OCTOBER 1994-THE BfflVDBUY OF CHICAGO LIBRARY-3941rTeaching timeless lessons withone eye on the clock.For the Scholarship of Future Generations^f/ne distinguished collections of theUniversity of Chicago Library arevital to the work of one of the world'sgreat assemblages of scholars andresearchers. To ensure the perpetuation of scholarship of the highest level,the Library must respond to the needsof future generations now. As the priceof scholarly books continues to dramatically escalate each year, the Librarydepends on the special assistance offriends, foundations, and organizationsto maintain its revered status as aresearch library of world renown. Onesuch organization concerned with thefuture of the Library is the Universityof Chicago Library Society.Since its founding in 1975, the LibrarySociety's principal objective has been tosupport and generate interest in thisvital component of the University. Asthe sponsor of an exciting series of lectures, receptions, exhibitions andnewsletters throughout the year, theSociety provides the Library withessential assistance through annualgifts, an endowment for the humanitiescollections, and special projects. Thisyear's undertaking is the productionof a beautiful series of notecards,reproduced from selected children'sbooks in the Department of SpecialCollections, which will be featured inthe spring exhibition entitled, "Planes,Trains and Autos: The TransportationRevolution in Children's Books."Help support the Library's pivotalrole in the life of the University. Yourcontrdiution to the Library Society willmake a difference lo future generations.Philip M. BurnoChairman,University of Chicago Library Society THE SHIPS* STEAMERS, AND TRAINS.The Crystal Palace that Fox Built. (London, David Bogue, 1851).The Encyclopaedia Britannica Collection of Books for Children.Department of Special Collections. The University of Chicago Library. ' '-¦' :.'!..«, .'.'.. - a . . iTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO LIBRARY SOCIETYPlease send me box(es) of notecards (10 5"x7" notecards [two of each image] at $10.0box; include $2.50 for shipping and handling for each order)Please send me information about:? The University of Chicago Library Society? The University of Chicago Library Fund for Books(For a $50 donation, a new book will be purchased and identified with a bookplate bearingyour name or someone you choose to honor)Name Address,City State . Zip_ Daytime PhoneEnclosed is my check or money order made payable to the University of Chicago LibrarySociety. Call (312) 702-8742 (8:30 am to 5:00 pm CST Monday - Friday) with questions.Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery.Please mail to: The University of Chicago Libr - ~ 6063ChicagoVOLUME 87, NUMBER 1 OCTOBER 1994 jff ^WDEPARTMENTS2 Editor's notes3 Letters8 EventsA blaze of autumnal activity.10 InvestigationsFrontier astronomers dresswarmly and speak throughE-mail. Also: FraneoiseMeltzer on the cult of originality.12 Chicago journalFunding meltdown forArgcmne reactor; chattingwith the College dean;charismatic algebra,38 Class news44 Deaths46 Books by alumni48 Other voicesFrank Kelly on a book thatadmirers and critics ofRobert Maynard Hutchinsshouldn't overtook 1629MR34 FEATURESImagination's kitchenWhen the College's admissions office asked applicantsfor essays using common household objects as metaphorsfor significant ideas or feelings, students wrote abouteverything but the kitchen sink.Adventures in dinosaur huntingPaul Sereno and his crew braved heat, wind, and desertsand to bring home the bones.ANDREW CAMPBELLTime in teaching, teaching in timeLike farmers, teachers think in terms of seasons andyears. Like newscasters, they also count the minutes.STUART SHERMANSex by the numbersA new survey of sexual activity provides a statisticalportrait of lovemaking, American style.TIM ANDREW OBERMILLER Page 16Cover: The particulars of chronometry become the toolsof the teacher's trade (page 28); illustration bySteve McCracken.Page 34EditorMary Ruth YoeManaging EditorTim Andrew ObermillerAssociate EditorAndrew CampbellArt DirectorAllen CarrollEditorial AssistantKimberly SweetContributing EditorsJamie Kalven, Joe LevineEditorial office: The University of ChicagoMagazine, Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-2163; fax (312) 702-2166. Internet:uchicago-magazine@uchicago.edu. The Magazine is sent to all University of Chicago alumni.The University of Chicago Alumni Associationhas its offices at Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-2150; fax (312) 702-2166.The University of Chicago AlumniAssociation Board of Governors:Officers: Linda Thoren Neal, AB'64, JD'67, president; Bob Levey, AB'66, vice president; GregoryG. Wrobel, AB'75, JD'78, MBA'79, treasurer;Michael J. Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76, secretary; and Jeanne Buiter, MBA'86, executivedirector.Andrew M. Alper, AB'80, MBA'81; Jack J. Carlson, AB'40; N. Gwyn Cready, AB'83, MBA'86;Trina N. Frankel, AB'64; Caroline Heck, AB'71;Le Roy J. Hines, AM'78; Randy Holgate, "VicePresident, Development and Alumni Relations;Susan Carlson Hull, AB'82; Patricia Klowden,AB'67; Michael C. Krauss, AB'75, MBA'76;Joseph D. LaRue, AM'59; Katherine DusakMiller, AB'65, MBA'68, PhD'71; Theodore A.O'Neill, AM'70, *Dean of College Admissions;Susan W. Parker, AB'65; Harvey B. Plotnick,AB'63; Louise E. Rehling, AM'70, SM'74; JeanMaclean Snyder, AB'63, JD'79; David M.Terman, AB'55, SB'56, MD'59; Mary B. VanMeerendonk, AB'64; Peter O. Vandervoort,AB'54, SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60; Mary Ruth Yoe,'Editor, University of Chicago Magazine.' Ex OfficioMagazine Advisory Committee: Michael J.Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76, chair; Richard L.Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; Mary Lou Gorno,MBA'76; Neil Harris, the Preston and SterlingMorton Professor in History; Susan Carlson Hull,AB'82; Michael C. Krauss, AB'75, MBA'76; BobLevey, AB'66; Katherine Dusak Miller, AB'65,MBA'68, PhD'71 ; Peter O. Vandervoort, AB'54,SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60; Marva Watkins, AB'63.The University of Chicago Magazine (ISSN-0041-9508) is published bimonthly (October,December, February, April, June, and August)by the University of Chicago in cooperation withthe Alumni Association, Robie House, 5757Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago IL 60637. Published continuously since 1907. Second-classpostage paid at Chicago and additional mailingoffices. POSTMASTER: Send address changesto the University of Chicago Magazine, AlumniRecords, Robie House, 5757 WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. © 1994 Universityof Chicago. Editors NotesJAM A DOG PERSON. BEING A DOGperson at the University ofChicago has, like most aspectsof life at the U of C, its peculiarlyacademic moments — for example,I've met a professor in the naturalsciences who has coauthoredpapers with his dog's veterinarian.("Although, of course," he assuredme, "1 don't list them on my c.v.")And I've spotted a physics Nobellaureate out jogging with his standard poodle, a dog whose boundinggait surely must demonstrate someprinciple of momentum.Our family's current dog is ayoung Welsh springer spaniel. AWelsh springer called for a Welshname, and so, even before hearrived, we began to look for one.First, we asked Eric Hamp — aWelshman, a U of C professoremeritus of linguistics, and a dog person —for suggestions. Eric pulled out an appropriately dog-eared volume of Welshmythology and began reading (in what weassumed was old Welsh) about the red-and-white dogs who guarded the gates of hell.Their name — when Eric proclaimed it, theword emerged as a gutteral explosion — is adistant cousin of the English wordcochineal, a dye made from the bodies ofsmall red insects.Since Welsh springers are red and white,the name seemed to fit. Still, torn betweenour desire for mythic resonance and anequally strong feeling that we didn't want tohave to clear our throats every time wecalled the dog, we thanked Eric and turnedto a considerably less scholarly source, TheBest Baby Name Book in the Whole WideWorld. "Owen," the book told us, is Welshfor "young warrior." Owen it was.Being a dog owner at the U of C has itssocial as well as its academic aspects. Overthe last year or so, Owen has widened thecircle of my days. In the early morning, hegoes careering through the quads, always afew steps behind the squirrels. Sniffingbusily, he searches for abandoned tennisballs and picnic leftovers while 1 get toadmire the Gothic architecture in all shadesof weather. In the evening, he likes to stopby the Cloisters, where Mr. Chambers, thebuilding's doorman, has a ready supply of dog biscuits.Sometimes we join dog play-groups in apark, at the Point, or in a backyard, wherethe owners stand and watch their chargesrun. Occasionally the talk turns to work —papers to write or to grade, manuscriptsdue — but often, the talk is about the dogs.One night I asked our neighbor, a physicist, a question prompted by watchingOwen: Why do shorter tails wag faster thanlonger tails? Or was I merely observing anoptical illusion?As his black Lab's long tail swung sedatelyto and fro and Owen's stubby model flickedto a 2/4 beat, the physicist soon set mestraight: Less mass, equal force, yields morespeed.Owen's tail wagged even faster.We're wiredThose of you who do most of your correspondence through E-mail can now send usyour class news, changes of address, lettersto the editor, and other news via the Internet. Our electronic mailbox is:uchicago-magazine@uchicago.eduAt the moment, we've no plans to take theMagazine totally on-line, though that daymay come. In the meantime, we hope you'llcontinue to take the paper version to thoseplaces (the bus or the bathtub) where yourcomputer may fear to tread. — M.R.Y.2 University oe Chicago Magazine/October 1994LettersIgnoring the obvious?What a marvelous article on RuthSager ("The Science of Persistence," August/94)! I wonderedwhether part of her isolation as a scientistwas related to sex discrimination, on top ofthe perceived marginality of her research. Itseemed like a subject that was obvious, butnot discussed.Karen J. Kaplowitz, JD71Santa Monica, CaliforniaNothing ventured, little gainedJ read with interest the article "Are YouExperienced?" in the August issue. Thelaboratory approach (New Product Laband others) to graduate business educationappears interesting and exciting.However, after 30 years' experience inaddressing management problems, both as aconsultant and a line manager, I must agreewith the article's statement that NPL is only"a piece of the answer" related to imparting"real-world [business] savvy." And, in myopinion, a very small part of the answer.The New Product Lab does have value,but real experience can come only fromdeveloping, implementing, and beingresponsible for management practices anddecisions in the chaotic, sometimes absurd,often irrational world of real business operations. This cannot be duplicated in the laboratory. It cannot even be described; it mustbe experienced. And, finally, real and meaningful business-management experiencecannot be obtained in a "risk-free" laboratory setting. Most of my 190 M.B.A. Program classmates brought applicable workexperience to the classroom. This was thecentral factor in the 190 Program's greatvalue to me and my classmates.FredricJ. Kessler, MBA'65Highland Park, IllinoisHooray for Richard Epstein!Thank you for Harold Henderson'sexcellent article, "Balancing Act"(August/94)! It is refreshing and anunexpected encouragement to read something not steeped in the Politically Correctreligion's dogmas (i.e., that bureaucratsmust have more power to propagate regimented egalitarianism) . I look forward to Simple Rules. It's myhope that the Richard Epsteins in the professions of influence will multiply in number and strength.Lee Gregory Kent, SM'55Greenville, South CarolinaMore cheers for Epstein!Three cheers for Richard Epstein!Government protection of privateproperty and private contracts isessential for a free society. But when I wasat Chicago during the Johnson and Nixonyears, we didn't pay much attention to thisfundamental and proper role of government. We thought government was goingto solve all manner of problems by buildingthe "Great Society."Today, despite the expenditure of trillionsof dollars and the undermining of everyamendment in the Bill of Rights except theThird, problems stemming from illegitimacy, welfare, drug prohibition, race relations, and crime are worse instead of better.As a result, we are being forced to reassessthe proper role of the public sector, andRichard Epstein is nudging thinkers in theright direction. Bravo!Richard E. James, MBA70AtlantaThen the cheering stoppedJam appalled by Harold Henderson'smisstatement of the implications of Professor Epstein's judicial philosophy inyour August/94 magazine. Far from being"contrary to political fashion and recentjudicial precedent," Professor Epstein represents a powerful property-rights movementsupported by organizations like the Washington, D.C., Institute for Justice, whosegeneral counsel, William Mellor, co-authored an op-ed piece with Prof. Epsteinin the July 24 Chicago Tribune. As Reagan-Bush nominees come to dominate the federal judiciary, it is fast becoming a bulwarkfor the neoconservative philosophy thatEpstein's 1985 volume espouses. Thedanger to our civil society comes not froman overzealous regulatory state, as Epsteinand Mellor argue, but from a reaffirmationof property rights that will make the rapacity of the 19th-century robber barons paleUniv ersity of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 3Aerospace * Applied Research • Banking & Finance • Bio-Tech/Hea/thCare • Chemical • Computer Software/HardwareIBSSicagoPut You in the SpotlightWhether or not you're currently looking for a job, companies do make offersyou can't refuse. The Chicago ProNet service is designed to keep you aware of challengingopportunities: Fortune 500, Start-ups, Management, Sales, Marketing,Consulting, High-tech, Bio-tech, and many more.Registering with ProNet assures that your career profile is constantly available to employerswho are seeking to fill challenging positions you wouldn't hear about otherwise.Its easy and its confidential . for more informationwrite: Chicago ProNet, Registration Depc ,The University of Chicago Alumni Association,5757 So. Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637; l ui nuui iucluuij on now you or your companycan utilize ProNet in your recruiting effortsplease call 800/340-9491Consulting • Electronics • Engineering • Government • Market Research • Manufacturing • Semiconductor • Telecommunicationsby comparison.Epstein et al. complained, and, in June1994, a 5-4 majority of the Supreme Courtagreed, that the town of Tigard, Oregon,interfered with constitutional propertyrights by protecting its residents fromfloods and traffic congestion. The city planning commission conditioned a permit for astore to double its size and pave over aparking lot by requiring that the ownerdedicate 10 percent of her property to adrainage system to allow runoff and a bike-pedestrian path to relieve traffic congestion.These are valid reasons for local government to control development. But the majorreason is that there would be no privateproperty without government. The rulesthat govern human society were designedprimarily by those strong or clever enoughto accumulate material possessions in orderto protect them. Affluent areas with clout incity hall have used these powers repeatedlyto zone out undesirable land uses, such assewage-treatment plants, from their immediate environs. Never did the private-property movement's advocates complain whentheir property values rose because of theseregulations. Nor did they demur whenmunicipal governments lavished resourceson their neighborhoods for public amenitiessuch as parks, adding to their propertyvalues.Yet advocates of private-property rightsinsist the public treasury lavish compensation on them for every misfortune theybring upon themselves by building on floodplains, earthquake zones, barrier islands,and eroded hillsides. When disaster strikes,the folly of property owners becomes an actof God for which Washington is responsible. If the Federal Emergency ManagementAgency does not rush to the rescue of the"victims," the wrath of the local congressional representative descends upon it. Yetin the name of free enterprise, these samerecipients of federal largesse deny to alllevels of government any tools to preventsuch disasters by restricting development.Periodic flooding will continue to occur.But individual decisions place human residences, businesses, and agricultural production in the path of potential destruction. It istime to reform the National Flood InsuranceProgram to place the risk where it belongs —on people who benefit from the use of thoselands when it doesn't flood, not on theAmerican taxpayers, most of whom neverbenefit from this particular government service. The so-called "wise use" and private-property movements argue that governmentshould compensate (read "buy out") ownersfor any diminution in value for land it regulates. They fail to acknowledge the onlyreason these areas have value is because the government protects them and makes it possible to people to convert the flood plain tounsuitable uses. Property owners who benefit disproportionately from the state's policeprotection should contribute their fair shareto reducing the environmental hazards theyimpose on the rest of us.Lettie McSpadden Wenner, AB'59Department of Political ScienceNorthern Illinois University, De KalbWenner chairs the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board. — Ed.Have the framers been framed?Law Professor Richard Epstein's interpretation of the "takings clause" inthe Fifth Amendment to the Constitution is controversial among many legalscholars and historians, but it's also becoming highly influential in judicial decisionsand land-use policies. This point is largelyignored by Harold Henderson's "BalancingAct."Just this year, in Dolan v. City of Tigard,the Supreme Court ruled that officials inthis Oregon city had not adequately provedthat "taking" a parcel of commercial property was a justifiable condition of a construction permit. In remanding the caseback to Tigard, the court ruled, in effect,that the city must either come to terms withthe landowner (i.e., compensate the Dolansfor the "taking") or demonstrate conclusively a "nexus" for the taking. Though theDolan court stopped short of fully adoptingEpstein's position on private-propertyrights, it came closer to doing so than anycourt in the post-New Deal era.Though the U of C should take pride inthe presence of Epstein, it should also besaid that as a matter of history and American political philosophy, Epstein's theory ofproperty rights may well be wrong! Moreover, once translated into judicial precedent, Epstein's theory may spell disaster forthe triumph of the public good over privateinterests.This is hardly the forum for a rebuttal toEpstein's views on private property. However, for anyone familiar with and persuaded by the historical underpinning ofEpstein's claims, the following observationsmay stimulate some thought.1. Locke was not the only — and possiblynot even the major — influence on America'sfounders.2. Not everyone who influenced America'sfounders shared Locke's apparent belief thatproperty rights existed prior to government.Even Locke conceded that "in governmentthe laws regulate" inequalities of property.3. Moreover, Locke's theory of property When you visitChicago fora weekend,a week,or a month,stay atWOODED ME SUITES— studio andone-bedroomapartmentsfurnished toprovide you ahome away fromhome.Walk to the Universityof Chicago or theMuseum of Scienceand Industry, strollalong the lakefront,catch the bus or trainto the Loop, dine at anearby restaurant, ormake your own dinnerin your Suite.Come "home" toWooded Isle Suitesand relax after a dayof research,studying, meetings,or sightseeing.WOODED ISLE SUITES5750 South Stony Island AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637312-288-55781-800-290-6844University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 5The University of ChicagoAlumni AssociationAll UniversityAlumniSave the Date andCelebrateReunion!June 2-4, 1 995For additional information,Call 312-702-2160.6 University of Chicago Magazine rights is not without specified limits, incorporating as it does limitations on the rightto withhold resources from people in need.4. The great English political theorists ofthe 17th century who influenced Locke,such as James Harrington, believed in thebalanced ownership of property. Harrington, along with Alergon Sidney, JohnMilton, James Burgh, and other republicantheorists, were widely ready by America'srevolutionaries and constitutional framers.The sacrifice of individual interests to thegreater good of the whole formed theessence of republicanism, a view of politicsand constitutional design as evident atAmerica's founding as Lockean liberalism.5. Then there's Thomas Jefferson, oftencited by libertarians as an advocate for thepreeminence of property rights. Jeffersonviewed the right to property as more socialthan natural because property is not somuch prior to society as dependent on it."It is a moot question," wrote Jefferson,"whether the origin of any kind of propertyis derived from nature at all. Stable ownership is the gift of social law, and is givenlate in the progress of society." Propertyownership was important for Jefferson, butas a "right" it is subordinate to the naturalright to self-government.6. Finally, none of America's key foundingdocuments — the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, theConstitution, or the Bill of Rights — placesproperty rights prior to a great many otherenumerated and embedded rights in termsof intrinsic value, practical utility, or moralworth.As theory, Epstein's reading of Americanpolitical history is plausible, but what'splausible should not be substituted by anycourt in the land for what's right. Hereinlies the danger: not in the controversy generated by Epstein's views, but in their application to real- world judicial decisions.Mark P. Petracca, AM'79, PhD'86Department of Politics and SocietyUniversity of California, IrvineRichard Epstein responds: First, the originalconstitutional design did not afford privateproperty absolute protection, but allowed itto be taken for public use with just compensation, against the will of the owner. Thatingenious provision offers the best hope toescape from the twin perils of majoritarianexploitation and political paralysis. Themajority may have its way on public issues,but only if it is prepared to compensatethose individuals whose property it impresses into service for the common cause.There is no disembodied public at large, so,pace Mr. Petracca, a political process thatblesses winners while ignoring losers will produce bloated government and poorersocieties. The eminent-domain clause is notmeant to canonize private greed. It works todiscipline government by encouraging responsible deliberation over means and ends.The government that pays the full costs ofits programs will rein in its appetitesbychoosing only those programs with thegreatest net social good.Dolan v. Tigard (a case in which I wrote anamicus curiae brief) illustrates the risks ofexcessive government power when no compensation is required. Ms. Wenner gives avery partial and inaccurate account of itsfacts. The flood easement was needed not toprevent runoff from Ms. Dolan's land, but toremove water generated from the lands ofothers in the community. The bike path wasused to take cyclists past her store to apublic greenway. Ms. Dolan committed nonuisance and received no special benefit tojustify uncompensated restriction on herdevelopment rights. Pollution and congestion are, of course, proper objects of regulation, but not when targeted against thoseresponsible for neither. And subsidizedflood insurance is the very kind of publicsubsidy that becomes wholly impermissibleunder my view of the takings clause, whichis devoted to knocking out the elaboratesystem of disguised transfer payments thathave mushroomed under the current viewof the law, which allows government tohave its way on all general economic issues.Wear that maroon with prideJ could not permit Jack Ralph's question("Letters," August/94) regarding thewearing of University of Chicago regaliato go unanswered. In his letter, he plaintively asked, "Are alumni ashamed that wehaven't had sports teams to publicize sincethe pre-Hutchins years?"I should point out that the Maroon football team led the nation (NCAA Division III)in rushing last year, while the Maroonwomen's cross-country team won the conference championship and placed 14th inthe nation. A number of other teams andathletes (a half-dozen were named to All-America or Academic All-America teams)distinguished themselves in ways toonumerous to mention, but my point is thatwe do, indeed, have teams and athletesworth publicizing — and they are all themore extraordinary in that they are genuinescholar-athletes competing at the NCAADivision III level, where no athletic scholarships are awarded and academic expectations are precisely the same for athletes andnon-athletes. In fact, U of C running backFrank Baker, AB'94, who was featured in aNovember 11, 1993, article in Sports Illus-BER 1994trated, was the only college football player tobe named to both the first- team All- Americaand Academic All-America team.So, Jack, wear that Maroon "C" proudly,knowing that remarkable student-athletessustain the legacy of Stagg, Berwanger, et al.Tom WeingartnerChair, Department ofPhysical Education and AthleticsEntomological etymologyPaul Moore ("Center Stage," August/94) speculates regarding thename butterfly, wondering if it camefrom bitter fly, which is possible, I suppose,if people had eaten butterflies. But, 1 hadheard some 60 or so years ago that theword was a spoonerism — that the name wasoriginally flutterby, an appropriate name forthose insects, and that, via spoonerism, thetwo consonant sounds were interchanged,and flutterby became butterfly.Raymond J. Corsini, PhD'55HonoluluThe Oxford English Dictionary (1971)notes, "The reason for the name is unknown:Wedgwood points out a Dutch synonym boter-schijte... which suggests that the insect was socalled from the appearance of its excrement, "which evidently resembles butter. — Ed.Butterflies aren't freeVisiting the John Crerar Library todo a little American-cockroachresearch, I saw the Paul Moore butterfly exhibition. At first I was mesmerizedby the stunning iridescence of these brilliantinsects. I then read the notes. Ultimately, Ibecame disgusted. While Moore and his ilkcan blithely talk about the hazards of environmental loss and rhapsodize about the animals' beauty, they never seem to understandthat, by collecting individuals, they contribute to the loss of life on earth. It is notjust that each butterfly killed represents theextinction of that individual's genes; wildlifecollecting is a symptom of our attitude thatman can and should master nature. All toooften, man's need to collect (whether butterflies, archaeological treasures, or refrigeratormagnets from the 1950s) supersedescommon sense and wisdom.To make this exhibition even sadder,according to the Magazine, Moore has written that butterflies have no active defenses — they can't sting or bite What aconvenient trait for the gung-ho collector!The exhibition's timing is ironic as well.Earlier this year, some collectors discoveredfour Karner blue butterflies, an endangeredprairie species that had disappeared for decades and was feared extinct, in theChicago area. Being collectors, of coursethey killed them all — legally. Apparentlythere's no point in prairie-restoration projects that encourage the return of wildlife ifthat wildlife is to be killed and placed insome collector's trophy case. Once again,not only was the genetic contribution lost,but the public robbed of its natural heritage.Next time, I think I'd rather see an exhibition of those refrigerator magnets.Diane L. Schirf, AB'83ChicagoChicago's role in Gl BillRichard Harrison's letter in theAugust/94 issue, entitled "Veteransof Chicago," praises the GI Bill onthe 50th anniversary of its passage: The billnot only helped him continue his studies atthe University, but also helped him get awife — an unintended, but very fine, consequence of the legislation. Harrison mightalso like to know that two University professors were very important in preparing aveterans' education plan for F.D.R. tosubmit to Congress. They were Floyd W.Reeves, MAT'21, PhD'25, and CharlesMerriam, SB'22,JD'25.Reeves was a professor of education for 24years and director of research for the University's self-study, conducted in the firstyear of the presidency of Robert MaynardHutchins. He served as director of researchfor the Conference on the Demobilization ofMilitary and Civilian Personnel. Merriamwas a key member of the National Resources Planning Board, assigned the task ofpreparing a plan for the returning veterans.Both were active in the New Deal.In Post Capitalistic Society, Peter Drucker,the distinguished student of managementand government, puts the importance of theGI Bill in a broader context than one mightexpect, writing that "the GI Bill of Rightsand the enthusiastic response to it on thepart of the American veterans signaled theshift to the Knowledge Society. Future historians may well consider it the mostimportant event of the 20th century."Richard O. Niehoff, PhB'33, AM'34Columbus, OhioThe University of Chicago Magazine invitesletters on the contents of the magazine or ontopics related to the University. Letters for publication, which must be signed, may be editedfor length and/or clarity. To ensure the widestrange of voices, preference is given to letters ofno more than 300 words. Address letters to:Editor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. Internet:uchicago-magazine@uchicago.edu. North America's largest collection of replicasculpture and architectural artifacts. Each handfinished piece is made using rare casts importedfrom Europe in the 19th century. Exteriorfinishes available. Call for details.Now offering splendid French tapestries.FREE COLOR CATALOGUETo order or request literature write or phone1-800-525-0733, ext.u709DESIGN TOSCANO17 E Campbell Sl, Dept U709, Arlington Heights, IL 60005Visit our gallery! 10-6, Mon. - Sat., Closed Sundays©1994 Design Tosoino Ail Rights ReservedUniversity of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 7A MusicalOfferingChoir f Organ ? Carillonon compact discfromRockefeller Memorial Chapelin celebration ofthe University of Chicago'sCentennialG. F. Handel - Messiah ChorusesJ. S. Bach - Toccata and Fuguein D Minorand selections by Bach, Cimarosa,Chesnokov, Handel, Lefevere,Palestrina, and VierneWolfgang Riibsam, OrganistWylie Crawford, CarillonneurRockefeller Memorial Chapel Choirwith Bruce Tammen, ConductorThe CD is available at the Chapel jor adonation of $15 to support our music program ($17 to ship in the U.S.). To ordersend check payable to RockefellerMemorial Chape! to: RMC CD ?Rockefeller Memorial Chapel *' 5850 S.Woodlawn Ave. * Chicago, IL 60637.A MusicalOffering Events8 University of Chicago Magazin ExhibitionsGermany on the Eve of the 1848 Revolution:Selections from the Ludwig Rosenberger Libraryof judaica, through October 31. An examination ofthe political, social, and cultural trends in Germanyduring the two decades preceding the March Revolution, this exhibition features the works of suchprominent poets, journalists, and revolutionary theorists as Heine, Borne, and Marx. Department ofSpecial Collections; call 702-8705.Carl Van Vechten, through October 31. An influential figure in the American literary and arts sceneof the 1920s through the 1940s, Van Vechten.PhB'03, was an arts critic, novelist, and photographer. This exhibition features a selection of VanVechten's photographs — including his portraits, forwhich he is best remembered — and publications.Department of Special Collections; call 702-8705.Felix Gonzalez-Torres, through November 6,This traveling exhibition showcases the work ofCuban-born artist Gonzalez-Torres, whose art overthe past decade has responded to the tradition of1960s minimalism by exploring more personalnotions of the body, illness, and loss. The Renaissance Society; call 702-8670.An Old Master Painting Restored: King David byGirolamo da Santa Croce, through December 4.The exhibition of this Renaissance painting by thenorthern Italian master Santa Croce documents itsrestoration, its place in the Venetian painting tradition, and imagery of King David from the medievalperiod. Smart Museum; call 702-0200.Robert Laurent and American Figurative Sculpture 1910-1960: Selections from the John N. SternCollection and the David and Alfred SmartMuseum of Art, through December 11. Nearly 40sculptures — and more than a dozen drawings andpaintings by sculptors — provide a retrospective ofLaurent's work and trace realist American sculpturefrom idealized classical forms to a new modernism.Smart Museum; call 702-0200. (See "Center Stage.")Jewish Music and Jewish Culture in Germany,1918-1938, opening November 7. Drawing uponpublications in music and the arts in the Rosenberger Library of Judaica, the displayed works narrate the transformation of the German-Jewishcommunity on the eve of the Holocaust, as Jewishmusic provided a powerful voice for new expressions of Jewishness in modern, cosmopolitan contexts. Department of Special Collections; call702-8705.Ayla: Art and Industry in the Early Islamic Portof Aqaba, November 8— February 12. A presentationof some of the most spectacular finds from theongoing archaeological investigation of the city ofAyla, which flourished from the mid-seventh century until the arrival of the Crusaders some 450years later. Oriental Institute; call 702-9520.Texts and their Transformations: Continuity andChange in the Classical Tradition, November15-Fcbruary 20. Editions ol works by Homer,Vergil, Sophocles, and others, as well as their translations, are featured. Adaptations of the classicsfrom the medieval. Renaissance, and modern erasand artwork will also be displayed, including worksby Cervantes and Joyce and artwork by Picasso and Matisse. Department of Special Collections; call702-8705.Plane/Structure: A New Spectrum of California"Light and Space" Artists, November 20-December30. The featured artists represent the current prevalent approach to art in Los Angeles, and their worksshare much of the extreme concentration and visualsubtlety of the original California "Light and Space"artists of the late '60s and early 70s. The exhibit isorganized by Los Angeles Times art critic DavidPage! The Renaissance Society; call 702-8670.LecturesAn Evening with Tony Kushner, October 18 at7:30 p.m. Court Theatre presents the sole Chicagospeaking engagement of the Pulitzer Prize-winningplaywright, author of the Tony Award-winningAngels in America. Mandel Hall; call 753-4472.Kovler Lecture, October 25 at 4 p.m. Mark Math-abane, the South African author of Kaffir Boy, KaffirBoy in America, and several other books, speaks. Hisarticles on apartheid, education, and race relationshave appeared in the New York Times and the Washington Post. Swift Hall, third-floor lecture room; call702-8925.Gaston Lachaise and Early Modernism in theUnited States, October 26 at 6 p.m. Sponsored bythe Smart Museum, the talk by art historian GeraldNordland precedes a special viewing of the exhibitRobert Lauren! and American Figurative Sculpture1910-1960. Cochrane-Woods Art Center, 5540 S.Greenwood Avenue, Room 157; call 702-0200Great Mistakes in Science: The Difficulties ofExperimental Physics, Saturdays at 11 a.m. throughDecember 10 (except November 26). Given byAaron Roodman, research scientist at the EnricoFermi Institute, the 40th series of Compton Lectures examines spectacular mistakes in modernphysics. Kersten Physics Teaching Center, Room115; call 702-7823.MusicCamerata Virtuosi, October 23 at 8 p.m. The 15-member modern instrumental ensemble opens theProfessional Instrumental Music Series. Specializingin Baroque music, the ensemble plays concerti byVivaldi, Telemann, and Corelli. Mandel Hall; call288-3369.Takacs Quartet, October 28 at 8 p.m. Openingthe 52nd season of the Chamber Music Series, thequartet performs Haydn, Barlok, and BeethovenMandel Hall; call 702-8068.Halloween Concert, Talcs of Enchantment , October 29 at 7 p.m. and 9 p.m. The University Symphony Orchestra — with costumes and specialeffects — plays music by Mendelssohn, Grilles, andRimsky-Korsakov. Mandel Hall; call 702-8069.Pomerium, November 11 at 8 p.m. Directed byAlexander Blachly, the 13-voice a cappella ensembleopens the Howard Mayer Brown International EarlyMusic Series with a performance of music of theItalian Renaissance and works by Dufay, Desprez,Monteverdi, and Gesualdo. Rockefeller MemorialChapel; call 702-8068.University Wind Ensemble, November 20 at 3p.m. Wayne G. Gordon conducts a program ofAlfred Reed, Schuman, and Gounod. Mandel Hall;call 702-8069.Advent Gospel Concert, November 27 at 6 p.m.Rockefeller Memorial Chapel, the University Community Sendee Center, and the Coordinating Council on Minority Issues sponsor an evening of gospelmusic with soloists and ensembles. RockefellerMemorial Chapel; call 753-1191.University Symphony Orchestra, December 4 at3 p.m. Barbara Schubert conducts a concert featur-BER 1994ing Brahms' Double Concerto with soloists Liba Shactand John Sharp. Mandel Hall; call 702-8069.A Service of Lessons and Carols for Advent,December 4 at 5 p.m. Directed by Edward Funk, theUniversity of Chicago Chorus performs works byBrahms, Rachmaninoff, Victoria, and Byrd. Rockefeller Memorial Chapel; call 753-1191.Handel's Messiah, December 11 at 2 p.m. and 8p.m. This annual production features the Rockefeller Memorial Chapel choir, the Motet Choir,soloists, and Symphony of the Shores. RockefellerMemorial Chapel; call 753-1191.On the QuadsNos/eratu, October 15 at 8 p.m. This 1922 silentfilm, the first screen adaptation of Draada, will beaccompanied by organist Wolfgang Rtibsam. Rockefeller Memorial Chapel; call 753-1191.Mummy's Night, October 26 from 6 to 8 p.m.This family event includes gallery tours, hands-onactivities, and a cartoon screening, with Halloweenrefreshments to follow. Oriental Institute; call 702-9520.15th Annual Humanities Open House, October29. The day includes a keynote address by DivinitySchool professor Martin Marty; tours of libraries,museums, and studios; performances of musical anddramatic works; computer and video presentations;and lectures by humanities faculty. Registration at 9a.m. at Ida Noyes Hall; call 702-8469.TheaterOnce in a Lifetime, Wednesdays and Thursdaysat 7:30 p.m., Fridays and Saturdays at 8 p.m., Sundays at 2:30 p.m. and 7:30 p.m., through October30. Charles Newell directs this Kaufman-Hartcomedy about a vaudeville team of three Hollywood hopefuls who head West to try to make it inthe "talkies." Court Theatre; call 753-4472.Sitcom, October 13-15 and 20-22 at 8 p.m. Ateach performance, a cast of eight University Theater members invents an original television sitcombased on audience suggestions, then improvisestwo half-hour episodes. Reynolds Club First FloorTheater; call 702-3414.Off-Off-Campus: Fall Quarter Revue, Fridays at 9p.m., October 28-November 18 and December 2.The UT improvisational group performs originalsketches on today's hot topics and the newestimprov games. University Church, second-floor theater; call 702-3414.An Evening of Comic Fright, November 4-5 at 8p.m. UT Studio celebrates Halloween with plays byWoody Allen and Sam Shepard. F. X. Kinahan Theater; call 702-3414.An Evening of One Acts, November 11-12 at 8p.m. UT Studio presents four short plays. F. X.Kinahan Theater; call 702-3414.Miss Julie, Wednesdays and Thursdays at 7:30p.m., Fridays and Saturdays at 8 p.m., Sundays at2:30 p.m. and 7:30 p.m., November 11-December18. Miss Julie and her father's footman, Jean, engagein a psychological power play that reaches its heightwhen they cross class barriers during one passion-filled evening. Court Theatre; call 753-4472.Of Mice and Men, November 16-19 at 8 p.m. UTpresents John Steinbeck's classic story of Depression-era migrant farmworkers George and Lenny,whose dreams draw them together in a world of isolation and hopelessness. Reynolds Club First FloorTheater; call 702-3414.The Tempest, December 2-3 and 7-10 at 8 p.m.UT performs Shakespeare's final play, an exploration of love, death, and revenge on an islandwhere nothing is as it seems. Reynolds Club FirstFloor Theater; call 702-3414. Center StageDirect Approach:Laurent's philosophy of life, the"If all of us had adopted Robertworld would be abetter place." So begins Rutgers professor Roberta K.Tarbell's preface to her catalogue for a new exhibit thatopened the Smart Museum's 20th anniversary seasonthis October.Running through December 11, Robert Laurent andAmerican Figurative Sculpture 1910-1960 features 50sculptures and drawings from the Smart Museum and theJohn N. Stern Collection. Together, the works show howLaurent's innovative approaches helped transform theAmerican figurative tradition.As reflected in his interest in folk art, Laurent's approachto sculpture evoked "a simple way of life respectful of theearth's fragility," writes Tarbell. "Self-styled as a peasant,"Laurent advocated this respect for simplicity "in his lifeand his work.... Without attending college, he became aprofessor who taught with the wisdom of one in tunewith natural processes and himself as integral parts ofnature."Born in 1890 in Concarneau, France, of Breton peasant ancestry, Laurent was 12 when he met HamiltonEaster Field, an influential painter, writer, and critic.Field became the boy's mentor,introducing the prodigy to a circleof cosmopolitan sophisticatesand immersing him in the aesthetics of the avant-garde. Twoyears later, Field brought theyoung artist and his parents to Brooklyn — although Laurent returned to Europe briefly for study, he would acquirehis reputation on American soil.Like other artists of his generation, Laurent was profoundly influenced by folk art and primitivism, workingexclusively until the late 1920s with "direct carving" — aprocess in which the sculptor looks to the unique qualities of his raw materials, wood or stone, to inspire a kindof spontaneous discovery of the sculpture's subject. Laurent said he found this process "more interesting thanmodeling. It keeps you awake, looking for something toshow up — and something always does."This approach gives his columnar, almost totemic sculptures a rich, organic quality. Even in his later years, whenLaurent began modeling and casting, switching from natural media to bronze and plaster, the influence of directcarving remained in his work.The Smart exhibit also includes works by Laurent's contemporaries — such as Emile Armin, Alfonso Iannelli, JohnStorrs, and William Zorach — in an attempt to trace the complex trajectory of realist American sculpture from idealizedclassical forms through early modernism to the stylizationassociated with art deco. — T.A.O.With examples of bronze castings (left) as well as direct-carving experiments in wood (top), the Smart Museum's exhibitiondemonstrates Robert Laurent's integral role in figurativesculpture's transition from academic classicism to earlymodernism.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 9I nwstimtionsA Cold, Clear VisionChicago's SPIREX teamthinks astronomy shouldpack up and head south —all the way to the Pole.Last December, a University of Chi-cago crew installed a telescope atopAntarctica's 2-mile-thick ice cap,drawn to the freezing environment by whatthe project's director calls a "burning"question: Is the South Pole the world's bestsite for infrared astronomy, and possiblyastronomy of other types, too?In Antarctica, says Mark Hereld, principalinvestigator for the South Pole InfraredExplorer (SPIREX), the frigid, dry atmosphere offers clear viewing, while thewinter's long darkness allows continuousobservations. Those advantages seem morethan adequate on paper, but how do theyweigh alongside the practical matters ofchanging weather, isolated working conditions, and temperatures dropping belowminus 100 degrees? This summer — aswinter visited the Southern Hemisphere —the SPIREX team looked for answers.The SPIREX project is one of several within the U of C-managed Center for Astro-physical Research in Antarctica, or CARA("Chicago Journal," August/92). Hereld, asenior research associate in astronomy andastrophysics, says the project's prototype60-centimeter telescope is "probably thelargest optical-quality telescope ever usedin Antarctica."Its installation culminates five years ofdesign and building, including initial workby CARA director Doyal A. Harper, Jr., professor of astronomy and astrophysics. Thetelescope's heart is an infrared detector ablelo see objects billions of light-years away,such as star clusters still evolving intogalaxies, light from these objects reachesEarth as infrared radiation — normallydrowned out by the heat, water vapor, andpollution in Earth's atmosphere. At thePole, however, none of these conditions Postcard from the Pole: Nguyen Hien and the SPIREX telescope in Antarctica. Thisdigital-camera image was relayed to Chicago via satellite.interfere with the view.The detector, says Hereld, is chiefly thework of post-doctoral fellow Bernard Rau-scher, SM'86, PhD'94, whose tenure withSPIREX began as a U of C graduate student.Other team members include graduate student Scott Severson, SM'92, and researchspecialist James Lloyd. During the summerof 1993, Fred Mrozek, an engineer atYerkes Observatory in Wisconsin, built thetelescope itself, which in late fall was flowndown to the U.S. Amundsen-Scott SouthPole Station. The team arrived to set up itsequipment in the brief austral "summer" ofDecember and January.The Antarctic sun sets in March anddoesn't rise until October. In the intervening months, the weather is too harsh forplanes to land, so a few people remain atthe station from mid-February until October or November. This season's crew of 27has been typical: technicians, carpenters, cooks, a doctor, staff to maintain the base'sgenerators, and a handful of scientists. ThePole's only regular link with the outsideworld is electronic mail, sent through adaily satellite connection to the Internet.For space and cost reasons, only oneSPIREX member could stay the winter. Thejob went to post-doctoral fellow NguyenHien, who joined the group last fall. Hehas spent the season operating the telescope from a trailer-home-sized laboratory,atop which the telescope is temporarilymounted.In Chicago, the rest of the group, with itsdetailed knowledge of the equipment, relieson E-mail to plan and troubleshoot experiments cooperatively with Nguyen, who inturn advises them on weather conditionsand his sense of the telescope's practicalcapabilities. However, long-distance sciencecan be awkward. E-mail conversations,Hereld says, are "a bit like communicating1 0 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994over one of those tin-can strings.... Basicissues of communication become tricky."The season's first goal was to field-test thehardware. But the project had other aims —above all, to measure whether the site isas free of background noise as predicted.Theoretical estimates suggest that SPIREX'smodest telescope could perform comparably to a 10-meter giant located elsewhere,making the Pole the next frontier for astronomical observatories.Actual conditions — and problems like thebright polar aurora — may take another yearto measure reliably. Still, the SPIREX group,which plans to install a larger telescope by1999, is betting on success. If conditionswork out, says Hereld, "When we put a 2.5-meter telescope down there, then, all of asudden, there's nobody else in the worldwho can come close to competing."In an E-mail letter to the Magazine,Nguyen describes his experimentalist's roleas "testing, fixing, and improving instrument performance." He writes, "At thePole, one is constantly pressured by thedesire to make the best of one's time whilehe/she is here. 1 have constantly beendriven by one simple rule: I have to get datawhile the sky is still dark and clear."While this keeps him busy, he adds, life atthe base has its relaxed moments, aided bya few musicians among the winter crew anda huge library of videos. "We are a bunchof silly people," he notes. "We laugh easilyand have been getting along quite well."In July, SPIREX provided some of the station's best entertainment: images of CometShoemaker-Levy 9's impact with Jupiter.Initially a minor observing goal for the telescope, the explosions' remarkable infraredvisibility and the South Pole's unique position — the only site on Earth with a continuous view of Jupiter — have made theSPIREX data a major resource for studyingthe collision. The week-long event alsomeant long hours for Nguyen, who enlistedthe help of two other Pole astronomers,and for the Chicago group, who timed theirsleep schedules around the intermittentInternet link to transfer and report incoming data. Adding to the strain was a blizzardof media attention, from the Los AngelesTimes to the New York Times.With its first season over, the SPIREXgroup is planning telescope repairs andimprovements, including completion of apermanent laboratory, for the upcomingaustral summer. And, in November, Nguyen will finally leave the Pole and return tothe relative warmth of Chicago. He looksforward to "the sun, family, and friends,"he writes. "It's like being a kid waiting forChristmas to come: nothing but a greatanticipation. . . . "— A.C CitationsWho's First? When it comes to putting ideas on paper, says Francoise Meltzer, thefear of plagiarism has haunted writers since the ancient Greeks. Today, originalityis a pivotal measure of a work's literary value. In Hot Property: The Stakes and Claims ofLiterary Originality (U of C Press), Meltzer explores literature's "anxiety of origins"through five writers whose originality was once questioned or whose work was attributed to another. Among Meltzer'ssubjects are Freud and Descartes,who shared a fear of being plagiarized, and Colette, whose firstbooks were published under herhusband's name. Meltzer, a professor of Romance languages andliteratures, uses such examples toexpose the "fraud" of literaryoriginality — a notion that treatsideas as private property and, inits focus on production, assignswriting an ambiguous status Descartes and Freud: obsessed with plagiarism?within a masculine, manual-laborwork ethic. "Western, First World, masculinist literary criticism," writes Meltzer,appoints itself the sole judge of originality, a power it can use to exclude a minorityvoice from the canon. Criticism's fixation with plagiarism "masks a more basic anxietythat originality may be impossible and illusory," she notes. "Criticism can exist largelybecause of such an illusion and is therefore., .determined to keep it alive."Down Is Up. The poor got poorer under Reagan and Bush, right? Incomes of thepoorest ten percent did fall in the last 20 years, but consumption and living conditions among poor families with children actually held steady or slightly increased. Sosay Chicago public-policy professor Susan Mayer and Northwestern's ChristopherJencks, whose recent study was cited in U.S. News & World Report. According to Mayerand Jencks, the disparity between the poor's income and spending is mostly the resultof increased government subsidies and substantial underreporting of earnings.Although actual incomes may be higher than we think, the authors add, the incomelevel we use to define "poverty" is also unfairly low.Sex and the Single Bug. What does it take to create a new species? Sometimes just asingle genetic change. As reported in Science, biologist Jerry Coyne and colleagueshave pinpointed a chromosome affecting the breeding behavior of four species of fruitflies. In these Drosophila, they found, the similar-looking females rely on phero-mones — waxy chemicals with which they coat their bodies — to attract males of theirown species, even luring an alien male when artificially daubed with that species' scent. Such matediscrimination, which leads to reproductive isolation, is a key cause of new species, yet its geneticbasis has remained mostly a mystery. By breedinghybrids of two of the fly types, Coyne's group showedthat the inheritance of a single chromosome can dictate which of two phero-mones dominate. This suggests that the perfumes behind mate discrimination have asimple genetic basis, and refutes a long-standing principle of evolutionary theory — thatnew species arise only through the accumulation of many small genetic changes.Smoke and Mirrors? It's tough to quit smoking, but looming federal health-carereforms may offer just the trick: higher cigarette taxes. Every 10-percentage-pointhike in cigarette prices cuts per-capita smoking by 4 percent in the short run, accordingto U of C economists Gary Becker, AM'53, PhD55, and Kevin Murphy, PhD86, andMichael Grossman of City University of New York. Their recent study, however, callsprojections for tobacco-tax revenues unrealistically high, since in the long run thatsame 10-percent price increase yields a nearly 8-percent drop in consumption — andsubsequent fall in revenues. The long-term effect stems in part from the tight budgets ofnew smokers — in most cases, teenagers.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 1 1hcago JournalFOR THE RECORD Reactor shutdown: scienceand politics collide againBank on it: The LawSchool's Center for theStudy of Central Banksopened this summer, conducting research andhelping advise the dozensof sprouting free-marketeconomies that haveestablished central hanksthis past decade.Directed by GeoffreyMiller (above), the Kirk-land & Ellis professor inthe Law School, thecenter will also host conferences with central-bank governors andfinancial experts. A conference this springfocuses on Latin America's central banks.Venerable company:America's oldest learnedsociety has made MartinMarty, PhD'56, the Fairfax M. Cone professor inthe Divinity School, itsmost recent member. TheAmerican PhilosophicalSociety, founded by Benjamin Franklin in 1743,elected Marty at itsannual meeting. Theauthor ol more than 40books, Marlv is a NationalBook Award winner. detecting weapons-grade uraniumand plutonium. By late September,Congress had yet to consider herrequest. If it is turned down, legislators from Illinois and Idaho mayask the DOE to shift other fundsto save some of the IFR jobs.To many, the situation recalledlast October, when Congressvoted to end the $ll-billion Superconducting Super Collider afterspending $2 billion on the program — also a DOE project andalso involving the University (see'Ghost of the Machine," February/94). But unlike the SSC, theIFR ends with its goal nearly insight: After ten years and $800million, only four years remained. Canceling the program will cost$450 million — the same as finishing it, according to Argonne, inpart because many of the shutdown procedures are similar tosteps involved in operating thereactor. According to staff on theHouse Science, Space, and Technology Committee, Congress waslikely to approve additional IFRfunds later in September, if onlybecause the $84 million isn'tenough to begin shutting downthe reactor and disposing of thespent fuel.Joseph Herceg, MBA'81, a nuclearengineer and IFR section manager, says that safety was theplanned reactor's greatest advantage. Its liquid-metal coolant, keptat atmospheric pressure, absorbsso much heat that it can cool thereactor even if the coolant pumpsstopped operating — somethingthat's not the case in any of theIn August, while bills onhealth care and crime madethe headlines, Congress tookanother vote: to shut down a keyproject at Argonne National Laboratory, operated by the Universityfor the Department of Energy.Known as the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), the project employs 500at Argonne's suburban Chicagofacility and 900 at the prototypereactor in Idaho Falls, Idaho — andrepresents more than a quarter ofArgonne's $450-million annualbudget.Supporters see the IFR as aninherently safe reactor and keyenergy source for the future. Critics deem it an impractical technology that could encourage the spread ofnuclear weapons. Thatview prevailed when, onAugust 4, a Senate-House joint committeeapproved $84 millionfor the current fiscalyear to start shuttingdown the IFR.Though DOE Secretary Hazel O'Leary andthe Clinton administration lobbied to end thereactor research, O'Learyalso requested an additional $33 million thatwould save the 1,400jobs by relocusing theprogram on new missions — such as international nuclear safety,adapting some IFR refinements to conventional reactors, and Deep cut: Canceling Argonne's prototype-reactor program could cost $450 million.YiniMr i ¦ •'•! <¦» Ik.us inf '.., ^Ka ¦Ml- ^» " £' jfjJF ' 1 "¦/Br ;.N..-, #|r". - '' *gfr#M':' :..'.-•• #?» ' irt ' i«M"HfHWPflHli '¦'¦*mM3f*\ 'M BsB*^* *f .*&&wBMmrt t mps,§P^";sit'"' aflggffil Wt'4H9 ¦¦BbRBHBImbbbW ^SlKSwft?E • 'IT"' ^HHBH^^BIP*/*~ ^»%&^T' .._. . s. . i ,/..,I 2 University or Chicago Magazine/October 1994Dealing with wheels: Court Theatre's new artistic director,Charles Newell (left), got the fall season rolling with actors inrehearsal for Once in a Lifetime, the George S. Kaufman-MossHart satire on Hollywood during the transition from silent filmsto talkies. To capture the show's fast-paced energy, actorslearned to recite their lines on the run: racing, skating, and bicycling across stage. The play runs through October 30 (see"Events," page 8), to be followed by Strindberg's Miss Julie.nation's 109 commercial reactors.Should the IFR grow too hot, itsmetallic fuel rods, another innovation, expand and move away fromeach other, stopping the chainreaction. These features, saysHerceg, "make it almost impossible to have a meltdown like theones experienced in the Chernobyl reactor and the partial meltdown at Three Mile Island."But it was the IFR's fuel recycling, a third advantage, that putthe program itself in hot water.Like ordinary, "light-water" reactors, the IFR's spent fuel includesisotopes that are radioactive forhundreds of thousands of years.Argonne, however, developed anew method to separate these isotopes from the shorter-livedradioactive wastes, which decay ina few hundred years and take uponly a quarter of the space.Because it uses high-energy or"fast" neutrons, the IFR can thenburn, rather than bury, the long-lived isotopes, conserving precious uranium. This past summer,Argonne was preparing to demonstrate that potential ability bymanufacturing its first fuel from these separated wastes, with laterplans to burn and reprocess thefuel through several cycles. Thereactor has already demonstrateda related talent: the ability to burnweapons-grade plutonium, anotherlong-lived fissionable material.Critics argue that because thereprocessing extracts plutonium — and because the reactoritself can produce more plutonium than it destroys — the technology will lead to weaponsproliferation. Argonne countersthat the plutonium in both casesis so mixed with highly radioactive elements that it can't be useddirectly in bombs and must behandled remotely — an obstacle towould-be smugglers. "I think [theIFR] is the answer to proliferation," says Herceg. "Burying plutonium doesn't make any sensewhatsoever, because whatever isburied can be dug up."Meanwhile, France, Russia, andJapan have, or are developing,reactors with some elements ofthe IFR's design — as a contributorto the IFR's funding, Japan hasaccess to some of its data. "Iexpect that [the Japanese] will probably carry on this programthemselves," says Herceg. "Theycould eventually sell the technology back to us, at which pointthere'll be a lot of consternation inthis country, wondering why thehell we didn't do it ourselves."Argonne employees were upsetabout the IFR's cancellation notjust because it threatens their jobs,he says, but also because theyforesaw the IFR's eventual usefulness. "I still believe that this is stillthe best answer to the energyproblem that we're going to have,"Herceg says. — A.CFor math scholar,a perfect summerR eporters assigned to coverthe story of a UniversityI scholar winning mathematics' biggest prize might have rolledtheir eyes at the thought of interviewing a guy whose claim tofame is solving a complex series ofabstract algebraic problems firstposed at the turn of the century.Instead, they found Efim Zel-manov so charming that onenewspaper, the Chicago Sun-Times, even did a follow-up for its"People Plus" section, asking theRussian-bom scholar how he methis wife, Elena (she was the girlnext door), and whether kidsshould be allowed to use calculators in class. ("Once calculatorsexist, why should you not givethem to children?" he answered."But they cannot replace math.")It's been a big summer for Zel- Smart choice: KimerlyRorschach became theSmart Museum's newdirector in August. Witha Ph.D. in art historyfrom Yale, Rorschachwas an independent arthistorian before her 1993appointment as coordinating curator of thePhiladelphia Museum ofArt. Her most recentshow, "The HumanFigure 1800-1950," featuring selections from thePhiladelphia museum,tours Japan this year.Stein remembered: Helping push the University'sCampaign for the NextCentury over the $400-million mark, a grant of$2 million from theLaSalle Adams Fundendows the Sydney Stein,Jr., Professorship at theIrving B. Harris Graduate School of PublicPolicy Studies. A successful investment counselorin Chicago and adviser tothree U.S. presidents,Stein, PhB'23, was a lifetrustee until his death in1991, and the first chairof the Visiting Committeeon Public Policy Studies.Rare honor: Slavic languages and literatureprofessor Victor Friedman, AM'71, PhD'75,traveled to Macedonia inAugust to give a lectureas a newly electedmember of that nation'sAcademy of Arts and Sciences. The last time theacademy chose a native-born U.S. citizen formembership was in 1969.Problem-solver: Efim ZelmanovUniversity of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 1 3Minority support:KathrynStell,JD'86, isthe new director of theCoordinating Council forMinority Issues (CCM1)as well as assistant to theprovost and deputy deanof students. The CCM1was established in 1987to intensify support systems for minority students. A Lab Schoolsgraduate with a B.A.from Harvard, Stell previously worked as assistant dean of students anddirector of public placement services at the LawSchool.Better late: In a September ceremony celebratingthe Executive M.B.A.Program's 50th anniversary, GSB Dean RobertHamada awardedM.B.A. 's to 164 of theprogram's certificateholders. In the program'searly years, a number ofparticipants lackedundergraduate degreesand thus, by Universityrules, were ineligible foran M.B.A. This year, thefaculty voted to reversethat ruling. A score or soof the certificate holdersturned up in person toreceive their degrees.Good prospects: Twoassistant professorsreceived $30,000 eachfrom the Sloan ResearchFoundation. Robert Alm-gren uses applied mathematics to understand thefundamental processesthat underlie pattern formation in physical systems. Edward Blucherstudies "weak" interactions responsible for thedecay of heavy nuclei manov: He not only started workat the U of C, which he calls an"algebraic mecca," but won what'soften called math's Nobel Prize —the Fields Medal, given every fouryears by the International Mathematical Union. In August, he andthree other winners flew to Zurichto receive the prize at the 22ndInternational Congress of Mathematicians.Zelmanov won the Fields Medalprimarily for a series of paperspublished in the late 1980s thattook on the Restricted BurnsideProblem, first posed by WilliamBurnside in 1902. In what he saysbecame an "obsession," Zelmanovbegan work on the problem in1977, but it wasn't until 1988 that he felt close to a solution, provingthat certain mathematical constructs known as periodic groupsare finite.Mathematicians before him hadmade their reputations resolvingjust small bits of the Burnside, sowhen Zelmanov announced asolution to the entire puzzle, hiscolleagues were amazed. Says oneadmirer, Jonathan Alperin, a mathprofessor at Chicago, "His proof isawesome, and at a level completely ahead of any previouswork in algebra."It is notable for its sheer power,but also for the volcano of newtechniques he developed to bringit to completion. His single efforthas completely changed and ad vanced the whole field of algebraand given us a whole new fieldon which to operate."Zelmanov joined Chicago's faculty in July, after spending twoyears at the University of Wiscon-sin-Madison. Previously, hetaught at the Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Sciences ofthe USSR in Novosibirsk. Zelmanov first visited Chicago twoyears ago, and says he immediately took to the city. He was alsoattracted to the University's"great tradition, especially in thearea of mathematics. The greatestpeople in algebra over manyyears all have been at this university. I am happy and proud towork where they worked."The start of wisdom inIn the first of a series of interviewswith campus figures, the Magazine'seditor talks with John W. Boyer,AM'69, PhD'75, dean of the Collegesince autumn 1992.The College's ranking in lastfall's "fun survey" of universitiesmade major news. Will Chicagobe No. 300 again this fall? 1 certainly would prefer to be at 300than at 297, and if they extend thesurvey, I wouldn't care if we wentto 400. The standard of "excellence" in that survey is insultingto women and has nothing to dowith the academic purposes of anycollege or university. Last is definitely the place of honor.I find it much more frustratingthat we were ranked No. 10 in theU.S. News & World Report survey.It's an equally silly survey, butwe're not the tenth best college inAmerica. We're the best.At the same time, we do need toaddress issues of student life.We're still only beginning to confront the reality of having a fairlylarge college. That means recreational facilities, the proverbialswimming pool or sports center,the student center.That also means doing what wecan to encourage a livelier neighborhood scene. Anyone who's walked around Yale or Harvardand walked around here knowsit's not the same. When you talkto older alumni from the '40s and'50s, they say, "Hyde Park waslively, it was jumping." A livelierneighborhood, more restaurants,better sports facilities, wouldprofit everyone — not just theCollege students.How is today's College differentfrom yesterday's? In 1968 — theyear I came to Chicago as a graduate student — the College hadabout 2,500 students. Since then,it's grown to almost 3,500 students. We have more women,more minorities, better genderbalance, a larger pool of talent forintramural and conference sports,and a larger pool of talent for allthe student clubs and organizations.The same 20-odd years also haveseen the implementation of apolicy that says faculty appointments should be shared jointlybetween the College and the divisions. Anyone who wants tounderstand today's College has tokeep both changes in mind. Wehave a faculty that's larger, becauseit includes more colleagues withCollege appointments. At the sametime, we have a student body thatis significantly larger. Boyer: "We do need to addressissues of student life."What changes would you liketo see in the College's academicprograms? We have a wonderfulCore, and we lavish attention andfaculty resources on the first twoyears — which many collegesdon't do. That's good, but I don'twant students to be graduatingwith the feeling that, after theproductive intensity of the firsttwo years, the last two years wereanticlimactic.When you come to Chicago,you're coming to a place with avery strong research appetite. I1 4 University of Chicago Magazine/October 199420,000 Served: At summerconvocation, Jane YunheeJunn, AM'87, PhD'94,became the 20,000th personto earn a doctorate from theUniversity. An assistantprofessor at Rutgers, Junnreceived her Ph.D. in political science. Despite whatshe described to theChicago Sun-Times as aless than thrilling time atthe U ofC.Junn's sense ofhumor is intact: After learning of her place in Chicagohistory, she told the Sun-Times, "I'm still waiting forEd McMahon to roll up inthe driveway with a van. "a complicated worldwant to get the College students inon that. I want third- and fourth-year students in faculty labs, inapprenticeships or internships atNORC, involved in community-research projects, learning how todo quantitative social-sciencesresearch on the professional level.It's possible. You simply have tohave some creative programs andsome money. This summer, forexample, we sent two third-yearstudents abroad — one to Chinaand the other to Russia — to doresearch on their bachelor's theses.We were able to offer two fellowships; I wish we could offer 200.Will the College's policy ofneed-blind admissions be affected by the University's currentoperating deficit? I'm strongly infavor of need-blind admissions,and I will defend it — as aggressively and as creatively as possible.We read student applicationsblindly, without considering a student's ability to pay, and we meeta student's full need. It's anextremely expensive way of doingbusiness, but the nature of theinstitution has always been toreward brightness and ambitionand intellectual talent, period.Are there ways that a Collegeeducation could cost less? Oneway would be to go to a three-year model, as some other universitiesare discussing. Some of our students do graduate in less than fouryears — the College's quartersystem has always made it a kindof self-pacing system. Still, this is acurriculum meant for four years.Universities have to do a betterjob of explaining what they'redoing with that expensive tuition.In the last few years, I've met thousands of alumni, most with a realsense that the University knowswhat it's doing. Nevertheless, a lotof them are very concerned aboutthe price of a college education.I've gotten tough questions aboutwhy it costs over $25,000 to senda kid here. We ask families withincomes between, say, $60,000and $100,000 to contribute a largeportion of their disposable incometo the education of their children.It's a sacrifice, and they want toknow that we're living within ourmeans, that we're giving value forevery one of their dollars.How do you judge the successof a student's education? It's different for each student, but Iwould hope that they would graduate with a sense of hope and withthe beginning of wisdom. Certainly, a sense of hope about theworld and confidence in theirintellectual and social capacities to take on the world, to challengethe world, and to be able to makea contribution. By the beginningof wisdom, I mean a sense that theworld is a very, very complicatedcondition of varying shades ofgray that calls for discretion andtolerance as well as the exercise ofconsiderable courage.Of all the liberal-arts colleges,we're probably the most vigilantlyanti-pre-professional. We thinkthe best "professional" educationis one in which training for theprofessions or training for acade-mia follows college. I don't wantundergraduates involved in research because they're all going tobecome professors, but because Iwant them to understand howhard, how exciting, and how riskyit is to create new knowledge.Taking risks is part of adulthood,part of living in the world.What should the College bedoing for its alumni? I want us tobe much more involved in stayingin contact with alumni. The College community is really threecommunities. All three exist at alltimes. It's a community of the present, and it's also a community ofthe past and the future. The community of the past — the alumni —helps to define and give meaning tothe present. We are what they are. President's pick: BillClinton appointedThomas Holt, a leadingscholar of African-American history, to serve onthe National Council onthe Humanities, the advisory board of theNational Endowment forthe Humanities. AUofCfaculty member since1987, Holt is president ofthe American HistoricalAssociation and aMacArthur fellow.Up at bat: While the boysof summer were onstrike, the media soughtout UofC economistAllen Sanderson,AM'70 — an expert onbaseball's businessside — for his take on theaborted season. Wouldyou believe that a 1922Supreme Court decisionupholding baseball'sexception from the Sherman Antitrust Act isbehind the sport's current woes? As Sandersontold the Sun-Times:"Because of the exemption, {owners] don't operate their teams the wayother business ownershave to who are subjectto antitrust regulation.They run the sport like acartel. "School reformer: AU ofC expert on schoolreform has been namedadviser to the generalsuperintendent ofChicago Public Schools.Anthony Bryk will helpdevelop better ways toassess student performance and improveschool accountability,and will look at how parents and students, as wellas educators, can bemore involved in improving their schools. Theyearlong arrangement isa pro bono contributionofBryk's time by theUniversity.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 1The recipe for a readable, even memorable,college application essay starts withasking the right question.¦ ¦"¦%¦*¦"ImaginationsKitcheni n the arduous journey to a bachelor's degree, it serves as a kind of startingpoint — even a rite of passage. Nearly everyone who goes to a four-year liberal arts college is required to write at least oneapplication essay. Perhaps they are asked to"describe a person who influenced your lifein a positive way" or "tell about an eventthat holds special meaning to you."Or, if the college happens to be the University of Chicago: "Use an object in yourkitchen to represent a significant idea orfeeling."The latter question, used on the College's1994-95 application for admission andfinancial aid, was lauded in a recent Chronicle of Higher Education commentary by SaraMyers McGinty. A teacher of expositorywriting at Harvard, McGinty grimly recalled Illustrations by Richard McNeelhow — in her previous job as associateadmissions director at an East Coast college — she struggled to remain sentientwhile reading her way through forests ofpoorly written application essays.McGinty placed less blame on the qualityof the writers than on the kind of questionsthey were asked. Vague, "tell me somethingabout yourself" topics, she noted, tend toelicit bland responses. Advocating morechallenging and imaginative questions,McGinty wrote: "I still treasure the University of Chicago's brave request: 'If you werea kitchen implement, which one would yoube and why?'"In its actual phrasing, the question ismore ruminative than McGintys paraphrasing: "Concepts and feelings can be represented by common household items. For example, the theory of an expanding universe can be portrayed as raisin breadrising, or love as a red, red rose. Use anobject in your kitchen to represent a significant idea or feeling. You are welcome todiscuss more than one object."Roughly a quarter of the 900 applicantsaccepted for admission into this fall's first-year class chose to answer this questionfrom among four essay topics offered.(Another question had applicants respondto Freud's observation on the toll that Darwinian and Copernican treatises have takenon human self-esteem; a third described ascene from Malcom X's autobiography onhis pilgrimage to Mecca, and asked writersto evoke a similar pilgrimage, either takenor desired.)But we confined our reading to the1 6 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994m m sil^> <§* -#« ^ IB^WJBP ''-V-^^B- .^¦¦¦l^.i-v.-IHIIIw' "HJIBH<& 4i» # 9 HHimp tinsjp s*. 4' ^ HJJiaP Kfl¦4? m ^ w Hm m m ¦ !¦¦»_mHI basic applicationwic.iainawM-ii.mimiiMfomauw.WMMMl__-fa*.¦^ .. ,*-'— ¦ ._. ¦" _ .„.„__¦_- .:. ¦— ~ — ¦ !"jrr^^^--i7=r^r-?^r- '*-" r" -*"¦ =*- "'—-.0.— ;.— rr.- ~r— :o*- ; -—1-1 ¦# ?. #¦<#? $? ? ?m m m mA. <$ ¦?; ?1 tt.-'K-'tt0 <$? ? ?¦ -¦-¦-¦% ? ? ?11*11¦$> <$ $> ?? ? ? ?i m ¦ -¦& $ ? ?Bill11 If,$. 4. «$ •$> 2 vV £-' /*"fc4"*%.•¦'a*' y., 4*,~1"p.$- '? :.$. '^II 111^ ,£. ,§> ''4 p»»««»PW11111¦ > ?' '4' i 1! a 1 ¦ r? ? ? • 1!11J!? ? ? !Ill* + A WM~W5**J I j: -¦kitchen. There, we met a student from Ohiowho used a leftover bowl of his mother'sborscht to help explain the second law ofthermodynamics. And a Japanese man whocompared his ambitions as an older studentresuming his education to a dirty dish "inneed of a good washing."There was also the Iowan who hoped hewouldn't end up like "the brown-sugar container in our family's kitchen that hasn'tbeen opened since the Reagan years." Oneyoung woman described her teenage turmoil as the violent motions of a churningblender. Another wrote her recipe for "TheEmancipated Woman of the Nineties" —Step Three instructed: "Beat together RushLimbaugh and Pat Robertson until there is avery thin consistency, then discard theirshells...."The essays mutated into poetry, barcharts, and one retelling of the biblical creation as the installation of a brand-newkitchen floor — sullied over time by plaguesof spilt milk and scourges of potato-chipcrumbs.And there were the essays that follow. Theselections are admittedly arbitrary: Writingessays like these won't necessarily get youinto a school like Chicago (although allnine writers are currently members of thefirst-year College class). Yet each provides atelling glimpse into the minds of Chicago'scurrent crop of undergraduates. With thehelp of such brash and winning imaginations, your kitchen may never seem thesame. — T.A.O.M UmMarking TimeIt was February 1981, and my new sisterwas six weeks old. 1 was squatting on thelow-pile carpet by my grandparents' kitchenwall in Port Tucie, Florida. "We can get heron there," said my grandmother, who wassitting behind me. "Just lean her up againstthe wall." Grandpa and Mum gently raisedlittle Christiana to a premature standingposition, trying to straighten her springy,bent baby knees. Finally it was done.Chrissy squeaked and wiggled, but theyheld her to the wall long enough to flick apencil line above her fuzzy head. Then thewriting: "Christiana 6 weeks old," in mymother's swooping cursive. My sister'smark was made on a family treasure. This wall in the kitchen of the house at538 Sunnybrook Terrace demonstrates thecapacity that a simple object can have toevoke abstract thoughts. Since they boughtthe house in 1978, my grandparents havebeen using the wall between their kitchenand garage to keep track of their two grandchildren's heights. Once during every visit, Ihave stood with my back to that wall whileMum or Mimi or Grandpa performed theritual measurement with a paint-coatedyardstick and a pen from the mug on thecounter. Then the new mark would becomethe latest in the ascending series, and Icould wait for memories to grow around it,as they had for all the ones before.Every line on the wall, with its accompanying date, is a reminder of a green Christmas or a balmy summer spent swimmingthrough homemade underwater obstaclecourses, or walking barefoot in the thickgrass, or daring my face to feel the windthat rushed by me as I rode to the playground on my grandfather's motorbike — allthe leisurely occupations that have beenpart of visits to Mimi and Grandpa's houseover the years. On this wall is the evidencefor my sister's envious complaint that shewill never be as tall as I am, and for my jealousy at her appearance on a wall previouslydevoted to me.Many of the stories of our times at Mimi and Grandpa's house have, of course, beenforgotten. But the place itself is reliably constant as time passes, and the wall can be atool for time travel. Sometimes I haveleaned up against the wall, lowering myselfto the different heights to see what theworld looked like when I was 16, 15, 14,13, 12, 10, 9. ...all the way down to theoldest line on the wall: 2 years, 10 months.I remember trying to convince the adults tohave their heights recorded, too, but theyalways refused. Maybe it was because,having reaching the level of permanence,they were jealous of our ever-changing perspective. Transitions for children come inquick succession; life at age 6 differs morefrom life at age 5 than 36 does from 35, or66 does from 65. No grown-up knows hisor her age in months or weeks. Some storiesmy grandparents tell aren't even specifiedby the exact year. "About ten years ago,"Grandpa will begin, not realizing that thatintroduction has expired. "Oh, D. B., thatwas 25 years ago," Mimi will interrupt.Some discussion of chronology follows, andthough the event in question did indeedhappen 25 years ago, they both find it hardto believe. ...Time is less noticeable as itpasses and you get used to it.To me, the thoughts provoked by the wallpresent a challenge, the challenge of growing and living: Learn to pass through time1 8 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994without getting used to it. Even when I amas tall as 1 will ever be, I have to refuse to letthe final line get weighed down by stability.The Christmases on the wall should not berobbed of their uniqueness because thereare so many others. Every experience is singular and memorable and forever new.Every moment is worth recording.Laura FiorilliEmma Willard SchoolTroy, New Yorkm ¦¦A Tasteless SolutionAnyone who has ever tried to heat up afrozen pizza in the microwave knows whatthe result usually is. What emerges fromthe appliance is an object entirely unlike apizza.... The rapidly congealing mass in thecenter is the cheese, or what passes for it.The red sauce that composes the majorityof the pizza is at exactly the right temperature to scald the tongue. Looking for thecrust is futile. It either disintegrates completely, or disappears to the point that actually lifting the pizza is impossible. Andnow, of course, the most important question: How does it taste? I really couldn't say.I've never been able to bring myself to eatone....The pizza is a relatively insignificantexample, but it reflects a significant changethat has taken place in society. There was atime when people took pride in what theydid and took pains to make the best thingsthey could. The loss of a little time wasworth a job well done. ...Today, however,values are reversed. In this age of fast foodand home shopping, speed and convenience take precedence over all else. Thelesson is clear; inferiority is not only acceptable but at times even desirable. Generations of youngsters have, and will, carry thisteaching with them into adulthood, and itsimplications go far beyond the kitchen...Gauri KhatkhateNiles West High SchoolSkokie, IllinoisVDreams by the Spoonful[My dad's spoon] does not match the rest ofour silverware because it is plain with abroad, flat handle that is devoid of any ostentatious ornamentation.... When mydad and mom first moved from Korea, theybrought nothing with them except for thisspoon and the clothes on their backs. Theywere young, idealistic, and had eagerlybought into the idea that America was aland teeming with opportunity. Needless tosay, once they got here, they learned thatwhat they had imagined as an instant truthwas, in reality, only a dream in its infantstage. Yet, it was a dream, and they workedhard and pursued it. Through very manytribulations, they eventually did achieve the"American Dream."My dad is now the owner of his own smallbusiness. He has been married to my momfor 21 years, and they have two daughters.We live in an upper-middle-class suburb,have two cars, a brown picket fence, and nofamily dog (although we did once have afish named Sushi).Despite appearances, the purpose of thisstory and the spoon is not to present acliched rags-to-riches story, nor is it a saluteto the capitalistic system. Instead, to me,the spoon symbolizes the essence of oneperson stripped clean of all other influencesand compacted into a core that distinguishes the individual from all others. Ibelieve that without the extra baggage ofpreconceived notions, both personal andexternal, it is easier to remain true to oneself because one is forced to focus onhis/her real desires.. .to pursue and achieveone's dreams....SeungahJeongPiano Senior High SchoolPiano, TexasVTempest in a Teapot. . .1 am a creature of habit, and on the entering of my kitchen, the first thing I do ishead for the teapot. Now, I do not pour theteapot, make tea in the teapot, or anythingmost people do to a teapot. Instead, I breakthe teapot....You see, my kitchen doubles as the placewhere I paint, sketch, mold, sculpt, andeven play the piano or write, if you countthe adjacent room. As for the teapot, it wasmy first attempt in clay and wasn't particularly well done. Lopsided and thick, it had acartoonish quality that made it the pitifuloutcast of the army of containers that lines the shelves and cabinets....My little teapot sits in the middle of myart equipment, half-finished projects, andmiscellaneous objects and paper that alwaysseem to be the last jigsaw piece in somegreat future masterpiece. It doesn't do anything, doesn't move; I certainly don't putanything in it, and god forbid shouldanyone drink anything out of it. It just sitsand waits until I'm in the mood to create;then I enter the kitchen, break a small pieceof clay off, and begin work.However, I have yet to explain the rationale behind this act or what possible meaning it holds. If you were to ask a psychologist, he might say that my ego is undergoing a combination of sublimation, undoing, and perhaps a little displacement. Yetthis is as absurd an explanation as the onethat I am actually performing some ritualistic pagan activity. Instead, the reason isentrenched in my personal philosophy.Now, most people find beauty in creation.They celebrate the birth of a child, thebeginning of marriage, a sculpture, or standwatching an artist paint in the park. While Ihold this to be true and dear to me as well, Ialso see beauty in ending, in decay, anddestruction.A rotting tree is as natural and good as asolid oak. A peaceful man's death is as profound as the birth of a child, and just asright. It is the innate nature of the Universeto remain in balance. Thus, in my littlekitchen, I accumulate an imbalance in theworld every time I finish a sketch, or complete an abstract. Of course, this imbalanceis wholly in my mind and manifests itself asan agitation and anxiety that distracts me.Before my little teapot, I would simply stopmy artistic endeavors for a few weeks toregain my concentration. Now, I simplybreak small pieces off my teapot to keep mylittle microcosm in balance, and I can tellyou it is one of the most satisfying experiences in life. To date, the upper portion isgone, along with the spout, the lid, and halfof the handle. Fairly soon, there will nothing left to break, and I will have to pick upanother clump of clay for another teapot. Itwill be a little better constructed, more elegant, less of an embarrassment, but I willdestroy it.Jimmy LiaoTorrey Pine SchoolSan Diego, CaliforniaUniversity of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 19In the Land of Diet CokeA can of Diet Coke. It is completely artificial. It is addictively reassuring. It providesa temporary substitute for true fulfillment.Its mystique is portrayed by the media astruth....Diet Coke makes us feel good aboutourselves. With "less than one calorie perserving," it seems the perfect answer to allour earthly woes. When self-image declineswe grab a Diet Coke. When we feel guiltyabout having downed an entire bag ofOreos, we polish off the meal with DietCoke. It is the ideal security blanket. Thiscarbonated concoction possesses amazingequalizing powers. Many have fallen for it,thinking that everything will be OK if onlythey crack open a Diet Coke. The trappings of American pop culture are much thesame. They give thepublic a glossy idealto chase. Wheneverwe feel bad aboutourselves we look tothe dream of happiness — sure that ifonly we could attainit, life would begood. We commitourselves to the pursuit of this goal everymorning. The problem is that the pursuit leads nowhere.The heady rush supplied by the splendidbubbling of a cold Diet Coke lasts but aminute. The buzz from the caffeine wearsoff to leave a void. The sweet taste solves no problems. The bliss is all too short. Prettyclothes, quick money, and glittery memories seem to make us happy. Caught up inthe whole experience, we think that surelyfulfillment feels like this. But then we real-"The closer you can come to home, the better. »»As assistant director of CollegeAdmissions, Peter Chemeryhas read thousands of them.But he's not keen on spellingout precisely what makes fora good college applicationessay. "I'm reluctant to provide a set of do'sand don'ts," says Chemery, X'70, AM'80.Good writing is too elusive to prescribe in aset formula, he believes.And yet there are some clear distinctionsbetween good essays and mediocre ones. Acommon mistake, says Chemery, is to "usethe essay as an excuse to write promotionalliterature about oneself. You'll ask them, forexample, to write about the Declaration ofIndependence, and the first paragraphmight be about that, but then they may say.This is a useful topic for me because sincefreshman year I've been on the debate teamand we've traveled all over the country. Andthese are the meets we've been to and theseare the trophies I've won.' And they neverdo get back to the question."Thai doesn't mean that essay writersshould avoid talking about themselves."The teenagers who apply arc 17, 18 yearsold and some feel that if they write fromtheir own experience it's not enough," says Chemery. And yet, he adds, "Somehowthose are always my favorite kinds ofessays. I like descriptions of local places orfamily members, topics that relate to thethings they feel the most strongly about, thethings they love most, the things they loveto do most.... The closer you can come tohome, whatever home is, the better."It's the job of the admissions office tocome up with questions that encourage students to talk about themselves, but in anobjective way. "It's like any other kind ofwriting," Chemery says. "It's better to writeabout some objective thing than to writeabout yourself in the first-person singular."That's why such questions as "use anobject in your kitchen to represent a significant idea or feeling" elicit better responsesthan asking the writer to simply describe asignificant idea or feeling. A question from1991, for example, asked applicants to discuss how clothes communicate personality.In one essay, Chemery recalls, a studenttalked about the special attention her fatherpaid to shining his shoes. "It was one of themost tender statements about a daughter'slove for her father that you could ever read.But the text of the essay was about shoe-shining." Chemery sees the college applicationessay as a kind of initiation rite: "We know,studying traditional societies, that youngpeople reach a certain age when they needto be initiated into adult society, and usually they're asked, in one way or another, tosay who they are before the elders. There'ssome kind of declaration involved. On themost basic level, that's what these essays areabout."The essay questions also say somethingimportant about us," adds Chemery. That'swhy Chicago doesn't plan to drop themfrom its applications, as an increasingnumber of colleges have done, or to switchto a common application form that is nowused by 140 colleges around the country —and which includes a generic set of essayquestions, such as "Evaluate a significantexperience or achievement that has specialmeaning to you.""We communicate something importantabout the character of the institution and itsmission by writing the kind of essay questions that we do," says Chemery, "and byasking as much as we do of students in thewriting process. It's a way to get students topause and consider a different kind ofschool." — T.A.O.20 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994ize that it doesn't. We want more — moremoney, more clothes, more stuff. But moreis never enough...We all want to live in the kingdom of DietCoke. Likewise, the American ideal of happiness is plastered everywhere. If we taste ofthis perfect world, maybe we will be happy.If we're thin enough, rich enough, attractiveenough, peppy enough, maybe we will havethat self-assured smile. The media is holding out the notion that this Utopian universe exists somewhere and that we aremissing out. It has convinced us that happiness is a thing that we can buy, not a statethat we must achieve.Susannah MrozCatholic Central High SchoolGrand Rapids, Michigan¦ ¦Poetry in MotionSpaghettiis the Web of Coincidencelife moves in such ironic dissonancelike a mesh of long, stringy noodlesintertwining events in cryptic doodlesoverlapping fateful strandsrunning loops, coalescing in bandstwisting back on themselvesin a never-ending webthat traps the manor the womanto a life that runsin circles"everything that comes around goes around."Aaron ShoblaskeRiv erside-Brookfield High SchoolRiverside, IllinoisVSauer MemoriesLike a refrigerator, my mind (or for thatmatter, anybody's mind) is packed full ofstuff. Some of it's important, like equations,names, phone numbers, German grammarrules, and history dates. These things arethe bread and milk of my mind. Then otherstuff isn't so important.... You could ask meanything at all about the sixth grade and Iwouldn't remember anything except forwhen I was at Dan Mueller's birthday party.I was trying to say something funny andcool and impressive to Collete Henshaw and burped instead. I was phenomenallynervous and had been drinking a lot ofCoke, but that doesn't stop my obnoxiousmind from remembering every time it gets achance, sometimes in slow motion. This stuffis the 64-fl. oz. jar of sauerkraut that sits ominously behind the ketchup. We don't eveneat sauerkraut. It just appeared one day...feffYuanUniversity High SchoolIrvine, CaliforniaVCrack-upOn the unfortunate days when I cannotmanage to scurry away to a hiding placequickly enough after dinner, I find myself,with blue wipe-down rag in hand, relegatedto the most menial task known to my parents — kitchen clean-up. After a short burstof appeals, I succumb to their wishes.Invariably, once I have completed the tableand counters, I must attack the stove.Granted, the majority of cooking space isfree from difficulty; however, one spot, onetiny fissure between the chrome edging andthe eggshell-white top, collects grime worsethan any other place in the house. Likesome annoying South American sovereignties who will offer amnesty to anyone, thissingle locale draws small particles of food,then refuses to let go. Bizarrely enough, thatannoying corner seems to enjoy tormentingme, much like modern technology delightsin stealing my time.In order to stave off a full-scale waragainst stress and responsibilty, I desperately need occasional periods of quietsolace. However, the ingenious gizmos findmy vulnerable times much easier than myparents can find me when the lawn needs tobe mowed. When I'm deeply concentratingon writing my college essays, for example,what always happens? The most hideous ofbanalities, the telephone, summons me, asthough I was Pavlov's dog. Once I discoverthat it was only another annoying telemarketer, I return to work without a clue as towhat I was doing. Worse still, instead ofbeginning my day as my natural biory-thmns would prefer, I must awaken to theelectronic summons of a demented andsadistic alarm clock.... As the abominabledirt unremittingly returns to the crevice inour stove, so does my clock never fail to awaken me, hours before it should....Ironic, isn't it, that technology has neverfound a way to clean that little crack?Somehow, I doubt it ever will.Shawn McCullarsConway High SchoolConway, Arkansasm mmOde to a Well-RoastedNightingale. . .There is only one truly significant class ofhousehold objects in any kitchen and onetruly salient thought or feeling, and they arefood and appetite, and their rhetorical relation is one of continuity and not metaphor.There has recently been an explosion of discourse about food as a semiotic object ofthe psyche, a disordered substitute in thepsychical grammar, displaced Eros andaffection. But is it appetizing?I want to discuss food qua food. CharlesSimic notes in his essay "On Food and Happiness" that if one were to write an autobiography entirely in terms of food, notingonly memorable meals and repasts, it mightbe better fare than most self-narratives.After all, everyone enjoys a good meal, andperhaps not a few would enjoy an alio-pornographic account of a well-turnedroast, vicariously munching with the softteeth of typeset letters. Perhaps instead ofthe usual transcript, the admissions officerscould be ushered into a buffet of the candidate's favorite foods, a long and erratictable, a potluck of particular pleasures,crowned with an appropriate ice sculpture.The decision would be an easy one, anagreement of gut to gut, the full bellyhumming positive responses to the brain.Why should one not write about food?Take beauty in its original, classical sense ofa desirable something and write, with themind of a menu, odes to well-roastednightingales, and give poesy a sprig of parsley. No one critiques the style of a menu,because food is so necessary, it is sublime.It is a holiday one encounters every sixhours or so, an assured pleasure, a destiny,for if we fail at a regular appreciation offood and fail to eat we weaken and die, andthe great restaurant of life closes....Van ChoojitaromPine View SchoolSarasota, FloridaUniversity' of Chicago Magazine/October iy94 21Paul Sereno had arrived inLondon and was franticallyphoning the aitport he had justleft. After years of planning, hisfour-month expedition to Africawas finally under way. In a roadless cornerof the Sahara, the Chicago paleontologistand his team hoped to do what few hadtried anywhere on the continent: find fossilsof dinosaurs. But now, on what was supposed to be the easy part of the trip, therewas trouble.Sereno and the first group of expeditionmembers had made it to London, the staging ground for the journey, but a key pieceof luggage had not. The bag contained allthe travel documents, schedules, andaddresses — as Sereno puts it, "every bit ofinformation for what weneeded to do." He retrievedthe duffle from the airportthree days later to find that abaggage conveyor belt hadripped it nearly in half. Someof the precious papers wereno more.Think fast. Sereno telephoned his lab in Chicagoand directed a student toassemble facsimiles fromcomputer files and photo- Icopied notecards.Careful planning, then §1crisis, solution, and eventualtriumph... This would be- % M :^^come a motif for the fossilhunters who dubbed themselves the "Phoenix Expedition" — and not just because of their U of Cties. With a laugh, Sereno calls the experience "a concatenating series of 'last hurdles.'"Setting out in late August of 1993, theteam came to London to pick up their sixLand Rovers and pack them with severaltons of equipment — including, in the firstof the "last hurdles," one-and-a-half tons ofdehydrated food nearly barred from entryto England at the last minute by balky customs officials. The destination, 2,500 milesto the south, in sparsely populated northernNiger, was an oasis town called In Gall. Thedrive would take a month — across France,by ferry across the Mediterranean, andacross Algeria, two mountain ranges, andthe furnace of the Sahara.Jeffrey Wilson, a graduate student inSerene's lab, says that the expeditionsucceeded, despite the hurdles,"because Paul absolutely wouldn't quit."Despite his easygoing, T-shirt-and-jeansstyle, the associate professor of organismalbiology and anatomy, now 37, brings to his work a high-octane enthusiasm. It shows inhis extraordinary record of fossil discoveries, including Herrerasaurus ("Investigations," Winter/90) and Eoraptor, the oldestand most primitive dinosaurs ever found.Since then, the media have regularlyplayed up Sereno's youth, zeal, and"uncanny instincts" as a fossil prospector.The PBS series The New Explorers made himthe star of one episode, and sent a two-person film crew along for the Niger expedition (that program airs October 19). ButSereno is also devoted to what he calls the"desk work" — analyzing the evolutionaryconsequences of what he sees."I'm trying to come up with a sort ofglobal plan for dinosaur evolution," heexplains, "from the beginning to the end." to the early Cretaceous period — 130 million years ago, when a sea covered nearbyparts of Africa and the continent was stilljoined with South America. Adding to thedinosaur family tree here could yieldbroader insights — such as the link betweenevolution and migrating continents — thatwould reap benefits for all of evolutionarybiology.The 1990 group, though, was looking forfish fossils, not dinosaurs. Sereno camehoping to scout out the chances for anexpedition of his own.As an answer, he brought back a 6-foot-long fossilized thighbone from what lookedlike a new species of dinosaur. The animalwas clearly a sauropod — a long-neckedplant-eater, like the North AmericanAdventuiDinosaui¦5 In the middle of the Sahara, the rare fossils awaited% him. If only Paul Sereno could get there.C:j'^.\ ¦ By Andrew CampbellBetween those points lie 165 millionyears. Sereno anticipates spanning the erawith a dinosaur "family tree" of about 200of the best-known species — all of whichdied out by 65 million years ago. Thegenealogy builds on more detailed studiesby Sereno and others, and on firsthandinformation he gathers at museum collections and in fieldwork.Only fieldwork, though, can sketch thetree's missing branches. Where better to doso than in Africa — a continent scarce indinosaur data generally, and nearly barrenof information through the entire secondhalf of dinosaur evolution? That lack of fossils has a simple explanation: remote locations, harsh field conditions, unstable localgovernments, and meager funding. In theface of this quadruple threat, hardly anyonehad even looked.Sereno first traveled to Niger in 1990with a joint British-American expedition. Decades earlier, a French scientist had discovered the region's greatpotential for fossils: The surface rocks date Apatosaurus. There in the Sahara, Serenostarted dreaming of a return trip.But it was a dream sans funding. AsSereno looked for sponsors, he also beganattacking "the nightmare of logistics": planning the route and assembling a 23-memberteam, equipment, and vehicles. Paleontologist David Ward, leader of the 1990 trip,signed on, and Sereno also sought the helpof new expedition members. "There was amedical student [Gregory Alberton, MD'94]who looked into all the possible diseasesand what might make a good medical kitfor desert work," he says. "Others lookedinto the cultures, the languages, the geography, the geology, the paleontology."Assigned the job of navigator, graduatestudent Jeff Wilson learned to use a "globalpositioning system" — a high-tech, hand-Paid Sereno uncovers a large sauropod,most of whose closest known relatives diedout millions of years earlier in NorthAmerica. Finding the dinosaur entailed a2,500-mile trek, past sand seas like those(right) near Taghit, Algeria.22 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994I. ,«*jisin <^**-¦*>#)* a>¦**w #*•*?\ *e>HIJi ¦•***£.dtipgi&fc ^*-*2^K* ^The pelvis of a therapoddinosaur, last seen 130million years ago, revealsits shape under the careful hand of GabriellcLyon (above). On the wayto Niger, excavation of adifferent sort (right) occupied the team in Algeria'sAhaggar Mountains. held device that triangulates latitude andlongitude from satellite signals. With it, hewould guide the convoy through the featureless Saharan landscape and record theall-important locations of excavation sites.Other U of C team members were postdoctoral fellow Catherine Forster, now aprofessor at SUNY at Stony Brook, graduatestudents Richard Blob and Matthew Car-rano, undergraduates Gabrielle Lyon andDominique Shimizu, AB'94, and CarolAbraczinskas, a graphic artist in Sereno'slab. Team member Hans Larsson, then astudent at McGill University, joined Serenothis fall as a first-year graduate student.Students and scientists from the U.S.,Canada, England, and France rounded outthe group, including Jean-Pierre Cavigelli,AB'83, and William Simpson from the FieldMuseum, where Sereno is a research associate. Didier Dutheil, an experienced amateurpaleontologist from Paris, became Sereno'spartner in negotiating bureaucratic obstacles. A dual French-African citizen, Dutheiloffered a knowledge of Islamic culture andfluency in French, Niger's official language.For all its pockets of expertise, the team asa whole was young. That, plus the logisticalchallenges and the region's political problems — attacks on foreigners by Algeria'sIslamic fundamentalists, and a bumpy transition from military government in Niger —made some of Sereno's colleagues doubtwhether the expedition could succeed.Only months before departure, letters tothe Niger government hadn't yielded thenecessary permission to excavate. Serenoflew to the capital city of Niamey to presshis cause in person. "We left with hopes,"he says, "but without a formal document."0In September 7, the expedition's ferrydocked in Algiers. A new "lasthurdle" had come up: A strike at AirFrance threatened to delay the arrival inNiamey of the other half of the team andmuch of the expedition's cash, which forfear of banditry wasn't carried by the groupdriving across Algeria. But more pressingconcerns came first.Port officials wouldn't release the six LandRovers, stranding the new arrivals. "Theylook at you as a black-market car dealer ifyou bring in more than one car," Serenoexplains. "I said, 'They aren't my personalvehicles. They belong to the University ofChicago.'"The impasse lasted for nearly three days.Where the U.S. Embassy was unable tohelp, a fax from U of C lawyers finallysprung the vehicles. The convoy headedout, over the Atlas Mountains, and into thedesert.The team's route across the Sahara skirted24 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994the Grand Erg Occidental — a sea of sanddunes hundreds of miles long — and continued through the towns of Taghit, In Salah,and, atop the Ahaggar Mountains, Taman-rasset. There — with 500 miles of desert before they reached In Gall — the road ends.They crossed an unreal landscape of rockand gravel, constant wind, and temperatures up to 130 degrees. In three weeks,says Sereno, the team collectively lostbetween 50 and 100 pounds. And gotplenty of practice digging out vehicles stuckin the sand.The Land Rovers sported a logo showingthe U of C crest, the sauropod dinosaur,and the cross of In Gall, one of manycrosses representing the towns of Niger. Asthe expedition crossed into Niger, saysGabrielle Lyon, "people knew exactlywhere we were going, because they recognized the cross." In the weeks to come, shesays, the U of C phoenix took on a muchgreater significance.In late September, the convoy fromLondon finally arrived in the ancienttown of Agades, amid the centralSahara's Air Mountains. In Gall, and thedinosaur fossils, lay only a few hours away.While the group waited in Agades, Sereno,Didier Dutheil, and others drove on toNiamey, 600 miles to the south, to securepermission to excavate.By now the expedition had preliminaryapproval, but it took a maddening delay ofseveral weeks to negotiate the final paperwork. In the end, four separate ministrieshad to endorse the project.As October crawled by, the team inAgades, along with members who had traveled by plane, waited for the OK. YetWilson recalls, "The interactions that wehad with the people. . .that made it worth it.We got a feel for the culture of Niger."Staying in a hotel across the street from amosque, the group would wake to the callto prayer. Paleontology took a backseat toother skills: learning to haggle over pricesin the market, sharing tea with local people,passing the day at the gendarmerie wherethe trucks were stored, or, for Alberton andWilson, joining in soccer games, wherecamel caravans led by nomadic Tuaregswould occasionally interrupt the play.Not all was peaceful. The group learned ofrecent bandit and rebel activity in theregion that had killed several soldiers. Thearea seemed quieter now, but was it really?"We felt it was safe enough to work in,"says Sereno, "but we felt it would be betterto seek [the government's] approval." Nigerofficials requested that the fieldwork takeplace with a military escort.The issue, he says, wasn't one of physical Sniffing out DinosaursTwo Chicago undergraduates joined PaulSereno on his hunt for African dinosaurs.Gabrielle Lyon, who will receive herA.B.and A.M. in history in December, kept adaily narrative of the expedition, and is nowcompleting a book based on her journals.Below, Lyon describes the team's firstglimpse of dinosaurs, two months into thejourney.November 47:30 a.m., on the way to Fako...As we turn off the piste (trail) andhead towards the site, Ahman snaps hisfinger, and mumbles something inTamacheck to Ahmed, who sits next tohim. Ahmed in turn says, ''Go, go," toPaul, who is driving. "Go, go."We cross deep, narrow wadis (dryriverbeds) that etch the Sahel landscape.We make our first stop of the morningas shovels and geology hammers are usedto lower a steep wadi bank. Ahman andAhmed get out and stand at a spot wherethe way is clearest. Ahman, in his Mussulman hat and white boubou, and Ahmed inhis T-shirt, blazer, and jeans, walk aheadof the Land Rover like two characters inan action-comedy movie just before theend credits appear on the screen.This morning, however, is time foropening credits. We reach a grey, roughplain, and Paul speeds up.Didier: "He is smelling bones."Paul: (calling back) "What's that?"Gabe: "Didier says you can smell thebones."Paul: (laughing like an excited kid) "Ican smell 'em."The way is flat and the grey stones meldinto an iron red as Fako butte, for whichthe site is named, nears and nears.We reach a plateau. Up and over andrevealed below is a red-breasted gorgebrushed with savannah grass. The down-sloping plain is rimmed by hills, which wefinally are able to skirt to get to the fieldbelow. God, we're almost there. Ahmangestures, gestures. "That's it, there, that'sit — ah, that's it," breathes Paul. A sigh ofhope, pleasure, release.The way gets bumpier as we go overmounds and tufts of grass.Paul: "There must be a better way,Ahmed."Ahmed: "After, after."Paul: "OK, after. There's Fako butte —we're looking straight at it now."Paul and Jeff enter a series of coordinates and directions into the Magellan satellitelocator.Paul: "South, southeast — so that shouldbe east of south. Where are we on thatmap?"They consult the xeroxes of Paul's 1990field notebook. "It takes longer than Ithought it would," Paul says. Anotherstretch of yellowed grass tufts and anotherflat plain and Paul zooms up to about 50m.p.h.Paul: "I think this is it here." A short,"Ah... here it is. That's Fako. There's definitely bone coming out."8:30 a.m. Paul gets out and faces the site,his sunglasses smeared and dusty. HeGabrielle Lyon chronicled the expedition.checks the compass point with Jeff. "Thisis exactly right."He walks to the site and stands just amoment, hand in a fist, held to hismouth.We get out and walk around, trying toskirt the site, head up a wadi — and find ascapula. Paul paces the site. There arebone fragments and what looks like petrified wood everywhere. Didier has spotteda tooth that has come down in the wash.We're here.The mounds look like piles of odd-shaped rocks, but they're not — they'rebone....University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 25harm, but whether the bandits in a poor,desert country would be lured to the expeditions' equipment — especially the LandRovers. Some senior team members werefar more worried than Sereno, believingthat a security guard might make the expedition a target for rebels, too. With finalapproval of the excavation still pending,they also doubted if fieldwork could bedone in the time left, and almost half of theteam decided to fly home.More trouble was on the way: One personfell ill, possibly requiring evacuation.Another strike at Air France once again cutoff the team's supply of cash. "Things werelooking incredibly dismal," says Sereno. Heformally canceled the expedition."I don't think I've seen him look worse,"says Wilson. "He just looked broken."Then, amazingly, the problems dissolved.Within 24 hours, the sick team member gotbetter, money was sent through another air line, the strike ended, and the governmentapproval came through. The Phoenix Expedition arose from the ashes.Sereno immediately led his team, now just12 people, out to the 1990 sauropod sitenear In Gall and began surveying the surrounding area. "Four days later we had somany sites we had to stop," he says. "Weknew the expedition was going to be agrand success."It was early November, and the smallcrew had only 29 days to excavate.Sereno decided to pass on the 1990 location for two more promising sites: Oneyielded most of the skeleton of a large ther-apod, a carnivore group that includesTyrannosaurus, and the other site parts of asauropod — unlike any Cretaceous sauropod yet discovered (see "The Roots of anAfrican Hunter").The sauropod find came on the fourth day of prospecting. A local guide directed themtoward some bones he had seen. "I don'tknow if he wasn't used to driving in a car orwhat," says Wilson, "but we were drivingfast, and he got disoriented. Finally he said,'Stop.' He wanted to go to the top of a duneand look around.... And as we stopped, weall looked out the window at the same time,and there were bones sitting right outthere."That night, says Alberton, the expeditioncelebrated by sharing a lone bottle of warmchampagne.After the stress of getting there, the field-work, for some, became the easiest part ofthe trip. As they unearthed bones and"jacketed" them in plaster and burlap, theteam settled into a month of dawn-to-duskdays in the Saharan heat — a flow of adrenaline and sweat so intense that, half a yearlater, they're astonished at what theyaccomplished.The Roots of an African HunterSereno's trophy: a 29-foot-longtherapod dinosaur, which hedubbed Afrovenator abakensisPaleontologist Paul Sereno, no stranger tomedia attention, is facing the spotlight'sglare once again. The first report from hisNiger expedition, published in the October14 issue of Science, is a stunner.His team excavated two new dinosaurspecies: a 29-foot-long therapod, a carnivore; and a 55-foot-long sauropod — afour-legged, long-necked plant-eater. Thefossils, 130 million years old, easily winthe "best of class" awards for Africa's Cretaceous period, an age for which almost noAfrican dinosaurs have been found. Serenoand company named the therapod Afrovenator abakensis, or "African hunter from InAbaka," where the bones were discovered.The sauropod remains nameless until amore complete fossil is found.The two new Africans reveal truths aboutdinosaurs on all continents. Paleontologists originally theorized that dinosaurs evolved into northern and southerngroups before the Earth's land masses —then joined as one — split into theLaurasian continent in the north andGondwana in the south. Following thisline of reasoning, says Sereno, " [African]dinosaurs. . .would resemble South American dinosaurs — rather than resembling aglobal type of dinosaur form."Yet Afrovenator shows no sign of SouthAmerican kin. Its anatomy places it withmore cosmopolitan carnivores — such asthe fearsome Allosaurus and its NorthAmerican, Asian, and Antarctic brethren.The existence of such a therapod in Africaconfirms recent doubts in the theory of asimple north-south split. Sereno proposesthat multiple therapod and sauropodgroups evolved — and spread worldwide —back in dinosaurs' infancy, before Laurasiaand Gondwana completely separated. Much later, by the Cretaceous, the groupsappear localized because different dinosaurs survived in different locales.The new sauropod's ancestry is less clear,but the fossil offers a tantalizing clue.Rather than fit with existing Cretaceoussauropods, it seems related to earliersauropod groups, like the cousins ofApatosaurus from the late Jurassic. Thesegiants died out in North America duringthe Cretaceous, but their fate in Africa hasthus far been a mystery.Sereno traces the genealogies throughcladistics, a technique first applied todinosaurs only a decade ago. Cladisticsreveals the species' evolutionary relationsby comparing dozens of anatomical features between species, to see which traitsare shared and which are distinctive. Theresulting diagram is matched with the fossils' age to create a "family tree." — A.C26 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994"You feel connected with evolution or yourpast when you're in a place like that,"recalls Gregory Alberton. After a long dayof fieldwork, the team heads back to camp."We hit the field in a fury," says Wilson,"We didn't have a single break, but it wasn'tlike it was drudgery, either. I was excited. Icouldn't wait for the next day."The group lived in an adobe compound atthe In Gall oasis, with no running waterand, except for batteries used for lighting,no electricity. One room became a library,another a kitchen. Each day the soldiers followed the fossil hunters to the site, totingmachine guns, a grenade launcher, and alarge truck-mounted gun that, Albertonrecalls, the gendarmes tired one day "just toflex their muscles."With so little time available, Serenoassessed the fieldwork's progress everyevening with Wilson and Hans Larsson andplanned how best to proceed. "He's almosta perfectionist," says Lyon. "It would bevery difficult to do what we did if you weredisorganized."Alberton agrees. "When he got back fromthe field he was in the library, reading, writing what happened during the day, andslept about maybe three hours. ...Eventhough we had lost a major portion of the crew, his answer to that was, Well, I'm justgoing to work even harder, and get as muchout if it as possible.' "When the month was up, the expedition had collected six tons ofbones, using every last bit of plaster. With more bones left to excavate,Sereno hopes to return to Niger in a year ortwo.In an all-day, all-night rush, the teampacked, covered the sites, and loaded thebones, including one 1,200-pounder, onto aflatbed truck. Then came the trek across thedesert, though by now the routine wasfamiliar, and the exhausted group relaxedin triumph.In Algiers, the violent attacks on foreigners had recently escalated. So while theteam stayed in a hotel, Sereno and Dutheilarranged for local truckers to move the fossils onto the ferry — to minimize the risk ofthe "foreign" crew being seen in public.Later, the team arrived at the jam-packedport. No dinosaur bones in sight.It was Sereno's final "last hurdle." In rush-hour traffic, he and Dutheil raced to findthe fossils before the ferry, and the rest ofthe team, set sail. "It looked extraordinarilybleak, right down to the last minute," hesays, "but we knew inside, to the point where we were laughing on the way back,we knew we would get the bones on board."And they did. Back in Paris, the bonesvanished into the safekeeping of a cargohold at the airline terminal. The Chicagoteam flew home a few days before Christmas, four months after they left.When Wilson looks back on theexperience, he laughs, amazed. "Itwas like something that you'd readin the paper and go, 'Yeah, OK.' But it reallyhappened."If he needs a reality check, there are alwaysthe fossils. All six tons are now at Toronto'sRoyal Ontario Museum, where paleontologist and expedition member Hans-DieterSues is in charge of their preparation.But on a sunny day in spring, a few specimens remained in Chicago. Sereno wasworking in his office on the fourth floor ofthe Anatomy building, and a bone from theAfrican sauropod rested on a table next tohis desk, half wrapped in its plaster-and-burlap jacket. Bits of Saharan rock stillclung to the reddish fossil. A foot long andseveral inches thick, it looked old buthardly alien — perhaps just the thighbone ofstout, bear-sized animal.No, Sereno explained, this is a hand bone.Its owner was probably 55 feet long.University- of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 27Timein teaching,teaching inTimeFrom the schoolroom clock, students absorb alesson, early and sustained, in the ordinary relativity of human time. Imperturbably (except for theoccasional power failure or prank) , the instrumentdoles out the real durations of seconds, minutes,and hours, giving clues all the while to their innerelasticity. The hands can seem to speed up or tostand still. Either way, their eager consultant leamsto expect no simple correspondence between timefelt and time told.Students preoccupy themselves with school timemostly in hopes of escaping it. At first they aspireonly to the freedom of its interstices — recess, afternoon, weekend, summer. Later, many long to leaveit altogether, for the very different rhythms ofwork in the outside world. But the ones who stayto become teachers carry back into their classrooms that heightened consciousness of time andtimelessness, that deep investment in the idiosyncrasies of the school schedule, that they firstacquired when they sat in chairs that faced theother wav. Most of the terrorsand many of thepleasures ofteaching derive fromits occupationalintimacy with timeboth fixed andFLUID.By Stuart ShermanILLUSTRATIONS BYSteve McCracken i':^-a28 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994University' of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 29This continuity, of course, entails change.Teachers must in some measure shape thetime that students move through: The particulars of chronometry become the toolsof their trade. 1 know of no other craft sotaken up with the common forms of time,so regularly and precisely plotted on calendar and clock, so alert to the movements ofboth the seasons and the second hand.Like farmers, teachers pursue through thestable structures of the year an optimalyield; like newscasters they count minutes,strtving to fit a variegated content snuglyinto a fixed span, with no overtime and nodead air.Yet teachers also come to know, perhapseven more intricately than students, time'selasticity, its propensity to stretch andshrink. The course catalogue lays out thelarger arcs of term and year; the syllabusdistributes texts and tasks over the daysand weeks; the class plan maps the cominghour; but cognition takes its own sweettime. Teaching's pivotal moments, whenideas take and synapses fire, defy prediction, though all the work is aimed at them.Most of the terrors and many of the pleasures of teaching derive from its occupational intimacy with time both fixed andfluid, with lime as structure, as medium, asmystery.New teachers meet the mystery early on,in the sharp discrepancy between the timeit can take to plan a class and the time ittakes to teach one. They prepare their firstclass passionately, working long into thenight, driven by the dread of finding toolittle to say, of having a silence settle uponthe crowd some ten minutes in and not aStuart Sherman, AM'76, an assistant professor in the Department of English Language and Literature, won a 1 993Quantrell award for excellence in undergraduate teaching. He is at work on a bookcalled Telling Time: Clocks, Diaries, andEnglish Narrative Form, 1660-1825, tobe published by the University of ChicagoPress.Bibliographical notes: John Bcnyman'sWash Far Awa\" appears in The Freedom of the Poet (Farrar, Strauss &CiroiLV, 1976), a posthumous collection ofhis prose. Lionel Trilling's "Of This Time,of That Place," appears as the title story ina collection oj his fiction (Harcourt BraceJoYiinovich, 1979). Muriel Spark's ThePrime of Miss Jean Brodie (Plume, 1961)is which' available. notion in their heads with which to breakit. The next day they discover that (as oneof them put it in the teaching colloquium Iconduct) they have planned some sixclasses' worth of material instead of one."Time," Samuel Johnson remarks in hisPreface to Shakespeare, "is, of all modes ofexistence, the most obsequious to theimagination. . ..In contemplation we easilycontract the time of real actions." For thenew teacher, absorbed in "contemplation"of tomorrow's class, real time can provehard to track: An idea that comes to mindin a moment and occupies half a line in theprep notes may need ten minutes' unfolding in the classroom. Combine this withthe fear of silence that prompts prolixity,and anticipatory excess becomes practically inevitable.It is striking, though, how firmly thisconfusion about time persists in the working lives of experienced teachers. My colleagues and I, confessing to it, puzzle overit. If, after thousands of encounters withthe class hour, we know its stringentlimits, why do we not trim expectation toreality? Why overprepare once again? Wedo it, I think, out of a mix of apprehensionand delight. For many teachers, the earlyfear of exposure (of silence sustained, ofignorance discovered) never really goesaway. Each coming class poses (as my colleague Wayne Booth has observed) thethreat of being found out at last.Alone at my desk, I often find myselfbesieged by questions students might ask,and in a panic not altogether unpleasing Iresearch those. (This process sometimesbecomes more exact and intimate as thequarter advances, when I start attributingparticular imaginary questions to specificstudents whose tastes in inquiry I havecome to know. Later, in class, I may occa- too — the sense of suddenly knowing moreabout subjects you already thought youknew well. John Berryman does justice toboth the agitation and the pleasure in hisshort story "Wash Far Away," about a professor's planning and teaching a singleclass on Milton's "Lycidas." Happy at firstto "have the whole morning for preparation," he comes to feel gradually more"hopeless" as the class hour nears: "Naturally, he [will not] finish" the planning hehas planned. At the same time, he makesdiscoveries. "Although he knew very wellwhat the subject of the poem was, he pretended he didn't, and pondered it, pencil inhand, to find out." Soon he "lean[s] backin his chair with surprise" at what he's discovered.Teachers sometimes linger over preparation because they find there, in miniature,one of the main satisfactions of their vocation: the time to read, to think, and (withluck) to think new things — and to preparethem for an imminent, experimental "publication" by word of mouth, more immediate than anything they can achieve in print.For many, as for Berryman's professor, toprepare a text for teaching is to go back tobeginnings, to imagine a student's firstencounter with a text, which of course inlarge measure means to remember one'sown. The pleasure of anticipation getscuriously mingled with that of recollection.Whatever the proportion of pleasure andanxiety, class prep often happens underone of the most curious conditions ofhuman time and mind, in which the imagined future reaches backward across astretch of time as yet untraversable to takenear-total possession of the present. Theteacher, planning, inhabits that odd limboin which rehearsals of all kinds take place,where you are trying to "do in advance"Teachers perform the strange magic of doinsionally indulge in the silent equivalent of"Bingo!" when one of my conjecturescomes true.) Where the beginning teachermay prepare material for six consecutiveclasses in order to be sure of material forthe first, the more experienced one mayprepare for six possible classes, uncertainwhich will turn up.Such planning, however agitated in itsdetails, can bring expansive pleasure, what you can't really do until the timecomes. Such apprehension of the morrowmay "concentrate the mind wonderfully"(Johnson again), but at a price.Sometimes my wife, observing me atdinner on the eve of some new teachingtask, has kindly dismissed me a few minutes into the meal. She can detect, from myglassy gaze, that I am in the midst of animaginary discussion, or living through30 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994tomorrow's lecture. Like Macbeth early inthe play, I am bewitched with possibilitiesas yet unreal: My whole "function issmothered in surmise and nothing is butwhat is not." At such moments, as my wiferightly reckons, I am of no use to anyoneexcept, perhaps, tomorrow's students. Andto them only perhaps. Overpreparation cansink the class as surely as no preparation atall; a teacher who sticks too closely tosome remembered script may find littleattention to spare for what's really going onin the room.Walking into class, the teacher crosses actions" call the bluff of the teacher'spreparatory "contemplation," and the"contractions" of time imagined in thestudy encounter the expansions of timeenacted in the classroom. Berryman's professor, struck by a "simple" question froma student named Warner, feels baffled bothintellectually and temporally: He "lookedat his watch. . .to see what time it was,having lost during the Warner moment hisusual sense of what piece of the fifty minutes had lapsed and what remained. Moreremained than he had feared, but it wasn'tmuch."The passage rings true. With every lookomething important while doing nothing tangiblethe threshold that divides imaginary fromreal time: No matter how many possibleclass hours you've conceived, only one canreally happen here and now. With anyluck — even if it's a lecture — it will not correspond exactly with any of the ones youplanned. The students, by interventionsranging from a speaking stare to a vividoutburst, will have some say in its shaping.Johnson's axiom holds: The students' "real at the watch, every utterance in the room,the teacher's mind performs a quick, half-conscious shuffle among the possibilitiesprepared for and the actuality unfolding.A notion that had earlier seemed marginalmay come to the fore and productivelyoccupy half an hour, while the teacher'smagisterial peroration, meticulouslyplanned, collapses to a compact outburstin the hour's last minute, intoned with futile urgency as chairs scrape and notebooks snap (students can often anticipatethe face-saving, substance-smuggling spliceat the start of the next session: "As I wassaying at the end of our last meeting. . .").Berryman's professor dismisses the classwhen the bell rings, "remembering that hehad forgotten after all [to deliver] 'thelesson' " that he had taken much trouble todevise.Yet even these confusions contain real,sometimes addictive, pleasures. If classpreparation has much to do with the past(the return to beginnings) and the future(the planning for contingencies), the workin the classroom takes place perforce in something like pure present. The business of paying fullattention to the "Warner moments,"of accepting surprises from studentsand producing surprises in return,of choosing among options nearlynumberless — all this can taketremendous concentration, and theconcentration (even when it's notpaying off spectacularly well)affords its own mix of anodyne andelixir.Immersed in such improvisations,the teacher can lose track of time(that's why the watch's data so oftenseem surreal). The compression oftime, the rigor of time, the challenge of time, can produce, oddlyenough, an escape from time. Theabsorptions of the class hour canoffer safe haven from ordinary suffering, even from extraordinary. Ihave known teachers mortally illwho forget their dying when lost inthe crossplay of class discussion.There is simply so much pleasure init, in attending to the hum of talk asthe collective train of thoughtmoves smoothly along track youhadn't known you'd laid, in discovering unanticipated spurs andstretches.For all the teacher's preliminary mapping, the tracts of time remainterritory uncharted until traversed.It is easy — but often also useful andpleasurable — to wander over the terrain.Cartography comes first, exploration after.Happily, given the vicissitudes of individ-ual class meetings, there are marks morefixed to steer by. The syllabus identifiesdestinations and imparts direction, andwithin its larger plottings even the mostunexpected local developments can oftenfind their place. Working through weeks,University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 3 1terms, years, most teachers gradually learnto recognize (and even to make use of)their own temporal temperament, theirparticular tastes in time.My own run toward a strong fascinationwith beginnings and endings, an obsessiveengagement with the sustained middles —and a deep wariness of exact midpoints. Inoticed while teaching high school that myWednesday afternoon classes were oftenthe weariest of the week. I comfortedmyself by developing a general theoryabout the Agony of Equidistance, to theeffect that teachers and students, findingthemselves as far away from lastweekend as from the next, can drawminimal sustenance from eithermemory or anticipation. With noresting place in sight, they go temporarily catatonic with despair(things pick up on Thursday).For me, the theory holds goodover larger spans as well. I have thetoughest time teaching classes thatmeet just after midday (when theplenitude of lunch subsides into thelassitude of early afternoon); duringthe fifth week of Chicago's ten-week quarters (when the agony ofequidistance is compounded by theomnipresence of midterms); duringwinter. It's possible, of course, thatmy theory really makes the troubleit purports to find, altering the datato confirm itself. Maybe it tells nogeneral truth, but registers only thepeculiarities of my own metabolism. Still, teaching works bestwhen it takes fullest account of theteacher's idiosyncrasies (as well asthe students'). In so complex areckoning, even metabolism maymatter.Seasons matter, too, and teachersadjust in many, often imperceptibleways to changes in the weather.Chicago's odd calendar only heightens the cyclical effects. The latestart in early October intensifies thefamiliar paradox of the academicautumn, when students and teachers resume work surrounded bysights of summer's dying; the blaze ofcolors in the quads seems sufficient, whileit lasts, to sustain the spirit through greyNovember and even into Christmas.Winter quarter hits hard, startingabruptly after New Year's (when denizensof other schools can still lie late abed), butin fact the season may afford our studentstheir most weirdly congenial environment.It suggests in its asperity that the world was made for work, and, since most students come here with a taste for toil, lots ofwork gets done.Chicago's spring, extending well pastMemorial Day to the very verge of the cal-endrical summer, runs fall's paradox inreverse, pitting the pressures of endgame(papers to write and mark, tests to takeand grade) against the distractions of incipience: The syllabus demands labor, the airpromises ease. Teachers mediate as bestthey know how — witness the perennial,precarious experiment of the class on thegrass. ways. Even a course that seemed muddledin its middle weeks can suddenly makerather beautiful sense at the close (termpapers and tests can help this happen).Still, imperfections press. Any course, bythe very plenitude of its potential, canforce in the final weeks a kind of triage,with the teacher cutting here and there("We'll drop this and move on to that").And however smooth the outward show,the inner experience of ending alwaysentails loss: Good roads taken have precluded interesting roads not, and the multiple possibilities at the term's beginningTeaching's pivotal moments defy predictiorThe ends of quarters and of years bringwith them, like most conclusions, a mixture of satisfaction and sadness. The pleasures will come readily to mind: relief athard work done; pride in a "course"mapped out in advance, and somehow followed and fulfilled over the long run ofweeks. The real, complex trajectory of theclass has gradually supplanted the graceful,once-imagined arc, but may well correspond to it, too, in surprising and pleasing have narrowed into linear memories at itsend.Lionel Trilling, in his fine short storyabout college teaching; "Of This Time, ofThat Place," makes a single academic yearthe timeframe for what he describes, in anauthorial comment, as "tragedy": A youngprofessor begins the year in complacencyand ends it in a tangle of betrayals — of self,of work, of a particular, elusively preciousstudent.32 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994The fiction of teaching, like fiction ingeneral, tends to present familiar experience writ large. Most teaching years end, Ifind, with a tincture of Trilling's sense ofshortfall. For teachers of writing, the probability of disappointment may run especially high. Each term begins with a fantasyof effectual interventions: If I can only statethese principles clearly, my students willthen write well. But good writing takesmore than a quarter, often more than ayear, to develop, and in the final weeksobvious failures will temper hearteningsuccesses, even within the work of a singlestudent. The lines of pleasure in what hasbeen accomplished and regret for what hasnot converge sharply toward the vanishingpoint of the last day.A student once showed me a way out ofthis recurrent minor tragedy. He came upto me a few years after having completed,with mixed success, my freshman writingcourse, and announced that just last weekhe had suddenly grasped some point thathe remembered my repeating to him, withincreasing (not to say frantic) intensity,many times. I could tell from the newwork he showed me that this was so. Thepleasure of this encounter was, I havecome to see, commonplace though keen.Most teachers want to make a difference,and many students are kind enough, inafter years, to give them a sense that theyhave. But the effect was emphatic. The student widened for me the possibilities inevery class hour since, and the precept hepointed to has now become second nature.Understanding takes time. What has nothappened yet may happen still.That conversation gave me my firstglimpse at what now seems the centralexperience of teaching in time: the unpredictable oscillation between the evanes- classrooms, hallways, offices, makes novisible mark. After an hour's class, where isthat hour? Teachers perform the strangemagic of doing something important whiledoing nothing tangible (and I suspect thatthis is why they generally prefer the airyenchantments of the classroom to thephysical labor of paper-marking).But the very immateriality of the enterprise makes the chance of permanence allthe more intriguing: You may earn a kindof immortality simply by thinking well, bytalking clearly, by treating people honorably. In practice, 1 find that the intimationsof evanescence and of permanence, of thework's vanishing and of its remaining,alternate like the inner and outer hues of apinwheel spun by a variable breeze — sometimes they shift so slowly as to stay separate, sometimes so speedily that they blur.That shimmer, hard to grasp in real life,would seem more fixable in fiction, but Iknow of only one work that gets it right.Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss JeanBrodie remains for me the masterpieceamong stories about teaching, in largemeasure because of its attentive, skepticaltake on the way teaching can work and failover time. Jean Brodie tries as a teacher tosurmount evanescence and to foster onlypermanence. She seeks to perpetuate herself, and her "prime," by a power over herstudents amounting to possession. "Giveme a girl at an impressionable age," shetells them, "and she is mine for life."Spark tests this pursuit of permanence bya game with time. She cuts, suddenly andoften, from Brodie's charismatic conversations with her pupils to small, tellingmoments in their later lives, and so posesquiet questions about the teacher's realpower. At one point Brodie's sharpesthough all the work is aimed at them.cence of the work itself and theincalculable permanence of its results.Both elements strongly attract teachers tothe craft in the first place. The evanescencemakes for a rare measure of freedom, offluidity. Other professions measure successmore palpably: patients cured, cases won,money made. Teaching does leave traces,but lighter ones: marginal comments,grades. The Socratic core of the work, theabundant talk, the meshing of minds in pupil, Sandy, takes the full measure of hermentor's presumption. "She thinks she isProvidence," Sandy muses. "She sees thebeginning and the end." But Spark, reserving this privilege to herself and her reader,shows how Brodie's dream of dominiongoes awry, first through the distractingappeal of rival teachers and activities,finally by the sheer autonomy of her students as they shape lives different from theones she has designed for them. Still, something abides. At story's end,Sandy, now a nun and the eminent authorof a book on The Transfiguration of theCommonplace, answers an interviewer'squestion about the influences that shapedher: "Were they literary or political or personal?" Sandy answers: "There was a MissJean Brodie in her prime."She speaks this equivocal tribute (thebook's closing words) from within herconvent cell, "clutching the bars of hergrille more desperately than ever." Theimplicit assessment of Brodie's influencebecomes here almost painfully delicate.Spark balances its brilliance and its danger.Brodie, a dazzling fantasist, "transfiguredthe commonplace" for her pupils everytime she opened her mouth. Sandy, whohas seen through Brodie's ambition mostclearly, has also, oddly, fulfilled it mostcompletely: She is, as Brodie predicted,"hers for life." The influence that from aless ambitious teacher might have been abright and liberating legacy has becomefrom Brodie a kind of prison. The captivating charm of Brodie's talk has ended in thecaptivity of her pupil, a permanence theteacher foretold but should not havesought."A teacher," Henry Adams wrote in theEducation, "affects eternity." The verb isnicely poised, tempering the potentialgrandeur in the claim. It can mean that theteacher "aspires to affect," as most teachersmore modestly do, hoping that some ofwhat they teach will abide at least a while ifnot forever. It could mean "presumes toaffect"; Jean Brodie incurs the guilt of suchpresumption and becomes "affected" —mannered, rigid, unseeing — in the process.Finally it can mean, as Adams seems tointend, merely that the teacher "influences" eternity, whether deliberately or no.With his next words Adams calls thegrandeur further into question. Theteacher "can never tell," he avers, where"influence stops." The words hint at infinity but (rightly) do not insist on it.A teacher's real influence may stop, afterall, well short of the first class hour's end;it may run long past the last encounter,even into later generations. Much goodcomes from this not knowing, from arespect, even an affection, for the work'suncertainties (and it is this good thatBrodie's power precludes). For all the elaborate scheduling of causes — the syllabus.the class plan — there is no schedulingeffects: They happen when they happen.For all the teaching and all the learning,there is, at the end of the hour and theyear, no telling what will last.University of Chicago MagazineOctoberi994 33BY TIMANDREWOBERMILLERThe average American's image of sex is like a reflection in a funhouse mirror:Incomplete facts — or outright fallacies — combine with rumors, fears, andmedia-generated fantasies to create a grotesquely distorted view of sexuality inAmerican culture.So says Edward Laumann, a sociology professor at the University and part of a teamof researchers who have just completed what they believe is the most comprehensivesurvey of sexual behavior ever conducted in the United States.To be sure, there had been numerous magazine-sponsored polls on sexuality, butthey revealed information about only the small percentage of readers motivatedenough to respond. Nor, despite their fame, should the book-published Hite and Janusreports be relied on for accurate information, according to Laumann and his colleagues. The Hite Report sent surveys to women whose names were provided bywomen's centers and abortion-rights groups. And The Janus Report spoke with clientsat sex-therapy clinics — a technique that Laumann, in an August interview with theMagazine, called as accurate as "stopping people near the train station to find out howmost Americans get to work."So, in 1987, when an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services(HHS) requested bids for designing a national sex survey, Laumann and his U of Ccolleague, Robert T. Michael, jumped at the chance to set the record straight. Joined byJohn Gagnon, AB'55, PhD'69, a sociologist at SUNY at Stony Brook and the author ofseveral landmark studies of sexual behavior, the team created a survey proposal thatwon HHS approval, then was passed on to the Office of Management and Budget(OMB).When OMB bureaucrats became nervous about funding a survey asking for intimatedetails about citizens' sex lives, the team reluctantly watered down their questions.Even so, in September 1989, the U.S. Senate voted to kill funding for the survey.During the debate, North Carolina's Jesse Helms accused the researchers of attemptingto undermine "family values" in favor of "homosexuality and sexual decadence."After the Senate vote, several private foundations agreed to contribute a total of $1.7million to produce a survey that — while smaller in scale than the $15-million surveydesigned for the federal government — "is really much better," says Laumann, "becausewe were allowed to ask all the questions that we felt we needed to ask."To ensure the most accurate responses possible, the team — now joined by StuartMichaels, a U of C researcher with extensive survey experience — decided on face-to-face interviews, rather than easier and more conventional telephone surveys. TheNational Opinion Research Center (NORC), based at the U of C, conducted thesurvey, which officially started on Valentine's Day, 1992, as a corps of specially trainedinterviewers began confidential, 90-minute interviews with 3,432 randomly selectedadults in cities, towns, and rural areas across the United States.The team published its results in a pair of books released this month: The SocialOrganization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States (U of C Press) is writtenfor social scientists, counselors, and health professionals, while Sex in America (Little,Brown), a collaboration with New York Times science writer Gina Kolata, is intendedfor a more general audience. For some of the survey's often surprising findings — andtheir implications — read on.34 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994The most comprehensivesex survey ever conductedin the U.S. finds that mostAmericans make lovehy a rather conventional| set of rules.Always had Extremely Extremelyan orgasm physically emotionallypleased satisfiedTHREE MEASURES OF SEXUAL SATISFACTIONWITH PRIMARY PARTNERJust 29 percent of women report alwayshaving orgasms during sex, compared to75 percent of men. Yet the percentage ofwomen and men who find their sex life"extremely" physically and emotionallysatisfying is about the same — 40 percent.HOW AMERICANS PICK THEIR PARTNERS: By nearly every measure — race, religion, age, social class, educationalbackground — most Americans select sexualpartners who are very much like themselves.This survey discovery doesn't surpriseLaumann, who specializes in social networks, the study of how people meet andinteract. After all, he points out, there areseveral advantages to choosing partnerswith similar backgrounds. For one thing, inthe high-stakes game of sex, people whoshare similar characteristics reduce the likelihood of missed cues and awkward misunderstandings.Then there's the "sexual marketplace,"exemplified by personal ads in newspapersand magazines where people advertise theirattributes and the type of mate they seek toattract in exchange. In this "bargaining"process, they'll likely end up with someoneof equivalent value on the partner-market.Americans also tend to pick partners whothey feel sure will fit into their social networks of family, friends, and job associates — people who, as a group, tend to bealike. Picking someone from a different background risks disapproval, even banishment, from these networks.Conversely, social networks also providevery effective venues for meeting partners.Most people surveyed were introduced totheir partners by families or friends orthrough occasions organized around thosenetworks, such as a party hosted by amutual acquaintance.Even small social networks tend tohold enough potential partners fromwhich to pick, as long as one is youngand single. As people grow older,however, more and more individualsin their networks embark on long-term relationships, and the pool ofavailable partners dries up.This is especially true for women.While most men have sex with partners until old age, more and morewomen each year are pushed out ofpartnered sexual life entirely: Sevenout of ten women in their seventiesare no longer having partnered sex. Itis likely a dearth of opportunity,rather than a lack of interest, thatforces older women off the sexualmarket: Men die at younger ages thanwomen; society's double standard frownson older women dating younger men; andolder women are less likely to have independent power or wealth to offer in attracting a younger man.MARRIAGE AND MONOGAMY. ManyAmericans, says Laumann, buy into themedia stereotype that the most satisfying sexlives are enjoyed by single people with rotating partners, while they themselves standapart from the excitement, "like hungry kidswith their noses pressed to the bakerywindow."Instead, the survey finds that most peoplehave sexual relationships with one partnerexclusively for the duration of that relationship, and that monogamous couples tend tobe quite happy with their sex lives. Thedata, says Laumann, lend credence "to whatMom always told us — that it is important tohave a good, loving relationship with oneperson, and that these are the happiestpeople."The huge consensus in this survey is thatextramarital sex is wrong," Laumann continues. And most Americans practice whatthey preach: Among married people, 94 percent had one partner in the past year. Couples living together are almost as faithful.The average age at which people firstmove in with a partner, age 20-22, is similar among both older and younger respondents. However, among younger peoplethat first union is increasingly likely to beliving together out of wedlock — something very few older people reported trying whenthey were young. Since many cohabitingcouples break up within a short time andseek a new partner, the result has been anincrease in the average number of partnersthat people accumulate in a lifetime: Half ofall Americans aged 30 to 50 have had fiveor more sexual partners in their lifetimes,compared to one-third of Americans overage 50.Whether or not they first experimentedwith cohabitation, most Americans eventually settle into marriage: Ninety percent ofthose surveyed report tying the knot by age30. And, myths to the contrary, wedlock isnot a sex-killer — married people reporthaving sex more often than singles, andbetter sex, too: Roughly nine out of tenreport receiving "extremely" or "very" greatphysical and emotional satisfaction fromtheir sexual lives. In contrast, the least satisfying sex lives are reported by singles withtwo or more sexual partners in the pastyear. Married people having affairs on theside also tend to have less happy sex lives —although, ironically, they often reporthaving better sex with their primary partners than through secondary relationships.Why do so many Americans commit to,and enjoy, monogamous relationships? Forone thing, their social networks exert formidable pressure to find partners andremain faithful. Monogamy is also "justplain easier," says Laumann. In the complicated world of sexual relationships, cultivating multiple partners requires time andenergy. There is also risk of contracting disease, or "getting caught." It could simply bethat monogamy is less stressful and morecomfortable. With familiarity, peoplebecome better at satisfying their partners —and more relaxed about postponing sex fora time that is mutually convenient andenjoyable.SEXUAL PRACTICES AND PREFERENCES: While the menu of sexual predilections from which to choose is supposedlyvast, most Americans' preferences are as traditional as cheeseburgers and Cokes.Of the survey's respondents, 95 percentsay they had vaginal sex the last time theyhad sex, and 85 percent say that was thecase every time they had sex in the pastyear. Vaginal sex is also what most peopleimagine when they think of sex.On the list of sexual preferences, oral sexis a distant second. Younger people andthose who've attended college are morelikely to list oral sex as a preference. A thirdof women and half the men in the 18-44age group say that receiving oral sex is"very appealing" — though giving oral sexholds somewhat less appeal. About a quar-University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 35ter of American menand women have tried anasex, nearly one in ten during the pastyear. Other preferences — such as voyeurism, sex with a stranger, and group sex —appealed to only small minorities.More men than women find a greater variety of sexual practices at least somewhatappealing. Men also think more aboutsex — more than half say they have eroticthoughts every day, or several times a day.Women's sexual daydreams are more likelyscattered on a weekly, or monthly, basis.Although they are likely to feel guiltyabout it, many Americans masturbate: Sixtypercent of men and 40 percent of womensay they masturbated in the past year.About one in four men and one in tenwomen report masturbating at least once aweek. The study also suggests that masturbation is not so much an outlet for lack ofsex as it is a component of a sexually activelifestyle: More people living with a sexualpartner masturbated in the past year thanpeople living alone.Although lew men or women choseforced sex as a preference, it is a commonpractice, according to the women surveyed — 22 percent report being forced todo something sexually at some time, compared lo just 1 percent of men. Nearly all ofthose women had been forced by a manwhom they knew; almost half say they werein love with him. Yet only 3 percent of men une and WardCleaver demonstrateromance, 1950s sitcom-style. Thesurvey finds some truth to that image —and charts other realities, such as thediminishing likelihood of partnered sex forolder women (below) and the clustering ofgays in urban areas (opposite). say they have sexually forced a woman,indicating that the schism between howmen and women define "forced sex" is disturbingly large.FORMATIVE SEXUAL EXPERIENCES:About half of the people surveyed first hadintercourse in their mid-teens — four out offive had intercourse by the time their teenyears were over. However, the surveyfound that intercourse among teens isvery episodic: Even sexually experienced teens often go for months without having intercourse, and manyyounger teenagers do not have anysexual intercourse at all.Asked about their first sexual experience, more than 90 percent of menreport wanting sex the first time theyhad it — of those, 51 percent were motivated by curiosity, 12 percent were seeking pleasure, and 25 percent did it as anexpression of affection toward their partner.Only 70 percent of women say they wantedsex the first time, while 24 percent say they"went along" with it, and 4 percent say theywere forced to have sex. Nearly half ofthose women who wanted sex the first timesay they did so out of affection for theirpartner — very few women say their motivation for first- time sex was physical pleasure.For many, early childhood sexual experiences involved older adolescents or adults.About 12 percent of men and 17 percent ofwomen report having been sexually"touched" by someone older when theywere 12 years old or under. "Touched" wasmost often defined as genital touching, butU.S. ADULTS WITH NO SEXUAL PARTNER IN THE PAST TWELVE MONTHS80%60% -40%20%36 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994PERCENT IDENTIFYING THEMSELVES AS HOMOSEXUAL OR BISEXUAL,BY CURRENT PLACE OF RESIDENCE12 largest central cities(CCs)Suburbs of 12 largest CCs13 -100th largest CCsSuburbs of 13 - 100thlargest CCsOther urban areasRural areas2%the experience could also have involvedkissing and — less frequently — oral, anal, orvaginal intercourse.Children from all social and religiousbackgrounds have about equal chances ofbeing sexually touched, the survey found.Boys are more often touched by females;girls are primarily touched by males. Sixty-three percent of the women were touchedby someone 18 years or older, comparedwith 23 percent of the men; the rest hadcontact with 14- to 18-year-olds.If the person touching the child was anadult, that adult was most likely someonethe child knew: a family friend (more oftenfor boys) or relative (more frequently forgirls). About 45 percent of men and 70 percent of women say the experience affectedtheir lives — nearly all say the effect wasnegative. In general, those who weretouched sexually as children report morefrequent and varied sexual activities; theyalso report higher levels of sexual dysfunctions and general unhappiness.HOMOSEXUALITY: Even at 3,432 people,the survey's sample was not large enoughfor detailed analysis of gay men and lesbians. "We couldn't determine how manypartners they have, how they meet them, orwhat their sexual preferences and practicesare," notes Laumann. But the survey couldanswer what percentage of the population ishomosexual, where they live, and some oftheir shared social characteristics.As it turns out, determining the percent- MenWomen4% 6%age of homosexuals in the United Statesdepends on how the question is asked.Although only 1.4 percent of women and2.8 percent of men in the survey identifythemselves as homosexual or bisexual,when asked if they find the thought ofhaving sex with someone of their owngender appealing, 5.5 percent of womenand 6 percent of men answer yes. About 2percent of men and slightly fewer womenreport having sex with someone of the samegender in the past year; 4 percent of womenand 9 percent of men have tried same-gender sex at least once in their lives.These percentages shift radically whenlooking at cosmopolitan areas. More than 9percent of men in the nation's 12 largestcities identify themselves as gay, comparedto 3 or 4 percent in those cities' suburbs,and about 1 percent in rural areas. Lesbianscluster to cities as well, but the tendency isnot so pronounced as for gay men.People identifying themselves as homosexual were more likely raised in urban areas.Also, twice as many college-educated menand eight times as many such women identify themselves as homosexual as do peoplewith only high-school educations.AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES: It is a common beliefthat everyone in the United States is equallyat risk for AIDS — that argument, promotedby groups like the National Commission onAIDS, is based on the assumption thateveryone has about an equal chance of having sex or sharing needles with, andcontracting AIDS from, someone with thevirus. In contrast, the study indicates thatpeople don't have sex randomly but findtheir partners through highly structurednetworks that rarely overlap.For AIDS to spread through all demographic groups, says Laumann, the rest ofthe population would need to have continuing, frequent sexual or needle-sharing contact with the two social groups where AIDSis most prevalent: gay men living in largecities and intravenous drug users and theirpartners. To sustain and feed the epidemic,there would next need to be frequentrandom sex or needle-sharing among members of the general population. Yet thesurvey's data "strongly suggest" that noneof those conditions is going to be met, saysLaumann. The scenario is even moreunlikely, he adds, given the difficulty oftransmitting AIDS: The Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention estimate that a manwith HIV has one chance in 500 of transmitting the infection to a woman in a singleact of unprotected intercourse.While only five people in the surveyreport having AIDS, 27 percent of thesample say they have been tested for AIDSand 30 percent say they have changed theirbehavior in response to the threat of AIDS,Although AIDS may be a rare occurrencein the general population, other sexuallytransmitted diseases are not. One in sixrespondents say he or she has had such adisease — chlamydia and genital warts aremost commonly mentioned, followed bygonorrhea. More women have been infected than men, reflecting the medicalfinding that it is at least twice as easy for aman to infect a woman with virtually anysexually transmitted disease, includingAIDS, as it is for a woman to infect a man.And the survey found that the people mostlikely to be infected share one key characteristic: They have unprotected sex withmany partners.MAKING SENSE OF THE NUMBERS:"Like many of our readers," the team writesin the epilogue to The Social Organization ofSexuality, "we have been surprised by manyof our empirical findings." Despite the"methodological doubters and politicalopponents" they encountered, the researchers are confident that the data theyhave collected are valid and valuable firststeps: "With efforts to know and interpretthe facts about our sexual lives, we as anation can become more effective inrespecting diversity in our sexuality, and informulating coherent and effective policiesthat enhance the sexual aspects of our private and public lives."University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 37C lass NewsWhat's the news? We are always eager to receiveyour news at the Magazine, care of the Class NewsEditor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. No engagements, please. Items may be edited for space.Please specify the year under which you wouldlike your news to appear. Otherwise, we will list:(1) all former undergraduates (including thosewho later received graduate degrees) by the yearof their undergraduate degree, and (2) all formerstudents who received only graduate degrees bythe year of their final degree.Ol Ionia J. Rehm, PhB'21, celebrated her 97thCI birthday in April. She taught mathematicsand chaired the department at Steinmetz HighSchool in Chicago for more than 30 years.Melanie Loewenlhal Pflaum, PhB'29.reports that a four-episode television mini-series based on her novel Windfall is in progress andmay he seen early in 1995M Since graduation, Sylvia Paulay Major,PhB'34, has been an activist for peace, civilrights, and women's issues, serving on internationalcommittees, reviewing books, and speaking inpublic. Many ol her poems have been published inperiodicals and anthologies.Reunion June 2*3*4Theodore Kalian, SB'35, won gold medalsin the 1994 Philadelphia Senior Games inthe 100-, 200-, and 400-meter runs and won thetennis singles in the 80-84 age group.Edna Leake Steeves, AM'36, professor ofEnglish at the University of Rhode Islandsince 1967, received a distinguished service awardfrom the North East Modem Language Associationfor her many years as editor of Modern LanguageStudies, the quarterly journal of the NEMLA. EvelynRezek Bibb, AB'36, AM'37, who received a Ph.D.from Columbia University in 1966, retired in 1986 asa professor at Cerritos College, Norwalk, CA, andnow freelances as a dissertation editor. Her daughterMartha is a dentist in Portland: son Bill is an attorneyin San Diego; son John is an M.D. in L.A.; and daughter Evelyn lives in Chevy Chase, MD, with her family.M Seymour Meyerson, SB'38, spoke thisspring on "The Metamorphosis of OrganicMass Spectrometry from Black Magic to Chemistry"at the James L. Waters Symposium, part of the Pittsburgh Analytical Conference, which this year met inChicago. A chemist who focused on mass spectrometry during his 37 years with Standard Oil Company(Indiana), Meyerson also received a nationalachievement award last year from the AmericanChemical Society. (Tliis corrects information printedin (lie Aiigiist/'M issue. — Ed.)Ml ruin F. "Bud" Beyer, AB'39, writes:"Hardly a day passes that 1 do not recall mydavs at the University of Chicago. The education Ireceived, with the leadership of Hutchins and Adler,\ja\ Carlson, Tanl Douglas, and so very manyothers, has really been a constant bolster toward aricher life." He also remembers winning four first-place gold medals in gunnastics, which contributed to the team earning the NCAA championship. InJune, Allen D. Schwartz, AB'39, AM'40, completedhis 35th consecutive year of leading Great Booksdiscussions at the Skokie, IL, public library.Reunion June 2.3.4Jtf% Seymour K. Coburn, SB'40, is continuingTMF his consulting business, inspecting bridges,dealing with lead paint problems, and speakingbefore technical societies.MM Celia Earle Odell Loess, SB'41, SM'60,^¦B writes: "Having failed to persuade either ofmy children to attend the U of C, I am now happyto report that I have a granddaughter, LindsayOdell, who began her studies there in fall 1993. I'msure her experiences there will be quite differentthan mine were some 50 years ago but trust that shewill enjoy and appreciate them as much as I did."«Deane R. Hinton, AB'43, has retired afteralmost 51 years of government service,receiving the J. Wilbur Carr Award from the Department of State and an award for distinguished civilian service from the Department of the Army.Hinton, wife Patricia, and sons Sebastian and Akbarplan to live in Costa Rica.JtJM Joan Wehlen Morrison, AB'44, and herTTI husband, Robert T. Morrison, PhD'44,recently celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary.They are living in England this year, where he is atwork on the seventh edition of his text Organic Chemistry and she has been giving talks on herlatest book, From Camelot to Kent State, an oral history of the 1960s. The Morrisons have three children and three grandchildren, all of whom visitedthem in England this summer. They would love tohear from old friends; mail will be forwarded fromtheir home address: 64 Spring Brook Road; Morris-town, NJ 07960.Reunion June 2-3-4MB Arthur R. Koch, AB'45, is a retiree fullyTiO occupied by volunteer work. A serious accident left him hospitalized for two months, unable tospeak. His speech has returned, although he nolonger has his trained singing voice. Through therapy, Koch relearned how to walk.Ad ln APril- Jaroslav J. Pelikan, PhD'46, theTi^P Sterling professor of history at Yale University, was inducted as president of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. On Oct. 22, he will lead ameeting of the Academy at the Oriental Institute.MO Donald E. Osterbrock, PhB'48, SB'48,Tt^P SM'49, PhD'52, was an honored guest at asymposium, held at the Space Telescope ScienceInstitute in Baltimore, to commemorate his and acolleague's 70th birthdays. The symposium was onthe analysis of emission lines in astronomicalobjects, a subject on which Osterbrock has workedthroughout his career in astrophysics.J§g% Lindell L. Sawyers, AB'49, DB'54, AM'58,Ti^P recently earned a Ph.D. in education fromTeachers College at Columbia University. His dissertation compared and analyzed the philosophiesof Malcolm S. Knowles and Paulo Freire.Reunion June 2-3-4Donald L. Berry, DB'50, the Harry EmersonFosdick professor of philosophy and religion at Colgate University, has retired after 37 yeaTSon the faculty. Arthur D. Code, SM'47, PhD'50, aprofessor of astronomy, is the principal investigatorThings Went Better with CokeO-Week of Old: The first-year students of 1943 gathered at the Cloister Club for an evening of funwith Cokes, cards, and cigarettes. 1994 marks the 70th anniversary of Orientation Week.38 University of Chicago magazine/October 1994for the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo PolarmeterExperiment II, scheduled for shuttle launch in January 1995. WUPPE II is a telescope designed to studyultraviolet polarized light of stars and galaxies. Theshuttle mission is named Astro II. Vera ChandlerFoster, AM'50, will be listed in Who's Wlw in YWCAWomen. She has served on the national board, worldcouncil, and the Alexandria (VA) community boardof the YWCA. At the Tuskegee Institute, she was alongtime adviser to the campus YWCA-YMCA. Aretired Tuskegee VAMC social worker, Foster livesin Alexandria.Gerald L. Garden, AB'50, is in his 27th year ofteaching English and cartooning at Blair HighSchool in Pasadena, CA. His wife, Sandy, died inJanuary 1989 at age 48. Daughter Sheryl, 24, juststarted teaching English at Carlsbad (CA) HighSchool. His son, Steven, studies biology at SanDiego State University and plans to become a veterinarian. William F. Hamilton, AM'50, was inductedinto the Lakewood (OH) Schools Staff Hall of Famelast December. An educational consultant for theMartha Holden Jennings Foundation in Cleveland,he has retired from his positions as teacher andadministrator in the Lakewood City Schools.HI William M. Cross, AM'51, CLA'51, HC44,91 received one of four 1994 Ernest G. Hildner,Jr., awards for outstanding achievement from Illinois College, where he has been a professor of sociology since 1972, Sheldon W. Samuels, AB'51, hasretired from the labor movement and will be a lecturer in the community-medicine department atMount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. Thispast summer he taught a policy course at the JohnsHopkins School of Public Health.Barbara Taylor Bowman, AM'52, has beenpromoted from vice president for programsto president of the Erikson Institute for AdvancedStudy in Child Development. One of three facultymembers who founded the Chicago-based Institutein 1966, she is an authority on early education andan advocate of better training for practitioners whowork with children and families. Sylvia KnaussKlein, AB'52, see 1955, John J. Klein.Eva F. Lichtenberg, AB'52, AM'55, PhD'60, runs aprivate clinical-psychology practice in Chicago. InJuly she began a two-year term as president of theWomen's Association of the Chicago SymphonyOrchestra. Her son, Allan C. Lichtenberg, receiveda J.D. and an M.B.A. from the University in June.She writes, "The University of Chicago is a familytradition in that [Allan's] father, the late Leo Lichtenberg, BS'42, graduated from the College."M Joseph W. Joyner, SM'54, a pediatrician atthe Southern California Medical Clinic inLa Mesa, has accepted the invitation of the UnitedChurch of Christ in Zimbabwe to serve a one-yearterm as a volunteer staff doctor at the church'sChikore Hospital in a rural part of the country nearthe Mozambique border. Eunice Berg Rosen, SB'54,and William A. Rosen, X'58, announce that theyhave become grandparents.Reunion June 2-3-4John J. Klein, AM'52, PhD'55, retired fromthe economics department at Georgia StateUniversity at the end of August. He and his wife,Sylvia Knauss Klein, AB'52, enjoy life in Roswell,GA, and recently traveled to South Korea to visittwo of his former graduate students. DaughterLeslie Klein Funk, AB'78, lives with her husband,John, in Perkasie, PA.Leah Condit Graham Yee, AB'56, marriedJames Yee in California in August 1993. Shehas retired from teaching, and the couple lives inBradenton, FL, where he works as a photographerfor the Bradenton Herald. William R. Harmon, AB'58, AM'68, hasbeen named the James Gordon Hanes professor at the University of North Carolina-ChapelHill, where he has been a member of the Englishdepartment for 25 years. Thomas E. McGough.MBA'58, a member of the board of directors atRavenswood Hospital Medical Center andRavenswood Health Care Corporation in Chicago,has also been named to the EHS Health Care boardof directors. William A. Rosen, X'58, see 1954.Eunice Berg Rosen.Reunion June 2-3-4Alan D. Entin, AB'60, AM'62, PhD'67, hasbeen elected 1994 president of the divisionof independent practice of the American Psychological Association. He was also named a distinguishedpractitioner in psychology in the National Academies of Practice.Arthur H. Peterson, AB'60, recently was honoredby the Alaska legislature for 20 years of volunteerservice on Alaska's Uniform Law Commission,working to keep Alaska's uniform statutesupgraded. He has served the state government for24 years, including 17 years as assistant attorneygeneral and seven years in the Legislative AffairsAgency. He also is a director and vice president ofthe Alaska Legal Services Corporation, which provides free legal services to the poor.Richard L. Stern, AB'61, of Scarsdale, NY,has been appointed corporate vice presidentof litigation at Bristol-Myers Squibb. Mitzi FischmanWalchak, AB'61, MAT'71, a mathematics teacher atEvanston Township High School, was one of 15 participants selected to attend a 1994 summer seminar,"Great Theorems of Mathematics in Historical Context," sponsored by the National Endowment for theHumanities at Ohio State University.Martin H. Israel, SB'62, recently becamevice chancellor of Washington Universityafter serving as dean for seven years. Ned O.Lemkemeier, X'62, was awarded a 1994 Distinguished Law Alumni award by the Washington University School of Law. David A. Loeliger, SM'62,PhD'65, resigned after 22 years as a chemistry professor at International Christian University in Japanto accept a position as treasurer of a missionaryorganization in Madagascar. He and his wife will behouseparents for Lutheran missionary childrenattending school in the area.Oliver C. Phillips, PhD'62, retired this pastspring after 30 years on the classics faculty at theUniversity of Kansas. Frank E. Sugeno, AM'62,recently received an honorary doctorate from theEpiscopal Theological Seminary of the Southwestin Austin, TX. He retired from full-time teaching atthe seminary in June.Philip S. Dale, SB'63, was promoted to professor of psychology, linguistics, and speechand hearing sciences at the University of Washington.M David P. Buchmueller, MBA'64, presidentand CEO of Providence Memorial Hospitalin El Paso, has been elected to a two-year term on theboard of trustees of the Texas Hospital Association asa trustee-at-large. This past spring, Taylor McMillan,JD'64, established the Frank Porter Graham lectureseries at the University of North Carolina at ChapelHill, where he earned his undergraduate degree. Thefirst lecture will be held next year.Reunion June 2-3-4Ira R. Katz, AB'65, a professor of psychiatryat the University of Pennsylvania, has beenappointed director of the geriatric-psychiatry section at Penn. He is also president-elect of the American Association of Geriatric Psychiatry. In the ClubsBoston Sun., Nov. 20: Law professor MaryBecker speaks as part of the club's DistinguishedFaculty Series.Central New lersey (Princeton) Mid-November: Divinity School professor DonBrowning will speak as part of the club's Distinguished Faculty Series.Chicago Wed., Oct. 19: Downtown luncheonwith Professor Leon Kass. Tues., Oct. 27:Annual members meeting. Wed., Nov. 2: Downtown luncheon with Arjun Appadurai, head ofthe Chicago Humanities Institute. Sat., Nov. 12:Arts Club of Chicago luncheon. Wed., Nov. 30:Nickerson Mansion tour. Tues., Nov. 29: FieldMuseum tour.Cleveland Sat., Nov. 19: Men's basketballteam plays Oberlin College, 3:00 p.m.Detroit Thurs., Oct. 27: Ellie Workman, of theGSB Alumni Career Management Office, leads aworkshop for all alumni on "Keeping YourOptions Open: Career Pathing for the '90s." Sat.,Nov. 26: Men's basketball team plays KalamazooCollege, 3:00 p.m.Houston Fri.quarters. Nov. 18: Tour of NASA head-LOS Angeles Sat., Oct. 29: Architectural walkthrough San Juan Capistrano. Sun., Oct. 30:Psychology professor Mihaly Csikszentmihalyispeaks on "The Psychology of Satisfaction" aspart of the club's Distinguished Faculty Series.Thurs., Nov. 3: Performance of The FloweringPeach at Theatre 40's Reuben Cordova Theatrein Beverly Hills. Sun., Nov. 13: ArmandHammer Museum of Art and Cultural Centertour and lunch.New York Fri., Nov. 4: Economics professorRobert Fogel speaks at a breakfast co-sponsoredby the New York GSB Club. Thurs., Nov. 17:Y'oung alumni "Happy Hour" event.Pittsburgh Sat., Oct. 22: Maroon footballagainst Carnegie Mellon. Kickoff is 1:30 p.m.San Diego Sat., Oct. 29: Psychology professorMihaly Csikszentmihalyi speaks on "The Psychology of Satisfaction" as part of the club's Distinguished Faculty Series.I FianciSCO Sun., Oct. 30: Divinity Schoolprofessor Wendy Doniger speaks on "The BedTrick: Sex, Myth, and Masquerade" as part ofthe club's Distinguished Faculty Series. Sun..Nov. 20: Brunch and tour of the OaklandMuseum's Underwater Photo Exhibit at 10:30a.m. Sat., Dec. 10: Beach Blanket Babylon andNorthern Italy show and dinner.For further infonnation about these events and anyother club activities, please contact MarilynMelvan in the U of C Alumni Association at312/702-2157; at 312/702-2166 (fax); or atdwemrvm@udumvsl.ucfitcago.edu (Internet).University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 39MANUFACTURINGWorld-renowned manufacturing company in theChicagoland area has an outstanding opportunityfor a professional to direct our multi-plant, multi-country, multi-product line extrusion andfinishing operations.To qualify, you need 10+ years of process-orientedflexible packaging industry experience backed bya related degree, preferably an MBA. Yourexpertise must include plant/facility management,TQM, JTT, OSHA/EPA, re-engineering,turnaround and profit improvement. Travel isrequired, and possibly relocation.We are offering a competitive salary and anextensive package of benefits. For confidentialconsideration, send your resume and salaryrequirements to:P.O. Box 2190Dept MP-3957Oak Park, EL 60303Equal Opportunity Employer Donald R. Hopkins, MD'66, received anhonorary doctor of science degree fromEmory University in May. An epidemiologist, Hopkins has devoted his career to eliminating guinea-worm disease. A former deputy and acting directorof the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,he also helped to eliminate smallpox. Ted J.Solomon, AM'61, PhD'66, recently retired from theministry after 37 years in pastoral ministry andhigher education. A clergy member of the Iowa Conference of the United Methodist Church, Solomonhas been an associate professor of philosophy andreligion at Iowa State University since 1969. He andhis wife, Marian, plan to live in Ames, IA, where hewill research, write, and teach. Mary ThompsonTetreault, MAT'66, has been named vice presidentfor academic affairs at California State Universityafter serving six years as dean of the School ofHuman Development and Community Service.ijjf* Linda Helmer Everett, AB'67, a groupD# leader with the Pulp and Paper ResearchInstitute of Canada, has been elected chapter president of the Special Libraries Association of WesternCanada. She lives and works in Vancouver, BC.Howard M. Landa, JD'67, has become counsel lothe firm of Rand, Rosenzweig, Smith & Radley. Hewill practice primarily in the areas of corporate law,commercial transactions, and mergers and acquisitions, and will also counsel health-care product andservice providers. Ronald S. Nietupski, MBA'67,has developed and patented Will-Power andQuit'm, products designed to, when inhaled, helppeople lose weight and quit smoking.Rheta Goolsby DeVries, PhD'68, is nowprofessor of curriculum and instructionand director of the Regents' Center for Early Development Education at the University of NorthernIowa. Thomas H. Kieren, MBA'68, president andmanaging director of the Manhattan ConsultingGroup, Inc., served on the finance committee andthe commission on regulatory reform and government waste for the successful Whitman gubernatorial campaign in New Jersey.Ryan A. LaHurd, AM'69, recently wasselected as the tenth president of Lenoir-Rhyne College in North Carolina. He had been vicepresident for academic affairs at Augsburg Collegein Minneapolis. Ellen L. Silon, AB'69, a psychologist at a suburban high school, lives in Denver withhusband Steve Axelrath and children Sam, 9, andSarah, 5. She reports that the 25th reunion was awonderful experience and hopes even more peoplewill come to the 30th. Friends can reach her at303/741-3860.Reunion June 2-3-4 ^¦JVA Stephen B. Darr, MBA'70, has been admil-#U ted to the partnership at KPMG Peat Mar-wick as a member of the corporate-transactionspractice in the Boston office. He specializes in bankruptcy and the restructuring and reorganizing oftroubled companies.HI Lawrence J. Brainard, PhD'71, formerly#fl managing director of Chase Securities, Inc.,has been appointed director of global emerging-markets research by the Chase Manhattan Corporation. David C. Gardner, MST'71, was named 1993educator of the year by the Brighton/McKinley ParkCluster of Schools, a community organization representing nine public elementary and secondaryschools on the southwest side of Chicago. StanleyG. Hilton, AB'71, a former aide to U.S. SenatorRobert Dole, is now a practicing attorney in California and a political-science lecturer at Golden GateUniversity in San Francisco. His book, Senator forSale: A Biography of Senator Bob Dole (St. Martin'sPress), will be published this winter.40 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994HA Thomas J. Biersteker, AB'72, the Henry R.m M Luce professor of international relations andpolitical science at Brown University, has beennamed director of the university's Thomas J.Watson, Jr., Institute for International Studies.Christine Lehto Malcolm, AB'72, MBA'78, of Hinsdale, IL, has been named vice president of managedcare for the University Hospital Consortium, amember-driven, not-for-profit, national alliance ofacademic medical centers. Neal S. Millard, JD'72, apartner at the White & Case law firm, has beenappointed adjunct professor of law at the Universityof Southern California Law Center, where he willteach international finance. He recently marriedJanet Keast Crouch, a schoolteacher. After 21 years,Charles H. Troe, JD'72, has left private law practiceto become senior vice president of Barrington Associates, a private investment-banking firm in LosAngeles. James D. Woolley, AM'67, PhD'72, head olthe English department at Lafayette College, recentlyreceived the college's Student Government SuperiorTeaching award.MM Vicky A. Slater, AB'73, MBA'81, had a quiltm Vf accepted for competition in the AmericanQuilter's Society show and contest in April. "I didn'twin anything in this show, but just getting juriedinto it is like making the Olympics," Slater writes.Her quilt did win second place in the Prairie Heritage Quilt Show in Sun Prairie, WI, in March.Lecon Woo, SM'73, PhD'73, was elected a fellow ofthe Society of Plastics Engineers in May. Since 1984,only 109 of the 38,000 members of the SPE havereceived this honor. Woo, who lives in Libertyville,IL, works for Baxter Healthcare Corporation, whichmakes disposable medical products.MHa S. Rothschild, AM'74, previously assistant general counsel with the AmericanHospital Association in Chicago, is now an associatewith the law firm of Herzog & Fisher in Marina DelRey, CA, specializing in health-care law. She wasalso recently appointed to serve on the CaliforniaSociety of Healthcare Attorneys' alternative dispute-resolution task force. (This corrects informationprinted in the August/94 issue. — Ed.) David C. Sobel-sohn, AB'74, a former law professor and legislativeaide, has been named chief counsel for legislationand public policy by the Human Rights CampaignFund in Washington, DC.Reunion June 2-3-4HE Melvyn L. Sterling, MD'75, an internist inm %P private practice in Orange County, CA, hasbeen named president of the Orange County Medical Association. He and his wife, Patricia, a pediatric nurse practitioner, live in Huntington Beachand have three sons: Mac, 26: Sean, 25; and Jason,22. Ralph L. Underwood, AM'71, PhD'75, professorof pastoral care at Austin Presbyterian TheologicalSeminary, served as the seminary's acting academicdean from January through June of 1994.¦Jfj* William R. Barnett, AM'69, PhD'76, hasm B# been appointed academic vice president anddean at Le Moyne College in Syracuse, NY, wherehe has been interim academic vice president anddean since August 1993. Barnett joined Le Moyne in1977 and has held various positions, including deanof studies and associate professor of religious studies. Lawrence W. Barnthouse, PhD'76, has beennamed to a National Research Council committeethat will review the Department of the Interior'snewly established Biomonitoring of EnvironmentalStatus and Trends program. He works in the Environmental Sciences Division of the Department ofEnergy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Huey L.Perry, AM'73, PhD'76, received the 1993-94 EltonC. Harrison Scholar of the Year award at SouthernUniversity in Baton Rouge, LA. True to LifeIN TRYING TO REVEAL THE LIVES OF BRAZ-il's poor with his film It's All True,Orson Welles nearly ruined his career.Myron Meisel's award- winning 1993 documentary, It's All True, tells the storybehind the movie, revealing that Welleswas not to blame for its failure, helping toclear the director's reputation, and restoring a cinematic milestone.Meisel, AB'72, started directing, producing, and writing films as an English majorin the College. A lawyer in the entertainment field and a writer of books and articles about the cinema, Meisel, 43, hasfilmmaking credits that range from producer of the documentary I'm a StrangerHere Myself: A Portrait of Nicholas Ray toartistic consultant for Single White Female.It's All True, which he co-directed, -produced, and -wrote, opened in theaters in1993 and was released on home video byParamount in August.Using Welles' footage, old interviewswith the director, and new interviewswith people who worked with him, thedocumentary begins with the account ofthe original film's failure. In 1941 — justafter Welles' film Citizen Kane, oftencalled the greatest film ever made, wasreleased — the U.S. State Department andRKO Pictures sent the 26-year-old wun-derkind to Brazil to make a movie as agoodwill gesture between Latin Americaand the United States. Welles envisioned athree-part anthology, culminating in thetrue story of four poor fishermen, or jan-gadeiros, who sailed a six-log raft 1,650miles to Rio de Janeiro to protest workingconditions. RKO executives soon decidedthat Welles was spending too muchmoney on an unscripted film and that hissubject matter — poor black people — wasnot conducive to "goodwill." They firedhim, and Welles was branded by the filmindustry as reckless and incapable of finishing a project — a reputation that followed him throughout his remaining,HH Timothy C. Barabe, MBA'77, says he andM M his family "have moved once again (ourseventh relocation since graduation)," this time toGeorgia. He is group vice president for planning,information, and control for CIBA Vision, a contactlenses and eye-care company. Stephen A. Gillenwa-ter, AB'77, AM'85, and Nancy L. Alexander, AB'80,report that Nia Raquel joined the family in May andis adored by brother Miles Glen, 3. Nancy continuesteaching English as a Second Language in Evanston.IL, and "encouraging the best students to go to U ofC instead of Northwestern." In March she publisheda curriculum. Using Kite-Making to Teach ESL, inthe ERIC Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.Stephen continues to provide family planning and erratic career."Our primary goal was to vindicateWelles by restoring his work to a formwhere people could see what he'd done,"says Meisel, who had already done similarwork as executive producer on what wassupposed to be Charlie Chaplin's first feature film. "The opportunity of ending upwith another Orson Welles film, even ifnot finished by him, was very exciting."The Welles mo\de the filmmakers endedup with, Four Men on a Raft, constitutesthe last half of It's All True. Rather than tryto create what Welles had envisioned — afilm with himself as host, narrator, andcommentator — the directors chose toavoid speech and intertitles. The onlysounds in the reenactment of the jan-gadeiros' voyage are of waves and wind.The black-and-white footage is all fromthe original film, shot with old equipmentand little money after RKO backed out."If this film had come out in 1942,"Meisel says, "it would have greatly affectedpeople's perception of how cinema couldbe made and what it could be."After premiering at the 1993 New YorkFilm Festival, It's All True was named BestDocumentary of 1993 by the Los AngelesFilm Critics Association, received a specialcitation for excellence from the NationalSociety of Film Critics, and was chosenone of 1993's best films by critics at theChicago Tribune and the Los AngelesTimes. — K.S.prenatal services to adolescents through a clinic hedirects for Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital.HA Joseph F. Brinley, Jr., AB'78, AM'81, has¦ ^M been appointed director of the WoodrowWilson Center Press and director of publishing forthe Woodrow Wilson International Center forScholars in Washington, DC. He had served asacting director since September 1993 and beforethat was an editor and managing editor with thepress. Richard B. Dagen. AB'78. see 1979, RichardB. Dagen. Robert C. Fuller, AM'75, PhD'78, wasrecently one of 12 Denison University alumni honored with an Alumni Citation. Robert is director ofthe honors program and a professor of religiousstudies at Bradlev University in Peoria. IL. LeslieUniversity of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 4 1Holistic HealerAlthough nurse practitioner SidneyE. Skinner, AB'83, has seen everyillness from hyperactivity to sinusinfections in the last three years, she'sonly written about four or five prescriptions for conventional medicine. She's notneglecting her patients' needs, she's justchoosing to treat them in a differentway — with homeopathy."It's one of the few systems of healthcare that boosts someone's health fromthe inside out rather than killing bacteriaor treating symptoms," Skinner says.Homeopathy is a school of medicine,developed in the late18th century, based onthe idea that "like cureslike": A substance thatusually creates symptomsof a disease can, in smalldoses, treat that disease.Homeopathy is gainingpopularity, and Skinnerstarted learning it 12years ago, at seminarsand from homeopaths.She needed more than ageography degree fromthe U of C to practicehomeopathy. State lawsrequire homeopaths to belicensed health-care professionals. Skinner went to the Universityof Minnesota for a B.S.N. , then earned anM.S.N, at the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh in 1990. A year later, sheopened her own homeopathic health-careclinic in rural Greenfield, Mass.Originally for women only, NewGround has since become a family clinic.In addition to running her clinic four daysa week, Skinner spends Wednesdaysworking at the clinic of a Boston homeo-Klein Funk, AB'78, see 1955, John J. Klein. Todd L.Parchman, MBA'78, has been named to the board ofdirectors of Ferris, Baker Watts. He joined the company in 1990 and manages investment banking.HA Richard B. Dagen, AB'78, is a deputy assis-m w tant director in the Bureau of Competitionat the Federal Trade Commission. He reports thathe "got married last September in Martha's Vineyard. I also got married last October in New Jersey(same woman)."Reunion June 2-3-4Nancy L. Alexander, AB'80, sec 1977.Stephen A. Gillenwatcr. Charles A. Becker,SM'7'5, PhD'80, was appointed industrial-programsmanager at the General Electric Research and Development Center in New York. Joseph G. Haubrich,AB'80, and his wife, Barbara, announce the March 12 pathic physician. At both places, sheencounters ailments such as chronicfatigue syndrome, allergies, eczema, andyeast and ear infections. With a newpatient, Skinner takes an hour-and-a-halffor a medical history and physical exam.At that point she prescribes a homeopathic remedy — often a liquid, or apowder or globule that dissolves underthe tongue, and usually made from plantsor minerals at FDA-regulated homeopathic pharmacies."[Traditional] medicine is very good atemergency medicine, very good at diagnostics and surgery," Skinner allows. Butshe feels traditional medicine is limited inmany areas, especially in treating chronicillnesses. In particular,says Skinner, "A lot ofwomen's health issueshaven't been adequatelystudied and also are nothelped very much in conventional ways." A feminist activist while in theCollege and now the leadsinger in the lesbian rockband Amethyst Bones, sheadds, "I'm really happy tolet women know thatthere's relief from breastcysts, endometriosis."Skinner admits that homeopathy can't fix "big structural damage to the body,"like cancer, but says it can still ease painand improve general well-being — andhelp mental and emotional problems.Although many physicians don't putmuch stock in homeopathy, Skinnerthinks that's just because they have beentrained only in traditional medicine. Byputting more of her time into teachinghomeopathy to other nurses and doctors,Skinner hopes to help cure that problem,too. — K.S.birth of their third daughter, Serena Elizabeth.W Robert S. Gray, MBA'81 , and his wife,Suzanne, of Hinsdale, IL, announce the April29 birth of Thomas Moore. He joins older brothersSteve, 6; Chris, 4; and Michael, 2. Gray is a vice president at Goldman Sachs in Chicago and Suzanne isdirector of fitness for the Chicago Public Schools.Daniel F. Heitjan, SB'81, SM'84, PhD'85, was giventhe 1994 statistics award from the Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, for a paper he co-wrotethat was published in Applied Statistics. Heitjan is alsothe 1994-95 Stanley S. Schor visiting scholar atMerck Research Laboratories in Pennsylvania. Heand his wife, Helene Kim Heitjan, AM'87, announcethe May 1993 birth of their third child, Margaret.QO David C. Beeman, MBA'82, has beenIVSh elected an executive director of the American Express Bank Ltd. Most recently head of global marketing, he has been with American Express for12 years. William H. Landschulz, AB'82, SM'82,received a 1994 Charles E. Culpeper Foundationscholarship in medical science, which will fund hisresearch at the University of Texas, where he is anassistant professor and endocrinology fellow. Heplans to search for and identify genes important inthe development of thyroid cancer. Thomas A.McFarland, AB'82, married Amy B. Silverman,AB'84, in November 1985. McFarland graduatedfrom the University of Illinois College of Medicinein 1987, then did a residency at the New EnglandMedical Center in Boston, followed by a hematol-ogy/oncology fellowship at the center. He now has apractice in Madison, WI. Silverman received anM.S.W. from Boston College in 1991, then workedin medical social work and research in social policy.They have two daughters.QA William N. Avrin, MBA'83, has beenOvS) appointed vice president and general manager of Latin American operations at Cytec Industries, Inc. Avrin previously was vice president andgeneral manager for Polymer Additives/NorthAmerica at Cytec Industries, then a business unit ofAmerican Cyanamid Company. Mark D. Bauer,AB'83, has moved to Chicago, where he is an associate with the law firm of Bell, Boyd & Lloyd, specializing in antitrust litigation. Mark A. Timmerman,AB'83, has been appointed to the board of directorsof Prophet 21, Inc., a national provider of integrated, on-line business-management systems.M Jeremiah S. Bosgang, AB'84, has performedhis one-man show, "Hollywood Hustle," inLos Angeles and New York. He has written for InLiving Color, Great Scott!, Edna Time, and SaturdayNight Live, in addition to helping to develop Seinfeldand Martin. Joel B. Ginsberg, AB'84, recently lefthis job as an attorney at the Washington, DC, officeof Katten Muchin Zavis. He is now a legislativeassistant for congressperson Lynn Schenk and vicechair for press and public relations for the ArlingtonCounty Democratic Committee. Ginsberg and hispartner, Stuart Pornoy, live in Arlington, VA, withtheir black Labrador, Laika. Diane Nemec Ignashev,AM'76, PhD'84, recently was promoted to full professor at Carleton College, where she has taughtRussian language and Russian and English literaturesince 1981. Amy B. Silverman, AB'84, see 1982,Thomas A. McFarland.Reunion June 2-3-4Mary Mayumi Kino, SB'85, received herdoctorate in measurement and quantitativemethods from Michigan State University in 1993.She has since moved to San Antonio and become anew home owner. Kino is project director in thepsychometrics and technological-applications groupof the Psychological Corporation, where she worksprimarily on large-scale assessment programs andcustom contracts. Howard J. Worman, MD'85, anassistant professor of medicine and molecular biology at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in NewYork, was awarded a 1994 Charles E. CulpeperFoundation scholarship in medical science. Thescholarship will fund his research on cell division,M Martha Blair Few, AB'86, AM'89, AM'89,recently passed her doctoral exams in LatinAmerican history at the University of Arizona inTucson. She will spend next year in Guatemala andSpain researching her dissertation. In her sparetime, she plays in a country-western band.AM Craig D. Blackstone, SB'87, SM'87, gradu-O M ated in May with an M.D./Ph.D. in neuro-science from Johns Hopkins University. He hasbegun a residency at the Harvard Longwoocl Neurology Program. Helene Kim Heitjan, AM'87, see1981, Daniel F. Heitjan. Daniel C. Moyers, AB'87,42 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994graduated in June from New York University's SternSchool of Business with an M.B.A. from the executive program in finance.Brent C. Packer, MBA'88, recently earnedan M.D. from Baylor College of Medicine inHouston. He has been accepted into the diagnostic-radiology residency program at St. Joseph MercyHospital in Pontiac, Ml. James L. Porile, MD'88,and his wife, Cristyne, live in South Bend, IN,where he is in private practice as a nephrologist.They announce the June 30 birth of Jennifer Lynn.Sally M. Promey, PhD'88, has been awarded theCharles C. Eldredge prize from the Smithsonian'sNational Museum of American Art for her book,Spiritual Spectacles: Vision and Image in Mid-biine-teenth-Century Shakerism (Indiana University Press).The prize honors a significant book in American artby a single author.Marjorie Warner Dorr, MBA'89, has beenappointed senior vice president and chieffinancial officer of Anthem Casualty InsuranceGroup, Inc., in Indianapolis. Anthem is a subsidiaryof the Associated Group, an insurance and financial-services company. T. Kimball Brooker, AM'89,president of Barbara Oil Co., has been elected to theboard of directors of Arthur J. Gallagher & Co., aninternational insurance brokerage and risk-management services firm, Gregg D. Miller, AB'89, "wandered around Central America for a while" beforeearning an M.A. in international affairs at AmericanUniversity. He is now working toward a Ph.D. inpolitical science at the University of Washington.Michael B. O'Connor, AB'89, wrote that heplanned to earn his M.A. in philosophy "sometimethis summer for no particularly good reason. Afterthat he will probably move, also for no particularlygood reason other than he likes moving and doesn'tlike the East Coast much." Since graduation, he hasspent time in San Francisco and Chicago working asa paralegal, a teacher, a waiter, and a shuttle driver.He is "always writing music and doing that thing."In January, Rachael M. Scherer, MBA'89, of Plymouth, MN, was promoted to managing director ofresearch at the investment-banking firm DainBosworth. Marco A. R. Sims, AB'89, AM'91,MBA'92, vice consul with the American Embassy inBrasilia, longs for the days of social-science discussion sections.Reunion June 2-3-4Lisa N. Bleed, AB'90, is managing employeebenefits for Applied Risk Management, Inc.in Oakland, CA. Sonia Bychkov, AB'90, AM'90,JD'93, married Colby M. Green, AB'91, on July 31,1993, at the Midland Hotel in Chicago. The weddingparty included bridesmaids Elizabeth Manning,AB'90, and Gayle Shepardson, AB'90: usher John B.Morgan, AB'91; and Colby's father, Michael Green,MBA'94. In attendance were: Victor A. Golant,MBA'86; Colin S. Brent, AB'90; Walter C. Dauter-man, Jr., AB'90, AM'91; Michael E. S. Frankel,AB'90, AM'90, a student in the Law School; David G.Hall, X'90; Gregory L. Jao, AB'90; Jo-EUe Munchak,AB'90; Panayotis G. Panayotaros, SB'90; Craig R.Camelio, AB'91, AM'92; Matthew R. Kreutzmann,AB'91, AM'93; Amy K. W. Lee-Boonstra, AB'91;Daniel W. Kemper, X'92; Katharine A. Sieck, AB'92;Lisa M. Stauff, X'92; Jenifer L. Stenfors, AB'92; JayS. Sultan, AM'92; Susan E. Gans, AM'92, PhD'93;Christopher Thomas, X'93; and David Cheng,MD'94. The couple honeymooned in England, Scotland, and Wales. She is an associate at the Chicagolaw firm of McCullough, Campbell & Lane and anadjunct instructor at Loyola Law School, where he isa third-year student. He is also a clerk at the law firmof Krasnow, Sanberg, and Cohen.Anna S. Mah, AB'90, and George T. Chuang, AB'90, were married May 28 near her home inOhio. In attendance were maid of honor KatherineS. M. Mah, AB'93; best man Ankit Shah, AB'90; andbridesmaid Rosalind S. Chuang, a student in theCollege. Other guests included Sandra B. ("Cindy")Conaway, AB'89; Elizabeth A. Kelvin, AB'89;Robert S. McWhorter, AB'90; Prakash Selvaraj,AB'90; Masami Tanaka, AB'90; Lorin B. Dytell,SB'91, AM'92; Anthony I. Paik, AB'91; Joseph F.Schmitt, AB'91; and Marc H. Lemer, AB'93. Annareceived her M.D. from Columbia University and isan intern at the Hospital of Saint Raphael in NewHaven, CT. She plans to return to Columbia in July1995 to do a residency in radiology. George hasbegun his second year at the Yale School of Management after spending a summer working at UnitedTechnologies Corporation under Ronald E.Bruehlman, MBA'84, and Franklyn A. Caine,MBA'76.Dining InJONATHAN H. RAPP, AB'91, SPEAKS OFfood and all things associated withgreat respect. He describes cooking asa "passion" and the kitchen as "the centerof the house," while noting that produceshould be "absolutely attuned to the seasons."For the patrons of Etats-Unis, the eclectic New York restaurantthat Rapp and his fatherown and operate, thisrespect makes for a wonderful dinner. For Rapp,27, excellence comes at aprice: "The biggest problem for us is not havingtime to think about foodas much as we used to."He and his father,Thomas, had alwaysloved to cook togetherand often discussedopening a restaurant.From the time he was 14,Jonathan had spent his summers workingfor restaurants and catering companies.An art history major, he left Chicago inJune 1990, finishing his BA. paper thenext year. Around that time, his fatherdecided to quit his job in architecture.Once they found a 500-square-foot spaceon the Upper East Side, they and theirfriends took nine months to redesign andrenovate it. In May 1992 Etats-Unisopened for business.The name is French for "United States.""We really do feel that our food is American," Rapp explains. "We put it in Frenchbecause we wanted to try to suggest amore worldly attitude toward what American food is or could be."Etats-Unis' fare, with influences fromFrench to Thai, reflects the Rapps' well- Q| Colby M. Green, AB'91, see 1990, Sonia91 Bychkov. In May, Nedra Jenkins, AB'91,AM'91, received a J.D. from the University of California in Los Angeles.Philip Klatte, AB'92, completed his firstyear of law school at Lewis and Clark College in Oregon, then passed through Chicago on hisway to travel in Europe and take a class in Salzburg,Austria. Robert M. Oboza, AB'92, a Navy ensign,has reported for duty aboard the destroyer U.S.S.Harry W. Will. His home port is San Diego. Ellen L.Steffen, MBA'92, has been promoted to assistantvice president at LaSalle National Bank in Chicago.Jesse L. Owens, AM'93, announces the May9 birth of his son, Jordan-Kamal. Sok H.Nam, AB'93, is a first-year student at St. Louis University Medical School.M Allan C. Lichtenberg, JD'94, MBA'94, see1952, Eva F. Lichtenberg.traveled taste for international cuisine.Doing all of the planning and shoppingand much of the cooking themselves,Jonathan and his father vary the menufrom week to week — to keep the cooksfrom becoming "excruciatingly bored."Rapp chooses not to use the term chef."That seems to imply a grander scale thanwe work at here."Their goal for Etats-Unis is to serve goodfood in a comfortable, unpretentious environment. The kitchen isopen to the dining area,allowing customers towatch the Rapps andallowing the Rapps togreet the customers. Thecooks wear T-shirts, thewaiters wear casual streetclothes, and the woodentables go naked — nostarched tablecloths here.Because the restaurantis open only Monday§ through Friday for dinner,I and seats just 30 people,I Etats-Unis often has awaiting list equal to the number ofpatrons. After an enthusiastic New YorkTimes review last October, the restaurantbecame a hot spot, albeit a less than glamorous one. "I feel suffocated by that kindof 'temple-of-food' quality, so we've studiously tried to avoid that," Rapp says."The nicest thing that people say, at leastwhat we think is the nicest thing, is thatwhen they're here, they don't feel likethey're in New York."Rapp's short-term goal is to open therestaurant seven days a week. Eventually,though, he can see himself going intowine-making and, he hopes, having moretime to cook for himself. "I don't really goout to eat at all," Rapp says. "I don't meanto sound snobby about it, but I'm justalways disappointed." — K.5.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 43DeathsFACULTYGeorge E. Block, the Thomas D. Jones professorin surgery, died of cardiac arrest July 17. He was 67.One of the world's leading authorities on the surgical treatment of colon and rectal cancer and ofinflammatory bowel disease, he pioneered newtechniques in gastrointestinal surgery. Serving atvarious times as president of the medical staff andvice chair and chair of surgery, he also was theauthor or coauthor of more than 140 articles, 25book chapters, one text, and four films, and also avisiting professor at nearly 100 universities andmedical centers. He is survived by his wife, MaryCobb Block; three sons; and three grandchildren.William W. Morgan, SB'27, PhD'31, the BernardE. and Ellen C. Sunny distinguished service professor emeritus in astronomy and astrophysics, died ofa heart attack June 21 at his home in Williams Bay,WI. He was 88. Noted for discovering the spiralstructure of the Milky Way, Morgan was a leadingcontributor to 20th-century astronomy, conductingresearch at the University's Yerkes Observatory formore than 60 years. He devised classification systems for the brightness of stars, developed a moreaccurate system to determine distances lo remotestars, and demonstrated the existence of super-giantgalaxies. Morgan was co-author of The Atlas of Stellar Spectra, published in 1943 and still widely usedby astronomers. Survivors include his wife, Jeane; ason; a daughter; a sister; and two grandchildren.I. Joshua Spiegel, a clinical professor emeritus inthe biological sciences division, died May 2. In 1945he joined the staff at Michael Reese Hospital, heading the neurosurgical department for more than f 5years. A founder, treasurer, and past president of theNeurosurgical Society of America, he was active inthe American College of Surgeons' neurosurgicaldivision and wrote and lectured extensively. He issurvived by his wife, Rosalynde; a son; two daughters; and six grandchildren.Robert C. Stepto, PhD'48, a physician, surgeon,and teacher, died April 16 in his Hyde Park home.Professor emeritus in the University's department ofobstetrics and gynecology, he also taught at the University of Illinois, Loyola University, Rush School ofMedicine, and Finch University/The Chicago Medical School, where he was chair of the ob/gyndepartment. A past president of the Cook CountyPhysicians Association, he was also a former U.S.president of the International College of Surgeons.He is survived by two children, Robert B. Stepto andJan Stepto Milieu, who graduated from the LabSchools; a brother; a sister; and four grandchildren.J. Robert Willson, former assistant professor olobstetrics and gynecology, died in New Mexico onDecember 16, of injuries sustained in a car accident.He was 81. The author of more than 85 papers andman)1 books, he taught at Temple University, theUniversity of Michigan, and the University of NewMexico and was president of the American Gynecological Society and the Association of Professors ofObstetrics and Gynecology. He is survived by hiswife, loan; a daughter; a son; a brother; and twograndchildren.STAFFWcslcv L. Jensen, a stall scientist in gastroenterology for 25 years, died of a heart attack June 1144 University of Chicago Magazine/Oct in Wild Rose, WI. He came to the University as aNational Institutes of Health postdoctoral fellow in1965, retiring in 1990. He is survived by his wife,Neville Streiff; seven sisters; 3 nephews; and a niece.Marian R. Rice, executive director of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Midwest Sectionand former Lab Schools teacher, died of braincancer June 15. She was 62. The wife of Stuart A.Rice, dean of the physical sciences division, shetaught elementary-school science at the Lab Schoolsduring the 1970s before she joined the AAAS staff.She was active as a performer with the LeikkaringenFolk Dancers. Survivors include her husband andtwo daughters, Barbara and Janet, both of whom areLab Schools graduates.1920sRuth Plimpton Long, PhB'21, of Morgantown,WV, died March 1. She was 95. She taught at CityCollege of San Francisco from f 940 to 1965 andalso lectured at Berkeley, Gregg College in Chicago,Columbia University, and Fullerton Junior College.Early in her career, she taught elementary and highschool in California and Iowa. Survivors include aniece, Jo Ann, and a nephew, John.Constance Croonenberghs Crowder Wells, X'23,of Sequim, WA, died May 30. She was 90. A radioactress with the Columbia Broadcasting System, shewas best known for her role as Ma Brewster in ThatBrewster Boy. She was active in the Friends of theLibrary. She is survived by a daughter-in-law, Betsy;two granddaughters; and twin great-grandchildren.Glenna Mode Ball, AB'24, ol Black Mountain, NC,died May 13. She was 91. An elementary-schoolteacher in Winfield and Wheaton, IL, and a special-education teacher in Southington, CT, for ten years,she also volunteered at a nursing center. Survivorsinclude her husband, Herbert A. Ball, SB'25; twodaughters; one son; one sister; ten grandchildren;and nine great-grandchildren.Samuel Fox, PhB'24, MBA'47, a Chicago lawyerfor 66 years and a certified public accountant withoffices in the John Hancock Building, died December 23, 1993, at home. The author of several textbooks, he taught at the University of Illinois atChicago, Roosevelt University, and other universities. He also wrote sports and drama columns forlocal newspapers. He is survived by two sons, fourgrandchildren, and two great-grandchildrenZelma Watson George, PhB'24, a sociologist,musicologist, and performer, died July 3 in Cleveland. In 1969, she received the Alumni AssociationPublic Service Citation. A lecturer and a leadingresearcher of African-American music, in 1950 shesang the lead role in the folk opera The Medium,becoming the first African-American woman to perform a "white" role on Broadway. An executivedirector of the Cleveland Job Corps, a delegate tothe 15th General Assembly of the United Nations.and a Rockefeller Foundation research fellow, shealso served on the boards of the Girl Scouts ofAmerica, the American Red Cross, the League ofWomen Voters, and the National Conference ofChristians and Jews. She is survived by two sistersand a brother.Albert M. Cole, LLB'25, administrator of theHousing and Home Finance Agency under President Eisenhower, died June 5. He was 92. Afterserving four terms in the U.S. House of Representa-ER 1994 lives, the Kansas Republican was appointed to theHHFA in 1953, becoming a leading advocate forurban redevelopment. In 1959 he joined ReynoldMetals Development Corp., and later was named itspresident. From 1967 to 1990 he practiced law withwhat is now the Washington, DC, law firm ofMcKenna, Conner & Cuneo. He is survived by hiswife, Emily; two children; six grandchildren; andnine great-grandchildren.John A. Mourant, PhB'26, PhD'40, a former professor of philosophy and department chair at PennState, died February 24 at his home in State College,PA. He was 90. He also taught at DePaul University,St. Mary's College, Nazareth College, St. Xavier College, and the University of Rochester. After retiringfrom Penn State in 1969, he was a visiting professorat two universities and remained active in manyphilosophical associations. He is survived by hiscompanion, Caroline Olsen; one brother; fourgrandchildren; and three great-grandchildren.Thomas E. Kluczynski, LLB'27, a former IllinoisSupreme Court justice, died May 16. He was 90. AChicago resident, he served on the high court in the1960s and 1970s and earlier was chief judge of theCook County Circuit Court. He is survived by hiswife, Melanie; six daughters; a son; 16 grandchildren; and four great-grandchildren.Jerome F. Kutak, LLB'28, of Schererville, IN, diedApril 6. He was 90. A lawyer, he cofounded Guarantee Reserve Life, a mail-order life insurance company, and served as president from 1956 to 1970and chair from 1970 until retiring in 1977. A volunteer with the Hammond (IN) Legal Aid Society, hereceived the Liberty Bell Award from the HammondBar Association. Survivors include his wife, Carol;three daughters, including Anne E. Kutak, JD'62; astepson and a stepdaughter; a brother and a sister;two grandchildren; and two step-grandchildren.Fred H. Mandel, PhB'28, JD'29, died of cancerNovember 23, 1993, at his home in ClevelandHeights, OH. He was 89. A federal-law specialist formore than 50 years, he was best known for representing some of the students injured in the 1970shootings at Kent State University. A past presidentof the Cuyahoga Country Bar Association, he servedas an acting judge in Cleveland Heights Municipalcourt in the 1970s. Survivors include his wife,Rema, and a daughter.J. Aldean Gibboney Newton, AB'29, a Phi BetaKappa graduate of the University and a resident ofLibertyville, IL, died March 5. She was a member ofthe Libertyville Women's Club and of the First Presbyterian Church of Libertyville. She is survived bytwo daughters, a sister, seven grandchildren, andtwo great-grandchildren.Melba M. Schumacher, PhB'29, of Indianapolis,died in January. She was 84. She was president of H.C. Schumacher Machine Co.1930sLazarre H. ("Luke") Kramer, LLB'32, of Chicago,died May 2. He was 85. Until retiring eight yearsago, he was counsel for Consolidated Distilled Products Co. A life member of the Columbia Yacht Club,he served on the board of the Senior Centers ofChicago. Survivors include his wife, Mildred, and abrother.L. Edgar Freidheim, PhB'33, died April 26. Hewas 82. Chair for many years of the family-ownedCougle Commission Company, a meat distributor,he was a former River Forest, IL, village trustee anda member of its zoning board. Survivors include twosons, three daughters, eight grandchildren, and adaughter-in-law, Kitty Plunkett Freidheim, AM'76.Roy K. Henshaw, X'33, a former major-leaguebaseball player, died June 8 in La Grange, IL. Apitcher, he joined the Chicago Cubs in 1933 andhad his best year in 1935, when he went 13-5 withthree shutouts for the Cubs and pitched in theWorld Series. He also played for Brooklyn, St. Louis,and Detroit.John J. Keith, MD'33, of Wisconsin, died May 24after a long illness. A general practitioner in Marion,WI, for 43 years until retiring in 1979, he also was aphysician for the Milwaukee Railroad. From 1942 to1945 he served in the Army Medical Corps in theSouth Pacific. A member of several medical societies, he was active in church and communitygroups. Survivors include his wife, Caroline; twodaughters; two sons; a brother; ten grandchildren;and five great-grandchildren.Edith Saum Snodgrass, X'33, died December 8,1993. She is survived by her husband, Ernest L.Snodgrass, PhD'37; and a son, David F. Snodgrass,AB'65, AM'77.Leonard M. Golber, SB'35, AM'50, a formerChicago grammar-school principal and high schoolteacher, died May 3 at his home in Hyde Park. Hetaught chemistry at Phillips High School for anumber of years before becoming head of PullmanSchool, a position he held for 23 years. He thenlearned and taught bookbinding at Spertus Collegeof Judaica. He is survived by a daughter and a son.Betty O'Connor Greene, AB'35, died May 6. Shewas 90. She and her late husband, Edward, foundedGreene's Ready Mix Concrete in 1952 and co-owned and -operated the Washing Well in RedondoBeach, CA. Before moving to California she taughtin Montana and New Mexico. She is survived byfive children, two sisters, and ten grandchildren.Harold Nudelman, PhB'35, of Chicago, diedMarch 7. He is survived by his wife and a daughter,Ruth Nudelman Lazarus, AB'84, AM'87.Frank M. Mahin, AB'36, JD'38, died January 3 inMiddletown, KY'. A retired attorney, he workedwith the Kemper Insurance Group for 41 years. Anelder in the Pewee Valley Presbyterian Church, hewas involved in many church and civic activities.He is survived by his wife, Louise; a son; twodaughters; seven grandchildren; and three greatgrandchildren.Floy Ring Hague, AM'37, of Goodlettsville, TN,died May 31. She was 86. She taught Latin andFrench for many years in Tennessee and Maryland.Survivors include a son; three sisters; and a daughter-in-law, Jayleen Powell Hague, MBA'82.Wilbur S. Hogevoll, AM'36, DB'37, of Hagers-town, MD, died June 3. He was 81. He served aspastor of First Christian Church of Alexandria, VA,from 1948 to 1957 and of First Christian Church ofHagerstown until retiring in 1981. An Army chaplain in the Southwest Pacific theater during WWII,he retired from the Army reserves as a lieutenantcolonel in the late 1970s. He is survived by a son, adaughter, two sisters, and two grandchildren.John Skok, SM'37, PhD'41, died on May 11 inDeKalb, IL. He served as dean of NIU's college ofliberal arts and sciences for three years at NorthernIllinois University before becoming professor of biological sciences at NIU for a decade until his retirement in 1975. He also worked at Argonne NationalLaboratory and in the horticulture department atthe University of Illinois. Survivors include his son.Theodore; a brother; and a sister.Bernard W. Scholz, X'38, of Townshend, VT, diedMarch 7 from injuries sustained in a fall. He was 90.Until retiring in 1974, he taught at Leland & GrayUnion High School. Earlier he was assistant administrator of the Washington, DC, Children's Centerand chief of the public-assistance division for theD.C. department of public welfare. He is survivedby two daughters, four grandchildren, and fourgreat-grandchildren.Herbert L. Rodell, AB'39, of Sarasota, FL, diedMay 22. He was 86. The assistant manager of a duplications company, he was also a Meals onWheels volunteer and a member of the SarasotaSports Committee. He is survived by his wife,Miriam; and two brothers.1940sMarilyn ("Marne") Menagh Anderson, X'40, ofGlen Ellyn, IL, died April 7 in Biloxi, MS. She was73. An active member of St. Thomas UnitedMethodist Church, she was a past president ofQuesters-Prairie Path Chapter, a local food-pantryvolunteer, a retired teaching aide at the Briar GlenSchool, and a former Girl Scout and Cub Scoutleader. Survivors include her husband, John R.Anderson, AB'47, two daughters; a son; ten grandchildren; and a sister-in-law.Theodore H. ("Ted") Hymen, AB'40, died on May24. He had retired from the women's clothing manufacturing business in 1993. After graduating fromthe University, where he belonged to Zeta Beta fraternity, he entered the U.S. Army, spending WWIIin the transportation corps. He is survived by hiswife, Sara; two daughters; a sister, Ruth HymenBlumberg, PhB'33; a granddaughter; and a nephew,Nathan P. Owen, JD'60.Kenneth H. Vanderford, PhD'40, of ColumbiaCity, IN, died January 10. From 1967 until his retirement in 1974, he taught Spanish at Ripon College inWisconsin. After doing covert intelligence work inLatin America during WWII, he was employed inpublic relations with the Creola Petroleum Corporation and the Creola Foundation in Venezuela. Survivors include two sisters, two nieces, two nephews,and several great-nieces and -nephews.Frank M. Brettholle, MBA'41, former senior vicepresident and chief financial officer of J. H. HeinzCo., died April 17 after a long illness. He was 76. Hejoined Heinz in 1946, retiring in 1983. Before joining Heinz, he taught business and served as treasurer and business manager of WestminsterCollege, his undergraduate alma mater. He laterspent many years on Westminster's board oftrustees. He is survived by his wife, Thelma; a son; adaughter; and three grandchildren.Elsa Boyer Eades, MBA'41, died February 2. Sheis survived by a daughter, Marianne.James H. Murr, AB'41, died January 22 at hishome in La Canada, CA. After working for manyyears in an aerospace-related field, he passed the barat 64 and became an attorney. Survivors include hisex-wife, Cynthia Dursema Murr, AB'44; a son; anda daughter.Dorothy M. N. Sherrick, AM'43, died March 17.She was 98. She is survived by daughter and asister, Ruth Sherrick Brumbaugh, MAT'43.Harriet Levinson Finberg, AB'45, AM'47, of NewYork City, died on January 6. She is survived by herhusband, Laurence; two sons, Robert Finberg;AB'71, and James M. Finberg, JD'83; a daughter; asister, Evelyn Levinson Coopersmith, AB'43,CLA'43; and five grandchildren.Emest C. Miller, AB'45, MBA46, died January 14in San Luis Obispo, CA. He was 75. After 21 yearsin the Air Force, he joined Cal Poly University inSan Luis Obispo as a professor of business administration, retiring after 20 years. He is survived by hiswife, Virginia; a daughter; a son; a brother, DonaldS. Miller, MBA'50; three grandchildren; a son-in-law; and a daughter-in-law.Joseph J. Baum, AB'47, JD'51, of Morton Grove,IL, died of heart problems in August 1993. He wasan adjudicator for the Veterans Administration inChicago. He is survived by his wife, Ruth.Murray A. Harding, AB'49, of West Palm Beach,died April 30. He was 66. After careers in journalism and on Wall Street, he was an investment executive with PaineWebber in Palm Beach for ten years. He is survived by his wife, Barbara WeilHarding, AB'49; two sons; two daughters; twobrothers, including Harold R. Harding, AB'50; and aniece, Virginia Harding Thompson, AB'85.Edward H. Tuttle, AM'49, a social worker, diedFebruary 1. He is survived by his wife.1950sJames B. Burdick, MBA'50, a former bishop andhead of a retirement home, died April 23. He was84. He served from 1956 to 1977 as bishop of theChicago District of the Reorganized Church of JesusChrist of Latterday Saints and also as administratorof the Washington and Jane Smith Home. He wasordained a patriarch after retirement. Survivorsinclude his wife, Hazel; two daughters; three sisters;eight grandchildren; and one great-grandchild,C. Marcial Burroughs, AM'51, died December 15,1993, in Topeka, KS. She was 80. In 1975, the SSAAlumni Association honored her for her professional contributions. Named Outstanding Person ofthe Year in 1976 by the Kansas Conference onSocial Welfare, she had joined the state's social-welfare department in 1938, serving as its assistantdirector for 12 years before retiring in 1973. Shealso worked for the federal welfare department. Survivors include a sister, Jean.Robert W. Hawkinson, X'54, died April 18 at hisGlen Ellyn, IL, home. He was 74. A fighter pilot inWWII, he was shot down behind enemy lines inEurope and evaded capture for six weeks beforebeing rescued by the Allies. In 1982, he retired aspresident, CEO, and board chair of Belden Corp.His honors included the Purple Heart, the Distinguished Service Cross, and the Horatio Alger award.He is survived by his wife, Janet; two sons; a daughter; and seven grandchildren.1960sDonald H. Heyden, MBA'60, of Barrington, IL,died May 1. He worked for General Electric Co. for23 years, then worked with industrial manufacturers as a senior marketing executive. He is survivedby his wife, Josephine; two daughters; a son; abrother; and four grandchildren.1970sAllen D. Goldhamer, AM'62, PhD'70, died ofAIDS-related illness on December 14, 1993, at hishome in Glencoe, IL. He was 55. For the past 16years he had been with Allstate Insurance Company, most recently as manager of the AllstateFoundation. Previously he taught English at theUniversity of Illinois at Chicago and public relationsat DePaul University. He is survived by his companion, Kenneth Hoskins; his parents; and a brother.William A. Williams, AM'70, of Pittsburgh, diedof cancer on March 26. He was 54. He is survivedby his wife, Jeanne.Timothy J. Twomey, MBA'71, died in December1993. Survivors include his wife, Judith; a daughter,Meghan K. Twomey, AB'92; and a stepdaughter,Susan.1980sRavi Bhushan, MBA'86, PhD'87, an associate professor of accounting at Southern Methodist University, died April 30 from injuries sustained in a caraccident. He was 34. He joined SMU to teach at theEdwin L. Cox School of Business in 1993, afterteaching at MIT's Sloan School of Management. Hewas an active reviewer for several accounting journals. Survivors include his wife, Seema; twin daughters; and two brothers.UNIVERSITY" OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1994 45Boohs by AlumniBIOGRAPHY AND LETTERSMark K. Bauman, AM'72, Harry H. Epstein and theRabbinate as Conduit for Change (Associated University Presses for Fairleigh University Press). For sixdecades of this century, Rabbi Epstein helped first-and second-generation Jewish immigrants balancetradition and change. The author uses primarysources to illustrate the shifting, complex roles ofthe congregational rabbi and put Epstein's actions inhistorical perspective.Katherine Dunham, PhB'36, A Touch of Innocence:A Memoir of Childhood, and Island Possessed (University of Chicago Press). A narrative of the author'sstruggle to overcome troubled beginnings, the firstbook tells of her difficulties growing up as a biracialchild and also explores divisions of race and class inChicago. The second book describes the author'sstudies of Haitian dance, politics, and voodoo anddetails her often life-threatening experiences.Shelley R. Green, AM'76, Radical Juxtaposition:The Films of Yvonne Rainer (Scarecrow Press). Thisvolume of the Filmmakers Series examines the workof one of the central figures of the avant-garde. Concentrating on the relationship established betweenthe filmmaker and the spectator, the author surveyscritical reaction lo Rainer's work and includesRaincr's critical writings, photos, full biographicalinhumation, a filmography, and a bibliography.Sarah Schmidt, AB'53, Horace M. Kallen: Prophetof American Zionism (Carlson Publishing). Kallen,an American social philosopher, played a centralrole in defining American Zionism — including hisconcept of cultural pluralism — from 1914 through1921. Based on archival research and interviewswith Kallen, Schmidt's study documents the development of Kallen's thought and influence.BUSINESS AND ECONOMICSMargaret A. Lulic, MAT'74, Who We Could Be atWork (Blue Edge Publishing). Lulic addresses personal and organizational transformation in theworkplace, providing models of change and anecdotal examples.Calvin Redekop, PhB'59, Victor A. Krahn, SamuelJ. Steiner, editors, Anabaptist/Mcnnonite Faith andEconomics (University Press of America). The continuing conflict between the Anabaptist/Mennonitecommunity and the expanding industrial culture ofthe modern world has not been fully investigated,contend the editors. Their volume addresses theissues that fuel the conflict, focusing on the implications of subordinating an economic system to thetheological framework of a Christian society.Robert Schmidt, MBA'83, AM'83, The Nationalfoblinc Dircclorv (Bob Adams, Inc.). Schmidt's bookoffers a nationwide summary of employer hotlines,descriptions of each organization, and a detailedsection on how best to use this job-search methodCRITICISMSuzanne Pinckncy Stctkevych, PhD'81, editor,Rcoricitlalions/Arabic and Persian Poetry (IndianaUniversity Press). Using contemporary literarytheory, the contributors — eight members of the"Chicago School" of Arabic and Persian literature —an.ilvic poetry from the prc-lslamic code ol thesixth ccnlurv to 17th-century Persian Safavid Moghul verse, considering the ritual and sacrificialaspects of literature, the transition from orality toliteracy, and imitation as a form of creation.EDUCATIONLester F. Goodchild, PhD'86, co-editor, Administration as a Profession (Jossey-Bass Publishers). Thebook, which includes a chapter by Goodchild, examines the condition of higher-education programsby exploring their history, missions, curricula, student demography, and organizational settings.Elaine Gerald Greenspan, PhB'48, A Teacher'sSurvival Guide (J. Weston Walch). Combining practical advice and personal experience, the authoraffirms teaching as a career choice and covers issuesfrom motivating students to developing lecture anddiscussion techniques.FICTION AND POETRYBarbara J. Davis, PhD'90, In the Way (FinnishAmericana). Writing on the themes of Finnish-American culture and child abuse, the authorchronicles the development of resilience in thedaughter of Finnish immigrants in rural Michigan.Diane Farris, AM'67, AM'72, PhD'74, author andillustrator, In Dolphin Time (Four WindsPress/Macmillan). The narrator of this children'sstory discovers dolphins in a pocket, then returnsthem to the ocean.Henry S. Maas, PhD'48, Crests & Chasms: LifeScenes Portraits Reflections (Wallace Crescent Press).The author's essay on creative experiences concludes this collection of approximately 100 poems.Maas was an assistant professor and member of theCommittee on Human Development at the University from 1949 to 1951.Linda Portnay, AB'66, Wishing for the Worst(Warthog Press). From a kitchen in Brooklyn to theforests of Lithuania, the author covers familiar andforeign ground in a series of highly personal poemsweaving together memory and loss.Mary L. Shumway, AB'57, Legends and OtherVoices (Juniper Press). Shumway has collected newpoems as well as poems selected from her previousbooks, including Time and Other Birds, Headlands,and Practicing Vivaldi.GENDER STUDIESLaura Doan, PhD'83, editor, The Lesbian Postmodern (Columbia University Press). These essays discuss lesbian cultural and literary theory as itcritiques heterosexual hegemony or stresses sexualplurality. Topics include the shifting definitions oflesbian and postmodern, and issues ol popular culture, class, race, and postcolonialism.Gloria Goodwin Raheja, AM'76, PhD'85, and AnnGrodzins Gold, AB'75. AM'78, PhD'84, Listen to theHeron's Words: Reimagining Gender and Kinship inNorth India (University of California Press). Studying the poetics of women's resistance in northernIndia, the authors analyze women's expressiveforms — dancing songs; songs of birth, marriage, andfestivity; and ritual and informal narratives — as sitesof women's dissent from prevailing ideologies ofkinship and gender.Emilie Buchwald, Pamela R. Fletcher, and MarthaRoth, AB'58, edilors, Transforming a Rape Culture (Milkweed Editions). The collection of 37 essays byAmerican activists, theologians, policy makers, educators, and authors of both genders seeks to providevisions of a world without rape. The writers decryAmerican society as fostering sexual violence andoffer strategies for cultural upheaval to end rape.HISTORY/CURRENT EVENTSGeorge J. Andreopoulos, AB'76, editor, Genocide:Conceptual and Historical Dimensions (University ofPennsylvania Press); Andreopoulos and Harold E.Selesky, editors, The Aftermath of Defeat: Societies,Armed Forces, and the Challenge of Recovery (YaleUniversity Press); Michael Howard, Andreopoulos,and Mark R. Shulman, editors, The Laws of War:Constraints on Warfare in the Western World (YaleUniversity Press). The first book examines genocide's definition, its roots, and its future implications. In the second book, military historians showhow the trauma of defeat affects the evolution ofsociety. The third work explores the formal rulesand unwritten conventions of war.Rasma Karklins, AM'71, PhD'75, Elhnopolitics andTransition to Democracy: The Collapse of the USSRand Latvia (Woodrow Wilson Center Press). Arguing that ethnicity can be a constructive rather thandestructive force in the transition to democracy inthe post-Cold War world, Karklins analyzes the collapse of the Soviet Union and the democracy-building in Latvia. Democratic practices within amultiethnic society, the author suggests, make possible the creation of a constructive civic nationalism,respectful of the rights of ethnic groups.Helena Znaniecka Lopata, PhD'54, Polish Americans (Transaction Publishers), and Circles and Settings: Role Changes of American Women (StateUniversity of New York Press). A major revision ofPolish Americans: Status Competition in an EthnicCommunity (Prentice-Hall, 1976), the first bookanalyzes the history of the Polish-American community and its internal organization, as well as itsrelations with Poland and the rest of American society. The second book is a symbolic-interactionistanalysis of the social relations of women in thefamily, the working world, and the community,with special attention to class, race, and ethnicity.Gabriel Martinez, AM'84, PhD'90, and GuillermoFarber, Desregtdacion en Mexico, 1 989-93 (Fondo deCultura Economica), Martinez and Farber summarize the analysis that led to scores of legal andadministrative reforms in Mexico's economic regulation, including the deregulation of road transportation, telecommunications, airlines, and ports;as well as actions to eliminate monopoly-enhancingregulations in the fields of health, foodstuffs, agriculture, marketing, movies, and petrochemicals.Joseph P. Schwieterman, PhD'90, Air Cargo andthe Opening of China: New Opportunities for HongKong (University of Hong Kong Press). The openingof China and the growth of intra-regional trade inAsia and the Pacific has transformed Hong Konginto an international transportation center, and thecity's airport project has vast potential as a regionalhub for express cargo. Schwieterman reviews therapid changes facing transportation providers insouth China and calls for the Hong Kong government to liberalize air-service agreements and stimulate competition among local-terminal operators.Richard F. Scott, JD'52, The History of the International Energy Agency — The First Twenty Years, Vols.1 and 2 (OECD). Volume 1 traces the origins of theIEA during the oil shock of 1973-74 and paints itsinstitutional and legal portrait. Volume 2 will carrythe story forward, examining the challenges the IEAhas faced, its policies, and its achievements.Jeffrey Taylor, AB'84, The Pru-Bache Murder: TheFast Life and Grisly Death of a Millionaire Slockbro-46 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994ker (HarperCollins Publishers). A reporter for theWall Street journal, Taylor chronicles the life ofMichael Prozumenshikov, a Prudential-Bache Securities stockbroker killed by a client because of hisquestionable business practices. The book alsopoints out larger problems in the world of finance,including consumer trust, capable management,and employee compensation.POLITICAL SCIENCE AND LAWJoseph M. Bessette, AM'74, PhD'78, The MildVoice of Reason (University of Chicago Press). Drawing on original research, case studies of policymaking in Congress, and portraits of American lawmakers, Bessette offers insights into the workings ofAmerican democracy, articulates a set of standardsby which to assess the workings of our governinginstitutions, and clarifies the forces that promote orinhibit collective reasoning about common goals.PSYCHIATRY/PSYCHOLOGYAdele Eskeles Gottfried, AM'68, and Allen W.Gottfried, editors, Redefining Families: Implicationsfor Children's Development (Plenum Publishing Corporation); and Allen W. Gottfried, Adele EskelesGottfried, Kay Bathurst, and Diana Wright Guerin,Gifted IQ: Early Developmental Aspects (PlenumPublishing Corporation) . In the first work, contributors look at the relationship between alternativefamilies and children's development, including thesocial and legal implications. The research in thesecond book is based on the Fullerton LongitudinalStudy, which involves the systematic investigationof a single cohort — in this case, children with giftedIQs — from infancy onward.Paul Gray, SB'39, MD'42, The Ego and Analysis ofDefense (Jason Aronson Inc.). Believing that the traditional technique of psychoanalysis lags behind thelater theoretical discoveries of Sigmund and AnnaFreud, Gray has collected and elaborated on a seriesof his technical papers that focus on the data of conflict and defense at an observable and accessibleconscious level. Case illustrations and teaching andsupervising guidelines are included.Jacqueline Wallen, AM'67, PhD'76, Addiction inHuman Development: Developmental Perspectives onAddiction and Recovery (Haworth Press). The authorshows how a developmental perspective is particularly useful in treating individuals with alcohol ordrug problems. Topics covered include developmental deficits and arrest in recovering alcoholicsand addicts, delayed reactions to sexual abuse andother childhood trauma, stages in recovery fromalcoholism or drug addiction, family dynamics inrecovery, and developmental issues in the helpingprofessional's own life.RECREATIONLouis F. Aulbach, MBA'73, AM'73, The LowerCanyons of the Rio Grande (Wilderness Area MapService). An aid to canoeists, this river guidebookcovers the 83 miles of canyons of the Rio Grande,from the eastern boundary of Big Bend NationalPark in Texas to the Gulf of Mexico. Annotatedtopographic maps are complemented by photographs and text describing the river, the land, theenvironment, and travel precautions.RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHYSteve Askin, AB'90, A New Rite: ConservativeCatholic Organizations and their Allies (Washington:Catholics for a Free Choice). Askin profiles 28right-wing religious organizations, summarizingtheir history, current activities, policies, sources of financial support, organizational structure, andleadership. The book also includes a comprehensiveindex of the organizations' leaders and officers.David R. Kinsley, AM'66, PhD'70, Ecology andReligion: Ecological Spirituality in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Prentice-Hall). Kinsley discusses ecologicalthemes in traditional cultures and Asian religions,the debate about Christianity's influence on attitudes toward the environment, and current NorthAmerican ecological spirituality.Bonnie J. Miller-McLemore, AM'80, PhD'86,Work and Family as Theological Dilemma (AbingdonPress). Suggesting that combining work and familypresents a religious crisis as well as a gender-roledilemma, the author calls for a religious solutionthat awards men and women equal respect andresponsibility.Walter Nicgorski, AM'62, PhD'66, and KennethL. Deutsch, editors, Leo Strauss: Political Philosopherand Jewish Thinker (Rowman and Littlefield). Theseessays explore Strauss' contributions to politicalphilosophy and Jewish thought and provide ananalysis of his religious heritage and its impact onhis work. (Strauss taught at the University from1949 to 1968.) The volume also includes his previously unpublished talk, "Why We Remain Jews,"first given as a lecture at the University in 1962.An Ongoing Horror (see Histoiy/Current Events)Morris Springer, AM'49, PhD'61, The Chayder, theYeshiva and I (Chicago Jewish Historical Society).Springer's work was the co-winner of the 1993Doris Minsky Memorial Fund prize for monographsabout the history of the Jewish people of Chicago.Michael Swirsky, AB'63, translator, Present atSinai: The Giving of the Law (Jewish PublicationSociety of America). Written by the late S.J. Agnon.the leading 20th-century Hebrew writer and winnerof the 1966 Nobel Prize for literature, Present atSinai is a compendium of rabbinical commentary onthe revelation, described in the Book of Exodus,that forms the core of Judaism.Howard M. Teeple, PhD'55, AM'63, How DidChristianity Really Begin?: A Historical-Archaeological Approach (Religion and Ethics Institute). Theproduct of 50 years of research, Teeple's book is acomprehensive survey of sources using advancedmethods of historical research, with a focus on the problems of the early churches and their influencein creating "sayings of Jesus."Sophronia N. Tomaras, AB'48, God Calls Us(Department of Religious Education of the GreekOrthodox Archdiocese of North and South America). From a new curriculum series entitled LivingOur Orthodox Faith, this 5th-grade text concentrates on stories of those who answered God's call,portraying them as examples of loyalty, self-sacrifice,obedience, love, justice, and social responsibility.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYRobert Messer, SB'71, Linear Algebra: Gateway toMathematics (HarperCollins College Publishers).Messer's text explores vector spaces and lineartransformations, exposing students to the usefulnessof mathematics and introducing them to axioms,definitions, proof techniques, and mathematicalnotation.SOCIAL SCIENCESHarvey Choldin, AB'60, AM'63, PhD'65, Lookingfor the Last Percent: The Controversy over CensusUndercounts (Rutgers University Press). Because acensus is most likely to miss those who are poor,male, urban, black, or Hispanic, in the last two U.S.censuses, many big-city mayors complained thatundercounts deprived their communities of fairpolitical representation and funding. Choldin tellsthe story and concludes that, despite the under-count, the United States has an excellent census,Charles R. Elder, AM'83, PhD'91, The Grammarof the Unconscious: The Conceptual Foundations ofPsychoanalysis (Penn State Press). Making philosophical inquiry into the distinctive features andconditions of the language of psychoanalysis, theauthor, a William Rainey Harper instructor in theSocial Sciences Collegiate Division, attempts toshow both its validity and its limits.Nancy Foner, AM'68, PhD'71, The CaregivingDilemma: Work in an American Nursing Home (University of California Press), This study of institutional care focuses on nursing aides, considered thebackbone of American nursing homes, and examines the strains and paradoxes facing these aideswho are asked, on the one hand, to provide compassionate care and, on the other, to cope with thepressures of the workplace.Alex C. Michalos, AM'61, DB'61, PhD'65, GlobalReport on Student Well-Being, Vols. 1-4 (Springer-Verlag). These four volumes contain analyses of asurvey of 18,000 university undergraduates in 39countries. The analyses use multiple-discrepanciestheory to explain happiness and satisfaction withlife as a whole and satisfaction with 12 specificdomains of life.Frederic G. Reamer, AM'75, PhD'78, Social WorkMalpractice and Liability (Columbia UniversityPress). Reamer provides a comprehensive introduction to malpractice and liability issues facing socialworkers. Topics addressed include confidentiality,improper treatment and delivery of services, fraudand deception, and termination of service.Peter J. Venturelli, AM'78, PhD'81, editor, DmgUse in America: Social, Cultural, and Political Perspectives (Jones and Bartlett Publishers). Thisanthology contains 30 articles by leadingresearchers and practitioners, examining the useand abuse of drugs from social, cultural, and political perspectives.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," please sendthe name of the book, its author, its publisher, anda short synopsis to the Books Editor, University ofChicago Magazine, 5757 S. Woodlawn Ave.,Chicago, IL 60637.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994 470 ther VoicesRestlessVisionaryBy Frank K. KellyIn Robert Maynard Hutchins: A Memoir,Hutchins gets full recognition as one ofthe great educators and moral leaders ofthe century. Written by Milton Mayer,an educator and journalist who worked withHutchins for more than 40 years, the bookwas completed by John H. Hicks after Mayer's death in 1986 and published last year bythe University of California Press.Mayer shows Hutchins moving with dazzling speed and passionate persistence inmany fields — working day and night as ateacher, an administrator, a philosopher, anda communicator, striving to advance thespiritual revolution he thought humanityneeded.In particular, Mayer provides insight intowhat Hutchins tried to do during his stormyyears at the University of Chicago. Hutchins'plan for undergraduates measured achievement by comprehensive examinations ratherthan time spent in classrooms, and proddedfaculty members to concentrate on significant subjects: Some 300 courses weredropped from the curriculum in 1931 and1932.Hutchins convinced many students andfaculty members that learning shouldalways be exciting. The object of study wasnot simply to get a degree or to do research:It was to become a thinking person with alifelong interest in confronting the important questions human beings had to face. Hemade Chicago into the most exciting placeof learning in the United States. Yet, afterdecades of struggle, many of his ideas fordrastically altering the structure of the University were not accepted. In the end, writesMaver, Hutchins was "frustrated and furious," leaving Chicago in 1951 to become anassociate director of the Ford Foundation.Above all, Mayer presents a man of principle, read)' to light for his ideals. Mayer witnessed the valorous defense Hutchinsprovided for faculty members accused in the1930s and 1940s of being "Reds." One of A memoir of Robert MaynardHutchins charts the life of a20th-century idealist.the few university presidents who showedso much courage in those turbulent times,Hutchins never wavered in his defense ofthe fundamental freedoms — to speak, towrite, to teach, to talk freely about any topic(including communism) — essential for ademocratic society.Although Hutchins opposed U.S. participation in World War II before the Japaneseattacked Pearl Harbor, he found his campusplaying host to the Metallurgical Project,which led to the development of the atomicbomb. The use of such bombs againstJapan, Mayer declares, intensified Hutchins'feeling that there was very little time to educate people in the right way — and by theright way, he meant to develop their thinking abilities and increase their willingnessto listen to one another, to resolve conflictspeacefully, and to serve the good of all.At the Ford Foundation, Hutchins persuaded the trustees to expend millions toestablish three huge educational organizations he had designed: the Fund for theAdvancement of Education, the Fund forAdult Education — and the Fund for theRepublic, designed to support the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights, and which hebecame the president of in 1954.Once again, Hutchins was engaged in crucial battles: The Fund for the Republicmade hundreds of grants to groups and citizens whose rights and liberties were endan gered by Senator Joseph McCarthy and theHouse Committee on Un-American Activities. The committee attacked Hutchins andtried to destroy the fund, but many newspaper editors and other leaders (includingPresident Eisenhower) saw its value anddefended it. The fund, of course, outlastedthe committee.Mayer takes a generally critical attitudetoward the last great enterprise Hutchinscreated — the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, an educational experiment that brought together hundreds ofleaders from many countries for searchingdialogues on the issues facing humanity inan era of rapid changes. In Mayer's view,the fellows Hutchins brought to the center"were not up to the idea of the dialogue."He writes, "The trouble was also in theridiculous grandiosity of the program,which persistently bit off more than anyprogram of investigation could possiblychew." Hutchins himself said that thecenter had not fulfilled his expectations;still, he said, it was tackling global problemsnot being examined thoughtfully anywhereelse on the planet.Mayer does acknowledge the importanceof the center's international convocationson "The Requirements for Peace." Held inNew York, Geneva, and Washington, theyhelped pave the way for better relationsbetween the United States and the USSRand stimulated negotiations that led to theend of the Vietnam War,The wit and wisdom of an Americangenius — as well as his occasional arrogance,blind spots, frustrations and limitations —are evident in Mayer's engrossing volume, alively and candid biography of a man whohad a powerful impact on the lives of manythousands of people in several generations.The questions Hutchins raised in his life arethe questions we have to face now and inthe years ahead.Frank K. Kelly is senior vice president of theNuclear Age Peace Foundation. A speech writerfor President Harry Truman and staff directorfor the U.S. Senate Majority Policy Committee,he spent 19 years as vice president of the Fundfor the Republic and the Carter for the Study ofDemocratic Institutions. Among his books isCourt of Reason: Robert Hutchins and theFund for the Republic (1981).48 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1994¦msm^THE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGOWUNXv7iFRSlTYMMXIUNICf,#P?" 8*^'%Order FormItem No. Item Quantity ColorSize Price Each Total Price1st 2nd•Shipping and Handling for continental U.S. and CanadaUp to S9.99: $4.50 $10-$T9.99: $7.00 SubtotalS20.00-S49.99: $9.00 $50 ond over : $12.00 Illinois Residents Add8.75% Sales TaxAdditional 2nd Day: $1 2.50 Additional Next Day: $1 5.00 'Shipping/HandlingAllow 4 to 6 weeks for delivery.Inquire about overseas shipping costs. GRAND TOTALSome restrictions may apply. Prices are s ubject to change without notice. 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