not too far away from thequads as he is the commander of Chicago's2nd Police District. The story takes place ina fictitious Museum of Science and Industry, and a couple of U of C profs figure inthe plot in a minor way. I recommend it .jan finder, sm'64Albany, New YorkReal leadershipThe interview with President Sonnenschein ("A Conversation with HugoSonnenschein," April/95) was first-rate. He sounds like a real guy — like Hutchins in my days: intense, committed tovalues, and doing what he can to bringthem about.Paul Carroll, AM'52Vilas, North CarolinaKicking the tiresPresident Sonnenschein says that in1960 a Ford cost about $2,500, aboutthe same for that year's tuition andexpenses at the University — and that thecost both of the car and the education haverisen at similar rates.While a 1995 Ford Taurus costs about$19,000 — not today's College costs of$25,000 — the question the president needsto answer is, "Has the education providedin 1995 improved as much as the 1995Ford compared to the 1960 model?"Joseph Kimerling AB'49Birmingham, AlabamaFor the record, Consumer Reports notesthat a 1995 Ford Taurus SHO falls into themidsized-over-$25,000 range, while a 1995Ford Taurus qualifies for the midsized-under$25,000 listing.— Ed.The big lieJn the article on privatization of theRussian economy ("Investigations,"April/95) I found the phrase "that rarestof things: a successful government program."This is an absurd statement that shouldnever appear in the magazine of a fine university. It is a phrase commonly used byfree-market fanatics and others who wish todisregard the truth. Propaganda experts callthe technique "the big lie." Repeat itenough and it becomes the perceived truth.Anyone but a fanatic will recognize thephrase is absurd.What proportion of students admitted tothe University has graduated from publicschools? Can we assume these schools weresuccessful government programs? Howabout Social Security, child labor laws,Desert Storm, the Apollo missions to themoon? The list is endless, if you thinkabout it.In the other room, the television tells usthat the Federal Building in OklahomaCity was bombed by antigovernment militants. I wonder why these people think thegovernment is so bad that innocent children and others can be killed in theirprotest? When I was educated at the University, we thought ourselves in pursuit oftruth. Please think before editing.Charles G. Bill, MBA'61Garden Grove, California When you visitChicago fora weekend,a week,or a month,stay atWOODED ISLE SUITES— studio andone-bedroomapartmentsfurnished toprovide you ahome away fromhome.Walk to the Universityof Chicago or theMuseum of Scienceand Industry, strolla Ions the lakefront,catch the bus or trainto the Loop, dine at anearby restaurant, ormake your own dinnerin your Suite.Come "home" toWooded Isle Suitesand relax after a dayof research,studying, meetings,or sightseeing.WOODED ISIE SUITES5750 South Stony Island AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637312-288-55781-800-290-6844University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 3AN UNSENTIMENTALEDUCATIONWriters and ChicagoEDITED BY MOLLY MCQUADEHere is a collection of candidinterviews with twenty-one leadingnovelists and poets who havestudied, taught at, or cultivatedother ties with the University ofChicago."Partly because of the remarkablenature of the institution itself, partlybecause of the extremely distinguished authors involved . . . thebook makes for highly stimulatingreading. . . . The 21 writers represented here — Susan Sontag, KurtVonnegut, George Steiner, CharlesSimic, Philip Roth, Saul Bellow,Robert Coover, June Jordan, etc.— all pay tribute to the impact the university had on their imaginations, and among them create an almost tangible sense ofthe kind of intellectual ferment that seems irretrievably lost."— Publishers WeeklyCloth 288 pagesAvailable at bookstores or by mail with this coupon.§rr.ORDER FORMPiease send me copy/copiin cloth at $18.95 per copy(Phase print]NomeAddress es of McQua< ie's An Unsentimental Education (0226-562 1 0-7)TOTAL ORDER $Soles tax $(U addresses add 8 .?5%|Shipplnq and handling ${add $3.50 tor the First book and $.75 lor eachadditional book)TOTAL PAYMENT $City/State/ZipLJ Check or money order enclosedPhone no. { |SA1215]ress)is 60637 D Charge my Q Visa or D MasterCardCredit card #Mail to;Dept. EG, The University of Chicago F5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Mint Exp. DateSlanatureTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 Wrighteous indignationAs mentioned in the article on RobieHouse ("Chicago Journal," April/95),I recall when the house's then-owner, a seminary, announced its intentionto tear down the home, and Frank LloydWright himself led the charge in opposition.At one point, a media-type asked theGreat Man if he was angry at the seminarians. He replied that, no, he was acting morein sorrow than in anger. After all, "one can'texpect these theologians to understandspiritual things."Peter O. Steege, JD'58Monaca, PennsylvaniaBibfeldt has a brotherJs not Professor Martin Marty's Bibfeldt("The Unbearable Lightness of BeingBibfeldt," February/95) blood brotherto Robert Maynard Hutchins' ZuckerkandW.How short is memory!Will E. Layman, PhB'31Pasadena, CaliforniaWe asked Richard Popp, assistantUniversity archivist, to jog ourcollective memory, as follows:"ZuckerkandW was an animated movieboth writtenand narrated byHutchins; there isalso a book version(Grove Press, 1968).Told in a sort of frac-tured-fairy-tale form,ZuckerkandW was a ratherbitter parody of Freudin which Hutchinsblamed Dr. Zucker-kandl/Freud for modern society's ills. We have a copyof the film in the archives, but only on 16mm. The book is available in the Library'sgeneral stacks."The above illustration, by fohn and FaithHubley, is taken from the book.. — Ed.Romper Room ruckusThe University administration remains steadfast in its plan to replacethe cushioned, lounge-like interiorof the Harper Library North Reading Room("Romper Room," "Playpen") with conference rooms for use by the Business School.Users of the room were not consulted inthe decision to renovate, nor have effortsbeen made to find space for students displaced from this often-crowded room.In reaction, not only did both Student4 UNIVERSITY' OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/JUNE 1995Government and the Inter-House Councilpass resolutions condemning the administration, but a petition containing almost900 signatures was delivered to officials,who reacted with indifference. Alumni whofondly remember this comfortable studyarea should pressure the administration topreserve it.Alanna Spehr, '96ChicagoMichael R. Jones, AM'83, PhD'88, assistantdean of the College, responds: On behalf ofthe College and the Graduate School ofBusiness, please allow me to clarify ourplans for the North Reading Room ofHarper Library.The room will be renovated this comingsummer. Current seating and lounge spacewill be replaced with group study tablesand comfortable chairs and sofas. As in thepast, the room will be available equally toall students, and we expect College andGSB students to share the renovated spacejust as they share the current space. Librarybooks will not be disturbed. All studentswill be able to reserve group study space,and we expect the College Core Tutors andthe Little Red Schoolhouse will make regular use of it, along with study groups fromthe GSB and the College.In the fall, the room will also containsome lockers for GSB students. In the longrun, the GSB will find other space for theselockers, but GSB students have indicatedthat there is a critical need for lockers rightnow. In response to College student concerns, we are working to reduce lockerspace to the greatest extent possible andincrease lounge and study space in the initial phase of the project. We expect to havean attractive new facility available for allstudents by the beginning of autumn quarter.Playing cerebral catchJ never really knew Professor EdwardShils, X'37, who passed away thiswinter ("Deaths," April/95). I wasmerely one of his many admiring, evenworshipful students. In those days, themid-'60s, the Committee on Social Thoughtoffices were located on the fifth floor. Mostof us simply called the space "Heaven."Many shared the experience of speakingwith Professor Shils in his book-investedoffice, his pink face looking kindly at usand the conversation truly inspiring.A fellow student, however, had warnedme about Professor Shils. One day in class,he said, you will by sheer chance say something that stimulates him, and he will say,"Yes, that is very interesting, and do you 1996 Alumni Association AwardsCall for Nominations!Each year the Alumni Association selects outstanding alumni whodeserve recognition for professional excellence, service to the University, and benefit to society. Recipients of the 1996 awards will behonored in Rockefeller Memorial Chapel during our June Reunion.• The Alumni Medal for achievements of national orinternational stature and benefit to society.• The University Alumni Service Medal for extended,extraordinary service to the University.• The Professional Achievement Citations for outstandingachievement in a professional field.• The Public Service Citations for creative and exemplaryleadership in voluntary service to society.• The Alumni Service Citations for outstanding service tothe University.• The Young Alumni Service Citations for outstanding workon behalf of the University by individuals age 35 and younger.If you know someone who deserves an Alumni AssociationAward,* please send for a nomination form or call the AlumniAssociation at 312/702-2160.DEADLINE for completed nominations: October 15, 1995.*Eligible nominees must have matriculated at the University and earned credit toward adegree. Cunent students, employees, and voting members of the Board of Trustees orthe Board of Governors are not eligible. All nominations must remain confidential.Please send me a form for the 1996 Alumni Awards:Name Address Return to:Alumni AwardsUniversity of Chicago Alumni Association5757 Woodlawn AvenueChicago, IL 60637University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995ELDERHOSTELAT INTERNATIONAL HOUSETHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOJULY 9-15, 1995• Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida andThe Winter's Tale• Chicago's Great World's Fairs of 1893and 1933-34• Introduction to the American MusicalTheaterJULY 23-29, 1995¦ Chicago's Architectural Feast• India Emerging: Can Ancient InstitutionsSurvive the Modern World?• Performing Chekhov in ContemporaryContextOCTOBER 22-28, 1995• Celebrating Ethnic Diversity in Chicago• Passageways to Heaven: Sacred Placesof Power• The Young Darwin's Voyage to theGalapagos IslandsNOVEMBER 12-18, 1995• Chicago in the 1890s: The Big Show, theBig Strike, and the Big University• Window to Islamic Society• Opera from the Ground Up: CombiningMusic and Theater in a Western TraditionDECEMBER 10-16, 1995• Chicago Architecture — A Holiday Treat !• The Art of Listening: UnderstandingClassical Music• Chicago 3000 B.C.: Native Americans inthe Chicago Area, Prehistory to TodayElderhostel offers educationalprograms for people age 55+. Revisitcampus, exchange ideas, make friendswith active, interesting people. Only$355 for a one-week program coversclasses, room, meals, and field trips.For Elderhostel information, freecatalog, and registration, contact:Elderhostel75 Federal StreetBoston, MA 021 10(617)426-8056Or contact us for more information at:International House Elderhostel1414 E. 59th StreetChicago, IL 60637(312)753-12926 University of Chicago Magazine/June think you could come to see me in myoffice?" Once in the office, my friend thenwarned, he will ask three questions: Andwhere do you come from? And where didyou go to college? And why are you studying social sciences?The warning was perfectly accurate. I satthere trembling, and Professor Shils began."And where did you grow up?" "Chicago.""Good. And where did you go to college?" Ialready was growing sad that this great manwould go through the same ritual with allstudents, as if with all his knowledge hecould muster nothing spontaneously. "Harvard." "Good, and why are you studyingsocial sciences?"And then something broke inside me.Partly I was disappointed with him, andpartly I was annoyed that, like so manyothers, I had been entreated to partake ina ritualistic charade of superficiality."Well," 1 began somewhat defiantly, "itwas either social sciences or professionalbaseball."Suddenly, Edward Shils became nothingshort of I. L. Peretz's Magician. For twohours he spoke of baseball. He revealed hisknowledge of the game and, even more,painted a glorious portrait of the stands, thepeople, the stadiums, the aesthetics of theturf, the curve of the field, and the belovedPhiladelphia teams of his childhood."I was a catcher, you know. I didn't havegreat skill, but I was plucky." The deadlyritual had ended and Edward Shils, whom Iloved from that moment onward, becameso wondrously alive I thought I would cry.The fifth-floor appellation was correct: Thiswas heaven.My final image of Professor Shils is of himwalking down a Hyde Park street holdinghis son Adam's hand. I was close enough tohear him ask the boy about his day inschool and see him listen intently to theresponse.No ritual here; nothing but utter care andinvolvement. The man won numerousawards for his outstanding work; anyonewho encountered him knew the sheer brilliance and astounding intellect of the man.But I dare say I may be one of the fewpeople on earth who, without mitts andball, actually played a game of catch withEdward Shils.Thomas J. Cottle, AM'63, PhD'68Brookline, MassachusettsDysfunctional philosophyJam responding to a reader's recollections ("Letters," February/95) about apublic fight between Rudolph Carnapand Richard McKeon. The writer wasamazed that Carnap "could treat anyone with such bitter disdain."This reinforces for the umpteenth timemy impression that philosophy has anoverdeveloped hostile side. Reading therecommended philosophy journals in SwiftLibrary in the '50s, I saw a lot of reviewsthat began with praise for the distinguishedcolleague, and how eagerly we awaited thisbook.Then, that out of the way, we had viciousattacks on the reviewee's personal integrity.These little dramas had the life cycle of adysfunctional marriage: Flattery followedby unlimited, personal, unprofessionalattacks. Beethoven also got those reviews,meant to be gleeful great fun but found disgraceful by later generations.It is notable that Richard McKeon, anarchitect of the College, opened up an ecumenical world where you profit frompeople's diversity, and understand it,instead of trying to stamp it out and wasteeverybody's liie.We learn and think better with cooperation than with intimidation. Then howmuch do we learn from philosophy stilladdicted to power struggles and abuse?For those souls who want a world freer ofman's inhumanity to man, or woman,philosophy always seems a natural placeto start. But philosophy won't be muchhelp until it purges itself of its Stalins. I'mnot holding my breath, but you neverknow.Patrick Carey, AB'53New York CityBuilding a biographyJam working on a life and work of Freid-rich Hayek, who taught in the Committee on Social Thought from 1950 to1962, and who received the Nobel Prize ineconomics in 1974. The recollections ofany former students or colleagues whowould wish to share them would be greatlyappreciated. (I am the author, incidentally,of four previous books in political scienceand economics.)Alan Ebenstein2620 Glendessary LaneSanta Barbara, California 93105The Magazine invites letters on the contentsof the magazine or on topics related to theUniversity. Letters for publication, whichmust be signed, may be edited for lengthand/or clarity. To ensure the widest range ofvoices, preference is given to letters of nomore than 300 words.Address letters to: Editor, University ofChicago Magazine, 5757 Woodlawn Ave.,Chicago, IL 60637. The Internet address Douglas: Hors-Champs, through June 30. Aperiod piece that recreates the jazz movement of the1960s, Hors-Champs uses a two-camera videoformat from the '60s to record a quartet performingAlbert Ayler's Spirits Rejoice. Douglas, who completed the piece in 1992, dedicated it to the residents of South Central Los Angeles. TheRenaissance Society; call 702-8670.Planes, Trains, and Automobiles: The Transportation Revolution in Children's Books, throughJuly 10. This exhibit examines how illustrationreflected the great changes in travel and transportation that followed the advent of the railroad, highlighting books that appeared between the twoworld wars. Special Collections; call 702-8705. (See"Moving Pictures," page 26.)A Walk with an Expedition, through July 31. Achronicle of U of C dinosaur expert Paul Sereno'sAfrican fossil hunt. John Crerar Library; call 702-7720.Banks and Bubbles: The Earl J. Hamilton Collection on the History of Economics, June 19-Octo-ber 2. Books, prints, and other materials from thecollection of Earl J. Hamilton, an economist atChicago from 1947 to 1967, chiefly feature thedevelopment of commerce and trade in England,France, and Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries.The collection focuses on Scottish financier JohnLaw and his "Mississippi Bubble" scheme thatruined many prominent investors in London andParis in the early 1700s. Special Collections; call702-8705.Paul Coffey: My Days with Peter in the WeedGarden, June 20-August 20. In this one-man show,the third in a series of alumni-artist exhibitions,Coffey, MFA'92, will create an interior, walled, nonorganic garden installation evoking a narrativebased on "the experiences of Saint Peter, and theivy that grows on campus called Boston Ivy." SmartMuseum; call 702-0200.20/20: Twenty Master Drawings for TwentyYears, June 27-September 3. Exploring works onpaper — the most extensive group in the SmartMuseum's permanent collection — the 20 still lifes,landscapes, allegories, historical scenes, and lifedrawings in this exhibition range from a sketch byFrench impressionist Camille Pissarro to a drawingby 16th-century Dutch painter Abraham Bloemaert,in addition to works by Christian Rohlfs, GeorgeRomney, and Maryan. Smart Museum; call 702-0200.MFA 1995, July 13-August 27. Paintings, drawings, and photography by seven recent MFA graduates of the University's Midway Studios. SmartMuseum; call 702-0200.MusicThe Pirates of Penzance, July 14-15 at 8 p.m. Anopen-air performance by the Gilbert and SullivanOpera Company with full orchestral accompaniment. Hutchinson Courtyard; call 702-8674.A Gershwin Gala, July 21-22 at 8 p.m. BarbaraSchubert, X'79, conducts the University SymphonyOrchestra in Three Preludes and An American in Paris, followed by a semi-staged presentation ofmajor excerpts from Porgy and Bess with professional soloists and the Summer Opera Chorus.Hutchinson Courtyard; call 702-8674.Trouble in Tahiti and Gianni Schicchi, August 4-5at 8 p.m. The Lyric Opera Center for AmericanArtists, the Lyric Opera of Chicago, and the University Symphony Orchestra present fully staged productions of Bernstein's and Puccini's work.Hutchinson Courtyard; call 702-8674.TheaterOff-Off Campus, Fridays at 7 p.m., June 23-July28. Off-Off Campus presents new improvisationalcomedy games and previews scenes in preparationfor its international tour. Reynolds Club first-floortheater; call 702-3414. Guys and Dolls, July 26-29 at 8 p.m. UniversityTheater presents this musical about the racy side of1930s Broadway and its gamblers, promoters, fightmanagers, race-track bookies, and other habitues.F. X. Kinahan Theater; call 702-3414.Chunnehission, August 3-6 at 8 p.m. In the worldpremiere of its international touring show, Off-OffCampus presents original scenes, wacky musicals,and raucous improv. F. X. Kinahan Theater; call702-3414.Twelfth Night, August 11-12 at 8 p.m.; August 13at 3 p.m. "If music be the food oflove, play on." Sobegins Shakespeare's comedy of romance and madness. Twelfth Night celebrates the enjoyment of lifeand the irresistibility of love and passion — completewith mistaken identities, unrequited desire, lords,ladies, and fools. Hutchinson Courtyard; call 702-3414.On the QuadsSummer Carillon Festival, Sundays at 6 p.m.,June 18-August 20. Rockefeller Chapel presentsfree outdoor concerts of carillon music performedby carillonneurs from the United States and Belgium. Picnicking on the surrounding lawns isencouraged; people may view the carillon beforerecitals. Rockefeller Chapel; call 753-1191. (See"Center Stage.")Center StageThe Bells of Rockefeller: With 100 tons of bronze, the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Carillon is one of the largest carillons in the world, its 72 bellsspanning a range of six octaves. Members of the public are invited to hear its musicat the Summer Carillon Festival, June 18-August 20. The free, ten-concert series features guest carillonneurs from the United States and Belgium, including Universitycarillonneur Wylie Crawford, MAT'70. The recitals of classical, folk, and contemporary selections begin at 6 p.m. Sundays and last for one hour. Listeners can sit on thelawn of Rockefeller Memorial Chapel, where picnicking is encouraged. Those whowant to see the carillonneurs in action should meet at the northeast corner of thechapel half an hour before the recital — and be prepared for the 220-step climb to thechapel's tower.University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 7C ourse WorkBetweenHelp anda HardPlaceIt's not easy being poor. And,as Harold Richman shows hisstudents in "Social Welfare inthe United States," it's noteasy figuring out how to help. A third-year from Pittsburgh wor-ries about pregnant teenagers. Astudent from Cincinnati tells ofhis volunteer work with the LegalAid Society. A second-year from San Francisco mentions working with AIDS patients. A fourth-year from Austin says, "Iknow people on these programs." A psychmajor from Chicago also has friends on aid.A student from Chicago Heights wonders,with a tremor in her voice, why the lower-middle class doesn't qualify for governmentaid. A woman from New England classiliesher family, who've been on and off welfare,as "the rural poor."Up one row and down the next, studentsanswer Professor Harold A. Richman's question: What contact have you had with peoplewho receive some form of social welfare?There's no time to hear from every one ofthe 50 or so students gathered in the lecturehall in the 1155 Building. In fact, Richman,AM'61, PhD'69, has already implored any(irst- or second-years in the room to consider dropping the course, which he de signed in 1987 as a way to examine the evolution of social-welfare provisions in U.S.society. That year, no one signed up.Eight years later, the course taught byRichman — the Hermon Dunlap Smith professor in the School of Social ServiceAdministration and the College, the director of the Chapin Hall Center for Children,and a 1990 Quantrell award winner for outstanding undergraduate teaching — hasmore takers than it can handle."This course," Richman tells the first-daycrowd, "really should be called 'Help' —with an exclamation point! But you can'tput that in a course catalog," and so thecourse is known officially as Social Sciences253, "Social Welfare in the United States."The professor, who starts every session bytaking off his suit jacket and rolling up hissleeves, encourages his students to take asimilar, wade-right-in approach.The first written assignment asks them tochoose one of four "vignettes" — a grandmother on Social Security who, diagnosedwith Alzheimer's, needs round-the-clock8 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995care; a 17-year-old whose family has kickedher out because she's pregnant; a mildlyschizophrenic college dropout who can'thold a job; a 12-year-old from the projectswho's being pressured to join a gang — andfigure out how to get help. Keeping track ofthe calls they make and the leads theyfollow, they're to weigh the solutions theyfind, picking the one that seems to makethe most sense. Only one directive isoffered: "You might want to start with thephone book."Readings begin with Alex Kodowitz's ThereAre No Children Here, an account of twoboys growing up in Chicago's South Sideprojects, and end with Michael Katz's In theShadow of the Poorhouse, which Richmancalls "a rather dense intellectual history" ofsocial welfare in America. He chose thebooks for "their ability to get to the contemporary reality," a starting point for askinghard questions about who gets help andwhy. As Richman warns, "This is a course asconcerned about judgment as it is aboutknowledge." Also, in a very real sense, "it's acourse about citizenship.""I'm going to push you to examine yourvalues, to develop your knowledge, and tobring them together. The best way to bringknowledge and values together," he emphasizes, "is to talk about them."Five minutes into the second day of class,Harold Richman plays moderator as students try to decide how much money thestate of Illinois will give a hypotheticalfamily of three — a single mother with aninth-grade education, her 13-year-olddaughter, and her 10-year-old son — tocomply with the state-mandated guidelinesthat support the federal Aid to Familes withDependent Children (AFDC) program. Thestate, he explains, "says you should get support at the level that allows you to live incircumstances of health and decency — andthat allows you to live with full participation as a citizen."It's not a useful guideline," he suggests,"if you're trying to figure out how manydollars to give someone." Nevertheless, it'sthe guideline that the students — like theirreal-life counterparts in Springfield — mustuse to shape their decisions.The class starts by considering rent."They live in Chicago?" comes the firstquestion."Do we know where she lives, and whatthey charge for rent?" another student asks."The budget applies to everybody," Rich-man replies with bureaucratic neutrality."Where should she live — Kenilworth?Woodlawn? Hyde Park?" No answers."We gotta do it," Richman admonishes."This lady's gotta get her check." "Three hundred dollars?" a woman offers."Too low!" someone counters."I've seen it done."Richman steps in. "Remember, in Illinois,there are 700,000 people on AFDC. Haveyou seen a lot of two-bedroom apartmentsin the city for $300?"The discussion shifts: Should it be a two-bedroom apartment? Could the family getby on one bedroom with a fold-out couch?Or should they have three bedrooms,giving everyone privacy?"We shouldn't even consider a three-bedroom," one woman says decidedly. "Thesepeople are poor.""This is a course asconcerned about judgmentas it is about knowledge/'Harold Richman tells hisstudents." Also, in a veryreal sense, "it's a courseabout citizenship.""We're just picking numbers here,"another woman complains. "Is there anyway we could get an average rent for a two-bedroom apartment?""Good question," Richman responds. Atthe lectern, he searches through his notes,looking up to announce, "Fair-market rentfor a two-bedroom apartment in theChicago area, according to the Center forSocial Welfare Policy and Law, is $692.That's for the city as a whole.""Why don't we look at what the averagefamily spends," a voice in the front says,"and then cut that by 10 percent.""Why do that?" Richman asks."You don't want them to be better off onwelfare than working," comes the response."Isn't this sort of the dilemma?" a womanasks. "We want to provide a decent lifestyleto people without jobs, but people whohave a minimum- wage job aren't gettingthose opportunities.""What are you going to do about that?"Richman asks her. "Social welfare," he continues, "used to be guided by the principlethat people who aren't working shouldn'tbe paid higher than the lowest-paid worker.Yet you've got to create a condition ofdecency. You've got a problem."Minutes later, Richman calls for a vote.Some hands go up boldly, others more hesitantly as he calls out the figures chalked upon the blackboard: $375. $450. $500. $550.$600. The "winner," barely, is $500.Next, how much for food? "They have the time to go and find out where to get thebest deal," says a woman in a baseball cap."It's in their own best interest." For clothing? "We're assuming that these people arebuying new clothes," a man says, suggesting that the family should buy only secondhand outfits: "That creates the shame andthat gets the mother off welfare." Amidmoans of dismay, hands wave furiously."We're back to something we talkedabout in the first class," Richman referees,"the ambivalence that we feel about peopleon aid. Along with helping, should there bean element of shame, stigma, punishmentas an incentive to get them off welfare?"Through personal expenditures, utilities,transportation, and furniture, the accounting continues into the next class session,each item argued back and forth as students try to be fair without being indulgent.A young man in a Hawaiian shirt, who'slowballed every other category, surprisesthe group by being "more lenient" when itcomes to transportation — "if the main goalis to save money by going out of the neighborhood to shop, and so that the kids cango to a better school," he clarifies.When each point has been debated andvoted, Richman adds up the allotments andannounces the annual aid (sans medicalhelp) the class has awarded the family:$14,100. "When you look at the numbers,"he asks, "do you think you've been verygenerous, sort of generous, or strict?" Theclass decides on "sort of generous.""In the eight years I've been doing this,"Richman confides, "you are the strictest classever — by quite a lot." In past years, classescame within a thousand dollars of eachother — generally between $16,000 and$18,000."How about compared to actuality?" asksa young woman who's argued for holdingthe family to strict economies.The number Richman reveals — combininga cash subsidy and food stamps — drawssome gasps: $7,044. The figure is $4,956less than the poverty level, and $3,056 lessthan something called the standard ofneed — the amount that the state has calculated it should be paying such a family."How is that possible?" a student wants toknow. Leaning forward at the lectern,Harold Richman navigates a complex webof federal and state laws and policies — conflicts and compromises that recall his warning as the class constructed its own budget."Remember," he'd told the student-citizens, "you made this. You may have todefend it — against the guy who is fillingout his tax form, as well as the woman whois sitting on the streets with her bags andher child."— M.R.Y.University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 9hicagojourndFOR THE RECORDNew trustee: Lien Chan,AM'61, PhD'65, is thenewest member of theUniversity's board oftrustees. Premier of theRepublic of China onTaiwan since 1993, Lienis the first foreignnational to be named tothe board. In 1991, hewas awarded the University's highest alumnihonor, the AlumniMedal. Instrumental inestablishing an endowment for an exchangeprogram betweenChicago and NationalTaiwan University, Lienis also honorary chair ofthe U of C Club ofTaiwan.Show of shows:National Public Radiohas announced plans torebroadcast select performances of the University's acclaimed ChamberMusic, Early Music, andContemporary ChamberPlayers series on its showPerformance Today. Pool should put Chicagoin the swim of thingsFor decades, it has beenlittle more than idle fantasyin the minds of swimmerscrammed into Bartlett Gymnasium's diminutive swimmingpool. But this May, a comparatively giant 50-meter-by-25-yardaquatics facility took a long stridetoward becoming reality when ananonymous donor gave $5 millionto fund the pool's construction.The need for improvedathletics facilities, especially for aquatics, hasbeen acknowledged atleast since 1924, when aU of C trustee describedBartlett Gymnasium as"antiquated." With limited funds available,other needs took precedence — most recently,the Biological SciencesLearning Center and theDowntown Center. Butwhen the Universityannounced plans toincrease its Campaignfor the Next Century'sgoal by $150 million("Chicago Journal,"April/95), part of thatgoal — $20 million — wasearmarked specificallyfor a new athletic center,including a new pool."This is a giant step inour efforts to make theathletics center a reality," says Steven G.Rothmeier, MBA'72,who chairs the volunteer leadership commit tee overseeing the campaign's athletic-center component. "We aregrateful to the donor, who believesthe University community deserves a state-of-the-art pool andwho recognizes the central importance of the center in the life ofour institution."Claiming that a sports facility isof "central importance" to a place as cerebral as Chicago may, onthe surface, seem like a stretch. Ofcourse, a new athletic complexwould be nice — even sublime, ifyou've ever sought in vain anempty locker or waited in line ahalf-hour for an open swimminglane. But urgent?"Absolutely, it's urgent," saysTom Weingartner, associate professor and chair of physical education and athletics, who presentshis case with lawyerly precisionand evangelical passion."The notion that the best students are not interested in athlet-Tightfit: Dedicated swimmers try to squeeze in some exercise at Bartlett pool.1 0 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995ics, recreation, and fitness simplyno longer holds," says Weingartner, pulling out a sheet of "quickfacts" that he reads aloud: "Morethan 400 men and women participated in varsity sports lastyear... .About 2,000 people — students, faculty, staff — use our athletic facilities every day —Approximately 7,600 studentsparticipate in intramural sportseach year, and that numberkeeps growing, almost exponentially."Points made, Weingartner leansforward for the sell: "To attractand retain the best students, andalso the best faculty, you needattractive facilities. Our facilitiesright now, for many uses, are noteven adequate, let alone attractive.""Nice," though, is a good wordto describe what the new poolwould look like: 50 meters (theinternational competitive standard) by 25 yards (the preferredlength for American high schooland college competition). It'swhen you look at what that poolwould replace that the term"urgent" becomes apropos. TheBartlett pool, built in 1904, measures 20 by 7 yards. Not only hasit been decades since 20-yardevents were dropped from swimming competition, but the divingboard was pulled out some yearsago after being ruled a hazard (thepool's bottom is 10 inches shallower than the recommendedsafety standard) .Swimming coach Kevin Foberwill tell you the hardships of running a competitive program withsuch a facility — if you can findhim. After years of coaching asmany as five practices a day inBartlett ("you have to run them inshifts because the pool's toonarrow to hold more than a fewswimmers at a time," he explains), Fober's given up on thepool almost entirely, except foroptional morning practices.Instead, he and his swimmerstravel by vans each night either toa nearby YMCA or to the University of Illinois' Chicago campus.Naturally, the team doesn't get thechoicest times for either pool.Fober predicts that participationon his teams will increase by atleast 50 percent in the first yearafter a new pool is built. But var sity swimming represents only asmall fraction of the students whowill benefit from the new facilities.According to Tom Weingartner,some 6,000 students requestedathletic passes this past academicyear. Since swimming is one ofAmerica's most popular pastimes,you would expect a large percentage of those students to make useof the pool — but they don't."Right now, you have to bepretty stouthearted to want to tryto squeeze your lap-swimminginto our tiny pool," says Weingartner. A larger pool would alsoexpand the hours available forrecreational swimming, withmovable bulkheads dividing poolspace so that there could be adiving class in one area and lap-swimming in another.Even non-swimmers will benefitfrom the athletic center, saysWeingartner. Although the pool isthe centerpiece, a new gymnasium and expanded locker andshower space are also planned.Designed to replace Bartlett Gym(tentatively planned to be converted into a student center) the68,000-square-foot facility wouldbe built on what is now an openarea just south of Pierce Hall, andwould be physically joined to theHenry Crown Field House, essen tially making one giant athleticcomplex. As such, it would provide relief for what Weingartnerterms severe overcrowding at theField House — particularly in thelocker and shower areas.The new facility also fits nicelywith long-term plans for a northcampus, linking the athleticcenter by quadrangles to surrounding facilities such as theSmart Museum, Court Theatre,and Regenstein Library to create asocial focus for the campus.It hasn't been hard to generatestudent enthusiasm for the proposed center, even if those students will likely have graduatedlong before such a facility is built.For example, the graduating College class of 1995 is purchasingthe building's main doors as itsclass gift — although, with $15million yet to be raised, thecenter's completion is still uncertain.Second-year Margaret Pizer, thisyear's women's MVP in swimming, is also happy to hear aboutthe plans, even if they won't personally affect her. "When we goto other pools at other schoolsand see how great they are, it'ssort of reassuring to realize that,hey, in a few years, this is goingto be us." — T.A.O.Term bill rises, as does student aidThe University's College tuition for 1995-96 will be$19,875. Adding room and board charges of $6,668 and feestotaling $318 for health services and student activities, thetotal term bill will be $26,861 — a 4.9-percent increase.Along with the increase in tuition will be a boost in funds for student financial aid: The University has budgeted $23.5 million forscholarships to undergraduates in 1995-96, up from last year's$23-million aid allotment.In announcing the 1995-96 fees, President Hugo Sonnenscheinemphasized that the University will continue its policy of admittingthe most qualified College applicants, regardless of their ability topay, while meeting those students' full financial needs. In the pastacademic year, 60 percent of Chicago's undergraduates receivedsuch need-based scholarships.The average scholarship for those students was $12,355, with 81percent of that support coming directly from the University, Sonnenschein said — adding that Chicago continues to lead among eliteuniversities in the percentage of its students who receive financial aid.Tuition increases— from $19,335 in 1994-95 to $20,310— in thefour graduate divisions (Biological Sciences, Humanities, PhysicalSciences, and Social Sciences) were also announced. Tuition numbers for the professional schools (Law, Medicine, Business, Divinity,Public Policy Studies and Social Service Administration) wereunavailable at press time. New and improved: Thisspring, the nationalbookstore chain Barnes& Noble assumed management of the University Bookstore. Whilefinancing $2 million inrenovations for thestore — including theaddition of a musicdepartment and a cafeserving Starbuckscoffee — the bookselleralso agreed to retain thestore's 50 employees atcomparable salary andbenefits for at least oneyear. The switch waspartly for financial reasons: The U of C—runBookstore lost more than$1 million oyer the pastfive years. Now the University will receive anannual percentage of allstore sales.Name change: In 1994,Roger E. Covey, AM'94,MBA'78, endowed theCentennial distinguishedservice professorship inChinese art history. Nowhe has renamed thatchair — still held by itsfirst recipient, WuHung — the Harrie A.Vanderstappen S.V.D.distinguished service professorship of Chinese arthistory. Covey met Vanderstappen, AM'51,PhD'55, professor emeritus in Art and East AsianLanguages & Civilizations, in 1991, when hetook a sabbatical fromhis Chicago softwarecompany to pursue adegree in East Asian arthistory at the U of C.University of Chicago Magazine/Junei995 1 144Grand gesture: Handand Mind: What Gestures Reveal aboutThought, by linguisticsand psychology professorDavid McNeill, won thisyear's Gordon]. Laingaward, presented to thefaculty-written book published during the pastthree years that adds thegreatest distinction to theU of C Press. "The key tomy booh," McNeill saidin a recent Magazineinterview, "is that wehave to watch to hear. "Rising awareness: Thisspring, the PritzkerSchool of Medicineoffered a new course ondomestic violence. Students in the class, themost in-depth of its kindoffered by a U.S. medicalschool, learned interviewing/interventiontechniques and hearddomestic-violence victimsdescribe their healthcare experiences. It isn't as if this is my place..,Space happy: After hishistoric March space-shuttle mission — thelongest shuttle/light todate — astronaut JohnGrunsfeld, SM'84,PhD'88, provided tantalizing glimpses of zero-gravity life in an April 18Chicago Maroon interview. The rehydratedfood was "pretty good, "he reported, but sleepingcan be awkward, sinceyou have to Velcro thepillow to your head.Would he go up again?"Oh, absolutely — as soonas lean." B ernard O. Brown, DB'55,AM'65, PhD'73— who retires this June as dean ofRockefeller Memorial Chapel —first laid eyes on the chapel at age17. It was during a stopover whilehitchhiking from North Dakota toMichigan, where he had a summer job washing dishes at theInterlochen Music Camp. Thesight of the chapel left "an indelible mark," and he sought it outagain four years later as a studentin the Federated TheologicalSchools of the U of C, when hesuccessfully auditioned for a spotin Rockefeller's nationally acclaimed choir.Except for seven years as chaplain at the universities of Minnesota and the Philippines, Brownhas made Chicago his home eversince, serving as a campus minister, International House's program director, ministry studiesdirector in the Divinity School,associate chapel dean, and — forthe past 16 years — as dean of thechapel. Brown, who is also anassociate professor in the DivinitySchool and the College, reminisced about his career in a Mayinterview with the Magazine.What were some of the mostmemorable moments of yourtenure? I remember the visit ofArchbishop Desmond Tutu a fewyears ago. On a weekday morning, people were lined up aroundthe block trying to get in. TheSouth Africans who had comebegan singing and he began tosing with them.And then I think of the day in1988 when the chapel wasreopened after being closed for ayear for restoration. With all ofthe grunge gone, it was absolutelyshining. And because the acoustics had been redesigned, weheard the organ and the choir asthough for the first time.One Sunday morning, just outof the blue, the great Englishtenor Peter Pears called to ask ifhe could sing in the service. Hestood on the front steps of thechapel and sang a cappella. It wasone of those special moments thatyou could never plan for nor hope to reproduce. I've been lucky tohave experienced many suchmoments.How would you describe yourUniversity congregation? Almostevery Sunday half of the congregation are faces I don't recognize:visitors to the city, parents of students, groups from other churches.They may have heard some of thechapel's music on the radio. Mostoften, 1 think, they've knownsomebody who said, 'You shouldreally check that place out.'The people who come regularly,are, almost without exception,university-educated, either hereor at another university or college.They are mostly graduate studentsand young professionals living inHyde Park, and though they are afairly small group, they share alevel of intensity about what wedo here that I find remarkable.I always liken this to a chapel ona military base, where people areaway from where they usually are,and look to us to provide a senseof community, a place of reflection, during their time here. Have you dealt with controversial campus issues in your role aschapel dean? In the '50s and '60s,on this and nearly every campus,there was a very strong partisanquality to everyone's life, culminating with the Vietnam War. Mydeanship has been through somewhat more quiet times. Nevertheless, there have been importantissues that I've addressed, usuallyin writings I've made available tothe congregation. But 1 generallydon't focus on divisive issues inthe ceremonies themselves.Doubtless some would say that'sa great loss. And there are otherswho recognize what I believe: thatif you've been pushed to the wallyou have to stand up and fight —but in situations where you'retrying to promote reflection andget people talking with one another, then a pastoral approachmay be more effective than a partisan approach. In general, I believethe chapel should be a placewhere one doesn't have to endorsea particular kind of partisanship inorder to feel welcome here.1 2 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995Do many undergraduates participate in the life of the chapel?Much of the student involvementin the chapel is through the various musical groups. We don'thave many undergraduates cometo Sunday services, and I thinkthat's typical of most campuses.However, I would not agree thatstudents today are not interestedin religion — in the classroom, Ifind that students are keenlyinterested in religious issues. But Iwould agree that many studentsare disinclined to participate inorganized religious activity, atleast during their college years.Whether or not they are activeparticipants in its religious life, formany students the chapel has akind of signature meaning. Itbecomes a place of milestones: It'sthe setting when they arrive onthe first day of Orientation withtheir parents; it's the place wherethey come for graduation. Manywant to be married here. Whenclasses come back for reunion,you can tell they're keenly interested in what's happening here atthe chapel. I think it's very dear tomany of the students.What aspect of the job will youmiss most? I know I'll miss thesense of being intimately connected with a really great ^^^^university. And I'll missthe many aspects of theinstitution's life thatcome into focus throughthe life of the chapel — inthe religious services, inthe music, and in theceremonies of the University. But, really, thatwon't disappear. Mywife, Carol Jean, and Iwill continue to live inthis community. I'll continue to teach.After nearly 50 years, Istill find myself in aweof this chapel and thatwouldn't change if Istayed another 20 years.You know, it isn't as ifthis is my place. And sowhen I can come in andhear the choir and thebells, or simply walk byit in the evening andhave a sense of its presence, that awe is not going to go away. — T.A.O. Civilization in retreatA emphasize "coverage," or the conveying of basic history, where doyou find time to do close readingsof specific documents? Withoutsuch coverage, are the close readings really useful? Is geographythe best way to set the boundariesfor what a particular civilizationencompasses? What would happenif all of the civilization sequenceswere organized around a particular theme, such as issues ofgender? Or if civilization courseswere organized to emphasizeprocesses of "unsettlement" — themovement of ideas, people, andgoods across cultures?And — a question that received alot of discussion — what about thechanging nature of the College'sstudent body? More and morestudents, it was noted, seem totake Civ courses as "roots" or"identity" courses. History professor John Woods reported that, in1987, 5 percent of Islamic Civstudents had Islamic surnames,compared to 30 percent in1993-94. In 1987, 28 percent ofSouth Asian Civ students hadSouth Asian surnames; this yearthat number was over 60 percent. l Some argued that "roots"-seeking students — a number of whom have troubledealing with new ideas abouta culture in which they haveassumed fluency — aren'tnew at all. As political scienceprofessor Susanne Hoeber Rudolph noted, "Western Civwas a way of carrying somebody from Boise, Idaho, toancient Greece. Carryingthe young Indian womanfrom Oak Park into Vedictimes is also a de-parochial-izing experience."By day's end, three thingsseemed certain: No one disputed the general-educationimpulse underlying the Civilization Core courses. As in1947, a certain tension —created by the need to provide both historical cov-J erage and firsthand readings<i of a civilization's greatStepping out: Dance Studio '95, featuring student- texts — seemed inescapable.choreographed works, was part of this spring's And, third, the discussionsi?iaugural U of C Dance Celebration. would continue. — M.R.Y.S A PILOT COURSE IN 1947,the College's now famousI "History of Western Civilization" was the subject of lively,often heated, debate. This April, itwas deja-vu all over again, as 75professors, graduate students, anda smattering of College studentsand alumni gathered for an all-day discussion of the CommonCore's requirement in civiliza-tional studies. The discussion wasthe third in three retreats (socialsciences and humanities camefirst) held in preparation for anoverall review of the College curriculum to take place next year.Western Civ, along with coursesin Judaic, Islamic, African, LatinAmerican, American, Russian,and six other three-quarter sequences in civilizational studies,are all designed, in the Collegecatalog's words, to provide "in-depth examination of the development and accomplishments of oneof the world's great civilizationsthrough direct encounters withsome of its most significant documents and monuments."At the retreat, more questionswere raised than answered: If you Author, author: Twodistinguished novelists,A.B. Yehoshua of IsraelandJ.M. Coetzee ofSouth Africa (shownabove), delivered publiclectures in April as the Uof C's first Regents Parkvisiting scholars in thearts and social sciences.The lecture program ismade possible by a giftfrom Martha and BruceClinton. Regents Park, aHyde Park apartmentcomplex, is owned andoperated by The ClintonCompanies.Beyond compare: Once agraduate committee,comparative literature isnow a department atChicago. The program'sfocus — to promote literature study unfettered byconventional demarcations of subject matter —won't change, butdepartmental statusshould allow for "greatercoordination and betteruse of faculty resources, "says chair MichaelMurrin.Well put: First-yearshot-putter Shahla Bol-bolan finished fourthin the NCAA DivisionIII Championships witha University-recordthrow of 13.12 meters,making her the U of C'sfirst women's indoortrack-and-field All-American.University' of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 1 31 nvestigationsA Matter of FAQsThe facts at hand: Kris Hammond's new program puts Internet wisdom within reach.Kris Hammond turns theInternet's "frequently askedquestions" into a wealthof easy answers.IF YOU WANT ANSWERS IN A HURRY, THEInternet's broad resources are often nobetter than an electronic Tower ofBabel. Tools like Gopher servers, the WorldWide Web, and the public bulletin boardscalled newsgroups organize information bytotally different schemes, and there's nocomprehensive index. Veterans userssearch the "Net" by browsing, but, saysChicago computer scientist Kris Hammond, that's of little help to most people.Still, small pockets of cyberspace do havea predictable structure, allowing quickaccess to helpful data. For Hammond, associate professor and director of the ArtificialIntelligence Laboratory, these regions areallowing him and his colleagues to place apart of the Internet's resources within reachof a much wider audience. Their project isa program called FAQ Finder, named forthe files of "frequently asked questions"compiled by the thousands of Internetnewsgroups — electronic forums wherepeople with a common interest post ideasand ask questions.A newsgroup's FAQ file, explains Hammond, orients new subscribers who, likevisitors to any information center, often askthe same questions time after time. Someone reading a newsgroup about the movies"will immediately ask, 'What does "Rosebud" mean in Citizen Kane?' 'What does agaffer do?' Veterans don't want to answerevery time."Hammond — with visiting assistant professor Robin Burke, Argonne researcher TerryCaasterland, and DePaul University colleague Steve Lytinen — has turned the FAQfiles of far-flung newsgroups into a single,practical database containing devotees'wisdom on anything from movies to mathematics, Irom the Middle East to martial arts. Recycling that knowledge exemplifies astrategy that Hammond pioneered in thefield of artificial intelligence — case-basedreasoning. It's a tactic, he says, that humansuse all the time: "When you look at a newproblem, you try to find an existing problem in memory that is of the same kind."But FAQ Finder is more than an index ofold ideas. It seeks out appropriate answersstarting with a user's question — typed inplain English. If any "frequently askedquestion" matches the user's original query,it displays the question — and the accompanying answer. The use of a sophisticatedsemantic analysis and an electronic dictionary and thesaurus allow for a seeminglyhuman response: A query like "How do I separate my husband's credit rating frommine?" is matched in under a minute to theFAQ, "How do I get my spouse off mycredit rating?" Most "intelligent" programsthat search the Internet, says Hammond,look for text without analyzing its meaning."What happens is, if you're interested insnakes and say, 'Give me files with Pythonin it,' " you'll also get unwanted files on thecomedy troupe Monty Python.Hammond's group plans to release FAQFinder as a free, public resource, and reference librarians and Internet users will nodoubt find it a boon. (The program will beavailable on the World Wide Web by latesummer at The Office of Naval1 4 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995Research is funding a classified applicationof the program, and Hammond is optimistic about finding commercial licenses —adapting the program, perhaps, as a searchtool for an electronic publication, or for useby product- or service-help desks.Given the Internet's crazy quilt of organizational schemes, though, he's less sanguine about expanding FAQ Finder tocomb more of cyberspace. Other programs'simple word searches are one thing, but, hesays, "right now, it's not feasible to buildanything even slightly intelligent thatwould cruise the Net."Roots of a CityExplorer Louis Jolliet pointed it outin 1673: If not for a single, 100-milestretch of land, people and goodscould travel easily by boat from the GreatLakes to the Gulf of Mexico. In 1848 hisvision was realized when the Illinois &Michigan Canal opened, joining LakeMichigan to the Illinois River and, throughit, to the Mississippi and the Gulf. TheI & M Canal, says historical geographerMichael Conzen, was America's "last bigcanal that made a difference. The differenceit made was Chicago."Today, the region along the former canalis an outdoor laboratory for Conzen's College and graduate students. A professor andchair of the committee on geographicalstudies, he uses the landscape and townsto illustrate the role geography has playedin American history.In the case of the I & MCanal, which stretchedwest from Chicago toLaSalle-Peru, that role wasenormous. "Most peoplethink the railroads catapulted Chicago," says Conzen, "but they came later."In the canal's first six years,an industrial corridorsprang up along the waterway, which "articulatedthe whole upper Midwestas a region." Trade that hadflowed south to NewOrleans now went east toChicago — a trend onlyreinforced, he explains,when the railroads arrived.Dotted with small townsevery few miles, the canalregion is rich in history."Thoreau, Mark Twain — allthese luminaries camethrough the I & M Canalcorridor on speaking tours," notes Conzen. "Ottawa is the site ofthe first Lincoln-Douglas debate." His students explore the area through researchprojects chosen from a list that Conzen prepares, each year focusing on differenttowns — Joliet or Lockport, for example —or issues, such as settlement patterns or theindustrial revolution. The corridor's proximity to Chicago, he says, creates an "extraordinary" teaching resource. "We can easilydrive there to explore archives, to meetpeople, to collect information, to look atthe landscape."The benefits flow two ways. For the pasteight years, Conzen has edited and published the best of each class's researchpapers in a series, Studies on the Illinois &Michigan Canal Corridor. What is usuallythe students' first scholarly publication isoften the first geographical survey of a particular town or regional historical development — an information gap that promptedthe series after local librarians "begged" forcopies of the students' final papers.In the years since the I & M Canal closedin 1933 — it was largely outmoded whenthe much wider Chicago Sanitary & ShipCanal opened in 1900, and some sectionsare today completely dry — many nearbyfactory jobs disappeared. But, in 1984, theregion received a boost when it was designated the country's first National HeritageCorridor, arousing interest in preserving itshistory and in how, through tourism, thathistory could help local economies.Conzen, who assisted the groups that lobbied for National Heritage Corridor status, says that these trends have made his students' research more and more valuable.Already the papers have been cited in bothscholarly footnotes and efforts to place siteson the National Register of Historic Places.Before Conzen began the series, he says,"The students wrote papers and they endedup in my file cabinet." Now, the work hasfound its own sense of place.The Killing FieldsPITY THE POOR DINOSAURS. FALLINGasteroids, lava-spewing volcanoes,rising sea levels, and global cooling:In the collective notebooks of scientists,T. rex and company have suffered theirshare of calamities. What force really killedoff the dinosaurs 65 million years ago? Thepopular whodunit is part of the larger mystery of mass extinctions, the cataclysmicevents that radically changed the course ofevolution at least five times. Their case is farfrom solved, but, in a trio of recent studies,Chicago researchers have turned up severalnew leads, possibly ruling out some suspects in the mass extinction that wiped outdinosaurs and countless other species.What David Jablonski calls a "brutal" picture of that famous late-Cretaceous eventcomes from a new census of marine fossilsthat he conducted with David Raup, SB'53,the Sewell L. Avery distinguished serviceprofessor emeritus. The Chicago paleontologists compared survival rates of organismsfrom that period to see if any earlier adapta-Location, location: Towns like Morris, shown in 1881, thrived thanks to the Illinois & Michigan CanalUniversity of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 1 5tions — in body size or feeding habits, forexample — helped them to survive the catastrophe. Surprisingly, nothing did."There really was nowhere to hide," saysJablonski, a professor of geophysical sciences. "What we ordinarily think of asmechanisms for survival just didn't work."Because of the study's size and subjects —350 lineages of marine mollusks, whosefossils are abundant and widespread — itsresults provide a good yardstick for howother creatures fared. Organisms with abetter chance for survival were thosewhich, like mollusks, were distributed overmany continents. That finding is consistent, he and Raup believe, with evidencethat dinosaurs as a group were widespread,but specific dinosaur species were not.Their study "doesn't tell us whether it wasan asteroid or a volcano" that caused theextinction, says Jablonski, "but it does constrain some of the killing mechanisms." Forexample, theories that blame a die-offamong plankton don't square with the factthat plankton-feeding mollusks fared noworse than their bottom-feeding cousins.Another clue to the nature of the "killingmechanisms" comes from geophysical-sciences graduate student Paul Markwick,who has surveyed late-Cretaceous crocodileMystery killer: Why did the event that wiped out Albertosaurusand other dinosaurs spare snails (above) like Cerithiella?fossils as part of the U ofC's PaleogeographicAtlas Project. Becausethese cold-blooded animals require mild temperatures, Markwick'sfinding — that crocsremained numerous andwidespread after themass extinction — disputes the notion that asevere climate changekilled the dinosaurs. "The cooling mayhave had a part," says Markwick, "but itclearly wasn't the major player."So how could cooling fit in? The mechanisms behind two popular theories, anasteroid impact and volcanism, bothinclude a short-term cooling, and thesource of that cooling — blocked sunlight —would also stop photosynthesis, causing abreakdown in the food chain, a breakdownthat would hit dinosaurs hard. A coldblooded crocodile, says Markwick, "couldgo kill a wildebeest, and that would keep ithappy for the whole year," while a presumably warm-blooded dinosaur would need aconstant source of food.Then the dinosaurs starved to death? "It'snot that neat and clear," he says. Otherwarm-bloodedanimals survivedthe extinction —namely mammals.Enter a new starsuspect. DavidSchramm believesthat the asteroid-impact theory,proposed in 1980by a group including Luis Alvarez,SB'32, SM'34,PhD'36, is by now"rather nicelyestablished." Buthe doubts if it canexplain other massextinctions, especially given estimates of the late-Cretaceous asteroid's unusuallyhuge size: 5 kilometers across. Acosmologist,Schramm wondered if other astronomical eventscould be amongthe culprits. Lastyear, he and JohnEllis of the European Organization for Nuclear Researchupdated a theory fromthe 1970s: Was a nearbysupernova to blame?Schramm, the LouisBlock professor in physical sciences, says radiation from an explodingstar could destroy the| Earth's ozone layer forhundreds of years, leaving phytoplankton andplants unprotected against ultraviolet light.Then "our own sun does the killing" — as ifthe ozone hole now over Antarctica suddenly expanded to cover the globe — and thefood chain crumbles from the bottom up.Using new data on nearby supernovae,Schramm and Ellis also note an interestingcoincidence between their best guess forlocal supernovae rates — one event everyfew hundred million years — and the age ofthe granddaddy of all mass extinctions: theone that ended the Permian period some185 million years before the dinosaurs bitthe late-Cretaceous dust.Brave New GeneticsDepending on your view, it's scaryor amazing or both. And geneticswill soon become a lot more so.Imagine, for example, an amniocentesis testthat screens for dozens of genetic disorders — instead of a mere handful. Laying afoundation for this coming knowledgeboom is the mammoth Human GenomeProject, biomedicine's $3-billion, ongoingeffort to chart the location and chemicalsequence of every single gene on thehuman chromosomes. Amid talk of theproject's wonderful progress, some geneticists worry that a discussion of its ethicalimplications is getting short shrift.Mary Mahowald's concerns started whenshe noticed how official descriptions of theHuman Genome Project made careful useof gender-neutral language. A medical ethi-cist and professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the U of C, she wondered, would theproject's impact really be so impartial?Couples, Mahowald points out, don'tundergo amniocentesis, abortion, or prenatal treatment of a fetus. Women do. Andwhen a child is born with a genetic condition, a woman is usually the caregiver. Inthe context of these differences, she says,"gender-neutral language is a mistake. Itmasks the fact that real differences result inreal inequities or disadvantages."Differences related to reproduction andcaregiving, she believes, are crucial areasfor understanding the impact of the Human1 6 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995Genome Project. A notion of "gender justice," Mahowald said at a spring conferenceshe organized on "The New Genetics:Implications for Women," may help societynegotiate a thicket of new genetic dilemmaswithout turning physical differences intoinequities. Because those differences makecomplete equality impossible, she says,gender justice instead means making fairness the goal.Before a Swift Hall audience, sheexplained the idea through examples likerecessive genetic disorders — sickle-cellanemia and cystic fibrosis are among themost common — which can affect childrenonly when both parents are carriers. Whatif a pregnant mother, fearing the presenceof such a disorder, asks for a fetal diagnosiswhen her partner has refused to take theblood test to see if he's a carrier? Thatmeans subjecting the fetus to the risks of anamniocentesis — unnecessarily, if the fatherdoesn't carry the gene. If the test goesahead, a positive diagnosis would confirmthat both parents are carriers — notifyingthe father who had preferred not to know.As part of a three-year study she led onwomen and the Human Genome Project,Mahowald, assistant director of the University's MacLean Center for Clinical MedicalEthics, asked other genetics expertswhether they would allow the amniocentesis in such a case. Some wouldn't, believingthat it could undermine the family structure, while others, arguing that a woman'sautonomy extends to the fetus, thoughtamniocentesis should be allowed.From the viewpoint of gender justice,Mahowald argued, the latter was correct:Health-care professionals should permit thetest, because — while the decision wouldtreat women and men unequally — the test'sburden and risks fall more on the womanthan on her partner.Some gender inequities, of course, aresocially created. In the future, Mahowaldwarned, insurers might prefer to providedifferential coverage for women dependingon their predisposition to pass on particularabnormalities to their children, as revealedby genetic diagnosis. Important new services — like a test for the recently identifiedgene for hereditary breast cancer — mightbe covered by private health insurance if awoman's family history indicated an elevated risk, but not covered by public aid."Gender justice," Mahowald concluded,"means identifying gender differences andtaking account of them, so as to maximizeequality." If her predominantly femaleaudience was any indication, society maynot yet be equally attuned to that need. CitationsFancy Flight. This summer, think before you swat. Those flies dive-bombingyour picnic are "the F-16s of the animal world," raves Chicago biologist MichaelDickinson, "capable of spectacular aerial maneuvers." As with the jet fighter, there'sa steep price involved: Flight requires upto 100 times the energy of an animal atrest. It's long been suspected that toachieve this marvel of engineering, insectsmust have either some means of recyclingthe energy spent in each wing stroke orsuper-efficient muscles. Yet the fruit fly,Dickinson and University of Utah colleague John Lighton reported in the April 7Science, has only ordinary efficiency in itswing muscles. Instead, by constructing atiny flight simulator for flies ("Investigations," February/93), they discovered that the insect captures some of the inertialpower of its wing motion by stretching an elastic storage mechanism — the nature ofwhich remains uncertain.Unscientific Americans. True or false: If the warning symbol says it's radioactive,then it must be made by humans. Or try this: All man-made chemicals causecancer if you eat enough of them. Both statements are false, but that's news to manyAmericans. In a survey by the National Opinion ResearchCenter at the U of C, one of three people agreed with thefirst statement and one of two believed the second. Overall,Americans had difficulty with the 12-question test of environmental and scientific knowledge, averaging only 6.6 correct answers. That placed the U.S. seventh among 20 nationsin the survey. A score of just 7.6 was enough to put Canadain first place, while former communist countries rankednear the bottom. Americans, though, were dead last when it came to a question onevolution: Only 48 percent said that humans developed from earlier species.Iinimum Wager. It's a perennial political debate that bloomed early this springin Washington: Should the government raise the minimum wage? Naysayers inCongress have long argued that a higher minimum will force businesses to cut jobs,but economists now question that thinking. Indeed, many believe that the Clintonadministration's proposed 75-cent hike in the wage, to $5 an hour, would cause few,if any, job losses. Not so fast, say Graduate School of Business economist KevinMurphy and colleagues at Texas A & M University. Alone among recent studies,their look at past minimum-wage increases and employment data found good support for the traditional wisdom. In contrast to White House claims, they calculatethat a 75-cent raise in the wage would lead to pink slips for roughly 60,000 workers.Third Time's the Charm. Millions of children take Ritalin to treat attention deficithyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet surprisingly little research has consideredthe drug's optimal dosing. Now, a study by Mark Stein of the U of C Medical Centershows that three daily doses of Ritalin — not the usual two — may substantiallyreduce ADHD symptoms, such as difficulty concentrating orimpulsive behavior. Stein found little evidence to support pediatricians' fears concerning a third, afternoon dose: that sideeffects like insomnia or irritability would increase in incidence.In fact, the only side effect that worsened was a slight loss inappetite. Though his study was small, its results, says Stein, suggest prescribing a third dose if a child's symptoms are severeenough to disrupt late-aftemoon activities such as homework,chores, and play with friends or family. Stein: calm kidsWritten and compiled by Andrew Campbell.University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 1 7I Bottom"linedriveTalk of overpaid players, overpriced tickets,and owners on the verge of ruin has kept fansfrom knowing the true financial score.By Allen R. Sanderson • Art by Steve Brodners Major League Baseball fans and critics chose sides during therecent eight-month labor-management dispute, they debated virtually ever)' aspect of the business of baseball: the profitability offranchises, the strike's impact on local economies, baseball ticketprices, players' salaries — even the values of a society that paysstar athletes as much in one day as many high-school teachers make in a year.In the three years since I developed a new course at Chicago on the economicsof sports, interest in the topic has risen — never more so than during the strike,when I received almost daily requests for interviews from local and nationalreporters seeking economic insights into the walkout, and its implications forthe future of baseball. Nearly as often, students and colleagues would stop meon the quadrangles to get my opinion on the latest strike developments — sometimes even offering a "free lunch" in exchange for some baseball talk.As I learned in these many discussions, paraphrasing Twain, it's not so muchwhat you don't know that gets you into trouble, it's what you think you knowLhat turns out to be wrong. The following myths and realities are drawn fromquestions or assertions frequently aired during and after the strike, accompaniedby some data and the application of some basic economic theory. So: "Play ball!Batter up!"1 8 University or Chicago Magazine/June 1995'Today's athletes are bigger and stronger. SalarFirstInning It now costs over $100 fora family of four to attend agame. Hasn't baseballpriced itself beyond thereach of the average fan ?Whether something is thought to be dearor cheap depends on its price increasesover time, its price relative to goods or services we could substitute for it, and ourability to pay for it. On any of these criteria,tickets to baseball games are cheap and getting cheaper.We have to remember that prices in theU.S. have been increasing, on average, for40 years. Since 1950, the cost of living, asmeasured by the Consumer Price Index,has increased about fivefold. In inflation-adjusted dollars, the price of an averageseat to a Major League game has actuallydecreased over this period; tickets werelower in real terms in 1993 than in 1950.Relative to other forms of entertainment —professional basketball or football, amusement parks, concerts and plays, and evenrestaurant meals — baseball tickets are lessexpensive and have risen more slowly inprice. At the same time, we are more thantwice as wealthy now as we were 40 yearsago. Converting salaries into baseball-ticketequivalents, the average 1950 familyincome could have purchased about 1,200tickets; today the corresponding figurewould be 3,000.The assertion that it costs a family of four$100 to attend a game is worse than comparing apples with oranges. That supposed"hit" includes four tickets, four hot dogsand soft drinks, a couple of beers, icecream, parking, two souvenir caps, and agame program. With the exception of alco-Allen Sanderson is a senior lecturer in economics at the University of Chicago andsenior study director at the National OpinionResearch Center (NORC). Wltcn not answering the sports-and-economics questions ofreporters from the Chicago Tribune to theNew York Times, he teaches a two-quarterintroductory economics sequence in the College and works on NORC survey researchprojects related to labor markets and highereducation. hoi, fans are permitted tobring their own food intomost ballparks (try that at amovie theater!). If you do eatat the game, you are simplysubstituting a meal there forone at home or at a fast-foodrestaurant, not buying asecond dinner. And souvenircaps and pennants are notsomething we purchase ateach and every game. In fact,no one is forcing fans to buyanything beyond the actualticket.SecondInning But if players ultimatelyprevail in this dispute,won't my tickets go up inprice to reflect management's higher costs?When team owners announce priceincreases each year, or when they promisedlower ones if replacement players took thefield this spring, the principle is the same:Charge what the market will bear. Profit-maximizing pricing decisions are based onthe anticipated demand of fans for baseball.As long as the owners' cartel remains intact(more on that in the sixth inning), if demand increases, so will ticket prices andteam revenues. Player salaries do not determine, or much influence, ticket prices, nomatter how often owners allude to theirincreasing payrolls to justify price hikes,and no matter how much fans believethem. (In nominal terms, players' salarieshave increased by 2,000 percent since freeagency in 1976; ticket prices have risenonly 150 percent — not what you wouldexpect if the former really determined thelatter.)In fact, it is the other way around: In economic jargon, the demand for the players —and thus the level of their salaries — isderived from the demand for baseball. Afterthat, it is merely a matter of dividing thespoils between two powerful and protectedgroups, the owners' cartel and the players'association. Only two things can lowerticket prices: less fan demand or more competition. ThirdInning Owners are going brokenow. How can they affordto lose any more money?And isn't the whole purpose of business to haveprofits?On the eve of the strike last summer,spokesmen for Major League Baseballreported that perhaps as many as 19 of the28 teams were losing money; a week laterthey lowered the number to between 12and 14. Shortly after, Financial World magazine put the figure at five or six. Aboutthat time, NPR asked me to assess the various claims and to provide my own estimate. I applauded the iterative process thatwas quickly narrowing to the correctanswer: zero. No baseball franchise islosing money for its owner(s), despitesteady protestations to the contrary.Three years ago investor groups in eightcities fought for the right to pay the $95-million fee for one of the two expansion(and thus decidedly mediocre) franchises;next year two new owners will gladly partwith $150 million apiece to join the cartelin 1998. If the net revenues were reallyexpected to be negative over time, youcouldn't give a franchise away, let alone sellone for a nine-figure sum.Owners and their accountants can makeany team appear unprofitable, using perfectly legal and acceptable practices —assigning some revenues to relatedenterprises, as the St. Louis Cardinals dowith parking and the Atlanta Braves dowith broadcast rights (Ted Turner ownsboth the team and the station that televises20 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995produce tremendous incentives to stay in shape.its games); taking advantage of differentialtax rates on personal income vs. capitalgains, steering current profits into thefuture; writing off current losses on one'steam against profits on other corporateactivities; and using the franchise and ballpark to advertise their other business interests such as beer or automobiles.Stories about the precarious financial stateof baseball date to the 1870s. They were notruer then than they are today. GeraldScully and other economists who havedone research in this area peg the averageannual rate of return in all four professionalsports leagues at easily over 20 percent,even for small-market teams. But what ifsome were to go under? So what? A franchise is a small business, and the normalfailure rate on this type of investment, asrestaurant owners and department-storemanagers well know, is certainly not zero.Finally, one would actually expect thedirect financial rate of return from owninga sports franchise to be lower than in alternative investments because of the non-pecuniary benefits of ownership — it's funand you are bestowed with instant celebritystatus. (The same principle holds withregard to professors' salaries: The nonmonetary benefits such as the prestige, alower clothing budget, and a demandingbut more flexible work schedule shouldtranslate into lower financial gains than onecould get in industry or government.)Unfortunately, most of the profits earnedon sports franchises result from being ableto operate a monopoly in a highly protectedmarket, not from shrewd decision-making,business acumen, and hard work. And,unlike in most other environments, excessteam profits can exist indefinitely becausethey are immune from competitive pressures.FourthInning Don't we need a reserveclause or some otherrestrictions on playermovements, such as salarycaps, to ensure competitivebalance across teams?Player reserve systems have no significantimpact on the distribution of playing strengths across teams. They merely transfer money from players to owners, preciselyas economic theory predicts. The samewould be true if salary caps, the latter-dayreincarnation of the reserve clause, areimposed. It is not in the owners' or theleague's best interest to have sizableinequalities across teams; such disparityreduces overall revenues and profits.(There is some mutual advantage to havingbig-city teams win more frequently thanothers, because this will likely producelarger revenues — and salaries.) Furthermore, beyond a given point, adding morestar talent to a team will cost the ownermore in salaries than can be recouped fromthe higher attendance and revenues thatwinning more games would bring.More than 30 years ago Simon Rottenbergand U of C Nobel laureate Ronald Coaselaid the theoretical basis for these statements. Empirically, the distribution ofwon-lost percentages and pennants beforeand after free agency — 18 different teamshave appeared in a World Series in thelast 20 years — support these scholars' hypotheses.Haven't recent expansionand personal greed left thequality of today's playersand the quality of playfar below levels of yesteryear?No. By any reasonable, objective standards and measures, both players and playare better today than they ever were, andeconomics has a lot to do with it.If baseball talent has declined, it wouldcertainly be unique in sports. Swimmingrecords continue to fall; track-and-field athletes run faster, jump higher, and throwfarther now; qualifying times for the BostonMarathon are tightened each year; NFL andNBA players today are superior to thosewho played these sports earlier. Why?Because more opportunities for fame andfortune have lured a higher percentage of agrowing population to strive for excellencein these areas. Today's athletes are bigger,stronger, and faster; they are in better physical condition; they start earlier in life and put in more hours (key ingredients to success, as Michael Jordan found out when hetried his hand — and eye — at baseball).Technology, in the form of equipment,shoes, clothing, training facilities, computers and videotape, and knowledge ofhuman body mechanics, has improved athletes' efficiency in all sports, includingbaseball.The number of Major League Baseballplayers as a percentage of the nation'syoung, male population has fallen steadilyover this century. Based simply on rawpopulation numbers, and then factoring inAfrican Americans, Hispanics, and international players — none of whom were onbaseball payrolls 50 years ago — I estimatethat we should have at least three times asmany equally qualified players today.Economic theory leads us to expect thatsalary levels reached by the top 700 playerswould produce tremendous incentives forthem to stay in shape and to play better.More important, high salaries are a stronginducement for athletically inclined teensto consider careers in professional sports.Owners today also have sizable financialstakes in their players' performances. Mistakes are more costly to them, which suggests they have ample incentives to scoutwell, to hire well, and to motivate theirplayers.Even if it could be proven that the qualityof play is lower today, it's doubtful that factalone would affect baseball's marketability.The bottom line for most fans, once a certain level of quality of play is achieved, isevenly matched teams, an uncertain outcome, and some way to identify with oneside or the other. If absolute quality werethe most important consideration for fans,taking things to their logical conclusion, ineach sport we would have just two all-starteams barnstorming the country andappearing on television weekly — a scenariofew would find appealing.Why do these athletesmake so much money? Dothey really deserve thosesalaries, and couldn't wepay them a lot less andUniversity of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 2 1Whatever ballplayers earn, their pay is less,stil! see about the same quality of play?As much as it may gall some diehard fans,today's ballplayers are, first and foremost,entertainers. In the context of that occupational grouping, many Major League players are relative paupers. Male entertainerssuch as David Copperfield, Garth Brooks,and Tom Cruise have annual incomes thatexceed the entire payrolls of many baseballteams. Indeed, George Will charges moreper hour to talk about baseball than FrankThomas gets for playing it.As to why players' salaries have grown totoday's levels, one reason is technology.Forty years ago, seeing the best players waspossible only for fans in the parks. At thattime, Major League ballplayers earned fouror five times the average U.S. male salary,and three to four times what the top minorleaguers made. Today those ratios are about25 to one. Improvements in communications, principally television — with largecolor screens, cable, videotape, and directsatellite feeds — have made today's star athletes accessible to fans nationwide. And ifyou can thus see the best for about thesame price as you'd pay to watch those lesstalented, why not see the best?Television focuses demand on the relatively few, and brings them great financialrewards — while depreciating the economicvalue of the also-rans. As my U of C colleague Sherwin Rosen pointed out in animportant paper in the early 1980s,changes in communications technologyand low-cost access have turned mere starsinto highly compensated superstars.The demand for baseball — in ballparks,on television, and on logo merchandise —produces the revenues that representpotential income to players. In Pogo'stenns, we have met the enemy and it is us.(The fact that baseball players have tremendous talent is not by itself a reason. Circusperformers, symphony orchestra members,and professional bowlers are also highlyskilled, but the best of these, because thedemand for their services is so much lessthan for baseball, earns less in a year than aballplayer can make in a week.)An equally important ingredient in thedetermination of six- and seven-figure salaries is the baseball industry itself, a legalcartel with 28 members. These firms arefree to make joint output and pricing decisions, and to insulate themselves effectivelyfrom market forces, ensuring sizable andfairly stable profits. (Contrary to what onewould suspect from all the attention paid toit in the popular press, baseball's antitrustexemption, which allows owners additionalfreedoms to discuss and to take interdependent action, is not an overwhelminglyimportant consideration here.) Once profitsare generated, it's purely a matter of who ismore successful at the trough, the ownersor the players, who are now armed withfree agency and a powerful union to represent their interests — factors they didn'thave 20 years ago when they had to squareoff individually against a unified owners'cartel.It should be noted that whatever ballplayers earn, their pay is less, on average, thantheir economic value to the owners interms of ticket sales, television contracts,and other revenue they produce for theleague. Under the reserve system that prevailed until the mid-1970s, they were paida lot less than their relative worth toowners. But even with a union, free agency,and salary arbitration, there remain residualrestrictions on player movement and openbidding, such as initial assignments of players to particular teams and required yearsof service (in both minor and majorleagues) to reach free-agent status, whichcombine to produce an exploitation rate of15 to 20 percent.Do the players deserve the salaries theyreceive? To the extent that fans are willingto pay large sums to see them perform, andbecause they are worth small fortunes totheir owners, the answer is clearly yes. Tothe extent that current salary levels are byproducts of what is essentially a monopoly,and thus would be far lower if there were56 teams and 1,400 players instead of current numbers half that size, the answer isno. From one other vantage point, theanswer could be "maybe."For most of us, our economic worth, andthus our salary, in one industry is aboutwhat it could be elsewhere. Insurance sales men could conceivably sell shirts, or evenmake them, and wouldn't suffer tremendous economic hardship if they movedfrom one job to the other. But athletes,movie stars, and others with highly specialized talents would experience a huge dropin income if they had to move to anotherprofession. The formal term for this differential amount is economic rent. One implication is that we could tax away a substantialfraction of a player's salary without affectingeither his decision to remain in baseball or(until his morale suffered) his hitting orpitching.In this framework, a player doesn't earnhis seven-figure salary, and we as fans don'tget any additional benefits in the form ofbetter performance, from this extra "rent"money that players are able to collect courtesy of their free agency and union. But asauthor and former Major League pitcherJim Bouton said, "Players don't deserve allthe money they're getting, but the ownersdon't deserve it even more."What does it say about ourvalues what we pay professional athletes such outrageous sums, while weentrust our children, ourmost treasured possessionsand society's best hope forthe future, to schoolteachers whom we pay relativepittances?Nothing. A few centuries ago philosophers and precursors of modern economists debated what was then termed thewater-diamond paradox: Why could diamonds, which had no real use, commandsuch a high price while water, essential tosustain life, sold for practically nothing?The answer — whether water and diamondsor schoolteachers and ballplayers — is thatthe relative scarcity at the margin, not totalvalue, determines the price. It is simplyeasier — and less expensive — to find onemore person who can teach high-schoolhistory well than it is to find someone whocan hit .300. The fact that the U.S. spentless than $2 billion on baseball in 1993, thelast full season played, and over $400 bil-22 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995average, than their economic value to the teams' owners.%£>.£*;lion that same year on elementary- and secondary-school education suggests that ourvalues are quite respectable, thank you verymuch.EighthInning Didn't the recent strikecost the U.S. economydearly, especially the citiesin which there are teams?The U.S. Conference of Mayors put thefigure at more than $ 1 million per game tothe home city, plus thousands of jobs lostat each ballpark. Zero is closer to the truththan these estimates.Annual per-team revenues from allsources are under $70 million, much lessthan a medium-sized department store inthe central city. And full-time employmentfor all 28 teams is less than 2,000, including the 700 players. Baseball, by any financial measure, is simply a very smallindustry; we spend only about 30 cents onbaseball per every $1,000 of Gross Domestic Product. (Fruit of the Loom, for comparison, employs 35,000 people, and itssales revenues are larger than for all MajorLeague teams combined. AT&T is 10 timeslarger than Major League Baseball; Sears, 30times.)Teams are located in cities with billion-dollar economies. Those who have donemacroeconomic modeling of cities andregions consistently failed to detect any impact of the strike onemployment, tourism,business revenues, or disposable personal income.One reason is because tickets and beer not soldduring the strike were not"lost," but simply transferred to other areas ofthese local economies.Families spent their recreation-budgeted dollars elsewhere. For example, September 1994 was Holly-, wood's highest grossingSeptember ever — hardly asurprise. With no baseballat the parks or on television, people went to moremovies. Restaurants, museums, amusementparks, video-rental outlets, and theatersgained, in the aggregate, about what baseball lost. The strike may well have affectedwhere some people in Chicago drank beer,but it almost certainly did not affect thetotal amount they consumed.This does not mean that no one suffered — beer vendors inside ballparks, forexample, lost income from their largelypart-time jobs. But because it's easier toidentify them, and to interview them, thanit is the thousands of other retail outlets inthese metropolitan areas that each experienced small increases in their sales revenues, we get a distorted picture of thestrike's economic consequences.NinthInning Doesn't the strike's endingmean that baseball'stroubles are behind us —at least for a while?First of all, there is no agreement betweenowners and players; we could see anotherwork stoppage this year and/or one in basketball or football. And that is a reasonableexpectation precisely because there are sizable excess profits to fight over — WillieSutton robbed banks, not dry-cleaningestablishments.In competitive markets, there are simplyfewer profits for unions to fight over, andthe U.S. economy has become increasingly competitive over time with shifts frommanufacturing to service industries,increased international trade, enforcementof antitrust statutes, and better communications and transportation (which reducespatial monopolies) . This is why what littlestrike activity we have in this country islimited to the government sector, such aspublic schoolteachers and municipal workers, where competitive pressures are absent,and to anticompetitive areas such as professional sports. Remove the monopoly profitsfrom sports and even a strong union willhave less incentive to interrupt play. Buthow do we do that?The competitive ideal would be moreteams in more cities, a wider range of viewing options and prices for fans, and a reduction in the cartel's control over broadcastrights, minor-league farm clubs, and stadium use. The reason we have only 28teams is not because of insufficient faninterest, a dearth of player talent, efficiencies from operating at that scale, or a lack ofinvestors. It is because owners and playersboth benefit financially from the currentarrangements, and because they have beenremarkably successful at collecting subsidies and securing protection in Washington,state capitals, and mayors' offices. (Whatever animosities and contempt players andowners have for each other, rest assuredthat they will be quite united in protectingthe cartel, the golden goose for both sides.)Some deregulation and an infusion of competition could bring the same consumerbenefits to baseball that they provide inother sectors of the nation's economy.Far more troubling value-issues than theassertion that ballplayers get paid morethan schoolteachers can be found in thefact that — when it comes to applying existing statutes and enacting complementarylegislation to require professional sportsleagues to abide by the same economicrules as other businesses — public servantsat all levels and of all political persuasionshave consistently looked the other way.Worse, fans and citizens in general continue to let well-heeled owners, players,other special-interest groups, and their ownelected officials get away with it.University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995Kf^smcm Time,easure;#£>¦•• <.5SU1WloI£^uTo«didUntCoUeg didnt1*0" -£>.oi*"*«¦ By Tim Andrew Obermillerhe general concept sounds lifted from one of thoselate-night cable TV ads. "Imagine it," a breathless,moonfaced Sally Struthers announces. "You canreceive your college degree simply by taking 14 comprehensive exams on a variety of topics. And younever even have to step into a classroom...."But this isn't some cheesy correspondence schoolwe're talking about. Rather, it's the U of C's famed Hutchins College, that bastion of Great Books and Better Minds. Surely therewas some more subtle method of judging educational attainment than by multiple choice?In fact, comprehensive exams (aka "comps") were key to thecharacter of the Hutchins College — even though they were suggested two years before young Robert Maynard set foot oncampus. It was in 1928, under President Max Mason, that a faculty committee first proposed the exams as part of a larger planto "place upon the shoulders of all students a larger measure ofresponsibility for their own educational progress."In the comp system, entering students first took placementexams in several general areas: Lower scores placed a student at"first-year" level, and so on. After placements came comprehensives.Presumably, classes filled the gaps in between, but weren't required. Indeed, the system was so shockingly anti-in loco parentisthat it caused a national stir, with photogs elbowing into the FieldHouse each spring to record the spectacle of student test-takers.Often lost in the hoopla was notice of the system's manyvirtues. Because grades were assigned on an impersonal basis, noone could curry professorial favor in hopes of a better grade — orbe penalized for disagreeing. The system also required that teachers collectively, consistently, and coherently define the skills andknowledge students were supposed to acquire from each course.Downsides? Although it was difficult to excel in the tests, apassing grade came fairly easily by using a few well-known rulesof thumb, such as eliminating answers with "always" and"never." And the exams minimized the role of writing, a skillmany would argue is essential to a liberal-arts education. Theseand other reasons were cited when the comp system was dismantled after Hutchins' 1951 departure.It may be premature to call the system extinct, however. Aspublic demand for less subjective verification of student progressgrows, the College comps may hold renewed appeal. SallyStruthers, are you listening? *#Ii£S*>*A •M SL V ^i*4.l-fc^:".^»I IV-,.ljf ^ V ' s1% N 1 mm*mtW?*2^k***They found out it was the very same house,so they went to the Movers to seeif the Little House could be moved.The Movers looked the Little House all over.and said, "Sure, this house is as good as ever.She's built so well we could move her anywhere."So they jacked up the Little Houseand put her on wheels.Traffic was held up for hoursas they slowly moved her •f t1 i * i rV U',.•1'm ¦ W JMovinPlanes, trains, and automobiles transformSmiling airplanes, faithful steamshovels, plucky trolleys, andeven pluckier locomotives:Somewhere in his or her past,every Baby Boomer has a dogeared book in which the hero orheroine is a machine with aheart of gold."The pioneer, and still champion," of this genre, accordingto Neil Harris, "was the 1930classic The Little Engine ThatCould, the story of a small, diffident, doubting engine whomasters an emergency andcarries a trainload of toys to children just in time forChristmas."If that plot sounds all toofamiliar today, Harris — thePreston and Sterling Mortonprofessor in history — pointsout that "the notion of taking alocomotive, endowing it withemotions, personality, andintelligence, and giving it,moreover, a set of humanfeatures. . .would have seemedodd" as late as the 1920s.The Little Engine That Couldcouldn't have happened without the modern transportation26 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995Pictureshe modern world — and children's books.revolution, launched with thewhistle-blowing arrival of steamboats and steam engines in thefirst years of the 19th century. Asthe new machines helped tran-form society, they also sped intothe pages of books for bothadults and children."Planes, Trains, andAutomobiles: TheTransportation Revolution inChildren's Picture Books," atthe Regenstein Library untilJuly 10, features 150 booksfrom the University'sEncyclopaedia Britannica Collection of Literature forChildren and from Harris's ownpersonal collection. In organizing the exhibit, Harris focusedon how artists, writers, andpublishers in the U.S., Russia,France, and England haveresponded to transportation'songoing transformation.Invention by invention, writesHarris in the exhibition catalog,autos, airplanes, and spaceshipshave "continued to thrust transport to the very center ofmodern consciousness and tomake many of its vehicles Transportation's central place inthe urban landscape is plain inThe Little House (left), writtenand illustrated by Virginia LeeBurton (Boston: HoughtonMifflin, 1942). The daring aviators get the media attention, butit's the cheerful airplane (below)who has brought them safely toland in Wallace Wadsworth's The Modern Story Book, illustrated by Ruth Eger (New York;Chicago: Rand McNally, 1931).The locomotive hero (bottom left)of Roger Duvoisin's All Aboard!(New York: Grosset and Dunlap,1935) can't resist the urge toshow off in front of three younggirls: "1 let go a blow of steamwhich made a very big noise. "central symbols of modernity."Although the first children'sbook in English to use trains,steamboats, or horselesscarriages as its central subjecthas yet to be identified, there'sample proof that illustratedreferences began to pop up inABC books and other types ofinstructional literature almostat once. With time, those references became more prominent.By the 1880s, English titleslike Abroad and London Townemphasized the domestic sideof modem transportion. These books' middle-of-the-roadscenes, writes Harris, show"nicely dressed and well-behaved children exploring thedelights of travel and the pleasures of tourism."At the other end of the spectrum were the dime-novelseries that flourished from the1860s through the first decadesof this century. Books like TheOutlaws of the Air and Ralph onthe Overland Express (subtitledThe Trials and Triumphs of aYoung Engineer) and The MotorCycle Chums' Whirlwind TourUniversity of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 27The ModcrnSmy-^-^L— — """ Tthe w'»^tt dark *«#*" action.blew&ercelvme ^ ^^d-He^bovedand*ento*eoth-ogcoanandcxe^ ^"TV5' -*" tte Com"strong for ™> 0,,K wlSe"^ t Wl back to thething to do is tog"iS reorders lor Zep «,b ? i , The roarmgwind twisted and sho^d^Dirigible « he turned, unt.^Wed-dbO^ed-^dI him like dried peas m a »>,^h,,- poor ribsl" groaned^No sooner had Zep turnedaround and started to fly backtoward his hangarthanthesoanbecame worse. Zep was blownone way lor a while and then an-i ~71or another while. It^'o^ark and the ram and thewas so oarK ^ t,Qooimanoeimencouldnotseethe earth^^-^"',' / far below.Thev becameP^xactly I-, to get"Thev ^ g*^* d bigwere short on illustrations but,writes Harris, "nonethelesslinked the life of mechanizedtransport with romance, heroism, and personal enterprise."After the First World War, astream of travel posters,brochures, and advertisementsfor railroads, ocean liners, cars,and aviation companies offeredup image after image toutingtravel and tourism through theappeal of speed, power, andadventure. As new printingtechniques, unusually shapedbooks, and other illustrativeinnovations traveled back andforth across the Atlantic,another kind of image — anthropomorphic machines, whoseprecedents ranged from 19th-century French caricatures tothe illustrations accompanyingFrank L. Baum's Oz books —gained ground.The first mechanical heroes owed much to the talkinganimals that preceded them injuvenile literature — and whomthey never fully replaced. AsHarris notes, "Bookstore shelvespersist in featuring life stories oflovable, heroic, mischievous, orfar-sighted bears, owls, cows,spiders, horses, pigs, foxes, andlions."Now the cautionary crittershad machines — "not in theinterest of satire or fantasy butfor the sake of reader interestand intense moralizing" — forcompany. Powerful symbols ofthe modern world, transportmachines were recast withhuman qualities, many delivering a moral message. "Huffingand puffing, smiling, weeping,grimacing, frowning, yawning,complaining, and above all,straining to be better and toperform good deeds," Harriswrites, "these protagonists are, like many children, occasionallymisunderstood, mistrusted, andunjustly maligned."Quite a number of themsuffer some handicap: they areunderpowered, or wronglyplaced." Take Lucy, the bluecaboose. In Lydia and DonFreeman's 1951 tale, Chuggyand the Blue Caboose, Lucy getssnubbed by a clique of aristocratic Tuscan Red cars. "Wecome from a long line of freightcars," one of her persecutorssniffs, "and she comes fromonly a short circus train!"Then consider the company ofBritish locomotives detailed inthe books of the Rev. WilliamAwdry. Thomas the Tank Enginecame first, in the mid- 1940s,followed by Henry the GreenEngine, Percy the Small Engine,and some 40 more. Theiradventures have happy endingsand a lesson to be learned: Do The Stubborn Dirigible (hisfriends and readers call him"Zep") battles his way through aterrible storm in The ModernStory Book (above). The deeptones of the motor boat (below) inC. B. Fall's The ModernABC Book (New York: fohnDay, 1930) come from a four-color process developed by thefersey City Printing Company.How modern is Fall's alphabet?"K is for Kodak."MOTOR BOAT28 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995your best to be a "Really UsefulEngine."Little Toot, Jaspar, and theTaxi that Hurried. Sparky.Chuggy. Tootle. Choo Choo. Astrains, cars, planes, and boatstook on larger roles in chil-drens' games, toys, and lives,more books began to turnmachines — transport and otherwise — into individuals. "Asearly as 1932," Harris writes,"electric fans named FannyBlowhard, file cabinets, desks,and elevators were chattingeasily with one another."Domesticated machinesconstituted one way to adaptchildren to an increasinglymechanized world, introducingthem to a sphere of actionwhose complexity and depthseemed to rival that of naturalcreation itself."Providing a counterpoint werethose illustrators who reacted tothe powerful symbols inanother way. Abandoning realistic representation, they usedintense colors and distortedperspective to explore thesensations of speed and heightoffered by ultra-modem travel.Sometimes such storiescentered around a flight to anexotic place, sometimes on themachine's underlying power.For example, Roger Du-voisin's All Aboard! follows astreamliner on its travels. Thetrain's journey is representedas a child might experience it:in shifting colors, shapes, andsounds. Lokomotywa, by thePolish team of Jan Lewitt and George Him, epitomized thegrowing abstraction of children's illustration. Rather than"domesticating a large beast bygiving it human features andfeelings," writes Harris, suchbooks accepted "the conditionsthe great machine set."From steamboats to computerized spaceships, transportation technology still rushesforward, creating new machines — and new children'sbooks."It may be difficult to endowrockets and computers with theendearing personalities thatlocomotives, taxis, and tugboatscould bear," Neil Harris admits,"but that has not stopped filmmakers and writers of sciencefiction. It is to be expected thatfuture illustrators will do theirbest to adapt and domesticatethese apparently fearsome andcomplex instruments to theservice of their parables andfantasies, and do the same withother machines whose outlineswe can only dimly surmise."— M.R.Y. et i/essinsMARCEL JEANJEANMarcel feanjean's Les adventuresde Fricasson (Paris: UnionLatine d'Editions, 1925) celebrates a daredevil pilot.Faster is better inDenison Budd's Railroad ABC (New York:Franklin Watts, 1944)and Diana Ross's TheLittle Red Train Goes toMarket (London: FoberandFaber, 1946), illustrated by Leslie Wood.University of Chicago Magazine/June is 29A U of C grad whoactually admits he likesMadonna? MatthewRettenmund's obsession isbound in softcoverfor thewhole wide world to see.Y_JA( I N N H PARK |ome people love Madonna. Some peopleloathe Madonna. And then there'sMatthew Rettenmund, who can tell you thefirst boy the pop singer ever planted herpre-collagen-enhanced lips on, a lad namedTommy Marshowitz. The dirty deed came topass in the fifth grade. Behind St. Andrew'sSchool in Michigan. Tommy had bad teeth. And laterdied in a fall. No connection to the kiss. Or his teeth.lip Why does Rettenmund, a '91 graduate of the College,know all this? For that matter, why does anyone knowthis? Because it's just so much darn fun, Rettenmundchirps. Being able to list Madonna's first smooch, her firstband (The Breakfast Club), her first major purchase with§$ record earnings (a $5,000 Roland synthesizer), and her firstU.S. talk-show appearance (The Tonight Show) is as refreshingly silly as treasuring a Madonna place mat from Japan —which Rettenmund also does. Although the promotionalpiece, circa 1986, commemorates the release of the Live to Tel!album, he's the first to admit it's basically a piece of trash."There's no good reason that 1, in 1995, should have this," Rettenmund says over chicken salad and Diet Coke in a Manhattanrestaurant near his apartment in Chelsea. "This is somethingthat should have died."But it lives on, thanks to Rettenmund, who works a day job as anews assistant at Reuters in New York and published EncyclopediaMadonnica this spring. In 200-some pages of dizzying, cross-referenced trivia, rare photos, and artwork, the 26-year-old former English major chronicles "The Woman and the Icon" from A to Z, withthe unabashed devotion to camp and kitsch that Rettenmund hasfostered since growing up in a small Michigan town.Like Madonna Louise Veronica Cicconeherself, the encyclopedia serves up allsorts of tasty Twinkies for the mind:empty calories but oh-so-strangely satisfying. While the delivery may seem effortless, the book actually represents 12 yearsof deliberate collection and research byRettenmund, who fell in love with hisfellow Michigander after first hearing theheady beat of "Holiday" pulsing from a carradio in his early teens.Just for something to do, he began squirreling away all things Madonna — "every straynewspaper story, magazine cover, poster, promotional display, or trashy carny boobyprize." By the time he had graduated fromChicago, he saw gold in the 800 magazines, 6-foot stack of clips, and 40 books he had accumulated. From this stack, he pieced together amountain of tidbits, supplemented with interviews, to get a complete picture ("some wouldsay too complete," he admits) of the entertainer.The book proposal was sold last December toSt. Martin's Press by Jane Jordan Browne, aChicago-based literary agent who knew Rettenmund from his college days, when he worked parttime in her office. Peddling the proposal wasn'tg easy. According to Browne, negative reaction toMadonna's aptly-titled book, Sex, and to her workin the box-office Hindenburg, Body of Evidence, hadI placed the pop star "at the nadir of her career"University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 3 1around the time Rettenmund's labor of lovewas making its rounds. Yet even at her"nadir," Madonna could enrage and fascinate millions, and Rettenmund's promise todeliver a manuscript with "Everything youever wanted to ask about Madonna butwere afraid to know!" had undeniableappeal.More than anything, Rettenmund says, he"wanted to write something that wouldmake a splash," and reflect those qualitieshe most admires in Madonna herself: thefearless sexuality, shameless silliness, andunbridled glamour he finds sorely lackingin most of the world, especially in thewhite-bread corner of the Midwest wherehe grew up, always feeling a little out ofstep.For me, a lot of my interest in popculture had to do with being gay,"he says. "At a very young age, I washighly aware of everything around me, andof what people are saying and what they'rereally saying underneath it."In that way, something popular takes ona whole new meaning because I can flesh out the levels of what's going on and howpeople are perceiving things," explains Rettenmund, whose boyish looks and deliberate pauses for effect remind you of MikeMyers doing a less-metal-more-art take onWayne Campbell. Liking Madonna, heinsists, "is more than just people saying 'Ilove this actress' or 'I love this singer.'They're saying, 'I love this person despitethe fact that we all know a lot of peopledon't.'"Rettenmund met plenty in the "don't" category in the late '80s at the U of C, wherecool had some specific definitions. Flicks atthe Fine Arts Theatres, yes. Who's ThatGirl?, no. Abbey Road, yes. True Blue, definitely no.Rettenmund may remember Madonna ashis "cross to bear" while in Hyde Park, butif he suffered, says his former Shorelandroomie Zafar Mawani, AB'92, he did so insilence, and was known more for hiswicked flashes of humor than his Madonnafetish. "He provided the comic relief," saysMawani, now a management consultant inWashington D.C. "He has a knack forimmediately seeing the humor in various serious things." It wasn't until you walkedinto his room — transformed into anever-never land of pop culture's peroxideposter children: Madonna, Marilyn,Blondie — that you sensed a flamboyantedginess bubbling beneath Rettenmund'seven-natured exterior."I liked getting A's and B's and likingsomeone who a lot of people thought wasunintelligent," Rettenmund says. "I likedthe rebellious aspect of that. I liked beingable to choose what I was interested in.And I loved having arguments about it."Likewise, in his book, he refuses to downplay or make excuses for Madonna's oftenembarrassing excesses. Instead, he celebrates all the ridiculous bits of Madonnatrivia lapped up by an omnivorous mediabetween tirades on her superficiality and"bad taste": Madonna takes three Advilbefore she gets her legs waxed. Madonnabelieves in reincarnation and admits shecould come back as a lizard. Madonna'sfavorite toy is her answering machine.The attention to these details apparentlyhas served Encyclopedia Madonnica well.MTV and Advocate magazine have dished itRawMaterial "You'll know more about Madonna than sheknows about herself, " boasts the back cover ofMatthew Rettenmund's EncyclopediaMadonnica (St. Martin's Press). Entries"from A to Z" include:Association to Save Madonna fromNuclear War: A group of Cincinnati fanswho in 1991 banded together to lobby fornuclear-free zones within a 50-mile radiusof "anywhere Madonna lives or socializesmore than twenty days in an average year." Their list included the state of New York,much of Michigan, and greater Los Angeles. And you thought you were a little nutsabout Madonna.Basketball: Madonna loves to watch. Basketball, that is. "It reminds me of dancing,"she explains. "I love the action.... You cansee the guys' legs and arms and faces.They're so graceful. And it's so in-your-face,so intimate." Her favorite players — besidesex-fave Charles Barkley — are Horace Grant,Michael Jordan (whom she says she'd liketo be reincarnated as), Dennis Rodman(whose rebellious nature makes him, in herwords, "the Madonna of the NBA"), BrianShaw, and John Starks.Madonna has been linked romanticallywith Barkley, with Anthony Mason (NewYork Knicks), with Rodman, and withShaw and Rony Seikaly (Miami Heat).Madonna has joked that she'd like to eventually own a basketball franchise, even ifthat does sound like a bad HBO series, andagreed that she would be a very "hands-on"owner: "Definitely. My hands would be allover the place." Her two favorite teams arethe Knicks and the Lakers.Cooking: Guess who isn't a very goodcook? Madonna says she can make onlyfour things — popcorn, Rice Krispies treats,French toast, and scrambled eggs. That'sokay; it wouldn't be any fun worshipping awoman with a prize-winning recipe for32 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995up. The Village Voice's Michael Mustodescribes it as "the ultimate reference bookfor those who are not ashamed!" Even Icon("The Official Madonna Fan Club") likesit — no small thing considering that theHollywood-based group takes its Madonna-holism very seriously. And, perhaps theultimate pop-culture endorsement, HardCopy came calling for a post-release interview — but, Rettenmund says mournfully,"I'm afraid it wasn't hard enough for them.They really wanted dirt."Hard Copy may come calling againwhen St. Martin's Press publishesRettenmund's next book, BoyCulture, this fall. The author describes it asthe funny, bittersweet tale of a "postmodern cowboy" who works his waythrough the U of C by turning tricks.Although he says the novel is very obviously fiction ("I'm sure no one ever hustledhis way through the U of C"), it does drawmuch detail and color from places andpeople Rettenmund encountered while inChicago. The story actually began as atryout to get into a fiction-writing work shop taught by U of C professor RichardStern. It worked, and he picked it up againyears later, after putting the Madonna bookto rest."I said to myself, 'Hey, this is kind ofgood,' and dressed it up — so to speak," Rettenmund says. Also slated for publication is"I'm in Love with Prince Andrew" ("I'mnot," he offers before he's asked), which isto be included next year in Mondo Royals, ashort-story collection about Britain's royalfamily.While Rettenmund's muse — a life-sizedcardboard cutout of Madonna hovers nearhis computer — is climbing the charts withher new album, Bedtime Stories, the writeris through with his subject for now. He'sconsidered applying the encyclopediaformat to other pop icons, but can't findanyone who thrills him the same way.Michael Jackson? "I don't like him. Itwouldn't feel right." Janet Jackson?"Boring. What, two pages maybe?"Such meows are classic EncyclopediaMadonnica, which doesn't shrink fromtaking a few shots at Ms. Ciccone. Notevery entry is flattering because "I don't think that Madonna's every move is abovecriticism," Rettenmund dared to tell fans ina 'zine article for Icon. But he does think"she's a brilliant entertainer, underratedsinger and songwriter, important socialfigure, and a hell of a lot of fun."He must have struck some agreeable mixof kiss-and-tell: He was recently contactedby Madonna's publicist, who suggested thatRettenmund and Madonna swap inscribedcopies of the book. Rettenmund chose tomake his salutation short and sweet, wishing her success and happiness "from oneMichigan girl to another." Although he'snever met her, Rettenmund keeps hoping.And what would he say to her?"What do you say to someone you'vecompletely psychoanalyzed and reportedon in print?" he muses. "I'd have to thinkof something diffusing, right off the bat.Maybe 'Obviously, I'm a great fan....' andbrush it off with that. I'd probably take herlead."faclyn H. Park, former associate editor ofthe Magazine, is a freelance writer in theNew York City area.Yankee Pot Roast.Jobs: In high school, Madonna worked as alifeguard. In New York, she worked at suchhigh-class joints as Burger King, McDonald's, Dunkin' Donuts (from which she wascanned for playing with the jelly-squirtingmachine), Arby's, and a Greek chain calledAmy's, plus moonlighting as an artist'smodel. She also checked coats at the Russian Tea Room, one of New York's swankestspots, for $4.50 an hour. In the end, sheherself was checked by manager GregoryCamillucci for her nutty wardrobe."Material Girl" song: The number 2 smashfrom Like a Virgin launched a nicknamethat has followed Madonna to virtuallyevery article written about her. The factthat she only gets richer doesn't help shakethe "material girl" image, which itself resonated sharply with the yuppie mentalityso prevalent in the eighties.The public perception of this song —though extra positive — may be the earliestexample of people not "getting" Madonna,as she has often complained.... True materialism is the absolute antithesis of Madonna.Madonna is about take-no-prisoners self-reliance, and material girls are about lazydependence. The first clue that "MaterialGirl" is not dead serious is Madonna'svocal, a forced chirp made even more hilarious by several excited hiccups. The secondclue is the sheerly cotton-candy music... Memories: Madonna's earliest memory is ofher beautiful mother, and of sleepingsoundly between her parents in their bed.Her second memory, quite the opposite, isof being four years old and knocking downa younger girl who was attempting togive her a dandelion.Overhead: Entertainment Weekly in1993 calculated Madonna's overheadfor living expenses at a reasonable$377,102 per year, including:$52,000 for a cook, $182,500 forclothes, $35,880 for a personaltrainer, $21,185 for jewelry, $832for Evian, and a mere $41,840 forshoes.Teeth: According to a dentistcontacted by Allure magazineMadonna's "central incisorsare mismatched in length."Buyer beware.Zhero by Madonna: Italian-made perfume for men thathas no connection toMadonna's own plans fora fragrance line. But thebottles are self-consciously phallic, so wecan't blame you forasking.©1995 by MatthewRettenmund. Brushes with fame: Madonnaenjoys a Knicks game withfellow superstar Magicfohnson (opposite). Althoughshe dresses the part (below),Madonna's no Material Girl,says Rettenmund.University' of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 33C lass NewsWhat's the news? We are always eager to receiveyour news at the Magazine, care of the Class NewsEditor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, or by No engagements, please. Items may be edited for space. Asnews is published in the order in which it arrives,it may not appear immediately.Please specify the year under which you wouldlike your news to appear. Otherwise, we will list:(1) all former undergraduates (including thosewho later received graduate degrees) by the yearof their undergraduate degree, and (2) all formerstudents who received only graduate degrees bythe year of their final degree.Margaret D. C. Martin, SB'21, AM'38, celebrated her 100th birthday in April 1994.Family and friends gathered in Natchez, MS, whereMartin taught mathematics and Latin in the publicschools and was the high-school principal for manyyears.Katherine Barren Allen, PhB'25, is in goodhealth at age 92, doing volunteer work at ahospital and at Home Health Care Auxiliaries. Herapartment looks out over the Rockport (ME)harbor. Hal Baird, PhB'25, AM'28, age 91, asks,"Am 1 one of the oldest graduates of the Universityof Chicago?" Baird was the assistant director of theUniversity's Bureau of Vocational Guidance andPlacement in the early 1930s.AH Mary Nixon Andress, PhB'27, is 87 andmm m "still going strong in various activities."Anton B. Burg, SB'27, SM'28, PhD'31, celebratedhis 90th birthday in October. The chemistry department at the University of Southern California,where Burg is a professor emeritus, published a collection of his poetry and prose and arranged a dayof scientific presentations and a party in his honor.M Ralph M. Buchsbaum, SB'28, PhD'32, andhis wife, Mildred Shaffer Buchsbaum,SB'32, SM'33, celebrated their 60th anniversary.Allan A. Filek, SB'28, MD'33, age 87, works twodays a week at a plasma-donor center in Phoenix.He is president of the Early Bird Lions Club in FunCity, the fourth Lions Club that he has led. John A.Moretti, SB'28, see 1966, Joseph M. Moretti. HelenGrage Schrader, SB'28, lives at The Carrington inDe Forest, Wl.Sophia Malenski Hill, PhB'29, CLA'29, andher husband, Uno, celebrated their 57thanniversary in 1994. They enjoy living in PalmSprings, FL, and are becoming more involved in thelives of their three children and six grandchildren.Daughter Beatrice Hill Cameron, AM'60, is withthe U.S. State Department; son John W. Hill, AB'63,is a music professor at the University of Illinois; andson Thomas is an associate professor at HarvardMedical School. Irene Tipler McCurry, PhB'29, hasthree married children: Margaret, Marian, and Alan.Alan lives in Fairbanks, AK, where he is mediacoordinator lor ten schoolsEsther Fisher Buchanan, PhB'30, lives atQuaker Gardens in Stanton, CA. Her sonJohn is an American history professor; last year hespoke in Brazil on the Internet's applications inhigher education and research. Edward j. LawleT, Jr., PhB'30, see 1933, Frank Harding. Robert S.Shane, SB'30, PhD'33, and Jeanne Lazarus Shane,SB'41, live happily in Florida, where she does volunteer teaching in public schools. BerthaHeimerdinger Wadt, PhB'30, celebrated her 85thbirthday in November with family and friends.MS. Eloise Webster Baker, SB'31, SM'32,moved to Chouteau, OK, after 25 years inLamar, AR, to live with her brother- and sister-in-law. Charles M. Fish, SB'31, and his wife celebratedtheir 57th anniversary.QA Mildred Shaffer Buchsbaum, SB'32, SM'33,WH see 1928, Ralph M. Buchsbaum. JosephineMirabella Elliott, PhB'32, AM'35, received the Indiana Humanities Council's scholarship award for her40-plus years as an archivist, historian, editor, andauthor. Eileen Fitzpatrick Ronan, PhB'32, writesthat her 13 grandchildren are well. Son Paul is acolonel in the Air Force Reserve, and grandson Paulis an ensign in the Navy's flight school. LeonWerch, PhB'32, was grand marshal of the tenthannual Woodridge (IL) Jubilee parade last summer.Werch was Woodridge's first mayor,MIn October, Beulah Wright Berghult-Lynes, SB'33, and husband Jack visitedJean Stillman Duffield, SB'33, at her home inChieveley, Berkshire, England. George F. Dale,SB'33, is healthy and busy. Last fall, he spent a weeksailing on Chesapeake Bay with his son. FrankA Swingin' Affair Harding, PhB'33, writes that the death of best friendCharles Newton, PhB'33, "was hard to take," butEdward J. Lawler, Jr., PhB'30, "gives me heart,"Harding lives in North Palm Beach, FL, but spentsix months in Maine last year. Ruth Willard lams,PhB'33, retired for 17 years, writes, "I am still wondering what I should do when 1 grow up. At least Ihave a splendid part of the world (Honolulu) toenjoy as I ponder. Let me know if you get this way."Ida ("Adelle") Matlocha Lampos, PhB'33, took "anexciting but strenuous" trip to the "Hidden Italy" inSeptember. She adds, "The towns we visited wereall perched up on hills requiring lots of climbing!"Estelle Hill Scott, AM'33, spent five weeks in Kenyathis past summer with one of her sons and hisfamily. "Traveling in old age can be a rewardingexperience," she writes. Esther FeuchtwangerTamm, PhB'33, still plays tennis at age 81. Daughter Marti wrote a book called Emotional Abuse, published last summer.MPaul M. Cliver Jr., SB'34, and Mary EllisonCliver, PhB'34, AM'75, of Daytona Beach,FL, enjoy visiting Sarasota friends Edward W. S.Nicholson, SB'34, and Elisabeth Cason Nicholson,PhB'34. The couples attend opera, theater, and symphony productions in both cities, while "a little golfworks its way into the program every now andthen." Earl A. Dennis, PhD'34, was sorry to misshis 60th reunion. Edward J. Novak, PhB'34, whohas been retired for 17 years, recently celebrated his57th wedding anniversary. He had his first greatgrandchild in September. Allan E. Sachs, SB'34,MD'37, is still a U.S. Masters champion in swimming. He swam five events in 1993 and was onthree world-record-setting relays in 1993 and 1994.Sachs is on the champions' wall of the InternationalSwimming Hall of Fame. Donald M. Typer, AM'34,chair of the Iowa UNA finance committee, reportsthat the committee's 1993-94 program, "The Environment," received honors from the Iowa Humani-Rivalsfrom the classes of 1916 and 191 7 partake in their annual baseball duel atthe 1935 U of C reunion.34 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995ties Board and the state's natural-resources division.The 1994-95 program is "Futures for the UnitedNations."Evelyn G. Endriz, SB'35, plays bridge,golfs, and line-dances. For more than 20years, she has been on the boards of a local family-services and mental-health organization and agroup that helps needy high-school students.Isabelle Kennedy Rice, PhB'35, writes that daughter Laura is a Fulbright professor at the universityin Tunis, Tunisia. After retiring, Sydelle E.Rovnick, PhB'35, AM'52, worked part time formany years for community and social-work agencies and now enjoys volunteer activities, particularly at a paleontology museum.After 30 years in Hawaii, Virginia NewFalsing, SB'36, and her husband moved toa retirement facility in San Diego. Stow E. Symon,AB'36, AM'38, is retired from the Illinois Department of Corrections. He spends time traveling andwent to Europe for the 50th anniversary of D-Day.AM Mark Ashin, AB'37, AM'38, PhD'50, writes%9 * that "retirement is loverly." He is "a fixtureat the Quad Club's 'cowboy pool' table" and alsoplays handball and reads. Ruth Shapiro Kadish,AB'37, is "still alive and kicking." Felix H. Ocko,MD'37, is retired from practice and busy with community volunteer activities. Olive Walker Swinney,AM'37, volunteers at Common Cause, WashingtonConnection, and lives at The Virginian retirementcommunity in Fairfax, VA. She would like to hearfrom SSA classmates in the area.Ivan M. Niven, PhD'38, writes that the firstannual Ivan Niven lectures in mathematicswere given October 20-21 at the University ofOregon. C. H. Patterson, AB'38, earned the LeonaTyler award from the American Psychological Association's counseling psychology division. RichardA. Rasmussen, MD'38, remains active in retirementas an advocate against governmental health care,welfare, and food stamps. He was remarried in February 1992 to Leona Allaben.MErwin F. ("Bud") Beyer, AB'39, age 79,sails a 28-foot sloop on Lake Champlain,gardens, canoes, and travels. In 1994 he traveled toMalta. Beyer also serves on an advisory committeefor the Office of the Aging. Frances P. Coulter,AM'39, remembers her two years at the U of C"fondly and gratefully": "The School of Social Service Administration was, and is, a great school witha famous faculty. International House broadenedmy horizons. What a combination!" Phyllis Sil-vertrust Sandock, AB'39, and husband Louis arethe great-grandparents of Sarah, 4, and tripletsHannah, Aaron, and Leah, 2 — all four are the children of grandson David. Sarah Kleiger Schenck,PhD'39, retired to Florida, where she raises orchidsand tropical and subtropical plants. Sidney G.Stem, SB'39, is enjoying his 12th year of retirement,traveling and staying in Elderhostels as well asdoing oil painting and stained-glass work. He is atrustee of the International Society of Clinical Hypnosis. His secret of longevity: "Keep breathing!" InJanuary 1994, John R. Van de Water, AB'39, JD'41,completed his last appointment from RonaldReagan. He had been chair of the National LaborRelations Board, special assistant to one secretary oflabor and counselor to another, and mediator andarbitrator of labor disputes between federal laborunions and management at federal military andcivilian agencies. Joseph A. Whitlow, AB'39,reports that the Seattle Great Books group has beenmeeting continuously for 47 years.JU\ Morris B- Abram, JD'40, formerly the U.S.¦BU representative to the United Nation's European headquarters, now chairs the U.N. Watch, thebody that measures the U.N.'s performance againstits charter. After graduation, Harry M. Hess, Jr., AB'40, took several U of C graduate courses in economics before beginning a peripatetic career thatincluded stints with the United Press, CBS, ABC,and Esquire before he began to act professionally in1946. While working in television and theater, helived throughout the East Coast and Europe. Anamateur photographer, in 1959 he turned professional. Publicity shots of actors and musicians eventually led to his current career of nearly 30 years,art photography. Ruth Young Lebow, SB'40, SM'41,teaches part time at UCLA, where her courses focuson the geology of Southern California mountains.She is also a master teacher at new-teacher orientations and teaches geology to docents at the L.A.Natural History Museum and Page Museum. In1994 Lebow revised her study guide for a collegecourse in geology offered on public TV. Russell O.Saxvik, MD'40, lives in the Missouri Slope LutheranCare Center.^¦1 Marjorie Berg Long Burmeister, AB'41,ibM moved to Sebring, FL, to be near her sister,Geraldine Berg Sjostrom, AB'44. Burmeister hasserved as organist in three Sebring churches, actedin several local plays, and modeled in a fashionshow. She teaches piano and organ, is building ahouse on a small lake, and studies watercolor painting and needlepoint. Lawrence S. Myers, Jr., SB'41,PhD'49, works at the National Cancer Institute,where he studies the relationships between DNA,topoisomerases, and certain anticancer drugs. Thisspring, he presented some of his work on free radicals in brain tissue at the annual meeting of theRadiation Research Society. Morton L. Pearce,SB'41, MD'44, attended his 50th class reunion andnotes, "The west side of the campus has changed somuch in 50 years that I almost needed a guide."David M. Pletcher, AB'41, AM'41, PhD'46, retiredfrom Indiana University in 1990. Fenton Schafmer,SB'41, MD'43, is the George Baehr professor emeritus of medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, CUNY, and a medical consultant at MountSinai Hospital. Schaffner sees patients on a limitedbasis. The fifth edition of a gastroenterology textthat he co-edited was published in September.Jeanne Lazarus Shane, SB'41, see 1930, Robert S.Shane. Retiree John E. Wilson, SB'41, plays plentyof tennis and is on the editorial board of the fournalof Neurochemistty.« David L. Fisher, SB'42, retired from theGarden City (NY) Planning Commissionafter 12 years, the last five as chair. John M. Gandy,AM'42, is a professor emeritus of social work at theUniversity of Toronto. In May 1994 he wasawarded an honorary LL.D. from St. Thomas University in New Brunswick, Canada. Lawrence M.Litz, SB'42, retired from Union Carbide Corp. after39 years. He does part-time consulting in chemicalprocessing, hydrometallurgy, and gas/liquid mixingand processes.M*% Richard S. Hochman, AB'43, see 1944,^0 Otto H. Trippel. In November, SoniaWeiner Katz, AB'43, AM'46, had a show of her collages at Artemisia Gallery in Chicago. Efrem H.Ostrow, SB'43, PhD'60, see 1944, Otto H. Trippel.MM Rosemarie Riedel Joosten, AM'44,H«Ti attended her 50th reunion and comments,"It was a special time to see/meet with old friendsand to wander around the beautiful campus, marveling at the impressive additions of buildings andsculpture." Elizabeth ("Betty") Headland Oosten-brug, AB'44, writes that "a recent wonderful tripthrough middle Europe — Vienna, Budapest,Prague, and Berlin — recalled our humanities coursein the '40s." Gordon H. Roper, AM'38, PhD'44,reports that he is now visually impaired. GeraldineBerg Sjostrom, AB'44, see 1941, Marjorie Berg LongBurmeister. Otto H. Trippel, SB'44, MD'46, enjoyedhis "magnificent" 50-year reunion and seeing Carol In the ClubsBoston To learn about young alumni clubevents, call president Julekha Dash, AB'93, at617/625-6932 (h). To volunteer, call Jim Jacobsin the Alumni Association at 312/702-2155.Cincinnati For information, call presidentDon Dowling, AB'82, at 513/629-2750 (w).Chicago Sat., Jul. 8, 9:30 a.m.: Behind-the-scenes at the DuPage County recycling center.Wed., Jul. 19, 12:15 p.m.: Downtown lunchwith Yerkes Observatory engineer John Briggs.Wed., Aug. 2, 5 p.m.: Dinner at Tavern on thePier; 7:30 p.m.: Cirque du Soleil. Sat., Aug. 12,1:45 p.m.: Behind-the-scenes at Navy Pier.Dallas Sat., Jul. 30: "Lazy Days of Summer"brunch at the Bent Tree Country Club.Denvei For information, call presidentGerald Forney, SM'74, at 303/830-8447 (h/w).Detroit Sat., Jun. 25, 1:15 p.m.: Tigers vs.Milwaukee Brewers; post-game at "TigerPlaza." To help plan events, call ElanaMuehleip, MBA'90, at 810/347-9496 (h).Houston To help organize an event foralumni new to the area, call Joe Kotarski,MBA'89, at 713/293-2269 (w).IaOS Angeles Sat., Jul. 22, 8 p.m.: A night atthe Mystery Cafe in Orange County. Call Marilyn Armentrout, SB'59, 714/854-8469 (h).Milwaukee To help start a book group, plana trip to Fermilab, or offer event suggestions,call Jacky Kafura, AM'80, at 414/272-7553 (h).New York Thurs., Jul. 20, 6:30 p.m.: Youngalumni Happy Hour at West Side Brewing Co.Call Myra LaVenue, AB'87, at 212/532-9057(h). August: Softball game with MIT. CallReggie Ambatchew, AB'88, at 718/499-4416 (h).Philadelphia To volunteer, call Amy Ged-rich, AM'81, at 215/732-7855 (h), or JonathanFox, AB'79, PhD'85, MD'87, at 610/664-3664 (h).Phoenix For information, call president JayPolk, AB'89, at 602/423-9500 (w) .Portland For information, call presidentElizabeth Steiner, AB'84, at 360/835-1111 (w).San Diego For information, call presidentJoan Friedman, AM'91, at 619/546-0655 (h).San FranciSCO Every second Sunday: SanFrancisco book club meets; call Sydney Rosen,PhB'46, AM'49, PhD'73, at 415/776-0504 (h).Every third Sunday: East Bay book club meets;call Ruth Abel, AB'36, at 510/849-9308 (h).Washington, DC Fourth Monday of everymonth, 7:30 p.m.: Great Books reading groupmeets at Chapters Bookstore.For details, contact Marilyn Melvan in the AlumniAssociation at 312/702-2157; at 312/702-21 66 (fax);or at (Internet).University of Chicago Mvgazine/June 1995 35Dragstedt Stauffer, SB'48; Lester R. Dragstedt II,CLA'61; Richard S. Hochman, AB'43; Efrem H.Ostrow, SB'43, PhD'60; and others.« Margaret ("Peggy") O'Neil Matthiesen,A.B'45, and husband Bill celebrated their50th anniversary. She sends best wishes to all herclassmates. Marion Smith McManus, PhB'45,retired as associate registrar at San Francisco CityCollege. In late fall, Idabel Bowles Waddy, AM'45,wrote, "The chief excitement here (Aurora, CO) isthat we had a full-fledged snow that covered everything and made driving difficult but lasted only oneday."«Last August, Catherine Elmes Kalbacher,AB'46, chaired a session on Carl Jung at thefourth conference of the International Society forthe Study of European Ideas, held at the Universityof Graz (Austria). Blaise Levai, AM'46, wasinducted into the International Who's Who organization. He and wife Marian are returning to India,where he taught at Voorhees College and she was achild psychiatrist. Jack D. McCarthy, PhB'46,MD'51, is three-quarters retired and spending timein Mexico and France. Janice Trimble, AM'46.reports that her high-school Latin teacher, MargaretD. C. Martin, SB'21, AM'38, celebrated her 100thbirthday in April 1994. See 1921, Margaret D. C.Martin. Leslie Waller, X'46, has written his 52ndbook, Manhattan Transfer, published last October.MWW Robert E. Bell, AM'43, PhD'47, was^m Jf inducted into the Oklahoma HistoricalSociety's Historians Hall of Fame in April 1994. Healso was cited by the Oklahoma AnthropologicalSociety as a "founding father andguiding spirit." Frances Eldredge,PhD'47, of Cobb, CA, reports thatwith failing health, she can nolonger travel to Europe or makefrequent trips to San Francisco."But even with dependence on awalker, 1 get to local concerts, theater," she writes. "And there arealways Great Books." Christine E.Haycock, PhB'47, SB'48, receiveda Photographic Society of Americafellowship for her service to theSociety and its educational programs, and for her award-winningwork. Sheldon J. Shalett, PhB'47,is still traveling and still in theshipping business; he tries "tosqueeze in the occasional vacation" but is too busy to retire.Wife Betty is president of theFlorida region of Hadassah anddaughter Rachel is a freshman atEmory University's Oxford College. Arnold L.("Bud") Tanis, PhB'47, SB'49, MD'51, see 1948,Maxine Kroman Tanis.VI Q Beulah Fdch Anderson. SM 48, writes,^¦^D "Gratitude fills my heart that it was possible to attend the University.... My advanced degreecontinues to pay dividends!" Minna Rodnon Buck,AB'48, \'50, retired as a family-court judge at theend of 1994. She had already completed her term aspresident of the New York State Association ofFamily Court Judges. Frank Costin, AM'41,PhD'48, is a professor emeritus of psychology at theUniversity of Illinois, where he continues to doresearch on rape. Janet Vanderwalker Myers,SB'48, leaches painting in the Institute for Learningin Retirement at American University. She doesprintmaking in the Old Torpedo Factory in Alexandria, VA, and shows her work there and in theWashington (DC) Printmakers Gallery. James L.Philon, PhB'48, X'52, retired in August as seniorvice president, real estate, for the Hilton HotelsCorp. Alter five years in his position, Frank G. Rothman, AB'48, SM'51, will retire as provost ofBrown University at the end of June. Carol Dragstedt Stauffer, SB'48, see 1944, Otto H. Trippel.Maxine Kroman Tanis, PhB'48, gave her husband,Arnold L. ("Bud") Tanis, PhB'47, SB'49, MD'51, a1994 birthday gift of a six-week visit to Turkey,Italy, and Paris. "The highlight was a handshakeand blessing from Pope John Paul II on AshWednesday," she writes. George P. Werner, AM'46,AM'48, and wife Grace have spent the last five yearsas mission volunteers to Wesley Methodist Churchin Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Their workwas featured in the September 1994 New WorldOutlook, the mission periodical of the UnitedMethodist Church.« William J. Edmonston, X'49, is looking fora Babylonian scholar with whom to collaborate on a translation and reconstruction of Gil-gamesh poetry. On September 1, Robert W.Parsons, PhB'49, retired from practicing surgeryand assumed emeritus status at the U of C, whereThe Logic KingA Raymond Smullyan brainteasertends to be a labyrinthine den oflogic, mathematics, and philosophy. The Oscar Ewing professor emeritus of philosophy at Indiana University,Smullyan, SB'55, haswritten eight books oflogic problems and isfinishing his latest, TheRiddle of Scheherazade:Amazing Logic Puzzles,Ancient and Modern,based on the Easterntale Thousand and OneNights.The book's first halfdetails "how Scheherazade escapes execution by a very cleverlogical ruse." Smullyanchuckles as he ex-^ plains his inspiration,I an Edgar Allan Poe talecalled "The Thousandand Second Tale of Scheherazade." Poe'sstory reverses the original by executingScheherazade; Smullyan's book overturns Poe's story.Not that puzzles are his only occupation. The formulator of the double-recursion and the exact-representabilitytheorems, Smullyan's weighty mathematical treatises include his most recentwork, Diagonalization and Self-Reference(1994), and a book about set theory thathe's writing with a former student.Other books elaborate his interest inEastern philosophy, particularly Taoism.The lifelong academic dropped out ofhigh school because he "didn't like it"and wanted to study his own interests. he has been for the last 15 years of his 40-yearcareer. Parsons plans to continue doing volunteersurgery for children with deformities in southernMexico, teaching on a part-time basis, and participating in community activities in Hinsdale andChicago. Lincoln Y. Reed, DB'49, who retired after43 years of congregational ministry, now volunteerson four boards for homelessness help. Nathaniel E.Reed, AB'49, retired in 1989 as academic vice president of Livingston University and remains active inuniversity, civic, and church activities. He enjoysgardening and has traveled to Britain, Greece,Israel, Egypt, and Canada and throughout the U.S.Burton H. Robin, SM'49, retired after 14 years ofindustrial research and 30 years of teaching chemistry and physical science at Kennedy-King College,one of the City Colleges of Chicago. He was the1991-92 distinguished professor at Kennedy-King.M Raymond T. Batina, MBA'50, continues towork in his environmental-consulting business, Batina & Associates. After 38 years of federalBouncing from university to university,he settled at Chicago long enough toearn a mathematics degree. To pay hisway through school, he performedmagic tricks, mostly sleight-of-hand, atprivate parties and supper clubs. Afterearning a Ph.D. at Princeton, he taughtmathematics and logic at Dartmouth,Princeton, and Yeshiva universities andthe City University of New York beforejoining Indiana's faculty in 1981.At every teaching post, his puzzlesproved to be an effective way to piquestudents' interest. One former Princetonclassmate told Smullyan: "[My 10-year-old son] loves your book, but don't lethim know it's math, because he hatesmath." Of course, logic problems canserve other uses — even romantic ones.Smullyan admits the following puzzlemight have come in handy had hedesigned it before meeting his wife."I'll make a statement. If the statementis true, you give me your autograph. Itdoesn't have to be on a check, it can beon a blank piece of paper. If the statement is false, you don't give me yourautograph," Smullyan sets up thepuzzle. "Well, my statement is, You willgive me neither your autograph nor akiss.'"If it were true, you'd have to give meyour autograph as agreed, but thatwould falsify the statement. You'd havea contradiction. So therefore the statement must be false. Since it's false thatyou'll give me neither, it means you'llhave to give me either. But you can'tgive me your autograph for a false statement, so you owe me a kiss." Soundslogical. — K.S.36 University of Cfiicago Magazine/June 1995service, Jose A. Filos Diaz, MD'50, retired in February 1993 as chief of the pulmonary-disease andallergy service with the Gordas Army, CommunityHospital, US MEDDAC, Panama. Alyce KahnFrank, AB'50, had a show of Southwestern landscape paintings at Mann-Price Galleries in Maryland in November. Gerald L. Garden, AB'50, andhis tenth-grade honors English class at Blair HighSchool in Pasadena, CA, were featured in a June1994 column of the Outlook, a Santa Monica newspaper. Wolf Kahn, AB'50, reports that a book abouthis landscape painting will be published in 1996.Lynn H. Nelson, AB'50, has been a professor ofmedieval history at the University of Kansas for 31years. He has established several Internet discussion lists and designed the servers History, Carrie,and Heritage — all accessible via telnet Anne Garvey Phillips,AM'50, is a textbook author and freelance writerand editor in San Luis Obispo, CA. Miriam Wagen-schein, AM'50, is a sociology professor at TexasA&M University in Corpus Christi.Donald S. Frank, AM'51, is a professoremeritus of sociology at Towson State University. He taught two courses last fall and occasionally serves as an expert witness. Frank isspending this year in Holetown, Barbados, WestIndies; and Baltimore and Chesapeake Beach, Maryland. Ruby Dordek Kaufman, BSS'51, writes thather husband's retirement allows more time to visittheir children and six grandchildren (ages 1 to 17)in Washington, Illinois, and Massachusetts. Sheruns an out-of-print book-search service from herhome and works as a docent at Arizona State University Art Museum. Morris W. Leighton, SM'48,PhD'51, chief emeritus of the Illinois State Geological Survey, received a Gaylord Donnelley-Nature ofIllinois Foundation award in October for his science and conservation efforts. Susan Levin Miller,AB'51, presented "Instructional Applications ofTechnology in Elementary Schools" to the NewYork State Association for Computer and Technology Educators.Paul S. Mostert, SM'51, became a professor emeritus at the University of Kansas in 1992. He is nowpresident of EQUIX Biomechanics, a Lexington, KY,company that models Thoroughbred horses' biomechanics, performance, and breeding. After 30 yearsas a Unitarian minister, Christopher Raible, X'51,became a historian and writer of Canadian history.He sells books and writes in Creamore, Ontario.Charles L. Stermer, AB'51, is a consultant for theExecutive Service Corps after retiring as executivedirector of International House in 1993. Prior to1981, he had a 26-year career in the Department ofState. His wife, Colette Benveniste Stermer, AB'41,is manager of the International House gift shop. TheStermers have three married sons and one grandson.Charlotte Toll Thurschwell, AB'51, AM'54, retiredfrom her family-law practice and enjoys studyingancient Greek and other non-law-related activities.Hubert Thurschwell, AB'51, JD'54, a retired laborlawyer, has served as a volunteer lawyer for Montgomery County (PA) Legal Aid for the past threeyears. Robert L. Vosburg, MD'51, and wife EtsukoSatoh do some writing for Japanese journals. Vosburg also golfs.MM. Peggy Hammond, AB'52, AM'73, stillshuttles between northern Wisconsin andcentral London. She writes: "The Meridian Planetarium at Greenwich has come to the attention ofthe Millennium Commission — perhaps we'll getsome funds from the new National Lottery." DanielMann, AB'52, X'53, a Jewish communal worker andeducator, is president of the Labor Zionist Alliance.He is a Ph.D. student in government at GeorgetownUniversity and an adjunct profesor at BaltimoreHebrew University. John H. Rau, AB'52, JD'55, see 1960, John Cashman.Herbert Lederer, AM'49, PhD'53, reportsthat a Festschrift, Playing for Stakes:German-Language Drama in Social Context, was formally presented to him in October. Friends, colleagues, and former students contributed essays tothe published volume. Marjorie Montague Wilson,MD'53, hikes, camps, travels, and volunteers. AllenT. Yarowsky, AB'53, JD'56, "has been teaching English in Portugal for the past four years and may beready to move on."M Oliver H. Bown, AM'48, PhD'54, is proudthat grandson Colin Bown is pursuing adoctorate in physics at Chicago. Maurice Glicks-man, SM'52, PhD'54, became provost emeritus ofBrown University in July 1990, retiring as a professor of engineering and physics four years later.After five years as chair of Fermilab's board of overseers, Glicksman is now vice chair.«« for two years he has coordinated a primary-education assistance program for the U.S. Agency forInternational Development. Earlier, he had a similarjob in Bhutan.Kathryn Engelhard Allen, AB'59, wasquoted and pictured in a Chicago Tribunearticle about a celebration of the 75th year ofwomen's enfranchisement. She writes, "It was greatfun and is providing energy for all of us to carry oninto the future working for women's (human)rights." Milton E. Nelson, AB'59, AM'61, and Geraldine M. Holub, AB'60, report that Birgitta K Nilson,AB'60, Holub's former roommate, is territorial commander for all Salvation Army operations in Swedenand Latvia and holds the rank of commissioner.Beatrice Hill Cameron, AM'60, see 1929,Sophia Malenski Hill. John Cashman,SB'60, and Diane Cobb Cashman, AB'60, reportthat their daughter Nancy married Michael Rau inWe expect to sail to the Mediterraneanin 1995 and back to the U.S. by 2090."Frank M. Byers, Jr., PhD'55, and wife Virginia took the Alumni Association'sMediterranean cruise in October. In October,Donald M. Ephraim, JD'55, of the law firmEphraim & Associates, received the Governor'saward of the Chicago chapter of the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. His firm represents clients in the media and entertainmentindustries. Frank E. Richards, AB'55, SB'61, SM'62,PhD'73, and wife Sally moved to Madison, Wl. Hewrites, "But upon retirement (at age 62) we hope inlive in Latin America part of the year."Leslie W. Werwicki, MBA'56, retired fromAbbott Laboratories' international division.Matthew A. Zuckerbraun, AB'56, AB'57, officiatedas cantor at the August wedding of his stepdaughterAbby. Also in 1994, he became the grandfather ofVictoria and appeared in a forum in the Wall StreetTranscript.Peter S. Amenta, PhD'58, is a professoremeritus of anatomy at Hahnemann University School of Medicine, where he was a professor and department chair for 21 of his 36 yearsthere. He is the associate editor of the 31st American edition of Gray's Anatomy. William R. Harmon,AB'58, AM'68, is the James Gordon Hanes professorof English at UNC-Chapel Hill. In September 1994,he delivered the memorial lecture at the annualmeeting of the T. S. Eliot Society in St. Louis.Robert L. Herrick, AM'58, retired after 32 years ofteaching sociology at Teikyo Westmar University inLeMars, IA, where he also served terms as academicdean and division director. Herman E. Kattlove,SB'58, MD'62, left private practice in oncology andhematology after 19 years to join Salick HealthCare. He helps manage Salick Net, a managed-carerisk contract for cancer care.Robert R. Malone, MFA'58, an art professor atSouthern Illinois University at Edwardsville, wascommissioned by the Illinois Art and ArchitectureBoard to create two sculptures for Northern IllinoisUniversity's new physics and chemistry building.Richard I. McClow, MBA'58, left Chicago five yearsago and sailed halfway around the world, making itto Singapore on his 40-foot sailboat. He writes, "Ihave returned to Chicago to marry my loyal, faithful, and long-suffering first mate, Penny. We expectto sail to the Mediterranean in 1995 and back to theU.S. by the year 2000." John B. ("Jack") Umer,PhD'58, lives in Maseru, Lesotho, in Africa, where —Richard I. McClow, MBA'581994. The groom's father is John H. Rau, AB'52,JD'55, of Leonia, NJ. John Cashman adds that he ispresident of the Southern Society of Urological Surgeons. Harry M. Greenwood, AB'60, looks forwardto retiring from teaching on June 30. Geraldine M.Holub, AB'60, see 1959, Milton E. Nelson. DamonJ. Kross, SB'60, is a registered nurse specializing inhospice care. Birgitta K. Nilson, AB'60, see 1959,Milton E. Nelson. Hugh S. Plunkett, AB'60, AM'64,is still with USAID in Washington, DC, working on"re-inventing" the agency to improve its delivery offoreign assistance. Mary Jones Woodson, AM'60, ofRichton, MS, retired after more than 36 years as ateacher and assistant principal. She is in Who's Whoamong American Teachers and recieved an education leadership award and a Golden Apple award.W Lester R. Dragstedt II, CLA'61, see 1944,Otto H. Trippel. Phillip D. Kimble, DB'61,now teaches full time in the psychology departmentat California State University, Fresno, after 20 yearsas a part-time teacher. Robert H. Winemiller,SM'61, MD'61, retired after 25 years at MarshfieldClinic in Wisconsin, where he headed internalmedicine and nephrology and began a dialysis unit.MBette Stack Eilers, AB'62, is a part-timetrumpet teacher for the University of Illinois at Chicago and Triton College and substitutedat Wheaton College. She played in the Prism Festival as a freelance musician. William O. Makely,AM'62, serves on the business-development commission of Downers Grove. Delvin R. Ryan, Jr.,MBA'62, moved to Chicago to become chair, president, and CEO of Ero, Inc., a children's sporting-goods company. His wife, Nancy, is director ofemergency medicine at Northwest CommunityHospital.MRuA C. Bettelheim, AB'63, AM'65, has twochildren and a private psychotherapy practice in Santa Monica, CA: "Life can be, and is, beautiful!" Kai T. Erikson, AM'55, PhD'63, the WilliamR. Kenan, Jr., professor of sociology at Yale, was aBernhard visiting professor at Williams Collegeduring the fall 1994 semester. John W. Hill, AB'63,see 1929, Sophia Malenski Hill. Philip J. Lehpamer,SB'63, is a vice president and actuary at MetLife inNew York. He oversees the actuarial-student program and the Financial Management University,MetLife's in-house school. Thomas J. S. Mikelson,DB'63, AM'68, received the 1994 Martin LutherKing, Jr., freedom award from the ProgressiveUniversity of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 37National Baptist Convention. He also co-convened aconference at Harvard: "Human Rights and African-American Religious History: A Conference inHonor of Preston N. Williams." Robert A. Moss,SM'62, PhD'63, is the Louis P. Hammett professorol chemistry at Rutgers. Bruce A. Shuman, AB'63,AM'65, has published six books on library andinformation science and is "eagerly awaiting" publication of his first novel. Doris West Smothers,AM'63, retired in June 1993 after 41 years as asocial worker, the last 22 with the Chicago PublicSchools. She keeps abreast of the field through con-tinuing-education courses and also enjoys community involvement and social activities.(4 l*l| Joan Wennstrom Bennett, SM'64, PhD'67,%M t married David L. Peterson on September18. Jeffry C. Ruprecht, AB'67, is a registered nurseat a community hospital in Twin Falls, ID. Hisoldest son is a Rhodes scholar, studying physics atOxford University.Louis H. Mertes, MBA'68, see 1986, CoreyJ. Mertes. Vincent K. Pollard, AM'68, presented a dissertation-related paper as part of a graduate-student interdisciplinary symposium atNorthern Arizona University. Under a U.S. Department of Education grant, he spent last June andJuly studying language in the Philippines, where hereturns in June to complete his dissertation field-Visiting the quads, I felt pride in beingthe bridge between two II of C scholars:my father and my daughter/'M Barry D. Bayer, AB'64, a Homewood, IL,attorney and editor-in-chief of Law OfficeTechnology Review, writes that his weekly syndicated column of hardware and software reviews forlawyers has been picked up by legal newspapers inAnchorage, AK; San Diego; Columbus, OH; andClearwater, FL. Jan H. Finder, SM'64, presented apaper, "The Curious Case of Arthur Upfield's BirthYear," at the ninth annual conference of the American Association of Australian Studies in May 1994.In July, he was toastmaster at Toronto Trek 8. JeanPaulson Peterman, AB'64, received her Ph.D. insociology from the University of Illinois at Chicagoin May 1994.Fred A. Allardyce, MBA'65, is chair of theboard of trustees of Financial ExecutivesResearch Foundation, a nonprofit educational organization. Robert L. Hassenger, PhD'65, won the1994 award for scholarship from SUNY EmpireState College, where he is a professor and coordinator of social sciences. Hassenger also won the 200-meter dash in the Granite State Senior Games,qualifying for the National Senior Games; placedthird in two races in the Boston Reebok Games; andcompeted in the Empire State Games and theUSATF National Masters Meet. Rodney T. Hood,AM'65, volunteered in the 1994 Crop Walk inJohnson County, IN. The walk's proceeds go toreduce hunger. Hood has served on the CropRegional Advisory Committee for the past six years.After living all over the U.S. and in Canada, AnnHulsizer Wymore, AB'65, is settling back in theMidwest. She earned her Ph.D. in 1991 and is clinical director of a rural mental-health center near herhome in Urbana.Thomas W. Bolland, MBA'57, PhD'66, ofAthens, OH, met his wife 35 years ago at anOuting Club ski trip. They still enjoy skiing, mostlyat Killington, VT. Bolland asks, "Are there anyother Outing Club alumni of the late '50s and early'60s out there?" Luigi ("Louis") Crudele, AM'66,works for the Defense Department as a reading specialist at Naples American High School. Joseph M.Moretti, MD'66, writes, "Visiting the quads this fall,I felt pride in being the bridge between two U of Cscholars: my father, John A. Moretti, SB'28, and mydaughter, Cara, school of medicine '98." Harry J.Pappas, X'66, traveled to France and Germany forthe 50th anniversary of D-Day and received lowerNormandy's Commemoration Medal of the Jubileeof Liberty. His unit offered a memorial service to itsfellows who were buried in Luxembourg and dedicated a peace monument in Tettingen, Germany. — foseph M. Moretti, MD'66work on policy-making in the Philippines. Pollardwrites, "Best wishes to all living, working, andstudying in Hyde Park!" Richard F. Sanford,MBA'68, moved from New Jersey to the Atlantaarea, where he is in charge of reengineering thefixed-assets financial systems for AT&T communications service. Frederick R. Schram, PhD'68, spentNovember and December as a visiting professor ofevolutionary biology and systematics at the University of Padua in Italy. Elliot M. Simon, AM'68, is onthe board of directors of the Occidental CommunityChoir. He also serves as the choir's publicity director.Harry J. Berman, AB'69, is vice presidentfor academic affairs at Sangamon State University in Springfield, IL, and wrote Interpreting trieAging Self: Personal Journals of Later Life. CarolynBaker Bowers, AM'69, developed and team-taughtan interior-design course for the Army Corps ofEngineers in Grand Rapids, MI. A. Keith Brown,SB'69, is a fire-safety engineer with the North MetroFire Rescue Authority, serving the northern suburbs of Denver. Last August, Marcus K. Felson,AB'69, a professor at the University of SouthernCalifornia, was the keynote speaker at a crime-prevention conference sponsored by Griffiths University in Brisbane, Australia. Ronald L. Hammerle,ThM'68, DMN'69, is president of a health-systemsdevelopment company, Health Resources PropertyGroup. Through related companies, he is involvedin developing primary-care centers throughout theU.S.Richard E. Mendales, AB'69, AM'70, marriedKrystyna Piejak on December 16, 1993. She is alawyer, and he teaches at the University of MiamiSchool of Law. Horace M. Newcomb, Jr., AM'65,PhD'69, is the F. J. Heyne centennial professor incommunication at the University of Texas. On leaveto serve as curator of the Museum of BroadcastCommunications in Chicago, he remains in Austinto edit The Encyclopedia of Television for theMuseum. David H. Rosenbloom, AM'66, PhD'69,was awarded an honorary Ll.D. from Marietta College, his undergraduate alma mater. Rosenbloom, adistinguished professor of public administration atAmerican University and editor-in-chief of thePublic Administration Review, has written 16 books.HA E. Shelley McEwan, JD'70, resigned from#U the Solano County (CA) superior court andreestablished a private practice specializing inhealth law and civil litigation in Sacramento. JohnA. McLees, AB'70, MBA'73, JD'74, is director ofinternational tax at Coopers & Lybrand in Chicago. In October he chaired the World Trade Institutes'three-day New York seminar on tax aspects ofdoing business in Mexico. Leslie P. Recht, AB'70,taught an environmental- and energy-law seminarat IIT-Chicago Kent College of Law and represented Friends of Downtown Chicago in a workshop. She is helping plan the relocation of LakeShore Drive to the west of the Field Museum, creating a museum campus along the lake.WWW O. Marie Deatherage, AB'71, edits both them I Oregon Clarion, a quarterly newspaper fordisabled Oregonians and their families, and theBridge, a periodical for medical professionals andparents with disabled children. She was reappointedto the Oregon Health Services Commission and is"mother to 15-year-old son Blaine, who wonders ifthe University of Chicago campus will be wheelchair-accessible by 1997." David K. Lavallee,SM'68, PhD'71, is provost and vice president foracademic affairs at the City College of New York,CUNY. Lawrence R. Sipe, AB'71, is a second-yeardoctoral student in reading, language, and children's literature at Ohio State University. He has aresearch and graduate-school fellowship for theduration of his program. Richard C. Weston,AM'71, received a Ph.D. in health policy from theUniversity of Michigan School of Public Health in1994. His dissertation was nominated for theHarold Lasswell prize of the American Political Science Association. Weston now works in the program-evaluation and methodology division of theU.S. General Accounting Office in Washington, DC.His wife, Martha Pascale Weston, MST'76, is director of educational technology at Georgetown DaySchool.Hfl Theodore Berland, AM'72, is managingm M editor of Healthcare Financial Management,the journal of the Healthcare Financial Management Association. He had been a teacher, staffmember, and student at Northwestern University.Lynda K. Bundtzen, AM'69, PhD'72, the Herbert H.Lehman professor of English at Williams College,won an NEH research grant for her project, "TheArt and Life of Sylvia Plath." Susan J. Galatzer-Levy, AB'75, completed a master's degree in biochemistry at the University of Illinois at Chicago.She and husband Robert M. Galatzer-Levy,CLA'74, live in Evanston with children Daniel, 19;Isaac, 16; Ben, 14; David, 11; and Emma, 8.William L. Hendricks, AM'65, PhD'72, retiredDecember 31 from full-time teaching at SouthernBaptist Theological Seminary. Michael R. Horwitz,AM'72, completed five years as executive director ofChildren's Home of Detroit in Grosse Pointe, MlArthur S. Kahn, AM'72, earned the outstandinggraduate-student seminar-paper prize from the University of Mississippi's English department for "TheMythological Attitude of Absalom, Absalom!" Inaddition to pursuing a doctorate in English literature, he owns Arthur's Wine and Liquor in Memphis, TN. Joan Reisman, AB'72, left her position assenior vice president and national director of thehealth-care group at Dorf & Stanton Communications to create a new consulting firm. After 1 2 yearsin the Foreign Service, mostly in East Asia, GreggA. Rubinstein, AB'72, now works in the aerospaceindustry. Based in Washington, DC, he is a consultant on security, trade, and technology programs.Robert H. Shadur, JD'72, has established Shadurand Associates, a Chicago-based matrimonial-lawfirm. John G. Ullman, MBA'72, is president of JohnG. Ullman and Associates, an investment-advisingcompany based in Corning, NY. The company hasopened a New Jersey branch and Ullman expectsmore expansion to follow.W O John L. Freeouf, SM'68, PhD'73, is presi-* 90 dent and chief scientist of Interface Studies,a Bedford Hills, NY, company that specializes in38 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995materials-science problems primarily related tosemiconductor technology. James P. Glowienka,MBA'73, is group leader at TRW Financial Systemsin Oakland, CA, where he oversees systems-integration projects for financial-services customers.Richard O. Hansen, SM'69, PhD'73, is a geophysicsresearch professor at the Colorado School of Mines.Barry K. Horvick, AB'73, has owned and managedCorporate Intelligence Researchers in Fairfax, VA,since 1989. The company specializes in legal andfinancial investigations. Thomas M. Jahnke, AB'73,writes, "I continue to ride my circuit for the Alaskasuperior court in southeast Alaska." He visited withReuven Glick, AB'73, and his wife, Marci; Reuven iswith the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.Gerald E. Leech, Jr., MBA'73, has lived in Antigua,Guatemala, for 20 years. He and his wife are thelead investors in restoring a 450-year-old monument in Antigua. They plan for the monument tobecome an artisans' center, with their store, La Casadel Jade, as the anchor. James S. Rudy, AM'73, ismanaging partner of PacificData, a consulting firmproviding analytical software and financial databases on Japanese and Pacific Rim equities. John F.Schnier, AM'73, and wife Kathy have two daughters, ages 4 and 7. Kathy teaches nursing at Kish-waukee Junior College and John is an Illinois DCFSadministrator.WtJt Sherry Mittleman Eagle, MST'74, receivedm Ti her doctorate in education administrationon August 13 from Northern Illinois University.She is superintendent of schools in West Aurora,IL. Robert M. Galatzer-Levy, CLA'74, see 1972,Susan J. Galatzer-Levy. David A. Kalow, AB'74,JD'76, is a creativity lawyer in a "hyperagressive,"12-attorney firm in New York. He writes, "The bestis my wife, Janet, and three kids!" Having retired in1994, Andrew T. Kopan, PhD'74, is a professoremeritus of education at DePaul University, wherehe had taught since 1968. In June 1994 he receivedthe Via Sapientiae award, DePaul's highest facultyhonor. Kopan has written several books on education, emphasizing ethnic and multicultural issues. president for Grey Advertising, Europe, has beenguest-lecturing at the M.B.A. program of the VlerickSchool of Management in Ghent, Belgium. Alexander S. Vesselinovitch, AB'75, a partner in the litigation department at the Chicago law firm of Seyfarth,Shaw, Fairweather & Geraldson, attended a five-day jury-trial workshop in Moscow in October. "MyRussian language ability, which I learned as anundergraduate at Chicago, proved to be veryuseful," Vesselinovitch writes, adding that it alsoenabled him to carry a conversation with AlexanderSolzhenitzyn when he met the author in a NewYork library in 1977.WWfM Harry W. Blake, MBA'76, is president and#D CEO of Bancroft- Whitney, Legal Publishers, in San Francisco. Jeffrey A. Brown, MD'76, aprofessor and chair of neurological surgery at theMedical College of Ohio, was elected president ofthe Ohio State Neurosurgical Society. In January,Vernon P. Dorweiler, MBA'76, presented a paper —on how social and economic changes in China haveaffected modern business — at the annual conference of the International Trade and Finance Association. Gary E. Kaatz, MBA'76, is COO and executive vice president of Western Reserve CareSystem in Youngstown, OH. Andrew D. Langer-man, SM'76, and Michelle Lewis Langerman,AB'82, announce the July 3, 1994, birth of sonSpencer Samuel, whose animal totem is the dolphin. Randall R. Rowlett, AB'76, MD'80, convertedto Judaism in time for his tenth wedding anniversary on June 10, 1994. He reports that wife Lindaand sons Nathan, Isaac, Zev, and Noah are in goodhealth, and sends best wishes to his classmates.Peter G. Schiff, MBA'76, was asked to become atrustee of Lake Forest College. Martha PascaleWeston, MST'76, see 1971, Richard C. Weston.nn K. Scott Douglass, MBA'77, and Susanm m Upton Douglass, AB'77, live in Scarsdale,NY, and work in New York City. He heads theinternational division of Moody's Investors Service,traveling frequently. She is a partner in a law firmspecializing in trademark and copyright law. TheyBeing department chair is "a great andsometimes alarming delight, like learning to ride a bicycle. Wind in your ears,new perspectives, unexpected bruises.1VB Stanley W. Biles, AB'75, is deputy directorm 90 of the Washington State Department ofNatural Resources and the recipient of a GermanMarshall Fund fellowship. He has been married 15years. James G. Carson, MAT'75, is the archivistfor the College of American Pathologists. He also isorganist for the Episcopal campus ministry atNorthwestern University, program annotator forthe Lincolnwood Chamber Orchestra, and an occasional chorister and soloist for Ars Musica Chicago,an early-music ensemble. Lance P. Durban,MBA'75, lives in Haiti and co-owns Manutech, anelectronics manufacturing company. "Productionfacilities in the Dominican Republic and Hondurasenabled us to stay healthy during the recent Haitiancrisis," he reports. Susan J. Galatzer-Levy, AB'75,see 1972, SusanJ. Galatzer-Levy.Horace L. Nash, AB'75, and wife Betsy announcethe birth of son Jonathan Perry Lyons in MenloPark, CA. Ellen Gordon Rosenkranz, AM'75, hasfinished printing her book. Restaurant Guidebook toBrussels. Eric J. Rosenkranz, MBA'75, senior vice — Steven S. Urkowitz, PhD'77spent fall weekends cheering their soccer-playingsons, Nathaniel, 10, and Martin, 8. Gerald Levin-son, AM'74, PhD'77, completed his second symphony commissioned by the Los AngelesPhilharmonic Orchestra and the KoussevitzkyFoundation. A CD of his vocal and chamber musicwas released in 1993. Levinson, a professor ofmusic at Swarthmore, is the father of two boys, ages5 and 7. Steven S. Urkowitz, PhD'77, chairs theEnglish department of the City College of NewYork, CUNY, his undergraduate alma mater. Hereports: "It's a great and sometimes alarmingdelight, like learning to ride a bicycle. Wind in yourears, new perspectives, unexpected bruises. I invitemy other urban university alumni to visit our livelycampus."W Janice Whiting Lyon, AB'78, MD'82, see1982, Allan M. Brecher. William Margrabe,AM'72, PhD'78, started his own consulting firm"aimed at helping the buy side." He had spent sevenyears pricing and managing risk of financial derivatives on Wall Street. Gary L. McDowell, AM'78, is director of the Institute of United States Studies anda prolessor of American studies at the University ofLondon. Theresa Kelly McPartlin, AM'78, is thechild- and family-services manager at the TwinCities unit of Shriner Hospitals. She continues toteach part time and lives with her husband, Dennis,in St. Paul. Wayne H. ("Buzz") Smith, AB'78,moved to Paris in 1980 and earned French degreesin international relations and law. He is head ofnon-French securities at the Paris Stock Exchange.Smith and wife Sabine, an attorney, have two sons,Benjamin, 5, and Trevor, 3.HQ Harry B. Burke, AB'79, AM'80, PhD'87,¦ ^m MD'88, is an assistant professor of medicineat New York Medical College. Stephen M.Colarelli, AM'79, a professor of psychology at Central Michigan University, was awarded a Fulbrightgrant to teach and do research at the University ofZambia. He is examining how African culturalvalues influence Zambia's human-resource practices. Sheila M. Ellis, AB'79, lives in Caesarea,Israel, and has two daughters, Hagar, nearly 7, andSmadar, 20 months. A senior associate in Israel'slargest law firm, Ellis received a law degree fromTel Aviv University in 1984 and taught corporatelaw at Tel Aviv's business school in 1986 and 1987.Wayne L. Knabel, MBA'79, is CFO at TransmodalCorporation in Brunswick, OH. Charles B. Little,AB'79, married Cynthia Gingerich on July 16. He isan organic chemist for Cabot Corp., located nearChampaign. Gregory N. River, AB'79, took a six-month sabbatical from work to attend the University of Southern California film school. He latermade an art-house film entitled Vaga-Bond. StevenM. Strickland, AB'79, and wife Jean announce theMay 28, 1994, birth of their first child, son EricLawrence. They live in Jupiter, FL, and work innearby Stuart.MS. Steven Block, AB'80, and wife Kristiehave two children: son Logan, a first-grader, and daughter Kelsey, in nursery school.Block is a vice president in the investment-servicesdivision of Marine Midland Bank in Buffalo, NY.Robin F. Karlin, AB'80, see 1981, Steven M. Albert.RoseMary Safranek, AB'80, MBA'88, is vice president of asset management at Search InvestmentHoldings in Hong Kong. Laura J. Uerling, AB'80,see 1983, N. Gwyn Cready. Peter A. Zadrozny,AM'74, PhD'80, is teaching an honors program ineconomics at the University of Warsaw this year.WSatumino Aguado, AM'81, an economicsprofessor at the University of Aloala inSpain, has been on a sabbatical leave at the University of California, Berkeley, since February. StevenM. Albert, AM'81, AM'83, PhD'87, and Robin F.Karlin, AB'80, live in Teaneck, NJ, with Eli, 6, andChama, 3. Albert is an assistant neurology professor at Columbia University and was given a FacultyScholar award by the Alzheimer's Association.Karlin is a computer programmer for Library Technologies, Inc. Adam P. Cashman, AB'81, see 1983,N. Gwyn Cready. Brian L. David, AB'81, MBA'91, isdirector of the budget at the GSB and is involved inShakespeare's Motley Crew, a Chicago theatricalgroup. Kevin M. Dunn, SB'81, an associate professor of chemistry at Hampden-Sydney College, wasvisited by Grant D. Anderson, AB'81, AM'83, as hebicycled from Bangor, ME, to San Francisco. Anderson is in charge of linguistic analysis at West Publishing in Minneapolis.Karen E. Flo, AB'81, and Leslie N. Gruis, AB'81,see 1983, N. Gwyn Cready. Lindsey L. Johnson,AB'81, is pursuing an M.B.A. at Harvard BusinessSchool. In January she started a company calledWomen Incorporated, a membership organizationfor women entrepreneurs, which will be her full-time venture after graduation. Bruce E. Kahn.SB'81, is a research scientist in the imaging-researchUniversity' of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 39and advanced-development laboratory of EastmanKodak. He is also chair of the Rochester U of Calumni-schools committee, helping with the College's admissions efforts. M. Daniel Price, PhD'81,spoke on "Gutenberg and the Computer — Questions for the University" at the University of SouthCarolina's November "Computers on Campus" session. Linda K. Rader, MBA'81, is regional managerin the crop-protection chemical department ofAmerican Cyanamid's agricultural-products division. Martha S. Reilly, AB'81, earned her doctoratefrom the Illinois College of Optometry in 1994.Elizabeth Vila Rogan, AB'81, married rocket scientist Ed Rogan in April 1994. They live in Atlantawith their two cats. She has joined a small civil-practice firm. Martha Koenig Stone, AB'81, AM'84,is pastor of North Congregational Church, UnitedChurch of Christ, in Woburn, MA. Her husband,Randall, teaches political science at Brown University. Their son, Henry, is 2 years old.Peter E. Zale, AB'81, and wife Penny live inCleveland with their 2-year-old daughter, Elizabeth.His ad agency, Peter Zale Parcdezign, is in its thirdyear, and his work has appeared in Print and Step byStep magazines. Mark L. Zoeller, AB'81, graduatedfirst in his class from the University of ColoradoSchool of Law in May 1994, "no small thanks to theexcellent undergraduate education" he receivedfrom the U of C. He passed the bar last summer andjoined the Denver law firm of Rothgerber, Appel,Powers & Johnson as an associate. He practicesmainly in public finance and corporate securities.M Allan M. Brecher, MD'82, and JaniceWhiting Lyon, AB'78, MD'82, were married on August 12. He works with MidwestOrthopaedics in Berwyn and she is with the Hinsdale Women's Clinic. Bruce P. Eckert, SB'82, isdirector of information systems at Holland Community Hospital in Holland, Ml, where he liveswith wife Amy and daughters Aaryn and Sara.Recent Eckert-family adventures included trips toWales, Australia, and Italy and backpacking in theSierra Nevada. Eckert invites friends to reach him Michelle Lewis Langerman, AB'82,see 1976, Andrew D. Langerman. Sarah BurkeManion, AB'82, MBA'84, and her daughter, KatenAnne, live in New York City, where Manion worksin marketing for the investment-management company Weiss, Peck & Greer. Lawrence J. Pincsak,AB'82, and his wife, Joanne Edrise Zienty, X'82,announce the June 3 birth of daughter SimoneMarie, who joins Cecily Rose. Pincsak has almostcompleted his master's in public-service management at DePaul University. Pamela S. Schmidt,AB'82, specializes in land-use and real-property litigation at the Santa Monica law firm of Berger &Norton. Nancy L. Segal, AM'74, PhD'82, is a professor ol psychology at California Stale University,Fullcnon. Richard R. Spactc, PhD'82, is director ofDNA virus research at Aviron, a biopharmaceuticalcompany. Mark D. Van Kirk, MBA'82, JD'82, is ashareholder with Donahoe, Jameson & Carroll.P.C., and continues his legal practice in commercialreal estate He and wife Natalie live in Dallas withtheir three children Michael S. Brandt, AB'83, MBA'87, andCarol Nalbantian-Brandt, AB'84, announcethe May 9, 1994, birth of their second child, sonJonathan Ara. Michael is supervisor of DSM planning at Commonwealth Edison in Chicago. N.Gwyn Cready, AB'83, MBA'86, and husband Lesterannounce the April 21, 1994, birth of daughterCameron, who joined brother Wyatt, 6. They congratulate several friends who also had children in1994: Laura J. Uerling, AB'80, and David E. Budil,PhD'86; Karen E. Flo, AB'81, and John Carroll; andLeslie N. Gruis, AB'81, and Adam P. Cashman,AB'81. Thomas F. Lang, AB'83, is an assistant professor of radiology, specializing in imaging musculoskeletal diseases, at the University of California,San Francisco. He and wife Vivi live in Fremont,celebrated their tenth anniversary, and have a 17-month old son, Alex. Marc J. Moss, AB'83, has"graduated from 'struggling screenwriter' to 'screenwriter.' Temporarily, no doubt. Twins have arrived,raising the count to three." Donald E. Wenschhof,Jr., MBA'83, reports that his daughter, Virginia, is afirst-year College student. Shinichi Yamashita,MBA'83, bought a home in Palo Alto, CA, where helives happily.M George R. Bradbury III, AB'84, works inJapan as an orthopaedic surgeon for theU.S. Navy. Sharon Blanchette De Vault, AB'84, issenior attorney in the law department of the FirstNational Bank of Chicago. Michael J. Dejanovich,AB'84, announces the July 11 birth of his thirddaughter, Emily, who joined Stephanie, 5, and—Marc J. Moss, AB'83Sarah, 3. He received his master's in public administration from the Illinois Institute of Technology inMay 1994, and was honored by the American Society for Public Administration's Chicago chapter asIIT's student of the year. Clyde M. Hettrick III,AB'84, and wife Pauline announce the April 7,1994, birth of son Cian in L.A. Daniel R. Laurence,AB'84, see 1985, Marlene A. Munnelly. Carol Nalbantian-Brandt, AB'84, see 1983, Michael S. Brandt.Elizabeth Fichtner Pector, MD'84, scored in the top1 percent on her American Board of Family Practicerecertification exam and works with CentralDuPage Family Medicine in Naperville. Son David,3, enjoys gymnastics, reading, and computers. JonI. Roberts, AB'84, is assistant professor of English atSt. Thomas Aquinas College. Brian J. Sullivan,AB'84, and wife Lori, of Burlington, VT, announcethe July 27 birth of son Louis Jacob.Elizabeth A. Fama, AB'85, MBA'91, isworking on her dissertation at the GSB,where husband John Cochrane is a professor. Theyhave three children, Sally, 6; Eric, 3; and Gene, 1.David J. Frank, AB'85, received his Ph.D. in sociology from Stanford with a dissertation on globalenvironmentalism. He has a MacArthur fellowshipand is "looking for a job as an assistant professor."Christine Chatlos Hartel, PhD'85, is associatedirector for neuroscience at the National Instituteon Drug Abuse. Randall A. Kaylor, AB'85, andJanice Brand Kaylor, AB'85, announce the April 30,1994, birth of son Robert Alexander in Chicago.Marlene A. Munnelly, AB'85, encountered DanielR. Laurence, AB'84, on a 1994 trip to Seattle. Lau rence and wife Anna Marie expected their secondchild in November. While in San Jose, Costa Rica,Arthur J. Puff III, AB'85, spent time in the emergency department of the children's hospital, wherethe first Latin American training program for emergency-medicine physicians is being developed. Healso visited the rain forest and went white-waterrafting. Puff lives in Minneapolis. When not working in the emergency room, he is implementing his"million-dollar scheme of interactive coach-potatogambling a la QVC."David V. River, AB'85, MBA'88, moved to Japanin 1989 and taught English for a year before joininga strategic-consulting firm. Most recently, he andDavid A. Chamberland, MBA'89, co-founded atrading company that imports sporting goods,health foods, and other products. He keeps in touchwith new father Stephen K. Henn, AB'85, a Connecticut lawyer; Rima A. Kelertas, AB'85, a chemistat Helene Curtis; and Becky C. Greenberg, AB'88,who spent one and one-half years in Japan. Lili A.Sacks, AB'85, MD'90, married Ron Friedman June26, 1993, at the Belmont Hotel in Chicago. JenniferM. Rudolph, AB'85, was the maid of honor. Inattendance were Ellen Sudranski Friedman, JD'81;Brad J. Ducorsky, X'85; Nina C. Kavin, AB'85; JoanM. Spoerl, AB'85; Sharon Yee, AB'85; Adam E.Katz, AB'86; Carolyn G. Schneider, AB'86, AM'87;Nahum D. Chandler, AM'89; Keith W. Roach,MD'90; Lisa M. Schilling, MD'90; Robert P.Dellavalle, PhD'93; and Kerry A. Miller, JD'94. Thecouple live in Seattle. Raouf G. Touma, MBA'85,started Engineering and Marketing International, asales and marketing company. Eben C. Werber,AM'85, lives in Boston and works as a computer-network specialist. Walther R. Wroblewski,MBA'85, completed a three-year assignment as battalion commander of the 7th Battalion 1st FieldArtillery in Chicago. He attends the Department ofthe Army Inspectors General School at Fort Belvoir,VA, and is deputy inspector general at the 86th U.S.Army Reserve Command in Forest Park. Paul A.Zarowin, MBA'81, PhD'85, and wife Penny, ofFlushing, NY, announce the July 28 birth of sonJoseph Jason. Peter E. Kretzmer, MBA'82, PhD'85,attended the brit.Glenn D. Appleby, AB'86, received hisPh.D. in mathematics from UCLA in June1993 and took a tenure-track position in SantaClara University's math department. He marriedBetty Weiss in summer 1994. Peter J. Boxall,PhD'86, is under-treasurer for the state of SouthAustralia. David E. Budil, PhD'86, see 1983, N,Gwyn Cready. Mary Choldin, AB'86, teaches special-education classes at Glenbrook South HighSchool in Glenview. She and twin sister KateCholdin, AB'86, compete together as amateurtriathletes. Chester L. Gillis, PhD'86, receivedtenure and a promotion from Georgetown University's theology department. Robert D. Hadley,AB'86, is a pilot in the U.S. Air Force at Luke AirForce Base in Phoenix, where he's training to fly theF-16. Previously he spent a year at Camp Casey inKorea working as an air liaison officer for ihe Army.Hadley notes that he is still single. Scott R. Hamula,MBA'86, is an assistant professor of marketing atKeuka College in New York. He had been generalsales manager of a New York radio station. BarbaraI. Kazmierczak, AB'86, SM'86, received a Ph.D. in1993 from Rockefeller University and an M.D. in1994 from Cornell, then began a medical residencyat UCSF. She married Michael Ledizet in November1993. In attendance were Marina S. Bozilenko,AB'86, AM'87; Sara Maxwell, AB'86; H. AdrianCho, AB'87; Janine M. Lanza, AB'87; Phillip A.Braun, PhD'93; and sister Krystyna Kazmierczak, aChicago Ph.D. student in molecular genetics andcell biology. Robert D. Levy, MBA'86, created a"I have graduated from 'strugglingscreenwriter' to "screenwriter.Temporarily, no doubt. Twins havearrived, raising the count to three/140 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995Game BoysAstaire and Rogers. Siskel andEbert. Batman and Robin. Nowthe University of Chicago has itsown famous pair — Alex Seropian, SB'91,and Jason Jones, '97, True, their namesaren't household items, but their gamescertainly are — computer games, that is.Seropian and Jones develop and sellaction-adventure, Macintosh-compatiblesoftware, including Marathon and Pathways into Darkness, a game named toMacworld magazine's 1993 Game Hall ofFame. Available in three languages, theirsoftware is sold in the U.S., Japan, and13 other countries.The two teamed up three years agowhen Seropian, then a College fourth-year, saw market potential in a game thatJones and some friends were writing.Released in spring 1992, Minotaur,which began as a dorm-room diversion,marked the start of Seropian's and Jones'scompany, Bungie Software. Jones, now23, became a part-time student andstarted writing their next game, Pathways, which Seropian describes asBungie's "breakthrough" product.Since its release two years ago, Pathways — pitting players against monstersin a role-playing adventure game — hasproprietary trading operation for CIBC in New Yorkbefore beginning a business in London. Michael B.Medina, AB'86, completed his first Ironman world-championship triathlon on October 15.Corey J. Mertes, AB'86, married Jennifer Evans onOctober 22 in Kansas City. The groomsmen wereMatthew J. Morris, AB'85; Roy M. Schuster, Jr., Marathon men: Seropian,SB'91 (left), and Jones, '97.generated seven- figure revenues. Seropian attributesthe game's popularity to itsrealistic 3-D graphics, thesame graphics found in vir-fk tual-reality applications. Al-||k though similar games wereavailable for IBM compatibles, Pathways was the firstof its kind for the Mac. "Bythe time Pathways cameout," says Seropian, "Macusers were dying for a gamelike this."The product's timing wasalso crucial for the youngentrepreneurs. By then,Seropian explains, "We hadmet all the right people andlearned what they wanted tohear. ..and where to spend the money tohave an effective marketing program."Pathway's profits allowed Bungie tomove from Seropian's Hyde Park apartment to Pilsen — and to hire other programmers and artists. Early in 1994, theybegan working on their latest game,Marathon, released this past December."We've been unable to keep up with thedemand," Seropian notes. He won't disclose exact figures, but tens of thousandsof copies of Marathon have been sold todate.Now employing eight people, Bungiehas a work environment that encouragesworkers to be relaxed, yet driven. Thereare no dress codes or strict work hours."We'd like to think no one is here undera tremendous pressure to perform —people are here because they want tobe."Operating on new platforms, such asWindows or Sega, as well as creatingnew games, are what's in store forBungie's future. In the meantime, thejeans-clad Seropian and his coworkersbegin each workday on their network,battling to the death. Seropian notes thatdespite their success, one thing hasn'tchanged: "We're still just a bunch ofyoung people who want to create coolthings."— julekha Dash, AB'93AB'86; Terrence C. Trojanek, AB'86; and KennethC. Baron, AB'87. Vem E. Bamet, X'70, conductedthe service. In attendance were Mertes's father,Louis H. Mertes, MBA'68; and William J.O'Connell, AB'87. Alan M. Kanter, AB'86, andSanjay Wagle, AB'87, couldn't make the weddingbut went to the bachelor party in Las Vegas. Ruth Pennington Paget, AB'86, and husband Laurentmoved to Madison, WI, after living in Paris for sixyears. She started a small publishing company thatspecializes in gastronomy and enology. James J.Sanderson, AB'86, returned to the U of C for anM.B.A. He looks forward to hearing from oldfriends; his address is: 1507 E. 53rd St., #219,Chicago, IL 60615. Robert F. Scott, AM'86, a visiting instructor of English at Ohio Northern University, received a Ph.D. in English literature fromMichigan State University in 1994. Molly J.Tamarkin, AB'86, married Scott Brennan, whom shemet in the University of Florida's M.F.A. program inpoetry. They live in Hebron, CT. Louis A. D. Violi,AB'86, chief resident in internal medicine for1994-95 at UNMC, will begin a pulmonary/critical-care fellowship in July at Ohio State University.Lucy Wang, MBA'86, got together with Richard J.Fairfield, MBA'86; Benjamin R. Swett, MBA'86; andKurt D. Inderbitzin, MBA'87, when she was in LosAngeles to see her play Bird's Nest Soup performed atthe Mark Taper Forum's new-work festival.AH Angelina M. Chueh, MBA'87, appreciates93 m hearing Chicago news and writes, "I'm inGermany now, but find Chicago people all overEurope, so it is not so lonely." Derek M. Eaton,AM'87, see 1988, Elaine M. Reardon. Karolyn A.Hatton, AB'87, married Gerry Beegan on July 9 inCounty Durham, England. Beegan teaches graphicdesign at Wimbledon College of Art in London,where Hatton has lived since graduation. She is inher final year of a second degree in photography,and also freelances. Kurt D. Inderbitzin, MBA'87,see 1986, Lucy Wang. In October, Fabio A.Naranjo, AM'87, joined the Chicago CommunityTrust as a fellow in philanthropy. He had been apolicy specialist at United Charities for six years.Later that month he and Maria Vidal de Haymes,AM'87, spoke at the U.S. Hispanic Leadership Conference. John T. Seaman III, MBA'87, procures rawmaterials and operating supplies for I/N Tek and1/N Kote. Cherie Weitzner, AM'87, married LouAcierno on Halloween 1994. She edits books forHarvard University Press.MM. Mark Albert, MBA'88, remains ininvestment banking in L.A., but nowworks for Smith Barney. Andrew L. Belmonte.AB'88, completed work for a Ph.D. in physics atPrinceton University in July. He is now in a postdoctoral position at the Institut Non-lineaire deNice, France. Natalie E. Greben Chmelar, AM'88,opened a group psychotherapy practice in Home-wood and Chicago with partner Deborah Zimmerman. Edward X. Clinton, Jr., AB'88, is an associatewith Mayer, Brown & Piatt and works in the firm'slitigation practice. He is also a member of the trialbar of the northern district of Illinois. Sidney C.Courtney, MBA'88, was married in August. He livesin Barcelona and is product manager for FMCshydrogen-peroxide expansion in Europe. WintonG. Gibbons, Jr., MBA'88, see 1989, Maritza Diaz-Silveira Gibbons. Becky C. Greenberg, AB'88, see1985, David V. River. Dale L. Hagemeyer, MBA'88,climbed to the summit of Mt. McKinley in 13 days,'despite worse than normal weather and severalhuman tragedies among other climbers." He hasalso climbed Ecuador's Chimborazo and Cotopaximountains and intends to go to Peru this summer.William B. Hunt, MBA'88, is divisional vice president of building-product manufacturer Boral Industries in Augusta, GA. Stephen S. Lawrence, AB'88,completed his Ph.D. in astronomy at the Universityof Michigan in October. Sara Wasson Miles,PhD'88, moved to Eastern College in St. Davids, develop a core requirement in science, technology, and values. She had taught at Wheaton Collegefor 20 years. Janet A. Napob, MBA'88, is programmanager for treasury and capital markets at the BankUniversity of Chicago Magazine/June i^: 41Administration Institute. Elaine M. Reardon, AB'88,AM'90, PhD'94, and Derek M. Eaton, AM'87, weremarried in New Hampshire in September. The wedding part) included Jennifer Sobotka, AB'88,AM'94; Kathleen A. Cagney, AM'90; and BenjaminC. Withers, AM'87, PhD'94. In attendance weresocial sciences professor Richard Taub and wifeDoris, Rochelle M. Williams, AB'87; Benjamin D.Lieberman, AM'86, PhD'92; Andrea L. Morris,SM'89, PhD'92; Thomas F. Poche, PhD'92; KennethA. Frank, PhD'93; Carlo J. Graziani, PhD'93; KarenV. Lombard, AM'89, PhD'93; and Barbara F.Walter, AM'91, PhD'94.M David A. Chamberland, MBA'89, see 1985,David V. River. In November, MaritzaDiaz-Silveira Gibbons, MBA'89, joined her husband, Winton G. Gibbons, Jr., MBA'88, in Carmel,IN, after 18 months of a "commuter marriage." Sheis director of business development for MacmillanComputer Publishing and he is vice president ofstrategy/product planning for BoehringerMannheim. Carlos A. Gomez, MBA'89, is in chargeof new businesses in Latin America for BHP Minerals in San Francisco. He is also a country manager(Chile) for BHP Power. Timothy M. Klein, AB'89, ishappily married, lives in Chanhassen, MN, and is aproduct manager at Cercodan. He stays in touchwith fellow Delta Kappa Epsilon alumni.Todd H. Mintz, AB'89, is a property-developmentspecialist and the director of communications forJohn DeCosta Realtors in Lake Oswego, OR. He hadhis first glass of Black Lab Stout at Portland's LuckyLabrador brewpub, and comments, "To all my Eastern and Midwestern friends and classmates towhom I've been predicting the microbrew revolution for years now, 1 can safely say — I've told youso!" ATler spending a year and a half in Cleary,Gottlieb, Sleen &r Hamilton's Tokyo office, Jon S.Nicholas, JD'89, returned to the firm's Washington,DC, office. La Monte H. Yarroll, AB'89, and EvePrastein Yarroll, AB'90, are in Tasmania throughJune and plan to return to Chicago. Their daughterHarriet is 2.David A. Auerbach, AB'90, graduated inNovember 1993 with an M.S.C. in classicalarchaeology from Edinburgh University. While inAtlanta, Samuel C. Blackman, AB'90, saw Derick R.Du Vivier, AB'90, a first-year medical student atEmory. Carolyn Hart, MBA'90, lives in Boston andis a consultant in Ernst & Young's special-servicesgroup. Eric A. Kent, MBA'90, is a vice president ofoverseas equity trading at Nomura Securities inTokyo. He and wife Yasuko were expecting theirfirst child in March. Justin A. B. King, AB'90,directs and writes films in L.A. He completed ascript entitled Hero. Lover. Lawyer.Art M. Lee, AB'90, graduated from the Universityof Colorado's law school and passed Colorado's barexam in 1993. He practices litigation with theDenver firm of Glasman Jaynes McBride & Mus-grave. Kristina A. Peterson, MBA'90, is vice president at ABM AMRO Bank in Chicago, where shespecializes in trade and project finance forimporters in developing countries, particularly inAsia and Eastern Europe. Patrick M. Robertson,MBA'90, is business-planning manager at LionNathan's New Zealand wine and spirits division inAuckland. Barbara R. Stafford, JD'90, was anauthor and panelist for the Practicing Law Instituteon GATT: "Sunset Provision: Mortality in theUruguay Round." Eve Prastein Yarroll, AB'90, see1989, La Monte H. Yarroll.Eric A versa, AB'91, finished coursework forhis Ph.D. in Italian literature at NYU. Hespent last summer in Italy, researching his dissertation and presenting a paper on Machiavelli in Florence. Mark E. Kishler, MBA'91, is an investmentofficer in the securities department of Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance in Milwaukee. Chet A.Smith, MBA'91, see 1992, Julie Scher. Arnim E.Whisler III, MBA'91, is associate partner in strategic services at Andersen Consulting and had twinsin September.Srirama P. Bharathi, AB'92, earned an M.S.from the London School of Economics andPolitical Sciences, making the dean's list. She is astudent in Texas Tech University's law school. JohnM. Brendel III, AB'92, accepted a 1995-96 clerkshipwith the presiding judge of the New Jersey appellatedivision. Michael E. Buckner, AB'92, lives in Washington, DC, where he works for a directory-publishing company, mainly editing a directory of Districtof Columbia lobbyists. Jeffrey E. Burgard, MBA'92,is director of skill centers in UOP's engineeringdepartment. Bruce W. Kaser, MBA'92, is an equityinvestment analyst at Allstate Insurance in North-brook. Charles R. Phillips, MBA'92, is vice president and CFO of National Manufacturing Company,a maker and distributor of home and builders' hardware. Julie L. Scher, MBA'92, and Chet A. Smith,MBA'91, were married on June 25, 1994, at Scher'ssummer home in Narragansett, RI. After a honeymoon in Nevis, the West Indies, they returned toChicago. She is a management consultant and he isan institutional equity salesman at Goldman, Sachs.Lisa A. Thompson, MBA'92, is a management consultant with Ernst & Young.AnibalJ. Aponte-Colon, PhD'93, is anassociate professor of political science atInterAmerican University of Puerto Rico. He alsoHeathsFACULTYJames S. Coleman, University professor in sociology, died March 25 at age 68. Coleman — whojoined the faculty in 1956, with a 1959-73 absenceto found and chair Johns Hopkins' department ofsocial relations — created methodology and theory toilluminate major public-policy issues of the day.Coleman's 1966 report to Congress, concluding thatdisadvantaged black children learned better in integrated classes, was widely used to support schoolbusing. His 1975 follow-up study found that busingencouraged "white flight," a conclusion that enragedmany. Coleman's willingness to risk unpopularity inpursuit of accuracy was shown again in 1981 whenhe released a finding that Catholic schools providedbetter education than public schools. Along withsuch controversies were many accolades. His 1990book, Foundations of Social Theory, received theAmerican Sociological Association DistinguishedPublication award, and he was elected ASA president in 1991. He is survived by his wife, ZdzislawaWalaszek; four sons, including Thomas S. Coleman,AM'81, PhD'84; and a granddaughter.Bert F. Hoselitz, AM'45, professor emeritus ofeconomics and an expert on developing countries,died February 14 in Hyde Park. He was 81. In 1952he founded the journal Economic Development andCultural Change, which he edited until 1985. Hiswork focused on India; in 1957-58 he was an economic adviser to the Indian government. Hoselitzwrote several reports on underdeveloped countriesfor the U.N. and the Senate, and his text, Sociological Aspects of Economic Growth (1960), was translated into 14 languages. He is survived by adaughter, a son, and a brother.Howard W. Winger, a professor emeritus in the chairs the board of trustees of the Caribbean Institute and Study Center for Latin America. George J.Curylo, MBA'93, is director of U.S. financial institutions at the Bank of Montreal. Raymond June,AM'93, is a Ph.D. student in social and culturalstudies in education at the University of California,Berkeley. Furaha D. Norton, AB'93, is in her secondyear of Cornell's Ph.D. program in English andenjoys teaching freshman English. Timothy H.Nourse, AB'93, teaches American history in Cluj,Romania, where he is the director of a volunteerteacher program.Charles O. Onstott III, AM'93, is a system specialist working on a composite health-care systemproject for Science Applications International.Roger F. Poon, MBA'93, moved to Hong Kong,where he works as facilities manager for Goldman,Sachs, managing real-estate projects in SoutheastAsia and China. Gregory J. Schein, AB'93, went toNorway in spring 1994 as quarterback for the OsloAmerican Football Club, the "Trolls," and led theteam to a winning record of 13-1 and the Norwegian national championship. Jennifer L. Smith,AB'93, is "engaged, stressed, and happy." She is agraduate student in political science, studyingregime stability in Latin America, at the Universityof Minnesota.MAlan W. Isaac, AB'94, is in the Peace Corpsin Beni Mellal, Morocco, teaching Englishas a second language. Martin Stein, AB'94, participated in the 1994-95 fellows program in publicaffairs at the Coro Midwestern Center.Graduate Library School and an expert on printers'marks and publishing house devices, died March 5in North Manchester, IN, at age 80. A former deanof the Library School, Winger was managing editorof Library Quarterly for many years and edited andcontributed to other books and journals. He is survived by his wife, Helen; four sons, includingRobert B. Winger, AM'83; a daughter, ElizabethWinger Kelly, AB'75; a brother, a sister, and eightgrandchildren.FRIENDSLee A. Freeman, Sr., senior partner in Freeman,Freeman &r Salzman, died March 13 at age 85. In1977, he and his wife established the Lee and BrenaFreeman professorship in the Law School. Freemanwas principal litigation counsel for CommonwealthEdison and general counsel for several transportation companies. Instrumental in the 1956 creationof the Chicago Lyric Opera, he was also a supporterof U of C music programs. Survivors include hiswife, Brena; two sons; and three grandchildren.Martha Asher Friedberg died January 18 in herHyde Park home. She was 78. A founder of thePoetry Center, board member of the Modem PoetryAssociation, and life trustee of Music of the Baroque,she had two volumes of her poetry published. She issurvived by her husband, Stanton A. Friedberg,MD'34; two daughters; two sons, Jonathan A. Friedberg, U-High'65, and Cass Friedberg, U-High'60,AM'67; a sister; two brothers, including Robert E.Asher, PhB'32, AM'34; and 11 grandchildren.Milton J. Petrie, retailer and philanthropist, diedin New York November 6 at age 92. The head ofPetrie Stores, which include Marianne and Stuarts,he was a benefactor of many educational, religious,42 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995medical, and cultural institutions, including the Uof C. Survivors include his wife, Carroll; a son; twodaughters; and two grandchildren.Samuel R. Rosenthal, a senior partner with theChicago law firm Sonnenschein Nath & Rosenthal,died November 1 at age 95. A collector of rarebooks and bindings, he established rare-book andconservation funds at the University and the Newberry Library. He is survived by his wife, Marie-Louise; a daughter; and seven grandchildren.STAFFMary Petrie, MBA'56, former chief investmentofficer for the University, died April 9 in DownersGrove at age 72. She began working at the U of C asa secretary in 1942; after earning her M.B.A. sheheld various fiscal appointments, becoming treasurer in 1974. By her retirement in 1986, Petrie hadmore than tripled the University's endowment. Onthe boards of several corporations, she received theYWCA's outstanding achievement in business awardin 1982. Survivors include her brother, Paul Petrie,director of real-estate operations for the University.1920sMartha L. Lewis, PhB'21, a retired high-schoolEnglish teacher in St. Louis, died December 21 atage 97.Lillian E. Peterson, SB'24, a former school principal in Chicago, died February 20 at age 96 in Valparaiso, IN. She is survived by a niece, FlorenceBaudouine; five grandnephews; and three grand-nieces.Clara Burner Bissell, PhB'25, a retired teacher,died March 9 in Sandpoint, ID. She was 92 and hadtaught in public schools in Boise and Chicago. Survivors include three grandchildren: Allan, Catherine, and Julia King. .George B. Callahan, SM'23, MD'25, a retiredphysician in Waukegan, died January 18. He is survived by his wife, Marjorie; three daughters; andfive grandchildren.Jack H. Sloan, SB'25, SM'26, MD'31, a Chicagophysician, died January 10 at age 90. On staff atMichael Reese Hospital and Medical Center since1932, he was a WWII veteran. As president of theIllinois Social Hygiene League in the 1960s, he wasan early advocate of sex education in Chicagopublic schools. He is survived by his wife, Helen; ason, William R. Sloan, SB'63, MD'67; a sister; andtwo grandchildren.Eleanor Howard Coulter, AM'26, of Fayette, MO,a retired teacher and civic activist, died December24. She was 99. She had taught in Missouri andOklahoma and was active in the AAUW and otherorganizations. She is survived by two daughters,two stepdaughters, and 11 grandchildren.Edwin J. DeCosta, SB'26, MD'30, a gynecologistand a professor emeritus at Northwestern University, died January 26 in Chicago. He was 88. Onstaff at Cook County Hospital for many years,DeCosta retired from his Michigan Ave. practice in1987. A WWII veteran who later served in theNaval Reserve, he gave medical advice on a radioshow in the 1960s and 1970s. He is survived by hiswife, Alyce; three daughters, including MariDeCosta Terman, HC'52, X'59; a son; a sister,Rayna DeCosta Loewy, SB'39, SM'40; and eightgrandchildren.Masaji Marumoto, PhB'27, a state supreme courtjustice in Hawaii, died February 10 at age 89. Afterserving in the U.S. Army during WWII, he returnedto law, becoming president of the Hawaii Bar Association and alternating between the court and private practice. He is survived by his wife, Shigeko; ason, Wendell H. Marumoto, AB'55, JD'58; a daugh ter; and four grandchildren.1930sDorothy P. Altheide, PhB'30, a retired librarianwith the U.S. Postal Service and the National Institutes of Health, died February 24. The Westminster, MD, resident was 84. Before earning hermaster's degree in library science, she was anaccountant at several Washington, DC, agencies, aswell as the Brookings Institution, and taught highschool and college courses.Virginia Bartlett, AB'30, AM'31, a retired officerfor the Commerce Clearing House, died February27 in Evanston. She was 85. Survivors include twonieces, Jan Churchwell and Marion Howard.Manota Marohn Mudge, PhB'30, died January 2at age 87. Survivors include a son, Bruce; a daughter, Barbara; and three grandchildren.Harvey L. Paulson, PhB'30, a former teacher, diedJanuary 19 in Muskegon, MI. He was 100. Movingto Muskegon in 1921, he taught at the high-schooland junior-college level until 1959 and was activein the Methodist church and the Lions Club.Herbert H. Heyman, PhB'31, a partner in thedevelopment firm Landau & Heyman and a pioneerdeveloper of shopping centers, died February 13.The Highland Park resident was 85. After retirementhe helped fund single-room-occupancy housing inthe Chicago area through the Jewish Council onUrban Affairs. He was active in several Jewish organizations. He is survived by his wife, Goldyne; a son;two daughters; a sister; and six grandchildren.Angeline Gorka Jason, PhB'31, a retired Chicagopublic-school teacher, died December 16 in herAtlanta home. She was 84. During WWII she wasthe first female officer assigned to naval intelligence. Survivors include a daughter, Janine M.Jason, AB'71; a son; four sisters; a brother; and fourgrandchildren.Helen Siegel Ruskin, PhB'31, of Chicago, diedDecember 30. Survivors include two daughters andfour grandchildren.Arthur L. Bennett, PhD'33, MD'36, a professoremeritus of physiology and biophysics at the University of Nebraska's College of Medicine, died January23 at age 89. He is survived by his wife, Alice; a son;a daughter; two brothers; and nine grandchildren.Paul H. Eller, AM'29, PhD'33, former professor,dean, and president of the Evangelical TheologicalSeminary in Naperville (which later merged withGarrett Theological Seminary), died February 17 inCarefree, AZ. He was 90. He is survived by his wife,Nancy; a son; a daughter; and two grandchildren.Marshall T. Newman, PhB'33, AM'35, a professoremeritus of anthropology at the University ofWashington, died December 13 at age 83. TheWWII veteran also taught at Portland State and wasan associate curator with the Smithsonian Institution. He is survived by his wife, Mabel; three sons;four grandchildren; and two stepsons.Beatrice Gutensky Sheldon, PhB'33, CLA'33, ofLincolnwood, died December 17 at age 83. A socialworker during the Depression, she later was aresearch assistant in Northwestem's physics department and an assistant librarian in Winnetka. She issurvived by a son, a daughter, a brother, and twograndchildren.Roger V. Swift, MBA'33, of Woodlands, TX, aformer employee of Illinois Bell, died September 17.He was 87. He is survived by his wife. Iris RundleSwift, PhB'31; a daughter; and a son.Harry W. Malm, AM'34, X'37, a retired lawyer,freelance travel writer, and teacher, died January 7at his Chicago home. He was 89. His teaching postsranged from a one-room schoolhouse in downstateIllinois to the political-science departments ofFranklin College and Indiana University. After earning his law degree, he was a deputy U.S. marshal and an attorney in the Chicago MetropolitanOffice of Price Administration before teaching atLoyola University of Chicago Law School and opening a practice.Norman Asher, X'35, a Chicago attorney, biblicalscholar, and philanthropist, died March 10 at age 88.He led religious classes at a Jewish community centerand at his congregation. Asher and his wife endowedmany educational and scientific organizations andprograms in the U.S. and Israel — in 1986, he wonthe endowment achievement award of the Council ofJewish Federations. He is survived by his wife, HelenS. Asher, X'35; three sons; and five grandchildren.Alin Blatchley, AM'35, an editor, copywriter, andcreative director at book-publishing companies andadvertising agencies in Chicago and Philadelphia,died December 14 at age 81. The WWII veteran wasactive in Chestnut Hill, PA, church and civicgroups. He is survived by his wife, Gladys; twodaughters; two sons; and ten grandchildren.Carl J. Singer, SB'35, former chief actuary of theVeterans Administration, died September 24 inAlexandria, VA. He is survived by his wife, Evelyn;a son, Nicholas C. Singer, SB'71; a daughter; andtwo granddaughters.Charles Tyroler II, AB'35, a member of the President's Intelligence Oversight Board during theReagan and Bush administrations and a Democraticparty strategist, died March 13 in Bethesda, MD. Hewas 80. A founder of the foreign-policy Committeeon the Present Danger and former director of theDemocratic Advisory Council, he also managed the1956 vice-presidential campaign of Estes Kefauverand was active in three presidential campaigns. Survivors include two stepchildren, Sara Forster andEdmund Games, Jr.Ralph W. S. Nicholson, AB'36, a former advertising executive and senior assistant postmaster general of the U.S., died January 1 in Marshall, VA. Hewas 78. In his early career he worked in public relations for the University, He became vice presidentand manager of the New York office of ad agencyFuller & Smith & Ross before joining the PostalService, which he left for three years to be vice president and treasurer of the Corporation for PublicBroadcasting. He is survived by his wife, Rosemary,and a brother, Edward W. S. Nicholson, SB'34.Wallace W. Douglas, AM'37, a professor emeritusof English at Northwestern University, died January31. He was 80. An expert on the Romantic poets,particularly Wordsworth, he was a co-editor of TheCritical Reader and taught in Northwestem's Schoolof Education and Social Policy. Survivors include acousin, Arlene Napolilli.John B. Lundy, AB'37, died of lung cancer January 6 in Escondido, CA. He was 80. Survivorsinclude his wife, Elizabeth, and two daughters.Harmon Meigs, X'37, retired sales manager withthe Brach candy company, died February 20 inNaples, FL. He was 79. The WWII veteran wasactive in the Peacock Camp for Crippled Childrenand other charity groups. He is survived by his wife,Brenda; a son; two daughters; and six grandchildren.Ernest L. Snodgrass, PhD'37, a professor emeritus of English literature at Florida Southern College, died February 12 in Lakeland, FL. He was 87.Prior to 20 years of teaching he was a pastor in theMidwest. Survivors include a son, David F. Snodgrass, AB'65, AM'77; a daughter; and a grandson.John A. Wilkinson, AB'37, PhD'57, of Greenville,SC, and Norway, ME, died February 7. In the 1940sand 1950s he held several U of C administrativeposts, including director of residence halls. Later hewas registrar and dean of students at Coe College.Wilkinson was active in Friends of the Library andcommunity groups in both Greenville and Norway.Survivors include his wife, Jule Porter Wilkinson,University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 43PhB'32; a son; and a grandson.Edith Hansen Stenson, AB'38, a former high-school teacher in the Kansas City, MO, area, diedMarch 7 at age 77. Stenson was active in educational, civic, and church organizations. She is survived by a son; a daughter; a sister, Betty HansenWilson, PhB'34; and two grandchildren.Louis I. Gordon, SB'39, SM"40, PhD'67, a retiredprofessor of mathematics at the University of Illinois at Chicago, died January 23 at age 81. Amember of the UIC faculty for 35 years, the nativeof Minsk, Russia, was a biblical and Talmudicscholar in his youth and a WWII veteran. Survivorsinclude a sister and two brothers.Elizabeth C. Marshall, AB'39, AM'39, a retiredChicago Board of Education administrator and pioneer in educational radio, died January 10 at age 88.Among her responsibilities until her 1971 retirement was oversight of public radio station WBEZ-FM, then managed by the board. She helped set upsimilar stations in other states.1940sLeander W. Binna, AM'40, a former school psychologist in Stanislaus County, CA, died in 1994 atage 82. A church organist for 30 years for thecounty's Unitarian Universalist Fellowship, he issurvived by his wife, Willodean; a son; a daughter;and a brother.Robert L. Rupard, AB'40, JD'42, a retired administrator with the Agency for International Development, died March 14 in Washington, DC. TheWWII veteran was 81. Before joining AID in 1961.he had served with the VA and the Slate Department. He is survived by his wife, Arlye; two sons; asister; and two grandchildrenDaniel L. Hamilton, PhD'41, a linguist andformer professor at the University of Texas, diedJanuary 28 in Kerrville, TX. He was 84. The WWIIveteran also served as dean of the Army LanguageSchool and of the Foreign Service Institute. He issurvived by two sons, five stepchildren, a sister, andfour grandchildren.Ruth Cooper Cook, SB'42, SM'44, PhD'57, a professor emerita of child and family development atthe University of Missouri-Columbia, died December 26. She was 73. Cook taught at colleges and universities in the Chicago area and at the University ofIllinois before going to Missouri in 1955, retiring in1971. She is survived by her husband, Robert, and abrother, John Y. Cooper, AB'46, MBA'48.James L. Godfrey, PhD'42, former dean of the faculty and distinguished university professor emeritusof history at the University of North Carolina atChapel Hill, died November 15. He was 87. A fellowof the Royal Historical Society and a founder of theSouthern Conference on British Studies, he was co-editor of the Jounial of British Studies. He is survivedby his wife, Eleanor Smith Godfrey, AM'36, PhD'57;two daughters; two brothers; and five grandchildren.Kenneth J. Jensen, SB'42, a former chemist atArgonne, died December 20 at age 74. In 1984 hereceived the University's Award for DistinguishedPerformance for his contributions to the laboratory's research programs. He is survived by threechildren, including Lois M. Jensen, AB'77; and abrother, George R.Jensen, PhB'47Nancy Bullock McGhcc, PhD'42, professoremerita at Hampton University, died February 10 atage 86. Chair of Hampton's English department anddirector of its Institute of the Humanities, she alsoheld the Av.ilon Foundation chair in humanities,the first endowed chair at Hampton. Survivorsinclude two cousins, Sam and Joseph Bullock.G. Campbell Cutler, MD'43, a physician in Flint,Ml, died February 14 at age 76. On the staff ofMcLaren Regional Medical Center from 1951 until 1988, he assisted part time at two other medicalcenters after retirement. Cutler and his wife mademore than 12 medical-relief trips to Latin Americaand Asia. Survivors include his wife, Frances; fourdaughters; and five grandchildren.Harriet Levinson Finberg, AB'45, AM'47, of Tar-rytown, NY, died January 6, 1994. Survivorsinclude her husband, Laurence Finberg, SB'44,MD'46; sons Robert Finberg, AB'71, and James M.Finberg, JD'83; and a sister, Evelyn Levinson Coop-ersmith, AB'43, CLA'43.John Borst, AB'48, JD'51, a retired vice presidentand general counsel of Zenith Electronics, died February 1 in Glen Ellyn. The WWII veteran was 67.Before joining Zenith in 1974, he was in privatepractice with two Chicago law firms. He is survivedby his wife, Mary; two daughters; a son; a sister;and a grandson.Franklyn H. Chidester, AB'48, a retired directorof contract services at Mind Inc., died January 30.The Cincinnati resident and WWII veteran was 69.He is survived by his wife, Evelyn Parry Chidester,AM'47; four daughters; and eight grandchildren.Nella Fermi Weiner, PhB'48, PhD'81, an artist,teacher, educational psychologist, and financialplanner, died February 28 in her Hyde Park home.She taught art at the Lab Schools intermittentlyfrom 1953 into the early 1980s before starting herown business as a family financial planner. Thedaughter of Enrico Fermi, she is survived by adaughter, a son, and two grandchildren.1950sJerome A. Gross, AB'50, a retired civil servantwho held administrative posts in the Illinois substance-abuse agency and the Cook County welfareprogram, died February 7 at age 67. An Army veteran, he headed the National Student Association toresettle Hungarian students in 1956-57.Kenneth D. MacKenzie, AB'50, died March 11 inLaGrange, IL. He is survived by a son, two daughters, and four grandchildren.Frances Eckardt Smith, PhD'51, a retired psychologist, died January 6 in Carlsbad, NM, at age87. She wrote plays and historical pageants thatwere performed by church, school, and small theater groups. She is survived by her husband, Rockwell; a foster daughter; and a brother.Howard H. Marlow, Jr., MBA'53, a consultant andcontroller for Billco Corp., died December 29. TheGoshen, IN, resident was 73. He is survived by hiswife, Betzi; a son; a sister; and three grandchildren.Donald Collier, PhD'54, curator emeritus in theanthropology department at Chicago's FieldMuseum, died January 23 at age 83. Known primarily for his contributions to Ecuadoran and Andeanarchaeology, he was a lecturer in anthropology atthe University from 1950 to 1970. Survivorsinclude a son, David Collier, AM'67, PhD'71.Henry A. Kallet, AB'54, SB'55, a pathologist andprofessor at Michigan State, died January 6. The 59-year-old Vietnam War veteran was laboratory director at the Greater Detroit Hospital, a county medicalexaminer, and an FBI consultant. He is survived byhis wife, Beverly; a son; and a sister.Eugene J. Webb, PhD'56, a professor at Stanford'sBusiness School, died March 14 at age 61. Studyingorganizational behavior, Webb helped bring behavioral psychology into business-school curricula. Heco-wrote Unobtrusive Measures: NonreactiveResearch in the Social Sciences, published while hewas teaching at Northwestem's Medill School ofJournalism. He is survived by his wife, Mimi; adaughter; two sons; and his mother,George C. ("Chad") Taylor, AB'57, died November 25 in Houston at age 63. A former naval aviator,he worked in the shipping industry and later founded Apollo Services. He is survived by twosons and two daughters.Richard J. Wytmar, SM'49, MBA'58, founder andpresident of the international management-consulting firm Wytmar & Co., died March 8 at age 70. Hefrequently wrote and lectured on executive selectionand management development and was an adjunctprofessor at Northwestern, Loyola, and Marquette inthe 1960s. A WWII veteran, Wytmar also served onthe board of International House. He is survived byhis wife, Kathleen; two sons, including Richard J.Wytmar III, MBA'91; a daughter; and two sisters.Gerald R. Zins, PhD'58, a retired research scientist with Upjohn who was instrumental in the isolation and identification of Minoxidil, died in 1995.The Traverse City, MI, resident was 62. His 30-yearcareer at Upjohn included positions as director inboth cardiovascular-disease and hair-growthresearch. Survivors include his wife, Kay; threedaughters; one son; and three grandchildren.Louis W. Baldwin, MD'59, a physician in PalmSprings, CA, died January 9 at age 60. He hadserved as chief of both surgery and orthopaedics atDesert Hospital in Palm Springs. He is survived byhis wife, Gloria; a son; a daughter; and a brother.1900sRobert M. Netting, AM'59, PhD'63, a professor ofanthropology at the University of Arizona, diedFebruary 4 of bone-marrow cancer. He was 60. Netting, who helped establish cultural ecology as a scientific discipline, taught at the University ofPennsylvania from 1963 to 1972 and was elected tothe National Academy of Sciences in 1993. He issurvived by his wife, Rhonda; three children; hismother; and a brother.William E. Ormsbee, AB'63, of Milwaukee, diedMarch 7 at age 55.John T. Ledger, Jr., AM'64, an Episcopal priestand hospital chaplain, died October 23. Since 1980he had served with the pastoral-care department ofSwedish Medical Center in Seattle. Survivorsinclude his wife, Barbara; two daughters; a son; anda brother.David A. Bickimer, PhD'68, a professor of education at Pace University, died at his New York homeJanuary 1. He was 58. A leader in alternativeschooling, he previously taught in Cleveland secondary schools and was a master's-degree fieldcoordinator for Notre Dame and the U of C. He issurvived by three sisters and a brother.1970sDavid C. Bogan, JD'72, a Chicago attorney, diedJanuary 2 at age 48. Specializing in commercial litigation and antitrust and intellectual-property law,he was a partner at Van Hagey &r Bogan (1984-92)before joining Davis, Mannix & McGrath. He issurvived by his wife, Brenda; a son; his father; andthree sisters.Susan Ginsburg Hadden, AM'68, PhD'72, a professor of public affairs and government at the Universityof Texas at Austin, died January 15 in an attack on atourist van near Angkor, Cambodia. At age 50, shewas a nationally recognized authority on publictelecommunications policy, artificial intelligence, andenvironmental policy. She is survived by her husband, James; a son; a daughter; and her parents.Pauline T. Lesnik, AM'73, AM'73, former head ofthe Smithsonian Institution Libraries acquisitions-services department, died December 8 in a car accident near Canyon City, CO. She was 46. Aspecialist in South Asian collections, she also hadworked for Columbia University and the New YorkPublic Library. She is survived by a brother, anaunt, an uncle, and several cousins.44 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995BooksART AND ARCHITECTURERichard Buchanan, AB'68, PhD'73, and VictorMargolin, editors, Discovering Design: Explorationsin Design Studies (University of Chicago Press).Essays by scholars in fields including psychologyand political theory show how design studies developed as an interdisciplinary field. The contributorsfocus on shaping design as a subject matter, distinguishing the activity of designing in the complexworld of action, and addressing questions of valueand responsibility.RIOGRAPHY AND LETTERSAlfred S. Bradford, AM'66, PhD'73, Some EvenVolunteered: The First Wolfhounds Pacify Vietnam(Praeger, The Greenwood Publishing Group). Bradford recounts his experiences with the l/27thInfantry in Vietnam during the late 1960s, endingwith an evaluation of the war.Jackie Joyner-Kersee and Lindsey Johnson,AB'81, A Woman's Place is Everywhere (MasterMe-dia). Aimed at young adults, this book profiles 30women leaders from different careers, culturalbackgrounds, and generations — from ElizabethDole to Wboopi Goldberg.Dan Levin, PhD'64, From the Battlefield (NavalInstitute Press). Levin's World War II memoir combines his dispatches as a Marine combat correspondent, poetry written during pauses in combat,excerpts from his war novel Mask of Glory, andreflections on the war's nature and meaning.Nathaniel E. Reich, MD'32, A Renaissance Man atLarge (Rivercross Publishing). Reich — a cardiologist, author, painter, and poet — documents his travels on six continents, including meetings withheads of state and tribal leaders.Frank Sanello, AB'74, Tom Cruise: The BillionDollar Man (Taylor Publishing). Sanello's unauthorized biography follows Cruise from childhood tofilm stardom.William Brand Simpson, X'48, Special Agent in thePacific, WWII: Counter-intelligence — Military, Political, and Economic (Rivercross Publishing). Amongthe first U.S. soldiers to enter Manila and Tokyo,Simpson provides an account of his experieces as acounter-intelligence agent at the close of WWII andduring the early post-war period.Robert Wokler, AB'64, Rousseau (Oxford University Press). Wokler argues that Rousseau's philosophy of history; theories of music and politics;fictional, educational and religious writings; andeven his botany were inspired by his visionaryideals of self-realization in freedom.ROSINESS AND ECONOMICSMichael F. Jacobson, AB'65, and Laurie AnnMazur, Marketing Madness: A Survival Guide for aConsumer Society (Westview Press). Taking a criticallook at American commercialism — including thebattle between private consumption and social welfare, ads for harmful items like alcohol and tobacco,sex in advertising, and marketing in public schools —the authors examine the effects of marketing andsuggest ways to avoid and combat consumerism.Donald Kirk, AM'65, Korean Dynasty: Hyundaiand Chung Ju Yung (M. E. Sharpe). The authortraces the 40-year rise of Hyundai from a sidestreet garage to an international corporate giant, includinga study of Chung and his family, Korean wartimeconstruction, factories and labor strife in "HyundaiCity," new enterprises, and Chung's attempt to winthe 1992 Korean presidential election,Bruce Thatcher, MBA'66, The Telecom Manager'sDesk Reference (Thompson Publishing). This guideis designed to help telecommunications managersin mid- to large-size organizations rein in costs,improve network reliability, and ran more efficientoperations.CRITICISMMichael J. Curley, PhD'73, Geoffrey of Monmouth(Twayne Publishers). In analyzing the career ofmedieval British historian Geoffrey of Monmouth,who introduced the Arthurian legend and contributed greatly to British historiography and cultural myth, the author provides biographical andbackground material and discusses each of Geoffrey's works,Philip C. Kolin, AM'67, editor, Titus Andronicus:Critical Essays (Garland Publishing). This anthologyincludes essays, reviews, articles, and book excerptsby critics from the 18th century to the present.Every major critical approach to the play is represented, including feminist, cultural, Marxist, performance theory, biographical, and deconstructive.Marty Roth, AM'57, PhD'65, Foul and Fair Play:Reading Genre in Classic Detective Fiction (Universityof Georgia Press), Roth begins by reading a widerange of texts as variations on a relatively tight set ofconventions of character, gender and sexuality, andnarrative style and setting. He then discusses theconvoluted epistemology of mystery and detectivefiction, depending as it does on other major intellectual developments of the late 19th century.Claude J. Summers, AM'67, PhD'70, and Ted-Larry Pebworth, editors, The Wit of Seventeenth-Century Poetry (University of Missouri Press).These essays show the centrality of wit to 17th-century English poetry, raising questions of thematicsand authorial intent and investigating a wide spectrum of cultural practices.EDUCATIONVivian Gussin Paley, PhB'47, Kwanzaa and Me: ATeacher's Story (Harvard University Press). U of CLab Schools teacher Paley sets out to examine themulticultural classroom, speaking with educators,parents, and students of all races, and including herown experiences as a teacher. She concludes thatrecent moves toward self-segregation reflect anongoing frustration with racism and an abidingneed for a nurturing community.Stanton E. F. Wortham, AM'88, PhD'92, Actingout Participant Examples in the Classroom (JohnBenjamins Publishing). Drawing on linguistic pragmatics and interactional sociolinguistics, the authordescribes the linguistic mechanisms used in participant examples — descriptions, meant to illustrate apoint, of events that include at least one person inthe conversation.FICTION AND POETRYScott Borg, X'70, Water Hazard (Delacorte). Thisnovel is simultaneously a thriller and a phenomeno- logical exploration of personal cognitive discontinuities, employing insights derived from Germanidealist philosophy, mathematical logic, and Frenchexistentialism.Arnold Klein, AB'74, Monica (Browntrout Publishers). Using the rhymed couplet as a unit of comicnarration, Klein tells the contemporary story of alove-starved millionaire, a beautiful young art student, a morose inventor, and their object of desire.Ned Munger, SB'43, SM'48, PhD'51, Rwanda: AFascinating Story of Man and Gorilla in Africa'sMountains of the Moon (Thompson-Shore).Munger's semi-autobiographical novella emphasizesthe closing gap between humans and apes and therestraints imposed by racism and sexism.Nathaniel E. Reich, MD'32, Re/lections (Fine ArtsPress). Reich's poems are accompanied by his ownpaintings.Cynthia Stemau, AB'79, and Martin H. Green-berg, editors, The Secret Prophecies of Nostradamus(Daw Books). Twelve authors offer fictional interpretations of Nostradamus' prophetic quatrains.GENDER STUDIESElizabeth Langland, AM'71, PhD'75, Nobody'sAngels: Middle-Class Women and Domestic Ideology inVictorian Culture (Cornell University Press). Comparing the position of real women with their statusas "household angels," the author explores theimage of femininity in Victorian culture. From herreadings of 19th-century fiction, etiquette guides,home-management manuals, and cookbooks, Lang-land concludes that, their power veiled in myth,middle-class women mastered skills that enabledthem to support a rigid class system and simultaneously set the stage for a feminist revolution.HISTORY/CURRENT EVENTSLawrence E. Cutler, MD'80, and Douglas Winter,Gold Coins of the Old West: The Carson City Mint,1870-1893 (Bowers and Merena). A systematicstudy of the numismatic characteristics of each dateand denomination of gold coin minted in CarsonCity, NV, is accompanied by histories of the Come-stock Lode, U.S. coinage laws, Virginia City, andthe Carson City Mint.Abraham Doron, AM'61, In Defense of Universality: A Challenge to Israel's Social Policies (The Mag-ness Press). Doron discusses Israel's welfare stateand social services — and the political debate andvalue clashes they provoke. He argues that universal social provisions are needed to prevent the isolation of vulnerable population groups in separatecategories of poor people.Joshua A. Fogel, AB'72, The Cultural Dimension ofSino-fapanese Relations (M. E. Sharpe). Fogel examines the modern relationship between China andJapan from several angles, focusing on cultural ties.The book first addresses issues in Chinese historyraised in Japanese academic circles, and the impactof those circles in China. The second section looksat Japanese travelers in China, Japanese researchersof the Southern Manchurian Railway Company,and the development of Japanology in China.Andrea Leonard, AB'47, A Crocker Genealogy(Heritage Books). Leonard's book traces the descendants of her ancestor William Crocker, a deacon whoarrived in Massachusetts in 1634, to the 14th generation. Leonard includes several indices and information to help track families related to the Crackers.Antonio McDaniel, PhD'89, Swing Low, SweetChariot The Mortality Cost of Colonizing Liberia in theNineteenth Century (University of Chicago Press). Inthe early 19th century, thousands of emancipatedand freeborn blacks from the U.S. traveled to Africato colonize the area now called Liberia. McDanielI University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 45presents a systematic study of the move's sociologicaland demographic impact on the migrants.Frank J. Piehl, PhD'52, The Caxton Club1895-1995: Celebrating a Century of the Book inChicago (The Caxton Club). In conjunction withthe centennial of the club — a group of Chicago bibliophiles — Piehl wrote this history of the CaxtonClub, including a bibliography of its publicationsand biographies of particularly active members.Bamett R. Rubin, AM'76, PhD'82, The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse inthe International System (Yale University Press).Rubin analyzes the 14-year civil war in Afghanistan,showing how one of the cold war's final conflictsled to one of the first post-cold war cases of statedisintegration.Michael N. Salda, AB'80, AM'82, PhD'88, La Bib-liotheque de Francois T au Chateau de Blois (Biblio-theque Municipale de Blois/Presses Universitairesde France). Salda asks how books were arranged onthe shelves in one of the largest libraries in earlyRenaissance France and what conclusions can bedrawn about Renaissance intellectual categoriesbased on the way the library was organized.Judith Lynn Sebesta, AB'68, and Larissa Bon-fante, The World of Roman Costume, (University ofWisconsin Press). These 13 essays and 160 illustrations show how costume offers insight into Romanconcepts of rank, gender, and status; social institutions; and self-identification, Topics include thesymbolism of the toga, bridal wear, jewelry as statussymbol, and costume as geographic indicator,Robert Southard, PhD'74, Droysen and the Prussian School of History (University Press of Kentucky).The Prussian School ol History first predicted andadvocated, then celebrated and defended, the unification of Germany by Prussia. Tracing the school's origins and ideas, Southard argues that Prussian Schoolhistorians believed that history was a continualunfolding of God's plan and expected history to complete its main tasks in their own time and country.Arthur W. Thumer, AM'54, PhD'66, Strangersand Sojourners: A History of Michigan's KeweenawPeninsula (Wayne State University Press). Thumerhas written a social history of communities thatdeveloped in Michigan's Upper Peninsula aftercopper deposits were discovered in the 1840s. Theroles of immigrants, migrants, Native Americans,African Americans, and women are documented, aswell as the rise and decline of the copper industryand a controversial labor movement.Margaret Joyce Wiener, PhD'90, Visible and invisible Realms: Power, Magic, and Colonial Conquest inBali (University of Chicago Press). In 1908, theruler of the Balinese realm of Klungkung and morethan 100 members of his family and court weremassacred when they deliberately marched into thefire of the Dutch colonial army. Wiener challengescolonial and academic claims that Klungkung hadno "real" power, arguing that such claims enabledcolonial domination.Thomas A. Wilson, AM'79, PhD'88, Genealogy ofthe Way: The Construction and Uses of the ConfucianTradition in Late Imperial China (Stanford University Press). This work critiques the ideologicallyexclusionary conception ol the Confucian traditionand how claims to possession of the truth came toserve power. Wilson analyzes issues such as the formation of the Confucian canon and its installationin the civil-service examinations, the enshrinementof the sages and worthies in the Confucian temple,and the emergence of the genre of the Confuciananthology in late imperial China.MATHEMATICSRobert G. Bartle, SM'48, PhD'51, The Elements ofIntegration and Lcbesgue Measure (John Wiley & Sons). The first part of this book is a correctedreprint of an earlier version, dealing with theLebesgue theory of the integral, based on abstractmeasure spaces. The second part presents the construction of Lebesgue measure in finite dimensionalEuclidean spaces.POLITICAL SCIENCE AND LAWRonald A. Cass, JD'73; Colin S. Diver; and Jack M.Beermann, JD'83, Administrative Law: Cases andMaterials (Little, Brown). Intended for the classroom,this casebook places administrative-law problems —including separation of powers, standards and availability of judicial review, rule-making and adjudicatory procedures, business licensing, freedom ofinformation, and private actions against governmentofficials — in regulatory and political context.Richard H. Chused, JD'68, Private Acts in PublicPlaces: A Social History of Divorce in the FormativeEra of American Family Law (University of Pennsyl-BEFORENIETZSCHEMichael AllenGillespieGod of Will (see Religion and Philosophy)vania Press); editor, A Property Anthology, (AndersonPublishing). The first book examines more than1,300 petitions for divorce filed in Maryland duringthe first half of the 19th century, showing the connections between politics, regional differences, andthe development of American family law. The secondbook is a reader for first-year property students andcontains background material from a variety of fields,including economics, history, and jurisprudence.Paul Eidelberg, AM'57, PhD'66, Demophrenia:Israel and the Malaise of Democracy (Prescott Press)."Demophrenia," a term coined by the author, isused to mean the application of the democraticpriniciples of freedom and equality to ideologicalconflicts in which one party rejects those principles.Using this paradigm, Eidelberg argues that the policies of Israel's government in the Arab-Jewish conflict are ineffectual,Edward Shannon LaMonte, AM'68, PhD'76, Politics and Welfare in Birmingham, 1900-1975 (University of Alabama Press). LaMonte explores therelationship between politics and welfare programsin Birmingham during four periods of 20th-centurydevelopment, paying particular attention to effortsto achieve a more harmonious biracial community.He argues that in the 1960s and 1970s, the Alabamacity fundamentally broke with its past as an increas ingly active local government assumed greaterpublic responsibilities and a new pluralism, basedon the principles of greater citizen participation,arose.David Mayers, AM'76, PhD'79, The Ambassadorsand America's Soviet Policy (Oxford UniversityPress). Mayers examines past U.S.-Soviet relationsthrough three topics: U.S. ambassadors in Moscow,American response to life in the U.S.S.R., and cold-war diplomacy at the Moscow embassy.Carol Nackenoff, AM'74, PhD'80, The FictionalRepublic: Horatio Alger and American Political Discourse (Oxford University Press). Nackenoff arguesthat Alger was a keen observer of the dislocationsand economic pitfalls caused by rapid industrialization of the U.S. As class distinctions grew stronger,Alger maintained that Americans could still belong toone estate, and Nackenoff examines how Alger's self-help formula continues to shape political discourse.John Henry Schlegel, JD'67, American Legal Realismand Empirical Social Science (University of North Carolina Press). Empirical research was integral to American legal realism, a movement in legal thought in the1920s-30s. Documenting realist scholars' efforts tochallenge the notion that the study of law was amatter of learning rules and how to manipulate them,Schlegel explores why the empirical research thesescholars espoused did not, finally, become part ofAmerican law-school curricula.Kenneth W. Thompson, AM'48, PhD'51, editor.Governance V: Institutions and Issues (UniversityPress of America). The fifth volume in the MillerCenter's series on governance compares its structure and functions on different levels. Contributorsexamine such topics as the role of speechwriters inexecutive leadership, political reform and Congress,and the authority of Supreme Court decisions.PSYCHIATRY/PSYCHOLOGYPaul C. Holinger; Daniel Offer, MD'57; James T.Barter; and Carl C. Bell, Suicide and Homicide amongAdolescents (Guilford Press). The authors argue for amarriage of public- and mental-health approaches tostudy and prevent adolescent suicide and homicide.The book presents data, discusses problems withthat data, and offers interpretive frameworks,RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHYHerbert Anderson and Susan B. W. Johnson,AM'78, Regarding Children: A New Respect for Childhood and Families (Westminster John Knox Press).Examining the spiritual and emotional dimensionsof raising children, the authors suggest how to identify what children need and what families, church,and society should provide for their children's sake.Randall C. Bailey, AM'72, and Jacquelyn Grant,editors, The Recovery of Black Presence: An Interdisciplinary Exploration (Abingdon). Divided into sections on biblical and theological studies, theseessays examine theological disciplines and explorethe implications and contributions of Afrocentricthought for those disciplines,Jeffrey Andrew Barash, AM'73, PhD'82, Heidegger et son siecle; Temps de I'Etre, temps de I'histoire(Presses Universitaires de France). Through analysis of Heidegger's thought in relation to majorphilosophical and theological currents of his time,the author proposes a method of analysis thatplaces Heidegger's own theory of historical interpretation in a critical perspective.Lois K. Daly, AM'80, PhD'84, editor, FeministTheological Ethics (Westminster John Knox Press).This reader offers persepectives — ranging fromwomanist to ecofeminist — of more than 20 femalescholars who consider the task of changing society'sassumptions about women as women challenge our46 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995culture's traditions and explore ways for people tolive together in the modern world.Lakme Batya Elior, AB'81, and Gershon Winkler,The Place Where You Are Standing Is Holy: A JewishTheology on Human Relationships (Jason Aronson).Based on sources from the Old Testament and theBabylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds, the authorsexplore the individual and societal implications ofbrit, or "covenant," versus "contract" as the foundation for relationships with nature, with God, andwith each other.Millard J. Erickson, AM'58, Concise Dictionary ofChristian Theology (Baker Book House). Ericksondefines more than 2,900 terms from RomanCatholic, Protestant, Orthodox, and Jewish traditions. In addition to standard theological terms areentries on relevant events and documents, philosophical terms, and 300 theologians.Nancy Auer Falk, AM'63, PhD'72, Women andReligion in India: An Annotated Bibliography ofSources in English 1975-92 (New Issues Press). Falkhas assembled 1,015 titles by Indian and Westernauthors on topics from Indian women's statusunder religious law codes to reform movements andritual practices.Eugene Garver, AB'65, PhD'73, Aristotle's Rhetoric:An Art of Character (University of Chicago Press).Arguing for the importance of the Rhetoric in understanding current philosophical problems of practicalreason, virtue, and character, Garver treats the workas philosophy and connects its themes with parallelproblems in Aristotle's Ethics and Politics,Michael Allen Gillespie, AM'75, PhD'81, Nihilismbefore Nietzsche (University of Chicago Press).Gillespie reconstructs nihilism's intellectual andspiritual origins before Nietzsche gave it its determinative definition, arguing that nihilism is not theresult of the death of God, as Nietzsche believed,but rather the consequence of a new concept ofGod: a god of will who overturns all eternal standards of truth and justice.Donald E. Gowan, PhD'64, TJieoIogy in Exodus:Biblical Theology in the Form of a Commentary(Westminster John Knox Press). Gowan's studyasks one major question of Exodus: What does thisbook say about God? He then traces major affirmations about God through the rest of scripture andinto the theologies of Judaism and Christianity.Daryl Koehn, AB'77, AM'83, PhD'91, The Groundof Professional Ethics (Routledge Press). Using textsfrom philosophy, history, sociology, and economics, the author argues that professionals' actions aremorally legitimate if and when they conform to theterms of the public pledge made by professionals toaid actual and potential clients.James P. Scanlan, AB'48, AM'50, PhD'56, editor,Russian Thought after Communism: The Recovery of aPhilosophical Heritage (M. E. Sharpe). Ten scholarsexamine the resurgence of interest in pre-revolu-tionary Russian religious and secular philosophy inRussia's newly open intellectual marketplace.Included are essays on early Russian critics of Marx,the present-day significance of Slavophile thought,and the philosophies of Nicolas Berdyaev and otherfigures suppressed during the Soviet period.SOCIAL SCIENCESAaron Ben-Ze'ev, PhD'81; and Robert F. Goodman, editors, Good Gossip (University Press ofKansas). In this anthology, scholars from severaldisciplines consider aspects of gossip — humor,logic, privacy, feminism, history, and reputation —and suggest that gossip has unexpected virtues.Philip K. Bock, AM'56, editor, Handbook of Psychological Anthropology (Greenwood Press andPraeger). An overview of the relationship betweenpsychology and anthropology, this book pays spe cial attention to what may be universal and what isculturally influenced in human behavior.Mark Busse, AM'78, Susan Turner, and NickAraho, The People of Lake Kutubu and Kikori:Changing Meanings of Daily Life (Papua NewGuinea National Museum and Art Gallery). Thisbook shows how the construction of Papua NewGuinea's first oil project affected life in the LakeKutubu and Kikori areas. Considerations of the history of Western influence and the changing meanings that objects and customs have had for the localpeople provide a sense of contemporary life.Tomoko Hamada and Willis E. Sibley, AM'53,PhD'58, editors, Anthropological Perspectives onOrganizational Culture (University Press of America). This book presents the papers of anthropologists concerned with contemporary domesticculture and society, including major organizationalstructures and forms.June Helm, PhB'44, AM'50, PhD'58, Prophecy andPower among the Dogrib Indians (University ofNebraska Press). Based on ethnographic fieldworkin a subarctic Indian society, this study situates theDogrib prophet movement of the late 1960s withinboth aboriginal and Christian traditions; exploresthe significance of the three Dogrib prophets' contrasting personalities in shaping their practice ofprophecy; and, through native narratives, revealsthe aboriginal concept of magical "power."John Kultgen, AM'47, PhD'52, Autonomy & Intervention (Oxford University Press). Kultgen arguesthat while it is sometimes necessary to intervene inothers' lives for their protection or benefit, guidelines must be established so that such care isrespectful and balanced. Revising paternalism, theauthor renames it parentalism, abandoning patriarchal connotations.Fred B. Lindstrom, AB'38, AM'41, PhD'50;Ronald A. Harden; and Laura L. Johnson, editors,Kimball Young on Sociology in Transition, 1912-1968: An Oral Account by the 35th President of theASA (University Press of America). Young's oralhistory is a parallel account of what the scholar sawas sociology's transition from dogma to empiricismand of his own transition from a Mormon community to the larger secular world.V. Suchitra Mouly and Jayaram K. Sankaran,PhD'89, Organizational Ethnography: An IllustrativeApplication in the Study of Indian R&D Settings (SagePublications). The authors introduce organizationalethnography as a viable mode of inquiry into organizations and demonstrate its potential by using itto study Indian R&D settings. Through ethnographic data, they argue that federal R&D is ineffective in India, especially when compared withprivate-sector R&D.TRAVEL AND LEISURECharlotte Digregorio, AM'79, Your Original Personal Ad: The Complete Guide to Expressing YourUnique Sentiments to Find Your Dream Person (CivettaPress). This step-by-step guide offers 100 sample personal ads and includes phrases to use — and to avoid.Orin Hargraves, AB'77, Culture Shock! Morocco(Times Editions). This book explains the complexities of Moroccan culture with chapters covering history, society, language, food, hospitality, business,and leisure. It also includes a guide to practicalaspects of settling in Morocco: finding a house,establishing a bank account, and starting a business.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," pleasesend the name of the book, its author, its publisher, its field, and a short synopsis to the BooksEditor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, or by . Other VoicesContinued from page 48questions. Papers counted in ways that theday to day classroom could not. They calledfor more sustained reasoning and moredetailed evidence than could be expected inthe give-and-take of discussion; howeverpassive or silent in the classroom, every student had to make his or her thoughtsknown in this forum; and, as immutableartifacts subject to reflective scrutiny, papersprovided a more "objective" basis for assessing students' understanding. An ill-conceived assignment would frustrate studentsor put them through an empty academicexercise; a good question could generate theprocess of discovery at the heart of learning.So some of the most satisfying contents ofthe files are copies of impressive studentpapers. It's not only that I take grandpater-nal pride in these achievements for which Ican legitimately claim no credit. In contrastto my own efforts to control the inquiry orto sell my interpretations, these examplesof superior cartography please me because Ilearned from them. They showed me features of the terrain that I had missed. Theyare the culmination of a teacher's hopes:the unpredictable gift of new knowledge.Like the assignments that prompted them,these student papers seem to proclaim theprimacy of written discourse, an appropriateaffirmation for courses focused on the studyof literary texts. Yet so many documents inthese files read like old playbills, or theunerased blackboard in a strange classroom — uncommunicative vestiges of anincommunicable experience. Musing overthem, I recollect the wisdom of Socrates' climactic speech near the end of Plato's Phae-drus, when he finds "in the written word. . .much that is necessarily not serious" andconcludes that only the give-and-take ofspoken argument can implant a living ideain the soul of another.I like to think that a comparable convictionunderlies my own efforts to practice "thediscussion method" or, more essentially, toconduct collective classroom inquiry. ButSocrates is a very tough act to follow, andwho can know the soul of another? So allthese years I have hedged my bets with thesecrude maps of where the treasure is buried.Thus "published," surely my instruction shallnot perish. Or so the files wistfully insinuate.Homer Goldberg, AB'47, AM'48, PhD'61, distinguished teaching professor emeritus at theState University of New York at Stony Brook,taught English and humanities in the College(1950-60) and wrote "Returning to the Core"(August/92). He has five file drawers to go.i University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995 470 ther VoicesTheEx-FilesBy Homer GoldbergR EFLECTING ON THE PLEASURABLEunpredictability of classroom discourse in last October's issue ofthe Magazine, Stuart Shermannoted that "for all the teacher's preliminarymapping, the tracts of time remain territory uncharted until traversed.... Cartography comes first, exploration after."Now that my last class at SUNY-StonyBrook is over and 1 am forced to cleanout the office files, I am discovering justhow difficult it is to reverse that sequence, to blow away the long-settledchalk dust and chart the territory traversed since 1 first grappled with OedipusRex in Humanities II 45 years ago.As 1 try to winnow from the relics ofmany explorations those documents thatreally matter, I realize that when 1 established this set of files — one for each classand each work 1 taught — I thought I hadalready been careful to keep only what mattered. What mattered then was anything Imight conceivably want for some futureclass, or some possible article. What mattersnow, I tell myself, is whatever might beuseful for the book about teaching that Ihave threatened to write.Shuffling these file folders, I begin tounderstand why I am so reluctant to purgethem, even at the risk of leaving them to beunceremoniously recycled by others. Solong as they remain undisturbed, theynourish, even now, the illusion of anunending future, with new chances toimprove upon the past, to get it right, totench the perfect course. Unexamined, theypromise the impossible — the permanentpreservation of an essentially fleeting experience. Examined, they betray the difficultyof documenting a lifetime of teaching in away that conveys the life in it.Here are class lists, even fairly recent ones,of names mostly no longer recognized — %^m--*^'r'A pedagogic pack ratvacates his nest.though 1 made a point of knowing everystudent by the second week of class. Duringthe prolonged moment of the course, eachof these now empty signifiers was a distinctpersonality, eager or reluctant to speak,thoughtful or impulsive, diligent or lax,compliant or combative, quick or thick.Here also are often unreadable pre-classnotes to myself, pinpointing issues soimmediate that a scrawled word, symbol, orpage number sufficed as mnemonic. Hereare two pages of carefully laid-out questions (circa 1990!) on an Edna O'Brienstory I can't even remember. By their veryimpenetrability, these notes suggest howintensely present and absorbing their littleuniverses of discourse once were.Like the files themselves, their contentsrepresent my efforts to impose order on theessentially — and to some extent desirably — disorderly process of conversing with 15 to35 students over texts susceptible to diverseinterpretations: before, "study questions"and "reading helps" meant to clear outunderbrush and focus inquiry on significantinterpretive problems; during, handoutssuch as this solemn January 3,1978, reminder of "Where weI are" in our discussion of ThePainted Bird and what "majorquestions raised. ..are stillbefore us"; and after, occasionalfits of post-exploratory cartography, efforts to nail down aninterpretation when studentshave already moved on.These endpaper maps of a problem and its solution, I tell myself,were efforts to supply the closurestudents crave. But of course theywere really opportunities to perform, to show what I could do with a text,in-house vanity publications that I am surenever received the worshipfully attentivereading I knew they deserved. So it isunambivalently gratifying to find alongsidethese ex cathedra pronouncements evidence of some students' pursuit of ourinquiry beyond the closing bell. Here aretwo handouts relaying to classmates theirvolunteered clarifications of a Hemingwaystory (1966) and an e.e. cummings poem(1986). Surely there must have been morethan two such happy moments of after-class insight in those 20 years.It is also some comfort to find that amidthese pedagogical relics such "answers,"whatever their source, are less prominentthan the questions that begot them, for if Iwas consistently trying to teach my students anything, it was to ask profitable analytic and critical questions of what theyread. The questions that loom largest in thefiles are those that I always committed topaper: the frequent writing assignmentsthat articulated the spine of my courses inliterary analysis and argument. When Ibegan teaching, I looked forward with mildperversity to each new paper topic as one ofthe creative pleasures of teaching. In lateryears, as I came to understand the manyways in which an assignment could misfire,I agonized more and more in devising theseContinued on page 4748 University of Chicago Magazine/June 1995-v :Warmer by the lake: The U of C{, 'Spring Thaw Regatta, held Aprili?^, . i-^ldljaelzson Park Harbor,$r» Mtractcdf5P sailors from the' 'v Midwest-Golkgiate Sailing Asso-¦ ciaiion. Phpio by Matt Gilson., T--- '.'"^'.j.Greenhouse effect: Botany Greenhouse manager Susan Yamins, AB'69, tends Phlox drumondiiatop the Biological Sciences Learning Center. Photograph by Matthew Gilson.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIjRobie House, 5757 WoodlawnChicago, IL 60637ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxCAR-RT S0RT**C0<H¦n, ,._ -. 2*18977The University of ChicaboHarper Library-Serial Records Department«*6-eaSt-59th-9+P6«±Chicago, IL 60637-1513l>llnll....!„l,„l|,|,|,„.|]ll||l|ll|l|