THE UNIVERSITY OFMAGAZINE DECEMBER 1994¦_^,. ,<.,—fHP:' 9«B^ V#kJ. x A" P BbST ¦.'¦¦|li X jI 111 > 1 j. ^ , r\ JH 4-«77" JK a VA afcr AIMWM 1 ¦ 1 ¦ * 1 VKflM ,flgm ^s1 '*" '¦¦¦ v"~" X 'i ¦ i^V^^H '* 1njImprov enters TVs twilight zoneI BBRR<I ' "|RHR 1SB^bI B9BB '' mUNIVERSITY OFhicagoVOLUME 87, NUMBER 2 DECEMBER 1994 —* ^^BDEPARTMENTS2 Editors notes3 Letters6 EventsWhat's worth coining out intlte cold for.8 Course workPushing the envelope: JohnFrederick on how humansand Earth's atmosphereinteract.10 InvestigationsLeon Koss cm (tow to cat likean animal-~or dine like ahuman being.1 2 Chicago journalWhat it's going to take to gelthe University back in theblack; how to visit campusvia the Internet35 Class news41 Deaths44 Books by alumni48 Other voicesKatharine Mann Byrne,AB36, AW43, writes aboutfinancial aid in the wake ofthe Depression. 24 FEATURESVirtual TVWhen a grad student developed a computer programto analyze the plot stmcture of TV sitcoms, a new formofimprov theater was waiting in the wings.JULIE RIGBYDoctor, lawyer, agency chiefAs FDA commissioner, David Kessler, JD'78, polices thenation's pantries and medicine chests.ANDREW CAMPBELLThe University goes downtownA Jew steps off Michigan Avenue, the Downtown Carterputs the University in the heart of the city.MARY RUTH YOEWill the real McKeon please stand up?During the jour decades he taught at Chicago, philosopherRichard McKeon inspired both resentment and respect.TIM ANDREW OBERMILLER Page 1 6Cover: In Sitcom (page 16), Dan Goldstein (right)andjohn Bourdeaux (left) lead a student comedy troupe (clockwise from top left: Jim Ortlieb,Josh Sinton, Nick Green, John McCoiiy, EmilyPollock, Abby Sher, Andre Pluess, BenSussman); photograph by Matthew Gilson.Opposite: stairway at the Downtown Center;photograph by Dan Dry. Page 20EditorMary Ruth YoeManaging EditorTim Andrew ObermillerAssociate EditorAndrew CampbellArt DirectorAllen CarrollEditorial AssistantKimberly SweetStudent AssistantQiana Johnson, '98Contributing EditorsJamie Kalven, Joe LevineEditorial office: The University of ChicagoMagazine, Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-2163; fax (312) 702-2166. The Magazine is sent to all University of Chicago alumni.The University of Chicago Alumni Associationhas its offices at Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-2150; fax (312) 702-2166.The University of Chicago AlumniAssociation Board of Governors:Officers: Linda Thoren Neal, AB'64, JD'67, president; Bob Levey, AB'66, wee president; Gregory G. Wrobel, AB'75, JD'78, MBA'79,treasurer; Michael J. Klingensmith, AB'75,MBA'76, secretary; Jeanne Buiter, MBA'86,'executive director.Andrew M. Alper, AB'80, MBA'81; Dennis M.Barden, 'Assistant Vice President for Development; Richard L. Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; JackJ. Carlson, AB'40; N. Gwyn Cready, AB'83,MBA'86; Trina N. Frankel, AB'64; CarolineHeck, AB'71 ; Le Roy J. Hines, AM'78; RandyHolgate, 'Vice President, Development andAlumni Relations; Susan Carlson Hull, AB'82Patricia Klowden, AB'67; Michael C. KraussAB'75, MBA'76; Joseph D. LaRue, AM'59Katherine Dusak Miller, AB'65, MBA'68PhD'71; William C. Naumann, MBA'75Theodore A. O'Neill, AM70, 'Dean of CollegeAdmissions; Susan W. Parker, AB'65; FrederickO. Paulsell, Jr., AB'62, MBA'63; Harvey B. Plot-nick, AB'63; Louise E. Rehling, AM'70, SM74;Jean Maclean Snyder, AB'63, JD'79; David M.Terman, AB'55, SB'56, MD'59; Mary B. VanMeerendonk, AB'64; Peter 0. Vandervoort,ABM, SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60; Mary Ruth Yoe,'Editor, University of Chicago Magazine." Ex OfficioMagazine Advisory Committee: Michael J.Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76, chair, Richard L.Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; Mary Lou Gorno,MBA'76; Neil Harris, the Preston and SterlingMorton Professor in History; Susan CarlsonHull, AB'82; Michael C. Krauss, AB'75, MBA'76;Bob Levey, AB'66; Katherine Dusak Miller,AB'65, MBA'68, PhD'71; Peter O. Vandervoort,AB'54, SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60; Marva Watkins,AB'63.The University of Chicago Magazine (ISSN-0041-9508) is published bimonthly (October,December, February, April, June, and August)by the University of Chicago in cooperation withthe Alumni Association, Robie House, 5757Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago IL 60637. Published continuously since 1907. Second-classpostage paid at Chicago and additional mailingoffices. POSTMASTER: Send address changesto the University of Chicago Magazine, AlumniRecords, Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. © 1994 Universityof Chicago. Editors NotesWhen Traveling, an exhibition ofwork by artist Felix Gonzalez-Torres, opened at the Renaissance Society in early October, thousands ofplastic-wrapped cubes of aquamarine candysparkled on the floor of the Bergman Gallery. Taken together, they formed a muchlarger square, one with the clean, minimalist lines of a concrete swimming pool.A month later, the swimming pool morenearly resembled a beach. Its hard edgeshad been replaced by rivulets, inlets, andisland outposts. A few candies had driftedacross the gallery, settling in faraway corners. One lone square perched on a window ledge, almost hidden by the long,white, gauzy curtains that, ebbing andflowing before the open windows, werethemselves another of the Cuban-bornartist's works.Over time, the exhibition's visitors hadgrown more comfortable with followingGonzalez-Torres' instruction to "Please takeone." At first even schoolchildren, traditionally greedy for sweets, hung back.When a group of third graders was given25 seconds to "pick up all the candy youcan," they were amazed by the liberality ofthe direction — and by how many piecesremained after they had stuffed their pockets full.Somewhat less impressed, another childannounced with parochial pride, "A man who lives on my block owns a candy company." Told that the same company hadmanufactured the exhibit's candy, the childtook a handful of proof back home to theneighbor; the next weekend, the candy-man's wife and daughter turned up to seetheir candy. Meanwhile, the piece — officially called Untitled (Revenge) and firstmounted in 1991 — continued to change.All of which must have pleased the artist."A pile of candy, a stack of paper, a stringof lights; as simple as they may sound," thecatalog notes, "these are the raw materialsGonzalez-Torres uses to address such complex themes as private and public, historyand memory, and love and loss."Asked to consume a piece of candy or topick up one of the "endless copies" of Untitled (Passport #11) — passport-sized printedbooklets filled with images of birds floatingthrough cloudy skies — the visitors were,says the catalog, "no longer viewers butparticipants in a cycle of accumulating,depleting and replenishing, a cycle which isnone other than life itself."At exhibition's end, the Renaissance Society still owned, if not the concept, the candy:about 1,100 of the original 2,000 pounds. Ifall goes according to plan, for months tocome, patrons of the city's fine-arts cinemasand its neighborhood soup kitchens will be,whether or not they know it, part of FelixGonzalez-Torres' traveling art. — M.R.Y.2 University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994ettersChicago's home on the WebCongratulations on setting up an electronic mail (E-mail) address. I'mcertain that the vast majority offuture alumni — that is, current students —already use E-mail; the rest of us won't betoo far behind. Alumni and other readerswith World Wide Web capability mightalso like to know that the University maintains a World Wide Web (WWW) server at"" The day ofhaving the Magazine totally on-line mightnot be that far off, after all.Barry D. Bayer, AB'64Homewood, IllinoisFor more information about the University'sHome Page on the World Wide Web, see"Chicago Journal," page 12. — Ed.On higher gioundThank you for an inspired editorial reOwen (October/94). I have, however, known Eric Hamp for about 30years, and thus I don't believe that hisexplosion was "gutteral" — he wouldn'thave condescended. More likely, I suspect,it was "guttural."Thomas A. Sebeok, AB'41Bloomington, IndianaThe power of.. .editingJ was so dismayed by such originaladmittance essays ("Imagination'sKitchen," October/94), I reached for myDiet Coke.... How awful mine on graduatingvaledictorian in a rural Minnesota class of34 students must have been! When I realized, however... they were edited, I feltbetter and resumed cleaning the kitchenchrome....Kenneth I. Taylor, PhD'74MlLLERSVlLLE, PENNSYLVANIAOur measurements are dinosaursWhile I enjoyed Andrew Campbell's interesting, informative"Adventures in Dinosaur Hunting" in the October/94 issue, it would havebeen more meaningful to me had SI unitsbeen used for all measurements.I am sure that most readers of the Univer sity of Chicago Magazine understand a fewof the common units of the modern, efficient International System of Units such askilograms, meters, and degrees Celsius.Those who don't should be making aneffort to comprehend SI units, because theyare used by the citizens of all other nations.Louis F. Sokol, SB'46Boulder, ColoradoA collector's defenseAllow me to comment on the letterfrom Ms. Diane L. Schirf, AB'83(October/94) re my collecting butterflies and removing certain individualsfrom the gene pool. I have long maintainedthat the average American catches morebutterflies in the "tin net" of his automobilein a weekend than I could do with my butterfly net in the rainforest.The story of Kamer's Blue is indeed a sadone; it speaks of human greed — and a bit ofmedia hoopla disguised under some self-righteousness.Let me remark finally that I never considered myself a real, seasoned, professionalcollector. I am not in the commercial trade.In all probability, I winnowed the morestupid butterfly individuals from the genepool, thus improving the overall futurestock of their colony.AmateursCan do more harmThan city slickersOn a farm.— Burma Shave —PaulB. Moore, SM'63, PhD'65Professor of Geophyisical SciencesUniform respectJn light of my own experiences, I find theletter from Richard O. Niehoff, PhB'33,AM'34 (October/94) on Chicago's role inthe GI Bill both disturbing and ironic. InJune 1987, 1 graduated from the College andbegan my career as a United States naval aviator. In the seven years since, I have had several opportunites to visit campus in uniform.I can only describe my reception by the U ofC community as appalling.I remember the College taking great painsto teach about the value of freedom. I alsoremember receiving instruction on toler-Universityii jL.::ajaaafafi3iaja?2rara^^ 0Experiencea RenaissanceRetirement.With its proximity to the University of Chicago, outstandingmuseums and the lure of the lakefront, Hyde Park has alwaysattracted individuals in search of intellectual and culturalstimulation.Today, those people are choosing to live at MontgomeryPlace, Hyde Park's only continuing-care retirement communityand a place where the pulse of the city enriches everyday life.Montgomery Place combines spectacular lakefrontviews, spacious rental apartments, an on-site Health CarePavilion and 24-hour security with a resident population steepedin the unique ambience of the community.If you're looking for an independent,secure retirement lifestyle enhanced by thestimulating environment only Hyde Park offers,send in the coupon or call Montgomery Place formore information today: (312) 288-3300.Montgomery) Placeinmtmt ¦o/f)ED YEo, I would like more information aboutMontgomery Place. I understand there is no obligation.Age ? Married D Single ? Widowed5550 South Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60637(312) 288-3300'0 Managed by Life Care Services Corporation £rR fcft}@RRftmMeffl&&Md!&M&ffl^^ ancc of other viewpoints. It continues todisturb me that those who sacrifice somuch for the defense of freedom find themselves reviled by those who most profitfrom that sacrifice. I count several Chicago-based military members as friends andassociates. All of them are furthering theireducation under the modern-day GI Bill.None of them were made to feel comfortable at the U of C. As a result, all of themchose to attend other local universities.Perhaps a story should be written aboutthe source of this pervasive disdain for individuals who have chosen to personally participate in the American military.Meanwhile, I will continue to rememberTim Hanesen, Paul Miller, Tom House, andBill Rull — friends who died in the line ofduty. Meanwhile, I will continue to honorthose who at this moment are at sea, farfrom home. Meanwhile, I will continue toquestion the attitudes of those who profitso much from, yet risk so little for, the liberties they enjoy.Arie S. Friedman, AB'87Lieutenant, United States NavyChicagoA pleasure to read about pleasureJt was indeed a pleasure to read"Untamed Scavengers! — To let offsteam, students go to extremes"(June/94), the profile piece on the 1994Scavenger Hunt. At last, the Magazine hasprovided ready documentary evidence torefute the notion that the University ofChicago student body consists of so manygrim academic galley slaves, chained totheir desks and growing steadily paler dueto prolonged sojourns in the bowels of theReg. The University suffers from an imageproblem, and it is high time that the Magazine chose to highlight the ways in which Uof C students take a few precious momentsfrom their studies and have fun — albeit certainly in our own slightly warped way. At atime when the University is described inthe New York Fimcs as "a cross betweenBell Laboratories and a monastery," weneed to focus renewed attention on theindisputable fact that yes, we do indeedoccasionally decide to do something foolishand fun just for the sake of the sheerabsurd thrill of it all.With the demise of Sleep-Out and themore distant passing of the notorious Lascivious Costume Ball, it is all the moreimpressive that U of C students preservesome large-scale occasion in which they arefree and frivolous. We can only hope thatthe Scavenger Hunt will remain a vitalcampus activity and may in some small wayhelp to amend the popular image of theUniversity of Chicago as a Gothic reposi-4 University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994tory of humorless drones.As the article reminds us, Aristotle, AdamSmith, and Rousseau all have their place onthe collegiate landscape — but so, too, doesfilling your shoes with Cheez Whiz for theamusement of your friends.Edoardo M. Kulp, AB'91Scavenger Hunt '91 Chief JudgeSan FranciscoPeter R. Goldstone, AB'91Scavenger Hunt '91 Grand MarshallSomerville, Massachusettslazz in the key of memoryThe letter in the June issue of theMagazine from William A. Pryor,PhB'48, SB'51, on jazz in the postwar years was interesting, but my memoryis somewhat different.I was a student in the history departmentfrom 1947 to 1953. One of my colleaguesin the department was Ellis Johnson,AM'51, PhD'55, who was one of the bestguitar players in the country, both jazz andclassical. Many of my experiences hearingjazz in that period were with Ellis.Fifty-fifth Street in those days was a ratherseedy area (before President LawrenceKimpton brought about renewal). The Beehive was a bar at 55th and Blackstone, witha small bandstand behind the bar. It's hardto believe Charlie Parker ever played there.Surely, I would have known about it andwould have heard him.The most famous jazz club was the BlueNote, on Madison. There I heard LouisArmstrong, Red Norvo, and Stan Kenton.Most memorable of all: a quintet thatincluded Charlie Shavers on trumpet, LouisBellson on drums, and Terry Gibbs onvibes. The other outfit on the program wasthe Hal Otis Trio. My friend Ellis Johnsonwas the guitarist. Down Beat magazine ran areview that compared Ellis to the legendaryDjango Rheinhardt.Well, those were the days. My recollectionsare somewhat different from those of Mr.Pryor, but he's absolutely right in saying thatit was a great time for jazz in Chicago.Duke Frederick, AM'50, PhD'66Evanston, IllinoisThe University of Chicago Magazine invitesletters on the contents of the magazine or ontopics related to the University. Letters for publication, which must be signed, may be editedfor length and/or clarity. To ensure the widestrange of voices, preference is given to letters ofno more than 300 words. Address letters to:Editor, University of Chicago Magazine,5757 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637.Internet: uchicago-magazine@uchicago. edu. THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONInvites you to join distinguished faculty and alumni friends participatingin alumni travel/study programs during the coming months1995 Study TripsVoyage to the World of the MayaDecember 30, 1994-January 8, 1995A well-priced winter cruise to ancient sites along the coasts of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala,and Honduras. Led by Professors David Jablonski and Susan Kidwell.Easter Island and the Fjords of ChileFebruary 10-25After a flight to explore Easter Island, we will cruise the Chilean fjords from rain foreststo glaciers. Led by Professor Stephen Pruett-Jones.Splendors of Australia and New ZealandMarch 5-26Our ship will visit the eastern coast of Australia and Tasmania before sailingto New Zealand. Led by Professor David Raup.Historic Cities of the SeaMay 18-30A voyage along the shores of the Western Mediterranean to cities in Italy, Sicily,Malta, Tunisia, Spain, and France that influenced the growth of western civilization.Led by Professor Constantin Fasolt.Changing Tides of HistoryJuly 12-25Our trip to the Baltic Sea countries will explore economic and cultural changein Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. Led by Professor D. Gale Johnson.AlaskaJuly 19-31This well-priced trip explores Alaska by land and sea.University of Chicago faculty to be announced.Stratford, Ontario: Shakespeare FestivalAugust 17-20Four days with five plays from Shakespeare to Shaffer.Led by Professor David Bevington.SwitzerlandSeptember 11-19Our alumni campus abroad in the Bernese Oberland will focus on the research of ProfessorMihaly Csikszentmihalyi, author of Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.Behind the Mask of BaliAutumnWe will study the complex religious and cultural heritage of Bali and Java.Led by Professor Frank Reynolds.For further information or to be added to our travel/study mailing list, contact Alumni Travel,University of Chicago Alumni Association, 5757 Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637.312/702-2160. Internet: dwegrue@uchimvsl.uchicago.eduUniversity of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 5When you visitChicago fora weekend,a week,or a month,stay atWOODED ISLE SUITES— studio andone-bedroomapartmentsfurnished toprovide you ahome away fromhome.Walk to the Universityof Chicaso or theMuseum of Scienceand Industry, strollalong the lakefront,catch the bus or trainto the Loop, dine at anearby restaurant, ormake your own dinnerin your Suite.Come "home" toWooded Isle Suitesand relax after a dayof research,studyins, meetings,or sightseeing.WOODED ISLE SUITES5750 South Stony Island AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637312-288-55781-800-290-6844 EventsExhibitionsPlane/Structure: A New Spectrum of California"Light and Space" Artists, through December 30.The featured artists represent the current prevalentapproach to art in Los Angeles, and their worksshare much of the extreme concentration and visualsubtlety of the original California "Light and Space"artists of the late '60s and early 70s. The exhibit isorganized by Los Angeles Times art critic DavidPagel. The Renaissance Society; call 702-8670.Ayla: Art and Industry in the Early Islamic Portof Aqaba, through February 12. The exhibition presents some of the most spectacular finds from theongoing archaeological investigation of the city ofAyla, which flourished from the mid-seventh century until the arrival of the Crusaders some 450years later. Oriental Institute; call 702-9520.Texts and Their Transformations, through February 20. Editions of works by Homer, Virgil,Sophocles, and others, as well as their translations,are featured. Adaptations of the classics from themedieval, Renaissance, and modern eras and artwork are also on display, including works by Cervantes and Joyce and artwork by Picasso andMatisse. Department of Special Collections; call702-8705.Visions of a Nation: Images of Mexico by Mexican and American Photographers, through March5. Exploring multiple "visions" of Mexico, thisexhibit examines both photography's role in therepresentation of a Mexican national identity andthe images North American photographers take asoutsiders. Drawn from the Smart Museum's collection, the 20 images on display include works byMexican photographers Manuel Alvarez Bravo andMarianne Yampolsky Urbach and North Americanphotographers Danny Lyon, AB'63, Aaron Siskind.and Paul Strand. Smart Museum; call 702-0200Eugene Field and His Books, through March 20.Marking the centenary of Eugene Field's death andthe founding of Chicago's Caxlon Club, the exhibition includes manuscripts, correspondence, andlimited editions from the private collection of FrankJ. Pichl and the University of Chicago Library andfocuses on Field as author, collector, and promoterof books and the book arts. Department of SpecialCollections; call 702-8705.Jewish Music and Jewish Culture in Germany,1918-1938, through May 15. Drawing upon publications in music and the arts in the Ludwig Rosen-berger Library of Judaica, the displayed worksnarrate the transformation of the German-Jewishcommunity on the eve of the Holocaust, as Jewishmusic provided a powerful voice for new expressions ol Jewishness in modern, cosmopolitan eon-texts. Department of Special Collections; call702-8705. (See "Center Stage.")Luc Tuymans, January 15-February 26. The U.S.premiere of Flemish artist Luc Tuymans presents50 paintings spanning 15 years of the artist's career.Tuymans explores the human condition afterWorld War II, examing the proliferation of mediaimages of global bloodshed and disaster that, hisworks suggest, have pushed humanity into numbness. The exhibition was organized in cooperation with the Art Gallery of York University. The Renaissance Society; call 702-8670.From the Ocean of Painting: India's PopularPainting Tradition, 1589 to the Present, January19-March 12. Characterized by bold design, brightcolors, and the use of both text and imagery, the100 works displayed include examples of more than20 Indian folk, tribal, and popular urban paintingtraditions. The exhibition, organized by the University of Iowa Museum of Art, displays scroll paintings, book illustrations, puppets, dolls, fortune-telling cards, and religious altars. SmartMuseum; call 702-0200.LecturesWorks of the Mind Lecture, January 22 at 2 p.m.Raymond Ciacci, AM'84, PhD'90, Basic Programstaff member and College humanities lecturer,speaks on "St. Augustine's Con/essions: The Limitsof Introspection." Judd Hall; call 702-1722.John M. Olin Center Lecture, February 1 at 4p.m. George Will, syndicated columnist and author,Mandel Hall; call 702-3423.MusicChicago Children's Choir, December 17 at 8 p.m.As part of the Chapel's Advent concert series, theChicago Children's Choir performs works by Prae-torius and Mendelssohn and traditional seasonalsongs. The choir will be conducted by artistic director William Chin and associate conductors JoyHague and Dennis Northway. Rockefeller MemorialChapel; call 849-8300.Advent Organ Recital, December 18 at 5 p.m.Rockefeller Memorial Chapel organist WolfgangRiibsam performs works by Bach, Vivaldi, Fro-berger, Mozart, and Widor. Rockefeller MemorialChapel; call 753-1191.Winter Music Festival, January 13-14 and January 20-21 at 8 p.m. University Theater, the MajorActivities Board, the Womyn's Union, and WHPKpresent two weekends of music: The first, Showcaseof the Bands, includes new South Side groups andestablished student bands, while the second, RollOver Rockefeller, features two nights of a cappellamusic. F. X. Kinahan Theater; call 702-34 14.Winter Carnival Concert, January 28 at 8 p.m.Conducted by Barbara Schubert, the UniversitySymphony Orchestra plays Dvorak's Carnival Overture and Piston's The Incredible Flutist Mandel Flail;call 702-8069.University Chamber Orchestra, February 1 1 at 8p.m. Antoinette Arnold conducts the orchestra.Goodspeed Hall; call 702-8069.Da Capo Chamber Players, Februaiy 12 at 3 p.m.In the third concert ol the Chamber Music Series,the group — featuring guest soprano Lucy Shelton —performs works by Haydn, Sehoenberg, Adolphe,and Schubert. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.New Music Ensemble, February 18-19 at 8 p.m.Barbara Schubert conducts a program of 20th-century chamber music. Sunday's performance, andpossibly Saturday's, includes a staged production olWilliam Walton's Facade (based on the poems of6 Universi iv of Chicago Magazinh/Di;clmber 1994Edith Sitwell), presented in conjunction with University Theater. Goodspeed Hall; call 702-8069.On the Quads35th Annual Folk Festival, February 3-5. Thelong-running festival features folk music and crafts,workshops, and performances. Mandel Hall and IdaNoyes Hall; call 702-9554.Martin Luther King Birthday Commemoration,January 16 at 12 p.m. This event, cosponsored bythe Coordinating Council on Minority Affairs,Rockefeller Memorial Chapel, and the MartinLuther King Day Committee, celebrates the life ofDr. King. Rockefeller Chapel; call 753-1191.TheaterSleuth, Wednesdays and Thursdays at 7:30 p.m.,Fridays and Saturdays at 8 p.m., Sundays at 2:30p.m. and 7:30 p.m., January 6-February 12.Anthony Shaffer's mystery thriller tells the story of a love triangle involving a handsome young man, amystery writer, and the writer's wife. Court Theatre;call 753-4472.Off-Off-Campus: Winter Quarter Revue, Fridaysat 9 p.m., January 27-March 3. University Theater'simprovisational group presents original sketchesand new improv games. University Church, second-floor theater; call 702-3414.Star Distance, February 3—4 at 8 p.m. This student-written work by Vijay Mathew focuses on thelives of four college students dealing withlife-and-death choices and the impact HIV canhave on friendship. Reynolds Club First Floor Theater; call 702-3414.A Company of Wayward Saints, February 8-1 1 at8 p.m. UT presents George Herman's play about atravel-weary commedia dell'arte troupe whosemembers no longer enjoy performing — until theyact out "the life of man" and come closer to understanding the meaning of human relationships, life,and death. F. X. Kinahan Theater; call 702-3414.Top Girls, February 15-18 at 8 p.m. Beginning as a conversation between remarkable women fromdifferent points in history, Caiyl Churchill's play,staged by University Theater, proceeds to examinewomen's roles in Thatcherite England. ReynoldsClub First Floor Theater; call 702-3414.An Evening of One-Acts, February 24-25 at 8p.m. UT presents No Exit by Jean-Paul Sartre andDreamlost by Robert E. Johnson. F. X. KinahanTheater; call 702-3414.In The CityFirst Friday Lecture Series, First Friday of everymonth at 12:15 p.m. Basic Program staff memberUse Mueller, AM'92, lectures January 6 on "Lustand Greed, Murder and Mayhem — Everyday Life ina Small Italian Town: Some Reflections on Cicero'sAulas Cluentius Habitus and Roman Judicial Procedure." On February 3, Basic Program director Cynthia Rutz, AM'94, lectures on "Shakespeare andFairy Tales: Yet Further Considerations." ChicagoCultural Center; call 702-1722.Center StageCulture in Flux: In the years between World Wars I and II,[Jewish-German music, art, and literature flourished — the culmination of a century in which Jewish intellectuals had a profound influence on Germancultural life. But there was anominous undercurrent to thatswell: With the rise of NationalSocialism in the 1930s, Jewishmusic and culture became moreand more a form of reactionand resistance. The interwarburst of creativity ended in Germany with the onslaught of theHolocaust, but it has been preserved in print.Featuring books, journals, andpamphlets from the LudwigRosenberger Library of Judaica,Jewish Music and Jewish Culturein Germany, 1918-1938, whichruns through May 15 at theRegenstein Library Departmentof Special Collections, commemorates the peak period inJewish-German culture.Music from the interwar era"represents not only the ways inwhich these communities interpreted their past and reckonedwith the present," writes exhibitcoordinator Philip Bohlman,associate professor in the musicdepartment and the College,"but also the growing awareness of a need to confront anuncertain and destructivefuture." Composers beganusing modern Hebrew texts towrite Zionist music that lookedto the future; at the same time,the publication of sacred music, folklore, and essays on religious holidays reminded Jews of theirtraditions and customs in a world that was becoming increasinglyhostile toward them. Journals, which often included songs anddebates over the nature ofJewish music, provided ameans of discussing pressingissues, both public and private, in Jewish culture.As the Nazis forced Jewsfrom public cultural institutions, the Jews turned towardthose in their community.Religious philosopher FranzRosenzweig, for example,advocated a new Jewish educational system, one thatwould combine religious andsecular subjects. The resulting Jewish evening academies also became centers forcultural activities that included the entire community, asJewish publishing housesmade the literature andmusic produced by the neworganizations available to astill-wider public. — K.S.:llldH:L-ttiIHiUIHIilriJ ARISE.' LET US SING! Theblocky typeface — lifec the titlegiven in both Hebrew andGerman — clearly marksHawa Nashira! Auf! Lafituns singen! as ajewish-s German songbook. The 1935| collection, edited by Joseph% Jacobsen and ErwinJospe,% evokes images of labor in% Palestine and draws on| Hebrew, Yiddish, anda German repertories.University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 7C ourse WorkPushingtheEnvelopeFrom smog to global warmingto holes in the ozone layer:John Frederick wants hisstudents to understand thescience behind the headlines. IT'S HALF-PAST ELEVEN ON A MONDAYmorning in October. The air outsideKent 107 is crisp and dry. High-flyingmare's tails scud across the pale-bluesky. Inside the dome-ceilinged lecture hall,a low to moderate rustle of movementintensifies to a full-blown roar as score afterscore of students take their places for Phys.Sci. 109, a course taught for the past sevenyears by professor and chair of geophysicalsciences John E. Frederick.Frederick's "Earth: The Atmosphere"class is the first in a three-quarter sequence("Solid Earth" and "Evolution of Life"follow) offered as part of the College'sCommon Core and designed for non-science majors. Of the 120 or so students inthe room, many expect the trio of courses to be their last formal exposure to classroom science. Frederick accepts the prevailing climate.But he also keeps an eye on the long-range forecast. He knows that it's impossible for his students to go through lifewithout ever again hearing of floods, hurricanes, depletions in the ozone layer, globalwarming, or air pollution. As his coursephilosophy (Point No. 6 on the four-pagecourse summary that he starts handing out)makes plain, they're going to need thatformal exposure to atmospheric science:"Major decisions concerning the nation'senvironmental policy rest on our ability tounderstand these phenomena and to predict the future evolution of our atmospherein response to natural and human influences."Although the course's only assigned text isthe weighty fourth edition of Meteorology:The Atmosphere and the Science of Weather,Frederick moves quickly to clear up anypossible misunderstanding. "The lecturesdon't follow the text exactly. The text ismuch more geared to traditional meteorology. Meteorology isn't my vocation," he confesses, "and when you're done taking thiscourse, you won't be able to forecast weatherany better than you do now."You will, however," he promises, "knowa lot more about environmental problems."The course's material, he explains, fallsinto six sections, which he describes interms of questions. For example, he says:Why should the Earth have an atmosphere?Why is the Earth's atmosphere so differentfrom other planets in the solar system?Why does the wind blow? Exactly what is itthat regulates the atmosphere and "allowspeople like us to run around takingclasses"?While he can't guarantee that the studentswill leave Phys. Sci. 109 knowing theanswers to all of those questions, he endsthe opening session promising to clear upconspicuous mists of ignorance: "I guarantee that you will know more than thereporters who write the stories that thepoliticians read and believe."In neatly pressed sports shirt and slacks,Frederick — who won a Quantrell award forexcellence in undergraduate teaching in1989 — combines brisk, no-nonsense expec-8 University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994tations for his students ("I do expect peopleto take the exam on the dates given — I'venoticed that grandmothers tend to die thenight before exams.") with brisk, no-nonsense expectations for himself ("My lectures end within plus-or-minus 30 secondsof 12:20 p.m. I don't like it when teachersgo on and on.").With a Ph.D. in astrogeophysics from theUniversity of Colorado at Boulder, he'sspent two decades as a researcher studyingthe interaction of solar radiation with theEarth's atmosphere, including high-profilework charting the effect of holes in theozone layer over Antarctica. But his interestin the field goes back much further.Witness the confession that he makes onthe second day into the course. Upon learning as a schoolchild that the Earth's atmosphere is a mixture of 78 parts molecularnitrogen to 21 parts oxygen, he used toworry, he admits, about the efficacy of themixing process: "What if a blob of purenitrogen came by and suffocated me?"A small burst of laughter interrupts hislow-pressure delivery, and Frederickflashes a quick, sunny smile.The lecture in progress — a look at Earth'satmospheric chemistry — is part of a largerattempt to try to figure out how the atmosphere evolved. Using an outsized stick ofbright-yellow chalk, he quickly erases spaceon the chalkboard, raising a small cloud ofdust in the process. "Here's part of theatmosphere right here," he jokes.Up on the board goes a basic definition:"Atmosphere — envelope of gases and particles that surrounds a planet and is held tothe planet by gravity.""If you grabbed a volume of atmosphereright out of this room," Frederick says, hisleft hand reaching out to pluck the spaceabove him, "this is what you'd get."Turning to the board, he plots the volumeof the three gases whose molecules makeup the majority of dry air: nitrogen,oxygen, and argon.But if you take a look at Earth's nearestneighbors in the solar system, he continues,you'll find a very different picture. Theatmosphere of Venus is almost pure carbondioxide, and the same is true for Mars."Something had to happen on Earth to giveus this very special mixture of molecules."One of the reasons," he explains, "in volves life — like us." And plants. "We haveoxygen because, in part, we have plantsdoing photosynthesis."After outlining the three major gases,Frederick turns to another atmosphericcomponent: "H20 — water vapor. Thereason it's not on the list," he says, "is thatits abundance is highly variable from oneplace to another." In its "typical, middle-range value," water makes up about 1 per-" Meteorology isn't myvocation," John Fredericktells his students. "Whenyou're done taking this course,you won't be able to forecastthe weather.. .but you willknow a lot more aboutenvironmental problems."cent of the atmosphere, but in the tropics,water vapor can make up approximately 5to 6 percent of the atmosphere. "On thehottest, most humid day in Chicago,"Frederick adds, bringing the data backhome, "the atmosphere can be 3 to 4 percent water vapor."Just as the shower of percentages threatens to send the class into science-phobicdoldrums, he shifts direction: "Why did Ibore you with all these exact numbers?"Because," he answers, "I wanted to talkabout what's missing."After nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and watervapor have been stirred into the mix, theatmospheric soup is still far from complete."There are literally dozens of other molecules that we refer to as trace gases."Although each trace gas accounts for"much, much less than one-tenth of 1 percent" of the atmosphere's volume, some ofthem "are much more important to life onEarth than some of the major gases."Frederick takes the two most highly publicized trace gases: carbon dioxide andozone. The abundance of C02 in theatmosphere today, he notes, is about .035percent, or "double what existed in theatmosphere 300 years ago. Human activitycreated it." Although C02 warms the Earth,too much of a good thing can be bad whenit comes to global warming. Then there's ozone. Produced by chemical reactions 30 kilometers above ground,ozone — or 03, as Frederick chalks it up onthe board — absorbs the ultraviolet component of the sun's radiation, forming the"ozone shield" that protects life below.The ozone layer, he says, is "what I do for aliving... and what I do when I'm out forexcitement." But back to the day's startingpoint: The blackboard definition of atmosphere has by now been almost lost in layerafter layer of neatly lettered notes. So, withonly a slight digression ("The UltravioletRadiation Index that became part of somedaily weather reports this summer is produced by the government.... It's based onone of my computer programs."), Frederickreturns his students' attention to anotherpart of the atmospheric envelope — particles.Particles don't take up much space in theatmosphere, but size doesn't directly correlate with effect: "You need particles to buildclouds. Without clouds, the Earth's climatewould be very different."Where do the particles come from? Fromforest fires, from chemical reactions in theatmosphere, even from one-celled plantsliving in the upper layers of the ocean nearlarge land masses. Those phyloplankton"don't do much but photosynthesize." In theprocess, they emit dimethyl sulfide, whichenters the atmosphere and creates particles —which, in turn, influence cloud formation."I like this," Frederick says, a small grinpeeking out at the class. "That little one-celled critters in the ocean have influenceon global cloud cover."Once you know what the atmosphere ismade of, the next step is another question — where did the atmosphere comefrom? And the answer, says Frederick,"starts right at the beginning, with wherethe universe came from." So, starting nextclass, "we're going to invent the universe."Meanwhile, the classroom clock hasreached 12:20 ±30 seconds. The blackboardis covered; notebooks are closing. "It lookslike I'm out of time," he ends.Outside Kent Hall, the air is still crisp anddry, and wisps of clouds still ride the sky: asky that's a brew of nitrogen and oxygen,argon and water vapor, trace gases and particles — all part of an atmospheric envelopethat's no longer quite so easy to take forgranted. — M.R.Y.University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 9I nvestimtionsA Moral AppetiteIn a new book on eating,Leon Kass says that we arenot only what we eat, but alsohow, why, and with whom.Leon Kass begins The Hungry Soulwith a warning to his readers: "Youhave picked up a strange book." Subtitled Eating and the Perfecting of OurNature, the work, published this pastsummer by the Free Press, is hard topigeonhole as anthropology, physiology, orphilosophy. But if strange means unnatural,then Kass' readers may find the caveatundeserved. What, after all, could be morenatural a topic than eating?Yet the meaning of eating here is morethan meeting biologic necessity. Eating,Kass argues, is integral to our sense of community, family, even morality — and to ourties with other living creatures. The marvelof this "strange" subject is, perhaps, that forall the time we spend eating, we rarely consider its deeper implications.Are there connections, he wonders, between human intelligence and our bodies'upright and omnivorous design, or betweenour omnivorousness and a need for morality? Why do humans, unlike other animals,voluntarily refrain from eating certainfoods — beginning with the taboo againsteating human flesh? And what is the meaning behind the customs of eating, like theelaborate rules for using utensils? Moreimportantly, do such manners repress orelevate our nature?Over lunch in his Harper office, Kass,SB'58, MD'62, the Addie Clark Hardingprofessor in the College and the Committeeon Social Thought, says that he began hisinquiry hoping to "build some kind ofbridge between these customs and ourunderstanding of nature and of humannature." The result is "a book which oughtto be a model for moral philosophers," saidthe Times Literary Supplement. "[Kass']message and his example are of the first 'C >' '-A well-mannered animal: How we eat, says Leon Kass, reveals our human uniqueness.importance."The nine-year effort answers a challengethat Kass raised in an earlier book, Towarda More Natural Science: Biology and HumanAffairs. Kass, who trained as a physician atChicago and a biochemist at Harvard,argued in that volume for "a richer kind ofbiology" and anthropology, one not at oddswith everyday experience. Such a sciencecould address the ethical question he feelsthe modern era has neglected: How shouldpeople live their lives? The Hungry Souldoesn't offer a definitive answer. But Kassshows how, unlike popular obsessions withwhat we eat, a thoughtful attitude towardwhy, how, where, and with whom we eatcan forge a link between the humanist'sand scientist's worlds. A scholar of bioethics, he made such abridge in his own professional life in 1970,when he left the laboratories of theNational Institutes of Health for what wasto be a one-year appointment assisting astudy of life science and social policy. Thatwork led to positions at St. John's College,Georgetown, and, in 1976, on Chicago'sfaculty, where he describes himself as ahumanist. A winner of the Quantrell awardfor excellence in undergraduate teaching,he has taught courses on science andethics; on the Bible, Aristotle, Rousseau,and Darwin; and in the humanities andsocial sciences Common Core.To Kass, the customs of eating at tablesidetransform a utilitarian, animal activity —"mere fueling" — into a human endeavor.1 0 University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994Contrast a meal wolfed down while standing in the kitchen, or take-out food eaten infront of the TV, to the edifying potential ofthe sit-down family meal: "All kinds ofthings are inadvertently taught at the tablewithout having to moralize about them," hesays. "One learns self-restraint, sharing,consideration, taking turns, and the art offriendly conversation. One sees that someone else has worked hard for one's sustenance."These lessons of family and friendship, heargues, have as their prerequisite customslike table manners. Manners serve not justto prevent disgust but also to create a "veilof invisibility," freeing diners of the awkward awareness that eating is an animalactivity requiring the taking of life."We really do try to keep hidden the necessarily violent and destructive foundationof eating," says Kass. Most cultures, hebelieves, use utensils at meals to create a"psychic distance" between food and itssource. For example, before there wereforks, people "used to lift meat to themouth with a knife. First the knife becamesingle-edged, then they rounded off the tipand made the edge blunt. There are alsotaboos about lifting the knife to the mouthand even using the knife on certain kindsof foods...."Some reviewers of The Hungry Soul havenoted that a discussion of table mannersmay seem mere dieter's fare to a readerstarved for ethical guidance. Table etiquette, though, is only part of the book'smuch broader argument, which buildsfrom the animal nature of eating to itspurely human and social aspects. Beyondthat, Kass sees a still higher custom: thesanctification of food through ritual. Jewishdietary laws, explored in the book's finalchapter, both acknowledge the eater's placeamong, and one's debt to, other creatures,and express a reverence for the divine."Food is ours not because we merit it," hesays. "Religious rituals celebrate the mysterious source of the splendid world and itshospitality in providing food, both for lifeand for thought."Kass is quick to note that, for many,meals today are often neither civilized norcivilizing. Our "spiritual anorexia," he says,is the price we pay for a utilitarian attitudeabout eating: a hunger for connections tothe people and world around us. But, as hesits eating a bagel, facing his guest at anoffice table cleared of papers and books, hesuggests that even small gestures — deliberately stopping the day's work to eat, if onlya simple meal — can express "an awarenessof the deeper meaning of what we're doing.And that's good," he adds. "Otherwise onesimply slips into thoughtlessness." — A.C. CitationsNormal or not? The mood and behavioral changes that mark premenstrual syndrome may be fairly common, but what about their extreme form: anxiety, sadness,or anger so severe that it becomes a clinical depression? To some psychiatrists, thatcondition is called premenstrual dysphoric disorder(PMDD), a recent and still provisional addition to the IAmerican Psychiatric Association's (APA) list of recognized mental illnesses ("Investigations," October/93). Toothers — who cite studies showing that as many as one-third of women fit the criteria for PMDD — the new diagnosis just stigmatizes normal symptoms.Amid this debate, a new study sheds light on just howprevalent PMDD's symptoms really are. Sarah Gehlert ofthe School of Social Service Administration and ShirleyHartlage of Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Centerlooked for women with the disorder using psychiatric evaluations and daily checks of mood, behavior, and hormonelevels. The researchers aimed to avoid the biases of previous studies — some of which excluded racial minorities orinformed subjects of the study's purpose. Of 93 women, Sizing up PMDD: Gehlertthey found that, depending on how symptoms were measured, 1.1 to 8.6 percent met the criteria for PMDD. That incidence is far lower thanearlier estimates — and not far from the 3- to 5-percent rate predicted by the APA.Cloud Cover. As the sun and planets circle the center of the Milky Way galaxy, oursolar system travels within an interstellar gas cloud created by ancient supernovaexplosions. By studying the cloud's effect on the light from nearby stars, as measured bysatellites and spacecraft, Priscilla Frisch, a senior research associate in astronomy andastrophysics, has mapped its shape and our motion within it. After millions of years traversing barren space, the solar system, she reports in Science, entered the gas cloud justa few thousand years ago. We are now skimming the inside edge of the cloud, whosematerial may influence Earth's climate.Zero at the Bone. For a cancer patient, infection, not the cancer itself, is sometimesthe biggest danger. Bone-marrow transplants restore the immune defenses knockedout by intense chemotherapy, but the solution isn't always quick enough: Transplanted"stem" cells from bone marrow or blood can take more than two weeks to repopulatemarrow and mature into different cell types, including infection-fighting white bloodcells. Associate professor of medicine Stephanie Williams, AB'77,MD'81, is testing a new method that could cut this high-I risk time to as little as three to five days, leading tosafer — and cheaper — bone-marrow transplants.Working with Baxter Healthcare Corporation,Williams heads a trial of the technique on 20women with metastatic breast cancer. The methodcombines conventional "autologous marrow transplants" — inwhich a patient's own cells are removed and frozen prior to chemotherapy — with new technology for separating out the stem cells and stimulatingsome of them to multiply and mature in the laboratory (see photo). Returned to thepatient after chemotherapy, these cells begin to function almost immediately. Williamssays the treatment, which could help fight leukemia, lymphoma, and other cancers,should eventually make bone-marrow transplants an outpatient procedure.In Loco Parentis. While the per-student cost of higher education has risen 50 percentsince 1960, elementary- and high-school costs have, after adjusting for inflation,jumped 180 percent. The leap, say U of C professor and chair of economics SherwinRosen, AM'62, PhD'66, and Frederick Flyer of New York University, can be traced togrowing career opportunities for women. As more women work outside the home andtake less time off to raise children— -a choice that once led many women to flexible jobslike teaching — schools have taken on more parenting duties. That, conclude the economists, has meant hiring more teachers and non-classroom staff, raising schools' costs.University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 1 1hicago JournalFOR THE RECORDLab relief: DavidGrier's lab has beenheld together "withsticky tape and goodintentions. " Now, a$500,000 Packard fellowship will allow theyoung physicist to buysome new equipment,and he'll also be able to"stop/i!ling out grantapplications and getback into the lab. "Grier studies phasetransitions — how liquids freeze into solidsand how materialschange form.Exploring aging: TheExploratory Center onAging has been established at the University's PopulationResearch Center aspart of a national effortfunded by the NationalInstitute of Aging toimprove demographicresearch on health,economics, and aging.Downtown dino: Thisfall, visitors toChicago's downtownHarold WashingtonLibrary Center had thechance to sec a full-scale replica of a newdinosaur species,Afrovenator abaken-sis, discovered by U ofC paleontologist PaulSereno on his recentAfrican expedition{"Adventures inDinosaur Hunting,"Octobcr/9-i). University weighs optionsto shrink growing deficitThe University's 1993-94budget posted a smaller-than-expected deficit amidwarnings that the problem willgrow unless cost-cutting measures are continued.Although a financial reviewcompleted earlier this year ("Special Report," June/94) projected a$25-million deficit for 1993-94,the actual operating deficit was$14.8 million. About half of theimprovement came from one-timeitems not included in earlier forecasts, such as a $l-million electricity rebate. The rest came fromlower medical-malpractice insurance costs for the biological sciences division and a wide range ofsmaller budget variances acrossthe institution.Despite this good news, the University's revised1994-95 budgetstill projects a $27-million deficit."Moreover, andmore important,"said Provost Geoffrey Stone, JD'71,'il we continue tooperate on a 'business as usual' basis,our budget deficitwill more thandouble again by theend of the decade."Incurring such adebt is clearly notan acceptable op-lion, said PresidentHugo Sonnenschein:"Because continuing deficits of this Facingfacts magnitude would severely impairthe University's financial health,we are pressing ahead vigorouslywith a program to return the University's budget to balance."Sonnenschein, Stone, and ChiefFinancial Officer Lawrence Furn-stahl, AB'83, outlined actionsunder way to shrink the deficit inmessages published in a November issue of the University's newspaper, the Chronicle.A key initiative has been the formation of task forces to clarifyand reexamine the University'smission and to, in Stone's words,"forge a comprehensive vision ofour University in a world of morelimited resources."The Task Force on Administrative Cost Reduction has alreadyadvised Sonnenschein on how the administration can cut as much as$10 million from its annual costsover the next five years — while atthe same time improving serviceto students, faculty, and staff. Therecommendations are based on astudy by the consulting firm ofKPMG Peat Marwick that analyzed current administrative functions and offered extensive suggestions for reform.Three other task forces beganwork this fall: the undergraduate-and graduate-education task forcesare exploring topics such as admissions and enrollment, financialaid, budgetary priorities, students'expectations, and faculty teachingand research. Student-life issuessuch as residence halls, counselingservices, and recreational/socialactivities will be reviewed by theTask Force on the Quality of Student Experience.Also noted in the Chronicle wasa complementary action: settingbudget guidelines across the University to bring the annual operat-Stone (left) and Furnstahl discuss the deficit at a recent campus forum.I 2 University or Chicago Magazine/December 1994ing deficit in 1996-97 down to$15 million, compared to the projected 1996-97 deficit of $45 million.Stone explained why settingdeficit caps was an importantgoal: "If we continued business asusual' for the next two years, wewould have to spend down mostof the University's remaining cashreserves to meet our accumulateddeficit." At the same time, by permitting the deficit to grow, theUniversity "would create animbalance so large that it wouldbe almost impossible for the taskforces to generate recommendations that would bring us back tofinancial equilibrium."Working with Furnstahl andBudget Director Caren Skoulas —and drawing on months of consultation with deans, directors,officers, and trustees — Stone hasestablished four major guidelinesfor the 1995-96 and 1996-97 academic years, all aimed at keepingthe yearly deficit manageable:• Target a modest enrollmentincrease. Ranging from 1 to 3 percent of the entering classes ineach unit of the University, suchan increase means the University'stotal enrollment will grow byabout 200 students.• While increasing total financial aid by 5 percent for studentsenrolled as of this academic year,reduce financial aid for all students entering in the next twoyears by about 10 percent. (Thispolicy will not, it was noted,impair the College's "need-blind"admissions policy.)• Postpone faculty appointments. Academic units willappoint only about half as manyfaculty over the two-year periodas they would normally.• Hold overall expenditures forstaff and administrative expensesconstant from the current academic year through 1996-97. Thestudy by the Administrative CostReduction task force and PeatMarwick consultants will be"invaluable" in this effort, saidStone. Among the recommendations being considered: radicallyredesign the University's financialaccounting system; consolidatestudent services; revamp repairand maintenance strategies for thephysical plant; and review the To the victors: The women's soccer team rollicks after vanquishingCarnegie Mellon to capture its first-ever UAA championship. With aleague record of 5-1, the team tied Emory for the top UAA spot.Development and Alumni Relations offices' responsibilities andgoals.Because different parts of theUniversity have different needs,Stone noted, "to put these guidelines into effect, we have significantly altered the budget processto give individual units greaterauthority to control theirfinances." Deans and directorshave been empowered "to allocateresources in the best interests oftheir units, and we have enabledthem to reap the benefits of theirown revenue-generating and cost-cutting activities. Thus, the guidelines described are presumptiverather than prescriptive."In their messages to the University community, both Stone andSonnenschein noted that the taskahead will not be easy. As detailedin the Magazine's June/94 "SpecialReport," the University's currentbudget problems, shared by manyof its peer institutions, stem fromfour primary causes that haveemerged in the past decade: theslowing growth of tuition revenues; an endowment-payout ratethat has been lowered to preservethe real value of the endowment;shrinking federal research-grantsupport; and higher depreciationand interest expenses because ofUniversity investments in majorfacilities. Despite these challenges, Stonenoted a mood of optimism amongmembers of the University community, citing a belief that "wewill be in a strong position in1996-97 to begin implementingthe more long-term recommendations of the task forces that willbring us back to a balancedbudget by the year 2000."Indeed, said Sonnenschein, thecurrent fiscal challenges offer theUniversity a chance to "help uscrystallize and sharpen our thinking about the mission of the University and its future. What areour priorities as we go forward?What resources are required inorder to fulfill the University'smission? How can we best provide those resources? How can wemake the University stronger?These are the crucial questionsbefore us."New programs forchanging timesTWO NEW PROFESSIONAL PRO-grams will offer morefamily-support training forsocial workers and more opportunities for business students toacquire global experience. Meanwhile, the College has premiereda legal-history center that should Great catch: Juniorwide receiver DerrickBrooms (above left) seta single-season recordoj 922 total receivingyards, helping theMaroons break evenwith a 5-5 seasonrecord. In September,Brooms was namedNCAA Division IIIOffensive Player of theWeek. He hopes oneday to play pro.New chair: A professorship established bya gift from RalphLewis, PhB'32, AM'58,was awarded to MartaTienda, chair of sociology at Chicago. Lewis,who now lives in SantaBarbara, was a sociologist with the U.S. StateDepartment jor severalyears, retiring in 1979.As holder oj the RalphLewis professorship ,Tienda will continueher research on migration, employment, andpoverty among Latinos.Mural support: Thanksto the worfe of 20 teensjrom the Robert Taylorpublic-housing community, a vibrant muralnow borders the construction site oj theHospitals' DuchossoisCenter jor AdvancedMedicine. The teenswere hired to paint themural through a program sponsored by theHospitals, in partnership with the ChicagoChildren's Museum andthe Taylor Unit of theBoys and Girls Club.University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 1 3Open door: RafaelIbarra — a high schoolvaledictorian, star athlete, and communitvvolunteer in SanDiego — minedChicago on a scholarship last year. Oneproblem: Since age 6,lie had lived in the an illegal alien. TheUniversity agreed toaccept him if he tried tolegalize his status. Thisfall, a federal immigration judge gave Ibarrathe right to live andstudy in the U.S.,paving the way for citizenship.Frat row: Fraternitieswere a source ofcampus controversywhen the Maroon published pledge materialsused by Psi Upsilon asrecently as 1993 containing offensivedescriptions of women,gays, and some ethnicgroups. In a letter tothe campus community,President Sonnenscheincondemned the materials, but said he hopedthey would "promptcandid and productivediscussion about whatit means to be amember of our community." At a November"town meeting" and instatements to theMaroon, Psi Upsilonmembers apologized,but ashed they not beprejudged for their fraternity's past behavior.Back again: A bust ofBulgarian writer AlekoKonstantinov was dedicated at RegensteinLibrary in a Novemberceremony. The eventmarked the 100thanniversary oj ToChicago and Back, abook recounting Kon-stantinov's 1893 trip loChicago's ColumbianExposition — long aclassic in Bulgaria Spanish steps: GSB Dean Robert Hamada visits students at the school'snew International Executive M.B.A. program in Barcelona. Officiallyopened in October, the program is one of several global GSB efforts.set new standards for teaching lawlo undergraduates.The College's Center for Comparative Legal History aims tointegrate legal-history studies intoa general liberal-arts education.Funded by a grant from theDormer Foundation, the center isthe first of its kind in the UnitedStates, and is also the first centerever to be located directly in theCollege, where it will coordinateexisting legal-history activities oncampus.Codirectors Julius Kirshner andWilliam Novak, who both teachhistory at the University, developed the idea for the center, basedon the belief that law has beenoverlooked as a course of studyfor undergraduates. "This is notto say that we want to create ahistory-of-law department or apre-law program," says Kirshner,"but rather that we're interested inorienting our students to thevalues found in legal texts as theyhave helped shape society."Two undergraduate fellowshipsfor study abroad and a fellowshipfor postdoctoral research havebeen created in conjunction withthe center, which will ofler workshops and seminars, including aninternational conlerencc scheduled for 1997. In addition, thecenter will develop new coursematerials. "One ol the reasonsthat law has been overlooked in liberal education is that the textsarc difficult — they aren't translated into English, and they'retechnical," says Kirshner. Sourceswill be developed from the MiddleAges to the early modern period,translated from the original languages.In the latest in a series of stepsto globalize its business-educationcurriculum, the Graduate Schoolof Business has created an International M.B.A. Degree. Thedegree, said GSB Dean RobertHamada, is a response to the factthat "employers who hire ourgraduates for careers in international business want people withsubstantial knowledge of the culture, society, and language of aforeign country." The new degreeis "much more intense thansimply a concentration in international business," which is still anoption available to studentsA maximum of 50 students willbe accepted into the program. Inaddition to traditional, the students are requiredto take at least six courses ininternational business and demonstrate mastery of at least one foreign language. Students must alsospend at least six months studying and working in a foreigncountry.The GSB's other internationalellorts include its new executiveM.B.A. program in Barcelona, and its new Center for InternationalBusiness Education & Research,which sponsors courses inglobal business.To meet the growing nationalneed for preventive and community services for families, theSchool of Social Service Administration has created a new Family-Support Specialization for students in its master's program.The new specialization "stressesthe importance of understandingfamilies — their values, beliefs, andbehaviors — within the context oftheir own communities," says SSAprofessor and program directorDolores Norton, CLA'75. TheSSA, she says, is "uniquely positioned" to coordinate such a program because of its extensive fieldplacements, the positions held byits alumni in a wide range ofagencies, and the interdisciplinarymix of the faculty.The family-support specialization is funded by the A. L. Mailman Family Foundation, theInstitute for Research on HumanDevelopment, and endowmentsfrom Arthur Rasmussen, Jr.,AM'43, and the late Elinor NimsBrink, PhD'26. The Brink FamilySupport Fellowship will also fundeight second-year students in theprogram.The new program is part of theSSA's larger Family Support Project, designed lo form partnerships with area colleges,universities, and community-based agencies to develop trainingprograms lor community-basedsocial workers, and to help thoseworkers acquire post-secondarydegrees.University plugsinto Internet webD RIVERS ON I HE INIORMAT10Nhighway can now visit theUniversity through itsWorld Wide Web server to gel thelatest information about campusnews and events, scholarly andstudent resources — even weatherupdates and reviews of Hyde Parkrestaurants."It's an interesting way ol revisiting the University from afar,"says Harold Bloom, AM'69, asso-14 University of Chicago Magazini/December 1994ciate director of Academic Information Technologies, the University office that manages theserver, which became active inJuly.Chicago is hardly alone on theglobal computer network. Everyone from the White House to theRolling Stones — and most majoracademic institutions — now sendout information through theWorld Wide Web. Originallydeveloped at the European Centerfor Nuclear Research (CERN) inSwitzerland, the Web uses linksto retrieve data "served" fromremote computers worldwide.To visit these servers, a browsermust have access to the Internet.In addition, users must connectthrough specific communications"protocols," such as SLIP or PPP,to take advantage of the graphicsand sounds that are a hallmark ofWeb presentations. (Less expensive types of access, such asLYNX, allow retrieval of Webinformation, but can't displaygraphics or play back sounds.)Users also need a software application such as Mosaic to downloadtext, graphics, and sounds ontotheir computers.If the procedure sounds a littleawkward, it's because the technology is so new. The Web hasgained popularity only in the lastyear or so, says Bloom, but in thattime the number of servers — andthe number of browsers visitingthose servers — has skyrocketed."We looked at the usage of ourown server between July and September," says Bloom, "and duringthat time about 4,000 differentcomputers visited us." Eighty percent were off-campus.Part of the Web's appeal isthat — once a user has installedthe software and established suitable Internet connections — navigating one's way through itsmyriad offerings is easy. That'sbecause World Wide Web uses a"hypertext" format, in whichselected words or graphics (oftenhighlighted or underlined) in adocument serve as links to otherdocuments, ad infinitum.When computer users visit theUniversity's server — its address is —they'll first see on their screenswhat's known as a Home Page. The Home Page provides a general listing of topics available onthe server, such as "Scholarly andResearch resources," and "Newsand Events." These entries areboth highlighted and underlined,indicating that they are "hypertext" — simply clicking on anentry will call up another screenwith more specific information onthe topic and, often, more hypertext options.Chicago's Web server is actuallyseveral servers in one. AlthoughAcademic Information Technologies manages the University's primary Web server, various campusgroups have also set up their ownHome Pages, accessible throughthe main Home Page, and areresponsible for maintaining andupdating the information thosedocuments contain.The number of servers, increasing rapidly, is now over a dozen,including the Oriental Institute,the Smart Museum, the College,DOC Films, the Office of Academic Publications, the biologicalsciences division, and the Library.file Options Navigate Annotate Other offerings include the U of Cnewspaper, the Chronicle (alsoavailable through the "Gopher"protocol at,which includes a complete listingof upcoming events.While the list of U of C serversis impressive, it is by no meansexhaustive, says Bloom. It's up toan individual academic unit todecide whether to maintain itsown server, but, he adds, "Iexpect more and more departments and divisions to be makinginformation available."As with any new technology,some bugs exist. Downloadinggraphics and sounds can be slow,and software design hasn'treached the level of sophisticationavailable in desktop publishingfor printed materials. Still, saysBloom, it's only a matter of timebefore many more Universitypublications — including the Magazine — will be available to readerson the Web.Written and compiled by TimAndrew Obermiller.m>t>4eMW!>cr)l't:e:Ds.iuraentORL tp //«ww uchivajc «du,'HThe University of Chicago."TViis sei-ter i$ lie's? $rid growing .«rf may und^o cc^astomi rearrangement .htfo(?m<fiQfi resource at the University of Chicago' PiUMor? :-f all UutC itifor aianon S* "L.-'l:.:Lr2i' r::--'.:^--- ¦¦¦¦;,-:;¦¦ ..,::-.:* Cotitput toft reaaiafees' Caraffl^-res&urcas ¦¦*¦» health, empjp's10* AiTRe^wceGi4det&infWroaticpT^^&WBS, weather, food, .„ information about the cat?feiWtrgVfe-B...Other r&onrces a/vans! the Internet Mdj^iomej Rsioadj Opea-j Save As,.,| Gdnef New Wnacwl Ciase^flinfosfff Labs' finest: WalterBlum, AB'39, JD'41,received the U-High/Lab SchoolsAlumni Association'sdistinguished alumniaward. At a fall dinnerin his honor, Blum —the Edward H. Levi distinguished serviceprofessor emeritus inthe Law School and a1935 U-High graduate — was cited for bothhis extensive campusservice and his scholarship: Blum's TheUneasy Case of Progressive Taxation(1 953) remains a classic in the field.Better biology: TheUniversity has beenawarded a jour-year,$1.8-million grant bythe Howard HughesMedical Institute toimprove the College'sbiology programs andincrease studentresearch opportunitiesfor minorities andwomen. Part of thegrant will also helpsupport U of C programs under way inChicago high schools tostrengthen pre-collegebiology, general-science, and math edu-Less crime: In SouthPark/South Kenwood,crime decreased 23percent during the firstten months of 1994compared to the sameperiod in 1993, according to the South EastChicago Commission.Welcome fonnat: Even faraway alumni can stay in touch via the Home Page.University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 1^ggB^*Once upon a time, a psychology graduate student—who does improv on the side— created acomputer program called "Structuralist Gilligan"to analyze plots from television's classic sitcoms.Then he decided to put on a show.By Julie Rigby Photography by Matthew Gilsonplete with commercials and an upbeattheme song composed on the spot bySitcom's two musicians. While the wave ofnostalgia for the 1970s has spawned showsin Chicago like The Real Live Brady Bunch,where actors repeat the original LV scripts,the Sitcom crew never has to do a rerun.On this particular evening, the cast wasfinishing up rehearsal when there was aloud knock on the door: a stranger. All yousavvy situation comedy viewers out thereknow that a stranger at the door is a threatto the beautiful, internal logic of sitcoms.An outsider blasts the equilibrium of whatever insular crowd inhabits a show's livingroom, office, or island; the interloper comesin and wreaks emotionalhavocBack after these messages:From stream-of-conscious-ness audience suggestionslike 'famished," collected bycast member Emily Pollock(top), Sitcom's crew improvises two halj-hour episodes,with commercials — and atheme song by Ben Sussmanand Andre Pluess (opposite).Before a show, actors warmup with improv exercises(right) and inspirationalreadings of old sitcoms. I n the course of aweek in mid-October, the cast of Sitcomhad been to a morgue, a cathedral, and aspy retreat in Eastern Europe. The eightactors were happy — no, ecstatic — about thenight they'd recently spent in a trailer parknear Graceland. And although they wereless than 24 hours away from a harrowingexperience in a blood bank, they were blissfully ignorant of what lay ahead.Ignorant because Sitcom is the latestarrival on the University's improvisationalscene, and in improv even the cast doesn'tknow what's next. And blissful because thisis a pack of TV junkies, and each timeSitcom hits the stage the result is a showthat looks and sounds like television, com- on one of the characters and is ultimately driven off. Thistime, however, it was only a reporter fromthe Magazine.When Sitcom came to the University Theater for six nights in October, it broughtwith it a suitcase full of academic theory. Itall began with an assignment in ProfessorKristian Hammond's Practicum in ArtificialIntelligence class: Come up with a softwareprogram with "cocktail-party appeal." ForDaniel Goldstein, a graduate student incomputational psychology, the result was"Structuralist Gilligan," a computer program that can predict the outcome of asitcom by matching its circumstances toother plots stored in its memory.To develop the program, says Goldstein,who recalls coming home from high schoolto watch back-to-back episodes of Gilligan 'sIsland, "I watched a couple hundred sitcomepisodes and read the plot synopses of evenmore." He discerned that sitcoms follow acertain predictable trajectory — somethingthat should surprise few people. Borrowinga page from the Russian literary criticVladimir Propp, Goldstein plugged the elements into a structural analysis, mappingUniversity of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 17out a narrative path that moves from Initiating Event and Conflict to Action and Resolution.Consider a Three's Company episode thatbegins with someone calling Janet dull, andJanet fearing that, alas, she is dull. Shetraipses off to a nude beach, hoping toprove herself, but instead has a bad experience. By the end of the half hour, she haslearned a valuable lesson and has resolvedher lear-ol-dullness.Or imagine a structured world where thearrival ol the Magazine's reporter in theReynolds Club could be compared with anepisode from GiHigan's Island, and represented thus: "they unconsciously hold long-formimprov to the same standards as writtenone-act plays." The Structure Schoolmethod would give the audience what theywant: a story that wraps in half an hour.On a road trip through the South, Goldstein discussed his ideas with John Bour-deaux, another Off-Off Campus performerwho also happened to be hooked on sitcoms. Bourdeaux, an ebullient Americanhistory major who could perhaps be bestcast opposite the academic Goldstein as thefun-loving fraternity member, was enthusiastic. Back in Chicago, the two got the go-ahead from the University Theater studentcommittee and UT director Bill Michel,INITIATINGEVENT CONFLICT ACTION RESOLUTIONEnter danger Believe there is Take action Danger indicatorindicator danger against danger is falseWater-heightmeasuring stickgoes underwater. Professor concludes island issinking. Everyone relocates to dry partof island. Gilligan movedthe measuringstick when fishing.Reporter bangs ondoor. Cast believessomeone is tryingto crash rehearsal. Cast member triesto block door. Goldstein reassures cast that it'sonly a reporter.Harmony is restored, and cast and reporterbreak for a commercial."When you watch as much TV as I have,"Goldstein says, "you start to notice regularities between the shows, and pretty soonyou are predicting the jokes. And eventhough you are doing it, you still love itbecause you can predict the jokes. You arean expert."Armed with his tidy structure and a seemingly boundless enthusiasm for sitcoms, itwas inevitable that Goldstein, who performs with Off-Off Campus, the University's student improv group (with roots toChicago's Second City and its Hyde Parkpredecessor, the Compass Players), wouldwant to move from the theoretical to theapplied.Grafting a sitcom's structuralimperatives onto improv'sspontaneity, Goldsteincame up with a newform — Structure SchoolI m p r o v i s a t i o n — that\\ otild tackle what he saw as the problem atthe heart of much exlendcd improvisation:namely, "that ii doesn't know where it'sgoing and can spin off into a scries of confusing subplots." While audiences are oftenimpressed by the quickness and clevernessof short-form improv, Goldstein reasoned, AB'92, to mount a production of what hasnow become Sitcom.Goldstein and Bourdeaux talk about sitcoms with the fervor of religious zealots.You get them started and they cannot stop.They feel like they've really stumbled uponan invention as important as the sonnet orthe internal combustion engine. Theysound like mad scientists who have tappedinto the power of the sun."There's something special about sitcoms," Goldstein says. "The characters andlocations kind of burn their way into you,and after a while you start to think there's aperson named Alex Keaton out there, orthat right now Hawkeye Pierce is crackingjokes with B.J."Bourdeaux agrees with Goldman thatthere's something psychologically satisfyingabout the closure sitcoms provide. A fewminutes later, he starts absentmindedlyhumming the theme song from HappyDays. Confronted with this, he retorts, "Doyou have any idea how many sitcoms we'vewatched?""Sitcom is ridiculous," admits Bourdeaux,"but it is a lot of fun. We don't take ourselves seriously, but if we weren't seriousabout improv then it could never be funny,and we could never pull it off."The cast, recruited by Goldstein andBourdeaux, consists of other like-minded souls. They are all quick and funny, anddoing this work makes them very, veryhappy. When cast member Nick Green, incharacter as an Igor-like bell ringer at acathedral, tells Bourdeaux the priest that"all that time I thought God was testing mewith this affliction [his hump], but insteadhe sent you from hell to torment me," it's aline of such sitcom authenticity that theyboth revel in the moment. The priest,explaining the crisis of faith in his congregation, deadpans that "bingo, three-beansalad, and camping are not the pillars uponwhich faith is built."Hanging around the theater after rehearsal, it's clear that they "impress thehell" out of each other, as cast member JoshSinton puts it, and they laugh appreciatively at off-stage jokes. It's a modest group,surprisingly ego-free, probably because theUniversity is theater-major-free. Whilesome of the students — six men and twowomen — had performed with Off-OffCampus before, others had never doneimprovisation until they joined Sitcom.In this group, admitting that you'vewatched a lot of Green Acres or Mary TylerMoore doesn't really count as a confession.It's more likely a job requirement. Sintondescribes himself as "fortunate to haveretained an enormous amount of sitcomjunk," and the rest of the Sitcom cast —John McCorry, Jim Ortlieb, Emily Pollock,Abby Sher, and Green — are similarlyblessed.Their background came in handy in creating the final look and feel of Sitcom. WhereGoldstein's program had provided theemphasis on story structure, the rest of thedetails were worked out by the cast. Byculling their memories and studying theshows of their childhood, now seen in constant reruns on cable television, they filledin the specifics on what makes sitcomswork. Ortlieb timed scenes with a stopwatch, Green took notes on the rhythm ofjokes, and Sher noted the impact ofentrances and exits. McCorry suggestedthat the recurring locations of a sitcomencourages the audience to think of thecharacters as old friends.Then there is the primacy rule. ExplainsGoldstein: "If someone mentions at thebeginning of the show that they haven'tseen their friend that much, we know theshow is going to wind up being about afriendship drifting apart, and that by theend they'll be buddies again."Each Sitcom begins with a cheery hostsoliciting suggestions for the location andfor two sets of relationships, which couldbe anything from boss/secretary to predator/prey. He or she — the cast membersalternate in the role — also asks the audi-1 8 University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994ence for an initiating event. Two actorswork as the commercialcrew each evening, wigging out with giddy advertisements for "earwax,""cream cheese," "exuberant," or other words provided by the audiencebefore the show begins (andbeamed up on an overheadprojector at each commercialbreak).When "PC" flashes on thescreen, we are treated to a 15-second promo for a "political-correctness indicator," whichenables the bearer to determinethe multi-ethnic background ofeveryone he encounters; "leather" elicits a wicked take on theman-on-the-street interview,when a hapless model can't findanybody to admire his jacket."Faux leather," he intones. "It justisn't worth it."The commercial cast also controls theshow's lighting, killing scenes on punchlines and even cutting actors off mid-sentence if the scene threatens to run over twominutes. Right before the first commercialbreak, a character creates a plot point, to beresolved before the end of the first half-hour episode, which closes with a breezy,hammy theme song improvised by theshow's musicians, Andre J. Pluess and BenSussman. After a ten-minute intermission,the emcee gets new suggested conflicts forthe second act: the "third-year, mid-season"episode.Not only does Sitcom stick close to thestructure of what's on the air, it holds to thetone as well. On a broadcast sitcom, Janet'slesson at the nude beach would be benignenough — the importance of self-esteem, nodoubt — rather than anything as excruciating as discovering that you actually are dull.Sitcom doesn't try to subvert the feel-goodcode and prides itself on holding to looselydefined "network-appropriate" standards.The highest compliment here is havingpeople say that it felt just like they werewatching TV. In this context, it makes perfect sense to claim, as one cast memberdoes, that "the episode in the morgue wasone of the more family-oriented showswe've done."Still, Sitcom replaces the overwhelmingsaccharinity that characterizes much television comedy with a high-spirited, kitschyirreverence. Staple sitcom characters — thecloying children, faint-hearted father, sensible mother — are given a twist. "The generalrule of thumb," says one cast member, "ismake it wacky." The two-minuterule. Josh Sinton(above), one -half ojthe evening's commercial cast, cutsthe lights when ascene threatens torun too long. A fewseconds after the tagword for a commercialis revealed, Sinton andNick Green (right) donthe guise oj sinceritythat selling any product— even one related toearwax — demands.Thus, a letter from the Pope, chastisingthe priest for his unorthodox methods ofraising pastoral attendance, can begin"Dear Boys: Nice try," and conclude withan impassioned plea for the return of bingonight. And when two lowans inherit anEastern European spy organization, wacki-ness ensues when the cold warriors' secretbomb recipe is confused with a cookbookfrom the heartland, forcing a fervent searchfor an explosive pie.Is there something about sitcoms that isparticularly satisfying, making the troupeall happier people? "I don't know if it isthat gratifying," says John Bourdeaux. he willing to make the claim that throughSitcom we would all have a sense of harmony and conflict resolution? "You mean.there'd be no war?" he asks, thinking for amoment. "Yeah, sure, why not?"Goldstein and Bourdeaux hope to be ableto keep this group together if they taketheir show to the North Side, which would count as a happy ending in Sitcom. Theyalso believe they've come up with a way togenerate sitcom scripts for Hollywood."We've come up with some very viablepremises, viable characters, and viable locations for sitcoms," Bourdeaux says. "We'vecome up with them in less than a minute.""One thing I've learned in science," Goldstein adds, "is that different methods givedifferent results, and writing this way mightmake a very different kind of product." Buteven if Hollywood doesn't come won't diminish his faith in StructureSchool Improvisation."It's a formula with a good deal of successand big laughs," says Goldstein. "We knowthat you can never take all the risk out ofimprov. That's why it's so fun. It's a crap-shoot."Julie Rigby, a freelance writer in Hyde Park.wrote about the campus radio station ("Making Waves") in the August/94 issue.University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 1 9It's PARTLY THE CLOSE-CROPPEDbeard, the warm smile, and thebeeper clipped to his belt. Sittingat one end of a burgundy sofa, inblue oxford shirtsleeves and wire-rimmed glasses, David A. Kessler,JD'78, has the gentle air of a pediatrician ready to reassure youabout your child's latest illness.Diplomas and certificates cover the wallbehind him, just like in a doctor's office.But where you'd expect an anatomy chart, atall U.S. flag graces the elegant room on atop floor of the Food and Drug Administration's hulking glass-and-steel headquarters.It feels right that the FDA's Maryland officeslie just beyond the Washington, D.C., Beltway: Its commissioner is an unapologeticidealist who seems to fall outside the imageof a federal bureaucrat.From his outside-the-Beltway post,Kessler, the FDA's chief since 1991, attacksthe maladies of misleading food labels andunsafe drugs and medical devices. It's a jobfor a caring healer and a veteran politico —in fact, Kessler trained as both pediatricianand lawyer.That training seems to have paid off: TheLord of the Label, as he's been called, iscredited with resuscitating an agency thatwas more used to accommodating industrythan regulating it. Having aimed to revivepride among the agency's 9,000-plusemployees, this year he's put his popularityoutside the FDA to the test, heading one ofthe strongest threats yet to tobacco companies and cigarette smokers. The much-publicized campaign could bring a regulatorycrackdown on teenage smoking.As he warms up to a question about hisjob at the FDA, a third Kessler role — that ofthe passionate consumer advocate — givesvoice. "We here end up being responsiblefor the safety of our nation's food, ournation's drugs, and our nation's blood," hesays. "There're thousands of people who getBy Andrew Campbellpaid within this Beltway to make it theirjob... to try to influence our decisions. Andit's our job, it's my job in particular, to say,'Look, I'm going to allow the scientists, theprofessionals in the agency, to make thosedecisions.'"And Kessler isn't afraid to do his job. Heproved it months into his tenure when heordered the seizure of a shipment of Procter& Gamble reconstituted orange juice mis-leadingly labeled as "fresh," stunning P & Gofficials used to a more laissez-faire FDA.The incident soon entered the Kesslerlore — even at home, where the commissioner's then-6-year-old son, Benjamin, presented him with a birthday drawing of Dadwrestling a giant juice carton. The man whofelt a boyhood admiration for the principledattorney Atticus Finch in To Kill a Mockingbird now seems to live the role for Benjaminand his 12-year-old sister, Elise.REGARDING HIS LISTENER INTENTLY,Kessler peppers his words withitalics, constantly interrupting and-editing his sentences, which sometimes echo traces of his Long Island roots.His thoughts zoom ahead of his speech — acomment that begins, "I think that the onething..." winds up making four or fivepoints. The whirlwind energy is a Kesslerhallmark: His CV reads as though he hadplanned, almost from his college days atAmherst, to lead the FDA — summerresearch in labs and hospitals, classes inbusiness at New York University, andpublic-health studies at Johns Hopkins.The CV includes, of course, both law andmedical degrees. Kessler applied to bothprograms as a college senior in 1973,hoping to defer entrance to law school untilhe'd finished two years of medical school.Most law schools balked at the plan, herecalls. But at Chicago, he says, "they werevery supportive of people doing what theythought they would do best, and they wereAN IDEALIST WHO GETS THE JOB DONE, FDA COMMISSIONEIDOCTOR, LAWYECHESTS. NOW HE WANTS TO EXPAND HIS PATROL— SOME SA20 University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994I ':¦¦¦'¦.''Wr iDAVID KESSLER POLICES AMERICAS PANTRIES AND MEDICINEtAGENCYCHIEFTOO FAR— TO THE NATION'S POWERFUL CIGARETTE MAKERS.University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 2 1SMOKING ISN'T "AN ISSUE OF PERSONAL CHOICE," SA^willing to take risks onpeople." During the twoyears he spent in HydePark between his secondand third years at HarvardMedical School, the"risky" student made associate editor of the lawreview, and won theschool's Casper Piattaward for a paper on theFood, Drug, and CosmeticAct (the 1938 law thataccounts for most of theFDA's work). Married toattorney Paulette Steinberg Kessler, JD'77, whom he'd met whilean undergraduate, Kessler serves today onthe visiting committee to the Law School.His career plan was calculated, he admits,but the goal was health-care administration,not the FDA. In 1981, while still a pediatrics resident at Johns Hopkins, he beganworking as a consultant on health issues forthe Senate Committee on Labor andHuman Resources, chaired by SenatorOrrin Hatch. Thanks to his Chicago paperon food and drug law, he became the committee's expert on FDA issues.Residency over, Kessler kept taking onnew jobs. By age 32, he was director ofWeiler Hospital at Montefiore MedicalCenter in New York City. After six yearsthere, he was also lecturing at Columbia'slaw school, practicing pediatrics in BronxMunicipal Hospital's emergency room, andleading an FDA advisor)' subcommittee ondrugs and biologies. When George Bushnominated him in 1990 to head the FDA,lime called him "almost certainly the mostcapable person ever put in charge of theFood and Drug Administration." After theWhite House changed hands, the commissioner, with the backing of many consumerand industry groups, was reappointed byBill Clinton.For now, just one job is plenty. Within it,Kessler points out, is "all food, except meatand poultry. It's all drugs, all medicaldevices, blood, vaccines, biotcch. It's cosmetics. It's an)' device that's radiation-emitting. ...The jurisdiction [covers] 25 cents oneven consumer dollar."Ki ss| I r gave iiis scout's honorwhen sworn in: "The FDA will notbe a paper tiger." Along with around ol management changes,stricter enforcement of food and drug lawswas, as promised, among his earliest accomplishments.In two years, injunctions at the agencymore than tripled and prosecutions doubled. "The regulated industry knows wemean business," Kessler says with a note ofpride. With a limited budget, he argues,strong enforcement "is the way you leverage your resources."Warning shots like the orange-juiceseizure were just the start of Kessler's regulatory attack on deceptive food labels. Hismost visible work to date, the regulationswere mandated by the 1990 NutritionLabeling and Education Act. Promptingthat law was the label tomfoolery that proliferated in the health-conscious 1980s:"low-calorie" desserts with microscopicserving sizes, and "96-percent fat-free"products that were actually loaded in fat.Under the new rules, terms like "light"and "low calorie" have standard definitions.The biggest switch is the new "NutritionFacts" panel that must appear on nearlyevery product made since May 1994.Reflecting nutritionists' chief worries withthe American diet, the chart puts fat, cholesterol, and sodium levels first."It takes a minute to get used to," Kesslersays of the new label. "But give me 30 seconds, and I can show somebody who'snever read it how to read it. You look atthat 'Percent Daily Value' column — it's nota great term — but you look at total fat, andif it's less than 5 percent of your fat for theday, that's low."Food experts have applauded the changes,though they note that the meat industryand its regulator-promoter, the Departmentof Agriculture, managed to wrest a fewcompromises in the reforms.Kessler calls the project "a tremendousvictory for the average consumer," and addsthat standardized definitions give foodmakers an incentive to develop and adver- 'lion n\•*v^y1'ii-..|,-J|4o»(M3tejiet,KBj0„ajMtaloSli» My i/Suss mq vgq wjia trtjw tenatftaaitise healthier products. Then the commissioner — a lean man after successfully setting out to lose 50 pounds when he joinedthe FDA — grins and laughs: "The downside is, now we know what we're eating."Not all of Kessler's crusades have gotten auniformly positive reception. In 1992, theFDA curtailed the use of silicone breastimplants, after deciding that the productshad been marketed without adequate safetystudies. Some women and doctorsdenounced the FDA for overstepping itsauthority and denying women the right tojudge the risks for themselves. The WallStreet Journal — which had welcomedKessler in 1990 as "a pragmatist whowill... look for ways to spare industry fromburdensome regulation" — complained thata "Kessler-Congress jihad against breastimplants" had prompted a "gridlock" inproduct approvals, as FDA reviewers put allnew medical devices under scrutiny. Inother areas, too, like the agency's zealousoversight of drug companies' advertising,some have charged that the new devotionto safety punishes business and treats consumers in a paternalistic way.Kessler admits that the FDA doesn't yetreview medical devices with the same efficiency that it studies drugs — where, bylevying user fees on manufacturers to hireextra researchers, the agency has slashedthe time for product reviews without11 University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994KESSLER. "WE'RE DEALING WITH A PEDIATRIC ILLNESS."W:<<:~:-\.1^':'':increasing its budget. And the FDA has further sped review of new treatments for life-threatening illnesses like AIDS. Still, Kesslerdefends the agency's high standards forpractical and ethical reasons. "Look at themost internationally competitive industrywe have — the pharmaceutical industry," hesays. "High standards are important forpatient care, but they're also important forour competitiveness."WHEN THE TIME COMES TO LEAVEWashington, Kessler oftenhas said, he can always goback to pediatrics. In themeantime, as his latest campaign risks theanger of powerful politicians and industries,he's not hiding from controversy.Last winter, Kessler proclaimed thattobacco companies deliberately jack up thenicotine content of low-tar — and supposedly low-nicotine — cigarettes. Then, inHouse subcommittee hearings in March, heposed a loaded question: Are cigarettes adrug?The answer hinges on whether cigarettesare intended to affect the body's structure orfunction. In his testimony, Kessler recalledthe Surgeon General's 1988 conclusion,since confirmed by an FDA advisor)' panel,that nicotine is addictive: It affects thebody's function. Tobacco companies dispute the finding, starting with the FDA's definition of addiction.Moreover, Kessler offered the subcommittee evidence that companies manipulatenicotine content — implying, he said, anintent to keep nicotine at addictive levels.Rather than make an outright declarationthat cigarettes are drugs — as unsafe"drugs," they'd surely be banned underFDA law — the commissioner closed his testimony more diplomatically. "We seekguidance," he told Congress. His wordsopened the door to what many see as theonly politically possible solution: a congressional mandate for FDA regulation thatstops short of a complete ban.Why regulate smoking at all — especiallywhen other risky activities, from drinkingto hang-gliding, are legal? The questionmakes Kessler sit bolt upright. "Cigarettesare the only product that I know of that,when used as directed, are dangerous. Addup the risks," he demands. "Add up therisks."With his fingers, he ticks them off in hisbest courtroom style, no longer the gentlepediatrician: "Alcohol, homicide, suicide,AIDS, illegal drugs. ..add up the risks fromall those, and they pale in the number ofdeaths per year compared to smoking. Oneout of five people in this country is going todie from tobacco-related illness."Which is why Kessler wants to reframethe debate over smoking. "The tobaccocompanies would have you believe that it'san issue of personal choice. In fact," hecounters, his voice almost booming, "it's notan issue of freedom to choose. The recognition that nicotine is an addictive substancevery significantly undermines that argument." As does another fault in the logic:"We're dealing with a pediatric disease.Children start at the age of 11, 12 — theaverage age of onset is 14." Many kids, hesays, become addicted within a few years of Enforcer, teacher,activist: Kesslerunveiled his popularreform of food labels(center) in 1992.Testifying beforeCongress (left andright), he blastedtobacco companies fordeliberately manipulating nicotine levelsin cigarettes.starting. Kessler challenges his listener,"Tell me about the choices when one's dealing with 16- or 17-year-olds who can'tquit."What are the FDA's solutions? "Prohibition's not going to work," he says flatly.Rather than make life tough for today's 45million smokers, Kessler pins his hopes ontoday's children: "The fact that, if you don'tstart smoking by the age of 21, you're notgoing to start — that gives us enormousopportunity. If we can really stop kids fromstarting to smoke, the next generation's notgoing to smoke."He'd like an end to tobacco advertisingthat, he says, pitches its message to teenagers. And, he adds, "We need to focus onrestricting access. Yes, there are laws againstsales to minors, but no one takes them seriously. Until we have the grassroots effortlike we saw from Mothers Against DrunkDrivers, we're never going to get there."Kessler's own call to arms is having someeffect. This fall, President Clinton's advisoryboard on cancer called for increased regulation of tobacco. And an alliance of 75health, consumer, and religious groups —led by former Surgeon General C. EverettKoop and the Coalition on Smoking ORHealth — conducted a national petitiondrive for laws requiring the FDA to regulatetobacco. A move in Congress toward suchlaws — one form that legislators' "guidance"may take — could start as early as thisspring.The cigarette makers call regulation ofadvertising or access just prohibition in disguise — and politically impossible in thewake of November's elections. DavidKessler, the FDA's lawyer-commissioner,might count the votes differently. DavidKessler the idealist would rather count onthe advice of his FDA scientists. He'll dowhat he thinks is right.University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 23hough it's been open since March, theUniversity of Chicago Downtown Centerhasn't lost its new-building smell orshine. The wood-paneled walls and ter-razzo floors of its entrance lobby, the larger-than-lifemurals of Hyde Park scenes in its branch of the UniversityBookstore, and the red-leather sofas in the glass-walledstudent lounges all gleam pristinely.That doesn't mean that the eight-level, limestone-colored concrete building — which juts out toward theChicago River on a pie-shaped property known as 450North Cityfront Plaza — isn't being used. In its prime location east of the Equitable building and west of the NBCTower, the Downtown Center is busily giving the University what it was long without: a gateway into the hub ofthe city.With 217,000 square feet of space, the $44-millionDowntown Center brings together activities once parceledout around Chicago: the evening, weekend, and executiveM.B.A. programs; Continuing Studies courses; and theUniversity's investment office. Then there are new functions, like the University of Chicago Conference Center.Run by the Graduate School of Business, the center rentsout the building's many board rooms and interactiveclassrooms for corporate training programs when they'renot being used for U of C events.Already, life at the Downtown Center has developed itsown set of rhythms. The sunrise bustle of corporateemployees arriving for their rounds of training sessionsyields to a midday calm that's broken only by the hourlyentrances of those arriving for Continuing Studies classesor committee meetings. Early evenings are peak hours, ashundreds converge on the student lounges, hoping tograb a quick bite — or a quick review of their assignments — before the evening's classes begin. — M.R.Y.24 University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994, the UofCis part of the picture. Photography by Dan DryNight life: As the temposlows for its MichiganAvenue neighbors, theUniversity of ChicagoDowntown Center (below,right) welcomes theevening's influx oj students.In a second-floor lounge(right), a would-be M.B.A.bits the hooks before his6 p.m. class.After a morning of trainingmeetings, employees fromSandoz Quality break forlunch (above). The building's top floor junctions as aconference center — withboardrooms, a large meetingroom that converts to a banquet hall, and floor-to-ceiling views oj Chicago, The conference center maintainsthe University's mission,booking corporate meetingsand seminars with aneducational twist. Thebuilding's location,computer lab, and built-inaudio-visual equipment areselling points.hough the high-tech classrooms lack windows"She/ell in love with a fly."Movie critic Roger Ebert,X'70, (below) begins hisfilm-studies course with aclue. "Geena Davis" is theanswer, a laserdisc o/Angieis the prize. Ebert hastaught in the ContinuingStudies program since 1969.Well-connected: TheDowntown Center has aGothic-inspired facade — andthe Chicago River for itsfront yard. A two-levelesplanade (left), running/ivcblocks east from MichiganAvenue, provides benches,greenery, and a traffic-freewalk for riverside strollers.there's no dearth of city views.University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 27he Big Bang to dinosaurs to Sophocles: It's alla day's work."Oedipus leaves the stageintending to murderJocasta." Elliott Krick,AB'64, AM'73, (below)teaches Sophocles' Antigonein Continuing Studies' BasicProgram, a noncredit coursesequence that builds a foundation in liberal learning. In Christie Nordhielm's(AB'81, MBA '84) Advertisingand Promotions class (left)—one of 60 GSB coursesoffered at the DowntownCenter during autumn quarter — students learn to analyze the ads they see on TVand billboards every day.U of C paleontologist PaulSereno (above) readies amodel of an African therapodfor a news conferenceannouncing the dinosaur's discovery. Participants in thelunchtime Cityfront Forums(left) hear UofC astrophysicist Rocky Kolb explain the"first gazillionth-second of theUniversity of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 29j, JA« '<**"¦ )W*^Willthe realRichardMcKeonpleasestandup?Depending on whom youask, the professor waseither a holy terror whofrightened students halfto death, or a brilliantmentor, helping them tosee the history ofthought in a new light.By Tim AndrewObermiller DURING THE FOUR DECADES HEtaught at Chicago, philosopher Richard McKeon waslegendary for inspiring coldsweat and raw fear. As English professor NormanMaclean, PhD'40, once quipped, studentsdidn't say, "This quarter I'm takingMcKeon," but instead, "This quarterMcKeon is taking me."To some, he was simply an academicbully — a view immortalized in RobertPirsig's 1974 autobiographical novel, Zenand the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, inwhich the Chairman, a character reputedlybased on McKeon, browbeats students"with a gleam in his eye" while graduating"only carbon copies ol himself."But McKeon also inspired lifelong admira tion, and from an impressive cast of alumniat that. Novelist Robert Coover, AM'65,"respectfully" dedicated his first novel, TheOrigin of the Brunists, to McKeon. Authorand filmmaker Susan Sontag, AB'51, hascalled him "a teacher and a thinker ofincomparable authority and importance."Philosophers Paul Goodman, PhD'54, andRichard Rorty, AB'49, AM'52, anthropologist Paul Rabinow, AB'65, AM'67, PhD'70,and literary theorist Wayne Booth, AM'47,PhD'50, are among the company ofChicago-educated scholars who have doffedtheir mortarboards to McKeon's lastinginfluence.It was largely these memories of formerstudents — admiring or acrimonious — thatMcKeon left behind when he died in 1985.If he was an important philosopher, as his30 University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994followers fervently insist, he never capturedwidespread attention with one blockbustertreatise. Instead, his published work is scattered among essays mostly found inobscure academic journals. Even those whotried to track them down often found theseessays — usually densely written, withgrasshopper leaps across vast terrains ofintellectual history — too daunting toabsorb.In many cases, McKeon packed into hisessays the distilled essence of an entirecourse that he had once taught. And thoseclasses were hardly walks in the park:McKeon's students, desperate to pick upsubtle points they might have missed, commonly recorded his lectures and class discussions. With the kind of cult statusassociated more with jazz artists and rock bands, these bootleg recordings circulatedamong former students after McKeon'sretirement in 1974. Acquiring several ofthese tapes in the late 1970s, David Owen,AM'66, AM'80, PhD'84, took the next logical step: If the best place to begin appreciating McKeon's genius was in the classroom,then why not make those taped classroomsessions available to the public in bookform? His idea has finally come to fruitionwith the autumn 1994 release of On Knowing — The Natural Sciences by the Universityof Chicago Press.Complete with lectures, discussions, examquestions, and McKeon's mind-bendingblackboard diagrams, the book is the first ina three-volume series that presents eachsegment of a three-quarter sequence taughtby McKeon in the 1950s and 1960s. These courses — continuing with the social sciences and concluding with the humanities — served as an introduction to theCommittee on Analysis of Ideas and Methods, an interdisciplinary program thatMcKeon conceived and chaired. As such,the volumes provide a McKeon primer,making clearly visible the methodologicalstructure hidden within his written work.Owen, who teaches educational philosophy at Iowa State University, originally contacted McKeon with his idea for the projectin 1979. Owen offered the fact that he hadtaken and audited several McKeon classesas assurance that he could make a capabletranscription of the often abysmallyrecorded tapes. For his part, McKeonagreed to check over the finished transcripts for errors, and the two signed a con-University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 3 132 University ot Ci nt ago Magazine/December 1994tract to get under way.With some finished lecture transcripts inhand, Owen returned to McKeon's office afew weeks later — only to find that themaster's enthusiasm was gone. "I didn'trealize — he didn't even mention it — that hisson, Peter, had died of pancreatic cancer,"says Owen, who then abandoned the project until a few years after McKeon's owndeath in 1985. At that point, he contactedZahava McKeon, PhD'74, a retired academic and former student of McKeon's, whoOwen knew was deeply involved in efforts walked, but for those who didn't, the classbecame a daunting test of cerebral stamina:a sort of boot camp for the mind.AIn Zen and the Art ofMotorcycle Maintenance,a character based onMcKeon upbraids students"with a gleam in his eye."to collect and republish her husband'swork. She agreed to help Owen edit thetranscripts and put him in touch withanother former McKeon student, DouglasMitchell, AB'65, a senior editor at the U ofC Press.Mitchell took — or was taken by — a totalof "18 or 19" McKeon courses as an undergraduate and doctoral student. His very firstMcKeon course was, coincidentally, thesame course that Owen had transcribed forthe first On Knowing volume.Mitchell says he registered for that class,called Ideas and Methods 211, in theautumn of 1963 as a kind of warm-up forthe College's required introductory physicalsciences course. He'd never heard ofRichard McKeon."It was given in Cobb 112, a corner roomon the first floor," he recalls. "Thisextremely purposeful man strode into theroom at a slightly forward angle and set upat the lectern. And it was, 'Let's get down towork,' or 'woik,' as he had a slight NewJersey accent. He was a Taurus in the zodiacsigns, and it fit, because he had a very bulllike approach to getting things done."A willingness to plunge down the rabbithole into McKeon's world became, DavidOwen believes, "a question of intellectualcharacter. What he was doing was genuinely unique. As a student you had to startthinking in different ways than you wereused to thinking. And that's a very difficultthing to do. You either become angry andgo away, or you inquire further." Many lthough Doug Mitchell hadno way of knowing it then,McKeon — in his introductorylecture to the class — "waslaying out a whole constellation, a whole universe of philosophicassumptions that were extremely avant-garde at the time, having to do with howyou organize knowledge. Now, lookingback, I see that a lot of his philosophy was contained in germinal form in that firstlecture."McKeon begins this lectureby explaining what he will notdo as a teacher. He will not, hesays, provide his students withone "true" way of approachingphilosophy — nor will he teachindividual philosophers in isolated succession, so "you'd discover a new truth each successive week, which would bethe basis of tension and uncertainty because last week's truth was nolonger true, and eventually you wouldn'tbe quite sure why you were studying philosophy."Instead, "certain definite assumptions"will guide his approach. ("Most of them Iwill try to state today," he joked, "and thenwe'll forget about them.") One assumptionis that "if you take any problem... and pushit far enough, it becomes a philosophicproblem." And any philosophic problem,when examined closely, reveals a set ofassumptions that can be challenged by analternative set of assumptions."In terms of assumptions which you setup, 2 plus 2 equals 4, but what about circumstances — and there are many withoutfanciful elaboration — in which 2 plus 2 donot equal 4? How do they fit in, how doyou deal with them, and, in general, howdo you raise the question of fundamentaldifferences?"These fundamental differences, McKeongoes on to suggest, are at the heart of intellectual inquiry; "Basic ideas are in an opposition which is constant, not dangerous;rather, they are productive ol discussion,inquiry, and progress."He gives his students the example of Einstein and Bohr, whose conclusions differedon the principle of indeterminacy: "Thisformed one of the basic differences the twomen had. One held that it was in the verynature of things. ...The other, Einstein,argued that it merely reflected the state ofour knowledge.... "Notice, this is at opposite ends of thespectrum, and for 30 years the discussionwent on," McKeon tells the class. Meanwhile, "each of the two camps was makingcontributions to quantum mechanics, yeteach could take their position as a hypothesis for further work. "The point: With ever)' fundamental problem, be it scientific or humanistic, there are"alternative approaches which are in fruitfulrelation to each other." This applies tothinkers who were contemporaries — orcenturies apart. To appreciate this dynamic,McKeon demanded his students leam morethan what Plato or Aristotle had said on agiven subject. Instead, says Owen, "hewanted them to understand how Platowould have handled Aristotle's position,and how Aristotle would have handledPlato's position.""Students would really learn for the firsttime how to read a text, how to read anargument," says Mitchell. "And that is thereason why, when you read these class discussions, many of the students appear lostor confused. What's wrong with theiranswers is they're not paying attention tothe argument. They're just looking at isolated propositions or statements, ratherthan making connections."Reminded that his was among the voicesof those struggling students, now publishedfor posterity, Mitchell shudders. Althoughstudents' names were changed for the book,Owen, as the tapes' transcriber, knew whichcomments were the young Doug Mitchell's.'He offered to point them out to me," saysMitchell, whose response was, "Pleasedon't. 1 don't want to know. It gives me thecreeps."If Richard McKeon intimidated andoffended, he did so, David Owenbelieves, rather unintentionally. "Isuspect he may not have completelyunderstood how far he was beyondeveryone else. And so sometimes when students or people around him — faculty, otherintellectuals — did not follow what he wasdoing, I think he got frustrated with itsometimes, as if they weren't trying.... Hemay literally not have been aware howamazing his gifts were."Those gifts were first cultivated at Columbia, where McKeon took several advancedmathematics classes with the intention ofbecoming an engineer, but switched to philosophy, receiving both his bachelor's andmaster's degrees in 1920. In his doctoralstudies at Columbia, McKeon's mentorswere Frederick J. E. Woodbridge andformer U of C professor John Dewey. FromWoodbridge, McKeon would later write, helearned that "what philosophers meantUniversity of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 33might be comparable or even identical,despite differences in their modes of expression." Dewey, he writes, taught him how"to seek the significance of philosophicpositions in the problems they were constructed to solve...."In 1922, the budding philosopher left forParis to study with some of Europe's greatest classical scholars — most notably, Eti-enne Gilson, who taught medievalphilosophy at the Sorbonne. Three yearslater, he joined Columbia's faculty; over thenext decade, he established medieval philosophy — long considered essentially theology at American universities — as a basiccomponent of Columbia's philosophy curriculum.It was with this reputation as a medievalist that McKeon in 1935 was invited byRobert Maynard Hutchins to teach Greekand philosophy at Chicago. "I really had noreason to leave Columbia," McKeon latersaid. "I had acquired tenure. But at thattime the University of Chicago was rethinking its basic curriculum, and I decided totake up Hutchins' invitation."Not long after McKeon's arrival oncampus, President Hutchins made himdean of humanities — a position of powerand prestige that, bestowed upon a newcomer, made many in the faculty suspiciousor resentful. Regardless, during his 12-yeartenure as dean, McKeon's input outweighedeven Hutchins' "in reshaping the curriculum in the Division of the Humanities and,after 1942, in the College," writes U of Chistorian William McNeill, AB'38, AM'39,in his book Hutchins' University. His influence can be seen clearly in the adoption ofthree-year sequences in the humanities,social sciences, and natural sciences, and —long after this version of the College wasdismantled, and McKeon's clout on campushad waned — in the Ideas and Methods program he chaired.In the polarizing battles surrounding thegeneral-education movement at Chicago,McKeon was often stereotyped as a Great Books advocate, an Ancient (vs. the progressive Moderns), and a strict Aristotelianwho analyzed texts based on the requirements laid down in the Poetics."McKeon knew Aristotle — indeed, knewthe entire Western canon — as well as anybody," says Owen. "But he was not a GreatBookser, saying the truth is everywhere thesame and therefore education should be thesame everywhere. This kind of stuff wasabsolutely not what he was about." Instead,: McKeon believed there was an endless variety ol approaches to knowledge: Althoughhis classes focused on the Western tradi-: tion, his interests were global. Among hisbooks is Edicts of Asokai with N. A. Nikam,1962), a translation of the writings of theancient Indian emperor whose moral code' endorsed nonviolence and acceptance of all; faiths and beliefs.i Asoka's code of tolerance was not far fromr McKeon's own. An early delegate to thet United Nations Educational, Scientific, andCultural Organization (UNESCO), McKeon) helped formulate UNESCO's 1947 Declaration of Human Rights and was a foundingi member of its International Institute of Phi-l losophy. Among its aims, McKeon said,r would be to "examine certain fundamentalterms, such as human rights, democracy,s freedom, law, and equality" across a wider range of cultures and traditions.1 The fairest label to apply to McKeon, sayhis defenders, is that of "systematic pluralist": a thinker who allowed — indeed,I demanded — a breadth of meanings, terms,and propositions so multifaceted that noone analysis or philosophic system wasf uniquely true. Zahava McKeon writes inher preface to Freedom and History, a 1990collection of McKeon's essays: "He con-; structed a semantic schematism for analyz-; ing systems of thoughts with greatprecision. ...This schematism made it possible to appreciate the philosophy of the past; without taking sides."McKeon's disciples fought hard, some-t times futilely, to master the intricacies of McKeon's "semantic schematism." But whatkept them coming back for more was thepromise that this approach might clarify,codify, and unify conflicting thoughts andvalues, while respecting and preservingtheir essential differences."Before I heard McKeon," says Owen, "theintellectual world didn't make much sense.It was just a bunch of people arguing witheach other. McKeon was the first teacherwho really tried to sort all that out."A lifelong appreciation of this approachbegan, for Doug Mitchell, back in a mid-quarter lecture on Galileo that McKeontaught for Ideas and Methods 211."McKeon," he says, "asked his students to"look at the way Galileo puts an argumenttogether to isolate three variables: time, distance, and velocity. And the intellectual actof conceiving of these things as finite variables and then putting them into proportions and figuring out how acceleration canbe explained and understood in theseterms — it just dazzled me."And then "a light went on," Mitchell says."What Galileo had done for the sciences,McKeon was doing for the humanities: systematizing it, isolating a certain finitenumber of variables and methods forunderstanding all the discourses that haveever been conducted. Something like whatGalileo did in the 17th century could bedone in the 20th century for addressing thecontroversies and debates that stall inquirythese days."By collecting his work and transcribinghis lectures, devotees like Mitchell hopethat McKeon's voice will assume its rightfulplace in current debates over how knowledge is — or can be — organized, interpreted,and taught. That McKeon did not endorse asingle answer to these questions may be notonly relevant but consoling at a time whenraging culture wars threaten to transformacademe into an ivory Tower of Babel."I think it can be shown that ideologicalagreement on one philosophy by allmankind is neither possible nor, if it werepossible, desirable," McKeon told his students in the first lecture of Ideas and Methods 211. "It would probably put us into akind of intellectual sleep in which we needdo no further thinking...."The progress of knowledge is, rather,that with the solution to any problem, alarge number of unsuspected problemsarise; and therefore, the more problems youanswer, the more problems you have. This,I suggest, is not discouraging; rather, itwould indicate that as thinkers, you have afuture."The transcript notes that, at this point,McKeon and his students shared a goodlaugh.Said McKeon: "I think it canbe shown that ideologicalagreement on one philosophyby all is neither possible nor, ifit were possible, desirable."34 University or Chicago Magazine/December 1994C lass NewsWhat's the news? We are always eager to receiveyour news at the Magazine, care of the Class NewsEditor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, or by No engagements,please. Items may be edited for space. Please specifythe year under which you would like your news toappear. Otherwise, we will list: (1) former undergraduates (including those who later received graduate degrees) by the year of their undergraduatedegree, and (2) former students who received onlygraduate degrees by the year of their final degree.AH Edward M. Bernstein, PhB'27, a fellow atC m the Brookings Institution, attended a two-day conference at the State Department and wasinterviewed by the BBC and the McNeil-LchrcrNews Hour for the 50th anniversary of the BrettonWoods Conference. At a meeting at Bretton Woodsin October, he gave the opening address, "Makingand Remaking of the Bretton Woods Institutions.''Reunion June 2«3«4Ralph B. Greenfield, AB'35, CLA'35, X'36,writes: "Though retired from my law practice, I spend much time reminiscing over Chicago'sgreat days, namely 1931-1935. Is there a similarexciting period? Could there be!"OW Aaron Bell, AB'37, see 1938, Seymour Mey-^P m erson.M Edgar M. Branch, AM'38, a research professor emeritus of English at Miami Universityin Ohio, was awarded one of two 1994 MidAmericaAwards presented by the Society for the Study ofMidwestern Literature. In June, Seymour Meyerson,SB'38, and wife Lotle look a four-week Elderhosteltour of the Baltic Slates and Russia. At the end of themonth they had a one-day stopover in Helsinki,where they visited Aaron Bell, AB'37, and his wife,Mirja Lavanne. Meyerson writes: "We were veryclose for a couple of years and then went our separate ways." The reunion some 60 years later "stillstrikes me as almost incredible."Bernard Adinoff, SB'39, PhD'43, retired in1982 and moved from Michigan to Thousand Oaks, CA, where he keeps busy with community volunteer work on a variety ol councils andcommittees, including ones on aging, senior mentalhealth, recycling, transportation, and cable TV. Adi-nolf also teaches computer courses and has writtencomputer programs for the local symphony orchestra and the sheriffs department. S. ElizabethRomine Morse, SB'39, is 83 and lives on Whidbeybland in Puget Sound, where she is a church organist and a violist in a community orchestra. Aftergraduating from Chicago, she earned a master'sdegree from the University of Michigan, thenworked in child development and family life.Reunion June 2<3>4Mjgk Ralph 1:. Lapp. SB 40. PhD 46. sec 1947,T»U John k i amcrotiill In July, Evelyn Geiger Jones, AB'41, ol^¦1 Boise, ID, and her husband, Clair, celebratedtheir 50th wedding anniversary in Hawaii. «Rita Liberman Norton, AB'42, and herhusband, Raymond M. Norton, AB'42,JD'48, report that they survived last year's North-ridge, CA, earthquake, "albeit without scientificexplanation." They are retired and "so busy wewonder how we found time to work before retirement!"/g*fr Artists Sonia Weiner Katz, AB'43, AM'46,^¦^P and her daughter, Mary Katz, held a jointexhibition of some of their oil paintings and collages at TabulaRasa Pilsen East Artists' CooperativeGallery in Chicago during August and September.^kit John C. Angle, SB'44, and wife Catherine^¦Tl have established the first endowed professorial chair in history at the University ofNebraska-Lincoln. The gift honors her father, whochaired the department in the 1950s. Fred Somkin,X'44, has retired from teaching American culturaland intellectual history at Cornell University. He isthe author of Unquiet Eagle: Memoty and Desire inthe Idea of American Freedom, 1815-1860. Somkin ismarried to Bodil Hammergaard, a Danish civil engineer who was an apprentice to Frank Lloyd Wrightat Taliesin.R EUNION June 2.3-4« Henry C. McBay, PhD'45, was honored at aceremony celebrating his 80th birthday andsix decades ol educational achievement. The program was sponsored by Clark Atlanta University,where he is a professor emeritus of chemistry, andMorehouse College, where he taught chemistry fornearly 40 years. Among those paying tribute toMcBay were Gloria Long Anderson, PhD'68, achemistry professor at Morris Brown College, andWalter E. Massey, former U of C vice president ofresearch and Argonne National Laboratory.jSiW After graduation, John R. Cameron, SB'47,^m m earned a Ph.D. in physics from the University ol Wisconsin and spent six years in nuclear-physics research and teaching, switching to medicalphysics and then retiring from Wisconsin in 1986.He has since founded Medical Physics Publishing —the company is now completing a book by Ralph E.Lapp, SB'40, PhD'46. Lee P. Gaalaas, AB'47, writesthat being accepted into the U of Cs business schoolwas a "dramatic turning point" in his life and praisesthe education he received and mentor Eva AdamsSutherland, SB'18. He continues, "For me therewards in life have been substantial (though not inthe area of finance): Four married children, tengrandchildren, and a lasting marriage of 52 years."« Katherine Willis Ballard, PhB'49, retiredafter 19 years of nursing at Evanston Hospital and has moved to her farm in Hanover, IL.Roderick W. Pugh, PhD'49, a professor emeritus ofpsychology at Loyola University, was a visiting professor at Fisk University in Nashville in October. AFisk alumnus, he has also served on the university'sboard of trustees. He maintains a clinical practice indowntown Chicago. Zane Spiegel, SB'49, SM'52,spent May and June in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine'ssecond-largest city and largest industrial center. Asadviser to the Ecology Foundation of Dnipro RiverBasin, Spiegel offered counsel on environmental-improvement programs for the city's thermal power In the ClubsBoston Sun., Feb. 19, 1 p.m. and 3 p.m.:Men's and women's basketball teams playagainst Brandeis. If interested in a book club,call Celia Shneider, X'72, at 617/739-1303. Forinformation on the young alumni club, callJulekha Dash, AB'93, at 617/625-6932.Chicago Sat., Jan. 14, 12:45 p.m.: DuSableMuseum tour. Wed., Feb. 1, 12:15 p.m.: Downtownluncheon with Professor Mary Becker, JD'80.Cleveland To help reorganize the club, callGreg Balbierz, AB'72, AM'73, at 216/621-1177 (w).LOS Angeles For information, call Geri Yoza,AB'81, MBA'87, at 310/618-4271 (w).Houston Thurs., Dec. 29: Pizza party and officer elections. Mid-January: Reception foralumni new to the area.Miami Sat., Jan. 21: Business professor RobertAliber speaks as part of the Alumni Association's Distinguished Faculty Series.New York Tues., Jan. 10: Divinity School professor Martin Marty speaks on "Who's Afraid ofthe Fundamentalists? A World Summary ofTrends." Thurs., Jan. 19, 6:30 p.m.: Youngalumni "Happy Hour" at the Metropolitan Opera.Fri., Feb. 3, 1 p.m.: Wrestling team competes atNew York University. Thurs., Feb. 16, 6:30 p.m.:Young alumni "Happy Hour" event. Fri., Feb. 17,6 p.m. and 8 p.m.: Basketball against NYU.Philadelphia To help reorganize the club,call Amy Goerwitz, AB'83, at 312/702-2159 (w).Pittsburgh Fri., Jan. 27, 6 p.m. and 8 p.m.:Basketball at Carnegie Mellon University.Rochester Wed., Dec. 14, 5:30 p.m.: Holidayreception at Daisy Flour Mill. Fri., Feb. 3, 6 p.m.and 8 p.m.: Basketball against Rochester.San Francisco Mon., Jan. 16, 12 p.m.:Nancy H. Bechtle, president of the San FranciscoSymphony, speaks at a luncheon. Thurs., Feb.16, 7 p.m.: Reception and forum on health careand the government, led by Mark Schiller,AB'85, MD'90. Second Sunday of every month:San Francisco Book Club meeting. For information, call Sydney Rosen, PhB'46, AM'49, PhD'73,at 415/776-0504. Third Sunday of every month:East Bay Book Club meeting. For information,call Ruth Abel, AB'36, at 510/849-9308.Sarasota Sun., Jan. 22: Business professorRobert Aliber speaks at a brunch in the AlumniAssociation's Distinguished Faculty Series.Washington, DC Fourth Monday of everymonth: Great Books Club meeting. For information, call Bill Cregar, AB'66, at 703/455-1932.For further information about these events andany other club activities, please contact MarilynMeivan in the U of C Alumni Association at312/702-2157; at 312/702-2166 (fax); or (Internet).University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 35Star SearcherArthur Code, SM'47, PhD'50, has alot ol firsts to his name: the first telescope sent into space, the first mapsof the spiral structure of the Milky Way, thefirst discoveries of the hydrogen cloudsaround comets, and the first proof of starformation in other galaxies. Fhe Universityof Wisconsin astronomer received Chicago'sProfessional Achievement Award in 1969and was awarded NASA's highest honor, theDistinguished Public Service Medal, in 1992.At age 71, Code continues to advance hisfield: In February, yet another of his telescopes, the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment, will be launchedinto space. WUPPE and two other majorprojects should keep him busy well beyondhis official retirement next June.After five decades in the field, his love ofdiscovery remains strong. "For that moment, you're the only one in the world whoknows that little secret of nature," he says.'That's a reward that goes beyond salaries,or medals, or acclaim. And then the nextstep is telling other people about it."Alter earning his Ph.D. from Chicago,Code taught briefly at the University ofVirginia, at Wisconsin, and then at the California Institute of Technology. While hewas at Cal Tech, soon after the Russianslaunched Sputnik, the National Academy ofSciences asked the scientific community topropose research applications for U.S.plant (Europe's largest), metal and chemical industries, waste and flooding problems, and environmental-education programs.Reunion June 2 >3 -4M Charles E. Fritz, AM'50, received the 1994distinguished alumni award for careerachievement from Drury College in Springfield,MO, honoring his studies on human and organizational behavior in disasters. Felicia AntonelliHolton, AB'50, is "once again an Easterner." Theformer editor of the University of Chicago Magazinelives on a cove off Narragansett Bay in Rhode Islandand enjoys the view of the water from her computeras she finishes work on a book,(¦¦ In February, Mark A. Buchholz, AB'51, X'55,31 retired as a Nebraska judge after 21 years onthe bench. After receiving a J.D. from the Universityol Nebraska in 1955, he had a private law practice,ind served lor a time as chief legal counsel for thestate's department of revenue before beginning hisjudicial career. He and wife Christina continue tolive in Lincoln. Morris W. ("Brud") Leighton.SM'48. rhfVM, received the 1994 John 1. Galeypublic service memorial award from the AmericanInstitute ol Prolessional Geologists. Chief of the Illinois Stale Geological Survey, which he joined in108 5. he is active in many geological organizations.K Sherman S. Fishman, SM'52. president andfounder ol the Small Entity Patent OwnersAssociation, is active in the fight against patent har- satellite launchings. Code suggested applying stellar-photometry methods to a space-based telescope, which could observe theultraviolet light that doesn't reach Earth'ssurface.In the meantime, Wisconsin offered himdirectorship of its Washburn Observatoryand the position of astronomy departmentchair. Although there was no space astronomy program anywhere in 1958, Code feltthat space-based telescopes were inevitable,and went to Wisconsin thinking, "You can'tdo great ground-based astronomy from theMidwest, but you certainly can do spacemonization, advocating the United States' patent-filing method of "first to invent" rather than theEuropean method of "first to file."¦J*5 John W. Dixon, Jr., PhD'53, a professorVQV emeritus of religion and art at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, has had severalbooks published, including Nature and Grace in Art(University of North Carolina Press), Art and theTheological Imagination (Seabury Press), and ThePhysiology of Faith (Harper and Row).M Marshall J. Hartman, AB'54, AB'57, JD'57,published two articles on the "Great Writ'of habeas corpus in the past year. The first, "To Beor Not to Be a New Rule," appeared in the Cal-Wcstern Law Review and will be included in ananthology titled Criminal Law Review. The secondarticle, "Requiem for the Writ of Habeas Corpus,"appeared in the March '94 Champion, a nationalcriminal-defense law journal. William J. Mayer-Oakes, AM'49, PhD'54, was awarded the 1993Plains Anthropological Society distinguished service award for lifetime achievement. After manyyears teaching at universities in the United Statesand Canada, he is now a professor emeritus atTexas Tech University, where he chaired theanthropology department for seven years.Reunion June 2-3 -4RaymondJ. Corsini, PhD'55, reports that thesecond edition of his four-volume Encyclopedia of Psychology (John Wiley &r Sons) was published astronomy as well here as from California." It was a self-fulfilling prophecy: Notonly did Code establish Wisconsin'sSpace Astronomy Laboratory, but hisNAS proposal led to the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory — the first space telescope, launched in 1968. Code went on todirect a number of national astronomicalorganizations, including a stint as actingdirector of the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute (which operates the HubbleSpace Telescope).Currently, Code devotes much of histime to WUPPE as the project's principalinvestigator. A telescope with a spectro-polarimeter, WUPPE measures the polarized ultraviolet light from the interstellarmedium and objects such as hot stars andactive galaxies. First launched into spacewith the Astro observatory in December1990, WUPPE is scheduled to go up againas part of Astro-2 on the shuttle Endeavorin February 1995. The project, Code says,should give a "better understanding of thenature of star formations" and, subsequently, of the nature of the universe.Understanding the nature of the universehas been, in fact, Code's grand strategysince deciding to be an astronomer backin grade school. As a seasoned researcher,however, he knows that understandingwill come first in bits and pieces: "Somany of the programs that I have workedon or been interested in are all little building blocks to trying to put that picturetogether." — 1994, ten years after the first edition went to press,MDoreen Joseph Edwin, AM'56, retired in1990 after 34 years as assistant director andhead of the Directorate of Education in Delhi, India.She was married to Alfred J. Edwin, editor for theBritish High Commission in New Delhi, and wasawarded the Delhi State Teachers award. She hopesto visit campus soon and writes that she would "bedelighted to hear from/meet any of my co-mates inthe International House." Earl I. Studtmann, SB'56,see 1985, Karl E. Studtmann.M Peter S. Amenta, PhD'58, a professor ofanatomy at Hahnemann University inPhiladelphia, received emeritus status during arecent president's convocation. Stephen L. Michel,SB'58, MD'62, see 1988, Gregg L. Michel. MildredHallett Myren, AM'58, was voted regional executiveby the Council of the American Baptist Churches ofMetro Chicago. The interim executive for 18months, she was administrative assistant lo severalprevious executive ministers. Myren continues torepresent the Chicago area and lead national committees and task forces. June Sochen, AB'58, professor of history at Northeastern Illinois University,has been named the 1994-95 distinguished professor of the Illinois Board of Governors Universities.She will present a lecture at the five Board ofGovernors universities.MJohn E. Bishop, SM'49, PhD'59, recently wasawarded the Harvard Business School's highest honor, the distinguished service award. He retiredfrom the school in 1990 after 34 years of teaching.36 UNI\ FRS1TY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/DECEMBER 1994Sharon Finkel Shenhav, AB'59, received a J.D. fromGeorgetown University in 1969 and went on to acareer in civil-rights law, specializing in women'srights. She lives in Israel, where she concentrates onreligious law for Jewish and Muslim women.Reunion June 2-3*4In May, Nancy Barnett Yalowitz, AB'60,received her M.S.W. with honors from theJane Addams College of Social Work at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She is associated withUnity Hospice in Chicago.W Robert H. Puckett, AM'58, PhD'61, a professor of political science at Indiana State University, has been elected to the Council on ForeignRelations. He just completed a term as the facultyrepresentative on the Indiana Commission forHigher Education and a term on the board of advisers to the president of the Naval War College.Garry M. Crane, AB'62, see 1990, DanielK. Crane. Michael C. Kotzin, AB'62, wrotean article commemorating Ralph Ellison and discussing African- American-Jewish relations for theAugust issue of the Jewish United Fund News, a publication of the Jewish Federation of MetropolitanChicago. David B. Nicholson 111, AB'62, isapproaching his 30th year teaching English, drama,and humanities at Riverdale Country School inNew York City. He writes: "I have by grace sustained a good marriage, raised two good kids,achieved a Ph.D., and annotated thousands of student papers. Through it all I still remember my all-too-brief time at U of C as two of the best years ofmy life." Diana Slaughter-Defoe, AB'62, AM'64,PhD'68, is the 1993 recipient of the DistinguishedContributions to Research in Public Policy award,given by the American Psychological Foundationand the American Psychological Association. She isa professor of education and social policy and ofAfrican-American studies at Northwestern University, where she is also a fellow at the Center forUrban Affairs and Policy Research. Her researchfocuses on identifying factors that promote academic achievement in African-American children.Michael L. Bates, AB'63, PhD'75, is the1994 Samir Shamma Visiting Fellow inIslamic numismatics and epigraphy at Oxford University. The fellowship supports a series of lectureson "Money Before Machines" and research in theHeberden Coin Room of the Ashmolean Museumand in the "other" Oriental Institute. Vicky I.Chaet, BFA'63, exhibited several paintings fromAugust 15 through October 15 at Cafe Paradiso inSan Francisco. Leena Rintala Lindqvist, AM'63, ofSalo, Finland, has retired after some 30 years ofteaching English — first at Turku University, thenat the Business School in Salo. She plans on traveling and hopes to visit the United States and theUniversity. Charles E. Vernoff, AB'63, has beenpromoted to professor of religion at Iowa's CornellCollege, where he has taught since 1978. Vernoffteaches the Judaica curriculum and co-founded theCornell Institute for Holocaust Studies in 1980.Aija Fox-Samloff, SB'64, reports that "thebat mitzvah of Alexandra in Cedar Rapids,IA, in May brought several graduates of the U of Ctogether.... We had a helluva good time!" In attendance were Abbott B. Lipsky, PhB'34; Norman G.Lipsky, AB'37; Sue Smulekoff Moyerman, AB'49,AM'52; Ann M. Lipsky, AB'64; Ann B. Cox, SB'65;and James A. Glazier, SM'87, PhD'89.Reunion June 2-3-4Helen Cheney Gilde, PhD'65, received the1994 Nicolas P. Hardeman academic leadership award from California State University, Long Beach. On the school's English faculty since 1949,she served two terms as chair of the AcademicSenate — the first woman to hold that position — from1978 to 1980. She also chaired the English department from 1973 to 1976 and from 1991 to 1993.Gordon M. Quinn, AB'65, is the executive producerof Hoop Dreams, a documentary that follows twoChicago inner-city teenagers' struggle to make it intothe NBA. The film won the audience award at theSundance Film Festival and was chosen to close theNew York Film Festival. Bruce E. Trumbo, SM'61.PhD'65, a professor of statistics and mathematics atCalifornia State University, has been named a fellowof the American Statistical Association.Through special arrangement with the University of Minnesota, where he chairs theEnglish department, Philip G. Furia, AM'66, is serving as interim dean of Metropolitan State University'sCollege of Liberal Arts, where he has taught in theEnglish department since 1970 and been chair since1991. Walter J. Nicgorski, AM'62, PhD'66, a professor in the program of liberal studies at the Universityof Notre Dame, has been appointed editor of NotreDame's Review of Politics. On Notre Dame's facultysince 1964, he chaired the program of liberal studiesfor six years and served as the review's acting editorFor one year. Nicgorski recently completed a bookon Cicero's moral and political philosophy.M John M. Dyckman, AB'67, see 1968, MarkM# V. Swirsky. Judith D. Peters, AM'67, hasbeen appointed president and chief executive officer of National Industries for the Blind, whichworks to create and improve employment opportunities for the blind. Previously, Peters was directorof state and local government relations for EastmanKodak Company. In April, Paul E. Peterson,AM'64, PhD'67, was awarded a Stephen K. Baileymemorial award by the Politics of Education Association for his work in shaping the intellectual andresearch agenda of the field. A professor of government at Harvard University, he taught in the education and political science departments at the U of Cfrom 1967 to 1983.Night of Sin"Nefarious paraphernalia": Roulette wheels,counterfeit currency, and bingo tables createdan appropriately wicked environment for the1959 "Night of Sin," an annual all-campusevent sponsored by the Student Union. Gloria Long Anderson, PhD'68, see 1945,Henry C. McBay. Margaret ("Meg") MillerClarke, AM'68, is the first executive director of university development at Simon Fraser University inBritish Columbia. She also is president of the SimonFraser University Foundation, a body provinciallyestablished to encourage major donations. Clarkehad been director of development at the Universityof Alberta. In April, David L. Colton, PhD'68.received the founders award of the Politics of Education Association for his contributions to the association's early development. Colton is a professorand former dean of education at the University ofNew Mexico.Janet Ahner Rubinoff, AM'68, and Arthur G.Rubinoff, AM'66, PhD'77, were awarded grantsfrom the Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute forresearch in India during the 1993-94 academicyear. She researched the marketing strategies ofGoan fisherwomen; he studied Indian parliamentarians' attitudes toward the United States. Mark V.Swirsky, AB'69, reports that in May, the ChicagoTribune Magazine printed the "thoughtful andhumorous reflections on coming back to the U olChicago" of John M. Dyckman, AB'67, whoreturned to the U of C for his 25th reunion. Swirskyand Dyckman were College roommates; Swirskysuggests that anyone wanting a copy should writeto either one of them. William J. Taffe, SM'67,PhD'68, is spending this academic year as professor invitaoo at the Pontificia Universidad Catolicadel Ecuador in Quito, Ecuador, teaching computersciences as a member of the ingenieria faculty.Susan L. Andrews, PhD'69, has been promoted to professor of psychology at theUniversity of Wisconsin Center, Waukesha, whereshe has taught since 1968. Her courses includedevelopmental, behavioral, and introductory psychology. Joseph D. Brisben, AB'69, vice presidentof investments at Securities Corporation of Iowa,passed all six examinations offered by the Collegefor Financial Planning in Denver, earning the titleof certified financial planner. Barry M. Franklin,MAT'69, recently left Kennesaw State College inAtlanta to become professor and chair of the department of education at the University of Michigan,Flint. Alexander P. MacGregor, Jr., AM'64, PhD'69,has been appointed chair of the classics departmentat the University of Illinois at Chicago. In 1993, hewon an Amoco-Silver Circle award for excellence inteaching by vote of the senior class. Horace M.Newcomb, Jr., AM'65, PhD'69, a professor in thedepartment of radio-televison-film at the Universityof Texas at Austin, heads a 250-person panel of academics who will write The Encyclopedia of Tele\'i-sion. The two-volume reference work is sponsoredby the Museum of Broadcast Communications, ofwhich Newcomb is curator. Yavuz Nutku, SM'67,PhD'69, see 1971, Avadis S. Hacinliyan. Mark V.Swirsky, AB'69, see 1968, Mark V. Swirsky.Reunion June 2-3-4HA Douglas C. Kimmel, AM'69, PhD'70, isM%3 teaching on a Fulbrighl award at TokyoWomen's Christian University, Tsuda College, andTokyo University during 1994-95. Kimmel is afellow of the Gerontological Society of America andthe American Psychological Association and amember of the American Society on Aging. Thethird edition of his textbook on aging was translated into Japanese in 1994.HI Avadis S. Hacinliyan, SM'68, PhD'71, is am ¦ professor of physics at Bogazici University inIstanbul, Turkey. Cihan K. Saclioglu, PhD'75, isalso a professor in the department, while Enis Oguz.SM'81, PhD'83, is an associate professor of physicsthere. Hacinliyan also reports that Yavuz Nutku.University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 37sM'tw, PhD'69, is in the physics department ol theMarmara Research Center ol the Turkish Scientificand Technical Research Council and has been nominated to the Turkish Academy of Sciences. Laurence W. Herron, AM'71, has joined NortheasternUniversity in Boston as director of corporate relations. Herron has held senior fundraising positionswith the Illinois Institute of Technology, GrantHospital in Chicago, and Tufts University.MA Thomas C. Berg, AB'72, vice president-* M general counsel and corporate secretary atamsted Industries, has also taken on responsibilityfor the company's personnel and public-affairsfunctions. Gary M. Grant, AM'72, associate professor of theater at Bucknell University, received theClass of 1956 lectureship, awarded annually to recognize inspirational teaching. He will give the lecture during this academic year. In April, Donald H.Layton, PhD'72, received a distinguished serviceaward from the Politics of Education Associationfor his efforts to promote the growth of the PEA. Heis an associate professor emeritus at the Universityat Albany, State University of New York. Joan S.Reisman, AB'72, has joined Dorf & Stanton Communications, Inc., in New York as senior vice president and head of the national health-care practice.Previously, she was senior vice president and director of health sciences at Makovsky & Company inNew York. Andrew L. Segal, AB'72, a producer atCNN Special Reports, won a national Emmy in thenews and documentary category for a one-hourprogram, called "Our Planetary Police," on thepost-cold war role of the United NationsRA In April, William L. Boyd, PhD'73, wasm 90 given a Stephen K. Bailey memorial awardby the Politics ol Education Association for hiswork in shaping the intellectual and researchagenda ol the politics of education. He is a distinguished professor of education at PennsylvaniaState University. Richard A. Hood, AM'73, has beenpromoted to associate professor and granted tenureat Denison University in Ohio. He joined Denison'sEnglish department in 1990. Nonnan F. Rickeman,MBA'73, has been promoted to managing partnerFor the Minneapolis office of Andersen Consulting,where he has been since 1973. He most recentlyheaded the products-industry practice for Minneapolis and Milwaukee and has also served as aregional industry director.tfJt Robert M. Esty, AB'74, has left the federalm ^m government and now works as a Montes-sori teacher in Bowie, MD, where he lives with wifeSusan and daughters Sharon, 7, and Maureen, 5.Cristanne C. Miller, AB'74, AM'76, PhD'80,recently became a full professor at Pomona Collegein California, where she joined the English department faculty in 1980. Gaylord S. Throckmorton,PhD'74, associate professor of cell biology and neu-roscience at the University of Texas Southwestern,won the Society for Technical Communication'sannual award of excellence, recognizing skill atcommunicating complex scientific information inwriting. Robert P. Wujtowicz, AM'74, has beenpromoted to partner by Ernst & Young. He is amember of the corporate finance group in Chicagoand specializes in advice on buying and sellingbusinessesReunion June 2-3-4t/\B James T. Elliott, Jr., MBA'75, tax partnerm iM in the high-technology group of PriceWalcihousc, has been named olfice managing partner lor the linn's Princeton, NJ, office. He was alsonamed partner in charge ol the life-sciences practice lor a region including southern Connecticut,New Jersey, and New York. Michael J. Mirra,AB'75, and Nancy J. Sprick, AB'77, have been mar ried for 17 years and live in Tacoma, WA, withchildren Nicholas, 11, and Emily, 8. Mirra earned alaw degree from Vanderbilt University in 1978; forthe past 14 years he has practiced law with Evergreen Legal Services in Seattle. This past summerhe successfully completed three years of trial litigation on behalf of homeless children in WashingtonState. James J. Przystup, AM'68, PhD'75, formerDefense Department director of planning of Asia-Pacific security strategy, has been named directorof the Heritage Foundation's Asian Studies Center.He will oversee the think tank's work on issuessuch as trade relations, North Korean nuclear proliferation, Japanese political changes, and economic transformation in China. Cihan K.Saclioglu, PhD'75, see 1971, Avadis S. Hacinliyan.¦»g» Mildred L. Culp, AM'74, PhD'76, writesv W the Work Wise column and is the correspondent for the Work Wise Report, which airs on aSeattle radio station. She also consults and wasrecently invited to teach an advanced course at theDefense Information School. At work on hersecond book, Culp also "does ice ballet, and bakesfruit pies from scratch." Frederick H. Miller, Jr.,AB'76, AM'77, PhD'82, has joined Mercer Management Consulting, Inc., as a principal in its financial-services industry group. Based in the firm'sLexington, MA, office, he concentrates on marketsegmentation, product and service-portfoliodesign, and distribution. Karine Schomer, AM'70,PhD'76, has been appointed provost of the California Institute of Integral Studies in San Francisco. Aspecialist in South Asian studies, Schomer previously served as dean of Golden Gate University'sSchool of Arts and Sciences and, before that, asdean of humanities, social sciences, and humanservices at Merritt College in Oakland.IViy Barbara Bowman Maddock, MBA'77, wasm m named senior vice president of humanresources for McGraw-Hill, Inc. She is responsible fordeveloping and implementing corporate-widehuman-resource policies, programs, and managementsystems. Nancy J. Moser, AM'77, is now president ofTMSC Inc., a travel-arrangement company for corporate business travel and individual/group leisuretouring. Based in Raleigh, NC, she specializes inUnited States, Europe, and Asia travel opportunities.Claire E. Omer, AB'77, works as a senior physicaltherapist in the pediatric program of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, where she has been since1991. Arthur G. Rubinoff, AM'66, PhD'77, see 1968,Janet Ahner Rubinoff. Thomas D. Schullz, AB'77,has been promoted to associate professor andgranted tenure at Denison University in Ohio, wherehe teaches classes in zoology, marine biology, animalbehavior, invertebrate zoology, and evolution. NancyJ. Sprick, AB'77, see 1975, Michael J. Mirra.VVQ David L. Applegate, |D'78, announces them %M anniversary of Applegate & Valauskas,Attorneys at Law, a Chicago law partnership concentrating in commercial litigation, intellectual-property law, and licensing. In addition to representing entrepreneurs, start-up companies, andestablished businesses, the firm has a growing clientele among comic and cartoon-art professionals. InJanuary, Delia C. Pitts, AM'74, PhD'78, becamedirector of international education at Texas Christian University. In the newly created position, sheworks with study abroad, summer study/travel andintensive English study programs. She will alsoteach in the history department. Brian A. Slonehill.AM'74, PhD'78, was promoted to professor atPomona College in California, where he joined theEnglish department in 1979.HQ Roger (.. Humphreville, AB'79, and Debo-MwM rah Boylan Humphreville, AB'80, havereturned to Houston from Staranger, Norway. Heworks for Amoco Orient Production Co. as busi ness and planning coordinator. They have twodaughters: Amanda Astri, 3, and Sabrina Siri, 3months. Deborah reports that she and Roger werein Norway with Margaret Dillon Cooper, MBA'83,and her husband, Brian S. Cooper, MBA'84, whoworks for Amoco. Robert N. McCauley, AM'75,PhD'79, was recently appointed the first Massee-Martin/National Endowment for the Humanitiesdistinguished teaching professor at Emory University. Elizabeth R. ("Libby") Morse, AB'79, and Jeffrey J. Makos, AB'81, AM'82, both residentialheads of Tufts House, announce the June 29 birthof son Isaac Henry. Jeff is a staff writer at the U ofC News and Information Office. Michael C.Taylor, AB'79, is a founding partner of the Torontoarchitectural firm Taylor Hariri Pontarini Architects, which opened earlier this year. The firmrecently won an ideas competition, sponsored bythe University of Toronto, on ways to make a localstreet into a central community space.Reunion June 2-3-4 . ...Donald L. Dyer, AM'82, PhD'90, hasreceived tenure and been promoted toassociate professor of Russian and linguistics at theUniversity of Mississippi. Deborah BoylanHumphreville, AB'80, see 1979, Roger G.Humphreville. T. E. ("Rick") Kilcollin, AM'75,PhD'80, has accepted a job as managing directorand CEO of the investments group at Wells FargoNikko Investments Advisors in San Francisco. Hehad been executive vice president and chief operating officer of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.Robert C. Kunath, AB'80, was named assistant professor of history at Illinois College, where he willteach courses on world civilization and Europeanhistory. This past year, Kunath was a visiting assistant professor at Cornell College in Iowa; he hasalso held teaching positions at St. Olaf College andStanford University. Ralph P. Locke, AM'74,PhD'80, a faculty member since 1975 at the University of Rochester's Eastman School of Music, hasbeen elected to serve as a director-at-large of theAmerican Musicological Society. Howard L. Suls,AB'80, has completed residency training in familypractice and moved to Wichita, KS, with wife Annand son Jordan, as chief of clinical services, 22ndMedical Group, McConnell AFB. Howard and Annrecently returned from a 16-day safari in Kenyaand Tanzania.MMark S. Cone, MBA'81, has been promotedto partner in the audit department of the StLouis office of Deloitte & Touche. Lee Ann Frank-Olson, AM'81, and husband Randy announce theJuly 30 birth of their second child, daughter MarissaGrace. Twenty-one-month-old sister Meredith welcomed her to their home in Yorkville, IL. Jeffrey J.Makos, AB'81, AM'82, see 1979, Elizabeth R.("Libby") Morse. Barry K. Rhoades, AM'81, is a visiting assistant professor of biology for the 1994-95academic year at Carleton College, Most recently hewas a research assistant professor in biological sciences at the University of North Texas. George W.Shields, PhD'81, has been promoted to chairpersonof the division of literature, languages, and philosophy at Kentucky State University, where he is a pro-lessor of philosophy. In April, Robert K.Wimpelberg, PhD'81, was awarded a distinguishedservice award by the Politics of Education Association for his efforts to promote the growth of thePEA. Dean of the College of Education at the University of New Orleans, Wimpelberg also waselected to a two-year term as PEA president.M Eliot S. Asser, PhD'82, was promoted tochief operating officer of the St. Louisolfice of W. F. Corroon, a human resources andemployee benefits consulting company. Asser previ-38 University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994FED UpLUCILE McCONNELL HAD HAD ENOUGH.Watching the 1992 presidentialcampaign, McConnell, AB'83, andsome friends started to think that theymight be better at reducing the nationaldebt than the politicians.In November 1992 they established theFund to End the Deficit, Inc. — a volunteer, nonprofit, nonpartisan corporationwith two goals: to educate people abouthow the (annual) deficit and the (cumulative) debt affect citizens' lives, and toincrease voluntary contributions to theBureau of the Public Debt. McConnell,FED's executive director, got the idea forthe organization after reading a newspaper article mentioning an obscure 1961federal statute, P.L. 87-58, that allows citizens to make tax-deductible contributionsthat, unlike taxes, go only toward retiringprincipal on the national debt.With the debt at more than $4.6 trillionand increasing by $10,000 every second,McConnell might seem in over herhead — especially when she says that intwo years the fund has acquired just5,000 members and raised about $5,000.But those numbers, she says, ignore theimpact of FED's outreach efforts. Many ofthe people she works with — such as agroup of Minnesota seniors who held anauction that raised $3,500 and church members in Kansas City who raised$1,100 by fasting one day a week for ayear — don't make their contributionsthrough FED. McConnell also underscores that, in the first six months of fiscal1994, contributions under P.L. 87-58exceeded $19 million, compared to $30million raised in the previous 32 years.In 1994, McConnell took a year's leaveof absence from her job — a tax and contract attorney with the Washington, D.C.,office of the law firm Winston & Strawn —to work with FED full time. By year's end,FED had established an 800 number forpeople to pledge money, organized theconcert fundraiser "Rock the Debt," andtargeted members of Congress, askingthem to donate their pay increases to retiring the national debt (to date, 17 havedone so). Also new on FED's agenda is afour-part strategy called the Citizens DebtRetirement Plan: a corporate contributioncampaign, a payroll-deduction plan, a legislative/advocacy plan, and a civics curriculum for junior-high students.Armed with a J.D. from Cornell and aneconomics degree from Chicago,McConnell feels well-equipped for thecampaign, despite the fact that manypeople tell her she's "crazy." To them sheresponds, "Isn't it more crazy what's goingto be facing us in the future if we don't dosomething about it now?" McConnell predicts a future where her two teenage sonswill have an 85-percent tax burden. Rightnow, she says, $300 billion annually, or20 percent of the federal budget, goestoward paying the interest on the debt —more than eight times the federal government's share of education spending.McConnell, though, sees the debt not as areason for citizens to feel powerless beforeWashington politics, but rather as "amajor symptom" of that feeling. Shehopes to use FED to get people of all agesinterested in participating in government.An optimist by nature, McConnell iseven more energized by seeing people"spontaneously springing up" to helplower the national debt: "We can dosomething about a problem that concernsall of us."— KS.ously was the office's senior vice president anddirector of communications. Robert R. Barnes,AB*82, JD'85, and Lisa Schukz Barnes, AB'85,write: "Within a two-month span, our daughterMelanie Grace was born (March 28); Bob wasnamed partner in the bankruptcy and creditors'rights department at Allen, Matkins, Leek, Gamble,and Mallory (whose San Diego office relocated atthe same time); we bought and moved into ourfirst-ever house; and Geoffrey, now 5, graduatedfrom preschool and took the training wheels off hisbike. Gotta love those 'good' stressors!"In July, Lise C. Hauser, AB'82, earned her M.S. inmaternal child health at the University of Illinois atChicago and passed the national examination tobecome a certified nurse midwife. She delivers babiesat Mercy Hospital and works in a bilingual community health clinic in Chicago's Pilsen neighborhood.Linda A. Hill, AM'79, PhD'82, associate professor oforganizational behavior and human resource management at the Harvard Business School, has beenelected to the board of directors of Cooper Industries, Inc., a manufacturer of electrical, automotive,and industrial products. Hill also serves on theboards of the Rockefeller Foundation, Bryn MawrCollege, the Children's Museum and Beth IsraelHospital in Boston, the Human Resource PlanningSociety, and the American Repertory Theatre.Margaret Dillon Cooper, MBA'83, see1979, Roger G. Humphreville. Daniel R.Howard-Greene, AM'78, PhD'83, formerly a professor and director of planning and institutionalresearch at the University of South Carolina in Lancaster, just started a new job as executive assistantto the president of California Polytechnic State University. Enis Oguz, SM'81, PhD'83, see 1971,Avadis S. Hacinliyan. Gary M. Piattoni, AB'83, isdirector of European furniture and decorative artsfor Christie's East in New York City. He invites anyNew York alumni to look him up. Judith A. Testa,AM'67, PhD'83, an art professor at Northern IllinoisUniversity, recently spent five weeks in Romedeveloping a course, "Art in Rome: from the Caesars to Mussolini," to be offered next summer.M Kevin M. Cahill, Jr., AB'84, and KathleenJ. Waters, AB'85, were married in April1993 in Point Lookout, NY. In January 1994, Kevinstarted the Chicago law firm of Brooks, Cahill andHanley. They announce the May 28 birth of daughter Waters Josephine Cahill. Brian S. Cooper,MBA'84, see 1979, Roger G. Humphreville. AaronF. Fishbein, JD'84, married Karen Grant on August28 in Tarrytown, NY, at the old Biddle family estate.Aaron, who concentrates in environmental-coverage litigation, is an associate with the New Yorkoffice of O'Melveny & Myers. Karen, a psychotherapist, works in Brooklyn Heights near the couple'snew home. Therese Carrig Kristensen, AB'84, andTorben B. Kristensen, MD'91, announce theDecember 27, 1993, birth of their first child,Nicholas James. Torben is in his third year of a radiology residency at Stanford University, whileTherese is "taking a welcome break from work tostay home with the littlest Kristensen." JamesLousararian, JD'84, was elected president of TPSTechnologies, Inc., the principal operating company of Thermo Remediation, Inc. He lives inMansfield, MA, with wife Lori and their 3-year-oldson, Adam. David A. O'Toole, AB'84, MBA'88,JD'92, has joined the Chicago law firm of Holleb &Coff as an associate in the litigation department,where he focuses on antitrust and general litigation.Formerly, O'Toole was an associate with Crowell &Moring in Washington, DC. Ann M. Schellenberg,AB'84, graduated in June from the University ofDurham (England) with a Ph.D. in theology andchurch history. Her dissertation was on FrancisWilliam Newman, the Unitarian brother of Cardinal John Henry Newman.Reunion June 2-3-4 95Lisa Schultz Barnes, AB'85, see 1982,Robert R. Barnes. Maureen O'Brien,MBA'85, has been named as a principal in theaccounting and consulting firm of Deloitte &Touche. O'Brien, of Verona, NJ, is a managementconsultant specializing in the publishing industry.She recently transferred to the New York office.Karl E. Studtmann, AB'85, received his M.D. fromthe University of Tennessee in June. He earned the Faculty Medal for Academic Achievement forhaving the highest grade-point average in his class.Studtmann plans to complete his ENT internshipand residency in Lexington, KY. His mother, CarolJ. Megge, is a teacher in the LaPorte, IN, schoolsystem, and his father, Earl I. Studtmann, SB'56, isan attorney in Portage, IN. Kathleen J. Waters,AB'85, see 1984, Kevin M. Cahill.M Birds Nest Soup, a play written by LucyWang, MBA'86, was staged August 19-20at the Playwright's Theatre of East Hampton in NewYork. In the fall, the play was also stage-read atMark Taper Forum in Los Angeles and producedUniversity of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 39Starting OutWhen Julia Kachina Crowe, AB'89,entered the University in 1985,her life experiences didn't muchresemble those of her fellow first-years.Raised in Rogers Park, a working-classneighborhood in Chicago, she says, "Putit this way. It was at Chicago that I firstheard of Earl Greytea!"Eventually, however, Crowe becamein some ways thearchetypal Chicagostudent. She saystoday that the rigorof the University'sacademic experiencegave her the tenacityto rise above obstacles as she's started acareer in the notoriously tough entertainment industry.Since graduatingwith a major in English, Crowe has heldnumerous jobs —from editing work atthe Chicago Reader toherding sheep in Ireland. Two years ago,she moved to NewYork and took jobs in banking to supporther interests in theater and writing — thenin 1993, she landed an assignment working for a co-venture between CBS andReteitalia, an Italian entertainment company. In her position, she read a range ofpopular books, rating their potential forsuccess in the U.S. and Italian markets.Crowe owed the job to an unpaidinternship at Warner Brothers, where sheread manuscripts and rated them as possi ble screenplays. The film rights to onenovel — a work by Chilean writer IsabelAllende, whose first novel, House of theSpirits, was being released as a film —caught Warner's interest, but the Englishtranslation was almost a year away. SoCrowe decided to read the original Spanish, giving Warner Brothers what she callsan "unheard of nine-month lead on thecompetition. Though the entertainmentgiant lost interest inthe book after Houseof the Spirits proved abox-office disappointment, Crowe's resourcefulness paidoff: When her bossleft Warner for CBS-Reteitalia, she offeredthe intern a full-timejob."I had to read over150 texts this year,"Crowe says. "Thanksto Chicago, I was ableto read quickly andassimilate a lot ofinformation." Herfamiliarity with theclassics also gave heran advantage since,she says, "All contemporary works arederivative of someclassic story."These days, you can catch Crowe working on the set of Politically Incorrect, a talkshow on cable's Comedy Central. Herassignment is to use on-line services topromote the show and generate a largerstudio audience.Off the job, she's at work on her secondbook, a thriller. After a year of readingother people's novels, Crowe says she wasmore than ready to go back to writing herown. — fulekha Dash, AB'93for Urban Stages. Another of her plays. Junk Bonds,was produced by HOME for Contemporary Theatrein New York City and was nominated for theKennedy Center Fund for New American PlayAward. Kathleen J. Waters, AB'85, see 1984, KevinM. Cahill. Juliet F. Wells, AB'86, married CharlieLcckenby on June 1 1 at Steamboat Lake, CO. Inattendance were Pete Alibali, AB'83; Jeorg W.Houck, AB'85; Joseph F. Krebs, AB'85; Charles F.S. Vanovcr, AB'85; Martha M. Wagner, AB'86,\M'9|; Edmund A. Laniado, AB'86; John A.Pedrctti. AB'87, Joshua F. Schwartz, AB'87; andWcndclin L. McMahan, AB'90.Navy Ll. Gregory R. Bart, AB'87, recentlycompleted Olliccr Indoctrination School,where students arc prepared lor duty according lollicir civilian prolcssions. Bart joined the Navy inApril. Rosa A. Ebcrly, AM'87, received her Ph.D. inEnglish and the history and theory of rhetoric fromPennsylvania Slate University. She is now assistant professor of rhetoric and composition at the University of Texas at Austin. Stuart R. Gunn, MBA'87,has been elected a principal of the internationalmanagement consulting firm A.T. Kearney, wherehe has worked since 1990. He advises clients onteam-based organizations, business process re-engineering, and business strategy. Robert J. Holt,MBA'87, formerly area manager in the light flat-rolled marketing section of Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Burns Harbor Division, has been promotedto assistant superintendent of the cold-sheet mill.Kathleen G. Lively, AB'87, AM'87, and Jonathan E.O. Nussbaum, AB'87, of Arlington, VA, announcethe June 26 birth of Nicholas Carson Nussbaum.Sally Gibbons Livingston, MBA'87, and her husband. Josh, announce the August 12 birth of sonRichard Gibbons. The three live in Beverly Hills,CA. Molly A. McClain, AB'87, recently received herPh.D. in British history from Yale University andmarried lawyer/literary agent Don Gastwirth. This year she is an adjunct faculty member at FairfieldUniversity and Sacred Heart University in Connecticut. Terri Y. Montague, AB'87, has been promotedto assistant vice president by the Boston FinancialGroup. She now heads the customer-service team.Thomas J. Oko, AB'87, recently returned fromBogazici University in Istanbul, where he helpeddevelop a survey to measure the boundaries ofIslamic fundamentalism in Turkey. He is currentlya Ph.D. candidate in sociology at the University ofMichigan. Carrie Veach Shea, AB'87, MBA'90, waspromoted in January to principal at the international management-consulting firm A.T. Kearney,She and her husband, Michael E. Shea, a Ph.D. student in geochemistry at the U of C, announce theApril 24 birth of Meghan Evelyn.William P. Fisher, Jr., AM'84, PhD'88,notes that both his wife and brotherreceived University degrees in 1993: Adeline M.Masquelier is now a Ph.D. in anthropology, whilePatrick B. Fisher earned his MA. in education.William left his job of the last six years at MarianjoyRehabilitation Hospital in Wheaton, IL, to becomean associate professor in the "brand spanking new'department of health-systems research and development at the Louisiana State University MedicalCenter in New Orleans. In April, Winton G. Gibbons, Jr., MBA'88, began working for BoehringerMannheim in Indianapolis as vice president, strategy and product planning. His wife, Maritza Diaz-Silveira Gibbons, MBA'89, was recently promotedto assistant director, strategic management, atWestinghouse in Pittsburgh. Since March 1993they've had "a commuter marriage." Giorgio V. P.Kulp, AB'88, married Deborah Snyder in December1992 in Washington, DC. His brother, Edoardo M.Kulp, AB'91, was best man. In attendance wereJohn Alfano, AB'90; Stuart M. Feldman, AB'90;Steven L. Goldstein, AB'90; and Paul Turner,AB'90. Giorgio, a fourth-year medical student atGeorge Washington University, is applying for residency programs in pediatrics. Deborah is a socialworker at the National Institutes of Health and aclinical instructor at the University of Maryland.Brenda Spencer Landy, AM'88, joined AllianceResearch as vice president. Her major responsibilities include client service, consulting, study design,and overall management of research projects forinsurance, health-care, and related clientele. PaulF. Lerner, AB'88, married Fran Berstein. Both aredoctoral candidates in history at Columbia University. Paul was recently awarded a year-long dissertation-writing fellowship from the NationalEndowment for the Humanities. Gregg L. Michel,AB'88, married Rhonda B. Katzman on June 12 inNewport Beach, CA. Gregg is the son of Stephen L.Michel, SB'58, MD'62, and the grandson of HelenLeventhal Michel King, SB'37. In attendance wereFrederick S. Mishkin, MD'62; Jerald I. Simon,MD'62; John T. Buse, AB'85; Alexandra Bozovich,AB'88; and Pamela A. Martin, AB'89. Gregg andRhonda live in Charlottesville, VA, where he ispursuing a Ph.D. in Southern American history atthe University of Virginia and she is a human-resources administrator for PharmaceuticalResearch Associates.David J. Adelman, AB'89, MBA'90, marriedliana Feldberg on May 29 at Arden House inHarriman, NY. Lewis R. Feldberg, AB'89, was thebest man. Groomsmen were H. Andrew BrownfieldIII, AB'88, MBA'89; Ilan Hubennan, AB'89, AM'89, astudent in the Law School; Mark T. Phelan, AB'90,AM'90, MBA'93; and Michael A. Smith, AB'90. Inattendance were: Faye-Marie Morgan Brownfield,AB'87; Jay D. Woldenberg, AB'87, MBA'89; EuniceYoung Lee, AB'89; Deanna Shieh, AB'89; andLawrence Y. Wu, PhD'92. The two honeymooned inParis and now live in New York City. David is an40 University or Chicago Magazine/December 1994equity analyst lor Dean Witter Reynolds and liana isan assistant buyer for Bloomingdales. Maritza Diaz-Silveira Gibbons, MBA'89, see 1988, Winton G. Gibbons, Jr. Kevin A. Phelan, PhD'89, received a 1994Central Research Achievement award from Pfizer,Inc., honoring his work in developing and implementing strategies to accelerate patient enrollment inlarge-scale clinical studies. Etya Pinker, AB'89, married Tal Novik on May 22 in Langhorne, PA. Inattendance were: Debra J. Tuler, AB'87, AM'88; ScottW. MacPhail, AB'89; Patricia A. Mowery, AB'89;David S. Munger, AB'89; and Margaret ParkMunger, AB'89. The two live in Queens, NY, whereshe is a freelancer in electronic publishing.Taco A. Sieburgh Sjoerdsma, MBA'89, now liveson the opposite side of the globe from his brother,Jelle S. Sjoerdsma, MBA'89. Taco heads the Asianequity research team for Paribas Capital Markets inSingapore. Jelle and his wife, Gwendolyn WeberSjoerdsma, AM'90, both work for Price WaterhouseManagement in Jelle's birthplace, Trinidad andTobago. Both brothers say "a bed is always ready forfriends." In May, Robert W. Stein, AB'89, graduated from the Rutgers University School of Law,receiving the West Publishing Company award,presented annually to the graduating student withthe outstanding academic record. John R. Ziegel-bauer, MBA'89, has been promoted to senior manager of the office of federal tax services at GrantThornton, an accounting and management-consulting firm. He also serves on the firm's national financial-institutions committee.Reunion June 2-3-4 95Daniel K. Crane, AB'90, married AudreyHirsch on May 30, 1993. Their new lastname is Crane-Hirsch. In attendance were Daniel'sfather, Garry M. Crane, AB'62; Dana D. Fleisch-hacker, AB'89; and Lowell W. Ungar, a graduatestudent in chemistry. Daniel is a graduate studentin philosophy at the University of Pittsburgh.Audrey graduated from the University of PittsburghLaw School in May. Thomas W. Finucane, AB'90,and Kate B. Feldman, AB'92, were married on June25 in New Y'ork City at The Sign of the Dove. Theirnew last name is Forest. In attendance were:Michael Dowd, AB'90; Matthew A. Leish, AB'90;Byron D. Sebastian, AB'90; Michael Shulman,AB'90; Michael S. Umlauf, AB'90; Aimee L. Drolet,AB'91, AM'93; and Elizabeth A. Albers, AB'92.After their honeymoon in Napa Valley, the two settled in Davis, CA, where he will continue his veterinary studies. She is a social worker at the CPCSierra Vista Hospital in Sacramento and recentlyearned an M.S.W. at Columbia University. BrittonB. Guerrina, AB'90, AM'90, has been accepted tostudy public administration as part of the international program at l'Ecole Nationale d'Administra-tion. She is studying in Paris and Strasbourg fromSeptember 1994 through December 1995. JeffreyC. Honnold, AB'90, received his MA. in philosophyat the University of Pittsburgh and plans to continue his doctoral work there.Richard J. O'Shanna, MBA'90, was recentlynamed vice president of the tax department forSquare D Company and Groupe Schneider-NorthAmerica. He is responsible for the organization'stax-planning and compliance functions. David L.Silvian, AB'90, and Laura J. Feinberg, SB'91, weremarried at Congregation B'nai Zion in El Paso, TX,on May 29. Sophia Stergianis, AB'91, was maid ofhonor, while Michael W. Leibig, PhD'93, was agroomsman. In attendance were Tamara M. Pierce,AB'90; Jeffrey S. Roberts, SB'90; and Roger A. Shaffer, Jr., AB'91, who "has started his own lighting-design business in Seattle and is enjoying the Seattlescene; his ponytail is also doing well." David recently graduated from Cornell Law School andwill practice law in Essex, CT; Laura is a Ph.D. student in molecular biology and biophysics at Yale.They will live in New Haven. Gwendolyn WeberSjoerdsma, AM'90, see 1989, Taco Sieburgh Sjoerdsma. Since graduation, David P. Steinberg.MD'91, has been a medical resident at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago.Libby A. Christophersen, AB'91, recentlyreceived her M.F.A. in acting from NewYork University. She lives and auditions in NewYork City, and recently appeared as Julie on OneLife to Live. Scott L. Fast, AB'91, has joined thePhiladelphia-based law firm of Schnader, Harrison,Segal & Lewis as an associate in the employment-and labor-law department. Laura J. Feinberg, SB'91,see 1990, David L. Silvian. Torben B. Kristensen,MD'91, see 1984, Therese Carrig KristensenEdoardo M. Kulp, AB'91, lives in San Francisco andworks at Oral-B Laboratories as a marketing coordinator in the corporate marketing department, aftertwo years of working in the pharmaceutical industry. Earlier this year, Kulp volunteered in the protocol department for the World Cup. He continues tofence and have fun and writes, "I would love tohear from other alumni in the Bay Area. I'm in thebook.'"Peggy Lin, AB'91, recently published poems inThe Sucamochee Review and California State PoetryQuarterly. She also sang in the Detroit SymphonyOrchestra's recording of Tchaikovsky's The SnowMaiden, which was released on CD by Chandos.Roger A. Shaffer, Jr., AB'9I, see 1990, David L. Silvian. N. Scott Warman, AB'91, graduated from theUniversity of Virginia School of Law in MayWarman, who has an interest in representing laborunions, began work at the Miami law firm of Sugar-man & Susskind in June. He reports that Robert G,Kramer, AB'91, graduated with him and will bepracticing law in New York City.Kate B. Feldman, AB'92, see 1990, ThomasW. Finucane. Andrew D. Gross, AB'92,has been promoted to vice president of marketing atBob Abuie's Wholesale Pizza, Inc., a small food distributor in Baltimore. Navy Ensign Robert M.Oboza, AB'92, recently returned from a six-monthWestern Pacific/Persian Gulf deployment aboardthe destroyer U.S.S. Harry W. Hill. As part of theUnited Nations embargo of Iraq, Oboza spent timeconducting maritime-interception operations.Michael D. Newirth, AB'92, received the HenfieldFoundation's Transatlantic Review award for his fiction. He is working toward his M.F.A. at the University of Florida, where he was the 1993 KendallDeathsFACULTYRebecca S. Cohen, AB'40, AM'44, of Hyde Park, aformer lecturer in the SSA, died September 6. Shewas 75. After more than two decades as director ofpsychiatric social work at the Psychiatric Instituteat Michael Reese Hospital, she left six years ago toestablish a private practice, also becoming a consultant to the Council for Jewish Elderly. Survivorsinclude her husband, Martin A. Cohen, AM'41; adaughter; a son; a sister; and three grandchildren.Cornelius ("Con") Hamel, a lecturer in the Collegefrom 1986 to 1990, died July 11 in St. Cloud, MN. Hewas 35. A graduate student in Romance languages Fellow. Benjamin Panciera, AB'92, and Rachel L.Smith, AB'92, of South Bend, IN, were married thispast summer. Marine John J. H. Pedersen, AB'92,was promoted to first lieutenant in May. He lives inSouthern California, which he calls "truly the landof virtually perpetual sunshine." Pedersen alsowrites: "I think the hardest thing about having hadthe U of C experience is adjusting to 'normal' sleephours and low levels of stress in the world thatawaits one after graduation." Joann S. Szymski.MBA'92, has been promoted to product manager atColgate-Palmolive and will be working in theWarsaw offices. She can be reached at: Colgate-Palmolive, Plac Inwalidow 10, 01-552 Warsaw,Poland.William E. Burgess III, MBA'93, recentlycompleted the Navy basic surface-warfareofficer's course, which teaches students shipboardwatch and division-officer duties. Patrick B. Fisher.AM'93, see 1988, William P. Fisher, Jr. In May,Daniel M.Jacobs, AB'93, received an MA. in political science from the Eagleton Institute of Politics atRutgers University. He works as a transportationplanner for LS Transit Systems in Bloomfield, NJ.Kimberely Kolesar Krzywy, AM'93, and Henry J.Krzywy, AM'94, of Durham, NC, announce theMay 5 birth of son Martin Alexander. Adeline M.Masquelier, PhD'93, is an assistant professor atTulane University in New Orleans. Tulane fundedher summer research in Dogondoutchi, Niger,while daughters Margaux, 4, and Eleanor, 2, visitedtheir grandparents in Lyon, France. See 1988,William P. Fisher, Jr.Alexander E. Potente, AB'93, spent a year as aVISTA volunteer, working as a GED instructor incounty jails in Bryan, TX. He entered Harvard LawSchool in the fall. Shalini Sharma, AB'93, AM'93.spent a year working for a human-rights project asa VISTA volunteer in Austin, TX. She is studyingbirthrates in Spain on a Fulbright grant. David J.Spivak, MBA'93, scored the second-highest gradeon the May Uniform C.P.A. exam and earned asilver medal from the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Marine 2nd Lt. Carl A.Zimring, AM'93, just entered the Ph.D. program insocial history at Carnegie Mellon.M Henry J. Krzywy, AM'94, see 1993, Kimberely Kolesar Krzywy. Alica E. ("Ali")Lejlic, AB'94, is the press secretary/attache for theembassy of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovinain Washington, DC. He writes and edits pressreleases and speeches for the Bosnian ambassadorto the United States and for Bosnian delegations visiting Washington in an official capacity.and literature since 1984, he taught at the College ofSt. Benedict in St. Joseph, MN, and was writing hisdissertation on the grotesque in early 20th-centurySpanish theater. He is survived by three sisters.Harold M. Mayer, PhD'43, a former professor olgeography at the University, died July 24 in Milwaukee. He was 78. A geographer, urban planner.and professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, he recently retired after a teachingcareer of 44 years. Mayer came to Chicago in 1950.leaving to teach at Kent State University (1968-74).He worked with the U.S. Office of Strategic Servicesduring World War II, the Philadelphia City Planning Commission, and the Chicago Plan Commis-University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 4 1sion, where he helped to develop the St. LawrenceSeaway. Fie is survived by his wile, Florence; a son;a daughter; and a granddaughter.Robert L. McCaul, Jr.. PhD'53, an associate pro-lessor emeritus of education, died July 23 in HydePark. He was 81. McCaul, an authority on the his-lory of education and the work of John Dewey,joined the University in 1946. Associate director ofthe Center for Teacher Education, he helped directseveral educational projects and wrote and editednumerous books and articles. During World War IIhe served with the U.S. Army Air Force. Survivorsinclude his wife, Isabel Sheehan McCaul, AM'64, aformer teacher at the Lab Schools; and two sons,including Edward, U-High'64.Howard S. Tager, the Louis Block professor andchair of the department of biochemistry and molecular biology, died of a heart attack on September 6.He was 49. His research improved both the understanding of the basis of diabetes and the use olinsulin therapy. In 1979, he led a team that discovered the first case of diabetes caused by an abnormal form of insulin. Tager's work was honored bythe American Diabetes Association and the JuvenileDiabetes Foundation. Survivors include a brother,Robert.FRIENDSNorman Freehling of Chicago, former chairmanof the Midwest Stock Exchange, died December 9,1993. At the U of C, he and his wile endowed a distinguished service prolessorship in the social sciences division and a graduate fellowship in history.Survivors include his wife, Edna WilhartzFreehling, PhB'29; two sons; two brothers; acousin, trustee Stanley M. Freehling, X'46; sixgrandchildren; and one great-grandchild.STAFFHarold Delaney, who worked on the ManhattanProject, died August 4 at the age of 74, the victim ofa criminal attack that also resulted in the death ofhis wife, Geraldine. Interim president of ChicagoState University from August 1989 to July 1990, helater served as interim president of Bowie State University (MD). A professor and administrator at several other universities, he had been vice president ofthe American Association of State Colleges and Universities from the mid-1970s until 1987. Survivorsinclude two sons, a brother, four sisters, five grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren.Sheffield Gordon, SB'37, a chemist for more than42 years at Argonne National Laboratory, diedAugust 1. He is survived by his wife, Marceline; hissister; his mother-in-law; and four nephews.Mary B. Havlin, associate director of special giftsand associate director of the University's New Yorkregional office, died in the crash of USAir flight 427near Pittsburgh on September 8. She was 35. Beforejoining the development staff in June 1993, Havlinworked for the Wildlife Conservation Society inNew York and for six years with MIT's alumni association as its Midwest/Midattantic regional director.She is survived by her husband, Bernard Carr; herparents; three sisters; and a niece.Henry R. Jacobs, CLA'38, of Evanston, a staffmember of the Biological Sciences Division from19M until 1938, died September 8. He was 92.Alter serving in Africa with the Rockefeller Foundation Internal Health Division (1939-41), he wentinto private practice and was an associate professoremeritus of medicine at Northwestern University.lie is survived by a daughter, a son, three stepdaughters, a stepson, one grandchild, and six step-grandchildren.Oliver R. Rampersad, PhB'46, SM'54, PhD'61, ot Chicago and Trinidad, died July 8 of an intracerebral hemorrhage. He was 77. He spent his entirecareer at the University, conducting research inmicrobiology, virology, and immunology, as well asworking in the clinical chemistry laboratory of theU of C Hospitals. He retired in 1986. Rampersadwas active in many professional organizations aswell as Sigma Xi, the Friends of InternationalHouse, and the Independent Voters of Illinois. He issurvived by his wife, Peggy Snellings Rampersad,AM'63, PhD'78; a daughter, Gita, U-High'87; andmany nieces and nephews.1920sPhyllis Gothwaite Weller, X'21, died of a strokeAugust 11 in Greenbrae, CA. She was 97. Thewidow of geologist J. Marvin Weller, SB'23,PhD'27, in 1981 she established a memorial fundand a professorship to help support the departmentof geophysical sciences at the University. She is survived by a daughter, Harriet V. Weller, X'49.Rose Sherman, PhB'22, died June 28 in West LosAngeles. She was 93. An English teacher atChicago's Gage Park High School for many years,she moved to California after retiring. She is survived by a nephew and several nieces, includingGwendolyn S. Bamett, SB'44, SM'45.Thomas Carlin, PhB'23, JD'25, a Chicago lawyerand Highland Park resident, died of a heart attackon July 13. He was 93. With Sonnenschein Nath &Rosenthal for more than six decades, Carlin specialized in corporate and commercial real-estate matters. Survivors include his wife, Esther; a daughter,a son, and six grandchildren.Edwin H. Eby, PhB'23, a professor emeritus ofEnglish at the University of Washington, died inSeattle on July 12. He was 93. Eby, whose career atUW spanned some 40 years, completed the thirdvolume of the Pulitzer-Prize-winning Main Currentsin American Thought by Vern Parrington, publisheda concordance to Whitman's works, and was working on a book about Emerson and Thoreau. Survivors include his sister, Dorothy, and three nieces.Franklin D. Scott, PhB'23, AM'24, a formerNorthwestern University history professor, diedAugust 30 in Claremont, CA. He was 93. A scholarof Scandinavian immigration to the United Statesand modem Swedish political history, he taught atNU from 1935 to 1969. While there he also assistedin setting up the first Africa program at a major After retiring, he served as curator of theNordic Collection of Claremont Colleges' HonnoldLibrary. Survivors include a daughter, a sister, andtwo granddaughters.Jessie Sumner, X'23, a former county judge andU.S. representative, died on August 10. She was 96.A resident of Milford, IL, she was the first womanin the state to be elected to a county judgeship — inIroquois County in 1937. Elected on the Republican ticket to the House of Representatives in 1938,she served one term and was an outspoken critic olFDR. From 1966 until her death, Sumner was thepresident of Sumner National Bank in Sheldon, IL.Survivors include a nephew, three nieces, six great-nephews and a great-niece.Edward L. Compere, SM'24, MD'27, an orthopedist, died on June 25 in Hales Corners, WI. He was92. He had been a resident in the Health Center ofTudor Oaks, a Baptist retirement facility, for severalyears. Survivors include his wife, Alice, and twosons, including Edward L. Compere, Jr., SM'54.David D. Pollack, PhB'25, died June 4 in Hollywood, FL. He was 90. A member of the last U of CBig Ten Championship football team, he was anofficer in the Corps of Engineers during World War11. From 1945 to 1962, he was a homebuilder inFlorida. He is survived by a daughter, Gail Pollack Fels,JD'65, and a grandson.Ralph S. Boggs, PhB'26, PhD'30, a folklorist andprofessor of Spanish at the University of Miami,died July 23. He was 92. Before retiring in 1967, hespent nearly 20 years at Miami, founding a programto bring foreign English teachers to lecture there.Earlier, Boggs taught at the University of NorthCarolina at Chapel Hill, establishing what becamethe nation's first graduate program in folklore. He issurvived by his wife, Edna.Ines Catron Hoffmann, JD'28, died at her homein Springfield, IL, on June 20. She is survived byfour sons, including Donald L. Hoffmann, X'53;George C. Hoffmann, AM'56, PhD'61; and Frederick B. Hoffmann, AB'64; and grandsons GeorgeHoffmann, AB'82; and Alan Hoffmann, AB'83.Diana Kurzband, PhB'28, died June 3. She was86. A former Manhattan supervisor with the NewYork City Board of Education's Bureau of ChildGuidance, she was a graduate of the Columbia University School of Social Work. She is survived byher husband, Toby Kurzband, PhB'29; two daughters; a brother; and two grandchildren.Gladys Gardner Jenkins, MAT'29, died July 9 inIowa City. She was 92. A speaker and writer onchild development and education, she served on theNational Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council of the U.S. Public Health Service.From 1964 until 1984 she lectured at the Universityof Iowa; earlier, she taught at George WashingtonUniversity and worked in parent and teacher education for the Arlington, VA, public schools. Survivorsinclude two daughters, four grandchildren, andthree great-grandchildren.Bernard J. Negronida, AM'29, died July 1 inEvanston. He was 87. On the faculty of the FrancisParker School from 1929 to 1972, he taughtFrench, Spanish, and math and coached football,basketball, baseball, and track. Survivors include ason, two daughters, ten grandchildren, and fourgreat-grandchildren.Denis R. Wharton, PhD'29, died in 1992. He issurvived by a daughter, Raquel, and a granddaughter, Francesca T. Rohr, AB'92.1930sNorman L. Lawrence, X'30, died August 2. Hewas 95. Ordained a Baptist minister in 1924, he wasa pastor at several churches in New Jersey and latertaught humanities at Philadelphia College of Textiles and Sciences and at Gloucester County Community College. Both institutions honored himwith emeritus status.John B. Holt, PhB'31, a former sociology professor and retired foreign-service officer, died September 9. He was 84. A resident of Georgetown, ME, hetaught at Michigan State University, Tufts University, the University of Maryland, and the College ofWilliam and Maiy. He also did research for the U.S.Department of Agriculture, the Federal EmergencyRelief Administration, and the Illinois Rural Rehabilitation Corporation. In the Foreign Service, hewas chief of the Soviet sector branch, U.S. HICOG,and a professor of foreign affairs at the Foreign Service Institute. He is survived by a daughter, twosons, two sisters, and seven grandchildren.Earl V. Pullias, MAT'31, a professor emeritus ofhigher education at the University ol Southern California, died of a cerebral hemorrhage on August 20 inLos Angeles. He was 87. He wrote more than 100 articles and numerous books on education and alsoserved on the Los Angeles County Board ol Education. Pullias was dean of faculty at Pepperdine Collegefrom 1940 to 1957 and taught at USC from 1940until retiring in 1977. He is survived by a son, Calvin.Gertrude Leitzbach Finney, PhB'32, of Wichita,KS, died May 17. She was 84. A pianist, Finney42 University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994accompanied singers at Wichita State Universityand was active in AAUW and. the Wichita ArtMuseum. She is survived by three children and fourgrandchildren.Melvin A. Hardies, PhB'32, died July 11 inCarmel, CA. A senior partner in the Chicago lawfirm of Ross & Hardies, he specialized in corporatelaw and practiced for 43 years before retiring in thelate 1970s. During World War II, he was a memberof the Navy's Office of General Counsel. He is survived by his wife, Marguerite; two daughters; threestepdaughters; and six grandchildren.Herman S. Keiter, PhD'32, a Christian teacher,Lutheran pastor, and licensed counselor, died June25 in Whiting, NJ. He was 88. Retiring in 1973 assenior professor emeritus, he had served for 37years at Hartwick College in Oneonta, NY, as professor, director of student personnel, and specialcounselor. After retirement, he taught and counseled in Asia until 1984. Survivors include his wife,Dorothy; four children; nine grandchldren, including Christopher F. Keiter, MBA'85; and six greatgrandchildren.Harry F. Kroesen, PhB'32, of Oak Park, IL, diedMay 18. He was 83. He is survived by his wife,Jeanne Hyde Kroesen, PhB'32; a daughter; and twogranddaughters.Baxter M. Mow, AM'32, died July 31. He was 102.He is survived by a son, Joseph B. Mow, DB'57,PhD'64, and a niece, Mary Jo Hoff Carson, AB'48.Frank Schubel, SB'32, SM'34, died July 4 inLaguna Hills, CA. He was 83. He organized andadministrated the biology department at Loop CityCollege in Chicago when it first opened, retiring asdepartment chair in 1976. Previously he taught atWright City College, Chicago Teachers' College,and Herzl & Wilson Junior College. During WorldWar II, he was stationed in the Mariana Islandswith the Army Air Corps. Schubel is survived by hiswife, June Rappaport Schamp Schubel, SB'36,SM'38, PhD'40; a brother; two stepchildren; twonephews; and a niece.Margaret Cochran Bristol, AM'33, of Tallahassee,FL, died May 31. She was 90. A retired professor ofFlorida State University and Florida State Universityfor Women, she was active in the Tallahassee JuniorMuseum, the LeMoyne Art Foundation, the NationalAssociation of Social Workers, the American Association of University Professors, the National RetiredTeachers Association, and Common Cause. Survivors include her husband, Loris.Aaron M. Altschul, SB'34, PhD'37, professoremeritus of nutrition at Georgetown UniversityMedical School, died July 4 in Arlington, VA. In1941, he joined the Department of Agriculture as aresearch chemist; in 1966, he became special assistant to the Secretary of Agriculture, focusing oninternational nutrition improvement. During his 12years at Georgetown (1971-83), he founded anddirected the diet management/eating disorders program. The author of some 180 publications,Altschul received numerous honors, including theRockefeller Public Service Award. Survivors includehis wife, Ruth Braude Altschul, AB'39; two daughters; his sister, Golda Altschul Brener, AB'36; andthree grandchildren.Doris Modry Jason, SB'34, died October 13,1992, in her Osprey, FL, home. She was 78. Sheworked for the Indian Service (Bureau of IndianAffairs) and the Public Health Service in NewMexico (1938-40) and as a teaching and researchassistant and researcher at Columbia University(1939^-1). She later taught art and science in Connecticut schools, taught piano privately, and was aprofessional artist. Survivors include her daughterand three grandchildren.Hermann C. Bowersox, PhB'35, AM'36, PhD'43, aretired English prolessor and founding faculty member at Roosevelt University, died June 20 inLombard, IL. A Roosevelt trustee, he also taught atBeloit College, the University of Arkansas, MIT.Cornell University, and Central YMCA CommunityCollege. He is survived by his brother, Ralph B.Bowersox, SB'33, SM'34, PhD'38.Chalmers G. Davidson, AM'36, archivist, professor emeritus of history, and former library directorat Davidson College in North Carolina, died June25. He joined the college (founded by his family) in1936, retiring as library director in 1975 and as pro-lessor the following year. He wrote several historybooks and was involved in historical and educational organizations. Survivors include his wife,Alice; a son; two daughters; and four grandchildren.Alvin J. Gilbert, AB'36, president of Gilbert andWolf Builders, died Aug. 1 in Sarasota, FL. He wasactive in Temple Anshe Sholom. Survivors includehis wife, Ann; one son; two daughters, includingSusan Gilbert Seigle, U-High'60; brother Arnold M.Gilbert, X'42; and nine grandchildren.Robert P. Adams, PhD'37, a former professor ofEnglish at the University of Washington, died July 2of cancer. He was 84. From 1947 until retiring in1979, he taught Shakespeare and Renaissance literature at the UW. Previously, he taught at CornellUniversity, Parsons College, and Michigan StateUniversity. Adams supported the arts, was involvedin political causes, and enjoyed yachting and traveling. He is survived by three children, a sister, twobrothers, and three grandchildren.Karl Friedman, MD'37, died recently at the age of83. He is survived by two daughters, Karen Stapfand Barbara Schechter.1940sMargret Wiesender, AM'41, died December 16,1993, in Washington, DC. She is survived by abrother, Arthur M. Wiesender, PhB'46.Barbara Epstein O'Mahony, AM'44, of San Francisco, died April 2. She worked for many years as apsychiatric social worker in agencies and in privatepractice. She is survived by two stepdaughters andmany nieces and nephews.James Cross, X'45, a social worker, died of a heartattack on September 7. He was 69. Most recently,he was coordinator of social service for LutheranSocial Services in Omaha, directing assistance programs to public-housing residents and a day-carecenter. Cross also worked in the missions divisionof the Lutheran Church headquarters and atLutheran Social Services organizations in Illinois,Washington, and Texas. He is survived by abrother, William M. Cross, AM'51, CLA'51, HC44.Joseph J. Baum, AB'47, JD'51, died in August1993. He is survived by his wife, Ruth.Charles L. Flanagan, PhB'47, MD'51, of LakeForest, an internist, died July 20. Medical directorfor several institutions and professor emeritus ofmedicine at Northwestern University, he had a private practice in Chicago for three decades, retiringin 1992. Survivors include his wife, Rebecca; adaughter; and three brothers, including Richard E.Flanagan, AB'51, and Joseph P. Flanagan, MBA'61.Joseph G. Foster, AB'49, a former assistant professor of French and English at the McKeesportcampus of Penn State University, died August 1 1 inMifflinburg, PA. He was 78. Foster was at PennState for 22 years, retiring in 1981. Earlier, hetaught at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and atGrinnell College. Foster served in the U.S. Armyduring World War II.1950sAlbert H. Goldman, AM'51, an author and biographer who lived in New York City, died of heart failure March 28. He was 66. Best known for hisbiographies of Lenny Bruce, Elvis Presley, and JohnLennon, he taught English and popular-culturecourses and contributed articles on music and popular culture to many magazines. At the time of hisdeath he was writing a biography of rock singer JimMorrison.Thaddeus M. ("Ted Kay") Krawczyk, MBA'52,died this past summer. He is survived by his wife,Mary; two daughters; a son; two sisters; threegrandchildren; and many nieces and nephews.T. Thacher Robinson, SM'52, died August 15. Hisbook, Conversations With a Colorful Composer/Understanding What's Happening, was published earlier this year. He is survived by his wife, Elizabeth.Betty Heck Docekal, AM'53, of Seattle, diedAugust 27. She was a planner and administrator forcommunity mental-health services at Puget SoundHospital and at Good Samaritan Hospital, and hadcontinued to work as a Job Corps consultant and tomake local mental-health services more accessible.During the 1960s she worked at Lincoln State Hospital in Nebraska. She is survived by her husband,Jerry Docekal, AM'53; two daughters; a son; fourgrandchildren; and a great-grandson.Robert Keyes, MBA'53, of LaGrange, IL, died May18. He was 75. A retired Santa Fe Railroad executive and statistics teacher at DePaul University, hewas awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross andother aviation medals as a B-29 radar-navigatorduring World War II. He is survived by his wife.Wilma; two sons, four daughters, and nine grandchildren.Roy S. Burwen, PhD'54, a retired professor ofpsychology and director of institute studies at SanFrancisco State University, died July 26 in SanFrancisco. Survivors include three children; a sister,Lois Burwen David, AB'64; and a cousin, Alan B,Jacobson, AM'51.Frank S. Albright, PhD'56, of Urbana, IL, diedJuly 9. He was 87. He worked several years forAvery Tractor Co. in Peoria, IL, before becoming ateacher and public-school administrator in Indianaand New Jersey. From 1968 until his retirement in1973, he was a professor of education at Culver-Stockton College in Canton, MO. He is survived bythree sons, two foster children, one sister, and fivegrandchildren.Margaret Gladden Childs, AM'58, of Kankakee,[L, died June 26. She was 77. A retired employee ofthe Department of Health and Human Services, shewas also a member of Crerar Memorial PresbyterianChurch in Chicago and of Alpha Kappa Alphasorority. She is survived by a niece, a nephew, fivegreat-nephews, and two great-nieces.Daniel C. Heck, Sr., MBA'59, died May 9. He was70. In 1985, he retired from Illinois Tool Works,and in 1992, he moved from Deerfield, IL, to Hazel-hurst, WI. Survivors include his wife, Joanne; twosons; and a daughter.1960sHy Fish, MBA'60, a former Roosevelt Universityassociate professor of labor education and an efficiency expert, died July 9. He was 81. After leavingRoosevelt in the 1960s, he became a self-employedconsultant. During the 1950s he was one of theState Department's first economic advisers to Israeland led a mission to India for the United NationsInternational Labor Force. He is survived by hiswife, Annie Laurie, and a brother.Vera I. Driver, AM'61, of South Holland, IL, diedJuly 6. She was 78. She is survived by her husband.John.Oren W. Bryant, MBA'63, died June 5 in Homer,AK. He was 75. A colonel with the U.S. Army Ordnance, he is survived by his wife, Mary.University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 43'Books by AlumniGeorge B. Yurchyshyn, JD'65, MBA 07, a vice-president ol Clallin Capital Management Inc. olBosion, was killed Jul\ 8 in an automobile collisionnear Kiev, Ukraine. He was 54. Born in Ukraine.Yurchyshyn was managing general partner of thecompany's Ukraine Fund, a venture-capital fundinvesting in small Ukrainian companies. Survivorsinclude his wife, Anita Kicras Y'urchyshyn, AB'67;two daughters; and his mother.Nancy Wey, AM'67, PhD'74, died of complications from lung cancer on August 5. She was 62.She taught art history, Asian-American studies, andthe humanities at the California State Universitycampuses in Long Beach, San Francisco, and SanJose. Her career also included work researching thehistory of Chinese Americans, reporting forEast/V\'csl newspaper, and managing technical publications at Cadence Design systems. She is survivedby her father, a son, and two brothers.Stephen A. Wilkinson, AM'67, a retired associateprofessor of art history at the University of Connecticut, Storrs, died of complications from AIDSon July 11. He was 53. A specialist in Chinese arthistory, Oriental garden design, and the history ofAmerican vernacular architecture, he restored andpreserved Maine and Connecticut domestic architecture and furniture. Wilkinson also volunteeredfor AIDS Project Hartford. He is survived by hisparents, a brother, and a nephew.1970sAlan T. Moriyaina, AB'70, of Japan, died June 5. Hewas 45. tic is sui"vivcd by his wile, Sachiko Kancko.Patricia A. Brown, PhD'71, a former associateprofessor at the University ol Illinois at Chicago,cliccl July 5 in Los Angeles alter a long strugglewith multiple sclerosis. She joined the faculty ofI he UlC's Jane Addams College of Social Work in1972, going on disability leave in 1980 and retiring in 1986. She is survived by her mother.TeresaRobert L. Glenn, MBA'74, a professional bridgeplayer, died of cancer on June 18. Glenn retiredfrom his job with a consulting firm in 1982. He issurvived by his daughter, Lisa.Michael R. Vollen, AM'74, of Montclair, NJ, aphilosophy teacher and administrator at HudsonCounty Community College, died July 17 duringbrain surgery. He is survived by his wife, Maribeth;three sons; his parents; a brother, Allen P. Vollen,MBA'63; and a sister.Daniel E. Willis, AB'74, a real-estate developmentexecutive, died of AIDS-related causes on June 13in San Francisco. He was 41. A resident of SanFrancisco and New York, he was vice president forcommercial development at Forest City RatnerCompanies, a national developer. He was active inthe Municipal Arts Society of New York, the Citizens Housing and Planning Council, and the GayMen's Health Crisis. Survivors include his companion, Sam Sanchez; his mother; a brother; and twosistersWalter E. Edge, AB'75, MBA'77, died June 28 inSpartanburg, SC. He was 40. An employee of R. R.Donnelley & Sons, he is survived by his parentsand a brother.I ce Burgess. AM'76, died March 18 as the resultol an auto accident. He was 43. After earning a J.D.from DcP.iul University in 1980. he practiced law inNashville: lirsl as assistant slate's attorney in Washington County ( 1980-84) and later in private practice, lie was an elder ol the Presbyterian church, aMason, pasi chair ol the Washington CountyRepublican part), and past president ol the Washington County Historical Society. Survivors includehis wife, Robin Lucas Burgess, AM 76, PhD'88; ason, three brothers, and a sister ART AND ARCHITECTUREJohn W. Dixon, Jr., PhD'53, The Christ ofMichelangelo (Scholars Press). Arguing that thefigure of Christ is the key to understandingMichelangelo's art, the author examines the SistineChapel, the Medici Chapel, and Michelangelo's lateChristological drawings.Herbert L. Kessler, AB'61, Studies in PictorialNarrative (Pindar Press). Nineteen of Kessler'sessays form three sections: The first, "Pictures andScripture," considers how medieval pictorial representations interact with holy writ; the second, "Pictures in Scripture," deals with ways of constructingmeaning in depictions within the texts they illustrate; and the third, "Pictures as Scriptures," treatspictorial cycles not associated with the texts theyserve — primarily monumental narratives in theSynagogue at Dura Europos and on the walls of Italian churches.Kathlyn Maureen Liscomb, AM'76, PhD'84,Learning from Mount Hua: A Chinese Physician'sIllustrated Travel Record and Painting Theory (Cambridge University). A study of a travel record written and painted by a 14th-century Chinesephysician who climbed China's Sacred Mountain ofthe West, the book includes an analysis of thephysician's painting theory in relation to his workas a medical scholar and in relation to texts byother art theoreticians.BIOGRAPHY AND LETTERSSue Davidson, AM'49, A Heart in Politics (SealPress). This is the second book in The WomenWho Dared series, a line of multicultural biographies written for middle- and high-school readers.Davidson profiles Jeannette Rankin, the firstwoman elected to Congress, and Patsy TakemotoMink, JD'51, the first woman of color elected toCongress, who served 12 years in the 1960s and1970s and was elected again in 1992.Josephine Mirabella Elliott, PhB'32, AM'35,editor. Partnership for Posterity: The Correspondenceof William Maclure and Marie Duclos Fretageot,1820-1833 (Indiana Historical Society). This collection of letters traces the relationship betweenMaclure, an educational reformer and "the father ofAmerican geology," and Fretageot, a French educator. Letters and illustrations also give insight intothe American West, reformers and reform movements, and political events of the time.James M. Greiner, Janet L. Coryell, and James R.Smither, AB'82, editors, A Surgeon's Civil War: TheLetters and Diary of Daniel M. Holt, M.D. (Kent StateUniversity Press). These reminiscences provide aninsider's look at battlefield medicine — camp life,army politics, and medical difficulties — in additionto commentary on slavery and national events. Holtserved with the 1 21st New York Volunteer Armyfrom 1 862 lo 1864.Marian Kleinsasser Towne, AM'58, Bread of Life:Diaries and Memories of a Dakota Family,1 9.36— J 945 (Marian Kleinsasser Towne). Excerptsfrom the diaries of the author's father, John P.Kleinsasser — a South Dakota Hutterite Mennonitefarmer, rural school teacher, slate legislator, andcommunity leader — are augmented by some of hisspeeches and correspondence and by Towne'ssemi-fictional autobiographical accounts. BUSINESS AND ECONOMICSJohn Antos, MBA'76, Activity-Based Management(John Wiley & Sons). Antos' work discusses casestudies of activity-based management, a corporatestrategy designed to help businesses detect cost drivers, pinpoint problems, empower workers, definestrategic goals, and satisfy customers.Mildred L. Culp, AM'74, PhD'76, Be WorhWise:Retooling Your Work for the 21st Century (UniqueBooks). Culp seeks to help readers achieve job satisfaction in today's changing marketplace.Gloria Cunningham, PhD'76, Effective EmployeeAssistance Programs: A Guide for EAP Counselors andManagers (Sage Publications). Based in part on interviews with practitioners, the book provides a focuson the core counseling responsibilities required tohelp employees with problems of personal andfamily life, chemical dependency, and work-relatedstress. It is aimed at students and professionals interested in worksite-based counseling programs.Daniel Lauber, AB'70, Professional's PrivateSector Job Finder, Non-Profits' Job Finder, and Government Job Finder (Planning/Communications). Inthree books, Lauber lists more than 5,000 jobsources, describing job hotlines, specialty periodicals, job-matching services, job databases, anddirectories for job vacancies that are not advertised.Lloyd Shefsky, JD'65, Entrepreneurs Are Made NotBorn (McGraw-Hill). Shefsky identifies the qualitiesneeded to become an entrepreneur and offers acrash course oh how to nurture them, basing hisadvice on his own experience and that of the morethan 200 businesspeople he interviewed.CHILDREN'S LITERATURELinda Walvoord Girard, AM'66, Young FrederickDouglass, the Slave Who Learned to Read (AlbertWhitman). For children 6 and older, this picturebook tells how Douglass taught himself to readdespite laws forbidding it, becoming the foremostblack leader of his time. The author emphasizeswhite fear of slave literacy and the racism present inthe North as well as in the South.CRITICISMWalter A. Davis, PhD'69, Get the Guest: Psychoanalysis, Modem American Drama, and the Audience(University of Wisconsin Press). Through a detailedreading of five great modern American plays, Daviscalls for a more penetrating look at drama's psychological impact on the audience, arguing that theater,as a potential threat to social order, expresses thesecrets and discontents of its audience.James F. English, AM'81, Comic Transactions: Literature, Humor, and the Politics of Community inTwentieth-Century Britain (Cornell University Press).This interpretation of modern British humor insocial, historical, and political terms considers howjokes cany ideas of social consequence and become"comic transactions" among contending socialclasses and groups. English argues that such transactions have answered both to conservative needsfor reaction, domination, and denial and to radicalideals of subversion and progressive resistance.Richard Newhauser, AM'72, The Treatise on Vicesand Virtues in Latin and the Vernacular (BrepolsPublishers). Newhauser outlines the genre of the44 University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994treatise on vices and virtues, its historical development, and its importance within the body ofmedieval religious literature. The book serves as aguide for future research, drawing attention to therelevance and utility of this area of study.John Taggart, AM'66, Songs of Degrees: Essays onContemporary Poetry and Poetics (University ofAlabama Press) and Remaining in Light: Ant Meditations on a Painting by Edward Hopper (State University of New York Press). The first book, a collectionof 19 essays on several American experimentalpoets, traces the origins and evolution of this experimental tendency in recent poetry and developsnew theoretical tools for reading and appreciatingsuch works. The second book is a critical examination of Hopper's painting A Woman in the Sun. Eachmeditation, informed by Derrida's conception of thesupplement, is both about the painting and aboutthe nature ol the reading process.EDUCATIONRonald M. Cervero, AM'75, PhD'79, PlanningResponsibly for Adult Education: A Guide to Negotiating Power and Interests (J°ssey-Bass Publishers).The author explores ways in which educators cananticipate how power relations are likely to supportor constrain a democratic planning process, thenrespond in ways that nurture such a process.Rheta DeVries, PhD'68, and Betty S. Zan, MoralClassrooms, Moral Children: Creating a Construc-tivist Atmosphere in Early Education (Teachers College Press). The authors draw on and extend thework of Jean Piaget, arguing that constructivist education must provide for children's social and moraldevelopment. They offer solutions to establishingthis kind of classroom atmosphere and discuss thetheoretical foundation of their approach.Barry M. Franklin, MAT'69, From "Backwardness" to "At-Risk": Childhood Learning Dijjicultiesand the Contradictions of School Reform (State University of New York Press). Paying particular attention to the preference for putting low-achievingchildren in segregated classes, Franklin examinesefforts by 20th-century public-school administrators and private philanthropy to better provide forchildren with learning difficulties.FICTION AND POETRYFred Marchant, AM'74, PhD'81, Tipping Point(Word Works). Winner of the 1993 WashingtonPrize in poetry, this book is a meditation on a continuum of American violence — from domestic strifeto the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars. Central tothe work is a series of poems about the author'sconscientious objection to the Vietnam War whileserving as a Marine Corps officer.GENDER STUDIESWayne Kritsberg, John Lee, and Shepherd Bliss,THM'69, DMN'71, A Quiet Strength: Meditations onMen and Masculinity (Bantam Trade). The authorsexplore how men express their creativity, sensuality, and spirit, using quotations from men andwomen of all cultures and eras and offering suggestions for daily living.Rose L. Glickman, PhD'67, Daughters 0/ Feminists(St. Martin's Press). Winner of the American BookAward from the Before Columbus Foundation, thebook contains Glickman's interviews with 50 youngwomen of diverse social, racial, and geographicbackgrounds on issues central to their mothers'feminist perspective: work, family life, friendship,sexuality, self-image, public and private roles,racism, and the word/eminist.Joanne Meyerowitz, AB'76, editor, NOT June The landmark University of Chicagostudy is 6ithe most comprehensiveand trustworthy portrait of sexualityin America yet achieved."*TIE MMLSexual Practicesin the United StatesThe complete findingsfrom America'smost comprehensivesurvey of sexual behaviorEdward 0. Laumarm, JolmH. Gagnon,Robert I Michael, afr#5tuartMii&aglsHere in over 750 fact-filled, easy-to-use pages are the complete resultsof the University of Chicago's landmark survey that's redefinedour knowledge of sex in America."The Social Organization of Sexuality is unfailingly lucid; even forthe most technical matters, it gives patient explanations that anyeducated reader can comprehend ... a major achievement.**— Paul Robinson, *The NewYorkTimes Book Review"The first truly scientific study of who does what with whomin America and just how often they do it. The findings — basedon face-to-face interviews with a random sample of nearly3,500 Americans . . . will smash a lot of myths . . . " — Time"New research challenges old beliefs." — USA Today"The results expose a number of misconceptions Americans haveabout their neighbors' sex lives Provides detailed insights about the sexualbehavior of a representative sample of Americans." — Alison Bass, Boston Globe753 pages • $49.95Available in bookstores now.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS5801 S.Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 45On Knowing—The NaturallencesRICHARD MCKEONEdited by David B. Owen andZahava K. McKeonCompiled by David B. OwenThis book, a transcription of anentire course, including bothlectures and student discussions,provides a superb introductionto McKeon's method of thinking." McKeon was a teacher anda thinker of incomparableauthority and importance.I had the good fortune to beone of his students and theskills I learned from him haveremained central to the way Ithink."— Susan Sontag"McKeon was one of themost learned historians ofphilosophy of recent times.His synoptic map of philosophical traditions had an enormouseffect on generations of students.I am most grateful to have hadthe chance to study with him."—Richard RortyPaper $17.95 418 pages illua.Library cloth edition $65.00THE UNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOPRESS(Uivat)t), I Hi Cleaver: Women and Gender in Postwar America,1945-1960 (Temple University Press). This collection of 15 revisionist essays challenges the white,middle-class, suburban-housewife stereotype ofpostwar women by examining women's work andactivism and pointing out contradictions and ambiguities in postwar concepts of gender.HISTORY/CURRENT EVENTSCarl Abbott, AM'67, PhD'71, The MetropolitanFrontier: Cities in the Modern American West (University of Arizona Press). Drawing on history, socialscience, and literature, Abbott describes the explosive urbanization of the American West sinceWorld War II. The book explores patterns of economic growth, politics, and city planning in theWest and argues that western cities have been leaders in the emergence of the new Americancityscape.Marc Bermann, AB'82, Lukurmata: HouseholdArchaeology in Prehispanic Bolivia (Princeton University Press). Household archaeology and community- and regional-settlement information form thebasis for a local perspective of Andean prehistory inthis evolutionary study of Lukurmata, a pre-Columbian community in highland Bolivia.Bermann traces changes in domestic life, householdritual, ties to other communities, and mortuaryactivities, as well as household adaptations to overarching political and economic trends.Helen Clifford Gunter, AB'24, Navy WAVE: Memories of World War II (Cypress House Press).Through her reflections and letters, Gunter — one ofthe first members of the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service — provides a look at ser-vicewomen in wartime. The book also includesarchival photos, personal snapshots, original cartoons, and a glossary of Navy terms,Robert H. Holden, PhD'86, Mexico and the Surveyof Public Lands: The Management of Modernization,1876-1911 (Northern Illinois University Press).Few events have been more crucial to the history ofmodern Mexico than the division of its publiclands. Holden offers a systematic study of thepublic-land surveys of prerevolutionary Mexico,demonstrating that the private survey companieswere the agents and beneficiaries of the greatestsingle movement of public property in Mexico's history.Leonard H. Lesko, PhD'69, Barbara SwitalskiLesko, AB'62, AM'65, and William A. Ward,AM'55, co-authors and -editors, Pharaoh's Workers:The Villagers of Deir el Medina (Cornell UniversityPress). Examining the village of the artisans andcivil servants who created and decorated the royaltombs at Thebes — the only well-documented community yet uncovered from ancient Egypt — sixEgyptologists cover topics ranging from wages toliterary tastes, from ethnicity to personal liberty.MEDICINE AND HEALTHBarry G. Rabe, AM'80, PhD'85, Beyond NIMBY:The Politics of Hazardous Facility Siting in Canadaand the United States (Brookings Institution). The"not-in-my-back-yard" syndrome frequently blocksthe construction of unpopular waste-treatment and-disposal facilities. Rabe offers a solution, emphasizing extensive public participation, commitment tovoluntary siting arrangements, formal distributionof waste-management responsibility across multiplecommunities, and integration of waste-managementwith waste-prevention strategies.POLITICAL SCIENCE AND LAWDonald A. Gregory, Charles W. Saber, and Jon D. Grossman, AB'77, co-authors, Introduction to Intellectual Property Law (BNA Books). Designed forexecutives, managers, legal generalists, and inventors, the book presents an overview of the legalaspects of patents, trademarks, and copyrights.Citations to key decisions are given throughout thebook as a starting point for further research.Sanford N. Katz, JD'58, Walter O. Weyrauch, andFrances Olsen, Family Law — Legal Concepts andChanging Human Relationships (West PublishingCompany). The authors attempt to bridge theoryand practice in family law and also to place familylaw within a broader range of legal theory by drawing on feminist legal theory, critical legal studies,and other strands in contemporary jurisprudence.Irving M. Mehler, JD'53, and Martha Faulk, TheElements of Legal Writing (Macmillan Press). Thisguide explains the principles of writing clear, concise, and persuasive legal documents.Huey L. Perry, AM'73, PhD'76, Blacks and theAmerican Political System (University Press ofFlorida). The author examines the character, magnitude, and impact of black political participationthree decades after the height of the civil-rightsmovement, discussing the presidency, Congress,the Supreme Court, and special-interest groups.Kenneth W. Thompson, AM'48, PhD'51, editor,Presidents and Arms Control (University Press ofAmerica). The first volume in the W. Alton JonesFoundation series addresses the milieu of arms-control agreements, the ratification process of treatiesby the Senate, the potential role and limitations ofthe Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, andthe prospects for arms control and nonproliferationin Europe.Edward M. Wise, AB'56, editor, Criminal Sciencein a Global Society: Essays in Honor of Gerhard 0.W. Mueller (Fred B. Rothman & Co.). These essaysby 19 international scholars of criminal law andcriminology honors Gerhard O. W. Mueller,JD'53, former head of the United Nations CrimePrevention and Criminal Justice program and apioneer in fields concerned with criminal justiceand the increasing globalization of crime.RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHYRobert S. Ellwood, AM'65, PhD'67, The 60s Spiritual Awakening (Rutgers University Press). Ellwoodrecalls the changes in religious life during the1960s: religion's role in presidential elections and inthe civil-rights and antiwar movements, the resultsof the Second Vatican Council, the emergence olDeath of God theology, and religion's impact on thecounterculture. He interprets the changes as a shillfrom an institutionally determined outlook to asubjective experience of the divine.Morris B. Margolies, AM'47, A Gathering ofAngels: Angels in Jewish Life and Literature (Ballan-tine). Margolies, a rabbi, traces the idea of angelsthroughout Jewish history, concluding that bad andgood angels represent the temptations life presentsand the strength required to withstand them.Roy D. Morrison II, AM'67, PhD'72, Science, Theology and the Transcendental Horizon: Einstein, Kantand Tillich (Scholars Press). Seeking to illuminatecentral issues in the problems of reality and ofknowledge and its limits, Morrison argues thathumans seek more knowledge and cosmic certainty than are available, and, in an effort to satisfythese needs, they often incorporate two mutuallyincompatible methods in a single worldview.Steven Schroeder, AM'76, PhD'82, A Communityand a Perspective: Lutheran Peace Fellowship and theEdge of the Church, 1941-1991 (University Press ofAmerica). Studying the impact of the LutheranPeace Fellowship on the social teaching of theLutheran church in the United States, the author46 Universi rv of Chicago Magazine/December 1994documents the organization's development as a casestudy of the relationship between the church'sfringe and the majority.Mark H. Shale and George W. Shields, PhD'81, co-editors Science, Technology, and Religious Ideas (University Press of America). The 11 essays, includingone by Shields, cover such topics as the implicationsof anthropic cosmology, paraconsistent logics, andnew assessments of the religious contexts of historical figures like Galileo and Robert Boyle.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYJan E. Dizard, AM'64, PhD'67, Going Wild: Hunting,Animal Rights, and the Contested Meaning of Nature(University of Massachusetts Press). Drawing oninterviews with resource managers, animal-rightsadvocates, hunters, and environmentalists, the authorfn the Navy (see History/Current Events)examines a recent clash over a proposed deer hunt onthe largest public watershed in Massachusetts.Richard Louis Edmonds, PhD'83, Patterns ofChina's Lost Harmony (Routledge). With rapiddemographic and economic growth, the currentenvironmental degradation in China hasantecedents beginning centuries ago. Edmondscombines historical documentation with contemporary assessment to determine the degree of humaneffect upon vegetation, soils, water, air, and wildlife.R. N. Salisbury, AB'60, Geomagnetism as GravityMeasured by Magnetic Materials: The Finite or Infinite Speed of Gravity and Light (1CP Press). Drawingon classic papers on the speed of light, the authordiscusses the conflict between Roemer's measurement and modem ephemeris data. Sansbury arguesthat Cassini's original criticism of Roemer's measurement is vindicated and that the measurementsof Michelson and others can be interpreted asresulting from the cumulative effect of rapidlychanging instantaneous forces at a distance.C. Bruce Stephenson, SB'49, SM'51, The Music ofthe Heavens: Kepler's Harmonic Astronomy (Princeton University Press). Challenging critics who characterize Kepler's theories of harmonic astronomy as"mystical," Stephenson offers a thorough technicalanalysis of the music Kepler thought the heavensmade and the logic that led him to find musical pat terns in his data.SOCIAL SCIENCESCarl Abbott, AM'67, PhD'71, co-editor, Planningthe Oregon Way: A Twenty-Year Evaluation (OregonState University Press). In 1973, Oregon adoptedthe nation's first statewide system for comprehensive land-use planning. Contributors to this bookdiscuss the origins, development, and influence ofthe Oregon system and evaluate its effects on suchconcerns as affordable housing, farmland conservation, and efficient urban transportation.David Forbes, AB'71, False Fixes: The CulturalPolitics of Drugs, Alcohol, and Addictive Relations(State University of New York Press). Arguing thatsubstance abuse and addictive relations are culturalpatterns being debated in political terms, Forbesexamines everyday culture, school-based substance-abuse prevention programs, and the addiction-recovery movement.Norman Johnston, AM'51, Eastern State Penitentiary: Crucible of Good Intentions (PhiladelphiaMuseum of Art). Pennsylvania's Eastern State Penitentiary, one of the most historically significantprisons in the United States, has been described asthe country's first architectural export. The authordescribes the penological and architecturalantecedents of the prison, which was the Quakerresponse to the scandals of early-19th centurypenology and which became a model for most penitentiary systems in Europe until World War II.Reed Larson, PhD'79, and Maryse H. Richards,AM'84, PhD'84, Divergent Realities: The EmotionalLives of Mothers, Fathers, and Adolescents (BasicBooks). The authors set out to demonstrate thatdysfunction in the contemporary family often arisesfrom differences in emotional structure that familymembers are unable to bridge.Stephen J. Kunitz andjerrold E. Levy, AM'56,PhD'59, co-authors, Drinking Careers: A 25-YearStudy of Three Navajo Populations (Yale UniversityPress). The study results verify the authors' initialhypothesis that young men who would have beenclassed as alcoholic often stop or moderate theirdrinking as they age; their results also show considerable diversity in patterns of alcohol use amongwomen and men. The authors present data on alcohol-related mortality rates and describe changes intreatment programs.James Hill Parker, AM'61, Social History and theDynamics of Belief (University Press of America). Inan attempt to determine if, and how, social historycan be examined, Parker argues that social historyis essentially ideology used by people to justifythemselves.Richard J. Parmentier, AM'76, PhD'81, Signs inSociety: Studies in Semiotic Anthropology (IndianaUniversity Press) . Using semiotic tools proposed byCharles Sanders Peirce, the author examines therelationship between social action and theoreticaldiscourse in two ethnographic case studies basedon fieldwork in Micronesia. He also draws semioticparallels in cultures separated by space and time.Thomas A. Sebeok, AB'41, Signs: An Introductionto Semiotics (University of Toronto Press). Part of aseries designed to promote interaction betweenresearch and theory in semiotics, the communication sciences, and the cognitive sciences, Sebeok'sbook offers introductory examples and analysis.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," pleasesend the name of the book, its author, its publisher, and a short synopsis to the Books Editor,University of Chicago Magazine, 5757 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, or by Other VoicesContinued from page 48for a descendant of a Civil War veteran whohad fought for the North at Antietam. Herewas one for a young person who came fromthe Sioux City area and had exhibited othervaluable qualities as well.("Kate, is this true?" someone will ask.Well, essentially, yes. If the details are contrived, the specifications were no lessremote from my qualifications.)"Listen to this," the dean continued. "Thisone's intended for a young woman ofadmirable character, excellent scholarship,and Greek ancestry. Sponsored by a socialclub called the Votaries of Athena, Goddessof Wisdom. Too bad you're not Greek.""Oh, but I am Greek!" 1 assured him."Yes, I know that my last name is 'Mann,'but it's been shortened from 'Manousopou-los' at my mother's insistence."I am Greek — all the way back toAgamemnon! I am descended from Spartankings!" (At least, that's what my father hadalways told his children.)I sent my letter of supplication to theVotaries of Athena, explaining that myfather had come to this country from a village outside Sparta when he was a youngboy. It had not previously occurred to me,but now I threw it in hopefully: a consuming desire to leam Ancient Greek.I received their reply. While impressedwith my grades and my aspirations, theirpresident regretfully concluded that theVotaries could not help me. Working withlimited funds and forced to make difficultchoices, they could not, she explained, givetheir scholarship to someone who was not"all Greek." Circumstances beyond my control had rendered me half-a-Greek short.So I had to leave the University for awhile. I got a job teaching second grade atthe nearby school of St. Thomas the Apostle. Each morning I played Sousa's "El Capi-tan" on a tinny piano near the open frontdoor — and it was very cold that winter — asuniformed children marched into theschool. A semester of time-out from myown education paid $65 a month, plus anything I wished to choose from the schoolcafeteria. I was able to save two quarters'tuition: two hundred dollars.Katharine Mann Byrne, AB'36, AM'43, livesin Chicago. The forma' director of the continu-ing-education division at Mundelein College ofEoyola University, she works as legal assistantto her daughter, Margaret Byrne, director ofthe Illinois Clemency Project for BatteredWomen, and is an essayist for the ChicagoTribune Magazine and other papers.University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994 470 tkr VoicesDollars forScholarsBy Katharine Mann Byrne0 NE OF MY GRANDCHILDREN TELLS MEthat this term's books cost him$340. 1 didn't tell him that I couldafford to buy only two secondhand volumes from the book lists ofautumn quarter 1935. Instead, I stood eachafternoon in a crowd that encircled thelibrarian's desk in Harper, waiting for theclock to strike live: the time when reservedbooks could be taken out and kept until thenext morning.I had grown up in Hyde Park, wheremany of the big brothers and sisters of thechildren 1 played with carried heavy briefcases, wore thick, tortoise-shell glasses, andwalked to their University classes. Mybrother and I rode our bikes around thewinding footpaths of the campus, stoppingto gaze at the fierce faces of gargoyles, wondering what went on behind those mul-lioned windows, already dirty even thatlong ago.By the time I finished high school, I knewthe campus well, but I could not afford toattend the University. Many were poor inthose days, of course. George Orwell'sdescription of his own family's social position applied to mine. With characteristicprecision, he ranked himself as a memberof the lower-upper-middle class. As heexplained it, "that means middle class without money."The Depression was Just One More Blowto us, without surprise or shock value, for\vc were established as the family's "poorrelatives." My father — a scholarly, lovingman who happened also to be a gambler —was already functionally bankrupt.So I went to the Chicago Teachers College, tax-supported, free, and offering theremote possibility of a job at the end ofthree years. Housed in a couple of grimybuildings on the South Side, it had a pitifullibrary, a tired faculty, a drear)' course ofstud)', and leaking toilets. If no one else I wasn't descended from aCivil War veteran who hadfought for the North atAntietam; I wasn't a youngperson who came from theSioux City area. But I did needa scholarship.took teachers' colleges seriously, they atleast took themselves very seriously.Almost every course title began with thesolemn phrase, "The Teaching of...." Penmanship in Grades One to Three. SocialStudies in Grades Seven and Eight. Arithmetic in Grades Four to Six.Having completed my three-year sentenceat that place, I arrived at the University withenough credits to be a junior and enoughmoney to pay for one quarter. Thereafter,overriding my pleasure in courses in Shakespeare, Mark Twain, Donne and the Meta-physicals, the Nineteenth-Century Novel,was the matter of the next quarter's tuition.Would I be able to pay it?A hungry learner, I found everythingexciting, even the lunch-time concerts: Mahler and Brahms and Mozart on recordsin a lecture hall on the first floor of theSocial Science Building. I could usuallyafford a grilled and buttered schnecken witha pot of tea in the Coffee Shop, whereDivinity School students as poor as I was —most of them farm boys with squeakyshoes — acted as waiters, working for theirmeals and willing to bring more hot waterfor a second cup of tea.The quarters passed quickly, and alwayshanging over me was the ominous possibility that there would not be money for thenext one's tuition. The day came when 1was forced to approach the dean, a kindlyman who really seemed to wish he was ableto help me. I sat across from him as he readto me from lists of available scholarships.To each possibility was attached a peculiar prerequisite tailoring it to the will of thedonor, requirements that had nothing to dowith my good grades or dire need. He toldme about a group that wanted to sponsorsomeone of Norwegian ancestry — preferably originating from the community nearTrondheim; another scholarship was taggedContinued on page 4748 University of Chicago Magazine/December 1994-"•^IPfc - Neither snow nor sleet; Students maketracks across a wintry quad.Photo by EileenRyan.o-B'°c»0io-i.*} 00 lThe University ^"-1of Chicago Magazine v' ° °is your own Information \°Superhighway to the iU of C. And you t } i{don't even need , Y- f -oa mouse.*Six times a year, we bring the quads toyou. It's a chance to sit in on great coursestaught by great teachers. To hear groundbreakingresearchers talk about their discoveries. To catch up on thelatest news of the University and its alumni.It's worthwhile reading. And it's also worth supporting. In fact,each year thousands of our readers help meet the costs of producing-k and mailing the Magazine. Your contribution (we suggest a gift ofJL $15) means a lot to our budget.|\ Of course, the Magazine will continue to come to you,^ whether or not you give. But if you do want to contribute,.V_ r\ please make your check payable to the University ojI/. ^^"Vv Chicago Magazine and send it, along with your-^X \\ news for the Magazine's "Class News" section, to the address below.1 Though if you're cruising the Internet, you candrop us a line at uchicago-magazine@uchicago.eduTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobie House, 5757 Woodlawn AvenueChicago, IL 60637ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED