LJNlVfcKSU Y ur\tSSsmfBiMOil^APR 1 8 1994 fachard Rorty is a world-famousphilosopher who worries about"what, if anything, philosophyis good for." Its a question hefirst asked as a student in theHutchins College, but his intellectual journey began with anadolescent attempt to reconcile> and wild orchids.¦. .'^-.^us-jsaChicago¦ VOtt'MEs^, NUMBER 4 APRIL loo.} ^T ^^JDEPARTMENTS2 Editor's notes3 Letters7 EventsSpring Jlings and otherthings.8 Course workBehind the front lines: JohnMearsheimer on the waywar writes history.10 Chicago journalThe Duchossois family gives$21 million for a new outpatient center; computerschange the classroom.15 InvestigationsDavid Roy and (he act oftranslation; Froma Walsh onfamilies beyond The BradyBunch; and Don Coursey onthe price of a panther.36 Alumni chronicleFrom winter weekends tofaculty lectures, it's beena busy season — with moreto come.38 Class news43 Deaths45 Books by alumni48 Other voicesAdam Khan, '95, presents asensible proposal to enhancethe Common Core. 18242630 FEATURESThere's no big pictureWltat, if anything, is philosophy good for? In this autobiographical essay, an alumnus who's spent the past 40years thinking about that question offers some answers.RICHARD RORTYA piece of the masterIn a whirlwind campus visit, novelist Kurt Vonnegut,AM'71 , wowed a new generation of fans.ANDREW CAMPBELLA fertile inheritanceCarole Ober knows the Hutterites as a close-knit community — and the source of a unique genetic database.JEANETTE HARRISONFree associationJazz nearly gasped its last breath. . .until a musicalcollective based in Hyde Park brought it back to life.JOHN LITWEILER Page 26Cover: Philosopher Richard Rorty, AB'49, AM'52, hasspawned dissertations and debate (page 18);photograph by Bill Denison. Opposite: KurtVonnegut, AM'71, strikes a writerly pose(page 24); photograph by Dan Dry.Page 30EditorMary Ruth YoeManaging EditorTim Andrew ObermillerAssociate EditorAndrew CampbellArt DirectorAllen CarrollEditorial AssistantCatherine A. Mitchell, AB'93Student AssistantJeanette Harrison, '94Contributing EditorsJamie Kalven, Joe LevineEditorial office: The University of ChicagoMagazine, Robie House, 5757 S. WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-2163. Fax (312) 702-2166. The Magazineis sent to all University of Chicago alumni. TheUniversity of Chicago Alumni Association hasits offices at Robie House, 5757 S. WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312)702-21 50. Fax (31 2) 702-21 66.The University of Chicago AlumniAssociation Board of Governors:Officers: William C. Naumann, MBA'75,president; Richard L. Bechtolt, PhB'46,AM'50, vice president: Jack J. Carlson,AB'40, treasurer; Linda Thoren Neal, AB'64,JD'67, secretary; and Jeanne Buiter,MBA'86, executive director.Clifford K. Chiu, MBA'82; N. Gwyn Cready,AB'83, MBA'86; Robert Feitler, X'46; TrinaN. Frankel, AB'64; Caroline Heck, AB'71 ;Randy Holgate, "Acting Vice President,Development and Alumni Relations; Le RoyJ. Hlnes, AM'78; Susan Carlson Hull, AB'82;Michael J. Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76;Patricia Klowden, AB'67; Michael C. Krauss,AB'75, MBA'76; Joseph D. LaRue, AM'59;Robert F. Levey, AB'66; Katherine DusakMiller, AB'65, MBA'68, PhD'71 ; Theodore A.O'Neill, AM'70, "Dean of College Admissions; Susan W. Parker, AB'65; Harvey B.Plotnick, AB'63; Louise E. Rehling, AM'70,SM'74; Jean Maclean Snyder, AB'63,JD'79; David M. Terman, AB'55, SB'56,MD'59; Mary B. Van Meerendonk, AB'64;Peter O. Vandervoort, AB'54, SB'55, SM'56,PhD'60; Marshall I. Wais, Jr., AB'63; Gregory G. Wrobel, AB'75, JD'78, MBA'79;Mary Ruth Yoe, "Editor, UofC Magazine.' Ex OfficioMagazine Advisory Committee: MichaelJ. Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76, chair,Richard L. Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; RobertFeitler, X'46; Mary Lou Gorno, MBA'76;Neil Harris, the Preston and Sterling MortonProfessor in History; Susan Carlson Hull,AB'82; Michael C. Krauss, AB'75, MBA'76;Robert F. Levey, AB'66; Katherine DusakMiller, AB'65, MBA'68, PhD'71; Peter O.Vandervoort, AB'54, SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60;Marva Watkins, AB'63.The University of Chicago Magazine (ISSN-0041-9508) is published bimonthly (October, December, February, April, June, andAugust) by the University of Chicago incooperation with the Alumni Association,Robie House, 5757 S. Woodlawn Avenue,Chicago IL 60637. Published continuouslysince 1907. Second-class postage paid atChicago and additional mailing offices.POSTMASTER: Send address changes tothe University of Chicago Magazine, AlumniRecords, Robie House, 5757 S. WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. © 1994 University of Chicago. Editors NotesSleepless in Chicago: When the Magazine's April deadlines coincided withwinter quarter reading and exam periods, our thoughts turned swiftly to caffeine.In the eight years since we last surveyedthe campus coffeeshops (Winter/1986), alot of latte has flowed under the bridge, andeven casual observers of the caffeine scenecan see a not-so-subtle, Seattle-based influence. It's been several years since the Starbucks Coffee chain came to Hyde Park, andthe shop has done brisk business ever since.(When it comes to trends, Hyde Parkerspay far more attention to caffeine thanclothing: Starbucks is flourishing in thesame spot where a Benetton's franchise wasforced to strike its colors.)On campus, the Divinity School CoffeeShop ("Where God Drinks Coffee") stillmakes it easy to buy the beverage in twobasic flavors (regular and decaf), but at theGarygoyle Cafe in Stuart Hall, the staffsbright T-shirts advertise "Espresso: TheBreakfast of Champions," and a freestandingcoffee bar offers GSB students and otherstwo dozen choices, from a double-shotespresso at 90 cents to a chocolate-almondcoffee drink ("Italian orgeat syrup") at $1.85.Meanwhile, at the Classics Cafe (once theNonesuch), which goes through 20 pounds of coffee and two pounds of espresso eachday, a 10-ounce cup of regular coffee sellsfor 65 cents. But for only a dollar more, youcan soothe your urge for caffeine with ablend of espresso, Italian chocolate, andsteamed milk. Just order a chocolaccino.Editorial changesJoining the Magazine staff as associateeditor is Andrew Campbell. Andrew, whohas an undergraduate degree in biophysicsfrom Brown and an M.A. in creative writingfrom New York University, was mostrecently an alumni editor for Case WesternReserve University in Cleveland. He succeeds Jaclyn Park, who set off in January fora year-long trip around the world — her firstpostcard was postmarked Kuala Lumpur. IfAndrew's name sounds familiar, that'sbecause he wrote "Ghost of the Machine," alook at the demise of the SuperconductingSuper Collider, for our February issue.In a passing mention in "A World and Blackand White" (February/94), we confused thepublisher of the New York Times withanother member of the Times staff. Thepublisher, of course, is Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. — M.R.Y.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994LettersWhite America? Wrong countryJ found the article about Brent Staples,AM76, PhD'82, ["A World in Black andWhite," February/94] most interestingand well-written — but I groaned inwardlyupon reading the brief summary describingMr. Staples as "a black man who's made itin white America."What is "white America?" I don't see itanywhere, and I certainly don't live in it.Isn't it time we acknowledged the fact thatthe U.S.A. is a multiracial, multiethnic society? African Americans, Asian Americans,Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, andothers have been part of the social fabric ofthis country for a long time. Mr. Staples'story illustrates that, and there are countlessother examples.So in the 1990s, let's finally stop referringto America as "white." For a true black-on-white situation, one could cite Carl Rowan'stour of duty as ambassador to Finland. ButAmerica isn't Scandinavia — not by a longshot — and never has been.David H. Green, AM'50Great Falls, VirginiaHalf-truths about racismJ was glad to see Brent Staples on thecover of your magazine. Joe Levinewrites a portrait of a wise, generous,shrewd, highly accomplished and well-educated man, for which I commend you andhim.But, as I read, I became increasingly disappointed with the University's representationof itself, as the article did not squarelyaddress the racism that Mr. Staples experienced on campus. According to the excerptfrom his novel, Parallel Time: Growing Upin Black and White, that appeared in theNew York Times Magazine, racism was asubtext throughout his tenure as a U of Cgraduate student who was also AfricanAmerican.Sure, the last page of your article mentions "elitism" in reference to the 1930s and1940s University policy of gentrifying HydePark and to Mr. Staples' ambivalencetoward the Committee on Social Thoughtand then-U of C professor Saul Bellow.Sure, Mr. Levine cites Mr. Staples' conversation with University President Hugo Son nenschein regarding the U of C's lack ofrecruitment, let alone support, of localAfrican-American youth. But where are hisaccounts of white professors questioninghis intellectual ability and whites' nighttime fear of him walking along the HydePark streets? An institution that demandsso much of its students and faculty withinthe classroom should believe in the abilityof its alumni to process a more balancedaccount.I was astounded, and pleased, that theNew York Times Magazine would print thedirty little secrets of such a respected andliberal establishment as the University ofChicago. One might hope that things havechanged since the era of Mr. Staples' gamesof "chicken" with Chicago's intelligent butoften insular scholars. But during my yearsat the U of C, I, like some of my colleagues,was aware of a sinister current runningthrough the University's relations with the(mostly middle-class) African Americanswho reside in Hyde Park.Perhaps with Mr. Sonnenschein as president, things have changed, but as recendy as1992, the administration warned incomingstudents of the perils of the neighborhoodand urged suspicion toward anybody whodid not appear to "belong" to the University.Less than two years ago, the administrationtried to suppress protests against the University Police's harassment of African- Americanstudents — against the routine I.D. checksthat sent the message that these studentswere "neighborhood people" (read "localblacks") and might constitute a threat to theUniversity community.Though there are more African Americanson campus now than in Mr. Staples' day,the U of C still needs to learn from the less-mentioned chapters in its history, to reevaluate its attitude toward such students,and to continue reassessing its role in thelarger community. While 1 realize that thealumni magazine is not necessarily theforum for these issues, I still want to believein the University as an incubator of criticalthinking — one that is willing to print information about the "world in black andwhite" in order to be more constructivelycritical of itself.Jessica Fleischmann, AM'92Los Angeles ReunionJune 3-5THEUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONFOR ADDITIONALINFORMATION,CALL 312-702-4456University of Chicago Magazine/ April 1994 3A thank-you in deedThe profile on Brent Staples by JoeLevine was just superb — both inapproach and in the informationgiven. I would like to express my appreciation for such high-quality work with a smallcontribution.Elsbeth S. ThileniusFlossmoor, IllinoisThe late, unlamented SSCJn the article about Congress cutting offfunding for the Superconducting SuperCollider ["Ghost of the Machine," February/94] , the tenor is that of a lament forthe demise of the SSC.My feeling is just the opposite: I am gladthat Congress cut off funding, and I thinkthat funding should never have been givenin the first place. The $11 billion for itsconstruction, and the added millions tooperate the machine, come from the federalgovernment — it is taxpayers' money. Thequestion should be asked: Who benefits?The answer is obvious: a small coterie ofhigh-energy physicists and their supportworkers.Our national debt is trillions of dollars.Wc are the world's largest debtor nation;our economic growth rate is only 2.5 percent; the country has been in a recession forthree years; there are two- to three-millionhomeless and immense poverty in theAppalachian hollows and city slums; andwe are the only industrialized Westernnation without a national health service.Here in southern California, 250,000 aerospace jobs were lost in the last three years,resulting in home foreclosures and brokenmarriages. The damage from the January 17earthquake in Los Angeles is $6 billion.It is therefore unconscionable for thehigh-energy physicists to want this expensive toy — so that they can publish papersand have high-paying jobs while the 40,000homeless in Chicago die in the below-zeroweather. The taxpayers' money could havebeen used to better purposes!Gerald Fong, SM'61El Monte, CaliforniaTall tales of radiation testingThe past issue of the Magazine| "Chicago Journal," February/94] illustrates why, if we learn nothingelse from the tragedies stemming from theabuse of atomic energy, wc should learn notlo delude ourselves with superficial reporting (even if faithfully replicated from theNew York Times).You state: The human experiments wereconducted by our government (the Atomic Energy Commission). Fact: They were conducted by a scientific-industrial communityfor whom the government wrote checksand misled curious members of Congressand the public. [Energy Secretary] HazelO'Leary is the first member of any cabinetto challenge this culture. The end of thecold war is a minor factor.Statement: "Today, no research can beperformed on any patients without theirfull knowledge and informed, written consent." Even what the scientist understands,if honestly conveyed, is never full knowledge. The current process of "informedconsent" was designed to protect the scientist and his institution from subsequentlawsuits. Thus, unethical human experimentation persists today.Statement (this sophistry plucked fromthe New York Times): "The dangers of radiation were so little appreciated by the medical researchers [at the time]." The dangerswere understood sufficiently by an entiregeneration of medical scientists specializingin the diseases of miners and othersexposed to radiation. Stringent precautionsfor workers and the community were justified from about the turn of the century.Statement: "Scientists were particularlyignorant of the long-term effects of radiation." The truth in this nugget of fool's gold(also from the Times): The scientific-industrial community that is DOE made the decision not to do (or publish or recognize)studies of disease among radiation-exposedworkers, and so avoided diverting fundsfrom "research" to worker protection.Despite this cannibalism, some American,German, and Czech scientists learnedenough so that "we" (including the labormovement) were warned.Statement: "Studies on animals were notsufficient..." To those who doubt continuityin nature, they are never sufficient. Herethere was other human evidence, includingthe exposed workers on whose behalf thesestudies were supposedly conducted. Thatevidence is only now being fully evaluatedand new studies of plutonium-exposedworkers are being initiated.With all the hundreds of millions spenton plutonium biomedical research over fivedecades, a standard for the protection ofworkers exposed to plutonium dust oughtto exist. Not so. There are guidelines, butplutonium dust isn't even on the list of substances to be controlled by federal agenciesin the next 50 years. There was never sufficient concern for those workers.In 1957, in Atoms for the World, LauraFermi offered a prayer that the sacrifice ofEnrico Fermi and others in mines, bombfactories, and afflicted communities acrossthe world might be turned into a blessing for mankind. I believed that at the time. Istill believe it. But we feared ourselves,which is what we fear when we fear government. The need for public control of unforgiving technologies remains unmet.Sheldon Wilfred Samuels, AB'51Solomons, MarylandSamuels is a member of the Department ofEnergy's Environment, Safety, and HealthAdvisory Committee. — Ed.Nights to rememberJ was interested to learn in the Magazine["Chicago Journal," February/94] thatthe U of C Press will be publishingMircea Eliade's Bengal Nights in English, aswell as Maitreyi Devi's view on the sameaffair. I didn't know about the Indianwoman's book.Your readers might be interested to knowthat Bengal Nights was made into a film.[Les Nuits Bengali, 1986 — Ed.]. I saw it inParis about three years ago, but I can'tremember if it was a French production oran Indian one with French subtitles.Betty Anthony, AB'41Cambridge, MassachusettsBetter than Sleepout?Your article on the new registrationsystem ["Chicago Journal," June/93]reminded me that life was simpler inearlier eras, like mine. I was content withregistration. After all, I got into Mr. Wein-traub's Western Civ section by pure luck.But the adventurous who wanted to finessethe procedure could consider alternatives,as did the writer of this anonymous letter tothe Maroon of the 1950s:"Ten days after registration, writer'scramp began wearing off, arches wereslowly rebuilding, shin wounds hadscabbed over nicely, my pen point had beenreplaced by the bookstore, and the Fedshad rescued the banks. I felt strong enoughto look at my I.D. photo. Then my relapsearrived in the form of Devious Hagerty, oldChicago hand."'Oaf,' said Devious. 'Never register untilthe second week.'"I dropped a stitch in the basket I wasmaking. 'But there's a $5 fee for late registration,' I stammered.'"Of course,' he said, 'the best bargain onthe campus. I'm laying out 1,050 skins perannum for tuition. What's another $15 togo first class? No queues, no sack lunch, noelbows in the ribs, no headshrinking fees.Sheer luxury. Real economy. And you cantry out your classes before you toss the die.'"'Hardly,' I said, 'without course cards.'4 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994"'Piffle,' he said. T trade for them. Likebaseball cards, Dubble Bubble comics,stamps — you know. Two Psychologies 241for one Economics 33 1 . It's easy.'"'But who has cards to trade?'"'What,' he said, 'doesn't everybody have?'Then 1 recalled the moment the humanglacier of registration had inched me beforethe course-card clerk, who fixed me with alook of scorn, adjusted his green eyeshade,hitched up his sleeve garters, and riffled thedeck. I cut. He dealt. Discarding Math 305S,Theory of Models (I already have a girlfriend), I said, 'Gimme one.' I was lucky — Iwound up with a pair in one department."The guy ahead of me, hoping to registerfor Anatomy 301, Gross Anatomy, gotAstronomy 301, Stellar Interiors. 'Thesejazzy course titles,' he muttered."The girl behind me doubtfully acceptedEconomics 340, The Labor Movement, forObstetrics 340, Externships, Chicago Lying-in Hospital, but balked at Sociology 378,Federal Executives, in lieu of Surgery 328,Clinical Psychopathology. 'I'm for Nixon,'she said.'"But, Devious,' I mused, 'why spread thisaround? The administration may get wiseand hike the late registration fee.'"'Nonsense,' he purred. Wasn't it obviousthat no one involved in registration hadever been through it before? It's a new messevery year.'"Call the nurse, will you?"Constance C. Bradley, AB'61South Pasadena, CaliforniaLast but not leastThe MRJ chapter of the University ofChicago Alumni Association wasrecently formed to celebrate the University's illustrious standing in the Harvardstudents' poll of "fun" colleges ["ChicagoJournal," December 1993]. As our clubsweatshirts proclaim, "300/300 = #1."Paula Lynn Larson, AB'64McLean, VirginiaThe unofficial club has four members — AlanN. Freiden, PhD'72, Paula Lynn Larson,AB'64, Mark I. Turner, AB'75, and George V.Wilson, AB'77, SM'77 — all of whom work atMRJ, Inc., a small engineering company inOakton, Va. — Ed.Stop the world, we want to get offJn your February "Letters" section, Professor Rocky Kolb said the earth goesaround the sun at 67,000 mph, the solarsystem goes around the center of the MilkyWay at 450,000 mph, and "our entire localgroup of galaxies travels through the uni- THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONInvites you to join distinguished faculty and alumni friends participatingin alumni travel/study programs during the coming months1994 Study TripsItaly: Medieval,Renaissance, and BaroqueMay 12-24This very special tripthrough the cities of Venice,Florence, and Rome, the scenichill towns, and the Italian Lakesregion led by Ingrid Rowland of theArt Department will study the artand culture of Italy duringthree historic periods.Voyage to the Land ofthe Midnight SunJune 22— July 6Most of our fifteen day voyageto the remote towns and dramaticscenery hidden along the Norwegiancoast will be in territory abovethe Arctic Circle. Faculty leaderwill be Professor Mark Sandberg,an expert on Norwegianlanguage and literature.England'sCotswold VillagesA Leisurely Walking TourAugust 13-20Noted Shakespearean scholarProfessor David Bevington willlead this week of walkingin one of the loveliest partsof England. The trip will includea performance at Stratford-on-Avonand discussions of Englishliterature and historyassociated with the region. Alaska WildernessAugust 7-20We will see Alaska by land,sea, and air on a study trip thatcombines natural and culturalhistory. Anthropologist ProfessorRalph Nicholas will discuss the richtraditions of the native Americansand their interaction with Russianand Euro-American cultures.Cruising The DanubeSeptember 14—27Beginning in Budapest,we will cruise through Slovakia,Austria, and Germany and alongthe Main-Danube Canal toNuremberg, then finish withthree nights in Prague.Professor Katie Trumpenerwill discuss the rise ofnationalism among thecountries of the formerHapsburg empire.The MediterraneanThrough the AgesOctober 14-28Our autumn cruise in theAdriatic and Aegean Seas willvisit sites in Italy, the GreekIslands, and Turkey.Professor Michael Murrinwill focus on the Venetian andCrusader colonization ofthe Aegean and the comingof the Ottomans.For further information and brochures or to be added to our travel/ studymailing list, call or write to Alumni Travel, University of Chicago AlumniAssociation, 5757 Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 312/702-2160.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 5When you visitChicago fora weekend,a week,or a month,stay atWOODED ISLE SUITES— studio andone-bedroomapartmentsfurnished toprovide you ahome away fromhome.Walk to the Universityof Chicago or theMuseum of Scienceand Industry, strollalong the lakefront,catch the bus or trainto the Loop, dine at anearby restaurant, ormake your own dinnerin your Suite.Come "home" toWooded Isle Suitesand relax after a dayof research,studyins, meetings,or sightseeing.WOODED ISLE SUITES5750 South Stony Island AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637312-288-5578 verse with a velocity of 1.4 million mph."What the hell does that mean? Is there afixed point in the universe? If not, who ismoving, we or they? No wonder "...wedon't 'feel' any of these velocities."John Dwyer, PhB'48Chula Vista, CaliforniaPersian New Year's resolutionWhile we were very pleased withthe story on the Oriental Institute's Naw Rouz, or Persian NewYear, celebration ("Events," February/94),the caption on the photograph accompanying the item was incorrect. What the picture actually showed were members of aQashqaii tribe preparing for a Naw Rouzcelebration.Kaylin GoldsteinOriental InstituteInternational invitationWe would like to alert our recentalumni to two programs thatoffer young professionals exceptional opportunities.The Luce Scholars Program provides one-year cultural and professional internships inan East or Southeast Asian country. Theprogram provides future leaders with anAsian experience, but is not academic innature. It excludes those with significantprior exposure to Asian culture or a careerinterest in Asian affairs. Luce scholars arematched with Asian professionals related totheir interests in areas that may varywidely — media, advertising, art, health,banking, environmental concerns, manufacturing, or government.The Robert Bosch Foundation FellowshipProgram offers a nine-month program inGermany to young professionals in business, economics, public affairs and administration, political science, law, journalism,and communications. The program alternates between seminars on German political, economic, and cultural affairs and twointernship periods — the first in the federalgovernment or private sector and thesecond at the regional level — and includesseminars in Brussels and Paris and a visit toFrance to gain a broader European perspective.The programs assume no prior overseasexperience, but require that participantsunfamiliar with the local language undertake intensive language study prior to thefellowship. Applicants should be U.S. citizens. Luce scholars must not be older than29 and must hold at least a bachelor'sdegree; many have work experience beforethey are chosen for this award. Bosch fel lows must hold a graduate or professionaldegree or equivalent professional experience.Individuals may apply directly to theBosch Program; applications to the LuceProgram must be nominated by the University. The deadlines are October 15 for theBosch program and late October for theLuce. Interested alumni may contact me forinformation, at 312/702-7752.Mary C MartinOffice of International AffairsExtended career library hoursAlumni requiring use of the University's Career Library, but unable tovisit during regular 8:30 a.m. to 5p.m. hours, are encouraged to visit onTuesday evenings (during term times only)between 5 and 7 p.m.The library houses alumni contact files,job listings, company and organizationdirectories, and other information that canhelp you in your career or job search. Weare located in Reynolds Club 206. Pleasecall 702-1156 to double-check hours beforevisiting.Linda PutnamCareer and Placement ServicesA 50th-anniversary forecastAlumni who were commissionedupon graduation from the Army AirCorps cadet program, 1941-44, atChicago are invited to a 50th-anniversarycelebration. Those who stayed in the AirWeather Service after WWII, as well asthose who went on to other duties or pursued different careers, are invited to a galareunion of WWII cadets in meteorology, tobe held October 26-30, 1994, in Tucson,Arizona, as part of the Air Weather Association Reunion.For details of the reunion, write the AWAat 5301 Reservation Road, Placerville, CA95667-9745. Please pass the word to classmates and fellow veterans.Fred W. DeckerCorvallis, OregonThe University of Chicago Magazine invitesletters from readers on the contents of themagazine or on topics related to the University. Letters for publication, which must besigned, may be edited for length and/or clarity. To ensure the widest range of voices possible, preference will be given to letters of nomore than 500 words. Letters should beaddressed to: Editor, University of ChicagoMagazine, 5757 S. Woodlawn Ave., Chicago,IL 60637.6 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994EventsExhibitionsSoft Shoulder: Narelle Jubelin, May 4-June 26.The first one-person museum exhibition of Jubelin'swork in the U.S., this show features assemblagedpictures and sculptures by the Australian artistwhose conceptually intricate works address theeffects of international commerce and travel on localcultures. The Renaissance Society; call 702-8670.Germany on the Eve of the 1848 Revolution:Selections from the Ludwig Rosenberger Library ofJudaica, May 9-October 31. This exhibition focuseson political, social, and cultural trends during theVormarz period, those two decades preceeding theMarch Revolution of 1848 — using works by poets,journalists, and revolutionary theorists, includingHeinrich Heine, Ludwig Borne, and Karl Marx.Department of Special Collections; call 702-8705.Wrapped in Color: A Survey of Paste Paper Bookbindings, through June 15. Paste paper binding — aprocess used by bookbinders and artisans to producedecorative papers from finger-paintlike inks — istraced from the late-16th-century through 18th-century Germany and Italy, and on to modern versions.Department of Special Collections; call 702-8705.Stephen A. Douglas and the American Union,through June 15. Department of Special Collections;call 702-8705.Hannah Hoch 1889-1976: Collages, throughJune 26. Thirty-two collages by this influentialartist, the only female member of the Berlin dadagroup, trace Hoch's work in photomontage — cutting up preexisting imagery and reassembling it intounusual, often humorous, configurations. SmartMuseum of Art; call 702-0200.The Stage is All the World: The TheatricalDesigns of Tanya Moiseiwitsch, through June 12.Some 100 sketches, photographs, costumes, models,and masks from eight of Moiseiwitsch's productionsare on display. Smart Museum; call 702-0200.TheaterFrida: The Last Portrait, April 15-May 22. Directed by Mary Zimmerman and performed by DonnaBlue Lachman, Court Theatre's final selection of its1993-94 season celebrates feminist and painterFrida Kahlo, the wife of Mexican muralist DiegoRivera. Court Theatre; call 753-4472.Off-Off-Campus: Spring Quarter Revue, Fridaynights, April 22-May 27 at 9 p.m. The latest generation of University Theater's improvisational troupetakes the stage. University Church, second-floortheater; call 702-3414.The Heidi Chronicles, April 29-May 7 at 8 p.m.University Theater presents Wendy Wasserstein'sstory of a woman struggling with the changing concepts of feminism from the 1960s into the 1990s.Reynolds Club First Floor Theater; call 702-3414.Stories on Stage: The DuMiners Yesterday andToday, May 10 at 7:30 p.m. Judy O'Malley directsdramatic readings of short stories by Joyce and hisliterary successors. Court Theatre; call 753-4472.Rope, May 11-14 at 8 p.m. University Theaterpresents Patrick Hamilton's tale of murder andmoral justification. Reynolds Club Kinahan Theater;call 702-3414. Marvin's Room, May 20 and 27 at 8 p.m.; May 21and 28 at 2 p.m. and 8 p.m. Shoestring Theatre presents Scott McPherson's play about a family living in[he face of death. International House; call 947-8744.Assassins, May 26-]une 4 at 8 p.m. This irreverent, if historically accurate, Sondheim musical looksat the lives and motives of nine successful or would-be presidential assassins. Reynolds Club First FloorTheater; call 702-3414.LecturesDo We Need a National Curriculum? The Caseof Mathematics, May 13 at 1:30 p.m. The 1994Joyce Lecture Series presents Ian Westbury, University of Illinois-Urbana. Judd Hall; call 702-8675.Works of the Mind Lecture Series, May 22 at 2p.m. Elizabeth Alexander, assistant professor ofEnglish, speaks on "The Yellow House on the Cornerand Beyond: Rita Dove on the Edges of Domesticity." Judd Hall auditorium; call 702-1722.Pick Lecture, May 25. Teddy Kollek, formermayor of Jerusalem. Mandel Hall; call 702-8370.National Standards and the Problem of Equity,June 3 at 1:30 p.m. The 1994 Joyce Lecture Seriespresents Yale psychologist Edmond Gordon. JuddHall; call 702-8675.MusicA Concert of Gospel Music, May 1 at 4:30 p.m.Cosponsored by the Coordinating Council forMinority Issues and Rockefeller Chapel, this concertbenefits the University Community Service Center.Rockefeller Memorial Chapel; call 702-2100.University Chamber Orchestra Spring Concert,May 7 at 8 p.m. Guy Victor Bordo conducts worksby Hayden. Goodspeed Recital Hall; call 702-8068.The Chicago Ensemble, May 7 at 8 p.m. This trioperforms works by Mozart, Prokofiev, Bartok, andSchumann. International House; call 907-2190.New Music Ensemble, May 8 at 8 p.m. BarbaraSchubert directs Alban Berg's Chamber Concerto forviolin, piano, and 13 wind instruments. GoodspeedRecital Hall; call 702-8069.University Wind Ensemble Spring Concert, May15 at 3 p.m. Wayne Gordon conducts. Mandel Hall;call 702-8069.Annual Young Composers' Concert, May 20 at 8p.m. Barbara Schubert conducts the ContemporaryChamber Players Ensemble in premieres of works byU of C doctoral students in composition: John Gibbons, David Hunter, Amelia Kaplan, Leon Shemoff,and Pieter Snapper. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.Wolfgang Riibsam Organ Recital, May 27 at 8p.m. The chapel organists presents his annual recitalwith works by Alain, Heiller, Reger, and Widor.Rockefeller Memorial Chapel; call 702-2100.University Symphony Orchestra, May 28 at 8p.m. Conducted by Barbara Schubert, this programincludes U of C professor Easley Blackwood's FifthSymphony, performed with the University Chorus.Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.Liebeslieder Waltzes, June 3 at 8 p.m. BruceTammen conducts the U of C Motet Choir as it performs this Brahms piece. St. Thomas the ApostleChurch; call 702-8069.The Chicago Ensemble, June 4 at 8 p.m. A flutist,clarinetist, and pianist perform works by Mozart,Copland, Etler, Williams, Lovende, and Dvorkin.International House; call 907-2190.Mostly Music, June 12 at 5 p.m. The MallarmeString Quartet performs. Smart Museum; 702-0200.On the QuadsFestival of Nations, May 8 from 12 p.m. to 5 p.m.This event, organized by International House resi dents, showcases ethnic food and entertainment.International House; call 753-2274.Turkish Heritage Day, May 21 at 11 a.m. Thisafternoon festival celebrates Turkish food and entertainment. International House; call 753-2274.Summer Carillon Festival, Sundays, June19-August 22. This summertime concert series features carillonneurs from the U.S. and Europe,tolling the 72 bells of the Laura Spelman RockefellerCarillon, the second-largest carillon in the world.Rockefeller Memorial Chapel; call 702-2100.On the AirSonnenschein Inaugural Tapes, May 8, 15, 22,and 29, at 7 p.m. Chicago radio station WFMT-FM(98.7) presents highlights of the inauguration ofHugo F. Sonnenschein. The first program focuseson the inaugural convocation, and the others feature three inaugural symposia: "Liberal Educationand the Advancement of Knowledge," "Altruismand Egotism," and "Music: Theory and Practice."In the CityFirst Friday Lecture Series, May 6 and June 3 at12:15 p.m. Sponsored by the Center for ContinuingStudies, May's lecture will feature Cynthia Rutz on"Shakespeare and Fairy Tales: Further Considerations." In June, Adam Rose will speak on "Self-Evident Truths? Origin Myths and the Founding ofAmerica." Chicago Cultural Center; call 702-1722.Egypt in Chicago Day, May 14-15. Emily Teeterof the Oriental Institute leads a weekend tour ofancient Egyptian art at the Oriental Institute, theField Museum, and the Art Institute. The weekendincludes a Middle Eastern buffet supper on a LakeMichigan cruise; for reservations, call 702-9507.Bike for Fun to the Loop with Hugo Sonnenschein, May 14 at 2 p.m. Call 702-8803.Chicago Day, June 19. City-wide open housesshowcase Chicago's great institutions; for information on campus events, call 702-7368.Center StageBoomerang Effect: Australian artistNarelle Jubelin combined petit pointimages of two Aboriginal symbols (aboomerang and a flower), and thenfashioned a frame from copper sheeting and Australian coins to createTrade Delivers People. An exhibition ofJubelin's assemblaged pictures andsculptures will open at the RenaissanceSociety on May 4 (see "Exhibitions").University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 7ourse WorkBehindthe FrontLinesJohn Mearsheimer leads afast-paced charge throughseveral centuries of history,to understand how and whynations go to war. In the quarter century since he graduated from West Point, John Mearsheimer has exchanged the ramrodposture of a newly commissioned officer for the slight slouch of a tenured professor. But when the buttoned-down, elbow-patched political scientist enters the classroom, he mounts an all-out campaign."There's a fire-hose approach and agarden-hose approach to education,"Mearsheimer tells the 140 or so undergraduate and graduate students gathered on thefirst Tuesday of winter quarter for PoliticalScience 276/376. "War and the Nation-State" looks at the phenomenon of war andhow it developed from 1800 to 1945.Hands grasping an imaginary hose of industrial-strength rubber, the professor, a 1985 winner of the University's Quantrell awardfor excellence in undergraduate teaching,lets the class have it. "This is a fire-hoseapproach."A fire-hose approach means a reading listthat marshals an array of hefty books —starting with Prussian general Carl vonClausewitz's classic On War. It means a fast-paced push through several centuries ofEuropean military and social history.And it means a teacher who's a self-described "pooper." The West Point term,explains Mearsheimer (who also holds aPh.D. in government from Cornell),describes "a person who has lots of information he likes to dispense to otherpeople." The information that he likes todispense — whether to his students or insuch publications as The Atlantic ("WhyWe Will Soon Miss the Cold War" was amuch-discussed story in August 1990),International Security, and the Bulletin ofthe Atomic Scientists — involves one ofacademe's less fashionable topics: the conduct of war.Yet, he says, "War and the Nation-State" is"the most popular course I teach." Itsappeal, he believes, is the lure of a powerfulunknown."Warfare has a tremendous impact on theshape of most societies," he charges — aconcept "that's difficult for Americans tounderstand."Standing at ease beside a wooden lecternin Social Sciences 122, he ticks off reasonswhy. "We're such a secure country. We'reseparated from all our enemies by twogigantic moats. How many people here goto bed at night worrying about a Canadianinvasion? A Mexican invasion?"Such U.S. good fortune, he contends, is noexcuse for ignoring his field of specialization: "To understand the world you live in,you have to understand war."Mearsheimer's strategy for understandingwar, like his well-stocked arsenal of war-related information, keeps an interdisciplinary edge: "I'm trying to marry the study ofnitty-gritty military affairs with broader,socioeconomic affairs."No bones are made about what he considers the errors of conventional wisdom inunderstanding social themes that have"fundamentally changed the nature of war."8 University or Chicago Magazine/April 1994For example, take the "thoroughly modernconcept" of nationalism. "The idea thatnationalism is an atavistic force that's in itslast stages," Mearsheimer thunders, "ISSIMPLY WRONG."Mearsheimer lines another convention inhis sights: "The idea that war became horrific with the development of nuclearweapons and it was sort of gentlemanlybefore that— NO WAY."He takes aim again: "If you had to pick awar in the 19th century to fight in, the lastwar you'd want to choose would be theCivil War. That's because of the differingrates of development in medicine and warfare. By 1860, there had been tremendousadvances in killing machines, but no parallel advances in medicine."Then there's the convention that "theproblem with the American military is thatwe have too many managers. POPPYCOCK," he declares. "You need soldiersand you need managers." German militaryorganization, he continues, is the reason theGerman army came "very close to winningthe First World War."Having briefed the class on the ground thecourse will cover, he turns to survival tactics. It's a lecture course, not a seminar,"There's a final exam. There's no midterm." In addition to his own, twice-weeklybarrages of information, "there are mandatory discussion sections. That's because it'shelpful to go over this material more thanonce, to talk about it." The final salvo fromthe professorial fire-hose: "Be sure to do thereadings."Trudging in from a snowstorm, studentspeel off scarves and jackets and slide intoseats. "This is going to be a good course,"one friend greets another. "Yeah," thesecond agrees, "after you get over 210bucks for books."Mearsheimer, wearing corduroy slacksand a V-neck sweater, and fueled by asmall take-out cup of coffee, moves to thelectern — ready to contend with the day'stopic: "The Napoleonic Wars and theBeginning of the Great Transformation."Leading off with "a crude overview, from1500 to the present, of European history"he'll end with "some grand themes." Inbetween, the class will look at 18th- and19th-century warfare, "and at what happens when the 18th and 19th centuriesclash.""In the year 1550," he begins, "there were500 political entities in Europe. In the year1900, there were 20 states — a lot of consolidation was taking place." Initially, newcombinations were formed when kings andqueens triumphed over more numerous butless powerful feudal lords, creating "dynas tic or absolute" states. Such state-buildinghad little to do with society at large, muchto do with power struggles between thecrown and the nobility.By 1800, a new kind of federationemerged. The nation-state, characterizedby a "very close link between state andsociety," owed its being to a concept called"How many people here goto bed at night worrying abouta Canadian invasion?" JohnMearsheimer asks hisstudents. "A Mexican invasion?" No matter. "Tounderstand the world youlive in," he contends, "youhave to understand war."nationalism, "the idea that you can dividethe world up into tribes or nations."Nationalism also— "and, VERY, VERYimportantly" — includes the belief that"each one of those tribes should have itsown state," Mearsheimer tells the rows ofattentive listeners, "I don't want to overstate the case, but there are all these similarities between what happened back inthese times and what you see on the horizon today."The "great transformation" in the natureof states, Mearsheimer charges on, was paralleled by equally significant shifts in theconduct of war. Before 1800, an army's officers "were basically aristocrats," its followers either mercenaries or "the dregs ofsociety" — kidnapped or dragooned into themilitary.Such troops were capable of "very limitedmobility." Fighting for a state to which theyfelt no allegiance, soldiers were keen onescape, which meant, in turn, "that youcan't move your troops through the woods,you can't move at night." It also meant thatin battle, "when you want to deliver thecoup de grace, everybody's disappeared."Because replacing troops was also a problem, armies had "a very low tolerance forcasualties." The end result: "limited wars,"wars of attrition rather than annihilation.All of which had an effect on military tactics. Executing a quick about-face,Mearsheimer addresses the blackboard andsketches a typical battle plan: chalk scrawlsrepresent miles-long lines of musket-bearing troops. Those lines, he explains in theenthusiastic tone that he never seems tolose, helped to counter the general unreliability and inexperience of the shanghaiedtroops — as did the "iron-clad discipline" ofthe 18th-century armies. Then came Napoleon. After the FrenchRevolution, aristocrats no longer ruled theofficer class. "By 1793, 85 percent of lieutenants in the French army had been noncommissioned officers — enlisted men." Thetroops changed, too. A post-revolution conscription act argued that every Frenchmanshould be a soldier, giving himself to thedefense of the fatherland. "The morale ofthe fighting forces goes through the roof,"Mearsheimer announces. "Patriotismbecomes a very powerful concept."And one with military consequences.Desertion no longer a problem, armies grewmuch larger and gained "much greatermobility." Fear of incurring casualties lessened: "Napoleon didn't worry. He just wentback to the manpower pool, and took thenext year's class." He notes in passing, "Is itany wonder that this guy was wandering allover God's little green acre?"Again, battle tactics were affected. "Youhave a more individual approach, becauseyou have people who can think on theirown." The lockstep lines gave way to skirmishers, who lurked behind trees andpicked off soldiers parading by. Behindthese skirmishers marched wide columns ofsoldiers.The classic clash of new and old orderscame in October 1806, with the meeting ofFrench and Prussian forces at Jena."The French CLOBBER the Prussians!"Mearsheimer almost shouts. With a stick ofchalk, he taps his blackboard notes in a callto attention. "Prussia is carved up, and thePrussians are forced to provide 150,000troops when Napoleon invades Russia."The losers realize the far-reaching consequences of their defeat: "The Prussiansunderstand that they HAVE to reform thearmy — but that means societal changes aswell."Which brings John Mearsheimer circlingback to the "grand themes" he'd promisedearlier. "A profound military revolutiontook place around the turn of the 19thcentury," he announces. "That revolutionwas NOT a technological revolution — butlargely a consequence of socioeconomicchanges." In France's case, he argues,those changes drove military change. "Theexact opposite happened in the Prussiancase — it was the military variable thatforced them to make socioeconomicchanges at home."Napoleon's victory at Jena also demonstrates another grand theme of war: "Oneinnovator forces everyone else to follow inhis or her footsteps," Mearsheimer cautionshis class, "at least for a time." As the windsof war shift, so will the lessons to belearned. — M.R.Y.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 9hkagojourndFOR THE RECORDConvocation stars:Receiving honorarydegrees at the 434thconvocation ceremony inMarch were Barry Sullivan, MBA '57, formerchair of the University'shoard of trustees, andColumbia Universityprofessor EdwardSaid — a leading scholarof literary and culturalstudies and author of the1978 book Orientalism.A University trusteesince 1980, Sullivanchaired the board from1989 to 1992. He is currently president andCEO of the New YorkCity Partnership, Inc.,and the New YorkChamber of Commerce,Inc.In the tradition: In February, Howard G.Krone, chair of the University's board oftrustees, received theAmericanJewish Committee's prestigiousJudge Learned HandHuman Relations awardat a dinner held in hishonor at Chicago's Fairmont Hotel. The awardis presented annually tosomeone who embodiesthe ideals of Hand, anoted defender of freespeech. Krone, partnerin the law firm of Kirkland & Ellis, has longbeen a civic leader inChicago. Biggest campaign gift sofar is one from the heartIT IS THE LARGEST DOLLARamount ever received by theUniversity from an individualfamily in a single gift: $21 millionfrom the Richard Duchossoisfamily.The money will be used to buildthe Duchossois Center forAdvanced Medicine, a state-of-the-art outpatient and diagnosticcare center designed to set thestandard in academic medical carefor decades to come. The gift willalso endow a named professorshipin honor of John E. Ultmann,professor of medicine and anationally recognized cancer specialist.In announcing the gift at a February 23 press conference attended by several members of theDuchossois family, PresidentHugo Sonnenschein told reporterswho had braved a winter storm toattend, "You may think that it's adifficult and snowy day, but forthe University of Chicago, it's themost wonderful day of the year."The Duchossois family ownsDuchossois Industries, a conglomerate that includes Thrall CarManufacturing Company, theChamberlain Manufacturing Corporation, the Chamberlain Group,Inc., Duchossois Communications, and Arlington InternationalRacecourse.Normally reticent about publicizing his philanthropy, RichardDuchossois agreed to take part inthe downtown press conference tohelp call attention to the Univer sity's Campaign for the Next Century. The Duchossois gift broughtthe campaign total to $360 million — nearly three-fourths of itsgoal — with half of the five-yearperiod remaining.As the 72-year-old Duchossoisexplained, it was a "family gift,especially a gift from my children." It was also the culminationof his family's "long relationship"with the University. Over the last15 years, the Duchossois familyhas donated $3 million for cancerresearch, and son Craig serves on the Hospitals' board of trustees.The University's Beverly Duchossois Cancer Research Laboratories, funded by a $2-million gift,commemorates Duchossois' latewife, who died in 1980.After being diagnosed withbreast cancer, Beverly Duchossoiswas referred to the UniversityMedical Center. At the press conference, Richard Duchossois saidhis family was grateful for the careand compassion provided by theHospitals' staff. In particular, hesaid, John Ultmann and his wife,Ruth Ultmann, "have both doneso much for us."Expressing their gratitude to theDuchossois family, in turn, wereRalph Muller, president of the Uof C Hospitals, and trustees chair-Shared giving: At a press conference, Richard Duchossois (center)described the $21 million given to help fund the Duchossois Center forAdvanced Medicine as a "family gift." His family includes (from left)Craig Duchossois, Kim Lenczuk, Dayle Fortino, and Bruce Duchossois.1 0 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994KING-SIZED PRIZE: UofC professorWadad Kadi was awarded this year's KingFaisal International Prize in Arabic Literature. Along with the distinction of being thefirst woman to receive ihe literature prize,Kadi will share the $95,000 award with co-winner Bint El-Shati, professor emeritus at Cairo University. A total of eight scholarswon this year's awards — first given in 1979,and considered to be the Nobel Prize of theArabic world. Kadi, who chairs the University's Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, was recognized forher work in early Arabic prose.man Howard Krane — both ofwhom noted the long-term benefits of the gift. The same themewas echoed by President Sonnenschein, who stated that "thisextraordinary gift will guaranteethe University of Chicago MedicalCenter's continued leadership inresearch, education, and patientcare well into the next century."The decision to build the centerreflects a growing national emphasis on outpatient care, by bringingtogether in one convenient location most of the Hospitals' diagnostic and outpatient treatmentservices — an approach that shouldimprove access for patients, simplify scheduling for complexpatient visits, and reinforce theUniversity's multidisciplinaryapproach to complex diseases.The Duchossois Center is scheduled for completion by late 1996.Groundbreaking for the $150-million facility will take place inJune.The six-story, 514,260 square-foot facility — containing 250exam rooms and 62 rooms foroutpatient procedures — willoccupy an entire block between57th and 58th streets and Maryland and Cottage Grove avenues,and will be connected by tunnelsand walkways to the Hospitals. Tuition goes upas does student aidIN ANNOUNCING A 5.3-PERCENTraise in the 1994-95 Collegeterm bill, President Hugo Sonnenschein also emphasized thatthe University will continue itspolicy of admitting the most qualified College applicants regardlessof their ability to pay.Next year's College term bill willbe $25,616— $18,930 for tuition,$6,380 for room and board, and$306 in fees for health servicesand student activities.The current year's $24,337 termbill includes charges of $17,910for tuition, $6,130 for room andboard, and $297 for fees.At the same time, the Universityhas budgeted $23 million forscholarships to undergraduates in1994-95, up from $22 million thisyear and almost ten times the $2.5million allotted in 1980-81. Eachadmitted student with financialneed will receive an aid package —most often in the form of a scholarship, a loan, and student employment."This package is calculated tofully meet financial need," saidSonnenschein. "The educationoffered by the College — with its strong core curriculum in the liberal arts, outstanding teachers,and opportunities for students toparticipate in research — is amongthe very best in the nation. It mustcontinue to be available to ourmost committed and talentedyoung people."Noting that 64 percent ofChicago's undergraduates currently receive scholarships,including 59 percent who receivedirect grants from the U of C, Sonnenschein promised, "We willwork with [incoming students] toprovide the financial assistancethey need to attend."Next year's tuition will alsoincrease— from $18,285 to $19,335— in the four graduate Divisionsof the Biological Sciences, Humanities, Physical Sciences, and SocialSciences.Sonnenschein said that the University continues to concentrateits resources on its core mission ofteaching and research while trimming other expenses.University expenditures for academic activities grew from 63 percent of the budget in 1980-81 to78 percent in 1992-93, while central administrative costs were correspondingly reduced, from 37percent in 1980-81 to 22 percentin 1992-93. Presidential chair: President emeritus HannaGray is among severalfaculty named toendowed chairs (seecomplete list, below). Asthe Harry Pratt Judsondistinguished serviceprofessor, she willreturn to teaching in thehistory department thisfall, after concluding hercurrent sabbatical.More chairs: Seven professors besides HannaGray (see above) havebeen appointed toendowed chairs. Theyare: Francoise Furet, co-chair of the Committeeon Social Thought (theRaymond W. andMartha Hilpert Grunerdistinguished serviceprofessor); Graeme Bell,biochemistry & molecular biology (awarded aLouis Block professorship); Larry Hedges,education (now theStella M. Rowley professor); Donald Levy,chemistry (the Ralphand Mary Otis Ishamprof essor); JanelMueller, English (theWilliam Rainey Harperprofessor in the College); Shulamit Ran,music (the William H.Colvin professor); andRobert Townsend, economics (now the CharlesE. Merriam professor).Everybody wins: Without a hint of the angstassociated with thisyear's winter Olympics,students in 11 undergraduate residence hallsare nearing ihe finishline of the first UofC"Ecolympics. " The objectof the friendly competition: to see which hallbest decreases energyconsumption andgarbage productionwhile increasing itsrecycling. The winninghall — to be declared onEarth Day, April 22—will receive a prize to beannounced...and whatever commercialendorsements may comeits way.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 1 1Doclors in the house:Two nationally recognised doctors havejoined the U of C facultyas professors of surgery.Formerly at JohnsHopfcins, CharlesBrendler — an authorityon urologic malignancies, especially prostrateand bladder cancer —has been appointed section chief of urology.Robert Walton, of theUniversity of Massachusetts, has been made section chief of plastic &reconstructive surgery.Walton has pioneeredreconstructive microsurgery for face andhand injuries, as well ashead and neck tumors.Dog day afternoon: Thethird Annual Law Students Association charity auction raised$17,000 for the BlueGargoyle Youth ServiceCenter in Hyde Park. Abid of $420 bought lunchwith Nobel-winning lawprofessor Ronald Coase.The offer of an afternoon with the dog of lawprofessor Cass Sunsteinraised a few eyebrows —and a respectable $80.A head of his time:Anyone raised in a mid-20th-century ProtestantAmerican householdlikely saw one of themore than 500 millionreproductions of WarnerSallman's Head olChrist portrait. Duringthe artist's heyday in the1940s and '50s, morethan a billion copies ofhis religious imageswere circulated. Theimpact of these imageswas examined in aDivinity School symposium and exhibition heldin March. Helping organize the event was Valparaiso University artprofessor DavidMorgan, PhD'90. Microchips at the gateComputers create a new universityConstantin Fasolt — ANassociate professor of history and head of the Western Civilization program in theCollege — had a problem. Eachyear, students were becomingmore reticent in class discussion,and their silence would sap thelifeblood from a discussion-basedcourse like Western Civ. "By far,"says Fasolt, "the biggest problemis that students don't say whatthey think."But, as co-moderator of a history teachers' electronic-mail list,Fasolt had become a thoroughlycomfortable driver on the information highway. So it seemedonly natural that he would usecomputers to extend class discussion into a new arena.In the fall, he started a mailinglist for students in his WesternCivilization class — and madejoining the list a class require ment. This past quarter, he begandistributing assignments and discussion questions via e-mail. Notonly do students have to be onthe mailing list to know what'sdue on a given week, much of thejuiciest class discussion occursthere as well.As Fasolt points out, the traditional class has two learningpaths: the discussion in the classor lab and the reading or writingoutside class. E-mail and othertechnologies provide a third paththrough which students and professors can exchange ideas; thus,they extend the boundaries of theeducational experience."Sitting in front of a computerscreen is different from being ina crowd of people," observesFasolt, who found that studentsreluctant to talk in class contribute regularly to the electronicdiscussion. Fasolt is part of a growingmovement in which Universityinstructors are using technologyto broaden their students' educational experience. Joel Mam-bretti, PhD'77, MBA'89— actingdirector of the University's Academic Information Technologiesdepartment and director of itsOffice of Strategic Technologies — calls this trend "a new paradigm in education."Now that high-powered computers are cheap and plentifulenough for students to workwith individually, a new type ofclassroom learning is emerging.Traditionally, instructors impart their knowledge to students,who then practice that knowledge in labs or paper writing.The conventional classroom islargely a language-based medium; professors lecture, studentslisten. Occasionally, professorsThe man behind the postage stampA PANTHEON OF HISTORIC FIGURES GRACE POST-age stamps. But from the University's pointof view, a particularly inspired choiceappeared on February 2, with the release of astamp honoring U of C professor Allison Davis.The 29-cent stamp was issued as part of the U.S.Postal Service's "Black Heritage"series, which, since it was begunin 1978, has honored suchAfrican Americans as JackieRobinson, Harriet Tubman andMartin Luther King, Jr.Davis, PhD'42, who taught atthe U of C from 1942 until hisdeath in 1982, was one of themost influential and controversialsocial anthropologists and educators of his day. In the 1950s, hemade national headlines by challenging the cultural bias of tendifferent mass intelligence tests.As a result, schools in several U.S.cities stopped using the tests.Throughout his life, Allison Davis fought for anunderstanding of human potential beyond racialclass and caste — work that helped support desegregation efforts and shaped contemporarythought on valuing the capabilities of youth fromBLACK HERITAGEdiverse backgrounds.Among his pathbreaking books were Deep South(1941), a sobering portrait of the economic andracial order in America, and Leadership, Love, andAggression (1983) — Davis' last book, publishedposthumously, in which he applied his fundamental conclusions about class andcaste to profiles of the individualdevelopment of four prominentblack leaders.On the stamp's release date,Hugo Sonnenschein presidedover a ceremony in Ida Noyeswhere colleagues and students ofDavis gathered.Also present at the ceremonywas Davis' son, Allison, a partnerwith the Chicago law firm ofDavis Miner Barnhill & Galland.Davis told the Chicago Sun-Timesthat his father "was most proudof getting people to understandthe enormous differences whichexist in child-rearing practices among the different social classes. And the importance of gettingteachers to understand there are these differences,which relate to a parent's education, religion, andracial background."1 2 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994draw diagrams on a blackboard orshow slides, but for the most partthe visual information in the classis left to the textbook.But the textbook has its ownlimitations: Its information is two-dimensional and temporally static.Marvin Makinen, a professor inthe University's biochemistry &molecular biology department,transcends those limitations byusing three-dimensional computerized models of proteins to helphis students — both graduate andundergraduate — to understandmolecular structure and behaviorduring enzyme-substrate binding.The data are rendered on a 3-Dgraphics terminal, allowing stu-"It's sort ofa turn-on tostudents. Theyfeel like they'redoing ihe realthing. "dents to rotate the molecularmodels with different moleculardocking scenarios.Using this technology, studentsgrasp more easily and in greaterdetail the protein structures andtheir chemical consequences, saysMakinen.In addition, students andinstructors can learn by cooperative discovery: The professor provides guidance and students findtheir own answers. What's more,Makinen adds, once they haveused the computer to seek theirown answers to lab questions,"students don't forget" whatthey've learned.Computers can change not onlyhow information is perceived, butalso how fast it is received. Computerized networks allow information — visual, textual, aural — totravel literally around the worldinstantaneously. Ideas and databeing the University's stock-in-trade, the advent of fast, worldwide communications could allowit to carry out its mission on a far larger scale.The Physical Sciences Division,for example, is part of the Astro-physical Research Consortium'sdigital sky survey, based inApache Point, New Mexico.Thanks to a high-speed data linkand computerized control systems, students and faculty inChicago can operate the telescopeby remote and receive imagesback for analysis. With this technology, even non-science under-grads in Common Core classescan run observations on a multimillion-dollar telescope, free from like they're doing the real thingfor a change."The boom in available computersoftware has given educators awide spectrum of tools to use —but how to use those tools toshape a coherent curriculum ismuch more complex.One problem is the differentlevels of computer proficiencyamong students. Says ThereseNelson, manager of StrategicTechnologies, "The biggest waystudents get experience is throughtheir peers and their own experience," which means professorsPower tool: Students fine-tune homework on a Learning Center computer.the city's light pollution.Douglas MacAyeal, a professorin the geophysics department, isusing Macintosh computers intwo classes to help his studentsunderstand geophysical phenomena. In one lab for his "InverseMethods in Geophysics" class,MacAyeal gives students the rawseismic data from a number ofmetering points on the WestCoast. They use this data to pinpoint the epicenter and strengthof the 1991 San Francisco earthquake.In "Physical Oceanography,"students use Spyglass visualizationsoftware and an extensive data setof ocean temperatures to modeloceanographic thermal patterns —in essence, following the samepath that researchers traveledwhile constructing current theories. "It's sort of a turn-on to students," says MacAyeal. "They feel can't assume any given level ofproficiency when building a curriculum. Academic InformationTechnologies holds mini-seminarsthroughout the quarter to whichprofessors can send their studentsas needed, but Mambretti admitsthat currently "there is moredemand for classes than we haveresources."There is also scarcity in theamount of equipment available oncampus, keeping some departments from adapting computerized educational methods.Designed with computer technology in mind, the new Biological Sciences Learning Centeroffers the best facility for instructors who want multimedia presentations in their classes, or needstudents to use computers duringthe lecture.But, according to John Kruper,SM'86, director of the BSD's Acad- Home Improvement:Plaisance Place — adevelopment of 28single-family homespriced from $140,000—is under construction inthe block bounded by61st and 62nd streetsand Greenwood andEllis avenues. As part ofa larger South Sideredevelopment plan, theUniversity has cooperated with both theWoodlawn Preservation& Investment Corporation and Thrush Companies in launching thePrairie School-styledevelopment.A fitting honor: The firstMargaret C. AnnanUndergraduate Awardin Writing — a cash prizeto be given annually forthe best essay by athird-year College student — will be presentedthis spring. Annan,PhB'28, AM'33, whotaught for many years atChicago's South ShoreHigh School, died lastJune. The award wasestablished by herfriends and former students — among themJudith Stein, AB'62,AM'64, who remembersAnnan as "a teacherwho added so much toour intellectual lives. "Culture warrior:Beyond the CultureWars, by English professor Gerald Graff,AB'59, has so farreceived both a 1 993American Book Awardand the 1 994 FredericW. Ness Booh Award ofthe Association of American Colleges. A segmentof the booh — which critically evaluates the needfor changes in Americanhigher education — waspublished in the October/92 Magazine.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 1 3Maroons get professional: A former procoach will assume command of the ChicagoMaroon football squadnext fall. Dick Moloneycomes to Chicago fromthe Ottawa RoughRiders — play-off contenders for the pastthree years in the Canadian Football League.Before joining theRough Riders as offensive-line coach in 1991,Moloney spent 1 7 yearscoaching college teams,including stints at Dartmouth College andBoston University. Hereplaces Greg Quick,who coached from 1989until 1993.Heartstrings pulled withthe plug: The GraduateSchool of Business'sDECsystem-20 was"pronounced dead" thispast winter. A high-techwake was attended bythose who fondlyremembered the outmoded computer —which helped GSBscholars conductresearch in the 1960sand '70s. "Although itscircuits are now cold, itis warmly rememberedby many here at theGSB and throughout thecomputing community,"mourned one DECsystem-20 admirer whopreferred to remainanonymous. emic Computing Group, BSDclasses take up most of the rooms,so professors from other divisionshave to negotiate for scarce roomassignments.While the University works toprepare itself for the 21st century, a glimpse into the future ofcomputer-aided instruction at Chicago may be best glimpsed viathe Biological Sciences Division'sPhoenix Project. That project,says Kruper, is an effort to combine simulation, communication,and data analysis into one easilyused system.Right now, Phoenix is an application that runs under the X-A NEW DAY IN COURT: Nicholas Rudall (left)— whofounded Court Theatre at the University of Chicago 23 yearsago — announced in March that he will resign as Court's artistic/executive director. Rudall's replacement, Charles Newell(right), was resident director at Minneapolis' Guthrie Theaterbefore joining Court last year as its associate director. Rudallwon't disappear from the Chicago stage — after a sabbatical,he will serve as Court's Founding Director. Internationallyknown for his translations and adaptations of classic plays,Rudall plans, on his return to campus, to complete a cycle ofclassic Greek tragedies, which Newell will then direct.Devoted patrons of Court need not fear that the theater willradically change its direction under Newell, who was broughthere, Rudall says, "with this transition in mind. His artistictalents, energy, and his shared vision for the theater's futurehave made this appointment a natural choice." Windows system, letting peoplewith different kinds of computersaccess the same informationusing the same interface.The Phoenix system givesresearchers and students a singleworkstation for capturing data,analyzing it, and reporting theirconclusions. Most modern labinstruments are computer-controlled, so professors can takepictures from a microscope ordata from a spectroscope, digitally enhance the detail, incorporate it into a lab write-up, andthen distribute the write-up totheir students' Phoenix accounts.Three BioSci classes tested thesystem last quarter, and thisspring it will be unveiled to thegeneral public.While Constantin Fasolt likensthe current explosion of information and communication to thetime when the humanists firststarted to print books, computersmay affect the future to an evengreater degree.Mambretti and Fasolt agree withthe notion that the ability totransmit ideas and images overlong distances in a short time willactually diminish the importanceof physical space — and couldchange the concept of the "university."For similar reasons, the intellectual boundaries of the Universityof Chicago may become morepermeable as information fromother sources becomes morewidely available.For example, it should one daybe as easy for Chicagoans to uselab equipment at MIT as that onthe quadrangles — and studentswill find it possible to includestudents on other campuses intheir Common Core discussions.In this future, knowledge willnot only grow from more tomore, it will grow across nationsand leap oceans as it is created.A version of this story, by AntounA. Nabhan first appeared in theFebruary 4, 1 994, edition of Chicago Computing: The ComputingJournal of the University ofChicago. Nabhan, a second-yearCollege student majoring in Law,Letters, and Society, also works asa computer assistant for the Biological Sciences Division.1 4 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994I nvestkationsForbidden FictionBanned for centuries,a Chinese classic has foundnew life in David Roy'smeticulous translation.AT AGE 16, WHILE LIVING IN CHINA,David Tod Roy made what he jokingly calls "the fatal mistake." Heand his brother (James Stapleton Roy, nowU.S. ambassador to China) were learning tospeak Chinese. They made quick progress — reasonable for boys who had spentmuch of their childhood in China with parents who were Presbyterian missionaries.Yet the meaning of the intricate writtencharacters remained a mystery. Then Royasked their tutor how to write his name inChinese."He wrote out my name — I had beengiven a Chinese name at birth — numberingthe strokes so I'd know how to write it,"says Roy, a professor of East Asian languages and civilizations. "I got so excitedthat I stayed up most of the night writingmy name over and over again."The young student was hooked. Decadeslater, he has proven the constancy of hislove for the language with a remarkableachievement. This past fall, Princeton University Press published the first volume ofThe Plum in the Golden Vase or, Chin P'ingMei — Roy's English translation of one ofthe classics of traditional Chinese fiction.The work has never been translated in itsentirety into any European language.Why the long wait for a novel writtenduring the second half of the 16th century?Chalk up some of the delay to the book'sown length: When complete, the five volumes will run to some 3,000 pages. Roy hasspent ten years on the project so far.But, as he explains, controversy alsohelped delay the translation. "Ever since itappeared, the book has been considered amasterpiece," Roy recently explained in theUniversity's newspaper, the Chronicle. "Itworks on many levels at once — as a grip- A plum work: David Roy says the Chin P'ing Mei's 3,000 pages offer much to modern readers.ping story, a political allegory, a compendium of details about 16th-century Chinese everyday life. But it was also notorious,and has remained notorious, because itcontains very vivid descriptions of sexualactivity."That erotic detail — and the book's indictment of the late Ming-dynasty emperors —led to its almost immediate ban in China,where, close to four centuries after its publication around 1618, it is still not widelyavailable except to scholars and govern ment officials. Not surprisingly, the writerchose to remain anonymous. Yet, as one ofthe world's most sophisticated early worksof prose fiction, the Chin P'ing Mei ranks,says Roy, with only two other novels: TheTale of Genji (1010) and Don Quixote(1615).At the center of its story is Hsi-menCh'ing, a corrupt, middle-class merchantruled wholly by his sexual, economic, andpolitical desires. His ambitions meet withsuccess in the first half of the 100-chapterUniversity of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 15tale, but, eventually, Hsi-men Ch'ing perishes from his own amorous and financialexcesses, dragging down with him hishousehold, wife, and five concubines. Thenovel portrays the dark side of humannature with realism and parody, and, saysRoy, "can be seen as a microcosm of theChinese body politic, whose moral disintegration culminated in the collapse of theruling dynasty." Roy's textual annotationspoint out parallel meanings at every level —for instance, where the author's clever punning turns sexual intercourse into ametaphor for economic transactions.For Roy — who came to Chicago fromPrinceton University in 1967 and has alsowritten on the modern Chinese intellectualKuo Mo-jo — years of teaching the ChinP'ing Mei in Chinese and English convincedhim of the need for a definitive English edition. "The philosophy behind my owntranslation," he says, "is that the greatworks of Chinese and Japanese literaturedeserve to be treated as seriously as we treatour own literary masterpieces." Earlier,partial translations assumed that Westerners "were not prepared to deal with unfamiliar literary conventions or learnedannotations."In the Chin P'ing Mei, those conventionsare startlingly modern. "Like Joyce'sUlysses, it weaves into its plot verbatimquotations from the entire Chinese culturalspectrum — songs, jokes, popular literature,parodies of a variety of conventional styles,"explains Roy. "Even a modern Chinesereader doesn't begin to get half the gamesthe author is playing. He or she reads rightthrough quotations without realizing theyare quotations."Identifying the hundreds of sources led toa system of index cards and an in-houselibrary that grew to cover every spare inchof Roy's Weiboldt Hall office. "My colleagues thought I was crazy," he says of hisearly days on the project. The pattern hediscovered, though, was hardly haphazard,as some scholars of the book had assumed.As Roy writes in his introduction to the firstvolume, the Chin P'ing Mei uses quotationsas "a running commentary on the characters and actions of the novel." One heroine's fondness for the lyrics of sentimentalpopular songs, for instance, clues the readerto her self-deception.U.S. sinologists aren't alone in their eageranticipation of Roy's work. His introductionand extensive annotations may be translated for use by researchers in China,where, he notes, "scholarship on the workhas become a growth industry." Still, hehopes specialists won't be the only onesleading this treasure of world literature:"It's alwavs been my secret wish — or not so secret — that the book might appeal to abroader audience."His wish may come true. The book, nowin its second printing after the first 2,000copies sold out, was highlighted in theChicago Tribune with a review describingthe writing as "powerfully sensual and startlingly clear," and praising Roy for treatingthe novel "not as a literary artifact but as aliving narrative — a vivid, sometimes foul-smelling story with power to involve, fascinate and even appall a modern audience."Meanwhile, work continues on the secondvolume, which could be published in thenext two years. Roy estimates it will be tento 20 years before the entire job is done. "Inany case," he says, "I expect it to take therest of my working life."Real Life,Happy FamiliesPicture this: Shortly after a womanremarries, her teenage son from herfirst marriage starts staying out late,skipping school, and talking back. Meanwhile, her husband's efforts to bond withhis stepson keep backfiring. Tension buildsuntil eventually the marriage is threatened.Is this family unhealthy? Or does theproblem lie with our image of a "normal"family — nuclear, untouched by divorce —that the new couple is attempting to recreate. ..and that today represents only 8percent of U.S. households?In so-called remarriage families, this situation "happens all the time," says familytherapist Froma Walsh, PhD'77. "They'retrying to be The Brady Bunch." But, unlikethe television show, an ex-spouse and achild's relationship with him or her don'tjust vanish when one parent remarries.Bonding with a stepparent takes time. Inother words, an otherwise healthy familyruns into trouble when it looks to thewrong role model.Walsh, a professor in the School of SocialService Administration and the PritzkerSchool of Medicine's psychiatry department, says that, despite a plethora of publicity about changing family patterns, mostpeople — including some family therapists —still define normal as the "mythical modelof the 1950s family."The image glosses over what social historians now recognize as potential pitfalls ofthe nuclear family, such as overburdenedmothers and out-of-touch fathers. And itignores the facts: "The remarriage family isthe fastest-growing family configuration,and will be the most common by the year2000." Also on the rise are families with adopted children, single-parent families,and dual-earner families (of women withschool-age children, she notes, 70 percentare in the workforce).According to Walsh, who codirects theUniversity's Center for Family Health andmaintains a small clinical practice, it's timeto abandon the "one-size-fits-all" stereotypewhen it comes to figuring out what makes afamily work. "Healthy family functioning,"she argues, "isn't necessarily linked to a particular family form. Views of normality aresocially constructed."This, in fact, is the thesis behind NormalFamily Processes, published last fall by theGuilford Press. It's a much-revised versionof the 1982 first edition, which Walsh alsoedited. That book, the standard text fortraining family therapists, is credited withhelping to move family therapy beyond apreoccupation with dysfunctional families.The book's overhaul, says Walsh, wasprompted by a decade of new research onhealthy families. New family forms, likeremarriage and dual-earner families, eachget a chapter in the updated edition, as dogay and lesbian families and family issueslike changing gender norms — which Walshcalls the biggest trend shaping families inthe 1990s. "It's the first time that we'vebegun to consider gays and lesbians in thenormal family spectrum," she says, "ratherthan having them outside in some kind ofdeviant category."The focus on diversity is a big step fromtherapy's previous "all happy families arealike" philosophy. Normality, according toNormal Family Processes, varies with thefamily configuration and the task at hand —whether adopting a child, "launching" children from the nest, or coping with death."It's shifting from imagining that a healthyfamily is somehow a mythical beast in aproblem-free environment," says Walsh, toa "systems approach" that encourages therapists to look beyond current crises andhelp strengthen the relationships needed tosolve future problems. Still, she says, thechallenge remains to translate recentresearch into knowledge that therapists canuse, and in her next book she hopes tobridge that gap with practical guidelines forclinicians.And more research is needed, says Walsh.Studies that compare diverse family formswith "white, middle-class, intact nuclearfamilies" don't help therapists understandwhy some divorced families, for instance,do better than others. "Most researchmoney is tied to problems," she says, "sowe end up studying families with problems.We really need more research funding tounderstand the processes that strengthenfamilies."1 6 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994Survival ofthe RichestNOAH HAD IT EASY. WHEN IT CAME TOassigning berths on the ark, theorders were precise: one male andone female of all creatures. Period.For modern-day shepherds helping animals weather the flood of human development, the decisions aren't so clear.Extinction threatens many speciesin the U.S., andthe resources available are finite. Yetthe Endangered Species Act of 1973instructs the federalgovernment to savethem all, regardless ofcost. The question remains: Is this what thegovernment does? And isit what the public wants?Endangered animals,according to economistDon Coursey, are nottreated equally: a handfulof "large, charismatic vertebrates" get most of themoney, while little ornothing is spent rescu- jing others. The arrange-ment may not be Iequitable, but, he con- jtends, it is what most ipeople want.Coursey, who joined \the faculty of the HarrisSchool of Public PolicyStudies last year, has produced the first-ever estimates of the costs of savingindividual endangered animals. Topping his pricechart is the Florida panther, declared endangeredin 1967, and on which com- 'bined state and federalspending in 1990 averaged$4.9 million for every one-animal increase in the population. Next comes the Californiacondor, at $1.6 million eachduring 1990 (the only year forwhich data is available). Nearthe bottom of the chart isanother Californian: theTipton kangaroo rat, whoserecover}' is measured by theincreasing size of its habitat. It received just $1.87per one-acre expansion. What's significant, says Coursey, is thatspending levels — administered largely bythe Department of the Interior and influenced by politically divergent special-interest groups — matched closely with theanimals' popularity. As part of his study, heconducted a national survey, mailing questionnaires to 1,000 people and asking themto rate the importance of 247 endangered orthreatened species. The panther and condorranked highly, as did the bald eagle andgrizzly bear. Least popular — and receiving littlefinancial support — werelizards, small rodents,insects, and snails.The price chart allowedCoursey, a longtime out-doorsman, to refine a technique called contingentvaluation, used to determinean object's value — in theabsence of market measures —by surveying people to findout how much they're willingto pay. Some economistsk have proposed using the1* method to shape environmental policy. For example, he says, if youlearn how muchpeople would be will-I ing to pay to have ai clear view from theI Grand Canyon, theanswer could becompared to thecost of shuttingdown a nearby coal-burning factory.But not everyone,[ says Coursey, likesputting price tagsit on environ-mentalgoods.Of thosepolled,Popular-pussycat:Adding oneendangeredFlorida panther to theplanet costs $4.9 million. Size matters: Little or nothing is spenttrying to save many smaller endangeredanimals, like the Tipton kangaroo rat.37 percent assigned all animals an equalvalue, suggesting that they would advocatespending the same amount on a bald eagleas on most respondents' rock-bottomspecies — the Kretschmarr Cave moldbeetle. Coursey himself won't judge the disparity in spending as either right or wrong.The chief contribution of his study, hebelieves, is that "it asks a fundamental question: Here's what we do. Do we like it?"This is not a biblical version of buildingNoah's ark. It's Noah's ark on a budget....where not all animals are allowed to beboarded, and those that are boarded are notgiven equal accommodations."As he continues studying the interactionof economics and the environment,Coursey plans to examine the spendingdecisions on individual species. His recentwork, meanwhile, has attracted nationalmedia attention, including an on-cameravisit from CNN. At least two newspapereditorials cited the favoritism toward particular animals as proof of the need for a newapproach — one espoused by many biologists and the Clinton administration — thatconcentrates on saving whole ecosystemsrather than separate species.With Congress scheduled to decide thissummer whether to reauthorize the Endangered Species Act, interest in Coursey'sstudy is likely to grow. Few politicians areentirely pleased with the existing act,he notes. While again reluctant togive his personal opinion, he hopesthat his research will be useful in theupcoming debate. "Is the EndangeredSpecies Act a safety net for everything," heasks, "or is it an opportunity for us as asociety to make some choices?"— Stories by Andrew Campbell.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 1 7IRichard Rorty is nothing if not controversl"what, if anything, philosophy is good forI': '¦¦¦., PictureNT 40 YEARS WORRYING ABOUTINFORMATIVE OR INFURIATINGBy Richard Rortyphotography byBiljl Dent sonREN I WAS 12, THE MOST SAUENt BOOKS ONmy parents* shelves were two red-boundvolumes--- -The Case of Leon Trotsky and NotGuilty. These made up the report of theDewey Commission of inquiry into theMoscow Trials. I never read them with thewide-eyed fascination I brought to bookslike Krafft'Efeang's Psychopathia sexuaiis, butI thought of them in the way in which otherchildren thought of their family's Bible: theywere books that radiated redemptive truthand moral splendor. If I were a really gxtodboy, i would say to myself, I should haveread not only the Dewey Commissionreports, bat also. Trotsky's History of theRussian Revolution, a book I started manytimes but never managed to finish. For inthe 1940s, the Russian Sevdfettion and ite;;betrayal by Stalin were, for me, what theincarnation and its betrayal by theCatholics had been to precocious littleLutherans 400 years before. :My father had almost, but ndt quite,accompanied John Dewey to Mexico as PRman for the Commission of mquay whichDewey chaired. Having broken with the,.;American Communist Party in 1932, myparents had been classified by the DailyWorker as *'Tf otsfeyites," and they more orless accepted the description. When Trotsky was assassinated in 1940, one of hissecretaries, John Frank, hoped that theGRO's agents would not think to look forhim in the remote little village on theDelaware River where we were hving. Using*a pseudonym, he was our guest in Flat-brookvilie for some months. I was warnednot to disclose his real identity, though it isdoubtful that my schoolmates at WaipaekElementary would have been interested inmy indiscretions.I grew up knowing that all decent peopleWere, if not Trotekyiles, at least socialists. Ialso knew that Stalin had ordered not onlyKJfBVEEsrn' of Chicago Magazine/April i 994 19Trotsky's assassination but also Kirov's,Ehrlich's, Alter's, and Carlo Tresca's.(Tresca, gunned down on the streets ofNew York, had been a family friend.) Iknew that poor people would always beoppressed until capitalism was overcome.Working as an unpaid office boy during my12th winter, I carried drafts of press releasesfrom the Workers Defense League office offGramercy Park (where my parents worked)to Norman Thomas' (the Socialist Party'scandidate for president) house around thecorner, and also to A. Philip Randolph'soffice at the Brotherhood of Pullman CarPorters on 125th Street. On the subway, Iwould read the documents I was carrying.They told me a lot about what factoryowners did to union organizers, plantationowners to sharecroppers, and the whitelocomotive engineers' union to the coloredfiremen (whose jobs white men wanted,now that diesel engines were replacing coal-fired steam engines). So, at 12, I knew thatthe point of being human was to spendone's life fighting social injustice.But 1 also had private, weird, snobbish,incommunicable interests. In earlier years,these had been in Tibet. I had sent thenewly enthroned Dalai Lama a present,accompanied by warm congratulations to afellow 8-year-old who had made good. Afew years later, when my parents begandividing their time between the ChelseaHotel and the mountains of northwest NewJersey, these interests switched to orchids.Some 40 species of wild orchids occur inthose mountains, and I eventually found 17of them. Wild orchids are uncommon, andrather hard to spot. I prided myself enormously on being the only person aroundwho knew where they grew, their Latinnames, and their blooming times. When inNew York, I would go to the 42nd StreetPublic Library to reread a 19th-centuryvolume on the botany of the orchids of theeastern United States.I was not quite sure why those orchidswere so important, but I was convinced thatthey were. I was sure that our noble, pure,chaste, North American wild orchids weremorally superior to the showy, hybridized,tropical orchids displayed in florists' shops.Richard Roily, AB'49, AM'52, is the University Professor of Humanities at the Universityof Virginia, a past president of the AmericanPhilosophical Association, and a formerMacArthur fellow. This article is excerptedfrom "Trotskv and the Wild Orchids," whichfirst appeared as an cssav in ihe Winter 1992issue oj Common Knowledge and isincluded in Wild Orchids and Trotsky: Messages from American Universities (Viking,1993). ©Richard Rorty. 1 was also convinced that there was a deepsignificance in the fact that the orchids arethe latest and most complex plants to havebeen developed in the course of evolution.Looking back, I suspect that there was a lotof sublimated sexuality involved (orchidsbeing a notoriously sexy sort of flower), andthat my desire to learn all there was toknow about orchids was linked to mydesire to understand allthe hard words in Krafft-Ebing.I was uneasily aware,however, that there wassomething a bit dubiousabout this esotericism —this interest in sociallyuseless flowers. 1 hadread (in the vast amountof spare time given to aclever, snotty, nerdy,only child) bits ofMarius the Epicurean andalso bits of Marxist criticisms of Pater's aestheti-cism. I was afraid thatTrotsky (whose Literature and Revolution I hadnibbled at) would nothave approved of myinterest in orchids.At 15 I escaped fromthe bullies who regularlybeat me up on the playground of my highschool (bullies who, Iassumed, would somehow wither away oncecapitalism had beenovercome) by going offto the so-called HutchinsCollege of the Universityof Chicago. (This wasthe institution immortalized by A. J. Liebling as"the biggest collection ofjuvenile neurotics sincethe Children's Crusade.") Insofar as I hadany project in mind, itwas to reconcile Trotskyand the orchids. Iwanted to find someintellectual or aestheticframework which wouldlet me — in a thrillingphrase which I cameacross in Yeats — "holdreality and justice in a single vision." Byreality 1 meant, more or less, theWordsworthian moments in which, in thewoods around Flatbrookville (and especially in the presence of certain coralrootorchids, and of the smaller yellow lady slip per), I had felt touched by something numinous, something of ineffable importance. Byjustice I meant what Norman Thomas andTrotsky both stood for: the liberation of theweak from the streng. I wanted a way to beboth an intellectual and spiritual snob and afriend of humanity — a nerdy recluse and afighter for justice. I was very confused, butreasonably sure that at Chicago I wouldfind out how grownups managed to workthe trick I had in mind.When I got to Chicago in 1946, I foundthat Hutchins, together with his friendsMortimer Adler and Richard McKeon (thevillain of Pirsig's Zen and the Art of Motorcy-20 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994cle Maintenance), had enveloped much ofthe University of Chicago in a neo-Aris-totelian mystique. The most frequent targetof their sneers was John Dewey's pragmatism. That pragmatism was the philosophyof my parents' friend Sidney Hook, as wellas the unofficial philosophy of most of theother New York intellectuals who had givenup on dialectical materialism. But accordingto Hutchins and Adler, pragmatism was vulgar, "relativistic,"and self-refuting. As they pointedout over and over again, Deweyhad no absolutes. To say, asDewey did, that "growth itself isthe only moral end," left onewithout a criterion for growth,and thus with no way to refuteHitler's suggestion that Germanyhad "grown" under his rule. Tosay that truth is what works is toreduce the quest for truth to thequest for power. Only an appealto something eternal, absolute,and good — like the God of St.Thomas or the "nature of humanbeings" described by Aristotle —would permit one to answer theNazis, to justify one's choice ofsocial democracy over fascism.This quest for stable absoluteswas common to the neo-Thomists and to Leo Strauss, theteacher who attracted the best ofthe Chicago students (including whom I had grown up, scorning Dewey wasa convenient form of adolescent revolt. Theonly question was whether this scornshould take a religious or a philosophicalform, and how it might be combined with astriving for social justice. Like many of myclassmates at Chicago, 1 knew lots of T. S.Eliot by heart. I was attracted by Eliot's suggestions that only committed Christians(and perhaps only Anglo-Catholics) couldovercome their unhealthy preoccupationwith their private obsessions, and so servetheir fellow humans with proper humility.But a prideful inability to believe what I wassaying when I recited the General Confession gradually led me to give up on myawkward attempts to get religion. So I fellback on absolutist philosophy.I read through Plato during my 15thsummer, and convinced myself thatSocrates was right — virtue was knowledge.That claim was music to my ears, for I haddoubts about my own moral character anda suspicion that my only gifts were intellectual ones. Besides, Socrates had to be right,for only then could one hold reality andjustice in a single vision. Only if he wereright could one hope to be both as good asthe best Christians (such as Alyosha in TheBrothers Karamazov, whom 1 could not —and still cannot — decide whether to envy ordespise) and as learned and clever asStrauss and his students. So I decided tomajor in philosophy. I figured that if Ibecame a philosopher I might get to the top it didn't pan out. I could never figure outwhether the Platonic philosopher was aimingat the ability to offer irrefutable argument —argument which rendered him able to convince anyone he encountered of what hebelieved (the sort of thing Ivan Karamazovwas good at) — or instead was aiming at asort of incommunicable, private bliss (thesort of thing his brother Alyosha seemed topossess). The first goal is to achieve argumentative power over others — e.g., tobecome able to convince bullies that theyshould not beat one up, or to convince richcapitalists that they must cede their powerto a cooperative, egalitarian commonwealth. The second goal is to enter a state inwhich all your own doubts are stilled, butin which you no longer wish to argue. Bothgoals seemed desirable, but I could not seehow they could be fitted together.At the same time as I was worrying aboutthis tension within Platonism — and withinany form of what Dewey had called "thequest for certainty" — I was also worryingabout the familiar problem of how onecould possibly get a noncircular justification of any debatable stand on any important issue. The more philosophers I read,the clearer it seemed that each of themcould carry their views back to first principles which were incompatible with the firstprinciples of their opponents, and that noneof them ever got to that fabled place"beyond hypotheses." There seemed to benothing like a neutral standpoint fromhat's important about ideas, says richard korty, ab'49, am'52, are theirconsequences. hls ideas-— and his books, philosophy and the mlrror of natureand Contingency, Irony and Solidarity'— -have spawned dissertations and debate. IImy classmate Allan Bloom). TheChicago faculty was dotted withawesomely learned refugees fromHitler, of whom Strauss was themost revered. All of them seemedto agree that something deeperand weightier than Dewey wasneeded if one was to explain whyit would be better to be dead thanto be a Nazi. This sounded pretty good tomy 15-year-old ears. For moral and philosophical absolutes sounded a bit like mybeloved orchids — numinous, hard to find,known only to a chosen few. Further, sinceDewey was a hero to all the people among of Plato's "divided line" — the place "beyondhypotheses" where the full sunshine ofTruth irradiates the purified soul of thewise and the good: an Elysian field dottedwith immaterial orchids. It seemed obviousto me that getting to such a place was whateverybody with any brains really wanted. Italso seemed clear that Platonism had all theadvantages of religion, without requiringthe humility which Christianity demanded,and of which I was apparently incapable.F OR ALL THESE REASONS, I WANTED VERYmuch to be some kind of Platonist,and from 15 to 20 I did my best. But which these alternative first principlescould be evaluated. But if there were nosuch standpoint, then the whole idea of"rational certainty," and the whole Socratic-Platonic idea of replacing passion byreason, seemed not to make much sense.Eventually I got over the worry about circular argumentation by deciding that thetest of philosophical truth was overallcoherence, rather than deducibility fromunquestioned first principles. But this didn'thelp much. For coherence is a matter ofavoiding contradictions, and St. Thomas'advice, "When you meet a contradiction,make a distinction," makes that pretty easy.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 2 1As far as 1 could see, philosophical talentwas largely a matter of proliferating asman)' distinctions as were needed to wriggle out of a dialectical corner. More generally, it was a matter, when trapped in such acomer, of redescribing the nearby intellectual terrain in such a way that the termsused by one's opponent would seem irrelevant, or question-begging, or jejune. Iturned out to have a flair for such redescrip-tion. But I became less and less certain thatdeveloping this skill was going to make meeither wise or virtuous.Since that initial disillusion (which climaxed about the time 1 left Chicago to get aPh.D. in philosophy at Yale), 1 have spent40 years looking for a coherent and convincing way of formulating my worriesabout what, if anything, philosophy is goodfor. My starting point was the discovery ofHegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, a bookwhich I read as saying: granted that philosophy is just a matter of out-redescribing thelast philosopher, the cunning of reason canmake use even of this sort of competition. Itcan use it to weave the conceptual fabric ofa freer, better, more just society. If philosophy can be, at best, only what Hegel called"its time held in thought," still, that mightbe enough. For by thus holding one's time,one might do what Marx wanted done —change the world. So even if there were nosuch thing as "understanding the world" inthe Platonic sense — an understanding froma position outside of time and history — perhaps there was still a social use for my talents, and for the study of philosophy.For quite a while after I read Hegel, Ithought that the two greatest achievementsof the species to which I belonged werePhenomenology of Spirit and Remembrance ofThings Past (the book which took the placeof the wild orchids once I left Flatbrookvillefor Chicago). Proust's ability to weave intellectual and social snobbery together withthe hawthorns around Combray, his grandmother's selfless love, Odette's orchidaceous embraces of Swann and Jupien's ofCharlus, and with everything else heencountered — to give each of these its duewithout feeling the need to bundle themtogether with the help of a religious faith ora philosophical theory — seemed to me asastonishing as Hegel's ability to throw himself successively into empiricism, Greektragedy, Stoicism, Christianity, and Newtonian physics, and to emerge from each,reach and eager for something completelydifferent. It was the cheerful commitmentsto irreducible temporality which Hegel andProust shared — the specifically anti-Platonic clement in their work — thatseemed so wonderful. They both seemedable to weave everything they encountered into a narrative without asking that thatnarrative have a moral, and without askinghow that narrative would appear under theaspect of eternity.ABOUT 20 YEARS OR SO AFTER I DECIDEDthat the young Hegel's willingnessto stop trying for eternity, and justbe the child of his time, was the appropriateresponse to disillusionment with Plato, Ifound myself being led back to Dewey.Dewey now seemed to me a philosopherwho had learned all that Hegel had to teachabout how to eschew certainty and eternity,while immunizing himself against pantheism by taking Darwin seriously. This rediscovery of Dewey coincided with my firstencounter with Derrida. Derrida led meback to Heidegger, and 1 was struck by theresemblances between Dewey's, Wittgenstein's, and Heidegger's criticisms of Carte-sianism. Suddenly things began to cometogether. I thought I saw a way to blend acriticism of the Cartesian tradition with thequasi-Hegelian historicism of Michel Fou-cault, Ian Hacking, and Alasdair Macln-tyre. I thought that I could fit all theseinto a quasi-Heideggerian story about thetensions within Platonism.The result of this small epiphany was abook called Philosophy and the Mirror ofNature. Though disliked by most of myfellow philosophy professors, this bookhad enough success among non-philosophers to give me a self-confidence I hadpreviously lacked. But Philosophy and theMirror of Nature did not do much for myadolescent ambitions. The topics ittreated — themind-body problem, controversiesin the philosophy of languageabout truth andmeaning, Kuhni-an philosophy ofs c i en c e — wer epretty remote fromboth Trotsky andthe orchids. I had ^«WSmgotten back on good terms with Dewey; Ihad articulated my historicist anti-Platon-ism; 1 had finally figured out what Ithought about the direction and value ofcurrent movements in analytic philosophy. I had sorted out most of the philosophers whom 1 had read. But I had notspoken to any of the questions which gotme started reading philosophers in thefirst place. 1 was no closer to the singlevision which, 30 years back, I had gone tocollege to get.As I tried to figure out what had gonewrong, I gradually decided that the whole idea of holding reality and justice in a singlevision had been a mistake — that a pursuitof such a vision had been precisely what ledPlato astray. More specifically, I decidedthat only religion — only a nonargumenta-tive faith in a surrogate parent who, unlikeany real parent, embodied love, power, andjustice in equal measure — could do thetrick Plato wanted done. Since I couldn'timagine becoming religious, and indeedhad gotten more and more raucously secularist, I decided that the hope of getting asingle vision by becoming a philosopherhad been a self-deceptive atheist's way out.So I decided to write a book about whatintellectual life might be like if one couldVISION DOESN T MEAN THATPHILOSOPHY IS SOCIALLY USELESS. manage to give up thePlatonic attempt to holdreality and justice in asingle vision.That book — Contingency, Irony and Solidarity — argues thatthere is no need to weave one's personalequivalent of Trotsky and one's personalequivalent of my wild orchids together.Rather, one should try to abjure the temptation to tie in one's moral responsibilities toother people with one's relation to whateveridiosyncratic things or persons one loveswith all one's heart and soul and mind (or,if you like, the things or persons one isobsessed with). The two will, for somepeople, coincide — as they do in those luckyChristians for whom the love of God and ofother human beings are inseparable, or rev-22 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994olutionaries who are moved by nothingsave the thought of social justice. But theyneed not coincide, and one should not trytoo hard to make them do so. So, for example, Jean-Paul Sartre seemed to me rightwhen he denounced Kant's self-deceptivequest for certainty, but wrong when hedenounced Proust as a useless bourgeoiswimp, a man whose life and writings wereequally irrelevant to the only thing thatreally mattered, the struggle to overthrowcapitalism.Proust's life and work were, in fact, irrelevant to that struggle. But that is a sillyreason to despise Proust. It is as wrong-headed as Savonarola's contempt for the nothing sacred about universality whichmakes the shared automatically better thanthe unshared. There is no automatic privilege of what you can get everybody to agreeto (the universal) over what you cannot(the idiosyncratic).This means that the fact that you haveobligations to other people (not to bullythem, to join them in overthrowing tyrants,to feed them when they are hungry) doesnot entail that what you share with otherpeople is more important than anythingelse. What you share with them, when youare aware of such moral obligations, is not,I argued in Contingency, "rationality" or"human nature" or "the fatherhood of God"works of art he called "vanities." Single-mindedness of this Sartrean or Savonarolansort is the quest for purity of heart — theattempt to will one thing — gone rancid. It isthe attempt to see yourself as an incarnationof something larger than yourself (theMovement, Reason, the Good, the Holy)rather than accepting your finitude. Thelatter means, among other things, acceptingthat what matters most to you may well besomething that may never matter much tomost people. Your equivalent of my orchidsmay always seem merely weird, merelyidiosyncratic, to practically everybody else.But that is no reason to be ashamed of, ordowngrade, or try to slough off, yourWordsworthian moments, your lover, yourfamily, your pet, your favorite lines of verse,or your quaint religious faith. There is or "a knowledge of the Moral Law," or anything other than ability to sympathize withthe pain of others. There is no particularreason to expect that your sensitivity to thatpain, and your idiosyncratic loves, are goingto fit within one big overall account of howeverything hangs together. There is, inshort, not much reason to hope for the sortof single vision that I went to collegehoping to get.IDO NOT, HOWEVER, WANT TO ARGUE THATphilosophy is socially useless. Hadthere been no Plato, the Christianswould have had a harder time selling theidea that all God really wanted from us wasfraternal love. Had there been no Kant, the19th century would have had a harder timereconciling Christian ethics with Darwin's story about the descent of man. Had therebeen no Darwin, it would have been harderfor Whitman and Dewey to detach theAmericans from their belief that they wereGod's chosen people, to get them to startstanding on their own feet. Had there beenno Dewey and no Sidney Hook, Americanintellectual leftists of the 1930s would havebeen as buffaloed by the Marxists as weretheir counterparts in France and in LatinAmerica. Ideas do, indeed, have consequences.But the fact that ideas have consequencesdoes not mean that we philosophers, wespecialists in ideas, are in a key position.We are not here to provide principles orfoundations or deep theoretical diagnoses,or a synoptic vision. When I am asked (as,alas, I often am) what I take contemporaryphilosophy's "mission" or "task" to be, I gettongue-tied. The best I can do is to stammerthat we philosophy professors are peoplewho have a certain familiarity with a certainintellectual tradition, as chemists have acertain familiarity with what happens whenyou mix various substances together. Wecan offer some advice about what willhappen when you try to combine or to separate certain ideas, on the basis of ourknowledge of the results of past experiments. By doing so, we may be able to helpyou hold your time in thought. But we arenot the people to come to if you want confirmation that the things you love with allyour heart are central to the structure of theuniverse, or that your sense of moralresponsibility is "rational and objective"rather than "just" a result of how you werebrought up.There are still, as C. S. Peirce put it,"philosophical slop-shops on every comer"which will provide such confirmation. Butthere is a price. To pay the price you haveto turn your back on intellectual historyand on what Milan Kundera calls "the fascinating imaginative realm where no oneowns the truth and everyone has the rightto be understood. ..the wisdom of thenovel." You risk losing the sense of finitude,and the tolerance, which result from realizing how very many synoptic visions therehave been, and how little argument can doto help you choose among them. Despitemy relatively early disillusionment with Platonism, I am very glad that I spent all thoseyears reading philosophy books. For Ilearned something that still seems veryimportant: to distrust the intellectual snobbery which originally led me to read them.If I had not read all those books, I mightnever have been able to stop looking forwhat Derrida calls "a full presence beyondthe reach of play," for a luminous, self-justifying, self-sufficient synoptic vision.UNIVERSITY' OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/APRIL 1994 23A pieceof themaster^^^^^^^¦^ very seal in Max Palevsky Cinema was^P*^*^^^. M taken, and, to keep the hall from llll-¦I 5m£!£ 'l ¦ *nS t0 sardine-can levels, a young¦ SlU^ ^» man armed with a walkie-talkie¦ !rfi^Hf'B rjl°c'<;ed the entrance. Nonetheless,¦ Wf'.V ft halfway through the famous visi-H ,fe4l->', H tor's lecture, a dozen locked-outWmf^f^j^^^^ fans discovered a side door opening onto the stage. They quietly crawled in,squatting on the carpet before the speaker's feet andlining the stage behind him. Fire codes be damned: thiswas Kurt Vonnegut, after all, and no one wanted to missout.That night, Vonnegut played both entertainer andpreacher, pulling in listeners with jokes and storieswhile dishing out harsh criticisms of technology andculture. For the crowd, the February brush withcelebrity was a welcome thaw in the midst of winterquarter. After his talk, a knot of students cornered Vonnegut backstage, then found themselves unable to doanything but gawk."My mom and dad read all his books in the Sixties,"gushed one admirer. Many second-generation fans saidthey had read at least Cat's Cradle or Slaughterhouse-Five.Vonnegut, a Marjorie Kovler Visiting Fellow, heldother roles during his 24-hour stay on campus: teacher,alumnus, dinner guest, and compatriot — the last in achat with members of University Theater, which in 1992produced his 1970 play, Happy Birthday, Wanda June.Older observers may have wondered what the most popular novelist among undergrads of the 1960s would findin common with their children. Indeed, one studentcame hoping to swap electronic-mail addresses with thegreat writer, then listened to Vonnegut launch into adiatribe on how computers transmute human beings —24 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994In a whirlwindcampus visit, novelistKurt Vonnegut,AM'71, wowed a newgeneration of fans.By Andrew CampbellPhotography by Dan Dry"dancing" animals — into chair-bound, forgetful pawns.But in several sessions with students — his packedschedule had the precise timing of a society wedding —Vonnegut's satiric wit still seemed, as their parentswould say, relevant. Conversations touched on themesfamiliar to his readers: the fate of art in the age of TV,the loneliness of life without extended families, and aformula for revolution ("one apparent genius, twostraight arrows who say, 'Pay attention to this man,' andone person to talk to the general public").Students could thank the Kovler Visiting Fellows program — which promotes contact between University students and prominent figures in the arts, science, andpublic affairs — for Vonnegut's visit. His ties to Chicago,though, date to 1946, when he was a graduate student inanthropology. He left in 1947, master's thesis rejected,but years later submitted Cat's Cradle to fulfill the thesisrequirement. While his professors judged it acceptable, arule regarding previously published work held up hisA.M. degree until 1971.Asked about his Hyde Park days, Vonnegut declined towax romantic. "I was a returning veteran with a wife andtwo kids," he said. "I didn't have any student life." Yet,despite a few cracks about a degree that came too late toadvance a career already in full bloom, he acknowledgeda debt to his U of C teachers. Above all, the writer credited the late Robert Redfield, PhB'20, JD'21, PhD'28, aprofessor of anthropology and then dean of Social Sciences, for his long-standing interest in the isolated, traditional cultures that Redfield called "folk societies.""My politics are based on people forming smallgroups. It's madness to try to belong to something asbig as the United States," Vonnegut said. Later, hethanked Redfield for that belief: "One plausible romantictheory about humanity is perhaps the best prize you cantake from a university."UNIVERSITY' OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/APRIL 1994 25I\ the mid-1950s, a geneticist namedArthur Steinberg drove from easternSouth Dakota to western Canada,stopping at colony after colony of areligious group known as the Hut-terites. Fascinated by the opportunities this inbred population mighti provide for studies in human genetics, Steinberg, a professor of biology atWestern Reserve University (later CaseWestern Reserve), initiated on that tripwhat became perhaps the most extensivedatabase on a single population.Nearly four decades later, in her computer-dominated office at the University ofChicago Hospitals, Carole Ober opens up ablack, three-ring binder filled with pages ofhandwritten family trees. It is only one ofthe dozens of notebooks that chronicleSteinberg's two decades of painstakingresearch into the German Hutterites' lineage, dating back to their ancestors' 18th-century flight to Russia and subsequentmove to North America. Although the analytic methods at Steinberg's disposal toprocess the information he gathered arenow outdated, the family records he collected — when paired with modern genetictechniques — have proved invaluable asOber works to answer questions about the relationship between genetics and fertility.Carole Ober first learned of the Hutteritesand Arthur Steinberg's research whilesearching for a job. The year was 1979. Shehad just earned her Ph.D. in anthropologyat Northwestern University: blendinganthropology with genetics, her doctoraldissertation had examined how the socialstructure of a colony of rhesus monkeysaffected the way certain genes were distributed in the population. Knowing that shewanted to continue working with genetics,she set up an appointment to speak withAlice Martin, a geneticist at Northwesternand Steinberg's former student."There weren't really any jobs available atthe time," Ober recalls, "but she started totell me about the Hutterites." Working withthe Hutterites, Ober realized immediately,would be a way to connect her official background in anthropology to her interest ingenetics — and to study the relation ofgenetics to population structure. SeeingOber's fascination, Martin offered her apart-time job — and an opportunity to workwith the Hutterite data.As Ober got acquainted with Steinberg'sdata, her interest grew. Then, in late fall of1979, she had a chance to meet the peoplewhose records she'd been studying. "The first trip I went out on was with a cardiologist/epidemiologist who was doing a studyon the effects of diet on blood pressure andcholesterol," she says. "We stayed in onecolony, just outside of Mitchell, SouthDakota, for a whole week, which is a greatway to get to know the people."Though normally reticent with strangers,the Hutterites accepted Ober, in partbecause she could build on a three-decaderelationship of trust begun by Steinberg."Steinberg was very intent on not bringingthe Hutterites any publicity," says Ober,noting that he developed an elaborate protocol to guard the colonies' privacy. Thatprotectiveness could be seen, for example,when he published his research: He nevercalled the Hutterites by name, referring tothem instead as "a religious isolate," or "H-loid" (i.e., the "H people").When Steinberg retired, he bequeathedhis records to Martin, who returned to thecolonies throughout the 1970s, gatheringdata for her studies on the genetic underpinnings of cancer, while continuing tobuild on the trust that Steinberg had created.Added to the group's willingness to aidSteinberg — and later Martin and Ober —was the Hutterites' interest in physicalA FertileInheritanceBy Jeanette HarrisonThe Hutterites are an insulated religious community. They are alsoTHE SOURCE OF A UNIQUE GENETIC DATABASE. At CHICAGO, CAROLE OBERMAINTAINS THE HUTTERITE RECORDS — AND A LEGACY OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY.26 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994yVhealth. Given their traditional values, Oberadmits, "they would probably not be quiteas cooperative if we were studying, say, psychiatric disorders." But they welcomed achance to discuss physical health or ailments.Because their own schooling ends withthe eighth grade, Hutterites have no physicians or other professionals within theircolonies, Ober explains. Although theyhave few encounters with modern medicine, they don't shun it — a practicality thatextends to their use of modern machineryin farming and other industry. Yet their private lives are in many ways as sparse aswhen Jacob Hutter led the Anabaptist sectin Switzerland during the early 1500s. Theirhomes contain no televisions, radios, dishwashers — or even kitchens, as a colony'sfamilies prepare and eat meals in a communal dining hall.The Hutterites' closed, homogenous communities — 30,000 people in the U.S. andCanada who can be traced back to some 90ancestors who migrated from Russia —make the colonies a perfect group forgenetic studies. Yet despite the opportunities it offers, Steinberg's database hasremained in the scientific shadows. "TheHuttcrite data have never really been utilized to the extent they should be, given theamount of information that is available."For the past decade, Ober has been doingher best to change that situation, returningto the colonies — and to Steinberg's carefullycollected data — again and again.Shortly after her first visit, Oberrealized that the Hutterites —living communally, marryingwithin the group, prohibitingcontraception, and bearing largenumbers of children — offered apopulation well-suited to tackle a questionthat had long puzzled geneticists: why amother's immune system generally doesn'treject a fetus, as it would any other livingtissue containing foreign genetic material.The system thought to be responsible forthis maternal feat is the human leukocyteantigen (HLA). Tightly packed along a section of one chromosome, this complexgroup of immune genes provides resistanceto certain diseases, and also mediates thesuccessful acceptance of organ transplants.Adding to the puzzle, researchers hadrecently discovered that a mother was morelikely to abort spontaneously a fetus whosecombination of HLA genes (in other words,its F1LA type) was the same as her own.From that discovery, a theory began tocirculate: Genetically, mothers favoredIctuses different from themselves. Ober wasintrigued by the theory's implications.Geneticists had long believed that maintain ing genetic variability was important for apopulation's survival chances. The newtheory might provide an example of howhumans evolved a check to ensure thatgenetic variability is not only maintainedbut preferred.But it was as difficult for researchers totest the theory as it was to isolate the effectsof HLA. Because the genes are so complex,it's hard to design studies in the generalpopulation with enough controls to proveanything conclusively. In addition, miscarriages are caused by a number of factors,including lifestyles not conducive to pregnancy.In contrast, because the Hutterites are ahighly fertile — and insulated — community,Ober realized she had the chance to set upstudies that just might work. And so, as thequestion of HLA's relationship to fertilitywas heating up in the scientific community,Ober went digging for data Martin hadcoincidentally collected on HLA types.Taking Martin's data on the HLA types of50 Hutterite couples who had ten children,Ober then pulled Steinberg's genealogicalrecords on those same couples: she"crudely" compared how long it took eachcouple to reach ten children with howclosely the couple's HLA types matched."I really didn't expect to find anything,"admits Ober. "I thought we'd be publishinga very negative paper saying, 'Look, here's apopulation that can share a lot of HLA andthere's no effect on their fertility.' It turnedout that there was a difference betweencouples based on whether they had thesame HLA or not." Couples with similarHLA types took significantly longer to complete their families than couples whoseHLA differed. Ober's conclusions containeda mixed message: While HLA seemed toplay a role in pregnancy, sharing HLA genesdid not seem to preclude fertility — it simplytook such couples longer to have the samenumber of children.Excited by her preliminary findings, in1982 Ober constructed a more detailedsurvey, funded by the National Institutes ofHealth. By questioning 400 Hutteritewomen from 31 colonies about their pregnancies and miscarriages, she found that,indeed, more time elapsed between thebirth of each child for couples who sharedHLA types. Looking at those women pasttheir childbearing years, she found thatwomen whose HLA differed from their husband's averaged nine children, while couples who shared one or more HLA genesaveraged only 6.5 children.But although Ober saw fertility drop interms of family size and length of timebetween each pregnancy, what she didn'tfind was an increased miscarriage rate. Sus pecting that women either were not remembering their miscarriages or they were miscarrying so early in their pregnancy thatthey did not realize they were pregnant, in1986 she began a prospective study. Sheasked all Hutterite women in her study tokeep diaries of their menstrual periods, todo a pregnancy test provided by Ober ifthey were even a day late, and to record theresults.Her hunch was right. Ober reports, "Theywere underestimating their miscarriagerates." The diaries showed that the Hutterites' miscarriage rate was the same as thatof the general population. Which means,says Ober, that whatever factors cause miscarriages among the Hutterites most likelyaffect the general population as well.But more importantly, this detailed studyallowed Ober to look closely at what effectindividual HLA genes have on fertility. Andher discovery provides an important clue tohow HLA relates to fertility: Different HLAgenes control different aspects of fertility.One gene is related to miscarriages, andanother controls how long a woman takesto become pregnant.While studying HLA'seffect on fertility,Ober noticed thatvery few Hutteritecouples actuallyshared HLA. Thatfact is not surprising in the general population, given the enormous number andvariability of genes located along this section of the chromosome. But the insulatedHutterite population has only 45 totalcombinations within a region of the eightto ten fertility-related genes that Ober isstudying.Curious, Ober used population-geneticstheory to predict roughly how many couples would be expected to share HLA,assuming that individuals choose theirspouses randomly. She found that, surprisingly, fewer couples shared HLA than waspredicted, raising questions about thegenetics of HLA itself.So, at the same time she was conductingher long-term studies on fertility, Ober alsobegan an in-depth look at how Hutteriteschoose their spouses. Her preliminary datasuggested that Hutterites avoid marryingindividuals with whom they share HLAgenes. What Ober needed was to prove thatthe avoidance was not simply some fluke inthe way Hutterites meet and choose theirspouses — or, in population-studies terminology, their "mating structure."Ober used two different approaches toestimate the number of couples who shouldshare HLA types. First, she determined the28 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994different combinations of HLA genes thatoccurred in the population, and created amodel of the group's mating structure.Meanwhile, Ober looked at the familiesinto which individuals married. After all, ifa Hutterite woman married into a family,then theoretically she could as easily havechosen to marry any of her spouse's eligible Ober has discovered that more than a fewpeople are reluctant to accept that theremay be some genetic reason behind howone chooses a husband or wife.The popular press hasn't helped mattersmuch, either. Because earlier studies conducted in mice yielded results similar toOber's findings — that humans avoid mating the keeper of a large database of geneticinformation, but because of the records shecollects and has inherited, she also hassome of the most complete medical recordson the women in her fertility studies."Sometimes," she says, "I get the impression that they like the idea that there'ssomeone here keeping track of all this stuffOber laughs as she remembers introducing her husband to the minister of one colony. "Hesaid, 'We like Carole because she always wears skirts.' They probably know I don't wearSKIRTS ALL THE TIME, BUT THEY REALLY APPRECIATE THAT I WEAR THEM WHEN I COME TO THE COLONY."brothers. By examining the families, Obercould tell whether there were individuals inthe pool of acceptable spouses whose HLAwas similar. What she found was that Hutterite women did meet potential spouseswhose HLA was similar — but that very fewchose to marry such individuals.Thus, Ober was right in thinking thatHutterites were avoiding partners withwhom they shared HLA genes. Her resultshad broad implications: If couples whoseHLA is similar are more likely to sufferfrom infertility or recurrent miscarriages,then, evolutionarily, it makes sense thathumans have evolved some mechanism toreduce the likelihood of that happening.Ober's next question was: How dohumans know which potential mates toavoid?In attempting to answer this question, with anyone who shares theirHLA — some writers haveextrapolated aspects of themouse studies to Ober's workwith the Hutterites.In particular, studies showthat mice learn during infancyto avoid mates with their parents' HLA types — and thatthey learn to do so by smell.Even though Ober has not yetfound the mechanism inhumans by which they determine which potential mates toavoid, a handful of press clippings have already suggestedthat humans smell out theirmates.In fact, Ober is not quick toshoot down this conclusion,however hastily it was drawn."People do discriminate onsmell a lot more than we areaware," she says, pointing tocompanies that are beginningto market pheromone perfumes. What she has foundmost interesting about theconfusion between the mouse and humanstudies, she says, is that it has revealed"how emotional people get about the ideathat there might be some genetic basis formate choice."IN the 15 years since she first traveledto a Hutterite community, Carole Oberhas raised two children of her own,will soon celebrate her 20th weddinganniversary, and changed jobs, accepting an appointment in the Universityof Chicago's department of obstetrics andgynecology in 1988.When she moved to the U of C, shebrought the Hutterite database with her. Bythat time, Martin had left science for a newcareer in law, handing down the database toOber, as Steinberg had once bequeathed itto her. Today, Ober finds herself not only for them."Although Ober still honors the spirit ofArthur Steinberg's rigid protocol in herinteractions with the Hutterites, "over theyears, I think we've developed our ownstyle, and I'm a lot more relaxed when I goup there." Still, some restrictions remain.She laughs as she remembers introducingher husband to the minister of one colony."He said, 'We like Carole because shealways wears skirts.'"They probably know I don't wear skirtsall the time, but they really appreciate thefact that I wear them when I come into thecolony."Like Steinberg and Martin before her,Ober is well aware of the continuing importance of the database and its research possibilities. She hopes in the next few years todevelop more collaborations with otherresearchers. But although she's flooded withrequests for data, not every request can geta nod. Above all, she says, she'd like tomatch scientific questions that the Hutterites are well-suited to answer with questions that the Hutterites themselves want tohave answered.In 1992, for example, Ober began a collaborative project with researchers from theUniversity of South Dakota. The goal of thisfive-year, NIH-funded project is to searchfor the gene or genes that cause asthma.Ober is excited by the prospect: "If there isa gene for asthma, we'll find it." And, shesays, the Hutterites are also excited aboutbeing such an important part of the search."The minister in one colony has asthma,"Ober relates, making it a question of personal as well as scientific interest.Over the years, Ober's work with the Hutterites has also become a matter of personalinterest. The colony that Ober first visitedin the fall of 1979 is one which she visitsevery time she travels to South Dakota tocollect data or do field work. "I've watchedthose little girls grow," Ober says withalmost maternal pride, "and now they're inmy pregnancy study."University' of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 29tURN-OF-THE-CENTURY NEW ORLEANS.Kansas City at the swing era'sdawn. Harlem clubs where bebopflowered in the Forties.... Since thebirth of jazz, regional communitieshave flowed through its mainstream like musical tributaries, shaping themusic's style and direction. Without theseperiodic infusions, jazz may well haveceased evolving, like ragtime — or even vanished, like some long-lost folk music froman ancient millennium.For its part, Chicago gave birth to twovery different styles of jazz. The firstemerged in the Roaring Twenties, led by awhite, largely West Side camaraderie ofmusicians such as Bud Freeman, BennyGoodman, and Art Hodges.The second style appeared in the tumultuous Sixties. Its birthplace was the SouthSide, including Hyde Park, and its creatorswere mostly young African Americans.While the first style proved to be a happyadjunct to the swingera, the second styleemerged as a dazzling reinterpretationof jazz as an artisticformat — changingbow the musiciansrelated both to theirmusic and to eachother.Both styles hadprimary sources. Thefirst found inspiration in the revolutionary cornet solosperformed by LouisArmstrong in Chicago. The second stylereceived its creativejolt in the music ofCecil Taylor, JohnColtrane, Sun Ra, Eric Dolphy, and, especially, Omette Coleman.In his improvised saxophone solos, Coleman abandoned jazz's traditional, fixed harmonic structures — allowing melody todetermine the chord structure. When theformer elevator operator brought his quartet into New York's Five Spot Cafe in 1959,he caused an immediate sensation. MilesDavis commented that Coleman must be"screwed up" to play as he did, and severalcritics questioned whether the music hemade qualified as jazz. At the same time,Coleman garnered several admirers, including Coltrane and Dolphy, who perceived anew freedom, away from traditional ideas ofharmony and time, allowing the artist tostructure music in new ways. "1 think oneday music will be a lot freer," Colemancommented at the time. "Then the pattern for a tune, for instance, will be forgottenand the tune itself will be the pattern."Coleman inadvertently named the revolution he was to inspire: free jazz. Remarkably — considering his influence on Chicagojazz — Coleman and his now-classic quartetappeared in Chicago only once, in February1960, at the Sutherland Hotel Lounge on47th and Drexel. In the audience was abudding saxophonist named JosephJarman."The music was so intense," Jarmanrecalls. "I had never heard music like thatbefore. The capacity of these guys toexpress. And they were so young and handsome, and it was like, 'We can do this, too.'"In the early Sixties, Jarman was among theyoung musicians who studied at WilsonJunior College (now Kennedy-King College), a few miles southwest of the University. A young teacher there, Richard Wang,X'65 — current chair of the executive committee of the Chicago Jazz Archives at the Uof C — had formed a studentjazz band. Professional jazzmusicians often stopped byto jam with the students;among them was an accomplished bop pianist, MuhalRichard Abrams.In 1961, the 30-year-oldAbrams began leading arehearsal band that metweekly at Abraham LincolnCenter, a settlement house12 blocks north of HydePark. He issued an openinvitation to all interestedmusicians. Jarman wasamong the players whodropped by.Abrams told the groupsomething Jarman hadn'theard before: "He said,We're here to play music. If you have anymusic, bring it in and we'll hear what itsounds like.'" Bring music the young artistscertainly did — although Abrams remainedthe band's principal composer-arranger.Abrams' influence on these budding musicians, who called themselves the Experimental Band, reached far. "I was influencedby not only his ideas about music," saysJarman, "but about lifestyle and everything." Abrams read the slightly mystifiedmusicians their horoscopes, and turnedthem on to the possibilities of creatingprose and art as well as music.At its conception, Abrams' ExperimentalBand was essentially a group without anaudience. Jazz's popularity in the U.S. hadpeaked by 1960, obscured by the emergence of rock and folk. Jodie Christian, aleading bop pianist, recalls the 1950s, whenJazz nearlygasped its lastbreath.. .until amusical collective based inHyde Parkbrought it backto life.By John LitweilerPhotography byLauren Deutsch30 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994"The music was sointense": Artists associat-with the free jazzmovement include (clocfe-wisefrom top left ) ArtEnsemble bassist MalachiFavors; U of C alumnusEdward Wilfeerson; sax-man Joseph Jarman; themovement's godfather,Ornette Coleman; andsecond-generation geniusAnthony Braxton.AssociationUNIVERSITY" OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/APRIL 1994 3 1he Art Ensemble favored surreal tactics— and ;"on the South Side, like on 63rd Street,there were at least half a dozen clubs withfive- and six-piece bands." By the early1960s, those clubs had vanished.'Times were hard for musicians on theSouth Side," says trumpeter Phil Cohran."All the musical jobs we'd had were dryingup. You would have to go into selling insurance or some profession to make it." At thetime, Cohran worked as a police fingerprinttechnician while leading his own band, theArtistic Heritage Ensemble, during off-hours.In the midst of this musical limbo, asudden burst of inspiration emerged on asunny spring day in 1965. Cohran, Christian, and Abrams met by chance on a SouthSide sidewalk. As the three talked shop,someone brought up the idea of forming amusical cooperative. This collective couldpresent concerts by its member musiciansand their bands — a do-it-yourself way ofoffering jazz events, rather than dependingon the fickle whims of club and concertbookers."Our problem," says Cohran, "came fromthe fact that we were always presented bypeople who had other interests, like tavernowners who wanted to sell alcohol, orpeople trying to sell other things: fashionshows, dances" — formats where the artistsfell their work wasn't taken seriously.The three men called a meeting to talkover a cooperative venture. About 40crammed into Cohran's living room on May8, 1965. "We decided to set up an organization that would play only creative music,"says Cohran. They named their collectivethe Association for the Advancement ofCreative Musicians, or AACM, and electedAbrams its first president — an office he heldfor more than a decade.The Abraham Lincoln Center became thestage for early performances, attended bymostly young, African- American audiences.The first AACM concert billed Cohran'sArtistic Heritage Ensemble with the FredAnderson Quintet featuring Joseph Jarman.Other early concerts featured the Experimental Band, whose personnel changedfrom concert to concert; Christian's hardbop group; and small groups led by RoscoeMitchell and alto saxophonist Troy Robinson.In Hyde Park, these groups began to cultivate a new audience: University of Chicagointellectuals who delighted in the freshJohn Litweilcr is author of Ornctte Coleman: A Harmolodic Life (William Morrow,1993) and The Freedom Principle: Jazzafter 1958 {Da Capo reprint), as well ashundreds of periodical articles and essays. Helives in Hyde Park excitement of free jazz. Several AACMmembers lived in Hyde Park, and soonthere were concerts at the Harper Theater(now the Hyde Park Theater); the LastStage theater (where Kenwood High Schoolnow stands); and at Mandel and Ida Noyeshalls on campus.In 1966, the University's Reynolds Clubheld regular Friday night sessions sponsored by the Contemporary Music Societystudent group and hosted by Jarman.Dozens of free jazz players, mostly young,showed up — and, surprisingly for suchinformal events, the level of musicianshipwas often stunning. Down Beat editors PeteWelding and Bill Quinn, and writer TerenceE. Martin of the U of C's molecular genetics faculty, all lived in Hyde Park — helping toensure coverage of the AACM by the jazzmusic press from the beginning."The guys who played free [jazz] wantedto produce their own music with their ownclientele — the ambiance of it all would bein harmony with the music," said Christian,who remembers that even some rare tavernowners were willing to take a chance on thenew music."It was really funny, seeing a guy stockingup his bar with orange juice, because thepeople who would come to hear this musicwere into health foods. That's one of thethings about the AACM, they wanted tomove away from that drinking atmosphere."32 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994xasional pie fight.AACM AUDIENCES HAD MORE IN COMMONthan a fondness for orange juice. Their attitudes tended toward the progressive. Thewatershed Civil Rights and Voting Rightsacts and the growing antiwar movementaccompanied a sense that a great transformation in American moral and spiritualvalues was unfolding. Artists and audienceshared in the musical discoveries.The Chicago musicians adapted anapproach distinct from the "energy music"then fashionable in New York's jazz avant-garde circles. Energy music enveloped itsaudiences with high volumes, violently fasttempos, and the most extreme sounds players could create on their instruments.By contrast, the Chicagoans could be lyri cal as well as intense, bringing investigator)'attitudes to the construction of musicallines. New forms, and new ways to organizeimprovisation and composition, wereshaped into fulfilling acts of communication. Indeed, the very idea of a jazz ensemble — the soloist with rhythm support,usually bass and drums — was upset by theAACM players. Solo horn works and chamber jazz units began to appear. So didextended compositions. And jazz rhythmsopened up: in place of fixed tempos, thekinetics of the music often moved at whatsounded like communal will.The Roscoe Mitchell Art Ensemble — laterand better known as the Art Ensemble ofChicago — provided the most remarkablemusic to emerge from the early AACM ferment. Born in Chicago in 1940, Mitchellplayed alto and baritone saxes in highschool and then in the U.S. Army Band.Discharged in 1961, he returned to Chicago, eventually joining Abrams' Experimental Band in 1965. For his ensemble,Mitchell teamed with Malachi Favors, atelepathically sensitive bassist; LesterBowie, whose trumpet melodies rangedfrom comic blasts to tragic, ghostly whimpers; and, for a time, drummer PhilWilson. Joseph Jarman joined the group in1968, further enriching its sound.Mitchell, basically an alto saxophonist,directed the group from his woodwinds and"little instruments." Original melodies, oldfolk songs, traditional jazz, and bebop tunesflowed freely through the quartet's concerts.So did dadaistic theatrics — a drum solo onFavor's head, custard pie attacks on a playerwearing a Lyndon Johnson mask. Altogether, it was as stylized as a commediadelYarte troupe.Not only a unique range of sounds madeMitchell's Art Ensemble remarkable, butalso the group's immensely fluid motions ofsound in space. Music, it seemed to say, isthe interaction of sound and silence.The Art Ensemble's musicians weren'tlone explorers of free jazz's powerful potential. Other artists active in the early AACMincluded saxophonists Fred Anderson,Anthony Braxton, and Kalaparusha MauriceMclntyre; drummers Ajaramu, ThurmanBarker, Alvin Fielder, Steve McCall; trombonist Lester Lasley; trumpeter Leo Smith;violinist Leroy Jenkins; and organist AminaClaudine Myers.For all this talent, AACM events seldomoccurred more than once or twice a week —there simply wasn't enough work inChicago to support the ambitious youngAACM players, whose music was beginningto spread beyond the city.A milestone of this broadening reputationcame in June 1969, when the Art Ensemble accepted an invitation to play a briefengagement in Paris. Later that samemonth, the trio of Anthony Braxton, LeroyJenkins, and Leo Smith went to Paris on adare.To the musicians' surprise, Mitchell's ArtEnsemble and the Braxton-Jenkins-Smithtrio discovered that their handful of albumshad aroused much interest across theAtlantic. Within three months theyrecorded eight more albums — over the nexttwo years they made 20 records altogether,and appeared as sidemen on 30-odd more.Touring the European festival, concert, andclub circuits, they became the subject ofpress adulation, returning to America asimportant figures in the jazz world.Moreover, they had met and helped stimulate Europe's nascent free jazz generation — the first generation of European jazzmusicians to discover their original voicesrather than imitate Americans.The AACM's flowering led to some soulsearching on the part of the African-American musicians who made it happen.'After we started putting on our concerts,then came the realization, Who's going toplay this music after us?" says Jarman."What about the children, what about theyoung people? But they don't have money.That's all right, do it anyway." So theAACM School was formed in 1967.Several AACM musicians volunteered toteach classes at the Abraham LincolnCenter and other South Side locations.The musicians donated instruments, too,for youngsters who couldn't afford to buytheir own.At one time, as many as 70 students wereenrolled in the school, which met Saturdaymornings. Most were young, from 6 to18 — kids who'd heard about the classesfrom teachers in their neighborhoodschools. Tuition for these students consisted of a small fee for registration andinstrument rental. Adult students paid a fullfee to study with the AACM's professionalmusicians (in 1993, that fee was S60-S70for a full ten- week semester).Ajaramu, who taught percussion at theschool, says, "I'd usually have about 20 inmy classes. The youngest was 4 years old,but he was pretty good. The oldest I hadwas 65."One AACM School alumnus, EdwardWilkerson, Jr., AB'75, came to Chicago in1971 as an undergraduate, studying European classical music. In his sophomoreyear, he attended the Art Ensemble'sMandel Hall concert upon its return toAmerica. "I was flabbergasted by the vast-ness of it," he said. "I could appreciate thestrength of the music, even though I/ersity of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 33couldn't understand a lot of the subtleties."Irresistibly drawn to the new music, Wilk-erson squeezed Saturday classes at theAACM School into his busy undergraduateschedule. "It went on for years," he recalls,"with no semesters, no breaks, like a never-ending cycle. It was a mixture of students.Some had played professionally, somewanted to. It was so different from the University — each environment gave me a different outlook on the other."The AACM School provided a new musical world for Mwata Bowden as well. Alean, intense man, Bowden had spent nineyears playing baritone sax in rhythm-and-blues groups before entering the school inthe mid-Seventies."Jazz wasn't part of my listening background at all," he admits, "so the AACMturned my whole stuff around. I saw howdedicated the musicians were — 1 think Iwas looking for that. The music wasextremely challenging, and it had an openend, so there was always room to be totallyexpressive, to explore and stretch."Outside Chicago, AACM musicians continued to attract attention — Anthony Braxton in particular. He offered solo woodwindconcerts, playing a gallery of saxophonesand clarinets. He played in free improvisation groups, which used no fixed rhythms,themes, or harmonic structures, andrecorded prolifically. Mitchell, meanwhile,had explored the properties of pure sound,in solo woodwind concerts and on twolandmark albums {Nonaah and L-R-G/TheMaze/S II Examples) for the Nessa label.As they became better known, AACMmusicians were increasingly drawn to opportunities beyond Chicago. One by one,throughout the 1970s, the older AACMmusicians moved to New York, climaxingwith the departure of the organization's fatherfigure, Muhal Richard Abrams. Some of theyounger generation were quick to follow.These moves usually bred success,although New York wasn't exactly a land ofmilk and honey. The conservative attitudespervading American life were evident injazz as well. By the end of the Seventies, thejazz record industry was dominated by onlya half-dozen giant album manufacturersand distributors.These companies devoted their massiveresources to promoting a handful of "stars,"such as Wynton Marsalis. A former side-man in a short-lived Lester Bowie group,Marsalis modeled his work on early MilesDavis. Eagerly following Marsalis' footsteps,a cadre of youngsters, some in their mid-lecns, reproduced swing and bop jazz fornostalgic audiences.Against this commercial grain, theAACM's older generation has maintained a Free Jaz2the AACM spawnedseveral classic jazzrecordings, encompassing a range ofstyles. The albums,available on CD,listed below represent asmall selection of the best ofthose recordings.Muhal Richard Abrams.Blues Forever (Black Saint):His New York big band innew music and some SixtiesExperimental Band standards; among his earlyrecordings, Young at Heart,Wise in Time (Delmark) features both solo piano and a quintet with Leo Smith andHenry Threadgill.Air. Air Lore (Bluebird)remains one of the trio'smost interesting and accessible albums; the players —Henry Threadgill, FredHopkins, Steve McCall —follow thematic outlines setforth by Scott Joplin andJelly Roll Morton.The Art Ensemble ofChicago. The Art Ensemble,1967/68 (Nessa): The earlyand, in many ways, bestwork of Roscoe Mitchell,Lester Bowie, and Malachi Favors. With several tracksengineered by U of C professor and jazz afficionadoTerry Martin, this five-CDboxed set is available by mailorder from Nessa Records,P.O. Box 394, Whitehall, MI49461; 616/894-4088.Urban Bushmen (ECM):This concert recording bestcaptures the flavor of the ArtEnsemble as a quintet, withpercussionist FamoudouDon Moye. Of the players asindividuals, Lester Bowie hasrecorded with severalgroups, including SeriousFun (DIW) with his BrassFantasy. Roscoe Mitchell's«&ti^y itsmaller, staunchly loyal audience. Abramshas produced a series of albums, mostlywith his New York-based big band. Braxtonhas published several fat volumes of musical philosophy and compositional notes; heis also the subject of two books, mostrecently Ronald Radano's New Musical Figurations, published by the U of C Press.Apart from his Art Ensemble work, LesterBowie formed several side bands; both hisBrass Fantasy and New York Organ Ensemble still produce exciting music.In some respects, the musical evolution ofsaxophonist Henry Threadgill — part of theseminal Seventies trio, Air — is the mostremarkable. Threadgill's composing grewsteadily in scope and detail for his potent1980s sextet (three horns, two low strings, two percussion) — his melodies are the kindyou catch yourself whistling at oddmoments, and his performances alwaysseem on the verge of eruption.All of these musicians play more often inEurope than in America, at least outside ofNew York; the Art Ensemble, in particular,has a large following in Japan as well. Theirmusic may receive equal interest in theU.S., but they receive large fees from thecomparatively well-subsidized arts presenters overseas, and they do most of theirrecording on foreign labels that are distributed erratically in the States.In Chicago, a younger generation of musicians tutored at the AACM School thrive tovarying degrees. Drummer Kahil El'Zabar,who leads the Ethnic Heritage Ensemble,34 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994mCD1967 Sound (Delmark) and1978 L-R-G/The Maze/S IIExamples (Chief) are highlights.Anthony Braxton. WillisauQuartet 1991 (hatArT) is afour-CD set of virtually nonstop woodwind improvisingby Braxton; Six: Monk Compositions (Black Saint) offersa particularly attractive viewof Braxton playing the bop-era repertoire; CreativeOrchestra Music 1976 (Bluebird) is a stellar big bandCD, while Live (Bluebird)records an outstanding quartet with George Lewis. Ernest Khabeer Dawkins'New Horizons Ensemble.South Side Street Songs (Silk-heart), recorded in 1993, isthe sound of a bright, fieryband at its best.Ethnic Heritage Ensemble.Dancing with the Ancestors(Chameleon) is a particularlyattractive, lyrical program bya trio that has albums onseveral labels,George Lewis. Homage toCharles Parker (Black Saint)features the trombonist (andformer U of C Lab Schooler)with multiple-woodwind man Douglas Ewart, who hasalso crafted instruments forseveral AACM musicians.Henry Threadgill Sextet.Easily Slip Into AnotherWorld (Novus) and YouKnow The Number (Novus)are the best available recordings of one of the finest jazzgroups of the 1980s.Edward Wilkerson, Jr. TheU of C alumnus has manyfine recordings; among themEight Bold Souls (Sessoms),and Birth of a Nation (Sessoms), recorded with hisShadow Vignettes big band.may be closest in spirit to the originalAACM generation. Along with a standarddrum kit, he plays African and Latin percussion, and studied drumming in Africa.Vandy Harris is an aggressive, big- tonedtenor saxman in a post-Coltrane idiom.Edward Wilkerson carefully crafts large,colorful compositions for his very big(sometimes 30-piece) band ShadowVignettes and his remarkable Eight BoldSouls, who often suggest early jazz andEllington sonorities.Mwata Bowden is another star of theAACM's second generation, as is ErnestKhabeer Dawkins and his New HorizonsEnsemble. With its repertoire of bright,sometimes bluesy Dawkins songs, thegroup — and especially Dawkins' own fiery alto sax work — has steadily acquiredauthority and definition over the years.In general, these heirs to the AACM tradition are not inclined to the kind of sonicand structural explorations that characterized their predecessors — rather, they present hearty music in contexts that blendtraditional jazz techniques with free jazzinnovations.Though the AACM held its 20th-anniver-sary festival at the University's Court Theatre in 1985, its contact with Hyde Park hasbeen sparse in recent years. Throughout the1980s, its center of operations — the school,offices, and frequent concert space — was asecond-floor suite in nearby South Shore, at71st and Chappell. Last June, however, the building's old chimney collapsed throughthe roof during a violent windstorm, leaving the AACM homeless — current presidentMwata Bowden hopes to resume classes at anew location this year.You can still hear performances by AACMmusicians in Chicago, although such eventsoften occur outside the organization's auspices. The big, brawny, blues-rich tenor saxlyricist Fred Anderson and his wonderfullymelodic trumpeter Bill Brimfield performtwice monthly on Sundays at Anderson'sVelvet Lounge, 2128 Indiana Ave. Theirquartet and other AACM musicians alsoperform several times a month at othervenues in town, most notably Hot House, anightclub at 1565 Milwaukee Ave. Theannual Ravinia Festival in Highland Parkand the Chicago Jazz Festival in Grant Parkalso feature AACM performers.Chicago-based bands such as the ones ledby El'Zabar, Dawkins, and Wilkerson havebecome regulars on the international circuit. Indeed, it's no accident that last JuneAbrams led a reunion of the ExperimentalBand not in Chicago, but in Verona, Italy.From the mostly young, largely black listeners filling South Side churches and auditoriums in the 1960s, these Chicagoans'music now attracts worldwide audiences."The AACM got more than we bargainedfor," said the late drummer Steve McCall,one of its original members. "The musicbecame more important than the fact of usproducing it ourselves."Indeed, the AACM's influence has beenvast. An early 1980s tape by Russia'sGanelin Trio was titled Who's Afraid ofAnthony Braxton1., and the surprisingappearance of a community of originalEuropean free improvisers and composersreceived valuable early stimulus from thefirst AACM expatriates. Dozens of American free jazz groups — the ROVA and Worldsaxophone quartets, John Zorn's bands, andthe N-R-G Ensemble are among the mostremarkable — were initially inspired by themodem Chicagoans' discoveries. Symphonyorchestras in Chicago and elsewhere inAmerica, as well as in Germany, haveplayed works by Abrams, Braxton, Threadgill, and the Art Ensemble composers, andmusic schools around the world teach theAACM musicians along with Duke Ellington and Charlie Parker.Moreover, the ongoing explorations ofthese musicians are among the best demonstrations that jazz remains a vital art form inthe 1990s, nearly 100 years after it was firstperformed. In the end, it's the musicalresults by which the AACM's historicalimport is reckoned. From that point ofview, no other creative community intoday's jazz has been so rewarding.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 35A lumni ChronicleScholars on tourThree hundred San Francisco Bay areaalumni turned out to hear ProfessorNorman Golb of the University's OrientalInstitute discuss the Dead Sea Scrolls — boththeir controversial origins and the equallycontroversial scholarship surroundingscrolls research. The March 5 lecture coincided with an exhibit of scrolls, fragments,and artifacts at San Francisco's M. H. deYoung Memorial Museum — and a numberof alumni in the audience also enjoyed aprivate tour of the exhibit.Golb's lecture was one of a score of facultyvisits offered as part of the Alumni Association's 1994 Distinguished Faculty Series.The program began in winter quarter, whenpolitical scientist Charles Lipson played aJanuary 22 double-bill, by talking abouteconomic competition with alumni groups in both Fort Lauderdale and Naples.On the docket for April talks were: biologist Jeanne Altmann, PhD'79, speaking onglobal conservation, in Princeton, N.J., onApril 28; cosmologist Michael Turner on"What We Know about the Earliest Historyof the Universe," in Houston April 9 and inDallas April 10; Arjun Appadurai, AM'73,PhD'76, the Chicago Humanities Institute'sdirector, on "Cultural Free Trade," April16, in Washington, D.C; and Shakespearescholar David Bevington, in San Diego onApril 23 and Los Angeles on April 24.To see if a distinguished faculty lecture isplanned for your area this spring, pleasecheck the "From the Alumni Calendar" listing on this page.For more detailed information on any ofthe listed events, call the Alumni Association at 312/702-2150. The case for compassionThe professors introduced themselves as"Ned and Peggy," and the informality fit themood. Some in the audience had knownthe husband-and-wife team since undergraduate days. The rest — including psychologists, lawyers, teachers, socialworkers, and clergy — rightly consideredthemselves both students and peers."Define your terms," they pressed oneanother. As the discussion heated up inWieboldt Hall, comments provoked nods' ofagreement and rebuttals buttressed by thechallengers' years of experience.Welcome to Winter Weekend. The program, in its third year, presents two-dayminicourses for alumni and friends of theUniversity, jointly sponsored by the AlumniAssociation and the Center for ContinuingStudies.The topic for this year's first WinterWeekend — held February 12-13 — was"Dependency and Disrepute: the UneasyCase for Compassion." President Clinton'splans for welfare reform and recent headlines on Illinois' child-welfare troublesadded timeliness to the issues at hand: societal attitudes toward the economicallydependent and the aged. Leading the discussion were Ned and Peggy — known formally as Edward Rosenheim, AB'39, AM'46,PhD'53, and Margaret Rosenheim, JD'49 —who presented a miniature version of aninterdisciplinary course they offer in theCollege.The subject was a natural for the Rosen-heims. Ten years ago, Peggy, the HelenRoss professor in the School of Social Service Administration, was compiling materials on the history of U.S. and Britishsocial-welfare policy. But the laws and surveys of earlier eras told her little about cultural attitudes. Ned, the David B. and ClaraE. Stern professor emeritus of English, suggested consulting the writings of Shakespeare, Swift — his own special interest —and Dickens.The resulting course, he explained to hisaudience, "juxtaposes the hard datareflected in statutes and social-scienceresearch with fictional portraits of varioustypes of dependency." Those portraits holda mirror to each age, he said, as in JonathanFromtheAlumniCalendar• As part of the Alumni Association's 1994 Distinguished Faculty Series, four U of Cfaculty will present lectures on Saturday, April 30. In Minneapolis, political scientistCharles Lipson will discuss "Economic Competition"; in Phoenix, GSB professor RobertAliber will tackle "International Economics"; in Seattle, psychologist Mihaly Csikszent-mihalyi AB'60, PhD'65, will discuss his work on creativity and "flow"; and in Toronto,Lanny Bell, AB'63, of the Oriental Institute will discuss "Salvage Archaeology."• The next day — Sunday, May 1, the topics stay the same, but the locales change, asRobert Aliber travels on to Denver and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi goes to Portland.• Divinity School professor Wendy Doniger will speak on "Sexual Masquerades" inBoston on Sunday, May 1, and in New York City on Thursday, May 12.• On Thursday, May 12, alumni in Milwaukee can hear theologian Martin Marty,PhD'56, talk on "World Fundamentalism."• Dean of the College John Boyer, AM'69, PhD'75, goes to Detroit on Sunday, May15, to discuss liberal education, with a U of C perspective,36 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994Making the case for compassion: In a Winter Weekend, professors Ned and PeggyRosenheim led a discussion on how society's attitudes affect policies toward the poor.Swift's "A Modest Proposal," which documents "a sort of basic hatred that manypeople have of the poor."Every age, said Peggy Rosenheim, mustask: "Who is it that we're willing to support? What conditions, what strings do weattach to that?" For example, a look at oneof the British "poor laws" of 1601 revealsthat the Elizabethans, like 20th-centuryAmericans, distinguished between the"deserving" and the "undeserving" poor.The Victorian workhouses offer anotherparallel: Middle-class fears of crime motivated their creation as much as altruism.As the weekend progressed, the groupexplored usually unarticulated assumptions about those whom society chooses tohelp. People shared their own experiences — being unemployed, teaching children from welfare families, being a socialworker during the Depression. At alunchtime talk, Professor Laurence Lynn ofthe SSA and the Harris Graduate School ofPublic Policy Studies reviewed the Clintonplan to limit welfare to two years, followedby employment or mandatory job training.Participants questioned: Are mandatory-training rules proposed to help the dependent — or simply to satisfy a desire to makewelfare onerous?On Sunday, Professor Edward Lawlor,director of the Center for Health Adminis tration Studies, joined the Rosenheims fora discussion of attitudes toward the elderly.The talk shifted, from examining viewstoward defining solutions. Will job trainingwork, or do the dependent poor needsomething more? What about calls for anew Civilian Conservation Corps: Canmake-work confer the self-respect of a"real" job?There was no need to setde for speculativeanswers as one alumna, born in a CCCcamp where her father was the physician,addressed the question from her firsthandexperience. As Ned Rosenheim put it, "Talkabout richly diversified alumni!" — A.C.I-House has alumni councilFor six decades, International House at theUniversity of Chicago has been a homeaway from home for both foreign andAmerican students. Now 1-House has itsfirst Alumni Council. The 19-membergroup was formed this year to involve andengage other alumni in I-House activitiesand programs.Chairing the new group is Kamyar Jab-bari, MBA'79. Jabbari is also a member ofthe I-House Board of Trustees and an activemember of a committee focusing on themajor renovations planned for 1-House inthe next five years. Staffing the alumni clubsThe Alumni Association has a new directorfor alumni clubs. James Jacobs joined thestaff in February, after seven years in thealumni and development offices at Princeton University. With an undergraduatedegree from Northwestern and a master'sfrom the University of Wisconsin, Madison, he joins associate directors ChristieBybee and Amy Goerwitz, AB'83, assistantdirector Buffy Vehse, and secretary MarilynMelvan.Jacobs, Bybee, and Goerwitz each serve asprimary staff liaisons to clubs in a particularregion: Jacobs is assigned to clubs in theMountain and Pacific time zones, whileBybee works with clubs in the Eastern timezone and Goerwitz is the clubs liaison forthe Central time zone.Staging a theatrical reunionAll campus-theater alumni are invited for aspecial engagement: a series of events forformer student actors and stagehands running in conjunction with Reunion '94during the weekend of June 3-5. Accordingto Bill Michel, AB'92, managing director ofUniversity Theater (UT), the reunion isdesigned to celebrate the continuing theatertradition at the University, putting bothalumni and students on stage.To introduce the work of current studentsto the returning alumni, the reunion program includes Friday and Saturday nightperformances of a UT/Blackfriars production of Stephen Sondheim's Assassins.Alumni receptions will follow each night'sperformance.Several Saturday afternoon sessions willbe geared to theater alumni, including apanel discussion featuring UT participantsfrom six decades and a workshop that linksmembers of the Compass Players with current Off-Off Campus performers.Capping the reunion on Sunday afternoon, there will be a reception, a series ofscenes — performed by alumni and students — from the University's theatrical past,a student-produced video on UT today, andthe bestowing of what Michel hopes will bean annual theatrical-achievement award —the Gargoyle — for alumni and studentsPlanning the weekend's events is a 60-member reunion committee, headed byMichael Einisman, AB'62, MBA'63. EnidRieser, AB'47, AM'52, chairs the entertainment committee, and Maynard Wishner,AB'45, JD'47, leads the awards committee.For more information, write UniversityTheater/Blackfriars Reunion, 5706 SouthUniversity Ave., Chicago, IL 60637; or call,312/702-3414.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 37G lass NewsWhat's the news? We are always eager to receiveyour news at the Magazine, care of the Class NewsEditor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. No engagements, please. Items may be edited for space.Please specify the year under which you wouldlike your news to appear. Otherwise, we will list:all former undergraduates (including those wholater received graduate degrees) by the year oftheir undergraduate degree and all former students who received only graduate degrees by theyear of their final degree.M Clarke M. Shaw, SB'24, celebrated his 91stbirthday in February and is still "gettingaround quite well."*)¦* Tom D. Paul, SB'27, MD'32, who retiredMM m from obstetrics in 1971, is "hanging in thereal age 89, and managing to travel." He sends hisregards to anyone from the class of '27 and the Rushclass of '32,W. Franklin Bush, PhB'28, of Vancouver,and his wife, Helen, celebrated their 65thwedding anniversary and his 88th birthday this pastSeptember. They arc both enjoying their retirementand recently returned from a cruise. Allan A. Filek,SB'28, MD'33, is 86 and still works one to three daysa week al a plasma donor center in Phoenix. EstelleRochells Greenberg, PhB'28, writes, "If anyone getslo Fresno, CA, please come and see us. My husbandand 1 are still here after 62 years!"Eugenie Beck Dowling, PhB'30, has "come along way, and wonder[s] just how far the roadstretches ahead anyway. It's great to be able to lookclearly in both directions." Edward J. Lawler, Jr.,PhB'30, who recendy celebrated his 85th birthday, hasenjoyed 60 years of legal practice: "Believe I knewmore law when I started dran I do now! Know theearly years were more fun." John E. Menzies, PhB'30,is "still kicking along (slowly) in Arizona!" VictorRoterus, PhB'30, SM'31, has lived with his wife, Florence, in Green Valley, AZ, since retiring 20 years agoas visiting professor at the University of Arizona aftera slight stroke.Beulah Wright Berghult-Lynes, SB'33,reports, "My husband, Jack Lynes, and 1 hada delightful visit during September with Jean StillmanDuffield, SB'33, at her home in Chieveley, England."George F. Dale, SB'33, is "still in excellent health,praises be! Busier than ever, still enjoying everyminute — and planning on many more years of thesame, I hope!" Carl E. Geppinger, PhB'33, enjoyedattending the 60th reunion of the class of '33 andseeing Ross B. Whitney, PhB'33, MBA'59; Warren S.Askew, PhB'34; and Harold T. V. Johnson, PhB'33.He writes, "Lei's go for 70!" Ingred OstromPalmquisl, PhB'33, reports lhal her eighth grandchildha> begun college; live have already graduated; andlour have gone on for advanced degrees.Reunion June 3>4-5M Warren S. Askew, PhB'34, see 1933, Carl E.Geppinger. Paul M. Cliver, Jr., SB'34, hadhis aortic valve replaced last summer after suffering aheart attack. He is now doing fine, he says, thanks to all the people who took care of him, particularly hiswife and two daughters. Helen Keller Isaacson,PhB'34, reports that retirement has been fun: Heractivities include being a docent at Terra Museum ofAmerican Art in Chicago. "Compared to the ArtInstitute, of course, it is a small museum, but wehave choice works — including Samuel F. B. Morse'sGallery of the Louvre. Irving M. Wolfe, PhB'34, looksforward to his 60th reunion: "Can it be?"Durward G. Hall, MD'35, and his wife,Mary, teach, lecture, and live in the Learning in Retirement Academy of Senior Professionalsat Eckerd College in St. Petersburg, FL. Bernard R.Wolf, AB'35, JD'36, who is 80 years old, reports thathe is in good health and still working — "results ofnever having practiced law,"Cynthia M. Grabo, AB'36, AM'41, recalls, "Ihave wonderful memories of 5757 Woodlawn House [now Robie House, where the Magazineand the Alumni Association are located — Ed.], as I atemany meals there and also spent parts of two summers in the master bedroom."AH Donal K. Holway, SB'37, who earned an M.S.^9m from MIT in 1947, is a national and international consultant, looking for new projects.MEda H. Houwink, X'38, was featured in theMarch 1993 issue of International Poets, theofficial organ of the International Poets Academy.Ivan M. Niven, PhD'38, and his wife, Betty MitchellNiven, AB'39, recently celebrated their 54th weddinganniversary. They live in a retirement residence inEugene, OR, and travel occasionally. Richard A. Ras-mussen, MD'38, writes, "The U of C provided for amemorable 55th reunion of the medical school classof 1938. Those of us who were able to come weremost appreciative. We had a good time and willhope to make it for the 60th. Thank you!"Reunion June 3 '4*5Virginia Kenny Lamer, X'39, received her25-year volunteer social worker pin fromthe American Red Cross last June. Betty MitchellNiven, AB'39, see 1938, Ivan M. Niven.JK A Thelma Iselman Hayes, AB'40, and her^¦U husband, Thomas, returned to Natal, Brazil,in February 1993, for the first time since 1972,when they served a year on the HOPE. In September, they participated in a two-week forest stewardship program organized by the University ofMontana School of Forestry for out-of-state timber-land holders. At age 75, Robert S. Miner, Jr., SB'40,is busily engaged in a consulting practice (FDA regulations for pharmaceuticals) with projects inPuerto Rico and California.MM Richard V. Bovbjerg, SB'41, PhD'49, has^M retired as professor of biology at the Universityof Iowa. N. Winston Henry, SB'41, MD'43, whoretired in 1992 at age 71, keeps busy with travel,church, and politics "on the side of the conservatives."« Lester B. Dean, AB'42, reports that "at myage, no news is good news." Paul L.Munson, PhD'42, was recently elected a fellow ofthe American Academy of Arts and Sciences. JohnD. Nelly, PhD'42, of New Bethlehem, PA, maintainsa house and yard; studies; and teaches Sunday school in a country church. Raymond M. Norton,AB'42, JD'48, and his wife, Rita Liberman Norton,AB'42, both retired and celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary this past year. Sarah Jane LapinPeters, SB'42, has "discovered the magic of SantaBarbara [CA]," where she lives on two acres with awhite German shepherd. Her interests include thearts, women's issues, and community affairs. LouiseGalst Wechsler, AB'42, AM'44, writes, "The joy ofmy retirement is participating in the 'Grandparentsand Books' program of the Contra Costa (CA)library system. Because of cutbacks, children's services have been slashed. The GAB program picks upthe storytelling and reading to children and keepsalive the wonders of books for the next generation."« Doris Wigger Burrell, AB'43, a retiredteacher and "yeaming-to-be writer," wouldlike to hear from her classmates from '37 through'43. Vivian Scheidemantel Hawes, PhB'43, AM'49,enjoyed returning to campus for her 50th reunionand finding someone she knew: Sonia Weiner Katz,AB'43, AM'46. Vivian volunteers as a staff member atthe Museum of Fine Arts in Boston and serves aseditor of Ars Ceramica, an annual publication of theNew York Wedgwood Society. Helen F. Patton,AM'43, notes, "Since my retirement as art director ofthe Racine, WI, Unified Schools, 1 have enjoyed a'new life' on my wooded hill in Patton Valley nearFranklin, NC, where my forefathers settled in 1878.I travel, write, and share my preretirement talentswith my new community."Emilie Rashevsky Strand, AA'43, AB'44, enjoyedthe 50th reunion of the class of '43, where she "metmany old friends and made some new ones." Geral-dine Willens Sobel, AB'43, recently spent threemonths on jury duty for the Grand Jury of DallasCounty — an experience which she describes as "fascinating, interesting, and at times uplifting, seeingan honest attempt for justice." This past October,she met Catharine Hopkins Ruml, PhB'43, AM'46,in Washington, DC, to visit the Holocaust Museum.Reunion June 3*4* 5 94JtJt Maxine Dieterich Leftwich, AM'44, and her^TW husband, Richard H. Leftwich, AM'48,PhD'50, have retired from Oklahoma State Universityand now live in Bloomington, IN. Beverly GlennLong, AB'44, has been re-elected to a two-year term ascouncil secretary of the American Bar Association'ssenior lawyers division. Nancy J. Newman, X'44,enjoys retirement by both traveling around the worldand being actively involved in San Francisco.John B. Shilton, X'44, reports, "Since retirementfrom medical practice ten years ago, my wife and 1have been up to our two favorite pastimes: hikingthe mountains of the world and experiencing asmuch opera as possible in Europe and the U.S. Wealso regularly visit our five children and sevengrandchildren in Virginia, Georgia, Ohio, and California," Muriel Braxton Wilson, X'44, is cofounderof the Afro-American Genealogical and HistoricalSociety, Inc., of Chicago. The society, celebrating its15th year, has more than 170 members and willhost a two-day conference May 13-14« Evelyn Demoplos Caskey, PhB'45, AM'48,who retired from the Scottsdale, AZ, schooldistrict as a high school principal, was elected toserve on the district's governing board. MargaretO'Neill Matthiesen, AB'45, reports that she and herhusband, William, are enjoying retirement andrecently took their 16th cruise — this time to NewZealand, Tasmania, and Australia.« Morgan Gibson, X'46, is professor of English at Japan Women's University and poetryeditor of Japan Environment Monitor. His poetrybroadside, Winter Pilgrim, was published in 1993 byWord Press in Japan. Leslie Waller, X'46, was inter-38 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994viewed by the BBC in February on the occasion ofhis 52nd book, Tango Havana, and his 70th birthday.1H Leon A. Gordon, PhB'47, SB'48, MD'52, of^mm Los Gatos, CA, has retired from surgery,while his wife, Elsa Leiter Gordon, PhB'47, SB'50,MD'52, still practices psychiatry. Both enjoy theireight grandchildren. John F. Harder, AM'47, andhis wife, Lucille, are "alive and well" in New Haven,CT. Joseph K. Kostolefsky, AB'47, who has beenwriting since his retirement, has been published inMid-American Review and two issues of Light.Waldemar J. Paknis, MBA'47, writes, "As a U.S. citizen now residing in Canada, 1 see how unjust theU.S. -Canada Free Trade Agreement is forCanada. . . .NAFTA will be the same for both the U.S.and Canada." Jan Gillis Saenger, AB'47, reports,"No news is good news for Medicare recipients."Jean Jacobs Weissman, AB'47, is the planning commissioner of Del Mar, CA. Herbert L. Zobel, AA'47,after an early retirement as professor emeritus ofgeography at Cuyahoga Community College inCleveland, has developed an interest in the fine artsand continues to teach occasionally.M Gertrude A. Degenfelder, MBA'48, writes,"1 had my M.B.A. handed to me by RobertMaynard Hutchins. I was overwhelmed — an unforgettable incident in my life since I had idolized himfrom the time I was in high school... on the plains ofNebraska." Ernst L. Gayden, PhB'48, has decidednot to retire from teaching at Huxley College ofEnvironmental Studies in Bellingham, WA, but tocontinue part time "as long as it is interesting andchallenging. This will leave some time for reading,writing, and travel." Eve Spiro Jones, SB'48, SM'48,PhD'53, now retired from full-time college teaching,recently returned from Poland, where she taughtabout neuro-linguistic programming, re-birthing,and effects of diet on the mind. "My hellos to all myold U of C friends." Grant F. Kenner, SB'48, AM'51,had his most recent commission, St. John's Fountain,installed this past August at Creighton University inOmaha. The 17-foot, 8-inch sculpture — with astainless-steel shell that creates changing water patterns as it randomly turns — took him four years todesign, engineer, and construct.Frances Carlin Leek, AB'48, teaches the flute atthe University of Wisconsin, Superior, and visits herchildren and grandchildren. Richard H. Leftwich,AM'48, PhD'50, see 1944, Maxine Dieterich Leftwich. Juliet Zion Saltman, AM'48, see 1949,William M. Saltman. Robert N. Stewart, X'48, president-elect of the Indiana Association of Cities andTowns and in his third term as mayor of Columbus,IN, reports, "Columbus is a living museum of contemporary architecture, made possible by the Cum-mens Engine Co. Foundation." Sophronia Nick-olaou Tomaras, AB'48, had a "great time" at the45th reunion of the class of '48. Since becomingprofessor emeritus in Cornell University's department of human service studies in June 1993, JeromeM. Ziegler, AM'48, has designed and led a workshop for 19 New York City high school principalson goals of education and management issues anddirected a statewide program on AIDS education.Reunion June 3-4*5« Richard A. Freeman, AB'49, of Atlanta, is asenior vice president of Oppenheimer &Co. Since retiring from practice in 1993, Charles F.Johnson, PhB'49, SB'54, MD'54, of Indianapolis,has been "traveling, loafing, reading, and seeinghow it goes for a while." Elizabeth A. Olson,AM'49, writes, "It's been 50 years since I switchedfrom medieval language studies to SSA, includingwartime field placement at the Chicago Red Crosschapter. I've just celebrated my 50th anniversarywith the American Red Cross — quite an extension {!?INTERNATIONAL HOUSE AT THEUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOELDERHOSTELJune 19 - 25, 1994Chicago in the 1890s: The Big Show, the Big Strike, and the BigUniversityWindow to Islamic Society in the Middle EastAncient Egyptian Religion•Why did Chicago take its place on the world stage in the 1890s?•What is a framework for understanding the Islamic world?•Were there unitary concepts behind the rich spectrum of animalgods in ancient Egypt?July 10 -16, 1994Chicago's Architectural FeastShakespeare's Taming of the Shrew and Measure for MeasurePassageways to Heaven: Five Places of Power•What Chicago structures had a major impact on architects ofAmerica and the world?•What are some Shakespearean hazards of love?•How do art and architecture reflect religious beliefs at diversesacred sites?July 24 -30, 1994Chicago in LiteratureThe Art of Five Italian Cities — Five Styles, Four Centuries,1300-1700The Poetry of Robert Burns: A Return Visit•What portrait of her neighborhoods does Chicago literature paint?•How did the flowering of Italian art find distinct expression indifferent cities?•How should human beings live and conduct themselves, perScottish bard Robert Burns?Elderhostel offers a short-term academic experience for people age 60 and over. Toralumni, it is a chance to relive their days at the University. See the campus again,exchange ideas, and make new friends with active, interesting people. Tuition is$320 for a one-week program. This fee covers residence-hall lodging at InternationalHouse, meals, classes, and course-related field trips.For Elderhostel information, free catalogs, and registration, please contact:Elderhostel75 Federal StreetBoston, MA 02110(617)426-8056Or call us for more information at International House Elderhostel, 1414 E. 59th Street,Chicago, IL 60637, telephone (312) 753-1291.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 39ol a temporary war job!" William M. Saltman,PhD'49, and his wife, Juliet Zion Saltman, AM'48.are "alive and well in San Diego (which is news tous, if to no one else)." Richard A. Vayhinger.AM'49, and his wife, Martha Miller Vayhinger,AM'49, "still remember the U of C years as some ofthe greatest, even after four decades have passed."John Henry Waddell, X'49, has sculpted inbronze the first 12 figures of his "magnum opus"Celebration of Life. Four more larger-than-life-sizedfigures are in progress in his studio in Arizona'sVerde Valley. He has other works on display at thefoy Tash Gallery in Scottsdale. Albert L. Weeks,AM'49, was commissioned by the ex-Soviet literaryjournal Novy Mir to write an essay on P. NTkachev, the "forerunner of Lenin." Albert, whobased his master's and Ph.D. dissertations onTkachev, has published articles on Russia in theChristian Science Monitor and the Washington Times.Delbert M. Bates, AM'46, PhD'50, writesthat his wife of 50 years passed away in1991. He has since "found a teenage-period friendand moved to Sun City, AZ," where he takes classesat Arizona State University with a highly motivatingwriting teacher, and is "busier than before retirement!" Kins R. Collins, AB'50, AM'62, after beinglaid off from Apple Computer, immediately foundanother software -engineering job with ICON Medical Systems. He notes there is "no dearth of jobs forprogrammers in Silicon Valley." Harry D.Eshleman, AB'50, a retired English professor whonow writes and publishes poetry, gave three publicreadings in September,Katherine Tuach Kendall, PhD'50, writes that theGeorge Warren Brown School of Social Work atWashington University in St. Louis has established ascholarship in her name to be awarded annually to aM.S.W. or Ph.D. student. Lewis P. Lipsitl, AB'50, isrunning for president of the American PsychologicalAssociation. He was recently appointed by theNational Institute for Child Health and HumanDevelopment to chair the steering committee of thelargest national day-care research project ever conducted. Miriam Wagenschein, AM'50, is a professorof sociology at Texas A&M University, after retiringsix years ago as dean of arts and humanities.Marvin Burack, AM'46, PhD'51, writes that hiswife, Mary Alice Brunod-Burack, was named1993 Nevada school psychologist of the year. VirginiaB. Longest, AM'51, a reserve nurse in the Army NurseCorps during WWII, retired in 1980 as director of theVeterans Administration Nursing Service. She nowlives in the Asbury Methodist Retired Center inGaithersburg, MD. E. Isabel Webb, AM'51, age 80,retired in 1977 from Maywood Elementary School inHammond, IN, where she taught first grade for 25years. She volunteered for her church and the RetiredTeachers' Association until 1990, when she moved toa retirement home in Saskatchewan, Canada.Zoe McKey Montague, AB'52, of Marble-head, MA, has retired from Digital Equipment Corporation. Stanley A. Zahler, SM'49.PhD'52, is planning to retire in July, after 35 yearson the Cornell University faculty and four years aschair of the genetics and development department.His wife, Jan Haugness Zahler, X'52, will also retireafter 14 years as a county probation officer.Alexander W. Cook, Jr., JD'53, of WesternSprings, IL, is enjoying retirement and hisfreelance job as an expert witness in a $75-millionlawsuit. Burnelt H. Radosh, AB'53, see 1958,Katherine Koenig RadoshReunion June 3-4-5Geoffrey Adams, PhD'54, who retired injan-uarv 1993, is working on a book dealing withthe French Protestant reaction to the Algerian conflict of 1954-62. Peter H. Selz, AM'49, PhD'54, is wilting amonograph on Richard Lindner to be published bythe Smithsonian Institution for a Lindner retrospective exhibit at the Hirshhom Museum and SculptureGarden in Washington, DC Clyde C Smith, DB'54,AM'61, PhD'68, professor emeritus of ancient historyand religions, University of Wisconsin, River Falls,served as 1992-93 visiting professor in the department of religious studies at the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in England, where he lectured on"Paul Tillich within Twentieth-Century AmericanTheology," and incorporated attention to the ChicagoSchool of Theology. He returned to the university infall 1993 to lecture on "Religion in America."Gerald V. Alcock, MBA'56, has been electedCEO of Chimaera Company, whose mostrecent acquisition is a Meyers 200B aircraft — themodel that won the 1965 world speed contest for itsclass.m Dorothy Hess Guyot, AB'57, AB'58, hastM M "traveled far to gather ideas for a new kind ofinternational liberal-arts college called the College ofAsian and Western Learning." In 1991, Mary L.Shumway, AB'57, retired, becoming professor emeritus of English from the University of Wisconsin,Stevens Point.Katherine Koenig Radosh, AB'58, and herhusband, Burnett H. Radosh, AB'53, are fitting out their retirement boat, a sailing catamaran,and plan to cruise the East Coast and the Bahamas. A.Henry Studebaker, MBA'58, is "still working!"Marian Kleinsasser Towne, AM'58, see 1967, EdgarA. Towne.Reunion June 3-4-5David M. Israelstam, SB'59 — after attendingCase Western Reserve University School ofMedicine and interning at Presbyterian MedicalCenter, San Francisco — received a Ph.D. in medicalphysics from the University of California, Berkeley,in 1971. He has since become a board-certified child,adolescent, and adult psychiatrist in Madison, WI.Grace Marie Whipple Alanen, AB'60, whois pursuing her Ph.D. in art history atUCLA, was a fellow at the American Center of Oriental Research in Amman, Jordan, from October1993 to April 1994. She is current vice president ofthe Archaeological Institute of America, SouthernCalifornia Society.James R. Fancher, MBA'63, retired fromCommonwealth Edison and maintains aconsulting practice relating to energy, quality, andenvironmental issues. William L. Richter, AM'63,PhD'68, participated this past October in theNational Democratic Institute's internationalobserver mission for Pakistan's national and provincial elections. Dinah Solomon Stevenson, AB'63,AM'66, is executive editor at Clarion Books, a children's book imprint of Houghton Mifflin Co. inNew York. On Sundays, she sings with the professional choir of St. Joseph's Church, and for recreation trains and competes as a race walker.Reunion June 3-4-5 94M Adeline Jiwanmall Vanderpool, AM'64,reports that her daughters, Delphine, 26,and Doris, 23, are applying to medical school andher son, Cleveland, 20, is an undergraduate in Buffalo, NY. Her husband, David, was injured in a caraccident last year, but is recovering. Herbert J. Wal-berg, PhD'64 — recently elected chair of the boardand CEO of the Illinois Educational Choice Coalition — completed a five-year term as chair of the scientific committee on educational indicators for theParis-based Organization for Economic Cooperationand Development. Joseph B. Murtaugh, AB'65, and his wife,Courtney, "had a great time May 23rd hosting a gathering at Arlington International RaceCourse (attended by about 30 U of C alumni,spouses, and staff). We gathered to begin newefforts to reinvigorate the Campaign for the NextCentury among the '60-67 College-era Chicago-area residents." Suzanne Deitch Shure, BFA'65, ofLorain, OH, writes, "Teaching high school thesedays isn't what it used to be...."M Robert G. Greaves, MBA'66, and his wife,Alison, both retired, have moved to DoorCounty, WI, where Robert enjoys sailing Cherubic, aDovekie-class sailboat, in Green Bay waters. MarieKessel Lally, AM'66, is professor of English at theAlabama School of Mathematics and Science, a two-year residential school for high-ability and high-achieving 11th and 12th graders. The school'scurriculum is calibrated to the first two years of college, and all the students' fees are paid by the state.Dana R. Lundquist, MBA'66, has been appointedsenior vice president in charge of network administration for Blue Cross of Western Pennsylvania.<*W Donald G. Alexander, JD'67, recentlyO* became the senior justice on the superiorcourt of Maine, the state with the fewest trial judgesper capita in the nation. Paul B. Lazarow, AB'67, see1986, Lisa A. E. Montgomery. In 1993, Alberto E.Neri, MBA'67, was appointed chief operating officerof the Russian Privatization Center in Moscow. LoisWolf Schwartz, AB'67, AM'72, AM'90, is associatedean of the John F. Kennedy University School ofLaw, Walnut Creek, CA. Her husband, Lawrence I.Schwartz, AB'67, is vice chair of the department olmedicine medical staff of Summit Medical Center,Oakland, CA, and associate director of the Merritt-Peralta Institute at Summit.Philip D. Sorsen, AB'67, has been hired as a data-build engineer for British Telecom's new Global Network Management Center in Atlanta. Gerrit J.tenZythoff, AM'61, PhD'67, received Southwest Missouri State University's Alumni Award this past October. Edgar A. Towne, AM'62, PhD'67, retired asprofessor of theology from Christian TheologicalSeminar)', Indianapolis. His wife, Marian KleinsasserTowne, AM'58, retired as a member of the associatefaculty in speech communication at Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis. Robert M.Vare, AB'67, AM'70, was recently appointed articleseditor of the New York Times Magazine.MP. Boon Chock, PhD'68, has received aNational Institutes of Health Director'sAward for his work on metabolic regulationWilliam E. Shotts, SB'68, and Lynn Hess Shotts,AB'68, write, "We have joined the ranks of the'empty nesters'! Son graduated from CarnegieMellon (sorry, U of C) and is employed. Daughtergraduated from Cleveland Institute of Music (sorryagain!), pursues her graduate studies as a trumpelplayer there, and works part time. Our dog died lastsummer. We are free!" Stephen A. Steinberg,MBA'68, director of information systems for CapitalMarkets Assurance Corporation, lives in Larch-mont, NY, with his wife, Lois Shapiro, and threedaughters, Beth, Meredith, and Genna.Reunion June 3-4-5Recently appointed to the board of trusteesfor the Community College of Philadelphia,Bruce E. Caswell, AB'69, has been granted tenure atRowan College of New Jersey, where he teaches political science. Ryan A. LaHurd, AM'69, and his wife,Carol Schersten LaHurd, AM'69, recently returnedfrom a semester of teaching and research in Sanaa,Yemen. Ryan was on a Fulbright and a sabbaticalfrom his position as vice president for academicaffairs at Augsburg College, Minneapolis; Carol had a40 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994research grant from the University of St. Thomas, St.Paul, where she teaches biblical studies and Islam.Their son, Jeremy, is a senior at Earlham College, andtheir daughter, Kristin, is a freshman at MacalesterCollege. Annalee Letchinger, AB'69, has five children, ranging from 16 months to 15 years of age. Shestill plays the cello and has been teaching part time.Margaret Cott Zarrelli, AB'69, executive assistant atthe Missouri Valley Human Resource CommunityAction Agency, reports that her daughter, Anne-Marie, is a first-year in the College, living in the samehouse (Rickert) and on the same floor as she did.Ml Laurence L. Edwards, AB'70, Hillel directorM%M at Cornell University, will serve again inJune as co-director of the Coolidge Research Colloquium — a gathering of Catholics, Protestants andJews held at Episcopal Divinity School, Cambridge,MA, and sponsored by the Association for Religionand Intellectual Life. James R. Lackenmier, AM'70,was elected to a second term as a member of theCommission on Higher Education of the MiddleStates Association of Colleges and Schools.I*| John L. Bryant, AB'71, AM'72, PhD'75, them 1 editor of Extracts, a quarterly journal forscholars and Melville enthusiasts, has been promoted to full professor of English at Hofstra University. Steven P. Handler, JD'71, has become a fellowof the American College of Trial Lawyers, a nationalassociation of 4,700 fellows dedicated to improvingthe standards of trial practice, the administration ofjustice, and the ethics of the profession.HA Carolyn Hogan Baldwin, MBA'72, has beenm wSt elected a vice president, chief of internalaudits, and director of the corporate auditing department of the Coca-Cola Company. Glenn H. Chamb-liss, PhD'72, is a professor of bacteriology anddirector of the biotechnology training program at theUniversity of Wisconsin, Madison. Howard G. ErvinIII, JD'72, has been named head of the newly formedinternational practice group of the San Francisco lawfirm Cooley, Godward, Castro, Huddleson &Tatum. Daniel C. Golden, AB'72, of Ontario,Canada, is a founding member of the Hot LatkesKlezmer Band, "now available to play for your weddings, bar/bat mitzvahs, and other festivities." Hissons — Joshua (saxophone), Benjamin (trumpet),and Aaron (cello) — are in training to join the band.Sister Jeanne P. Mittnight, PhD'72, was recentlynamed "Woman of the Year" by the YWCA for herwork as the school director for the Albany County(NY) jail. About 70 young adults earn high schooldiplomas there each year. Emily N. Sieger, AB'72,AM'76, completed her M.P.A. at Montana State University, served as a presidential management intern,and now works on program and policy issues for theNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration'scoastal ocean program in Silver Spring, MD. Thisyear, Oleh Weres, SB'72, PhD'72, and Nancy Hen-ning Weres, X'72, will celebrate the 25th anniversaryof their first meeting in the Administration Buildingand their 20th wedding anniversary.MA Kathleen Ezolt Carle, AB'73, MBA'81, wasm U elected and ordained a deacon by the FourthPresbyterian Church of Chicago last May. John C.Colson, PhD'73, teaches U.S. history part time atYavapai College in Prescott, AZ, and is president ofFriends of the Prescott Valley Public Library. Kaz-imiera Stypka, AM'73, has opened a practice inchild, individual, and family therapy in Victoria, BC.She also offers workshops for counseling and psychotherapy professionals.Reunion June 3.4-5_94M After 16 years in primary-care pediatrics,Kenneth B. Gass, PhD'74, MD'74, notes that"reaching beyond my office to maintain a community-health focus in my activities keeps my profes- On the RoadA runner since age 55, MarshaTillson proves — with her dedication and enthusiasm — that thefleet of feet need only be youngat heart.I arsha Dzubay Tillson, SB'44, runsfarther in a day than some of usI drive: "Four to six miles and oncea week I try to do ten miles." Impressive inthemselves, these numbers are even moreamazing given Tillson's age: She is 72.The former statistician in thequality assurancedepartment ofBell TelephoneLaboratories inNew York Citybegan runningin 1976, at age55, after readingPositive Addictionby Dr. WilliamGlasser. "At thattime, I was tryingto do some meditation on myown.... I permittedmyself 15 or 20minutes everyday to go into theliving room, siton the floor, andtry to meditate.But it wasn't working. This book said thatyou can get the same psychological effectfrom running that you can from doing transcendental meditation," she recalls. "Idecided to try it."She started slowly — "At first I couldbarely run for three minutes" — graduallyworking up to the 2-mile round trip alonga country road near her home in Shorts-ville, New York. Her husband, George,whom she met in 1962 while hiking withthe Appalachian Mountain Club, joinedher in her daily run, and soon moved on tocompetitive road racing. Despite hisurging, Tillson declined to compete, choosing instead to stick to her 2-mile route. "Ithought I'd look silly — this older womanrunning in a race. I'd probably come in halfan hour behind the next to last person."Finally persuaded by George, now 66, totry one race, she recalls, "I came in secondin my age group. Of course," she chuck les, "there were only two of us — but thatfirst race took away my feelings of foolishness." In fact, Tillson has conquered herapprehensions with a vengeance: she nowraces in 5K, 5-mile, and 10K events — usually once a week in the Rochester area.Upon turning 70, she discovered thatshe was nationally competitive in her agegroup (70-74), so she found a coach andbegan a regimen that includes speedwork, weight training, and 45 minutes ofstretching exercises before and after eachrun. All the hard work has paid off: Lastyear at the National Women's 5K Championship in Albany, NY, Tillson became the70- to 74-year-old national championwith a time of 27:38.When she's notJ running, Tillsonjoins her husbandin organizing andtiming local races.The Tillsons, affectionately knownin Rochester asMr. and Mrs. Running, are often"the first ones toarrive and the lastm ones to leave" a'., j I race. For their vol-V I unteer work onm I the New York stateracing scene, theyI were awarded a"Golden Shoe" bythe magazine Runner's World andinducted into theGreater RochesterTrack Club's Hall of Fame.Despite the extensive time she devotesto running-related activities, Tillson stillfinds room in her schedule to work as avolunteer treasurer for the local hospitaland to go square dancing with her husband twice a week. The Tillsons have alsorecently begun yoga lessons in an effort tobecome more limber.Tillson credits her 17 years of runningwith more than physical benefits: Theactive lifestyle has also given her a greatdeal of self-confidence. "I'm the seniorfemale running — everybody knows me bynow — and it's a big boost for me to be outthere with people urging me on to thefinish line.... People say, 'You're an inspiration to me.'" Once hesitant even to run inpublic, Tillson now advocates pursuingnew challenges: "You can't ever start yesterday. Today is fine. . .just start. It doesn'tmatter how old you are." — CA.M..*£LUniversity of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 4 1sional life rewarding." He and his family live innorthwest Washington state — surrounded by theocean, lakes, and mountains.HB Barbara Bruns Bachrach, AB'75, was pro-#*J moted to principal economist for educationand social policy at the World Bank. Marc D. Carter,AM'75, and his wife, Liane, announce the July 16,1992, birth of their son, Michael, who joined hisolder brother, Jonathan. Michael J. Cleary, MAT'75,who is married with three children, teaches scienceand coaches the academic teams at Richards HighSchool in Oak Lawn. Alan I. Rapoport, PhD'75, justcompleted his 15th year as a policy analyst for theNational Science Foundation. Gregory G. Wrobel,AB'75, JD'78, MBA'79, has been appointed 1993-94chair of the Chicago Bar Association's antitrust lawcommittee.¦VC Jack A- LeVan, AB'76, MBA'80, was recendy¦ ^P named South Carolina ambassador for economic development. His wife, Cathy AugustLeVan, AB'78, AM'80, is founder and president ofthe board of directors of the Children's Museum ofSouth Carolina.t9Wf David B. J. Adams, AM'68, PhD'77, worksm m for the Council for International Exchange ofScholars, which administers the Fulbright scholarprogram for the U.S. government. David is the areachief for East Asia and the Pacific. After 15 yearsaway, John H. Caldwell II, SM'72, PhD'77, recentlyreturned to the Chicago area to work with AmocoCorporation's information technology department.William W. Cook, AM'77, who teaches at Dartmouth, was named 1993 New Hampshire "Professorof the Year" by the Council for Advancement andSupport of Education. Steven R. Guberman, AB'77,who completed his Ph.D. in psychology at UCLA in1992, is now an assistant professor of educationalpsychology at the University of Colorado, Boulder.Karen Spreng Friend, AB'77, volunteers her freelime to Arizona Save Outdoor Sculpture, part of anational effort sponsored by the National Museumof American Art, Smithsonian Institution, and theNational Institute for the Conservation of CulturalProperty. She will be researching Phoenix to locateand inventory publicly accessible outdoor sculpturefor the creation of a statewide database of Arizonasculpture. Cynthia L. Tobias, AM'69, PhD'77,recently started a consulting firm, the IntertechGroup, providing national and international technical-management consulting.HA Marilyn Edelstein, AM'78, recently receivedm ^M tenure and a promotion to associate professor of English at Santa Clara University in California. Cathy August LeVan, AB'78, AM'80, see 1976,Jack A. LeVan. Russell R. Plain, AB'78, celebratedthe tenth anniversary of his company, Tri-PacificConsulting, in January. Margaret Katz Radcliffe,AM'78, and her husband, David, announce theMarch 6, 1993, birth of their second daughter, Afle-gra. Margaret is a technical editor for the department of mining and minerals engineering atVirginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA.Reunion June 3-4-5l|fl Sara E. Davis, AB'79, and her husband,m W Stephen Bache, announce the February 9,1993, birth of their third child, Nicholas. MichaelA. Donnella, JD'79, announces the July birth of hislourth child, Anna, and writes, "All of a sudden, lottery tickets don't look like such bad financial planning tools." K. Dillon Schickli, MBA'79, wasappointed chicl operating officer and board memberof Affinity Group, Inc., the largest for-profit cluborganization in North America. He lives in Denver.Christopher Baine, MBA'80, managing director with Salomon Brothers and a member ofthe Tokyo Management Committee, has lived in Tokyo for six years with his wife and four children.Robert S. Garrick,JD'80, acknowledges that he "failedagain this year to win the Nobel Prize." Carol S.Kazmer, AB'80, and Stephen F. Barrett, PhD'86,announce the February 27, 1993, birth of their firstchild, Maya. Kristopher D. Organ, AB'80, and hiswife, Jackie McCort, have adopted a baby girl, bornSeptember 23, 1993. David T. Thuma, AB'80, recendyopened his own law firm, Jacobvitz, Roybal &Thuma, P.C, in Albuquerque, NM. In his spare time,he reads "Prof. Bloom's books and other philosophy."Natalie Hormaz Varna, AB'80, completed a year as aCharlotte W. Newcombe Doctoral Dissertation Fellowin 1990, received a Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Maryland in 1991, and is now a member ofthe philosophy faculty at Stanford University. As perhaps the first American-bom Parsi Woman, she isactive in the Federation of Zoroastrian Associations ofNorth America.WC. William Ferris, Jr., MBA'81, see 1984,Leslie Brown Ferris. Benjamin S. Giese, AB'81,and his wife, Rachel Bramson, AB'82, will move fromthe Washington, DC, area to College Station, TX, inJuly. Rachel begins work in September as an assistantprofessor of family medicine at Texas A&M and theScott and White Clinic. In January, Benjamin willbecome an assistant professor of oceanography atTexas A&M University. Vincent E. Hillery, AB'81,JD84, and his wife recendy bought a new home in theLincoln Park/DePaul neighborhood of Chicago. JohnY. Le Bourgeois, MBA'81, associate dean of TempleUniversity Japan for the past two years — and a formerhistory professor, banker and associate dean ofTemple's School of Business and Management — hasbeen named dean of the Japan campus. Steven P.Leuzinger, AB'81, and his wife, Peggy, who serve asco-pastors at Christ Lutheran Church in Cottonwood,MN, announce the July 9, 1992, birth of a son,Trevor. In January, David M. Obstfeld, AB'81, begandoctoral studies in organizational behavior at the University of Michigan Business School. Lisa Kim Pai,AB'81, and her husband, Edward, recently celebratedthe first birthday of their daughter, Grace.AA Rachel Bramson, AB'82, see 1981, Ben-%M^M jamin S. Giese. Donald C. Dowling, Jr.,AB'82, a partner at the Cincinnati law firm Graydon,Head & Ritchey and president of the U of C Cincinnati Club, published an article in The InternationalLawyer discussing European Community employment law, and a chapter in a Dutch book on international consumer law. John P. Egan, AB'82, ismanager of media relations for Salt River Project, a$1.3-billion (revenue) electric and water utilitybased in Phoenix. He is "very fond of the Arizonawinters. Brian J. Fahey, AB'82, a producer for ABCSports in New York City, won his second NationalSports Emmy Award last April for promotional campaign work on ABC's Monday Night Football.Edward M. Kelly, AB'82, assistant director ofNorth American Natural Gas at Cambridge EnergyResearch Associates in Harvard Square, is marriedand has a four-year-old daughter, Claire. CecilyStewart Venkatesh, AB'82, and her husband, San-tosh, live in Wallingford, PA, with their two children, ages 6 and 2. Cecily is a homemaker andstudent, and Santosh is an associate professor ofelectrical engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. Robert L. Wells, MBA'82, a vice presidentwith Union Bank of Switzerland in Chicago, lives inNaperville with his wife, Judy, and four children.MJohn A. S. Granger, AB'83, a sergeant in theMarine Corps in Okinawa, Japan, and hiswife, Mary, announce the November 28, 1992, birthof their third daughter, Sophia Marie, and the May 24birth of their son (to be adopted), Emmanuel. Johnsends his love to his Hitchcock-Snell classmates.Joseph R. Hibbeln, AB'83, a lieutenant commander inthe Public Health Service, has been promoted to senior clinical investigator at the National Institute ofAlcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alan F. Stewart,AB'83, writes, "I am happily practicing veterinaryinternal medicine in Berkeley, CA, in a referral practice, where I often have patients with names like Plato,Socrates, and Medea. It makes me feel right at home."HEUNION June 3-4-5 LM Diane Ledet Child, AM'84, see 1985, DavidR. Child. Debbie R. David, MBA'84, married Dan Ben-Zvi, an attorney and writer from NewJersey, on December 5, 1992. They have sincemoved to Brentwood, a suburb of Los Angeles.Leslie Brown Ferris, MBA'84, vice president andportfolio manager of three mutual funds forMackenzie Investment Management, recentlyreceived the chartered financial analyst (CFA) distinction from the Association for Investment Management and Research. She and her husband, C.William Ferris, Jr., MBA'81, senior vice presidentand CEO of Mackenzie, live in Palm Beach Gardens,FL, with their two children: Rachel, 6, andMatthew, 2. Robert W. Kubey, AM'78, PhD'84, anassociate professor of communication at RutgersUniversity, and his wife, Barbara, announce the September 26 birth of their second son, Daniel Philip.Pamela Holland Seeman, AB'84, AM'85, see 1986,Corey G. Seeman. Talvi Laev, AB'84, an editor forthe college textbook division of St. Martin's Press inNew York, married Stephen Hatem in October. Inthe past few years, she earned an M.A. in applied linguistics, became certified by the American Translators Association, and translated several poems fromEstonian into English. Learning Arabic could benext, although "Steve says 1 should wait until he'srecovered from the M.A." Finishing her residency infamily practice, Elizabeth Steiner, AB'84, plans tostay in Portland, OR. She just completed her secondterm as one of two national resident delegates to theAmerican Academy of Family Physicians' congress.Maxine L. Barish, MD'85, and her husband,Don Wreden, both practice internal medicinein Sacramento, CA. David R. Child, JD'85, and hiswife, Diane Ledet Child, AM'84, are "firmlyensconced" in Golden, CO, with their three children:Daniel, 6, Aaron, 4, and Amelia, 1 . David is a partnerat the Denver firm of Holme, Roberts & Owen; Dianeis a "stay-in-the-car mom." David P. Lentini, SB'85,graduated in 1993 from the University of CaliforniaHastings School of Law and now specializes in patentlaw; he resides in Menlo Park, CA, with his wife,Patricia, and daughter, Catherine. Sally S. Sedgwick,AM'81, PhD'85, was granted tenure this past year inDartmouth University's philosophy department.Stephen F. Barrett, PhD'86, see 1980, CarolKazmer. Maxim A. Chasanov, AB'86, waselected 1993-94 chief resident in psychiatry al LoyolaMedical Center. He and his wife, Jill, have a daughter,Chanel Gail. A. David Kriozere, MBA'86, a medicaleconomist at Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, presented a paper on "Utilization Patterns among Participants in a Subsidized Coverage Program of a HealthMaintenance Organization" at the American PublicHealth Association conference in San Francisco. LisaA. E. Montgomery, AB'86, married Paul B. Lazarow,AB'67, on September 5 in New York City. The eventincluded U of C graduates from a 50-year range,including: Jane Klein Lazarow-Stetten, SB'39; RobertN. Eisenman, PhD'71; Normand H. Lazarow, SB'71;Dayna K. Langfan, AB'83; Ruth O'Brien Lyden,AB'83, AM'91; Lawrence A. Heller, AB'84, MBA'88;Scott A. Lyden, AB'85, AM'88; Abigail M. Asher,AB'86; Kenneth B. Bloom, SB'86; Wendy J. Schiller,AB'86; Carolyn G. Schneider, AB'86, AM'87; StevenP. Sullivan, AB'86; Nahum D. Chandler, AM'89,Marquita C. Levy, AB'89; and Bradden Wondra,AB'91. Lisa and Paul reside in NYC.42 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994David J. Myers, AM'84, JD'86, is senior associate atthe Atlanta law firm Bird & Associates, where he concentrates in litigation. He and his wife, DeEtta, havetwo boys, Michah, 4, and Samuel, 2. Karen J. Ohland,SM'86, of Lyndhurst, NJ, is now a senior research scientist at Howmedica, which manufactures orthopedicimplants. Mark P. Petracca, AM'79, PhD'86, associateprofessor of political science at the University of California, Irvine, was the 1993 Visiting Scholar in Residence at Orange Coast College, where he delivered 12lectures to students and faculty and engaged BruceHerschensohn, a former candidate for the U.S. Senate,in a debate on American foreign policy. Corey G.Seeman, AB'86, and Pamela Holland Seeman, AB'84,AM'85, announce the July 29 birth of their first child,Jeremy. Having left the public sector, Karen CurtisSisson, MBA'86, is now a vice president with PublicResources Advisory Group, a financial advisory firm.Anne S. Tarpinian, AB'86, of Kensington, MD, graduated in 1993 from Vermont Law School with a J.D.and an M.A. in environmental law.AH David A. Carlquist, MBA'87, who works asWW a business unit executive for IBM inChicago, is a member of the board of education forElmhurst's unit school district #205. His wife, Jean,and he "are enjoying watching our 1-year-olddaughter, Kelly, grow up!" Karen Santspree Corn-well, AM'87, and her husband, Ken, have moved toLittle Rock, AR, where she is a licensed clinicalsocial worker and works as a clinical therapist withadolescents at Youth Home, Inc. Lori R. Daniels,AM'87, works for the Honolulu Department of Veterans Affairs as director of the traumatic stressrecovery program — and she will soon have a chapter on post-traumatic stress disorder and addictivebehaviors published in the Handbook of Post-Traumatic Stress Therapy (Greenwood Press).Trina M. Burek, AB'87, married James E. Ingebrigt-sen on August 13, 1993, at the Villa Olivia CountryClub in Bartlett, IL. In attendance were Debra J.Tuler, AB'87, AM'88; Margaret McGraw Densley,AB'88; Kathryn Evans, AB'88; Paul C. Rohr, Jr.,AB'92; and Marc S. Stein, SM'92. Trina teachesFrench at the Chicago Academy for the Arts, andserves as the academic department chair. Bennett N.Lovett-Graff, AB'87, teaches English at the Universityof Hartford and Norwalk Community Technical College. He presented papers at the third-annual CentralNew York Conference on Languages and Literature,as well as annual conferences for the City Universityof New York Association of Writing Supervisors, andthe Mid-Atlantic Popular Culture Association.Andrew P. Barkley, AM'86, PhD'88, whoteaches at Kansas State University, wasnamed 1993 Kansas "Professor of the Year" by theCouncil for Advancement and Support of Education. Gavin M. Gross, MBA'88, has moved toLondon and works as an options trader for Billiton-Enthoven Metals, a member firm of the LondonMetal Exchange. He'd welcome calls from friendsand colleagues passing through town. In October,Neal J, Loevinger, AB'88, received an M.A. in environmental studies, focusing on religious values inenvironmental ethics, from York University inToronto. He has since entered the ReconstructionistRabbinical College in Philadelphia. Sheri MarikoLyons, AB'88, is a staff attorney at Beckman,Kirstein & Murphy in Washington, DC. LawrenceA. Stein, AB'88, of Glen Ellyn, is an associate at theWheaton law firm Huck, Bouma, Martin & Charlton. He and his wife, Diane, announce the May 14,1993, birth of their son, Joshua. House as an associate counsel in presidential personnel and currently in the treasury department, inthe area of domestic finance. Tamara Gull, AB'89,was recently promoted to lieutenant in the U.S.Navy. Eva U. Wojtan, AB'89, and Michael V. Volin,AB'89, were married September 12 in Bond Chapel.Samuel C. Blackman, AB'90, is a first-yearstudent in the M.D./Ph.D. program at theUniversity of Illinois, Chicago. Robert L. Bowles,Jr., AM'90, currently enrolled at Suffolk UniversityLaw School, also works as a health-care management administrator for John Hancock Mutual LifeInsurance Company in Boston. Claudia M.Citkovitz, AB'90, is East Coast story editor forMGM in New York City, and just hired Aram E.Fox, AB'93, as a reader. Claudia reports that Julia K.Crowe, AB'92, is also in NYC, working for CBS.Godelieve L.J. Mertens, MBA'90, a chartered financial analyst (CFA), is vice president and portfolioengineer at Pillar Point Capital Management in SanMateo, CA. Dennis E. Tamburello, PhD'90, an associate professor of religious studies and director ofacademic advising at Siena College in Loudonville,NY, will publish his Ph.D. dissertation with a newconclusion in 1994, under the title Union WithChrist: Hohn Calvin and the Mysticism of St. Bernard(Westminster/John Knox Press) .MEric Aversa, AB'91, who received an M.A. inItalian literature from New York University,continues his work toward a Ph.D. Adam C. Berger,AB'91, a third-year medical student at New YorkUniversity, enjoys clinical rounds. Justine M. Cas-sell, PhD'91, assistant professor in the departmentsof French, linguistics, and psychology at Pennsylvania State University, received a National ScienceFoundation Visiting Professorship for Women. The$177,000 award will allow her to take a leave ofabsence to do research on the interaction betweengesture and speech. Louise L. Diepenbrock,MBA'91, lives in San Francisco and works for CSCIndex, a management consulting firm. Eden L. Feuer, AB'91, and Steven E. Mutchnik, MD'92,were married on October 10, in Houston. In attendance were: bridesmaid Claudia I. Lewnowski,AB'92; Laurel Erwin Lyle, AB'84, MBA'86; StephenR. Lyle, AB'88, SM'88, PhD'93; Kathleen C. Lin,AB'90; Prita Saikia, AB'91; Sari Weissman, AB'91;Sybil M. Eng, AB'92; Ritchie A. Larson, MD'92;Melissa L. Times, AB'92; Randall W. Viola, MD'92;Jeffrey B. Yurkofsky, MD'92; and Jonathan G.Zaroff, MD'92.Demetrios M. Koston, MBA'91, lives in Monterey,CA, and works for the Dove Food Company as amanager of finance and planning. He writes that hedoesn't miss Chicago's weather. Michael M. Leif-man, AB'91, is a graduate student in public policy atCarnegie Mellon University. Mary Jane L. Parks,AM'91, is utility conservation manager for the Cityof Azusa (CA) Light and Water Department. JohnB. Sanders, MBA'91, AM'91, lived in Japan for several months after graduating. There he "learnedhow to read (a new syllabary) and consulted forJapanese managers prior to their overseas assignments." Since 1992, he has been back in the U.S. —working in New York as a financial analyst forbusiness development for MCI.Srirama Priya Bharathi, AB'92, received anM.Sc. in politics with public administrationand public policy from the London School of Economics and Political Science. Julia K. Crowe, AB'92,see 1990, Claudia M. Citkovitz. Adam M. Lisberg,AB'92, is a staff writer for the Daily Southtown, aPulitzer community newspaper based in Tinley Park,IL. Steven E. Mutchnik, MD'92, see 1991, Eden L.Feuer. Antony N. Thompson, MBA'92, moved toTanzania in January on a three-year assignment asoperations officer for the World Bank.MAram E. Fox, AB'93, see 1990, Claudia M.Citkovitz. Michael Holzhauser-Alberti,AB'93, is spending a year at the University of Paris.Christopher R. Nickelman, AB'93, married RosalbaVenturi on July 24 in Bologna, Italy.DeathsFACULTYReunion June 3-4-5M After leaving White & Case in New York,Sara J. Cavendish, JD'89, moved to Washington, DC, first working in the Clinton White Gordon R. Antelman, professor of statistics in theGraduate School of Business, died January 5 in hisHyde Park home. He was 63. Antelman, a facultymember since 1961, was completing a book onBayesian inference and decision theory, a topic inwhich he was considered an expert. The author ofnumerous articles in journals and books, he taughtcourses in statistical analysis, statistics for managers, and applied regression analysis. He is survived by his wife, Julie; two daughters; a son; hismother; and a sister.Harold E. Haydon, PhB'30, AM'31, professoremeritus of art, died January 18 in Bernard MitchellHospital at age 84. Called by Italian sculptor Vir-ginio Ferrari "one of the most important figures inthe Chicago art world," Haydon joined the facultyin 1944, and directed Midway Studios from 1963until he retired in 1975. An accomplished artistknown for his "double image" paintings, murals,mosaics, and stained-glass windows, Haydon wasalso a noted art critic — writing for the Chicago Sun-Times (1963-85) and penning many books andarticles. In 1945, he won the University's Quantrellaward for excellence in undergraduate teaching.There are no immediate survivors.William E. Henry, PhD'44, professor emeritus ofpsychology and human development, died February 28 in San Francisco. He was 76. A specialist in the study of personality , he joined the University in1947 as assistant professor of human developmentHis study of the intellectual and personality traits ofexecutives led to his interest in mid-life and aging.In 1950, he worked on the Kansas City Study ofAdult Life — the first major survey on aging, itlooked at the impact of gender and social class onaging. He has no immediate survivors.W. Braxton Ross, Jr., associate professor andchair of classical languages and literatures, died ofheart-related problems March 3. He was 62. Theauthor of articles, book contributions, and reviews,Ross specialized in Latin paleography — deciphering,identifying, and interpreting ancient documents andmodes of writing. At the time of his death, he hadvirtually completed a 20-year project: an edition ofGiovanni Colonna's De Viris Illustribus, a 14th-century compilation of biographies of classical andChristian authors. After joining the U of C in 1968.Ross held many University posts, including masterof the Humanities Collegiate Division and associatedean of humanities (1978-1982) and librarian forpaleographic collections (1974-1978). He and hiswife, Diane, had served since 1988 as masters of theCommuter Students Association. Survivors includehis wife, a son, and a daughter.Ralph W. Tyler, PhD'27, former professor of education, died of cancer February 18 in San Diego, Hewas 91. Joining the U of C in 1938 as chair of theeducation department, Tyler was widely recognizedUniversity of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 43for his contributions to curriculum development andthe evaluation of all aspects of educational achievement. In Basic Principles 0/ Curriculum and Instruction(1950), he developed the Tyler Rationale, arguing thatteachers should hone specific course objectives,develop activities and programs to reach those goals.and then prepare tests to determine their success.Named dean of the social sciences division in 1948, in1953 he became the founding director of Palo Alto'sCenter for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences.With colleagues at the center, he developed theNational Assessment of Educational Progress, anational study that measures educational achievement. He is survived by a son; two daughters, HelenTyler Parisi, AB'43, and Ann Tyler Fathy, AB'56; sixgrandchildren; a great-grandchild; and a brother.FRIENDSMuriel McClure Beadle, widow of the University'sseventh president, George Beadle, died February 13of heart failure in Pomona, CA. She was 78. Theauthor of seven. books, including a definitive naturalhistory of cats, she collaborated with her husband onThe Language of Life, a prize-winning general introduction to genetics for young people. She alsoauthored Where Has All the Ivy Gone?, which chronicled her husband's presidential tenure during theturbulent Sixties. Active in the Hyde Park community, in 1965 she was recognized for her role in initiating the construction of Harper Court, a popularlocal shopping plaza. She is survived by a son, abrother, a niece, and four nephews.1920sEsther Sabel, PhB'20, died November 14 inDowners Grove. She was 100. A retired Bethel College and Bethel Seminary professor, she created pioneering Christian educational programs forchildren. Survivors include a nephew, Richard H.Sabel, AB'47, and a niece.Paul A. Kirkley, PhB'24 died March 18, 1993, atthe age of 91. He worked for Illinois Bell. Survivorsinclude his wife, Miriam.Mildred Jensen Walser, PhB'24, died December29 at her daughter's home in Jacksonville, IL. Shewas 96. For many years, she taught shorthand andtyping at Sullivan High School in Chicago. Survivors include two daughters, seven grandchildren,and eight great-grandchildren.John M. Dorsey, SB'26, MD'31, a former Wilmetteresident, died November 12 in Jupiter, FL. He was87. After serving as president of Presbyterian Hospital, he joined the staff of Evanston Hospital in 1951,specializing in thoracic surgery. In 1955, Dorseywas named professor of surgery at Northwestern'smedical school, retiring in 1974 as professor emeritus. Survivors include his wife, Charlotte; a son; astepson; ten grandchildren; ten great-grandchildren;a brother, Richard F. Dorsey, AB'42; a sister; and abrother-in-law, William R. Bums, PhB'25.Mary Addams Hulbert, PhB'26, died January 10 ather home in Berkeley, CA. She was 91. A socialworker lirst with the Illinois Children's Home andAid Society, she later moved west, supervising graduate students in the University of California's Schoolol Social Work. Active in peace and social welfareissues, she was inspired by her great-aunt, JaneAddams, whose papers she gathered into five volumes Survivors include her cousin, Louise KinzieWornom, AM'62.Samuel Herman. PhB'29, JD'31, died December20 in Washington, DC. Fie was 85. A Washington-ian Tor 00 years, he joined the Department of Agriculture during the New Deal, and later worked atthe Stale Department. Since 1949, he had practiced law. Survivors include his wife, Clara; two sisters.including Margaret Herman Pearlman, AM'51; twobrothers; and many nieces and nephews, includingMichael D. Pearlman, AM'69.Stanley W. Nichols, PhB'26, died March 10, 1993in Camarillo, CA. He is survived by his wife, HelenBenson Nichols, PhB'27, and a sister-in-law, MiriamBenson Rigotti, SB'37.Sylvester F. Moebs, X'29, a longtime Chicagoan,died November 25 in Indianapolis. He was 84.Owner of Moebs Liquors for 33 years, he retired in1966. He was a member of St. Luke's CatholicChurch. Survivors include his wife, Jeannette; twosons; eight grandchildren; and a great-grandchild.Fred O. Priest, MD'29, a longtime Oak Park resident, died November 14. He was 93. A gynecologist/obstetrician, he served on the staff ofRush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center, andwas a professor at Rush Medical College. He is survived by his wife, Edith; two daughters; a son; andfour grandchildren.1930sGladys Jors Hoppes, MAT30, died May 1 at theage of 91. In addition to an active volunteer career,she taught third grade in National Mine, MI, from1952 to 1960. She is survived by two daughters,including Muriel A. Hoppes, AM'59.John F. McCarthy, PhB'30, JD'32, died November8 of a heart attack. He was 84. Cofounder of the firmMcCarthy & Levin, he specialized in real estate, probate, and corporate law. First as general counsel andlater as special counsel, he served the Chicago BarAssociation from 1971 to 1985, arguing cases beforethe Illinois and U.S. supreme courts. Survivorsinclude his wife, Margaret; two daughters; two sons;and eight grandchildren.Albert Ardmore, X'32, died December 23 at hishome in West Los Angeles. A writer, he was areporter for the Wichita Beacon and an independentpublicist for stars and directors. Later, he became apublic relations and marketing executive in realestate. Survivors include his wife, Jane Kesner Ardmore, PhB'32; a daughter; and a sister-in-law, BettyKesner Hauer, AB'43.Sam T. Lenters, AM'32, of Fort Collins, CO, diedJune 27. He was 90. A retired minister, he was alsoan artist, known for his watercolors and blockprints of Colorado scenes. He is survived by hiswife, Hazel; a son; a daughter; six grandchildren;and two great-grandchildren.Helen Schneller Mahoney, PhB'32, died October6 in Alameda, CA, of liver cancer. Survivors includea sister-in-law, Ruth.Clara Seabury Boone, SB'34, died October 13 ather home in Winnetka. She was 81. Boone servedon the boards of the Hadley School for the Blind,the Junior League of Evanston, and the U of C'sInternational House; the women's boards of Children's Memorial Hospital and the RehabilitationInstitute; and on the women's steering committee ofthe U of C. Survivors include two sons; two daughters; nine grandchildren; a sister; a sister-in-law,Virginia Boone Hutchinson, SB'34; and a niece,Deborah Seabury Holloway, AB'71, AM'72,Henry D. Lederer, SB'34, MD'37, died of cancerJanuary 6 at his home. He was 79. A psychiatrist andneurologist, he chaired the psychiatry department atthe Medical College of Virginia from 1963 to 1969,when he became an associate director of theNational Institute of Mental Health in Washington,DC. In 1971, Lederer was named dean of students alGeorgetown Medical School, and he spent the 1980son staff at the Veterans Administration Hospital inCoatesville, PA, retiring in 1990 as chief of staff foreducation. He is survived by his wife, RobertaGuttman Lederer, AB'36; a son; and two daughters. Nathan C. Plimpton, SB'34, MD'37, died October29. He was 83. A surgeon at Abbott NorthwesternHospital (Minneapolis), he served as chief of staff in1961 and chief of surgery in 1975, retiring in 1977.The recipient of many medical awards, he alsoreceived the Army's Bronze Star for participating inthe WWII beach invasions at Sicily and Normandy.Survivors include a brother, Blair Plimpton, SB'30,AM'38, PhD'57.Horace M. Miner, AM'35, PhD'37, a longtime faculty member at the University of Michigan, diedNovember 26. He was 8f. Before retiring in 1980,he taught sociology and anthropology — his fieldresearch in French Canada, Colombia, and Africaresulted in many books and articles. Survivorsinclude his wife, Agnes Murphy Miner, PhD'35; adaughter; and two granddaughters.William Trent, Jr., X'37, died November 27 inGreensboro, NC. He was 83. Executive director ofthe United Negro College Fund for 20 years after itsinception in 1944, he oversaw the raising of $78million in scholarship funds. He then taught economics at Livingstone College and later at BennettCollege. In 1964, Trent became assistant personneldirector of Time, Inc., where he focused on racerelations and minority issues, retiring in 1975.There are no immediate survivors.Burr C. Brundage, PhD'39, died April 16, 1993,He was 80. An expert on Aztec and Inca civilizations, he taught at MacMurray College, CarletonCollege, Cedar Crest College (where he chaired thehistory department), and Eckerd College, fromwhich he retired in 1978. The author of many bookson the Aztecs and Inca, he turned to poetry afterretiring, and published several volumes of poems.The U.S. government recognized his aid in its 1948Antarctic expedition by naming a mountain on thePalmer Peninsula after him. He is survived by hiswife, Virginia; a daughter; and a granddaughter.1940sJames H. Stoner, AB'40, MBA'47, died May 18. Hewas retired from Amoco Oil Co. Survivors includehis wife, Mary.Andrew L. Hoekstra, SB'41, died October 14 inSpringfield. He was 73. He served as medical directorof Illinois' McFarland Zone Center, and also wassuperintendent and medical director of the Jacksonville State Hospital. He is survived by his wife,Portia; a son; six daughters; eight grandchildren; abrother; three sisters; and several nieces and nephews.Robert B. Quinn, PhD'41, died October 3 in StateCollege, PA. He was 86. He taught physics at Carleton College, and worked for the Navy's researchdepartment, during which time he taught classes inthermodynamics at the University of Maryland. Survivors include his wife, Grace, and two daughters.Maurice L. Silver, PhD'41, died March 20, 1993,of a heart attack. He is survived by his wife, Edna.Naomi Smith Devoe, AB'42, a Chicago resident,died November 19, at the age of 72. Devoe was anactive supporter of the Lyric Opera, the AmericanCancer Society, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.and the Anti-Cruelty Society. Among survivors areher husband, Carl; three sons, including LawrenceD. Devoe, MD'70; a daughter, Linda Devoe Brody,AB'80, MST'82; a son-in-law, Jefferson L. Brody,AB'80; six grandchildren; and a brother, Paul C.Smith, PhB'34.Merton D. Oyler, PhD'43, died January 14 at theage of 91. After chairing the sociology department atthe University of Kentucky, he joined Ohio StateUniversity as a professor of sociology. Active inmany Columbus volunteer groups after retiring in1970 from OSU, he won numerous awards for hisservice, including recognition from PresidentReagan. He is survived by his wife, Betty; a son; a44 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994daughter; seven grandchildren; two great-grandchildren; and a sister.Ottilie Santinette Fearing, SB'45, died December31 in Lewisburg, PA. She was 69. An active memberof First Church of Christ Scientist, she worked intheater management and in the Sears accountingoffice in Nanuet, NY. Survivors include her husband, Ralph B. Fearing, SB'40, SM'43; a daughter; ason; and a granddaughter.E. B. Harris, MBA'45, died December 24 at hishome near Phoenix. President of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange from 1953 until 1978, he oversawthe Merc's growth from a backwater market to athriving exchange. Survivors include his wife, Marguerite; two sons; and two grandchildren.John W. Griffin, AM'46, died of cancer September3 in St. Augustine, FL. He was 73. In 1946, hebecame the first archaeologist employed by the stateof Florida. After a stint at Florida State University hejoined the National Park Service — eventually becoming chief of the Southeast Archaeological Center. In1977, he formed an archaeological and historicalconsulting firm. During his five-decade career, hepublished more than 125 articles and books. Survivors include his wife, Patricia Conaway Griffin,AM'45; four children; and eight grandchildren.George L. Arnold, JD'48, died June 8. He was 71.After 14 years as a partner in the Los Angeles lawfirm of Arnold, Smith, and Schwartz, he resigned in1971 to become a law professor at the University ofWyoming, where he taught for seven years. Survivors include his wife, Sheila; five sons; 11 grandchildren; a brother; a niece; and a nephew.Armour H. Nelson, AB'48, AM'50, died December12. An English professor, he taught for 11 years atConcordia College in Moorhead, MN. He thenjoined the California Lutheran College in ThousandOaks, where he spent 26 years, serving as head ofthe humanities division and chair of the Englishdepartment. He is survived by his wife, Alice Carl-stedt Nelson, AM'54; a sister; and several nieces andnephews.James M. Smith, MD'49, died April 12, 1993 of aheart attack. He was 67. He retired in 1990 from ageneral surgery practice in Hamilton, OH. Survivorsinclude his wife, Ruth Betz Smith, AB'47; threesons; and four grandsons.1950sDavid K. Hardin, MBA'50, died January 6 at hisChicago home. He was 66. An Episcopal minister,he was president and host of Chicago SundayEvening Club on WTTW and the National Faith andValues Channel. In addition to his television ministry, he spent 37 years working with Market Facts,Inc., a research and consulting firm that he chairedfrom 1975 to 1987. He is survived by his wife,Paula; four daughters; a son; a sister; and a brother.Jeanne Cummins Mellinger, PhD'52, died ofcancer November 9 in her Burke, VA, home. She was67. On the George Mason University faculty for 23years, she was the first chair of the psychologydepartment, began the department's doctoral program, established a gerontology program, and retiredas professor emeritus in 1990. Survivors includethree children, a sister, and a brother-in-law, RileySchaeffer, SB'46, PhD'49.Donald E. Walker, PhD'55, died November 26after a five-year batde with cancer. He was 65. He issurvived by his wife.1960sEdmund J. Dehnert, PhD'63, a longtime Evanstonresident, died January 17 after an extended illness. Hewas 62. A musicologist and philosopher, he was chairof the humanities at Chicago's Truman College. In 1987, he was named the state's Outstanding Community College Faculty Member. Survivors include hiswife, Donna; a daughter; three sons; and two brothers.Harry F. Hartel, MBA'68, of Glenview, diedDecember 22. He was 64. Spending more than fourdecades in the fire-protection industry, he was president and co-owner of K&S Automatic Sprinklers.Survivors include his wife, Barbara; four sons; adaughter; three grandchildren; and a sister.1970sDarrell R. Yates-Rist, AM'76, died in New YorkCity December 23 of complications from AIDS. Hewas 45. A writer and journalist, he was well-knownfor his articles on politics, gay activism, and the arts,twice receiving a writer's grant from the New YorkState Council on the Arts. In 1993, he was nominated for a Lambda Literary Award for his bookHeartlands: A Gay Man's Odyssey across America. Ristalso was writer-in-residence for the Fund for HumanDignity and at Columbia University's Center forAmerican Culture Studies. He is survived by hiscompanion, Robert Cataldo; his parents; and a sister.1980sPeter Treistman, AB'80, died of cancer at hisTucson home. He was 33. An assistant professor ofnews production and journalism documentaries atthe University of Arizona, he joined the university in1987 as director of its Arts-News Media Lab. Previously, he worked as an investigative and documentary producer for Chicago TV station WGN, wherehe won several awards, including eight Emmy nominations. He is survived by his wife, Lisa K. Harris,AB'82, MBA'84; a daughter; and his mother,John J. Lavina, MBA'84, died November 10 in hisWilmette home. He was 36. Joining IBM in 1984, hewas manager of the corporation's service strategiesART AND ARCHITECTUREBarbara Maria Stafford, PhD'72, Artful Science:Enlightenment Entertainment and the Eclipse ofVisual Education (MIT Press). Exploring how playful illusions, spellbinding games, and lifelikeautomata were once integral to education, Staffordreveals the exhilarating but paradoxical intertwining of enchantment with enlightenment in the earlymodem period. A cross-disciplinary guide to intellectual high and low life of the 18th century,Stafford's book makes a case for the pedagogicalopportunities inherent in an oral-visual culture.6I0GRAPHY AND LETTERSMurray Newman, SB'49, Life in a Fish Bowl: Confessions of an Aquarium Director (Douglas 6z Mcln-tyre). When Newman, a Chicago-born Ph.D.candidate in fish biology at the University of BritishColumbia, was appointed head of the VancouverAquarium in 1955, he had no management experience, no staff, and no aquarium. His account of 37years as director of this (eventually) successfulaquarium is full of such colorful creatures andpeople as Moby Doll, the world's first captive killerwhale, and timber baron H. R. MacMillan, who lenthis yacht to aid the collection of rare fish.Mark Spergel, AB'75, Reinventing Reality: The Artand Life of Rouben Mamoulian (Scarecrow Press).Theater and film director Mamoulian (1897-1987) program. Chair of the Greater Chicago Food Depository since July, he had been active on the agency'sboard for six years. Survivors include his wife,Susan; a son; a daughter; his mother; a sister; abrother; and a cousin, Eugene F. Fama, MBA'63,PhD'64, the Robert R. McCormick professor at theGSB.NOTICE OF DEATH RECEIVEDElizabeth Barbour, PhB'20, AM'28, February 1993.Anna Marine Marer, X'23, December 1992.Martha Galbraith Whipple, PhB'24, October.Willard E, Solenberger, X'28, August.Catherine Wilson Bullard, JD'29, November.John E. W. Timm, JD'29, November.Franklin E. Roach, SM'30, PhD'34. September.Rosalie Sabath Gordon, PhB'31, September.Friedericka Maurer Mayers, PhB'32, AM'57, PhD'65.Alice Jordon McGregor, PhB'32, November.W. Mary Stephens, MD'32.Charles A. Woemer, SB32, PhD37, MD'39, November.Dorothy Carruth Scott, AM'33.Reisha Heller Cohn, PhB'34, June 1992.Jane Sowers Coltman, PhB'34, December.Mildred Lasker Kahn, PhB'34, November.Gladys E. McKmney, PhB'34.Virginia Atherton Watson, PhB'36, October.Asunda Castagna, AM'38, August.Elizabeth Schunk, AM'38, February 1993.Rachel E. Anderson, AB'39, December.Kenneth H. Otten, SB'40, November.Muriel Evans Rendleman, SB'41, April 1993.James W. Reynolds, PhD'45, September 1992.Eldon H. Potter, PhB'47, MBA49, December.Edith Wharton Close, AM'51, September.Francis J. Snider, AM'51, July.Leon S. Otis, AB'51, PhD'56, December 1991.David Mbai, AM'73.James F. Monahan, PhD'90.is best known as a technical innovator and stylistwhose stage credits included the original Broadwayproductions of Porgy and Bess, Oklahoma!, andCarousel. Using previously undisclosed personaldocuments, Spergel argues that the central theme inMamoulian's art and life — to overcome the worldand embrace truth — extended to the telling of hisown history.DUS1NESS AND ECONOMICSElisabeth Hefti, MBA'87, Commercializing theNew B ^pharmaceuticals (Decision Resources, Inc.).This management study focuses on issues affectingthe development and competitive positioning ofnew biopharmaceutical products (growth factors,neurotrophic factors, and therapeutic monoclonalantibodies), and provides information about criticalsuccess-factors and effective commercializationstrategies.Russell Roberts, AM'78, PhD'81, The Choice: AFable of Free Trade and Protectionism (PrenticeHall). When Ed Johnson, the fictional 1960s CEOof a major TV-manufacturing company, asks hiscongressman for protection from Japanese competition, he sets off a chain of events affecting thefuture of the American economy. Enter the ghost ofDavid Ricardo, the 19th-century economist, whoattempts to convince Ed that free trade is the pathto prosperity. The men travel into the future asRicardo shows Ed two different Americas thatBooks by AlumniUniversity of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 45could come to pass — one of free trade and the otherof self-sulhciency,Norman B. Sigband, AB'40, AM'41, PhD'54, Communication for Managers (South-Western PublishingCo.). The sixth edition of this well-known management communication text contains new segments oncrisis communication, business ethics, diversity in theworkplace, and communication across cultural lines;plus a series of cases taken from true-life managementsituations in business, health care, and government.CRITICISMAnn C. Colley, PhD'83, Edward Lear and the Critics(Camden House). This history of how critics sincethe 19th century have regarded Lear's extensive workincludes critical writings from Europe, North America, India, and the Ukraine, and identifies patterns ofthought which run through the writers' reactions.Brian Corman, AB'66, AM'67, PhD'71, Genre andGeneric Change in English Comedy 1660-1710 (University of Toronto Press). Examining one of themost remarkable qualities of stage comedy duringthe late 17th century — its stability — this book proposes a new way of looking at generic change. Theauthor uses the theoretical insights of R. S. Crane,Claudio Guillen, and Alastair Fowler to develop ageneric model for a conservative, traditional, andinclusive genre like comedy.Mary Carpenter Erler, AM'62, PhD'81, editor,Robert Copland: Poems (University of TorontoPress). This first edition of the work of the Tudorprinter and poet includes his best-known poem,"The Hye Way to the Spyttel Hous," which depictsLondon's low lile and contains the earliest printedversion of English thieves' slang,Suzanne Pinckncy Stetkevych, PhD'81, The MuteImmortals Speak (Cornell University Press). A bodyol bedouin oral poetry collected in the second orthird Islamic century, the pre-Islamic qasidah, orode, stands with the Qur'an as a twin foundation ofArab-Islamic literary culture; however, both Easternand Western critics have yet to formulate a poeticsto analyze and evaluate this poetry. Drawing on theinsights of contemporary literary theory, anthropology, and the history of religions, Stetkevych offersan aesthetics — based on close readings of severalpoems — appropriate for this oral verse.Beth Fowkes Tobin, AM'74, PhD'85, Superintending the Poor: Charitable Ladies and Paternal Landlords in British Fiction (Yale University Press). Theattempt by the middle class, during the early yearsof industrial Britain, to displace the upper classes inthe regulation of land and labor dominated discussions of poverty and charity. Examining novels byHenry Mackenzie, William Godwin, Jane Austen,Charlotte Bronte, and Charles Dickens, Tobin discusses how these texts discredited the landed classesand promoted the expertise of the middle classes assupervisors of the physical, moral, and spiritualwell-being of the rural poor.EDUCATIONEdward MacNeal, AB'48, AM'51, Mathsemantics:Making Numbers Talk Sense (Viking). MacNeal arguesthat, despite the dire warnings of second-grade teachers, you can add apples and oranges (1 apple + 2oranges = 3 fruit). Focusing on how language is vital tounderstanding numbers, this book is designed forbusiness people who want to catch mistakes andmanipulations in figures, educators trying to teachmalh without instilling fear, and ordinary people determined to rale math instead of letting it rule them.Leonard P. Oliver, PhD'70, Study Circles: ComingTogether lor Personal Growth and Social Change(Seven Locks Press). Analyzing the Swedish methodof study circles as the primary means of adult learn ing, Oliver discusses how such a "study-circledemocracy" can help overcome social isolation andfragmentation by letting people participate in the lifeof their communities.FICTION AND POETRYBob Mills, AM'47, Time Rides the River (LakeShore Publishing). This latest anthology of theauthor's poetry is grouped into four sections: "Timeand the Wind," "Following the Flame," "Words AreMy Favorite People," and "Seasonal."David Ray, AB'52, AM'57, Wool Highways &• OtherPoems (Helicon Nine Editions). About Ray's newvolume, Studs Terkel, PhB'32, JD'34, writes, "DavidRay's poetry has always been radiant even thoughpersonal tragedy has suffused it. This book tells usmore about New Zealand than any academic treatiseever could."Math Minus the Headache (see Education)Susan Fromberg Schaeffer, AB'61, AM'63,PhD'66, First Nights (Alfred A. Knopf). Two intertwined autobiographies make up this novel: onewritten by the reclusive Anna Asta, a silent film starfrom the snowy, Scandinavian north, and the otherby Ivy Cook, a Caribbean woman who comes fromGreen Island, a country teeming with ghosts,storms of parakeets, and plagues of butterflies. Thenovel explores how human destinies surprisinglyintersect and how stories have the power to moldour lives.Norman Wong, AB'86, Cultural Revolution(Persea Books). In 11 linked stories, the authorportrays three generations of the Lau family andthe consequences of their emigration from China toHonolulu. Although the novel focuses on onefamily — and particularly on "the number one son,"Michael, a closet homosexual — the truth each generation must face reflects the cultural predicamentof contemporary Chinese-American life.GENDER STUDIESDouglas C. Kimmel, AM'69, PhD'70, and LindaD. Garnets, editors, Psychological Perspectives onLesbian and Gay Male Experiences (Columbia University Press). Providing a comprehensive overviewof the central themes and issues in lesbian and gaymale studies, this psychology textbook concentrates on identity development, gender differences, ethnicand racial variation, long-term relationships, adultdevelopment, and aging — and calls for new modelsin clinical practice, research, and public policy.Nancy Lukens, AM'68, PhD'73, and DorothyRosenberg, translators and editors, Daughters of Eve:Women's Writing from the German DemocraticRepublic (University of Nebraska Press). The firstanthology of contemporary East German women'swriting in English translation, this volume includesshort stories, essays, autobiographical sketches, andexcerpts from novels — all written between 1974 and1986 by women of the postwar generation — depicting such issues as women and work, women andfamily, and women's self-definition in relation toother people and social institutions.HISTORY/CURRENT EVENTSClaudia D. Goldin, AM'69, PhD'72, and Hugh T.Rockoff, AM'69, PhD'72, editors, Strategic Factors inNineteenth Century American Economic History: AVolume to Honor Robert W. Fogel (University ofChicago Press). Offering new research on strategicfactors in the development of 19th-century Americanlabor, capital, and political structure, the contributorsto this volume employ a methodology developed by1993 Nobel Prize winner and U of C professor RobertW. Fogel, a pioneer of the "new economic history."Martin A. Klein, AM'59, PhD'64, editor, Breakingthe Chains: Slavery, Bondage, and Emancipation inModern Africa and Asia (University of WisconsinPress). Focusing on emancipation in African andAsian societies that were either colonized or cameunder European domination in the 19th century,this group of essays examines how the transitionfrom slavery to emancipation involved pressurefrom European abolition movements, the extensionof capitalist relations of production, the concernsand perceptions of the colonial state, and the effortsof non- Western elites to modernize their cultures.Andrew Handler and Susan V. Meschel, SM'59,PhD'61, Young People Speak: Suiviving the Holocaustin Hungary (Franklin Watts). The two authors, bothsurvivors of the Holocaust and graduates of theJewish High School of Budapest, asked others whohad been children in Hungary during the Holocaustto contribute to this volume. Although all 1 1 contributors remained out of concentration camps, theylost homes, families, and loved ones.David R. Segal, AM'63, PhD'67, and Mady WechslerSegal, AM'67, PhD'73, Peacekeepers and their Wives(Greenwood Press). Drawing on surveys, interviews, and field observations of American soldiers,and their wives, who have served with the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai Desert insupport of the Camp David Accords, the authorsargue that the ambiguity of multinational peacekeeping missions is stressful both for soldiers andfor their wives.Antanas J. Van Reenan, PhD'86, Lithuanian Diaspora: Konigsberg to Chicago (University Press ofAmerica). Tracing Lithuanian immigration into theU.S. — particularly Chicago — between 1867 and1952, the author moves beyond literal history toexamine larger questions of the nature of nationalism, and how new citizenship is acquired.MEDICINE AND HEALTHBelleruth Krepon Naparstek, AB'64, AM'67,Staying Well with Guided Imagery (Warner). Drawing on the words and images that appear on herHealth Journeys audiotape series, psychotherapistand guided-imagery pioneer Naparstek exploreshow deliberate, directed daydreaming can helpmaintain physical, mental, emotional, and spiritualwell-being.46 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994James Hill Parker, AM'61, Health Care and Freedom: An American Dilemma (University Press ofAmerica). A participant-observation study of nursing homes, this book includes additional observances and experiments in medical care and relatedissues of freedom, including patients' rights to die.Harold E. Simmons, X'54, Psychosocial Aberrations (Haag-Herchen). This book offers an accountof a newly emerging theory of psychogenic disease,underscored by the author's conviction that the personality/stress/hormone configuration causes mostcancer and other diseases.POLITICAL SCIENCE AND LAWDale F. Eickelman, AM'68, PhD'71, editor,Russia's Muslim Frontiers (Indiana University Press).Russian, Central Asian, and American scholars candidly assess the relative strengths and weaknesses oftheir respective past and present approaches tounderstanding political and religious developmentsin the Russian Muslim world.Charles H. Kennedy, JD'76, An Introduction toU.S. Telecommunications Law (Artech House). Thisvolume surveys the constraints on the telecommunications industry imposed by regulation (both stateand federal) and antitrust laws. An appendix introduces principles of economic analysis upon whichtelecommunications regulation increasingly relies.RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHYDale Aukerman, AB'49, Reckoning with Apocalypse(Crossroads Publishing). Reclaiming the Bible andbiblical prophecy from their use by forces of thestatus quo, particularly the religious right, Aucker-man examines "abused" scriptural themes such asArmageddon, the abomination of desolation, thebeast, the fall of Babylon, and false prophecy.Paul R. Dekar, AM'73, PhD'78, For the Healing ofNations: Baptist Peacemakers (Smyth & Helwys), witha foreword by Martin E. Marty, PhD'56. Exploringthe tradition of Baptist work for peace and justice,this book seeks to recover a neglected dimension ofBaptist historiography and locate present efforts ofthe Baptist Peace Fellowship of North America withina historical context — thus challenging the tendencyto identify Baptist interests and ideologies with thoseof right-wing political movements.Dennis C. Duling, AM'67, PhD'70, and NormanPerrin, The New Testament: Proclamation and Parene-sis, Myth and History (Harcourt Brace College Publishers). Retaining its end-of-chapter bibliographies,extensive general bibliography, and emphasis on thehistorical Jesus as the presupposition of the New Testament, this new edition includes the reorganizationand updating of all chapters, more complete attentionto the details of inclusive language, extended social-historical and literary-historical analyses, and a new,introductory chapter on interpretative methods usingthe Lord's Prayer as a model.George Fitchett, ThM'70, DMN'74, Assessing Spiritual Needs: A Guide for Caregivers (Augsburg) andSpiritual Assessment in Pastoral Care: A Guide toSelected Resources (Journal of Pastoral Care Publications). The firs^ book describes a holistic, multidimensional, functional model for spiritual assessment designed for use by clergy and other caregivers.The companion volume is an annotated bibliographyof 26 published models for spiritual assessment,drawn from various pastoral-care contexts, as well asnursing and spiritual-assessment research.Justin Leiber, AB'58, AM'60, PhD'67, Paradoxes(Duckworth). The author applies philosophical, literary, computational, and historical perspectives tothree sorts of paradoxes: the liar paradoxes, culminating in Godel's incompleteness results andTuring's limits on computability; the Cartesian STAYING WELL WITHGUIDEDIMAGERYHOW TO HARNESS THE POWiR OF YOURIMAGINATION FOR HEALTH AND HSALINGBELLERUTH NAPARSTEKMind over Matter (see Medicine and Health)"couldn't I now be dreaming?" paradoxes, whichanimate Shakespeare and Borges while dominatingphilosophical thought from Descartes to Russell;and the puzzles of gambling, ranging from theMonty Hall paradox to the prisoner's dilemma.David McCracken, AM'62, PhD'66, The Scandal ofthe Gospels: Jesus, Story, and Offense (Oxford University Press). Demonstrating two types of biblicalscandal — worldly offense, in the form of desires,idolatry, and human obstacles to faith, and thelesser known essential offense — McCracken enliststhe help of Kierkegaard and Bakhtin to recover theGospels' sense of Jesus as skandalon, or scandal.Richard Schoenherr, AM'67, PhD'70, andLawrence Young, Full Pews and Empty Altars: Demographics of the Priest Shortage in the United StatesCatholic Dioceses (University of Wisconsin Press) .Constructing a census-registry of some 36,000priests from the years 1966 to 1984 and using life-table techniques to project into the future, theauthors foresee both a 40-percent loss in the diocesan priesthood and a dramatic increase in thechurchgoing population by 2005. While not offering solutions, the authors provide up-to-date demographic information for those in a position to use it.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYMercedes A. Ebbert, AB'80, and D. L. Wrensch, editors, Evolution and Diversity of Sex Ratio in Insects andMites (Chapman and Hall). This volume explores twofundamental questions of evolutionary biology: Whatare the evolutionary advantages of sexual reproduction and why do organisms vary their brood sex ratio?Although many biologists believe that these questionshave been solved, this book challenges those beliefsthrough an extensive synthesis of current data on sex-ratio diversity in a wide range of insects and mites,from the well-studied parasitic wasps to the less well-known, but enormously successful, colonizing mites.SOCIAL SCIENCESDonna Lee Bowen, AM'72, PhD'81, and Evelyn A.Early, PhD'80, editors, Everyday Life in the MuslimMiddle East (Indiana University Press). This anthologyof stories, poems, essays, and photographs is designedto give Western readers a sense of what it's like to live in the Middle East in the latter part of the 20th century, focusing on generations and life passages; genderrelations; home, community and work; religiousexpression; and performance and entertainment.Anita Beltran Chen, PhD'62, Recruitment to Nursing: Sociological Perspectives (Center for NorthernStudies, Lakehead University, Ontario, Canada).Using two sets of survey data obtained from twocohorts of nursing students drawn 14 years apart,Chen discusses students' changing profiles, reasonsfor choosing nursing, and career commitments.Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, AB'60, PhD'65, KevinRathunde, PhD'89, and Samuel Whalen, AM'84,PhD'93, with contributions by Maria Wong,PhD'93, Talented Teenagers (University of ChicagoPress). This book examines what makes adolescentstick — and what roles personality traits, family interactions, education, and social environment play in ateen's motivation to develop his or her talents.Mark Freeman, PhD'86, Rewriting the Self: History,Memory, Narrative (Roudedge). How do people reinterpret the meaning and significance of past experience? Drawing on the lives of such notable auto-biographers as St. Augustine, Helen Keller, and PhilipRoth — as well as on the combined insights of psychology, philosophy, and literary theory — the authorseeks to illuminate the dynamics of self-interpretationin particular and interpretive psychological inquiry ingeneral.David F. Greenberg, SB'62, SM'63, PhD'69, editor,Crime and Capitalism: Readings in Marxist Criminology (Temple University Press). In this expandedand updated second edition of a noted reader inMarxist criminology, Greenberg brings togetherwritings about crime, from classic articles by Marxand Engels to a variety of contemporary essays.Taking an explicitly Marxist point of view, the articles deal with various areas of criminology, including organized crime, delinquency, urban crime,criminal law, and criminal justice.Matthew Melko, AM'52, Thomas E. Koebemick,and David Michael Orenstein, Millfield on Saturday:Searching for Community in a Metropolitan Village(Wright State University Press). Examining thenature of community as it currently exists in ourincreasingly metropolitan society, this book tests acentury of sociological theory and research against aconcentrated study of a small community in metropolitan Ohio. The final analysis is a quantitative andqualitative detailing of the community's geographicaland social settings.Mark A. Schneider, AB'66, AM'68, Culture andEnchantment (University of Chicago Press). In the17th century, natural philosophers were unable todistinguish occult from mundane phenomena, sothinkers such as Newton delved deeply into topicsthat now seem odd. Yet, Schneider argues, the samemix of occult and mundane interests occurs todayin the study of culture. Comparing the social circumstances of early-modern natural philosophywith those of cultural analysis today, he claims thatthe "enchanted" condition of cultural studies issociologically predictable.Audrey C Shalinsky, AB'73, Long Tears of Exile(University Press of America). An ethnographic studyof a group of Ferghana Valley, Uzbekistan, emigrantswho migrated to Afghanistan in the Stalinist periodand are now refugees in Pakistan, this book examinestheir way of life in the 1970s and subsequendy traceshow they were affected by the Marxist government,Soviet invasion, and prolonged civil war.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," please sendthe name of the book, its author, its publisher, anda short synopsis to the Books Editor, University ofChicago Magazine, 5757 S. Woodlawn Ave.,Chicago, IL 60637.University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994 470 ther VokesA SensibleProposalBy Adam KhanI have a cunning plan for the College.So cunning that, in the words of oneEdward Blackadder, you could stick atail on it and call it a weasel. I'vealready told a few people about it: Wacky,they've said. Crazy, they've responded.You're mental, they've suggested. Yetdespite these overcautious encouragements,I forge ahead. I publish.You see, being far-fetched is part of itsmerit. It makes other wacky ideas seem relatively humdrum. It would be an amazingPR stunt. But wait, we'll get to all that.Meanwhile, allow me to propose:Whereas the College prides itself on beinga liberal arts institution; and whereas a liberal arts education is a tool designed toincrease an individual's effectiveness in anyconceivable field of endeavor; and whereasthe aim of such effectiveness is to lead amore satisfying and joyful life; and whereasmany fields of endeavor fall outside theintellectual sphere, involving instead thebody and the senses; therefore be it resolvedthat the College extend the Common Coreto develop young men and women not onlyintellectually, but also physically and sensually.Imagine it: After Western Civ, you rushoff to your Spices 157 final, completingyour Common Core Senses (Taste) requirement. Blindfolded, you must discern individual spices from piles lined up on a longtray. You go home and do some Soc reading. Then you practice for your requiredCoordination class, which next week ismoving on to five-ball juggling.It's not as kooky as it sounds. Just as theaim of a Western Civ class isn't only to knowwhat effect the Enlightenment had on industry but also to contribute to the developmentof vour critical thinking, the aim of jugglingisn't just to toss balls but to develop yourcoordination. I'm not talking about makingthe U of C a sports school. All this would be Imagine it: After Western Civ,you rush off to your Spices 157final, completing your CommonCore Senses (Taste) requirement. Then home to read someSoc and practice juggling.part of the curriculum, not a competitionagainst other schools. Besides, since so manypeople play on intramural teams already(which suggests they realize something ismissing in the curriculum), it wouldn't bethat tough a transformation.Really, why are we all here in the firstplace? Why do we kneel at the altar of theliberal arts education? The answer: a betterlife. The nonbelievers — that is, the liberalarts atheists among us — think the undergraduate experience improves our lot bydelaying our entry into the workforce —hey, four years of fun are better than noneat all. The agnostics are here because theybelieve they'll get a better job afterwards.But the true believers of the liberal-arts faithhold that the rest of our days will be inevery way enriched by going to college.Well just have more fun than other people.When we read a novel, we'll get more out ofit. When we go to Rome, the anonymous ruins won't bore us because we'll be able toimagine the Forum as it was. And so on.Liberally educated people suck more joyout of their lives.But there are many situations in life forwhich we require developed senses andbodies, not minds. Our liberal arts, as theystand, do not give us sucking power forsuch situations. They do not take oursenses and our bodies seriously: We'repaying for a set of tools that will let us livelife more fully, but half the toolbox isempty. The skeletal Common Core Physical Education and Music-Art requirementsserve only to admit that huge chunks ofwhat it means to be human are seriouslyundervalued.But you may be a fundamentalist in thechurch of liberal education and object."We're here for ideas, not for the good life,"you say. Hugo Sonnenschein himself emphasized the primacy of ideas at the U of C in hisinaugural speech. Well, I like ideas — some ofmy best friends are ideas — but I don't thinkI'm enough of a philosopher to put themahead of the good life. And I'm willing to betthat neither would most College students.To the unpersuaded, how about this? ACommon Core for the body and senses aswell as for the mind would completelytransform the College's image. Imagine thepress we'd get: Since nobody else teachesthis way, the media would call it news. Andsince the explicit notion that higher education is simply a way to make life funsmacks of decadence in this still-often-Puritanical country, there'd be a nationaloutcry asking just what exactly higher education is. I can see it now: We'd be on thecover of Time, captioned by "Rethinkingthe Liberal Arts."Imagine how this revamped curriculumwould change our image in the mind of thehigh school senior. First off, he or shewould have one (an image, not a mind).We wouldn't have to market ourselves withvideos that plead, "No, we're not an overlyscholarly, introverted place — look at thesepeople talking to each other." Instead, wewould offer a lifetime training ground, ajungle gym of joy.Thoughtful men and women with finelydeveloped senses and strong, flexiblephysiques. If my idea seems ridiculous,consider where I stole it from. In Plato'sRepublic, Socrates saw the combination ofMusic with Gymnastic — that is, the trainingof the mind with that of the body — as theideal education. Nobody got to be aphilosopher-king without both.Adam Khan, '95, is a third-year studentmajoring in Fundamentals. This essay firstappeared in the Chicago Maroon.48 University of Chicago Magazine/April 1994Plan to participate in the dedication activities forthe new Biological Sciences Learning Center andJules F. Knapp Medical Research Center ComplexThursday afternoon, June 24 P.M. Dedication address by Daniel Koshland,Ph.D. '49, editor of Science magazine5 p.m. Dedication ceremonies and tours ofthe buildingFriday, June 3A Symposium on Biological Research andEducation in a Changing World8;45 a.m. Opening remarks by Samuel Hellman,M.D., the A. N. Pritzker Distinguished ServiceProfessor in Radiation & Cellular Oncology9:1 5 A.M. to 4 P.M. Concurrent sessionsexploring current issues in teaching andresearch in the biological sciencesSaturday, June 49 A.M. tol;3Qp.M. Symposium continues* Presentations and hands-on sessions usingtechnology and software that supportbiomedical education• Tours of BSD Academic Computing facilities Watch your mailjor afull schedule of events.Admission to allevents isjree, butregistration is requestedFor additional information on Thursday andFriday activities,call (312) 702-2978;concerning theSaturday sessions,call (312) 702-20S6. IBiological Sciences Learning Center and Jules F. Knapp Medical Research Center ComplexThe University of Chicago, 924 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637Green streak: an early-morning runner makes tracks along the quads. Photograph by Dan Dry.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobie House, 5757 WoodlawnChicago, IL 60637ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxCAR-RT SORT**CR042318977The University of Chicago •¦!>{,LibrarySerial Records Departmentinf r im+Ummtmm*.Chicago, IL 60637