ATHB UNIVERSITY OFMAGAZINE AUGUST 1994TheSciencePersistenRuth Sager, SB'38, knew she wasright — and set out to prove it. 3 I tt:%v/---*..... "^fTHE UNChicagoVOLUME 86, NUMBER 6 AUGUST 1994 M^^^WDEPARTMENTS2 Editor's notes3 Letters7 EventsCasting a net for summer fun.8 Investigations;.; What to do shmii metis most..< iommon cancer? Also:Micluwl Dawson on blackpolitics; Amanda Woodwardonhow babies think.12 Chicago journalOpportunity knocks forimderrepresented students;, Chicago fund-raising has a 'new leader; the ARC telescope stands atone.36 Alumni chronicleReunion '94: a meeting ofminds — and a few hifmlis,too.38 Class news43 Deaths45 Books by alumni48 Other voicesJoan SpoerL AB'85. bringsher kindergarten class tothe quads to see scienceat work — andphy. 182132 FEATURESBalancing actIn his attempts to reconcile private and public law,Richard Epstein often flouts judicial precedent andpolitical fashion — which doesn't bother him a bit.HAROLD HENDERSONAre you experienced?That's the question asked of today's M.B.A. s. The NewProduct Lab lets GSB grads answer in the affirmative.TIM ANDREW OBERMILLERReaders of the lost archivesDirect from a German attic, long-lost notebooks offer heyfootnotes to the Oriental Institute's biggest expedition.MARY RUTH YOEThe science of persistenceAfter years investigating the "margins" of genetics, RuthSager, SB'38, finds herself in the mainstream.ANDREW CAMPBELLPage 18Cover: Biologist Ruth Sager of Harvard MedicalSchool is this year's Alumni Medalist (page32); photograph by Jim Harrison. Opposite:Dancing to a Northwest Pacific coastal chant,students from the Laboratory Schools wearbutton blankets they made this spring. Eachblanket's design symbolizes its wearer's lifestory; photograph by Ed Entst.EditorMary Ruth YoeManaging EditorTim Andrew ObermillerAssociate EditorAndrew CampbellArt DirectorAllen CarrollEditorial AssistantCatherine Mitchell, AB'93Contributing EditorsJamie Kalven, Joe LevineEditorial office: The University of ChicagoMagazine, Robie House, 5757 S. WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-2163; fax (312) 702-2166. The Magazine issent to all University of Chicago alumni. TheUniversity of Chicago Alumni Association has itsoffices at Robie House, 5757 S. WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-2150; fax (312) 702-2166.The University of Chicago AlumniAssociation Board of Governors:Officers: Linda Thoren Neal, AB'64, JD'67, president,- Bob Levey, AB'66, vice president; GregoryG. Wrobel, AB'75, JD'78, MBA'79, treasurer;Michael J. Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76, secretary; and Jeanne Buiter, MBA'86, executivedirector.Andrew M. Alper, AB'80, MBA'81; Jack J. Carlson, AB'40; N. Gwyn Cready, AB'83, MBA'86;Trina N. Frankel, AB'64; Caroline Heck, AB'71;Le Roy J. Hines, AM'78; Randy Holgate, 'VicePresident, Development and Alumni Relationst;Susan Carlson Hull, AB'82; Patricia Klowden,AB'67; Michael C. Krauss, AB'75, MBA'76;Joseph D. LaRue, AM'59; Katherine DusakMiller, AB'65, MBA'68, PhD'71; Theodore A.O'Neill, AM'70, *Dean of College Admissions;Susan W. Parker, AB'65; Harvey B. Plotnick,AB'63; Louise E. Rehling, AM'70, SM'74; JeanMaclean Snyder, AB'63, JD'79; David M.Terman, AB'55, SB'56, MD'59; Mary B. VanMeerendonk, AB'64; Peter 0. Vandervoort,AB'54, SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60; Mary Ruth Yoe,"Editor, University of Chicago Magazine.' Ex OfficioMagazine Advisory Committee: Michael J.Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76, chair; Richard L.Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; Mary Lou Gorno,MBA'76; Neil Harris, the Preston and SterlingMorton Professor in History; Susan Carlson Hull,AB'82; Michael C. Krauss, AB'75, MBA'76; BobLevey, AB'66; Katherine Dusak Miller, AB'65,MBA'68, PhD'71; Peter O. Vandervoort, AB'54,SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60; Marva Watkins, AB'63.The University of Chicago Magazine (ISSN-0041-9508) is published bimonthly (October,December, February, April, June, and August)by the University of Chicago in cooperation withthe Alumni Association, Robie House, 5757 S.Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago IL 60637. Published continuously since 1907. Second-classpostage paid at Chicago and additional mailingoffices. POSTMASTER: Send address changesto the University of Chicago Magazine, AlumniRecords, Robie House, 5757 S. WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. © 1994 Universityof Chicago. Editors NotesJt's summer quarter, and a fair share ofthe University's faculty are far from thequads, in search of the stuff of their nextpaper or book or theory. It's a safe bet thatmore than one of those wandering scholarswill find themselves waylaid by the vagariesof modern travel — marooned betweenflights in some anonymous airport. Arrivinghome, they'll trade war stories about hardships endured in the name of research.You have to wonder if the Egyptologistswho took part in the Oriental Institute's1926-32 excavation of Medinet Habugrumbled about the airport that greetedthem at Luxor. As shown in the photographabove — part of a cache of old negativesrecently discovered in a German attic (see"Readers of the Lost Archives," page 28) —the Luxor airfield was minimal at best. Andyet there's a kind of glamour to the scene.True, the terminal is no more than a shackwith a wind sock, but the boxy propellerplane, according to the lettering on its side,belonged to a fleet known as Imperial Airways.The glamour runs deeper, fueled in partby the Indiana Jones films of Steven Spielberg — whose films were themselvesinspired by the exploits of the OrientalInstitute's pioneering scholars. The glamouris also fueled, I think, by our human fascination with what has gone before. That same preoccupation took the archaeologists to Medinet Habu. They wanted toknow how the people of the ancient templecomplex had lived, worked, and played.When the researchers found pieces of thatpuzzling past, they labeled and packedthem for the long journey home — and thequestions and theories that would follow.Six decades later, I find myself wanting toknow what it was like to be an Egyptologiston the Medinet Habu expedition. To put ina full day of excavations formally dressed insuit, tie, and fedora. To spend hours neatlynumbering specimens by hand and recording them in the expedition's logbooks. Toknow what it was like to fly into a place sofar from anywhere but the past.Back to the FutureJoining our staff is Kimberly Sweet, whograduated in June from Northwestern University's baccalaureate program in journalism. As the Magazine's editorial assistant,Kim will spend much of her time compilingand writing the class news. She succeedsCatherine Mitchell, AB'93, who enters graduate school in English at the University ofCalifornia, Berkeley, this fall. We're not theonly people sure that Cathy will do splendidly — this spring she was one of 130 U.S.graduate students to be named a Jacob K.Javits fellow. — M.R.Y.2 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994LettersOr is there a secret handshake?J COULD BE CONVINCED THAT I AM THE ONLYU of C grad within a 200-mile radius ofWashington, D.C.For years, I avoided wearing baseball capsand shirts with logos, gags, slogans, andbeach names. One day, I received the catalog from the University offering U of Cclothes and caps. It was pretty. After twomore catalogs, I decided to claim my educational identity.The knit shirt was nice. I purchased one inmaroon. Later in the year, I purchased onein white. The young lady suggested that forthe same shipping charges, I could include amaroon baseball cap. I was hooked.In the two years of wearing either the capor the shirt or both, I have been referred toas "that guy from Chicago." In those twoyears, I have seen no one wearing any similarcaps or shirts in plazas, stores, resorts, healthclubs, or fast-food restaurants. I'll bet EdAsner, X'48, David Broder, AB'47, AM'51,and Mike Nichols, X'53, don't wear them. Doany of our alumni, except at reunions?Are alumni ashamed that we haven't hadsports teams to publicize since the pre-Hutchins years? are they prouder of Izods,Atlantic City, Las Vegas, rescue squads, orpolitical candidates? are they finding it difficult to explain the school to their children?In any case, until I see the caps or shirts, Iam the U of C Grad of the East.Jack Ralph, AM'50Silver Spring, MarylandThe Bookstore's number is 312/702-8729.Operators are standing by (Monday throughSaturday, 8:30 a.m. until 5 p.m.). — Ed.A poet for the ages...JT IS PRETTY NEARLY "BITTER CONSTRAINTand sad occasion dear" that bring theUniversity magazine to have to make acase extraordinary for Professor JanelMueller's class in Milton, just one of thegreatest poets who ever lived ("MiltonRegained" June/94), It is not the death of anEdward King but the demise of liberal education in this country that permitted aMilton to get lost.But then, who reads (or can read) Shakespeare or Browning today? Not only in his poetry but also in his prose tracts, Miltondraws a bead on the foibles of man. But henever rants and preaches, even to those"who have lived a burden to the earth." TheSt. Peter section of "Lycidas" is a good description of the present Congress ("of othercare they little reckoning make"), leavingthe hungry sheep to look up and not get fed.Really, how many coming out of teacher-training schools today can read his tract oneducation? There may still be hope for asociety that can muster 20 students togetherto read and discuss Milton — and in old CobbHall, too, where 50 years ago I studied withDonald F. Bond. For this old man, "tomorrow to fresh woods and pastures new."Jeremiah Cameron, AM'46Kansas City, Missouri...a timeless killjoy...Jn "Milton Regained," Professor JanelMueller calls Milton "the author of someof the best writing ever done in English."Mathematically this is true — and remainstrue if the word worst is substituted for best.Milton has probably poisoned more students against poetry than even Coleridge's"The Rime of the Ancient Mariner." Comparing Milton to Shakespeare is on a parwith comparing rap "music" to J. S. Bach.John T. Dwyer, PhB'48Chula Vista, California...or a quintessential D1VEM?Thanks for your piece about Profes-sor Janel Mueller and the subtlereassurance that it provides. Havingstudied Milton with Ernest Sirluck in 1948,I am encouraged that, in an age of politicalcorrectness, this quintessential Dead WhiteEnglish Male remains in the curriculum,and that not all women scholars considerhim anathema.Arthur N. Wilkins, AM'50Kansas City, MissouriNot mad, but angryWHPK, its 50,000 listeners, andthe Magazine may find "SonicSchizophrenia" a clever name fora radio program ("Making Waves," June/94). When you visitChicago fora weekend,a week,or a month,stay atWOODED ISLE SUITES— studio andone-bedroomapartmentsfurnished toprovide you ahome away fromhome.Walk to the Universityof Chicago or theMuseum of Scienceand Industry, strollalong the lakefront,catch the bus or trainto the Loop, dine at anearby restaurant, ormake your own dinnerin your Suite.Come "home" toWooded Isle Suitesand relax after a dayof research,studying, meetings,or sightseeing.WOODED ME SUITES5750 South Stony Island AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637312-288-55781-800-290-6844University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 3Opportunities Must Be SeenTo Be SeizedLet ProNet uncover challenging opportunities that may be of interest to you, while you're busydoing what you do best.Whether or not you are currently looking for a job, people do make offers you can't refuse. TheChicago ProNet service is designed to keep you abreast of challenging opportunities in a variety offields, including high-tech, venture capital, Fortune 500, start-ups, bio-tech, pharmaceuticals, aerospace,and many more.Here's how it works. A company calls ProNet and requests a search for the individual with the skillsthey need. This request is cross-matched against the profiles of participating alumni. If you're the onethey're looking for, you'll be notified. Confidentiality is maintained throughout and you can restrict therelease of your profile.It's easy. When you receive a ProNet information package, fill out the Registration Request form andreturn it to the Alumni Association. ProNet will then send you a complete registration kit. The registrationfee is nominal, only $35.For a ProNet information package, please write to the Chicago ProNet Registration Department, The University of Chicago Alumni Association, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, fL 60637, or call (800) 593-3085.As a journalist and the longtime correspondent of The WorkWise Report, which airs onKIRO, Seattle's leading news/talk station, Iurge you to stop.Schizophrenia debilitates, forcing itsvictim to lose touch with reality. Introducewriter Julie Rigby to someone who is mentally ill, and she won't be writing about"hoping to catch the madness in action."Do the same to station manager AndreaLaiacona, and she'll drop the program (orchange its name). And as for the Magazine'seditors? You'll be cleansing copy.Mildred L. Culp, AM'74, PhD76Seattle, WashingtonAll that jazzWilliam Pryor, PhB'48, SB'51, didan excellent job of pointing outthe contemporary Chicago jazzscene in the late forties ("Letters," June/94).I also remember the Dixieland scene withMiff Mole as the house band at the BeeHive — sometimes Mugsy Spanier sat in. Farnorth was Rupnecks; in the Loop, the BrassRail with Pee Wee Russell and Danny Alvin.Then there was Ruth and Bill Rheinhardt'sJazz Ltd. with Wilbur and Sidney DeParis,Sid Catlett, George Wettling, and a host ofothers as guest artists. It was a great timefor music in Chicago.Eric Anderson, X'50Port Charlotte, FloridaChoosing the right rightsJam sorry I was unable to react earlierto the article on democratic constitution-making in Central and EasternEurope ("Present at the Creation," October/93).Professor Jon Elster is quoted as sayingthat "the more absurd or harmful rights youput in the constitution... the more you riskdevaluing truly important rights like freedom of speech." In the absurd category heincludes "even the right to a healthy environment."It is perhaps not too late to insist that incountries where life expectancy has, insome regions, dropped by ten years or morein the last 30 years — mostly because of thedeterioration of the human living environment — most people may take a less haughtycomparative view of the various constitutional rights.More than one year after the EarthSummit in Rio de Janeiro, the view thatfreedom of speech is more important thandevelopment that also helps to sustainhuman lives appears somewhat retarded.JaroMayda,JD'57Funchal, Portugal 1995 Alumni Association AwardsCall for NominationsEach year the Alumni Association selects outstanding alumniwho deserve recognition for professional excellence, serviceto the University, and benefit to society. Recipients of the 1995awards will be honored in Rockefeller Memorial Chapelduring our June Reunion.• The Alumni Medal for achievements of national orinternational stature and benefit to society• The University Alumni Service Medal for extended,extraordinary service to the University• The Professional Achievement Citations for outstandingachievement in a professional field• The Public Service Citations for creative and exemplaryleadership in voluntary service to society• The Alumni Service Citations for outstanding service tothe University• The Young Alumni Service Citations for outstandingwork on behalf of the University by individuals aged35 and younger.If you know someone who deserves an Alumni AssociationAward,* send for a nomination form or call the AlumniAssociation at 312/702-2160.Deadline for completed nominations: October 15, 1994.To be eligible, a nominee must have matriculated at the University and earned credittoward a degree. Persons currently enrolled or employed by the University and votingmembers of the Board of Trustees and the Association's Board of Governors are not eligible.Please send me a nomination form for the 1995 Alumni Awards.Name Address -City . State Zip.Return to:Alumni AwardsUniversity of Chicago Alumni Association5757 Woodlawn AvenueChicago, IL 60637All nominations must remain confidentialUniversity of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 5A MusicalOfferingChoir f Organ f Carillonon compact discfromRockefeller Memorial Chapelin celebration ofthe University of Chicago'sCentennialI5>'li!lG. F. Handel - Messiah ChorusesJ. S. Bach - Toccata and Fuguein D Minorand selections by Bach, Cimarosa,Chesnokov, Handel, Lefevere,Palestrina, and VierneWolfgang Riibsam, OrganistWylie Crawford, CarillonneurRockefeller Memorial Chapel Choirwith Bruce Tammen, ConductorTlie CD is available al the Chapel for adonation of $15 to support our music program {$17 lo ship in the US.) . To ordersend check payable to RockefellerMemorial Chapel to: RMC CD *Rockefeller Memorial Chapel ? 5850 SWoodlawn Ave. * Chicago, IL 606376 University of Chicago Magazin Darwin, too, may passSLCULAR IN NATURE, RlCHARD RORTY'sthought impugns Plato, transcendsKant, embraces Darwin, and laudsDewey and Sidney Hook as well as Derrida("There's No Big Picture," April/94). Thephilosophy seems to have feet of clay.Rorty attributes to Christians the enterprise of "selling the idea that all God reallywanted from us was fraternal love." Actually, the New Testament message is the giftof grace without works, which hardlydepends on Plato for its dissemination. IfRorty says that philosophy matters, theology also matters.Darwin's story of the descent of manseems to be essential for part of Rorty'sargument. But there are controversialaspects in the competing theories of cosmogony. Darwin's theory of evolutiondeserves no greater claim on our mindsthan the "phlogiston" of two centuries ago.That principle of inflammability waswrongly supposed to exist in combustiblebodies; nevertheless, contemporaries madereal scientific advances at that time. Darwinism or neo-Darwinism may eventuallybe relegated to an obscure place in the textbooks of the history of science in the 21stor the 22nd century, after the passionatedebate of our times subsides.Lloyd B. Urdahl, PhD'59Rochester, New YorkA virtue in randomnessThere is a message for the worldfrom philosophy ("There's No BigPicture"). The evolution and presentstatus of the universe is determined by therandom behavior of countless, varied particles. Contrary to the well-known statementby Albert Einstein, God does play dice!Factual information about the universe isgradually being made available by the scientific method, but the attainment of fullinformation is an unattainable goal.Plato has given the message from philosophy. The good life consists in virtuous activity; virtuous activity is the having and doingof what is one's own. For Richard Rorty,that activity at one time may have involvedTrotsky and wild orchids. For the other several billion inhabitants of our world, theuniversal crap game offers other activities.Albert G. Guy, SB'38Gainesville, FloridaVeterans at ChicagoFifty years ago this fall, more than100 of us enrolled at the U of C onthe just-passed GI Bill [see "OtherVoices," June/94, (or more on Chicago during the Second World War], Only twoof us had seen military action. The Navyhad retired me as a lieutenant threemonths earlier after I received disablingwounds in the Coral Sea Battle, on boardthe U.S.S. Lexington.I had entered the Navy in August 1940,enlisting before finishing my senior year atChicago. My A.B. and MBA. were bencheduntil 1949 and 1950, respectively. Afterreceiving my second degree, I stayed on atthe Industrial Relations Center for anotherthree years, before moving to the ChicagoCity Colleges.A very bright spot in 1944-45 occurredwhen I dated a freshman, Elaine Murdock,X'46, on New Year's Eve.Five weeks later, we married. This comingFebruary, we will celebrate our 50thanniversary and the 49th birthday of theoldest of our eight children. How is that fora wartime marriage?Richard Harrison, AB'49, MBA'50Clarksville, TennesseeRoger Weiss and Howard BrownFOR AN AUTHORIZED BOOK ABOUT THElives of Roger W. Weiss, AM'51,PhD'55 (1930-1991), professor inthe College and division of social sciences,and Howard Mayer Brown (1930-1993),the Ferdinand Schevill distinguished serviceprofessor of music, I would appreciate anyanecdotes, memorabilia, and/or correspondence from your readers concerning thesetwo men.My primary focus is the social world thatHoward and Roger created for students,colleagues, and friends in their Hyde Parkand Lakeside, Michigan, residences from1960 to 1993. To this end, I would like tohear from people who had contact with thisworld, regardless of the reasons andwhether or not they knew Howard andRoger well.Please reach me at 1018 West Byron,Apt. 3, Chicago, IL 60613; my telephonenumber is 312/327-7297. Many thanks inadvance for any assistance from readers ofthe Magazine.Tom Jacobs, JD'87ChicagoThe University of Chicago Magazine invifesletters from readers on the contents of themagazine or on topics related to the University. Letters for publication, which must besigned, may be edited for length and/or clarity. To ensure the widest range of voices, preference will be given to letters of no more than300 words. Letters should be addressed to:Editor, University of Chicago Magazine,5757 S. Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637.ST 1994EventsExhibitionsSpeaking ol Butterflies, through September.Organized by Paul Moore, SM'63, PhD'65, professorof geophysical sciences, this exhibit of butterflieshas been assembled from his personal collection ofmore than 10,000 specimens. John Crerar Library;call 702-7720. (See "Center Stage.")Sports and Games in the Ancient Near East,through September 18. In honor of this summer'sWorld Cup soccer competition, the exhibitionexamines the recreation and competition thatexisted 1,000 years before Greece's first Olympicgames. Ancient artifacts, photographs, and reprintedtexts and drawings document the Near East's participation in archery, wrestling, hunting, footraces,and board games. Oriental Institute; call 702-9520.Germany on the Eve of the 1848 Revolution:Selections from the Ludwig Rosenberger Libraryof Judaica, through October 31. An examination ofthe political, social, and cultural trends in Germanyduring the Vormarz period — the two decades preceding the March Revolution — this exhibition features the works of such prominent poets,journalists, and revolutionary theorists as Heine,Borne, and Marx. Department of Special Collections; call 702-8705.Carl Van Vechten, through October 31. An influential figure in the American literary and arts sceneof the 1920s through the 1940s, Van Vechten,PhB'03, was an arts critic, novelist, and photographer who helped promote the careers of, amongothers, Gertrude Stein and Langston Hughes. Theexhibition features a selection of Van Vechten'sphotographs — including his portraits, for which heis best remembered — and publications. Departmentof Special Collections; call 702-8705.An Old Painting Restored: King David by Giro-lamo de Santa Croce, August 30-December 4. Anexamination of the Renaissance painting by theNorthern Italian master Santa Croce documents itsrestoration, its place in the Venetian painting tradition, and imagery of King David from the medievalperiod. Smart Museum of Art; call 702-0200.Images for Eternity: Ancient Egyptian Art,Wednesdays at 7 p.m., September 21-October 12,or Fridays at 11 a.m., September 23-October 14.Sponsored by the Art Institute of Chicago and theOriental Institute, this four-week subscription seriesprovides background for the appreciation of ancientEgyptian art, addressing questions such as the permanence of Egyptian artistic styles and themes, therelationship of art to religion, and conventions ofrepresentation. Oriental Institute; call 702-9520.Robert Laurent and American Figurative Sculpture 1910-1960: Selections from the John N. StemCollection and the David and Alfred SmartMuseum of Art, October 4-December 11. Nearly 40sculptures — and more than a dozen drawings andpaintings by sculptors — provide a retrospective ofLaurent's work and trace realist American sculpturefrom idealized classical forms to a new humanism.Smart Museum of Art; call 702-0200.Felix Gonzalez-Torres, October 2-November 11.This exhibition showcases the work of Cuban-bomartist Gonzalez-Torres, whose art over the pastdecade has dealt with the severe tradition of 1960s Center StageA Flutter of Butterflies: Theplace to find butterflies on campus? Through September, the JohnCrerar Library has afoyer exhibition that features dozens oftropical butterflies. Assembled fromPaul Moore's collection of approximately10,000 specimens — half of all knownbutterfly species — the exhibition focuseson the tropical beauties of Peru, Malaysia,Papua-New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands.Many of these butterflies, says the collector (see "Humanity's Fragile Instrumentfor Survival," Summer/75), are in danger of disappearing as changes have come totheir habitats. Because each species' larvae feed on only one specific type of plant, ifthe plant becomes endangered, so does the butterfly.Moore, SM'63, PhD'65, a professor of geophysical sciences,was an active collector from 1972 to 1986, personallycapturing 95 percent of his specimens and buying ortrading for the others. Although many of the butterflies were difficult to capture, Moore writes thatbutterflies have no active defenses — theycan't sting or bite. Instead, a butterfly'smain defense against predators isits bitter taste.In fact, Moore speculates in hisnotes to the exhibition, butterflymay be a corruption of "bitter fly."The male Morpho rhetenor (top) belongs toihe Morphidae/amily — large, metallic, light-diffracting blue butterflies of the tropics. Deliasbutterflies, like this male harpalyce (above), vary widely in color and patterns.minimalism by exploring more personal notions ofthe body, illness, and loss. The Renaissance Society;call 702-8670.TheaterOnce in a Lifetime, Wednesdays and Thursdaysat 7:30 p.m., Fridays and Saturdays at 8 p.m., Sundays at 2:30 p.m. and 7:30 p.m., September23-October 30. Court Theatre's season opens withdirector Charles Newell's version of this classiccomedy about three Hollywood hopefuls who take achance and head West to try to make it in the"talkies." Court Theatre; call 753-4472. On the QuadsThe First Farmers, September 18, l^t p.m. Films,demonstrations, and hands-on activities celebratethe theme "The Beginnings of Agriculture." Theprogram is part of Illinois Archaeology AwarenessWeek, September 18-24. Oriental Institute; call702-9520.Reassembling Ancient Pottery, September 21 at6:15 p.m. and 7:15 p.m. Researcher Janet Helmanwill show how to reassemble ancient pottery, usingexamples from Tall-e-Bakun, an Iranian prehistoricsite. This program is part of Illinois ArchaeologyAwareness Week. Oriental Institute; call 702-9520.UNIVERSITY' OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1994 7I nvestigationsYou Bet Your LifeThe most common cancer in men, says Gerald Chodak, doesn't always require treatment.Men with prostate cancer,says Gerald Chodak, have toweigh the odds — and beware"blind recommendations."TO TREAT OR NOT TO TREAT, AND HOW,and when. These are the questions —or at least a few of them — in physicians' ongoing controversy over the management of prostate cancer, the mostcommon cancer among U.S. men. Thisyear, 38,000 will die from the disease.Recently, more effective and widespreadtesting has led to a boom in the number ofcases being diagnosed and treated. Yet,because the illness usually develops late inlife and progresses slowly, most men withprostate cancer die from unrelated causes.And so the question, how much screeningor treatment is necessary?"It's not as easy as, 'Find every cancerearly and treat every cancer,'" says GeraldChodak, a U of C professor of surgery."There is a potential that that approach maydo some harm." In the U.S. — where hedescribes the style of screening and treatment as "very aggressive" — early-stage cancers are usually treated by surgical removalof the prostate, a small gland lying justbelow the bladder, or by radiation. Boththerapies leave some patients incontinent,and anywhere from 20 to 60 percent ofpatients impotent.On the other hand, once the cancerspreads beyond the prostate, little can beclone to stop it, and most men die withintwo to five years. Many doctors see this factas reason enough for an aggressive approach.Chodak, who directs the Prostate andUrology Center at Weiss Memorial Hospital, has gained a reputation for questioningthat logic and what lie calls doctors' "blindrecommendations." In January, he published a stud) in the Nciv England Journal ofMedicine that found that localized, early-stage cancers may not always require inter vention. Instead, observation, or "watchfulwaiting," appears to yield survival rates similar to surgery and radiation — at least forthe first ten years.Though "watchful waiting" isn't a newidea, Chodak says the study, which poolsdata from six previous reports on localizedprostate cancers, offers the first reliable datasupporting it. He divided the patients fromthose reports according to the initial severity of their tumors, then examined recordsto see how patients fared after ten years of"watchful waiting." Some patients receivedhormone therapy during that period.After ten years, Chodak says, "there werea lot of patients who weren't doing all that badly." The cancer spread in only 19 percent of men with grade- 1 tumors (the leastadvanced), while 42 percent of the grade-2tumors spread — a bad sign for someonewho would otherwise live another 15 or 20years. Men in both groups were five timesmore likely to die of something other thanprostate cancer. Those with grade-3 tumorsdid the least well: Discounting those whodied of other causes, only one-third werealive after ten years.His study, Chodak emphasizes, "does notsay, 'Stop treating prostate cancer.' Themessage is more complex. The message is,'Here's what you get if you take a conservative approach.'"8 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994ommendations when we don't know what'sright is not really in the patients' best interest.... Patients need to figure out what'simportant to them, and what they're willingto accept as a trade-off. That's a tricky business."Prostate cancer has been called a maleequivalent of breast cancer because of itssimilar incidence, mortality rate, and psychological burden. Chodak sees anotherparallel in the lumpectomy-or-radiationtherapy choice now available to manywomen with breast cancer. "Medicine haschanged to be focusing more on outcomes:'Here's what you get with treatment A,here's what you get with treatment B, andhere's what the difference is.' Well, my fieldhas not progressed very quickly in accepting that change."That message has some implications forprostate-cancer screening — formerly donethrough a rectal exam but, since the 1980s,also accomplished by a blood test that candetect microscopic-sized tumors. Most menage 70 or older will gain little from screening, says Chodak, because, over theirremaining years, survival rates from watchful waiting and aggressive treatment aresimilar. Screening trends in the U.S., hesays, are just the opposite, and, as a result,the largest increase in surgeries is being performed in men over 75. Again, he avoidsblanket recommendations; "The studydoesn't say, 'Don't do screening.' It just saysthat the benefit declines" in older men.But Chodak's conclusions provoke the ireof surgeons like William Catalona of Washington University, who told the Wall StreetJournal that the study "mislead[s] thepublic." He and others claim that thework — because it doesn't compare treatment and observation side by side, or lacksenough data to justify watchful waiting asan option for younger men — resolves little.Chodak defends the study — citing an adequate number of patients under age 61, hecalls the latter complaint "not valid." Hismain point, though, is not that he has finalanswers to managing prostate cancer butthat, to date, no one does.His current research should fill in some ofthe gaps: He's just completed a decisionmodel, or mathematical study, of theexpected outcomes and costs of differentscreening and treatment strategies, and heis conducting an analysis of side effects fromtreatment. However,says Chodak, untilwork like the NationalCancer Institute'slarge, long-term, randomized studies —work only now beginning — is completed,doctors mustn't skimpon patient education:Early treatment, observation, and screeningall have costs and benefits."That's the information you provide to apatient," Chodak says,"and they participatein the choice aboutwhat to do." He worries about doctors' ownbiases: that surgeonsusually recommendsurgery, and radiationoncologists suggestradiation. "Making rec- Years after the 1963 March on Washington, two-thirds of African Americans hold little hope for racial equality.A House DividedHALF OF ALL AFRICAN AMERICANS BACKthe formation of a separate blackpolitical party — a level of supportdouble what it was just five years ago. Atthe same time, most African Americans arevery pessimistic about their future.These are some of the findings from anational opinion survey of African Americans, conducted by U of C political scientistMichael Dawson and Ronald Brown ofWayne State University. Last winter, theresearchers jDolled 1,200 people for theirviews on black separatism, economic prospects, gender roles, religion, and otherissues. An associate professor, Dawson presented his work, "Black Discontent: ThePreliminary Report of the 1993-94 NationalBlack Politics Survey," this spring to theMidwest Political Science Association.Dawson calls the study unique in itsemphasis on ongoing debates within theblack community, and says the resultsreveal African Americans' "dismal and radical evaluation of American society." Ofthose interviewed, 70 percent felt that theAmerican legal and economic systems, andAmerican society in general, are not fair toAfrican Americans. Eighty-one percent feltthat American society owes blacks a betterchance at success than they have now, and65 percent said racial equality would notbe achieved in their lifetimes, if ever.Widely reported in national newspapers,the survey found that younger and poorerAfrican Americans were more likely to support a separate political party, an idea thatmet with declining interest from blacksduring the 1980s. "Black nationalismremains a fundamental dividing line in theblack community," Dawson told the Washington Post, "and this is one area where wesee sharp class divisions."Democrats still predominate (86 percent),he says, but many African Americansbelieve that the leaders of both mainstreampolitical parties have decided that "too closean identification with black interests ishurting them in national elections."Though support for black nationalist poli-University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 9On the ball: Little ones like 13-month-old Elisa Epstein, says psychologist AmandaWoodward (above), know what they're talking about.cies and separatism wasn't uniform, amajority supported ideas of autonomywithin the black community: Blacks shouldcontrol the government in black communities (68 percent), and they should have economic control of their communities (74percent).Asked if separate schools for black boysshould be set up within public school systems, 62 percent agreed. That supportapparently reflects a belief among AfricanAmericans that black men are particularlydisadvantaged — 40 percent of those interviewed agreed that African-American menare "endangered, and their problemsdeserve special attention."On gender-related issues, Dawson andBrown found diverging views within theblack community: Two-thirds of therespondents supported the work of blackfeminist groups, while 29 percent felt"black feminist groups just divide the blackcommunity."Despite such diversity within the blackcommunity, Dawson says these differencesare "overwhelmed" by differences betweenblacks and whites. His report notes strikingcontrasts, for instance, in views about government's role in solving social problems:Blacks believe in "a strong activist statewhere economic activity is included as partof public life and state jurisdiction," versusa "minimalist" state desired by whites. In arelated study, he found that 70 percent ofblacks — versus 14 percent of whites — support spending on programs to help blacks."Unless debates about the interactionsbetween race, economics, and governmentwithin this society are engaged in seriously," Dawson notes, "we can expect increased divisions on matters of race bothwithin the black community and betweenblacks and other members of society."Those divisions should prompt more discussion between races, he says, but he feelssuch conversation is unlikely. He sees thenumber of American institutions in whichblacks and whites interact as rapidly diminishing — the multiracial civil-rights movement has disappeared, he says, and tradeunions, which once provided forums forinterracial communication, are declining inpower.Many commentators, Dawson notes, havecontrasted a current climate of racialstrife — from the Los Angeles riots to controversies over black/Jewish relations andthe Nation of Islam — with "the idealized1963 version of racial solidarity." YetAfrican Americans' current views on racerelations, as revealed by the study, are, hewrites, "consistent with the pessimistic andradical views that Dr. King came to at theend of his life." Baby TalkSAY WHAT YOU MEAN," WE'RE TOLD. It'schallenge enough for adults, but imagine how babies fare, when the veryidea of "meaning" — that words are symbolsfor objects or ideas in the world — is a majordiscovery.When do infants make this connection?Earlier than most people think, says psychologist Amanda Woodward. She hasshown that children comprehend wordsequally well at 13 months — an age whenthey use just five to ten words — as at 18months, when their vocabulary is about 100words and the pace of word learning suddenly zooms upward.This change — called the naming explosion or vocabulary spurt — is a key stage indevelopment. Woodward, who came toChicago last fall as an associate professor,has recently broken with the phenomenon'straditional explanations, which proposevarious progressions in conceptual development to explain 18-month-olds' newunderstanding that words are symbols.Before then, the theory goes, a child laboriously learns words through association,almost as a dog might link the sound of a bell with food.Working from that theory, Woodward —along with colleagues Colleen Fitzsimmonsand Ellen Markman of Stanford University — tried to measure how much better anolder baby could learn new words, hopingto correlate that skill with other abilities.They exposed 13- and 18-month-oldinfants to unfamiliar objects like a big plastic paper clip and a plastic strainer, callingone of them by a made-up name, toma.After one person repeated the word ninetimes in different situations, another —unaware which object was the toma — testedthe child's comprehension through a playactivity, such as presenting two objects on atray and asking the child to "put the tomain the box." They adjusted these verbalinstructions so as not to unfairly confuse13-month-olds.Surprisingly, the researchers found littledifference in rates of word learning andretention between the two groups ofinfants. Babies at both ages even remembered the new word after a 24-hour delay."It was a very unexpected finding," saysWoodward. "It's one of those results thatreally goes against some people's intuition,and goes against a good number of theories." In an article to be published in Devel-1 0 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994opmental Psychology, she and her colleaguesconclude that the vocabulary spurt probably isn't the result of broad changes in comprehension. Instead, factors related tothe production of words, such as babies'improved memory or the ability to articulate successfully, may account for the quickadvance.As a result, Woodward says, "I'm lessinterested in the naming explosion now."She's currently using her Beecher Hall laboratory — where video equipment sharesspace with a basket of toys, and colorfulpaper shapes and posters decorate thewalls — to test younger infants, pushingback to the origins of language ability. Shewonders, "When it is that children understand that language is a symbolic system?"In one study, she's finding evidence thateven 1-year-olds are beyond associativelearning. Their performance in linking anew object to a nonlinguistic sound, like awhistle, is poor compared to when theobject is called by a name.Soon she'd like to explore a related idea:that language learning requires an ability toreason about human actions. When, forinstance, do infants know that, if a personlooks at an object while talking, he or she isprobably talking about that object? In thisway, Woodward hopes to link languagedevelopment with another of her interests — the distinctions babies make between animate and inanimate objects. It'sa subject she likens to "infant physics":Babies appear surprised, for instance, whena ball begins to roll for no visible reason,but unimpressed when people cause othersto move simply by pointing or talking.Her insights may have applications todevelopmental disorders like autism, whichis marked by poor language skills and a difficulty in grasping human intentions, perceptions, and goals. With a four-year grantfrom the John Merck Fund, part of its program to boost research on the underlyingneurobiology of developmental disabilities,Woodward plans to test her ideas aboutlanguage learning and infants' understanding of other people using autistic children."This will fill in the picture of what specificabilities autistic children lack," she says,"and how these deficiencies affect laterdevelopment."Working with babies is fun, of course, butWoodward's motivation has anothersource. "I'm interested in how things begin,how things get started," she says. "Everytime I hear about something interesting in[human] development, I say, 'That's great,but how did it start?' If you have that bent,you end up looking at infants." CitationsBefore Gay and Straight. George Chauncey marked the 25th anniversary of the gay-rights movement by rewriting history: adding decades to the chronicle of gay life inAmerica, while moving to recent years the origin of gender roles seen by many as timeless. He delivers these surprises in Gay New York: iGender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay MaleWorld, 1890-1940 (Basic Books), An assistant professorof history, Chauncey disputes the traditional view thatgay culture in America before 1969 — when riots in NewYork sparked the modern gay-rights movement — wasforever marked by self-hate, isolation, and lifetimesspent in the "closet." Hailed by scholars, Gay New Yorkdocuments a vibrant, open, and relatively tolerated gayworld now lost from public memory. With a wealth ofnewly found archival material, Chauncey reconstructsthis world, from its neighborhoods and bars to its stylesof dress and large drag balls — attended by thousands oftransvestites and straight spectators. Pre-WWII NewYork, he finds, allowed contact between straight andopenly gay men at many levels of society, where sexualidentities were defined by one's outward image, notone's choice of sexual partners. Society divided men notinto "heterosexuals" and "homosexuals" but "fairies," "wolves," "queers," and "normal"men; the gay/straight dichotomy, Chauncey argues, is a more recent American creation.Joint Success. Catholic schools focus on homework, discipline, and academics overvocational classes, but why do many public schools fail in similar efforts? Educationprofessor Anthony Bryk, who directs the Center for School Improvement, studied thequestion with the University of Michigan's Valerie Lee and Peter Holland of the Belmont, Mass., school system. In Catholic Schools and the Common Good (Harvard) theytrace the reasons for Catholic schools' success, including a de-emphasis on tracking anda caring, common value system similar to the vision of John Dewey — emphasizinghuman dignity rather than individualism and economic gain.Far out. They may be our only chance to glimpse matter from beyond the solarsystem. They're grains of Stardust — material spewed from dying stars that, alongwith gases, condensed to form our sun and planets. And they're rare: On only a few ofour solar system's asteroids were conditions cool enough forany original Stardust — mostly minute grains of silicon carbide (see photo), graphite, or diamond — to survive. In thelate 1980s, Edward Anders, Horace B. Horton professoremeritus of chemistry, and senior scientist Roy Lewis of theEnrico Fermi Institute learned to isolate the grains frompieces of asteroids that land on Earth as meteorites. This year,a sample that Lewis prepared — a thimble-sized ampule holding trillions of diamond grains — will go on permanent dis-It came from beyond. play at the Smithsonian Institution.It's a Plant Thang. Add extra chromosomes to a human embryo, and the resultingbaby could have a disabling problem like Down's Syndrome. Not so for plants, whichthrive with tens or even hundreds of copies of chromosomes in each cell. The prevalence of this condition,called polyploidy, has been a mystery, making it toughto resolve: Is polyploidy a survival mechanism, or anevolutionary "dead end"? Jane Masterson, a graduatestudent in evolutionary biology, helped solve the longstanding puzzle by comparing cells of fossil leaves withmagnolia, laurel, and sycamore cells. Her report in Science finds that ancient plants probably had just two setsof six to nine chromosomes — meaning that more than70 percent of today's flowering plants are polyploid. Masterson and magnolia.— Written and compiled by Andrew Campbell.University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 1 1hicago JournalFOR THE RECORDNew trustees, part one:Along with Harvey Plotnick (opposite), JackFuller was elected a University trustee injune.Winner of the 1986Pulitzer Prize for editorial writing, Fuller iseditor and publisher ofthe Chicago Tribune.With a B.A. in journalism from Northwesternand aJ.D. from Yale,Fuller joined the Tribuneas a city-desk reporter in1973. On the visitingcommittee of the liningB. Harris School ofPublic Policy Studies,Fuller has also served onvisiting committees forthe Law School and theCollege. From summer program,future scholars growFor most U of C undergrad-uates, summer means noclasses, no papers, and nodorm food. In short, it is a timefor students to recharge their batteries by watching TV reruns,reading those (unassigned) novelsthat tempted them during finalsweek, and assiduously avoidingcontact with buildings resemblingthe Regenstein Library. But for the41 students enrolled in Chicago'sSummer Research OpportunitiesProgram (SROP), the Reg — orbetter yet, a laboratory — is theperfect place to be.Now in its ninth year oncampus, SROP is an eight-weekresidential program designed to encourage students from groupstraditionally underrepresented inacademia — African Americans,Hispanics, and Native Americans — to consider a career as auniversity researcher and teacher.Explains Madeline Hamblin,director of the Office of GraduateAffairs under which the programis run: "By the year 2000, one outof every three students in collegeis going to be from some under-represented group. We have avery small window of opportunityright now — when there is a fairlylarge number of faculty who areretiring — to get some minoritystudents with Ph.D.s to start filling positions and changing theDown to a science: SROP pupils LaTonya Glover (left) and Sonya Collins studyprotein-protein interactions with U of C faculty mentor Malcom Casadaban.percentage of underrepresentedfaculty members."To that end, program administrators hope that the SROP experience will woo a greater number ofminority students away from lawor medical school (where they arebetter represented), and interestthem instead in academia. So far itseems to be working: Of the 212participants in the University'sprogram since 1986, 93 percenthave either graduated or are continuing undergraduate work. And,of the SROP students who haveearned their baccalaureatedegrees, 53 percent have gone onto graduate school.The program is an outgrowth ofthe Committee on InstitutionalCooperation (CIC), a 12-schoolconsortium, begun in 1958, thatincludes the Big Ten universities.Each school in the consortium hasits own Summer Research Opportunities Program,with many of thestudents in theprograms comingfrom ClC-affili-ated, historicallyblack institutions.Administrators ofChicago's program,for example, contact more than 250on-campus black,Hispanic, and Native American undergraduates witha GPA of 2.7 orhigher to encourage them to applyfor approximately25 spots. Another15 to 20 places inthe campus program are reservedfor non-U of Cstudents who are2 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994recruited through the consortiumas a whole.Chicago's SROP — funded by afederal grant, the University, theCIC, the Mellon Foundation, andthe University's Women's Board —provides students with tuition,housing, a $2,500 stipend, and abook allowance. In addition, eachof the participants is assigned amentor, a U of C faculty memberwho volunteers to oversee the student's research project. So far,more than 125 professors haveparticipated, in fields rangingfrom philosophy to statistics.In the five years he has volunteered as a mentor, professor ofeducation Edgar Epps has workedwith more than ten students onsuch projects as the evolution ofracial awareness among blackchildren and the implementationof bilingual education programs.Convinced that the "underrepre-sentation of black and otherminority faculty members onmajor research campuses... worksas something of a block to minority students' aspirations in theseareas," Epps — himself a blackscholar — is committed to being "aperson that [the students] cancome to and talk about their ideas;someone who can give theminformation about what life inacademia is like — not only therose-colored glasses version, butthe deep-down, dirty version aswell."For Yolanda Padilla, close contact with a professor confirmedher intention to attend graduateschool. An SROP participant in1992, Padilla, then an undergraduate at the University of Californiaat Davis, worked with Englishprofessor Elizabeth Helsinger onfeminist approaches to Victorianliterature. Already seriously considering becoming an academic,Padilla found Helsinger valuableboth as an intellectual guide and acareer counselor."We would work on my project,but we would also spend timetalking about graduate school,"recalls Padilla. "She talked to meabout what to expect, and shetalked to me specifically aboutChicago. It really made me interested in the University." Now asecond-year Ph.D. student in English at the U of C, Padilla is work- This old gate: Deterioration of the 97-year old Hull Gate calledfor extreme measures. Taken down for repairs in October, ihewrought-iron archway was put up again in time for June's this summer as an R.A. inMaclean Hall, the dormitorywhere SROP students are housed.For students like Sonya Collins,though, the SROP experience presents a career opportunity shehadn't known existed. Now studying protein-protein interactionwith Malcolm Casadaban, associate professor of molecular geneticsand cell biology, Collins, a third-year HIPSS major at Chicago,explains: "Before, my idea of grad-uate school was just businessschool, law school, or medicalschool. I never even consideredactually researching and making ita career like my mentor has."That is precisely the sort ofepiphany that Yvette Adeosun,who directs SROP, hopes for fromthe students — particularly those in mathematics and the sciences,where minorities are most significantly underrepresented. Consequently, she has widened thealready competitive applicationpool — which usually consists ofsecond- and third-years — toinclude U of C first-year studentsin the sciences who have secureda mentor in advance."We are trying to get moreminority students in the sciences,"says Adeosun, "because we'vefound that a lot of students, forwhatever reason, end up changingtheir major [away from the sciences] by the time they are sophomores or juniors."To help prepare students for thegraduate-school application process, Adeosun has also developeda calendar of GRE diagnostic tests. New trustees, part two:Along with Jack Fuller(opposite), Harvey Plotnick was elected to iheBoard of Trustees inJune. Plotnick, AB'63, ispresident and CEO ofContemporary Books,Inc. — a position he's heldsince 1967. In that time,ihe company has becomeone of the nation'slargest publishers ofadult basic-educationmaterial. A member ofthe Alumni AssociationBoard of Governors,Plotnick co-chairs theMajor Gifts component ofthe Campaign for iheNext Century and chairsihe visiting committee tothe College & StudentActivities.Soccer veteran: GonzaloSanchez de Lozada, president of Bolivia and aUniversity alumnus(AB'52), is also a hugesoccer fan. He arrived inChicago this June tocheer on Bolivia's teamat the World Cup semifinals, taking time out tovisit campus and meetwith President Hugo Sonnenschein. Sanchez deLozada revealed, in aChicago Tribune interview, that he playedsoccer for a season at theU of C — after a coach,noticing his 5-foot, 8-inchframe, recommended aswitch from basketball.University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 1 3Gold standard: BerniceNeugarten, AB'36,AM'37, PhD'43, professor emeritus in psychology, won the AmericanPsychological FoundationGold Medal for "life contribution by a psychologist in the public interest." She receives themedal this month at theannual convention of theAmerican PsychologicalAssociation.False impression: Whena poll by the AmericanJewish Committee foundthat one in five Americans doubted the Holocaust had happened,some polling expertsargued that the surveywas flawed. So the committee turned to Tom W.Smith, PhD'80, directorof the General SocialSurvey for the NationalOpinion Research Centerat the V ofC. Smith confirmed that the surveywas indeed misleading —his/ollow-up analysisfound that fewer than 2percent deny the Holocaust "in a committed,consistent way. " However, he reported, whatmost Americans know ofthe event is "shallow,incomplete, and imperfect."Changing histoty: Emeritus history professorJohn Hope Franklin isleader of a group of historians and writers whooppose an "Americanhistory" theme park thatthe Walt Disney Company plans to build insuburban Virginia. Thegroup, Protect HistoricAmerica, includes ShelbyFoote, William Styron,and David McCullough —and believes the sprawling park will imperil 16Rcvolutionaiy and CivilWar battlefields, 17 historic districts, and ten writing workshops focusing ondrafting a statement of purpose,and weekly seminars where, forexample, deans of the graduatedivisions discuss admissionsrequirements. At the end of thesummer, students also hand in aten-page research paper, give aten-minute presentation on theirwork to peers and mentors, andattend an SROP conference withother participating schools — thisJuly, it was held at the Universityof Minnesota.In addition to the academicopportunities, SROP offers participants, who can feel isolated onpredominantly white campuses, achance to forge bonds with otherminority students. As one SROPstudent — Carlos Rivera, a third-year psychology major and president of the University's HispanicAssociation for Cultural Expression and Recognition — explains:"You definitely get the communityfeeling. And it's not only a Hispanic thing or a black thing. ...It'sa whole community thing."—CAM. Dedication to knowledge: Jules Knapp addresses the crowd atthe June 2 dedication reception for the Biological Sciences Learning Center and the Jules F. Knapp Medical Research Center Complex. Dedication activities spanned three days and included a symposium exploring teaching and research in the biological sciences.New vice president takes charge ofo N A HOT, HUMID MORNING INI early July, Randy Holgatetakes time between a nearlyconstant stream of phone calls togive an end-of-the-fiscal-yearprogress report on the Campaignfor the Next Century — the University's five-year, half-billion-dollar fund-raising drive that shenow oversees.Holgate, the newly appointedvice president for developmentand alumni relations, says that asurface view of the drive's progress is more than encouraging.The campaign enjoyed a record-breaking year in 1993-94, raising$114.9 million and bringing thetotal campaign amount to $405.4million at the conclusion of itsthird fiscal year on June 30.But Holgate is quick to point outthai some important challengesremain: Although overall campaign progress is running wellabove projections — reaching 81percent of its goal — gifts forendowment and facilities arefalling short of their campaign goals. The good news on the facilities front was a $21-million giftfrom the Richard Duchossoisfamily, for the Hospitals' new outpatient and diagnostic center. Still,almost half of the campaign's goalconsists of new endowments, andso far, only 58 percent of thatHolgate: a 15-year UofC veteran. amount has been raised.Because endowment gifts are notspent outright but invested by theUniversity's investment office,they provide an annual return thatis used to fund a variety of priorities, with a portion always vestedto ensure the endowment's owncontinued growth."A strong endowment allows aninstitution to plan its future withconfidence," says Holgate. "That'swhy it was first on the list whenthe University launched the campaign." Endowment and facilitiesremain the fund-raiser's No. 1goal: "If we don't meet these primary objectives, to me, it doesn'tmatter how much we raise. Iwon't consider us entirely successful."Thus, despite the record year,Holgate and the development staffare spending the summer analyzing the campaign's success to dateand "charting the ways to meetthe goals that remain."Holgate has a confidence born ofexperience. Her appointment in14 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994First gene therapytrials under wayFIRST HEART TRANSPLANT (PER-formed on a dog), firstbone-marrow transplant,first successful living-donor livertransplant in America.... Addingone more item to a long list of Uof C medical milestones, this JuneUniversity physicians performedthe first gene therapy treatment ofa kidney-cancer patient.The treatment — a radical newapproach to battling cancers andother disorders — was administered to Edward Murphy, a 66-year-old law professor at NotreDame, whose advanced kidneycancer had not responded to conventional therapies. Professor ofmedicine Nicholas Vogelzang,who leads the Medical Centerteam that is conducting the trial,described it as "an early ventureinto a new field that, while stillunproven, holds enormous promise for the treatment of manydiseases." In this application of gene therapy, doctors inject foreign genesdirectly into a patient's tumortissue in an attempt to "trick" thebody's immune system into recognizing the tumors as foreign ortransplanted tissue and thenlaunching an attack against them.The only previous trial of thisapproach, at the University ofMichigan, showed promise: Infour of five patients treated withgene therapy for the lethal skin-cancer metastatic melanoma, theinjected DNA was taken up andexpressed by tumor cells, with notoxic side effects reported. In oneof those patients, several tumorsdisappeared entirely. That successhas spawned new trials, testingthe approach against kidneycancer (at Chicago) and coloncancer (at the Mayo Clinic).Meanwhile, the Arizona CancerCenter is continuing Michigan'smelanoma research.Murphy received his first 30-minute treatment on June 1 , followed by overnight hospitalization for observation. The ther apy involves injection of aboutfour cubic centimeters of a DNAmixture directly into the patient'stumors, with CT scans and ultrasound used to guide the needle toseveral areas within each tumor.Further tests will show whetherthe injected DNA was taken up inMurphy's tumor cells. In mid-July,Medical Center spokespersonJohn Easton said that Murphy'scondition had not yet improved —if his tumors decrease in size,he will receive additional treatment. About every two weekssince June, another kidney-cancerpatient has been added to the trial.Fifteen patients in all will receivethe experimental treatment.Oriental Institute:a cool place to beWHILE SCHOLARS AT THE ORI-ental Institute have traditionally divided historyinto two categories — B.C. andA.D. — they will soon add a thirddevelopment & alumni relationslate May came after a seven-month stint as acting vice president, while a national search wasbeing conducted to replace Warren Heemann. (Heemann resignedas vice president for developmentand alumni relations in November, after five years at Chicago.)Previously, she was associate vicepresident for development, a postshe had held since 1990.A graduate of Wheaton College(Mass.), Holgate also did graduatework in art history at the University of Minnesota. A 15-yearveteran of the University's development staff, she joined Chicagoin 1979 as director of the President's Fund and associate directorof annual giving.Before coming to Chicago, shehad directed the annual fund atHampshire College and held several positions at Yale during itsmid-1970s campaign. At Chicago,she was promoted to director ofannual giving in 1982 and assistant vice president in 1986; in1987-88, she served as acting vice president, guiding the University'sCampaign for the Arts & Sciencesto its successful completion.In announcing the appointment,President Hugo Sonnenscheincited Holgate's years of experienceand her track record as a fundraiser as important factors in hisdecision. That she knows the University well, he said, is a plus:"Randy's talent and her love of theUniversity, her depth of experience in development and alumnirelations, and her enthusiasm andpersonal commitment will serveus superbly."Holgate cites a similar enthusiasm and commitment on the partof Chicago's alumni as essentialnot only to the success of thecampaign, but also to the overallhealth of the University: "It'simpossible to overestimate howimportant these relationshipsare."Those relationships work bothways, she says. As part of her newset of responsibilities, Holgate willoversee the University's alumni relations program. This summer,she began a series of meetings andconversations with members ofthe Alumni Board of Governors,"working to find ways to providemore valuable services to ouralumni."Being a U of C graduate "maymean different things at differenttimes," says Holgate, "and so weare working to build lifelong relationships with our alumni of different ages and interests, to makesure their changing needs arebeing met."That need can be, at one pointor another, continuing education,career advice, travel programs,club events. It can be volunteering: speaking to prospective students, serving on a campaigncommittee. And it can be something as simple as finding an oldfriend."Whatever the activity may be,"Holgate sums up, "the importantthing is that we offer the opportunity for alumni to get involved —and, we hope, to stay involved." Chemical attraction:Chemistry professor JackHalpern won his field'shighest honor: the RobertA. Welch award. Halpernand his Texas A&M colleague F. Albert Cottonwill receive the $300,000prize at a fall ceremonyin Houston. On Chicago'sfaculty since 1 962,Halpern has laid thefoundation for key developments both in homogenous catalysis and inunderstanding the mechanisms of asymmetriccatalysts — a process usedincreasingly in pharmaceutical production. Hecalls his work "anattempt to understand, ata detailed molecular-level, how chemical reactions occur. "A Chicago tradition:Kenneth Polonsky, section chief for endocrinology at the U oJC MedicalCenter, is the fifthmember of ihe currentmedical faculty to win -the American DiabetesAssociation's scientificachievement award.Polonsky was honoredfor research on pancreatic beta cells — the cellsthat produce insulin. Agraduate of the University of WitwatersrandMedical School, Polonskycame to Chicago in 1978for a fellowship inendocrinology and joinedthe faculty in 1981.UNIVERSITY' OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1994 1 5Ancient interests:William Sumner hasbeen appointed to asecond tenn as the Oriental Institute's director.Sumner came to Chicagoin 1989 after 18 years onOhio State's anthropology faculty. A specialiston ancient Iran, Sumnerbecame interested inarchaeology while in theU.S. Navy, when he visited sites in Italy andGreece. He has a B.S.from the Naval Academyand a Ph.D. from theUniversity ofPennsyl-Track record: MelissaRoderick, assistant professor in the School ofSocial Service Administration, will use a$35,000 Spencer Postdoctoral Fellowshipaward to examine theeffects of high school"tracking" systems thatseparate students intoacademic and generaltracks. Roderick, whoteaches statistical analysis at the SSA, hasfocused on developingpolicy approaches toimprove school performance among "at-risk"youths.Plea for help: ExiledHaitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide presented the fourth annualIgnacio Martin-Baro lecture May 31 in Rockefeller Chapel. In his90-minute talk, Aristiderepeated his call forU.N.-U.S. help in restoring democracy in Haiti. ARoman Catholic priestwho became president inHaiti's first free election,Aristide was in poweronly nine months beforebeing ousted by a military coup in 1991. Thelecture, organized by theUniversity's Center forLatin America Studies,honors the Rev. Martin-Bard, Ph'D'79, who wasmurdered with five Jesuitcolleagues in San Salvador in 1989. to their list: A.A.C., or After Air-Conditioning.The Oriental Institute building,completed in 1931, has neverbeen renovated, and it's neverbeen air-conditioned. Beyondoffering creature comfort, air-conditioning is vital to preserving theinstitute's collections. Artifacts offiber, wood, ivory, and otherorganic materials are highly susceptible to damage from humidityand fluctuating temperatures. Soare objects of metal and stone:High humidity causes them toleech salts out of their structure,destroying their surfaces.Help for such problems hascome in the form of a $900,000National Endowment for theHumanities grant. The grant,which will help pay for climate-control renovations, is part of $4.5million raised so far for the Oriental Institute during the University's Campaign for the Next Century. In all, the campaign hopes toraise $10.1 million for the Oriental Institute, much of which willgo to construct a new wing southof the building, housing the massive equipment needed to ensuretotal climate control, and providing space for artifact and archivalstorage.In addition to preserving collections, climate-control improvements should provide greatercomfort to visitors of the institute's museum — roughly 50,000 a year — particularly during thesummer, when fans have been theonly method of cooling.Once a timetable is established,the first step in the renovationprocess will be to close the institute's five museum galleries sothe collections displayed therecan be packed up in preparationfor construction. The gallerieswill remain closed for about threeyears while the renovation is inprogress.Diversity adds tofirst-year classWHEN FIRST-YEAR STUDENTSin the College arrive oncampus for OrientationWeek in late September, there willbe more women and more Hispanics — but fewer African Americans — than last year.Of the 900 incoming students,about 47 percent will be women,up 3 percent. In fact, notes CollegeDean of Admissions TheodoreO'Neill, AM'70, the number ofwomen enrolling in the Collegehas steadily increased since thelate 1970s — when their percentage of the total student body wasjust 33 percent. "This changespeaks very well for the life of theCollege," says O'Neill. "It's a morecomfortable balance that makesfor better classes, and better life,Gathering space: The Newberger Chapel at the U of C's Johannaand Herman H. Newberger Hillel Center was dedicated May 26. FiveNewberger siblings — Kenneth, PhB'31; Deana N. Bezark, X'32; Arnold,X'33; Calmina N. Koch; and Josephine N. Strauss — gave the chapel,designed for religious and secular use, in honor of their parents. in general."I also think it speaks well aboutthe way the University is perceived: not as a threatening place,not as a place that's too dangerousbecause it happens to be in a largemetropolitan area."The number of incoming Hispanic students shows an evenlarger boost: from 39 students lastyear to 59 this year, or 5.5 percentof the incoming class. O'Neillcredits the increase to "an activerecruitment plan, using local Hispanic alumni, with one member ofour staff, Cynthia Cruz, devotingmuch of her time to working withLatino applicants."That same kind of concentratedeffort was poured into recruitingqualified African-American students, but with somewhat disappointing results. In fact, thenumber of black freshmen is only37 (last year, it was 47). "We actually had some increase in applications from African-Americanstudents, and in the number whowere admitted," says O'Neill, "butthe yield was lower."Their decisions not to come, hesays, "had to do mostly with financial aid. Despite our policy ofmeeting the financial needs of allour students, these students wereeither supported better elsewhere,or found a lower cost."Stateside, there were no majorchanges in geographic distributionof new students — as in the past,about 40 percent are from theMidwest, 29 percent are from theEast coast, and another 24 percentare from the Southwest and West.A big surprise is the number ofinternational students, who willmake up about 7 percent of theincoming class, compared to 4.5percent last year and only 2 percent five years ago. Says O'Neill: "Ithink it has to do with the University's international reputation, aswell as the increasing desire ofstudents around the world tostudy in the United States."In general, O'Neill remains bullish about the College's ability toattract top-notch high schoolers,as witnessed by the 26-percentincrease in applications this year."Our message is appealing tothose students and to their parents. And that message is: TheCollege, in its curriculum, offers1 6 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994something that literally no oneelse offers. We have a faculty herethat is unique compared to anyother research institution in thecountry in its commitment to theCommon Core, to classes that aresmall, and to being a place wherestudents are expected to participate in intellectual discussionsthat move across a variety ofdisciplines."O'Neill insists that the new students his office is recruiting andadmitting fit well into the College's tradition of intellectualintegrity. It's a reassurance that hefinds himself making often toskeptical alumni. "The idea thatpeople are trying to change theCollege — make it more Big Ten-ish, more mainstream, or more IvyLeague — has been a prevalent suspicion since the early '50s, andmaybe before."O'Neill calms such fears: "Iwouldn't worry too much that theCollege has changed enormously,other than the changes that comealong with shifts in American society, in styles and fads.... We have avery clear idea of what the Collegeis like; we try to put forward anaccurate notion of what the College is like; and we have very intellectually oriented students."It's true that we try to seek outintellectually oriented studentswho have a lot of other things tooffer. So we love students whohave the right intellectual capacities and desires and who also wantto play sports or play music, andare just nice kids — who volunteerand contribute and speak up."And so, yes," says O'Neill witha chuckle, "we do essentially lookfor people who can give us every-thing. And we do our best to findthem."Hail and farewellto new telescopeASTRONOMERS GATHERING INMay for the dedication of anew, $ll-million telescopeat Apache Point, New Mexico,were also there to say goodbye. Ifthings work as expected, none ofthe astronomers will need toreturn to the mountain peak onwhich the telescope is built. Cramming in Arabic: ProfessorJohn Eisele (center) teachesArabic to pupils enrolled in theUniversity's Intensive ArabicProgram. Offered since 1991,the summer program providesfour study levels, from elementary to advanced. After sixhours of daily instruction, thestudents — who come from universities and colleges across theU.S. — participate in "extracurricular" cultural groups:One such group puts out anArabic-language newspaper.The world's first fully remote-controlled, large, ground-basedtelescope, the device is owned andoperated by the AstrophysicalResearch Consortium. Membersinclude the U of C and the University of Washington, which eachown a one-third share of the telescope; the remaining third belongsto New Mexico State, Princeton,and Washington State universities.A primary advantage of the ARCtelescope is that it can be operated, via the Internet, by researchers at their desktop computers, on campuses hundreds orthousands of miles from ApachePoint. "It will be a model for howtelescopes should be operated inthe future," says Donald York,PhD'71, a U of C astronomer anddirector of the observatory.The new telescope's remote-controlled operation allows projectsto be tailored in ways that wouldbe impossible using large nationaltelescopes, which lump together aresearcher's three or four observing nights and schedule themmonths in advance."One person, one night, makesno sense," says ARC chairmanBruce Margon, who also chairsWashington's astronomy department. Many astronomical events— such as binary stars orbitingone another, or a star's interactionwith a black hole — "happen on ascale of weeks and months," saysMargon. A researcher may notwant or need the telescope for oneentire night, but rather for anhour or so every night over alonger period. The ARC telescopeoffers this flexibility.This flexibility also allows ARC astronomers to be spontaneous,says Margon. Research at largertelescopes is driven by "bland,immediate-gratification projects.We won't have to be so conservative." If a star explodes somewhere in the northern sky, forexample, the ARC telescope couldinstantly be aimed at the event.Or, the astronomers might simplywant to set aside ten minutes eachnight for a year pointing the telescope at a single point, on the off-chance of capturing some rare,spectacular occurrence.Though the telescope is compact, the high-curvature, "soupbowl" design of its mirror makesit relatively powerful. Still, largerfacilities like Hawaii's Keck Telescope are at least ten times morepowerful, but "they're not going tobe looking at anything but thefaintest fuzzballs on the edge ofthe universe," says Margon."That leaves us free to exploremany important problems involving less distant objects."Written and compiled by TimAndrew Obermiller. Select group: Math professor Spencer Block andmolecular genetics & cellbiology chair AnthonyMahowald have beenelected to the NationalAcademy of Sciences.Bloch's research focuseson algebraic geometry,K-theory, and numbertheory. Mahowald studies the developmentalgenetics of the fruit fly.Their election brings thenumber of Chicago faculty in the 1,710-memberacademy to 48.Rich reward: The 1994Harriet Monroe PoetryAward winner is feministpoet and literary criticAdrienne Rich. Monroe,editor of Poetry magazine, established the$1,000 prize, givenannually to an "American poet of distinction orof distinguishedpromise." Past winnersinclude Wallace Stevensand Allen Ginsberg.University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 1 7toZf!esfor laa»BBHBT^ST^S* <fe</« ,^;'fW Zf ^ceZ0^pv0;ro/^^v?^^6*>-/> °S^Z) *>el^B V I WL beachfront neighbor Jani and 1 have Joe's¦K V ^vacant lot between us. Joe wants to build aV J^^B^a ^a house on it. Jane and I prefer the open view¦j ^a^^^\ve have now, but we can't afford to buy the lot fromhim. Instead, we persuade the city council to pass an ordinanceforbidding all future construction along the beach, "in order to preserve open space." As a result, Joe's lot loses virtually all its value.But the courts rule that the city doesn't owe him anything, becausehis lot is not quite worthless: He can still pitch a tent there andcamp out.This is the kind of story that drives Richard A. Epstein, the JamesParker Hall distinguished service professor in the Law School,crazy. How is it, he asks, that Jane and I can do to Joe politicallywhat we could never do personally? What gives anyone the right totake away 90 percent of the value of Joe's land without paying hima penny — when he is not causing an obvious public nuisance?Epstein's answer is that we have no such right — and that if webelieve in limited, constitutional government, we shouldn't even ¦o1 8 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994IU /*claim to have one. He says individuals needgovernment to keep force and fraud to aminimum as they go about their daily tasks.Beyond that, the government has no business doing anything that individuals couldnot do as private persons, unless it compen-la*1•»Co,ntJhhisty^fthatsetso^eve legalbtavado V* feVlri{ullyrules ^cVoenerate a good^UedTem ^ the StoneleSal Syw resent."^geto*ept"L^ ' sates those whose property it takes or regulates for the public good. In particular, ithas no business making some of these individuals richer and others poorer.His views — which extend from Joe's beachfront lot to a far-reaching interpretation ofthe Fifth Amendment's prohibition againstgovernment "taking" of private property —could hardly be more contrary to politicalfashion and recent judicial precedent. Thatfact only fuels his intellectual outrage."When I was reading the takings cases [inthe late 1970s]," Epstein says, "it seemed to20 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994me there was something wrong. If you wantto enjoin your neighbor's conduct as a private matter, it's very important whether thatconduct is a common-law nuisance or not.Yet that becomes suddenly irrelevant inpublic cases. One or two individual neighbors can't restrict the use of your land, butthe city council can."I n his cluttered office with its floor-to-ceiling view of the Laird Bell LawQuadrangle, Epstein, still boyish looking at 51, sorts through the piles of miscellaneous papers that cover every available surface — all the while keeping up arapid-fire conversation. The scene amplyconfirms what his Law School colleagueMichael McConnell wrote in 1987: "In 10minutes he can deliver, off the cuff, a tightlyorganized, brilliant, original 20-minutetalk.""He has the kind of Bobby Fischercharisma that is bound to provoke," addsan admirer, Daniel Polsby of NorthwesternUniversity's law school. Indeed, the Brooklyn-born, Columbia-, Oxford-, and Yale-educated professor would much rather beattacked than ignored, and he hasn't beenignored. "Everyone knows him," says a colleague, "and everyone has an opinion abouthim." Plenty of people want to hear whathe has to say: Every law-review article andop-ed piece he's done since 1986, he reports, has been written by invitation."The definition of a really good lawyer,"Epstein says with a grin, "is someone with asecond-rate mind — someone who's good ateverything and great at nothing." Initiallyattracted to philosophy, he became restlesswith it in college when he realized thatphilosophers "could never come to closure." Law was a chance to talk about similar issues "in a way that would not allow meto dither away my effort." Besides, he adds,"I've always been very curious. Law doesn'thave just its own subject matter — you haveto constantly learn about other things."Epstein has made a name for himself bywriting books outside his specialty. Hestarted out studying and writing about thecommon law of torts: the centuries' accumulation of judges' decisions on disputesbetween individuals such as nuisance andtrespass. (The piles of paper currently onhis office floor represent the initial organization for a sixth edition of his weighty,standard text, Cases and Materials on Torts.)Gradually, he became fascinated by whatthe common law (which regulates disputesbetween private citizens) has to say aboutthe public law (which regulates disputesbetween the individual and the state).More often than not, he concluded thatpublic law must be reducible to private-lawterms. When legislators or judges gobeyond common law — as when they allowa public body to regulate private land usefor any allegedly public purpose, withouthaving to pay compensation to the owner —Epstein contends that they go too far, or thewrong way.EIpstein began his attempt to integrate private and public law withi Takings: Private Property and the\Power of Eminent Domain (1985), abook he describes as "an extended essay about the proper relationship between theindividual and the state." He focused on thefinal clause of the Fifth Amendment to theConstitution — "nor shall private propertybe taken for public use, without just compensation," a phrase that echoes manycommon-law themes. And he proceeded touse this clause as an all-purpose wreckingbar on much 20th-century legislation andjurisprudence.In Takings, Epstein made the unfashionable case that whenever the governmentlevies taxes, changes rules of liability, orissues regulations, it is in legal fact "taking"private property. Of course, he admits, suchtakings may be justified (if necessary toforestall force and fraud in private transactions, or if the government pays for them),but not often.Progressive taxation, rent control, unemployment compensation, strip-mining regulations that require 100-percent restorationto the original contour, and welfare areamong the things that Epstein classified asunjustifiable takings — and thus unconstitutional. In a sentence, "The New Deal isinconsistent with the principles of limitedgovernment and with the constitutionalprovisions designed to secure that end."Not surprisingly, Epstein's expansive viewof the takings clause has taken a lot of heat.Robert Bork, AB'48, JD'53, although sympathetic to Epstein's attack on the New Deal,writes in The Tempting of America thatEpstein's conclusions "are not plausiblyrelated to the original understanding of thetakings clause." To Bork, Takings is reallyabout political philosophy and not constitutional law.Senator Joseph Biden defiantly wavedTakings at then Supreme Court nomineeClarence Thomas in the opening salvo ofThomas' 1991 confirmation hearings (onlyto be advised by the editors of the WallStreet Journal to read it). In a similar vein,Epstein's Yale law classmate, Thomas Grey,now a law professor at Stanford, wrote aslash-and-burn review of the book that,among other things, expressed displeasurethat Takings had been published by Harvard University instead of some obscurevanity press.The Chicago professor takes these criticisms in stride. "It takes a theory to beat atheory," he is fond of saying. "Bork, Biden,and Grey made criticisms with no stayingpower because they refuse to acknowledgethe centrality of private property in thethinking of the Framers or to give any plausible alternative account of what the takingsclause might mean. James Madison was nota New Deal Democrat."Epstein continued with an even morecontroversial book, Forbidden Grounds: TheUniversity of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 2 1Case Against Employment DiscriminationLaws (1992). In it, he applauded the pre-1964 civil-rights movement, which in hisview consisted of ending unwarranted stateinterference with freedom of contract, suchas a factory owner's ability to hire anyone ofany race.The great tragedy of American race relations, Epstein believes, can be placedsquarely in the lap of Jim Crow rules thatsystematically suppressed the contractualfreedoms he so stoutly defends. He arguesthat the state monopoly of power chokedoff the free entry of new employers "whowould have created market opportunitiesfor blacks and whites alike."He takes issue with his doubting critics,such as Yale's Ian Ayres and Northwestern'sJohn Donohue, for claiming that privatepreferences would have preserved employment segregation without being propped upby public force and private violence. "In1964," he bristles, "everyone stressed thatthe civil-rights laws were needed to counterthe totalitarian nature of Jim Crow. Only aconvenient historical revisionism can turn aone-time police state into a market Mecca."Epstein also insists that, once on thebooks, the civil-rights laws become instruments of government imperialism. Takesexual harassment, for instance, a subjecton which the Rehnquist Supreme Court hasunanimously followed not Epstein but feminist legal scholar Catharine MacKinnon.Epstein contends that common-law suitscharging assault, insult, intimidation, coercion, or emotional distress are more adequate ways of dealing with sexualharassment than MacKinnon's method ofdefining it as sex discrimination. Thecommon-law claims, he argues, are betterdefined than "harassment" — and thereforeless likely to involve the Equal EmploymentOpportunity Commission in, as Epsteinputs it, "regulating the pictures people postin their offices and the religious symbolsthey wear around their necks."In 1993, Epstein continued his Takingsproject in Bargaining with the State. Havingdiscussed in his first book the legitimacy ofthe state's title to various goods, Epsteinnow turned to the dilemma of the people towhom the government gives those goods —people, he says, "who may be asked to takethe gift subject to conditions or restrictionsimposed by the state." This is a huge andextraordinarily knotty subject, ranging fromthe "exactions" local governments requirefrom would-be developers to the conditionsJesse Helms would attach to NationalEndowment for the Arts grants. "The powerHarold Henderson is a staff writer for theChicago Reader. to contract and to grant," Epstein concludes, "when lodged in the hands of government, may well prove to be as dangerousas the power to take and to regulate."Epstein is by no means done rethinkingthe full array of legal relations in sternlyprincipled common-law terms. Simple Rulesfor a Complex World, to be published nextyear, sets out with typical Epstein bravado"six or seven legal rules which, if faithfullyapplied, will generate a good legal systemfor any time from the Stone Age to the present. I argued that the more complex thesociety, the greater the need for legal simplicity. And it's attainable." His next project, now over two-thirds done, is a bookcalled Mortal Peril: The Regulation andReform of American Health Care. It uses hischerished autonomy principle to attackeverything from the laws that restrict organsales for cash to universal health care.Every so often, a full-page advertisement appears in the pages of thelocal Hyde Park Herald. It features ablack-and-white photograph ofRichard Epstein rushing forward, in characteristic motion. In big, bold letters, the caption reads, "The only noncontroversialopinion this man ever had is about Mr.G's."Epstein, who has lived in Hyde Park for22 years, is a regular patron of Mr. G's FinerFoods, a grocery store on 53rd Street, andhe posed for the ad "because Billy [Ger-stein, the Mr. G of Mr. G's] asked me. I'veknown Billy for a long time, and I like him.Besides, everything the ad says is true — Ishop there, I like the bagels."And he likes being "part of a University ofChicago family." In an office conspicuouslydevoid of ornamentation — the ThomasSzasz Civil Liberties Award unceremoniously holds back a tide of papers atop a filecabinet — several framed family photographs have won the fight for space onhis desk. His wife, Eileen Epstein, AM'75, isdirector of development at the LaboratorySchools, which their three children all haveattended. Elliot enters the fifth grade thisfall, Ben the eighth, and their daughter,Melissa, who graduated in June, "is going toColumbia, my alma mater."Besides being an indefatigable Lab Schoolsparent, Epstein chaired the Law School'ssearch committee for a dean this year andserved on the presidential search committeethat brought Hugo Sonnenschein to campus.He was a major draftsman of recent University reports on academic fraud and conflict ofinterest. Indeed, his participation in the lifeof the community has revealed non-provocative, pragmatic proclivities that might surprise those who know only his books. It's a liberal article of faith that peopleoppose anti-discrimination laws becausethey secretly want to act unjustly. Epsteindenies it. One recent task he undertook asspokesman of the Committee of the FacultyCouncil was shepherding through a proposed University policy granting benefits tosame-sex partners of employees."If the federal or state government said [tothe University] , 'You must do this,' I wouldgo into orbit" — as he has, in fact, over therecent abolition of mandatory retirementfor college and university professors. "It isabsolutely not their business," he emphasizes, passing up a chance to pound on hispaper-laden desk. "But when somebody inour. institution asks me what to do — whenour provost says we can't recruit the peoplewe want because we don't offer such benefits — that's another matter. My job was toget it through, without its being a vote onthe desirability of gay relationships." Andhe did.On the general issue of government's rolein society, Epstein remains far from themainstream. But even his academic adversaries acknowledge — either forthrightly orby violent rhetoric — that he has broken theveneer of unanimity on the subjects hetouches. Dissent from the New Deal— civil-rights consensus may not be respectable,but it is now intellectually imaginable."Merely to discuss civil-rights laws in termsof their actual consequence is a major contribution," wrote conservative economistThomas Sowell, PhD'68, in Forbes.It obviously pleases Epstein that his relatively abstruse work has helped legitimize apolitical movement to give the final clauseof the Fifth Amendment the same respectthe First Amendment has long enjoyed.Grassroots property-rights organizations, henotes, "did not exist in 1985 [when Takingswas published] . They certainly do now. It'sexciting. They are stronger than the environmental groups in Congress, at least interms of ability to stop legislation" — such asthe renewal of the Endangered Species Act,which he regards as a bloated federal program "whose true costs are concealed whengovernment turns private habitat intonature preserves without compensation."Yet Epstein considers himself a moderateof sorts, a disciple of James Madison (who,he notes, "would not be confirmable forpublic office today"). As a moderate, hesays, he is uncomfortable with property-rights groups that see no role for government at all."That's not a good idea even in my crazyworld," he says with a chuckle. "I'm muchmore of a classical liberal than an extremelibertarian. 1 think it's OK to let Leviathaninto the system, so long as we tame him."22 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994Are YouExperienced?^That's the questionbeing asked of ™business-schoolgraduates withincreasing insistence. At Chicago,the answer is inthe laboratory. jf 1990s corporate America posted an adfor its ideal employee, the copy would read something like this: "Wanted: a problem-solver, creative thinker, effective communicator, team player, long-view strategist. Someone with an excellent business education and real- world savvy."With increasing loudness, critics are grumbling that the standard business-schoolcurriculum simply isn't delivering M.B.A. s with these qualities. Gone are the dayswhen graduates from prestigious business schools were virtually ensured a cushyposition with a generous starting salary. The downsizing of corporate America hascreated a leaner, meaner business climate. Jobs are scarce. More than ever, corporate employers look for candidates who bring something besides theoreticalknowledge with them when they graduate.While most schools are scrambling to meet these new demands, administratorsat Chicago's Graduate School of Business (GSB) believe they have found at least apiece of the answer in a program that has been a part of their curriculum for 16years. When the New Product Laboratory, or NPL, was launched in 1978, administrators desperately combed the halls to recruit a handful of interested students.Now NPL is one of the GSB's most popular courses — and the only comprehensiveprogram of its kind offered at any American business school."The GSB now sees the New Product Lab as a different way of doing management education, says Jonathan Frenzen, AB'78, MBA82, PhD'88, visiting GSB pro-University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 23fessor and codirector of NPL. "Before, itwas an unusual class, off on the side, andnow it's beginning to move more to thecenter stage."Reflecting that move, the school hasbegun to apply the laboratory model morebroadly. Most students taking a lab coursechoose NPL, which emphasizes marketingskills, but two new labs are gaining popularity: the Organizational Effectiveness Lab,designed to deal with organizational problems and issues, and the Small Business andNew Enterprise Laboratory, in which students act as consultants to small and startup companies.A strong advocate of the NPL model is theschool's deputy dean, Robin Hogarth,PhD'72. "One of the big critiques of M.B.A.students," says Hogarth, the Wallace W.Booth professor in the GSB, "is that theylack implementation and interpersonalskills. That might have been tolerated 15 or20 years ago, when the average age of anM.B.A. student was 23, 24 years old. Nowthey're 27, 28 years old. They get paid goodsalaries. Businesses expect them to be effective from the moment they're hired."The labs, says Hogarth, "are one way oftrying to help M.B.A. students get thosekinds of skills in a risk-free environment,before they go off into the world themselves." Right now, roughly 200 of theGSB's 1,000 students enroll in a laboratorycourse each year. Hogarth would like to seethat number doubled, even tripled, "but Idon't want to say that in any imperialisticsort of way. 1 just think a lot of studentswould benefit from this kind of course."In NPL, groups of eight to 12 studentstake on a real problem posed by a corporateclient, toiling over the two-quarter courseto arrive at a detailed solution. "These aren'tmake-work projects at all," insists associateGSB dean Dan Tepkc, MBA'82, who codi-rccis the lab with Frenzen. By way of example, Tepkc notes that NP1. was recentlycontacted bv a former defense contractorthat has found itself in desperate straits,having experienced a 50-pcrcent reductionin its workforce over the past four years."Their problem," says Tepkc, "is simply: Find us a new business. Keep our factoriesfull. Keep our people employed."In general, NPL clients are charged about$85,000 per project, which pays for operating expenses. Although NPL students runthe project, the fee allows them to hire outside consultants to do packaging design andadvertising mock-ups, and to help run consumer test groups and conduct surveyresearch. In addition to the cost, NPLclients must be willing to contribute thetime of people inside their corporations tosit down with students to discuss the project on a regularly basis — often weekly, inthe final stages of the project.American Airlines, Ameritech, Citicorp,Kraft, Motorola, Oscar Mayer, Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, and Sears are all among NPL'srecent clients. Generally, such clients are looking for help in the creation of a newproduct — "something tangible, such as atool or a package good, that's either sold toconsumers or for businesses," says Tepke."It can also be a service, such as a financialservice. It may be a goal statement. Sothere's a huge spectrum."At the farthest point on that spectrum is a1992-93 project in which the KansasCity-based Ewing M. Kauffman Foundation challenged NPL to "develop an intervention plan that will reduce teenagepregnancy." According to Kauffmanspokesperson Joy Torchia, the foundation iscurrently supporting an initiative, based onpart of the NPL group's proposal, to set uphealth clinics, specifically designed forteens, in schools throughout the KansasCity school district.24 University of Chk ago Magazine/August 1994corporate mainstream. Above, the Stroh's team plans its marketing strategy.More typical recent NPL products includedisposable plastic ovenware, an evening andweekend "drop-in" child-care service, and atravel card that expands the frequent-flyerconcept to include an entire family. Some ofthese proposals have proved hugely profitable. In 1991, for example, NPL studentsdreamed up a system, based on just-in-timedelivery concepts, to use the Santa Fe Railway's storage facilities more efficiently. Theidea boosted Santa Fe's projected revenuesby $20 million annually over the first threeyears.One of NPT's most powerful selling pointsis its energetic, fresh approach. EricBelcher — a GSB student who worked on aproject this past spring for Northern Telecom and Ameritech — comments: "In thetelecommunications industry, you've got a lot of people sitting around, riveted intothat industry. And they come to peoplesuch as us who really have no idea what theindustry's all about. We don't think in thecontemporary sort of telecommunicationsway."And so we'll brainstorm and come upwith things that are probably not thingsthat would have been brought up withinthe industry. ...Things that we think arepretty conservative — they think, 'Wow,that's outside of the box.'"That outside-the-box approach is effectiveeven in traditionally conservative businesses like financing, according to GeorgeLewis, MBA'93, a strategic planner for Bombardier Capital. Lewis was asked this yearby Bombardier's president, Pierre Lortie,MBA'74, to spearhead an NPL project to develop a new financial product for theMontreal-based company. "Rightly orwrongly, financial products are thought ofas being sort of dry and straightforward,"Lewis says. "There was the feeling thatworking with NPL would provide anopportunity to bring some fresh thinkinginto what is perceived as a less creativearea."The assignment, Lewis admits, proved difficult. Developing a product like a candybar is "a breeze" in comparison, he says."It's not easy to make one that's a hit, but atleast you can get your arms around theidea — we need a package, we need a flavor,we need customer testing. But a financingproduct isn't as easy. It takes a certainamount of time just to understand our business. The students did a great job just getting oriented, and then taking it from thereand pushing forward."Lewis has experienced NPL both as aclient and as a student. In fact, saysJonathan Frenzen, the program now hasabout 600 alumni — many of whom, likeLewis, have "turned out to be key to us infinding clients, or serving as sponsors tohelp shepherd us through their organizations." By doing so, alumni can raise theirown corporate status, says Frenzen. "It's agreat way to get involved in an importantactivity within the corporation. So the labscome back to help alums later on in theircareers."a wo days after helping to give her NPLteam's final presentation, first-yearRhona Pearl is — finally — relaxed. Barefoot,wearing a T-shirt and overalls, she stridesnonchalantly through a dimly lit hallway inthe basement of Edelstone Center, south ofthe Midway — her "home away from home,"as she puts it, for the past six months.That home, specifically, was the cramped,windowless classroom where Pearl and tenclassmates worked as the "Stroh's Team."The brewer of various beers, includingAugsburger, Stroh's hired NPL to develop anew beverage for its product line. Withthree other teammates. Pearl was selected togive her group's final presentation. Illness,University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 25The Lone Rangeras Team PlayerLike the stoic cowpoke on the lonesomeprairie, the image of the corporate superstar, single-handedly riding a project tocompletion, fuels a favorite Americanmyth: Rugged individualism gets the jobdone.With the nation's steady decline intrade competitiveness, however, manyU.S. businesses are encouraging theirlone rangers to gather round the camp-fire — adapting the Japanese concept ofteamwork while preserving the strengthsof American ingenuity. Instead of a herdmentality, the American team setupmore closely resembles a jazz ensemble,with group members providing backupwhile exchanging solos of improvisa-tional creativity.In its New Product Lab, the GraduateSchool of Business has championed thenew approach, as teams of a dozen or sostudents work together to solve a problem posed by a corporate client.Although coaches — usually an experienced business executive — are assignedto each team, their purpose is to advise,not lead. Within teams, there is no consistent hierarchy: If leadership roles areassigned, they are on a rotating basis.There are no rigid protocols for running an NPL group, but a few rules ofthumb have emerged to help stimulatethe productive tension between teamwork and personal initiative.1. Trust your teammates. Working collaboratively means you have to take aleap of faith, giving others responsibilityand trusting them lo come through.2. Make decisions by consensus, not byvoting. Over time, team membersdefeated in earlier votes are likely to rec iprocate, even unconsciously, by knocking down others' suggestions. Consensustakes more time, but is far less divisive.3. Learn to let go of ideas, howevercherished. The team will inevitably haveto kill ideas as it moves through the creative process. If your own concept isabandoned, don't take it personally. Acorollary: Be willing to explore ideas thataren't your own.4. Encourage unconventional thinkingand individual "genius." In most groups,someone emerges whose inspired museacts as a sparkplug, igniting the entiregroup. While giving attention to suchindividuals, keep an open mind: Abright idea often sounds "weird" the firsttime it's uttered.5. Accept conflict. Contention is to beexpected — and even encouraged, since itoften helps the team move toward asuperior solution. Techniques that fostersharp, productive differences in thinkinginclude asking for evidence when teammembers state their points of view,encouraging members to take the otherside of an issue, and keeping at least onereally tough question on each meeting'sagenda.6. Divide and conquer. Two heads areoften better than 12. To study specificproblems or proposals, create subgroupsthat meet outside of regularly scheduledfull-team meetings.7. Speak in one voice. Once a consensus has been reached, the team needs topresent its ideas in a coherent, unifiedfashion. In the New Product Labs, ateam "editor" is chosen who compiles,sharpens, and condenses information forthe client to digest. — T.A.O. along with the exhaustive days (and onesleepless night) of preparation, reduced hervoice to a croak as she revealed the team'sbusiness plan to a cadre of Stroh's executives, including the corporate CEO, whoflew to Chicago specifically for the presentation at the University's new DowntownCenter."Our presentation was very professional, Ithink," says Pearl. It included a prototype ofthe product, sample consumer and tradeads, and detailed plans for manufacturing,distribution, and pricing of the hypotheticalproduct.What that product is Pearl can't say. All ofthe lab participants sign confidentialityagreements with the sponsoring companies."We possess information that might proveextremely valuable to our client's competitors," she explains. All she'll reveal, for therecord, is that the product is a "beverage.""There, I used that word again! Beverage."Having some friends over to celebrate, shesays she found herself offering them beverages — "not drinks. Beverages." She slipsinto a parody of a polite host: "Would youlike a beverage?"It may be months, or years, before theStroh's team knows if its beverage is actually put on the market. With huge amountsof money on the line, companies will oftentake the lab's final business plan and run itthrough rigorous analysis. "All we know althis point," says Pearl, "is that the presidentsaid they would be seriously consideringthe product and the business plan."Exiting the room, Pearl runs into a friendwho tells her that, lab over, she looks aboutten years younger. "Thanks... I think."The final weeks of NPL are notoriouslybrutal as students try to tame what wasonce a wild idea into a tangible, plausibleproduct suggestion. "It almost always happens," says Robin Hogarth. "With fiveweeks in the quarter, they wake up andrealize that what they've got left to do ishuge."Hogarth has seen this firsthand: He is a"coach" for the Organizational EffectivenessLab, a recent NPL spin-off that helps business and nonprofit clients develop more26 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994effective, efficient procedures and strategies. Atleast one coach is assigned to each lab; Hogarth compares the coach'srole to that of a doctoraldissertation supervisor."The coach's job is notto lead the group," elaborates Jaye Niefeld, aretired Chicago advertising executive who has sofar coached eight NPLgroups. "The group leadsitself and the coach intervenes only when there'ssomething the groupmisses entirely, or they'redoing very badly."An ad agency background is very helpful," Niefeld adds. Because he's beenthrough the new-product introductionprocess countless times ("I've probablyintroduced 300 new products in mycareer," Niefeld estimates), he can determine "pretty easily if a group is headingdown a blind alley."The coach also monitors relationshipswithin the group. Each member, Niefeldexplains, rates the other members' performance once a quarter. "If you've got anyundercurrents, they tend to be exposed atthat time," he says. "During the meetingsthe students are generally polite to oneanother. But if there's any unhappiness itcomes out in these written evaluations."Evaluations in hand, Niefeld sits downtwice every quarter with each student todiscuss his or her performance in thegroup.The New Product Labs and its spin-offlabs are deliberately designed to be nonhier-archical. That emphasis is the legacy ofHarry Davis, the Roger L. and Rachel M.Goetz professor in the GSB, who developedNPL with David Echols, a retired advertising executive and current NPL coach. Insetting up the labs, Davis tried to avoid the"cowboy," or superstar, approach, in whicha strong individual takes the reins and runsthe entire project. Instead, Davis wanted to move the labs closer to a Japanese-style ofcollaborative teamwork — an emphasis thathas since grown popular in the U.S. as awhole. (For more on NPL's variation on theteam theme, see "The Lone Ranger as TeamPlayer," page 26.)Without explicit instruction from thecoach or an appointed leader within theteam, NPL groups often struggle to findtheir footing. Eric Belcher suspects that allNPL groups, "down to the last day — evenafter they've finished their final presentations to their clients and handed in theirbusiness plans — still feel as though they ranthrough most of it lost."Feeling lost isn't necessarily a bad thing,says Jonathan Frenzen — in fact, it's a central reason why NPL is such a valuableexperience. Typically, business-school students take case courses, where they examine a business problem written up innarrative form "and try to propose whatthey would do if they were the protagonist,"notes Frenzen. "And usually there's a well-defined answer to the case.""The case is usually cleaned up by thetime the student gets to it," adds DanTepke. "Whereas, in the lab situation, theproblem-statement sort of rolls in like apatient in an emergency room, and the student has to clean it up, figure out what'swrong, and how it can be fixed. There's no predetermined answer."For Belcher, NPL bridged the gap betweenbusiness school and the business world. Forexample, instead of learning about focusgroups in a marketing class, "in the lab weactually conducted a focus group. And wedidn't do it very well. But by doing it, Ithink I have a pretty vivid understanding ofwhat a focus group's about."Still, there is a gap, and an important one:In the lab, the students' jobs aren't on theline. "The primary advantage of the laboratory education that we've been developinghere," says Robin Hogarth, "is that, thoughthere are consequences in getting the project done correctly, there are not consequences to the students in terms of theirjobs. So they can experiment — how to worktogether in a team, how to relate to a client,how to relate to each other — so that whenthese things come up on an actual jobthey'll be ready."Corporate employers have been known tosay that they can tell when a student withlab experience walks into the room for aninterview. According to Frenzen, "They saythey have a passion for what they do,they're excited, they're motivated, they'reskilled, they know what they're getting into,and they have a thorough knowledge of theprocess. They are the kind of people youcan hire."University of Chicago Magazine/ August 1994 27ReadersAfter years in a German attic, missing records from a long-agoLATE LAST SUMMER, EMILY TEETER, AN ASSISTANT CURATOR AT THEOriental Institute, traveled to Berlin to collect a cache of fieldrecords that had long been presumed destroyed. ("Investigations," October/93). The eight-and-a-half volumes of notes chronicle thelargest Egyptian expedition the Institute has ever mounted: six years ofexcavations at the ancient temple complex of Medinet Habu.The lion's share of artifacts from the f 926-32 dig went to the CairoMuseum, the rest to Chicago. The German researchers working on theproject took their field notes to Berlin for study and eventual publication;when the Second World War intervened, those documents were presumed casualties of the bombing of Berlin.With Berlin's reunification in 1990, the German government discoveredsome of the records and offered them to the Oriental Institute. The papers'reappearance — and the promise of the answers they contain about theexact sites and contexts in which the objects were found — made headlines.Enter a 42-year-old German chemical engineer named Uvo Holscher.The name is familiar to Egyptologists: Holscher is the grandson ofanother Uvo Holscher, a famous archaeologist who took part in theMedinet Habu expedition — and who wrote the field notes uncovered bythe German government. Reading about the discovery in the New YorkTimes, the younger Holscher remembered seeing some old documents ofhis grandfather's stored in the family attic in Hanover, and decided to takeanother look. Sure enough, there they were: one thousand photographicnegatives from the expedition; four volumes of the daily log (or tagesbuch)kept by his grandfather; and seven volumes listing excavated artifacts,complete with detailed sketches or rubbings of many items and architectural drawings of the excavated areas.The seven notebooks from Holscher' s attic duplicate some of the material found earlier in Berlin, says Teeter, but they also fill in early gaps in theexpedition's records, providing information about the excavations conducted in 1929, 1930, and part of 1931. With a complete set of recordsfrom Medinet Habu, the Oriental Institute will be able to finish its long-delayed documentation of the site and the thousands of objects — including the 2,000 finds (statues, figurines, glazed plaques, jewelry, tools,weapons, offering tables, and pottery) housed in Chicago. The researchersexpect to find answers to (heir questions about ancient religious practices,folk art, and the eveiyday lives of the common people."I've gone from notebook to notebook," Teeter says happily, "looking upobjects I've wondered about!" — M.R.Y.28 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 In the days before computersand copying machines, UvoHolscher kept a handwrittendaily log of the expedition inneatly labeled notebooks(above right), pressing downfirmly so that the wilting onthe two tissue carbons wouldbe legible. The page al right(for Monday, December 1 9,1927) shows his sketch of thetombs to the south of theSmall Temple at MedinetHabu — a complex of templeson the west bank of the Nilethat was occupied from about1500 B.C. until 800 AD. InHolscher's drawing, each letterof the alphabet indicateswhere a specific artifact wasfound. i£Lost Archivesexpedition have found their way to the Oriental Institute.Courtesy of Uvo Holsclui On the waters of the Nile: Inthis photograph from theMedinet Habu expedition,archaeologist Uvo Holscher ison the far left — keeping afirm grasp on his field notes.Seated in the center isAdriaan de Buck, author ofthe landmark seven-volumeedition of The EgyptianCoffin Texts, published bythe U of C Press, 1935-61.¦Ai#*.1 »The object register forNovember 20, 1927 (below),lists four finds discoveredsouth of the Great Temple ofRamses III. These finds showthe layers of habitation at thetemple complex: A smallstatue may date to about1050 B.C. while a fragment ofa handled jar, or "pilgrimvessel," dates more broadly tothe second millenium. Thehandle of a vessel (belowright) — stamped with aninscription that translates as"Under Ainetor [an official],in [the month of]Sminthios" — dates to about200 B.C. and reveals that wine was being imported toMedinet Habu from Rhodes, lnsome cases, the registers giveprecise information about thelocation of each find and whatobjects were found together,important clues in dating individual artifacts. Such information is especially helpful instudying objects of everydaylife, such as the clay figurine(right) of a woman on a bed.The records show that it wasrecovered not from the temple,but from the ruins of a house,which may indicate that itplayed a part in an informal,household religion.?# ITA. A. it\>) ICj- J, tv< X,' ¦•-¦'?- /Il ttw. if1 t i fcCr<- 9 - >>1 i <1X <s?. ,\ V /U, ¦:¦" vi\%i-J + sr"8e*.f(.r..:. r:- ^H^'Also found in Holscher's attic:a photographic negative ofepigraphers at work, recordinga scene of Ramses III issuingequipment to his troops for acampaign against the SeaPeople, ca. 1177 B.C. Locatedon the south wall of MedinetHabu's Great Temple ofRamses III, it is the longesthieroglyphic inscription inEgypt, The UofC EpigraphicSurvey published the scene andits accompanying inscriptionsin 1934.Objccl Photography: Jerry Kobylecky.Courtesy oi the Oriental InstituteUniversity of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 3 1SCIENCPersistenceBiologist Ruth Sager, SB'38, found her work ignored —until her discoveries proved the majority wrong.By Andrew Campbell Photography by Jim HarrisonD:;I alk to Ruth Sager about her life,and after a while a question takesshape. Perhaps its answer is obvious, but thoroughness compels areporter to ask: "Are you stubborn?"Sager laughs. "Maybe persistent, that's abetter word. But," she admits, "I don't reallypay an awful lot of attention to what otherpeople think."If she had, it's tough to imagine how hercareer in science would have fared. BetweenSager's two areas of research, she's spentdecades out of favor with the majority ofher fellow biologists. And in both areas shepersevered, ignoring her critics whilestrengthening her case, until others camearound to her way of thinkingThat persistence, matched with an originality in the face of scientific lads, has led toSager's consistently important work: from proving that not all DNA resides in the cellnucleus, to her current research, when hermid-career change of direction helped opena new frontier in cancer therapy. Along theway, Sager, SB'38, has participated in a scientific revolution — an era when geneticshas gone from cardboard models of DNA togene therapy. As author or coauthor ofmore than 200 publications, she's kept pacewith the changes, publishing dozens of articles in this decade alone.George Klein, a tumor biologist atSweden's Karolinska Institutet, has described Sager as "one of the truly leadingscientists" in her area of cancer research:"She has never ceased introducing newtechniques and concepts into the field."At this past June's reunion, her fellow U ofC graduates recognized her achievementswith the Alumni Medal, presented to Sager, for "extraordinary distinction in one's fieldof specialization and extraordinary serviceto society," before an assembly in Rockefeller Memorial Chapel.I or Sager — now, at 75, a professorI of cellular genetics at HarvardMedical School and chief of theI division of cancer genetics atBoston's Dana-Farber Cancer Institute — herfirst match with conventional wisdom cameearly, after receiving her Ph.D. in plantgenetics from Columbia University.It was 1948 — "a time," she recalls, "whenpeople were very interested in what is DNAand what is its structure and how it works."No sooner had biologists deduced thatnucleic acids conveyed genetic information(though DNA's structure wasn't discovereduntil 1953), than they fixed their attention32 University of Chicago Magazine/August wmon the obvious source of DNA: the chromosomes inside the cell nucleus. In the race tounderstand chromosomes, one well-knownquestion was roundly ignored. Werenuclear chromosomes the only carriers ofgenetic information?From the early 1950s, while a researcher atRockefeller University, Sager was convincedthe answer was no. Plant studies completeddecades earlier — but largely overlooked —suggested that a few inherited traits aren'tcarried by chromosomes. Likely alternateswere chloroplasts and mitochondria, cellstructures or organelles that supply the cell'senergy. A few geneticists, Sager says, wondered if a chloroplast or mitochondria, complete with its own membrane, could be "asemi-autonomous organelle" — a sort ofsymbiotic creature, with its own DNA andits own organization. Sager began seeking an answer in Chlamy-domonas, a type of green algae that she hascalled "a peerless group of organisms...nutritious, esthetically pleasing, and amenable to laboratory experimentation."These "lazy swimmers," as she affectionately scolds them, soon provided Sager withan important tool when she discovered amutant Chlamy domonas strain that wasresistant to the antibiotic streptomycin. Herexperiments showed that organisms passedon the mutation only through the maternalside. Since chromosomal traits are inheritedfrom both parents, this pattern implied thatthe mutation was carried on some otherstructure. Discovering other such traits,Sager studied their appearence in later generations. They occurred in combinations.she realized, that could be explained onlyby a molecule like DNA or RNA. Where in the cell did such nonchromoso-mal molecules exist? Over a decade, Sagergathered the biochemical evidence: Isolating chloroplasts from the rest of the cell,she found that they contained DNA. In anow-famous experiment, Sager was able toseparate chloroplast and chromosomalDNA, proving that chloroplast DNA waschemically distinct.With that result, published in 1963, Sagerbuilt an airtight case for the existence ofindependent genetic systems outside thecell nucleus. Yet it was years before herideas — and others' claims of mitochondrialDNA, later found in human cells — werenoticed and accepted by the majority.Undeterred by her skeptics, she movedon, unraveling the messages of chloroplastgenes — the proteins for which they code —during much of the 1960s and '70s, andUniversity of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 33becoming a professor at Hunter College in1966. The rest of biology slowly caught up,as evidenced by the 1972 publication of hertextbook Cytoplasmic Genes and Organelles.In 1975, she joined the faculty of HarvardMedical School.Sager's work has broad implications forthe origin of life: How did organisms likebacteria, with a simple cell structure, evolveinto the more complicated cells that makeup the majority of organisms, from yeastand fungi to plants and animals? Chloroplasts and mitochondria, absent in bacteria,may have arisen through a symbiotic relationship — a kind of cell-within-a-cell.While the idea, popular among biologists,remains unproven, the existence of chloroplast and mitochondrial genes offers someof its strongest supporting evidence.Collecting that evidence was a decidedlyunpopular task. Sager isn't one to dwell onthe past, but her experiences bear mention.From 1955 to 1966, she couldn't get a faculty post and worked instead as researcherat Columbia, relying on lab space given herby a sympathetic colleague, Francis Ryan. "Idon't think I ever gave an invited talk onthis whole subject," she recalls, soundingsurprised, "until after 1 became a member ofthe National Academy [of Sciences, in1977]." (She was later elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and theInstitute of Medicine.) What was "sort ofstrange," she says — and encouraging — wasthat her research had long been respected bynotable European scientists.She admits the hardship of those yearsspent on the margins of science, but says, "Itried to ignore what was going on. I wouldjust go ahead and work on the problem." Ina quiet, matter-of-fact voice, she adds, "Iguess I knew I was right, and I wasn't terribly upset."I iterature, music, and politics — butnot science — were the subjectsthat Ruth Sager's parents discussedI at home. Growing up in Chicago'sNorth Shore suburbs, she came to the University of Chicago at the urging of a favoriteuncle. ("He said," Sager recalls, '"You mustgo to the best possible school, and that'sit!'") She arrived "totally uninterested inscience."Those feelings changed during a first-yearbiology survey course, especially the lectures by physiologist Anton J. Carlson."Nobody who look that course ever forgothim," she says ol Carlson, whom she creditsas having more influence on her thananyone else at Chicago. "He was just a fantastic teacher."Alter a second year of biology, shedecided to concentrate in physiology and made plans for medical school. By graduation, however, the Phi Beta Kappa studentpreferred to delay that step. "I was just 20years old," Sager explains. "I couldn't picture myself as a physician." Growing moreinterested in research, she enrolled in graduate school in 1944.Decades later, Sager's interest in medicineresurfaced. In the midst of her studies onchloroplast genes, another area of science —one with the keen incentive of possiblemedical applications — drew her curiosity."I had really wanted to work on cancer,"she says, "but it seemed like a very difficultthing to do." She found encouragementfrom colleague Arthur Pardee, a Princetonbiochemist who had recently made a similarmove: "He helped to convince me thatmy world wouldn't come to an end if Iswitched fields."In 1972, through a Guggenheim fellowship, Sager spent a year learning aboutcancer at the Imperial Cancer ResearchFund Laboratory in London. Pardee, too,was studying in London that year; he andSager married soon thereafter. He's now aprofessor at Harvard and, like his wife, adivision chief (in cell growth and regulation) at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.Sager's cancer research gets at the genesisof the disease: Which genes cause normalcells to become cancer cells? Manyresearchers have theorized that cancer canstart with one cell and a single genetic mistake — like a change within a gene or its regulatory mechanism, or extra copies of agene. If the mistake goes uncorrected, and ifit activates a special type of "trigger" gene,the cell divides continually, forming atumor. In the 1980s, a number of geneticists focused on finding such triggers, oroncogenes, which code for proteins thatpromote cell growth.Sager, ever the original, holds to a moresubtle explanation: Cancer stems fromerrors in two types of genes — oncogenes,and a class of genes that inhibit cell growth.The latter class, called tumor-suppressorgenes, aids tumor growth in a negative fashion: a mutation can deactivate the gene, sothat its protein isn't produced and cellgrowth goes unchecked. In healthy cells,this theory goes, oncogenes and tumor suppressors balance one another, controllingprocesses like cell division and cell differentiation through elaborate, opposing mechanisms.Tumor-suppressor genes and their proteins, Sager has written, are "a vastuntapped resource for anticancer therapy. . .nature's own approach to protection againstcancer." They've been Sager's grail almostfrom the time she learned of them while inLondon; soon after, her initial experiments eancen RiviLi S:\goi' twithposioloeioLoA AiLLew 5 nineSbicng. Lcli^ Ls cAbCOYOLlLieRelies uIilvl sAc Aes cubes A;"uaiwlcs own iiwwoaclb"10 oanoer oooucOLion.• •¦. "~aon rodent cells confirmed herbelief in their importance.Sager, says geneticist Bert Vogel-stein of the Johns Hopkins Schoolof Medicine, /was "one of the firstto see the prominence of tumor-suppressor genes" in the formation of tumors. But her chancesfor exploring clinical applicationswould have stayed remote if notfor a seven-year National CancerInstitute grant she received in1985. The grant bought time tostart work on human cells — notoriously difficult to culture in laboratories — and breast cancer. "Inever could have done it if I hadhad to have some results in acouple of years," she explains. "Itwas too hard."The tricky part about tumor-suppressor genes is finding them:The challenge is to identify a genethat's distinguished by its absence or deactivation in cancer cells. In the breast epithelial cells studied in Sager's lab, for example,about 10,000 genes are active — out of theincredible 100,000 or so genes in everyhuman cell. A cancer cell's tumor suppressors are hidden among a huge library ofnormally deactivated genes.In the late 1980s, Sager spotted a solutionto this needle-in-a-haystack problem, andpioneered its use with human cells. Themethod, subtractive hybridization, mixesgenetic material from normal and tumorcells. Active genes present in both cell typesare discarded, and what's left are the genesactive only in the normal cells: the tumorsuppressors. Through this method, Sager,along with her lab's half-dozen postdoctoralfellows and several technicians, has identified more than 40 possible tumor-suppressor genes, some previously found by othermeans.Possible medical applications include thediagnosis of breast cancer, which vies withlung cancer as the top cause of cancerdeaths among American women. A suppressor gene that's lost or shut down early34 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994in tumor development could be used as a"marker" to measure or predict the disease'sprogress. Sager's lab is looking at one suchpromising gene that produces a proteincalled maspin. In tissue from breast-cancerpatients, they've found that healthy breastcells contained maspin, while cells fromtumors that had not yet spread containedvery little maspin, and tumor cells from thelung and lymph nodes contained none at all.Her long-term goal, however, is to fightbreast cancer by developing new therapies,such as using chemical agents to reactivatetumor-suppressor genes, or injecting thetumor-suppressor DNA itself through still-experimental gene therapy. Sager notes, "Ifeel very hopeful about maspin as a therapeutic, either itself or as a model for something that a pharmaceutical companywould make."The outlook is encouraging, despite thegulf between basic-science discoveries andclinical medicine. And yet, while todaySager is hardly alone in studying tumorsuppressors, her views remain in the minority. "There was really no interest in tumor-suppressor genes at all," she says, "until maybe less than five years ago."Geneticists now agree that tumor-suppressor genes play a role in most cancers,she says, "but they don't agree how much ofa role. And there are only a few tumor-suppressor genes that everyone agrees arereally tumor-suppressor genes." Given RuthSager's track record, it's tempting to guesshow this debate will conclude.? I hough her move to studyinghuman breast cancer seems to beworking, the fact that it hinged on1 an unusual — and now-defunct —funding program is, Sager thinks, part of adisheartening trend in science. "It's veryhard to change what you're doing," sheexplains, "because once you get a grant towork on something, it's much easier to keepgetting grants to work on related things."The way grants are given out," she continues, "just makes matters worse, becausethe experiment has to be so obvious andpractically done already before they'll fundit." To help spark innovation, she feelsagencies like the National Institutes ofHealth should offer longer grants, "in which people would have more security to dosomething new."And she perceives a retreat from the frontiers of knowledge to more familiar territory. "I think science is in a rut right now,"she says. "There are so many wonderfulnew techniques that you can learn an awfullot, and publish a lot of papers — and it's alot of detail." She describes a recent meetingon the molecular biology of cancer: "Everybody had a great story to tell, and the workthat's been done is beautiful, but there werevery few new ideas.... It's time to start putting some of all these facts together."To underscore her point, Ruth Sager readsaloud the first sentence of an article she'sjust drafted. "The strong influence of fashions in scientific thought,'" she quotes,"'continues to play an inhibitory role in scientific progress.'"The statement, she cautions, may notappear in the published article, but, in away, that won't matter. The point that Sagermakes, in strong, deliberate tones, is oneshe's made throughout her life: to show, bypersistent counterexample, where originality leads.University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 35A lumni ChronicleA good time was had by allOn a bright-blue weekend in early June,1,411 alumni and their guests descendedupon the quads for Reunion '94. Of thescores of offerings, the events that drew thebiggest crowds — besides Saturday's AlumniCavalcade and Assembly — included a Saturday morning keynote address by Nobellaureate Gary S. Becker (AB'53, PhD'55);the Uncommon Core classes featuring someof the College's best teachers; and a specialUniversity Theater reunion. A sell-outcrowd enjoyed Friday's "Sweet Home,Chicago" barbecue, followed by blues andjazz on the main quad.Of the 1 1 quinquennial College reunions,the Class of '44, celebrating its 50threunion, and the Class of '84, marking its10th, both passed the 100 mark — with theClass of '44 bringing back 166 alumni andguests. At their reunion dinner in Hutchinson Courtyard, the class learned that, led byGift Chair Robert B. Murray, AA'42,MBA'47, they had raised $2.04 million astheir reunion gift to the University. Therecord 50th reunion gift includes $317,000for a Class of 1944 Endowed ScholarshipFund in the College.The 934 alumni and guests who returnedfor College reunions were joined oncampus by 197 alumni celebrating reunionsin the Biological Sciences Division, 80alumni from the School of Social ServiceAdministration, and 200 new alumni fromthe College Class of '94. Also renewingcampus ties during the weekend were 87"emeritus" alumni of the Law School and400 Laboratory Schools alumni, representing eight U High classes.Classic addressKarl J. Weintraub, AB'49, AM'52, PhD'57—the Thomas E. Donnelley distinguished service prolessor in history, former dean ofhumanities, and winner of two Quantrellawards for excellence in undergraduateteaching — worried that the "Aims of Education" address he'd lirsl delivered to incomingstudents in 1976 wouldn't be appropriate forthe "mature and wise alumni" who'd gathered to hear him reprise that talk as part of Piping in the President: At his first UofCreunion, Hugo Sonnenschein addressedthe Alumni Assembly, hosted receptions,dropped in on several class dinners — andmarched in the Alumni Cavalcade.Reunion's Class Day activities.Instead, Weintraub suggested, the crowdgathered in the Max Palevsky Cinemashould listen "as parents of children whomyou hope to educate — hopefully here."A liberal education, he told the audience — as he'd told students almost twodecades earlier — is not the same as a general education. "You are not an emptyvessel to be filled by useful knowledge,"and thus an education should "lead you outto become the fuller and richer version ofthe self you already are and promise tobe... a person that is aware of the complicated interrelations of things and is effectivein dealing with them, while being guided byone's own reliable sense of their respectiveworth." To this end, Weintraub suggestedcultivating four habits:• "A refined sense of the complexity ofthings." Our culture's drive to simplicity isdominant, he said, and not all bad. Yet thevalue of perspective — analysis — often getsshort shrift. Quoting Whitehead, he said:"The problem of education is to make thepupil see the forest by means of the trees." • "A sense of proportion." We must seefrom a historian's perspective, said the historian, if we are to "distinguish the significantly new from the mere fad."• "A sense of economy." In school, as inlife, no student can learn everything: "Thechoices are hard, and the costs high." Onemust know how to find the feasible matter,or the great question in the small matter.• "A sense of style," or "how you giveunity to your diverse being." The process ofassimilating one's surroundings takes time:"If we did not believe in this, it would be somuch easier and cheaper to educate you."At the end of his lecture, Weintraub, whomarked his 40th anniversary teachingWestern Civilization in the College thisyear, received a great round of applause —and the table of contents from a Festschriftplanned by former students.Global questionsThe two-dozen alumni who signed up for"How to Save the Environment," one of tencourses offered as part of Reunion's "Uncommon Core" array of classes, were immediately asked to "take a global point of view."Theodore Steck, who chairs the College'snew environmental-studies concentration,began by turning to the blackboard anddrawing a large circle, representing theglobe, and a long line, representing time. Hemarked each with a small point labeled,"You are here."There are no all-around environmentexperts, he cautioned. Instead, his goal was"to provoke you, and get you fightingamongst yourselves, and referee." Groupintroductions revealed that the "students"included engineers, environmental lawyers,a climatologist, activists, and accountants.Steck then took a quick poll: "Flow big isthe environmental problem?" On a zero-to-six scale, from no problem to the problem,most answers fell in the upper half. Whatdid they see as the top problems? Answersincluded air pollution, rich-vs.-poor international inequities, and overconsumption."Don't count on scientists to solve theproblems," Steck cautioned, then continuedto ask questions: Is the environment forhumans, or are we all one system? Whendoes self-preservation and sustenanceend — and overconsumption begin? If there36 Uni\ ersity of Chicago Magazine/August 1994is a struggle between humans and nature,when did it begin? Did the environmentalproblem start at the Industrial Revolution,or has it always been there — is there something inherendy destructive in humans?The answers offered revealed some clashing values — and suggested more questions:Are there limits to growth? Can the world in100 years have today's U.S. standard ofliving? Is that desirable? Can the ThirdWorld achieve that standard through sustainable-development methods, or will we allhave to change the way we live?A show of BlackfriarsThe Reynolds Club bustled with Blackfriarsduring Reunion weekend, as UniversityTheater (UT) staged a gathering thatincluded workshops, a panel discussion onstudent theater through the decades, and aSunday-afternoon extravaganza, completewith scenes from shows that have gracedthe University's stages over the years.Some 150 people watched performancesby alumni and students, including a rousingrendition of "It's Blackfriar Time Again,"sung before every Blackfriar show since itpremiered in the 1933 Gypped in Egypt.Ned Rosenheim, AB'39, AM'46, PhD'53,read James Weber Linn's poem, "How toWrite a Blackfriar Show" ("slighdy revised"by Michael Dorf, AB'73).The performances were preceded by thepresentation of the first-ever Glorious Gargoyle awards, which honored BernardSahlins, AB'43, and Paul Sills, AB'51, fortheir lifetime achievements in the performing arts. Sahlins — a founder of Chicago'sfamed Second City, is active in the international theater community and helped formOff-Off-Campus, UT's improvisationaltroupe. Sills, considered the father of StoryTheatre, helped form the Compass Players,and was a pivotal player in summer theaterat Hutchinson Courtyard, which eventuallybecame Court Theatre.Unable to attend the Sunday reception,Sills received his award at Saturday's paneldiscussion. A student during the Hutchinsera, Sills never received his bachelor'sdegree from the U of C — even though hecompleted the requirements. After presenting the Gargoyle to Sills, Herman Sinaiko,AB'47, PhD'61, the UT's faculty director —dressed in full academic regalia — began animpromptu convocation.As UT's managing director, Bill Michel,AB'92, asked if Sinaiko — one of the University's assistant marshals — had the authorityto confer degrees, President Hugo Sonnenschein leapt from his chair at the back of theroom, shouting, "No, wait a minute! I'm theonly one who gives out degrees! " Wearing jeans and a T-shirt (he also participated in an alumni Softball game on theMidway that afternoon), Sonnenschein proceeded to grill Sills about his knowledge ofDrosophila and his performance in his Oilclass — amid laughter from the audience."To be more serious about this for amoment," Sonnenschein told Sills, "yourachievements bring credit to the University,and we are proud to now more formallyinclude you among our graduates."At Sunday's reception, UT also honoredUniversity President Emeritus Edward H.Levi, AB'32, JD'35, with the PresidentialPatron award. As provost and president,Levi "faithfully supported the arts andcampus theater," continuing a role begunwhen he joined Blackfriars in his own student days. Next year's winners?Nominations are being sought for the 1995Alumni Association Awards, to be presented to distinguished alumni at nextJune's reunion.To be eligible, a nominee must havematriculated at the University, earned credittoward one of its degrees, and shown a continuing interest in the U of C. Alumni maybe nominated for the following honors: theAlumni Medal, the University Alumni Service Medal, Alumni Service Citations, Professional Achievement Citations, and YoungAlumni Service Citations.For a look at the 1994 award winners, see"Class News." Nominations are due October 15, 1994; to receive a nomination form,call 312/702-2160.University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 37C lass NewsWhat's the news? We are always eager to receiveyour news at the Magazine, care of the Class NewsEditor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. No engagements, please. Items may be edited for space.Please specify the year under which you wouldlike your news to appear. Otherwise, we will list:(1) all former undergraduates (including thosewho later received graduate degrees) by the yearof their undergraduate degree, and (2) all formerstudents who received only graduate degrees bythe year of their final degree.AA Irma Langford, PhB'23, remains proud ofHW earning a degree from the U of C.M Helen M. Crane, PhB'24, after teaching at anL.A. high school for five years, became chiefadministrator of the L.A. school cafeterias, a positionshe held from 1930 to 1959. She now lives with hercousin near San Luis Obispo, attends church, andenjoys lunching at California coastal restaurants.Hal Baird, PhB'25, AM'28, worked for 16years in education and 30 years in sales andmarketing, retiring in 1968. Now 91, he lives in aPresbyterian retirement home in Florida.Estelle Rochells Greenberg, PhB'28, lives atthe St. Agnes Hospital retirement facility,where she volunteered weekly for 22 years. She wouldenjoy hearing from friends at 1100 East Spruce, Apt.108, Fresno, CA 93720. Catherine Crowley Pellegrini, AB'28, reports that she recently took an unusualtrip: "8,000 miles, coast to coast and back, solo... allthe way by Greyhound, ln ten weeks, 21 major stopsyielded delightful reunions with some 50 friends."M Elbert L. Little, Jr., SM'29, PhD'29, whowrites tree-identification books, has receivedthe outstanding scientist award from the OklahomaAcademy of Science. Laura Kyes McCrory, PhB'29,was honored this past March as the first secretary ofthe North Dakota Public Health Association.Harvey L. Paulson, PhB'30, celebrated his100th birthday on May 10. A teacher atMuskegon (Ml) High School and Muskegon JuniorCollege for 38 years, he retired in 1959, and has beenactive in local Masonic lodges for nearly 70 years.MLee J. Loventhal II, PhB'31, has moved to aretirement home in Lexington, KY, to be nearhis youngest son, John, who practices cardiology,Elizabeth Ford Sprowls, SM'32, had triple-bypass surgery last December, and is recuperating well at her home in Henrico County, VA.M Robert F. Balsley, PhB'33, is well and enjoying retirement in Naples, FL, with Frances,his wife of 57 years.M Seymour Graham, AB'34, lives in Hazleon,PA, which he describes as "...a small town,stuck about 40 miles north of Allentown. However,the air is clear, the people are nice, and I like ithere." Frank C. Springer, Jr., PhB'34, was planningto attend the class reunion in June. Donoghue, Jr., AB'38, JD'38; William R. Emery,AB'35, JD'37; Evelyn Carr Harris, SB*35; Peter M.Kelliher, AB'35, JD'37; Richard H. Levin, AB'35,JD'37; Bernard D. Meltzer, AB'35, JD'37; Byron S.Miller, AB'35, JD'37, and Jeanette Rifas Miller,AB'36, JD'37; Gerald Ratner, AB'35, JD'37; SamuelSchlesinger, PhB'35, JD'37; Alfred B. Teton, AB'35,JD'36; and Hubert L. Will, AB'35, JD'37. The committee is responsible for planning programs, classactivities, and fund-raising.Katherine Mann Byrne, AB'36, AM'43, haspublished four essays in the Chicago TribuneSunday Magazine during the past year, including"Once More Around the Block" — which won firstplace in an essay competition sponsored bySUNMAG, a publication for editors of Sunday newspaper magazines. .A« Ralph O. Baird, SB'37, and his wife cele-^Bm brated their 65th anniversary last Augustwith an open house at their home in Tubac, AZ. Lastsummer, James R. Ware, AB'37, was reunited withhis son, James R. Lassen-Willems, whom Ware lostcontact with when he got divorced during WWII.Aware that his father had a degree from the U of C,Lassen-Willems located him through Alumni Association records. Ware has another son, James W.Ware, MBA'79.M Seymour Meyerson, SB'38, spoke this springon "The Metamorphosis of Organic MassSpectrometry from Black Magic to Chemistry" at theJames L. Waters Symposium in Pittsburgh. A chemistwho focused on mass spectrometry during his 37years with Standard Oil in Indiana, Meyerson alsoreceived a national achievement award last year fromthe American Chemical Society.Richard M. Adams, SB'39, SM'48, reportsthat he retired from Argonne National Laboratory in 1983 but continued there as a consultant forten years. Last year, he and his wife, Marjorie, movedfrom Hyde Park to Laramie, WY — where their son,Rich, works in the Wyoming State Office of Archeology. The couple also recently enjoyed a trip to China.DeWitt M. Kelley, AB'39, has retired as senior adjunctprofessor at Golden Gate University Graduate Schoolof Public Administration, in San Francisco. Prior tohis 20-year teaching career, Kelley worked as a personnel officer for the U.S. Geological Survey.Reunion June 2-3 -4 95Reunion June 2-3-4The committee for the 60lh reunion nextJune is as follows: C. Olin Sethness, AB'35,|D'37, chair; John P. Barden, AB'35, JD'38; George T. Mf% Persis-Jane Peeples Cline, AB'40, and het^¦w husband, John, travel, enjoy life, and still livein the same house they've had for 46 years. After hisretirement, Bundhit Kantabutra, MBA'40, donatedhis library of books to the statistics department ofChulalongkorn University, where he is a professoremeritus of statistics. (See award announcement onpage 42.)ill John C. Gerber, PhD'41, professor emeritus^M of English at the University of Iowa and theState University of New York, Albany, has publishedseveral books recently: Mark Twain (G.K. Hall &Co.) in 1988; O Marvelous Model T (Maecenas Press)in 1991; and The Teaching of English at the Universityof Iowa. Vol. I. The First Hundred Years, 1861 to 1961(Maecenas), due out in 1994. Albert ("Bill") Tezla, AB'41, AM'47, PhD'52, professor emeritus of Englishat the University of Minnesota, Duluth Bridge, is aninternationally known scholar and translator of Hungarian literary works. Awarded Fulbright and NEHresearch grants earlier in his career, he has writtenseveral books, including, in 1987, Somewhere in aDistant Fabled Land: American Hungarians,1895-1920 (Europa). An English version of the bookwas released in 1993 as A Hazardous Quest (Corvina).Tezla and his wife, Olive, have two children: Kathy, alibrarian at Emory University, and Michael, an actorin the Twin Cities.M^ Frank W. Johnson, MD'42, and Doris ArgileHlfi Johnson, AB'43, celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary in June 1993. Joann MitchellWarfel, AB'42, and her husband, George, live in aretirement community in Santa Barbara, CA.« Florence Rucker Collins, SB'43, SM'48,reports that she and her husband continue toenjoy living in Lake Minchumina, Alaska — and thatclassmate Florence Robinson Weber, SB'43, SM'48,who recently retired from the U.S. Geological Survey,lives and works in Fairbanks. Benson E. Ginsburg,PhD'43, a national Sigma Xi lecturer for the past twoyears, heads the behavior genetics laboratory andworks in the psychiatry department of the healthcenter at the University of Connecticut. He recentlywon a Guggenheim grant to cowrite a book on theevolution of behavior. Doris Argile Johnson, AB'43,see 1942, Frank W. Johnson.^^B Barbara Monscr Ruml, AB'44, was looking^rm forward to attending her 50th class reunionin June.Reunion June 2-3*4 95Since retiring from the Department of PublicSocial Services in 1979, Shirley Moore Shol-tus, AB'45, has worked full time in real estate. Shealso volunteers at Methodist Hospital of Arcadia, CA,and is active in AAUW and the Pasadena Area LiberalArts Center.George H. Faust, PhD'46, professor emeritusat Cuyahoga Community College, Cleveland, will be a guest speaker at the International Society for the Study of Multiple Personality andDissociation's llth-annual conference in Chicago,November 2-6. He and his wife, Betty, live in ShakerHeights, OH.MWm Lois Swan Jones, PhB'47, SB'48, SM'54, won^B# the 1993 CAVE fine-arts commendation forMadonna and Child: The Development of ChristianSymbols, a 50-minute video documentary usingmedieval sculpture to illustrate the artistic, historic,and theological changes in these symbols.Atk. Conrad L- Bergendoff, AM'48, and his wife,¦© Jean E. Quarton, have moved their homeand offices to 12 St. Mary's Place, Wilmington, NC28403. Frederic C. Feiler, PhB'48, who practicesorthopedics in Colorado Springs, and his wife, aphysical therapist, have five children and five grandchildren. Last fall, they took their fourth trip toNepal, where they worked in a leprosy hospital. Thetwo ski in the winter and windsurf in the summer,Sidney C. Furst, AB'48, founded Furst AnalyticCenter, Inc., 35 years ago. The company was one ofthe first to specialize in focus-group research. Leo P.Kennedy, AB'48, and his wife, Rosemary, celebratedtheir 50th anniversary in January. Married at Jefferson Barracks, MO, they recall that their weddingdinner was "a ten-minute Coke at the PX." Rosemarythen took the train from St. Louis back to Chicago,and, within three hours, Leo was on a troop train toCamp Kilmer and Europe. They weren't reunited foralmost three years. Richard J. Robertson, PhB'48,AM'52, PhD'60, retired in June 1993 as professoremeritus of psychology at Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago.38 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994« Susan Pearlman Kagan, X'49, who receiveda Ph.D. in musicology from the City University of New York, teaches music history at HunterCollege in New York City. Her career as a performerhas included appointments as orchestra pianist withthe St. Louis and Pittsburgh symphonies, and soloappearances with both orchestras. Her book, Archduke Rudolph: Beethoven's Patron, Pupil, and Friend(Pendragon Press, 1988), has recently been reprinted,and, in February, she performed a concert ofBeethoven and Rudolph at Hunter with Joseph Sukon violin. After graduating, Ramon Mendez-Perez,MBA'49, returned to Puerto Rico to manage hisfather's business. Since retiring in 1988, he has keptbusy playing tennis and doing philanthropic work.He and his wife, Luchy, have two sons — Ramon, 37,and Angel Antonio, 34 — and three grandchildren:Camila, 4, and twin boys, Gabriel and Sebastian, 2.Vera Stepen Pless, PhB'49, SM'52, mathematicsprofessor at the University of Illinois, Chicago, hasbeen appointed a Phi Beta Kappa visiting scholar for1994-95. Horacio J. A. Rimoldi, PhD'49, who earnedan M.D. from the University of Buenos Aires in 1938,has been named a member of the National Academyof Medicine of Buenos Aires and the National Academy of Education of Argentina. He has founded fourresearch labs in Argentina, Uruguay, and the U.S.,including the Interdisciplinary Center for Research inExperimental and Mathematic Psychology, of whichhe is now the director. Burton H. Robin, SM'49,retired last May, after 30 years of teaching chemistryand physical science at Kennedy-King College (formerly Wilson Junior College) in Chicago. He washonored earlier by Kennedy-King as the 1991-92 distinguished professor.Zane Spiegel, SB'49, SM'52, had private reunionsthis past year with five family members who live inChicago and attended the U of C in the '40s and '50s.Vera Corona Turton, AB'49, AB'56, received an pastoral studies from Loyola University, Chicago,in May 1993. She now works as a spiritual director.Thomas E. Van Dam, SB'48, SM'49, became SouthHolland's superintendent of schools in 1968, after 20years of teaching. Retiring from that position in 1987,he has since served as an assistant professor at Roosevelt University, Chicago.UNION June 2-3-4 95Ralph D, Fertig, AB'50, a lawyer, has beenelected president of the humanitarian lawproject of International Educational Development,Inc., a nongovernmental organization dedicated toadvancing and protecting human rights and humanitarian law. Louis Genesen, PhB'50, see 1951, JudyLevin Kovacs Genesen. Richard V. Hennes, AM'50,reports that he had dinner with classmate Luther A.Allen, PhD'55, in Montreal last November. RicaAnido Rock, AB'50, MST'57, writes: "Retired andhappily shoveling snow or compost in the Catskills,depending on the season. Any other devotees of voluntary simplicity out there? (914) 434-2105."CI JudHh Levin Kovacs Genesen, AB'51,91 AM'66, retired last October as the executivedirector of the American Association of LawLibraries, a position she had held since 1989. Priorto that, she was director of information services forthe Chicago Transit Authority. She and her husband, Louis Genesen, PhB'50, have four childrenand five grandchildren. Cynthia Wickens Gilles,AB'51, SB'54, SM'55, directs the Massachusetts AIDSDiscrimination Initiative, a nonprofit organization.She has five children.Richard H. Moy, AB'53, SB'54, MD'57, deanemeritus of Southern Illinois UniversitySchool of Medicine, has been awarded emeritusmembership on the executive council of the Association of American Medical Colleges. Timuel D. Black, Jr., AM'54, was honored bythe DuSable Museum of African AmericanHistory on April 24 for his devotion to the redevelopment of his South Side community, Bronzeville.Lawrence M. Lichtenstein, AB'54, MD'60, past president of the American Academy of Allergy & Immunology, is director of the division of clinical immunologyat Johns Hopkins Allergy and Asthma Center in Baltimore. Helena Znaniecka Lopata, PhD'54, the 1994president of Sociologists for Women in Society,received the George Herbert Mead distinguished careeraward in 1993, and, in 1992, a distinguished scholaraward from the American Sociological Association.Nicholas T. Zervas, MD'54, chief of the neurosurgicalservice at Massachusetts General Hospital and Higginsprofessor of neurosurgery at Harvard Medical School,has been elected president of the Boston SymphonyOrchestra. He and his wife, Thalia, and their three children live in Milton, MA. The Pride of 94[REL/MCW June 2-3-4Luther A. Allen, PhD'55, see Richard V.Hennes, AM'50. Freny R. Gandhi, AM'55,who lives in Bombay, received a 1991-92 child welfare award from the government of Gujarat, India.She wishes a happy 1994 to all her friends. DianeYale, X'55, president of the Family and DivorceMediation Council of Greater New York, was themoderator and program coordinator of the council'sannual spring dinner, which included a panel discussion on "The Paradigm Shift."David S. Gochman, AB'56, AB'57, was invitedby China's ministry of public health to give aseries of lectures to public-health professionals onbehavioral sciences, health behavior research, andhealth education. In his 21st year on the faculty of theUniversity of Louisville's School of Social Work,Gochman is president of the university's chapter ofthe American Association of University Professors.BH Philip Fireman, MD'57, is professor of pedi-V m atrics at the University of Pittsburgh Schoolof Medicine and director of allergy, immunology, andrheumatology at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. He was recendy elected secretary/treasurer ofthe American Academy of Allergy & Immunology.Peter S. Amenta, PhD'58, retired in June asprofessor and chair of the anatomy department at Hahnemann University School of Medicine,Philadelphia. First appointed in 1958 as an instructorat Hahnemann, he had served as the chair since 1973.William S. Leicht, AB'58, SB'58, has developed aphysical-conflict resolution manual (Aikiworkshops)and facilitation course for United NeighborhoodHouses, Inc., of New York City. He explains, "Aikiworkshops combine the physical techniques of aikidowith the verbal methods of conflict resolution in acommon framework of 'recognizing being.'" WilliamA. Rosen, X'58, see 1954, Eunice Berg Rosen.Linda Rosenberg Sher, AB'59, has beenappointed the National Labor RelationsBoard's acting associate general counsel in its divisionof enforcement litigation. Donald G. Tritt, PhD'59,has been promoted to professor of psychology atDenison University. James Q. Wilson, AM'57,PhD'59, the James Collins professor of managementand public policy at UCLA, has joined the board oftrustees of Rand, an independent, nonprofit institution that seeks to improve public policies throughresearch and analysis.Reunion June 2-3-4Stanley L. Mularz, MBA'60, retired vice president of TRW and executive director of Merchants Research Council, volunteered last year withthe International Executive Service Corps in Kyiv,Ukraine. Birgitta K Nilson, AB'60, a Salvation Army 0)n Saturday morning of thisJune's reunion, graduatesfrom many decades gathered inRockefeller Chapel, in observanceof a 53-year-old tradition, to honoroutstanding fellow alumni. Ruth Sager,SB'38, received the Alumni Medal (seepage 32), and the University AlumniService Medal was awarded to IzaakWirszup, PhD'55 (see below).As shown in the following pages of"Class News," 20 other graduateswere cited for their service to society,professional achievement, or service tothe University. The latter group includedthree recipients of "Young AlumniService Citations," first given during theUniversity's centennial celebration toacknowledge outstanding alumnivolunteers age 35 and younger.jr.Izaak Wirszup, PhD'55The University Alumni Service MedalHonored for "extended, extraordinaryservice" to the U of C, Wirszup is a45-year member of the Universitycommunity. A professor emeritus ofmathematics, he is the country's topauthority on math education outside theUnited States and has worked for decadesto bring the problems of U.S. matheducation to national attention. In 1983,he helped to found the University ofChicago School Mathematics Project(UCSMP) to raise U.S. math education toworld-class standards. A model partnershipof elementary and secondary schools,universities, and industry, UCSMP hasdeveloped textbooks used in all 50 states.On the Chicago campus, Wirszup has wona Quantrell award for excellence inundergraduate teaching and — with hiswife, Pera — served from 1971 to 1985 asresident master of Woodward Court.The flourishing lecture program that theWirszups began there has since beenendowed by a former student as theIzaak Wirszup Lecture Series.University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 39Nancy Johnstone, X'54Public Service CitationAs executive director of the mental-healthand social-service agency Youth Guidance,Johnstone helps children in Chicago's high-risk neighborhoods. By founding Womenin Charge, she also helped women in nonprofit organizations to reach management-level careers. On the visiting committee ofthe School of Social Service Administration,she is active in many civic groups.David Logan, AB 39, JD 41Public Service CitationLogan has aided arts education inChicago and Illinois by overseeinghundreds of grants to artists and organizations through the Illinois Arts Council,rallying Chicago foundations to support artin the city's public schools, and fundingcommunity arts-education through theLogan Foundation. He is also a majorsupporter of medical research.Leatrice Dranch Madison, AM'47Public Service CitationA Cleveland leader dedicated to helpingyoung people, Madison was a foundingboard member of Harambee, a social-serviceagency for minority children and teenagemothers. Her years as a schoolteacher dedicated her to education and human rights; shehas given time to more than 35 agencies. officer since graduation, was transferred to Sweden,where she serves as chief secretary, second-in-command for Salvation Army operations in the country.Ivan W. Arguelles, AB'61, of Berkeley, CA, isthe author of numerous poetry collections,and won the 1989 William Carlos Williams Award ofthe Poetry Society of America for his book Lookingfor Mary Lou: illegal Syntax. Since then, he has beenworking on an epic, two volumes of which have beenpublished: "That" Goddess (1992) and HapaxLegomenon (1993), both from Pantograph Press. Alibrarian at the University of California, Berkeley, heis married to Marilla E. Elder, AB'65. They have twosons, including Alexander Arguelles, AM'88,PhD'94. Nancy Cox DeSombre, AB'61, AM'62, vicepresident for faculty and instruction at Wright College, Chicago, has been elected to the board ofLaSalle Northwestern National Bank. The bank hasalso established a $2,500 college scholarship in hername for a graduating senior.A teacher and principal in the Chicagopublic schools for 36 years, Esther NelsonLawson, AM'62, is in the final stages of her LoyolaUniversity dissertation on African-American principals and administrators in the Chicago publicschools. Her next goal is to complete a law degree atLoyola and become a child advocate. Cora L. Mayo,AM'62 — now retired after 35 years with the Chicagoboard of education — publishes early-childhood educational materials; gives workshops on black history,black resources, and parenting; and volunteers at theField Museum as a docent for the Africa exhibit.Jane M. Whitehill, AB'63, graduated with anMA. in forest science from Yale University'sSchool of Forestry and Environmental Studies thispast spring.M Sylvia Woodby Babus, AB'64, currentlyserves in the American Embassy in Tashkent,Uzbekistan, on a temporary assignment for the foreign service. She will return in September to her postat the Foreign Service Institute in Washington, DC.Reunion June 2-3-4Troy L. Armstrong, AB'65, professor of criminal justice at California State University,Sacramento, received the 1993-94 President's Awardfor research and creative activity, given to one facultymember each year. Marilla E. Elder, AB'65, see 1961,Ivan W. Arguelles. Robert M. Lipgar, PhD'65, a clinical professor in the U of C's psychiatry department, ispresident of the Chicago Center for the Study ofGroups and Organizations, a regional center of thenational A. K. Rice Institute. William R. Winkler,SM'65, who teaches autistic teenagers in a special-education center, is also a teacher intern in the Dallaspublic schools' alternative certification program,Norman A. Buktenica, PhD'66, had a showof his sculptures featured this spring at District 31-Victoria's in Woolverton, MN.AH Beverley D. Causey, PhD'67, report that sheW * has worked at the Census Bureau since 1970and enjoys it. Roger Fecher, MBA'67, vice presidentfor administration and finance at the Rose-HulmanInstitute of Technology, is a consultant for the institutions of higher education commission of the NorthCentral Association of Colleges and Schools. Jean-Paul Ouzel, X'67, has been appointed director ofL'Opera national de Paris. Charles P. Kearney,PhD'67, is a professor of education at the University ofMichigan, Ann Arbor. Lawrence R. Okamura, AM'67,associate professor of history at the University of Missouri, Columbia, has been appointed adjunct professor of classical studies. He also won the 1994 PurpleChalk teaching award from the university's college ofarts and sciences. Lynn H. Vogel, AB'67, AM'69,PhD'78, his wife, Lynn D. Carter, AM'77, MBA'77,and daughter, Joanna, have relocated to New York City, where he is vice president of information management systems and services and chief informationofficer at Mt. Sinai Medical Center. He was formerlychief information officer at the U of C Hospitals.M Keith R. Ballantine, MAT'68, has taughthigh school for the Department of Defensedependents schools for 20 years, assigned first to theAzores Islands, Portugal, and then to southern Italy.With the downsizing of the D.O.D., he anticipatesanother move in the near future. Eugene R. Dykema,MBA'68, director of the graduate program in businessat George Fox College, Newberg, OR, delivered thespeech, "Epistemic Privilege and Pluralism in theAcademy: An Invitation to Christians to RecoverTheir Birthright," at the annual faculty lecture inMarch. H. Roland Heydegger, PhD'68, head of thechemistry and physics departments at Purdue University-Calumet, Hammond, IN, will join colleaguesat the U of Cs Laboratory for Astrophysics and SpaceResearch next spring to qualify and evaluate chemicalsurface data from Mars — to be gathered in threeupcoming space missions. Judith Lynn Sebesta,AB'68, professor and director of classics at the University of South Dakota, was selected the 1994 Harrington lecturer of the college of arts and sciences.This past spring, she gave the public lecture,"Weavers of Fate: Symbolism in the Costume ofRoman Women."Elliot J. Feldman, AB'69, has been elected apartner of Pepper, Hamilton & Scheetz, andis chair of the firm's international-trade practice inWashington, DC. Dennis C. Waldon, AB'69, a 1973graduate of Harvard's law school and former coordinator of the Gottlieb and Schwartz litigation department, has joined Steven H. Lavin in forming theChicago firm of Lavin & Waldon, P.C. James H. RialIII, AB'69, began a three-year tour in May as first secretary at the U.S. Embassy in Madrid. His wife, AnnFrontera-Rial, is with him in Spain.Reunion June 2-3-4VVffe Jean Hill Cooley, AM'70, has been namedm U dean of students at Union Theological Seminary, Richmond, VA. Lawrence W. Sherman, AM'70,a criminology professor at the University of Maryland, College Park, has been appointed chief criminologist of the Indianapolis police department andcitywide director of gun-crime policy.HI Peter R. Dachowski, MBA'71, is executivem m vice president of CertainTeed Corp., a ValleyForge, PA-based manufacturer of building materials, fiberglass, and piping products. Christine J.Kuchler, AB'71, was reappointed to a third term onthe North Dakota state board of psychologist examiners. She is also the board's president. Carl A. Sunshine, AB'71, is principal director of the satellite-control network for the U.S. Air Force Spaceand Missiles Systems Center. John Pierce, SB'71,MBA'83, has been elected to the school board ofPark Ridge and Niles Elementary District #64.Albert A. Zagotta, MBA'71, was elected executivevice president of SPX Corporation — a company thatdesigns, manufactures, and markets specialty service tools and equipment for the motor vehicleindustry — and was appointed president of the company's original equipment components group.OQ David A. Baron, AB'72, PhD'79, and Susanm M D. Kay, AM'79, live in Skokie with their sonsJacob, 10, and Zachary, 7. David works for Searleresearch and development, where he was recentlyappointed a member of the Monsanto Companiesfellow program, designed to recognize technical andscientific achievement. Thomas G. Faulkner III,AM'72, has completed the joint military operationscourse for reserve officers at the Naval War College,Newport, RI. Pamela Grande Jensen, AM'69, PhD'72,who has taught political science at Kenyon College,40 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994Gambier, OH, since 1980, was named 1994 Benedictdistinguished visiting professor of political science atCarleton College, Northfield, MN. Ellwood R.Kerkeslager, MBA'72, vice president of technologyand infrastructure at AT&T in Basking Ridge, NJ, hasbeen designated an alumni fellow — in recognition ofhis career achievements — by Elizabethtown College,where he received his B.A. in 1962.Myron S. Meisel, AB'72, directed, wrote, and produced the film It's All True — based on an unfinishedfilm by Orson Welles — which won the best documentary award from the L.A. Film Critics Associationand a special citation for excellence from the NationalSociety of Film Critics. Picked by the Chicago Tribuneand the Reader, a Chicago weekly, as one of 1993'sten best films, it was released by Paramount HomeVideo in June. Dennis F. Miller, AM'72, who published his article, "National and International Cooperation: The Key to Deployment of AdvancedTechnology for Environmental Cleanup," in Contaminated Soil '93. also received, in 1993, both theArmy's meritorious service medal and the Department of Energy's environmental award for excellence. Stephen L. Spitz, JD'72, has joined the firm ofKalijarvi & Chuzi in Washington, DC, as Of Counsel. Bruce E. Wilson, MBA'72, has been appointedvice president and manager of the career-opportunities program at First Interstate Bank of California inLos Angeles.IV4 Joshua B. Fein, AB'73, is director of research*W and dissemination at the Institute on Disabilities at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA.John L. Freeouf, SM'68, PhD'73, of Interface Studiesin Katonah, NY, has been named a fellow of theAmerican Vacuum Society, a member society of theAmerican Institute of Physics. Patricia Jacobs Stein-way, AM'73, a former social worker, has openedSteinway Gallery, an art gallery in Chapel Hill, NCShe enjoys her "new life" and would like any U of Calumni in the area to visit.WWM Claudia E. Crask, AB'74, lives in Austin, TX,#^B with her husband, Nathan Kreisberg — whoreceived a Ph.D. in physics from the University ofTexas, Austin — and their 4-year-old daughter. Ha S.Rothschild, AM'74, previously assistant generalcounsel with the American Hospital Association inChicago, is now an associate with the law firm ofHerzog & Fisher in Marina del Rey, CA, specializingin health-care law. He was also recently appointed toserve on the California Society of Healthcare Attorneys' alternative dispute-resolution task force. C.William Zadel, MBA'74, president and CEO of CibaCorning Diagnostics Corp., was elected 1994-95chair of the Health Industry Manufacturers Association, a Washington, DC-based trade organization.^.Reunion June 2-3-4IVC Barbara Hiles Mesle, AM'75, associate pro-m%B fessor of English at Graceland College,Lamoni, IA, has been granted tenure. Carole A.Myscofski, AB'75, AM'76, PhD'81, professor of religion at Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington,received tenure this past spring. Marilyn A.Stoutenburg, MBA'75, recently formed her ownmusic company, Stoutenburg Music, and issued aCD of her piano music, entitled When Shadows Fall.She writes: "This represents a complete careerchange from 20 years in information systems onWall Street with Goldman, Sachs."HA Laura A. Cuzzillo, AB'76, reports that, "after#0 a grueling test taking 15 hours over thecourse of five days," she was awarded the rank offirst-degree black belt by the World Seido KarateOrganization.Wjm Lynn D. Carter, AM'77, MBA77, see 1967,m m Lynn H. Vogel. Mary Jean Craig Lynch,AM'77, announces the May 21, 1993, birth of her second son, Sean Michael. She also reports that, onthe same day, she was promoted to associate professor of psychology at North Central College,Naperville, where she is one of two associate academic deans. Her husband, Brian Lynch, toured in Singapore this spring with the Broadway musical LesMiserables. Their first son, Jonathon Craig, is afourth-grader at St. Irene School in Warrenville.HA Kevin R. Bain, MBA'78, has been promotedm ^B to senior director of global business development at Mead Johnson Nutritional Group in Evans-ville, IN. Mark Herskovitz, AB'78, is a trust officer intrust funds management administration at NationalCity Bank in Cleveland. Gerard T. Sidorowicz, AB'78,has been appointed assistant secretary for the juvenile-rehabilitation administration within the Washingtonstate Department of Social and Health Services.W Susan D. Kay, AM'79, see 1972, David A,Baron. Lisa Fein Siegel, AB'79, reports thatshe is no longer an assistant D.A. but, instead, ishome full time with her three children: Samuel, 6,Emily, 3, and Benjamin, 9 months. Robert E. Waner-man, AB'79, an attorney for the U.S. Department ofHealth and Human Services, has entered the executive master's of public health program at ColumbiaUniversity. Pamela Myers Waymack, MBA'79, hasjoined Children's Memorial Medical Center inChicago as vice president of physician services andsystem development.Reunion June 2-3-4Susan L. Meekins, AB'80, who received aJ.D. from NYU School of Law in 1983,joined the firm of Molton & Moelis — which thenchanged its name to Molton & Meekins — where sheconcentrates in commercial, real estate, partnership,and employment-law litigation. James Schiffer,AM'74, PhD'80, is associate professor and chair of theEnglish department at Hampden-Sydney College,VA. In 1989, he and his wife, Susan, published — as"Susan James" — Foul Deeds, an academic mysterynovel (St. Martin's Press). (For Schiffer's most recentpublication, see the "Books by Alumni" section).W Leslie Chapman Bell, AM'81, has begun freelance editing and writing for businesses fromNew Mexico to the East Coast. Jeffrey M. Bond,AM'81, PhD'92, see 1983, Donna Camloh Bond.Richard A. Heinle, AB'81, has joined Foley tSr Lard-ner's Orlando, FL, office, where, as a partner, he willpractice in the area of corporate securities andfinance. Felix F. Loeb, AB'81, has opened the UFOMuseum in Portland, OR. The museum houses an"Elvis Abduction Chamber — with resurrections everyhour" and an "Orange Freud Room — for reality testing." Rita A. Meyer, PhD'81, was recently appointedassistant professor of biology at Rutgers University'sCamden campus. Robert K. Wimpelberg, PhD'81, isdean of the college of education at the University ofNew Orleans. Stanley D. Seitz, MBA'81, is senior vicepresident of engineering and manufacturing operations at PSC, a manufacturer of laser scanners, interface modules, verifiers, and film masters for barcode-based data collection systems.M Donna Camloh Bond, AB'83, AM'84, andJeffrey M. Bond, AM'81, PhD'92, announcethe birth of their son Joseph last September. He joinsIsak, Leo, and Ivanna. "Jeff teaches classics at his ownalma mater in Mountain Lakes, NJ. Donna warms thehearth." Carl F. Brun, AM'83, has been appointedassistant professor of social work at Wright State University, Dayton, OH. Victor Goldberg, SB'83, and hiswife, Debra, announce the March 24 birth of theirson, Barry Leonard. Steven P. Lathan, MBA'83, isdirector of investor relations for Aviall, Inc., an independent provider of airline-engine, component, andaccessories repair and a worldwide distributor of aviation parts and supplies. John Hilgart, AB'83. Maynard Wishner, AB'45, JD'47Public Service CitationWishner has served the Jewishcommunity while building bridges toother ethnic and religious groups. He isthe former local and national president ofthe American Jewish Committee — thenation's oldest human-relations organization — and leads the national Council ofJewish Federations.lames Abegglen, PhB'48, PhD'56Professional Achievement CitationEver since his 1950s book The Japanese Factory, Abegglen has shown Western social scientists the value of studying the Japanesefactory system. One of the top U.S. expertson Asian business, he heads GeminiConsulting (Japan), teaches at SophiaUniversity in Tokyo, and serves on theboards of NCR Ltd. and LearningTechnologies, Ltd.Edwin Diamond, PhD'47, AM'49Professional Achievement CitationA leading political journalist, media criticand former senior editor of Newsweek,Diamond is the author of The Media Show:The Changing Face of the News, 1985-90and Behind the Times: Inside the New NewYork Times. Now the media columnist forNew York Magazine, he is also a professor atNew York University.University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 4 1Alan Fern, AB'50, AM'54, PhD'60Professional Achievement CitationDirector of the National Portrait Gallery since1982, Fern has redefined its mission as amuseum using art to tell history. While at theLibrary of Congress, the former U of C professor improved the collections' accessibility andvisibility. His U of C interests include serviceon the Smart Museum board of govemers.Bundhit Kantabutra, MBA 40Professional Achievement Citation"Thailand's Father of Statistics," Kantabutraintroduced statistics to his country and developed it to international standards. The resulting household, agricultural, and industrialcensuses are the basis for Thailand's nationalplanning. He began Thailand's first statisticsdepartment and computer-science program.David Kessler, JB'78Professional Achievement CitationAs commissioner of the U.S. Food and DrugAdministration, Kessler has revamped foodlabels and improved both review of genericdrugs and approval of new drugs. His activiststyle is credited with restoring staff moraleand reviving public trust. A pediatrician witha law degree, he previously directed WielerHospital at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center. announces the January birth of his second son, Justin.John and family live in New Jersey, where he worksfor BASF Corp.'s technology-development group inthe information-services department.M Linda Lewis Bruce, MBA'84, announces theOctober 14 birth of Margot Ellen. She joinsbig brother Cameron, age 2. Robert Fritz, MBA'84,and Susan B. Gutenberg, AM'84, announce the January 8 birth of their first child, Jackson Max. Bob is avice president of Gemini Consulting and Susan is alobbyist with Gold and Liebengood. They live inWashington, DC. Sarah H. Kagan, AB'84, whoreceived an M.S. in 1989 and Ph.D. in 1994 fromUCSF, is an assistant professor of clinical educationat the University of Pennsylvania's nursing school.Reunion June 2-3-4Kevin Timothy Barry, MBA'85, has joinedthe Carter & Burgess consulting firm asdirector of programming and strategic planning services. Donna Tritter Biderman, AB'85, and her husband, David, announce the October 12, 1993, birth oftheir son, Joshua Benjamin. All three live in Arlington, VA. Mark B. Blocker, AB'85, and his wife, Sheila,announce the January 26 birth of their son, EzraRyan. Julie A. Pierog, AB'86, and J. Peter Ricketts,AB'86, MBA'91, attended Ezra's briss. Emily F.Ganzel, AB'85, has been promoted from copywriterto associate creative director of Business Incentives,Inc., in Minneapolis. Alain G. LeCoque, JD'85, is corporate managing director of Julien J. Studley, Inc., anational commercial real estate firm. EdgarPierluissi, AB'85, and Talia Sternberg Pierluissi,AB'85, announce the birth of their daughter, Margot.Edgar is a chief resident in internal medicine atUCSF. Talia works for the Jewish Community Federation. They live in San Francisco.Dane S. Claussen, MBA'86, who teachesorganizational communications at UpperIowa University, Milwaukee, WI, and promotions/advertising at Waukesha County TechnicalCollege, has been elected president of the MidwestAssociation of Alternative Newsweeklies. AlexanderGurvich, AB'86, who left France after a five-yearstay, has received an M.B.A. from INSEAD inFontainbleau, and is now a consultant with Bain &Company in Moscow. He writes, "Send warm clothing and chicken soup." Rachel M. McCleary,PhD'86, has been selected a 1994-95 FulbrightScholar under the Central American RepublicsResearch Program. She will spend six months inGuatemala studying the country's transition todemocracy. Carl L. Oros, AB'86, has joined a helicopter squadron that is part of the 3rd Marine aircraft wing at the Marine Corps Air Station in Tustin,CA. Ruth Pennington Paget, AB'86, teaches Englishpart time with Berlitz Paris and writes articles ongastronomy in her spare time.QH Timothy M. Dwyer, MBA'87, joined the^9 m investment-banking group of Donaldson,Lufkin, & Jenrette in New York City as a vice president, specializing in insurance. Bennett N. Lovett-Graff, AB'87, received a master's in philosophy fromthe City University of New York this past February.Marci A. Whitney-Schenck, AM'87, is publisher andeditor of the newly created Christianity & the Arts, aquarterly magazine devoted to Christian artisticexpression in Chicago and the MidwestF. Ward Nixon, MBA'88, of Evanston, hasbeen promoted to first vice president atLaSalle National Bank in Chicago.Timothy E. Lynch, AB'89, has returned froma four-month Persian Gulf deploymentaboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Independence. BrentC. Perry, JD'89, an associate at the law firm ofBracewell & Patterson, and his wife, Carole,announce the birth of twins, Julianne Elyse and Jack son Donald. Kathryn E. Sampeck, AB'89, AM'91,married fellow archaeologist Howard Earnest, Jr. onJuly 20, 1991. The maid of honor was Arlene Kim,AB'90, and Sheri M. Lyons, AB'89, was a bridesmaid.Also in attendence were: Cheryl Sutherland, AM'91;John Calabrese, AB'91; and Martin Giesso, AM'90,who is working on his Ph.D. in anthropology at theU of C. Kathryn continues graduate work inMesoamerican archaeology at Tulane University,New Orleans, and has been awarded several scholarships — including the Fulbright-Hays — to help fundher settlement pattern research of the Rio Cenizadrainage in western El Salvador.Reunion June 2-3-4Abigail G. Crampton, AB'90, is an assistantdirector of development at the School of theArt Institute of Chicago, where she is also workingon a master's in arts administration. Nathan W. Judd,AB'90, returned last December from a six-monthWestern Pacific, Indian Ocean, and Persian Gulfdeployment aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Abraham Lincoln. Justin A. B. King, AB'90, who lives inL.A. and works in the film business, directed a documentary in Scotland last year. Last November, RobertW. Matanky, MBA'90, a real estate attorney and vicepresident of Matanky Realty Group, received theEvan Goldberg Mailing Keter Hazikaron MemorialCrown for distinguished public service from theAssociated Talmud Torahs of Chicago. Derrick H.Smith, AB'90, married Isabelle Lopez on February 14.Allen G. Zeyher, AB'90, is an associate editor atNuclear News, a magazine published by the AmericanNuclear Society.WClemente Berrios, Jr., MBA'91, is CEO ofBerrios & Co., a family owned and operateddiversified retail, wholesale, livestock, and agricultural business in southeastern Puerto Rico. Hereports that short-term goals are to expand retail andagricultural divisions, and adjust to the "tough"Puerto Rican weather. Martin J. Gorvine, AB'91, livesin Ramat Gan, Israel, and works as a writer and translator at Israel Business Today, a weekly businessnewsletter published in Tel Aviv. Frederick P.Kellett, AB'91, studied Uzbeck on a fellowship at theUniversity of Washington, and is now with the PeaceCorps in Tashkent, "assigned to the cabinet of theminister,"Abel Mojica III, AB'91, and Dyan M. Bargfrede,AB'91, were married on June 19, 1992, and are livingin New York City. Best man was Abel's brother,Jimmy, a student in the College, and maid of honorwas Dyan's sister, Jennifer Bargfrede. Abel has beenpromoted to a manager at Citicorp International Private Bank, and Dyan is a second-year analyst at CSFirst Boston. This fall, Abel will enroll at the University of North Carolina's Kenan-Flagler School of Business on a full fellowship from the Consortium ofGraduate Study. Leo Hsu, AB'91, AM'92, reports that,after a year at the Albuquerque Tribune as a photography intern, he is now a staff photographer al theCourier-News in Bridgewater, NJ. Susan Zoldak,MBA'91, was appointed account officer, multinational, for National City Bank in Cleveland, OH,Andrew D. Gross, AB'92, who lives in Baltimore and works as a systems analyst for BobAboui's Wholesale Pizza, Inc., is considering applyingto grad school. Guy Weigold III, AB'92, who attendsmedical school at the University of Minnesota, writes:"While the faculty here is good, I sorely miss theatmosphere of the U of C. Nothing makes me appreciate the place more than being away from it."Shai Y. Har-El, PhD'93, is the co-founder ofthe Northbrook-based Middle East PeaceNetwork, an independent, nonpartisan, not-for-profitorganization where Arabs and Jews work together forpeace in the Middle East.42 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994DeathsTRUSTEESWeston R. Christopherson, life trustee of the University and former chair and CEO of the NorthernTrust Corporation, died May 29. He was 69. Prior tojoining Northern Trust, he was chair and CEO ofJewel Companies, Inc. Elected to the U of C's Boardof Trustees in 1974, he played a prominent role inthe Campaign for Chicago and the Campaign for theNext Century. An active philanthropist, he was aformer director of the MacArthur Foundation andthe Chicago United Way/Crusade of Mercy. He issurvived by his wife, Myma; and three daughters.FACULTYNorman Burns, PhD'45, professor emeritus of education, died May 13 in Cheverly, MD. He was 87. Anexpert on the evaluation of colleges and universities,he helped organize surveys, beginning in 1940, ofhigher-education institutions, including studies inIllinois, Georgia, and Arkansas. Burns taught alChicago from 1945 until his retirement in 1972, serving as dean of students in 1945-46. From 1960 to1975, he was executive secretary of the North CentralAssociation of Colleges and Secondary Schools. Survivors include his wife, Imogene; a daughter, Imo-gene Burns Jensen, AM'76; and a grandson.Herrlee G. Creel, PhB'26, AM'27, DB'28, PhD'29,the Martin A. Ryerson distinguished service professoremeritus in East Asian languages and civilizations,died June 1 at his home in Palos Park, IL. He was 89.Creel was the author of more than ten books and several dozen papers on Chinese history and culture. Afounder of the University's program in Far EasternStudies, he helped establish the U of Cs Far EasternLibrary — most notably by traveling with his wife,Lorraine, to Japanese-occupied China in 1940 to purchase 75,000 volumes of classical Chinese literaturebefore war broke out. He is survived by his wife.Sara I. Fenwick AM'51, a professor emeritus in theGraduate Library School, died in June 1993. A formerlibrarian at the Laboratory Schools, in the early '60sshe was a Fulbright scholar in Australia, where shewas instrumental in developing school libraries. Aleader in the International Reading Association, shehad served as president of the American Associationof School Librarians and the Children's Services Division of the American Library Association.Iden N. Hill, professor emeritus at the Zoller DentalClinic, died February 24. He was 82. A resident ofGlen Ellyn, he had a dental practice in Evergreen Parkfor many years. He is survived by his wife, Jane.Chester T. McGraw, associate professor emeritus ofphysical education, died January 19. He was 86. Afterretirement, he was honored with an emeritus membership in the National Intramural Association. He issurvived by his wife.Harold R. ("Jeff) Metcalf, AM'53, former dean ofstudents in the GSB and University director of athletics, died May 14 in his Hyde Park home. He was 71.Appointed dean of students in 1956, he remained atthe GSB for 20 years before serving as director of athletics from 1976 until his retirement in 1980. He issurvived by his wife, Karlyn.Roger W. Sperry, PhD'41, of Pasadena, CA, diedApril 17. He was 80. A professor emeritus of psychobi-ology at CalTech, in 1981, he won the Nobel Prize inPhysiology or Medicine for his research in chartingright-side, left-side brain functions and learning. Hewas also honored with the National Medal of Science, the Wolf Prize in Medicine, and the Albert LaskerMedical Research Award. Following WWII, he was anassociate professor in the U of C anatomy department.Survivors include his wife, Norma; a son; a daughter;a brother; and two grandchildren.Manley H. Thompson, AB'38, AM'38, PhD'42, professor emeritus of philosophy, died June 9 in hisHyde Park home after a long illness. He was 77. Ascholar of metaphysics and the works of ImmanuelKant and C. S. Peirce, he wrote numerous articles,reviews, and books, including The Pragmatic Philosophy of C. 5. Peirce (1953). Joining the U of C facultyin 1949, he served as professor of philosophy from1961 until his retirement in 1987. He is survived byhis wife, Phyllis; a daughter; two sons; and twograndchildren.1920sHomer P. Balabanis, PhB'20, MBA'23, of Areata,CA, died August 19, 1991, after a long illness. He was93. Vice president emeritus of Humbolt State University, Areata, he came to the U.S. from Greece in 1913,joined the U.S. Army during WW1, and later receiveda Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University.Under President Roosevelt, he was a senior economist on price control.Sara Chaimovitz Freeman, PhB'24, of Chicago,died April 8. Survivors include a son.Margaret Monilaw Cody, PhB'24, died March 5 inMilwaukee, WI, after a short illness. Graduating fromthe Lab Schools at age 16, she lived in Hyde Parkand, later, Winnetka, for much of her life. Her husband, Arthur C. Cody, PhB'24, died in 1974. She issurvived by two daughters who attended the LabSchools, Anne C. McNitt and Barbara C. Pratt; sixgrandchildren; and one great-grandchild.Ralph D. Bennett, PhD'25, of Silver Spring, MD,died of pneumonia February 15. He was 93. A navalofficer overseeing ordnance labs during WWII and,later, the director of GE's Vallecitos Atomic Laboratory, he retired as vice president and research directorof the Martin Marietta Corporation in 1966. Survivorsinclude his wife, Anna; a son and a daughter from twoprevious marriages; and four grandchildren.George W. Harvey, Sr., PhB'25, died March 10. Hewas 90. He began his career in broadcasting by sellingprograms for the Chicago Tribune Co.'s WGN radio,eventually heading sales and program development atWGN-TV. In 1951, he moved to Tampa, startingWFLA-TV. After retiring in 1971, he cooked, grewprize-winning tomatoes, designed and sewed his ownclothes, and taught himself to use a computer. Survivors include his wife, Elizabeth; a son; and twogranddaughters.Kenneth H. Adams, SB'28, PhD'32, died March 15.He was 87. An organic chemistry professor, he taughtat St. Louis University from 1943 to 1975, and servedas a president of the St. Louis chapter of the American Chemical Society. Survivors include his wife,Colma; a daughter; three stepdaughters; eight grandchildren; and a sister.Frances Culver Sutphen, SB'25, died September 2in Urbana, IL. She was 91. An inductee into Phi BetaKappa at Chicago, she worked as a chemist for Gardner Paper Co. in Middletown, OH. Survivors includea son, a daughter, seven grandchildren, and fourgreat-grandchildren.Myron I. Boylson, MD'27, of St. Mary's, KS, diedAugust 10, 1993, of coronary artery disease. He was91. Survivors include his daughter, Kathleen. Bobert Michels, AB'53Professional Achievement CitationAmong the most respected U.S. psychiatrists,Michels, dean of Cornell Medical School,is former president of the American Collegeof Psychiatrists. Honored by his profession asa teacher and educational innovator, he wrotethe popular textbook Psychiatry. His publicservice includes an advisory role with theClinton health-care reform team.Professional Achievement CitationAcclaimed as a theater director and pioneerof improvisational theater, Sills is a co-founder of Chicago's Second City and Compass Players comedy troupes. Heexperimented with audience participationwith the improvisational group The GameTheatre and helped launch Story Theatre; hisdirecting credits include Broadway shows.Bobert Silvers, AB'47Professional Achievement CitationA founding editor of the New YorkReview of Books, Silvers has played adynamic role in the intellectual life ofthe country for 30 years. On the editorialboard of the Paris Review, he is a formerassociate editor of Harper's and directorof the Teachers and Writers Collaborativeof New York City.University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 43Barbara Gilfillan Crowley, AB'44Alumni Service CitationA volunteer since graduating fromthe College, Crowley has been activein the Alumni Schools Committee andthe Los Angeles alumni club, where sheled plans for the local Centennialcelebration. She has aided fund-raising asa President's Council volunteer andhelped plan her class's 50th reunion.Sonja Fischer, X'63Alumni Service CitationAs chair of the Women's Board, Fischer —who has given more than 30 years ofservice to Chicago — has united people inefforts to support the U of C's work inthe community, from Model UnitedNations to summer seminars for high-school teachers. She also serves on theHumanities visiting committee.Joyce Newman, PhD 55Alumni Seivice CitationAs longtime president of the Denveralumni club. New man was the forcebehind many activities: opening herhome for events, hosting laeulty guests,and widening the University's volunteernetwork for Annual Fund drives. She'scontributed equally in Los Angeles.where she is now club president Charles G. Chakerian, AM'29, died March 23 of amassive blood clot and heart failure. He was 90. Survivors include his wife.Juanita.Alex H. Dolnick, PhB'29, JD'31, of Winnetka, diedFebruary 23. He was 85. A practicing lawyer for 62years — most recently with Holleb & Coif — he was apioneer in bankruptcy and reorganization law. He issurvived by his wife, Florence; a son; two daughters;two sisters; a brother; and seven grandchildren.1930sOtis L. ("Andy") Anderson, PhB'31, of Graham,WA, died April 15. He was 93. After retiring in 1967as an instructor at the operators training center ofBonneville Power Administration, he was an avidgolfer and wood-carver. Survivors include twodaughters, four grandchildren, and two sisters.Harold R. Ohlson, SB'31, SM'32, AM'58, of Morrison, IL, died March 26 at the age of 87. Survivorsinclude his wife, Gerda,Bion B. Howard, SB'33, died March 21 at his Lexington, VA, home. He was 81. The author of twobooks on investment banking and the developer ofseveral securities investment theories, he retired in1981 as a finance prolessor at Norlhwestern's Kellogg School of Management. He then became anauthority on relorestation, operating a tree farm outside Lexington. He is survived by his wile, Lita Dick-erson Howard, PhB'34; a son; a daughter; agrandson", and two brothers, Norman J. Howard,AB'35, and Donald H. Howard, AB'37.Phyllis Richer Kaplan, PhB'33, died March 19 inEvanston. After raising her family, she was a volunteer counselor at Thresholds, a psychiatric rehabilitation organization, and the author of several shortstories. Survivors include her husband, Jerome; foursons; three grandchildren; and a sister.Allen J. Sahler, AB'34, of Colorado Springs, CO,died October 29. He was 81. He retired in 1986 aspresident and treasurer of Sahler Business Forms Co,in Omaha, NE. Survivors include his brother, GeorgeH. Sahler, AB'39.Ruth Chute Wills, AB'34, died April 18 in Winston-Salem, NC. She was a secretary at Ashburn Baptist Church in Chicago before her retirement. She issurvived by her husband, George; a daughter; a son;and five grandchildren.Curtis M. Flory, SB'35, MD'38, PhD'40, a physician, died April 9, 1993, in Bennington, VT. He issurvived by his wile, Mary; two sons, includingChristopher R. Flory, SB'66; two daughters; and abrothel, Karsten C. Flory, PhB'33.Ruth Pier Mainland, AM'35, of Milwaukee, Wl,died March 25, 1993, at her home. She was 81. Afterreceiving her certificate ol library science in 1939from the University of California, Berkeley, shetaught English at Lawrence University and was alibrarian at the University of Illinois, Champaign. In1983, she volunteered to be a research candidate inthe National Institutes ol Health study of Alzheimer'sdisease. Survivors include a son; a daughter; and lourgrandchildren,Lloyd M. Bush, AB'36, or Yorba Linda, CA, diedSeptember 27. He is survived by his wife, Barbara.1940sJacob J. Stotland, SB'40, died this year inJerusalem. Alter receiving a rabbinical degree in1937 from the Hebrew Theological College,Chicago, he served as principal of the Arie CrownHebrew Day School in the 1950s, and was a memberof the Congregation Yeshurun from 1974 to 1990,He is survived by his wife, Anna; a daughter; a son:and his two brothers.Thomas A. Hart, PhD'41, of Seattle, died March 25He was 88. Born in Argentina, he had a long career with the U.S. State Department in South America andthe Middle East— and a second career as a professorat West Georgia College and the University of Pittsburgh. He is survived by his wife, Dorothy; two sons;three grandchildren; three sisters; and several niecesand nephews.Donald Erwin Voelker, AM'42, died June 8, 1993,in Arlington, VA. He was 82. A communications officer in the US. Naval Reserve during WWII, he laterworked as a civilian at the U.S. Weapons Laboratoryin Dahlgren, VA. In 1962, he became head of thecareer and employee development branch at NASAheadquarters — where he worked until retiring in1975. He is survived by his wife, Kathryne.Charles Harding III, JD'43, of Long Grove, IL, diedApril 13. He was 78. A native or Winnetka with aBA. and Ph.D. in anthropology from Harvard, he wasan attorney and former head of the trust departmentfor Lake Shore National Bank, Survivors include hiswife, Patricia; two daughters; two sons; and fivegrandchildren.Raymond R. Ryder, PhD'43, died January 25 inCharleston, SC. He was 100. He retired in 1963, after37 years as a professor of education at Purdue University.Helen E. Richards, AM'44, of Odenton, MD, diedJanuary 18, 1993.Beth Sacia Thorstenberg, BLS'48, of Gainesville, FL,died November 12. She is survived by her son, Eric,Carl T. Feelhaver, X'45, of Fort Dodge, IA, diedDecember 5. He was 95. He served as superintendentof Fort Dodge's public schools from 1947 to his retirement in 1967. Survivors include his daughter, Mar)'.John T. ("Jack") Farrell, PhB'46, AM'49, died in hisOrland Park, IL, home on April 27. He was 71. Aretired senior analyst and deputy branch chief for theCIA, he had specialized in Soviet internationalfinance and trade. More recently, he was a memberand facilitator in the Renaissance Academy forSeniors at St. Xavier University, where he taught awriting workshop and a course on Washington, DCHe is survived by his wife, Lucille; two sons; a daughter; and a grandson.1950sJohn N. Becker, AB'50, died ol carbon-monoxidepoisoning April 15. A resident of Riverside, CT, since1965, he was a senior vice president of J. WallerThompson Co. advertising agency in New York Citybelore retiring eight years ago. He is survived by hiswile, Frances; three sons; a brother; a sister; and several nieces and nephewsDavid K. Hardin, MBA'50, died January 6 al hishome on the Near North Side. He was 66. A pioneerin market research, he was president and chair olMarket Facts Inc. Ordained as an Episcopal deaconin 1974, he had also been president and host since1983 of the Chicago Sunday Evening Club, an ecumenical television program. Survivors include hiswife, Paula; four daughters; a son; a sister; and abrother.Sumner Mayburg, SM'48, PhD'50, died February 2,after a 12-year battle with Parkinson's disease. Aresearch physicist, he worked with the SylvaniaResearch Laboratories (now GTE) team that firstdemonstrated highly efficient light emission, a discovery which led to the development of diode lasers.In 1969, he founded his own semi-conductor processing company, where he worked until he retiredin 1981. Survivors include his sisler.Donald J. Taylor, MD'52, died March 11, 1993, athis Temple, TX, home. He was 69. An orthopedicsurgeon, he practiced from 1964 to 1987 in Wisconsin hospitals. In 1987, he joined the staff of the Veterans Administration Hospital in Temple, where heworked until his death. Survivors include his wife,Dorothy; three sons; and two brothers.44 University of Chicago MagaziniVAugust 1994Daniel H. Perlman, AB'55, AM'56, PhD'71, diedMarch 31 in St. Louis after a long battle with cancer.He was 59. Previously the president of Suffolk University, Boston, he became president of Webster University in 1990. On the board of several St. Louiscivic and educational organizations, he served on thepresident's commission of the NCAA and on theAmerican Council on Education. Survivors includehis wife, Suzanne; a daughter; a son; a brother,Robert L. Perlman, AB'57, SB'58, MD'61, a professorin the department of pediatrics at Chicago; two sisters-in-law, Caryle Geier Perlman, AB'63, andMaxine Meyer Hobson, AB'53; and a cousin,Jonathan L. Mills, JD'77.William B. Ray, AB'56, a former Winnetka andEvanston resident, died April 22 in Sun City, FL. Hewas 86. A Chicago television and news pioneer, hehad a 26-year career with NBC. He later spent 18years as chief of complaints and compliance for theFederal Communications Commission. Survivorsinclude his son, Robert.Ruth Appeldoorn Mead, MFA'58, of BarringtonHills, IL, died February 24. She was 100. An artistand a cofounder of the Old Sculpin Art Galley inMartha's Vineyard, she taught art for 30 years in theMcHenry (IL) public schools. Survivors include threesons, seven grandchildren, and a great grandchild.1960sBetsy R. Cabatit-Segal, MAT'60, died May 8 at herhome in Darien, IL. She was 62. Past president of thePhilippine Nurses Association of Chicago, she wasassociate dean of the health and public services program at the College of DuPage. In the mid-1960s, shereturned to her native Philippines to teach at the University of the Philippines School of Women. Survivors include her husband, Marvin; her mother; foursisters; and two brothers.Stephen P. Hencley, PhD'60, of Salt Lake City, diedJanuary 11, 1993. Dean of the graduate school ofeducation at the University of Utah from 1966 to1976, he returned to the department of educational administration as a professor from 1976 to hisretirement in 1986.William J. Donohuejr., MBA'62, of Round Hill,VA, died March 19 at his home. Survivors includehis wife, Joan.Virgil J. Vogel, AM'49, PhD'66, died in hisNorthbrook, IL, home on January 10. He was 75.A retired history professor at Truman College.Chicago, he was the author of a landmark book onAmerican Indian history. This Country Was Ours.In the early 1970s, he helped reorganize the historic Charles H. Kerr Publishing Co. Survivorsinclude his wife, Louise; a daughter; two sons; twograndchildren; and two brothers.Janet Berstein Blumenthal, AM'69, PhD'87,died January 13 in Atlanta, GA. She was 50. She issurvived by her husband, Daniel S. Blumenthal.MD'68; a son; and a daughter.1970sWilliam H. Wethers III, MBA'74, died of a heartattack in his Chicago home on March 18. He was61. Active in the Metropolitan YMCA, he becameexecutive director of the Southtown YMCA, andlater the district director of five mid-southYMCAs. A member of the commission on youthwelfare, he was also cofounder and board memberof BUILD Inc., a youth work organization. He issurvived by his wife, Jan; his father; two children;a brother; and two granddaughters.A. Wade Smith, AM'76, PhD'77, of Tempe, AZ.died April 3. He was 43. Chair of the departmentof sociology at Arizona State University since1992, he held research positions with the NationalOpinion Research Center and the National Studyfor Black College Students. On the editorial andadvisory board of several journals, including theAmerican Sociological Review, he wrote extensivelyon the sociology of race and ethnic relations, thefamily, and education. He is survived by his wife,Elsie G. Moore, AM'77, PhD'80, a professor ofpsychology in education; and three sons.Books by AlumniART AND ARCHITECTUREDavid Landau and Peter Parshall, AM'67, PhD'74,The Renaissance Print, 1470-1550 (Yale UniversityPress). Printmaking matured in western Europebetween 1470 and 1550, when a generation of artistsand printmakers brought international recognition toprint as an art form. This book examines the technical and aesthetic experimentation that went intoprintmaking, and the material and social contexts ofprint production.RI0GRAPHY AND LETTERSHelmut Hirsch, PhD'45, Rosa Luxemburg (RowohltTaschenbuch Verlag) and Onhel Sams Fhltte: Autobi-ographisches Gam eines Asylanten in den USA(Leipzig University Press). A monograph of theGerman revolutionary who lived from 1871 to 1919,the first book has been translated into Dutch, Spanish, and Catalan. The second book is the story of theauthor's experiences as a graduate student at the U ofC and as a cofounder of Roosevelt College. Theauthor's monographs of Friedrich Engels, AugustBebel, and Bettine von Amim have gone into multiple printings. George Klawitter, PhD'81, Adapted to the Lake(Peter Lang Publishing). This book contains 200 letters — one-third of them translated from the originalFrench — written between 1841 and 1849 by theBrothers of the Holy Cross who founded the University of Notre Dame.RUSINESS AND ECONOMICSAndre Gunder Frank, AM'52, PhD'57, and Barry K.Gills, editors, The World System: Five Hundred Yearsor Five Thousand? (Roudedge). Confronting the ideathat historic, long-term economic interconnectednessdid not begin, as some say, 500 years ago, but rather5,000, the editors have gathered an array of scholarsinvolved in world-system analysis — and include bothstatements and responses to the idea of a "one-worldsystem." With a foreword by U of C professor emeritus William H. McNeill, AB'38, AM'39.Michael H. Friedman, AM'79, How to Run aFamily Business (F & W Publications). The authordiscusses how to own and operate a family business,with advice on selecting a business structure.financing, managing, buying and selling, estateplanning, and compensation of shareholders andemployees. lane Pugh, AB'47Alumni Service CitationPugh has given significant service tonearly all areas of Chicago's alumni programs. She has chaired her 40th and 45threunion committees and been instrumental inmaking UC2MC a success. A RenaissanceSociety board member for almost 20 years,she is also a member of the Women's Boardand Wyler Friends Against AIDS.Charlotte Schoenbrod, AB'37Alumni Service CitationA member of the President's Council and,for years, a phonathon and Annual Fundsvolunteer, Schoenbrod chaired her 55threunion committee in 1992 to great success.Her ideas have since been used for otheremeritus reunions. Under her leadership, theDowntown Luncheon Series has become oneof UC2MCs most successful programs.Katharine L. Benson, AB'80Young Alumni Service CitationIn the past six years, Bensen has chairedher class's tenth reunion and volunteeredwith Career and Placement Services andthe Campaign for the Next Century. Sheused her legal expertise to update UQMC'scharter, and, as club president,has moved programs forward with herenthusiasm and commitment.University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 45Oiane Oahl, MBA'86Young Alumni Service CitationPresident of her own company and a mentorto many in the U of C Women's BusinessGroup, Dahl has championed the abilities ofthe Graduate School of Business' alumnae.She's worked for increased opportunities forwomen in business through UCWBG and theGSB Annual Management Conference.lames Marks, AB'79Young Alumni Service CitationMarks has shown his dedication toChicago as program chair of his tenthreunion, a class agent, and chair of theclass-gift committee for his 15th reunion.He has helped boost giving among youngalumni for the Campaign for the NextCentury, and volunteers as an AlumniSchools Committee interviewer.Photography by Matt Gilson Carl G. Thor, MBA'64, and William F. Christopher, editors. Handbook for Productivity Measurementand Improvement (Productivity Press). A comprehensive gathering of information on productivity andquality from the organizational level down, thisvolume explores the relationships between measurement and strategic planning, customer satisfaction,employee involvement, and reward systems.Patricia Brown Glenn, AM'84, illustrated by JoeStites, Under Every Roof: A Kid's Style and Field Guideto the Architecture 0/ American Houses (The Preservation Press). Featuring more than 60 houses listed inthe National Register of Historic Places, this bookencourages children and their parents to leam aboutdomestic architecture: its history, the styles of thehouses we live in, and the words for different architectural elements.Valiska Gregory, AM'66, Babysitting for Benjamin(Litde, Brown & Company). Winner of the 1993 Parents' Choice Story Book honor award, this is the taleof two well-meaning mice who babysit an exuberanttoddler rabbit.CRITICISMMichael Groden and Martin Kreiswirth, AM'72,editors. The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theoryand Criticism (Johns Hopkins University Press).While focusing on contemporary critical and theoretical works, this book provides a comprehensivesurvey of ideas and thinkers ranging from Plato andAristotle to 20th-century scholars — and includesnearly 200 alphabetically arranged entries on critics,theoretical schools and movements, and the criticaland theoretical innovations of specific countries andhistorical periods.Anne Scott MacLeod, AB'48, American ChildhoodEssays on Children's Literature of the 19th and 20thCenturies (University of Georgia Press). A social historian and literary critic, the author explores, in these 14essays, shifts in the American concept of childhood ascharted in nearly two centuries of children's stories.James Schiffer, AM'74, PhD'80, Richard Stern(Twayne). ln this first book-length critical assessmentof Stern (the Helen A. Regenstein professor of Englishat the U of C), Schiffer explores the author's writingstyle, themes, and reception by critics — and distinguishes Stem's fiction from that of his former U of Ccolleague Saul Bellow, X'39. Surveying what he callsStem's theme of "geniuses and epigones" in the novelsGolfc and Stitch, as well as the author's long fascinationwith Americans living and traveling in Europe, Schiffer argues that Stem deserves "a place on the list ofimportant post- World War II American writers."EDOCATIONJ. T. Dillon, AM'71, PhD'78, editor, Deliberation inEducation and Society (Ablex). With a select bibliography, this book includes chapters by experts both onthe principles and concepts of group deliberation,and on cases and methods.Myles I. Friedman, AM'57, PhD'59, Taking Control:Vitalizing Education (Praeger Publishers). Calling forcoalitions among government, community, and business leaders and agencies to vitalize American education, Friedman presents a prescription for gettingstudents interested in school; developing law-abiding,productive citizens; and helping students find personal satisfaction in making social contributions.Dick McCleary, AM'54, The Logic of ImaginativeEducation (Teachers College Press). The authorexplores the role of imagination in formal and informal learning — discussing such thinkers as Freire,Laing, Dennison, Erickson, Bruner, and Pappert, and setting forth principles for a dialectical method ofeducation through metaphorical dialogue.FICTION AND POETRYEnid Baron, AB'57, Baking Days (HCE Publications). A clinical psychologist and mother of two, theauthor moves her poetry from her grandmother,"siren of soupmakers, braiding her life away in chal-lah dough," to her own children, once "blue-coatedbabies, faces open. crocuses" — weaving togetherpeople, places, and experiences.Randy Biasing, AM'66, Graphic Scenes (PerseaBooks). The author's fifth collection of poetry, thepoems in this book — many previously published insuch magazines as Poetry, The Paris Review, The NewCriterion, and The Nation — map the "lost/continent"of the post-WWII America where he grew up andchart how he began "translating myself/into indelibleink & vice versa."Paul R. Roesch, AB'38, with his wife, Ethyl, underthe single pseudonym E. P. Roesch, Ashana(Random). A blend of fact and fiction, this noveloffers a first-person account of a native Alaskanwoman who is taken hostage in 1790 by the leader ofmarauding Russian traders.Milton Teichman, PhD'66, and Sharon Leder, editors, Truth and Lamentation: Stories and Poems on theHolocaust (University of Illinois Press). Writtenduring and after the Holocaust, the stories and poemsin this book seek to reveal the human faces hiddenbehind the statistics of the event. With a criticalintroduction placing the selections within two broadcategories of literary response to the Holocaust —truth-telling and lamentation — the editors draw froma range of writers, representing nine languages (intranslation) and including both Jews and Gentiles.GENDER STUDIESFrances E. Dolan, AM'83, PhD'88, DangerousFamiliars: Representations of Domestic Crime in England, 1550-1700 (Cornell University Press). Surveying trial transcripts, pamphlets, ballads, and suchplays as Othello, Macbeth, and The Winter's Tale, theauthor explores how, in early modem England, thespecter of the murderer loomed most vividly not inthe master, husband, or father, but in the servant,wife, or mother. Asserting that women were, in fact,more likely to be the victims of domestic violencethan the perpetrators, she argues that such legal andliterary narratives actually articulate, among otherthings, anxieties about the instability of class andgender positions.Kathryn P. Meadow Orlans, AM'52, and Ruth A.Wallace, editors and contributors, Gender and theAcademic Experience: Berkeley Women Sociologists(University of Nebraska Press) . This book is a collection of memoirs by 16 of the first 30 women toreceive sociology Ph.D.s from the University of California, Berkeley. An excerpt was published in theApril 6th edition of The Chronicle of Higher Education.HISTORY/CURRENT EVENTSJanet Farretl Brodie, AM'71, PhD'82, Contraceptionand Abortion in 19th-century America (Cornell University Press). Examining the publicly available information on abortion and contraception during the lastcentury — including advertisements, advice books,and diaries — the author examines the shifts in attitudes, technology, and medical knowledge that led toa 49-percent decrease in the number of children bornto white, native-born American women.Janet Bruin, AM'70, editor, justice Denied! HumanRights and the International Financial Institutions(Women's International League for Peace and Freedom/International Institute for Human Rights, Envi-CHILDREN'S LITERATURE46 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994ronment and Development). Compiling some 25 presentations before a public hearing held during the1993 World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna,this book documents charges that economic, social,and cultural rights were violated as a result of thepolicies and practices of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, GATT, transnational corporations, and governments.Edwin Diamond, PhB'47, AM'49, Behind the Times:Inside the New New York Times (Villard Books). Theauthor reveals major players, infighting and powerstruggles, and behind-the-scenes intrigues at the NewYork Times as the paper fights to keep its readershipand dominant position in the changing world ofnewspaper publishing.John Ryder Horton, AM'48, Ninety-Day Wonder(Ballantine Books). This book is a memoir of the firstdays of the Pacific war in 1941, and an account ofguerrilla warfare in China in 1943.Lynn H. Nelson, AB'50, and Steven K. Drummond,The Western Frontiers of Imperial Rome (M. E.Sharpe). Combining literary and archaeological materials, this work provides an overall picture of theEuropean frontier regions of the Roman Empire from27 B.C. to A.D. 211. Stressing the influence of military needs and imperial administration on the frontier peoples' economic and social development, theauthors challenge views of the processes of "Roman-ization," and of the relations between the Empire andthe Germanic peoples beyond its western frontiers.MUSICLouise K Stein, AM'84, PhD'87, Songs of Mortals,Dialogues of the Gods (Oxford University Press). Thiscomprehensive survey of 17th-century Spanish theatrical music explores the various musical-theatricalgenres, their nature and development as court andpublic entertainments, and the anomalous productionof three operas in a period dominated by the semi-opera and the zarzuela.POLITICAL SCIENCE AND LAWJames Burk, AM'78, PhD'82, editor, The Military inNew Times: Adapting Armed Forces to a TurbulentWorld (Westview Press). Arguing that the Cold Warmasked the basic military trends that have beenreshaping the international political system over thepast century, the contributors to this volume identifythese trends, assess how they are redefining theglobal strategic and cultural landscape, and tracetheir effects on the role and social standing of themodem military.Oliver Lepsius, LLM'93, Die gegensatzaufhebendeBegriffsbildung. Methodenentwicklungen in derWeimarer Republik und ihr Verhaeltnis zur ldeolo-gisierung der Rechtswissenschaft im Nationalsozialis-mus (C. H. Beck). An account of German jurisprudence from 1900 to 1945, this book focuses on thedevelopment of legal thinking in Weimar Germany,and how it facilitated the move to an ideological andtotalitarian legal system in the Nazi era.Ralph Lerner, AB'47, AM'49, PhD'53, RevolutionsRevisited: Two Faces of the Politics of Enlightenment(University of North Carolina Press). Lemer exploreshow enlightened reformers translated revolution intolasting political and social change. Anchored in thespeeches and writings of such thinkers as Franklin,Lincoln, and Tocqueville — who were also prominentand skilled practitioners of politics — his analysisattempts to broaden conventional understanding ofthe Enlightenment.RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHYHudson T. Armerding, PhD'48, The Heart of GodlyLeadership (Crossway Books). A Presbyterian minis ter and former president of Wheaton College,Wheaton, IL, the author uses biblical studies and personal experiences to explore such issues as leadership, retirement, and facing death.Richard J. Israel, AB'50, The Kosher Pig (AlefDesign Group). Focusing his collection of essays onthe inherent contradiction of being both a traditionalJew and a modern, liberal person, Rabbi Israelexplores how small details which inform Jewishlife — from a night spent washing the dead to thechallenge of keeping a yarmulke on a bald pate —open up a larger understanding about being a Jew intoday's world.David R. Kinsley, AM'66, PhD'70, Ecology and Religion: Ecological Spirituality in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Prentice-Hall). The author discusses ecologicalthemes in traditional cultures and Asian religions, thedebate about Christianity's influence on attitudestoward the environment, and current North American ecological spirituality.Michael A. Sells, AM'77, PhD'82, Mystical Languages of Unsaying (University of Chicago Press).Through readings of five mystics — Plotinus, Eriu-gena, Eckhart, Ibn Arabi, and Marguerite Porete —the author examines apophatic language as a mode ofA Critical Approach (see Criticism)discourse rather than a negative theology. Arguingthat the more radical claims of apophatic writers,dismissed by critics as hyperbolic or condemned asheretical, are vital to an adequate account of theirlanguage, he concludes that mystical "unsaying"attempts to free human language from possession ofbeing and closure of knowledge.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYDavid Robison, AB'88, All About Internet FTP:Learning and Teaching to Transfer Files on the Internet(Library Solutions Press). Designed primarily forinstructors of file transfer on the Internet, this manualprovides the tools necessary to conduct a class: a lecture, handouts, exercises, and tips to the trainer.Eugene Schlossberger, AM'74, PhD'78, The EthicalEngineer (Temple University Press). This guide toethical decision-making is addressed to practicingengineers, engineering students, and others in technically oriented business and industry. A wide range oftopics includes whisdeblowing, environmental andsafety concerns, bidding, confidentiality, conflict ofinterest, sales ethics, advertising, and employer-employee relations. SOCIAL SCIENCESAnne Allison, AM'80, PhD'86, Nightwork: Sexuality, Pleasure, and Corporate Masculinity in a TokyoHostess Club (University of Chicago Press). Theauthor performed the ritualized tasks of a hostess inone of Tokyo's "hostess clubs": pouring drinks, lighting cigarettes, and making flattering or titillating conversation with the businessmen who came there oncompany expense accounts. She argues that Japanesecorporate nightlife enables and institutionalizes a particular form of ritualized male dominance.Alfred Collins, AB'65, Fatherson: A Self Psychologyof the Archetypal Masculine (Chiron Publications).This book attempts to uncover imaginal structures ofthe father-son relationship and to construct a "depthpsychology" of the masculine self. While other recentworks in this area seek a concrete essence of, forexample, "the mature masculine," Collins integratesinsights from Kohut's self psychology and the archetypal psychology developed by Jung and his followers.Harriet L. Rheingold, PhD'55, The Psychologist'sGuide to an Academic Career (APA Books). A distinguished teacher, researcher, and clinical psychologist,the author counsels those seeking to further theircareer and gain a deeper understanding of academicservice. Spanning central stages in a psychologist'sacademic professional life — from graduate school totenure — this book focuses on how to become aneffective teacher, write and publish articles, formulateresearch ideas, and obtain grants.Kenneth W. Thompson, AM'48, PhD'41, Fathersof International Thought (Louisiana State UniversityPress); and editor, Community, Diversity, and a NewWorld Order: Essays in Honor of Inis L. Claude, jr.,and Lessons from Defeated Presidential Candidates(University Press of America). The first book probesthe relevance of the classics of political philosophy —from Plato and Aristotle through Kant, Hegel, andMarx — to contemporary dilemmas of global politics.Analyzing the emerging global community, thesecond book explores the rise of modern nationalism, arms control and disarmament in the nuclearage, and the problems of national self-determinationand national minorities. The third book examinesone of the liveliest, if perhaps least remembered,aspects of American politics — presidential campaigns that ended in defeat.Yue-man Yeung, PhD'72, editor, Pacific Asia in the21st Century: Geographical and Developmental Perspectives, and coeditor, Guangdong: Survey of aProvince Undergoing Rapid Change (Chinese University Press). Assessing the current transformation ofEast and Southeast Asia with an array of data andviewpoints, the first book focuses on urban andregional change, environmental pressures, transportand communication innovations, and demographicand labor-force trends. The second book addressesthe processes, outcomes, and meanings of the rapidity of physical and socioeconomic transformation inChina's southerly province.Angela Zito, AM'78, PhD'89, and Tani E. Barlow,editors, Body, Subject, and Power in China (Universityof Chicago Press). Written by general historians, arthistorians, anthropologists, and literary critics whocame of age after the People's Republic resumedscholarly ties with the U. S., these essays investigateproblems of bodiliness, engendered subjectivities,and discourses of power through a variety of sources,including written texts, paintings, architecture, interviews, and observations.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," please sendthe name of the book, its author, its publisher, anda short synopsis to the Books Editor, University ofChicago Magazine, 5757 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago,IL 60637.University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994 470 thxr VoicesScienceLessonsBy Joan SpoerlAS A YOUNG CHILD IN WISCONSIN, Ispent hours playing in the woodedpark behind our house, near creeksand rivers and forests. I loved theseexperiences, but until I attended the College, I never enjoyed learning about the natural world in school, and I did not lookforward to the Common Core courses in thesciences. Still, I decided to get the BiologicalSciences Core requirement — "Life Sciences" — out of the way in my first year.I was surprised. The lecturers and labinstructors supplemented the standard textswith books like Stephen Jay Gould's EverSince Darwin and Paul Colinvaux's FierceAnimals Are Rare. For one lab, we went outon the quads to look for fossils in the limestone of the Gothic buildings. For work onadaptation and evolution, we went to theShedd Aquarium and the Field Museum ofNatural History — I was amazed by what Ilearned from close observations in just onesection of the vast displays.Nonetheless, I avoided the Physical Sciences Core requirement until my fourthyear. Even then I opted for what I thoughtwould be the easiest of the offerings, "Rocksfor Jocks."Again the professors brought meaningand relevance to the subject — sharing theirown developing theories and research findings, supplementing text readings withother papers proposing theories and thearguments supporting them. Seeing scientific inquiry in action, 1 no longer found thephysical sciences boring or intimidating.Now, as a kindergarten teacher, I work toencourage the children's own curiosityabout the wonders of the natural world. Ibegin by learning about the children's interests — by observing the students and byasking them what they would like to learnmore about.While trying to address as many of those jr --'¦ '% 1The children stroked a saber-toothed tiger's skull, fingereddinosaur claws and legs, andpeered at the fossil of a babydinosaur.interests as I can, I develop a list of the fivetopics that seem the most compelling. Eachchild ranks his or her preferences and I usethe rankings to form small groups who'llexplore the chosen topic. Most topics are science-related, and there is one that 1 can predict will come up year after year: dinosaurs.It was the dinosaur study group thatbrought my kindergarten class to the U of Cthis spring. While developing projects forthe children, I remembered reading aboutpaleontologist Paul Sereno and his expedition to Argentina, where his group discovered the oldest dinosaur so far, Eoraptorlunensis. 1 told the children about him, andthey asked if they could meet him.We wrote to him and, to our great joy,were invited to visit. Now this may seem asgood as a kindergarten field trip can get, but1 was able to make it even better. Knowinghow much the children enjoy the in-classexperiments we do with freezing and meltingliquids, evaporation, and magnets, I alsoarranged a visit to chemist David Lynn.On a Friday in April, our class steppeddown from a school bus on 57th Street. Looking up at the Gothic buildings, severalexclaimed, "A castle!" Inside one suchcastle, they met Paul Sereno. He spent thenext 45 minutes describing his most recentdig in the Sahara, how one goes about finding and learning from dinosaur fossils, andbow scientists think dinosaurs evolved.The children stroked a saber-toothed tiger'sskull, fingered dinosaur claws and legs, andpeered at the fossil of a baby dinosaur whodied soon after hatching from its egg. Serenoshowed how paleontologists make drawingsfrom the bones they've found and how theymake fiberglass molds of the fossils. At thechildren's urging, he went to the basement toretrieve a huge bone from an as-yet-unnamed dinosaur. Touching it, they saw thatit had been glued together in several places.In a chemistry classroom, David Lynn andhis students had prepared a series of excitingdemonstrations of liquids turning into solidsand vice versa. First, Lynn showed the children a small dish filled with a clear liquidand asked if they thought he could make alarge piece of Styrofoam fit into it. "No!"they shouted. He then broke the Styrofoaminto pieces and, as the children squealedwith delight, the Styrofoam dissolved, disappearing into the liquid. Each child got to puta piece into the liquid and make "magic."1 made magic, too. Two liquids, one darkand one clear, were mixed into a bottle andcorked. I jiggled it a bit — and out popped along, rubber "snake." More shrieks. WhenLynn stuck a "wand" into another liquid andpulled it out, it was followed by a long stringof lavender nylon — and more peals of joy.A recent National Science Foundationreport on science education notes that"children should learn the fundamentals ofinquiry and discovery, making their ownobservations and interpretations so as todevelop patterns of critical thinking thatcan serve them throughout their lives." Iwas a student at the University of Chicagobefore 1 truly learned the fundamentals ofinquiry and discovery, honed my criticalthinking skills, and developed a deeperinterest in the sciences. 1 don't want my students to have to wait that long.Joan Spoerl, AB'85, has taught kindergartenat Lutheran General Children's Day Care inDes Plaines, Illinois, since 1992.48 University of Chicago Magazine/August 1994Wrapping itiings up: In July, members o)the Oriental Institute staff— curator KarenL. Wilson (left), assistant curator EmilyTeeter, and registrar Raymond Tinclel,AM'72, PhD'89— began packing up someof the Institute's artifacts. The collectionwill go into storage during a long-plannedrenovation (see "Chicago Journal," page16). Photograph by Lloyd DeGrane.$}ilfr$ /: '!'i i;f%to ^5> i* .•••'¦¦ -i* : '*^B¦0 ^w,v '\\V*^r w BF t1' t8I Hf^l .... j ,. ;l1 '1. ¦¦,-r;" ^V-' s^rjsi_ 4. ' ''^''WfflBf*'' V\ 7^ ¦h* 'M7 i;;ar4i* ';:'i'-;fi;^-< i 'rS****Y*H "v.>&& 4: ' X J . ."•> 1 *Alumni in motion: Dancing under the big tent at Reunion '94. Photograph by Lloyd DeGrane.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobie House, 5757 WoodlawnChicago, IL 60637ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED