APRIL 1995 ? l'">), MJ TTh7I '/&tf*: ¦¦' jDEPARTME!2 Letters6 EventsThe campus in full bloom, Plus,the Smart Museum look at"Madness in Aim tint "8 Chicago journalThe campaign gets new goals,new leaders; Rotor House gets anew deal, and alumni getrt'iiuuvf-luitijn classes12 lnvestigatiorRobert Visfm) helps reniolt11.000 Russian Iwsirusses. AlsoCaptain Cook's fateful mil toHawaii, and the politics of ex-slaves after the Civil VVm36 Class news42 Deaths43 Books by all46 Other voicesHelen Schary Metro, AB'7faux Chicago pizza and tnChicago memories. hicasoVOLUME 87, NUMBER 4 APRIL 1995 M^^^W212732 FEATURESNecessary dreamsBorn in poverty, Latino sociologist Marta Tienda neverlost hope for a better life: a hope that she worriesAmerica's poor may no longer share.TIM ANDREW OBERMITLERWriters' blocksA bookcase full of potboilers, mysteries, satires — and evensome great books — have the same backdrop: the U ofC.JANE CHAPMAN MARTINHow to chart 50 million galaxiesThe Sloan Digital Sky Survey is starting high atop a NewMexico mountain with a built-to-order telescope.ANDREW CAMPBELLA conversation with Hugo SonnenscheinThe University's president talks about Chicago's financialchallenges, name recognition, the neighborhood, and —above all — values. Page 21Cover: UofC sociologist Marta Tienda(page 16); photograph by DanDry. Opposite: At the ApachePoint Observatory, BruceGillespie surveys the site of anew telescope, scheduled toarrive this month (page 27);photograph byfoel Salcido. Page 32EditorMary Ruth YoeManaging EditorTim Andrew ObermillerAssociate EditorAndrew CampbellArt DirectorAllen CarrollEditorial AssistantKimberly SweetStudent AssistantQiana Johnson, '98Contributing EditorsJamie Kalven, Joe LevineEditorial office: The University of ChicagoMagazine, Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-2163; fax (312) 702-2166. Internet:uchicago-magazine@uchicago.edu. The Magazine is sent to all University of Chicago alumni.The University of Chicago Alumni Associationhas its offices at Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-2150; fax (312) 702-2166.The University of Chicago AlumniAssociation Board of Governors:Officers: Linda Thoren Neal, AB'64, JD'67, president; Bob Levey, AB'66, vice president; Gregory G. Wrobel, AB'75, JD'78, MBA'79,treasurer; Michael J. Klingensmith, AB'75,MBA'76, secretary; Jeanne Buiter, MBA'86,"executive director.Andrew M. Alper, AB'80, MBA'81 ; Dennis M.Barden, 'Assistant Vice President for Development; Richard L. Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; JackJ. Carlson, AB'40; N. Gwyn Cready, AB'83,MBA'86; Trina N. Frankel, AB'64; CarolineHeck, AB'71 ; Le Roy J. Hlnes, AM'78; RandyHolgate, "Vice President, Development andAlumni Relations; Susan Carlson Hull, AB'82;Patricia Klowden, AB'67; Michael C. Krauss,AB'75, MBA'76; Joseph D. La Rue, AM'59;Katherine Dusak Miller, AB'65, MBA'68,PhD'71; William C. Naumann, MBA'75;Theodore A. O'Neill, AM'70, "Dean of CollegeAdmissions; Susan W. Parker, AB'65; FrederickO. Paulsell, Jr., AB'62, MBA'63; Harvey B. Plot-nick, AB'63; Louise E. Rehling, AM'70, SM'74;Jean Maclean Snyder, AB'63, JD'79; David M,Terman, AB'55, SB'56, MD'59; Mary B. VanMeerendonk, AB'64; Peter O. Vandervoort,ABM, SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60; Mary Ruth Yoe,"Editor, University of Chicago Magazine." Ex OfficioMagazine Advisory Committee: Michael J.Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76, chair; Richard L.Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; Mary Lou Gorno,MBA'76; Neil Harris, the Preston and SterlingMorton Professor in History; Susan CarlsonHull, AB'82; Michael C. Krauss, AB'75, MBA'76;Bob Levey, AB'66; Katherine Dusak Miller,AB'65, MBA'68, PhD'71; Peter O. Vandervoort,AB'54, SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60; Marva Watkins,AB'63,The University of Chicago Magazine (ISSN-0041-9508) is published bimonthly (October,December, February, April, June, and August)by the University of Chicago in cooperation withthe Alumni Association, Robie House, 5757Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago IL 60637. Published continuously since 1907. Second-classpostage paid at Chicago and additional mailingoffices. POSTMASTER: Send address changesto the University of Chicago Magazine, AlumniRecords, Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. © 1995 Universityof Chicago. LettersBetter Franz than ElvisFranz Bibfeldt ("The UnbearableLightness of Being Bibfeldt," February/95) is not dead. He is retired andresides in Deerfield Beach, Florida.The enclosed $.17 check to the DonnelleyStool of Bibfeldt Studies is being sent at hisrequest. (I have matched his contribution.)Daniel Shevelenko, MBA'56Deerfield Beach, FloridaSharp turn aheadNo, it has never bothered me one bitthat the Romans counted theiryears backward — 753, 752, 751B.C. — (to answer a question to the readerin "The Unbearable Lightness of BeingBibfeldt"). Already possessing a classicaleducation, they had little else to worryabout. Besides, it served them right. But Ican't agree that the Fall of the RomanEmpire may be attributed to this fact. It'seven more likely that, since the Latin alphabet lacked the letter "U," their war chariotswere compelled to make V-turns, whichcaused them to tip over.It's odd that Bibfeldt's otherwise profoundtheological response to Either/Or fails toconsider Exclusive-And (A and B but notboth), which is sometimes used even by myrather old PC.Peter H. Greene, PhD'58Evanston, Illinois Questioning "Authority"J'm neither a conservative nor one ofthose "aggressive" (Bruce Lincoln's epithet) editorial writers on the Wall Streetfournal, that "elite organ of and for capital,"as he puts it ("Upstaging Authority," February/95). Nor, to quote the Divinity Schoolprofessor, do I speak venally for "others'interests," defend "financial interests," etc.Yet it is surprising to me to hear a responsible person, presumably on the political left,excusing and even condoning the behaviorof "activist" Rick Springer. His violentactions against a speaker on the rostrum, inthis case President Reagan in Las Vegas,were hardly defensible. On the contrary,they were most decidedly reprehensible.But the professor finds such actionspraiseworthy. One wonders if the nextthing he will be advocating will be tyrannicide, which is a more complete form, afterall, of what he calls defiance of authoritythat is in the religious tradition of the 16th-century Jesuits. Indeed, on that score, Lincoln may have sympathized with the tyran-nicidal plans of the Berrigan Brothers, who,it is said, plotted violence against an electedleader named Richard Nixon. To me, it borders on sophomoric negativism to condoneviolent behavior of this sort in this alreadyblood-soaked day and age, let alone heroizeone of its practitioners.Nor is my objection "hysterical," to useLincoln's pejorative for anyone who woulddare question the bizarre actions of someone like Springer, a ringer if there ever wasone. The professor needs to be remindedthat one very rational reason why suchbehavior alarms people is that it so offendsbasic democratic rules of order, or, if youwill, common sportsmanship. As the kidsfound out in Lord of the Flies (ProfessorLincoln, please read!), without such ruleswe'd come to resemble some such place aspost-Communist Russia or some otheranarchic free-for-all.Albert L. Weeks, AM'49Sarasota, FloridaFacts and authority figuresBruce Lincoln incorporates misconceptions in ancient history anddemography in regard to the GreekAssembly and the Roman Senate. "Each2 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995site," he writes, "commanded the attentionand respect of large audiences, sometimesapproximating the total population." Thereis no record of a universal gathering.Roman citizenship was extended to thewhole of Italy south of the River Po in 89B.C.; citizens numbered 900,000, accordingto the census of 70/69 B.C., when Cicerowas practicing law. And the Senate, beforewhich in 63 B.C. he delivered his speechesagainst Catiline, had been enlarged to 600 ascore years earlier by Sulla. The First SpeechAgainst Catiline occurred in the Temple ofJupiter Stator, instead of the Senate House,for the sake of safety.The population of the democracy ofAthens in 431 B.C. may have numbered310,000 (men, women, children, residentaliens, and slaves). Approximately 30,000adult male citizens were eligible to vote inthe Athenian assembly. But how manyattended and voted on any one occasion? Aquorum of 6,000 was required in the veryserious vote concerning an ostracism. Wemay infer that no greater number routinelygathered in the assembly to conduct thebusiness of the 1,000-square-rnile Atheniancity-state, which was called Attica.Citizen participation in Athenian publiclife nevertheless was intense. Statistically, itis most likely that every citizen served atleast once in his lifetime on the Council of500, the representative body whose members were chosen each year to prepare business for the deliberations of the assembly.Professor Lincoln, in discussing "authorized or authorizing places" for the "mass-production of the authority effect," wouldhave us believe that the "control over [theancient] sites was tightly managed, usuallyby an aristocratic oligarchy." In the case ofAthens, this is an unsuccessful hodiernalanalogy, but it should also be noted that theFounding Fathers of this Republic drewvaluable lessons from the age of Cicero andits antecedents.Lloyd B. Urdahl, PhD'59Rochester, New YorkBruce Lincoln responds: My thanks toLloyd Urdahl for the information he provides, even if my reference was to Homericassemblies, not Athenian. Albert Weeks'temperate remarks are also welcome.Although baffling at times (tyrannicide?Jesuits? poor sportsmanship?), they let meclarify some issues.The central questions in my book, Authority: Construction and Corrosion, include thefollowing. What exactly is authority?Where does it come from? How does itwork? How do speaker, content, style, andcontext interact in authoritative acts ofspeech? Who gets to speak in situations that invest speech with authority? Who isexcluded?When authority works efficiendy, it canobscure the processes of which it is theproduct. To cast light on those processes, Ichose to study dramatic episodes whenauthority was disrupted, then reestablisheditself. The article excerpted from my bookis one of five case studies, ranging fromHomeric Greece to the present. Although Ido not hide my preferences, my goal therewas not to celebrate Rick Springer or tomock Ronald Reagan. Rather, I wanted toexplore what was at stake in the momentthey struggled for the microphone; howeach one felt justified in staking their claim;and how others came to think about, comment upon, and pass judgment on theirstruggle.Apparently, Mr. Weeks doesn't think Ishould have written about the incident, justas he thinks the Wall Street foumal (whichhad not become the Main Street foumalwhen last I looked) rightly chastised CBSfor letting Springer make his views known.Personally, I appreciate the Magazine's willingness to print both my views and those ofmy critics.A right to luxury?J read with some distress Debra Shore'sarticle, "The Houses that GautreauxBuilt" (February/95). She describes withgreat detail and accuracy the history ofGautreaux v. the CHA and its connectionwith many U of C alums. She even tacitlyapproves of the CHA's new rent-subsidyprogram by citing some of its modest,albeit rather costly, successes.But the apartment occupied by NiokiePerry, profiled in the article, has a fairmarket value of about $l,000/month.Clearly, if we spend enough tax dollars wecan buy all CHA residents such luxurioushousing. But Shore fails to ask these important questions: Why does Niokie Perryhave a right to a huge rent subsidy and theattractive apartment that it can buy? Andwhy should taxpayers be forced to foot thebill to the tune of "$90,000 to $100,000"per unit? Finally, how can I get in on,rather than having to continuously pay for,this rather attractive deal?K. David Umlauf, AB'82Deerfield, IllinoisSweat inspirationJ was excited to read of efforts by BarryBauman, AM71, ("Chicago Journal,"February/95) to restore the Masque ofYouth mural in Ida Noyes Hall, but I wantto assure him that some students do indeed St John's CollegeSanta Fe, new MexicoLearning isa KIND OFNATURALTHE MIND- CiceroAnd a week of St. John's CollegeSummer Classics is the intellectualequivalent of a Thanksgiving feast.Where else can you go to readand discuss the greatestliterature, philosophy and operaof all time, explore one of theworld's most historic cities, visitpueblos and archeological sites,attend great opera, hike, fish andmuch more? If learning and playare important to you, we invite youto join us this summer.JULY16-22:Homier - IliadDostoevski - Crime & PunishmentSopkocles - Oedipus Rex,Oedipus at Colonus, AntigoneJULY 23 -29:Opera - Fanciulla and SalomeVirgil - The AeneidADrakaBa Lincoln andSelected F ounding DocumentsJULY 30 - AUGUST 5=Opera - Fanciulla & SalomeOH Testament - Genesis,Exodus, DeuteronomyINietzscke - Thus Spake ZarathustraTuition from $950/weekincludes room & board.write to: summer classics-u,St. John's CollegeSanta Fe, New Mexico 87501-4599(505)984-6104University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 3Experiencea RenaissanceRetirement.With its proximity to the University of Chicago, outstandingmuseums and the lure of the lakefront, Hyde Park has alwaysattracted individuals in search of intellectual and culturalstimulation.Today, those people are choosing to live at MontgomeryPlace, Hyde Park's only continuing-care retirement communityand a place where the pulse of the city enriches everyday life.Montgomery Place combines spectacular lakefrontviews, spacious rental apartments, an on-site Health CarePavilion and 24-hour security with a resident population steepedin the unique ambience of the community.If you're looking for an independent,secure retirement lifestyle enhanced by thestimulating environment only Hyde Park offers,send in the coupon or call Montgomery Place formore information today: (312) 288-3300.lift Montgomery ?UceD YES, I would like more information aboutMontgomery Place. I understand there is no obligation.D Married D Single D Widowed5550 South Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60637(312) 288-33000 Managed by Life Care Services Corporation IS know of the mural.I had the pleasure of encountering themural when, as a first-year law student, Iattended (of all things) aerobics classestaught in the third-floor theater by then lawstudent (now assistant law professor)Tracey Meares, JD'91. As I struggledthrough Tracey's rigorous classes, I drewinspiration from the lithesome figures inthe mural and, when seeking respite fromthe world of law, I would wander into IdaNoyes and take a mental stroll past thepeaceful scenes of the open-air masque.When next in Chicago, I will certainly visitIda Noyes to see the mural's figures in theirnewly restored beauty.Ann K. Adams, JD'93Alexandria, VirginiaOnly one of the Masque's four panels hasbeen worked on; however, as was noted byBarry Bauman, funding is being sought torestore the entire mural. — Ed.In defense of defenseMike Perlin ("Letters," February/95) applied the question, "Areyou better off now than four yearsago?" to the military over the last 50 years.He then recites a litany of U.S. "militaryadventures" during that time, apparentlyignoring the fact that in this country, foreign and defense policy are set not by themilitary but by the civilian leaders.Mr. Perlin obviously disagrees with thesepolicies but also extends his anger to themilitary, whom he blames for trillions"spent on destruction." Who ordered that"destruction," which in fact engenderedmany positive results, as in the security ofWestern Europe during a period of Sovietthreats, and also, eventually, the dissolutionof totalitarian communism that had dominated Eastern Europe for almost half a century? Not the military, which in thiscountry exists solely to carry out policy.Our survival as a nation is bound up withwhatever peace and order we can maintainin the world. Those of us who have chosento work for the military for various reasons(not "economic" — who is going to get richin the military?) feel we have performed afunction of some value to our country,Albert Schweitzer, who gave up a promising career as a theologian and philosopherto become a medical missionary in Africa,once observed that the only people who arereally happy are those who seek and findhow to serve. Unfortunately, not very manypeople would think of the armed forces asoffering this kind of opportunity.The truth, however, is that all of our otheropportunities for happiness through service4 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995depend on the skill and devotion of thosewhose military service has kept us from thehorror of a third world war. As Sir JohnSlessor put it in his book, Strategy of theWest: "It is customary in democratic countries to deplore expenditures on armamentsas conflicting... with social services. There isa tendency to forget that the most importantsocial service that a government can do forits people is to keep them alive and free."Harold L. Hitchens, AB'35, AM'36, PhD'59Colonel, USAF (Ret.)PittsburghChicago's only a click awayCongratulations on putting out anInternet version of the Magazine("Editor's Notes," February/95).Having lived overseas for the last few years,one of the things I miss is my regular"remembrance of things past." This pastDecember I managed to make it back toAlaska for Christmas after two years away.One of the pleasures (and chores) of beinghome was catching up on two years (!) ofMagazine back issues. I, for one, am pleasedby and grateful for your efforts.MatthewJ. Cordery, SB'85Canberra, AustraliaA reminder: You can find the Magazine onthe World Wide Web by visiting the U of CHome Page (http://www.uchicago.edu) andclicking on "News, Events, and Entertainment. "— Ed.McKeon sourceThe article on McKeon ("Will theReal Richard McKeon Please StandUp?" December/94) and subsequentletters have been very interesting to me, aformer graduate student in the philosophydepartment in the late '40s. I have been surprised, however, not to have seen somemention of the book Richard McKeon: AStudy (U of C Press, 1990), by George Kimball Plochmann, PhD'50. Plochmann suggests that the time is ripe for rediscovery ofMcKeon's philosophy.Arthur G. Olsson, PhB'47Nashua, New HampshireThe Magazine invites letters on the contentsof the magazine or on topics related to theUniversity. Letters for publication, which mustbe signed, may be edited for length and/orclarity. To ensure the widest range of voices,preference is given to letters of no more than300 words. Address letters to: Editor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757 WoodlawnAve., Chicago, IL 60637. The Internet addressis: uchicago-magazine@uchicago. edu. THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONInvites you to join distinguished faculty and alumni friends participatingin alumni travel /study programs during the coming months1995 Study TripsHistoric Cities of the SeaMay 18-30A voyage along the Western Mediterranean to cities in Italy, Sicily, Malta,Tunisia, Spain, and France that shaped the growth of Western civilization.Led by Professor Constantin Fasolt.Changing Tides of HistoryJuly 12-25Our trip to the Baltic Sea countries will explore economic and culturalchange in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland.Led by Professor D. Gale Johnson.AlaskaJuly 19-31This well-priced trip explores Alaska by land and sea.Led by Professor Michael Wade.Stratford, Ontario: Theater FestivalAugust 17-20Four days with five plays from Shakespeare to Shaffer.Led by Professor David Bevington.Behind the Mask of BaliSeptember 8-20We will study the complex religious and cultural heritage of Bali and Java.Led by Professor Frank Reynolds.SwitzerlandSeptember 11-19Our alumni campus abroad in the Bernese Oberlandfeatures Professor Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, author ofFlow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.The Journey of OdysseusSeptember 11-27Beginning at the site of Troy, our cruise retraces the voyage of Odysseusthrough the ancient Mediterranean. Led by Professor Herman Sinaiko.For further information or to be added to our travel/study mailing list,contact Alumni Travel, University of Chicago Alumni Association,5757 Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. 312/702-2160.Internet: dwegnie@ucfiimvsl.uchicago.eduUniversity of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 5When you visitChicago fora weekend,a week,or a month,stay atWOODED ISLE SUITES— studio andone-bedroomapartmentsfurnished toprovide you ahome away fromhome.Walk to the Universityof Chicago or theMuseum of Scienceand Industry, strollalong the lakefront,catch the bus or trainto the Loop, dine at anearby restaurant, ormake your own dinnerin your Suite.Come "home" toWooded Isle Suitesand relax after a dayof research,studying, meetings,or sightseeing.WOODED ISLE SUITES5750 South Stony Island AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637312-288-55781-800-290-6844 EventsExhibitionsDiana Thater: China, through April 23. With apair of Hollywood-trained white wolves as her subjects, the L.A. artist has created a video installationexamining nature, culture, and television. Thater'swork confronts the optical and social aspects oftelevision and its pervasiveness. The RenaissanceSociety; call 702-8670.Post-War Chicago Works on Paper and Sculpture, through June 1. The exhibit features works byChicago artists with an interest in outsider and folkart, including Leon Golub, AB'42; Jim Nutt; GladysNilsson; and Ed Paschke. Smart Museum; call 702-0200.Innovations and Innovators: The School of SocialService Administration's Contribution to SocialWork Practice, 1945-1975, through June 12. Honoring the 50th anniversary of the late CharlotteTowle's Common Human Needs, the exhibit focuseson the SSA professor emerita's three decades of practice. Special Collections; call 702-8705.Planes, Trains, and Automobiles: The Transportation Revolution in Children's Books, throughJuly 10. This exhibit examines how illustrators inseveral countries exploited the great changes intravel and transportation that followed the adventof the railroad and highlights books that appearedbetween the two world wars. Special Collections;call 702-8705.Madness in America: Cultural and Medical Perceptions of Mental Illness before 1914, April13—June 11. Examining visual images and conceptsof "madness" in 18th- and 19th-century America,the 150 objects displayed include medical drawings,illustrations, advertisements, cartoons, and photographs. Each piece depicts insanity in some form,revealing how it has been defined and redefined.Smart Museum; call 702-0200. (See "Center Stage.")Stan Douglas: Evening, May 10-June 10. Evening,a video project shot in five weeks on location inChicago, explores how national broadcasts of local-news coverage first aided and later distorted thecivil-rights movement in Chicago. The work follows three fictionalized TV stations as they strugglewith social unrest, the "happy talk" news format,and TV journalism's mission. The Renaissance Society; call 702-8670.Stan Douglas: Hors-Champs, June 11-June 30. Aperiod piece that recreates the jazz movement of the1960s, Hors-Champs uses a two-camera videoformat from the '60s to record a quartet performingAlbert Ayler's Spirits Rejoice. Douglas, who completed the piece in 1992, dedicated it to the residents of South Central L.A. The RenaissanceSociety; call 702-8670.LecturesW. H. Hoover/D. R. Sharp Lectures, April 23-25.Speakers including Bemice Johnson Reagon, Clay-borne Carson, and Taylor Branch address the theme"Our God Is Able: A Retrospective on the Civil-Rights Movement as an Ecumenial and InterfaithMovement." Swift Hall; call 702-7170.Works of the Mind Lectures, April 30 at 2 p.m.Continuing Studies lecturer George Anastaplo, AB'48, JD'51, PhD'64, speaks on "Mark Twain onPolitics and Law." On May 21 at 2 p.m., Englishprofessor David Bevington lectures on "Aging andDying in King Lear." Judd Hall; call 702-1722.John M. Olin Center "The Virtues of ModernDemocracy" Series, May 10 at 4 p.m. GeorgeWeigel, president of the Ethics and Public PolicyCenter. Social Science Research Building; call 702-3423.Ryerson Lecture, May 18 at 5:30 p.m. DivinitySchool professor Wendy Doniger on "Myths andMethods in the Dark." Ida Noyes Hall; call 702-8369.MusicContemporary Chamber Players Ensemble, April21 at 8 p.m. Stephen Mosko conducts works by Yi,Druckman, Eaton, and Babbitt. Mandel Hall; call702-8068.Beaux Arts Trio, April 28 at 8 p.m. The trio performs works by Mozart, Baker, and Schubert as partof the Chamber Music Series. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.University Symphony Orchestra: New MusicShowcase, April 29 at 8 p.m. Barbara Schubert,X'79, conducts works by U of C graduate studentsRicardo Lorenz, Sebastian Huydts, and StacyGarrop. Mandel Hall; call 702-8069.Blackwood Concert Series, April 30 at 7:30 p.m.Professor and pianist Easley Blackwood performshis work Ten Experimental Pieces in Rhythm andHarmony, as well as sonatas by Scriabin andBrahms. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.Organ Recital, April 30 at 5 p.m. Bruce Neswickperforms works by Howells, Messaien, and Hcrlby.Rockefeller Chapel; call 753-1191.University Chamber Orchestra, May 13 at 8 p.m.Antoinette Arnold conducts. Goodspeed RecitalHall; call 702-8069.Organ Recital, May 14 at 5 p.m. Wolfgang Rubsamperforms. Rockefeller Chapel; call 753-1191.University Wind Ensemble, May 14 at 3 p.m,Wayne G. Gordon conducts. Mandel Hall; call 702-8069.Contemporary Chamber Players Ensemble Annual Young Composers' Concert, May 19 at 8 p.m,Barbara Schubert, X'79, conducts a program ofworld-premiere compositions by graduate-studentcomposers. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.New Music Ensemble, May 21 at 8 p.m. BarbaraSchubert, X'79, conducts. Goodspeed Recital Hall;call 702-8069."The Ten Plagues" from Israel in Egypt, May 26at 8 p.m. Edward Funk, AB'92, conducts the University of Chicago Chorus in this work by Handel,Rockefeller Chapel; call 753-1 191.University Symphony Orchestra, May 27 at 8p.m. Barbara Schubert, X'79, conducts Beethoven'sEgmont Overture, Dvorak's Heldenlied, and Strauss'Ein Heldenlehen, presenting the "heroic perspectives" of the three major 19th-century composers,Mandel Hall; call 702-8069.Contemporary Chambers Players Ensemble, June2 at 8 p.m. Stephen Mosko conducts works by Kim,Hovda, Yim, and Smith. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.Soir d'Ete: French Choral Music for a Summer'sEvening, June 2 at 8 p.m. Bruce Tammen, AM'74,ERS1TYconducts the Motet Choir. University Church; call702-8484.Mostly Music Concert, June 11 at 4 p.m. CubeContemporary Chamber Ensemble presents "Variations on America," with works by Ives, CrawfordSeeger, Cage, Ewart, and Oliveros. Smart Museum;call 702-0200.TheaterThe Misanthrope, through May 14. Performed inrotating repertory with Travesties, Moliere's playconcerns a moral man forced to face his hypocrisywhen he falls in love with a woman who embodieseverything he hates. Court Theatre; call 753-4472.Travesties, through May 14. Set in Zurich in1917 — when James Joyce, Vladmir Lenin and Tristan Tzara all happened to be in the city — Tom Stop-pard's play brings the characters together in anexploration of art, politics, and love. Court Theatre;call 753-4472.Off-Off Campus: Spring Quarter Revue, Fridaysat 9 p.m., April 21-May 26. Off-Off Campus provesstudent improv is alive and well. UniversityChurch, second-floor theater; call 702-3414.An Evening of Peformance Art, April 26-27 at 8p.m. University Theater presents There Is No MoreFirmament by Antonin Artaud, Bad Angel of Fire by Terri Hudson, and Don't Look and It Won't Hurt byJessica Young. Reynolds Club first-floor theater; call702-3414.Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, May 3-6at 8 p.m. In Hamlet, Rosencrantz and Guildensternare bit characters and old friends of the Danishprince. University Theater performs Tom Stop-pard's vision of what might have gone on behindthe scenes of Shakespeare's play. Reynolds Clubfirst-floor theater; call 702-3414.An Evening of Albee and Ives, May 10—11 at 8p.m. UT performs Edward Albee's Finding the Sunand David Ives' English Made Simple. Reynolds Clubfirst-floor theater; call 702-3414,California Suite, May 12-13 at 8 p.m. UT presentsthree scenes from this Neil Simon play. F. X. Kinahan Theater; call 702-3414.A Streetcar Named Desire, May 17-20 at 8 p.m.In Tennessee Williams' acclaimed play, Southerneccentricities become tragic flaws when Blanchevisits her sister, Stella. F. X. Kinahan Theater; call702-3414.Inferno!, May 25-27 and May 31-June 3 at 8 p.m,(The May 27 and June 2 shows begin at 10 p.m.) Inthe century-old tradition of the University Blackfri-ars, two College students have created an originalmusical. The show is based on Dante's Inferno, witha few twists: The poem has become a medieval rock musical, where each infernal circle is ringed notonly with a song, but a healthy bit of irony.Reynolds Club first-floor theater; call 702-3414.On the QuadsBiomechanics: Why Flies Can Walk on the Ceiling and We Can't, May 6-7. The Continuing Studies program and the Alumni Association present aweekend exploration of the natural science of biomechanics: the interface between animals and thephysical forces in their environment. Led by professors Andrew Biewener, Michael Dickinson, andMichael LaBarbera, the seminar ranges from themechanical properties of bone and snail shells tothe principles underlying lift generation by wings.Science Quadrangle; call 702-2160.In the CityFirst Friday Lecture Series, first Friday of everymonth at 12:15 p.m. May 5: Continuing Studies lecturer Claudia Traudt, AM'81, on '"What Else CanOne Do in the Time Before Sunset?' Thoughts — andFeelings — on Plato's Phaedo." June 2: ContinuingStudies lecturer Joseph Alulis, AB'71, AM'77,PhD'87, on "Tocqueville and Revolution." ChicagoCultural Center; call 702-1722.Center StageWhen Trees Grow on Money: Under the stress of extremepoverty, 20th-century American landscape painter RalphAlbert Blakelock began showing signs of mental illness — particularly in matters of money. He spent the last years of his life inan asylum, where he tried to carry out financial transactionswith a large bankroll made up of landscapes he had painted inthe size, shape, and colors of currency.Blakelock's "currency" is among 150 objects presented by theSmart Museum in Madness in America: Cultural and Medical Perceptions of Mental Illness before 1914. Using artwork, advertisements, cartoons, photographs, and medical texts and instruments, the exhibit looks at depictions and perceptions of mentalillness in America from the opening of the first colonial hospitalin 1751 to the start of World War I. It also traces changing treatments and intertwining medical and cultural conceptions ofmental illness. Americans of an earlier era experienced and dealtwith insanity as both an illness and a spiritual condition.Through the years, issues of mental illness played a role in political and social debates over abolitionism, women's rights, andalternative medicine. The exhibit also examines how the boundaries between sane and insane activity have been drawn andredrawn in such areas as criminal and sexual behavior.To complement the exhibit, the Smart Museum and the U ofC Film Studies Center are presenting a series of lectures andfilms on "Visual Madness: Perceptions of Mental Illness in Popular and High Culture." This series, which runs through May25, explores how insanity is visibly manifested, and how massand high cultures have attempted to depict and understandmadness. The exhibit remains at the Smart until June 11 andwas organized by the Binghamton University Art Museum, StateUniversity of New York at Binghamton, in cooperation withPennsylvania Hospital and the Arthur Ross Gallery. — QJ.Painter Ralph Albert Blakelock's imagined wealth consisted ofhis bill-sized landscapes, like these watercolors on cloth.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 7hkagojourndFOR THE RECORDReturn engagement:W. Clarfc Gilpin,AM'72, PhD74, hasbeen appointed to asecond term as dean ofthe Divinity School. Anoted authority onAmerican religion andtheological education,Gilpin joined Chicago'sfaculty in 1984. He isnow researching the"letter from prison" asa genre of religious literature, using examples from the ApostlePaul to Martin LutherKing.Law and honors: CassSunstein, the LawSchool's Karl N.Llewellyn professor ofjurisprudence, has beennamed a distinguishedservice professor. TheNational Law Journalrecently picked Sunstein for its annual listof America's mostinfluential lawyers. University trustees add $150 millionto five-year Campaign for Next CenturyI N AN EFFORT TO BOOST THE UNI-versity's long-term fiscalhealth, Chicago's board oftrustees has voted to increase theCampaign for the Next Century'sgoal by $150 million.The board approved the goalincrease, from $500 million to$650 million, at its Februarymeeting, and also named a newchair to head the campaign:Harvey Plotnick, AB'63, who succeeds B. Kenneth West, MBA'60(see related story, right).There are no plans to extend thelength of the drive, which waslaunched during the 1991 Centennial celebration and is scheduled to end June 30, 1996. Thenew goal — by far the largest in theUniversity's history — is achievable, said President Hugo Sonnenschein, given the success to dateof the campaign, which reached$455 million at the end of 1994."The larger goal acknowledgesneeds that are absolutely imperative," Sonnenschein explained ina Magazine interview. (For thefull text of his remarks on thecampaign and other topics, seepage 32.)One major goal of the campaignhas been to increase the University's endowment by nearly 25percent in order to increase support for faculty positions andresearch, library acquisitions andenhancement, and College scholarships and graduate fellowships,"This is lifeblood," said Sonnenschein, "for a university thatdefines itself in terms of facultyquality and cares so deeply thatthe education it offers will remain available to those who wouldprofit most from that education."The new goal, said Sonnenschein, also acknowledges somecritical facilities needs. Despitethe completion of the DowntownCenter and the Biological SciencesLearning Center/Jules F. KnappMedical Research Building,"urgent needs remain," said Son nenschein. "As a first step, we'veset a $20-million goal toward asubstantial improvement of ourathletic facilities.""Above all," Sonnenscheinstated, the campaign increase"recognizes that in order for theUniversity to continue to satisfyits very high level of aspirations,fund-raising needs to be broughtPlotnick: Setting campaign prioritiesA S THE NEW CHAIR OF THECampaign for the NextCentury, "Harvey Plotnick will build on our successin strengthening Chicago forthe next century," said President Hugo Sonnenschein,adding, "we owe a great debt ofgratitude to Ken West" — whohad led the five-year campaignsince its October 1991 beginning — "for his leadership ofthis historic effort."From 1967 to 1994, Plotnick,AB'63, was president and CEOof Contemporary Books. Underhis leadership, the companybecame one of the nation'slargest publishers of adultbasic-education instructionalmaterials.Elected to the board oftrustees in 1994, Plotnickheads the board's developmentcommittee, chairs the College andstudent activities visiting committee, and is a member of theAlumni Association's board ofgovernors. He and his wife havealso endowed the Elizabeth andHarvey Plotnick Scholarship fund Strong finisher: Campaign chair Plotnichfor students who finance theireducation largely on their own."I am very pleased," said Plotnick, "that the trustees haveunanimously voted to increase thecampaign's goal — and I'm proudthat they have personally committed themselves to seeing that we8 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995to a new level and sustained at that level overthe long run. This willbe a challenge for us all,and 1 am heartened thatthe trustees, collectivelyand as individuals, havemade a strong commitment."Donations have riseneach year of the campaign, with last year'sgifts surpassing $100million for the first timein Chicago's history.As has traditionallybeen the case at Chicago,a majority of fund-raising support has come Home improvement: Plans call for restoring Robie House to its original state.from individual donors.More than $275 million of cam- Robie House to become museumpaign support has come fromindividuals — with Universitytrustees providing more than $62million of that total. Foundationshave made gifts or grants ofnearly $106 million, and corporations have donated more than$41 million. New life for Wright masterpiecePfinal, critical monthsachieve it."The campaign will now focus onthree critical areas, Plotnick said:endowed support both for facultypositions and for student fellowships and scholarships, and fundsfor the construction of a new athletic complex."The campaign so far hasbrought in wonderful support forChicago," Plotnick said. "Butthose of us who care about thework of the University must raisemore funds for the fundamentalobjectives of the campaign."These priorities all grow out ofthe same overriding concern: theUniversity's people," Plotnickadded. "This university hasalways attracted the best facultyand provided for the mostpromising students. We must provide the resources they need toexcel to the limit of their substantial abilities."Plotnick's predecessor, HarrisBankcorp chair B. Kenneth West,MBA'60, will continue to serve onthe University's board of trustees,which he chaired from 1985 to1988. | LANS HAVE BEEN ANNOUNCED'to restore Robie House,designed by Frank LloydWright and owned by the University, and to turn the architecturalmarvel into a museum.In March, the University agreedto a plan that will lead to its eventual leasing of the 85-year-oldhouse — located just east of themain campus at 58th and Woodlawn — to the Oak Park-basedFrank Lloyd Wright Home andStudio Foundation.Although tours of the exteriorand three rooms are currentlygiven daily, most of the interior isclosed to the public. Under theplan, the entire Robie House willbe opened and the University'sAlumni Association offices, whichpresently occupy much of thebuilding, will be relocated. TheWright Foundation has alsoestablished a fund-raising goal of$2.5 million that will be used torestore the house as closely aspossible to its original state."Robie House is a national treasure on our campus," says President Hugo Sonnenschein, "and wehope that through the WrightFoundation we can restore thisarchitectural masterpiece andmake it accessible to more people."For the foundation, which oversees the architect's Oak Parkhome and studio, the partnership"represents an opportunity toencourage an expanded under standing of Wright's creativity,"says the foundation's head,Natalie Hale. "Just as Wright'shome and studio anticipates thePrairie style, Robie House represents its fullest expression."It is hoped the partnership willalso provide a permanent safeharbor in the home's sometimesstormy history. Since its 1910completion, when it was described by one neighbor as a "battleship" and by another as a "disgrace," the visionary house hassurvived its share of slings andarrows — culminating in the late1950s when its then owner, aHyde Park seminary, announcedplans to raze the structure tomake room for a dormitory.At age 87, Wright himself led anational outcry to save his masterpiece. Despite public pressure,University administrators at firstwere reluctant to take responsibility for the house, in fairly drasticdisrepair at the time. After a collective of admirers agreed to raisefunds needed for initial restoration, the U of C assumed ownership in 1963 — leasing it, in turn,to the Adlai Stevenson Institutefor Advanced Studies.In 1970, the "battleship" endured more salvos when studentsprotesting the Stevenson Institute's alleged connection to theVietnam War smashed windowsand wrecked some furniture.(Currently, most of the Wright- Model citizens: Morethan 150 U of C students organized andmoderated this February's seventh annualModel United NationsoftheUofC(MUNUC)conference. Some 1,800high-school studentsfrom across the U.S.attended the gathering,in which participantsare assigned differentcountries and committees in order to simulate the workings of theU.N. assembly.Approval rating: Mostrespondents to a pair ofgraduate- student surveys approved of theirChicago experience,according to the faculty-led Council on Teaching report. In the 1 993survey of degree recipients, 80 percentreported "good," "verygood, " or "excellent"experiences withintheir programs. In a1 994 survey, 76 percent reported a good toexcellent experience.I got you, babe: It wasa double celebration inFebruary for EricaKwaza (above) and hernewborn son, Luke.Luke was born onValentine's Day — justin time to partake inceremonies markingthe 100th anniversaryof the University'sLying-in Hospital.Luke's mom was bornat the hospital, whichspecializes in obstetrics& gynecology, as wereboth of his siblings.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 9Favoring reform:Developer and philanthropist HowardLandau, PhB'24, gave$1 million to the U ofC's Center for SchoolImprovement, established in 1989 to helpChicago public schoolsbenefit from changesmade possible byschool reform. With hispartner, the late Herbert Heyman, PhB'31,Landau developed someof Chicago's first shopping centers. The twomen also established aprogram for not-for-profit community organizations interested inbuilding low- and moderate-income housingClear vision: Ophthalmology chair J. TerryErnest, MD'61,PhD'67, received a$100,000 grant fromResearch to PreventBlindness. Supportinggeneral research —including studies oncolor vision and retinaland visual-cortex organization — the awardwill also help developthe department's retinal-transplantationprogram.Good therapy: FromaWalsh, PhD'77, professor in the School ofSocial Service Administration, received herfield's highest honor:the American FamilyTherapy Academy's1995 award for distinguished contribution tofamily-therapy theory. Wright's way: The "battleship"(under construction, right) shockedmany in the campus neighborhood.designed furniture is safely storedat the U of C's Smart Museum ofArt.) Robie House was the development office headquarters from1975 to 1980, when the AlumniAssociation moved in.The home is now an architectural mecca, attracting visitorsfrom around the world. The startof a typical noon tour findsdozens of tourists packed into thecramped entrance hall (Wrightwanted visitors to feel impelled tomove to more open areas of thehouse). Students often sprawl onthe grass, intently sketching thefloating planes, low terraces, andoversized roof sections that givethe structure its distinctive style.For Wright, Robie House provided the first opportunity to fullyexplore his "Prairie" style — a termthat refers to the Wisconsin-bomarchitect's desire to make homeslook natural on their flat Midwestern sites by using clean, horizontal lines to link the structuresto the level earth. Wright found akindred spirit in bicycle manufacturer Frederick Robie, whowanted to build a house with natural light and open interiors — andwithout the small, high-ceilingedrooms, vertical exteriors, draperies, and other Victorian conventions of the day.It was a decidedly American-style home that Robie and hiswife, Lora — an alumna of theUniversity (PhB'00) who proposed building the house in HydePark — moved into in 1910.Although designed to fit Robie'sgeneral specifications, every inchof the home bespeaks the architect's influence — including theceilings, which he insisted be lowered to accommodate "normalheight," defined by Wright as hisown 5-foot-8-inch frame.The house also features severalarchitectural innovations: a natural air-conditioning system, self-watering planters, and what isprobably the first attached three-car garage in the U.S. — a claimwell-known to Magazine staffers,who have made the revampedgarage their home office for thepast 15 years. From our back pagesWarning — falling cubes (April/35): "Lightning struck MitchellTower and splattered 200-pound cubes of Indiana limestonethrough the roofs beneath." No injuries, but one block rippedthrough an auto's roof. ..To raise money for their class gift, seniorshost a Fieldhouse Fandango, with Ferris wheels, games of chance,and "dare-devil stunts." The top raffle prize: a free trip to Banff andLake Louise.... U of C chemists isolate and prepare "in pure, crystalline form the principle of ergot" that, in small doses, induces"strong, rhythmic contractions" in women giving birth.0 K-rations (April/45): Physiology professor Anton J. Carlsonmakes a three-day test of the Army's K-ration diet. "If you arehungry," he reports, "it goes down like honey on wafers. "...Seventeen magazine runs an article on the College, "written with some ofthe glib synthetic language of the bobby sox young. "...As part of aninfantry division in search of snipers, Lt. Harry R. Stevens, PhD '46,reports finding a copy of the University of Chicago Magazine on thelibrary floor of an abandoned, shell-torn house outside of Manila,Ladies first (March-April/55): A fashion spoof, performed byfaculty wives at the annual trustees' dinner, features a Paris cou-turiere who reminds the ladies: "Remember... you're a woman, eventhough you're a professor's wife. "...The first annual University Festival of the Arts is held in April, a four-day celebration of art, music,drama, and dance, "culminating with the gaily costumed Beaux ArtsBall" in Hutchinson Commons.... A group of Bell Lab scientists,including alumnus Calvin Fuller, SB'26, PhD'29, invent the world'sfirst solar battery.A grand old era (April/65): The March 17 death of "the GrandOld Man," U of C football coach Amos Alonzo Stagg, at age102, "symbolizes the passing of an era. "...In Mandel Hall, theChicago Symphony Orchestra gives a world-premiere performanceof music professor Easley Blackwood's Symphony No. 3. ...Despite a"bargain" price of $100,000 that includes "300 tons of concreteshielding as a bonus," the University has no takers in its sale of a100-million electron-volt betatron — once used by Enrico Fermi butnow outdated by more powerful equipment.1 0 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995Lack of fundingcloses CrossroadsTHE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OFCrossroads InternationalStudent Center reluctantlyvoted to close the center on June30, due to insufficient funding.Board president HildegardDoner explained the decision in aletter to friends of Crossroads —an agency of the Inter-CulturalAssociation that has offered fourdecades of cultural, educational,and social programs for international students, faculty, and staff.When longtime volunteer directors Teddy Gerardy and DenyseSnyers retired in 1992, the association's directors decided to hire apaid staff and seek additionalfunding sources. Despite efforts toimprove the financial situation,wrote Dorrer, "it became obviousthat sufficient additional fundscould not be secured."Although faced with budgetconstraints of their own, directorsof International House, the Office of International Affairs, and theUniversity Dean of Students officesay they will do what they can tomake up for the loss."It's a sad passing of an institution that has played an importantrole in the community for 40years," noted Ralph Nicholas,AM'58, PhD'62, executive directorof International House. "It is noweven more important to ensurethat the programs and servicesestablished by Crossroads are notabandoned."Nicholas said that InternationalHouse plans to offer more activities for married international students and visitors and theirfamilies, as well as for single students. Several cooperative programs with Crossroads — holidayswith American families, weekendoutings, and national celebrations — will be continued by International House.The dean of students office alsohopes, "through existing organizations on campus, to pick up asmany of the programs that weresupported by Crossroads as possi-Cajun style: The Student Alumni Association sponsored Mardi Gras'95 in February, complete with New Orleans cuisine and zydeco bands. ble," said Edward Cook, University dean of students and associateprovost for graduate affairs. Cookadded that the Graduate Affairsoffice also offers resources thatcan assist current and incominginternational students.Program bringsclass to alumniALUMNI ARE INVITED TO REVISITU of C classrooms as thefirst session of Chicago forAlumni is offered this summer.The new program gives Chicagoalumni and their spouses thechance to sit in on courses taughtby some of the U of C's best faculty, mix with students, use theLibrary's extensive resources, andpartake in summer cultural eventsat a special price of $300 peraudited course (no grades, exams,or term papers), or for credit at$1,300 per course."We are happy to have thischance to invite alumni back toparticipate directly in the academic heart of the University," saidDean of the College John Boyer,AM'69, PhD'75. "I know frommeeting with alumni how muchthose of us in the academic community have to learn from ouralumni, and I feel strongly thatthey should have this opportunityto share in the intellectual lifethat makes Chicago great."Boyer himself will teach a section of the College's classic Western Civ course. Other instructorsand courses include: HermanSinaiko, AB'47, PhD'61: Readingsin World Literature; James Red-held, AB'54, PhD'61: Self, Culture,and Society; and Vera Dragisich,PhD'90: Organic Chemistry.The program runs June 29-August 26 (individual classes varyin length and frequency). Auditors must register by June 1, orincur a late fee. Early registrationis encouraged. InternationalHouse has accommodations available for alumni during thesummer quarter. For more information on Chicago for Alumni,call 312/702-6033.Written and compiled by TimAndrew Obermiller. Business starter: AsARCH DevelopmentCorporation's newpresident and CEO,Thomas Churchwellwill oversee commercial ventures developedfrom research at theUniversity andArgonne National Laboratory. Founded in1986, the GSB-basedARCH has launched 16new companies to date.A former ARCH vicepresident, Churchwellsucceeds StevenLazarus, who becamedirector of ARCH FundII — a related venture-capital fund.Hoop dream: Thewomen's basketballteam, including seniorforward Nadine Horning (white jersey,above), advanced to theNCAA Division IIIchampionships inMarch — the first postseason appearance inthe team's 95-year history. The women lost inthe first round, but finished 9-5 in their regular season.Swedes select: Mathprofessor William E.Fulton was namedSweden's Erlander Professor for the comingacademic year. Namedafter former PrimeMinister Tage Erlander, the award is givenby the Swedish natural-sciences research council. A specialist inalgebraic geometry,Fulton plans to spendthe year at Stockholm'sMittag-Leffler Institute.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 1 1InvestigationsWow, Wow, Voucher!Privatizer: Robert Vishny helped over 14,000 Russian businesses change hands.Free-marketeers, rejoice.Homo oeconomicus, saysRobert Vishny, is alive andwell and living in Russia.BETWEEN 1992 AND 1994, TWO-THIRDSof Russia's industrial workforce leftthe public payrolls for the privatesector — without even changing jobs.Through privatization, the companiesthemselves went from state-owned assets toprivate corporations, each with a board,corporate charter, and tradable stock. Injust 22 months, the remarkable reform program auctioned newly created shares inover 14,000 companies, exchanging theshares for inexpensive vouchers offered toall 147 million Russian citizens. In the newfederation's struggle to remake its communist economy, privatization became thatrarest of things: a successful governmentprogram. One poll showed more than 60percent of Russians supporting it — in 1994,the song "Wow, Wow, Voucher!" even roseto number five on the country's hit parade.Privatization, which concluded in July1994, has proven an economic boon, saysRobert Vishny, a young Chicago economistwho is one of the program's architects. Yetmost Western experts and Russian reformers, he says, originally ranked other reformsas higher priorities: ending centralized pricecontrols — which Yeltsin's government didwithin months of gaining power in November 1991 — and stabilizing the money supply, where growth in the face of budgetdeficits helped fuel runaway inflation.Despite reformers' ongoing troubles withfiscal policy — and with antireformers inParliament — privatization began early andfinished quickly, allowing new privatecompanies to start changing themselvesinto profitable enterprises. Vishny, anexpert in corporate finance and the Eric J.Glcachcr professor at the Graduate Schoolof Business, became involved in privatization through the connections of his fre quent research partner Andrei Shleifer, aRussian emigre currently at Harvard Business School and formerly at the GSB. Theyworked with economist Maxim Boycko andlawyer Jonathan Hay, both from Russia'sprivatization ministry.The Western-trained team, says Vishny,shared the philosophy that privatizationcouldn't wait. Above all, they saw politicalinfluence as the Russian economy's basicproblem. Foreign investment — a strategysuggested by some experts — would helplittle, they argued, as long as governmentministries determined companies' products,access to capital and subsidies, and employment and output levels. Freeing a company from such control, says Vishny, tells itsmanager, "You're now the owner of thisthing, and if you can manage to produce agood product at a profit, you can keep it."But would Russian managers take up thechallenge? As Vishny, Boycko, and Shleiferrecount in Privatizing Russia, published thismonth by MIT Press, their team felt certainthat Russians, "like the rest of the people inthe world, were 'economic men' who responded rationally to incentives." Indeed, asurvey that Boycko helped conduct showedthat Americans and Russians hold very similar views of private property and markets.Vishny and company decided the trickwas to balance the central government's1 2 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995interests with those of employees, managers, and local government. (Companiesinvolved with defense, natural resources, orhealth care, for example, were prohibitedfrom privatizing.) A giant sell-off to outsideinvestors would raise cash but anger theRussian populace. Giving companies awayto employees and managers would be popular but would risk repeating the economicdisaster of Russia's collective farms.At first, experts with other privatizationschemes vied for the ear of AnatolyChubais, appointed to lead the new privatization ministry in late 1991. But by early1992, the free-market arguments ofVishny's team won out. They creditChubais's political skills — aided by the Parliament's initially weak opposition — withthe program's quick start.Making regular trips to Russia, Vishnyand the other advisers drafted privatizationregulations, while the reform politicians, hesays, were the "big-picture thinkers," fittingpolicy into political reality. Parliamentpassed most of the plan in early 1992 butsoon dug in its heels against further reform.So the president, recalls Vishny, used otheravenues to finish the job: "Sometimes wewould write something, and Yeltsin wouldissue it as a decree." By mid-1993, whenantireformers launched a new bid to endprivatization, the policy was already toopopular to stop.The key, explains Vishny, was thevoucher, which had a face value of 10,000rubles and cost only 25 rubles (10 cents).Privatization gave or sold a fraction of eachcompany's stock to its managers andemployees and specified that 29 percent ofall stock be auctioned, through vouchers,to the general public. Ninety-eight percentof Russians purchased a voucher, and Russian television heavily advertised the newprogram. "Once you've thrown the voucherout there," says Vishny, "the prospect ofnot having any companies for people to bidfor is politically unpalatable."Another popular feature: Vouchers couldbe swapped for cash, stock, or shares inhundreds of new voucher-investmentfunds, which function like Americanmutual funds. Entrepreneurs began tradingvouchers both door-to-door and at commodity exchanges. There, large investorscould buy enough vouchers to acquire sizable percentages of desirable companies,where, Vishny says, they've become essential voices for change at the corporate level.Such corporate restructuring is the nextstep in reform, he says. Profitability maymean "changing the product profile, investing in some equipment, starting to advertise, or paying a little more attention towhat the consumer wants." Subsidies, how ever, still allow the government to controlsome private firms. Companies may be paidto pad their workforce — often becausethey, not local government, supply servicessuch as health care — and ignore the profitsof greater efficiency. "If the subsidies areflowing too readily," warns Vishny, "theincentives provided by private ownershipwon't be sufficient."The solution, he says, is to discontinuesuch credits, shift social services to localgovernments, and lessen corruption andcrime. All reforms, though, are threatenedby political instability — unrest in Chechnyaand other areas, fights between the president and Parliament, and resentmentamong pensioners, whose fixed incomeshave been whittled away by inflation. Theirplight, says Vishny, is a political opportunity for ex-communists or fascists.For the moment, he says, the economicsituation continues to show "a lot of positive signs. There's construction, people arebuilding homes, and the products in thestores are better." Fiscal policy, too, hasbecome more responsible, lowering inflation. News reporters in the West, heobserves, "don't really appreciate the extentto which the markets are working." Moreover, "you now have powerful interestgroups interested in getting the government out of economic activity." Thanks toprivatization, 40 million Russians now ownstock — a force for reform, he notes, lackingin Eastern European economies that took aslow approach to change.Vishny and Shleifer are still studying privatization — now in the United States. Withdata on 3,000 U.S. counties, they're lookingfor factors that predict when municipal services are farmed out to private contractors.So far they've found two: Politicians privatize when under budget pressure and whenthe patronage benefits from job appoint ments are minimal. Market incentives,apparently, aren't the only point in commonbetween Russia and America. — A.C.Cook's Tour RevisitedIn January 1778, sailing from Tahiti ona search for the Northwest Passage,Captain James Cook's two ships madethe first European contact with the Hawaiian islands. To the Hawaiians, though,Cook was no ordinary sea captain: A seriesof coincidences between his arrival andtheir own religious traditions led to thebelief that Cook was a form of Lono, a deitycelebrated in the New Year's festival duringwhich he arrived. In a return visit, on theshores of Hawai'i Island, the same beliefcontributed to Cook's death, and the Cook-Lono connection has been a staple ofHawaiian history ever since.But did the Hawaiians really see Cook as agod, as Chicago anthropologist MarshallSahlins and others have maintained? Or isthat explanation merely the ethnocentricinvention of Westerners, ascribing toHawaiians a notion that the native peoplewere, in fact, far too rational to believe?Gananath Obeyesekere presented thisalternative in his award-winning 1992book, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook: European Mythmaking in the Pacific. Obeyesekere, a Princeton anthropologist, arguedthat Lono was simply a name that Hawaiians gave Cook, a mortal with the status ofa chief. Obeyesekere also challengedanother "myth": The famous British navigator was not an enlightened explorer but,during his final voyage, a man of violenceakin to Cortes and the conquistadors.If Captain Cook embodied the dark sideof Western imperialism, wrote Obeyesekere, his accomplices — at least in theirThe fatal shore: Kealakekua Bay on Hawai'i, where islanders killed Captain Cook in1779. From a drawing by a member of Cook's crew, whose ships are anchored offshore.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 1 3The fatal shore: Kealakekua Bay on Hawai'i, where islanders killed Captain Cook in1779. From a drawing by a member of Cook's crew, whose ships are anchored offshore.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 1 3Separated at birth? Captain Cook and apetroglyph of Lono, the Hawaiian godassociated with fertility and the New Year.symbolic destruction of Hawaiian culture —are his modern-day interpreters, a groupheaded by Oceania scholar Sahlins, chair ofanthropology at Chicago.Indeed, Obeyesekere aimed much of hiscriticism at Sahlins' 1980s research onCook. That work, he said, depended on"uncritical readings" of historical texts —including some of "blatant unreliability" —and inaccurate and misleading use ofquotations. The result, claimed the SriLankan scholar: Rather than illuminatingthe Hawaiians' experience, Sahlins, a Westerner, has perpetuated Western myths.Sahlins has not taken the accusationslying down. Published this month by the Uof C Press, How "Natives" Think: AboutCaptain Cook, For Example reveals what hecalls Obeyesekere's own inaccuracies andappeals to political fashions. But the book,he says, is more than a rebuttal of scholarlydetails. Rather, larger issues spurred Sahlinsto write what he calls "a defense of the possibility of anthropology."That general case builds from the exampleof Cook and Lono, starting with the correlation between Cook's visits — briefly inJanuary 1778, and again beginning inNovember 1778 — and the four-monthHawaiian season known as the Makahiki.Marking the return of Lono, a god associated with the winter rains, fertility, and theNew Year, the Makahiki includes a month-long celebration in which a wooden icon ofthe deity is carried clockwise around eachisland's coast.In the fall of 1778, Cook's ships passed byMaui, then started a clockwise circumnavigation of Hawai'i, the archipelago's largestisland. Seen from shore, the ships' mastsand white sails resembled the Makahikisign placed on the beach to signify the timeof Lono's circuit. And, as Sahlins notes,"The first man on board from Hawai'i, inMaui, came on board the Resolution andsaid, Where's our Lono?' — before he'd evenseen the Europeans or Cook."Though Hawaiians distinguished betweenfonns of the gods and the gods themselves,Obeyesekere, says Sahlins, does not: "Heinvents the notion that I say, or that I claim Hawaiians say, that Cook is the god, asopposed to a manifestation of the god." Infact, he adds, embodiments of Lonoincluded "pigs, thunder, rain, and innumerable kinds of fish."They also included several kings. TheMakahiki ritual, explains Sahlins, reenactshistorical battles between these Lono-kingsand kings embodying a rival god — and, atanother level, mythic battles between godsand men. The Lono-kings often ended upas sacrifices.On Cook's second visit, says Sahlins, hebecame an unwitting actor in the Makahikistory. At each landing, he was welcomed,fed, anointed with coconut oil, and givengifts of small pigs — all, notes Sahlins, "partof the standard ritual for greeting" Lono'sicon when it came ashore. These ritualswere documented almost exclusively byEuropeans, in shipboard journals — whichinclude transcriptions of Hawaiianphrases — and in oral histories of Hawaiianscompiled later by missionaries.As a source of howHawaiians actuallysaw Cook, however,Obeyesekere describesthis record as "anembarassment to ethnography." Sahlinsbelieves that's goingtoo far. "You can't saythat every time aHawaiian opens hismouth and says something that it's theEuropean who wroteit who said it," hesays. "In that sense it'sjust as imperialist asanything else."As the Makahikiseason ended in February 1779, Cook'sships left Hawai'i, but returned a week later after suffering stormdamage. Post-Makahiki, writes Sahlins, theHawaiian chiefs now perceived Cook'spresence as "sinister" — a violation of theLono story in which man conquers the god.Frictions escalated until Cook, attemptingto retrieve a stolen longboat, tried to takethe king hostage. Instead, says Sahlins, "heevoked the anger of some two or threethousand people" and was stabbed, beaten,and killed.One might wonder how the Hawaiianscould confuse a strange white man withone of their gods. This, writes Obeyesekere,goes against "practical rationality" — a universal quality, he says, that Westernersthink is theirs exclusively and beyond thegrasp of "savages."Sahlins counters that interpreting culturesthrough such universals erases what isunique to each group. He concedes, "Common sense says Cook didn't speak Hawaiian, he didn't look Hawaiian, he was aforeigner, and so on." But the Polynesianreligion, on the other hand, believes that"gods come from foreign places, the speechof the gods is indecipherable, and the godstake all kinds of forms.""We can understand other societies intheir own terms," Sahlins asserts. The alternative "is defeating for anthropology, andit's not true — not any more true than thatyou can't know another language." — A.C.Freedom MarchA stereotype of blacks in the post-Civil War South is one of politicalnaivete and passive gratitude forwhatever rights came their way through theefforts of Northern politicians. In contrast,New history: Ex-slaves, says Julie Saville, put their rights to use.1 4 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995The End is Near — Again. He's not as popular as he was once, but don't count theAntichrist out. Often part of the apocalyptic predictions common at the end of centuries — and especially millenia — the Antichrist legend, saysBernard McGinn, has endured since the third century B.C. Aprofessor in the Divinity School, McGinn traces the legend's history in Antichrist: Two Thousand Years of the Human Fascinationwith Evil (Harper San Francisco). The notion of the GreatDeceiver flourished in the Middle Ages and the Reformation,when theologians speculated over the signs of his arrival, hisfaked miracles, and false resurrection. Figures from Nero toMussolini — and many a pope — have been cast in the role, ashave groups whose persecution others have justified by use ofthe Antichrist label and apocalyptic beliefs. Though lesscommon today, such beliefs, argues McGinn, mirror our pastand present attitudes about human evil and the meaning of history. And the time is ripe, he writes, for "an abundant crop of predictions regarding thecoming third millenium, as well as fears that the end of history itself may be near."Top Triumph. In March, a group of Fermilab physicists, including several Chicagofaculty, announced it had finally found the top quark, a particle that is a keystoneof the standard theory of matter. After releasing early data last year ("Investigations,"June/94), the group and a competing team now say the quark's existence is definite.Help Flows. Balloon angioplasty helps a half-million U.S.t heart-I disease patients each year, yet, in more than one of three cases,the cleared arteries are soon reblocked by cell growth. Gene therapy,reports a team led by U of C cardiologist Jeffrey Leiden, AB'75,PhD'79, MD'91, may solve that problem. They've found a way, in animals, to use viruses to deliver a growth-inhibiting gene directly to theangioplasty site — reducing the reclogging by more than 50 percent.¦Ffe ivided States. Democracy in America, writes Jean Bethke Elshtain, is threatened:' Individualism has eroded civic values, and the nation is divided into "clans" of race,ethnicity, and gender. Elshtain, who joined the Divinity School this winter as the firstLaura Spelman Rockefeller professor of social and political ethics,explores our predicament in Democracy on Trial (Basic Books),praised by the New York Times Book Review as "wise, humane, andprofoundly reflective." Writing for a broad audience, she cites examples from Plato to Vaclav Havel, from the Founding Fathers to multi-culturalism. Public discourse, warns Elshtain, has become anargument between sides that eschew compromise and civility — twoancient aspects of democracy that could help preserve the nation's"permanent contestation. . .between tradition and transformation." DEMOCRACY:UN TRIALiJEAN BETHKE ELSHTAIN:a new book by associate professor of history Julie Saville offers compelling evidencethat ex-slaves exercised and protected theirnewly granted rights — often by formingtightly organized political units.As background for her book The Work ofReconstruction: From Slave to Wage Laborerin South Carolina, 1860-1870 (CambridgeUniversity Press), Saville studied militaryand civilian records, plantation documents,and newspaper accounts. With a focus onSouth Carolina, Saville begins her chronology after the fall of the Confederacy, whenmost Southern states abolished slavery andratified the 13 th Amendment guaranteeingfreedom for black Americans — while at thesame time passing laws known as "BlackCodes" that severely limited ex-slaves' civilrights.The freedmen — many of whom workedfor wages on the plantations of their formerowners — began tentative moves towardpolitical organization in 1865 by formingmarching units. Originally sprouting uparound federal garrisons manned by blacksoldiers, the units first seemed little morethan a kind of recreation, with uniformedfreedmen performing elaborate processionsthat, observers noted, were as much danceas drills.As they grew in size and number, however, the regional marching companies"helped to connect areas of social existencefragmented under slavery," writes Saville.The units, she adds, also fed the fears ofSouthern alarmists, who saw them "asdreaded manifestations of conspiratorialviolence."Black political activity became more overtwhen radical Republicans in Congress, ledby Thaddeus Stevens, refused to seat Southern representatives because of their ties tothe Confederacy — and passed the Reconstruction Acts of 1867, creating about amillion new black voters in the formerConfederate states. To recruit these voters,clubs were formed in the South to helpelect Republican congressmen, drawingblacks from miles around to hear a speakertalk on the Republican cause.Appalled at the prospect of an electoraljuggernaut in favor of Republican candidates, white Southern Democrats resortedto violence and intimidation against blacksat the polls. Saville describes a tacticemployed by hostile Democrats, whoassembled en masse around the ballot box,forcing the bearer of an unfavored ticket to"run a gauntlet of blocks and shoves inorder to deposit his ballot." Black Republicans soon learned to play this game, theobject of which was "to occupy the pollsearly and thereby impede the opposition'saccess to the ballot box." CitationsThe organizational skills learned by ex-slaves in protecting their voting rights alsoserved their interests as workers. Exercisinga collective power unknown to white agricultural workers at the time, the freedmenmarching groups held assemblies, madeattempts to regulate working conditions,and organized a movement to establish adaily minimum wage.During the 1870s, the marching units andother forms of organization slowly crumbled against a mounting backlash: RestoredDemocratic legislatures enacted new lawsthat restricted the economic rights of ex-slave agricultural laborers; NorthernRepublicans weakened then enforcement of Reconstruction legislation; and a new socialorder that exploited black laborers waseventually established throughout theSouth.Even though the rights of blacks werelimited following the initial triumphs ofemancipation, stories of those triumphshave been passed down the generations inAfrican- American families. Saville creditstales told to her as a child by her Louisiana-born grandmother for sparking her initialinterest in the period."She told long, involved stories with asmany characters and plots as a Faulknernovel," Saville recalls. "And, most of thetime, we listened." — T.A.O.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 1 5,ip . y«i m * : sjjLBy Tim Andrew ObermillerPhotography by Dan DryDreamsBorn in poverty. Latino sociologistMarta Tienda never lost hope for aBETTER LIFE A HOPE THAT SHE WORRIESAmerica's poor may no longer share.They didn't know that,[ at the University ofj Chicago, Marta Tienda\ chaired one of thecountry's premiersociology depart-¦ ments, or that sheedited one of herfield's most esteemedjournals. Sociologywas a moot term to these Chicago Latinohigh schoolers; the U of C was as distantfrom their lives as Saturn's rings.Still, there was something about thispetite woman with the raven hair and radiant smile that inspired their confidenceenough to open up. Tienda was there to tryto understand why Latino kids from low-income families tend to leave school andstart jobs earlier than teens from otherethnic groups. Tape recorder running, sheasked what they thought school waspreparing them for, what they expected todo after they left — whether education, inshort, had much to do with their privatehopes and dreams.Afterward, she inquired if the group hadanything to ask her. A young man who'dshyly answered all her questions spoke up."Can you tell me what do I do to find out about college? Who do I ask?"Once she had been just as in the dark.Although her immigrant father insisted shefinish high school, college was a foreignconcept in a household devoid of newspapers and books. When her seventh-gradeEnglish teacher inquired about her futureplans, she said she would be a beautician.The teacher asked her, '"Why don't youwant to go to college?" Tienda respondedthat her family had no money, that collegewas for "rich people.""She said that wasn't true. That there werescholarships and ways that one could go tocollege. And I said, 'There are?'"Now she was delivering this same newswith the urgency of a physician dispensinglife-saving instructions. "There are teacherswho praise you and encourage you," shetold the teenager. "Those are the teacherswho believe in you. Those are the teachersyou must ask for help.""I told him that," she later says, "becauseit was true for me. There was always somebody who came along at a critical momentin my life, who saw potential — even when Ididn't see it in myself." And without them,she would have been a beautician? Shefrowns, shrugs, and breaks into a smile — agesture that seems to answer "Who knows?" and "No way!" simultaneously.In her nineteenth year as a sociologist,Marta Tienda is at the peak of her profession. Considered a leading expert on migration, employment, and poverty amongLatinos, she has a curriculum vitae thickwith publications (six books, and dozens ofarticles and chapters), honors (this fall shewas awarded the University's first RalphLewis professorship in sociology), editorships (she concludes her four-year tenureas the American Journal of Sociology's editorthis spring), and board memberships (she'sa trustee of both the Russell Sage andKaiser Family foundations).With her imposing credentials, Tiendacould be forgiven a bit of self-importantswaggering, but grandiosity is not her style.She freely admits, for example, that whenshe opened her first faculty meeting as thenew chair of sociology this past autumn,she was "scared." Yet her candor is sodirect that, even used to admit a fear orinsecurity, it comes across as strength. "I'mnot usually one to hold back," she cheerfully acknowledges. In fact, whatever enterprise engages her — whether triple-checkinga statistic on migrant unemployment, discussing the murkier passages of a student'sresearch paper, or helping her two youngsons with their homework — Tienda seemswholly committed, and expects the samefrom whoever sits across her table."As soon as I met her I realized she'sincredibly energetic," says Grace Kao,AM'92, a graduate student who has workedwith Tienda for the past four years. "Shetalks very fast. You walk with her, shewalks fast. She does everything veryquickly." A skit performed last spring at thedepartment's annual Follies "featured twostudents playing Marta," says Kao, "andthat explained why she seems to be everywhere at once."Reminded of the skit, Tienda laughs. "No,actually there were three students playingme." Yet, later, she admits that most of herdays end in exhaustion. What drives heron? An uncharacteristically long pause preludes the answer: "I want to grow. BecauseI do come from such a disadvantaged environment that everything is a new frontierfor me. Nothing is taken for granted."Raised on a small ranch in Mexico,Toribio Tienda illegally crossedthe U.S. border as a teenager. Insouth Texas, he picked grapefruits and oranges for the citrusindustry, meeting among the migrantworkers there a young girl, Azucena, whowould become his wife and Marta'smother.They hadn't planned to marry so young —University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 1 7"What happens to children thatinfluences whether or not they'llbreak the chain of poverty?"she was only 16, he was 18 — but Toribio'sarrest by the Immigration and Naturalization Service in 1946 forced the decision.Azucena was a U.S. citizen, raised inMexico but bom in Detroit. The marriageentitled Toribio to U.S. residency.The Tiendas had their first child, Maggie,in 1948; Marta was born in August 1950.Six months later, a dispute with a supervisor at the cannery where he worked convinced Toribio to pull up stakes. Hoping toland a job in Detroit at a steel mill wherehis uncle worked, he bought bus tickets forhis family and journeyed north.Though both parents had less than primary-school educations, in the post-warboom even unskilled workers could earnfamily wages. Still, the family's first residence was a cramped basement apartmentin a Detroit slum. When Marta was 2, theymoved to a low-rise housing project in aslightly better neighborhood.To become a U.S. citizen, her fatherlearned English in night school. "He felt, 'Iimmigrated to this country, I'm going to bea citizen, and I'm going to vote,' and healways has," says Tienda. Along with hisjob at Great Lakes Steel, he worked secondshifts for Ford to earn money for a downpayment on a house for the family — whichhad grown to include two more sisters,Irene and Gloria, and a brother, Juan Luis,In Lincoln Park, a working-class suburbof Detroit, they were one of only two Mexican families. The other, Tienda notes, concealed their ethnicity, "whereas we werealways very aware of who we were."When she was 6, her mother died of complications from a botched gall-bladderoperation. Around the same time, layoffsand strikes at her father's mill often forcedthe family to return to the fields as migrantworkers. Tienda recalls, at age 10, picking"ten pecks of tomatoes in the morning andten in the afternoon. We got new schoolclothes that year, but we earned them."The situation stabilized when her fatherremarried, but she didn't connect with herstepmother and sought nurturing elsewhere. She found it in her family's neighbors, Edith and Lucille. "No matter what, Icould always count on them. And I dedicated my first book to Lucille, because shewas so supportive. I would give my reportcard to her, rather than my parents."Her high school grades were excellent,but it wasn't until she visited MichiganState as a junior — getting her first look at "areal campus, a real university" — thatTienda decided to attend college. That decision came during lunch in the cafeteria,where she indulged in a bit of teen melodrama, slipping a soup bowl into her bagand silently vowing to return it as a college freshman. Bowl in tow, she started in thefall of 1968 on a need-based, full-tuitionscholarship.Academically, Tienda thrived at MichiganState, majoring in Spanish language and literature. One of her professors, George Man-sour, remembers her as the kind of studentwho read not only each assignment butmaterials mentioned in a lecture in passing."She applied her drive to everything."Not entirely everything. Tienda opted outof the anti-war protests and countercultureexperimentation preoccupying most students. "I have to think about myself retrospectively as somebody who was — Iwouldn't say like Forrest Gump," she laugh ingly confesses, "but certainly watchingfrom a distance things I didn't understand."Still, college would gradually awaken herintellect. Writings by Spanish existentialistMiguel de Unamuno and American prag-matist William James urged her to shedconventions and discover her own truths.Liberated to the point of giddiness — "Youmean you can question whether to believe?You don't have to?" — she even stoppedgoing to mass, a radical move given herstrict Catholic upbringing. (She has sinceresumed her faith, "but in a private fashion — I rarely attend church.")When Tienda tried to share these changeswith her family, they informed her she was1 8 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995"nuts." No matter. "For me, this was revelation, it was a revolution." She wasn't turning back.In the spring of her junior year, Tiendawas called to interview for a summer job innortheast Michigan's Alpena County. Sheaccepted simply to get away from home,"which was getting difficult with my stepmother. Very difficult."Her job was to certify migrant workers forfood stamps. Tienda thought she could domore. Cruising the county's winding roadsin a state car, she stopped everywhere to talkwith migrants and the farmers who hiredthem. Listening closely to workers' complaints of community hostility and unfairhiring practices, with equal care she heardout farmers' objections to excessive government regulations that, in some cases, forcedthem to underemploy migrants.After leading a department meeting (left), Tienda takes time outfor her two sons, carlos, 5, andLuis, 12 (below). "Luis is alreadytalking about medical school,"she notes with motherly pride. Tienda convinced her social-serviceemployers to let her organize a meetingwhere the parties involved could freely airtheir concerns. To open the meeting,Tienda remembers saying: "There are manyissues here, you need to talk about them. Socomplain and stand up and shout, but let'sagree to start working on these problems."Tienda calls the summer "a turningpoint." She had discovered several keystrengths: to listen, to organize, to act effectively. Purpose had focused her unboundedenergy. She was finding her own truths.Encouraged by her professors, sheapplied to graduate schools, andfor a Ford Foundation scholarship set up to encourage Latinosto pursue graduate studies. Forthe first time, Tienda was being given anopportunity because she was a minority — arealization that caused her some discomfort.It was a label Tienda's brother, Juan Luis,had already dealt with. At Michigan State,where he enrolled after concluding his military service, Juan Luis introduced her tosome Latino friends who, she recalls, "toldme I was brown. And I said, you'reabsolutely wrong, I'm not brown. Theysaid, Yes, you are. You're not white. You'reMexican.' And that was something I wasvery proud of, but I had never thought of itas this category: minority."She'd get used to it. Indeed, as a subject, minorities would become a central focus ofher later research. Being "brown," she'slearned, means that colleagues — evenfriends — may wonder if you've gottenwhere you are because you filled somequota. But it also means that you're morelikely to grow up in poverty, as she had —that you've a greater chance of living in thepoorest neighborhoods and holding thelowest-paying jobs. For better or worse,being a minority did make a difference.As it's applied to her own life, Tiendalooks at the "minority" label this way:"Growing up, I was disadvantaged, and sogetting that extra boost initially helped getme on the road. Is there a point where thatlabel is more a burden than a help? Sure.When someone wants you to join thisboard or that committee, you wonderwhether it's because of who you are orbecause you're a minority. So it does followyou around for the rest of your life. And ittakes a lot of learning and strength tohandle it, or your self-esteem can go in onefell swoop."Although her Ford scholarship to theUniversity of Texas, Austin, was specificallyto study Romance languages and literature,after a year of study she received permission to switch to the university's LatinAmerican studies program."I had never taken a course in sociology,economics, or statistics," she admits, "andthat's how I started in social sciences."However, the attitude of her departmentmentor, Harley Browning, "was that youneed to leam how to do the research; youcan always fill in the blanks later." UnderBrowning, Tienda did her master's thesis —a demographic study of female employmentin Mexico. In 1974, he sent her to Mexicofor a seminar on women in Latin America.When she returned, she had a heart-to-heart with Browning. "I said, Women'sstudies, I resign. Chicano studies, I resign. Iwon't do it.' He looked at me, and said,Well, is that forever?' I said, 'Nothing's forever, but for a while don't even think aboutit. I will not be ghettoized.'""Expecting minority students to do dissertations about themselves," Tienda believes,"trivializes our presence in the mainstream."Hers focused on a more general topic inLatin American demography, so that whenthe University of Wisconsin offered her anassistant professorship in 1976, she knewshe'd been hired for her solid research experience — not because she had wrapped hercredentials in a Chicano-feminist package.That same year, the death of Tienda'sbrother, Juan Luis, in a car accident forcedher into a period of grief and introspection.As a law student at the University of Michigan, Juan Luis had been an activist forUniversity of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 1 9recruiting and hiring Latino students andfaculty. "It was already quite apparent thathe was someone who was going to make adifference," says Tienda. After his death,she decided that, "in some way, I wanted totry to carry that banner."Her chance came in her first year at Wisconsin, when Tienda was invited to join agroup of social scientists conducting thefirst national survey of Mexican Americans.Though far afield from her research at thattime, which involved "Peruvian fertility,"the topic intrigued her: In her spare time,she began plowing through piles of booksand papers on race and ethnic stratification.This experience came into play in 1978,when the Department of Labor awarded hera grant to perform an exhaustive analysis ofits Survey of Income and Education — thelargest survey ever conducted of thenation's growing Hispanic population. Herleadership in the pioneering project placedTienda at the top of her field. By the mid-1980s, she was tenured and "getting goodgrants. 1 had a big shop" — but she was alsogrowing restless. Wisconsin "was a wonderful place to launch a career," she says,"but 1 began to feel like I was on a locomotive moving one direction."Stanford and UCLA were alreadybusy recruiting Tienda when U ofC sociologist William JuliusWilson — then chair of the department — offered her a position atChicago in 1987. "One of the things I toldMarta," says Wilson, "is that she wouldthrive in this highly intellectual environment; that she would be able to work withcolleagues at the cutting edge of research;that she would be encouraged to be independent, bold, creative. And I think thatmessage resonated with her."Tienda also looked to Chicago as a placewhere she could broaden her methodology.Her early research — working with censusfigures to create cross-sectional data setsthat compared various ethnic and racialgroups — had told her some important facts.It told her, for example, that differentLatino groups, while starting out on similareconomic ground, became unequal overtime. Though none had risen to the economic level of whites, Cubans showed thegreatest economic upswing, followed byMexicans — while Puerto Ricans' economicstatus generally declined.Yet strictly quantitative analyses can'tlull)' answer what Tienda calls the "why"questions: 'Why do we have these patterns,why is one group losing ground relative toanother?" The eclectic strengths olChicago's sociology department offered hera chance to add both longitudinal data — tracking changes over long periods oftime — and qualitative analysis — learningfirsthand about the lives of the people shestudies — to her kit of methodological tools.Tienda describes her current research asan attempt to "widen the vision ofprocesses that affect a poor person'schances in life." One of her early studies atChicago looked at how different minoritygroups fared in relation to shifts in theeconomy. During a recession, she found,most employers made predictable, raciallybased decisions as to whom to hire andwhom to let go: Whites, followed byCubans and Mexicans, were at the top ofthis "hiring queue," with blacks and PuertoRicans on the bottom.Tienda believes this phenomenon is partly"a pigmentation issue," with Puerto Ricans'darker complexions linking them inemployers' minds to blacks at the bottom ofthe hiring hierarchy. But she sees a morespecific cause of Puerto Ricans' economicdecline in the fact that, as a group, theygravitated to garment-trade jobs in NewYork City — jobs lost as unions crumbledand manufacturers began employingcheaper Third-World labor.More recently, Tienda has found that low-income blacks and Puerto Ricans share certain cultural characteristics — such ashigher rates of out-of-wedlock births andsingle-parent households, compared to similarly disadvantaged Mexicans and whites.Daughters of black and Puerto Rican mothers on welfare are also more likely to windup on welfare.The study suggests certain "race-specific"patterns shared by blacks and PuertoRicans that lead them into welfare or singleparenthood. Or does it? As Tienda pointsout, low-income whites and Mexicans morelikely reside in mixed-income neighborhoods, while blacks and Puerto Ricans tendto live in exclusively poor neighborhoods.That shared experience could, by itself,influence patterns of behavior. "You see, it'svery important not to jump to conclusionsin discussing these matters," she cautions."There's just so much going on."It's a caveat that runs through Tienda'sresearch: Never forget the big picture. Fromher work emerges a portrait of Americansociety as a large, highly sensitive mobile,where individuals are subdivided by race,class, and education, yet interlocked geographically, culturally and economically —so that a movement in a single sectionreverberates through the entire structure.It's a subtlety, she notes, that's badlyneeded in current public-policy discussionsof such "hot-button" issues as immigration,poverty, and welfare."What I've learned," she says, "is that you can't focus on a single problem — say, tryingto improve the classroom for disadvantagedchildren — without improving the entireschool, without improving the home environment and the neighborhood. We can'tseparate these different components, yetmany of the public-policy prescriptions arebased on one thing, as if it's unrelated toanything else."Increasingly, Tienda's research is preoccupied with poverty as it affects the veryyoung. "Because all the 'why' questionsreally start there," she explains. "Whatexactly happens — at home, at school, onthe streets — to a child that influenceswhether or not he or she will break thechain of poverty? Certain groups are moresuccessful at breaking that chain thanothers, so we need to look at those childrento see what exactly happened to influencethat outcome,"For example, a study she released lastmonth with Grace Kao reveals that minority children whose mothers are immigrantsoutperform students from the same ethnicgroup whose mothers were born in the U.S.Immigrant minority parents, says Tienda,are more upbeat about their children'sfuture and more personally involved intheir education. Unfortunately, for manygroups, that initial optimism rubs off by thesecond or third generation, as the sons anddaughters of minority immigrants discoveran American dream that is race-exclusive."Many come to believe that dream is notobtainable for them or for their children,"says Tienda, "so why bother?"That's a destructive attitude to encourage,she says, for a society increasingly in needof educated, highly skilled workers — a society where "minorities" are, in many places,rapidly becoming the majority population."Leaving minorities behind is to nobody'sadvantage," Tienda argues. "There are somany Latinos who are quite talented andwho come from backgrounds like I didwho will never be able to attend collegeunless they have extra support. I'm nottalking about a free ride. At some point,people should put back what was given tothem. But there's no chance of that happening if you don't give them something tostrive for."Looking back on my life," she continues,"I feel very lucky that I had a dream, andthat I really believed if I worked very hard Icould achieve that dream. One of myheroes is Don Quixote — you know, youshoot high, and you see a windmill and youthink it's a castle." But even dreams musthold a germ of reality: "It can be somewords of praise, a scholarship, or a job thatmatters to you. It doesn't have to be all thatmuch, perhaps — but it has to be enough."20 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995A BOOKCASE FULL OF POTBOILERS, MYSTERIES, SATIRES — AND EVEN SOMEGREAT BOOKS — HAVE THE SAME BACKDROP: THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO.Writers' BlocksIt's an aura that's hard to explain.Maybe it blows in off the lake fromthe Point, or percolates in the Indiana-limestone buildings that houseMr. Harper's university. Perhaps itwafts out of the Woodlawn Tap orlingers from that radiant 1942 dayunder the west stands of Stagg Field.Wherever it comes from, the atmospherethat surrounds the University communityhas inspired hundreds of writers — somegeniuses, others decidedly not — to try tocapture the character of the place in fiction.Gray stone towers, the grassy Midway,whitecapped Lake Michigan, andthe endless stacks in RegensteinLibrary have all been written,often very little changed,into the pages of novelsand short stories.From Theodore Dreiser and Edna Ferberto Andrew Greeley-^and Sara Paretsky, au- sj£Lthors — many of them c~^alumni — have used the \University and its envi- ~~;rons not only as back- 'Ifdrops but also as symbols. tAt times the U of C eventsfunctions as a novel's centralcharacter — be it hero or villain.Such books are usually most avidly readby members of the immediate community.Hoping to uncover hints of scandal in alocal roman a clef, resident readers can alsoquickly gauge authorial venom. As one professorial collector of University fiction hasnoted, "If the University is named, and thearchitecture Gothic, the writer is usuallymoved by affection; if the name is changed,and the architecture either grotesque-Gothic or 'collegiate Georgian,' the writer is usually motivated by revenge."In Chimes, Eureka University's "half-finished" buildings are of stone, but compareunfavorably to "the lovely intimate quads"of Cambridge. The narrator of professor-tumed-novelist Robert Herrick's 1926 bookis Professor Beaman Clavercin of theDepartment of General Literature, whorecounts Eureka's first 30 years, from itsuntidy but heroic days under PresidentHarris through the more staid command ofYerkes ObservatoryThe Titan,by Theodore DreiserAfter Rockefeller said no:A bespectacled "Dr. Hooper" turnsto business magnate Frank Cowper-wood and persuades him to fund anobservatory for the University. Harris' successor, Dr. Doolittle. Clavercin'sown doubts about the success of the enterprise are plain. "The very sight of a dissertation or thesis" gave him "an attack ofmental nausea. Somehow all this appliedscholarship was killing the root of thematter it was applied to."Another acerbic assessment comes inGeorg Mann's The Dollar Diploma, set inthe early 1950s. Tom Mears, humanitieseditor at the Fox University Press, watchesthe resignation of President Raynsford, thesubsequent dismantling of Raynsford's"Individualized Education" curriculum, and the university's newobsession with fund-raising,urban renewal, and the onslaught of McCarthyism.Mann's choice of titlereflects a perceivedbottom line: "Studentsbright enough to getinto Fox are brightV-. enough not to put upwith the dullness ofthe average lecturer.True, 90 percent of themare here to get the dollardiploma, the working tickett for a job. Consequently, theyget it the least painful way. Theytake the reading list, vanish, andreappear on examination day."The University probably gets its best character reference in Winds Over the Campus,written by longtime English professorJames Weber Linn, whose English-professor narrator, Jerome Grant, has been at "theUniversity" since his own student days inthe 1890s. Although the events that unfoldreflect the social malaise of the 1930s(racism results in a coed's suicide; Red-baiting nearly claims a football player's life),//U,By Jane Chapman Martin Illustrations by Allen CarrollUniversity' of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 2 1West Stands, old Stagg FieldCommand the Morning,by Pearl BuckThe price of progress:Fictional scientists Stephen Coastand Jane Earl work alongside the legendary Enrico Fermi to achieve theworld's first self-sustaining nuclearreaction. Fermi calls for a toast, butCoast and Earl, sickened by knowledge of what they've unleashed,cannot touch their Chianti.&Xl %^ 'III SlWI'f < Zoology BuildingHerzog,by Saul BellowThrough the grapevine:Talking with a colleague in zoology,U of C professor of intellectual history Moses Herzog learns that his wifeis having an affair with his bestfriend. The tubercular monkey listening in offers little consolation.i^^0PJB > — *•?r<Y. Mistjpyftji I ^r/ A N - XSKJSiRegenstein LibraryGoodbye Without Leaving,by Laurie ColwinDissertation blues:Grad student Geraldine Colesharescan't cope with the task of writingthe definitive work on Jane Austen.Instead, she joins a Chicago soulband and tours as the only whiteShakette. v4FL ^^irp^>J!i!i'L- S'/>-&^-~—kf, / vterVvi!X 0*1XCobb HallLetting Go,by Philip RothThe gripes of Roth:An English teacher whose goodopinion of himself rarely waversdespite his not-so-noble actions,Gabc Wallach searches for himselfamid the Gothic towers. ^¦tvSwift Coffee ShopIndemnity Only,by Sara ParetskyHardboiled:When detective V I. Warshawskifinds the body of a U of C student inhis Harper Avenue apartment, shegoes snooping around campus. Afterbeing tossed out of the Poli Scibuilding and resting a moment onthe 'C Bench, she heads to Swift fora cup of coffee and some eavesdropping. & f ,'The Quads"The Philosopher,"An Omnibus of Short Stories,by James T. FarrellGreat Books are theleast of it:An aging professor and chair of thephilosophy department strugglesagainst the sweeping changes beinginstituted by the University's newboy president. Kimbark AvenueGospel,by Wilton BarnhardtOn the road:Theology grad student Lucy Dantanand her housemate, Judy, live withtwo cats and a lot of Catholic guilt.When Lucy starts roaming the worldwith U of C professor and erstwhileJesuit priest Patrick O'Hanrahan, shenever wants to go back.57th Street"Ins and Outs," Noble Rot,by Richard SternDo the right thing:An older white man, assaulted by ablack youth in his home on 57thStreet— just steps from a market, adry cleaner's, and a bookstore —wrestles with his own notions of justice and fairness. Pick HallLord of the Dance,by Andrew GreeleyMoral turpitude:Bored and superior U of C political-science professor Roger Farrell risksthe power of his office — and theoffice itself — to seduce young gradstudents and untenured professors.But when he considers a run for thegovernorship just as his daughterstarts hunting for skeletons in thefamily closet, his tenure and his tableat the Quad Club start looking better. Oriental InstituteSearch the Shadows,by Barbara MichaelsCriminal attribution:Heroine Haskell Maloney (named forHaskell Hall, the University's originalEgyptian museum) arrives searchingfor clues both to the suspicious deathof her mother, an Egyptology graduate student in the '60s, and to theidentity of her father. In an academictwist, the murder motive includes anattempt to conceal plagiarism.Ida Noyes HallThe Girls,by Edna FerberRoaring Twenties feminist:U of C coed Charley Kemp shocksher family by falling in love with aself-described poet, taking businesscourses, selling blouses at "Shield's,"and learning to dance., Philosophy Department(Classics Building)Zen and the Art of MotorcycleMaintenance,by Robert PirsigPlatonic casualty:"Phaedrus," a U of C grad student,triumphs over "the Chairman" (philosopher Richard McKeon), but suffers a breakdown when he attemptsto slay "the ghost of rationality." Kelly, Green, & Beecher HallsFalling,by Susan Fromberg SchaefferNecessity's invention:Elizabeth Kamen follows a lover tothe U of C, where she eventuallyearns her Ph.D. At one point, shedramatically locks herself into herroom, vowing to stay put until anassignment is finished — only to discover she has no paper. Rather thango back on her word, she recycles. Orthogenic SchoolFamily Pictures,by Sue MillerOedipal twist:David Eberhardt, U of C psychologyprofessor and unemotional patriarchof a large Hyde Park family, bringshis autistic son Randall to be treatedby the revered Dr. Bettelheim; heconcurs with the doctor's opinionthat his child's autism is the mother'sfault.Grant remains optimistic: "Yes, there hadbeen great change in the twentieth century, he thought.... For had not the University, in its little corner, been a part ofthe influence towards this change?... Ithad somehow induced hundreds of thousands of young people to think about life,instead of taking life for granted."AN IVORY FORTRESS OF INTEL-lectual angst, the University is regularly depicted asa place on edge, politicallyand psychologically. Tensions flare repeatedly —between men and women,liberals and conservatives, highbrows andphilistines, blacks and whites.Even the earliest novels describe thisunrest, often focusing on the liberation ofwomen and the new, discomforting freedom between the sexes at the pioneering,coeducational university. In Edna Ferber'sThe Girls (1921), for example, youngCharley (representing the third generationof women named Charlotte in a SouthSide family) heads off to the U of C, whereshe shocks her conservative family byenrolling in a business-executive trainingprogram for women: "This new coursewould introduce into business the trainedyoung woman of college education. Business was to be a profession, not a rough-and-tumble game."In James T. Farrelt's 1932 short story"All Things Are Nothing to Me," the tension builds as a Chicago student from aCatholic family adjusts to life in a secularinstitution. "Aunt Margaret, sure 'tis a terrible place, I tell you," says Joe, the student. "Why, they take every Catholicstudent who goes there and lock him upin one of the towers of the main librarybuildings and keep him there until hepromises he'll become an atheist."Much of the psychological tension flowsfrom the rigorous nature of the University's academic enterprise. In Philip Roth'sZuckerman Bound, Nathan Zuckermanremembers his undergraduate life at the Uof C during the late 1940s: "Inspiringteachers, impenetrable texts, neuroticclassmates, embattled causes, semantichairsplitting — 'what do you mean by"mean"?' His life was enormous."Enormity is not for everyone, andpicaresque novels that begin with the protagonist leaving the University are fairlycommon. Wilton Barnhardt's Gospelopens as a theology student, stuck on herfane Chapman Martin, AM'90, is managerof editorial services at Northwestem's J. L.Kellogg Graduate School of Management. dissertation, is sent in search of an errantprofessor, last sighted traveling aroundthe world on the department's credit card.In Rome, she recalls life in Hyde Park:"Going back to Chicago, Lucy realized,meant going back to the thesis and theapproaching deadline and the word-processing lessons so she could write and editit, and back to the fighting over who gotwhat cubicle at Regenstein Library."Regenstein is the jumping-off point forGeraldine Coleshares, the heroine ofLaurie Colwin's Goodbye Without Leaving.Hooked on rock and roll (she picked theU of C because of the South Side's reputation for rhythm and blues), Geraldineeventually finds herself wishing to abandon the dreary life of "a graduate student,sitting in the library at the University ofChicago, getting older and older, trying tothink of a topic for my doctoral dissertation and, once having found the topic,trying to write about it."Occasionally, fictional students do leavewith degrees. In Susan Fromberg Schaef-fer's Falling, Elizabeth Kamen — a womanstruggling with her past and her ethnicbackground — finally earns her Ph.D.Some of her difficulties had been predicted: "All summer, people had told herabout the University, how hard it was,how only geniuses went there, how everyone was eccentric, how everyone crackedunder the strain."Book after book serves to establish thestereotype of Chicago's eccentric and left-leaning students — an image that SaraParetsky plays with in Indemnity Only.Early in the plot, detective V. I. War-shawski is visited by a man claiming thathis son, who'd been on the fast track to anM.B.A., has been led astray by a girlfriend,the daughter of a union organizer: "It'sjust that — they've been living together insome disgusting commune or other — didI tell you they're students at the Universityof Chicago?"In Hyde Park's local-color fiction,professors tend to fall into severalset categories: the emotionallydraining, self-centered neurotic; therumpled but lovable academic withstrong appetites; the physicist with aheart; the psychiatrist without one.A fine example of the iconoclasticscholar is the star of Gospel, PatrickO'Hanrahan — erstwhile Jesuit priest,founder of the U of C theology department, alcoholic, and eccentric: "He wasstandard academic professor-emeritusissue: a potbelly, a good suit now wornand creased around his girth, and even inrepose an aura, his own weather system swirling around him." (In what might beauthorial wish fulfillment, the olderdisheveled types often win the hearts ofyounger, far more attractive, female scholars.)In Philip Roth's Letting Go, U of C English professor Gabe Wallach — neurotic,sarcastic, and busily attempting to manipulate other people's lives — emerges fromCobb Hall after a dog-eat-dog facultymeeting into the relative serenity of thequads: "The Gothic archways attested tothe serious purpose of the place and mademe want to believe that we were all betterpeople than one would suppose from theargument we had just had."The protagonist of Saul Bellow's Herzog,a professor of intellectual history, facesthe mess of his life — two ex-wives, aThe Write]Here's a list of the U of C-based fiction noted on the map or in the text:Wilton Barnhardt, Gospel (1993).Saul Bellow, X'39, Herzog (1964).Bellow, who taught in the Committeeon Social Thought from 1962 until1993, also uses U of C settings in TheAdventures of Augie March (1953) andThe Dean's December (1982).Pearl Buck, Command the Morning(1959).Laurie Colwin, Goodbye WithoutLeaving (1990).Theodore Dreiser, The Titan(1914).James T. Farrell, X'29, "All ThingsAre Nothing to Me," in The ShortStories of James T. Farrell (1941) and"The Philosopher," in An Omnibus ofShort Stories (1956). The author ofthe Studs Lonigan trilogy (1932-53),Farrell wrote a number of stories setin Hyde Park.Edna Ferber, The Girls (1924).Andrew Greeley, AM'61, PhD'62,Lord of the Dance (1984). Greeley isa research associate at the University-based National Opinion Research Center.Robert Herrick, Chimes (1926).James Weber Linn, PhB 1897,Winds Over the Campus (1936). Thatsame year, Linn, who taught Englishat the University for 40 years, published another novel set at the U ofC, This Was Life.9S T Intvfrsitv OF r.HICAGn MAGAZINE/APRIL 1995friend's betrayal, separation from his onlychild — while confronting all of modernman's dilemmas and contradictions. MosesHerzog's interior deliberations are reflectedin the details of his exterior surroundings.Driving on Woodlawn Avenue, "a drearypart of Hyde Park, but characteristic, hisChicago," Herzog observes its urban ugliness: "...massive, clumsy, amorphous,smelling of mud and decay, dog turds;sooty facades, slabs of structural nothing,senseless ornamented triple porches withhuge cement urns lor flowers that contained only rotting cigarette butts and otherstained filth; sun parlors under tiled gables,rank areaways, gray backstairs, seamed andruptured concrete from which sprang grass;ponderous four-by-four fences that sheltered growing weeds." At the same time, he also sees its consolation: "And among these spacious, comfortable, dowdy apartments where liberal,benevolent people lived (this was the university neighborhood) Herzog did in factfeel at home."For readers who also have called the University of Chicago home, real landmarksstand out in each fictional version of HydePark. The bells of Mitchell Tower ring thehour in Letting Go. Detective V. I. War-shawski takes a break on the 'C bench inIndemnity Only. In Pearl Buck's Commandthe Morning, a worried young physicistcrosses Stagg Field, his collarturned up against theChicagocold. Even the Valois ("See Your Food") cafeteriaon 53rd Street makes a cameo appearancein Scott Spencer's best-selling novel of teenobsession, Endless Love.And all past or present residents shouldrecognize the locale of this rendezvousfrom Barbara Michaels' academic mystery,Search the Shadows: "We ended up on theSouth Side, near the university. ... The placehe chose was obviously a popular studenthangout; two patrons had their heads bentover a chessboard and I noticed a row ofencyclopedias on a shelf behind the bar."Jimmy's, in case you hadn't guessed.A drink at Jimmy's is the logical place toend — or start — a journey through fictionalHyde Park. To begin your own tour, we'veprovided a map and a bibliography.Choose a book and start exploring.•s' BooksGeorg Mann, AB'35, The DollarDiploma (1960).Barbara Michaels, Search the Shadows (1987). "Barbara Michaels" is thepseudonym of a College alumna, witha Ph.D. from the Oriental Institute,who also writes under thename of "Elizabeth Peters.'Sue Miller, Family Pictures (1990).Sara Paretsky, AM'69,MBA'77, PhD'77, Indemnity Only (1982).Robert Pirsig, Zenand the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance(1974). Philip Roth, AM'55, Letting Go(1962), and Zuckerman Bound(1985). Roth was an instructor inEnglish at the University in the1950s.Susan Fromberg Schaeffer, AB'61,AM'63, PhD'66, Falling (1973).Scott Spencer, Endless Love(1979).Richard Stern, "Ins and Outs," inNoble Rot (1989). Stern is the University's Helen A. Regenstein professor of English language & literature.Side TripsThe insider's guide to mysterieswith Hyde Park or University backdrops can be found in a new bookby Alzina Stone Dale, AM'57. HerMystery Reader's Walking Guide:Chicago (1995) includes a walkthrough the University campus andthe Hyde Park neighborhood, following the paths of mystery writersand their sleuths.A new book from the University ofChicago Press — An UnsentimentalEducation: Writers and Chicago, byMolly McQuade, AB'81— asks 21leading novelists and poets whohave taught or studied at the U of Cto reflect on their Chicago experiences. Saul Bellow, Philip Roth,Susan Fromberg Schaeffer, andRichard Stern are among those writers interviewed.How long does it: takeSurrounded by firtrees, a small groupof astronomical ob-dots feillion galaxies?THe Sloan DigitalSky Surveyhopes to finish in five, years.servatories dots a9,180-foot peak in New Mexico's Sacramento Mountains, not far from the Texasborder. The nights here are usually cloudless and exceptionally dark. In the jargon ofastronomers, there is good "seeing" — anevenness of the air valued alike by stargaz-ers and airplane passengers, whose alternative is turbulence. An hour's drive from thenearest grocery store, the Apache PointObservatory is, as one staff member puts it,in "the loneliest part of the country."Amid the observatory's domed structuressits a garage-like building on a pier that juts| out from the flat summit's edge. Mounted| on tracks, the garage rolls back to expose a| large hole. Just below, a massive, eight-| sided, concrete column points heavenward.| The top of this column looks like a good| place to land a small flying saucer. On Aprila 21, in fact, something will land there: a tele-f scope different from any other. Like a child lying on her back watching the heavensslide by overhead, the telescope will hold aposition that allows stars and galaxies todrift across its camera, creating pictures ina long, continuous strip. The instrument isbeing built with one object in mind: an"atlas" that will bring to Earth a look atmore of the universe than has ever beenseen before — 50 million galaxies, filling athree-dimensional region 100 times largerthan previous sky maps.For the first time, astronomers will chart alarge enough volume of celestial space tostudy, in depth, the large-scale structure ofthe universe — forms like clusters of galaxies pulled together by gravity, clusters ofclusters, and huge empty zones calledvoids. Plotting such objects offers a way toBy Andrew Campbell test competing theories of the universe's^^HHHHM early evolution andultimate fate. In a veryreal sense, the resulting map will describeour place in space and time — the definitive"You Are Here" signpost.With these grand goals come equallyimpressive statistics. The Sloan Digital SkySurvey — a project being overseen by theAstrophysical Research Consortium, agroup of schools including Chicago — willproduce enough raw data to fill eight million floppy disks. Its cost, while modest byBig Science standards, is $41.5 million.This spring and summer, the New Mexicomountaintop will become a staging groundas parts are assembled, tested, and refinedin hopes of beginning the survey by spring1996. A small army of contractors and thelabs of more than 60 astronomers at seveninstitutions, including the University ofChicago, have labored for five years tobuild not just the telescope but also equipment, expertise, and computer software.University' of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 27The big job ahead, surprisingly, doesn't require bigness inall its details. Were the astronomers using the world's largestoptical telescope, Hawaii's10-meter Keck Telescope — anadmittedly unworkable pairingof tool and task — the sky surveywould take centuries to complete. Instead, Apache Point'snew 2.5-meter optical instrument, the Sloan Telescope, willtake its celestial census in justfive years.IN A SMALL, WINDOWLESS CON-ference room in the EnricoFermi Institute, Don York,PhD'71, is looking lor advice.Though a half-dozen U of Castronomy & astrophysics faculty — plus several post-docs,graduate students, and undergraduates — are working on thesky survey, today's informalmeeting is one of a series toinform those who aren't involved. A professor in the department, Yorktells the six researchers before him, "Themore minds from Chicago we have on this,the better."York is project director of the Sloansurvey, and his soft-spoken presentationbespeaks an engineer's love of machinery:This component has tolerances of 2.5microns, that absorption band peaks at6,280 angstroms. He reels off from memorythe specs of a project whose description, ina two-volume proposal to funding agencies,runs some 300 pages.For York, the hard part of managing thesurvey — he also helps run Apache Point'srecently built 3.5-meter telescope, ownedin part by the U of C — isn't technological,"It's all people," he says. "It's very hard tokeep people focused, to keep people in acollaboration where you compromise andagree on things together." That task,explains the man who prefers life awayfrom the city and once moved with hisfamily to Apache Point for a year, requires"jawboning." A wry sense of humor helps.too. When he comments that the NewMexico observatory is "like a friendly small town, but full of smart people instead ofaverage people," he doesn't say smart likeit's any advantage.So equipped, he deals with the pressuresthat build this spring as the astronomers tryto keep to their ambitious schedule — aschedule so tight that if one piece of equipment arrives late at Apache Point, the delaybuys time for people rushing to meet laterdeadlines. "Everybody's waiting for the sighof relief when somebody else slips," saysYork.He reviews the status of several criticalcomponents, like the primary mirror andthe microchips that form the heart of thetelescope's digital camera. The curve of themirror's 2.5-meter glass disk, which gathersincoming starlight, must be perfect: Thecontractor, York reports, has polished itssurface to within a micron — or one-thousandth ol a millimeter — of the final shape.Things are going less smoothly withanother item. "The most likely problem,"he jokes, "is that the managers will breakdown and shoot each other."The components all come together in anunusual machine. It will be used exclu sively for the Sloan survey — unheard of inastronomy, where researchers describe thecompetition for telescope time as "vicious."Exclusivity saves time, and means that theSloan Telescope's design can be tailored tomake short work of its Herculean task.The survey's schedule, though, has astrictly pragmatic origin, and a wholly newdesign might cause unacceptable delays.Five years, as Chicago astronomy & astrophysics professor Rich Kron explains, is aperiod "consistent with the attention spanof the scientists involved, and of the funding agencies." So the Sloan Telescope relieson scaling up existing technology, startingwith the gaping lenses that "see" a piece ofsky 36 times the area of the full moon, fourtimes that of other wide-angle telescopes.Another time-saver: Where older telescopes used photographic plates, this one,like its contemporaries, uses more preciseand efficient electronic light sensors calledcharge-coupled devices, or CCDs. "Essentially like what you have inside of yourcamcorder," says Kron, CCDs should speeda project like the Sloan survey by drasticallyshortening exposure times. (They're also28 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995what make it the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,since they spit data into a computer numerically, pixel by pixel.)The survey's wide-angle pictures require arecord number of CCDs of near-record-setting size. The largest of these microchipstake two months to fabricate and cost$65,000 each; their production last yearwas mostly touch-and-go. York glumly tellsthe group at the Fermi Institute that, as oftoday, they're short ten CCDs. "We're notfree of disasters," he cautions.Headaches with electronicsnotwithstanding, the progress ofthe survey is light-years from itsblue-sky origins in 1989. Once an impractical notion, an enormous charting of galaxies had become practical thanks, in part, toa telescope mirror design by Princeton'sJames Gunn and Chicago's Ed Kibblewhitethat minimized the distortion of wide-angleviewing. The design caught the attention ofYork and Kron, who invited astronomersfrom all over the country to discuss thesurvey idea at an O'Hare airport hotel.Three meetings later, the "O'Hare group" was ready to seek funding.With surprising luck, says York, grantsfell into place. Several of the participatingschools, including Chicago, donated $5million each; the National Science Foundation added an equal sum; and the Alfred P.Sloan Foundation — whose gift named thesurvey — contributed $8 million. On hisoffice wall, York prompdy pinned a photocopy of the first foundation check.For York, the survey's beginning nextyear will bring a sigh of relief. For Kron, itrepresents the start of a new job. As thesurvey director, Kron will guide the telescope's observing schedule from week toweek and month to month. His trips toNew Mexico will mean a fourth workplacefor the energetic researcher, who alreadyshuttles between offices in Hyde Park, Fer-milab, and Yerkes Observatory, where hedirects the University's 97-year-oldWilliams Bay, Wisconsin, facility.Where will Kron's surveyors survey? Not,he says, anywhere near the plane of Earth'sdisk-shaped galaxy, which he calls "a niceplace to live, but filled with dust." Since theMilky Way obscures objects to its sides, No small plans: Project directorDon York (opposite) managescomplexity for the $41.5-millionSloan survey. At Fermilab, RichKron (left) and Steve Kent areamong the Chicago astronomerscreating software to automatethe galactic census.what remains is the space aboveand below the disk, or thenorthern and southern galacticcaps — given those namesbecause each hemisphere onEarth offers a better view of onecap. The Sloan Telescope, staring into the northern galacticcap, will map out a broad coneof galaxies that fills about aquarter of the celestial sphereand extends two to three billionlight-years. In the fall, when thenorthern cap's constellationsmove behind the sun, the telescope will chart a skinny butmuch deeper slice of sky in thesouthern galactic cap.Kron, sitting in his Hyde Parkoffice, has turned from his workwith graduate student MarianneTakamiya, SM'92. As she continues at the computer a fewfeet away, Kron explains thatthe Sloan survey is actually twoconcurrent surveys. Each uses adifferent light-sensing instrument, and, for efficiency, the telescope'sbusiness end will flip between the two,depending on the weather.The darkest, clearest hours belong towhat Kron calls the telescope's "camera."Considering the instrument's complexityand 400-pound size, this seems akin to calling the Berlin Philharmonic a "band."While an array of CCDs generates five-color pictures, he explains, the camera'sother CCDs will establish positions relativeto well-known bright stars.This "imaging" survey won't operate likeconventional telescopes that track anobject's motion across the sky (a motioncaused, of course, by the Earth's own rotation). Instead, "drift scanning" allows theobjects to slip past parallel to the rows ofCCDs, creating pictures in long strips andsaving the time usually spent repositioningthe telescope again and again. "You can'tfind another observatory doing that,"comments Kron.The imaging survey's electronic eyes willcapture a stunning inventory of 50 milliongalaxies, 70 million stars (located in ourown galaxy), and up to 1 million quasars.University' of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 29or quasi-stellar objects. But it would make adull map, since pictures alone can't determine an object's distance from Earth or itslocation in three dimensions.Enter the second survey. On brighter orcloudy nights, the camera is replaced withspectrographs that record the color or wavelength of an object's light. In fact, through aspaghetti-bowl of glass fibers, the telescopewill digitally record light from 600 objects atonce. Because more distant galaxies andquasars are receding from Earth faster thanthose nearby (the 1929 discovery of EdwinHubble, ABTO, PhD'] 7), and because theirmotion reddens the color of their light, measuring the degree of "red shift" reveals agalaxy's distance Irom Earth.In his office, Kron and Takamiya gladlypoint out a computer screen that displaysone galaxy's light spectrum. What represents a galaxy (lashing away at mind-bending speeds looks to their unschooled visitorlike thin, black lines plodding across thescreen. Kron's feelings aren't hurt. "To us," he says, "this is a thing of great beauty."He should know. A veteran of deep red-shift surveys, Kron has studied some of thefarthest observable galaxies from Earth. Butironically, he says, our "local universe" —the only part that can be seen with muchcompleteness — isn't well mapped. TheSloan survey will explore just this region,taking red-shift soundings on the brightestone million of the original 50 million galaxies — and on 100,000 quasars."Quasars," he explains, "are a specialbreed ol galaxy that have something monstrous happening in their center. We imagine that it's a large black hole." Found atthe far edges of the universe, the mysterious quasars will show the universe's structure when it was only 20 percent of itspresent age. No similar survey, Kron adds,can chart them, since other telescopes lackthe five-color CCDs needed to tell quasarsfrom stars. "What you get," he says, "is amap with a million galaxies within a conelike this" — he swings out an arm's-length circle in the air — "and then the quasars areway out here. " He jumps up to sprinkle afew at the other end of his office.It's one thing for Kron to shuffle a fewimaginary galaxies, and another to workwith real data. The survey scientists — shortof discovering a whole planet of grad students — couldn't possibly separate 50 milliongalaxies from 70 million stars and classifyeach galaxy by shape and brightness.The solution is the survey's biggest technological contribution to astronomy: computer automation of the digital dataanalysis. The challenge offered by thesurvey attracted experts at Fermilab, whereparticle-physics experiments also requirespecialized computer hardware and databases of enormous scale. The project's plansounds like a flood-control campaign, withfour "pipeline coordinators" leading groupsol astronomers and programmers to writesoftware for each "pipeline" of data streaming from the New Mexico mountain. AtFermilab, Kron leads a team from the lab30 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995and the University that's handling thedeluge of red-shift calculations.One hopes the levees will hold. Eachnight of observing, the survey will generateup to 90 gigabytes of data — some of whichmust be analyzed immediately to pickgalaxies for the red-shift survey — data thatwill send to Fermilab by overnight mail.THE ENTIRE SURVEY, SCHEDULED TO BEdone by 2001, will be published twoyears later in at least three formats: alow-resolution map of the entire area, anatlas of individual objects with their locations and images, and the spectra ofselected galaxies and quasars. For armchairtravelers, Don York mentions the possibility of presenting the red-shift data in a virtual-reality map. Viewers, he says, "couldmove around in the three-dimensional lattice, and go from galaxy to galaxy.""There is something striking and romantic," says Bob Rosner, chair of astronomy &astrophysics, about looking at the largest objects that exist. "And the obvious questions are, what do they look like? and whyin the world are they there?"His questions also state the main scientificimpetus behind the Sloan survey: to studylarge-scale structures as geographic features, like caves or coastlines, and to learnwhat these features reveal of the universe'shistory. The survey will aid other projects — Rosner, for example, may use thestar atlas to trace how our galaxy haschanged shape over time — but the big picture is about large forms for which galaxiesare merely beacons.Rich Kron describes this speculative landscape: "You have clusters of galaxies, andthey cluster into larger things called super-clusters. The negative of that also holds —just as the clusters are connected bysuperclusters, the voids are connected bytunnels. There's a matrix like a sponge:holes connected by tunnels, and clustersconnected by filaments. Then, when thevoids get big enough, they push the matter Countdown: In New Mexico, site managerBruce Gillespie checks test instruments atthe future home of the Sloan Telescope (seesketch). A small robotic telescope (below)will calibrate galaxies' brightness levelsagainst well-known stars.out into sheets" — like the filmy surfaces of soap bubbles.But that description couldbe deceptive. Take the "existence" of voids or bubbles,says York. "That means somebodydid a modest survey, looked at the pictureand said, 'Oh, there's a bubble.' It doesn'tmean they exist everywhere, that they'redominant structures in the universe." This,he argues, is where the survey comes in."We want a thousand or three thousand ofthese things. Do they have a characteristicshape? Do they all contain the sameamount of spiral galaxies?"There is also the question of origin. Howdid such structures — or any structures, forthat matter, from superclusters down toplanets — evolve from the smooth particlesoup that followed the big bang? The leading explanation, says York, is a two-partrecipe. "You have to have an enormousamount of mass — the so-called missingmass — to make gravity effective, and thenhave the seeds of fluctuations coming outof the big bang," seeds that represent "someslight difference in the distribution ofobjects."In 1992, strong evidence for these "seeds"of structure came from a NASA satellitecalled COBE, for Cosmic BackgroundExplorer. Its headline-making discovery:tiny temperature variations caused byancient irregularities in mass distribution.COBE's map of temperature levels mayeven match actual large-scale structurescharted by the Sloan survey.As for a structured universe's other ingredient, telescopes can't see the "missingmass" — hence its alias, dark matter. Butthey can witness its effects: Through gravity, the presence of dark matter theoretically drives the clustering of galaxies, justas its total amount determines whether theuniverse as a whole will expand forever orbegin to contract.Paired with other surveys, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey could document this evolution of clusters — which York calls "a realRosetta stone" — and confirm the role ofdark matter. To do so would link observation and theory across the grandest scales,and link a mountaintop in New Mexicowith the fate of everything.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 3 1HugoSonnenschein]pn how tokeepChicagogreatThe University'spresident talksabout financialchallenges, namerecognition, theneighborhood,and — above all— values. i n a Magazine interview after being namedpresident, you remarked that alumnioffered their congratulations by sayinghow special Chicago is. After almost twoyears in office, how do you feel about theUniversity?I love it. The values of this place — a commitment to discovery and learning, theimportance of intellectual community, abelief in the examination of ideas — allmean a great deal to me and are extremelynourishing.The range of the job is enormous, fromincreasing my understanding of the work ofthe University to getting to know faculty,students, and alumni. Add in financialstewardship, fund-raising, and representingthe University to the public — obviously,there is much to do.Of all your responsibilities, what do youconsider your overriding priority?To help the University understand itself.What are we trying to achieve? What mustwe do to improve? We can too easily takefor granted the character, hard work, andgood fortune that have been responsible forour excellence. I have great faith that if wecan pose the right questions and help ourfaculty, students, and alumni to understandwhat is possible, then we as a communitywill make choices that help us to growstronger. The values of the individual members of our community are a great source ofstrength. My role is to help us transferthese values into collective will and collective action.In February, the University's trusteesvoted to increase the Campaign for theNext Century's goal by $150 million, to$650 million. What prompted this decision?The larger goal acknowledges needs thatare absolutely imperative. We want to raisean additional $70 million for professorshipsand another $20 million for financial aid.This is lifeblood for a university thatdefines itself in terms of faculty quality andcares so deeply that the education it offerswill remain available to those who wouldprofit most from that education.The new goal is also a commitment tomeet some critical facilities needs.Although we've just opened two wonderfulfacilities — the Downtown Center, and theBiological Sciences Learning Center andJules F. Knapp Medical Research Building — urgent needs remain, particularly inthe area of campus life. As a first step, we'veset a $20-million goal toward a substantialimprovement of our athletic facilities.Above all, the trustees' decision to raisethe campaign's goal is a recognition that inorder for the University to continue to satisfy its very high level of aspirations, fund- raising needs to be brought to a new leveland be sustained at that level over the longrun. This will be a challenge for us all, andI am heartened that the trustees, collectively and as individuals, have made such astrong commitment.You took office at what you have characterized as a time of genuine financial challenge for the University. What effect willaddressing those challenges have onChicago's essential values?This fall, three task forces were convenedto explore issues related to education in theCollege, graduate education, and the quality of student experience at the University,These task forces are meant to help us distinguish both our basic values and thosepractices that are essential to the support ofthose values from what is merely familiaror comfortable.Our essential values are bound up, ofcourse, in the University's mission. AtChicago, we engage in discovery — particularly discovery that is fundamental or transcends disciplinary boundaries. We developinnovative ways of teaching and learningthat emphasize basic principles and areadaptable to new discoveries. We seek tocreate and maintain the foremost intellectual community among universities, wefoster scholarly discourse across disciplines,and we place great importance on being anintellectual community that brings togethergraduate and undergraduate students. In allthese efforts, we demonstrate to thebroader world the importance and value ofdiscovery, learning, and intellectual community.As a community, we must carefully definewhat is essential to the continued realization of Chicago's mission, and we mustensure that we do not undercut thosevalues or alter those practices. But all elsemust be on the table. I believe that by safeguarding what must not be changed, wewill have the courage to be bold in our consideration of the future shape of the University.In many fields, the job market for Ph.D.sis noticeably shrinking. What effect mightthat decline have on Chicago's long-runplanning — and on its responsibility to itsgraduate students?I believe that graduate students — in fieldsfrom the humanities to high-energy theoretical physics — generally understand thejob-market possibilities before they enter aprogram. We certainly have a responsibilityto make sure that our students understandthe job market as it is now and what weexpect they will face. We must be clearabout normal time-to-degree and attritionrates. In my experience, prospective students often decide to enroll in graduateUniversity of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 33study, despite a weak academic job market, because they feel, "This iswho 1 am, this is part ofwhat 1 want to be for alifetime."At the same time, weneed to be more creativein preparing students fortheir future careers. Withthe College and its wonderful Common Coreprogram, we have theenvironment to givegraduate students achance to teach and towork with undergraduates in ways that wouldopen up teaching jobsand other opportunities.We should also providean education for studentswho want to do graduate work that leads tonon-academic careers.Although Chicago has a reputation as aworld-class university, it is not a household name. Should that be a concern —and if so, what can be done?It's tempting simply to issue a flat denial.After all, we're often in the news. I can pickup Time magazine and see a cover story onthe U of C sex survey. Traveling in California, I turn on public TV and there's PaulSereno hunting for dinosaurs in Africa. Intwo other cities on the same trip, therehe — and our students — are again. I openthe New York Times Book Review and readabout a new and highly praised book,Democracy on Trial, by Jean BethkeElshtain, who teaches in the DivinitySchool.Chicago, MIT, Cal-tech, and the Institutelor Advanced Studyall suffer a deficit inname recognition because of the absenceof Division I football.Still, I wouldn't haveus change what we arein order to be betterknown. Let's be proudof who we are andlet's be sure that we'rebeing heard on ourterms.But it does hurt torealize that there are students — some asclose as the suburbs of Chicago — who areexactly the kind of students we want andwho might be reached if we had a bit bettername recognition. I believe that we can andshould work to improve this situation.What we do at Chicago is remarkable, and it deserves more attention.In January, you were among a group ofcollege and university presidents invitedby President Clinton to Washington todiscuss financing higher education.What's the best way to explain higher-education costs to the public, many ofwhom feel those costs are excessive?One way of putting the cost of a collegeeducation into perspective — and it's beendone by other college presidents beforeme — is to look at the price of a mid-sizedFord. In 1960, that Ford cost about $2,500.The price of a mid-sized Ford today isabout $25,000. Full tuition, room, andboard at Chicago and the places we compare ourselves to was also about $2,500 in1960, and it's also about $25,000 today. Yetno one talks about the rate of increase inthe price of autos!When alumnispeak about whatthey received fromthe University ofChicago, many ofthem voice thebelief that it wasthe best investmentof their life. In fact,a college educationis a spectacular investment. It lastsfor a lifetime ineconomic returnsand in terms ofwho you are.It's also necessary to remind people thattuition revenues at universities like oursdon't come close to meeting the full costs ofproviding an education. And if you're a student who can't afford to come to the University, we give you the education — or a substantial amount of it. More than 60 percent of our College students and virtuallyall of our graduate students are on financialaid.Some of the questions about the cost ofhigher education may reflect hostilitytowards higher education. Today, mostinstitutions — from the courts to churchesto political entities — are viewed as notquite measuring up to what we as a societyexpect of them. Most people believe fundamentally that we're not achieving as muchas a society as we should be. And universities get placed into that mix.One shouldn't run from this sort of hostile attitude. I'm an unabashed proponentof the continuing worth and importance ofhigher education. And it's particularly easyfor faculty and administrators at Chicago toanswer these angry questions. In terms ofthe discovery, learning, and character-building that occur here, the University isgood enough to be an answer.How would you define the role of theUniversity within Hyde Park and the cityof Chicago?Great cities need great universities; greatuniversities need great cities. The city ofChicago is most fortunate to have uslocated within its borders, and we shouldnot be afraid to say so. At the same time,we derive great benefit from being a part ofthis wonderful city.With respect to our immediate surroundings, a particular strength of the Universityis the large percentage of faculty and students who live in Hyde Park. This is vital toour attainment of intellectual community.My hope is that our neighbors in HydePark — who take great pride in the University — will also come to view us as anexemplary neighbor.We have a large stake in the neighborhood, and we are a big neighbor. It's easyfor people to view us as able to accomplishanything and responsible for everything.And it's easy for people to expect too muchof us. These are perceptions we need toaddress.Hyde Park and the surrounding neighborhoods — Woodlawn, North Kenwood-Oakland — are their own communities and mustflourish on their own terms. Our role is tobe here, ready and willing, if asked, to offerhelp and advice.Take the current revitalization projects inthose neighborhoods, for example. We'renot the leadership of those efforts — and weshouldn't be. But we have loaned funds toestablish community organizations, guaranteed loans to organizations constructinghousing, and helped make mortgagefinancing available for faculty and staff. Private development is taking place, and we're34 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995supporting it.Another aspect of being a good neighboris the volunteer work that our students, faculty, and staff do. In the case of our students, this work is all the more impressivewhen you realize that many have ten-hour-a-week jobs and all have demanding academic schedules.In the two years since you were namedpresident, what has surprised you mostabout the University?Having come to Chicago every few yearsto give a talk, having good friends here, andhaving spent a summer here as an undergraduate student, there was a lot I alreadyknew before my appointment. What Icouldn't really appreciate, although I knewit intellectually, was what it would feel liketo be in a place that defines itself, first andforemost, as a scholarly community. I'm aHHHHHBHHH^lBHHMBHHHH^^H full of stories about thedemands of being a university president. Whatparts of the job do youfind most demanding?It's a life, a marriage.Even if you're away,you're thinking about it.You learn what it feelslike to keep going all thetime, to have little letup,and what it feels like tohave many people depend on you andwatch closely what you are doing.This kind of public attention and responsibility is something university presidents — typically, we began as teacher-scholars — don't often come to early in life.As much as I sometimes miss my scholarlywork and my everyday relationships withteacher and a scholar, so it's natural Iwould find a place that values scholarshipso highly quite wonderful. But you have toexperience it.In recent months, the media have been students, I find it extremely invigorating tobe engaged in work that is so very differentfrom what I've done before. To do that aspresident of the University of Chicago is anenormous privilege. Look at who precededme: William RaineyHarper, Robert MaynardHutchins, Edward Levi,Hanna Gray. What otheruniversity has had suchpresidents? That, too,explains some of theweight one feels.You've become knownas an accessible and veryvisible administrator.Has that been a conscious effort?You're expected, quite properly, to be outand about. I find this enjoyable — and howelse can you really know what's going on?I also try to bring groups together. Afterthe trustees meeting in February, for example, we had the trustees and Shakespeareanscholar David Bevington, with about 25 ofhis students, over to our home. Itwasn't the type of mixture thatyou can have every day, but it wasa group that really reflected whatChicago is all about.I try to give a lecture or two eachquarter. I go over to visit thedorms, to sports events, to studentmusical productions, to UT andCourt Theatre. When you add tothat the fact that you have to beout of town a day or two eachweek, you want to figure out waysto do cloning!Over time, you learn to fit all ofthese public activities togetherwith your personal life. My wifeand sometimes my daughterRachel and her husband, Mossi,join me, so that attending campusevents becomes a family affair.In your conversations with U ofC alumni, what have you foundto be their dominant concerns —and what do you find yourselftelling them?Graduates of this University arequite splendid, and, by and large,they believe in Chicago, theybelieve they received a remarkableeducation, and they want to makesure its values are cherished andpreserved. They are very strong onthis final point.We are vitally dependent on ouralumni. But alumni, I beheve, alsoneed us. They need to feel thatthey are part of a broader University community, one that continues beyond the days when they are oncampus. And so I say, "Please remain intouch with the University. Help us tounderstand what we must do to keep youclose to Chicago."University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 35C lass NewsWhat's the news? We are always eager to receiveyour news at the Magazine, care of the Class NewsEditor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, or by E-mail:uchicago-magazine@uchicago.edu. No engagements, please. Items may be edited for space. Asnews is published in the order in which it arrives,it may not appear immediately.Please specify the year under which you wouldlike your news to appear. Otherwise, we will list:(1) all former undergraduates (including thosewho later received graduate degrees) by the yearof their undergraduate degree, and (2) all formerstudents who received only graduate degrees bythe year of their final degree.Reunion June 2-3*4Helen Sisson Redefer, PhB'25, was a semi-finalist in the National Library of Poetrycontest and will be published in its 1995 Seasons toCome anthology.Eleanor Rice Long, PhB'26, says she is"slow but go,"MM Mildred Schieber Standish, PhB'27, ageM m 89, does IRS returns for senior citizens,reads, gardens, plays bridge, and does crafts. Shesays her knees are her only problems and asksclassmates to send newsAfter a career as a dress designer, DorotheaLoewenstein-Zittenfield, PhB'28, has livedin Los Angeles since 1955. She is "very active inOne with Nature many undertakings." Robert F. Steadman, PhD'28,age 90, and friend Agnes Mary Hyde Gough,AM'38, live in a "built-to-order retirement homewith close friends and family at hand" in TraverseCity, ML One son is earning a Ph.D. in Asian studies, the second is president of an electronics company, and the third has retired. His daughter is apartner in a Canadian firm.Walter E. Puschel, PhB'29, and his wife celebrated their 60th anniversary last July. InOctober, they took another round-the-world jet tour.Reunion June 2-3*4M Edward J. Lawler Jr., PhB'30, spent his86th birthday in his law office, marking 60years of practice. He writes: "Many changes — veryfew for the better. We are still ahead of majorleague baseball players and owners. The former arevery well paid for spitting and scratching." VictorRoterus, PhB'30, SM'31, age 87, and wife Florencelive next to a golf course, where he plays nine holesevery afternoon.M Lucia Downing Hewitt, PhB'31, lives in aretirement residence in Eugene, OR, whereshe has found U of C friends. She also keeps intouch with Mary Evelyn Webb Stowe, PhB'33, wholives near Rensselaer, NY. Eleanor Durbin Nebel,SB'31, MAT'33, attended an Elderhostel program atInternational House last April: "It was a wonderfulexperience to be a student again on the Midway."Frances Taylor Talley, PhB'31, writes that, after aA Multipurpose Mere: Not only was Botany Pond the site of the annual fraternitytug of war (photo from 1957), but also the perfect place in which to toss first-yearsand Maroon editors or to propose to a sweetheart while standing on the bridge. lifetime of academics and travel, she is known as"the lady who had a double knee replacement andwas soon off swimming, hiking, and biking."AA Winnifred Weinberg Blonsky, PhB'32,VM taught in the Chicago public schools fornearly 36 years, retiring in 1962. Geraldine MitchellCraig, PhB'32, is "happy and well" in Shreveport,LA, and says hello to all the quadranglers.MCarl E. Geppinger, PhB'33, reports thatWarren A. ("Bud") Bellstrom, PhB'33, 'Cman 1933, had a serious operation in 1994 but isdoing fine. Mary Evelyn Webb Stowe, PhB'33, see1931, Lucia Downing Hewitt. Ross B. Whitney,PhB'33, MBA'59, enjoyed his 60th reunion andseeing Carl E. Geppinger, PhB'33, and Harold T. V.Johnson, PhB'33. Whitney and wife Grace celebrated their 60th anniversary. Active in several charities, he notes that "golf continues to go downhill."M Rosemary Volk Howland, PhB'34, lives ina Greek-revival house in Connecticut, nearthe two youngest of her 14 grandchildren. She is aresources aide at a local elementary school andstudies Spanish. Helen L. Morgan, AB'34, AM'36,principal of the American Academy for Girls inIstanbul from 1952 until 1977, traveled to Turkeyin May for the dedication of a science/math building named in her honor. She lives in Pilgrim Place,a retirement center in Claremont, CA. VirginiaMiller Taylor, PhB'34, retired as a high-schooladministrator in 1978 and moved to Scottsdale, AZ,to "enjoy the fun and sun," Birgit Vennesland,SB'34, PhD'38, CLA'68, and Kirsten Vennesland,SB'34, MD'42, both retired, live together in Hawaii.Reunion June 2*3*4Charles A. Bane, AB'35, is on the advisoryboard for the Lincoln Legal Papers Project,which collects papers from Abraham Lincoln's lawpractice and plans to publish them. Bane is counselwith the Palm Beach, FL, law firm of Henderson &Robinson. Ralph L. Fitts, MD'35, writes, "Living atLa Vida Llena (the full life) is 'good medicine' forone almost 94 years old." Dorothy M. Kammer-mann, AB'35, bowls four times a week.Herbert C. Brown, SB'36, PhD'38, still doeschemistry research at Purdue University. Healso lectures around the world, accompanied by wifeSarah Baylen Brown, SB'37. Eleanor Sharts Cum-ings, AB'36, would love to hear from classmates. Forthe past five years, she has led a busy life in anEvanston retirement community. Harriet Wells Gill,PhB'36, founded and directs Friends of San DiegoArchitecture, a ten-year-old organization that offersmonthly programs with architects and designers.AH Sarah Baylen Brown, SB'37, see 1936, Her-O/ bert C. Brown. Verrill J. Fischer, MD'37,retired in 1984 from teaching residents at theFamily Practice Center in Minot, ND, and the University of North Dakota. Donal K. Holway, SB'37,works part time as a consulting engineer on hydroelectric projects, including the Arkansas River Navigation Project. Carol Bartelmez Moore, AM'37,volunteers with the Clatsop County, OR, HistoricalMuseum and the Columbia River MaritimeMuseum. She is also on the boards of the localAmerican Red Cross and AAUW. William T.Zusag, AB'37, has created four hours of tape abouthis experiences as a POW during WWII for his children and grandchildren. Shot down by Germanforces in Holland on September 19, 1944, he waswrongly suspected of smuggling messages betweenBritain and German-occupied Denmark.M Ralph P. Christenson, MD'38, welcomesnews from old friends. Agnes Mary HydeGough, AM'38, see 1928, Robert F. Steadman.Horace D. McGee, MD'38, retired from ob-gynpractice in 1984 and enjoys golf, cribbage, and36 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995piano. Murray Senkus, PhD'38, is a consultant tothe law firm of Womkle Carlyle, providing information on scientific aspects of cases.M Helen J. Pulaski, SB'39, SM'42, is "enjoyinga wonderful retirement." William W. Scott,PhD'38, MD'39, was sorry to miss his 55th reunion.He is restoring cars, writing a biography, and staying well.Reunion June 2*3*4!,.''¦'¦-¦ '¦:¦¦...¦.¦'¦¦¦''¦:¦;. M ¦ ¦:.,::.. :..-.:'..Aff| Robert M. Boyer, AB'40, JD'48, saw ElsieW Teufel Lane, AB'40, and June Roberts Seip,AB'40, at a Kane County (IL) Cougar ball game. Laneswims, golfs, and is a teacher's aide in the DuPageCounty literacy program. Seip, an avid golfer, volunteers with the Flossmoor Woman's Club. Joan FuchsMarkley, SB'40, and her husband are enjoying hisretirement from Fermilab and spending time withtheir two grandchildren. They exhibited their handcrafted jewelry at 12 art shows in 1994.M% Shirley Shapiro Barsky, AB'41, AM'42, will^m I teach at an Elderhostel program at the Athenian School in Danville, CA, on June 18. Leota Baunvgarth Heshmati, X'41, and her husband, Ali G.Heshmati, X'42, have lived in their home in SantaCruz, CA, since 1966, when Ali began teaching electronics at Cabrillo College. (This corrects informationprinted in the October/92 issue. — Ed.) Their son John,an artist, lives in Arizona. The Heshmatis celebratedtheir 50th anniversary in December 1993.« Muriel Markman Cohen, AB'42, writes,"No news is good news!" Theodore Fields,SB'42, is an adjunct associate professor of radiologyat the University of Miami.Jtf9 Barbara R. Anderson, PhB'43, and brother-TilP in-law John R. Anderson, AB'47, traveled inEurope and went to Luxembourg for services com-memmorating the Battle of the Bulge. John foughtin WWII with the reserve cavalry unit, The BlackHorse Troop. In October, Marjorie Robinson Eckels,AM'43, went to China with North Carolina Citizensfor International Understanding. Ruth Russell Gray,AB'43, retired from law practice and lives in centralFlorida, where she does some labor arbitration.Jgjg Marjorie Clemens Hartwig, AB'44, MBA44,*¦*¦ and Joseph D. Hartwig, PhB'44, MBA'44,write that 1994 was "a year of 50s": the GSB reunionin May, the College reunion in June, and theiranniversary at the end of the year. Ruth HollandWaddell, AB'44, see 1949, John H. Waddell.Reunion June 2*3*4JWB Doris Amett Gumey, PhB'45, writes, "It's49 hard to imagine being one of those oldfogies attending a 50th reunion in 1995, but it mayhappen." Ernst R. Jaffe, SB'45, MD'48, SM'48, ofTenafly, NJ, is looking forward to his reunion.JA Bernard A. Galler, PhB'46, SB'47, PhD'55,Tl9 is the founder and president of the Software Patent Institute, a nonprofit corporation thathelps the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office withsoftware applications.MWW John R. Anderson, AB'47, see Barbara R.4 # Anderson, PhB'43. George M. Davies,PhB'47, MD'52, retired but is active in his local Congregational church, and still attends American Psychiatric Association meetings. Albert W. Demmler,Jr., PhB'47, X'48, is senior editor for the magazinesdivision of the Society of Automotive Engineers. Heand wife Donna live in New Kensington, PA. EnidHarris Galler, AB'47, AM'50, is interviewing University of Michigan faculty and administrators abouttheir professional careers. Robert E. Howard,PhB'47, of Arkansas, writes: "Praise Rockefeller,from whom oil blessings flow. Viva Sinaiko, aHerman." Louis E. Kriesberg, PhB'47, AM'50, PhD'53, was named the Maxwell professor of social-conflict studies at Syracuse University, after eightyears as director of Syracuse's Program on theAnalysis and Resolution of Conflicts. Charles B.Macklin, AM'47, of Carlsbad, CA, is "still alive, withhappy memories." C. Phil Richman, AB'47, doespublic-relations consulting for clients in the arts. Heand wife Julie, an artist, are busy visiting and entertaining their grandchildren: two each in Chicago,Miami, and Oklahoma City. Paul R. Simon, AB'47,MBA'47, traveled to St. Petersburg and Scandinavia.He observes, "Compared to past trips to the samearea, it seems like decline has set in — economy, attitudes, appearance of people, and structures."Mfk Virginia L. Ames, MBA'48, writes, "I wouldTWiP not have been able to go to Florida for thewinter if I hadn't used knowledge from my M.B.A."A former quality engineer at Abbott Laboratories,William L. Lieberman, AB'48, MBA50, received the1994 Edward J. Oakley award from the Midwestquality-conference board of the American Society forQuality Control. John W. Morris, PhB'48, wrote"Principles of Justice in Health Care Allocation" fora biomedical ethics class at William Rainey HarperCollege. Submitted to Hillary Clinton's health-caretask force, it was published in the Harper Anthologyof Academic Writing. John E. Saveson, AM'48,started a book-publishing company, MainesburgPress, in New Albany, OH. The press published hisfirst novel, Expense of Spirit, in October.Barbara Jean Jacobson Seymour, PhB'48, AM'62,a gender-identity counselor for cross-dressers andtranssexuals in Portland, OR, was featured in thePortland Downtowner. Jane A. Simmons, AB'48,retired June 12, 1993, after 38 years as a high-school counselor. The next day she opened heroffice, AM CAP, in Wilmette, as an independent college counselor. Peter Small, PhB'48, SB'50, is semi-retired after 40 years as an advertising copywriterand president of a mail-order company. He has wonmany prizes for his abstract clay sculpture. InMarch 1993, Jerome M. Ziegler, AM'48, becameprofessor emeritus at Cornell University. He teachespart time and works with the National ExecutiveService Corps in New York, conducting leadershipseminars for public high-school principals in NewYork; Washington, DC; and Philadelphia.JA Harry E. Groves, JD'49, serves on the ABA'sTUP accreditation committee as well as its council on legal education and admissions to the bar. Healso chairs the U.S. Olympic Committee's ethicscommittee. James J. Monge, AB'49, is a senior surgeon at Duluth Clinic and a clinical professor at theUniversity of Minnesota, Duluth Medical School.His four children are ages 16 to 21. John H. Waddell, X'49, and wife Ruth Holland Waddell, AB'44,conceived the idea for a sculpture memorializing thefour victims of the 1963 racial bombing of a Birmingham, AL, church. The sculpture, That WhichMight Have Been, Birmingham 1963, is located at theFirst Unitarian Universalist Church of Phoenix. Acampaign has begun to place a bronze casting of thesculpture at the Birmingham church.Reunion ^jiwe 2.3.4 95Donald L. Berry, DB'50, the Harry Emerson Fosdick emeritus professor of philosophy and religion at Colgate University, is presidentof the Conference of Anglican Theologians. Jay M.Sawilowsky, AB'50, has practiced law in Augusta,GA, for the past 37 years. James L. Weil, AB'50, iscurator of the John Keats bicentennial exhibition atthe Grolier Club.Kathryn Emstes Bailey, AM'51, retired fromnursing in 1982 after several administrativeposts. She has lived in Greensburg, IN, since the1991 death of her husband, Raymond O. Bailey, In the ClubsBoston Fri., May 5: Distinguished FacultySeries presents Martin Marty, PhD'56, professor in the Divinity School.Chicago Wed., Apr. 26, 12:15 p.m.: Downtown lunch with education professor AnthonyBryk. Sun., May 14, 2 p.m.: Concertante diChicago and discussion with Gustavo Leone,AM'90, PhD'94. Fri., May 19, 6-8 p.m.: TGIF!at Baja Beach Club. Sat., June 10, 10 a.m.:Brunch with jazz musician Mayo Tiana, TerraMuseum of American Art.Dallas Sat., Apr. 22: Distinguished FacultySeries with economist Allen Sanderson, AM'70,Denver Sun., Apr. 23: Distinguished FacultySeries presents Theodore Steck, chair of theEnvironmental Studies Committee.Houston Sun., Apr. 23: Distinguished FacultySeries with economist Allen Sanderson, AM'70.LOS Angeles Sun., May 21, 2 p.m.: "TheCerebral Side of Self Defense" with BarbaraGallen, MBA'77.Milwaukee Mon., Apr. 17: Distinguished Faculty Series with law professor Mary Becker, JD'80.New Yoik Thurs, Apr. 20, 6:30 p.m.: Youngalumni Happy Hour at 10th Street Lounge.Wed., Apr. 26, 7:30 p.m.: Chicago City Limitsperformance/reception. Sun., May 7, 12 p.m.:National Museum of the American Indian tour.Thurs., May 18, 6:30 p.m.: Young alumniHappy Hour at Manhattan Brewery.Northern New lersey Sun., Apr 30, 7p.m.: Distinguished Faculty Series featuringEnglish professor David Bevington.Philadelphia Sun., Apr. 30: DistinguishedFaculty Series brunch with David Bevington.Phoenix Sat., Apr. 22: Distinguished FacultySeries with U of C environmentalist TheodoreSteck.San Diego Sun., Apr. 30: Shoshana Shecht-man, AM'75, PhD'78, on "Economics of Marriage, Divorce, and the Labor Force."San Francisco Tues., Apr. 25, 6 p.m.:Dinner and Eugene O'Neill's A Moon for the Misbegotten, at the Berkeley Repertory Theater. Sat.,May 6, 8:30 a.m.: Young alumni hike/picnic atPoint Reyes National Seashore. Sat., May 20,10:30 a.m.: Wine tasting and lunch at the Sterling Winery. Sat., June 10: Filoli Gardens tour.Toronto Sat, May 13: Distinguished FacultySeries with economist Allen Sanderson, AM'70.Washington, DC Sun., Apr. 23: Distinguished Faculty Series with professor LeonKass, SB'58, MD'62.For details, contact Marilyn Melvan, UofC AlumniAssociation, at 312/702-2157; at 312/702-2166 (fax);or at dwemrvm@uchimvsl.uchicago.edu (Internet).University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 37AM'50. An assistant professor of pathology at theEvansville branch of Indiana University's medicalschool, Rodney F. Porro, AB'51, is a board-certifiedpathologist practicing in Evansville and Hendevso,KY. On July 1, Clifford B. Reifler, AB'51, retired asdirector of the University of Rochester health service and became professor emeritus of health services and psychiatry. He continues as executiveeditor of the Journal of American College Health andlooks forward to consulting and voluntary boardparticipation.Hubert C. Huebl, AB'52, continues to practice surgery in Dearborn, ML Willa SamorsLawall, AB'52, AM'55, PhD'58, writes, "The unioncards are on the way: Daughter Julia (in computerscience at Indiana) and son Mark (in classicalarchaeology at Michigan) successfully defended dissertations" last summer. Arnold D. Richards,AB'52, is editor of the Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association.Pearl Hsai Chen, PhD'53, and husbandFranklin wrote an award-winning article,"An Evaluation of Various Explanations of PostwarJapan's Spectacular Economic Success," publishedby Norfolk State University in 1987. Ross L. Fed-erico, AM'53, retired from teaching in 1986, lives inNorth Carolina, and enjoys volunteer work, travel,and writing. Sheldon A. Patinkin, AB'53, AM'56, isin his 15th year as chair of the theater/musicdepartment at Columbia College in Chicago.Patinkin directed Second City's 35th anniversaryretrospective and this spring is directing a FrankLoesser revue that he devised for the NationalJewish Theater in Skokie. He is an artistic consultant at both theatersH PhD'63, the Charles E. Ducommun professor ofeducation at Stanford, received the E. L. Thomdikeprize from the American Psychological Associationfor career contributions to educational psychology.Lettie McSpadden Wenner, AB'59, was 1993-94chair of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board. Tony and Susan, a novel byAustin M. Wright, AM'48, PhD'59, was reissued inpaperback last summer and has been translated intoeight languages.Reunion June 2*3*4David L. James, JD'60, is president of Business Strategies International, a San Francisco-based Asia-Pacific consulting and venture-development firm. On October 14, Charles E.Larsen, AB'60, AM'69, gave his eighth annual seminar on the occult. Patricia G. Toalson, AB'60, hasretired as co-owner of Island Women Constructionafter a decade on Nantucket. Toalson returned tofull-time counseling at Cape Cod Human Servicesand to her private practice, Counseling for Women,in West Barnstable, MA. She reports, "My U of Cvarsity basketball MVP trophy is on my desk."WW. Wesley Durland, DB'61, has served as aUnited Church of Christ pastor in Atwood,IL; Gary, IN; Denver, CO; and Arlington, WA. Healso was a prison chaplain in Washington state andexecutive director of a rehabilitation center in Seattle. In 1990, he received an honorary doctoratefrom the New Theological Union. Mary Renee Cap-pellini Slater, AM'61, is a senior lecturer in literarystudies at the University of the West of England,Bristol. Her three daughters have grown up; one hasI was a hippie, then I went to medicalschool, now I'm a hippie again. Tryingto resuscitate the Life of the Mind."M Robert P. Anderson, AM'51, PhD'54,adminstrator of the South Plains Foundation in Lubbock, TX, retired as psychology professor emeritus at Texas Tech University in 1992.Reunion June 2*3*4Last spring, Norman G. Swenson, AB'55,MBA'61, represented the American Federation of Teachers as an international observer ofSouth Africa's first all-race elections.Robert Baumruk, AM'56, teaches a Czechlanguage course for adult beginners at theMasaryk School in Cicero. Malcolm I. Page, MD'56,is vice president of medical affairs for UniversityHospital in Augusta, GA.Bfl Mary ("Alzina") Stone Dale, AM'57, spoke%Bm on her "chequered career" at a DivinitySchool brunch on Ash Wednesday 1994.Cecily Raysor Hancock, AM'58, publishedthe article "If He Would Have' and 'If HeDidn't "' in the Fall 1993 American Speech. She caresTor her 96-year-old mother and makes "occasionallibrary forays in pursuit of scholarly hobbies of afrivolous sort." Her son, his wife, and Hancock's 2-year-old grandson visit and send photos,Jane l.cvcnberg Schram Gerber, AM'59, apsychotherapist and trainer of family therapists, received the American Academy for Marriageand Family Therapy research and education prizefor co-authoring The Sotir Model: Family Therapyand Beyond. Lee S. Shulman, AB'59, AM'60, — Diane D. Korsower, AB'67married and lives in Minneapolis, where Slatervisits. In autumn she taught a day school on thefilm The Piano at Slymarith Arts Center.M David F. Greenberg, SB'62, SM'63, PhD'69,was elected a fellow of the American Society of Criminology. His review of Chicago assistantprofessor of history George Chauncey's book, GayNew Yorh, appeared in the June 24 New York Times.In August, Judith E. Stein, AB'62, AM'64, ofChicago, and Judith Goldstein Marks, AB'63,AM'69, of Chapel Hill, NC, had an accidentalreunion in London. Marks and her husband areenjoying a year-long sabbatical.Jonathan Knight, AB'63, and Judith Rob-bins Knight, AB'63, have built a new home.She has a new job as middle-school math teacherand department head at Georgetown Day School.Judith Goldstein Marks, AB'63, AM'69, see 1962,Judith E. Stein. Ingram B. Schwahn, AM'63, president of the Dallas alumni club, represented the University at a college night program in Dallas.William E. Dix, MBA'71, and his llth-gradedaughter, Laura, attended. Miroslav Synek, PhD'63,who has taught physics and chemistry at the University of Texas at San Antonio since 1975, is listedin Five Hundred Leaders of Influence, Who's Who inthe World, and other reference volumes,MJohn W. Dermody, MBA'64, and his wifelive at Air Force Village West, a retirementcommunity for military officers from all branches ofthe services, Christopher C. Hong, PhD'64, a NewTestament professor at Hapdong Presbyterian The ological Seminary, has had numerous theologicalwritings published.\EUNION June 2*3*4A. Howard Carter, AB'65, continues to teachat Eckerd College, but will take leave toteach atUNC-Chapel Hill in 1995-96. Jerry J. Felm-ley, MBA'65, spent three weeks in May 1994 visitingRussian space facilities and contractors with a technical-exchange team from the American Institute ofAeronautics and Astronautics. "The technicalstrengths are obvious, and all contacts we made wereoptimistic," Felmley writes. "Just bring investmentcapital!" Glenn E. Loafmann, AB'65, writes, "Class of'65 is going for a real class gift for this reunion —watch this space!" Fernando Ugarte, MD'65, is a fullattending physician in general surgery in Marysville,KS, and is consultant in general surgery at BeatriceCommunity Hospital in Beatrice, NE. He joined theU of C Surgical Society in October.Charles L. Gellert, AB'66, wife Susie, andson Jesse have adopted a baby girl, ChanaMiriam. She was born March 19, 1994, in Perm,Russia, and came to their home in Washington, DC,on August 21,fBJKf Deanna Dragunas Bennett, AB'67, and hus-99 m band Tom were volunteers on the committee that brought the "Treasures of the Czars" exhibitto St. Petersburg, FL. The exhibit is open throughJune — classmates in town for the event should call.Thomas F. Howard, AB'67, AM'73, teaches geography at Armstrong State College in Savannah, GA,Diane D. Korsower, AB'67, lives in "rural obscurity"on the northern California coast with husbandDarius Brotman, a jazz pianist, and children JadaCalypso, 15, and Maximilian Parker, 9. She writes:"First I was a hippie, then 1 went to medical school,now 1 am a hippie again. Trying to resuscitate theLife of the Mind." Lawrence I. Schwartz, AB'67, andLois Wolf Schwartz, AB'67, AM'72, AM'90, reportthat "things are quiet careerwise for once" and thattheir son applied to the College. Gerrit J.Tenzythoff, AM'61, PhD'67, was awarded an honorary doctorate of humane letters by Drury Collegein Springfield, MO. Robert M. Vare, AB'67, AM70,left the New York Times Magazine after four yearsand is now articles editor of The New Yorker.Susan Heim Ford, PhD'69, was chosenChicago State University's 1994-95 distinguished professor. Jeanette Pasin Sloan, MFA'69,has an exhibit of her paintings, prints, and drawingsthrough May 7 at the Univerity of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. She will have a one-woman show in NewYork in June. Margaret Cott Zarrelli, AB'69,designs programs and writes grants as the executiveassistant for a seven-county community-actionagency in Missouri. Her daughter, Anne-Marie, is asecond-year College student.Reunion June 2*3*4¦¦A Thomas F. Mullaney, Jr., MBA'70, startedm %M Mullaney & Associates, a registered investment adviser and broker-dealer in Farmington, CT.Richard L. Schaper, ThM'70, is senior pastor at St.Mark's Lutheran Church and the founding chair ofthe San Francisco Interfaith Council. Fredrick L.Silverman, MAT'70, co-presented a session on usingportfolios for math assessment in elementary gradesat the NCTE portfolio conference in Scottsdale, AZ,in July. Also in July, Silverman got together withBarry W. Furze, MAT'70, PhD'76, for a Rockiesbaseball game in Denver(TV| William E. Dix, MBA'71, see 1963, Ingram¦ I B, Schwahn. Wojciech Komomicki, AB'71,is a mathematics professor at Hamline University inSt. Paul, MN. His small computer-consulting com-38 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995pany, WNK Consulting, has produced Sitecomp — agraphics-design package for the civil-engineeringmarket — and several finanical- and pension-planning tools. Komornicki can be reached atwnk@piper.hamline.edu.HIM Paul B. Bennett, AB'72, married with twoa IB daughters, lives in a Manhattan high-riseand is a senior vice president for research at theFederal Reserve in New York. Hiro Makino, AB'72,MD'77, practices cardiology in Honolulu withMichael Chan, a 1994 U of C cardiology fellow.Warren J. Paul, AB'75, is senior project managerand manger of the San Francisco Bay Area branchoffice for GE1 Consultants. He is licensed to practice civil engineering in nine states. H. Alfred Ryan,AB'72, has formed the San Francisco-based lawfirm of Smith, McDaniel & Donahue with fourother attorneys. Specializing in environmental law,Ryan is the managing partner of the firm's Chicagooffice. Philip W. Smith, MD'72, edited the secondedition of Infection Control in Long-Term Care Facilities. Roger C. Wiegand, AB'72, is one of about 140fellows within the Monsanto group of companies.He works with Searle Research and Development,MM| Matthew M. Franckiewicz, JD'73, submit-m <& ted the manuscript of his book Winning atthe NLRB to BNA Books. He has been included onsix permanent arbitration panels and had 13 of hisdecisions published. Robert N. Gilbert, AM'73, asocial-sciences teacher at Palatine High School (IL)was named the 1994 Hans O. Mauksch teacher bythe Georgia Sociological Association. Don D.Rosenberg, MBA'73, started two businesses in1994: Anxiety, Addiction and Depression RecoveryServices, a private psychology practice, and Solutions Primary Behavioral Healthcare, a managed-care company. Rosenberg's 18-year-old son is asophomore at Rice. In 1994, William E. Suddath,MBA'73, and a partner acquired a specialty-fastenermanufacturing company. They hope to make oneor two acquisitions each of the next five years.MJohn P. Kelty, AB'74, enjoys his new homein the coastal town of Scituate, MA. Kathleen McEntee de la Pena McCook, AM'74, directsthe School of Library and Information Science at theUniversity of South Florida, Tampa. She is theauthor of Toward a Just and Productive Society. LindaGoluch Phillips, AB'74, MD'78, is chief of the division of plastic and reconstructive surgery at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.Reunion June 2*3*4^ Stephen M. Baum, AB'75, works on high-end electronic publishing systems at Interleaf. Warren J. Paul, AB'75, see 1972, WarrenJ. Paul.MM* Bernard R. Bonnot, AM'75, PhD'76, isM V director of community relations for VISN —The Faith and Values Channel, a cable channel thatreaches nearly 21 million homes. Patricia A. Burke,AB'76, and her husband, John Proffitt, announcethe 1993 birth of twins, a boy and a girl, just beforeChristmas. Barry W. Furze, MAT'70, PhD'76, see1970, Fredrick L. Silverman. L. Reagan Upshaw,AM'76, is director of Gerald Peters Gallery in NewYork and specializes in 19th- and early 20th-century American art.WWW] Eliaser Chaparro, AB'77, and Janice SowellM m Chaparro, AB'77, moved to Little Rock, AR.He is an attorney with the Army Corps of Engineers,and she is an assistant director for children andfamily services with the state. Son Ramon is 14 yearsold. Thomas J. D'Alesandro IV, AM'77, is presidentof Mobil Land Development in Georgia. The corporation is developing a 3,400-acre planned community in an Atlanta suburb. Michael J. Havercamp,AM'77, received the University of Nevada's Thorntonpeace prize for his mediation work. Judith A. Trib- Right-MindedOVER THE PAST FEW MONTHS, MORRISShechtman, AM'65, has put hisprofessional skills as a change-management consultant to "the ultimatetest": his own life, post-Newt Gingrich.After the GOP triumph last Novemberturned the new house speaker into amedia superstar, Gingrich shared someof the spotlight with Shechtman, callinghis book, Working without a Net: How toSurvive & Thrive in Today's High-RiskBusiness World, "required reading" forRepublican lawmakers and makingShechtman an adviser. Since then,Shechtman's schedule has been "a zoo."As the managing director of InsiteInstitute, he was already away from hisSt. Charles, Illinois, home most weekdays — meeting with corporate clients,giving lectures, and preparing for theopening of new offices in Europe andLatin America. Now he's added trips toWashington, consultation with Gingrich's office, more public speaking, andseveral interviews each week.The ideas that keep Shechtman indemand revolve around such terms as"high-risk values," "caretaking," "stress,"and "distress." He holds that personalvalues drive business practices: High-riskvalues help businesses thrive, while low-risk values put them out of business.That maxim, he maintains, also appliesto government.According to Shechtman, the government should take the risk of eliminatingits "caretaking" approach, a style ofmanagement that he says avoids conflict, leads to stagnation, and creates anentitlement mindset. For example, "thebudget deficit was created by theattempt of one generation after anotherof political leadership to make nobodyunhappy," he says. "Now people expectmore and more and more to come theirway just by their existence. And whenyou start making some tough decisions,people are going to be really angry."Shechtman describes his advisory roleto Gingrich as "framing those toughbett, AM'77, is director of the national network management and database at Blue Cross and Blue ShieldAssociation in Chicago. Aizik L. Wolf, AB'77, joinedthe Miami Neuroscience Center at Health SouthDoctor's Hospital. Wolf and his wife, a commercialartist, have two daughters, Jaclyn, 6, and Ariel, 4.HA John B. Anduri, AM'78, diagnosed with§ O cancer for 20 years, speaks nationally atmedical and clerical conferences on men and cancerand the spiritual aspect of surviving cancer. He decisions as helpful decisions, notuncompassionate, uncaring decisions."Although many Republicans emphasizewelfare reform's place in potentialbudget cuts, Shechtman argues that "it'stoo easy and too glib to just focus onwelfare." Other caretaking, such astobacco-industry subsidies and corporatebailouts, should also be reconsidered.The tough decisions that Republicansare calling for will necessarily lead tostress — what Shechtman defines as apositive, energizing force. What's generally called stress, he says, is actuallydistress, "the dysfunctional aspect ofpoorly handled change."Helping people to handle change hasbeen his specialty throughout his 15-year consulting career. That career follows a master's in cultural history fromChicago, college teaching, and work as aclinical psychologist.Though Washington's calling, Shechtman has no plans to move inside theBeltway. Rather, he's heading west toMontana. "My wife and I set goals inthree- to five-year time frames, and this isthe fruition of our most recent five-yearplan," he explains. Meanwhile, he hassigned with an agency that representspublic speakers and is working on a newbook that translates his business principles into government policies. For MorrisShechtman, the Republican revolutionhas definitely been a high-risk venture:"More change has occurred, probably, inthe last 60 days of my life than hasoccurred in the prior 52 years." — K.S.adds, "My writing and speaking continue to beinformed by U of C mentors, especially Eliade.Marty, and Gilkey." Lee S. Mann, AM'78,announces the birth of daughter Rebecca, who joinsJonathan, 7, and Michael, 4. Buzz M. Spector,MFA'78, created an installation, "Unpacking myLibrary," featured in October at the San Diego StateUniversity Art Gallery. The exhibit consisted of allthe books in Spector's library, arranged from tallestto shortest on a 150-foot shelf.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 39U Andrew R. Porter, AM'79, is manager ofM9 ihe Navy health-professions scholarshipprogram in Arlington, VA.Reunion June 2*3*4L. Gordon Crovitz, AB'80, is the publisherand editor of the Far Eastern EconomicReview, an Asian business newsweekly based inHong Kong and owned by Dow Jones.WArturo Gutierrez, MBA'81, is vice presidentof finance at Almegro Company, a Chileanreal-estate and development business. Renee ColwillLovelace, MBA'81, is a home-based attorney specializing in estate planning for families with disabledchildren. She chairs the legal alliance for the TexasAlliance for the Mentally 111 and a Dallas Bar Association committee to set up a pro bono legal clinic forthe mentally ill. She and husband Joe have a toddler,Jessica Jo. Thomas R. Miller, MBA'81, and wifeKaren announce the September 26 birth of son DavidTheodore Roy. Wendy Beth Oliver, AB'81, quit corporate law to travel alone for a year in Asia and LatinAmerica. She is now a part-time Lawyer in Portland,OR, and is working on a travel book. In August,Oliver visited Theodore Beutel, AB'84, JD'89, in LasVegas, where he practices law with a private firm.Michael J. Gerhardt, JD'82, took a one-year leave from teaching law at the Collegeof William & Mary to be a visiting professor at Cornell Law School. Joseph L. Price, AM'79, PhD'82, isassociate editor of the Journal of the American Academy of Religion. George L. Russell, MBA'82, lives inRacine, Wl, and is the worldwide product directorlor harvesting implements for Case CorporationSandra S. Snook, AB'82, lives in Highland Park, IL,with her children, Ngiste, 6, and Amha, 2, She is apathologist at Searle Pharmaceutical.AQ Kevin E. Bright, AB'83, an otolaryngologist,^M^B and wife Tamis, an endocrinologist, have a1-year-old daughter, Jacqueline Marie. Thomas S.DeNapoli, MD'83, finished Army duty in December1993 and joined a pathology group in San Antonio,TX. He is a pediatric pathologist at Santa Rosa Children's Hospital. Lawrence A. Gyenes, MBA'83,joined Helene Curtis as CFO and corporate vicepresident. Robert E. Klein, AM'69, PhD'83, retiredfrom business, has "a post-65 career" teaching history at Loyola University Chicago. He recommends"such a rebirth to anyone approaching retirement."Nancy K. Oyer, AM'83, and husband Jason Shotder,of Beverly Hills, CA, announce the May 16 birth ofdaughter Rachel. Catherine Ellis Ryan, AB'86, isoperations manager for the Chicago meeting-management firm Ann Becker and Associates. She, husband Michael, and son Ian live in Chicago'sRavenswood neighborhoodM Theodore Beutel, AB'84, JD'89, see 1981,Wendy Beth Oliver. Debbie R. David,MBA'84, and her husband, Daniel P. Ben-Zvi,announce the July 13 birth of daughter SarahEmily. A. Margaret ("Meg") Schellenberg, AB'84,graduated on June 30 with a Ph.D. in theology andchurch history from Durham University. Before herthree years at Durham she spent a year at Oxford,and so looked forward to "returning to Americaafter four years of fish and chips and mushy peas."Reunion June 2-3*4Frederick A. Jubitz, 111, AB'85, MBA'89,married Judy McLean on August 13 at theAdirondack Community Church in Lake Placid,NY. Reverend Eric A. Zimmer, X'85, participated in[he ceremony. Groomsmen included Alexander V.Stem, AB'86; Eric D. Kogan, MBA'89; and Craig C.Parker, AB'91. Jenifer A. Steig, MBA'89, was abridesmaid. In attendance were Todd Schwebel, Casualty of WarOf Sarajevo's National and Univer-sity Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina, only walls remain. Thethree-million-item collection — exceptfor the least valuable 10 percent, storedin warehouses — burned in August 1992when the 19th-century, Moorish-revivalbuilding was destroyed by the shells ofBosnian Serb forces. Enes Kujundzic'sjob is to save what's left of the collection — and replace what isn't.That daunting task, says Kujundzic,AM'73, the library's director since mid-1993, is also a crucial one. "This was anextremely reading-oriented population.The communication blockade of Sarajevo — medieval in its nature — is havinga devastating effect on the cultural andscientific exchanges between the cityand the outside world." Add to that thehistorical loss of the library's holdings,mostly written in the South Slavic languages: Bosnia's national archives, theUniversity of Sarajevo's collections, rarebooks, maps, recordings, and periodicalsdating to the mid-19th century. Otherworks appeared in European languages,Latin, Arabic, Church Slavonic, Hebrew,Turkish, and Persian.A former professor at Sarajevo's Oriental Institute (destroyed by bombs in May1992), Kujundzic, whose U of C degreeis in Near Eastern languages and civilizations, also earned a doctorate in librarysciences from the University of Sarajevo.Today, he leads a 42-member staff incaring for the rescued materials, compiling retrospective bibliographies of themain collections, and trying to gatherreplacement items. There has been somesuccess: UNESCO sent several computers and 300 books, and the University ofMichigan helped Kujundzic tour U.S.X'86; and James P. Gordon, Jr., MBA'89. Jubitz is adirector of travel industries with American ExpressTravel Related Services in Manhattan. Mary Moon,PhD'85, received the Roon award from the Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology for herpaper on corrosion resistance properties of organicpaint films. Herbert W. Silverman, AB'85, is director of, development for arc/georgia, a nonprofitadvocacy agency for people with disabilities.Peter T. Allen, AM'83, MBA'86, is a vicepresident and chief market strategist in theemerging markets group at Kidder, Peabody, Hehad been financial adviser to Poland's minister offinance during the nation's recent foreign-debtrestructuring. Mark M. Banaszak-Holl, SB'86, andJane C. Banaszak-Holl, AB'86, announce the April14, 1994, birth of son Clement Monroe. Markteaches chemistry and Jane community health atBrown University. Maxim A. Chasanov, AB'86, and 1 Win LiSenad Gubelid for the Chiabeltf for the Chronicle of Higher Educationuniversities, including Chicago, to seektechnical and financial assistance and tooffer bibliographic records in return. Buthe is still waiting for journals, books,CD-ROMs, and other materials to "startflowing in large quantities" — and for thelibrary to reopen to the public, something its temporary, cramped downtownoffices don't permit.Kujundzic's seven-mile commute isoften punctuated by sniper fire. Hedescribes daily life as "exciting but notpleasant," adding, "Between the variouspeace missions — one wonders, are theythinking seriously at all? — we are tryingto get through with meager humanitarianhelp." He worries about his daughters,noting that "even small signs of illnessbecome a nightmare, for lack of propermedication and nutritional deficiencies."In the midst of what is for many astruggle simply to survive, Kujundzicbelieves efforts to save the library arealso about survival. Because the collection embodies Bosnia's multicultural heritage, he has said, the Bosnian Serbforces "knew that if they wanted to'destroy this multiethnic society, theywould have to destroy the library." — K.S.Editor's Note: To help, contact: Dr. EnesKujundzic, Director, National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina,Otokara Kersovanija 3, 71000 Sarajevo,Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.Fax: 011-871-144-63-27. Phone: 011-071-533-204.wife Jill have two daughters: Dior Rachel, born inApril 1994, and Chanel Gail, who was 2 years oldin November. Chasanov belongs to a private psychiatry practice in Barrington, IL. Rebecca C.Dunn, AB'86, earned a Ph.D. in zoology and genetics from Duke University. A brown belt in martialarts, she has a post-doctoral position at the University of Iowa. George E. Grace, MBA'86, is managingdirector at the Wall Street offices of Galbreath Company, which provides real-estate services for commercial tenants. Catherine Ellis Ryan, AB'86, see1983, Catherine Ellis Ryan.MHI Elise Masiee, AB'87, JD'93, and Stephen©# M. Kramarsky, JD'93, were married May29 in Concord, MA. In attendance were AnthonyBergamino, Jr., JD'88; Nancy S. Eisenhauer, AB'89,JD'93; Evelyn L. Becker, JD'93; Patricia YurchakFlaming, JD'93; Todd H, Flaming, JD'93; Christopher A. Lidstad, JD'93; Thomas R. Marton, JD'93;40 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995and Ann T. Reading, JD'93. The couple live in NewYork. Jeffrey E. Ostrow, AB'87, see 1991, Tony J.Fisher. In September 1994, Alison M. McElhinney,AB'87, earned her M.S. in information systems fromDrexel University. Pauline Boone Tsai, AB'87, is apediatrics resident at the Harbor-UCLA MedicalCenter in Torrance, CA.Susan Henderson Brown, MBA'88, marriedSteve Brown on May 29, 1993, after becoming reacquainted with him at their 15-year high-school reunion. She is manufacturing operationsmanager at Baxter Healthcare. Rosa AbramowitzDembitzer, AB'88, works in New York real estateafter taking time off for parenthood. Previously shewas in international banking. Mary K. Hamilton-Smith, AM'88, was named a 1994 Woman ofAchievement by the YWCA of northeastern Illinois.She is working on an American Association ofMuseums national project to expand education inAmerican museums.C. Nenetzin Gerald, AB'89, who recentlygave birth to a son, is finishing her master'sin ecology and evolutionary biology at Princeton. Sheworked for 18 months in Rwanda, studying mountain-gorilla behavior. Antonio McDaniel, PhD'89, isan associate professor of sociology and a member ofthe Population Studies Center at the University ofPennsylvania. Robert C. Vail II, MBA'89, and wifeAnne announce the June 6 birth of daughter Emma.Reunion June 2*3*4Katherine M. Casey, AB'90, worked atChapin Hall after graduation, then earnedher degree at Columbia Teachers College. Living inBrooklyn, she is in her second year of teaching at aManhattan public school. James A.Cotton, MBA'90, is a senior consultantin the banking and investment servicespractice of KPMG Peat Marwick. Hehopes to hear from those who wish tojoin the firm. John P. Lenihan III,MBA'90, is director of product management and market development atthe switching-systems division ofRockwell International in DownersGrove, IL. Patrick J. H. R. Malto,AB'90, attends National Chenchi University in Taipei, Taiwan, as part of aCouncil on International EducationalExchange program. Dianna Quan,AB'90, works hard but loves her medical internship at the Hospital of theUniversity of Pennsylvania. Mark F.Sasse, AB'90, is doing an internal-medicine residency in Rochester, NY.Tony J. Fisher, SM'87, PhD'91, reports thatJeffrey E. Ostrow, AB'87, and his wife, Elizabeth, became parents to son Robbie on April 29,1994. Kathryn M. Howell, AB'91, will graduate inMay from the master of library science and information technology program at the University of Illinois. Karen M. Johnston, JD'91, and Gavin C.Dowell, MBA'93, JD'93, were married September 17at the New England Aquarium. Tisa K. Hughes,JD'91, was a bridesmaid, while Robert D. Cheifetz,JD'92, and George A. Eberstadt, MBA'93, weregroomsmen. In attendance were Sean H. Donahue,JD'92; Marshall P. Horowitz, JD'92; Sandra E.Raitt, JD'92; and Katherine T. E. Ward, JD'92. Jennifer Vugteveen Trimark, AM'91, see 1992, JeffreyR. Trimark.DeWitt H. John, Jr., AM'69, PhD'92,received the William Anderson award fromthe American Political Science Association for hisdoctoral dissertation on civic environmentalism,published in revised form in 1994. John, his wife,Jane, and their two teenagers live in Washington, DC, where he directs the Center on Developmentand the Environment at the National Academy ofPublic Administration. Naval Lt. Jeffrey R.Trimark, MD'92, and Jennifer Vugteveen Trimark,AM'91, were married in November 1991 and arestationed in Yokosuka, Japan. As squadron medicalofficer, he is in charge of nine ships' medical departments, while Jennifer is a clinical social worker atthe naval hospital. In 1994, Jeffrey traveled to Vladivostok and met with Russian naval doctors.M Gavin C. Dowell, MBA'93, JD'93, see 1991,Karen M. Johnston. Stephen M.Kramarsky, JD'93, see 1987, Elise Masiee. Dana A.Mitroff, AM'93, works as a videographer on theBrown-Campione research project for Berkeley'sTrading PlacesLucy Wang, MBA'86, didn't decideon writing as a full-time careeruntil January 1994, but her decision was amply, and quickly, rewarded.Her fourth play, Junk Bonds, writtenwithin a few months of her decision,received a grant from the KennedyCenter's Fund for New American Playsin October. Produced Off-Off Broadwayin November, three months later it waschosen "best new play" at the ClevelandPublic Theatre's New Plays Festival.Wang based Junk Bonds — a story ofWall Street intrigueand an Asian-American woman's strugglesin the white, maleworld of bond trading — on her ownexperiences at Kidder,Peabody, where shetraded bonds from1986 until 1989. Atthe firm, Wang soonlearned to handle thesexist remarks andpranks of some coworkers, but could donothing about theglass ceiling that kept women from thefirm's upper levels. She put up with ituntil soon after the October 1989 stock-market crash, which left her with plentyof downtime at work in which to takestock of her career."I didn't feel like I was really contributing to society," Wang says. "And even ifI contributed to the bottom line at thefirm, I didn't feel that I'd ever make $11million like the guy sitting next to me."Though she'd left her interest in theater behind when she began undergraduate work in economics and Asianstudies at the University of Texas, Wanghad remained "an art-oholic of culture"and belonged to several writing Graduate School of Education. Carrie D. Oyer,AB'93, and Thomas W. Scanlon, SB'93, were married June 17 in Stanley, ID. She is pursuing a Ph.D.in nutrition at Tufts, and he is in a Ph.D program inmathematics at Harvard.M Edward J. Bock, MBA'94, came out ofretirement to work pro bono as COO ofMaryville Academy, the largest child-care residential agency in Illinois. James E. ("Ted") Bourne IV,AB'94, lives in New York, where he plans to workin film production for one year, then begin amaster's degree in film. Allan M. Douglass,MBA'94, enjoyed the September 10 dinner at whichhe officially received his M.B.A., 39 years after hegraduated from the Executive M.B.A. Program.groups — in one, she was encouraged totry her hand at plays. So she wrote whileworking a series of part-time jobs,including a 1992-93 stint as chief ofstaff for then New York City deputymayor Barry Sullivan, MBA'57.After Junk Bonds sold out several performances, the New York Times profiledWang in late November. Since thenshe's been bombarded with requests towrite books, screenplays, and moreplays, in addition to the speechwritingand journalism she already did. In earlyFebruary, she was writing TV scripts onspeculation, including one for NBC'sMad About You, and preparing for a tripto Los Angeles to discuss film and television possibilities. In May, the ClevelandPublic Theatre will stage a full production of Junk Bonds.Some critics have dubbed Wang "thefemale David Mamet," a phrase sherejects, attributing it mainly to theharsh, "masculine" dialogue in JunkBonds. She's also been compared to Joy-Luck Club author Amy Tan. Althoughshe appreciates Tan's work, "her writingis so different," says Wang. "SometimesI wonder if it's just a comment like we[Asian-American women] all look alike,we all sound alike."Still, Wang's Chinese heritage influences her work. Bird's Nest Soup, whichties with Junk Bonds as her personalfavorite, is a coming-of-age story about afamily that has moved from Asia to thefictional Acom, Ohio (Wang grew up inAkron). "In the Midwest, you didn'thave a huge immigrant, Asian-Americanpopulation to relate to," Wang explains,"so you really had to figure out who youwere by yourself."Above all, Wang says, she's figured outthat she's a writer: "My first obligation isto tell a compelling story, one thatwould be worthwhile, to try and makemy private vision into some kind of universal thing that hits all of us somewhere." — K.S.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 41DeathsFACULTYBenum W. Fox, X'40, a clinical associate professor of medicine, died November 7. He was 75 and aformer president of the medical staff at WeissMemorial Hospital, a retired gastroenterologist affiliated with several Chicago-area hospitals, and aWWII veteran. He is survived by four sons, including Steven H. Fox, MD'78, SM'78; a daughter; and agranddaughter,George J. Metcalf, professor emeritus in Germaniclanguages and literatures, died November 21 inSacramento at age 86. He joined the facutty in 1942,served as department chair from 1956 to 1969, andretired in 1973. Before coming to Chicago, he taughtat Harvard College, the universities of Alabama andKansas, and Washington University. Survivorsinclude a son, Robert H. Metcalf, U-High'60.Edward Shils, X'37, distinguished service professor emeritus of sociology and the Committee onSocial Thought, died January 23 in Hyde Park. Hewas 84. An expert on intellectuals' role in formingpublic policy and exercising power, he also taughtat universities in England and Europe. Shilsfounded and edited Minerva, an influential journalof the social, administrative, political, and economicproblems of science and scholarship. In 1979 hedelivered the eighth annual Jefferson Lecture, thehighest national honor for scholarly achievement.Credited with bridging American and Europeansociology to create a more universal sociology, hereceived the 1983 Balzan Prize, an award for fieldswithout Nobel Prizes. Shils came to the Universityin 1934, was named distinguished service professorin 1971, and retired in 1983. Survivors include ason, Adam, and a grandson.Milton Singer, PhD'40, the Paul klapper professoremeritus in the College and anthropology, diedDecember 5 at the age of 82 in Hyde Park. Arenowned scholar on India, he helped lead the Committee on Southern Asian Studies. A native of Poland,he joined the faculty in 1941, won the QuantrellAward for undergraduate teaching in 1948, andretired in 1979, although he continued to do research.He is survived by his wife, Heten, and a sister.Sol Tax, PhD'35, anthropology professor emeritus, former chair of the department, and formerdean of the University Extension, died January 4 inChicago. He was 87. He organized the field as aglobal discipline and helped establish action anthropology, in which researchers work to solve socialproblems. Tax was an expert on Native Americancultures and founded the journal Current Anthropology. He joined the faculty as a research associate in1940 and was named professor in 1948; he alsoserved as director of the Smithsonian Institution'sCenter for the Study of Man and in several governmental posts. He is survived by his wife, Gertrude:two daughters, Marianna Tax Choldin, U-High'59,AB'62, AM'67, PhD'79, and Susan Tax Freeman, U-High'54, AB'58; and three grandchildren, includingKate Choldin, AB'86, and Mary Choldin, AB'86.1920sGuy T. Buswell, MAT'16, PhD'20, an educatorand author, died May 27 in Lincoln, NE. He was103. He taught in Chicago's education departmentfor many years before joining the University of California-Berkeley, retiring in 1958. Buswell wrote a series of elementary-school math and reading texts.Survivors include a daughter, Margaret BuswellNelson, U-High'37, and a son, John.William J. Friedman, PhB'23, a Chicago attorney,died December 5. He was 91. A partner with Friedman & Koven and counsel to Neal, Gerberg &Eisenberg, he took a leading role in the 1940smerger of the Chicago elevated and surface publictransportation. He was vice president and directorof the Combined Jewish Appeal and a MenningerFoundation board member. Survivors include hiswife, Alicia; two daughters; and five grandchildren,Rachel Marshall Goetz, PhB'25, MBA'27, diedNovember 15 at age 90 in Alexandria, VA. Thedaughter of former GSB dean Leon Marshall, shewas a research assistant at the University and taughta course in educational television. Goetz created theslogan "Window to the World" for Chicago's publictelevision station and was a speechwriter for AdlaiStevenson during his 1956 presidential campaign. AHyde Park activist, she funded several scholarshipsand a professorship in the GSB. Survivors includeher daughter, Barbara Goetz Garner, AB'60,AM'63; a sister; and seven grandchildren,Calvin S. Fuller, SB'26, PhD'29, a chemist and co-inventor of the solar cell, died October 28 in VeroBeach, FL. He was 92. Fuller worked for 37 years atAT&T Bell Laboratories. In 1954, he invented whatwas then called the solar battery — credited withmaking the space program practical. He wasgranted 33 patents. Survivors include his wife,Willmine; three sons; and eight grandchildren.R. Kennedy Gilchrist, SB'26, MD'31, surgeonemeritus at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's MedicalCenter and professor emeritus at Rush Medical College, died in Evanston on November 13. He was 90.A gastrointestinal and cancer specialist, Gilchristwas a longtime board member of the medical college. He is survived by a son, a daughter, a sister,and three grandchildren.Ruth E. Fizdale, PhB'27, a leader in the effort tomake social work a profession, died October 30 inNew York. She was 86. While executive director ofthe Arthur Lehman Counseling Service in Manhattan, Fizdale developed a fee-for-service system forprivate agencies and wrote the standard-settingSocial Agency Structures and Accountability. She wasan adjunct professor emeritus in community medicine at Mount Sinai School of Medicine.Ruth Atwell Zoll, PhB'28, of Hinsdale, diedNovember 28 at age 88. She was a writer and ateacher in the Evanston elementary schools. Survivors include her husband, Clifford A. Zoll,MBA'29, and two nephewsSara Laurie Newberger Ostrowiak, PhB'29, ofFort Lauderdale, FL, died October 27. Survivorsinclude her husband, Sander.1930sPhyllis R. Osborn, AM'31, died October 8. Shewas 91. Survivors include a cousin, Marian OsbornVogel, PhB'49.Barbara Salditt, AM'30, PhD'32, a professoremerita of German at Wellesley College, diedNovember 6. She was 91, She taught at Wellesleyfrom 1932 until her retirement in 1968. Saldittwas also among the first teachers at the BostonCenter for Adult Education, where she taught for20 years. She is survived by a sister, Klara, and sev eral nieces and nephews.Herman L. Taylor, JD'32, a Chicago lawyer, diedNovember 20 at age 91. He spent much of his careeras a partner with McCulloch Veatch & Taylor. Hewas active in Flossmoor village government andsocial and charitable organizations. Survivorsinclude his wife, Berniece Pollock Taylor, JD'31; adaughter; a son; a sister; and four grandchildren,Merton M. Gill, PhB'34, MD'38, professor emeritus of psychiatry at the University of Illinois atChicago's medical school, died November 13. Anexpert on psychoanalysis, he was 80. Before joiningthe U1C faculty (1971-89), he was in private practice in Berkeley and a professor at SUNY-Down-state. He is survived by his wife, Use Judas; twodaughters; three sons; two brothers, includingNorman N. Gill, PhB'32; and five grandchildren.Perry E. Gresham, X'34, president emeritus ofBethany College, died September 10 in Advance,NC, at age 86. Serving as Bethany's president from1953 to 1972, he was also a distinguished professorof humanities at the college. He is survived by hiswife, Aleece; a son; and two grandsons,Constance V. Kazmierczak, SB'34, a retiredChicago high-school teacher, died December 23.Survivors include a niece, Diana,Meyer Lipschultz, PhB'34, JD'35, a former attorney for the Veterans Administration, died October26 in Chicago. A past president of the West RogersPark unit of the Anti-Defamation League of B'naiB'rith, he was honored by the national organizationin 1986 with its Man of the Year Award. He is survived by his wife, Miriam; three daughters; a sister;and five grandchildren.James W. Moore, JD'34, the Sterling professoremeritus of law at Yale University, died October 26in Hamden, CT. Moore, who was 89, taught at Yalefor 37 years, specializing in bankruptcy law, corporate reorganization, and the rights of debtors andcreditors. The author of Moore's Federal Practiceand Moore's Manual: Federal Practice and Procedure,he is survived by his wife, Etta; a son; a daughter;and six grandchildren.Max S. Perlman, X'34, a former social worker anddirector of public welfare programs for the homeless, died November 3. He was 87. From 1945 to1971, Perlman was assistant director of the Federation of Jewish Charities of Chicago. During WWII,he aided Jewish refugees. He is survived by his wife,Helen Harris Perlman, the Samuel Deutsch distinguished service professor emerita in the SSA; a son,Jonathan H. Perlman, MBA'65; and a grandson,Fred Karush, SB'35, PhD'38, professor emeritusof microbiology at the University of PennsylvaniaSchool of Medicine, died July 2 in Woods Hole,MA. An immunologist, he joined the Penn facultyin 1950. He received a research career award fromthe NIH, and in 1992 was awarded a ProfessionalAchievement Citation by the U of C Alumni Association. He is survived by his wife, Sally; three sons;and seven grandchildren.Peter M. Kelliher, AB'35, JD'37, a Chicago attorney, real-estate developer, and labor arbitrator, diedNovember 9. He was 81. A founding member andpast president of the National Academy of Arbitrators, Kelliher was former counsel for the city ofChicago and served as a U.S. Conciliation Commissioner. He is survived by his wife, Virginia; a daughter; a son; and three grandchildren.Elsie Rubin Orlinsky, PhB'35, a Hyde Parkactivist and former teacher, died November 23 atage 80, the victim of a carjacking and beating.Active in Congregation Rodfei Zedek, she was aboard member and chief archivist of the ChicagoJewish Historical Society. A fundraiser for the Mis-ericordia Home, Orlinsky had taught in theChicago public schools and at La Rabida. She is survived by three sons: Peter, Joel, and Gary.42 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995Thomas S. Turner, AB'35, AM'36, a retired professor of music at Iowa State, died in April 1994 atage 80.Ruth Balderston Cope, X'36, of Syracuse, NY,died November 17. She was 82. Active in the Religious Society of Friends, she volunteered for manyorganizations, including the Chicago SettlementHouse and the American Friends Service Committee. Survivors include her husband, Alfred H. Cope,X'40; a daughter; a sister; and two grandchildren.George V. Myers, AB'36, former president andboard member of Amoco, died in Glenview onDecember 1 at age 78. He worked as controller ofWestinghouse Air Brake and served as an FBI agentbefore joining Amoco in 1953; in 1974, he wasnamed the oil company's president. He is survivedby his wife, Christine; three daughters; a sister; andfive grandchildren.Gerald R. Parrish, AB'37, of Washington, DC,died September 14. Survivors include his wife, Rose.Harryette Nightingale Cohn, SB'38, of ChevyChase, MD, died December 24 at age 78. A promoter of the arts, she was a docent at the NationalMuseum of American Arts for 22 years. She is survived by her husband, Marcus Cohn, AB'35, JD'38;a son; and a daughter.Mary E. Rail, X'38, a retired supervisor of socialworkers at United Charities, died November 10 inKennett Square, PA. She was 93.1940sGertrude Feder Jennings, AB'40, editor in chiefof bibliography with the R. R. Bowker Co., diedSeptember 4 in New York. She was 75. Survivorsinclude her husband, Francis.Evelyn Geiger Jones, AB'41, of Boise, ID, diedNovember 10 at age 73. She was a corporate secretary with Alan Co. Survivors include her husband,Clair; a son; and five grandchildren.Jeanette Tregay Musengo, AA'42, of Chicago,died in November. Active in prison reform, she was73. Survivors include a sister and a brother.Robert H. Strotz, AB'42, PhD'51, former president and chancellor of Northwestern University,died November 9. The Wilmette resident was 72.Strotz was a professor of economics and dean of theCollege of Arts and Sciences before being namedpresident (1970-85) and chancellor (1985-90). He had edited Econometrica and chaired theboard of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. He issurvived by his wife, Margaret; four daughters; ason; three stepdaughters; a brother, Loren J. Strotz,PhB'47; and 13 grandchildren.Richard H. Custer, AM'43, of West Hartford, CT,died November 25 at age 76. For 32 years he managed towns in Connecticut, Maine, Wisconsin, andOhio. After retiring in 1978 he did consulting andwas an arbitrator for the state of Connecticut. TheWWII veteran was past president of the International City Management Association. He is survivedby his wife, Alice; two daughters; a son; a brother; asister; and six grandchildren.George E. Schroeder, PhB'45, SB'46, died June 22at age 73. Survivors include his wife, MadelineSohn Schroeder, SB'45.Lee O. Mead, AB'47, a retired administrator andtechnical information specialist with Argonne andLawrence Livermore laboratories, died September 4in Sequim, WA. He was 83. As a student he workedfor the Manhattan Project. He is survived by abrother, Sidney E. Mead, AM'38, PhD'40.Henry L. Stern, PhB'47, JD'50, died October 30 inSan Diego. He was 70. A native of Germany, heimmigrated to America in 1937 and joined the U.S.Army during WWII. Stern worked for the Securitiesand Exchange Commission and at several law firmsbefore joining the Dallas-based Holly Oil and Gas Corporation in 1980, retiring in 1989 as senior vicepresident and general counsel. He is survived bytwo sons, including Roger D. Stem, JD'89; a sister;and two grandchildren.Michael J. Clarke, PhB'48, AM'53, a former English teacher in the Chicago city colleges, died inDecember. He was 68. Survivors include his wife,Janice Ferguson Clarke, AB'48, and three children.Robert J. Schlegel, PhB'49, MD'55, a retired pediatrician and professor, died December 10. He was 66and lived in Palos Verdes Penin, CA. In 1993 hebecame professor emeritus at Drew University ofMedicine and Science and at UCLA. He volunteeredat a social service agency in Watts. He is survived byhis wife, Lois Gustafson Schlegel, X'49; a son; twodaughters; a brother; and two grandchildren.Lorence S. Stout, AM'49, of Sun City, AZ, diedMay 3. He was 75. Survivors include his wife, Leona.1950sRichard S. Ablin, AB'50, AM'53, PhD'60, a senioreconomist in the Bank of Israel's research department, died December 4. He was 63 and had published works on economic, cultural, and politicaltopics relating to Israel. He is survived by his wife,Batya Shapira Ablin, MCL'60; a son; a daughter; asister, Lois Ablin Kriesberg, AM'53; and a brother-in-law, Louis Kriesberg, PhB'47, AM'50, PhD'53.Charles O. Hucker, PhD'50, professor emeritus inChinese and history and the Williams professoremeritus at the University of Michigan, diedNovember 14 at his home in Odessa, TX. He was75. In 1986, Michigan honored him by establishingthe Charles O. Hucker professorship in Asian languages and cultures. Hucker also taught at the University of Arizona and Oakland University. He issurvived by his wife, Myrl; a brother; and a sister.Luther H. Foster, Jr., AM'41, PhD'51, of Alexandria, VA, died November 27 at age 81. A formerpresident of Tuskegee Institute (1953-81) and aboard member and former president of the UnitedNegro College Fund, at the time of his death, hewas chair of the Academy for Educational Development. He is survived by his wife, Vera ChandlerFoster, AM'50; a daughter; a son; his mother; twosisters; and five grandchildren.Donald G. Rendleman, AB'53, an emergency-medicine physician, died at his home in Elgin onFebruary 2, 1994. He was 64. A WWII veteran, hewas a former Chicago social worker. He is survivedby a daughter, a son, a sister, and two brothers.Conrad L. Zwolinski, AB'55, of Phoenix, died inJune. He worked in the pharmaceutical industry,primarily with G. D. Searle. Survivors include asister, Alice Zwolinski De Fratus, AB'55, AB'57.Richard A. Cooley, AM'56, an educator and environmentalist, died November 18 in Santa Cruz. TheART AND ARCHITECTURESally Banes, AB'72, Greenwich Village 1963: Ay ant-Garde Performance and the Effervescent Body (DukeUniversity Press). This cultural history of New Yorkart and performance in the 1960s explores themes ofcommunity, freedom, equality, and the absolute.Banes argues that the avant-garde's interweaving ofpublic and private, work and play, and art and ordinary experience contributed to a wholesale reworking of American culture. WWII veteran was 69. He taught at the Universityof Washington and served in conservation posts inAlaska before founding and leading the environmental-studies program at UC-Santa Cruz(1971-91). He is survived by his wife, Alice; twosons; a brother; and three grandsons.1960sMaurice B. Stein, MBA'60, owner of Camp EchoLake in upstate New York, died October 31 in theAmerican Eagfe plane crash near Roselawn, IN. Hewas 58. A past president of the American CampingAssociation, he and his wife, Amy, expanded thecamp and founded a scholarship program forunderprivileged children. He is survived by his wifeand three sons.Brigitte C. G. Pampei, AM'67, an adjunct professor of German at Loyola University Chicago, diedDecember 19 at age 52. Survivors include her husband, Lee; a daughter; and a son.1970sJohn J. Lannon, MBA'70, of Napervitle, diedNovember 12 in the crash of his private airplane.He was 57. Until his retirement last May he wasCFO of Northern Illinois Gas. Survivors includefive children.William P. Leslie, MST'74, a Chicago musician,teacher, and school administrator, died November16 at age 69. He is survived by his wife, Maxine;three daughters; a son; and three grandchildren.Michael I. Miller, AM'68, PhD'78, former provostfor academic affairs and chair of the English department at Chicago State University, died November10 of complications from AIDS. He was 53. Millerwas an expert in local dialects and published in linguistics and etymology. He also organized graduateprograms at the universities of Taiwan and Krakow.He is survived by his companion, Donald R. Beck;his mother and father; three sisters; and a brother.1980sLisa D. Eret, AB'87, of Burbank, IL, died September 8 in a car accident in Poland. She was 28.1990sWilliam E. Parker, AM'66, PhD'94, a Chicagopsychotherapist, died of a brain tumor November 9at age 53. A longtime board member of the AffianceFrancaise De Chicago, Parker worked with theChicago Police Department's counseling office andNorthwestem's counseling psychology program. Heis survived by his mother, Alice, and two brothers.BIOGRAPHY AND LETTERSJames S. Peters II, X'54, The Epic of a Proud BlackFamily: An Allegorical History (International Scholars Publications) . Based on documents and oral history, this family memoir is also a symbolic journeyfrom Africa to America.Ross R. Rice, AM'49, PhD'56, Carl Hayden:Builder of the American West (University Press ofAmerica). Rice details Hayden's career as a Democratic congressman from Arizona. Often referred tonooks by AlumniUniversity of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 43as every state's third senator, Hayden was a keyplayer in leading Arizona from frontier territory tomodern, urban state.Franz Schulze, PhB'45, Philip Johnson: Life andWork (Alfred A. Knopf). The author examines thelife and career of Philip Johnson — the 88-year-oldarchitect, critic, curator, patron, collector, andmuseum trustee who is considered one of the mostimportant American cultural figures of the 20thcentury.Josette Dermody Wingo, PhB'48, Mother Was aGunner's Mate: World War II in the WAVES (NavalInstitute Press). The author's memoir of her WWIIservice discusses, among other things, how she andother WAVES countered entrenched attitudes anddisproved gender stereotypes.BUSINESS AND ECONOMICSPhilip G. Altbach, AB'62, AM'66, PhD'68, andEdith S. Hoshino, AB'62, MAT'64, editors, International Book Publishing: An Encyclopedia (GarlandPublishing). This reference work explores publishing topics such as copyright, history, technologicalchanges, and industry growth in many countriesand regions.David L. James, JD'60, The Executive Guide toAsia-Pacific Communications (Kodansha International). Based on top-level interviews, a survey of400 executives, and the author's experience, thisguide helps American readers to assess communications needs and develop ways to acquire, maintain,and expand business in the Asia-Pacific region.George Tolley, AM'50, PhD'55; Donald Kenkel,AM'83, PhD'87; and Robcrl Fabian, editors, ValuingHealth for Policy: An Economic Approach (Universityof Chicago Press). Examining classic and currentresearch on theories and measurements of healthvalues by economists and public-health experts, theauthors favor a willingness-to-pay approachgrounded in individual preferences.CHILDREN'S LITERATUREVicky Shiefman, AB'64, Sunday Potatoes, MondayPotatoes (Simon & Schuster). A poor family in aEuropean village eats a steady diet of potatoes —which are better than nothing and can even be delicious. The family's potato pudding recipe is included.CRITICISMSally Banes, AB'72, Writing Dancing in the Age ofPostmodernism (Wesleyan University Press). Theauthor's collected essays and talks document thebackground and development of recent avant-gardeand popular dancing.M. E. Grenander, AB'40, AM'41, PhD'48, editor.Poems of Ambrose Bierce (University of NebraskaPress) . Although primarily known for his short stories, journalism, and aphorisms, Bierce wrotepoems — mostly satires — throughout his career.With an introduction by the editor, this volumecontains many of those poems, as well as essays andletters on poetry, poets, and humor.Thomas H. Luxon, AM'78, PhD'84, Literal Figures:Puritan Allegoiv and the Refonnation Crisis in Representation (University of Chicago Press). Concludingwith an analysis of Pilgrim's Progress, the author presents key moments in the Reformation crisis of representation, arguing that for Puritanism to surviveits own litcralistic, antisymbolic, and millenarianchallenges, a "fall" back into allegory was inevitable.Nikki Lee Manos and Meri-Jane Rochelson,AM'76, PhD'82, editors, Trans/orming Genres: NewApproaches to British Fiction of the 1890s (St,Martin's Press). Although fin-de-siecle British fictionis often deemed insignificant, these essays seek to American CongregationsvoiijiTu:- 1 : Portrotts of Twelve Religious Communitiesi ,l- 1 1 ¦ I byfames P. Wind and lames W. Lewis&r Slip?.* | ' ' " J**5"Religious Portraits (see Religion and Philosophy)establish the works' importance, arguing that thedecade's sexual mores and interest in crime, imperialism, and social change prefigure current issues.Jon Solomon, AB'72, editor, Origins and Influences(University of Arizona Press). Nine papers investigate Apollo, "this 'most Greek' of the Greek gods,"exploring the god's geographical and functional origins; the meaning of his name; and his roles in earlyGreek poetry, archaic vase painting, Attic tragedy,and Roman poetry.Buzz Spector, MFA'78, The Book Maker's Desire(Umbrella Press). The author discusses the bookworks of many artists, including Anselm Kiefer andMargaret Wharton, and includes several topicalessays on the arts of the book.Francis-Noel Thomas, AM'65, PhD'74, and MarkTurner, Clear and Simple as the Truth: Writing Classic Prose (Princeton University Press) . Written for ageneral audience, this book applies contemporarycognitive research to the analysis of style. The firsthalf examines the concept of style as an intellectualstand on five centrai questions, then describes classic style, contrasting it to a variety of other styles.The second half gives examples and commentary.EDUCATIONErnest L. Boyer; Philip G. Altbach, AB'62, AM'66,PhD'68; and Mary Jean Whitelaw, The AcademicProfession: An International Perspective (CarnegieFoundation for the Advancement of Teaching).This report on the first international survey of theacademic profession discusses the attitudes ofscholars and scientists in 15 countries. More than20,000 professors were questioned on their viewsabout teaching and learning, academic governance,and international academic involvement.Jon Solomon, AB'72, and Robert Solomon, Up theUniversity: Re-creating Higher Education in America(Addison-Wesley). The authors suggest a programfor cost-effective educational reform in public universities.FICTION AND POETRYBenjamin Manaster, AB'59, Shyla (BrandenBooks). This novel satirizes movie life and theHollywood experience.John E. Saveson [Lafayette Haymaker, pseud.],AM'48, Expense of Spirit (Mainesburg Press). The author's first novel is a roman a clef set at a statecollege where the female president is murderedshortly after firing a large percentage of the faculty.Austin M. Wright, AM'48, PhD'59, After Gregory(Baskerville Publishers). The author's second novelis the story of Peter Gregory, a man who nearlycommits suicide but instead changes his identityand hitchhikes to New York, trying to discover whohe really is.GENDER STUDIESMaureen Reddy; Martha Roth, AB'58; and AmySheldon, editors, Mother Journeys: Feminists Writeabout Mothering (Spinsters Ink). A collection ofessays, stories, poems, and drawings looks at howfeminism influences mothering and vice versa. The38 contributors include Nancy Spero, MaxineKumin, Rita Dove, and Jane Lazarre.HISTORY/CURRENT EVENTSFrans Coetzee, AM'79, PhD'83, and MarilynShevin-Coetzee, AM'78, PhD'83, editors, Authority,Identity and the Social History of the Great War(Berghahn Books) . This collection of essays probesthe construction of European social order from1914 to 1918.Charles A. Edwards, AB'65, Drop Zone Flashes ofthe British Airborne Forces (Pass in Review Publications). In a work of military history and iconography, Edwards traces the development ofrecognition insignia used by British paratroopsfrom 1944 to the present, providing fineage andorder of battle information.Farley Grubb, AM'81, PhD'84, German ImmigrantSeivant Contracts Registered at the Port of Philadelphia, 1817-1831 (Genealogical Publishing). Thisregister of nearly 1,300 names covers the last majorepisode of European-immigrant servitude in theU.S.: More than 40 percent of German immigrantsregistered at the port in this period entered intoservitude as a means of paying for their passage.Marilyn Shevin-Coetzee, AM'78, PhD'83, andFrans Coetzee, AM'79, PhD'83, World War 1 andEuropean Society: A Sourcebook (D. C, Heath). A documentary reader, the book explores social, political,economic, and cultural aspects of the Great War.Jon Solomon, AB'72, editor, Accessing Antiquity:The Computerization of Classical Studies (Universityof Arizona Press). Eight papers present the pioneering efforts of classicists who have designed andpublished CD-ROM-based databases for Greek literature, documentary papyri, mythological iconography, export amphoras, classical bibliography, andthe Perseus Project.Kenneth W. Thompson, AM'48, PhD'51, editor,Europe and Germany: Unity and Diversity (University Press of America). Emphasizing Germany's cen-trality, the contributors discuss post-cold warEurope, the changing relations among Europeancountries, and the effects of those changes.Yoram Tsafrir, Leah Di Segni, and Judith Green,AM'68, Tabula Imperii Romani: ludaea Palaestina,Maps and Gazetteer (Israel Academy of Sciences andHumanities). This volume, part of an internationalproject to map the Roman Empire, contains fivemaps of Israel west of the Jordan River, in additionto the Golan and Sinai, plotted on the basis ofarchaeological discoveries from the Hellenistic,Roman, and Byzantine periods and literary sources.The accompanying gazetteer provides short sitedescriptions, as well as references to ancient sourcesand modern studies.Henry R. Winkler, PhD'47, Paths Not Taken:British Labour and International Policy in the 1920s(University of North Carolina Press). Exploring theevolution of British Labour's approach to foreign44 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995policy from the end of WW! through the 1920s,Winkler documents Labour's progression from prewar indifference regarding international issues to aneventual acceptance of the need to work for international ends through existing institutions.MATHEMATICSJeffrey Bergen, SM'77, PhD'81, and Susan Montgomery, SM'66, PhD'69, editors, Advances in HopfAlgebras (Marcel Dekker). These expository papersdiscuss Hopf algebras' connections to other mathe-matic branches — including category theory, grouptheory, combinatorics, and the theory of knots andlinks in topology.MEDICINE AND HEALTHJoel D. Howell, MD'79, editor, Medical Lives andScientific Medicine at Michigan, 1891-1969 (University of Michigan Press). Essays on the lives ofselected physicians become extended biopsies ofperiod and place, illuminating the social, political,and institutional context within which people atMichigan expanded medical knowledge.Paul L. Munson, PhD'42, editor, Principles ofPharmacology (Chapman & Hall). An overview ofpharmacology, Principles covers fundamental drugconcepts, mechanisms of action and clinical applications, drug-interaction data, and references tocurrent research articles.Louis R. Wasserman, MD'36; Paul D. Berk; andNathaniel I. Berlin, Polycythemia Vera and theMyeloproliferative Disorders (W. B. Saunders). Covering three decades of research, this summary of thefindings of the Polycythemia Vera Study Group —hematologists whom Wasserman organized to pooldata on these relatively uncommon diseases — endswith recommendations for future research.POLITICAL SCIENCE AND LAWRandal C. Picker, AB'80, AM'82, JD'85, professorin the Law School; Douglas G. Baird, dean of the LawSchool; and Robert H. Gertner, associate professor inthe Law School, Game Theory and the Law (HarvardUniversity Press). Organized around the major-solution concepts of game theory, the book shows howgames such as prisoner's dilemma, the battle of thesexes, and the Rubinstein bargaining game can illuminate different kinds of legal problems.Kenneth W. Thompson, AM'48, PhD'51, editor,Reagan and the Economy: Nine Intimate Perspectivesand The Virginia Papers on the Presidency, VolumeXXVIII (University Press of America). Contributorsto the first book ask if it is fair to judge Reagan'spresidency by comparing his foreign policy to hisdomestic policies and explain how the shapers ofReagan's domestic policies respond to criticism.The second book emphasizes concepts and problems such as principles of statecraft, organizing thegovernment for policy-making, and communicatingwith national and international publics.PSYCHOLOGY/PSYCHIATRYMichael Fauman, PhD'70, MD'74, Study Guide toDSM-IV (American Psychiatric Press). Interpretingupdated DSM-IV diagnoses through extensive casestudies, clinical vignettes, and questions andanswers, Fauman's book also helps clarify cases inwhich patients' conditions do not meet the threshold for diagnosis or seem to place them in two different categories.John E. Groh, AM'68, PhD'72, Life Goals: How toDiscover and Achieve Your Own (Northwest Publishing). Groh discusses the need for purposeful goalsin each stage of life, describing how to set realistic goals and how to achieve them by "visioning."Arnold W. Rachman, PhD'65, Sdndor Ferenczi:The Psychotherapist of Tenderness and Passion (JasonAronson). In two volumes, Rachman examines theoften-neglected contributions of Ferenczi, a follower of Freud, to psychoanalysis.RECREATIONAlzina Stone Dale, AM'57, Mystery Reader'sWalking Guide: Chicago (NTC Publishing Group).The fourth of Dale's city guides to mystery novels,the book escorts readers on walking tours throughten Chicago neighborhoods — including HydePark — that have inspired tales of murder and mystery. Each walk is accompanied by a map and suggestions for dining and sightseeing.RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHYRobert Benne, AM'63, PhD'70, TJie ParadoxicalVision: A Public Theology for the Twenty-first Century (Fortress Press). The author argues that severalthemes in the Lutheran heritage of social thought(the paradoxical vision) are indispensable in relating the church to the public sphere, particularlypolitics.J. T. Dillon, AM'71, PhD'78, Jesus as a Teacher(International Scholars Publications). Dillon analyzes whom, what, and how Jesus taught, and howeffective his teaching was.Millard J. Erickson, AM'58, Does It Matter How ILive? Applying Biblical Beliefs to Your Daily Life(Baker Book House). Discussing such topics as thevalue of doubt, assurance of salvation, and handlingrejection, Erickson offers encouragement to readerswho desire to please God, yet believe that they fallshort in achieving their goals.Ana K. Gobledale, AM'77, The Learning Spirit:Lessons from South Africa (Chalice Press). Narratingher experiences as a white minister in a black township in South Africa in the 1980s, the author sharesher reaction to apartheid: developing a new way ofopening up to humanity and to God. Gobledafeargues that "the learning spirit" — the willingness tosee the truth, to trust in God, and to take creativeaction — can fight injustice.William J. Hynes, AM'69, PhD'76, and WilliamG. Doty, editors, Mythical Trickster Figures: Contours, Contexts, and Criticisms (University ofAlabama Press). Ancient and modem cultures celebrate the antics of tricksters who upend the sacredbeliefs of the systems that maintain them. Theseessays examine particular trickster figures withintheir sociocultural settings, analyzing their formand significance.Stephen C. Rowe, ThM'69, AM'70, PhD'74, Rediscovering the West (State University of New YorkPress). The author explores Japanese philosophy tofind what, he believes, is the solution to Westernlethargy and fanaticism: spiritual development.Dennis E. Tamburello, PhD'90, Union withChrist: John Calvin and the Mysticism of St. Bernard(Westminster John Knox Press). In exploring therelationship between medieval mysticism andReformed thought and challenging the idea thatmysticism and Protestantism are incompatible,Tamburello has written a book intended to encourage Catholic and Reformed dialogue about the ideaof a shared spiritual legacy.James P. Wind, PhD'83, and James W. Lewis,PhD'87, editors, American Congregations, vols. I andII (University of Chicago Press). The first volumechronicles the founding and development of 12congregations representing the diverse and complexlocal religious cultures in America. The secondbook brings together historians, sociologists, theologians, and ethicists for an interdiciplinary con versation on the study of American congregations.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYAllen M. Young, PhD'68, The Chocolate Tree: ANatural History of Cacao (Smithsonian InstitutionPress). Young's research and field studies in CentralAmerica comprise much of the book.SOCIAL SCIENCESErich Goode and Nachman Ben-Yehuda, AM'76,PhD'77, Moral Panics: The Social Construction ofDeviance (Blackwell Publishers). Using the conceptof "morat panics," the authors discuss how and whyinstitutions and groups mobilize around issues bywhich they feel threatened. From the Renaissancewitch craze to the American drug scare, the bookexplores the genesis, dynamics, and demise ofmoral panics and examines their impact on society,Ruth Horowitz, AM'72, PhD'75, Teen Mothers: Citizens or Dependents? (University of Chicago Press).Can government programs help teen mothers movefrom welfare dependency to employment, independence, and responsible citizenship? Successful programs, Horowitz argues, encourage the mothers toconnect their identities as mothers and girlfriendswith their new roles as students and workers.Neil K. Komesar, AB'63, AM'64, JD'67, PhD'73,Imperfect Alternatives: Choosing Institutions in Law,Economics, and Public Policy (University of ChicagoPress). Komesar writes that choosing social goals orvalues is not the only key to describing and prescribing law and public-policy outcomes: Just as important is deciding which institution — the market, thepolitical process, or the judicial process — is bestequipped to implement those outcomes.George T. Martin, Jr., AM'67, PhD'72, co-author,The Ecology of the Automobile (Black Rose Books).This book examines the role that automobileproduction and consumption has played in 20th-century civilization: its effect on land use, socialrelations, community, natural resources, environmental quality, and spatial mobility.Guy Oakes, AB'63, The Imaginary War: CivilDefense and American Cold War Culture (Oxford University Press). Arguing that the 1950s civil-defenseprograms were designed not to protect Americansbut to ingrain moral resolve needed to face the coldwar, Oakes attempts to establish links between civildefense and a system of cold-war emotion management; the construction of a fictional, manageabieworfd of nucfear attack; and the production of a civicethic that conformed to national-security policy.Richard Parker and John H. Gagnon, AB'55,PhD'69, editors, Conceiving Sexuality: Sex Research ina Post Modern World (Routledge). Papers from a1992 international conference on new directions insex research address the histories of desire, identity,and sexuality; gender inequality and sexual violence;sexual and social networks; and conceptions of risk.Evon Z. Vogt, Jr., AB'41, AM'46, PhD'48, Field-work among the Maya: Reflections on the HarvardChiapas Project (University of New Mexico Press).Project founder and director Vogt depicts the dailylives of the subjects — and of the researchers, commenting on changes in anthropological styles andmethods. The 35-year ethnographic project set outto understand how contemporary Mayas are relatedto prehistoric Classic Mayas and how their culturechanges as they confront the modem world.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," pleasesend the name of the book, its author, its publisher, its field, and a short synopsis to the BooksEditor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, or by E-mail:uchicago-magazine@uchicago . edu .University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995 450 ther VoicesFlashbackBy Helen Schary MotroStanding on Hayarkon Street inTel Aviv between appointments, Isquinted to- the right and to the leftlor a quick spot to eat. Nothingappealing in sight. Blinded by noontime sunand heat, I ducked into the nearest place athand — a loud, glitzy establishment. I lookedup to see 1 had entered the Chicago Pizza PieFactory. From reading the logo on its place-mats 1 learned that the chain prided itself onbeing the "Purveyors of Chicago pizza toLondon, Paris, Madrid, Tel Aviv, and theWorld."And so, five summers ago, unable totravel to Chicago for my class reunion, Ifound myself celebrating the 20th anniversary ol my graduation from the Universityof Chicago at the very antithesis of the sortof place I would have frequented at 21, andsmiled at the irony of it.I felt snobbish right away. This plasticizedemporium conformed to my fuzzy memories of the 1960s Chicago version ofyuppie-dom. Imitation street signs werescattered throughout the room: N. Rush, S.Lake Shore Drive. Bouncy waitresses worered newsboy aprons imprinted with"Chicago Tribune" in gothic lettering. Anda cassette tape of "Chicago's Oldies Station"reverberated classic rock interspersed withadvertisements for car dealers and the A&Poffering choice top round at a weekly special of $1.49 a pound.Chicago memorabilia covered the walls,and an enormous neon sign flashed MyKinda Town in red alternating with green.Conspicuous in their absence were portraits of an Arendt, a Morgenthau, a Stevenson, or a Bellow, the mascots of our era, butwith a twinkling eye Mayor Richard Daleythe First still reigned supreme on the wallsof this womblike Chicago nostalgia exhibitNo cliche was too corny: championshipWhite Sox posters alongside a token nod toCulture in the form of a Chicago Symphony Orchestra announcement — Solticonducting, of course.1 searched in vain to connect this place I found myself celebrating theanniversary of my graduationfrom the University at the veryantithesis of the place I wouldhave frequented at 21.with the Chicago I had known. In thoseturtlenecked, identity-searching late Sixties,we felt sophisticated at cafes ordering various flavors of cappuccino accompanied byubiquitous medium-rare burgers. Blown-upphotos of medieval gargoyles scowled downat us from the walls and Gregorian chantsplayed softly in the shadows. Betweenclasses we sipped instant-soup powder dissolved in boiling water in some basementcoffee shop on the quad, named for heroesof middle-English literature. We rubbedshoulders with diffident theology students.We stood in line behind Indian doctoral candidates in physics who, with lilting accentsand courtly mannerisms, valiantly struggledto hold afloat our instruction sections ofPhysics for Non-Science Majors.Had we the mischance to find ourselvesseated next to a scrubbed and eager M.B.A.candidate stealing a quick break fromGeorge Schultz's business-school domain,we undergraduate purists would heap himwith disdain. We thought the business-school quad existed to host our picketingagainst napalm when corporate interviewersdared trespass onto campus. As for the LawSchool, insiders knew it boasted the quietestand sunniest library on campus. The function of the medical school, we thought, wasto furnish prescriptions for birth-control pills via Student Health. In loco parentis wasdead. We thrived on the life of the mind.We were sure those professional-schoolappendages had little to do with the RealUniversity, which to us was symbolized bythe stately antiquities in the Oriental Institute. It was personified by a genteel professor delivering a lecture on the art ofrhetoric, while we nestled into massivevelour armchairs in an overheated room assnow endlessly fell outside the leaded-glasswindows and the four o'clock eveningdarkened the frozen pathways.Armed with a smattering of Dante and deTocqueville, we deemed ourselves the bastion against the commercialized masses. Itwas Plato we thought we cared about, notthe Chicago Bears, and we basked in theoryas our parents dutifully sent in tuitionchecks each quarter.Suddenly I started to shake my head — butat myself. So many years had passed thatnow I'd become the parent sending intuition checks, and yet I still hadn't gottenover indulging myself. I, too, was an outlandish relic, just as caricatured as theChicago Pizza Pie Factory I had been feeling so good to ridicule. My jaundiced viewof the benign, if frivolous, restaurant wasbut a continuation of my particular adolescence. 1 might have thought 1 had shed mycallowness long ago, but show me a deep-dish pizza and it all came flooding back.Youth might be gone, but hubris was intact.Helen Schary Motro, AB'70, an attorney inCfar Shmariahu, Israel, plans on attendingher 25th College reunion in June.46 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1995Aerospace * Applied Research * Bunking & Finance * Bia-TecblHealtbCare * Chemical * Computer Software! Hard-ware¦fflMRfflfc () ' aflET s ¦Put You in the SpotlightWhether or not you're currently looking for a job, companies do makeyou can't refuse. The Chicago ProNet service is designed to keep you aware of challengingopportunities: Fortune 500, Start-ups, Management, Sales, Marketing,Consulting, High-tech, Bio-tech, and many more.Registering with ProNet assures that your career profile is constantly available to employerswho are seeking to fill challenging positions you wouldn't hear about otherwise.hicaso, IL 6063" please call 800/340-9491Consulting * Electronics * Engineering * Government * Market Research * Manufacturing • Semiconductor * TelecommunicationsW^w ^\>£j#^ &¦¦,*&.'' -W''> *"**§J0%rf&&aP*~jS-."•Sass^PS-r-'«^sk**4ff5aftFound art: Botany Pond a la Claude Monet. Photograph by Eileen Ryan.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobie House, 5757 WoodlawnChicago, IL 60637ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED