THE UNIVERSITY OfMeet the U of Cslegendary theologian,Franz -L>m'"*&¦*&'<3Uk K%* J^hicagoVOLUME 87, NUMBER 3 FEBRUARY 1995 ^T ^BDEPARTMENTS2 Editor's notes3 Letters6 EventsMarching briskly into spring.8 Course workArt like the Egyptians: Ingrid• Rowland uses the pharaohs'treasures to show how artgets made and remade.10 Chicago journalRestoration reveals historicmural's charms; pri^e-win-ning physicist has the magictouch; the Library adapts tothe age oj electronic information.14 InvestigationsPeter Donnelly reads human¦ history from DNA Also: Themagic of deep sleep, and howboys become boys.35 Class news43 Deaths45 Books by alumni48 Other voicesLaw student David Hoffmanon good neighbors beyondthe fence. 1823if 11 FEATURESThe unbearable lightness of being BibfeldtKnown to generations oj scholars (and one Playmateof the Year), Franz Bibfeldt has led a life that, toparaphrase Twain, has been greatly exaggerated.JOHN EASTONThe houses that Gautreaux builtHard fought by UofC alumni, the landmark Gautreauxcase framed solutions to public housing's biggest problem.DEBRA SHOREInto the musicWhat maizes 33 students give up lunch, weekends, andspring break to be part of the Motet Choir?MARY RUTH YOEUpstaging authorityWhen an obscure activist intruded on a presidential speech,the result was a modem parable on the nature of authority.BRUCE LINCOLN Page 30Cover: From humble beginnings in afootnote, theologian FranzBibfeldt has grown into a campus legend (page 18), illustration by Richard Thompson.Opposite: Motet Choir directorBruce Tammen, AM74, conducts the Messiah at RockefellerChapel (page 28); photographby Dan Dry. 4*\ Page 18<^ I •"jr , 'EditorMary Ruth YoeManaging EditorTim Andrew ObermillerAssociate EditorAndrew CampbellArt DirectorAllen CarrollEditorial AssistantKimberly SweetStudent AssistantQiana Johnson, '98Contributing EditorsJamie Kalven, Joe LevineEditorial office: The University of ChicagoMagazine, Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-2163; fax (312) 702-2166. The Magazine is sent to all University of Chicago alumni.The University of Chicago Alumni Associationhas its offices at Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-2150; fax (312) 702-2166.The University of Chicago AlumniAssociation Board of Governors:Officers: Linda Thoren Neal, AB'64, JD'67, president: Bob Levey, AB'66, vice president; Gregory G. Wrobel, AB'75, JD'78, MBA'79,treasurer; Michael J. Klingensmith, AB'75,MBA'76, secretary; Jeanne Buiter, MBA'86,"executive director.Andrew M. Alper, AB'80, MBA'81; Dennis M.Barden, "Assistant Vice President for Development; Richard L. Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; JackJ. Carlson, AB'40; N. Gwyn Cready, AB'83,MBA'86; Trina N. Frankel, AB'64; CarolineHeck, AB'71; Le Roy J. Hines, AM'78; RandyHolgate, "Vice President, Development andAlumni Relations; Susan Carlson Hull, AB'82:Patricia Klowden, AB'67; Michael C. KraussAB'75, MBA'76; Joseph D. La Rue, AM'59Katherine Dusak Miller, AB'65, MBA'68PhD'71; William C. Naumann, MBA'75Theodore A. O'Neill, AM'70, "Dean of CollegeAdmissions; Susan W. Parker, AB'65; FrederickO. Paulsell, Jr., AB'62, MBA'63; Harvey B. Plot-nick, AB'63; Louise E. Rehling, AM'70, SM'74;Jean Maclean Snyder, AB'63, JD'79; David M.Terman, AB'55, SB'56, MD'59; Mary B. VanMeerendonk, AB'64; Peter O. Vandervoort,AB'54, SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60; Mary Ruth Yoe,'Editor, University of Chicago Magazine.' Ex OfficioMagazine Advisory Committee: Michael J.Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76, chair; Richard L.Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; Mary Lou Gorno,MBA'76; Neil Harris, the Preston and SterlingMorton Professor in History; Susan CarlsonHull, AB'82; Michael C. Krauss, AB'75, MBA'76;Bob Levey, AB'66; Katherine Dusak Miller,AB'65, MBA'68, PhD'71; Peter O. Vandervoort,AB'54, SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60; Marva Watkins,AB'63.The University of Chicago Magazine (ISSN-0041-9508) is published bimonthly (October,December, February, April, June, and August)by the University of Chicago in cooperation withthe Alumni Association, Robie House, 5757Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago IL 60637. Published continuously since 1907. Second-classpostage paid at Chicago and additional mailingoffices. POSTMASTER: Send address changesto the University of Chicago Magazine, AlumniRecords, Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. © 1995 Universityof Chicago. Editors NotesEARLY IN THE FIRST WEEK OF WINTERquarter, the bulletin board inHutchinson Courtyard alreadyboasted a fresh layer of posters. Tackedover the tattered remnants of pastannouncements were the first offerings ofthe new year: University Theater auditionsfor Medea, Dreamlost, and No Exit; a DOCtribute to French film animation; dinnerand a movie at Hillel House.Take a few steps back (the older theviewer, the fewer the steps), and the noticesblur into a bright paper collage — an imagethat also works well as a metaphor forcampus activity. Any high-school juniorwill tell you that photographs of crowdedbulletin boards are a constant in collegeadmissions viewbooks — what quicker wayto make the point that a lot is happening atX University?We've been thinking about bulletinboards — one of the oldest ways of "publishing" information — because we've justembarked on one of the newer ways ofpublishing information. This issue of theMagazine has a new perch on the WorldWide Web. You can find us by visiting theUniversity of Chicago Home Page (itsaddress is andthen clicking on "News and Events." In addition to the articles and picturesthat appear in the paper version of thisissue, we've added an extra illustration foron-line readers who want to see more ofFranz Bibfeldt ("The Unbearable Lightnessof Being Bibfeldt," page 18).Better than letters?"We learned more about the University ofChicago from you than we did from ourson, Michael J., who graduated in March'94," wrote Mr. and Mrs. Michael L. Zolikof Grosse Pointe Woods, Michigan,responding to the Magazine's annual solicitation letter this past fall. The Zoliks wereamong 6,971 readers who've contributed atotal of $134,893.61 to help underwrite thecost of producing the Magazine.As always, we're very grateful. We alsoappreciate the correspondence that camewith the checks: suggestions for improvement, lots of submissions for "Class News,"and even — courtesy of Raymond E.Watson, MBA'61 — light verse:Of news there's naught to report'Cause I've avoided the last resortBut one day I'll be a hit —When you edit my obit!To which we can only say gravely: There aretimes when no news is good news. — M.R.Y.2 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995LettersMcKeon the immoderateMr. Obermiller's piece on RichardMcKeon ("Will the Real RichardMcKeon Please Stand Up?"December/94) stirred many memories. Formally, I was never his student, but even atone remove, teaching the two courses(Humanities 2 and the formidable Oil) thatclearly bore his mark, I learned a great dealabout my own subject of philosophy andhow to avoid a simplistic monism in itspractice. Rarely has a single faculty memberbeen so influential within his own university and so slightly known elsewhere.Not that all of my colleagues approved. Irecall Henry Rago complaining that"McKeon may be a moderator, but he's animmoderate one," and Eliseo Vivas writingsomewhere that McKeon had adopted aclassical model, "in this case the Gordianknot."I remember encountering McKeon on thecampus one day when he was on leave andteaching at the University of Arkansas. Iasked him how things were going there."Splendidly," he replied. "The studentsdon't know that they can't understand me."F. Champion WardNorth Branford, ConnecticutWard served as dean of the College from1950 to 1956.— Ed.McKeon the vanquishedJ emerged from the Iowa cornfields inthe late spring of 1941 and registered asa graduate student in philosophy for thesummer quarter. I was bent on becoming alogician and spent most of my time studying with the renowned Rudolf Carnap, butnone with Richard McKeon. Carnap andMcKeon were open enemies — and I didn'twant to endanger my small standing withCarnap by having much to do withMcKeon, nor did I want to risk beingslaughtered.Since the draft was hard after me I determined to pass the candidacy examinationsas soon as I possibly could. The test was infive parts. In March, I took them, aced four,but flunked metaphysics. Warner Wick,PhD'41, the secretary of the department,told me unofficially it had been graded byMcKeon, who had "never heard of me." The department admitted me to candidacy,but with the proviso that my Ph.D. compre-hensives include an extra half-day oral onthe history of philosophy and metaphysics.Six years later, after having been toughened up by the U.S. Army and done someteaching, I appeared for the extra oralbefore the senior faculty, including Carnapand McKeon. To everyone's embarrassment, most of the session was taken overby the two men pounding the table overinterpretation of certain sticking points inAristotle's Posterior Analytics. I had no ideaCarnap knew Aristotle that well, includingGreek on hard points, or that he could treatanyone with such bitter disdain.After the battle, McKeon, visibly shredded, quietly asked me to give a half-hourtalk on Scotus' concept of the formal distinction. I delivered 15 minutes on haec-ceitas, whereby Wick turned me off.McKeon rushed up, shook my hand, said Ipassed, and left. I never saw him again.Shortly thereafter Carnap left for the University of California, Los Angeles.Raymond J. Nelson, PhD'49ClevelandMcKeon the greatCall me myopic or jejune, but Professor McKeon taught an excellentclass in Aristotle in the early 1950s.If he was an intellectual bully, browbeatingstudents "with a gleam in his eye," it wasover my head: I was too happy learningwhat he had to share about Aristotle andhis obvious love of the Stagirite. McKeonwas one of the few great teachers it was myprivilege to know in the College, the English Department, and the Committee onSocial Thought. (Norman Maclean, PhD'40,and Napier Wilt, AM'21, PhD'23, were theothers.) The rest were just teachers.Paul Carroll, AM'52Vilas, North CarolinaIn concrete termsJn the article on the Downtown Center("The University Goes Downtown,"December/94), you described it as a"limestone-colored concrete building." Inbuilding-construction terminology, "concrete building" generally refers to a build- ClascalCoins!(§reek • &omanpontineNumismatic LiteratureRome. Licinius I & IIgold aurei, 321-322 A.D.RIC41-42(Nicomedia)Mint StateIllustrated catalogon requestEdward J. Waddell, Ltd.Suite 316444 N. Frederick Ave.Gaithersburg MD 20877301-990-7446Fax: 301-990-3712UniversityWhen you visitChicago fora weekend,a week,or a month,stay atWOODED ISLE SUITES— studio andone-bedroomapartmentsfurnished toprovide you ahome away fromhome.Walk to the, Universityof Chicago or theMuseum of Scienceand Industry, strollalong the lakefront,catch the bus or trainto the Loop, dine at anearby restaurant, ormake your own dinnerin your Suite.Come "home" toWooded Isle Suitesand relax after a dayof research,studying, meetings,or sightseeing.WOODED ISLE SUITES5750 South Stony Island AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637312-288-55781-800-290-6844 ing whose walls are of concrete that hasbeen poured into forms. The antithesis is a"steel building," suggesting a framework ofsteel. I seem to recall that the DowntownCenter has a steel frame — therefore, referring to it as a concrete building is inaccurate.As for "limestone-colored," limestonecomes in several colors, even red, accordingto a book on my shelf. Alumni of the "citygray" are likely to assume that all limestoneis gray, and the reference to the buff-colored Downtown Center as "limestone-colored" could upset their equanimity.An accurate -but-prosaic description of theDowntown Center is "steel-framed with acladding of buff concrete panels conveyingthe look of limestone."Joseph D. La Rue, AM'59ChicagoVeterans of tuitionJ don't go back quite so far as KatharineMann Byrne, AB'36, AM'43 ("OtherVoices," December/94), but 1 recall asimilar situation when I was at the University. I had a scholarship from my highschool worth $200 a year for four years.Considering that tuition was $300 per year,it was a fairly adequate sum when combined with my summer earnings andassorted part-time jobs on and off campus.Then the tuition started to rise: By the timeI was in my final year, it had climbed to$450 — a 50-percent increase within lessthan four years.I applied for extra tuition help and foundthat a scholarship was available for WorldWar I veterans and their children. A slighthitch developed when I further discoveredthat eligibility meant enlisting at least sixmonths before the November 11, 1918,armistice unless the veteran had servedoverseas. My father's Navy enlistment datewas May 15, 1918!The dean managed to find a half-tuitionscholarship from somewhere — I never didknow where, nor did 1 ask. Ironically, atthe time 1 applied for financial aid, myfather was on active duty with the Armyduring World War II, and 1 don't think thatqualified for anything. I always wonderedwhat ever happened to the endowmentfunds of these severely restricted bequests.How many children of World War I veterans are extant and in college these days?Charlotte Gordy Glauser, PhB'47, SB'47Camp Hill, PennsylvaniaAccording to Alicia Reyes, director of CollegeAid and Graduate Financial Aid, the scholarship in question now goes to direct descendantsof WW1 veterans, provided the students alsodemonstrate financial need. — Ed. Jazzin' at Jimmy'sApropos of reading Duke Frederick'sletter (December/94): The articlewas about the jazz scene on 55thStreet and elsewhere prior to PresidentKimpton's/ Mayor Daley's urban-renewalproject. As we all know, Jimmy's Woodlawn Tap was the only tavern to survivethat upheaval. And so it is fitting that jazzhas reemerged there, at least on Sundaynights from 9 to midnight.A group headed by Curtis Black, arenowned trumpet player, has played atJimmy's for the last four years, and is stillgoing strong. Coincidentally, the drummeris none other than Doug Mitchell, AB'65,the McKeon disciple quoted in an articlefrom the same issue. Before he got McKeon,he got jazz, and some things stay aroundfor a long time.Other players include Jon Cohen, AB'93,a graduate philosophy student and keyboard player who knows all the modes, andyour interlocutor, who plays some uprightbass. When you get down to it, we aretrying to play The Music. Often variousimportant Chicago jazz players comearound for the second set. Recommended.Bob Hodge, AB'66, AM'68ChicagoBird watchingMy old colleague Duke Fredericksays that he finds it hard tobelieve that Charlie Parker everplayed at the Beehive, on 55th Street. Iwrite to report that, on an unforgettablenight in the early 1950s, I heard Parker atthat wonderful place. He was not billed buthe was very much there, and in rare form.One other point: That street may havebeen, as Frederick suggests, "a rather seedyarea" in those days. But it was also at theheart of a bustling neighborhood, a long-vanished neighborhood that 1 and othersremember fondly.Benjamin Lease, AM'43, PhD'48Evanston, IllinoisLook back in angerJ would like to respond to a December/94 letter by Arie Friedman, AB'87,regarding the "pervasive disdain [at theUniversity] for individuals who havechosen to personally participate in theAmerican military." Mr. Friedman says thathe is disturbed that those who "sacrifice somuch for the defense of freedom find themselves reviled by those who profit mostfrom that sacrifice." Just exactly whosefreedom does Mr. Friedman claim to bedefending? That of the average American or4 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995that of an elite minority (perhaps a smallfraction of which ascend from such academies as the University)?In recent years, when each new presidential election in this country has taken place,one asks the question, "Are you better offnow than four years ago?" Shouldn't we beable to apply this same question to the U.S.military over the last 50 years? If one examines those actions since the end of WorldWar II, all military adventures have takenplace outside the U.S. and in countries thathave not attacked us or posed any directthreat to the American people.And what then were the results for thepeoples of those countries we invaded?How many millions of Vietnamese died atthe hands of U.S. personnel so that theycould be "free"? Are Grenada and Panamabetter off now than before the U.S. bombedand invaded them, leaving many civiliansdead or without adequate housing? Andwhat about the 100,000-plus civilians deadin Iraq after our "surgical" strikes to preserve the "freedom" of Kuwait?When one looks at 50 years of militaryspending by this country, one sees that it isnot only those who personally participate inthe American military who have made sacrifices. It is all of us whose taxes have beensquandered by such incredible militarywaste, and our children and our children'schildren, who will have to bear the burdensof the trillions spent on destruction and military hardware and interest to pay for suchwaste. "Do you feel safer now than 50 yearsand several trillion dollars ago?" is a moreapt question. Do you feel more secure inyour job? How do you feel about the education your kids and other people's kids aregetting? If you get sick, will there be adequate health care for you and your family?These are the sacrifices we all have madefor the American military.All this by way of explanation for the disdain felt by those in uniform. It is unfortunate that the justifiable anger felt towardsthe Military (Institution) is often misdirected toward those who have chosen towork for it (either for idealistic or economic reasons).Mike Perlin, AB'78, SM'80, PhD'83Louisville, KentuckyThe Magazine invites letters on the contentsof the magazine or on topics related to theUniversity. Letters for publication, which mustbe signed, may be edited for length and/orclarity. To ensure the widest range of voices,preference is given to letters of no more than300 words. Address letters to: Editor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757 WoodlawnAve., Chicago, IL 60637. Our Internet addressis: THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONInvites you to join distinguished faculty and alumni friends participatingin alumni travel /study programs during the coming months1995 Study TripsSplendors of Australia and New ZealandMarch 5-26Our ship will visit the eastern coast of Australia and Tasmania before sailingto New Zealand. Led by Professor David Raup.Historic Cities of the SeaMay 18-30A voyage along the shores of the Western Mediterranean to cities in Italy, Sicily,Malta, Tunisia, Spain, and France that influenced the growth of Western civilization.Led by Professor Constantin Fasolt.Changing Tides of HistoryJuly 12-25Our trip to the Baltic Sea countries will explore economic and cultural changein Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. Led by Professor D. Gale Johnson.AlaskaJuly 19-31This well-priced trip explores Alaska by land and sea.University of Chicago faculty to be announced.Stratford, Ontario: Shakespeare FestivalAugust 17-20Four days with five plays from Shakespeare to Shaffer.Led by Professor David Bevington.Behind the Mask of BaliSeptember 8-20We will study the complex religious and cultural heritage of Bali and Java.Led by Professor Frank Reynolds.SwitzerlandSeptember 11-19Our alumni campus abroad in the Bernese Oberland willfocus on the research of Professor Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi,author of Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.The Journey of OdysseusSeptember 11-27Beginning at the site of Troy, our cruise will retrace the voyage of Odysseusthrough the ancient Mediterranean. Led by Professor Herman Sinaiko.Tor further information or to be added to our travel/study mailing list,contact Alumni Travel, University of Chicago Alumni Association,5757 Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. 312/702-2160.Internet: dwegrue@uchimvsl. uchicago.eduUniversity of Chicago Magazine/February 1995iIExperiencea RenaissanceRetirement.With its proximity to the University of Chicago, outstandingmuseums and the lure of the lakefront, Hyde Park has alwaysattracted individuals in search of intellectual and culturalstimulation.Today, those people are choosing to live at MontgomeryPlace, Hyde Park's only continuing-care retirement communityand a place where the pulse of the city enriches everyday life.Montgomery Place combines spectacular lakefrontviews, spacious rental apartments, an on-site Health CarePavilion and 24-hour security with a resident population steepedin the unique ambience of the community.If you're looking for an independent,secure retirement lifestyle enhanced by thestimulating environment only Hyde Park offers,send in the coupon or call Montgomery Place formore information today: (312) 288-3300.Montgomery ?laceQ YES, I would like more information aboutMontgomery Place. I understand there is no obligation.Age D Married ? Single D Widowed5550 South Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60637(312) 288-33000 Managed by Life Care Services Corporation firjr^rgr^grgrgrgrgrgrgjgrgrgr^r^^ [gJU zU&&fflm&WM rifiJdcIJ ^aac!IBt!Ml^rJJt3 fTJMcMMal E EventsExhibitionsFor Public Enlightenment and Benefit: The JohnCrerar Library 1894-1994, through March 1. Theexhibit marks the library's 100th anniversary.Visions of a Nation: Images of Mexico by Mexican and American Photographers, through March5. Examining both photography's role in the representation of a Mexican national identity and theimages North American photographers take asoutsiders, the exhibit includes works by ManuelAlvarez Bravo; Marianne Yampolsky Urbach;Danny Lyon, AB'63; and Paul Strand. SmarlMuseum; call 702-0200.From the Ocean of Painting: India's PopularPainting Tradition, 1589 to the Present, throughMarch 12. Characterized by bold design, brightcolors, and the use of both text and imagery, theworks include examples of Indian folk, tribal, andpopular-urban painting traditions. The exhibitiondisplays scroll paintings, book illustrations, puppets, dolls, fortune-telling cards, and religiousaltars. Smart Museum; call 702-0200.Eugene Field and His Books, through March 20.This exhibit marks the centenary of Eugene Field'sdeath and the founding of Chicago's Caxton Club.Manuscripts, correspondence, and limited editionsfocus on Field as author, collector, and promoter ofbooks. Special Collections; call 702-8705.Diana Thater, March 12-April 23. The L.A.artist's first one-woman exhibition confronts theoptical and social nature of television, uniting technology, video images, and architecture in ametaphor for TVs pervasiveness. The RenaissanceSociety; call 702-8670.Post-War Chicago Works on Paper and Sculpture, March 14-June 1. This exhibition featuresworks by Chicago artists with an interest in outsider and folk art, including Leon Golub, AB'42; JimNutt; Gladys Nilsson; and Ed Paschke. SmarlMuseum; call 702-0200.Planes, Trains, and Automobiles: The Transportation Revolution in Illustrated Children'sBooks, March 17-June 26. This exhibit examineshow illustrators in several countries exploited thegreat changes in travel and transportation that followed the advent of the railroad and highlightsbooks that appeared between the two world wars.Special Collections; call 702-8705.LecturesJohn M. Olin Lecture, February 22 at 4 p.m. Historian Gertrude Himmelfarb, AM'44, PhD'50, speakson "From Victorian Virtues to Modern Values."Social Science Research Building; call 702-3423.Works of the Mind Lectures, March 5 at 2 p.m.Stephanie Nelson, Continuing Studies lecturer,speaks on "The Comedy of a Private Peace: Aristophanes' Acharmians. "Judd Hall; call 702-1722.MusicGospel Concert, February 26 at 7 p.m. This concert features Voices of Progressive, from Chicago'sProgressive Community Church, and LonnieHunter and the Voices of St. Mark's. RockefellerChapel; call 753-1191.Guarneri String Quartet, March 3 at 8 p.m. TheUniversity of Chicago Magazine/February 1995quartet performs works by Haydn, Mendelssohn.and Schubert as part of the Chamber Music Series.Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.University Symphony Orchestra, March 4 at 8p.m. Barbara Schubert conducts the orchestra inworks by Dvorak, Mendelssohn, and Williams.Mandel Hall; call 702-8069.Lenten Vespers, March 5 at 5 p.m. The University of Chicago Chorus performs works by Palest-rina, Lassus, and Josquin, under the direction ofEdward Funk. Rockefeller Chapel; call 753-1191.The Pirates of Penzance, March 9 at 7:30 p.m.,March 10-11 at 8 p.m., and March 12 at 2 p.m.Antoinette Arnold conducts the Gilbert and Sullivan Opera Company and the University ChamberOrchestra. Mandel Hall; call 702-8674.Arcadian Academy, March 14 at 8 p.m. The Arcadian Academy presents works by Locke, Lanier, andPurcell. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra, March 31 at 8 p.m.The Chamber Music Series' fifth concert includesworks by Mozart, Britten, Kancheli, and PhilipGlass, AB'56. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.Motet Choir, April 1 at 8 p.m. Directed by BruceTammen, AM'74, the choir performs works byDeering, Lasso, Nystedt, Victoria, and Weelkes.Rockefeller Chapel; call 753-1 191.Contemporary Chamber Players Ensemble, April2 at 8 p.m. Ralph Shapey conducts the annual PaulFromm Concert. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.Palm Sunday Organ Recital, April 9 at 5 p.m.Organist Hanna Lee perfonns works by Bach, Lizst,and Alain. Rockefeller Chapel; call 753-1191.The Seven Last Words of Our Savior on the Cross,April 14 at 8 p.m. Bruce Tammen, AM'74, conductsthe Rockefeller Memorial Chapel Choir and theSymphony of the Shores. Rockefeller Chapel; call753-1191.TheaterOff-Off Campus: Winter Quarter Revue, Fridaysat 9 p.m., through March 3. Off-Off Campus provesstudent improv is alive and well. UniversityChurch, second-floor theater; call 702-3414. An Evening of One Acts, February 24-25 at 8p.m. University Theater presents No Exit byJean-Paul Sartre, and Robert E. Johnson'sDreamlost. F. X. Kinahan Theater; call 702-3414Medea, March 3-4 and March 8-1 1 at 8 p.m.This world premiere of Max Rouquette's play.translated by Arie Thompson, retains the intensity of classical Greek drama while giving amodern portrayal of the heroine's conflict.Reynolds Club first-floor theater; call 702-3414.The Misanthrope, March 3-May 14. Performed in rotating repertory with Travesties,Moliere's play is the tale of a moral man forcedto face his hypocrisy when he falls in love with awoman who embodies everything he hates.Court Theatre; call 753-4472.Travesties, March 3-May 14. The play beginsin 1917, when the city of Zurich is filled withfamous and infamous characters who jointogether in a witty exploration of art, politics,and love that challenges our perception of ourselves and history. Court Theatre; call 753-4472.At the Downtown CenterStories That Leap into Song: From Literatureto Opera, April 1, 9:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Focusingon Aeschylus' Orestcia, U of C professors DavidBevington and John Eaton trace how classicalthemes of justice, fate, and tragedy are reinterpreted in Eaton's contemporary opera. The Cryof Clytemnestra. Downtown Center; call 702-2160.In the CityFirst Friday Lecture Series, first Friday ofevery month at 12:15 p.m. March 3. ContinuingStudies lecturer Man Schindele, AB'88, AB'89,on "Hell's Misfits: Order and Meaningful Chaosin Dante's Inferno." April 7. Continuing Studieslecturer Susannah Gottlieb, AM'93, "On Niet-szche." Chicago Cultural Center; call 702-1722.Center StageApril Shower of Speakers; Amongcampus visitors in April are sixspeakers expected to draw large crowds.On April 5, Jeane Kirkpatrick, formerU.S. ambassador to the UnitedNations, speaks in "TheVirtues of Modern Democracy" series organized by theJohn M. Olin Center forInquiry into the Theory andPractice of Democracy (4p.m., Social Science ResearchBuilding; 702-3423).On April 19, Israeli novelistA. B. Yehoshua discusses"The Israeli Identity and thePeace Process" (Max PalevskyCinema; 702-8370).Andrew Young — former mayor ofAtlanta and co-chair of the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games — deliversthe second annual "Aims of Religion"address" on April 24 (7:30 p.m., Rocke feller Chapel; 702-7170). Young's recentspiritual memoir is A Way Out of No Way.On April 25, mezzo-soprano MarilynHome will give the first annual DouglasBaird Lecture in Opera, anevening billed as "Bel CantoOpera: A Conversation withMarilyn Home" (Mandel Hall;702-8370).James Q. Wilson of the Uni-Iversity of California at LosAngeles speaks on April 26 inthe Olin Center's "Virtues ofI Modern Democracy" series (4I p.m., Social Science ResearchI Building; 702-3423). Wilson isVisiting: Marilyn Home the author of Crime andHuman Nature.On April 27, South African novelist J.M. Coetzee gives a public lecture (MaxPalevsky Cinema; 702-8370). Coetzee'sLife and Times of Michael K won Britain'sBooker Prize in 1993. HELL DOESFREEZEOVERatthe University ofChicagoLiven up your winter withthis popular shirt, describedby the University of ChicagoMagazine (February/94) as a"classic Chicago T-shirt."The 100% cotton pre-shrunkshirts are available in long- andshort-sleeve styles, and in largeand extra-large. The availablecolor schemes are black shirtswith white message or whiteshirts with maroon message.$12 for short-sleeve T, $17for long-sleeve T Pleaseinclude $3 for shipping andhandling. Make checks payableto Hale House. Questions?Call 312/702-4571.Send your order — includingnumber of shirts, style, size,and color — along with yourcheck or money order to:935 Hale HouseShoreland Hall5454 S. Shore DriveChicago, IL 60615University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 7C ourse WorkArt like theEgyptians DIngrid Rowland leads awhirlwind tour of the art,architecture— and breakfastcereals— that the land of thepharaohs has inspired. UAL SLIDES OF THE VlLLA FARNESE'Sentrance hall projected on the wallbehind her, Ingrid Rowland tells astory. Sandwiched between heraccount of a Renaissance architect who created his own hieroglyphics and an explication of Egyptian and classical referencesfound in a famous fresco, this story is abouta 16th-century Roman banker namedAgostino Chigi, and the villa that he hadbuilt for himself on the bank of the Tiber.When Agostino was adopted in 1509 byPope Julian II, the banker ordered that animage of the papal seal be placed "smack inthe middle of the ceiling."At this point, Rowland — a tall womanwearing a black-and-white tweed suit andflat-heeled shoes — jumps lightly up on anearby chair, the better to point out the sealto the students gathered in a dim Coch rane- Woods classroom for Art History 101,"Introduction to Art." Intent on the slidesand the story, the dozen or so listeners takeher acrobatics for granted."Agostino built this villa at a time whenwealthy Romans were very concernedabout security," Rowland says, hoppingback to terra firma. Many upperclass homeshad barred windows and a single exit, andoften were patrolled by "a hired goonsquad, dressed in colors appropriate to thefamily."In contrast, she says, gesturing againtoward the magnificent entrance room,"Agostino seems to be saying 'Come ondown' — but you're not to be fooled by hiswelcoming court. The coat of arms of thepope is there to remind you that he has avery good friend."Agostino entertained in the style one8 U\i\ ersity ot Chicago Magazine/February 1995might expect from a man proud of hiswealth, Rowland goes on, using lavish settings of silver and gold. Once he had 1 1cardinals over to dinner, and — like hotelguests making souvenirs of the bathtowels — they discreetly hid some of the elegant vessels in their robes to take home.Agostino had his revenge by inviting themback and serving them on plates embossedwith each guest's own coat of arms. Whenthey were finished eating — and before theycould stuff their robes — Chigi's servantsremoved the plates and "tossed them in theriver. What the guests didn't know was thatAgostino had nets stretched under theriver," to collect his tableware.Rowland laughs, "He makes Martha Stewart not look anywhere near as swanky."The next set of slides displays the VillaFarnese's famed frescoes, painted forAgostino by Raphael and his students: Aceiling fresco shows the story of Cupid andPsyche, "which comes from an ancientnovel, The Golden Ass, by Apuleius." Rowland gives a brief summary of the romance,then stretches up to point out "an Egyptiansphinx sitting right next to Hercules. . . .yousee a lot of sphinxes in Renaissance Rome."After quickly explaining the scene'simagery and its origins in classical theology, she underscores the meaning of theartistic metaphor: The idea behind thefresco painted for the city's most powerfulbanker is that "the gods come down andhave dinner with Agostino Chigi."Trained as a classicist, Ingrid Rowlandgraduated from Pomona College in 1974and received her Ph.D. from Bryn MawrCollege in 1980. She taught at St. Mary'sCollege, UCLA, and Columbia before joining the U of C in 1990 as an assistant professor in art and the College. A 1994winner of the University's Quantrell awardfor excellence in undergraduate teaching,Rowland describes her teaching style as"putting things in a human context.""Ultimately, art or literature is made bypeople," she says with her usual enthusiasm, "and I want to connect texts andworks of art to human events, both nowand in the past. I often joke that studentshave to learn how to talk to dead people,but that's what it's all about — becomingengaged with a work in its fullest sense." Although Art 101, which can be used tofulfill the Common Core requirement inthe musical or visual arts, is not a surveycourse (what Rowland laughingly describesas "35,000 years of human art in tenweeks!"), the introduction to aestheticsranges broadly in time and space. Designedto teach the basics of appreciating, understanding, analyzing, and writing about art,Rowland's section of the course has anEgyptian theme, intended to give studentsI often joke thatstudents have to learnhow to talk to deadpeople," says IngridRowland, "but that'swhat it's all about-becoming engaged with awork in its fullest sense.""a general chronological and geographicalframework, as well as some awareness ofhow art changes through the ages."In ten weeks, the class has to considerEgyptian art of the Old Kingdom throughlate antiquity. Analyze Egypt's interactionswith the Greeks, Romans, and Islam. Lookat Egyptian influence in the Renaissanceand the Napoleonic era. Discuss Egypt'srole in the Afrocentrism movement. Andchart two 20th-century waves of Tut-mania. The syllabus includes five textbooks, a field trip to the University'sOriental Institute and a paper "describingan object" in that collection, reserve readings from Herodotus to Stephen Greenblatt,required listening — Giuseppe Verdi'sAida — and more papers.Rowland wants her students to make specific and expansive connections, and shesets a good example, with a lecture stylethat easily links a discussion of obeliskslooted from Egypt by Roman conquerors toancient Rome's great circuses (when "everygood racetrack had to have an obelisk in themiddle of it"), St. Peter's architecture, andBernini's fountains for the Piazza Navona.The task of making connections continueson the last class day of the quarter. Row land begins by introducing the day's guestlecturer, then settles back in her seat toenjoy the show. Emily Teeter, assistantcurator of the Oriental Institute, hasbrought along slides and objects from herpersonal collection of "Egyptotrash," whichshe defines as "the use of ancient Egyptianmotifs in incongruous settings or ways."Some uses are on a large scale. A bronzecoffin that "can be customized with asymbol of your religion, as well as withyour personal death mask," goes for$60,000. A couple near Libertyville, Illinois, built a pyramid-shaped dream house.At Luxor, the new Las Vegas theme resort,the motif extends to the shampoo containers shaped like papyrus columns.Bourbon in a Tutankhamen canister,Yummy Mummy cereal, Gummy Mummies, and Pyramints have all been on themarket. Advertising campaigns also toutEgyptian motifs: A cartouche and the NBAsCharles Barkley combine to hawk a deodorant. A "hierogylph" of an Egyptian with abellyache draws the reader's eye to a medicine billed as "tomorrow's solution to age-old digestive problems."It may seem a long way from the obeliskscarried home by Roman soliders or asphinx's appearance in a 16th-century fresco to "Egyptotrash," but Teeter, like Rowland, sees an underlying link. Changingvery little over the course of the differentdynasties, Egyptian art is instantly recognizable: Both artists and advertisers "wantsomething you can look at and immediatelyidentify," Teeter says. Yet an Egyptian motifalso has a timeless "sense of mystery to it —it's something you can identify right awaybut you don't know much about."After leading a round of applause forTeeter, Rowland dashes through some end-of-the-quarter business: papers to be pickedup, dates for rewrites to be turned in, andteacher-evaluation forms to be filled outand returned to a student volunteer.She concludes with a reminder that theclass is invited to an Egyptian evening ather apartment that Friday, featuring"mummy-meat" hors d'oeuvres, "pseudo-Egyptian" chili, and kitschy films withjewel-of-the-Nile motifs. It's not dinner ongold plates at the Villa Famese, but, as inthe Renaissance, there's sure to be a sphinxor two in the background. — M.R.Y.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 9hicago JournalFOR THE RECORD Conservators restore youthto Ida Noyes Hall muralSolid encouragement:Civic leader and philanthropist Irving B.Harris has given $5mil/ion to the graduateschool of public-policystudies that bears hisname, bringing histotal U of C-giving to$25 million. The newgift supports interdisciplinary projects, research by younger faculty, and a student fellowship fund, to whichHarris has added a specific challenge: a one-to-one match, with thematching donor able toname the fellowshipfund.Triumphant: CourtTheatre won Chicago'sBest Play award at the26th annual Joseph Jefferson Awards for itsautumn 1993 production of Pierre Mari-vaux's The Triumph ofLove. The play markedthe Chicago directorialdebut of CharlesNewell, now Court'sartistic director. IN A BUILDING DESIGNED TOinstruct University women "inthe beauty of living," thethird-floor theater of Ida NoyesHall once hummed with all-female musicals and theatricals,activities that long ago went coedand moved elsewhere. Thesedays — aside from the occasionalacademic symposium or banquet — the theater is void of activity, save for the painted procession of figures who benignlygrace a mural wrapped around theroom's four walls.Known as the Masque of Youth,the mural by Chicago artist JessieArms Botke was dedicated January 26, 1918, in a lavish ceremonyattended by University presidentHarry Pratt Judson, sculptorLorado Taft, and the mural'spatron, La VerneNoyes, who called ita "crowning halo"to the building hehad donated in thename of his wife,Ida.Seventy-sevenyears later, Chicagoart conservatorBarry R. Bauman,AM'71, points outsigns of the mural'salarming deterioration. A thick layerof dirt and grime,atop a discoloredvarnish finish, hasdulled its colors andflattened its three-dimensional qual- tB^KKBKOamity. While noting a Enchanted: As laudable lack of graffiti for such apublic place, Bauman expertlylocates numerous scratches,holes, and tears along the surface — as well as several areaswhere the canvas has pulled freefrom its plaster support.With long strides, Bauman nowushers the viewer to two panelson the mural's north wall that heand his assistants, Sarah Kitch andJoe Houston, have carefullyrestored over consecutive Saturday mornings for the past severalmonths. In contrast to their dingyneighbors, these restored sectionsglow in a vibrant harmony ofcolors. Images leap off the canvasas though painted yesterday.The improvement comes largelyfrom removal of a thick film ofdirt on the mural's surface — mostly the product of a certaintype of air pollution that Baumanoften sees clinging to the surfacesof paintings located "within anhour of Gary, Indiana." Usingconservation solvents and whatlook like large Q-tips, Baumanalone is responsible for the cleaning, because "that's the realmoment when paintings can beharmed. If you improperly cleanand cause damage to the originalpaint layer, it's lost forever."Before cleaning, Bauman's teaminjects an adhesive to reattach theloose areas of canvas. After cleaning, a ground material is used tofill in chips and scratches, whichare then painted to match Botke'soriginal colors. Finally, the entiremural is brushed with a non-yellowing varnish, providing a bufferlayer to protect the work fromfuture build-up of air pollution.The varnish, Bauman notes, iseasily reversible: "If, in the future,they know more than we knownow, they'll easily be able tommmmmma grad student, conservator Barry Bauman fell under the mural's spell1 0 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995remove our work."As founder of the Chicago Conservation Center — one of thenation's top private art-conservation centers — Bauman has workedon Renoirs, Picassos, and Monetsat the center's 6,000-square-footRiver North laboratory. As far asJessie Arms Botke's mural is concerned, Bauman's interest in itsrestoration is personal as well asprofessional.He learned of Botke while working as an associate conservator atthe Art Institute of Chicago,where one of her paintings is ondisplay. But it was as a graduatestudent in art history almost 25years ago that he first encountered her Masque of Youth, immediately falling under the spell ofthe mural's allegoric pageant ofcharacters: a tall, gray-beardedman, a youthful figure with acrown of spring flowers, lithe athletes bearing Greek bowls andlaurel wreaths, and dozens more,traipsing through an idyllic landscape that includes many of thecampus' Gothic buildings.Botke, Bauman later learned,had based the mural on an open-air masque performed during the1916 dedication of Ida NoyesHall. According to a UniversityRecord from the time, 300 students, alumni, and schoolchildrenperformed the masque beforesome 3,000 spectators. Themasque's theme — having to dowith a personified Alma Matertesting Youth's strength andcourage — is by now lost to history. But Botke's murals stillgracefully convey the masque'sgentle hopefulness and its participants' unquestioning belief inhigher learning's edifying powers.So far, Bauman has been commissioned to work on five of thenorth wall's six panels, with funding still being sought to pay forrestoration of the entire mural."Most students probably don'teven know they're here," saysBauman, "but the murals arereally an anomaly for what yousee around campus. I got involvedin the project from an emotionalpoint of view, from a memorypoint of view, and as a conservator. These are quite wonderfulpaintings that have been neglected for a long time." — T.A.O. Saving face: Its surface cleaned, the Masque reveals its vibrant colors.A physicist of a different featherProfessor Peter Freundknows two types of physicists. "There are those whothink like you and me — whenthey reach a new result, you canfollow the train of thought thatled them to what they found. Andthen there are those exceptionalphysicists like Richard Feynman,Paul Dirac," and Freund's own Uof C colleague, Yoichiro Nambu,1994-95 winner of the prestigiousWolf Prize in physics, to be presented next month in Israel."Of course, oneunderstands whatthey ended upwith, but at thesame time," saysFreund, "I don'tknow that I understand how onearth they cameup with it. Somewhere in the process, a rabbit ispulled out of ahat... but wherethat rabbit camefrom, it's notever clear."Nambu, who isthe Harry Pratt Nambu: PhysicsJudson distinguished service professor emeritus in physics, shares the$100,000 Wolf prize with VitalyGinzburg of the Lebedev PhysicalInstitute in Moscow. Nambu washonored for his contributions totheoretical particle physics — in particular, for his concept ofspontaneous symmetry-breaking,or SSB, which Nambu developedwhile studying superconductivityin the early 1960s. His theoriesform an essential cornerstone ofthe Standard Model, whichexplains in a unified way three ofthe four fundamental forces ofnature: strong and weak nuclearforces, and electromagnetism.The Wolf Prize also recognizesNambu's important contributionsto the color gauge theory, whichexplains how thestrong nuclearforce governs thebehavior of thequarks that makeup protons andneutrons in atomic nuclei.Nambu's hasfocused his current research on* 1 the question ofwhy the six different quarks havedifferent masses:i a consequence,I many physicistsbelieve, of SSB.with a magic touch. "Why quarkshave differentmasses," he says, "is one of thelast unsolved puzzles of the Standard Model."And how does Nambu go aboutsolving such a problem? Heanswers, laughing, "I think aboutit all the time." Knight life: PhilippeDesan, professor inRomance languages &literatures and masterof the humanities collegiate division, is now aChevalier dans VOrdredes Palmes Acade-miques (Knight in theOrder of the AcademicPalms) — France's highest distinction for academics and artists.Desan's latest book,Montaigne, will bepublished in Francethis year.Antarctica live: The/irst live TV broadcastfrom the South Polefeatured aUofCastronomy teamheaded by MarkHereld, principalinvestigator for theSouth Pole InfraredExplorer (SPIREX).The broadcast — aninteractive teleconference linking scientistswith two secondary-school classrooms —aired January 10 onmore than 230 PBSstations. SPIREX is oneof several projectswithin the U of C-managed Center forAstrophysical Researchin Antarctica.Little red survey:Results are in from arecent survey of some330 alumni who werestudents in the University's "Little RedSchoolhouse" class foracademic and professional writing, with 89percent of respondentsrating the LRS asextremely or highlyuseful in their ownwriting. Further, 83percent judged thequality of their ownwriting to be "good" or"excellent," and 89percent said writingwas "relevant" or"central" to theirUniversity of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 1Sultan's chair: TheTurkish governmentcontributed $200,000toward establishing (heKununi Suleyman Professorship in Ottomanand Modern TurkishStudies — and commitedto giving half of the$1.5 million totalneeded for the chair,provided the Universityraises matching fundswithin the next twoyears. The chair'sname honors a 16th-century sultan of theOttoman Empire.Other news: A$350,000 Mellon Foundation grant will support three yearlong,interdisciplinary faculty-student seminarson the theme "Confrontations with theOther." Directed byhumanities, social sciences, and Divinity faculty, each seminar willsupport one postdoctoral and three dissertation fellows. Booking on the Library's futurePolicy docs: TheRobert Wood JohnsonFoundation has established a Clinical Scholars Program at theUniversity. One ofseven such U.S. programs, it provides twoyears of post-residency,graduate-level trainingfor physicians inpolicy-related research.The program's directoris Christine Casscl.AB'67 (above), theGeorge M. Eisenbergprofessor in medicine. Continuing a series of inter-views with campus figures,the Magazine's editor talkswith Martin D. Runkle, AM'73,director of the University Librarysince 1980.The Joseph Regenstein Libraryturns 25 this September. Is itaging gracefully? All I've everheard is raves about Regenstein.In its first 15 years, we had a constant stream of visitors because itwas of such renown. Faculty talkabout how wonderful the Libraryis. Still, it's not new. The carpetsare worn; chairs need reupholster-ing. Many small things need to bedone, but we don't want to spendthe money until we can put thework into a larger context.Our major concern is accommodating the growth of the collections: We're going to run out ofstack space in five years. As thestacks get crowded, that createsproblems with shelving newbooks. The collections grow atdifferent rates, so you're constantly shifting volumes. It costsmoney, and the movement's badfor the books, especially ones thatare older and more brittle.If we run out of stack spacewithout an alternative in place, itwill be an absolute crisis. To avoidthat, we're undertaking a space-planning project, with help fromthe Regenstein Foundation.As part of the project, we'll lookat how people use the Library.Increasing the amount of electronic information that we provide access to is a very highpriority. Besides the cost of theinformation itself and the equipment, there's the question of howthe building needs to be changedto accommodate the equipment.We also want to plan how toconsolidate some of the building's16 service stations. The goal is tokeep reference desks and otherservices open longer withoutspending additional money.In two years, we hope to havedefined a range of options. Onesolution for the overcrowdedstacks, for example, is compactshelving. We could put two-and- Martin Runkle of theU of C Library: "Wewant to do everythingwe can to make surethat people don't justmake do with whatthey can find onmachines. "a-half-million books in the Regenstein basement that way.If the building's been stretchedto meet new demands, whatabout the staff — do you havemore personnel than 25 yearsago? It's about the same — a full-lime equivalent staff of 360. Keeping up with electronic information while you're still maintaining the traditional library is anenormous strain. There are stalfstrains as well as financial strainsin trying to integrate those twodifferent worlds.Electronic information is developing so rapidly. You don't havethe controls and filters that youhave with traditional publications.It's a jungle out there. At the sametime, it's very exciting.This past fall, a task force planning the future of campus computing recommended a larger role for the Library. Howwill that mesh with theLibrary's day-to-day work?Taking over the computerclusters in Harper, Crerar,and Regenstein makessense. They're in the libraries; we have knowledgeable staff; people alreadythink of the clusters as partof the Library. The taskforce also recommendedthat the Library maintainthe University's Internetgateway — its Home Pageon the World Wide Web.Helping students and faculty navigate through lotsof information is what ourlibraries are all about. Withelectronic libraries, you haveto invent ways of getting atinformation on a computerscreen and not in physical space.Think of the millions of information items that are, that will be,available. How are you going toguide people through that?How modernized are the Library's own computer systems?When we started automating in1968, we developed our systemin-house. We pioneered, and oursystem set a standard. The irony isthat it's now badly outdated — butthat's soon to change. Over thenext two years, we'll install a newsystem.A vendor has developed an integrated library system for small tomedium-size libraries, based on amodular system called client-server architecture. Chicago andanother major university libraryare negotiating to work with thevendor to scale up that system tomeet the needs ol researchlibraries. The number of volumescataloged, for example, is muchhigher, our requirements for anaccounting system are more complicated, and our circulation rulesare far more complicated.A new on-line catalog will be thefirst of the system's modules to goup. That should happen withintwo or three months.In 1989, the Library stoppedupdating its traditional catalog.Will the old card catalog ever1 2 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995disappear completely? We have1.7 million titles in the on-linecatalog. We are — very gradually — converting some of the 2million titles that are only in thecard catalog. It's a serious concern:There are a lot of students whosimply don't use the card catalog.But the cost is high. Dependingon how complicated a record is, itranges from $1.50 to $3 per title.We're doing more on-line cataloging by using records fromcommercial databases. However,some items are unique to Chicago,and we do the cataloging ourselves. Ten years ago, our backlogof uncatalogued material wasgrowing. Now it's staying even.The value of making the conversion from card to on-line catalogwill become clearer as we relymore and more on electronicinformation. Even now, in termsof competing with other institutions — places like Harvard, whichis undertaking a $20-million project to convert its card catalog —there is pressure from students tohave the whole catalog converted.Let's end with a futuristic scenario: Will students in 2005 stillneed to come to Regenstein orCrerar — or will they simply bootup from their desktop computers? Print is going to be aroundfor a long time. It's true that in afew years abstracting and indexing services in electronic form willtotally replace print formats. Still,we have 5.7 million printed volumes — monographs and serials.We add about 125,000 printedvolumes a year. It's going to bemany years before the majorityare put into electronic formats.As long as we have researchersworking with the historicalrecord, we'll maintain thoseprinted volumes — and manuscripts and maps and other formats. We want to do everythingwe can to make sure that peopledon't just make do with what theycan find on machines.Even in the electronic-information age, the Library as a place towork won't go away. Some newformats require high-end machines and special equipment orprograms — and the Library iswhere those machines are andwhere there are people to helpyou use them. Double Rhodes: Fourth-year College students Meiling Hazelton andJonathan Beere were awarded Rhodes scholarships for graduate studyat Oxford. A December reception was held in their honor.From our back pagescoming to a close, 118 veterans, "including a survivor of thecarrier Lexington, at least one Purple Heart recipient, and sevenwomen," enroll as new students...."Chicago's Roll of Honor" lists21 alumni who died in the war effort.... "March 1 saw the 40,000thbaby born in Lying-in Hospital since its 1931 opening. More thanone-fourth of the mothers were servicemen's wives."Geography department — den of spies (February/55): A Sovietacademic journal describes geography chair Robert Piatt as a"militant reactionary" whose Wall Street-directed discipline of"drawing up future military battlefields" smacks of "espionage."....One in every 16 U of C alumni is listed in Who's Who; more than100 are heads of universities and colleges.... Hutchinson Commonsgets its first thorough cleaning since 1903. The scrubbing reveals"the upper part of the room above the wood paneling is plaster, andnot stone as was originally thought."Cloudy research (February/65): A device able to make clouds "ofany desired density of water droplets at any given temperature"will be used by the geophysical-sciences department to "determinethe conditions under which a cloud can be induced to release precipitation.".... The site of the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction in the now-demolished west stands of Stagg Field is declared aNational Historic Landmark.... Alumni are invited to the Quadrangle Club for a "festive Roman banquet," followed by a Mandel Hallperformance of Purcell's Dido and Aeneas.Levi departs; chess champs checked (March/75): UniversityPresident Edward H. Levi, PhB'32, JD'35, resigns in February tobecome U.S. attorney general under Gerald Ford.... The U of C Presspublishes its first cookbook, The Hows and Whys of French Cooking,by Alma Lach....After two years as national champs, Chicago's chessteam falls to the University of Toronto at the Pan-American Intercollegiate Championships. Winning coaches:Women's soccer coachAmy Howley Reifertwas voted the University Athletic Association's (UAA) Coach ofthe Year, and headfootball coach DickMaloney and his assistants were named UAACoaching Staff of theYear. Reifert — who hascoached at Chicagosince 1990 — led herteam to its first-everUAA championshipthis past fall, whileMoloney's first year asfootball coach yielded1 7 team records and 5Fresh approach: Shi/ting away from languages and literaryhistory, the formerDepartment of Germanic Languages &Literatures — nowcalled the Departmentof Germanic Studies —has been redesigned toemphasize culturalstudies. Starting in1995-96, eight newconcentrations willprovide a generalintroduction toGerman culture andanalyze specificaspects of that culture — such as psychoanalysis and the roleplayed by Jewish culture in the German-speaking world.Supreme clerks: Sevenrecent Law Schoolgrads were chosen toserve as clerks forSupreme Court justices: Susan Davies,JD'91; Griffith Green,JD'93; H. Kent Greenfield, JD'92; Thomas R.Lee, JD'91; JodyManier, JD'93; LisaSchultz, JD'93; andCraig Singer, JD'93.They will do research,help draft opinions,and assist the justicesin sifting through thousands of appeals topick cases the Courtwill review.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 1± nvestigationsThe Book of LifeBetween the lines: Peter Donnelly seeks evolutionary clues hidden in our genetic code.The story of the first truehumans, says Peter Donnellymay be written in the DNAof people living today.While he doesn't dig for fossils,Peter Donnelly's work may shedlight on one of the more pressing issues in paleontology: How did themost recent chapter of human evolutionunfold?Rather than looking to the past foranswers, Donnelly examines the DNA ofliving humans for traces of our early ancestors' evolution, migrations, and demographic history. It's a bit like reconstructingan epic story from the variations peoplemake as the tale is told over and over.Instead of the biologist's blood samplesand gels striped with DNA bands, Donnelly's tools are equations, histograms, andthe Sun workstation that sits beside hisdesk in his light-flooded Eckhart Halloffice. Joining Chicago's statistics and ecology & evolution departments this past fall,Donnelly uses his mathematical trainingand expertise in probability theory tomodel the statistics of genetic inheritance —most recently, their applications to humanevolution.That modeling, he says, ranges from'fairly abstract" — studying the purelymathematical aspects of genetic change — tomore specific questions, such as the likelihood of a particular evolutionary scenario.Tracing the lineage of whole populations iscomplex, but the basic logic isn't: If genesand other regions of DNA gather mutationsat a slow, steady rate, Donnelly explains,[hen the extent of the differences betweentwo individuals' DNA should provide ameasure of how long ago their ancestors'tamily trees diverged.Donnelly's recent work touches on afierce debate in paleontology. Did modernhumans simultaneously evolve, as onetheory maintains, from interbreeding Homo erectus groups in Africa, Asia, Europe, andAustralia? Or, in what has come to beknown as the "African Eve" hypothesis, dida single hominid group — possibly inAfrica — make that transition and thenreplace hominids living elsewhere? Withfossil evidence inconclusive, the science of"molecular evolution" made its debut inthe late 1980s, when a University of California, Berkeley-based study of mitochondrial DNA claimed that modern humansevolved on a single continent, probablyAfrica, only 200,000 years ago. Thoughflaws in the DNA evidence emerged later,the Berkeley group's "African Eve" hypothesis remains popular. Since that study, observes Donnelly, "thefashion is to put a lot of effort on mitochondrial DNA" — found inside the energy-producing organelles of cells — because itsfaster mutation rate makes it well-suited tomeasuring recent evolution. But as anappreciation grows for what he calls the"subtleties" of molecular evolution, thatview is changing — partly thanks to Donnelly's own research.To test the "African Eve" argument andmore recent mitochondrial-based claims,Donnelly — with fellow Australian PaulMarjoram of Monash University in Australia — compared geneticists' analyses ofvariation in mitochondrial DNA to his pre-1 4 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995dictions based on a realistic mathematicalmodel of evolution. Instead of workingbackward from existing data, as somegeneticists have done, he began with scenarios considered plausible for life amongthe first Homo sapiens, including details —like the number of breeding groups and thechanges in population size — that affectgenetic diversity.Projecting ahead thousands of generations, the Australians' model predicted therange of differences expected in mitochondrial DNA within small samples of peopleliving today. Different scenarios generateddifferent ranges, yet almost none matchedthe range from actual DNA samples gathered around the world by anthropologists.Donnelly's analysis has thrown cold wateron the genetic arguments both for andagainst an "African Eve": "My view is thatthere's relatively little information from justmitochondrial DNA," he says, adding thatseveral unknowns, like the size or stabilityof early human breeding groups, could beaffecting the observed results. "It's actuallyquite hard to come up with any realisticexplanation for the [mitochondrial] data."That, Donnelly says, is because the rangeof random mutations at one part of ourchromosomes, such as mitochondrial DNA,offers just a "snapshot" of evolution — like adie tossed only once. This limitation makesit nearly impossible to see the underlyingpattern left by migration and populationchanges — and to match that pattern to anysingle evolutionary model."Instead of looking at the mitochondria ofmore and more individuals," he notes,"we're much better off looking at differentparts of the genome" — like the 46 nuclearchromosomes that hold most of a cell'sgenetic information. By studying variationwithin unrelated genes, "you're almost getting separate glimpses of evolution."With Northwestern University professorAnna Di Rienzo, Donnelly hopes to do justthat. They're currently analyzing more thana dozen locations on nuclear chromosomeswhere sequences of two, three, or fourDNA bases — the letters in DNA's four-letterchemical alphabet — are known to repeatvarying numbers of times. Di Rienzo, ageneticist, generated the sequences fromblood samples available from tribes inAfrica and South America.Because each sequence is the same acrossindividuals, Donnelly and Di Rienzo studymutations in the number of repetitions ofthose sequences — changes that pose mathematical quandaries similar to the 20- to 30-base repetitions used in DNAfingerprinting, a forensic technique that isanother of his interests. For now, the twohope to use the data to unravel what bio chemical mechanism — such as errors in theDNA-copying process — is behind themutations. If they're successful, each ofthese DNA regions could open a newwindow onto human evolution.Ahead lies the mathematical challenge oftracing lineages for what Donnelly calls themore "bizarre" characters in the humangenome, like genes that jump from onechromosome to another. The science ofmolecular evolution still has its limits —perhaps above all, he says, the absence of a"molecular clock," or reliable measure ofthe rate at which mutations occur. But, hepoints out, models of genetic change havemade huge progress in just the past fiveyears, and may soon offer more definiteanswers to when, where, and how humansevolved. "The amount of data available," henotes, "is just exploding."The Y of BoysTHIS PART WE ALREADY KNEW: BOYS WILLbe boys because they inherit a Y,rather than an X, chromosome fromtheir fathers. But how does that lead to themore obvious, outward signs of gender?The key determinant of human maleness, itturns out, is a tiny molecular lever thatreaches into a strand of DNA and pries akink into it, setting in motion all thechanges necessary to convert a sexless, 35-day-old embryo into a boy.The discovery — reported recently in Sci ence by researchers at the U of C, Harvard,and Massachusetts General Hospital —shows in atomic detail how SRY, the protein produced by a crucial gene on the Ychromosome, starts a molecular game ofdominoes that leads to the production oftestes and blocks the formation of femalereproductive organs. The finding alsoexplains how an undetected pinpoint mutation in the Y chromosome can result in thebirth to parents — who, based on an amniocentesis test, had been told to expect aboy — of a healthy baby girl.Just such a mutation was used to uncoverthe workings of SRY, explains MichaelWeiss, a U of C professor of biochemistryand molecular biology, director of theCenter for Molecular Oncology, and thestudy's senior author.SRYs gene — named in 1990 for the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome —makes up less than one-half of one percentof the DNA on the Y chromosome. Amutated SRY gene produces a defective SRYprotein, leading to females who are XY, orchromosomally male, and have defectivegonads, but are otherwise physicallynormal. The condition — called puregonadal dysgenesis — is often diagnosedwhen the girl fails to enter puberty, and canbe successfully treated with hormones.These women are so nearly normal,explains Weiss, because all embryos beginlife more female than male. During the first35 days of gestation, embryos of either sexdevelop along classic female lines and haveLittle man: Just days earlier, the master switch for gender turned this embryo, six weeksold and half an inch long, into a male. The inset shows the moment of truth: The SRYprotein (in white) bends a key section of DNA, starting a chain reaction of events.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 1 5the beginnings of a uterus, fallopian tubes,and the upper part ol the vagina. Then, SRYseparates boys from girls."If it's to be a boy, consider the challengeshe faces at 35 days post-conception," saysWeiss. "He has to develop male organs andget rid of the nascent female ones. The keyis to make a testis" — in which one set ofcells makes testosterone, which governsmale sexual development, and another setproduces Mullerian Inhibiting Substance(MIS), which instructs the female structures to regress.Both processes start with the action ofSRY protein. When Weiss and colleagues,including Patricia Donahoe of Massachusetts General Hospital, analyzed the proteinusing nuclear magnetic resonance — thesame technique used by doctors to makeMRI images of the body — they were able tosee just how SRY does its job.A normal SRY protein, they found, contains a long amino acid called isoleucine ata critical position, and acts by inserting theamino acid at a specific DNA sequence thathelps to turn on the MIS gene. The insertion forces apart two pairs of DNA basesalong the chain, bending the DNA helix,and so triggering MIS production, perhapsby altering the binding of other proteins ona nearby stretch of DNA.But in roughly a quarter of the cases ofpure gonadal dysgenesis, which occursonce in every 50,000 births, SRY's genecontains a signal error: no instruction forisoleucine. The defective SRY protein failsto grab and bend the target section of DNA,and the cell cannot produce MIS. The protein's binding fails, the researchers discovered, if the isoleucine "lever" is shortenedby even a single carbon atom. It's a smallchange, but, says Weiss, "the effects are notsubtle, and result in complete sex reversalof the child."SRY's master switch for maleness, henotes, resembles the switches in immunecells that turn on to battle infection. "It'sas if nature hit upon a solution for how toregulate a set of genes," he says, "and hasused this means over and over."Other key events in fetal development arelikely to be governed by very similar mechanisms, he explains: "The process ofembryogenesis is full of molecular switchesas cells determine their fates. If we canunderstand the general switches involvedin sex determination, then we can understand olher molecular processes, such ashow other organs develop and how cancerarises."In the coming years, Weiss and his colleagues plan to trace factors that theybelieve intervene between the action of SRYand the production of MIS. Says Weiss, "We expect to find new genes that willsolve the mystery of unsolved cases ofhuman sex reversal."Sweet, Deep SleepIN A "TOP TEN" LIST OF HEALTH PROBLEMSamong the elderly, sleep quality —according to physicians — doesn't evenrank. But as Eve Van Cauter points out, thelist depends on whom you ask. "If olderadults are interviewed," she says, "thensleep comes as number two.""A lot of older adults are frustrated by thefact that they can't sleep in in the morning,"she explains, "and in the evening, whenthere are things to do, they are exhausted."Van Cauter thinks older people are on tosomething. Poor sleep may not be lifethreatening, yet its frequent cause is, shethinks, also to blame for an array of serioushealth effects, including some of the physical degeneration viewed as an inevitablepart of aging. A U of C research professorin the Department of Medicine who hasstudied connections between sleep, hormones, and biological rhythms since thelate 1970s, Van Cauter thinks she's foundone of the culprits — and may be fastapproaching a treatment.Not all sleep, she explains, is createdequal. The sense of being physically restedcomes from deep or "slow-wave" sleep,which normally fills the first hours of eachnight. During these hours of deep sleep, the pituitary gland secretes most of its dailyoutput of growth hormone, produced andused by the body well past childhood.But between ages 30 and 40, she says,both deep sleep and hormone productiondrop rapidly: Growth-hormone levels reachone-third to one-fourth of the amountsproduced by a young adult, while slow-wave sleep — even in people who describethemselves as good sleepers — falls proportionately. "Not only is there less time spentin those deep stages," she says, "but thosestages aren't as deep as they used to be."Others have noticed the sleep-hormonelink, but Van Cauter believes it's more thanan association: that the drop in slow-wavesleep in fact causes the drop in hormonerelease. And, she applies her belief toanother problem of aging. "It's thought,"she says, "that the reduction in growth-hormone production is partially responsiblefor the changes that we have in body composition" during aging — including, forexample, "the fact that, whether we stayslim or not, the ratio of fat tissue to musclebecomes higher."Some people have wondered, she says,whether higher levels of growth-hormoneproduction might restore strength andbone mass, making older adults "more fit,and more capable of living an independentlife."While several pharmaceutical companiesare studying that prospect — through hormone injections or drugs that force thepituitary back into action — Van CauterTo sleep, perchance: Better sleep, says Eve Van Cauter, could help older people stay health1 6 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995pursues a different approach: Why not tryto restore the sleep that signals the pituitaryto release growth hormone?Although she notes that current sleep-inducing drugs make sleep more, not less,shallow, there are ways to encourage deepsleep — including exercise, as Van Cauterhas demonstrated in earlier studies on howexercise and light therapy affect the body's24-hour internal clock, which is the sourceof circadian rhythms and a timing systemfor hormone release. But while quick torecommend exercise, she feels that a newmethod for prompting deep sleep wouldstill be helpful.Recently, "totally by serendipity," VanCauter may have found such a method.After delivering a lecture at a scientificmeeting, she received a tip that a certaindrug used experimentally to treat a rare disease may affect deep sleep. Her pilot studyusing the drug on younger subjects — inwhich she tried inducing deep sleep whenit would not normally occur — yielded "fantastic results," she reports. "The compoundrestored slow-wave sleep, and it doubled ortripled, according to the dosage, the dailyoutput of the hormone." The data, she says,show clearly that deep sleep causes growth-hormone release.Van Cauter won't mention the drug byname — the University hopes to patent itsnew use — but does mention an early sideeffect: Her pilot-study results have helpedsecure long-term funding from the NationalInstitute of Aging to study, jointly withNorthwestern University, how circadianrhythms change with aging. As the project'sleader, Van Cauter says the grant will puther work in an interdisciplinary context —"literally from molecular-level alterationsin the central nervous system responsiblefor generating circadian rhythms," sheexplains, "all the way to alterations in sleepand wake patterns in institutionalizedpatients in nursing homes."She hopes for a "cascade of health benefits" from her part in the five-year project.In addition to maintaining strength andbone mass through its role in growth-hormone release, deep sleep helps clear thebody of stress hormones, produced inresponse to stimuli like pain, physicalexhaustion, and psychological stress. And itwould help older people keep their weakening internal clocks synchronized with theoutside world, by strengthening the environmental cues of light-dark cycles andsocial schedules. Like a pacemaker for thedaily rhythms of life, restored deep sleepcould, says Van Cauter, "help reset thewhole temporal structure of the body." CitationsYour Brain on Drugs. What does a drug look like in action? In studies of Prozac andalcohol, a U of C team has developed a method to see the location and extent of adrug's effect on brain behavior. The images integrate anatomical data from magneticresonance imaging (MRI, shown in gray) with a map (in color) of drug-inducedchanges in glucose metabolism, a measure of cell activity produced by positron-emission tomography (PET). At left, blueregions show where the drugsdecrease metabolism; red regionsshow areas of heightened metabolism.Radiologist and PET Center directorMalcolm Cooper — who worked withEdwin Cook, Jr., of the psychiatryand pediatrics departments; HarrietDe Wit of radiology; and the center'sassociate director, John Metz, PhD'78,of psychiatry — says the method isunlike conventional radioisotope"tracer" studies. While tracers show adrug's immediate targets within thebrain, the U of C technique reveals adrug's ultimate impact: the regions responsible for its effect on behavior. Able to quantitatively measure and pinpoint that impact with image "slices" through the brain justmillimeters apart, the new method should prove useful in the design of new drugs.Why Me, Lord? One of the world's oldest hard-luck stories is, says Susan Schreinerof the Divinity School, a "defining myth" of Western civilization. The biblicalstory of Job has fascinated writers for centuries, yet the history of their collectivethought has been mostly overlooked. In Wliere Shall Wisdom Be Found? Calvin's Exegesis of Job from Medieval and Modern Perspectives (Chicago),Schreiner traces Job's interpreters from Gregory the Great to Kafkaand H. G. Wells. "The image of Job," she says, "has challengedevery attempt to explain suffering and to justify God's actions." ToJohn Calvin — the story's most influential interpreter — -Job's talerevealed an inscrutable God "whom [people] could trust despitethe deepest darkness and the most awful of divine silences." Thestory's rich interpretive history, Schreiner says, also holds a lessonfor deconstructionists: "You're not the first people that recognizedthat there was more than one reading to a text." Schreiner on Job.Fly By. "All of space research up until now," says physicist John Simpson, "has beenin or near the ecliptic" — the plane in which the planets orbit the sun. "Intellectually, it's like trying to describe nature while believing that the Earth is flat." That eraended this past September when the Ulysses spacecraft passed over the sun's south pole,crossing at a distance roughly twice that between the Earth and the sun. Launchedin 1990, the craft first headed toward Jupiter, using theplanet's huge mass to swing below the ecliptic. Now in anorbit perpendicular to the Earth's, Ulysses is headed towardthe sun's north pole, which it will reach later in 1995.Among the 11 European and U.S. experiments aboard is*¦ a cosmic-ray and solar-particle investigation led by Simpson, who oversees an international team of Ulyssesscientists, including Bruce McKibben of theEnrico Fermi Institute. Cosmic rays — atomicnuclei moving at nearly the speed of light —emanate from far away in our galaxy, and mayhelp explain how stars form elements and how stars die. At the sun's poles, Ulysses canspot the rays before they are deflected by the sun's magnetic field. However, in measuring cosmic rays during the recent south-pole pass, the researchers were surprised tofind that the rays' intensity was not nearly as high as expected. That, says Simpson, suggests a more complicated picture of how cosmic rays enter the solar system.Written and compiled by Andrew Campbell.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 1 7A theologian known to generations of scholars (and one Playmate of the Year), Fra^UnbearableTheBY JOHN EASTONas it never bothered you that the Romans counted backwards? No one should wonder about thecollapse of an empire that numbered eachsucceeding year in reverse, with 751 B.C.following 752 following 753. What appearsto have gone unappreciated for nearly2,000 years, however, was the difficultysurrounding the Iransition from countingdown lo up.No doubt there was an explosion of millennial groups throughout the descending-singlc-digil years': parading through theOl course only the years 10, 5, and 1ha . would have been single-digit years tothe Romans, but we refer here to the yearsL) through 1 B.C. streets, posing for the media, bellowingvulgar slogans, and toting semi-literateplacards. The consequent disruption, coupled with reliance on those elegant butunwieldy numerals, resulted in an apparently careless omission that, despite itscasual occurrence, throws all of subsequenthistory — at least the 1492, 1776, 1812 sortof history — into question."Chronologers admit," says the Encyclopaedia Britannica, "no year between 1B.C. and a.d. 1." By reckoning in thismanner, notes the Encyclopaedia, "there isan interruption in the regular succession ofthe numbers." For chronologers, thismerely fouled up the leap years. But RobinLovin — a former U of C professor who isnow dean of the Perkins School of Theol ogy at Southern Methodist University —brings home the impact of this on thecommon 1-B.c. man, who probably foundhimself uncommonly inebriated on the eveof such a noteworthy new year. "Oneminute you're a full year before Christ,"notes Lovin, "and then, BOOM, one minutelater, you're into the first year of the Christian era, with nothing in between."While Britannica laments the "ambiguity"occasioned by this omission, even hardcore revisionist historians have been slowto recognize the significance of the error, orattempt to correct it. Why? Consider theever-mounting magnitude of the task.Imagine, every check written since hasbeen post-dated by one year. Or considerthe plight of schoolchildren stumbling1 8 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995Bibfeldt has led a life that — to paraphrase Twain — has been greatly exaggerated.. Bibfeldtthrough the rhyme: In fourteen-hundredand ninety-one, Columbus sailed theocean. ..the ocean what? The ocean fun?Most of his crew died. The ocean dun?Don't waste your time; it can't be fixed.The only modern scholar to tackle thisissue is the more-or-less University ofChicago-based German theologian FranzBibfeldt, who in 1927 submitted his doctoral thesis to the University of Worms on"The Problem of the Year Zero." Like mosttruly innovative works, Bibfeldt's thesis wasnot initially well received. But Bibfeldtscholars do find in it early signs of the overarching theme that came to dominate allsubsequent efforts of the man who is perhaps the most adaptable intellectual of ourcentury: the search for the missing middle. "His dissertation," notes Sam Portaro,Episcopal chaplain at the University's BrentHouse, "took him quite literally into thetemporal via media and thus established hislasting fascination for the middle way."Henceforth, Bibfeldt perceived all the worldas one of those stomachless Henry Mooresculptures and envisioned himself fillingthe gap, taking orders and slinging hash inthe greasy diner of 20th-century theology.Consequently, the sort-of-annual Bibfeldtsymposium, held most years at the DivinitySchool on All Saints' or April Fools' Day,always begins with bratwurst and beer.Bibfeldt himself has never been able toattend; unfortunately, his chronologicalresearch left him calendar-impaired. "In thecourse of this work," notes Martin Marty, Mood swings: The manyfaces of Franz, as seen bySiegfried Reinhardt (far leftportrait) and DavidMorgan, PhD'90, who drewthe theologian (clochwise)receiving an honorarydegree from TwaddleCommunity College, catching a Sox game, and suffering delusions of grandeur.PhD'56, the Fairfax M. Cone distinguishedservice professor in the Divinity School andthe theologian with the longest familiaritywith Bibfeldt's thought, "he became soadapted to thinking in terms of 'one yearearlier,' that he has been one year off formany events."Another problem is the difficulty of contacting him. Never officially connected withone particular institution or even a specificdoctrine, his whereabouts have long beenshrouded — "less in a veil of secrecy," suggests Notre Dame historian R. ScottAppleby, AM'79, PhD'85, "than in a fog ofapathy." He may even be dead. "1 haven'tseen him for a while," sighs Marty."Remember, he was bom in 1897."As with so much in the Bibfeldt universe.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 19Bibfeldt's reputation spread, or perhaps oozed, beyonq»'.<^i^l,»iTiJNewsweekThe world comes to Bibfeldt:His admirers [starting right)include Lester Maddox,centerfold Shari Clark, andRichardf. Daley, who wrote,"To Franz Bibfeldt, greatand esteemed theologian. " ANewsweek cover (left) onlybriefly satiated Bibfeldt'shunger for media exposure.there are opposing theories surroundingeven his nativity. Several biographicalessays precisely place his birth in the earlyhours of November 1, 1897, at Sage-Hastbei Croszenknelcii, Oldenburg, Neidcr-sachscn, Germany — one day premature, ashe was conceived in the joylul union of histipsy parents following a February 2 Candlemas part)'. Others, relying on the sameprimary sources, trace his conception to ajoyless autumn afternoon in 1947, outsidea locked library at Concordia Seminary inSt. Louis. They may both be right.It was a "volatile meeting of a seminalfrustration and a fertile imagination," suggests Portaro. It was an "act of protest,"insists Marty. On that Sunday in 1947, witha term paper due Monday morning, Marty'sfreshman classmate Robert HowardClausen found the Concordia libraryclosed, so he invented his footnotes. Thepaper got an "A." Most of the cited authorshave since faded into obscurity, but thename Franz Bibfeldt "struck me," saysMarty. Over the next three summers, thetwo friends distracted each other from theirmenial jobs by discussing the nuances ofBibfeldt's thought until he gradually "beganto take on consistency and life.""Bv the final years of seminary we werestudding the student magazine with references lo our common mentor," recallsMart)'. "His epigraphs appeared as filler, hisportrait was scheduled soon to appear. Pro-lessor laroslav Pclikan lPhD'46l, now ofYale, then oi the seminary, solemnlyannounced that the sequel lo his recentJohn Fusion, ;\M77, is director of mediaaffairs at the University of Chicago MedicalCenter. book From Luther to Kierkegaard was to beFrom Kierkegaard to Bibfeldt... .The librarianjoined the harmless conspiracy by cataloguing the corpus of Bibfeldtiana, while thebookstore saw to it that Bibfeldt was always'on order' but, as in the library, never available, because of the long waiting lists."The primeval Bibfeldt document — Marty'sreview of Bibfeldt's The Relieved Paradox,translated by R. Cloweson and publishedby Howard Press — appeared in the December 19, 1951, issue of the Concordia Seminarian. "Not since Karl Barth issued hisRomans from Safenwil," the review begins,"has a continental voice sounded so suddenand surprising a theological note." This"slight volume" unveiled Bibfeldt as the"most startling critic" of the dialectical theological movement. Bibfeldt's convolutedarguments "limit his usefulness to all butrather mature theological thinkers," thereview cautions, but the author prophetically adds that he nevertheless "indicates atrend to watch."he real shock was how manywere watching. When JeraldBrauer, PhD'48, an emeritus; professor in the DivinitySchool, came to lecture atConcordia, he concluded by quotingBibfeldt. Brauer brought Bibfeldt scholarship back to Chicago and soon suchrenowned theologians as Paul Tillich, KarlBarth, and Mircea Eliade were referring toF.B. — if not in their writings, then at leastin conversation. As dean, Brauer made certain that whenever the media photographeda famous U of C theologian, some Bibfeldtartifact, maybe his monogrammed coffeemug, was just visible over one shoulder. By the early 1970s an occasional Bibfeldtfestival, at which students presented thelatest in Bibfeldt scholarship, began tooccur. Before long there was a BibfeldtFoundation — nonprofit, of course.There wasn't nearly enough money tofund an endowed chair, but a thoughtfulgift — it's the thought that counts — fromUniversity benefactors permitted the establishment of the Donnelley Stool of BibfeldtStudies: a handsome, three-legged sort ofchair. The Foundation proceeds, carefullyinvested, now produce an annual income of$29.95, which is presented to the personwho delivers the annual lecture, as long ashe or she can come up with a nickelchange.Bibfeldt's reputation soon spread, or perhaps oozed, beyond the University. TheBibfeldt archives include a collection ofautographed photos from such figures asJoseph Cardinal Bernardin and JimmyCarter, who got the joke, from Spiro Agnewand centerfold model Shari Clark,2 whomight have, and from Lester Maddox andRichard J. Daley ("To Franz Bibfeldt, greatand esteemed theologian"), who clearlydidn't.Ex Libris, a local theological bookstore,includes a few Bibfeldt titles in each of itscatalogues — many of them billed as rarecollector's editions, written in German andoften stained or slightly disfigured.Reporters from the Chicago papers routinely cover the quasi-annual Bibfeldt lecture, usually for the April 1 issue, and thetheologian has also gained national expo-The 1971 Playboy Magazine Playmate ofthe Year was later, according to a note in theBibfeldt archives, arrested for prostitution.20 University oe Ci lit ago Magazine/February 1995the University.sure through CBS, National Public Radio,and the New York Times.An entire session at the 1988 AmericanAssociation of Religions meeting wasdevoted to Franz Bibfeldt's life and legacy.In 1994, The Wittenburg Door, an evangelical magazine, named him as its Theologianof the Year. And now there has been published an entire book, not quite a tome butno slight volume either, The UnrelievedParadox: Studies in the Theology of FranzBibfeldt.3t might be less bother to explain¦.- why the Romans counted back-,, ward — even if they didn't — than toaccount for Bibfeldt's fame. "Thehistory of academic hoaxes is aslong and dreary as the academy itself,"Marty has written, "and the list of inventednames in scholarly footnotes threatens tobe as long as are authentic ones." YetBibfeldt has not merely caught on butthrived. Why?"This university," offers Marty, "likes tohave people confront enduring issues, classics of all cultures, to try to separate thetransient from the permanent, fully knowing that it can't be done but that by tryingone can learn the tools for doing so. To getsteadfastness in that effort it has beenuseful to have a figure like Bibfeldt, whoshamelessly does the opposite.""Bibfeldt is 'about' Proteanism," note editors Marty and Brauer in the preface to TheUnrelieved Paradox. At a time of radical pluralism, in a field such as theology that dealswith anomaly and the intractable and the3 William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1994. mysterious, with the need sometimes to saysimultaneously yes and no, Bibfeldt isabout being able to affirm on Tuesday,negate on Thursday, and affirm again bySaturday, depending on who asked."Why is it," the editors inquire, "that somany of the theologians who were on thefar left in the 1960s turned to the right inthe 1980s? Bibfeldtians know: It is the Zeitgeist, the spirit of the times, to whosewhistlings many theologians dance.Bibfeldt is a virtuoso of making thingscome out right, of changing his sails tomeet the winds, of saving face after it hasbeen slapped by shifts in fashion."Bibfeldt came by these skills honestly. Inwhat Bibfeldt scholars call the ur-lecture, orthe "M" source, Marty explains that byhaving him baptized on All Saints' — a daydedicated to "all the apostles, martyrs, confessors and all the just and perfect who areat rest" — Bibfeldt's parents apparentlypassed on to him a willingness to pleaseeverybody, be relevant to everything, andoffend no one.Despite his entirely German heritage anda profoundly Teutonic mode of expression,he vacillated between personal mottoestaken from an old Spanish proverb: "Idance to the tune that is played," and fromthe Latin: Respondeo ergo sum, "I respond.therefore I am." His early history combinedathletic failure despite aptitude on the balance beam, with academic insufficiencydespite a genius for compromise. "Athletics, the military, church history — none ofthese fields permitted him to excel," saysMarty, "so he became a theologian."After intense study of the history of theology, Bibfeldt came to define the field as "theart of making things come out right," arguing that the theologian should and can reconcile everything to everything. "If Godcan do it, why can't we?" he asked. Inresponse to Karl Barth's thunderous pamphlet Nein.i (No!), Bibfeldt produced thetimorous Vielleicht? (Perhaps?). In reply toKierkegaard's Either/Or, Bibfeldt pennedBoth/And. When that book received negative reviews, he responded with Both/Andand/or Either/Or* which appropriately wonmixed reviews.In the 1950s, Bibfeldt began to make regular visits to America, where he was politically attracted first to Illinois SenatorEverett Dirkson, since he could find norecord of that senator ever taking a firmand consistent stand, then to PresidentDwtght Eisenhower, who insisted that government must be "founded in a deeply feltreligious faith — and I don't care what it is."Bibfeldt spent much of the 1960s in Cali-4 Sic et Non Press, London, 1938. fornia, visiting assorted cults and alternative religious centers.But he was most profoundly influencedby the secular writings of author/ illustratorCharles Schulz, particularly the Schulzianconcept of "the wishy-washy" (saft- undkraft-los, lappisch, geringfugig) — a phrase,notes Marty, "that loses something intranslation."It was during these years that Bibfeldt perfected his now exalted, exiguous, exegeticaltechnique of "creating very little out ofabsolutely nothing but calling it scholarship anyway" — a widely imitated methodology that was coined Horsgeschichte byRobert M. Grant, the Carl Darling Buckprofessor emeritus in the Divinity Schooland an early Bibfeldt scholar, and furtherrefined to Bullsgeschichte by Bibfeldt historian Joseph L. Price, AM'79, PhD'82, a professor of religious studies at WhittierCollege.Since the submission of his dissertation in1927, the Bibfeldt bibliography has grownto 35 books and uncounted scholarly articles, documenting his response to a succession of personal, theological, and socialtrends, including fundamentalism, thedeath of God, his flirtation with Easternreligions, deconstructive polytheism, hisflirtation with feminism, professional sportscontracts, his flirtation with feminists. Aquick stroll — the quicker, some say, thebetter — through the collected Bibfeldt lectures provides, perhaps, the best way toreview the evolution of this always provocative, if never influential, theologian.For example, like many Christian theologians in the 1960s, Bibfeldt began to acceptthe responsibility to respond to the plightof the oppressed. He typically took themovement a step further than most, pointsout Otto Dreydoppel, AM'75, who teachesat Moravian Theological Seminary in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Bibfeldt advancedbeyond concern for the oppression ofminorities to became the first to stand upfor the rights of the truly silent majority,the dead.In one of his most influential articles, "I'mOK, You're DOA,"5 Bibfeldt called attentionto the serious and often neglected dilemmas faced by the departed, the problem of"ennui, of the awful day-in-and-day-out lifeof the dead." Dead people are extraordinarily prone to depression, he realized, "notonly because of the loneliness and rejectionthey experience daily, but also because thedead are condemned to sedentary lives anddenied any meaningful work and, therefore, any sense of accomplishment."-1 Journal for Scientific Study of the Weird 3(1968): 127-43.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 2 1Bibfeldt also discovered, notes Dreydop-pel, that the dead suffer from "incrediblehousing discrimination," and set aboutdeveloping a ministry to the dead, draftingsystems of pastoral care that would helpthem cope with their crises. But he abandoned the movement, disowning the spinoff evangelical "died again" movement,when he realized that "the dead, merely bybeing dead, are already coping."Despite the everlastingness of death,Bibfeldt's preoccupation with the topic wasfleeting. According to Robin Lovin, whommany consider after Marty the most influential Bibfeldt scholar, a Third World experience — a two-week package holiday inCancun — inspired in him a new "angle ofvision on the problems of political theology." In the early 1980s, deeply stirred byMax Weber's analysis of the role of religionin the shaping of modern capitalism,Bibfeldt again advanced one step further.Weber had chronicled an elective affinitybetween capitalist acquisition and Protestant religion, arguing that the Calvinistsconsidered material success a mark ofdivine favor.Bibfeldt inserted more room for humanaction into the divine plan, proposing aGod who, "not to put too fine a point on it,toadies up lo the wealthy. In place of a Godwho sides with the poor and the peasants,"suggests Lovin, "Bibfeldt offers us a Godwho likes to hang out at the yacht club."This theology had the immense practicaladvantage that it eliminated almost all ofthe "inconvenient discrepancies betweenEuro-American popular culture and therequirements of the Christian faith."Bibfeldt next followed the rash of televan-gelists into the world of show business andencouraged budding theologians to foflowsuit. "How many of you," he asked his listeners at a 1983 seminary graduationspeech, "first gained a sense of the fallen-ness of man through the brutality of Tomand Jerry? How many first appreciated thebanality of evil from watching the futileschemes of Boris and Natasha fail repeatedly to destroy moose and squirrel? Yettoday, the moguls of children's televisionare content to entertain with puppets andcartoons about shapes, colors and thealphabet. Bert and Ernie are all very well,but they don't bring us any closer to solvingthe riddle of existence, do they?""This question," insists 1987 Bibfeldt lecturer Glenn Holland, PhD'86, who teachesreligious studies at Allegheny College,poses a challenge to all scholars of religion, a challenge to bring to the children ofAmerica the benefits to be gained fromstudying religion: the happy hours spentamong the archives of obscure denomina tions, the sense of accomplishment when atheological point has been carried to its logical conclusion and beyond, the joy of mastering a language that no one has spokenfor 2,000 years, the status of being theworld's leading authority on Schwenck-felder hymnody."In one of the latest lectures, Scott Applebyuncovered a darker moment, revealed in arecently unearthed letter from Bibfeldt'swife, Hilda Braunschweiger-Bibfeldt."Franz has hit rock bottom," she wrote. "Inorder to mildly satirize American religioussociety, whose favor he had sought but whoso derisively rejected him," he began towrite fiction, inventing "an extraordinarilyindustrious and peripatetic AmericanChurch historian."Franz wildly exaggerated the professional output of this character," wrote hiswife. "I believe he had [him] writing some40 books and 4,000 articles during his 40years of wandering the American wastelandof higher education, [fathering] four sons,1 1 foster children, and — intellectually atleast — something like 80 doctoral stu-denten."Religious scholars will recognize this preposterous figure. In his own way, Bibfeldthad finally gotten even: He had inventedMartin Marty.estdes being steadfastly nonprofit, the Bibfeldt Foundationis resolutely non-proactive.The initiative for Bibfeldt activities has to come from somewhere else. Maintain co-custodians Martyand Brauer: "The world comes to Bibfeldt;he does not go to the world.""There are fallow years," Marty acknowledges with a hint of both dismay and relief.Some years an enterprising lecturer appearswith something to say. In other years, whenno one appears with something to say,"someone still says it"; and then no oneappears for a length of time. "Studentsforget. They don't know about it. Then, allof a sudden, somebody stumbles on it andthey have the festival again."Although he insists there is no qualitative difference between students of theBibfeldt and non-Bibfeldt years, Martyadmits that he tends to weigh each succeeding class of Divinity School studentson an imaginary Bibfeldt scale. "Everyprofessor knows that each student bodyhas an ethos," he says. "There are studentswho use a school, who may be very goodstudents and productive graduates but lorwhom school is utilitarian, incidental tothe trajectory of their lives. And there arestudents who arc a school, who takeresponsibility — in our case, see to it that the chapel is revitalized, that the coffeeshop hums. When that happens, Bibfeldthas his hour."Being deadly serious about nothing,"adds Marty, "is its own rehearsal round forbeing deadly serious about what we want tobe deadly serious about."He is serious when he mentions the incalculable influence of Bibfeldt, "greater thanany other theologian," on his own career.In January of 1952, the powers of Concordia Seminary asked Marty to return toschool from Christmas break one day early.They were concerned that Bibfeldt, conceived as a broad satire on the system,seemed a little too much like one or two ofthe faculty. Although the perpetrators wereable to persuade the self-selected victims ofthe hoax that they had no such intent, andthe victims immediately began to quote thetheologian back at his creators, it wasdecided that Bibfeldt's Dr. Frankensteinwas "too immature" for a hoped-for overseas assignment to London. Instead, he wasto be "seasoned" as an apprentice under a"salty senior minister," an assignment thatturned out to be "one of the great graces ofmy life," says Marty, because it required thegraduate training that launched his academic career."Bibfeldt is a reminder that a person neednot exist in order to influence lives," Martynoted in an autobiographical essay. Likemany historical figures, all we really knowabout him is that he left a trace. "But heserves numerous functions," offers Marty."If our lives are guided, he helps prove thatGod works through apparent accidents.... He shows that theologians — likegods — are easier to control if we inventthem." And he shows "that we believe — assatirists do — that this almost helpless worldis capable of being changed."In Fhe Quest for the Historical Jesus, AlbertSchweitzer found that biblical scholars whodevoted their lives to understanding whoJesus was almost always wound up with aJesus who was precisely what they andtheir generation fancied themselves to be."May it not be the same with Bibfeldt?"asks Richard Rosengarten, AM'88, PhD'94,dean of students in the Divinity School."Do we not make Bibfeldt in our ownimage?"Robin Lovin had already answered thatquestion, with classic Bibfeldtian prose, inthe revered quadrilateral lecture. "If inChrist we see ourselves reflected as it werein a glass, darkly, then in Franz Bibfeldt wehave an image of ourselves that is plain,"proposed Lovin. "When we look atBibfeldt, the glass is perfectly clear, and wecan see that it is we ourselves who are fuzzyaround the edges."University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995THE HOUSES THATBUILTAt 1533 W. Pratt inChicago's RogersPark neighborhoodstands a two-unittownhouse like anyother on the block.Actually, it appearscleaner and newerthan the others,because it was built in 1990 andNiokie Perry, who has lived there fora year with her two children, doesher best to keep the yard neat. Certainly this modest building doesn'tlook like a battlefield, nor is it listedin any guidebooks as a historic sitemeriting inclusion on a national reg- • •ister.Yet if history has shown that wars aresometimes won in a series of small skirmishes, then 1533 W. Pratt — and 1424 N.Artesian and 1215 Maplewood and 11223S. Green Bay — are all scenes of notable victories in the huge struggle to fight urbandecay — what used to be called the War onPoverty. That war is being fought inChicago building by building, block by By Debra ShorePhotography by Lloyd DeGrane•••••••••••••block, census tract by census tract.What's notable is that the fight has beentransformed from the capitalized frontalassault begun in the 1960s to a lower-casebattle waged guerrilla-style at sites scatteredthroughout the city and suburbs. The oldWar has as its monuments of defeat the forlorn hulks of public-housing projects likeChicago's Robert Taylor Homes and Cabrini Green. Today's war has as itssigns of modest success new homessuch as Niokie Perry's and a subsi-dized-rent program giving familiesthe chance to move to private apartments in the suburbs.The change in strategy and tacticsreflects the fact that most peoplenow agree the huge concentration ofpoverty found among the residentsof high-rise public housing is a signaldisaster for the residents themselves,for their urban neighborhoods, andfor society at large.Scholars may differ about the reasons for concentrated poverty, butnone deny its devastating harm."When you concentrate poverty,"argues Douglas Massey, a co-author ofAmerican Apartheid and former U of C professor of public policy (he moved to theUniversity of Pennsylvania last fall), "youconcentrate anything that's correlated withpoverty — female heads of households, welfare dependency, crime, violence."Speaking before a symposium on publichousing held in Chicago last summer,Chicago's high-rise public housing was constructed on a foundationof prejudice. It took the landmark Gautreaux v. the ChicagoHousing Authority, a case hard fought by U of C alumni, to framesome new solutions — from the ground up.University- of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 2iMasses talked about the pernicious effectsof the segregation long found in Chicago'spublic-housing projects: "You force a grouplo adapt lo this environment, and theyadapt in ways the rest of society simplydoes not find very attractive. The way youadapt to a hostile environment is by becoming hostile, by becoming violent yourself."Desegregation, according to Massey, isthe key to avoiding the damagingconsequences of concentrated poverty. But dismantling the ghetto has provedto be an immense task, as can be seen inthe long and often frustrating history of alandmark class-action case, Gautreaux v. theChicago Housing Authority. Filed 28 yearsago by a team of American Civil LibertiesUnion lawyers, including several U of Calumni, and taken all the way to theSupreme Court, the hard-fought case hasfostered viable solutions to the problem ofsegregation in public housing that, overtime, have become models for the nation.The history of high-rise public housing inChicago's ghetto — and the problems it hascreated — begins between 1957 and 1961.During that period, the Chicago HousingAuthority (CHA) completed three projectsin already predominantly black neighborhoods on Chicago's South Side: Together,Stateway Gardens, the Henry HornerHomes, and a later addition to Hornernumbered 24 high-rise buildings and 3,340apartments. In the early 1960s, virtuallynext door to Stateway Gardens, the CHAbuilt the Robert Taylor Homes: 28 16-storybuildings with 4,415 apartments. Today,with more than 12,300 official residents(and generally double that number of unofficial residents), Robert Taylor — locatedin an area with one of the nation's highestconcentrations of urban poverty — remainsthe largest public-housing unit in theworld.In the 1960s, civil-rights activists inChicago began charting the pervasive pattern of segregation in the CHA's selectionof public-housing sites. These activistsformed the Chicago Freedom Movement tofight housing discrimination, and in thesummer ol 1966 hundreds joined inmarches and rallies led by Martin LutherKing, Jr. By August, the Chicago FreedomMovement ceased its demonstrations onthe promise that city government and civicgroups would work together toward opening up housing.August 1 9(-> 6 also saw the birth ofGautrcuiL\. The suit stemmed bom a eivil-righls coinmitlce established in 1965 by theIllinois chapter ol the American Civil Liber-Debra Shore is a Chicago freelance writer. ties Union — a committee that placed theselection of public-housing sites among itschief concerns. Filed in federal districtcourt against the CHA, the class-action suitcharged that, since 1950, almost all of thesites selected by the CHA for family public-housing projects had been in black neighborhoods, and that the housing agency had"deliberately chosen sites for such projectswhich would avoid the placement of Negrofamilies in white neighborhoods."The lead lawyer in the ACLU's effort wasAlexander Polikoff, AB'48, AM'50, JD'53.As a law student at Chicago, Polikoff hadbegun a long association with the ACLU,assisting Abner Mikva, JD'51, and the lateBernard Weisberg, AB'48, JD'52, in severalpro bono cases. After graduating, he joinedthe Chicago law firm of Schiff, Hardin &Waite but continued to pursue his interest IHwTO'in civil-liberties issues through workwith the ACLU.In filing theGautreaux suit,Polikoff — assistedby attorneys Weisberg, Charles R.Markels, Milton I. Shadur, SB'43, JD'49,and Merrill A. Freed, AB'49, JD'53 — hopedto prove an intentional pattern of racial discrimination under Title VI, a provision ofthe Civil Rights Act of 1964 that outlawssuch discrimination in any program receiving federal aid.To bring their case, they found severalblack CHA tenants and applicants whowished to live in less-segregated sites. Onewas Dorothy Gautreaux, a civil-rightsactivist and a resident of the South Side's24 Uni\ ERsm oe Chicago Magazine/February 1995Wmm A home that blends into theneighborhood is the chargegiven to scattered-site housing architects. These buildings, constructed orrenovated by Habitat, arelocated at (clockwise fromfar left): 1500-1502 N.Campbell, 2442 W. Augusta,1452 N. Washtenaw, and11223 S.Green Bay.• • • • «Altgeld-Murray apartments. "She was astrong woman," Polikoff recalls, "a leader,and a fighter."In 1953, when Dorothy Gautreaux registered with the CHA, shedesperately needed housing — and was wellaware of the CHA's unstated policy ofexcluding blacks from public-housing projects in white neighborhoods and limitingthe number of blacks in mixed-neighborhood projects. Indeed, as the plaintiffsnoted, after 1949 the CHA "deliberatelydetermined not to submit any sites for CityCouncil approval... which would result inthe placement of Negro families in whiteneighborhoods.""Everybody knew this was going on," says Polikoff. What he and his fellow ACLUattorneys didn't know was whether theycould prove it in court. Then a "bombshell"deposition from a CHA official revealedthat the CHA had yielded to the power ofthe aldermanic veto in Chicago's CityCouncil — and that the only sites the CityCouncil would approve were in solidlyblack neighborhoods."The point at which I first began to thinkwe had any chance at all to win the case waswhen [the CHA's] response came in to ourmotion for summary judgment," recallsMerrill Freed, now a partner at D'Ancona &Pflaum. "I expected the CHA to defend onthe basis of economics, to say that land inwhite sections of the city was too cosdy, soit was build in the ghetto or not build at all."But that's not what they did. They saidthey submitted a balanced group of sites when they were getting ready to build andthat white aldermen nixed the sites in theirwards, so they were deliberately implementing a program of racial segregation!"In February 1969 — seven months afterDorothy Gautreaux died of cancer at age41 — federal Judge Richard Austin ruled infavor of the plaintiffs.But then the thorny question became howto translate the court's decision into aworkable housing strategy — a problemeven more complex than school segregation. As Polikoff points out: "We couldn'tmove buildings around in the same wayyou could move schoolchildren."The remedy finaily suggested by Polikoffand others was for the CHA to build publichousing on sites scattered throughout thecity — in fact, on sites located in predominantly white neighborhoods "so that overtime," Polikoff says, "the numerical imbalance would be changed."So ordered Judge Austin in July 1969. Inhindsight, the exact ruling — which definedscattered-site housing as no more than 32units per site, with 64 units being allowedunder special conditions — had its owntinges of irony. "Nobody today would want32 on one site, let alone 64," says Polikoff."But in the context of the times, 32 unitsseemed awfully small."For its part, the CHA had little incentive — beyond the federal court order — tobegin implementing a politically unpopularprogram, nor did it have the developmentexpertise to do so. Instead, the agencyresisted the court decree so steadily thatPolikoff repeatedly pleaded to the court:"Take it away from them. Get someone elseto do the job." That plea was finally grantedin 1987, when federal Judge Marvin Aspendecided to wrest control from the CHA andappoint a receiver to take over the agency'srole in supplying the scattered-site housingrequired by the Gautreaux decision.Enter Daniel Levin, JD'53, a classmateof Polikoff s at the U of C Law Schooland a successful private-sector developer in Chicago as the sole owner of theHabitat Company, a firm that manages 25properties with more than 11,000 apartments throughout the city.The Habitat Company was one of onlythree candidates recommended by a citizens' committee to manage the scattered-site program. "Most people who werementioned as possible receivers had nointerest in it," Levin recalls, "because theythought it was too complicated, they didn'tbelieve in it, they felt they wouldn't makeenough money, and they knew they wouldbe criticized." But Habitat had a successfulrecord in housing production, some experi-University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 25ence with affordable-housing development,a demonstrated financial and organizationalcapacity, and a willingness to do the job. AsLevin recalls, "I felt, 'There's got to be a wayol doing this thing so that it's sensible,because there's a court order.'"However, by the time Habitat wasappointed in 1987, Levin says, "Chicagowas pretty well built up. In most whiteareas of the city, there were almost nosingle-family zoned lots that were not builton — and the land that was available is at aprice prohibitive for the program."Still, in the last seven years, Habitat hasconstructed close to 1,000 town-houses, compatible with their surrounding neighborhoods, in 37different areas of the city. By late1996, Habitat will have built or rehabilitated close to 2,000 units ofhousing at an average cost of$90,000 to $100,000 per unit inareas ranging from 111th Street onthe South Side to Rogers Park on thenorth.Although Habitat finds the sitesand selects an architect and contractor, management of the finishedbuildings is turned over to community organizations such as LutheranSocial Services of Illinois, HullHouse's Housing Resource Center,and the Hispanic Housing Development Corporation. These agenciesselect, and assist, tenants.Dilia Saeedi, vice president ofproperty management at the His- . . ,panic Housing Development Corporation, describes the typical tenant as "asingle mother with two or three children.She's on welfare, and if a child is ateenager — even if the teenager's not a gangmember, then their friends are, and thegang is going to become visible in the community."They bring their reality with them alongwith their furniture," Saeedi says, "and wehave no funds in our budgets to deal withthat reality — to deal with the reality ofhelplessness, to deal with the reality ofteaching them housekeeping because theyhave never seen painted walls, becausetheir walls have never been painted before."And yet, notes Sue Brady, property manager for the Housing Resource Center, "tenants show remarkable changes if they staywith us over time. More people becomeemployed; more kids finish high school;more people reach out for help."Niokie Perry, for instance, had spent fouryears in old-style CI 1A housing at the Lath-rop Homes, contending with terminalmildew inside her one-bedroom apartmentand needles, crack bags, and urine in the hallway outside. Although she'd heard thewaiting list for scattered-site units was tenyears long, she began calling property manager Virginia Billings at the HousingResource Center. "I called her about once aweek," Perry recalls, "and then I was sodesperate I called her about twice a week.Finally this apartment became available andI was so grateful."In 1993, she moved to her new residence,a ground-floor, three-bedroom apartmentin a group of three townhouses at thecomer of Pratt and Bosworth. The place ismodest — about 1,000 square feet — but playlot, and a management/maintenanceoffice with a room for community use.Beyond such practical challenges is thereality that scattered-site housing, by itself,will not solve Chicago's public-housingsegregation problems. There are just toomany low-income blacks who need housing compared to the potential number ofscattered-site residences available withinthe city.Instead, an increasingly popular alternative is to provide rent subsidies within theprivate sector. As with scattered-site housing, this attempt to address the problem ofsegregation in public housing is adirect product of Gautreaux — andmay prove to be a far more lastinglegacy.wAlexander Polikoff filed the Gautreaux case in AugustHe remembers civil-rights activist Dorothy Gautreauxstrong woman, a leader, and a fighter." "aclean, with a parking space out back andnothing to identify it as "public housing."This past October, Perry enrolled in an11-month cosmetology course at nearbyTruman College; she talks of somedayowning her own salon. In the meantimeshe spends all her free moments with herdaughters, Erin, 5, and Jasmine, 1, anddreams — this woman who has never had avacation in her life — of taking her girls toDisney World and "letting them know thatthe world is bigger than Chicago."As much as Niokie Perry has improvedher circumstances by moving out of theghetto, residents of scattered-site housingdon't totally escape the stigma of publichousing. Often neighborhood residentsprotest the placement of even modestthree-unit townhouses in their communities, as happened recently in HumboldtPark. There, in a census tract with noassisted housing and a population that is 75to 80 percent Hispanic, Habitat proposedbuilding about 130 units. When the residents protested, Habitat revised its plan toinclude 77 units, a community garden and hen Alex Polikoff and hisACLU team sued the CHAon behalf of DorothyGautreaux in 1966, they also fileda separate suit against the U.S.Department of Housing and UrbanDevelopment, charging that HUDshared responsibility for public-housing discrimination in Chicago. Judge Austin dismissed thesuit against HUD in 1969, sayingthat the agency had merely supplied funding to the CHA. However, in 1971 the U.S. Court ofAppeals, Seventh Circuit, reversedAustin's decision.Because HUD's programs and> • • • jurisdiction encompassed theentire Chicago metropolitan area,including the suburbs, Polikoff tried to persuade Judge Austin that the remedy for thedepartment's past discrimination need notbe confined to the Chicago city limits. (In1970, Polikoff left private practice tobecome executive director of Business andProfessional People for the Public Interest,a Chicago public-interest law firm, and theGautreaux case moved with him.)Supporters of Gautreaux were delightedwith the appellate ruling holding HUDresponsible, and they hoped that wouldend the matter. But the government soughta decision from the highest court in theland, thus pitting Polikoff against anotherLaw School classmate, Robert Bork, AB'48,JD'53, then Solicitor General of the UnitedStates. Polikoff remembers when he got thecall saying the Supreme Court had agreedto hear the case on the question of metropolitan relief: "1 was so mad 1 kicked ametal wastebasket and hurt my toe."Polikoff knew he was vulnerable. TheCourt's decision in a recent school-desegregation case from Detroit, Millifeen v.Bradley, would seem to have ruled out26 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995Polikoff s proposed remedy. Thus, on January 20, 1976, when he finally appearedbefore eight Supreme Court justices (JohnPaul Stevens, AB'41, had recused himself,because he had been involved in earlier rulings on aspects of the Gautreaux case),Polikoff did everything he could to refuteMilliken as a precedent.People seek housing within a greater metropolitan area, Polikoff contended — notsolely within the boundaries of politicalentities. "The nature of the wrong in thiscase is not a schools wrong, it is a housingwrong," Polikoff argued. "And the natureof the universe of housing is that wedeal with market areas, we don'tdeal with identifiable and confinedgeographic units called school districts. And the nature of the housingwrong in this case not only justifiesbut compels the equitable relief ofusing the housing-market area asthe remedial geography."Rarely do oral arguments tip thebalance in a Supreme Court decision. Yet Polikoff later learned froma clerk that, on that day in Washington, his did. In April 1976, theSupreme Court issued a unanimousdecision affirming the principle ofmetropolitan-area relief. HUDcould, as an appropriate remedy,provide alternate housing forChicago families throughout thearea.Spurred by the Supreme Courtruling, HUD adapted its Section 8 rent-subsidy program (established in 1974) to help public-housingresidents move into private housing in low-poverty areas of the city and suburbs. SinceNovember 1976, the program has helpedmore than 5,000 families find housing inmore than 100 communities in six northeastern Illinois counties.Administered by the Leadership Councilfor Metropolitan Open Communities, theGautreaux model not only gives familiesrent subsidies but also counseling andassistance in locating housing, with staffworking to enlist landlords as program participants. And a seven-year study ofGautreaux families by Northwestern University education professor James Rosen-baum shows that these assisted moves tothe suburbs have been beneficial to bothparents and children."The program is distinctive because it creates both residential and school desegregation," Rosenbaum wrote recently in theNorth Carolina Law Review. "Childrenarrive in suburban schools as communityresidents, not as outsiders in a busing pro gram, and they come to school in the samebus as their white neighbors." Studyingsome 400 families, Rosenbaum also foundthat the parents were more likely to findwork in the suburbs and their children werefar more likely to enroll in college or findfull-time jobs than their city counterparts.Across several cities and agencies, theinfluence of Gautreaux seems to be spreading. Even the CHA is trying to reform thecity's public-housing structure — an effortled by Vincent Lane, MBA'73.Since 1988, when he was named chairman of the Chicago Housing Authority,Lane has been attempting to wrest thatmoribund bureaucracy — an "adjudicatedwrongdoer," in the words of HUD regionaladministrator Edwin Eisendrath — into thelate 20th century. Generally, Lane hasreceived high marks — though his ability tomake dramatic changes has been hamperedby the mess he inherited."When I got here, the CHA was underfunded by $700 million," Lane explains,"because HUD's response to managementproblems was to withhold money."Lane's own strategies involve luring eligible working families back into existingpublic housing to provide role models anda stable social environment, and buildingnew housing for mixed-income residentswith an array of social services and "contracts" for participation — requiring, forinstance, that residents remain drug-free,and children stay in school. "The future,"he stresses, "has to provide for geographicdispersion of low-income people."Meanwhile, HUD Secretary Henry Cis-neros recently launched a national demonstration of the Gautreaux model — a project called Moving to Opportunity — in NewYork, Boston, Baltimore, Los Angeles, andChicago."This is a potential big deal, not just inhousing policy, but also in anti-povertypolicy," Polikoff muses. "The core of theurban poverty problem is roughly 1.3 to 1.6million families. If we could enable half ofour hard-core poverty population to moveto better neighborhoods within a decade,that would be a substantial dent."While expressing some reservations thatthe Moving to Opportunity program maynot result in the strong successes seen inChicago, Susan Mayer — professorat the Harris Graduate School ofPublic Policy Studies and amember of HUD's advisory boardfor the program — still calls it "oneof the most promising and interesting potential policy options wehave available."With the ultimate success ofthe Gautreaux model stillto be determined, somebelieve the nearly 30 years of litigation behind it may have donemore harm than good. Not onlydid it halt all public-housing construction in the city between 1969and 1976, these critics say, it alsosiphoned families to scattered sitesthat still aren't infiltrating thewhite parts of town, instead ofhelping them to stay in the innercity and revitalize those neighborhoods.Its proponents concede that Gautreauxcan't solve all housing problems — and thathousing can't solve all social problems —but they nonetheless believe that Gautreauxhas demonstrably improved the lives ofthousands of families. At the very least, ithas stopped further concentration of publichousing in the black ghetto and has provided a viable choice to those who want toleave."Would alternative avenues have produced any better result?" asks attorneyMerrill Freed. "My hunch is not. Race issuch an intractable issue that we are hardwired beyond redemption and it's going totake force — the force of a court decree — tomake any difference."If you have to score Gautreaux," Freedreflects, "you have to score it as a success.What Gautreaux did was to create an experimental model and the experimental modelapparently works. In areas where we'vetried so many things that haven't worked,then something that works, even on such asmall scale, is good. Maybe this is a way wecan begin trying to make it better."Daniel Levin of the Habitat Company, the court-appointedreceiver in the case, knew the job would be hard but felt,"There's got to be a way of doing this thing."University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 27ncircled by the 33members of the Motet Choir,Director Brace Tammen,AM'74, keeps his eyes on thescore, his mind on the sound.As he finger-snaps the beat, he'skeenly alert to subtleties ofrhythm, intonation, and diction."Basses, I'd like you to lightenyour sound just a little bit."In blue jeans and flannelshirt, Tammen blends in withthe singers who gather at noonon Mondays, Wednesdays, andFridays in Goodspeed RecitalHall for 80-minute rehearsalsof their demanding a cappellarepertoire. There's not a music-performance major amongthem — indeed, the U of C hasno formal performance training program. Yet competititonis heated among the Collegeand graduate students whoannually audition for places inthe Motet, which enjoys a reputation as the University's topchoral ensemble."See if you can add a littlemore diminuendo in the lastbar. "Tammen is a Motet veteran.As a grad student, he sang baritone with the choir, founded in1960 by the late HowardMayer Brown to explore repertoire reflecting his scholarlypassion for early music. In1984, the director's baton waspassed to Tammen, who alsohas degrees from Luther andNorthwestern. Since then, thechoir's focus has shifted a bit."We still sing 'art' repertoirerather than glees and old college songs," he says, "and westill focus at least half of ourenergies on pre-18th-century music." But the "new" Motet ismore student- and performance-centered, giving regularconcerts on campus, in thecity, and — -during its annualspring-break tour hosted byalumni groups — across thecountry. A busy two weeks inDecember found the choirsinging two performances ofthe Messiah, caroling on the28 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995Photographyby Dan DryMotMotet Choir rehearsals, conducted atnoon in the Gothic splendor of Good-speed Recital Hall (above), beginwith warm-up exercises that stretchlimbs as well as vocal chords. True toits roots as an early-musk workshop,the choir regularly sings worfes bycomposers such as Purcell andPalestrina. This past December theMotet combined forces with the Chapel Choir and the Symphony ojthe Shores (left), to give two performances oj Handel's Messiah at Rockefeller. Soprano Abby Brown (aboveright) follows the lead oj directorBruce Tammen (top right). "Thebeauty ojthe piece," Tammenreminds his singers in rehearsal, "isin the competence with which youperform it." steps of Ida Noyes, and providing musical interludes at theFall Quarter Convocation inRockefeller Chapel. The feesfor such performances helpunderwrite the spring tour. Tocome up with the remainingfunds, members hawk T-shirtsand hold occasional bake sales."Keep it going, don't get to theend too soon — it's just like reeling in ajishing line, tenors. Reeling. . .in. . .a. . .jishing. . . line. "While encouraging cama raderie among the crew,Tammen runs a tight ship. Students call in when they're sickand slip quietly into theirplaces when late-runningclasses means a tardy arrival atGoodspeed. The sole break —midway through rehearsal —lasts no more than fiveminutes. Still, Tammen understands there are other must-show events in students' lives:When interviews for Rhodesscholarships conflict with aMessiah run-through, the interviews take precedence."You're singing really well —relative to everything else that'sgoing on — but I really must havea bit more energy. "Despite all of Motet's demands, the drop-out rate isalmost nil. What keeps the students going? Their answerssound a common chord. Theylike to sing with people whosing well, and, above all, theylove the music."Don't ever let it turn into atechnical exercise. It has tomean something. "— M.R.Y.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 29AuthorityThe ceremony had gone smoothly. Ronald Reagan wasgiven a crystal statue. His audience responded withwarm applause. Then an obscure activist approachedthe lectern. What happened next is a modern parable ofhow we grant authority — and to whom.BY BRUCE LINCOLN30 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995At the annual convention of theNational Association of Broadcastersin Las Vegas, Ronald Reagan wasamong friends."I want to thank you for giving this youngfellow his start," he told an appreciativegroup of media executives, "and for all theother things you do for your country!"No one in the audience could have beenmuch surprised by anything in theaddress — a rambling affair in which jokes,flattery, and autobiographical reminiscences laid the ground for predictableobservations on themes dear to the ex-President, his constituency, and his immediateaudience: the evils of Communism anddrugs, and the ways in which the Bible, thefamily, radio, television, and the moviescan help combat them.This was not a forum for controversy anddissension, but a stage for playing out theritual of authority — a subtle combination ofthe right speaker, the right speech anddelivery, the right setting and props, theright time and place, and an audiencewhose historically and culturally conditioned expectations establish the parameters of what is judged "right" in all theseinstances.When these crucial givens combine insuch a way as to produce attitudes of trust,respect, docility, acceptance — even reverence — in an audience, "authority" is theresult. Authority depends on nothing somuch as the trust of the audience — or theaudience's strategic willingness to act as if it had such trust.When authority is operating smoothlyand efficiently, its effect often obscures thisprocess. When that authority is disrupted — as it was during Reagan's otherwise uneventful appearance at the 1992broadcasters' convention — those interestscollaborating in its support become moreeasily discernible. The New York Timesreported the incident as follows:LAS VEGAS, NEV. APRIL 13 (AP)—Former President Ronald Reagan was jostled but was not harmed today when aman walked onto stage where he wasspeaking and smashed an honorary crystal shrine, hitting him with its shards.After smashing the statue, which hadjust been given to Mr. Reagan by theNational Association of Broadcasters, theman tried to speak into the microphonebut was grabbed by Secret Service agents,who threw him to the ground and thentook him away.The man in question is one Rick Springer,who was most often identified in the pressas a 41-year-old antinuclear activist. Since1987, he has committed himself to thework of organizing, raising funds, andspeaking out about the danger of nucleartests, in the belief that ending tests is thefirst step toward abolishing nuclearweapons altogether. The task has been difficult, and although he is convinced thatmost people agree with him in a general way, complacency is widespread and fewshare his sense of urgency. Finding effective channels through which to spread hismessage has also been a problem, for theantinuclear issue is hardly on the agenda ofthe major media. But in 1990, he had anidea.What Springer envisioned was an eventmixing music and politics in the spirit ofthe Woodstock and Live Aid concerts.Those attracted by the music could be educated about the issue, and the spectaclewould be so impressive as to ensure presscoverage, through which the message couldbe further spread. For two years, Springerdevoted his efforts to realize this idea, predicting that 500,000 people would attendand that "dozens of international speakersand world-class musical artists" wouldappear.Securing such involvement and supportproved difficult, however. Of the 120 performers on his original list, only one(Ritchie Havens) agreed to appear. Established organizations would not committhemselves unless they could see that allother aspects of the project were firmly inplace. Choosing a location also posed problems. He ultimately opted for a setting asclose as possible to the Nevada Test Site.Insurance proved expensive and permitsimpossible to obtain. Despite these obstacles, Springer forged ahead and laid plansfor a ten-day extravaganza in April —including the concert, a communal marchto the test site, and a mass protest of gov-1 "" 'mm- % J — - HHfl1 =* Wt ¦ «w^^ *****|*l -' jiiLfcWk i ¦if':!Shattering moment: Reaganflinches as the crystal eagle issmashed to bits. "Excuse me, Mr. President":Frustrated activist Rick Springerbriefly usurps the lectern.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 3 1ernment offices in Las Vegas timed forEarth Day.Gradually, some pieces fell together.Speakers were lined up and bands booked,although not the top talent he had sought.Finally, 2,000 people gathered in the deserton Friday, April 10: a respectable turnout,but far less than Springer had hoped. Therewas no national coverage, and even the LasVegas paper showed little interest. Otherproblems were distressing. By monitoringgovernment radio communications,Springer and his colleagues learned that anuclear test was scheduled for April 14,when their own plans called for them to beapproaching the test site. A decision wasmade to travel to Las Vegas on April 13 tostage a protest at the offices of the U.S.Department of Energy.Many of the group took part in thisaction — 26 were arrested. Some 500 others,according to plan, began their march to thetest site. And, on the same day, across town at the Las Vegas Hilton, the National Association of Broadcasters convened its annualmeeting, with 50,000 people from the radioand television industry in attendance.Springer had been aware of this meetingfor months. Off and on, he had thoughtabout how he might call the antinuclearissue to the attention of the NAB, a groupthat, in his view, "has a deathhold on themedia." He made his way to the Hiltonalone, holding press credentials (obtainedby a friend) that would admit him to themeeting's prime event, and he ponderedjust what he would do.Arriving at the Hilton's banquet room,he found a group of 3,000 top mediaexecutives listening as NAB President Eddie Fritts presented a crystal eagleand the Association's Distinguished ServiceAward to Mr. Reagan for his "contributionsto broadcasting and the American public."Then, to warm applause, the Great Com municator himself moved to the podium.Meanwhile, off to the side, Rick Springerwrestled with his conscience, prayed quietly, and worked up his courage. Finally, atwhat seemed to him an appropriatemoment, he strode forward, slowly andresolutely.Given his dress, manner, and generalappearance, most people took him for asound technician until he picked up thetwo-foot-high crystal eagle, raised it overhis head, and — in what he later describedas the "clearest, most meditative moment inmy life" — smashed it to bits. Then headvanced to the podium, displaced Mr.Reagan from the microphone, and spokefour words — "Excuse me, Mr. President" —before the Secret Service laid him out.As he was dragged away, Springer washeard to shout: "Help, there's a nuclearbomb test tomorrow." Backstage, he washandcuffed and placed under arrest, thentaken to a Las Vegas jail, where he wasI IfotTT! RTUVm tTu ffor his cause in other forums, Springersends a "wake-up" call to the media.32 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995charged with state and federal offenses.(Last autumn, Springer completed a 13-month prison sentence for destroyingpublic property, interfering with the SecretService, and failing to surrender.) After aminute or two, President Reagan returnedand finished his speech, quipping, "Is he aDemocrat, by chance?"In a subsequent series of interviews, articles, and court appearances, Rick Springerhas continued to speak out, and he has hadopportunities, not only to speak, but tospeak in privileged settings. Among themost interesting of these was his appearance on CBS This Morning, four days afterhis encounter with Mr. Reagan.This show, which is seen in two-and-a-half-million households daily, offers a mixof news, opinion, features, entertainment,and pleasant chitchat among its regularhosts. Guests are presented for a number ofreasons, and in styles that cue the audienceon how each one is to be regarded. Forexample, when FDA Commissioner DavidKessler, JD'78, was brought on as theshow's first guest, his professional title andofficial position were emphasized, and co-host Paula Zahn gave him a warm welcome. Springer was treated somewhatdifferently.Harry Smith (co-host): Antinuclear activistRick Springer says he never had any intention of hurting former president Reaganearlier this week. Springer says he justwanted to make a point. Still, the incident startled Mr. Reagan and jolted the SecretService....In his introduction, Harry Smith givesbasic information, while also signaling caution in different ways — for example, hisrepeated use of the phrase "Springer says"to preface his guest's characterizations ofthe incident, in juxtaposition to the reactions of more responsible observers. ("Still,the incident startled Mr. Reagan and joltedthe Secret Service.") The "activist" wouldbe given an opportunity to speak, but thehost, the show, and the network were careful not to offer anything that could be construed as an endorsement of him, hisactions, or what he would have to say.Smith's first question was reasonablyopen-ended: "What were you trying toaccomplish earlier this week?" Springerseized this opportunity to explain how hehoped to use the NAB convention to alertthe country to the realities of nuclear testing. At this, Smith rapidly changed tack,and began to treat Springer himself as thestory: a curiosity or "human-interest" item.His next 1 1 questions focused narrowly onevents at the Hilton, as he tried to steerconversation away from the issue of nucleartesting.In his answers, Springer struggled tointroduce wherever possible items hethought important: the bomb test at theNevada Test Site, France's decision to discontinue its testing program, his lifetimecommitment to nonviolence. Moving to wrap things up, Smith offered one lastquestion, which was, in effect, a call torepent and show remorse.Smith: Do you have any regrets about whatyou did this week?Springer: Well, I certainly must offer anapology to Mr. Reagan. I am very sorry thatthe Secret Service jostled him in an effort toget me off the stage. I have no regrets as tothe fact that I approached the — thepodium, and I think that the coverage that Ihave received due to this act is an excellentexample of what it takes to wake up andstartle the media and, indeed, the Americanpublic, whose apathy is responsible for thecontinuation of nuclear testing to this day.When Springer's image vanished from thescreen, others joined the conversation,offering their judgments, and cueing theiraudience on how to regard him.Smith: Wasn't that interesting?Zahn: I loved that segment.Smith: Springer.Mark McEwen (meteorologist): He couldtalk. Most of the time you get people likeSqueaky Fromme — remember?Smith: Well, as it turns — this guy is well-known — I don't know about well-known,Bum's rush: A burly team ofSecret Service agents expelsSpringer from the stage. resumes command — but Springerwould find other venues for his views.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 3 3but there is lots of tape of him leadingnuclear — antinuclear demonstrations andstuff. 1 mean, that's really what this guy isall about. That's — because he was releasedso quickly and everybody said, "What?Excuse me?"McEyven: Yeah.Smith: And so he has a — he has a real trackrecord of — of pacifism, so...McEwen: I thought that was great. "Do youthink you're going to jail?" "No, I thinkthey're going to drop the charges," which I produced stars — people whose aberrations,disturbances and general aggressionsagainst society have won them fame aspolitical activists,'" and to place him in theranks of "political fanatics prepared towreak whatever havoc necessary to advancetheir notions of humanity."So hysterical is the rhetoric, and so obvious the financial interests being defended,one is tempted to think the Journal feltthreatened by Rick Springer. But the realtarget of its ire becomes clear in the editorial's closing swipe: "What would he news,"the Journal opined, "would be if the producers of a show such as CB5 This MorningWe now have an ever-increasingnumber of stages for the mass-production of the authority effect.thought — I don't know if I would have saidthat. I'd say, "Oh, please — oh, please — oh,please."Zahn: But he did apologize for hitting theformer president with the shards of glass.McEwen: Absolutely,Smith: It's just amazing — just amazing...Apparently, Rick Springer surprisedhis hosts and threw them off theirscript, as can be seen from the mangled syntax with which they offered theirreactions. It should be noted that praise ofSpringer began with the member of theteam who enjoys least authority, and thushas the greatest license to express unconventional opinions — the weatherman. Further, specific praises reflect a gendereddivision: The male host commented onSpringer's principles and commitment, thefemale host on his courtesy, and the boyishmeteorologist on his courage and powers ofarticulation.In effect, after initially holding him atarm's length, the authorized spokespersonsof this widely viewed show bestowed their(partial and guarded) approval of him. Andthis, in turn, prompted reaction from otherquarters.On April 21, the Wall Street Journal ran aparticularly aggressive editorial that beganby lamenting, "It was predictable, but a bitstartling nonetheless, to find Rick Springerstaring out at us from our TV sets." It wenton to depict him in lurid prose as "thelatest entry to a special galaxy of media- decided that giving a character like RichardSpringer a place in the media spotlightwasn't smart or healthy or in the publicinterest. That wouldn't simply be news, ofcourse. That would be a miracle."Beyond any conflict of individuals ordebate on issues of policy, plainly evidenthere is a conflict between stages that goeswell beyond the familiar rivalry of print andelectronic media. Both possess some authorizing capacity, but insofar as their backers,interests, and audiences diverge, so too dothe specific principles of selectivity onwhich they operate.Most often, these stages tolerate or ignoreone another, but occasionally their differences lead to open conflict, as here, wherethe Wall Street Journal, an elite organ of andfor capital, chastises CBS This Morning, amildly populist middlebrow show, for whatit takes to be a characteristically promiscuous and irresponsible act of authorization.The point of the struggle is not just whosespeech gets authorized, but more importantly, who does the authorizing and how.In its bitching about "media-created stars,"one can hear the Journal's displeasure withstars created by other media, and authorized speakers who speak others' interests.Turning to the broader issue of whetherauthority in the modern world differsmarkedly from its ancient counterpart, theevidence at hand convinces me that authority itself remains very much what it alwayshas been: an effect characteristic of stronglyasymmetrical relations between speakerand audience, predisposing the latter todefer to the discourse of the former in waysthat are often quite uncritical. This notwithstanding, within recent historythere has emerged nothing less than a newmode of authority production, the centraloperation of which is no longer the production of speech, nor its authorization, butrather the production of stages with authorizing capacity.In this we have moved from the situationof scarcity to one of abundance. Theancient world had relatively few authorizedor authorizing places — the Greek Assemblyor the Roman Senate, to use two examples.Consequently, each such site commandedthe attention and respect of large audiences, sometimes approximating the totalpopulation, over very long periods of time.Given their obvious value, control overthese sites was tightly managed, usually byan aristocratic oligarchy. Access wasseverely limited, and competition might befierce, for the chief problem facing thoseoutside the oligarchy who wished to produce an act of authoritative speech wasgaining entry to these few, but extremelypotent, workshops of authority production.In contrast, we now have a large and ever-increasing number of stages that are organized by entrepreneurial consortiums asinstruments or factories for the mass production (and ongoing reproduction) of theauthority effect. With this expansion comesspecialization, subdivision of markets, andcompetition among stages, as the controlling interests of each stage (financial, ideological, aesthetic) not only give shape anddirection to its activities, but place it inrivalry with other stages that embody oradvance other interests.Success or failure in this competition —which may involve open polemic or morediscreet struggles for speakers, audiences,financial backing, favorable reviews, or allof the above — produces a different, andpossibly volatile, history for each stage.Some stages rise and others fall, some adaptin order to survive, and whenever one ringsdown its final curtain, there are others waiting to take its place.Bruce Lincoln is projessor oj the history ojreligions in the Divinity School, with an associate appointment in the Department ojAnthropology, at the University oj Chicago.Among his earlier books are Discourse andthe Construction of Society (1989) andDeath, War, and Sacrifice (1991). This article is excerpted and adapted jrom his latestbook, Authority: Construction and Corrosion (The University oj Chicago Press, 1994).In his book, Lincoln employs examples jromclassical antiquity, medieval Scandinavianlaw, Cold War scholarship, and Americanpresidential politics to analyze the perjor-mance — and subversions — oj authority.34 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995C lass NewsWhat's the news? We are always eager to receiveyour news at the Magazine, care of the Class NewsEditor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, or by No engagements, please. Items may be edited for space. Asnews is published in the order in which it arrives,it may not appear immediately.Please specify the year under which you wouldlike your news to appear. Otherwise, we will list:(1) all former undergraduates (including thosewho later received graduate degrees) by the yearof their undergraduate degree, and (2) all fonnerstudents who received only graduate degrees bythe year of their final degree.MFive years ago, Howard M. Landau,PhB'24, and Herbert H. Heyman, PhB'31,retired commercial real-estate developers, startedthe Community Ventures Program through theJewish Council on Urban Affairs. Investors in theprogram (they are looking for more) provide startup money for building affordable housing inChicago's low-income communities. The 30thanniversary celebration of the JCUA included a tribute to Landau and Heyman,Reunion June 2-3-4 SSHerbert A. Ball, SB'25, lives at HighlandFarms, a retirement community in BlackMountain, NC, where a nature trail is named afterhim. Helen Ullman Bibas, PhB'25, age 92, remembers "the happy, informative years of college, thefaculty and friends, and the great Jay Berwanger!WowV James W. Cooksey, PhB'25, writes that hiswife died recently after a long stay at a nursinghome. His two sons and grandchildren live near hishome in Greenwich, CT. Eleanor Westberg Cot-trell, SB'25, age 91, is maintaining her home inOhio. At age 90, Leo S. Shapiro, PhB'25, continueshis involvement in a leaming-in-retirement organization that he helped establish on the Fullertoncampus of California State University.M James A. Conner, SB'26, and his wife, AnnP. Conner, AM'43, "have retired and arehappy about it." Donald J. Sabath, SB'26, MD'31,writes, "Friends of my generation, like the leaves ofthe trees, are falling down. I and my immediatefamily are still hanging on." Virginia HarveyWinter, PhB'26, has been "blessed with good healthand wonderful friends," with whom she celebratedher 90th birthday on September 11,f%tW Elizabeth Wyant Martin, SB'27, has writ-tm m ten a biography of her family — from hergreat-grandparents to her grandchildren.Mildred Bryan Marion, PhB'28, is thenational executive secretary for the DeltaMu Delta business-administration honor society.Harry A. Scherubel, SB'29, travels overseasand is still in good health.Reunion June 2-3-4Elise Rosenwald Schweich, PhB'30, justcelebrated her 62nd wedding anniversary.She has four grandchildren and four great-grand children, but finds it "impossible to think the yearsnumber 85+." She remains active in Project Springboard to Learning.M Lawrence R. Brainard, SB'31, AM'39, andJane Blair Brainard, PhB'34, are "slowingdown a little — but still doing fine." On December11, Alexander Coutts, PhB'31, celebrated his 90thbirthday by performing a benefit concert of spirituals, folk songs, and arias at Hyde Park's First Unitarian Church. Herbert H. Heyman, PhB'31, see1924, Howard M. Landau. This past spring, JamesM. Sheldon, Jr., PhB'31, and wife Isabelle movedto Harbour's Edge retirement home in DelrayBeach, FL.MLucy Riddell Huntington, PhB'32, andhusband Donald moved to the White OakEstates (SC) retirement complex in April 1993 andcelebrated their 61st anniversary in September1994. Son Don works for Procter & Gamble;Charles is with Robert Morris & Associates; andDavid makes prosthetics and orthotics. GrandsonRichard is a fourth-year student at Hershey MedicalCollege, while granddaughter Sarah is an occupational therapist in Atlanta. Milton H. Pettit III,PhB'32, who spent most of his life in Wisconsin,continues to admire the University. Nathaniel E.Reich, MD'32, an emeritus professor of medicine,retired after 63 years of practice. The author of several textbooks and poetry collections, Reich has lectured on six continents and met with a dozen headsof state. His paintings are exhibited in four museums and private collections. John H. Tiernan,PhB'32, gardens, fishes, hunts, and is involved inamateur radio. In his work with the Oregon-California Trail Association, he explores and marks150-year-old covered-wagon migration trails.AA Fred H. Sills, PhB'33, age 82, says the bestWi9 thing that ever happened to him was hiseducation. Winifred E. Weter, AM'30, PhD'33,took the "excellent" Alumni Association trip toAlaska in August; in April, she traveled to Egypt,Israel, and Jordan.MGeraldine Smithwick Alvarez, PhB'34, raninto Donald P. MacMillan, SB'34, PhD'38,in Los Alamos, NM. She reports, "He is 'sort ofretired from his scientific project there, and rumorhas it that he makes the world's best chocolate-covered orange peel!" Alvarez wishes more classmatescould have made it to their "great" 60th reunion.Jane Blair Brainard, PhB'34, see 1931, Lawrence R.Brainard. Esther Goodman Gershon, PhB'34, andSol Gershon, SB'34, SM'35, PhD'38, celebratedtheir 60th anniversary on September 2. Earnest K.Jordan, PhB'34, and Dorothy Fuhrman Jordan,PhB'34, found their 60th reunion "a bit strenuous,"but still enjoyable — and hope to make it to thenext one.Reunion June 2-3-4John W. Auld, AB'35, writes, "It's been along, long time since I've seen the Midway.My main interests now are community sendee, college of the Siskiyou's, and the local Humane Society." This past summer, Jane Hebert Gurney, X'35,moved to a retirement community where she"won t have to worry about lawns, leaves, and In the ClubsAustin Sun., Mar. 19, 8 p.m.: Motet Choirconcert at St. Austin's Catholic Church.Chicago Sat., Mar. 11, 10 a.m.: Ukrainian Village tour. Sun., Mar. 26, 1:30 p.m.: Reading byLarry Heinemann, author of Cooler by the Lake.Sat., Apr. 1, 5:45 p.m.: Motet Choir homecoming concert with composer Rami Levin, PhD'91.Thurs., Apr. 6: Evening with Jess McDonald,AM'73, head of the Illinois Department ofMental Health & Developmental Disabilities.Dallas Sat., Mar. 18, 8 p.m.: Motet Choir concert at St. Michael's and All Angels Church.Detroit Sun., Apr. 2: Distinguished Faculty Seriesfeaturing education professor Anthony Bryk.Houston Wed., Mar. 22, 8:30 p.m.: Motet Choirconcert at Christ the King Lutheran Church.LOS Angeles Sun., Feb. 26: Astronomy professor Michael Turner speaks as part of the Distinguished Faculty Series. Sat., Mar. 4: JapaneseAmerican National Museum tour, followed bybuffet lunch and talk by William Hohri, AB'49.Sun., Apr. 2: Southwest Museum's ApacheExhibit tour, followed by dinner at El Arco Iris.MeXICO The new club's president is FranciscoGil Diaz, PhD'82. For information, call MichaelFaigen, MBA'92, at 011-52-5282-7533 (w).New Orleans Thur., Mar. 23, 7:30 p.m.: MotetChoir at St. Matthews United Church of Christ.New York Thurs., Mar, 23, 6:30 p.m.: Youngalumni Happy Hour at Olde Galway. Thurs.,Apr. 20, 6:30 p.m.: Young alumni Happy Hourat Tenth Street Lounge.Northern New Jersey Sun., Mar. 19: Dis-tinguished Faculty Series featuring English professor David Bevington.Pittsburgh Sat., Mar. 25: Distinguished Faculty Series with Jeanne Altmarm, PhD'79, professor in the College and Ecology & Evolution.Portland Sun., Mar. 19: The DistinguishedFaculty Series presents Wendy Doniger, professor in the history of religions. Wed., Apr. 12(tentative): Provost Geoffrey Stone, JD'71,speaks at an evening reception.San FranciSCO Sat., Mar. 4-Sun., Mar. 5:GSB Club ski weekend at Lake Tahoe. Sat., Mar.18: Psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi,AB'60, PhD'65, speaks as part of the Distinguished Faculty Series.Seattle Sat., Mar. 18: The Distinguished Faculty Series presents Wendy Doniger, professorof the history of religions.Washington, DC Mar. 4, 5, and 11: Tours ofthe U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. Sat.,Mar. 18: Ionesco's Rhinoceros at Studio Theatre.For details, contact Marilyn Meivan, UofC AlumniAssociation, at 312/702-2157; at 312/702-2166 (fax);or at (Internet).University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 35snow " Howard Mauthe. SB'35, PhD'41, MD'43, see1940, Chester B. Powell.*>g* H. Todd Stradford, SB'36, MD'38, rode onUU a Memorial Day-parade float in Columbia,MO, that honored the veterans of D-Day.^MV Dena Polacheck Epstein, AB'37, has sold10 m her house and moved to a condominium.She volunteers in the Chicago Symphony Orchestraarchives, making an inventory of music not in thecurrent repertory. William J. Kirby, AB'37, isenjoying a wonderful life." Stephen Stepanchev,AB'37, AM'38, wrote several poems that appeared inthe December issue of Poetry. John D. Worcester,PhB'37, MBA'40, age 83, is in good health andenjoying California.M Floyd K. Haas, AB'38, writes, "Just celebrated my 80th birthday and feel 90!" Margaret Fox Reed, AB'38, AM'40, PhD'51, and RichardY. Reed, PhD'52, spent an afternoon in Itasska StatePark, "one of the most beautiful parks in the world."George E. Reedy, AB'38, retired as a professor atMarquette University, but still teaches political communications and analysis part time. Reedy is also amember of the President's Commission on WhiteHouse Fellowships. Adolph Weinstock, MD'38,retired in 1992 and enjoys ElderHostels and Peopleto People tours with his wife.In 1995, Frederick C. Bock, AB'39,PhD'50, will chair a reunion of the 509thComposite Group, the Army Air Force unit thatdropped atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshimaduring World War 11. The reunion, to be held inAlbuquerque, NM, will mark the 50th anniversaryof the bombings. Martin Bronfenbrenner, PhD'39,continues to leach economics, economic history,and Japanology on a part-time emeritus basis atDuke University and its Institute of Learning inRetirement. Herbert C Kalk, AB'39, AM'40, is "stillhanging in there at 76 years." His children arealumni of New York University, the University ofTexas, the University of Wisconsin, and Tufts. OnOctober 18, David Kritchevsky, SB'39, SM'42,received the Auenbrugger Medal from the University of Graz in Austria. Frieda Panimon Simon,PhD'39, reports that daughter Laura SimonLupton, AB'67, earned her M.D. in 1971 from theUniversity of Illinois and practices medicine inJanesville, WI.Reunion June 2-3-4 95Jl A| K. Jane Morns Bruere, SB40, practices^MJ piano, paints, and swims laps — she is nowabout 1/3 of the way to her 118-mile goal, the distance across Lake Michigan. She is also a UNICEFco-chair in the Madison, WI, schools for a sixthyear. Eileen de Jong Bynes, SB'40, looks forward toher 55th reunion. Persis-Jane Peeples Cline, AB'40,volunteers, travels, and enjoys golf with husbandJohn. John L. Davenport, AB'40, lives in NewportBeach, CA, in winter and spends summers in Whitehall, MI, where he sees John B. Angelo, AB'48,JD'49, and Shirley Smith Angelo, AB'43. Victor H.Dropkin, PhD'40, enjoyed Ishmael by Dan Quinnand recommends it to "all who want to do something about the future of our human descendants."Gene \Y. Farthing, MD'40, is retired. He golfs,reads, and every summer travels to Maine, where hisson and family live. Hannah Fisk Flack, AB'40,announces the birth of her first great-grandchild,Collin Knopp-Schwvn. Chester B. Powell, SB'40,MD'43, enjoys retirement by traveling, skiing, andgulling — he hoped to golf over Christmas withHoward Maulhc. SB'35, PhD'41, MD'43. NormaVerger Queen, AM'40, writes: "Having been born in1903, I have seen candles and coal-oil lamps takenover by gas and electricity, the horse replaced by thetrain, bus, car, and plane; the two- or three-story flat or apartment now is up to 40 floors. What is next?"Colin G. Thomas, Jr., SB'40, MD'43, enjoyed his 50-year medical-school reunion and continues to serveas a part-time professor of surgery at the Universityof North Carolina at Chapel Hill.Mm Robert A. Colby, AB'41, AM'42, PhD'49, hasTIB been a docent at the New York PublicLibrary since his 1986 retirement from the Graduate School of Library and Information Studies atQueens College, City University of New York.Charlotte Krevitsky Hurwitz, SB'41, and Melvin D.Hurwitz, SM'42, announce the birth of grandsonJacob Samuel Cohn. Richard C. Stare, AM'41,retired in July 1983 as director of Clayton College,Wanted: Nomineest| ominations for the Alumni Associa-I tion Board of Governors, under theleadership of president Uinda ThorenNeal, AB'64, JD'67, are being solicited bya committee that will submit a slate ofcandidates to the full board at its Aprilmeeting. New members will serve fortwo-year terms beginning July 1, 1995."In reviewing the nominations," notesJeanne Buiter, MBA'86, executive director of the Alumni Association, "the committee will take into account such factorsas involvement with the University, age,race, sex, place of residence, and academic degree. Their goal is to assure aboard that is as fully representative ofour alumni population as is possible."The Board of Governors sets policy forthe Alumni Association and advises theUniversity on matters of interest to itsalumni. If you would like to nominatesomeone to the board, please include aone- or two-paragraph description of thenominee, summarizing his or her pastservice to the University. All nominations should be sent to Jeanne Buiter atthe U of C Alumni Association, 5757South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IU60637 (E-mail: The deadline for nominations is March 15.where he had worked since July 1957. Since thenhe has held various jobs with public schools andalso "worked one week in December 1993 as SantaClaus at the mall... a fun but hairy job." HarrietAugustus Swanson, AB'41, "uprooted after 48years" and moved to a retirement home oppositethe Museum of Science and Industry, where she can"see the daily changing colors of Lake Michigan."Mtt Donald L. Alcott, MD'42, retired from der-^mmm matopathology practice and moved to SantaRosa, CA. Thomas A. Arnold, X'42, explains that hedidn't graduate because his education was interrupted by World War II. Celia Peairs Fay, AM'42,says her Chicago training in social service "provesinvaluable in recognizing problems and needs" as asalesperson with Lincoln National Life InsuranceCo., where she's worked for the past 40 years.Melvin D. Hurwitz, SM'42, see 1941, Charlotte Krevitsky Hurwitz. Carolyn Vick Merrifield, SB'42, andhusband Richard H. Merrifield, AB'43, MBA'43, planned to celebrate Christmas with a familyreunion in New Zealand, where their daughter andson-in-law live. Raymond M. Norton, AB'42, JD'48,and Rita Liberman Norton, AB'42, write, "We hadsuch a wonderful time at our 50th reunion; we urgeeveryone to attend his/hers." Calvin P. Sawyier,AB'42, AM'42, practices law, and his wife, FayHorton Sawyier, AB'44, PhD'64, teaches philosophy"with joy." Nancy Gans Spriggs, X'42, a painterwith a studio in Soho, left the U of C two quartersbefore graduating because of the war and gettingmarried. For many years, she ran the New York CityLeague of Women Voters' city seminar. This pastspring, Joanne Kuper Zimmerman, AB'42, had astory published in Columbia Pacific University'sCPU Review. Another of Zimmerman's stories waspublished this past fall in Skylark, an annual atPurdue University's Hammond, IN, campus.« Shirley Smith Angelo, AB'43, see 1940,John L. Davenport. Opal Wilson Broner,AB'43, has retired from clinical psychology practice.She attended a spring alumni gathering at FranklinGallery in New York City. Ann P. Conner, AM'43,see 1926, James A. Conner. Martha SiefkinGordon, AB'43, lives in Boulder, CO. One son livesin Colorado, one in Texas, and one in California.Two others live in Australia, where she often visits.E. Everett Lefforge, MD'43, has retired, lives in SanJose, CA, and enjoys traveling and gardening,Richard H. Merrifield, AB'43, MBA'43, see 1942,Carolyn Vick Merrifield. In fall 1994, Richard C.Reed, AB'43, JD'48, and his wife, Darelyn, spentthree weeks in a small village in the Swiss AlpsGeraldine Willens Sobel, AB'43, had a heart attackand unsuccessful angioplasty in December 1993.She is "in a limited living schedule and doing fine."Her son, Stephen Crocker, was featured in anAugust 8 Newsrveefe article, "Birth of the Internet."Beryl Brand Walther, PhB'43, reports that her husband, Harold, died on September 3 at age 80. InApril they had moved into their newly built homein Anchorage, AK.Jg/j Jack A. Batten, PhB'44, MBA'50, and wife^¦^B Margaret enjoyed his 50th reunion: "Theclasses (especially on dinosaurs), the dinner, and theboat trip were terrific, and seeing 'friends of longstanding' (not old friends!) was even better!" Abuilding at the University of Connecticut HealthCenter has been named for Andrew J. Canzonetti,MD'44, emeritus chair of the University of Connecticut board of trustees. During Canzonetti's 12 yearsas chair, the center acquired 18 of its 22 endowedchairs, established a residency program linked toleading hospitals in the region, and constructed bothits administrative-services building and the hospitaladdition dedicated to Canzonetti. Buel Morley,SB'44, MD'46, looks forward to his 50-year medical-school reunion. Fay Horton Sawyier, AB'44,PhD'64, see 1942, Calvin P. Sawyier.Reunion June 2.3.4MJR Richard S. Farr, SB'45, MD'46, writes that™5J son Andrew G. Farr, PhD'75, is an associate professor at the University of Washington Medical School. B. Elizabeth McKenzle, AM'45, hasmoved to Covenant Village, a retirement facility inher hometown of Gastonia, NC. DorothyGranquist Petersen, SB'45, MBA'47, reports thatthe reunion-committee members are working hard;"Fifty years is a magic number... We'll make this areunion to remember."Mjft On October 10, Esther W. Currie, AM'46,TWP had her second cataract operation — thistime on her right eye. She retired from teaching 20years ago this past June. George H. Faust, PhD'46,professor emeritus of history at Cuyahoga Community College, spoke October 19 at Cleveland State36 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995University about his experience of being chargedwith disloyalty and dismissed from Fenn College(now Cleveland State) during the McCarthy era.Esther Langlois, X'46, a licensed psychologist,social worker, and marriage and family therapist,has a private practice in marriage and family counseling. Langlois, who earned her M.S. from Purduein 1935 and her MA. from Indiana University in1957, is a member of the Lakewood (OH) Chamberof Commerce.M99 Thomas M. Harwell, Jr., AM'47, will speak^m m on South Texan folklore in April in Philadelphia and in July at the University of Oxford in England. This past summer, he completed his 300th footrace; his races have included one ultra-marathon,seven marathons, and 20 half-marathons. On September 21, he celebrated his 81st birthday for $3.23at Dairy Queen. Shelby J. Light, DB'47, retired onJune 1 after more than 63 years of pastoral ministry,the last 18 with the First Congregational Church ofLong Beach (CA). Marcia Rike Reardan, PhB'47,enjoys interviewing prospective College students andsinging with the Oratorio Singers. In July, she touredGermany, Austria, Switzerland, and the CzechRepublic with the Wesley Singers.Henry H. H. Remak, PhD'47, retired from IndianaUniversity in 1987 as professor of Germanic studies,comparative literature, and West European studies.He became director of the university's Institute forAdvanced Study and recently "retired" to teach anundergraduate honors seminar and to work on abook. Remak has also been chosen an honorarymember of the German Fontane Society and a Sagamore of the Wabash. Annie Russell Ricks,PhB'47, and David F. Ricks, AB'48, PhD'56,announce the August 16 birth of their tenth grandchild, "bom out of a lawyer by a lawyer," but who"has not yet sued anybody." They are moving eastto be near their children. Ragene Lamming Rowland, X'47, reports that the August/94 issue ofCleveland magazine wrote of her eldest daughter:"Ann C. Rowland of the U.S. Attorney's office istouted as one of the best in the field." Edyth HullSchoenrich, MD'47, age 75, works full time asdirector of part-time professional programs at JohnsHopkins University's School of Public Health.«John B. Angelo, AB'48, JD'49, see 1940,John L. Davenport. Edwin G. Bruell,AM'48, was recently honored by the Illinois StateConservancy for his work as a director of the Friendsof the Indian Boundary Prairies. A retired chair of theEnglish department at Bremen High School, he wasrecognized for his public-relations efforts. David F.Ricks, AB'48, PhD'56, see 1947, Annie Russell Ricks.Joseph P. Shure, PhB'48, MBA'50, retired in 1990and is a curatorial volunteer two days a week at theSmart Museum. Gerald A. Somers, BLS'48, held hisfirst one-man show of 18 paintings last spring at theBrown County Central Library in Green Bay, WI.Somers was library director from 1968 to 1987before retiring at age 65, Persis Burns Suddeth,AB'48, announces the May 21 wedding of her daughter, Deirdre, to Gregory Porter.« Robert H. Anderson, PhD'49, has been aneducator for 54 years: as a teacher in Wisconsin, a principal and superintendent in Illinois,and a professor at Harvard, Texas Tech, and theUniversity of South Florida. Anderson was recentlyappointed to an endowed chair at USF, and theschool's in-progress library on educational leadership will bear his name. He attributes much of hissuccess to his Chicago education. Jack Joseph,AB'49, JD'52, reports that son James W. Joseph,JD'94, graduated this past June. Dan Kletnick,AM'49, has moved to Homewood, IL, "where hecan walk to the train station when he seeks excitement." Nils W. Olsson, AM'38, PhD'49, receivedthe 1994 Victor Omberg Prize from the Federation of Swedish Genealogical Societies for his contributions to the history of Swedish immigration to theU.S. In April 1994, Philip W. Stetson, AM 49, hadopen-heart surgeiy at a French hospital. He adds: Tdecided to give up the Paris caper and my digs thereand return somewhat reluctantly to my home herein New Jersey. The Hospital Americain had a nicelittle wine cellar with impeccable service. 1 will, ofcourse, miss such civilized niceties."Reunion June 2-3-4After 39 years, Raymond C. Ellis, Jr..PhB'50, MBA'53, age 73, retired as consultant and staff member for the American Hotel &Motel Association. In August 1994 he became a professor at the Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel andRestaurant Management at the University of Houston. Ellis plans to develop a hospitality technologycenter and a hospitality loss prevention institute.Harry D. Eshleman, AB'50, is president of the Wallace Stevens chapter of the Pennsylvania PoetrySociety and was appointed review editor of book-ends, a publication of his local Friends of the Librarygroup. Lewis P. Lipsitt, AB'50, won the 1994Mentor Award from the American Association forthe Advancement of Science for his work in promot-Phlight of Phantasy ing the academic careers of women and minorities.Lipsitt is a professor of psychology and medical science at Brown University. James F. Ulrich, AM'50.and his wife toured Normandy, Brittany, and Parisin May. "Seeing the D-Day beaches of 1944 wasindeed emotional," he writes. Another highlight oftheir trip: "seeing the players at the French OpenTennis Tournament."Ralph M. Goldman, AM'48, PhD'51, headsthe recently established Center for PartyDevelopment, which is affiliated with the CatholicUniversity of America, and edits the Center'snewsletter, Part\ Developments. Daniel W. Nelson.AM'51, is the president of the Omaha PresbyterianSeminary Foundation. Thalia Cheronis Selz,AM 5 1 , writer-in-residence at Trinity College, hasbeen selected by the Connecticut Commission onthe Arts to help celebrate 1995 as the Year of theConnecticut Artist. She will participate in a series ofreadings throughout the year at six museums in thestate. E. Isabel McCrie Webb, AM'51, lives in theSherbrooke Nursing Home in Saskatoon, Canada.Her sister visits each day. Webb was active in primary education in Hammond, IN, for many years.K Cyril H. Harvey, AB'52, is interim academic dean at Guilford College, where he isalso a professor of geology and the director of insti-Aekjal antics: Doubling as sport and art, Acrotheatre combined elements oj gymnastics, ballet, and the circus. Directed by gymnastics coach Envin "Bud" Beyer, AB'39,itjlourished in the 1940s-50s, earning mentions in Life and Look. Midnight Phantasy (1951), told the story oj Suzette, a department- store alterations girl, and Jimmy,the stock boy she loves but who is injatuated with "the Season's number one Deb."Working late to finish the deb's gown, Suzette and Jimmy fall asleep, and the toys anddress models come to life. Above, some mischievous "mice" watch as cats NathanielRisley, AB'51, and Twila Richmond, X'53, rehearse a seat bounce on the trampoline.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 37tutional research Richard Y. Reed, PhD'52, sec1938, Margaret Fox Reed. Wayne A. Selsor, DB'52,a retired minister and longtime artist, was commissioned to create a sculpture at the Foxwood SpringsLiving Center for seniors near Kansas City. Thesculpture, "symbolizing the intergencralional significance" of the Landis Child Care Center at Fox-wood Springs, was dedicated June 6.Wayne H. Akeson, MD'53, was inducted aspresident of the Academic OrthopaedicSociety at the group's annual meeting in October.Milton H. Polin, AM'53, has been invited to join theOrthodox Caucus, the foremost Orthodox Jewishthink tank in North America.MGene L. McCornack, DB'54, is the pastor ofFaith-Trinity United Church of Christ inWarren, MI. He ate in the Robie House from 1949to 1950 and proposed to his wife on the front deck,looking west. Mark Nugent, AB'54, SB'56, reportsthat daughter Lynne S. Nugent, AB'94, graduated inFamily MattersIN DISCUSSING THE NATION'S SOCIAL ILLS,Betty Williams, AM'61, is quick to saythat families must be made part of thesolution, rather than viewed as the causeof all problems. As vice president ofgovernment affairs for United Charities, anon-sectarian Chicago family-service organization that helps 80,000 to 90,000families a year, Williams does everythingin her power to give all types of familiesthe support they need to stay together."The family is where we are nurturedand where we are prepared to be humanbeings and to deal with the world," saysWilliams, a graduate of the School ofSocial Service Administration. "Once youget in and get to know the families and toknow the individuals, then you begin tosee that there are strengths — and that, inso many instances, you can help peopleand you can help to preserve families."That belief was ingrained in Williams atan early age by her parents, who had eightchildren and little money but nonethelesshelped feed the poor and clothe thehomeless. Undergraduate classes at theUniversity of Oregon led her to a career insocial work and to the SSA. After graduation, she was a social worker with UnitedCharities for two years before taking timeoff to raise her two children. An activevolunteer role with her local PTA led, in1976, to her testifying before the Illinoislegislature on family issues. That sameyear, Governor Dan Walker appointedWilliams to the Illinois Department ofChildren and Family Services' advisorycouncil. Making policy, she realized,would allow her to have greater impactthan if she remained a social worker.Reluming to United Charities in 1979and named a vice president in 1991, May and was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa. CornellUniversity held a symposium October 13-14 inhonor of the 60th birthday of Carl E. Sagan, AB'54,SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60. Sagan, Cornell's DavidDuncan professor of astronomy and space sciencesand director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies,spoke on "The Age of Exploration." Harold E. Simmons, X'54, a psychotherapist, reports that his tenpublished books and the many recoveries of hispatients affirm his belief — developed while atChicago — that physical diseases are related to "thepersonality/stress/hormone configuration."Reunion June 2-3-4Andrew J. Laska, AM'55, retired as a business executive and spent the last three yearsas a volunteer with the Citizens Democracy Corps ofWashington in Prague, helping to facilitate the transition to a free-market system. Elizabeth WilcoxWilliams now works with Illinois legislators, businesses, churches, and civic- andsocial-service groups. Among her successes, she lobbied to make Illinois thefirst state to require state agencies to consider how their actions might affect families; founded the Illinois Policy Council, afamily-public-policy review group; andcreated the African-American FamilyPreservation Task Force. The task force,which Williams co-chairs, recentlyreceived an executive order from Governor Jim Edgar to address the needs offamilies in troubled black communities.Of late, she is concentrating on initiatives to strengthen and enforce child-support laws and to educate Illinoislegislators about the problems of peoplecaring for their relatives' children.Williams is also working with Family Service America, Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, JD'72, and Congressman JohnPorter on welfare reform.But enacting laws doesn't necessarilychange attitudes, as Williams admits:"Nobody likes big government. Of coursepeople don't like big government untilthey need big government, and then theydemand it." — K.S. Murphy, SM'55, has been retired for almost 10 yearsafter 30 years as a nutritionist with the Departmentof Agriculture. She writes: "I'm still catching up onthe reading that stacked up while 1 was working andon the household chores I used to give a lick and apromise to. The promises have come due!"pn Adah Bass Maurer, AM'57, was nominated3# for the Harold W. McGraw, Jr., Prize ineducation for her 22-year effort to rid U.S. schoolsof corporal punishment. The executive director ofEnd Violence Against the Next Generation, Inc.,Maurer edits a quarterly newsletter, The Last Resort,and has published and distributed six booklets onthe subject.Joe Grills, MBA'58, retired at the end of1993 after more than 32 years with IBM.Involved in many part-time investment-management activities, he's having a great time.Vera Oravec Laska, PhD'59, just returnedfrom a Fulbright at Charles University inPrague, where she was the university's firstU.S.-history professor. Norval B. Stephens, Jr.,MBA'59, has completed two years as internationalpresident of Delta Tau Delta fraternity. His undergraduate school, DePauw University, awarded himthe 1994 Old Gold Goblet for "meritorious service."Reunion June 2-3-4 '-S&Edna Arrington Brown, AB'60, has a newgrandson, Nicholas Arrington Mims, hersecond grandchild. A management consultant forEDB Consulting Group, Inc., Brown lives in PortCharlotte, FL, in winter and Idlewild, MI, insummer. She would "love to hear from all."Robert J. Brodsky, AB'61, MBA'62, and wifeAnna-Marie celebrated their 25th anniversaryon June 21. Their firm is entering its 60th year serving Chicago-area retailers. Son Paul, who graduatedfrom Bradley University in June 1993, represents thefourth generation of Brodskys in the firm, while sonDavid is a sophomore at Bradley. Richard C. Eric-son, AM'61, has served 28 years as president of hislocal citizens council on crime and justice. Paul S.Holbo, AM'55, PhD'61, retired in 1992 as professorof history and vice provost at the University ofOregon. Since then he has traveled in Scandinavia,Switzerland, Austria, Greece, and Italy; been activein civic organizations; written six scholarly articlesand several op-ed pieces; and started a business.Edward A. Kolodziej, AM'57, PhD'61, see 1985,Andrew F. Kolodziej. In June 1993, Charles G. Staples, AM'61, retired after 27 years as a social workerin the Chicago public schools. Since retiring, he andhis wife, Joan, have traveled considerably — their"biggest adventure" was a five-week, seven-countrygroup tour in South America,Edward D. Higgins, MBA'62, is "enjoyingretirement and ripening old age." RichardW. Seaton, PhD'62, has retired from teaching socialfactors in architecture at the University of BritishColumbia. Donald M. Switz, MD'62, presidentelect of the Richmond Academy of Medicine, serveson Virginia's Medicaid Board and is a professor ofmedicine and associate dean for ambulatory affairsat the Medical College of Virginia. Mitchell H.Taibleson, SM'60, PhD'62, has returned from three-and-a-half months as an Erskine Fellow in themathematics department of the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand.M In June, Phanindramohan Das, PhD'63,retired as a full-time professor of meteorology at Texas A & M University. Das will continue toteach every spring semester and to study convectiveclouds and systems. James R. Fancher, MBA'63,retired from Commonwealth Edison at the end of1992 and now does environmental and energy consulting. He is also a director of the Institute of Elec-38 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995trical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). SheldonIsenberg, AB'63, AM'67, and Raye Havens Isenberg,AB'67, recently celebrated their 30th anniversary. Hewas chosen 1994 social worker of the year by theFox Valley (IL) chapter of the National Associationof Social Workers. David K. Jordan, AB'63, PhD'69,is provost of Earl Warren College, an undergraduateschool of the University of California, San Diego,where he joined the anthropology department in1969. After 36 years of teaching, Benedict V.Maciuika, AM'54, PhD'63, retired in June as professor of history at the University of Connecticut inStorrs. Antoinette L. Ramsey, AM'64, has retired asa guidance counselor with the public schools inWashington, DC, where she has lived for 30 years.Her two grandsons are ages 9 and 10.Reunion June 2-3-4 JHSDonald G. Lateiner, AB'65, is working onthree lectures: "Homeric Prayer," "Veil Gestures on Attic Pottery," and "Iconography ofAfrican Americans on U.S. Postage Stamps."Robert H. Koff, AM'62, PhD'66, has beenprogram director of the Danforth Foundation in St. Louis since last June. He had been deanof the School of Education and a professor of education and psychology at the State University ofNew York in Albany. This past spring, Robert E.Shearer, MBA'66, presented two papers about theeffectiveness and financial health of higher education: one to the American Educational ResearchAssociation and one to the New England Educational Research Organization.G£fBjf Raye Havens Isenberg, AB'67, see 1963,wmm Sheldon Isenberg. Laura Simon Lupton,AB'67, see 1939, Frieda Panimon Simon. David R.Segal, AM'63, PhD'67, was elected president of theDistrict of Columbia Sociological Society and of theInternational Sociological Association's researchcommittee on armed forces and conflict resolution.Stanford T. Shulman, MD'67, recently received theJoseph Brenneman award of the Chicago PediatricSociety. Shulman is a professor of pediatrics andassociate dean for academic affairs at NorthwesternUniversity Medical School and heads the divisionof infectious diseases at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago. In June, he and wife Claire celebrated their 30th anniversary. Robert M.Silverstein, AB'67, SM'68, PhD'70, MBA'82, sells"esoteric medical-reference testing" to hospitalsand physicians as a regional sales manager for Specialty Laboratories. Silverstein plays clarinet in theJewish Arts Orchestra of Chicago, and he and hiswife, Merle, own a fastsigns franchise.The September 26 issue of The New Yorkerincluded a paragraph by Morrie K. Blum-berg, AM'68, on his short walk with Eleanor Roosevelt during a mid-1950s conference on worldaffairs, held at the University of Colorado. G.Richard Buchanan, AB'68, PhD'73, formerly of thedepartment of visual communication at the Schoolof the Art Institute of Chicago, now heads thedepartment of design at Carnegie Mellon University. He is also editor of the international journalDesign Issues: History, Theory, Criticism. JudithTucker Cook, MST'68, a reading specialist in Boise,ID, teaches reading to children in first through fifthgrades. William Gronfein, AB'68, an associate professor of sociology at Indiana University in Indianapolis, is married and has a daughter.L. Patrick Gage, PhD'69, was appointedchief operating officer of Genetics Institute,Inc. The Cambridge, MA, biotechnology companydevelops and markets biopharmaceuticals. Ralph M.Hergert, Jr., AB'69, a Baptist pastor and municipalofficial, reports that his wife, Leslie, earned a doctorate in education from Harvard University in 1994, Research ProAFTER 20 YEARS OF WORKING ON THEreceiving end of scientific grants,Anne C. Petersen, AB'66, SM'72,PhD'73, is now the deputy director of theNational Science Foundation. As chiefoperating officer of the NSF, the federalgovernment's main agency for promotingU.S. science and engineering research andeducation, Petersen helps allocate an annual budget of more than$3 billion, which supportsnearly 20,000 grants. Shealso acts as the agency'sadvocate to researchers andto the public."This is a very importanttime for science policy inthe United States," Petersendeclares. "The rationale forproviding funding toresearch universities hasbeen based on the cold war,on needing to keep thenation strong in the face of our enemies.And with that rationale gone, we have tobe sure that people understand the otherways in which science and education areimportant to the nation."At the same time, she says, researchersneed to understand their own responsibility: "As reseachers, if we get federalmoney, we have an obligation to also seethat the public gets some return on thatinvestment."To help researchers fulfill that obligation, the foundation's new strategicplan — Petersen's main focus — calls forreducing bureaucracy, forming partnerships with industry and other countries,and linking research and education.Nominated by President Clinton lastwhile daughter Jesse will receive a bachelor's degreefrom the University of Pennsylvania in June. JoanStem Kato, AM'69, has joined the firm of Gray CaryWare &r Freidenrich in Palo Alto, CA, where shespecializes in general-commercial, securities, andinsurance-coverage litigation. In 1992, Prentice-Hallpublished the book Understanding and Working withthe Japanese Business World, which she and her husband, Hiroki Kato, PhD'74, co-authored. Ronald V.Mershart, PhD'69, chairs the history department atthe University of Wisconsin-Superior.Reunion June 2-3-4RVA John A. McLees, AB'70, MBA'73, JD'74, andm " wife Bozena Nowlicka McLees announcethe September 19 birth of son Thomas Stefan.Donald E. Palumbo, AB'70, is a professor of Englishand department chair at East Carolina University.He is also film-area chair for the Popular CultureAssociation and series adviser to Greenwood Press'sContributions to the Study of Science Fiction and Fan- June, Petersen took office in mid-August,leaving a post as vice president forresearch, dean of the graduate school, andprofessor of adolescent development andpediatrics at the University of Minnesota.Her academic career — which has alsoincluded appointments at Michael ReeseHospital and Penn State University —began at Chicago, where she went towork as a statistician in the psychiatrydepartment after earning degrees in mathand statistics. She found herself fascinatedby the group of Woodlawn teenagers that thestudy she analyzed hadbeen tracing since firstgrade. "The research suggested that adolescencewas a key time for socialization and development,"Petersen explains. "Insteadof just analyzing otherI people's data, I wanted to5 design my own studies."5 Hex own studies — ontopics such as gender differences and adolescent depression — havehelped lay the groundwork for understanding adolescence. Her research on teenagepregnancy showed how an event (in thiscase, biological capacity to reproduce) doesnot necessarily stimulate the psychologicaland social capacities needed to respond tothe event (to be a responsible parent).She continues to advise a group of Minnesota doctoral candidates. In her sparetime, "between the hours of midnight and4 a.m.," she is writing up an interventionstudy — work on how to prepare childrenfor the traumas of adolescence — that sheconducted at Penn State."I do miss research a lot," she confesses,adding, "but I love both kinds of thingsI'm doing." — K.S.tasy. "After years of combining roles of motheringand working as a mental-health professional," Maureen Sullivan Sheehy, AM'70, is a guidance counselor at Woodlands Academy in Lake Forest.SSI Brian R. Aim, AM'71, is manager of special' ™ writing services at Deere &r Company inMoline, IL, where he produces the annual reportand corporate-communications projects. Two of hisbooks on organizational communications werepublished in 1994. Mark S. Cary, AB'71, is associate secretary of the American section of the FriendsWorld Committee for Consultation, an international Quaker organization. David C. Clark, AB'71.AM'77, PhD'81, has been named the Stanley G.Harris family professor of psychiatry at Rush-Pres-byterian-St. Luke's Medical Center. Director ofRush University's the Center for Suicide Researchand Prevention, Clark joined the faculty in 1974.William E. Dix, MBA'71, see 1963, Ingram B.Schwahn. Janine Everhart Katonah, MAT'71, writesthat her husband, Joel K. Thompson, was amongthe victims of US Air Flight 427 that crashed nearUniversity of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 39Mutual RespectNOW THE FOUNDER AND PRESIDENT OFthe country's leading source ofmutual-fund data, Joe Mansueto,AB'78, MBA'80, began honing his businessskills as an undergraduate in ShorelandHall. Room 607 Soda Service — motto: "10kinds of munchies, 15 flavors of soda, open24 hours" — operated by Mansueto androommate Kurt Hanson, AB'78, MBA'80,was one of several small businesses thatMansueto ran "because they were fun.""You get to meet people, and you endthe day with more money in your pocketthan you started with," he explains. "Ikind of liked business on a smaller scalerather than on a massive one — somethingwhere you had a little more control andcould see tangible results from yourefforts." Immediately after graduation heand Hanson founded Strategic RadioResearch, a market-research firm thatHanson runs today. Mansueto left in 1982to work as an investment analyst, gainingexperience that helped him fine-tune hisidea for Morningstar, Inc.Morningstar's mission was simply to"help people make better investing decisions with mutual funds," Mansueto says.Though funds were growing in popularity, no one had yet offered a periodic,comprehensive survey of a wide range ofmutual funds. So in April 1984, Mansuetodecided to publish a quarterly sourcebookof statistics and analysis. The first issueappeared that November, produced fromhis apartment with the help of a fewemployees and a personal computer.Nearly 11 years later, Morningstar — at225 W. Wacker Drive — offers nine publications and five software products andprovides data for numerous newspapersand magazines. From its humble beginnings, the sourcebook has evolved intothe company's flagship publication, Morningstar Mutual Funds, a biweekly with a circulation of approximately35,000. Morningstar data isalso available on electronicservices like America OnLineand Prodigy.Mansueto defines success interms of products, not profits.- "We want to create great prod-1ucts and find ways to makethem even better," he says,„ "We've taken the profits on| our more mature products ands plowed them back into newerproducts — which typicallydon't make money for three years or so."He's achieved his goals with a management style that's high on collegiality andinitiative, low on formalities such as private offices or secretaries. "There is, Ihope, zero emphasis on things likeappearances and those typical corporate,silly things," Mansueto says."We try to hire really smart people andgive them a lot of autonomy," he adds.Because mutual-fund analysis is a newfield, most employees have liberal-artsbackgrounds and are trained on the job.Morningstar heavily recruits Chicago-areagraduates (more than 10 percent of the359 employees have U of C degrees), andthe staffs median age is about 30.Less hands-on than he used to be, Mansueto now concentrates on overseeingnew-product development, capital allocation, and company positioning. "In manyways, I see it as my job to kind of disruptthings, making sure we're pushing forward and not standing still."The company is pushing forward onthree fronts now: expanding its subscriberbase beyond private investors and investment professionals to include institutions,establishing itself as a source for international mutual-fund data, and makinginroads into equities information for U.S.and international companies.International mutual funds are an important target. Morningstar has opened aLondon office to cover the British mutual-fund market, which Mansueto calls thestrongest and fastest-growing in Europe.The first publication is scheduled to appearthis year, and Mansueto wants to replicatethe U.S. product line for Britain "and, ultimately, for all of continental Europe."As he brainstorms for Morningstar'sfuture, Mansueto regards his days in thedorm with entrepreneurial hindsight:"We kind of kick ourselves now for theideas we discarded, things like rentingvideotapes of movies. We could havebecome Blockbuster or something." — K.S. Pittsburgh on September 8. E. Katherine Knowlton,AB'71, reports that her private psychology practicein Seattle is "still thriving despite managed care."She adds, "Just sold my first poem to (of all things)the bus company, which put it up in a bus — published and a creator of public art, all in one swellfoop." In August, Susan Donner Lutgendorf,AB'71, earned her Ph.D. in clinical psychology fromthe University of Miami in Coral Gables. A postdoctoral fellow at the University of Iowa Center onAging, she focuses on psychoneuroimmunology,studying life stress and immunity in an aging population. She and husband Philip A. Lutgendorf,AB'71, AM'82, PhD'87, live in Iowa City and havetwo children, ages 13 and 17.MM Susan Schulman Beatty, MAT'72, is pro-m St ject coordinator of the Huntsman CancerInstitute at the University of Utah, Her husband,Patrick G. Beatty, PhD'75, MD'76, also at the University of Utah, is professor of medicine and director of the bone-marrow transplant program. Theyhave two children, ages 10 and 13. Linnea A.Sodergren, AM'72, is director of corporate, foundation, and government relations for the College of St,Catherine in St. Paul, MN.tyjk Kathleen Ezolt Carle, AB'73, MBA'81, isM U shopping coordinator for the weekly homeless dinner at the Fourth Presbyterian Church ofChicago. Carol Baraz Low, AB'73, earned a master'sdegree in psychology and is studying learning disabilities and neuropsychology for her Ph.D. She and herthree children, whom she taught at home until lastyear, live in Glen Ellyn. Marc J. PoKempner, AB'73,had several of his photos of Cuba published in a bookabout that country. The October/94 British GQ contained some of PoKempner's photos of Chicago'sblues clubs. The University of Maryland's College ofBehavioral and Social Sciences gave its first award foroutstanding mentoring to Mady Wechsler Segal,AM'67, PhD'73. Patricia Jacobs Steinway, AM'73, herhusband, and their two children live in Chapel Hill,NC, where they own the Steinway Art Gallery. Sheinvites alumni to stop by. Evelyn Eaton Whitehead,PhD'73, and her husband, James, spoke on "Anger atWork: Taming the Tigers of Wrath" as part of the1994 Fall Forum at the Crossroads Center for Faithand Work in Chicago. She is a developmental psychologist, and he is a religious historian; they havewritten eight books together.MF. Diane Farris, AM'67, AM'72, PhD'74,recently finished the photography for twobooks in Mary Taylor's New Vegetarian Classicscookbook series. The University of Alabama alumnimagazine included a story on Alston Fitts III,PhD'74, in its April-May/94 issue. The story emphasized his work in race relations — "the sort of activitythat used to be 'hushed up' among respectableAlabamians!" Fitts writes. "But times change, thankGod...." Hikoki Kato, PhD'74, see 1969, Joan StemKato. Joanna Bossert Morsicato, AB'74, is a supervising scientist at Engineering-Science, Inc., of Denver,where she specializes in environmental complianceand transportation. She remarried in September 1993to James Morsicato, with whom she has a new son,Jonathan Alexander. Her three children from a previous marriage are: Tena, 11; Anna, 10; and Edward, 6.She would like to hear from classmates.Reunion June 2-3-4HB Andrew G. Farr, PhD'75, see 1945, Richard» V S. Farr. Glen E. Holt, AM'65, PhD'75, andM. Leslie Edmonds, AM'75, were married January29, 1994. Carol Cuzens Kahlei Segal, SB'75, wasnamed one of five 1994 women of the year by theAerospace Corporation. Segal is manager of themetals and composites section in the company'sstructural-materials department, where she initiated40 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995an engineering program that assesses the flight-worthiness of space systems stored for long periods.John C Taylor, AB'75, and his wife, BarbaraHughes, announce the January 26, 1994, birth ofdaughter Abigail Christa.IJC Patrick G. Beatty, PhD'75, MD'76, see¦ w 1972, Susan Schulman Beatty. Jody E.Green, AB'76, married Edward Max in 1991. Theyhave two daughters, Dana Frances Max, 30 months,and Sonia Elyse Max, 6 months. Green has a privateneurology practice in Fairfax, VA. L. Francis Stella,MBA'76, has retired from Volvo GM Heavy TruckCorp. and leaches business administration at Guilford Technical Community College.IYIY Markes E. Johnson, PhD'77, is the Charlesm M L. MacMillan professor of geology atWilliams College. Joachim J. Scholz, AM'74,PhD'77, is serving as acting dean and provost ofWashington College through June 1995. The director of the humanities program, he has taughtGerman literature there since 1980. Mark Shapiro,AB'77, a gastroenterologist, recently joined a privatepractice in Hewlett, NY. He and wife Susan, alawyer, live in Great Neck, NY.^yande^l! Law School professor Barry E.Friedman, AB'78, was reelected to the executive committee of the American Judicature Society.Wendy E, Waisala, AM'78, den mother to amenagerie of animals, is helping to organize andmarket an emu/ostrich ranch and an exotic-cosmeticenterprise. She creates fashion accessories and iswriting a dissertation in American civilization.WMelinda A. Corey, AB79, AM'82, and husband George Ochoa, AM'82, announce theApril 6 birth of daughter Martha Adeline Corey-Ochoa. Corey and Ochoa live and write in Brooklynand recently completed their revision of EphraimKatz's The Film Encyclopedia. Nicole M. Denison,SB'79, has been promoted to director of alumni newsand associate editor at the University of Wisconsinalumni association. Jo Ann D. Hinz, MBA'79, see1983, Margaret G. Waterstreet. Terry L. Simpson,AB'79, SM'82, MD'86, is chief of vascular surgery atMaricopa Medical Center in Phoenix and "continuesto struggle with golf." Peter F. Smith, AB'79, a lieutenant commander in the Navy, lives with his familyin Bahrain, where he is serving a two-year tour withU.S. Navy Central Command. Marvin C. Weiss,PhD'77, MD'79, has lived in San Diego with wifeJudith since 1982. They have two children: Max, 6,and Emily, 8. Frederick J. Wenzel, MBA'79, is executive director and CEO of Medical Group Management Association in Englewood, CO, and continuesto be an adviser to the president of the MarshfieldClinic in Marshfield, WI.Reunion June 2-3-4 95David L. Bogetz, MBA'80, has been promoted to portfolio manager at Sears Investment Management Co. and is in charge of thecompany's venture-capital group. Suresh A. Desai,MBA'80, says that daughter Neelam "dreams ofdoing graduate business studies at UC" and is in herfinal year at the University of Tulane's Freeman Business School. Nina Petrosky Priebe, AM'80, has a 6-year-old son, Kyle. William B. Redpath, MBA'80, is avice president at BIA Consulting in Chantilly, VA,and recently became a chartered financial analyst. Hechairs the ballot-access committee of the LibertarianParty and is on the board of the Center for Votingand Democracy in Washington, DC.WJean Annis Mishkin, MBA'81, has beenelected to a three-year term on the Tenafly,NJ, school board. Janet Hebenstreit Tavakoli,MBA'81, has joined the London office of MitsubishiFinance International as a director; she will work infinancial derivatives, structuring and marketing bonds for European and U.S. investors. She hadbeen a private consultant for Japanese clients whileworking for Merrill Lynch and PaineWebberPatrick J. Wallace, AB'81, MD'89, has joined theStehlin and de Ipolyi oncology clinic in Houston asa surgical oncologist.Afl Regina Justis Actipis, AB'82, reports thatWM "daughter Elinor shunned the Midwest"and is a freshman at Dartmouth College. Charles L.Cappell, PhD'82, a member of the law faculty atNorthern Illinois University, is working to makeNIU the national center for information andresearch on management-union relations in cases ofa company move. Cappell and co-researcher Lorraine Schmall have already done a study onDubuque Packing. John J. Fung, PhD'80, MD'82, isassociate professor of surgery and chief of transplant surgery at the University of Pittsburgh. Fungis married and has four children. George Ochoa,AM'82, see 1979, Melinda A. Corey. James C.Palmer, AM'82, has been a consultant with theDallas office of CAP Gemini America since June.John P. Tuke, MBA'82, announces the September20 birth of his first child, son Caleb Cullen. In February 1994, Tuke was promoted to managing director at Merrill Lynch, where he is in tradingderivatives. After ten years on the Upper West Sideof Manhattan, he now lives in Dobbs Ferry, NY.A4 Lori A. Hunsaker, AB'83, AM'85, has takenWS# a one-year leave of absence from her M.Div.studies to work with LaRabida Hospital's child abuseand neglect team. Don Lorvig, AB'83, married Elizabeth Durham Smith, a 1985 graduate of CarnegieMellon, on October 1 in New Hampshire. He writesthat the members of Tumbling Dice attended andwere "ready to rock." In 1993, Dail St. Claire Simmons, AM'83, started an investment-managementfirm on Wall Street. She is married to Craig Simmons, a bond trader, and has a 3 1/2-year-old daughter and a son, Craig Jr., born September 2. MargaretG. Waterstreet, MBA'83, disabled by arthritis, hasmoved back to Chicago. She adds that Jo Ann D.Hinz, MBA'79, demonstrated her StarSearch Softwarefor sales mega-networking to the Lake County andChicago chambers of commerce, as well as anotherbusiness group. Also, in September, Joseph C.O'Brien III, MBA'87, spoke about the workplacetransition from mainframes to PCs.M James O. Cox, AB'84, MBA'85, overseesthe retail-store division of Southern SchoolSupply. Catherine F. Glen-Puschett, X'84, andMitchell I. Puschett, AB'87, an anesthesiology resident at Chicago, announce the September 8 birth oftheir first child, Benjamin Ian. They anticipate hisgraduation from the University in 2012. Joseph B.Heitman, SB'84, SM'84, is an assistant investigatorin the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and anassistant professor in the departments of geneticsand pharmacology at Duke University. Heitmanstudies signal transduction and the mechanisms ofaction of immunosuppressible and antifungal natural products. Keith A. Kostuch, AB'84, and EmaBongers Kostuch, JD'89, announce the June 22birth of daughter Hannah Catherine. Dorothy Blan-chard Lyon, AM'84, announces the December 14.1993, birth of daughter Lauren Annabelle Crawford. Woodward C. Price, AB'84, is the staff assistant to Richard Holbrooke, the assistant secretaryfor European and Canadian affairs in the StateDepartment. Jonathan G. Tubman, AB'84, is in hissecond year as assistant professor of psychology atFlorida International University.Reunion June 2-3-4Bruce J. Berger, MBA'85, has beenappointed to oversee trading and risk management for the global-derivatives group of Cana dian Imperial Bank of Commerce. He is based inClBC's New York office. Andrew F. Kolodziej.SB'85, and wife Jeanette announce the September11 birth of son Zachary Jacob in San Francisco —making Edward A. Kolodziej, AM'57, PhD'61, andhis wife, Antje, grandparentsJeffrey A. Cohen, AB'86, married KimberlyMeldrum in March in Venice, Italy. In Junethey celebrated with a party at their home inWicker Park. His parents, Stephen P. Cohen.AB'57, AB'58, AM'59, and Roberta Brosilow Cohen,AB'59, joined them. Also in attendance were DavidA. Berger, AB'76; Jonathan M. Chimene, AM'83:David J. Ross, AB'83, MBA'85; Ann C. Reed, AB'85,MBA'88; Mimi Lee Rodman, AB'85; Steven P.Basileo, AB'86; Edward F. Malone, AB'86; Benjamin Rodman, AB'86, MBA '93; Carolyn G. Schneider, AB'86, AM'87; Stephen P. Sullivan, AB'86;Joshua Kellman, AB'87; Catherine M. LeToumeau, AB'87; Thomas H. Underberg, AB'87:Daniel J. Gilman, AM'83, PhD'88; Michael A.Keable, AB'88; and Curt A. Conklin, AB'89. Thecouple's sheepdog, Petulia, "intends to visit the U olC soon and concentrate on herding waywardsouls." Monica M. Creighton, AB'86, and her husband, Darrell Graham, announce the August 31birth of their first child, Maeve Creighton GrahamJudith Updegraff Harris, AM'80, PhD'86, was promoted to tenured associate professor of criminaljustice at the University of South Carolina at Spartanburg. Alan M. Kanter, AB'86, of Glenview, is afamily practitioner in Park Ridge. After eight yearsof marketing for Procter & Gamble and Pepsico,Byron W. Smith, MBA'86, joined GTE in January1994 as vice president/general manager for a cellular-phone division. He and wife Beth live in Birmingham, AL.AH Stephen D. Carle, MBA87, is an associate%9 M management consultant in the commericaland industrial group of Coopers and Lybrand Consulting. He had been a market analyst for a midsized manufacturing company. William A.Johnson, MD'87, a primary-care physician in Beverly, has been appointed to the Meridian team, agroup that serves hospice patients on Chicago'sSoutheast Side. Kristine R. McQuilliam, AB'87, andDouglas M. Jackman, AB'89, a student in the GSB,were married September 4 at Bond Chapel. Faye-Marie Morgan Brownfield, AB'87, was the matronof honor, while the best man was Daniel L. Jack-man, MBA'94. In attendance were Judith JacksonMunson, AB'66; Lester E. Munson, Jr., JD'67; PeterD. Weinstein, AB'87, MBA'93; H. Andrew Brown-field III, AB'88, MBA89; Duane R. Nelson, AB'88Michael W. Boettcher, AB'89, MD'93; Jefferson SBrown, AB'89; Sean P. Elliott, AB'89; Sugwu DHahn, AB'89; Sung-Lana Kim, AB'89, MD'93Lester E. Munson III, AB'89; Cathy E, Shin, AB'89Adam C. Smedstad, AB'89; Jacqueline JacobsonWeinstein, AB'90, JD'92; Irene S. Tan, AB'91Heather Labadot, AB'92; and Betty P. ChuMBA'94. Joseph C. O'Brien III, MBA'87, see 1983Margaret G. Waterstreet. Mitchell I. PuschettAB'87, see 1984, Catherine F. Glen-Puschett.Karen E. Anderson, AB'88, MD'93, is asecond-year psychiatry resident at Columbia University, where she plans to specialize in neuropsychiatry, dementia, and aging. Larry E. Hess.AB'88, lives in New York City, where he is a clinicalchild psychologist for the Henry Ittleson Center forChild Research, a branch of the Jewish Board ofFamily and Children's Services. Gary M. Kramer.MBA'88, married Lisa Foydel of Detroit on October22. He is a senior vice president in the financial-strategies group of Meridian Capital. AlisonMcCurdy, SB'88, received her Ph.D. in organicchemistry this past August; she will continue as aDreyfus teaching postdoctoral fellow at Cal StateUniversity of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 4 1The University of ChicagoAlumni AssociationandThe Department of Musicinvite you toTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOMOTETm i 't"*j i'"- ~-m "> i fr'Cft1995 Spring Concert TourDallas, TXSaturday, March 18Austin, TXSunday, March 19Lyford, TXMonday, March 20Houston, TXWednesday, March 22New Orleans, LAThursday, March 23Chicago, ILSaturday, April 1The spring program celebrates theorigins and history of vocal music,with selections from Brahms, Pales-trina, and Purcell, among others, andfeatures the world premiere of ATime For Peace, specially commissioned from Rami Levin, PhD'91, forthe choir's 1995 tour.For more information contact:Motet TourThe U of C Alumni Association5757 Woodlawn AvenueChicago, IL 60637312/ Fullcrton for two years. Robert M. Whitnell,PhD'88, is an assistant professor of chemistry atGuilford College. He had been an assistant projectscientist and postdoctoral research assistant at theUniversity of California, San Diego. Donald R.Wilson, Jr, AB'88, see 1989, Panayiotis A. Salapatas.M Douglas M. Jackman, AB'89, see 1987.Kristine R. McQuilliam. Ema Bongers Kostuch, JD'89, see 1984, Keith A. Kostuch. TimothyE. Lynch, AB'89, participated in the joint exerciseR1MPAC '94, a major maritime exercise nearHawaii involving Australia, Canada, Japan, andKorea. He was aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S.Independence. Panayiotis A. Salapatas, AB'89,AM'91, is moving to Milano, Italy, to trade withDonald R. Wilson, Jr., AB'88. He had been tradingat the Chicago Mercantile Exchange since 1992.Reunion June 2-3-4Najma M. Adam, AM'90, coordinates thefamily service center at St. Paul Head Start,Ounce of Prevention Fund, located in the RobertTaylor community. She adds that she is "appreciativeof the education she received at SSA, U of C."Roberto Apelfeld, PhD'90, is a vice president at J. P.Morgan Investment Management, Inc., in New YorkCity. In 1993, John M. Jeep, PhD'90, was namedassistant professor of German at Miami University inOxford, OH. The same year, he and wife LyndaHoffman-Jeep, P\hD'94, directed the IntensiveSummer in Germany program. Ruth L. Ketchum,AM'90, works in the neighborhood-services office ofthe Chicago Public Library, "trying to make thebureaucracy work for the (extra)ordinary citizen.... Wish they hadn't closed my school — now wehave to hire from U of I or out of state." She andgirlfriend Peg Kelly enjoy riding around town ontheir scooter. Ketchum says hello to all GLS graduates and can be reached at W. Lee, AB'90, and Jennifer A. O'Leary,AB'90, were married on November 26, 1993. Inattendance were Myra Zaharchuk Lee, AB'90;Dwayne H. Spradlin, AB'90; Michelle Ray Spradlin,AB'90; and Ronald C. Lee,Jr„ AB'91. The couple livein Philadelphia, where he is an attorney at Lavin,Coleman, Finerelli and Gray, and she is a seniorcommercial-credit analyst at Midlantic Bank. Christine Burk Roberts, MBA'90, and Malcolm I. Roberts,MBA'90, have started a company, Catalyst for Corporate Performance Pty. Ltd., which helps senior executives implement more efficient managementsystems. They and son Shane David, bom September28, 1993, live at 499 Brookfield Road, Brookfield Q4069, Australia; their phone number is 61-7v374-3374. Amy L. Strasser, MBA'90, was married onAugust 20 in Evanston and spent her honeymoon inHawaii before starting a new job at Brown BrothersHarriman in Boston. Since June 1992, Gerhard F.Volz, LLM'90, has been in-house counsel for DiehlGmbH & Co. in Ntirnberg, Bavaria, completing hisdoctoral dissertation in international private law inFebruary 1993. Volz spent two days in Septemberwith those alumni participating in the Alumni Association cruise on the Danube.Al David J. Cohen, AB'91, graduated from^PS Temple University's law school in June andthen took the Pennsylvania and New Jersey barexams. Cohen spent August traveling throughSpain before looking for a job in litigation or trialpractice in Philadelphia. Rodolfo Geilim, MBA'9LAM'91, married Gina Daniele on June 4 at OurLady of Grace Church in Hoboken, NJ. Silvestre A.Fontes, AM'91, ushered. In attendance were JosephJ. Attar, MBA'89; George Zombek, MBA'89;Roberto Apelfeld, PhD'90; Anjuli Bhattacharjee,MBA'91; Enrique Negron, Jr., MBA'91; Michael E.Santelli, MBA'91; and Jules M. Buxbaum, MBA'86, PhD'94. Patrick A. Orban, MBA'90, flew in fromLondon for the weekend. The reception was heldaboard a yacht that circled Manhattan. The couplespent their honeymoon in Hawaii, sailing in FrenchPolynesia, and in Moorea and Tahiti.Karl E. Loewenstein, AB'91, and Memuna Z.Khan, AB'92, were married on August 27 in Bar-ryville, NY. In attendance were Anne N. N. Endress,AB'91; David L. Osborn, SB'91; Despina Lekakis,AB'92; David K. Mattingly, AB'92; Benjamin M.Skove, AB'92; Jennifer L. Smith, AB'92; Sun MiKim, AB'93; LeeAnn A. Koenig, AB'93; and Mark A.Loewenstein, AB'94. He is a history graduate student at Duke, and she is a zoology graduate studentat North Carolina State University. J. LorandMatory, AM'86, AM'91, PhD'91, is an assistant professor of anthropology and Afro-American studies atHarvard University. His book Sex and the EmpireThat Is No More: Gender and the Polities of Metaphorin Oyo Yoruba Religion, based on his doctoral dissertation at Chicago, was recently published. Dail St.Claire Simmons, AM'91, see 1983. Ronald H.Wagner, MBA'91, founded Aide/Wagner, a SanFrancisco-based marketing-consulting firm withglobal clients from industries that include telecommunications, sports, and entertainment. Wagnerwrites that he "enjoys living in San Francisco,because the weather is a bit more consistent thanthat of Chicago — and never as cold!"Qn Since October, Paula Winkler Adkins,mMwn MBA'92, has been vice president of customer operations for Mtel in Jackson, MI. Mark S.Goldenzer, MBA'92, was promoted to vice presidentand director of strategic planning for LincolnNational Corporation. Rochelle N. Kopp, MBA'92,started a new firm, Japan Intercultural Consulting,which provides cross-cultural training and human-resource consulting to Japanese firms and to jointventures operating in the U.S. William G. Reilly,MBA'92, relocated from Dallas to St. Louis as purchasing manager of commmodities for the bakerydivision of Anheuser-Busch. Linda L. Wolfenden,AB'92, is enjoying her third year at Boston University's medical school, where she occasionally seesRonald R. Espinal, AB'92, and Kirit A. Bhatt, AB'92.Wendy W. Fish, AM'93, married TimothyNaylor in August 1993. They live in HydePark, and she plans to study for a doctorate in education. Susan L. Ofshay, AM'93, married Peter A.Parrotta on June 11. Michael Y. Park, AB'93, wrotefrom the French Quarter that he located his "darling Stella," but could not convince her to stay withhim. Since then, he adds, he has "taken a new job atSesame Place... But the sadness lingers. If you areever in Langhorne, Pennsylvania, stop by SesamePlace and have a chocolate milk on me. And whenyou see Big Bird cavorting happily with toddlers,remember that there are tears under the yellowfeathers and innocent smile." Joyesh Raj, AB'93, is asecond-year medical student at the University ofCincinnati. Andrew C. Schneider, AB'93, a second-year history graduate student at Duke University,worked in 1993 and 1994 as a research assistant atthe National Humanities Center and the Institutefor Defense Analyses. Michael F. Stoer, AB'93,recently graduated from the basic school at theMarine Corps Combat Development Command inQuantico, VA, where new officers are prepared forassignment to the Fleet Marine Force.M James W. Joseph, JD'94, see 1949, JackJoseph. Ira M. Kalina, JD'94, has joined theChicago office of the international law firm ofMcDermott, Will & Emery as an associate in the litigation department. Lynne S. Nugent, AB'94, see1954, Mark Nugent. Michele I. Slobod, JD'94, is anassociate in the corporate department of theChicago office of the international law firm ofMcDermott, Will & Emery.42 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995DeathsFACULTYWalter J. Blum, AB'39, JD'41, a professor emeritus at the Law School and an expert on taxes, insurance, bankruptcy, and corporate reorganization,died December 18 in Hyde Park. He was 76. Blumtaught at the University from 1946 until 1988, firstas the Wilson-Dickinson professor in law and thenas the first Edward H. Levi distinguished serviceprofessor. Designer and director of the Law School'sannual Federal Tax Conference, he chaired the University's Centennial faculty planning committee andin 1991 was honored with the Alumni ServiceMedal. Blum co-wrote The Uneasy Case for Progressive Taxation, a well-known critique of the incometax. During the 1960s, he was a consultant to theU.S. treasury and transportation departments. He issurvived by two daughters, including Wendy BlumCoggins, U-High'66; and three grandchildren.Philip M. Hauser, PhB'29, AM'33, PhD'38, theLucy Flower professor emeritus in sociology, diedDecember 13 in Hyde Park. He was 85. Hauserfounded and directed the University's PopulationResearch Center (1947-79), and authored a 1964desegregation plan for Chicago public schools. Aformer president of the American Sociological Association and the American Statistical Association, from1938 to 1947 he served with the U.S. Census Bureau,including tenure as its acting director. He is survivedby a son, William B. Hauser, SB'60; a daughter,Martha Hauser Baxter, AB'63; a brother, JuliusHauser, SB'34; two sisters, and four grandchildren,Hans Lenneberg, a professorial lecturer andlibrarian of music, died September 7 in Hyde Park.He was 70. A native of Germany, Lenneberg cameto the United States in 1940 and taught at BrooklynCollege. He joined the University in 1963 as anassistant professor and music librarian; in 1985, hebecame a professorial lecturer. Lenneberg was theauthor of two books and the editor of three others.He is survived by his wife, Johanna, and three sons.1910sGertrude Weitzell Baker, AA'14, of Eldora, IA,died September 27. She was 101. Survivors includea cousin, Barbara Deacon Van Arsdale, PhB'48.1920sMarguerite Fry Brandner, X'22, of Duncanville,TX, died July 11. She was 95. Survivors include ason, Carl.Jeanette Kennan Hotchkiss, PhB'24, of HighlandPark, died September 7. She is survived by threesons.Martha Bennett King, PhB'24, a noted expert onchildren's literature, died October 12 in Albuquerque, NM. She was 91. An author of children'sbooks, a playwright, and a folk singer, she served aspublic-relations director for the Art Institute ofChicago from 1960 to 1967 and conducted the Tribune's Miracle of Books annual fair in the 1950s and1960s. She is survived by two sons, a brother, andfive grandchildren.Marie Taylor Turney, PhB'25, of Flossmoor, diedDecember 27, 1993. She was 89. Survivors include asister-in-law, Myrtle Tumey Kemp, PhB'26.Louis Winer, PhB'26, former president and CEOof a Chicago clothing manufacturing company, died October 10. He was 90. An active philanthropist,Winer was secretary of the Chicago Council olConservative Synagogues. He is survived by twodaughters and four grandchildren.Frank B. Herzel, AM'28, a pastor, died August 25.He is survived by his wife, Catherine.Mildred McAfee Horton, AM'28, founder of theWAVES and former Wellesley College president,died September 2 in Berlin, NH. She was 94. In1936, she became one of Wellesley' s youngest presidents, returning to the college for three more yearsafter WWII. During the war, Horton organized theNavy's Women Accepted for Voluntary EmergencyService, rose to captain's rank, received the Distinguished Service Medal, and made the cover of Time.She taught economics and sociology at TusculumCollege and was Oberlin College's dean of women,president of the American Association of Colleges,and vice president of the National Council ofChurches. Survivors include four stepchildren andseveral grandchildren and great-grandchildren.Joseph O. Jones, MD'28, of Murray, UT, diedMay 18. Survivors include his son, J. Clarke Jones.Loh Seng Tsai, PhD'28, of East Amherst, NY, diedDecember 31, 1992. Survivors include his daughter,Dorothy Tsai Soong.Albert W. Thompson, PhB'29, former dean of theCollege of Sciences and Arts, Washington StateUniversity, died September 19 in Princeton, NJ. Hewas 95. Thompson was with the faculty for 46years — in 1972 the oldest building on the campuswas renamed Thompson Hall in his honor. He issurvived by a daughter; a son; a sister, ElizabethThompson Naibert, AB'37; and six grandchildren.1930sEugene L. Cohn, PhB'31, JD'33, a retired Illinoisstate assistant attorney general, died June 11 inChicago. Specializing in motor-carrier firms andassociations, he practiced law for more than 50years. Cohn chaired the section on public-utilitieslaw of the Illinois State Bar Association. Survivorsinclude brothers Bernard G. Colby, PhB'33, andRobert A. Colby, AB'41, AM'42, PhD'49; a sister;and two nieces.Edgar A. Grunwald, AB'31, a retired McGraw-Hill Publishing executive, died May 13 in North-port, NY. He joined Business Week in 1941 andthree years later was promoted to managing editor.From 1959 to 1973, Grunwald was editor of Purchasing Week. He is survived by his wife, Janie, adaughter, and three grandchildren.Charles A. Hoffman, PhD'32, of Minot, ND, diedJune 5. He was 91. He taught botany at Minot StateUniversity from 1935 until his retirement, spendingone of those years at Ahwaz University in Iran on aFulbright lectureship. He is survived by his wife,Ruth; two daughters; and three grandchildren.Robert A. Hollands, SB'33, MD'37, a retiredphysician, died August 21 of pneumonia. Prior topracticing in Battle Creek, MI, and San Bernardino,CA, he served during WWII as chief of the tropicaldisease service at Ashford General Hospital inWhite Sulphur Springs, WV. He is survived by hiswife, Helen; a daughter; a stepdaughter; and twograndchildren.Lita Dickerson Howard, PhB'34, a pioneer indance therapy, died October 22 in Lexington, VA.She was 80. After WWII — in which she served as an aircraft-identification specialist near Washington,DC — Howard worked for several years at WalterReed Hospital and Halloran Hospital in New York.developing new techniques to teach dance to veterans with artificial limbs. She was active in severalsocial and environmental groups. She is survived bya son, a daughter, and a grandchild.Allan E. Sachs, SB'34, MD'37, a retired surgeon inthe Seattle area, died September 29. He was 81. Sachswas chief of surgery at Group Heath Cooperative ofPuget Sound and at Cabrini Hospital. He and his wifehelped found the area's Jewish Community Center in1955. Survivors include his wife, Bemice; a son; fourgrandchildren; and several nieces and nephews.Anne Armstrong Wallis, X'34, died October 10 inWashington, DC. She was 82. She is survived byher husband, W. Allen Wallis, X'35, former dean ofthe GSB (1946-62); two daughters, includingNancy Wallis Ingling, U-High'58; two sisters; abrother; and three grandchildren.Michael S. Paulson, X'35, of Secane, PA, diedSeptember 16. He was 79. For 47 years until hisretirement in 1992, Paulson worked with hisbrother in the rug business founded by their fatherin 1914. He is survived by two daughters, threesons, a brother, two sisters, and eight grandchildren.Alice Hilbert Canty, PhB'37, a former teacher inChicago, died September 23. She was 98. She is survived by two daughters, a sister, a brother, eightgrandchildren, a niece, and a nephew.Helen Anderson Lewis, AB'37, CLA'37, a retiredsocial worker, died July 28 in Venice, FL. She handled adoptions in the Chicago area for many years.Survivors include her husband, Samuel R. LewisJr., AB'35, JD'37; three sons; and six grandchildren.Richard H. Loyer, AM'38, died September 25 inEwing, NJ. He was 87. After retiring as manager ofmagazine circulation sales for McGraw-Hill, he wasa direct-marketing consultant for more than 20years, ending in 1989. He is survived by his wife,Ruth; a daughter; a son; two granddaughters; anephew; a niece; and nine cousins.Manuel L Stillerman, SB'38, MD'41, a Chicagoophthalmologist, died September 25. He was 78.Specializing in pediatric neuro-ophthalmology, hechaired the ophthalmology department at MichaelReese Hospital (1961-85), maintained a privatepractice, and taught at the University of Illinois. Anaccomplished musician, he worked his way throughmedical school as a violinist and vocalist for theLou Diamond Orchestra at the Palmer House. He issurvived by his wife, Arlene; two daughters; a son; abrother; and five grandchildren.Seymour J. Burrows, AB'39, MBA53, died August6. Survivors include his wife, Louise Mayer Burrows, AB'42, and a cousin, Homer B. Goldberg,AB'47, AM'48, PhD'61.James R. Henderson, Jr., AB'39, of Green Valley,AZ, died August 13. He was 78. A member of several transportation societies and the National PressClub, Henderson worked many years with theUnion Pacific Railroad as a foreign-freight and traffic manager. Survivors include his wife, KathrynCoolman Henderson, X'38.1940sGeorge L. Bach, PhD'40, a retired professor anduniversity administrator, died September 29 in Por-tola Valley, CA. He was 79. Bach served as the deanof the business school at Carnegie Mellon University from its founding in 1946 until 1962, when hejoined Stanford's faculty, retiring in 1983. His textbook Economics." An Introduction to Analysis andPolicy has gone through 11 editions and beenprinted in four languages. He is survived by hiswife, Ruth; four children; and eight grandchildren.Josephine Bailey Meschter, AM'43, of Clarendony of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 43Hills, IL, a former social worker, died October 16,1993. She had been a social worker in St. Louis andChicago and was active in church and charities.Survivors include her husband, Elwood F.Mcschter. X'40, MBA'49.Robert C. Thompson, X'43, of Indianapolis, diedJune 19. Survivors include his wife, Shirley BormanThompson, AB'42.Stella A. Wuerffel, SB'44, AM'57, a former seniordietitian at Michael Reese Hospital, died August 31in Ann Arbor, Ml. She was 93. Survivors include anephew, Arthur Mueller, and several cousins,including Andrew J. Chaveriat, AB'85, MBA'87,and Richard H. Luecke, PhD'55.Burton W. Michel, PhB'46, AM'51, a formeremployee of the U.S. Civil Service Commission,died September 4 in Naperville. He was 72. Michelserved with the U.S. Army during World War II,earning a Purple Heart, and was an active memberof his church. He is survived by a daughter, a son,and many nieces and nephews.Bertha Hensman, AM'42, PhD'47, of Oxford,England, died June 17. Survivors include herbrother. Jack.John G. Sevcik, MBA'47, former manager ofMcCormick Place, died October 7. He was 85.Before managing the convention center, Sevcik rosefrom stock boy to president of the Burton-DixieCorp., where he worked from 1925 until 1949. Heearned five academic degrees, including his MBA,by attending night school. He is survived by adaughter, a son, and four grandchildren, includingCourtney C. Shea, MBA'85.Joy Allen Raulfs, SM'48, a former schoolteacherin Virginia, died August 17. She was 70. In additionto teaching, she was active in community andschool activities. She is survived by her husband,George; a son; a daughter; a sister; two grandchildren; one niece; and one nephew,Richard T. Stearns, AB'48, AM'50, of OrmondBeach, FL, died May 27. He was 71. His career wasprimarily in finance, focusing on the rental-carfield. An avid book collector, Stearns served as vicepresident of the Florida Bibliophile Society. Survivors include his wife, Ruth Williams Stearns,PhB'48; two daughters; and a brother, Robert E.Steams, AB'48, AM'50.David L. Ladd, AB'49, JD'53, commissioner ofpatents in the Kennedy administration, died October 12 in Alexandria, VA. He was 68. Ladd co-authored a 1962 study that led to the creation of theWorld Intellectual Property Organization, a that safeguards patents and copyrights. In1963, he returned to practicing law and taughtpatent law at Ohio University and the University ofMiami. He was U.S. register of copyrights and assistant librarian of Congress for copyright services(1980-85) and worked with a Washington law firmuntil his 1987 retirement. He is survived by hiswife, Ann, and a sister.A. Delbert Peterson, SB'49, a retired meteorologist, died May 16 in Forest Grove, OR. He was 75.Peterson served as chief of the data and informationbranch of the Air Force's Air Weather Service. He issurvived by his wife, Marcia; a son; two daughters;a sister; and five grandchildren.Norman L. Pinkert, SB'49, of Wilmette, died September 24, 1993. Survivors include his wife, JeanneGrawoig Pinkert, PhB'49; sister Mae PinkovitzFields, PhB'34, MAT'57; and sister Sylvia PinkertHcnikoff, AB'39.1950sPhilip 11. Ashby, PhD'50, died recently. He was77. He was retired from Princeton University and issurvived by his wife, Mabel Kclley.John A. Kchoe, MD'50, a physician in Riverdale, MD, died December 26, 1993. He was 79. Practicingmedicine in Maryland since 1952, Kehoe served ascounty medical examiner and chief of staff at PrinceGeorge's Hospital Center. He is survived by his wife,Shirlee; four children; and four grandchildren.William F. Klatte, AB'50, AM'53, PhD'57, diedrecently. Survivors include sons Philip Klatte,AB'92, and David H. Klatte, a postdoctoral studentin biochemistry; and a daughter.George J. Resnikoff, SB'50, a former professorand administrator at California State University,Hayward, died September 5 in Oakland, CA. Hewas 79. Having founded and chaired CSUH's statistics department, he served as dean of the School ofScience and dean of Graduate Studies. He is survived by his wife, Florence, and a son.George M. Stanfield, MBA'50, of Lincoln City,OR, died March 22. He was 79. Survivors includehis wife, Betty.Jesse H. Wheeler, Jr., PhD'50, a professor emeritus of geography at the University of Missouri atColumbia, died July 8. He was 75. He is survived byhis wife, Margery.Ray L. Birdwhistell, PhD'51, an anthropologist atthe University of Pennsylvania's Annenberg Schoolfor Communication, died October 19. He was 76.Birdwhistell did his best-known research in nonverbal communication and was an expert in kinesics.He is survived by his wife, Anne; two daughters; abrother; and four grandchildren.Janet Musgrove Grandle, AM'51, a social workerand counselor in Hillsborough, CA, died September29. She was 68. Survivors include her husband,Frank H. Grandle, X'53; a son; a daughter; onegrandchild; two nephews; and a cousin.Virginia Streeter Cleland, AM'52, professoremerita in the nursing school at the University ofCalifornia, San Francisco, died September 8. Shewas 69. Prior to directing graduate programs atUCSF from 1985 until 1992, Cleland was a professor and administrator at Wayne State University for33 years. She is survived by her husband, Wallace; adaughter; a son; three sisters; and a grandchild.George H. Isaacson, MBA'53, of Joliet, died May14. He was 85. Isaacson was former general manager of the American Institute of Laundering, pastpresident of the Will County Manager's Association, and a member of the Lewis University Symphony Orchestra. Survivors include his wife, Nelda;two daughters, including Linda Isaacson Godson,SB'56; a sister; and eight grandchildren.Falk S. Johnson, PhD'56, a former professor oflinguistics at the University of Illinois, Chicago,died October 5. The Morton Grove resident was 80.A member of Northwestern University's Englishdepartment for four years, Johnson joined UIC in1949, retiring in 1984. He authored several articlesand books on language, and conducted a series ofEnglish courses on WTTW/Channel 11 during the1950s. He is survived by his wife, Laura; two sons; adaughter; a sister; and three grandchildren.Clifford D. Lewis, DB'58, of Lindsborg, KS, diedNovember 12, 1993. He was 61. He is survived byhis wife, Janice, and five children.Frederic P. Roehr HI, JD'58, an attorney in Portland, OR, died February 15. He was 60. He is survived by his wife, Anna; a son; his parents; and abrother.Robert A. ("Chuck") Bray, MD'59, a retiredphysician in Livingston, MT, died May 24. He was60. Bray served in the U.S. Army Medical Corpsduring the Vietnam War and then returned to apractice in Livingston, retiring in 1993. He is survived by his wife, Mary Lou; a son; two daughters; abrother, George A. Bray, MD'63; a stepbrother; astepsister; a niece; and a nephew.Donald B. Ward, DB'59, of Bermuda Dunes, CA,died September 27. He was 75. He served for several summers as rector of the Little Stone Church onMackinac Island, MI. Survivors include his wife, Vera.1960sSidney P. Abramson, JD'60, died August 27. Ajudge in Ramsey County, MN, for ten years, heresigned in 1982 to become a partner at the Minneapolis law firm of Robins, Kaplan, Miller &Ciresi. He was active on the boards of two localhospitals and with St. Paul's United Way and the St.Paul Jewish Community Center.George N. Trujillo, AM'60, died May 31. He was67. He is survived by his wife, Sandra,Ruth Jaffe Kraines Dubocq, AM'60, PhD'63, aformer therapist and counselor in Chicago, diedOctober 15 in Durham, NC. She was 79. She is survived by her husband, John W. Dubocq, X'56; threesons, including Richard L. Kraines, MD'63; twobrothers; and seven grandchildren.William E. Creighton, MBA'65, died May 25 ofamyotrophic lateral sclerosis. At the time of hisdeath he was an executive vice president and chiefoperating officer of Blanchard Valley Hospital inFindlay, OH. Survivors include his wife, Lynn,1970sWilliam P. Fornaciari, Jr., SM'71, a lecturer atCalifornia State University, died of a heart attack onMay 28 in Pasadena, CA. He was 46. Survivorsinclude his father, Paul, and his mother, Louise.Barbara E. Tenor Livingston, AB'71, of Monona,WI, died June 20, 1993. She was 49. Survivorsinclude her husband, Daniel.William H. Wethers III, MBA'74, an executivewith the YMCA in Chicago and cofounder ofBUILD, Inc., died of a heart attack on March 15. Hewas 61. He is survived by his wife, Jan; a son; adaughter; his father; and two grandchildren.1960sBarry C. Bishop, PhD'80, a professor and mountain climber, died September 24 in an auto accidentnear Pocatello, ID. He was 62. In 1963 Bishop waspart of the first American team to reach the summitof Mount Everest. He conducted or participated in adozen other expeditions in Asia and North America. Bishop was an adjunct professor of earth sciences at Montana State University and from 1992 to1994 was the Landegger distinguished professor atGeorgetown University. He also chaired theNational Geographic Society's committee for research and exploration. Survivors include his wife,Lila; a son; and a daughter,James P. Dunlop, AB'85, MBA'87, a vice presidentwith Citicorp Credit Services in Long Island City,NJ, died October 18 of a heart attack. He was 30,While a student, Dunlop worked in the GSB's development office; at the time he received his MBA, hewas assistant director of the school's annual fund.Survivors include his wife, Claudia; a daughter; hismother; brother Michael J. P. Dunlop, AB'87; andhis father-in-law, Harry Harootunian, the MaxPalevsky professor of East Asian Languages & Civilizations.1990sRobert G. Smith, MBA'94, of Las Vegas, diedMarch 14. He was 75. Recipient of an executiveM.B.A. program certificate in 1955, Smith wasamong those denied an M.B.A. for lack of an undergraduate degree until the policy was changed lastyear. From 1988 to 1992, he was a consultant at R.G. Smith &r Associates in Las Vegas. Survivorsinclude his wife, Josephine, and a daughter.44 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995Books by AlumniART AND ARCHITECTOREMark P. Freeman, PhD'86, Finding the Muse: ASodopsychological Inquiry into the Conditions ofArtistic Creativity (Cambridge University Press),Exploring the lives of a group of aspiring Americanartists schooled in the mid-1960s, this book focuseson problems and prospects of creativity as theyrelate to such issues as the mystique of the artist,the place of the art market in constructing artisticidentity, the challenge of establishing an artisticcommunity, and the limits and possibilities ofmodern and postmodern art.6I0GRAPHY AND LETTERSChristopher Clausen, AM'65, My Life with President Kennedy (University of Iowa Press). Clausen'sautobiographical book explores the relationsbetween public and private life and the impact thatpublic events and forces such as the Vietnam War,the early 20th-century immigration boom, andtoday's tabloid media have on private lives.Carl Dolmetsch, PhD'57, Unser Beruehmter Gast:Mark Twain in Wien (Edition Atelier Verlag). ThisGerman edition of Dolmetsch's book Our FamousGuest: Mark Twain in Vienna tells the story ofTwain's sojourn in Vienna from 1897 to 1899.Marshall Green, John H. Holdridge, and WilliamN. Stokes, SM'48, War and Peace with China: First-Hand Experiences in the Foreign Service of the UnitedStates (Dacor Press). Opening with Stokes' accountof his experiences in China in the late 1940s andearly 1950s, the book analyzes U.S. diplomacy inAsia and the role of the Foreign Service in Chinasince World War II.Janice M. Moulton, AM'68, PhD'71, and GeorgeM. Robinson, PhD'70, Scaling the Dragon (CrossCultural Publications). China's recent, turbulentpast and rapidly changing present provide a background for the authors' experiences in China andthe cultural conflicts they encountered.James S. Peters II, X'54, Memoirs of a Black Southern New Englander (Dorrance Publishing). Theauthor chronicles his life, from his birth in a cottonpatch in Arkansas to his present career as a semi-retired counseling and clinical psychologist livingin Storrs, CT. The book relates his fight againstracial injustice in the North and the South as hebecame a student, Navy man, and professor.DUSINESS AND ECONOMICSHawley Atkinson, Jr., MBA'78, Linking Quality toProfits: Quality Based Cost Management (AmericanSociety for Quality Control and Institute of Management Accountants). Tools and methodologiesthat link quality and the bottom line are combinedwith examples from companies like Xerox, H. J.Heinz, and Westinghouse, providing a practicalframework to lower costs and increase profitability.Germa Bel, AM'88, La Demanda de Transporte enEspana: Competencia Intermodal sobre el FarocarrilInteivrbano (Institute de Estudios del Transporte ylas Comunicaciones). The author examines themain characteristics of transportation public policyin Spain, evaluating its effects on transport demand.Colin Coulson-Thomas, X'75, editor, BusinessProcess Re-engineering: Myth and Reality (KoganPage). The contributors set out to clarify business process re-engineering, a new trend in transformingbusinesses, by presenting a balanced picture of thepractice and how to apply it.Claudia Goldin, AM'69, PhD'72, and Gar)' D.Libecap, editors, The Regulated Economy (Universityof Chicago Press). These eight case studies explorelate 19th- and early 20th-century origins of government intervention in the U.S. economy, focusing onthe political influence of special-interest groups inthe development of economic regulation.William C. Hillman, X'54, Personal Bankruptcy:What Every Debtor and Creditor Needs to Know(Practising Law Institute) . This practical guidebooktakes readers step-by-step through the bankruptcyprocess, answering such questions as whether tofile, how to do so, and if a lawyer is required.Kenneth Kaufman, X'69, MBA'76, and Mark Hall,MBA'77, The Financially Competitive HealthcareOrganization (Probus Publishing). The authors discuss attitudes, tools, and analytical methodologiesfor improving financial performance in the competitive health-care marketplace. Major topics includefinancial planning, acquisition analysis, corporatefinance and capital deployment, investment analysis, and physician-hospital integration strategies.Rochelle Kopp, MBA'92, The Rice-Paper Ceiling:Breaking Through Japanese Corporate Culture (StoneBridge Press). Because of different attitudes towardwork, goals, accountability, and other factors,American employees and Japanese bosses often takecontrasting approaches to their work. Kopp provides American employees at Japanese-owned companies with strategies for overcoming culturaldivisions and advancing their careers.Robert A. G. Monks and Nell Minow, JD'77, Corporate Governance (Blackwell's). Designed forM.B.A., law, and public-policy students, this textbook examines the role that management, boards ofdirectors, shareholders, customers, suppliers, andemployees can, do, and should play in determiningcorporate direction, strategy, and performance. Itincludes detailed case studies and compares U.S.corporate governance to that of other countries.CRITICISMHorst S. Daemmrich, PhD'64, and Ingrid G.Daemmrich, AM'60, Spirals and Circles: A Key toThematic Patterns in Classicism and Realism (PeterLang). By linking representations of human relations with configurations of approach and withdrawal, proximity and distance, the authors showrecurring spatial alignments in conceptions of socialinteraction: the centrifugal pattern of classicism andthe centripetal pattern of realism.Richard S. Kennedy, AM'47, E. E. CummingsRevisited (Twayne Publishers) and Robert Browning's Asolando: The Indian Summer of a Poet (University of Missouri Press). Published to coincidewith the centennial of Cummings' birth, this criticalstudy traces the poet's development, his styles andtheir sources, and the growth of his individualisticview of life. The second book discusses Browning'sfinal, overlooked volume of poetry, defended byKennedy as a fitting cap to Browning's career — asgood or better than several of his earlier works.Naomi Lindstrom, AB'71, Twentieth-CenturaSpanish American Fiction (University of Texas Press) .The author offers English-language readers a comprehensive survey of the century's literary produc- TLipUNRELIEVEDPARADOXStudies in the Theologyof Franz BibfeldtEdited by MARTIN E. MARTYand JERALD C. BRAUER"... an otherwise nccraordinary achievement . . "-Anon.TTThe1§ tUnrelievedParadoxStudiesin the Theologyof Franz BibfeldtMARTIN E. MARTY&JERALD C. BRAUER"The best spoof of arcane, academic Christian theology tocome along in quite some time."—PUBLISHERS WEEKLY"Franz Bibfeldt speaks not intongues but in schnitzels andschweigers. The meister theologian says what others would liketo say, indeed as if others hadput the words in his mouth."—MICHAEL HIRSLEYReligion writer, Chicago TribuneISBN 0-8028-0745-331 black-and-white photos245 pages • Paper • $14.99To older, call 800-253-7521or FAX 616-459-6540All major credit cards accepted' Wm. B. Eerdmansi Publishing Co.255 JEFFERSON AVE. S.F.. / GRAND RAPIDS, MI 49503University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 45Hon in Latin America (excluding Brazil). Discussingmovements and trends, she places famous master-works in historical perspective and highlightsauthors and works deserving of a wider audience.Judith W. Page, PhD'79, Wordsworth and the Cultivation of Women (University of California Press).Using family letters, journals, documents, andunpublished material by Wordsworth's daughterDora, Page presents Wordsworth as a poet primarily defined not by egotistical sublimity but by hiscomplicated, conflicted endorsement of domesticityand family life.EDUCATION]. T. Dillon, AM'71, PhD'78, Using Discussion inClassrooms (Open University Press). Encouragingteachers at all levels to use classroom discussionmore fully, Dillon analyzes its nature and rationale,lists topics and participants, and explains its conduct and language. The book includes transcripts ofdiscussions, practical exercises, and a bibliography.Frances A. Maher and Mary Kay ThompsonTetreault, MAT'66, The Feminist Classroom (BasicBooks). Drawing on interviews and observations,the authors describe the classrooms of 17 collegeprofessors who integrate feminist and multiculturalcontent into their curricula.James Marshall, Peter Smagorinsky, MAT'77.PhD'89, and Michael W. Smith, AB'76, MAT'76,PhD'87 , The Language of Interpretation: Patterns ofDiscourse in Discussions of Literature (NationalCouncil of Teachers of English), The authors present research on how literature is discussed insideand ouLside high-school classrooms, looking at howteachers' control of classroom discourse shapes andoften limits student thinking.Sherelyn Ogden, AM'78, editor, Preservation ofLibrary arid Archival Materials: A Manual (NortheastDocument Conservation Center). This book provides basic, practical information to plan and implement library collections-care programs and toincorporate preservation principles into existingprograms. Topics include preservation planningand prioritizing, the environment, storage and handling, reformatting, and conservation procedures.Peter Smagorinsky, MAT'77, PhD'89, editor,Speaking about Writing: Re/lections on ResearchMethodology (Sage). The contributors reflect onproblematic aspects of research on writing thatrelies on verbal analysis such as interviews and discussions.FICTION AND POETRYNorman Hane, PhD'68, Riding into the Solstice(River Oak Press). Hane's poetry is influenced byhis personal memories and the idea of change andstability as forces that collide and move people inunexpected ways.M. L. Harvey, PhD'79, Painted Light (Mellen PoetryPress). Harvey's collected poems emphasize rhythm.Janet Lewis, PhB'20, The Dear Past (Robert L.Barth). This collection of poetry spans Lewis' careerfrom 1919 until the present.Campbell McGrath, AB'84, American Noise (EccoPress). McGrath's second collection of poetryexplores contemporary American culture and landscape, defining moments of joy and melancholy anduncovering the purgatory of lost pop-culture iconsol the post-Baby Boom generation.Karen Molinc, AB'77, Lunch (William Morrow).Mobile's novel of erotic obsession examines Hollywood power games and twisted contemporarynotions of celebrity, success, and subjugationMane Rollings, AB'72, AM'75, The Struggle toAdoie (Story Line Press). Rollings' self-questioning,nco-Romanlic poetry explores love, intellect, and passion.Edna L. Steeves, AM'36, editor, The Plays of MaryPix and Catherine Trotter (Garland Publishing).With an introduction by Steeves, these two volumesof early 18th-century plays showcase Pix's comediesand Trotter's tragedies.HISTORY/CURRENT EVENTSKaren Barkey, PhD'88, Bandits and Bureaucrats(Cornell University Press). The book details state-society relations in the Ottoman Empire during the16th and 17th centuries, illuminating a period oftencharacterized as one in which the state declined inpower. The main challenge to the state, Barkeyargues, came from former mercenary soldiers — notthe peasantry and elite, who were dependent on thestate.George Brodsky, PhB'30, This House Is Ours (TheWinnetka Community House). Brodsky presents adetailed history of the Winnetka CommunityHouse, the first institution of its kind in the nationLove and Passion (see Fiction and Poetty)and a model for many others. The House, foundedin 1911, offers social, educational, and recreationalservices to Chicago's North Shore.Dena Goodman, AM'78, PhD'82, The Republic ofLetters: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment (Cornell University Press). Goodman finds theepicenter of the Enlightenment in the Republic ofLetters, a community of discourse with salons governed by women. Not only did the salons' participants introduce reciprocity into intellectual lifethrough letter writing and conversation, they alsodeveloped a republican model of government thatwould challenge the monarchy.Gaillard T. Hunt, X'60, Hiroshima and Nagasaki,Memories and Questions: Congregational Resourcesfor the Anniversaiy of the Atomic Destruction of TwoJapanese Cities (CSS Publishers). Hunt's bookincludes a discussion outline for study groups, asuggested service, and a 20-minute play in whichhistorical figures such as J. Robert Oppenheimer,Albert Einstein, and Sadako Sasaki debate the use ofthe bomb.John Komlos, AM'72, PhD'78, PhD'90, editor,Stature, Living Standards, and Economic Development: Essays in Anthropometric History (Universityof Chicago Press). In this collection of essays studying height and weight data from 18th- and early 19th-century Europe, North America, and Asia, 14scholars explore the relation among physical size,economic development, and standard of living invarious socioeconomic groups.James F. McGlew, AB'77, AM'83, PhD'86,Tyranny and Political Culture in Ancient Greece (Cornell University Press). Analyzing changes in Greekpolitical vocabulary resulting from the history ofancient tyrants, McGlew maintains that tyranny wasshaped through discursive complicity between thetyrant and his subjects, who accepted his self-definition as an agent of justice but also learned from himthe language and methods of resistance.Augustus Richard Norton, PhD'84, editor, CivilSociety in the Middle East (E. J. Brill). This two-volume work reports on the current status of state-society relations in the Middle East, as well as theregion's prospects for political reform. Volume Iincludes chapters on Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Syria,Tunisia, and the West Bank and Gaza, and examinesthe impact of Islamic thought on political reform;Volume II covers Algeria, the Arab Gulf states, Iran,Iraq, Israel, the Sudan, Turkey, and Yemen.Franklin L. Yoder, AM'89, Opening a Window tothe World: A History of Iowa Mennonite School (IowaMennonite School). Detailing the school's historyand its relation to the surrounding rural MennoniteIowa community, the book offers insights into private education and the confrontation betweenmodernity and the small, insulated community.MEDICINE AND HEALTHDaniel Graupe and Kate H. Kohn, MD'35, Functional Electrical Stimulation for Ambulation by Paraplegics (Krieger Publishing). Based on the authors'work of the last 12 years, the book describes the clinical training of 100 spinal-cord-injured patients instanding and walking using unbraced, non-invasive(transcutaneous), functional electrical stimulation.Alan R. Rushton, PhD'75, MD'77, Genetics andMedicine in the United States, 1800-1922 (JohnsHopkins University Press). Physicians rediscoveringMendel's work in 1900 began to accept its relevanceto human heredity and the understanding ofgenetic illness. But by the early 1920s, Rushtonexplains, progress had come to a near standstillbecause of physicians who became convinced thatgenetic illness was relatively rare and because ofethical objections to eugenics theories.POLITICAL SCIENCE AND LAWPaul Burstein, AB'68, editor, Equal EmploymentOpportunity: Labor Market Discrimination and PublicPolicy (Aldine de Gruyter). Designed for general andacademic audiences, the book presents the work ofmajor scholars in history, economics, sociology,political science, and law. The debates about equal-employment-opportunity law and its effects put theAmerican situation into an international context.Richard K. Caputo, PhD'82, Welfare and FreedomAmerican Style 11: The Role of the Federal Government, 1941-1980 (University Press of America).Tracing the federal government's social and economic roles from World War II through the Carteradministration, Caputo examines fiscal policy, civil-rights legislation, and welfare reform, and documents the shift by both major political parties fromsuch economic issues as unemployment and inflation to social problems like the Equal RightsAmendment and identity politics.John Mueller, AB'60, Policy and Opinion in the GulfWar (University of Chicago Press) and Quiet Cataclysm: Reflections on the Recent Transformation ofWorld Politics (HarperCollins). The first book discusses the relationship between American policyand public opinion during the Gulf crisis, analyzing46 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995public support for war, public opinion's effect on themedia, and the use of polls by policy makers. Thesecond book reflects on changes in world politicswith the end of the cold war, finding that militaryconsiderations are often less relevant than economicconcerns to issues of international politics.Filip Palda, PhD'89, How Much Is Your VoteWorth? (ICS Press). Questioning the view thatpolitical-action committees corrupt politicians andthat campaign spending wastes resources, Paldaasserts that proposed campaign-spending limitswould prevent the dissemination of useful information to voters and would hurt poorly funded political challengers.Michael S. Warner, PhD'90, editor, The CIA underHarry Truman (CIA). This collection of declassifiedCIA documents — the third volume in the agency'sCold War Records series — offers insight into theCIA's origins and its role at the opening of the coldwar.PSYCHIATRY/PSYCHOLOGYRobert D. Boyd, AM'53, PhD'62, Personal Transformations in Small Groups: A Jungian Perspective(Routledge). Using extensive case material combined with a rigorous research approach, the authorshows how individuals in a small group change asthey work through episodic themes of individuation. The different ways of analyzing small-groupdynamics have practical implications for groupleaders and offer a model for future research.Edith McCall, AM'49, Sometimes We Dance Alone:Your Next Years Can Be Your Best Years (BrettBooks). McCall shares her own philosophy andapproach to overcoming loneliness in aging by leading an active, satisfying life with a healthy mind,body, and spirit.Patrick E. Shrout, PhD'76, and Susan T. Fiske,U-High'69, editors, Personality Research, Methods &Theory: A Festschrift Honoring Donald W. Fiske(Lawrence Erlbaum Associates). The book honorsDonald W. Fiske, a U of C professor emeritus ofpsychology, and his impact on personality research.Written by contemporaries, former students, collaborators, and his two children, the volume alsofocuses on ongoing debates and issues framed orinfluenced by Fiske's work and concludes with anessay by Fiske on behavioral and social-sciencemetatheory, methods, and strategies.RECREATIONJames L. Cambias, AB'88, Arabian Nights: A GenreBook for Rolemaster (Iron Crown Enterprises). Asupplement for the Rolemaster fantasy roleplayinggame system, the book provides information onadventuring in the world of the Arabian Nights tales.Lou Willett Stanek, PhD74, So You Want to Writea Novel (Avon Books) and Thinking Like a Writer(Random House). In the first book, Stanek offersbrainstorming exercises, techniques for characterdevelopment, and thoughts on transforming an ideainto a novel. The second book is designed to inspirechildren to think like writers and to write at anearly age.RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHYLowell K. Handy, AM'80, PhD'87, Among the Hostof Heaven: The Syro-Palestinian Pantheon as Bureaucracy (Eisenbrauns). Handy argues that a survey ofliterary sources for the pantheon recorded in theLevant from the second millennium B.C. into thefirst millennium a.d. reveals a bureaucratic structurefor the relations presented among the deities. Thefour tiers of the divine realm reflect the social levelsof human society as understood in the same culture. Sara F. Luther, John J. Neumaier, and Howard L.Parsons, AB'42, PhD'46, editors. Diverse Perspectiveson Marxist Philosophy: East and West (GreenwoodPress). Philosophers from Russia, Hungary, Canada.and the U.S. explore Marxism's relevancy, successes,limitations, and possibilities for improvement.Martin Marty, PhD'56, Fairfax M. Cone distinguished service professor in the Divinity School,and Micah Marty, Places along the Way: Meditationson the Journey of Faith (Augsburg Fortress). Marty'sreflections on biblical scenes, accompanied by hisson's photographs representing these scenes, areintended as a 47-day spiritual journey.Robert L. Randall, AM'69, PhD'73, The Time ofYour Life: Self/Time Management for Pastors (Abingdon). Randall argues that time-management problems are caused by loss of cohesion in a leader'spersonality, not by having too many things to do,and offers suggestions that lead to more effectivepreaching, administration, and pastoral care.Judith A. Swanson, PhD'87, The Public and thePrivate in Aristotle's Political Philosophy (CornellUniversity Press). Swanson challenges the dominant view that Aristotle regarded the private as amere precondition to the public. Rather, she arguesthat for Aristotle, private activity develops virtueand is essential to individual freedom and happiness and to the well-being of the political order. Herinterpretation of The Politics revises the reader'sunderstanding of Aristotle's views on women andthe family, slavery, and the relation between friendship and civic solidarity.Patricia Wittberg, AM'78, PhD'82, The Rise andFall of Catholic Religious Orders: A Social MovementPerspective (SUNY Press). Using two basic social-movement theories to analyze several historicalperiods when Roman Catholic religious ordersexperienced rapid growth or catastrophic decline,Wittberg applies her results to the membership lossaffecting religious orders today.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYNancy R. John and Edward J. Valauskas, AM'82,The Internet Troubleshooter: Help for the Logged-Onand Lost (ALA Publishing). This question-and-answer guide through the Internet includes sectiondividers, screen illustrations, examples, a glossary,and an index.T. J. Mullin, JD'73, The 100 Greatest CombatHandguns (Paladin Press). The first in a series, thisbook reviews and evaluates military-style handguns(tested on formal and combat-simulated ranges)used from 1890 to the present.Joseph P. Olive, SB'64, SM'64, AM'69, PhD'69;Alice Greenwood; and John Coleman, Acoustics ofAmerican English Speech (Springer-Verlag). Thisintroductory text, intended for people of diverseacademic backgrounds, describes American Englishspeech, emphasizing sounds in context rather thanisolated syllables. The text is illustrated with spectrograms and waveforms of speech sounds.Joseph Rotblat; Jack H. Steinberger, SB'42,PhD'49; and Bhalchandra Udgaonkar, editors, ANuclear Free World: Desirable? Feasible? (West-view). Twenty-six experts from 11 nations arguethat the only effective solution to the nuclear threatis abolishing nuclear weapons. They offer suggestions for legal, technical, and societal systems toregulate such a ban, including the possibility of aU.N. deterrent force to guard against violators.C. Bruce Stephenson, AM'75, PhD'83, The Musicof the Heavens: Kepler's Harmonic Astronomy(Princeton University Press). Challenging criticswho characterize Kepler's theories of harmonicastronomy as "mystical," Stephenson offers a thorough technical analysis of the music Kepler thoughtthe heavens made and the logic that led him to find musical patterns in his data. (This corrects information printed in the Dccembcr/94 issue. — Ed.)SOCIAL SCIENCESSteven M. Albert, AM'81, AM'83, PhD'87, andMaria Cattell, Old Age in Global Perspective: Cross-Cullural and Cross-National Views (GK Hall/MacMillan Press). Drawing on ethnographic field-work and cross-national surveys, the authors placethe experience of old age in its biologic, demographic, and cultural contexts. The book concludeswith a series of hypotheses for cross-culturalresearch.Harry H. Bash, AB'51, Social Problems & SocialMovements: An Exploration into the Sociological Con-stmclion of Alternative Realities (Humanities Press).Using a social-constructionist perspective, theauthor traces the social-problem and social-movement themes that permeated both American andcontinental European sociology from the mid-19thto the mid-20th centuries — concluding that the distinction between the themes is purely conceptualand attributing barriers to their integration to ideological factors.Charles W. Nelson, PhD'49, A GIST SystemicApproach to Organizational Development (Management Research Associates). Based on a systemicanalysis of organizational sources of power, the textprovides theory, methods, tools, and case illustrations useful for transforming an organization's climate, improving the employees' quality of life, andimproving the product.Beth Rashbaum, AB'68, and Olga Silverstein, TheCourage to Raise Good Men (Viking). Culturalanalysis and case histories are combined to showhow American culture sanctions male emotionalshutdown, where that shutdown begins (in the culturally mandated withdrawal of mothers from theirsons) , and why that shutdown is damaging to bothmen and women.Frederic G. Reamer, AM'75, PhD'78, Social WorkMalpractice and Liability (Columbia UniversityPress) and editor, The Foundations of Social WorkKnowledge (Columbia University Press), Written forsocial workers, the first book uses case studies todiscuss the legal and ethical implications of problematic situations and also offers strategies forreducing liability risk and advice on handling a lawsuit. The second book collects essays analyzing theintellectual underpinnings of social work.Walter L. Wallace, PhD'63, A Weberian Theory ofHuman Society: Structure and Evolution (RutgersUniversity Press). Based on a critical interpretationof the work of Max Weber, as well as otherresearch, the book presents uniformities in the wayhumans and their societies work, as Wallaceexplores how and why societies change and offersspeculations about their future.TRAVELThomas P. Sakmar, AB'78, MD'82; Pierce Gardner; and Gene N. Peterson, MD'82, Passport'sHealth Guide for International Travelers (PassportBooks). Featuring a country-by-country list ofimmunization requirements, the book advisestourists and business travelers how to prepare fortrips abroad, find proper doctors and treatment,and deal with medical problems that develop aftertheir return.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," pleasesend the name of the book, its author, its publisher, its field, and a short synopsis to the BooksEditor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, or by of Chicago Magazine/February 1995 47GoodNeighborsBy David H. HoffmanI have a neighbor named Johnny.Johnny lives two blocks from the LawSchool, where I am a third-year student. Despite our proximity, it washighly improbable that Johnny and I wouldmeet, much less become friends. Too manybarriers separated us, including a tall fence.The Law School sits on 60th Street, on the"other side" of the Midway. Behind theschool lie its two parking lots and a grassyrecreational area. At the end of this space isthe fence, ten feet high, topped by barbed-wire struts that no longer hold any barbedwire. The fence successfully separates theschool from 61st Street, where Woodlawnbegins. A fairly typical "inner-city" neighborhood, Woodlawn is not the worstneighborhood in Chicago, but city statisticsgenerally include it among the worst ten interms of income, crime, educationalachievement, disease, and vacant housing.This physical barrier between the LawSchool and Woodlawn is not an anomaly.Much of the University's contemporary history is about building barriers. In the1950s, the University decided it had twooptions: leave Hyde Park or insulate itselffrom the encroaching violence and poverty.It chose the latter. Fences, cul-de-sacs, andone-way streets were used to keep the ivorytower secure. The Law School fence has aclear message for students: For your ownsafety, don't leave. To the people of Woodlawn, the message is even clearer: Stay out.The time seemed right to reach out to thepeople of Woodlawn as neighbors, to movebeyond the barriers erected in a time ofentrenchment, to resist the dividing linesthat crisscross so many of our nation'scities. And so 1 gathered together a group offriends to launch a volunteer community-service program thai would establish linksbetween the Law School and the Woodlawn community. Wc called it "Neighbors."We all agreed that deciding how to reach out was just as important as decidingwhether to reach out. Reaching out entailsrisk. By proposing a new relationship, wewere asking the people of Woodlawn totrust us. Yet, they saw us as part of a community that in the past had shunned them,looked down on them, and rarely enteredinto long-term commitments with them.We explained how we would be different;we understood that they knew the problems and their solutions best. We simplywanted to know if we could lend them ahand. We also emphasized that our commitment would not be frivolous. Our goalwas not to send a handful of students to asoup kitchen once a month but to buildreal relationships. Students would berequired to volunteer two hours a week inthe same program. No excuses.To our delight, they accepted our proposal and prepared to accept Law Schoolstudents into their many fantastic programs: a day-care center for senior citizenswith Alzheimer's whose families cannotafford nursing homes; an education andcounseling program for young mothers,ages 12 to 20; an all-male drug rehabilitation center where we were asked to teachremedial reading; a hospital for abusedchildren needing individual attention.The Woodlawn leaders also created after-school tutoring programs at the neighborhood's two K-8 schools for us. This is theprogram 1 volunteered for, and this is how I met Johnny. A seventh grader, he hasgrown five inches since we started workingtogether in the fall of '93. At a school wherethe average sixth grader tests at the third-grade level in reading and math, Johnny'sreport card regularly carries D's and F's(though not exclusively, he proudly pointsout to me). When we meet each Mondayand Tuesday, his enthusiasm and intelligence are palpable, if unfocused. We workon his math problems and his book reports.I have introduced him to time zones andLangston Hughes. We joke about his girlfriends, and we play basketball. His teachers tell me his scores have improved.I, too, am improved. I pass through thechain-link fence and enter the world of myWoodlawn neighbors. Over 100 LawSchool students are part of Neighbors nowand join me in this journey every week.They have built relationships with youngmen at the drug rehab center who want topass the GED and people with Alzheimer'swho just want to chat. Our journey takesus outside the insulated legal world we livein and gives us new insights into the law,new perspectives on the Law School, andnew knowledge about ourselves.Most importantly, though, it gives us newfriendships. Last May, the Woodlawn community suggested a joint Law School-Woodlawn party to celebrate the first yearof Neighbors. At the YWCA over cake andpunch, we mingled together. Volunteersand their Woodlawn friends exchangedhugs and laughs. University administratorstalked with Woodlawn social-service leaders. A sixth grader sang, "It's So Hard to SayGood-bye"; another read a poem. Speecheswere given and thank yous exchanged. Andthen we cleaned up and went our separateways, half of us north, half south.And as we returned to our school'sfenced-in area, the fence no longer meantso much. The barriers that had kept usapart no longer seemed so high. We hadcreated a new community — people withcommon interests, relationships, memories.Both sides of the fence could now look tothe other side and smile warmly. And I hada new friend, my neighbor named Johnny.David Hoffman grew up in the Chicago area.Next year, he'll clerk for a federal appellatejudge in New York City.48 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1995Aerospace - Applied Research - Banking & Finance - Bio-TechlHealthCare - Chemical • Computer Software/Hardwarer,ec f 'hitj/dyn PmixTePut You in the SpotlightWhether or not you're currently looking for a job, companies do make offersyou can't refuse. The Chicago ProNet service is designed to keep you aware of challengingopportunities: Fortune 500, Start-ups, Management, Sales, Marketing,Consulting, High-tech, Bio-tech, and many more.Registering with ProNet assures that your career profile is constantly available to employerswho are seeking to fill challenging positions you wouldn't hear about otherwise.It's easy and it's confidential. For more informationwrite: Chicago ProNet, Registration Dept.,The University of Chicago Alumni Association,5757 So. Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637;or call 800/593-3085 can utilize ProNet in your recruiting effortsplease call 800/340-9491Consulting - Electronics • Engineering - Government • Market Research • Manufacturing • Semiconductor - TelecommunicationPicture youreelf atReunion 1995.Revisit familiar places.Greet familiar faces.And celebrate thebest and brightestminds at yourUniversity of Chicago.ne2-4For more information about Reunion 1995,please call 312-702-4456 or write:The University of Chicago Alumni Association5757 South Woodlawn AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637e-mail: dwehuf2@uchimvs1.uchicago.eduTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobie House, 5757 WoodlawnChicago, IL 60637ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED