fHE UNIVERSITY OF\ —, iZ^3.CI * 14»\FEB 16 1994-> ,\-«am«v*sit ¦-' ¦¦y PK*» •• mChicagoI VOLUME 86, NUMBER 3 FEBRUARY 1994 M^ ^^^kDEPABTMENTS2 Editor's notes3 Letters7 EventsThe harbingers of spring.8 Chicago journalReexamining radiation experiments conducted in the1940s: a U ofC health-carereform group hopes tomake a difference in the cityof Chicago.14 InvestigationsPathologist Robert Kirschneruses forensics to charthuman-rights violations;there's tin in them thar(Turkish) hills.35 Alumni chronicleAlumni book groups, ProNetupdate, and reunion plans.37 Class news42 Deaths44 Books by alumni48 Other voicesMan Schindele, AB'88,AM'89, on (lie sound ofmusic in Rocfee/eller Chapel. 202431 FEATURESPortrait of an un-zineIts bills itself as "The Journal That Blunts the CuttingEdge. " Meet The Baffler, edited by UofC students whorepresent the twenty something generation.JACLYN H. PARKHard copyLincoln's Gettysburg Address is short, to the point,simple to memorize — and difficult to imitate.LARRY McENERNEYA world in black and whiteAs a journalist and a journal keeper, Brent Staples,AM'76, PhD'82, writes about the world as he sees itJOE LEVINEGhost of the machineThe demise of the Superconducting SuperCollider has left physicists with somehaunting questions.ANDREW CAMPBELL PageCover: Journalist Brent Staples on the streets ofManhattan (see page 24). Photograph by DanDry. Opposite: If it looks like a calendar-perfect picture, it is. This photograph of theHumanities quadrangle, taken by AndrewHalpern, AB'88, represented January in theUniversity's 1994 calendar.Page 24EditorMary Ruth YoeManaging EditorTim Andrew ObermillerAssociate EditorJaclyn H. ParkArt DirectorAllen CarrollEditorial AssistantCatherine A. Mitchell, AB'93Student AssistantJeanette Harrison, '94Contributing EditorsJamie Kalven, Joe LevineEditorial office: The University of ChicagoMagazine, Robie House, 5757 S. Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312) 702-2163 Fax (312) 702-2166.The Magazine is sent to all University ofChicago alumni. The University of ChicagoAlumni Association has its offices at RobieHouse, 5757 S. Woodlawn Avenue,Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312) 702-2150. Fax (312) 702-2166.The University of Chicago AlumniAssociation Board of Governors:Officers: William C. Naumann, MBA'75,president; Richard L. Bechtolt, PhB'46,AM'50, vice president; Jack J. Carlson,AB'40, treasurer; Linda Thoren Neal, AB'64,JD'67, secretary; and Jeanne Buiter,MBA'86, executive director.Clifford K. Chiu, MBA'82; N. Gwyn Cready,AB'83, MBA'86; Robert Feitler, X'46; TrinaN. Frankel, AB'64; Caroline Heck, AB'71 ;Randy Holgate, 'Acting Vice President,Development and Alumni Relations; Le RoyJ. Hines, AM'78; Susan Carlson Hull, AB'82;Michael J. Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76;Patricia Klowden, AB'67; Michael C. Krauss,AB'75, MBA'76; Joseph D. LaRue, AM'59;Robert F. Levey, AB'66; Katherine DusakMiller, AB'65, MBA'68, PhD'71 ; Theodore A.O'Neill, AM'70, *Dean of College Admissions; Susan W. Parker, AB'65; Harvey B.Plotnick, AB'63; Louise E. Rehling, AM'70,SM'74; Jean Maclean Snyder, AB'63, JD'79;David M. Terman, AB'55, SB'56, MD'59;Mary B. Van Meerendonk, AB'64; Peter O.Vandervoort, ABM, SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60;Marshall I. Wais, Jr., AB'63; Gregory G.Wrobel, AB'75, JD'78, MBA'79; Mary RuthYoe, "Editor, UofC Magazine.* Ex OfficioMagazine Advisory Committee: Michael J.Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76, chair; RichardL. Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; Robert Feitler,X'46; Mary Lou Gorno, MBA'76; Neil Harris,the Preston and Sterling Morton Professor inHistory; Susan Carlson Hull, AB'82; MichaelC. Krauss, AB'75, MBA'76; Robert F. Levey,AB'66; Katherine Dusak Miller, AB'65,MBA'68, PhD'71 ; Marva Watkins, AB'63.The University of Chicago Magazine (ISSN-0041-9508) is published bimonthly (October,December, February, April, June, andAugust) by the University of Chicago incooperation with the Alumni Association,Robie House, 5757 S. Woodlawn Avenue,Chicago IL 60637. Published continuouslysince 1907. Second-class postage paid atChicago and additional mailing offices.POSTMASTER: send address changes tothe University of Chicago Magazine, AlumniRecords, Robie House, 5757 S. WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637. © 1 994 University of Chicago. Editors NotesGrowing up in the generally temperate climes just south of the Mason-Dixon line, I considered LauraIngalls Wilder's Little House on the Prairiebooks a species of exotica. It was the Midwestern weather Wilder described thatseemed most foreign: plagues of grasshoppers, prairie fires, tornadoes — and theheavy snows and bitter cold that gave TheLong Hard Winter its title.Only after I started work at Grinnell College and survived my first winter on theIowa prairie did the foreign become thefamiliar. Then I understood why Laura andher sisters took so long getting dressed toventure out into the winter wind — crisscrossing shawls and fastening fascinators,luxuriating in mission-barrel gifts of rabbit-fur muffs and hoods. It was cold out there.And it was cold out on the University ofChicago quads this January. The cold spelldidn't quite rival the Really Big Storm of1918 — when the photo above was taken.The 1918 cold snap began with a two-dayblizzard, followed by four weeks without athaw. To save on coal, the University closedthe Lab Schools for a week and turneddown the heat on weekends.Armed with that bit of historical perspective, I could almost scoff at this January's subzero wind chills. Still, it was cold on campusduring the week of January 17-21. Coinci-dentally, it was also the week when the College celebrated Kuviasungnerk — an annualwinter festival whose name comes from anEskimo word for "happiness." So, how cold was it? It was so cold that,early in the week, a Commonwealth Edisonvault flooded when water pipes burst, disrupting heating and lighting systems inCobb, Gates-Blake, Goodspeed, and othercampus buildings. But not so cold that allclasses were canceled.It was so cold that the Kuviasungnerk volunteers disbursing free doughnuts and hotchocolate each morning moved the freebiesinto the Administration Building to keepthe doughnuts from freezing. But not socold that the doughnuts didn't get eaten.It was so cold that rumors flew thatThursday's official Kuviasungnerk procession to the Point — to greet the winter sunas it rose over Lake Michigan — would becanceled. But not so cold that 60 stalwartsouls, including the University's president,didn't show up to salute the dawn.It was so cold that a group of studentsdecided to institute a Lascivious Lap —streaking around the quads clad only inboxers (men) and T-shirts (women). Butnot so cold that the local TV stations' mini-cams weren't there to record the momentfor the evening news.What We're Glad You GaveWarming the cockles of our hearts were the7,784 readers who have contributed$127,407.19 to the Magazine since wewrote you in September. The gifts mean alot to the Magazine's budget, and we thankyou for your generosity. — M.R.Y.2 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994LettersGetting hit by a gremlin (or two)J presume this is neither the first nor lastletter to you concerning the editing snafuon pages 45, 46, and 47 of the December/93 issue. We will have an explanation,won't we? (I always find something enjoyablein the Magazine, even with the gremlins.)Robert S. Lichtenstein, PhB'47Mountain View, CaliforniaThe editing snafu occurred in the "Books byAlumni" section. As a result of our less thanperfect understanding of desktop publishing, werepeated the first two columns of book notices asthe last two columns. Computer gremlins alsotampered with a sentence in Karen Richman'santhropological look at the inaugural ritual.What Richman wrote (on page 31) was, "Yetsome faculty who sat in the nave, the main partof the sanctuary forming the vertical line of thecross, experienced a Christian ceremony. "Our excuse? Having gotten through our firstseveral issues on desktop without major problems, we let down our guard. The experiencereminded me of graduate-school days in Edinburgh, when a more experienced Americanexpatriate warned me, as I was beginning tobelieve that I'd finally learned to look rightinstead of left before crossing a street, "Justwhen you think it's automatic, you'll go backto what's really automatic — and before youknow it, you'll get hit by a lorry}" — M.R.Y.Predictable beginnings?Your description of the course NaturalSciences 101 ("Course Work,"December/93) left me more than alitde uneasy. The idea that the universe will"come out" of the fundamental laws ofphysics themselves is certainly erroneous.Even Dirac's famous more modest statementregarding Quantum Mechanics — "Theunderlying physical laws necessary for themathematical theory of a large part ofphysics and the whole of chemistry are thuscompletely known" — should also be knownas famously wrong. The simplest moleculesof chemistry and their aggregate propertiesare in no wise predictable from the fundamental laws of physics by themselves. Novelemergent properties of such aggregates,such as hydrogen bonding leading to the relatively high normal boiling point of water, are always observed. Incidentally, thenumber given for the speed of the earth inits motion about the sun, and said to havebeen repeated six times in two minutes byProfessor Kolb, is wrong by one power often. The students might better have beenasked to calculate this speed for themselvesgiven that the earth's orbit is nearly circularof average radius 93 million miles.Charles E. Hecht, SM'54, PhD'56Brooklyn, New YorkProfessor Kolb replies: A cartoon showing theBig Bang as a meat-gririder ("Input the laws ofphysics, turn the handle, and out will come theuniverse.") is an analogy I'm happy to defend.Of course we have to spend some time discussing what we mean by "out will come. "Some things are impossible to predict.Although most of us believe that the weather fornext week will be determined by a complicatedinteraction of the laws of physics as well assome chemistry, because of the complexity of theproblem, we can't predict the low in Chicagonext Tuesday. However, even with the inherentcomplexity we can say something about climate:Chicago has colder winters than Miami.We can use the laws of physics to understandthe large-scale structure of the univetse, its "climate" so to speak, although the complexity ofboth the universe and the laws of physics makesit impossible to predict the exact details.You are correct that the velocity of the earthabout the sun is 67,000 miles per hour. However, in addition to the motion of the earthabout the sun, the solar system orbits thecenter of the Milky Way with a velocity of450,000 mph, and our entire local group ofgalaxies travels through the universe with avelocity of 1.4 million mph. The point is, wedon't "feel" any of these velocities.The cheers stop hereNow I know the University has lostits direction. The goal of sports atChicago used to be the fun of participation and competition, rather than winning. Teams with losing records wereappreciated as much as those rarities withwinning ones. Page 12 of the Decemberissue gives all the space to a few big winners — who are expected to do even betternext year. Not a word about the also-rans.Rah, rah. Give me a break!Donald I. Hirschfeld, AB'53, SB'54Temple Hills, MarylandUmbilical tiesJ spent the 1992-93 academic year teaching economics at two universities inVarna, Bulgaria. If you saw the latestincarnation of the movie Dracula, you may The CenterforMiddle Eastern StudiesUniversity of Chicago1994 TRAVEL PROGRAMSJourneys for the adventuroustraveler, student, or scholar of anyage, interest, or background whowishes to explore lands of naturalwonders, historical treasures, andcultural diversityWESTERN TURKEY ANDCAPPADOCIAJuly 27 - Aug 15$3,800 per person (air and land)TURKISH RIVIERA GULLETCRUISEAug. 12-22$2,300 per person(land and cruise only)MEDITERRANEAN TURKEYAND CYPRUSAug 19 - Sept 6$4,100 per person (air and land)TURKEY AND CENTRAL ASIASept 2-20$4,500 per person (air and land)Host Professors:Dr. Richard L.Chambersand Dr. John E.WoodsFOR MORE INFORMATION, WRITEOR CALL640 South FederalSuite 706Chicago, IL 60605Phone: (312) 939-3194*m*fc»University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 3The U i Association"1 \l pJlAAniversity of Chicago AlumnDistinguished Faculty SeriesThe Alumni Association is proud to offer our alumni, parents, and friends an opportunity to learnfrom the University's finest professors. During 1994, faculty members will present seminars incities across the country. Watch your mail for more details.Robert Aliber Lanny Bell John Huizingaon International Economics on Salvation Archaeology on Economic Forecasts? Denver ? Toronto ? Philadelphia? PhoenixDavid Bevington Charles LipsonJeanne Altmann on Shakespeare on Economic Competitionon Global Conservation ? Los Angeles ? Fort Lauderdale? Pittsburgh ? San Diego ? Minneapolis? PrincetonJohn Boyer ? NaplesArjun Appadurai on Liberal Education Martin Martyon Cultural Free Trade ? Detroit on World Fundamentalism? Washington, DCWendy Doniger ? MilwaukeeWayne Baker on Sexual Masquerades Michael Turneron Networking ? Boston on the Big Bang? Portland ? New York City ? Dallas? SeattleNorman Golbon the Dead Sea Scrolls? San Francisco ? HoustonDistinguished Faculty SeriesUniversity of Chicago Alumni Association5757 South Woodlawn AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637-1698(312) 702-21574 University oi; Chicago Magazine/February 1994emember Varna as the port from which theount departed for the New World. Despitehe fact that the program that sent me wastin by Harvard and Yale graduate studentsmd was an organizational nightmare, I hadi wonderful time there. The Economics andtechnical Universities of Varna gave melbout 100 students, maybe 60 of whomA'ere fluent in English and all of whom put:orth a lot of effort.A few months after I returned to Washington, I received a letter from one of my students. She had been four months pregnantwhen 1 left and we had to reschedule herfinal exam as it was in a fifth-floor room in abuilding without elevators. She was writingto tell me that she had given birth to a beautiful baby girl who was the pride of her life,and for whom she wanted nothing but thebest. She also told me that there was an oldBulgarian belief that a person's destiny wastied to the place in which her umbilical cordwas disposed. Therefore, she was enclosingher baby's umbilical cord and wished me to"see that it is thrown away somewhere inWashington, or at a good university. ..."What else could I do with such a request?I brought it with me to Chicago over theholidays, and disposed of it on the Point (in10-degree weather, I might add). Little babyMalita Tzvetanova's fate is inextricablylinked to Hyde Park and the University ofChicago. The College might just as well setaside the scholarship money now.Austin J. Kelly, AB'78, AM'80Washington, D.C.Communicating vs. thinkingJn his inaugural address President Sonnenschein declared that "We judge ourselves as teachers by how well wecommunicate ideas to students."There is, of course, a higher standard bywhich teaching may be judged. The sentence might have read: "We judge ourselvesas teachers by how well we help studentsimprove their ability to think." But if thusrevised, would the claim have been true?The very next sentence of Sonnenschein'saddress suggests that it ought to be true:"We evaluate our students on the basis oftheir own growing capacity to develop andexpress ideas of their own." If this growth isthe basis for judging students, should noteffectiveness in assisting it be the basis forjudging teachers?The speech also celebrates intensive intellectual discussion as a hallmark of the University of Chicago. But if the discussion isto rise firmly above the level of energeticassertion and counter-assertion, the partiesmust learn to reason well together. This isnot a skill that newcomers commonly THE UNIVERSITY OE CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONInvites you to join distinguished faculty and alumni friends participatingin alumni travel/study programs during the coming months1994 Spring/Summer Study TripsCruising the Mississippi Voyage to the Land ofaboard the Delta Queen the Midnight SunMarch 11-20 June 22— July 6A riverboat trip from Most of our fifteen day voyageMemphis to New Orleans to the remote towns and dramaticwill explore Civil War themes scenery hidden along the Norwegianand the influence of the river on coast will be in territory aboveAmerican literature. Led by the Arctic Circle. Faculty leaderProfessor William Veeder, an expert will be Professor Mark Sandberg,on Mark Twain and Ambrose Bierce, an expert on Norwegianwe will also have as guest lecturer language and literature.Ken Burns, creator of theaward-winning PBS documentaryThe Civil "War.England'sCosta Rica and Cotswold VillagesBaja California A Leisurely Walking TourMarch 28-April 10 August 13-20Our spring cruise along Noted Shakespearean scholarthe unspoiled Pacific coast Professor David Bevington willof Central America and Mexico lead this week of walkingoffers a rare opportunity to study the in one of the loveliest partsregion's natural history with of England. The trip will includeProfessors David Jablonski a performance at Stratford-on-Avonand Susan Kidwell of the and discussions of EnglishDepartment of Geophysical literature and historySciences and the Committee on associated with the region.Evolutionary Biology.Italy: Medieval,Renaissance, and Baroque Alaska WildernessMay 12-24 August 7-20This very special trip We will see Alaska by land,through the cities of Venice, sea, and air on a study trip thatFlorence, and Rome, the scenic combines natural and culturalhill towns, and the Italian Lakes history. Anthropologist Professorregion led by Ingrid Rowland of the Ralph Nicholas will discuss the richArt Department will study the art traditions of the native Americansand culture of Italy during and their interaction with Russianthree historic periods. and Euro-American cultures.For further information and brochures or to be added to our travel/ studymailing list, call or write to Alumni Travel, University of Chicago AlumniAssociation, 5757 Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 312/702-2160.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 5When you visitChicago fora weekend,a week,or a month,stay atWOODED ISLE SUITES— studio andone-bedroomapartmentsfurnished toprovide you ahome away fromhome.Walk to the Universityof Chicago or theMuseum of Scienceand Industry, strollalong the lakefront,catch the bus or trainto the Loop, dine at anearby restaurant, ormake your own dinnerin your Suite.Come "home" toWooded Isle Suitesand relax after a dayof research,studying, meetings,or sightseeing.WOODED ME SUITES5750 South Stony Island AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637312-288-5578 bring to academic life or that participantsreadily acquire: it needs teachers who canfoster it.Thinking well includes the ability todefine terms, problems, and issues clearly;to make sound judgments of the relevanceor importance of facts and ideas; to posequestions and hypotheses that are bold,imaginative, and fruitful; to move from particulars to generalizations and back withorder and logic; to sniff out conflicts amongone's premises in order to reach more solidconclusions; to be aware of the assumptionsand evidence upon which one's conclusionsare based; to combine what needs to becombined and separate what needs to beseparated.Besides these abilities, certain habitual dispositions in the activity of the intellect areinvaluable. One better thinks honestly,justly, objectively, impartially, courageously, temperately, considerately, andhumbly. The most important disposition isthe wholehearted subordination of thoughtto the search for truth. And if rational dialogue in the intellectual community is tothrive, there must be a preference for cooperative inquiry rather than competitiveadvocacy.Improvement in these abilities and dispositions is difficult to define, to teach, tolearn, and to assess. But these obstacles areas nothing compared with the difficulty ofmoving forward when the ends are unspecified, therefore the problems not faced,therefore the requisite means not provided.Professors who see their role as the communication of ideas may test whether theyhave been understood and thereby discoverhow well their students are thinking. But itis one thing for a student to apply to a newsubject the intellectual abilities and dispositions he already possesses, and quiteanother to improve them. Do the faculty ofthe University of Chicago know whethersuch improvement occurs, well enough towarrant a claim that they judge themselvesby their contribution to it? If President Sonnenschein omitted this high claim becausehe thought it would be false, I do hope thathe wished mightily it were true.Curtis Crawford, PhB'46, DB'51Charlottesville, VirginiaThe University of Chicago Magazine invitesletters from readers on the contents of the magazine or on topics related to the University.Letters for publication, which must be signed,may be edited for length and/or clarity. Toensure the widest range of voices possible, preference will be given to letters of no more than500 words. Letters should be addressed to:Editor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, I L 60637. SPRINGEMINARAmerican Lives:Cultural Differences,Individual DistinctionApril 9, 1994? What does it mean to be anAmerican?«fr What do we have in common inthis pluralistic age?«fr Does the "American Dream" stilldefine us?Join Quantrell winner Amy Kass ina day-long seminar that exploresAmerican autobiographies fromBenjamin Franklin through Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Dick Gregory,Richard Rodriguez, and MaxineHong Kingston to discover what itmeans and what it takes to live inAmerica.Saturday, April 9, 9:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.on the University of Chicago campus.Registration fee: $55 if postmarked on orbefore March 25; $70 if postmarkedafter that date.Fee includes tuition, reading packet, lunch,and reception at Frank Lloyd Wright'sRobie House.Information: 312/702-2160.Space is limited; register early.Please reserve place(s) forAmerican Lives, April 9.Name .AddressCity,State,Zip .Telephone Payment enclosed:Return to form with check payable toUniversity of Chicago Spring Seminars,5757 Woodlawn, Chicago, IL 60637-1698.6 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994EventsExhibitionsThe Stage is All the World: The TheatricalDesigns of Tanya Moiseiwitsch, April 14-June 12.Exploring the breadth and variety of Moiseiwitsch'sdesigns for costumes, properties, settings, andsages, this retrospective exhibition contains morethan 100 sketches, photographs, costumes, models,and masks from eight of her major productions —including the 1946 Old Vic production of Cyrano deBergerac, and the 1951 production of Shakespeare'shistory cycle at Stratford-on-Avon's ShakespeareMemorial Theatre. Smart Museum; call 702-0200.Wrapped in Color: A Survey of Paste PaperBookbindings, March 1-June 15. This exhibitiontraces the development of paste paper binding, aprocess which bookbinders and artisans have usedto produce colorful, decorative papers from pasteinks similar to finger paint. Following the processfrom its beginnings in the late 16th century throughits golden age in 18th-century Germany and Italy,this exhibition also shows modern interpretationsand adaptations of the craft. Department of SpecialCollections; call 702-8705.Stephen A. Douglas and the American Union,through June 15. Marking a recent gift from theDouglas family, this exhibition explores the interrelationship between the Illinois senator's personaland public lives. Printed and written documents, aswell as photographs, trace the political turmoil ofthe 1850s, Douglas' connections to the old U of C,and the four-way presidential election of 1860.Department of Special Collections; call 702-8705.TheaterThe Importance of Being Earnest, through April 3.Directed by Nicholas Rudall, Court Theatre's production of Oscar Wilde's social satire features additional original material, highlighting Wilde's senseof paradox and his attention to artifice. Court Theatre; call 753-4472.Who's A/raid of Virginia Woolf? March 2-5 at 8p.m. University Theater presents Edward Albee'ssocial comedy about a middle-aged collegiate coupleattempting to deal with a marriage of disappointments and failures. Reynolds Club First Floor Theater; call 702-3414.Frida; The Last Portrait, April 15-May 22. DonnaBlue Lachman's drama depicts the life of FridaKahlo, the celebrated feminist and painter, and wifeof the Mexican muralist Diego Rivera. Court Theatre; call 753-4472.LecturesThe Celebration of the Persian New Year, March30 at 7:30 p.m. Abbas Alizadeh, Oriental Instituteresearch associate, will present a slide lecture onthis holiday, linking it to other ancient Persian traditions. Oriental Institute; call 702-9507.Aims of Religion Address, April 13 at 7:30 p.m.To open the Divinity School Spring Convocation,Cornel West, professor of religion and director ofPrinceton's Afro-American studies department, willspeak. Rockefeller Memorial Chapel; call 702-2100. MusicHagen Quartet, March 3 at 8 p.m. This Austrianquartet performs Beethoven, Mozart, and the NorthAmerican premiere of Gyorgy Kurtag's Siring Quartet. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.University Symphony Orchestra: Winter Concert, March 5 at 8 p.m. Barbara Schubert conducts aprogram of Prokofiev and Shostakovich. MandelHall; call 702-8484.The Mifcado or The Town of Titipu, March 10-13.This year's Gilbert and Sullivan production isdirected by Michael Kotze and conducted by GuyVictor Bordo. Mandel Hall; call 702-8484.Tenebrae, March 30 at 7 p.m. Codirector of theElectronic Music Center of Mills College (CA),Chris Brown performs original musical interpretations of texts used for Tenebrae, the office of matinsand lauds for the final three days of Holy Week.Rockefeller Memorial Chapel; call 702-2100.U of C Motet Choir Concert, April 1 at 8 p.m.Under the direction of Bruce Tammen, AM'74, thechoir will perform works by Deering, Victoria, andWeelkes. Rockefeller Chapel; call 702-6063.Center StageSpringtime in Persia: Villagers fromQasemabad, near the Caspian Sea, holda picnic to celebrate spring. Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, April15 at 8 p.m. Featuring a program of Haydn, Faure,and Bright Sheng. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.Annual Paul Fromm Concert, April 22 at 8 p.m.Conducted by Ralph Shapey, the ContemporaryChamber Players Ensemble performs a program ofMilton Babbitt, Robert Cogan, Thea Musgrave, andRalph Shapey. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.Kalevi Kiviniemi Organ Recital, April 29 at 8p.m. This Finnish organist performs a program ofDupre, Rossini, Widor, and several Finnish composers, including his own arrangement of SibeliusFinkmdia. Rockefeller Chapel; call 702-2100.On the QuadsWomen in Ancient Egypt, March 27 at 2 p.m. Tocommemorate Women's History Month, the Oriental Institute will screen Ancient Lives, a film whichfocuses on the role of women at Deir el Medina —their status in society, their relationships with men,their love poetry, and the ceremonies surroundingchildbirth. Oriental Institute; call 702-9507.In the CityFirst Friday Lecture Series, March 4 and April 8at 12:15 p.m. In March, Claudia Traudt, chair ofthe Basic Program of Liberal Education for Adultsand a Ph.D. candidate in the Committee on SocialThought, will speak on "That is God... A Shout inthe Street': Gold and Dross in the Embrace of JamesJoyce." Keith Cleveland, professor at ColumbiaCollege, will deliver April's lecture "On Rousseau'sEmile." Chicago Cultural Center; call 702-1722.The Persian New Year — Naw Rouz, or"New Day" — is the most widely celebrated holiday in Iran. Always held onthe vernal equinox, Naw Rouz coincideswith the renewal of life that occurs eachspring. The days before the holiday arealso filled with preparations; homes arecleaned and decorated, special delicaciesare baked, and seeds are germinated.As the last Wednesday of the old yearapproaches, bonfires are lit. Leaping overthe flames, the celebrants prepare toexchange the old year for the new,chanting, "Give me your red color andtake my yellow pallor." Chabar ShanbeSuri — "Wednesday Celebration" — alsofeatures a ritual much like the AmericanHalloween: costumed figures go fromdoor to door, asking for treats.Following the "New Day" itself, familiesand communities continue to celebratefor 12 days. On the 13th day, large picnics are held to welcome the beauty ofspring. As traditional treats — such as pistachios, watermelon seeds, and sherbets — are offered, musicians play and allages dance under the open sky.On March 30, Oriental Institute researchassociate Abbas Alizadeh, AM'81, PhD'88,will present a slide lecture on Naw Rouzcosponsored by the N1MA Cultural Institute.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 7hicago JowrndFOR THE RECORD University's role in 1940sradiation tests exploredA scholar sets sail: Afourth-year Collegestudent has beenawarded a MarshallScholarship which shewill use to study classics at Oxford University. Mariza Rosado'sresume includes a yearal the University ofBristol as part of theCollege's funior-year-abroad program, and asummer helping excavate a Roman villa inGalilee. Rosado, whoplans to become a professor, has also conducted research on theLatino community inChicago's LoganSquare neighborhood.Fellow professors:Physicist Sidney Nageland sociologist GeraldSuttles were elected fellows in the AmericanAssociation for theAdvancement of Science. Nagel was cited[or contributing to theunderstanding of materials science; Suttles./di his analysis of U.S.cities. The University of Chicagois among several researchinstitutions and government agencies cooperating with aDepartment of Energy study offederally sponsored experimentsin which civilians were exposed toradiation in concentrations farabove what is considered safetoday.The study was launched inDecember by Secretary of EnergyHazel O'Leary, in response to aseries of articles that appeared inthe Albuquerque Tribune.Those articles repeated information — first made public by theEnergy Research and Development Administration in 1974 —describing the injection ofplutonium into 18 terminally illpatients. There is no evidence thatthose patients had precise knowledge of the nature of those experiments.The experiments took placebetween 1945 and 1947, and threeof the 18 subjects were patients atthe University of Chicago'sBillings Hospital; the rest werepatients at the University ofRochester, Oak Ridge Laboratory,and the University of CaliforniaFlospital in San Francisco.The purpose of the experiments — conducted by the AtomicEnergy Commission, the predecessor of the Department ofEnergy — was to determine howthe human body processes plutonium — in particular, how long thebody retains or how quickly it excretes the radioactive element.That knowledge was consideredvital at a time when thousands ofU.S. workers were being exposedto plutonium as part of nationaldefense efforts. According to a1976 fact sheet prepared by theEnergy Research and Development Administration, studies onanimals were not sufficient to provide this information; thus, the"Research standards havechanged drastically since1945. Today, no researchcan he performed on anypatients without their fullknowledge and informed,written consent."decision was made to do the testing on patients who were notexpected to live more than tenyears.The three patients at Chicagowere a 68-year-old man withcancer of the chin, a 56-year-oldwoman with breast cancer, and an18-year-old male with Hodgkin'sdisease, a systemic form of cancer.The two older patients, accordingto U of C Hospitals spokeswomanSusan Phillips, died of their cancerwithin five months of the experiments, while the teenager — who"left the care of his physiciansagainst their advice, and was con sequently lost to follow-up" — ispresumed dead.Although the 18 patients originally injected with plutoniumwere expected to die of their illnesses, several lived on — and inthe 1970s, researchers at ArgonneNational Laboratory (operated bythe University for the Departmentof Energy) did a follow-up study.Argonne researchers were ableto take blood, urine, and fecalsamples from three of the fourpatients still alive, using the samples to determine how much plutonium remained in their bodies.Contrary to a few recent newspaper accounts, theresearchers didnot inject anyadditional plutonium into thesepatients.At the start ofthe survey, theAtomic EnergyCommissiongave Argonneresearchersexplicit instructions not to inform their patients of the initialexperiments, but later changed itsposition, informing three of thefour. (One patient's physician feltthat knowledge of the originalexperiment would be detrimentalto the patient's health.)"Today we would refuse toaccept research unless patientswere informed," Argonne Laboratory spokesperson David Bauractold the Chicago Sun-Times.Indeed, the experiments — likeseveral other types of radiationexperiments conducted on humansubjects at a number of researchinstitutions — have raised ques-8 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994tions about the ethical nature ofsuch Cold War research. Whilesome newspaper editorials condemned the research, other commentators have attempted to placethe experiments in perspective tothe era in which they were conducted.In an article that appeared in theJanuary 1, 1994, New York Times,reporter Gina Kolata wrote: "Notonly did scientists feel a greatneed to learn more about [radiation] because of the possibility ofnuclear war, but the dangers ofradiation were so little appreciatedby medical researchers that peoplewere routinely exposed to whatwould now be considered alarmingly high doses of radiation fromdevices like X-ray machines tomeasure foot size in shoe stores.And children were offered anadvanced method of tonsillectomies by having their tonsilsdestroyed with radiation."Scientists were particularlyignorant of the long-term effectsof radiation," the Times articlecontinued, "and thought that radiation damage would appear immediately or never."Although there are as yet no official estimates on how manypeople may have participated ingovernment-sponsored radiationtests, a 1986 congressional studysaid that the Energy Departmentalone had records of 695 participants.The Department of Energy'sinvestigation into such experiments is part of its larger effort todeclassify millions of pages of documents on past activities of thenuclear weapons industry. Energysecretary O'Leary told the NewYork Times that all of these effortshad been motivated by "an obligation to put the public's mind torest and expose things that needexposing.""This research was made publicby the Energy Research & Development Administration in 1976,"noted the University in a statement in the January 6 issue of itsofficial newspaper, the Chronicle."Stories followed in the Washington Post and in Science magazinein 1976. A scientific paper on theexperiment, 'Distribution andExcretion of Plutonium Administered Intravenously to Man,' was published in Health Physics inJune 1980 [where it was labeled a"landmark" paper]."Research standards havechanged drastically since 1945,"the University's statement concluded. "Today, no research canbe performed on any patientswithout their full knowledge andinformed, written consent."New council looksat city health careAnew University programwill provide a forum wherehealth-care leaders in thepublic and private sectors canmeet to help tackle issues thatcould shape the future of healthcare in the city of Chicago.The program — established at theIrving B. Harris Graduate Schoolof Public Policy Studies — is twofold. What has been dubbedthe Chicago Health Policy Research Council will serve as anadvisory panel, recommendingissues on which to focus. Thiscouncil will be assisted by an academic research consortium, whichwill direct the actual studies.Susan Manilow, who chairs theboard of the Mt. Sinai HealthSystem, will chair the researchcouncil. Richard Sewell, formerdeputy commissioner with theChicago Department of Health,will serve as executive director,while the council itself will becomposed of leaders in the healthcare field. U of C professors Christine Cassel, AB'67, and EdwardLawlor will codirect the researchconsortium."This is an unusual effort for amajor metropolitan area, but onethat is seriously needed inChicago," says Manilow. The Transition: Randy Holgate has been namedacting vice presidentfor Development &Alumni Relations whilea national search isconducted to find a successor for Warren Heemann, who resignedfrom his post inNovember. Holgate hasbeen associate vicepresident for Development & Alumni Relations since 1990; shejoined the U of C in1979 as director of thePresident's Fund andassociate director ofannual giving. President Sonnenscheinthanked Heemann forhis role in planning theCampaign for the NextCentury, which so farhas raised more than$340 million toward itshalf-billion-dollar goal.Prize procession: UofC economics professor Robert W. Fogel,left, receives the Nobel economicsprize from Swedish King CarlXVI Gustafat the Concert Hallin Stockholm on December 10.Fogel shared the $790,000 prizewith his Washington University colleague Douglass North forhaving renewed interest ineconomic history. Fogel, whoattended the ceremony in 1991as a guest, commented: "It'sone thing to be watching fromthe audience, quite another tobe onstage. "University of Chicago Magazine/February 1993Nobel effort: MiltonFriedman, AM'33, isleading an effort tohonor fellow economicsNobelist and professoremeritus GeorgeStigler, who died in1991. Friedman, lawprofessor emeritusAaron Director, andformer GSB deanGeorge Shultz wereamong the first to contribute gifts towardestablishing the George]. Stigler professorshipin economics. Directorcalls Chicago the bestplace for such a chair,"because it will continue the tradition ofwhich he was so muchapart."Stage presence:London's RoyalExchange TheatreCompany will producean adaptation ofIbsen's Hedda Gablerby Nicholas Rudall,executive director ofCourt Theatre andassociate professor ofclassical languages &literatures. The SanDiego Repertory Theater recently producedhis adaptation ofIbsen's Ghosts, andmore national andinternational productions of his work areplanned. Rudall haspublished new versionsof several classic stageworks, often in collaboration with BernardSahlins, AB'43.Paper prize: Geophysical sciences graduatestudent RaymondRogers received theRomer Prize for thebest student paper atthe annual meeting ofthe Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.Rogers' topic: geologicfactors influencinglarge-scale patterns infossil preservation. research council, she explains, "isdesigned to create a forum forscholars, health policymakers,health-care administrators, andcivic leaders to develop and implement responsive health policy" formetropolitan Chicago.According to Manilow, the council intends to create an improvedsource of health-care data: information that will serve as a comprehensive resource for bothpolicymakers and researchers."We don't have informationabout the health of our residentsthat is readily available in otherstates," Manilow explains."What we do have is often not inthe same place or in the sameform — a situation that makes thedata difficult to use."Data will be collected by theCenter for Health AdministrationStudies, based in the School ofSocial Service Administration. TheNational Opinion Research Centerwill be a partner in this data collection.Some examples of the public-health issues the council mightrecommend for study are: how torespond to the epidemic of violence; how to control the outbreakof drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis; and how to deal withrisky sexual behavior.The council could also recommend a study of health-care systems and financing in response tothe demand for health-care reformat the state and regional levels. Inaddition to coordinating researchon health care, the council willsupport the training of graduateand postdoctoral students inhealth-policy research.Robert Michael, dean of theHarris School, said the initiativeprovides a good example of howthe graduate school "can bringtogether people from academicand policy communities to worktogether on an important problem. The Harris School was established to be just this sort ofconnection."The new council has receivedmore than $1 million from theChicago Community Trust to support its work. Other foundationsand government agencies will alsobe approached with proposalsonce a health-care agenda hasbeen established. Undergrad's foreign studymay help 140,000 refugeesInvestigative reporter, care-ful scholar, and wide-eyedinnocent abroad. Third-yearCollege student Chris Strawnapplied these attributes in equalamounts to help attack a big problem he came across more or lessby accident.Two autumns ago, he gazedacross a Nepal landscape crowdedwith refugees. "Why I haven't Iever heard of this before?" herecalls thinking. The refugees —some 140,000 of them — had comefrom Nepal's neighboring country,Bhutan. The camps where theylived, set up by the United Nationsat Nepal's request, had been operating since 1991.Strawn learned ofthe camps as one of17 American students enrolled in anine-month studyprogram which theUniversity of Wisconsin operates inNepal. He spent thefirst four months ofthe program in Kath-mandu, Nepal's capital, where he studied topics as diverseas law and folkmusic with localexperts. Over break,he and some American friends tookwhat they expectedwould be a light-hearted expeditionaround the villagesof eastern Nepal. Inaddition to a tourguide, the grouphired a 40-year-old man as theirporter."We were talking with himand it turned out that he was arefugee. He told us this storyabout how the militia in Bhutanhad been forcing people out of hisvillage. He had heard he would bearrested, so in the middle of thenight he left the country."He talked about how in Bhutanhe had a farm, cattle, a house —and how everything was so goodthere. The reason he was working for us was that during the holidays everybody got together withfamily, and he didn't have anyfamily — he was the only personwe could find who would work."Later, Strawn received an invitation to tour the camps, where hespoke with refugees about theirdilemma. Deciding to spend hisremaining months in Nepal learning everything he could about therefugees, Strawn got a room in thehome of a refugee doctor whoworked in the camps."I spent January to May interviewing, doing fieldwork, talkingto Nepali political leaders andtraveling around India and NepalStrawn hopes his book will help in negotiations to decide the Bhutan refugees' fate.to talk with people who knewabout the situation," Strawn says."In May, I had the use of a computer for about a week, so I got toput that information together." Hethen "packed up everything Icouldn't write about in that week"and returned to Kathmandu,where for a month he workedthrough drafts of what grew into a150-page comprehensive historyof the refugees — beginning withtheir emigration from Nepal tcBhutan in the 1860s, to their cur-1 0 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994rent status as exiles.Ironically, Strawn learned thatthe forefathers of these refugeeshad, more than a century ago,been eagerly urged to settle inBhutan. After a war with Britainhad devastated Bhutan's population in the south, Bhutanese leaders offered to sell southern farmland to Nepalese — eventuallythousands settled there. Althoughthey were taxed as citizens, theethnic Nepalese were basicallyignored by Bhutan's monarch andruling elite, which consisted of anethnic group called the Ngalongs.Protests by the Nepalese in the1950s led to better treatment bythe Ngalongs: roads, schools, andother public works were constructed in the south. For a time,ethnic Nepalese were even re cruited to high government positions — but the Ngalongs' benevolence didn't last.Strawn's study — begun as themajor research project required ofall students in his program —included a population analysiswhich projected that, in 25 years,the Nepalese would comprise halfof Bhutan's population. Hebelieves the Ngalongs had madesimilar projections — and that theidea of a Bhutanese populationdominated by ethnic Nepaleseworried them. In the 1980s, themonarchy imposed a strict "cultural preservation program"requiring all ethnic Nepalese toadapt Ngalong speech, customs,and dress. In late 1990, theNepalese, feeling their own culture was being stamped out, responded with huge protestdemonstrations.Participants in those demonstrations, Strawn says, "were definitely marked" — particularly thevillage leaders, who were arrested,tortured, and made to sign formssaying they would voluntarilyleave the country. Families ofthese leaders and fellow villagersoften fled in fear that they, too,would be arrested and tortured.The government closed downpublic schools in the south, sending large militia forces to occupythe school buildings — many ofwhich, Strawn believes, wereoperated as centers for rape. Onlya small number of the refugeesStrawn interviewed admitted thata member of their family had actually been raped at these centers —GSB forecast: Gather ye T-bills while ye may. .ostly sunny; a light but steady breeze ofgrowth; perhaps some storm clouds in thedistance. Although the economic weatherreport provided at the 32nd annual Business Forecast Luncheon was upbeat, one past participant waskeenly missed. GSB professor Walter Fackler,keynote speaker at the past 31 luncheons, died lastsummer. A tribute to the interest Fackler helpedcreate for the event: nearly 1,400 Chicago-area executives and business scholars attended the Decemberluncheon sponsored by the Graduate School of Business. Below are some lunchtime highlights:$Forecaster: Michael Mussa, AM'70, PhD'74, onleave from the Graduate School of Business. Mussaprovided a caveat that his views weren't necessarilythose of the International Monetary Fund; Mussa isthe Fund's current research director.Nutshell forecast: Dull, "but dull is good." Inother words, no boom but no bust. Pluses: Gains inemployment; lower interest rates; strong businessinvestments. Minuses: defense cuts and taxincreases; economic weakness in Europe and Japan.QllOte: "Will America hear the giant sucking soundas most good-quality, high-paying jobs are pulledacross the border or across the ocean? As we used tosay when I was in the U.S. government, 'Don't betthe ranch on it.' And, back then, betting the ranchused to mean something."Forecaster: Marvin Zonis, professor of businessadministration, Graduate School of Business.Nutshell forecast: Japan remains in recession.To preserve his regime, Yeltsin constructs a ruthlessly centralizing Moscow regime. Continuing to adjust to Communism's collapse, the West experiences turmoil within political systems and greaterdiscord between former Cold War allies. Chineseleader Deng Xiaoping dies — although new leadersimprove human rights to obtain U.S. favored-nationtrading status, the lack of a centralizing political ideology may create unrest down the road.Quote: "The market economy will spread throughout the world.. .The result will be the spread overgreater parts of the globe of the ravages whichmarket economies inevitably bring — urbanization,crime and violence, divorce, and the shattering offamilies. . . .But for those who can read the history ofthe U.S. and Europe, the opportunities to profit fromthe transformations of the market will be enhanced."$Forecaster: Joel Stern, MBA'64, managing partner, Stem Stewart & Company, a New York financial policy advisory firm.Nutshell forecast: 1994 will be a solid year ofgrowth (at 3 to 3.25 percent), with continued lowinflation and some unemployment improvement.Short-term interest rates increase modestly, with T-bills up about half a point and long-term treasurybonds yielding only 4 to 5.5 percent. The stockmarket gains 8 to 10 percent, exceeding 4,000 bymid-year. However, only a massive election defeat ofSenate Democrats will ensure longer-term stability.Quote: "...Fiscal policy and regulation do notappear to have a major effect on growth and inflation, especially over a period of only one or twoyears. The real problems have to do with incentivesto take risks, invest capital, and build for long-termvalue creation. President Reagan intuitively understood this. Mr. and Mrs. Clinton need a jolt like theNew Jersey governor's race to understand it." So what's a Heisman:O'Malley & Collin,Inc., the Chicago Tribune's mavens of localchatter, reported onDecember's annualChicago Bar Association show, where actor-lawyers portraying aplenum ofUofCNobelists mournfullysang: "We have wonthe world's respect/Aswe flex our intellect./But it's really not thesame/ As if we wereNotre Dame./We wouldgive up all our wisemen/Just to winanother Heisman."Team player: Fourth-year Frank Baker madethe first string on boththe 1993 ChampionNCAA III Ail-Americanand the GTE AcademicAll-American CollegeDivision footballteams — the only college athlete to do so.Baker is the Maroon'sall-time rushing leader,with 4,200 yards. Theeconomics major holdsa 3.7 average — andwill hang up his cleatsto become a financialanalyst after graduationReturning scholar:Alexander Sharp hasstepped down as vicepresident for businessoperations & facilitiesto attend the DivinitySchool full time. AtPresident Sonnen-shein's request, Sharpwill use his volunteerexperience — mostrecently as president ofthe Chicago Coalitionfor the Homeless — tocoordinate volunteerwork by Universitystaff and students.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 1 1UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGOrHEEZEOVEHSchool on ice: Chicagoendured a recordnumber of subzerodays in January —causing water pipes tobreak, and disruptingheating and lightingsystems in some University buildings. Cancellation 0/ classeswas left to the discretion of professors —inciting a group ofstudents to "protest"by running around thequads in their underwear. Above, a classicChicago T-shirtexpresses mid-winter'sboundless wrath.Top executive: A panelof Graduate School ofBusiness alumni choseJoseph A. Pichler,CEO of Kroger Company — one of thelargest U.S. grocerychains — as theschool's 1994 distinguished alumnus.Pichler, MBA'63,PhD'66, will receivethe award at theGSB's annual management conference inMay. A prolific authoron economics andformer University ofKansas businessschool dean, Pichlerchairs the NationalAlliance 0/ Business. but the fear of rape motivatedmany more families to leaveBhutan. In all, Strawn says, abouthalf the entire Nepalese population had fled Bhutan — eithermotivated by fear of arrest, torture, or rape, or simply ejectedfrom the country at gunpoint.Strawn's study will be publishedin a book, Falling off the Mountain:Bhutan, Bhutanese Refugees and theMovement in Exile. A press inKathmandu was slated to be thebook's original publisher, butdecided it was politically too hotto handle. However, the book'scoauthor, D.N.S. Dhakal — arefugee and Harvard graduate whomet Strawn in the camps — wasable to find a press in India whichhas agreed to publish the worklater this year.Strawn hopes the book will raiseawareness of the Bhutaneserefugee problem in India, a nationwhich — as Bhutan's chief supplierof foreign aid — has powerfulinfluence upon its affairs. However, for now he admits it'sunlikely that India's governmentwill criticize Bhutan's refugeepolicy — since such criticism couldupset current negotiations between the two nations: India ishoping to develop hydroelectricresources in Bhutan, resourcesvital to India's own energy-starvednorthern region.The book may be of most use innegotiations between Nepal andBhutan over the refugees' fate. Allalong, Nepal has maintained thatthe people in the camps are bonafide refugees who had fled persecution in Bhutan. His book,Strawn hopes, will give Nepal evidence to back this claim, whichthe Bhutanese government hasthus far denied.Whatever happens next, Strawnadmits, is essentially out of hishands. Back in Chicago, the overseas experience has receded as thedaily College grind resumesprominence in his life. But, ifnothing else comes of it, Strawnsays the experience has taughthim a lesson that sounds cornybut rings true."Coming back to the States, Irealized it's very normal to talkabout politics here — and to criticize the government. You can'thelp thinking, 'It's great to be an Artistic space: Taft (far right) enjoyed presiding over meals in MidwayStudios' main court. Among his invited guests were fellow artists, students, friends, and an occasional feline.American,'" says Strawn, chuckling at the cliche. "But it's true.People talk about and complainabout things here that are reallysubversive there. I won't take thatfor granted anymore."Midway Studios—a city landmarkidway Studios has becomethe latest official Chicagohistoric landmark. Thehome of the University's art studios — and the original quarters ofan idyllic art colony founded bysculptor/U of C instructor LoradoTaft — gained its "landmark" distinction by vote of the ChicagoCity Council in December.Born in Illinois in 1860, Taftdeveloped his distinctive classicalstyle as an art student in Paris.Gaining public exposure as asculptor for the 1893 ColumbianExposition, Taft received severalmajor commissions, including TheFountain of the Great Lakes, at theChicago Art Institute, and TheFountain of Time, at the west endof the Midway.In 1906, Taft moved his mainstudio from the crowded Loopinto a large brick barn on U of Cproperty on the Midway. Taftcompared the gradual growth ofthe studios to that of a chamberednautilus, cell after cell, until therewere 13 studios housing Taft, other sculptors, and many assistants — 20 in all. Most of these studios opened on to a large court towhich in time were added a fireplace and a fountain.At noon, the artists and theirfriends gathered in the court, atwhat Taft cheerfully called "theold groaning board," for a mealprepared in the studios' underground kitchen. Plaster casts ofgraceful female figures representing the five Great Lakes loomed inthe court's south end, symbolizingthe ideal — at times, dreamy — classical aesthetic that Taft endorsedwith almost evangelical zeal.As appreciation for that aestheticwaned, Midway Studios fell onhard times, leaving Lorado Taft allbut forgotten in 1936, when hesuffered a fatal stroke while atwork on a sculpture in his second-floor studio. The University of Illinois acquired most of thecontents, while the buildingsthemselves fell into disrepair. Inthe late 1950s, the University ofChicago began restoring MidwayStudios to house its expandedfine-arts program.Making the site a Chicago landmark, says Timothy Wittman,AM'83, a researcher for the Commission on Chicago Landmarks,"is a tribute to the prominence ofTaft's career and serves to perpetuate his dream for the dissemination and advancement of artisticideas."1 2 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994His and herlove storiesTHE APHORISM ABOUT TWO SIDESto every story is literal in thecase of a pair of novels to bereleased by the U of C Press thisspring. Bengal Nights, by MirceaEliade, is a semiautobiographicalaccount set in 1930s Calcutta,detailing the ill-fated love thatRumanian Eliade shared withMaitreyi, the 16-year-old daughterof his Indian mentor.Better known for his scholarlywork, Eliade was a professor emeritus in the Divinity School and theCommittee on Social Thought at his death in 1986. Nevertheless,Bengal Nights was called a love story with the power "to make stonesweep" by the Literary Review — and became a critical success whentranslated from the original Rumanian into French in 1950.Now readers will have the chance not only to enjoy the first English translation of Bengal Nights,but also to explore the woman'sside of the story. It Does Not Die, byMaitreyi Devi — a respected poetand lecturer in India before herdeath in 1990 — gives Devi's point-of-view as the young woman whowas the object of Eliade's affection.By itself, Devi's It Does Not Die is afascinating story of cultural conflictand thwarted love. Read withEliade's Bengal Nights, it offers apowerful study of what happenswhen opposites — of innocence andexperience, enchantment and colonial arrogance — mesh, and eventually collide.Bengal JNiglitsMircea llliade Shopping gets alift in Hyde ParkTHE FIRST PART OF A THREE-phase project is finished atthe Hyde Park ShoppingCenter, located at 55th Street andLake Park Avenue.Opened nearly 35 years ago, themall provided a lift to the University neighborhood — but began toshow its age in the 1980s. TheUniversity purchased the facilityin 1984; major renovations beganin October 1992. Total cost for theimprovements is projected at $6.8million.The remodeling so far includesremoval of a smaller building atthe plaza's south end. Its I. M. Pei-designed columns and canopieshave been removed and replacedwith sheltered walkways andplantings. Other buildings havebeen refaced and lighting has beenimproved. The center and theentire parking lot will be landscaped.With the project's first phasenow complete, space is availablefor upscale retailers, includingSpauldings, a clothier with storesin Wilmette and Oak Park, andEurokids, a children's shop. Andthere is new space for longtimetenants such as Cohn Stern andJoyce's Hallmark card shop.— Written and compiled by TimAndrew Obermiller. Left defense: A new titlehas been added to thelong list of journalspublished at the U of C.Democratic Culture,the newsletter of Teachers for a DemocraticCulture (TDC), reflectsTDC's agenda — "tocombat conservativemisrepresentations ofrecent changes in university curriculum andpolicy and to defendwhat we see as salutaryand necessary in thesechanges. " So says thenewsletter's editor, JohnWilson, a graduate student in the Committeeon Social Thought. Onerecent contributor isGerald Graff, AB'59,cofounder of TDC andprofessor of English atChicago.Off the air: "With greatregret," President Sonnenschein announcedthe suspension of theWilliam Benton Fellowship Program in Broadcast Journalism.Founded at the UofCten years ago toimprove the skills andinsights of mid-careerradio and TV journalists, the program issearching for some newfunds. It was supportedby the Benton Foundation until 1992. Todate, Benton fellowships have beenawarded to 123 journalist from the U.S. andten foreign countries.Editorial novices: TheCollege is underwritinga new program ofeditorial internships forstudents interested inworking at one of theseveral journals editedby the University'sHumanities faculty.The revamped Hyde Park shopping plaza, once a Fifties architectural statement, now looks very Nineties.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 1 3I wtstimtiomGrim RemainsPathologist Robert Kirschneruses forensics to hunt forevidence of governments'crimes against their citizens.WHILE THE SPECTER OF DEATH HOV-ers over war-torn parts of whatwas once Yugoslavia, Robert H.Kirschner and Physicians for Human Rightsarc traveling to the murder scenes, lookinglor answersKirschner, a clinical associate in the pathology department and member of theBoston-based PHR since 1987, was part of ateam of 14 forensic specialists who visitedCroatia for several weeks last autumn. Contracted by the United Nations War CrimesCommission to search for physical evidenceof torture, human-rights violations, andmurder, the researchers headed for a grimdestination: the tiny village of Ovcara, wherereports and preliminary studies indicatedthat some 200 people were buried in a massgrave. The victims were thought to be Croatian soldiers, civilians, and medical staff takenhorn a hospital in nearby Vukovar — all shotto death by Yugoslav army and Serbian paramilitary units in November 1991.After much touch-and-go negotiationbetween the warring factions, the UN hadreceived approval for the exhumation atOvcara, which is in UN-controlled territorybut surrounded by Serbian strongholds. Thedigging never began. "At the last minute, theSerbian government pulled back on theagreement and threatened physical force ifwe continued," explains Kirschner, "so wecouldn't do that exhumation."Instead, the researchers were left to focuson the other site they had come to Croatialo investigate: a smaller suspected massgrave, in the center of the country, that ulti-mately yielded 19 bodies. AlthoughKirschner (who is deputy chief medical examiner for Cook County) and his PHR colleagues returned to the States aroundThanksgiving, they have been working ever since to establish these remains as evidencefor war-crimes trials planned by the UN. Atthe same time, the researchers still harborhope for the Ovcara mission. In fact, the X-ray machines and other laboratory equipment borrowed from the U.S. governmentfor use in Ovcara remain in storage at a UNcompound in Zagreb, just in case the go-ahead materializes.Investigation of mass graves usuallyentails meticulous removal of small andfragile items (teeth, bullets, scraps of cloth)from the bodies. While these clues oftenidentify a body and indicate the cause ofdeath, studying the remains of plants andinsects found in the graves helps establish atime of death. For pathologists such asKirschner, the work begins and ends in alaboratory, where the skeleton is examined,dental and medical X rays taken beforedeath are compared with those taken after,and DNA is put under the microscope formore precise personal identification.Kirschner's first experience of applyingforensic pathology to human-rights violations overseas came in 1985, when he wasasked by a forensic anthropologist to join agroup traveling to Argentina after the overthrow of the military junta. The researchershoped to unravel the mystery of "Los Des-parecidos," or disappeared persons, who Shattered lives: A bullet pierced the rubberboot of a young child murdered in El Salvador, shattering the foot bones.had vanished in the late 70s and early '80sunder the junta's rule.The new government then invited American archaeologists, anthropologists, andpathologists to train Argentine archaeologyand anthropology students to exhume theinnumerable suspected mass graves dottingthe country. In December 1985, with recovered bodies showing clear signs of tortureand execution, the new government hadenough evidence to try — and convict —junta officials for murder and human-rightsabuses."The significant thing was that, up untilthat time, almost all human-rights workinvolved witness statements and testimony,"Kirschner recalls. "Those kinds of evidence,while powerful, are subject to anotherperson saying, 'It didn't happen that way' or'This person isn't telling the truth.'"What we showed in Argentina is thatyou could provide physical, irrefutable evidence of what has happened to someone."Shortly after the framework for forensicpathology's role in human-rights work waslaid in Argentina, Physicians for HumanRights and the Science in Human Rights1 4 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994Program of the American Association forthe Advancement of Science both emergedto cooperate with groups such as AmnestyInternational and the United Nations. Now,mostly when asked but sometimes at itsown suggestion, PHR members (some4,000 in the United States) will volunteerfor missions in areas suspected of human-rights abuses.In addition to his work in Argentina andCroatia, Kirschner, 53, has volunteered inGuatemala, El Salvador (where he investigated the El Mozote machine-gun massacreof at least 136 children under the age of12), and the Gaza Strip. In 1989, he wasarrested in Kenya and interrogated bypolice because, he says, he was in the sameroom as an American attorney whosehuman rights protests had irked PresidentDaniel arap Moi. Both the doctor and theattorney were released within a few hoursof arrest, after the U.S. embassy — tipped byan American journalist — dispatched asearch party.Despite such brushes with political fireand his own mortality (although he says hefelt completely safe in Croatia, Kirschneradmits he kept his UN-issued flak jacketand helmet within reach at all times),Kirschner sees his work — both in Chicagoand abroad — as more healing than macabre.Tempered by his purely clinical interest inthe human body and what it can endure isthe sense that he can comfort people byanswering, at least with biological reasons,the "why?" or "how?" that often accompanies death."The hardest thing is when someone diesand you don't understand why," he says.Even scientific explanations of death, headmits, do little to explain the logic behindthe mass carnage found in places like Central America or the former Yugoslavia,where the UN Security Council estimatesnearly 100 mass graves exist. After morethan two decades in forensic pathology,Kirschner admits, "In a sense, I never ceaseto be surprised at man's inhumanity toman."— f.H.P.Hot Tin ProofWho put the tin in the BronzeAge? That's a question that haslong puzzled scholars of ancienttechnology. For thousands of years, copperruled as the only metal regularly used tomake tools, weapons, and ornamentalobjects. Then, around 3000 B.C., copperwas dethroned when civilizations inMesopotamia learned to combine it withsmall amounts of tin to make bronze — an alloy both easier to cast in molds andstronger than copper alone.But where did the Mesopotamians gettheir tin? Finding no traces of any ancienttin mining or refining industry, scholars ofthe era have long assumed that the tin wasimported from outside the region. But inJanuary, Aslihan Yener, an assistant professor in the Oriental Institute, announcedthat she and a group of colleagues haduncovered an ancient tin mine and miningvillage high in Turkey's Central Taurusmountains."I did not set out to find tin," admitsYener. "When I was being trained as anarchaeologist, the standard view was thattin did not come from Turkey but fromelsewhere during the Bronze Age." Indeed,her find came as part of a study, begun in1980 while she was on the faculty atBosporus University in Istanbul, to identifydifferent sources of metal used in producingweapons and other objects in the ancientNear East.Exploring potential mining sites inTurkey, Yener and her colleagues discovered the mine at Kestel, about 60 milesnorth of Tarsus. When they began excavating, they found only low-grade tin oredeposits, which they decided must be leftovers from richer deposits that had beenmined out. Those small amounts of tin,argued some archaeologists, were hardlyenough to prove that the site was actually atin mine.But working last summer with tin expertsfrom Cornwall, an area in southwesternEngland famous for its tin deposits, Yenerdiscovered industrial debris at the nearbymining village of Goltepe that providedclues about how the tin was probablysmelted. And, rather than low-grade tin,excavators found one ton of materials with30-percent tin content — high enough toprovide proof, Yener believes, that tin wasbeing produced, and was the motivation forthe mining and smelting industry.The site — and the labor-intensive smelting processes Yener's group has recreated —may explain why archaeologists previouslyhad been unable to locate any local tinsources in the region: They were lookingfor the wrong thing. Rather than large furnaces for tin smelting — similar to those thathad already been found for copper smelting — Yener's expedition found 50,000 stonetools, suggesting that large amounts of tinwere processed, starting with fairly lowgrades of ore smelted as small batches instone vessels or crucibles."The mining was done with stone toolsand fire," Yener explains. Miners wouldlight fires by the ore veins, making it easierto batter away the ore. The Kestel mine, an Turkish tin mine: From the narrow shaftsof this ancient mine comes evidence that hashelped to solve an archaeological puzzle.underground system about two miles long,"probably produced about 5,000 tons of oreduring its 1,000 years of operation."The mined ore was first washed, in muchthe same way that America's Gold Rushminers panned for gold. The ore was thenground and smelted in covered crucibles,which workers kept hot by blowing airthrough reed pipes — a technique that couldhave produced temperatures of anywherefrom 1,740 to 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit —high enough to separate the tin from thesurrounding ore.All of this is proof, says Yener, that theBronze Age tin industry at Kestel andGoltepe "had become just that — a fullydeveloped industry with specialization ofwork. It had gone beyond the craft-stagesthat characterize production done for localpurposes only."One by-product of that specialized industry seems to have been child labor: Insidethe Kestel mine — nearly two miles ofextremely narrow underground shafts — theresearchers found a burial site with theskeletons of a number of 12- to 15-year-oldminers. "By examining the skeletons further," Yener says, "we will be able to determine if they died of a mining-relatingillness or injury." — M.R.Y.sity of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 1 5?**..\\the ««asS t«P\oV a clttEUeenRVan 3tti A "fBehind TheBaffler are DavidMulcahey (left),Greg Lane, andfounding editorThomas Frank.Ut all seemed innocuous enough. Asmall expose. Some red faces. Asmattering of chuckles. Granted,I the U of C-based editors of TlieBaffler were messing with TheNewspaper of Record, but who would evennotice? II (hey were going to be squashed,The Baffler heads reasoned, they might aswell go under the biggest wheel they couldfind.So went the thinking as Thomas Frank,AM'89, editor of The Baffler, began flushingout the Great Grunge Prank. Played out atthe expense of the chronically unamused New York Times, it came to Frank's attention after he incredulously read a November 15, 1992, Times article about theproliferation of "grunge"-speak, the lexicondeveloped to accompany the Seattle-basedfashion and music trends. Smelling morethan a hint of teen spirit in the story, Franktracked down the reporter's source: a youngwoman who once worked for a Seattlerecord company. She freely told Frank she'dmade up the expressions ("plats," "lame-stain," "swingin" on the flippity-flop") as ajoke.Like any good editor privy to a scoop, Frank splashed the hoax (under thescreaming headline, "Harsh Realm, Mr.Sulzberger!" — "harsh realm" meaning"bummer," according to the Times story)across the pages of The Baffler's fourthissue, which hit the stands in December1992 with 2,500 copies. Within weeks, TheNew Republic, the New York Observer, andSeattle media had picked up on the story.The New York Times had little choice butto retrace its reporter's steps back to hissource. The self-anointed Seattle grungeexpert insisted that the vocabulary waslegitimate. (Later, she told reporters at1 6 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994another newspaper that she had liedagain — this time because she would havefelt terrible "if somebody lost their job overa stupid prank.") Bolstered by her assurances, the Times editors gave Frank threehours to fax a Baffler response, which thepaper promised to ran the next day.The withering statement Frank whippedup read, in part, "Having seen the New YorkTimes' misinterpretation of the grunge 'phenomenon,' we are hardly surprised that youfail to understand the nature of this continuing prank. We at The Baffler really don'tcare about the legitimacy of this or that fad, but when The Newspaper of Record goessearching for the Next Big Thing and theNext Big Thing piddles on its leg, we thinkthat's funny."The Times did not run the reply."They don't like us at all," concludes GregLane, a fourth-year majoring in history andThe Baffle fs business manager. Not that itmatters, he adds. He prefers the WashingtonPost anyway.Thanks in part to its one-upping theTimes, The Baffler has emerged as something of a media darling, and Frank, 28, andLane, 25, as poster boys of the twentysome-thing generation. For the personifications ofa "lost" generation, the two look surprisingly vital as they hold court in the WHPKoffice in Mitchell Tower. No hollow-cheeked, flannel shirt-wearing, cigarette-sucking slackers here, thank you verymuch. Just a good dose of Brooks Brotherschic accessorized with malcontent flair."Uh, hello.. We're BUSY," the blond-and-bespectacled Lane says pointedly to anunsuspecting undergrad who pokes hishead inside the office. 'Nuff said, the undergrad beats a hasty retreat from the dimroom, plastered floor to ceiling with rockposters, album covers, and too-smart-for-you U of C graffiti.Never mind that Lane and Frank are nolonger officially part of WHPK's dailydoings. Once both station managers, thetwo now just ran with the social circle thatinevitably mushrooms around campusradio. On this blustery Sunday, however,with the early dusk closing in on the quads,they've taken over the battered WHPKoffice to discuss The Baffler, the best-knownweapon in their war on mass culture.The Baffler, a publishing venture produced on WHPK's Macintosh computer andlaser printer (hence Lane's protectiveinstinct toward the office space), was co-founded by Frank and three undergraduatefriends in 1988, while the group was hanging out at the University of Virginia. WhenFrank began studying for a Ph.D. in historyat Chicago in 1988, The Baffler relocatedwith him. Now in production for its sixthissue, the project is steered in Hyde Park byeditor Frank, business manager Lane, andwriter/editor David ("Call him 'Diamonds'")Mulcahey, 28, sponsorship director anddisc jockey at WHPK, and a former U of Cstudent now employed by Greenpeace inChicago. Two of Frank's original UVa.cohorts remain long-distance contributors."We were looking to emulate the magazines that defined art, aesthetics, and politics in America," recalls Frank, who saysThe Baffler's creators drew heavily on think-or-sink magazines like The Smart Set, editedby H. L. Mencken and George Jean Nathan from 1914 to 1923; The American Mercuryof the mid-1920s to mid-1930s; and TheMasses, a left-wing periodical publishedfrom 1913 until it was banned from theU.S. mail after the start of World War I .Although trend-watchers repeatedly linkThe Baffler with the do-it-yourself publishing boom that today produces thousands ofso-called "zines" a year, The Baffler is not somuch a zine as a literary journal, insists itssteering triumvirate. Not only does it outclass most zines because of a budget thatincludes an outside typesetter and printer(unheard of among zine purists who swearby the local Kinko's), The Baffler also putsmore of a focus in each trying-to-be-semiannual issue, centering on themes such asthe evils of suburbia or the mass-marketingof rebellion lifestyles."The great thing about zines is the D.I.Y.aesthetic," says Lane, who concedes to thissimilarity between The Baffler and the zinepublications he generalizes by category as"stupid and useless."Frank, reclining in a nearby, very greencouch with his Java and a monstrousmuffin, agrees, to some extent. "Zines arefashionable for the same reason 'alternative'rock is: trying to incorporate a new generation of consumers," he scorns. "But that'sthe aesthetic we came out of — somewherebetween a literary magazine and a zine.""Somebody should have prevented thesekinds of machines from getting in ourhands," Lane adds, waving toward the 19-inch Mac monitor while sipping "C" Shopcoffee. "Somebody in business should havefigured out that guys like us shouldn't beable to access PageMaker."Although Frank says he appreciates thecreative freedom and effort put into zines,one of the things that sets The Baffler apartfrom them is the magazine's decidedly anti-fan stance — a complete turnaround fromzines' origins (see sidebar, page 19). Inaddition, he says, The Baffler wants writerswho are not only entertaining but can alsowrite in a specifically Bcrf/Ier-esque style.What makes an essay or a piece of Actionor poetry Baffler-esque? A clue can befound in The Baffler's motto: "The JournalThat Blunts The Cutting Edge." Forstarters, an article should be "very down"on post-modernism, capitalism, and art forart's sake. It can be "incredibly moralistic,"but it needs to show people the value ofresisting trends or fashions mass-marketedunder the guise of "culture." Commentsthat most people would find "abrasive" or"irritating" (two of the editors' favoritedescriptions of The Baffler) score bonuspoints. The more deflating, the better.Most zines bleed their publishers' pocketsdry to reach a circulation that seldomUniversity of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 1 7creeps beyond 100 or so. Moreover, a zine'saverage life span is one or two issues — basically until the publisher gets bored or losesaccess to a convenient copier. In contrast,although it's "by no means a money-makingventure," Lane says The Baffler has sold outthe print run of every issue. Circulationnow hovers around 3,500 readers: about500 receive it via second-class mail, and therest pick it up at U.S. and Canadian newsstands for $5 a pop. And a sweet smell ofsuccess wafts from The Bajjfler's small advertising revenues, mostly from Hyde Parkbusinesses and scholarly presses, and thegrants it receives from the U of C StudentGovernment and the Illinois Arts Council."I also sink a lot of my own money intothis," says Frank, who brightens noticeablywhen he mentions the advertising successof issue no. 5. The most recently completedincarnation, which cost about $5,000 toproduce and saw public light in December,may recoup its expenses because it drewads from several independent record labels.The lure was an editorial theme that lambasted the "alternative" rock of bands likeSeattle-based Nirvana and Pearl Jam.So what's wrong with the Seattle set, otherthan that they seem to mumble a lot? Awhole lot of nothing, The Baffler snaps.Eddie Vedder, Kurt Cobain, and their likeare poseurs of the worst kind, Lane saysdisgustedly. "Although Pearl Jam postureson the cover of Time magazine as victims,"he claims, "these people grab the hand ofthe very system they claim to be the victimof, and walk down the street with it.""Capitalism thrives on people posturing asradicals because that's planned obsolescence," Frank agrees. Pursuing the pointthat a rebel who rejects what's offered nowwill naturally pursue the eternal new, headds that it's no coincidence that modernartists are used by companies to hawkeverything from Gap T-shirts to Dewar'sScotch whisky, or that urban artists' neighborhoods traditionally gentrify into yuppiehavens."The idea of being a rebel and breakingthe rales is so commonplace now," Frankpoints out, citing Burger King's "Sometimesyou gotta break the rales" and Pepsi's "Thechoice of a new generation" ad slogans inhis argument. "Fake rebellion is the bread-and-butter of capitalism these days."Art churned out to pose as radical orrebellious, but in reality marketed as a fashion, is a vacuous act of production, saysFrank. "The kind of art that we're critiquingis not adversarial," he says, blinking behindhis antique, gold-filled frames. "Nobodyever bothers to criticize the culturalmachinery of capitalism because they'repart of it." One media-driven phenomenon that TheBaffler editors have already blasted is thetwentysomething stereotype. "Twenty-NOTHING" scoffed the fourth issue. In corporate America's frenzy to latch onto andclassify this jumbled mass of youth, "Noone was even bothering to consult withactual people our age," Frank says disbe-lievingly, stirring his coffee with a ballpointpen. "Our understanding of it was thatnobody was really interested in what peoplein their 20s were actually like."The main premise was that we werevoiceless and underrepresented, andnobody cared about us. This was true.There were very few movies, TV shows, andwhatnot marketed to us. But if people werereally interested in what people our agethought, there's tons of cultural productionout there by young people — stuff like independent record labels, radio stations likeWHPK, and zines."This is not what they were interested in.They just wanted to find out how to marketto us."Mad as hell, Frank and co-founder andco-editor Keith White (now a graduate student at UVa.'s Darden business school)translated their venom into a Baffler diatribe that accused Baby Boomers of brainwashing countless anxious teenagers andyoung adults into believing that buying $80sneakers will set them apart — and at thesame time welcome them into an exclusiveclub of deep, troubled youth.The essay ominously warned theBoomers: "Although your anointed authorities may not take it into account when theydo their 'studies' of the young, there is avast cultural resistance under way. Yourbest and brightest want nothing to do withyou. We were too cynical too young aboutyour motives, your politics, your TV, yourbad rock 'n' roll."This is a generation that will never againcooperate, will never make your coffee withequanimity or discuss happily the latestdoings of your favorite sitcom characters.Thus we proclaim your American Centuryat an end, with a shrug of distaste ratherthan the bang you had counted on.... Weknow who we are, no matter what labelsyou choose for us. Now leave us alone."To further show their scom for the capitalist machine, The Baffler staff nurses apenchant for hijinks that reel in mainstreamdupes like largemouth bass. Besides theGreat Grunge Prank, another example ofBaffler minds at work unfolded whenFrank, Mulcahey (a former stockbroker),and contributor Chris Holmes created afake broker's recommendation for a nonexistent company, called ConsolidatedDeviance, and mailed about 300 copies to newspapers nationwide. ConDev, it seems,is "unarguably the nation's leader, if not itssole force, in the fabrication, consultancy,licensing and merchandising of deviantsubcultural practice."Says Frank, "I have no idea of how far andwide this thing ran, but it wasn't reallymeant to be a prank. Nobody would havebeen fooled by it unless you were profoundly dumb or knew absolutely nothingabout the stock market." Regardless, about20 people — most of whom had figured outthe joke — did call the ConDev phonenumber provided in the report.Indeed, The Baffler doesn't do what it doesto make friends in high places or becomepart of the literati glitterati. Although it'sbeen lauded by the likes of the Utne Reader,Spy, and Library journal for its eloquenceand razor-sharp humor, and although it'sfound at the Library of Congress and majorresearch libraries nationwide, The Bafflerprizes its odd mosaic of readers above all.Among them are a teenager in Brooklyn, aprisoner in Pennsylvania, and a subscriberin Japan who gets his copy by boat. Frankeven saves all submissions until he canreturn them to the writers with detailed critiques and a personal note.Admits Frank: "We have no solutions.We're not a policy journal. We have no illusions about being responsible for the futureof this country. We're not in business. Wejust want to give people the tools to resistthe machinery. OK, it's a stupid platitude,but at the same time it's intensely meaningful."Good intentions like these are what keepthe Baffler fresh, even as the editors gear upfor issue no. 6 — devoted to disembowelingmedia conglomerates — which is due outthis summer. Simultaneously, the Bafflermen are bracing themselves to enter thecapitalist world they so eloquently vilify.Frank, who is finishing up his dissertationon advertising in the 1960s, is looking for ajob in academe while trying to find thefinancial means to expand The Baffler into alarger magazine. Lane is also testing thejob-market waters."If we could support ourselves doingthis," Frank says, "I'd do this." But whenpressed to speculate on The Bajfjfler's futureif he, Lane, and Mulcahey should separate,he comes up with a quintessentially twen-tynothing reply."I don't want to think about that now," hesays, dismissing the reality check with ashudder and the last of his liquid caffeine."That's depressing."Copies of The Baffler are available at $5 each or ata subscription rate of $16 lor four issues. Inquiriesand orders should be mailed to: The Baffler, P.O.Box 378293, Chicago, IL, 60637.1 8 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994MTtf*:NATIVITO WHAT?i',im*" Hot*' J«SU«-PI . --.MI1V_¦ DeVIAHCS.jNSOt io*reD .",. 'tfs#^**s "-t»tf*t'""of "lS°'1 ©They've got titles like Nice Slacks,Ooompa! Ooompa!, and BabyI Split Bowling News. They'resheets of white paper copied andstapled together, like Teenage Gang Debsand A Nest of Ninnies, or they're newsprintbound with glossy covers, like Speed Killsand Answer Me! They show the heart ofDuplex Planet or the disturbed soul ofMurder Can Be Fun. They're at once belligerent, goofy, angst-ridden, introspective, gross, or annoying — a veritable feaston the fringe.Beyond the bounds of mainstream magazines lies this intensely personal world ofdo-it-yourself publications called "zines."Estimates put the number of zines published throughout the United States todayat anywhere from 2,000 to 10,000. Thesketchy count stems from the short lifespan and rapid turnover of titles — andfrom the argument over what makessomething a zine.At the very basic level, veteran zineenthusiasts describe a zine as just somepages put together at a convenient copier."Generally, they're created by one person,for love rather than money, and focus on aparticular subject," say Mike Gunderloyand Cari Goldberg Janice in their book,The World of Zines, published in 1992."A zine is a publication where the ego isbigger than the income," is an aphorismoffered by R. Seth Friedman, currentpublisher of Factsheet 5, considered thetrade journal of zines.Because of their personal bent, zineshave budgets that understandably arelow-to-no and circulations that aresmall — maybe ten, maybe a few hundred if a zine catches on. But evenA with their money-losing nature,zines have proliferated in the late'80s and early '90s, thanks in no smallpart to growing access to computers,copiers, and desktop publishing software."Zine publishing is easy," says Janice,former co-publisher of Factsheet 5. "It'sself-fulfilling. You get to say what youwant without any censorship. You don'thave to follow any rules."Flouting authority is indeed the top priority of publications like The Baffler, perhaps the U of C's most successful, and visible, entry into the independent publishing ring. It is listed among some 1,250zine tides (under the "Arts & Letters" category) in the most recent issue of Fact-sheet 5, which also includes the headingsof comics, sex, literature, work, obsessions, music, politics, Riot Grrrlz (a brandof aggressive feminism currently in voguewith young women), fringe, and queer.Not surprisingly, zines tend to initiate adialogue without the familiar exchange ofpleasantries. Preferring to get in a reader'sface without so much as a how-do-you-do, zine publishers sneer at any "posturing." Why bother? they say. If you don'tlike it, quit reading — or start your ownzine.Although zines trace their roots to thescience fiction pulp magazines of the1930s, the fanzines of the Frankie Avalonand Fabian eras, and the undergroundpress of the '60s and '70s, today's incarnations are a new — and far more cynical —breed. Instead of warning againstcopyright infringement, for example, theanarchist zine Wind Chill Factor urgesreaders to "steal, plagiarize, reprint, copyand riot unreservedly."Seth Friedman, who spends his entireday in a San Francisco office reading zinesfor Factsheet 5, sees several reasons forzines' current popularity. For one thing,he says, the recessionary economy has leftplenty of people unemployed or underemployed and looking for something fulfilling to do.In addition, the people in their 20s whocomprise the bulk of zine readers and creators want to stay connected with friendsand like minds. "College age implies akind of transient lifestyle," Friedmanexplains, "and when you have that kind oftransience, people tend to have highdegrees of activity and therefore things tosay."Zines are a cheap, fast, and easy way offilling several voids at once. "In a lot ofways, it's like graffiti art," says Friedman."People can produce a masterpiece in acouple of hours as opposed to months."So, are zines just a fad that has peaked,and will they fizzle out once the angryslackers find gainful employment, or onceanother form of rebellion becomes hip?"Definitely not," predicts Friedman."You've popped people's cherry. Oncepeople have explored the potential foralternative literature, their minds will beopen. I think zines will have a permanentpart in our landscape of alternativeideas."—J.H.?.Unorthodox AMwoty f.For Evek/one! *University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 19OUR SCORE AND SEVEN YEARS AGqgm*fathers brought forth on this ccm Panew nation, conceived in Liberty, anddedicated to the proposition that all menare created equal.Now we are engaged in a gre lllivil war,testing whether that nation, Jf any nationso conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. Weare met on a great battle-field of that w ' mk We havecome to dedicate a portion of that field, i a finalresting place for those who here gavej jr livethat that nation might live. It is alt^fpSI * fittiand proper that we should do this.But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicjpfce — wecan not consecrate— we can not hallow — thisground. The brave men, living and dead, whostruggled here, have consecrated it, far £§H(p ourpoor power to add or detract. The World IIKmittlenote, nor long remember what we say here, but itcan never forget what they did here. It is for || Jfieliving, rather, to be dedicated here to theunfinished work which they who fought hen h.thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us tr behere dedicated to the great task remaining befo:us — that from these honored dead we takeincreased devotion to that cause for which theygave the last full measure of devotion— that wehere highly' resolve that these dead shall not havedied in vain— that this nation, under God, shallhave a new birth of freedom — and that goveof the people, by the people, for the people, i hallnot perish from the earth.Art by Steve McCrackenyBY LA R R Y M c E N E R N EII IThe Gettysburg Addressis short, to the point, andsimple to memorize. Butrhetoric and meaningcombine in a way thatmakes Lincoln's speechfar more easy to admirethan to duplicate.The Gettysburg Address is a problem. Imean, it is a problem for me. I teachwriting and when you teach writing, theGettysburg Address can be a problem.The problem is that it is enormously difficult to write as Abraham Lincoln did, difficult inways which we often don't understand. We want toimitate the text, but we don't know how.The triumph of the Gettysburg Address is veryvisible, entirely wonderful, and everyone wants torepeat it. The problem is that the foundation of thattriumph is nearly invisible, entirely wonderful, andvery difficult to replicate.Let's begin with the visible triumph. Remember, ifyou will, the setting and the purpose of the speech.Lincoln has come to Gettysburg, in the presence ofthousands of mourners, to dedicate a cemetery forthe 23,000 Union soldiers killed or wounded at thatinfamous battlefield where 20,000 Confederatesalso were hurt or killed. His listeners have pickedtheir way past rows of corpses,dug up from temporary graves tobe re-interred in the militarycemetery. It is November 1863,only months after the battle andthe deaths: The war that dividesthe country rages on.From our perspective, with ourknowledge, the tide of war hasalready turned and the final victory of Lincoln's Union seemsinevitable. For Lincoln, victorywas each day's strain and suspense. Ten months after givingthis speech he was still concerned that he would fail to bereelected and, as a result, theUnion would be dissolved.Lincoln's own problem, overwhelmingly, was to win the war.What then is he doing in thisspeech? In part, of course, he isdedicating a cemetery, Yet the ,received wisdom about the address remains"'ir«€:rLincoln is rallying his people toward .the Unioncause. He seizes the opportunity to encourage andinspire flagging spirits. If we were to distill Lincoln's immediate message into one sentence, itwould be the final, extraordinary sentence:"It is rather for us to be dedicated to the great taskremaining before us — that from these honored deadwe take increased devotion to that cause for whichthey gave the last full measure of devotion — that wehere highly resolve that these dead shall not havedied in vain — that this nation, under God, shallhave a new birth of freedom — and that governmentof the people, by the people, for the people, shallnot perish from the earth."What's important for our purpose is that thismeaning-filled sentence is indeed the final sentence.Speeches like the Gettysburg Address have inUniversity of Ci iicago Magazine/February 1994 21common compelling finishes — finishes thatbring the speech not only to a climax ofrhetoric and emotion but also to the climaxof its message. The most important thingLincoln has to say, his main point, comesjust as he reaches his end. Crescendo —climax — fade to black. Whew.Lincoln is by no means the only writerwho makes his main point more visible andmemorable by placing it at the end of a text.Consider Churchill: "Let us thereforebrace ourselves to our duties and so bearourselves that, if the British Empire and itsCommonwealth last for a thousand years,men will still say: 'This was their finesthour.'"Or King: "Free at last, free at last. ThankGod almighty, we are free at last."Crescendo — climax — fade to black. Nowonder people say: "1 want to write liketliflt! Who wouldn't want to end with suchtriumph?That's the problem.One of the most difficult things to teachabout writing is organization, how to structure a text. It's especially difficult to teachwhen writers decide they want to end in triumph, when they decide to delay theirpoints until the very last moments. Theproblem is that while writers have a grandtime building step-by-step toward their triumphal conclusions, their readers are moreoften than not left in the dust. The writersthink they are progressing logically towardan inescapable conclusion; their readers,having long since lost any thread of organization, can see only that the writers areheaded nowhere and getting there fast.The problem is that readers generallyneed to know the point before they readmost of the text. Readers almost alwaysneed to use the point, or something like thepoint, in order to follow the discussion, inorder to make sense out of all the details.Without the point, the discussion is aimless, the details are chaos.Here's a simple example. I'll give you fourapparently random words: Imagine an idea,a concept, something the words have incommon that would make sense of puttingthem in a single list. The words are:cup. . .marble. . .birthday. . .ice cream.Too many writers I work with write verymuch like this list. It doesn't matterwhether they are 18-year-old undergraduates or 58-year-old attorneys. They love toLurry McEncrncy, AM'80, is director ofUniversity Writing Programs and a teacherin the University's "Little Red Schoolhouse,"a ten-week course in academic and professional writing. This article is adapted from atalk McEncrney gave in October for the University's annual Humanities Open House. give readers bits and pieces, just clues to thepoint, building to their triumphal endings.They love the climactic last sentence whenthey can say, "Cup... marble... birthday..,ice cream. Therefore..." (drumroll, please):"Cakes!"Cakes? To find out how "cakes" makessense of our words, you have to go back tothe list and test the specifics against the"point": ice-cream cakes, birthday cakes,marble cakes, cupcakes. It does make sense,it is coherent, but only when you go backand re-read. Readers, of course, do not ordinarily want to go back and reread, especially when the text is much longer thanfour words. Most often, they simply refuseto go back. Sometimes, they won't evenfinish the first reading, which is a majorproblem for point-last, final-triumph texts.Certainly, it's possible to write point-lasttexts that work, Churchill did. King did.Lincoln was a master of the form. But whatthese writers understood is that if you'renot going to use an early point to organizeyour text, you need to give readers otherkinds of structures. In the GettysburgAddress, Lincoln withholds from his readers the kind of coherence that comes fromknowing his point, but in its place he provides other kinds of coherence that comefrom other kinds of organizing structures. Itis these structures which are the nearlyinvisible foundation of the triumph of theGettysburg Address.Yet here is another problem: invisible things are hard to see. Howcan we understand the effect ofstructures that we don't evennotice? How can we learn tonotice them? I've learned from my "LittleRed Schoolhouse" colleague Joe Williams topractice what he calls "critical imagination."Want to see the effect of some part of atext? Imagine it differently. How does thedifference on the page change your experience in reading? When you can see theeffect of a change in the text, you canunderstand the effect of the original. Try this with the Gettysburg Address.Start with its famous opening reference tothe Declaration of Independence: "Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers..."Now, heretically, imagine it different. Howelse might Lincoln have begun? He couldhave said: "In Philadelphia, our fathers..."or "With surpassing wisdom, ourfathers..." or "Bickering amongst themselves whether it should be 'inalienable' or'unalienable,' our fathers. . . "If we change the opening phrase, whatchanges in our experience of the speech?What may seem to be a small change of afew words would actually undercut a crucial source of coherence for the entire text:chronology. Lincoln helps us to organizethe Address by structuring it as a movementthrough time. He begins in the past: "Fourscore and seven years ago..." He moves tothe present: "Now we are engaged in a greatcivil war. . .we are met. . .It is fitting. . ." Sucha chronological sequence organizes theinformation so well that we can even predict the ending: Lincoln will move to thefuture. And so he does: "That this nationshall have a new birth of freedom... thatgovernment of the people, by the people,for the people shall not perish from theearth." The coherence we feel from thechronological structure begins to replacethe coherence lost by delaying the point.Let's imaginatively challenge the nextphrase: "our fathers brought forth... a newnation." Here, it is not difficult at all toimagine other wording. Very few of uswould have chosen Lincoln's language.Remember, he is describing the founding ofthe country. How would you describe this?Something like: "our fathers created. . .a newnation" or "the founders established. . .a newnation." But "our fathers brought forth"! It'sthe language of birth, and odd indeed, sinceit is mothers who bring forth, not fathers.Yet there's little question that this is the language of birth. It is, after all, a nation "conceived in liberty."Here Lincoln is constructing another kindof organizing structure for the address. Thisicture yourself as one of thousands whohave come to Gettysburg. Your brother,your husband, your son, lies dead in thisground. You have come here to mourn, togrieve. And Lincoln speaks to you.22 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994is the order of nature, the cycle of the seasons: birth, death, rebirth. He opens withthese birth images and moves to the language of death (the middle of the address isfilled with such language). As in nature,winter is followed by spring, so in this textdeath is followed by rebirth: "...this nation ...shall have a new birth of freedom."The speech has evoked and fulfilled a fundamental structure in our experience of life:the structure of nature.Critically test the next phrase: ". . .broughtforth on this continent. . ." Why the referenceto geography? Would the speech lose anything if we changed or omitted this phrase?It would lose another structure of coherence. Consider the pattern of Lincoln's references to place:continentnationbattlefieldresting placethis groundfought herethis nationperish from the earthAs Garry Wills has pointed out in Lincolnat Gettysburg: The Words that Remade America, Lincoln insists that his listeners payattention to place. This insistence serves thehourglass structure of place and it createsanother kind of structure, one born of repetition. Lincoln adds coherence to theaddress by the simple technique of repeating words. In addition to the eight uses of"here," he uses a form of "dedicate" sixtimes. Taken together, these two wordsconstitute 5 percent of the entire speech.Most of my students are horrified at thethought. Some have been taught along theway never to use the same word twice in aparagraph. None imagines that great writersare so repetitive. Yet this very repetition isone tool Lincoln uses to make his writinggreat. Having denied us the organizingeffect of knowing his point from the outset,he continues to provide us with other kindsof structure. And, as we know from therhythms of music, simple repetition — abeat — can create fundamental coherence.All of these structures, and others, workupon us as we read or listen to this text. Yetthere is another structure, one which weteach in every "Little Red Schoolhouse"program and which I think may be themost powerful source of organization in theaddress. In its simplest form, we call thisProblem-Solution. A text begins with difficulty, with conflict, instability, a problem.What structure does this trigger? What dowe expect will follow? Just as you expectthe past and the present to lead to thefuture; just as you expect birth and death to lead to rebirth; so do you expect conflicts tolead to resolutions and instabilities to leadto stabilities. If, at the beginning of theaddress, Lincoln can elicit a sense of problem, then the speech will feel well-organized as it moves to a solution. This is thecoherence we feel.What is the problem in theGettysburg Address? Actually, there are three. First,Lincoln says: "Now we areengaged in a great civil war,testing whether that nation. ..can longendure." The nation is being tested, its survival is at risk. Obviously, this is a problem,and when we hear it articulated at thebeginning of a speech, we know how toorganize what follows: we look for a solution. We find it in the final sentence — thepoint of the speech. That marvelous sentence feels absolutely right and logical inpart because it is the solution to thenational problem. Lincoln's point is that weneed to be dedicated to winning the war,because if we are so dedicated, the nationwill solve its problem, the nation will survive, "the nation... will have a new birth offreedom."There is a second, larger problem. Lincolnsays that the war is a problem not just for asingle nation, a single people, but for allpeople. The war tests not merely a particular government but a philosophy of government. He says that the war is a test ofwhether a democracy based on liberty andequality is possible: "Now we are engagedin a great civil war, testing whether.... anynation, so conceived and so dedicated, canlong endure." If the Union should fail, freedom and equality would perish.What is the solution to this second problem? Exactly the same as the first. Again,Lincoln has positioned his main point asthe solution to a problem. If we are dedicated to winning the war, not only will onenation survive, but democracy itself willsurvive: "government of the people, by thepeople, for the people, shall not perish fromthe earth."But there is also a third problem in theGettysburg Address, And, to my mind,therein lies the greatness of the speech. Lincoln does not make the error of so manywriters: he does not focus solely on theworld he is writing about. He focuses on thereaders he is writing to. In the Schoolhouse,we argue that, if you want to write effectively, you must make your problem yourreaders' problem. Lincoln does just this,Think again of the setting. Picture yourself as one of the thousands who have comeon a clear November day to the small Pennsylvania town of Gettysburg. Why are you here? Because it is your brother, your husband, your son, who lies dead in this ground.You have come here to mourn. You havecome here to grieve, to honor, and to love.And Lincoln speaks to you: "We have comehere to dedicate a portion of that field, as afinal resting-place for those who here gavetheir lives that the nation might live."You then hear a sentence which willpuzzle later readers, as it seems to thembanal and even cold. Given what Lincoln isabout to say, however, it is almost unbearably moving that he pauses to affirm yourmourning. From his own terrible grievinghe reaches out to you and reassures youthat is a good thing you are doing, cominghere to bring your sorrow out of yourselfand cast it onto this ground and onto thesestones. "It is altogether fitting and properthat we should do so."Then he uses the single most commonsignal of a problem: a word that means tension, instability, conflict. He says, "But."And suddenly, you have a problem: "But, ina larger sense, we can not dedicate — we cannot consecrate — we can not hallow — thisground. The brave men, living and dead,who struggled here, have consecrated it farbeyond our poor powers to add or detract."You who have come to Gettysburg thisday have a problem. You cannot grieve bydedicating this ground. You cannot honorby consecrating this ground. You cannotlove by hallowing this ground. Gently, Lincoln calls you to your problem: You cannotdo what you have come here to do.What is your solution? Of course, it isagain to be found in his main point, hisfinal sentence. Your solution is not to dedicate the ground, but rather to dedicateyourself: "It is for us the living, rather, to bededicated. . .It is rather for us to be here dedicated... that from these honored dead wetake increased devotion. ..that we herehighly resolve. . . " In a larger sense, Lincolnis telling his listeners, the ground cannotbear the weight of your grief. The onlything strong enough is yourself.The great visible triumph of the Gettysburg Address — its ending — is made possible by the invisible structures that have heldthe text together. Time, space, rhythm,nature: All of these have made it coherent.Yet it may be that it is the move from problem to solution that most creates the sensethat the ending is exactly right, that thespeech could not end in any other way. Forme, the most powerful structure in thespeech is Lincoln's articulation of the problem facing those who mourn. And at hisending, with infinite grace and kindness,Lincoln fulfills the structure and completesthe address by holding out to his listeners —to his readers, to you — a solution.University of Chicago M\gazine/February 1994 23BY JOE LEVINEPHOTOGRAPHYBY DAN DRYAS A JOURNALIST ANDA JOURNAL KEEPER,Brent Staples — aBLACK MAN WHO SMADE IT IN WHITEAmerica — writesABOUT THE WORLDAS HE SEES IT. Brent Staples works on the tenth floor of the New York Times along a vast, sepul-chral hallway, not far from doors bearing the names of Russell Baker, A. M. Rosenthal and the paper's publisher, Arthur Gelb. On the way to visit him there lastDecember, the few people I passed — chiefly older, white-haired men — wore thejournalist's obligatory muted tans and tweeds.The scene in Staples' office presented a marked contrast. Warm guitar music blared from aportable compact disc player — Automatic For The People, by REM. Stacks of other CDs — JoniMitchell, Charles Mingus, the Bartok String Quartets, Aerosmith — were scattered across hisdesk. On the bookshelves lining one wall, intermingled with serious tomes on racial violence inthe cities, were the stories of Philip K. Dick and the poems of Garcia Lorca. Only a rather battered briefcase on a coffee table said that this wasn't someone's cozy private study.Staples, AM'76, PhD'82, a tall black man with sloping shoulders, was standing across theroom in front of a computer terminal elevated to chest height, singing along in a high, cleartenor voice. He was wearing elegant gray slacks and a matching shirt, open at the collar, no tie.The shirt could have been chosen to harmonize with the sleek lines of the computer stand.AWorld.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 25He covered the room in two long steps,giving my hand an exuberant squeeze."Hey, mon. 1 hope you don't mind themusic. Russell Baker likes to stick his headin here and back out as if he's in a windtunnel or something. But you can't workwithout music, right?" He laughed, peeringat me for my reaction.At 42, Staples is the youngest writer onthe Times' editorial board, but he is clearlyneither awed by his surroundings nor afraidto be himself."Brent comes from a really different background than most of us and he brings thatinto our meetings and into his writing aswell," says Dave Unger, a colleague on theeditorial board. "He's provocative in thebest sense — he confronts people and tellsthem when they're looking at an issuethrough a closed lens." Unger chuckles."He also sets the fashion standards aroundhere. He won't wear a uniform, but he putsmore energy into what he presents visuallythan most of us, and it works."Staples' "background" is the subject of hismemoir, Parallel Time: Growing Up in BlackAnd White, which will be published by Pan-ihcon Books at the end of February, Raisedin the ghetto of Chester, Pennsylvania, alading steel town, he is the oldest sonamong nine children. His family movedseven limes before he reached the eighthgrade, dodging bill collectors and sheriffswhen his lather, a (ruck driver, drank upthe rent money. In high school, a chancejoe Levine is a writer in New York City. street comer encounter with a black collegeprofessor led Staples to abandon plans tobecome a stenographer and apply toWidener University. Later, he won a Dan-forth scholarship to the University ofChicago. There he wrote a Ph.D. thesis onthe mathematics of decision making,absorbed the aura of his literary idol, SaulBellow, and, ultimately, became a writer.In 1984, when Staples was a reporter atthe Chicago Sun- Times, his younger brother THE YOUNGEST WRITERON THE TIMES EDITORIAL BOARD EXUDES AVETERAN'S CONFIDENCE—WHETHERCHATTING WITH ACOLLEAGUE OR TYPINGOUT A FIERY COLUMN.Blake was murdered by a rival drugdealer in Roanoke, Virginia.Though only the opening and closing chapters of Parallel Time dealdirectly with this event, it reverberates throughout the book. Thereader is constantly aware of Staples reflecting on his brother's fate, pondering the forces that shaped each of theirlives. In the end, for all that he has written asuccess story, Staples refuses to claim thekind of credit he feels whites are often eagerto award him."Chance had worked mightily in my favor[but]... chance wasn't popular as an explanation," he writes near the end of his book."People preferred a story in which therugged individual triumphs over all26 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994through force of character.... Once I hadkept a wry distance on this process andaccepted the halo when it was given. Blake'smurder had changed this. Now I could seethat my 'escape' from the ghetto was beingtaken as evidence against him. This role Ino longer wished to play."In much the same way, Staples defiesracial pigeonholing in his Times columns.His "agenda," to the extent that he has one,seems to be to try to remove the distortionthat often surrounds black figures in thepublic eye: to counter the attempts ofthose who would manipulate them aspolitical symbols. When Clarence Thomaswas undergoing confirmation hearings forhis seat on the Supreme Court, Stapleswas quick to deflate the portrayal ofThomas by his backers as "the grandsonof a sharecropper.""It inust pain Judge Thomas that he isbenefiting from membership in a victimclass," Staples wrote acidly, noting thatThomas had provided "lax enforcement" aschief of Ronald Reagan's Equal OpportunityCommission. "Tales of upward mobilitymay warm the heart but they don't qualifypeople for the Supreme Court."And when Staples wrote about EdmundPerry, a black Phillips Exeter student whowas shot to death by an undercover policeman in Harlem in 1985 — and who became a symbol for many of racist lawenforcement — he instead saw theyoung man as a casualty of "theAmerican fascination with angryblack men.""Edmund Perry did not comefrom a stereotypical underclassfamily. His mother was a teacherand president of the PTA. His olderbrother attended an Ivy League college. ..But when he arrived atExeter, Edmund shed his middleclass-ness and donned the mask ofthe angry urban thug. He playedthe role so well that other blackstudents were encouraged to belike him. And playing tough endedhis life."Staples blamed Perry's attractionto thuggery both on a media thatromanticizes and exploits "blackFrankensteins," and on blacks whobuy into the product. He honedthis point in another column entitled "The Politics of Gangster Rap,"in which he called rap "a music celebrating murder and misogyny":"When middle-class blacks fabricate violent urban pasts, they payhomage to murder," he wrote."When record company executivespose for pictures with gun-totingrappers, and when they push that murderous music, they trade in blood."The writing in Parallel Time is journalwriting, a chronicle of an imagination in thetradition of Frank Conroy's Stop- Time orGorky's My Childhood. Staples views hisTimes pieces — appearing in the "EditorialNotebook," a bylined op-ed column wherewriters are given greater license to speak intheir own voices about subjects close totheir hearts — as another form of journalkeeping, a subjective diary of the world andits attitudes."I think one of the things that's unfortunate about mainstream journalism is thatreporters, in the pursuit of objectivity, getbeaten out of them a sense of individualexpressiveness," he told me. "Hence, theylose their individual voice. They becomeuncomfortable with the first-person pronoun, and many of the locutions they useare simply strange ways of evading it —'those in the press think'; 'this reportersaw' — you know? If you're going to use thefirst person, even as subtext, you know, behonest about it."He paused, considering for a long moment. "In Saul Bellow's first novel, DanglingMan, there's a defense of journal keeping.Joseph, the main character, says to himselfin his journal, 'But things are happening tome — I didn't want to miss them.' And I always come back to that passage. It's kindof a talisman, you know? Because writingabout something is a way of figuring outwhat's happening, not just to you, but toYeltsin, to Bill Clinton. And we live in aworld now — C-Span, CNN, Reuters, AP —where you can get all the information youneed. More than you need and more thanyou can use, because information that is notdigested, not shaped by the human mind, isgenerally of very little use. But in this welterof information that we get, what people doneed is to hear thoughtful, educated humanvoices. And I'm not talking vainly aboutmyself, but that is what people look for.Beacons in the crowd."Staples' voice, wherever heard, isperhaps his outstanding feature.He is, as another Times colleagueobserves, that rare writer whospeaks as well as he writes — inlong, beautifully phrased paragraphs, adorned with references to Homerand Virgil and other classical texts, punctuated by frequent "mans" and "you knowwhat I'm sayings" like passing notes in jazz."It is the condition of things that a youngman leaves home," he replied when I askedhim if he thought that people he'd grownup with might be angry at him for gettingaway and becoming successful. "It's the condition of the young man in the Bible that heleaves his family to become someone else.And it's the condition of Faust, Goethe'sstory — you know? A young man leaves thecountryside, goes to the megalopolis to seewhat there is to see, and sometimes hecomes back. And the people who remainbehind are probably evenly split. Thirtypercent turn up their noses at him. Thirtypercent wish they were him, and thirty percent have no opinion. You know what I'msaying?"In another person, this style might comeoff as pretentious, but with Staples it seemsto communicate a genuine exuberance forlanguage and ideas. "Staples men have beenmonolinguists for generations. We love ourvoices too much," he writes in ParallelTime. At the same time, in the book'sacknowledgments, he thanks his mother,"whose voice made me a writer.""The first voices I knew were those of mymother and her friends, sitting around thetable talking," he says. "And she used tohave all of us kids sit around in a circle andeach one of us would have to make up stories."We were sitting at a table ourselves as hewas saying this, in a newly chic West Siderestaurant which, Staples confided, theowner had opened in part to be able tohang his own paintings on the spaciousUniversity of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 27walls. The man had come over to greet Staples after we were seated, slapping him onthe back and making suggestions about thewine. 1 found myself wondering if Staplesever felt adrift in a strange world, far fromthe small-town neighborhood he was tellingme about. If he ever tried to recreate thatearlier environment somehow?He shook his head. "That physical realityis gone. But, Faulkner, I think it is — I havethe exact quote at home on my table —Faulkner says that the past is never reallythe past, because it's never gone. It's alwayswith you, inside your head. It's the thingthat made you."The Chester that made Staples was aharsh place, but it was also full of life andcolor. Staples tasted peaches in a next-doorneighbor's yard, caught butterflies and heldsecret meetings in an abandoned field. Hegrew up near a bar where men were shot bytheir lovers, and in a circle of women whosedarling was the homosexual who came tostyle their hair. He was a dreamy boy whoread comics about the Green Lantern andfantasized about being a pilot in the AirForce, even though he didn't much like tolight — a trait that, as much as his intelligence, may have helped him survive.Staples was also a surrogate parent to hisyounger siblings. He bathed and diaperedBlake, the youngest, and, at age 11, was thelone family member present at his youngersister's hospital bedside after she was badlyburned in a fire. After his parents were separated, he also had the unwelcome responsibility of making trips across town to askhis father for money.The journal keeper in Staples seems tohave been fed in part by the sense of lossthat grew out of this chaotic childhood.Writing of his family's frequent moves, hesays, "We went on and on like bedouinswith couches, tables and mattresses jumbled in the backs of pickup trucks." Theconstant upheaval taught him to travellight: as a grown man, he lived for six yearsin his first apartment — a five-room flat witha dining room, kitchen, and walk-inpantry — with no table to eat on and nothing decorating the walls. But in place ofmaterial possessions, he hoarded memories."At thirteen, 1 was obsessed with the ideathat moments I'd lived were slipping awayand becoming lost to me one by one," hewrites in Parallel Time. "I would seize ontosomething I'd just seen or thought and askmyself if I'd remember that thing five minutes, five hours, or live days from now. Theanswer was always no."Ultimately, however, he needed to breakwith his past, and when he did so, the breakwas total. He spent Christmas vacationsalone in his apartment in Chicago, and sev ered virtually all communication with hisfather. They had feuded, sometimes physically, when the elder Staples was livingunder the same roof. When Brent finallydid go back to visit his father one summer,he found him living alone in the house thefamily had once inhabited, sleeping in achair with a rifle across his knees and surrounded by empty boxes of Kentucky FriedChicken. They spoke briefly, said good-bye,and did not meet again for another nineyears.I asked Staples about that scene, andabout what kind of relationship he has withhis father now. He told me that his fatherhas been hospitalized with bone cancer, butthat they are in touch and have achieved akind of reconciliation."The book contains some very painfulepisodes about my father," he said slowly."But through writing it, I came to understand him. He was a very reserved man, ahard man in many ways, as were many menof his era. He never once, when I was incollege, said, Good job, nice semester, welldone.' But 1 know he's very proud of me. Iknow it because several years after I graduated, one of my uncles told me that he hadcome upon my father in a truck stop restaurant. And my father was engaged in a conversation with some other truck drivers,and when my uncle walked up, he foundthat my father was showing them a transcript of my college grades."Staples seemed surprised when I mentioned that the truck stop encounter wasnot to be found in Parallel Time; he thoughthe had included it. He considered for amoment and shrugged."I visit my father now, and I know he'shappy to see me, and I'm happy to see him,under calm conditions, with time havingpassed. Our speaking together is stillbroken by that sort of father-son competition, but in recent years, in recent months,we've broken that down some." He smiled."And you know, a book is a marvelousthing. It's a world constructed, but it can'tcontain everything. You know?"When Staples arrivedat the University ofChicago's quads inthe autumn of 1973,it was to study psychology. He quicklyfound Freudian theory disappointing, "abaroque machine."'Freud was not observing the mind at all,"he writes in Parallel Time. "He was interpreting it through a system of symbols thathe himself had made."Staples ended up writing his dissertationon the mathematics of decision making. His faculty advisor and inspiration wasHillel Einhorn, who years earlier had contracted Hodgkin's disease and overheard hisdoctors say that he had only a short time tolive. Einhorn showed that equations, usingthe same criteria that doctors did, werebetter at predicting outcomes."The cool indifference of numbersappealed to me," Staples writes — perhapsbecause, like Einhorn, he was someonewho had defied society's predictions forhim. But at the same time, he was becomingdisenchanted with the notion of objectivetruth. He had read the German philosopherEdmund Husserl, who posed the concept of"identic certainty" — more or less the ideathat reality is what we can experiencethrough our own senses. In retrospect, thatidea probably helped steer Staples towardbecoming a writer."Decision theory helped me organize myideas at a time when I was looking for apurer way of doing so," he says. "But I wasnever a mathematician or a scientist. I was apsychologist. And, ultimately, I think thatthe best I can bring to bear in mycolumns — the thing that I strive for — is akind of clear and focused passion."In addition to Husserl, Staples — aided byan elderly professor he had persuaded to actas an occasional tutor — was reading Homer,Virgil, Plato, Aristotle, Schopenhauer, Mer-leau-Ponty, Sartre, and others in the canonof Western thought. He was also studyingwith such memorable teachers as Einhorn,Richard Shweder, William Wimsatt, andEugene Gendlin, AM'50, PhD'58. But hisgreatest discovery was Saul Bellow, X'39,who had recently won the Nobel Prize andwhose newest novel, Humboldt's Gift, "rosein an enormous yellow pyramid" at thefront of the University Bookstore. For Staples, it was Bellow — though he never took aclass with the man, never even shook hishand — who would become the center of hisexperience at Chicago and one of the mostimportant influences of his life."Bellow's people leaped more vividly fromthe page than any I'd encountered," Stapleswrites in "Mr. Bellow's Planet," the chapterin Parallel Time about his Chicago days."Often he reduced them to a single bodilyfeature that carried their entire person in itswake: the set of the butt, the cleft of theupper lip, a gap in the teeth. He preferred asexual organ if he could get it. At the Division Street baths he had waited vulturouslyfor the steam room attendant to bend overso that he could record the squeaky-cleananus, juxtaposed with the 'testicles swinging on a long sinew.' If no sexual organ wasavailable, anything would do. He sometimes snatched bodies whole, but mainly hecannibalized them, taking only the choicest28 University or Chicago Magazine/February 1994,v ,.,/r:.,,>,: ¦¦:."-f y0 parts. He stole from himself as well, givingcharacters his own enormous eyes andunflatteringly spaced teeth..."The man was an alchemist. He couldmake the folds in a bald man's head seemlike a window on the soul."Inspired by Bellow, Staples began carryinga notebook, writing on buses and the EI, onstreet comers in distant neighborhoods, innightclubs in the Loop — even at the ArtInstitute, where he imagined the motives offigures in the paintings. Some of these writings formed the basis of chapters in ParallelTime; others became essays which Staplespublished in the Chicago Reader — his firstforay into journalism.But Bellow's writing infuriated Staples,too. In Humboldt's Gift, a black man slits awhite woman's throat, prompting one character to refer to blacks as "crazy buffaloes"and "pork chops." In Mr. Sammler's Planet,a black pickpocket who has been terrorizing elderly people on a New York City buscorners Sammler and exposes himself."These passages made me angry," Stapleswrites. "It was the same anger I felt whenwhite people cowered past me on thestreet... I expected more of a man whocould see to the soul. 1 expected a portraitof myself, not as the beast I'd been madeout to be, but as who I was at heart."Staples became obsessed with Bellow, jogging underneath the window of his HydePark high-rise every evening, sometimesfollowing him in crowds and even lurkingon the stairwell in his building. Once, afterpassing within inches of Bellow on thestreet, he wrote:"He was looking downward, hungrilyscanning asses, hips and crotches. This washow he did it. The rest of us were a junkyard where he foraged for parts. I wantedsomething from him. The longing wasdeep, but I couldn't place it then. It wouldCDs STREWN CAUSUALLYACROSS BRENT STAPLES'TIMES DESK DISPLAY HISECLECTIC TASTES, WHILETHE JOURNALIST'SSCARRED AND BATTEREDBRIEFCASE SERVES AS AREMINDER ALWAYS TOPACK LIGHT.¦SfcibK?P *take years for me to realize what it was, 1wanted to steal the essence of him, toabsorb ii right into my bones. After I passedhim, 1 felt faint and reached out for a wall.That's when I realized that I'd been holdingmy breath."To this day, Staples attends Bellow's readings whenever possible; to this day, whenever he mentions Bellow in conversation, itis as "Saul" — not in any way to pretend personal familiarity with him (he has never yetspoken to him) but to signify the positionthe man holds in his pantheon of heroes."I've realized that he's a guy from a different era, and it would be ungracious,unwise, narrow-minded, to begrudge a manhis era or a woman her era, for how canthey live outside that time?" He reflects foranother long moment. "In all honesty,though, I have to tell you, there is still a sortof anger I have at him, although I deeplyadmire his way of seeing — and in someways it's become my way of seeing. I haveepisodes of reading him that still make meangry. Every young person looks to someone they admire and hopes to be seen bythem. To pass him on the street at nightand have him be afraid of tne as a villain ora criminal was hurtful, when, of course, 1was not that."Does he hope that Bellow, who nowleaches at Boston University, will read thebook and somehow respond?"I've been fearful of that. I mean, I hope itpleases him, but in another way, I knowthat it never can. Well, I don't know that.But I hope that he'll read it and see himself.I hope that he'll read it and see himself as aseer. And not to get too cryptic, but hopefully he'll read that and see himself as aseer, seeing." He laughs.In a sense, Staples' feelings about Belloware his feelings about the University ofChicago as a whole."I'm eternally grateful for the educationthat I got — that I was lucky to get," he says.'It's a real centering in a world that, intellectually, is blowing apart. People read lessand write less, and the ability to analyze anyproblem in the context of serious ideas thathave stood some test of time is becomingthe province of the elite few. There aren'tmany people who do what I do — who,when the)' sit down to write an editorial,have Homer, Virgil, Plato, and EdmundHusserl to call upon. So believe me, 1 knockon wood. I'm blessed."A.I the same time, he is repulsed by suchelitism, which he believes the Universityhas at times in its history actively promotedand, even in recent times, done little tocounter. Flc cites efforts in the 1930s and1940s to thwart blacks from buying property in Hyde Park, and the school's subse quent "slum removal" and "slum prevention" programs which obliterated bars andnightclubs "that had once played host toCharlie Parker, Miles Davis, and Earl 'Fatha'Hines."The paradox of the University is perhapsmost clearly embodied for Staples in itsfamed Committee on Social Thought."[University president Robert M. Hutchins]had created The Committee and dedicatedit to the study of eternal ideas," he writes."He viewed education as a Socratic affair, inwhich students read the great books, pondered the great questions, and listened toconversations among the great minds. TheCommittee's professors were a modem version of Plato's Philosopher Kings."But one of Plato's most powerful themes isthe Myth of Metals, in which the Philosopher Kings are the men of gold, ruling thelesser men of bronze and copper. Thatmyth, Staples argues bitterly, is a centralmetaphor of Committee member Bellow'scontroversial novel, The Dean's December.The book was based upon the real-life caseof a white University student who was saidto have been pushed from his window tohis death by two blacks he met in an off-campus dive and then invited home to"party.""The Dean's December was faithful to thefacts," Staples writes. "But Bellow admittednothing so pedestrian as chance. In his viewthe dead student had been overtaken byEvil, in the classical sense of the word...Bellow could tell from the set of the corpse'slips that this had been a virtuous man inwhom carousing would one day have runits course... As Bellow saw it, this goldenchild had been slain by men of lead, thebasest element there was. This was theworld through Plato's eyes: Game, set, andmatch to the Philosopher Kings."Recently, Staples attended a Times publisher's luncheon, at which he chatted withthe guest of honor — the University's president, Hugo Sonnenschein. "We had a littletest of wills about the issue of race and theUniversity," Staples told me with a grin. "Iwas probably a little impatient because, theUniversity being the grand place that it is,it's sort of a shame that more black kidsfrom Chicago don't know about it andaspire to it, you know? Because, I mean,they could be just as interested in Plato orHomer as what they read now in their highschools, if only they knew." He smiled. "ButI wasn't blaming Sonnenschein, or anything. It was a friendly conversation, and Iwas favorably impressed. He told me abouthow he walked around in the student cafeteria recently, how he went up to the tableswhere the black kids were sitting and sat attheir table. And I thought that was a pretty ballsy thing to do. And the right thing todo, too."When Parallel Time ispublished in February, Brent Staples willhit the road for aseven-city tour. Thebook has alreadyreceived glowing blurbs from Russell Bakerand the novelist Robert Stone, and TheSunday Times Magazine will reprint thechapter "Mr. Bellow's Planet." This is Staples' moment, and you get the sense that hehas the personality to enjoy it. While wewere lingering over coffee in the restaurant,a woman at a neighboring table caughtsight of the tape recorder in front of Staplesand came over to find out who he was. Shewas young and attractive, and he flirtedwith her easily, offering her his card whenshe said good night."Well, you don't waste any time," shescolded him, taking the card.After she left, he looked at me andshrugged. "I don't usually do that, but sheintroduced herself, right? Isn't that theAmerican way? Seriously, though, that'sone of the nice things about this place.When it quiets down, you can sit here andtalk to all kinds of people."He seemed at home, comfortable in theworld he has created for himself. Still, Icouldn't help thinking of that road-wornbriefcase on the table in his office and wondering if Staples might not remain foreverthe bedouin. He talks of one day headingoff to live and write in Paris. Meanwhile, helives alone in the Cobble Hill section ofBrooklyn, and his book is conspicuouslydevoid of discussion of his romantic life;there are a few references to women he isseeing at different points, but only as"lovers" — never by name. When I askedabout this omission, he expressed a distastefor writers, particularly Americans from the1960s and 70s, "who go on and on abouttheir bed lives."More to the point, Staples' own view ofhimself seems to be as a loner. At the end ofParallel Time, musing over a family photo,he says of his father, "Even surrounded byfamily, he is utterly alone and containedwithin his skin." He adds, "How like him Ihave become."Like him in what way? I asked."I am a writer, and the writer, by verynature, is alone. My father is a truck driver,and he was happiest when he was Hyingdown the highway at 60 miles an hour witha 40-foot truck behind him. This is themetaphor of flight, of distance from otherpeople. This is a condition of movement,you know? And I've inherited that."30 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994TOBMErThe Superconducting Super Collider was supposed to answerfundamental questions about matter and the universe. Now physicistsare haunted by a different question: Why did it die?t's like a death in the family," saysprofessor of physics Henry Frisch.His colleague Melvyn Shochetdeems the event "a calamity." "It'sall over," says University professor ofphysics James Cronin, AM'53,PhD'55, trying hard to convince himself. "It's really over."For the past decade, U.S. researchers,including several at the U of C, had plannedtheir next great expedition. Their goal:explaining the origin of mass and thenature of the early universe. The journeycalled for an accelerator — one that, smashing particles together to study the elementsof matter, would be 20 times more powerfulthan any accelerator currently in use.This was to be the Superconducting SuperCollider. Approved in 1987 by the Department of Energy, the SSC became the most expensive basic research project ever conceived, with a budget — at last count — of$11 billion. On a 282 to 143 vote, the U.S.House of Representatives voted to kill theSSC last October — despite the fact that $2billion had already been spent toward constructing the machine and its 54-mile ring,and at least another billion would beneeded to shut the project down. What taxpayers had purchased, in the end, was a 14-mile-long hole in the ground in a placecalled Waxahachie, Texas.And what did those taxpayers lose? A lot,say U of C physicists, some of whom hadBy Andrew CampbellPhotography by Robert Drea research hopes pinned on the constructionof the SSC.Indeed, accelerators have played a starringrole in physics since the 1950s, leading tospin-offs in such areas as medicine, semiconductors, and superconductivity, as wellas huge advances in astronomy. And they'vebeen the key to developing particle physics'"standard model." According to that theory,the ultimate constituents of matter are indivisible particles called quarks and leptons.They interact through forces, such as elec-tromagnetism and the weak nuclear force,which are conveyed by additional particlescalled gauge bosons. But with six types ofquarks, six leptons and four forces, simplicity is not the model's strong suit."We know the standard model is notfinal," says U of C physics professor FrankMerritt. "It's got too many parameters, andUniversity of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 3 1Henry Frisch worries that theSSCs demise may discourage undergraduates jrom going into physics:"Science isfundamentallyfragile. Oncethe messagegoes out thatit's a riskybusiness, thenthere are moreincentiveselsewhere. "it's got symmetries that seem to justhappen. If you want to find the underlyingtheory that is more fundamental than thestandard model, and perhaps really is anultimate theory, then you probably have togo to higher energy" — energies that only anaccelerator with the power of the SSC couldprovide.No one thinks the SSC is coming backwithin the next ten or even 20 years."Because of the size of these projects," saysMelvyn Shochet, "my guess is that all futuremajor accelerators will be not only international, the way European accelerators havebeen, but interregional, involving the Europeans, the Americans, and the Asians."Frisch, Shochet, and senior research associate Gregory W. Sullivan felt the immediate impact of the SSCs cancellation morethan anyone else in the physics department.The three were designing the trigger for oneof the SSCs particle detectors — the triggerwould select which particle collisions, outof 100 million per second, should berecorded.Still, caution spared Chicago some of theworst effects of the SSCs demise. "Therewas money available to build up a bigAndrew Campbell is a freelance sciencewitter in Chicago. group, but we didn't do that," explainsFrisch. "The SSC was a gamble, and I didn'tfeel the commitment from Congress." As aresult, salaries are safe, though some equipment funding was lost.Chicago's strong ties to Fermi NationalAccelerator Laboratory should also helptake some of the sting out of the SSCs cancellation. Just an hour from Hyde Park, Fermilab's Tevatron accelerator is currently theworld's premier "microscope" for peeringinside the atom — and should be even betterwhen a $229-million addition to the accelerator is completed, possibly by 1998.Even with these improvements, however,it's possible the Tevatron will not reachhigh enough energies to generate any newphysics. The SSC was much more of a "surething" — particularly in finding the Higgsboson, a theorized particle 1,000 timesheavier than a proton."That," says Shochet, "was probably theprime specific target of the SSC." If it exists,the Higgs — which the SSC would create bycolliding protons with antiprotons, theirantimatter cousins — is the reason why otherwise identical quarks and leptons havesuch different masses. It explains how theelectromagnetic and weak forces, onceunited, separated moments after the bigbang began the universe. And it's a prereq uisite to the "ultimate" theories, which simplify matters further by connecting all fourforces during the birth of the universe, orproposing a new class of particles that linksquarks, leptons, and bosons.The SSCs energy level would recreateconditions in the first quadrillionths of asecond after the big bang. In that environment, says Shochet, "you either find theHiggs, or you find other problems thatoccur." Many physicists are looking to asimilar but smaller European project calledthe Large Hadron Collider (LHC) toexplore some of the same scientific terrainas the SSC. If approved this year by membercountries of CERN, the European Centerfor Nuclear Research in Switzerland, theproject would use CERN's existing 17-miletunnel, and could be up-and-running by2005. Projected at a tenth of the cost ofSSC, the LHC would also be only a third aspowerful as the Super Collider.Says Shochet, "You could go through anLHC program and not have found something and say, 'There's still a little windowthat we can't see. Now we're going to haveto bite the bullet and build somethingbigger.'"Even if the LHC is successful, it may bedifficult for many American physicists toshare in its achievements. That's becauseactually joining CERN as a member countrycould cost the U.S. $200 million annually —a price that the government so far has not32 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994stated any willingness to pay.All of this has created a sense of anxiety inAmerican physics departments, especiallyamong students and younger faculty.Where the effect of the SSCs death on theUniversity of Chicago "is not minor is onthe graduate students, younger faculty, andpost-docs," says Roland Winston, SB'56,SM'57, PhD'63, professor of physics anddepartment chair. "A major opportunityawaiting them has been shut off."Graduate students themselves weren'tinvolved in SSC projects, since their thesisobligations tie them to existing accelerators.Yet graduate student Deborah Harris,SM'92, who works with professor of physicsBruce Winstein and is looking for a postdoctoral position, has felt the loss of theSSC. "Most of the people who went to theSSC were at the post-doc level or muchhigher," Harris remembers thinking, "sowhy should that affect my job search?" Butit has. Many institutions are rethinkingtheir hiring plans in anticipation of asmaller overall field, while some have evenset aside positions for a few of the hundredsof physicists who lost their jobs at the SSC.Even if he were to get a job at an American particle accelerator, graduate studentDavid Saltzberg, SM'91, doesn't want towork just anywhere. While at Fermilabgathering data for his thesis (he eagerlydescribes his nights "on call," pager and all,to troubleshoot one of the accelerator's{doesn'tthink the end of the SSC spellsthe end of excitement in high-energy physics: "I'mconvinced that there areimportant phenomenato be discovered at theexisting machines. " MelvinShochetsays the loss ofthe SSC meansmore than achange inexperimentalvenues: "Thereis a reassessment in the entire community of where we're headed andwhat the long-term goals should be. "giant particle detectors), he acquired a tastefor working at the frontier of his field — afield where breakthroughs are often synonymous with the highest-energy accelerators. Saltzberg thinks that more and more ofthose discoveries will happen overseas.Frisch worries that such discouragementcould eventually trickle down to undergraduates. "Science is fundamentally fragile," he says. "These tend to be very brightpeople who could make a lot of money elsewhere. Once the message goes out that it's arisky business, then there are more incentives elsewhere.""Young people are thinking hard abouttheir options," agrees Jerome Friedman,AB'50, SM'53, PhD'56, Institute professor atMIT and former chair of the SSCs scientificpolicy committee. "We're going to lose a lotof very brilliant people, especially in thephysical sciences."The lack of the SSC may also cause someattrition among current particle physicists,as people find stimulating — and funded —questions in astrophysics or other neighboring areas. Cronin points with confidence tothe number of Chicago particle physicistswho successfully made such transitions. "Ata university," he says, "that's the kind ofcharacter you hope to get."Still, many scientists think it's rash for young American physicists to abandon particle physics — or pursue their research inEurope — just yet,"I'm convinced there are important phenomena to be discovered at the existingmachines," says Bruce Winstein. "There aresome people who immediately wanted tomake the highest U.S. priority doingphysics at LHC, before the SSC was evencold. Sometimes, it's not so smart to immediately think you know what to do."For now, many will look to Fermilab'sTevatron — which, as Frisch points out,"will remain the best facility in the world"for the next ten years at least. Topping Fermilab's agenda is the top quark. As the onlyparticle clearly predicted by the standardmodel but not yet found, its discovery is"the most anticipated result in high-energyphysics," according to Shochet. He is co-spokesperson for one of Fermilab's twolargest collaborations, each using one of theTevatron's two particle detectors to seek thetop quark, among many other investigations. Joining him are Frisch and EdwardBlucher, who came to the U of C last year asan assistant professor, as well as about 250physicists from more than 30 institutions.The timing of the top quark's discover}'will depend on its mass, as the Fermilabdetectors comb through collisions at higherUniversity of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 33and higher energies. "The key question is,why is the top so heavy?" asks Frisch. "It'smuch heavier than anything else, and that'srelated to these fundamental questions:What is mass? And where does this hierarchy of particles come from?"These, of course, aren't the only pressingquestions in particle physics. Largelyunscathed by the SSCs demise are studiesof charge-parity or CP violation, the rareoccasions when matter and antimatter particles do not behave as mirror images, thusbreaking a rule called charge-parity symmetry. Astronomers believe the big bang created both kinds of particles in equalamounts, yet the two annihilate each otheron contact. Why, then, does today's universe seem to contain only matter?Shouldn't it be empty? CP violation, saysShochet, seems the only explanation.In 1963, James Cronin, then at PrincetonUniversity, and Val Fitch — in work done onan accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory — discovered CP violation in experiments on the decay of kaon particles. Sincetheir work, which later earned them aNobel Prize, the mechanism behind CP violation has stayed a mystery, as no newexamples of it have turned up. "It's hightime to find another," says Winstein, whosegroup is looking for an answer among kaonparticles at Fermilab.Other physicists are seeking an answerelsewhere: The prediction that CP violationmay also occur in the decay of another particle, the B meson, has prompted studies byShochet's Fermilab group and launched theB Factory, a $260-million upgrade to anaccelerator at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Given those whose SSCplans went afoul, observes Cronin, SLACfaces "a mad rush of people" eager to joinits new experiment.The loss of the SSC means more than achange in experimental venues. "There is areassessment in the entire community ofwhere we're headed and what the long-termgoals should be," says Shochet. In thecoming months, physicists will debate therole of all of their accelerators post-SSC."We hope that the other laboratories willbe better supported now," says Winstein.Like many, he points to a recent statementexpressing similar hopes by Secretary ofEnergy Hazel O'Leary. "But," he adds,"money is tight these days."For that reason, some think that fundingdecreases endured by existing acceleratorsduring the SSC era will become permanent."The base program outside of the SSC willnot rebound, so the effect on Fermilab isultimately negative," predicts Friedman.Frisch, for one, doesn't feel like guessing,though he sees some worrisome signs. "Whether this helps Fermilab depends onwhat Congress and the American peoplewant," he says. "If the reaction is, Well, theSSC was too big, but since we killed that weshould shore up our base,' then Fermilabwill do better. They may say, All we neednow are computers and technology. Forgetscience.' Killing the SSC, to me, is a mixedmessage."Apart from what the federal governmentchooses to do, Winstein thinks physicistsneed to examine their own priorities. "Itwasn't like everything was going great, andthen suddenly the SSC was cut off and wehave a serious problem," he says. While hepraises the scientific value of experimentslike the SSC and the top quark search, Winstein wonders, "This intense focus we haveon major discoveries — is that the rightthing to do?"The problem, he says, starts with the highcost of accelerators. "The funding agenciesare telling us, 'We need headlines, we needmajor discoveries.' So the concentration ison discoveries, which is very unhealthy. It'slike when you're in school and your concentration is on grades, as opposed to learning." As a result, a few high-profile venturescan squeeze out smaller, more speculativeefforts.That narrow focus has its drawbacks,agrees Cronin. "There's a concentration onthese clearly top-of-the-line intellectualproblems. One is losing one's diversityfaster than is necessary." He notes thatfixed-target accelerators, which can supporta variety of smaller experiments at lowerenergies, receive far less attention than colliders like the Tevatron.Others, however, blame recent decreasesin funding for the seemingly lopsidedemphasis on big projects. "When thebudget becomes a big problem, you have togo away from what you think is the bestbalance for the science," says Blucher."We're just like people in industry everywhere else. We had to made choices." Theissue facing physics, he says, is that "a lot ofthe cheap things you can do have beendone."Whatever course physicists now take, thefact remains that the SSCs rise and fall is aprofoundly disturbing chapter in the history of modern science, leaving many to ask"Why did this happen?" It's perhaps tooeasy to pin the SSCs death on economics orpolitics: that Congress, faced with a feistyelectorate, suddenly got religion over thebudget deficit — and, in a bid to save moneyor save face, killed an expensive scienceproject whose cost had more than doubled.The lesson learned from this scenario,some scientists say, is that money for bigprojects should be appropriated all at once, forcing projects to stay on budget and sparing researchers the annual funding battlesthat wreak havoc with long-term plans. AsHenry Frisch points out, "Any rational,thoughtful approach to what are the rightvalues carries less weight than getting yourcongressman at midnight to write something into a bill."But the SSC debacle has another explanation, say others, and even people who carenot a proton about particle physics mayfind it troubling: that a growing shortsightedness, in the government and its people,killed the world's biggest science project.For this reason, some physicists fear thatthe precedent of the funding cutoff willhurt all sciences.The SSC, they believe, was hit notbecause it was big science but because itwas basic science. "I don't see money beingtransferred from large projects to small,"says Stanley Wojcicki, a professor ofphysics at Stanford University. Wojcickichairs the High-Energy Physics AdvisoryPanel, a scientific group that advises DOEand the National Science Foundation."There is a strong focus on those researchareas viewed as wealth-producing," he says."It's very shortsighted, because you can'tpredict which areas will be producingwealth ten or 20 years from now."A swing toward applied research couldespecially hurt universities like Chicagothat emphasize basic science over engineering. Shochet, though, doesn't see a trend.Congress has made "ominous statements"about supporting basic research, but "a lotof that has to do with the economy," hesays. "I don't see any evidence historicallythat that's going to continue long term."But even the best science is hard-pressedto survive a recession if the justification forits funding is flawed. "Maybe," says Cronin,"the premise on which the governmentsupports us is not the right premise —namely that we'll do great things for society,or that this is a pool of talent that in anemergency will go build the radar of thenext century. Science is sold on that, or onspin-offs from projects. It just doesn't holdup under strong examination. We're all abit to blame for that."The alternative, he says, is to fund scienceon its own terms: "It's a miracle that weknow as much as we do. It's a tribute tohumanity that we've come this far. Thoseare the best things that we can say aboutthis work."Winstein agrees. The public needs to see"the wonder and the inquisitiveness, therichness, the importance of inquiring intonature at these extreme scales," he says."This country should be able to afford suchthings. There are intangible benefits."34 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994A lumni ChronicleChicago ProNet newsWhen the Alumni Association began offering University alumni the chance to participate in Chicago ProNet — a resume databaseservice — this fall, it anticipated that alumniwould find the service attractive.By mid-January, the Alumni Associationhad received 5,084 letters from alumnisigning up for ProNet — with 1,977 on-diskresumes submitted. "Those figures areright on line with projections for the service's use," says Jeanne Buiter, MBA'86,executive director of the Alumni Association, "and they bode well for the program'ssuccess."ProNet offers three services to participants. First, it provides ongoing crossmatching of alumni profiles againstincoming requests from participating corporations (more than 200 companies currently subscribe). Second, it circulatesone-page synopses describing the backgrounds of alumni actively looking for jobsto its corporate subscribers. And, third, itpublishes a job-listings newsletter.Designed primarily for professionals witheither middle- and senior-level management credentials, Chicago ProNet is part ofa consortium that includes the alumniassocitions of approximately 15 top-ranking institutions nationally. For more information on the program, call ChicagoProNet at 800/593-3085.A gathering of reunionsThe College quinquennial classes — thoseclasses celebrating their 5th through 60threunions — aren't the only groups comingback to the quads for Reunion '94, to beheld Friday, June 3, through Sunday, June5. In addition, the Division of BiologicalSciences, the School of Social ServiceAdministration, University High (Laboratory Schools), Law School emeritus celebrants, and University Theater/Blackfriarswill all be holding reunions that weekend.If you'd like to receive additional information about any of these special reunions,here are the telephone numbers to call:Division of Biological Sciences, 312/753-1 140; School of Social Service Administration, 312/702-1172; University High (Laboratory Schools), 312/702-3789; LawSchool emeriti, 312/702-9628; UniversityTheater, 312/702-3414.Kids "r" us at Reunion 94Families are welcome at Reunion '94. Infact, several reunion-wide events in particular are planned with children (and grandchildren) in mind: Friday evening's "SweetHome, Chicago" Barbecue; Saturday'sAlumni Cavalcade of Classes and All-Campus Picnic; Sunday morning's Chicagocityscape cruise and tour and brunch at theUniversity of Chicago's new downtown center. An added inducement: childrenunder 12 eat free at the barbecue, picnic,and brunch.Child care for children under 4 years andSaturday programs for children 4 and olderare also offered. All programs will be oncampus, with museums and other campussites showcased; planned activities includesports, games, crafts, and storytelling. Forhigh-school-aged guests, special campustours and information sessions are available.Preregistration, via the reunion registration form, is required for child care andchildren's programs. Call 312/702-2150.If the only thing you enjoy as much as curling up with a good — or even great — bookis discussing that book with other people, then the Alumni Association book clubs arefor you. Here's a sampling of March meetings in cities around the country:• In Chicago, the North Side neighborhood book group will meet on Sunday, March13, to discuss Nelson Algren's The Man with the Golden Arm. Call Marci Whitney-Schenck, AM'87, 312/266-7346. The Hyde Park group meets on Monday, March 20, todiscuss Ernest J. Gaines' A Lesson Before Dying; call Lois or Roger Bowen, MBA'65,708/234-5305. Meanwhile, the North Shore book group will meet on Monday, March21, to discuss Iris Murdoch's The Message to the Planet. Call Marjorie Deitelbaum,PhB'45, AM'48, 708/864-4641. For information on a book group in the western suburbs, call Richard Benedict, AB'85, 708/653-8302. To learn about a book group forming in the southwestern suburbs, call John Wooding, AB'52, 708/423-2564.• San Francisco Bay Area alumni have two book clubs going. The San FranciscoBook Club will meet on Sunday, March 13; call Sydney Rosen, PhB'46, AM'49,PhD'73, at 415/776-0504, for more information. The East Bay Book Club will meet onSunday, March 20; for details, call Ruth Abel, AB'36, 510/849-9308.• Washington, D.C. alumni have just started a Great Books Club, which meets atChapters Bookstore (1512 K Street). For more information, call Bill Cregar, AB'66, at202/708-5004, or Kevin Hickey, AM'82, at 301/593-0867.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 35The University of ChicagoAlumni AssociationandThe Department of Musiccordially invite youto attendTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOfe t_\>i* ft g r c-fE)1994 Spring Concert TourBoston, MASaturday, March 19Amherst, MASunday, March 20New York, NYMonday, March 21 Philadelphia, PATuesday, March 22Washington, DCWednesday, March 23Chicago, ILFriday, April 1The 35-voice Motet Choir performs primarily a cappella music of the16th through 20th centuries. For further information on the 1994 tourcontact: Motet Tour, The University of Chicago Alumni Association,5757 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, 312/702-2157. Behind reunion: volunteersApproximately 18 months before the quadrangles fill with returning members of theCollege's quinquennial classes, the AlumniAssociation staff, along with the AlumniBoard of Governors, seeks out alumni ineach of the reunion classes to lead the class-event planning and gift-raising efforts.Once a reunion chair has been selected foreach class — this year's reunion classes arethose ending in 4s and 9s — a vice chair ischosen by the Development Office to coordinate the class gift effort. The first task forboth chairpersons is to recruit more volunteers — classmates who will serve on committees which plan class events, networkamong classmates to encourage them toattend reunion, or raise unrestricted fundsfor the University. Once committees are inplace, mailings to classmates and Chicagoplanning meetings begin in the fall preceding the reunion celebration.Because most reunion-goers judge theevent's success by how many classmatesreturn, one crucial task for the volunteercommittees is to make sure all classmatesare personally invited to reunion. To thatend, questionnaires asking for basic biographical information go out to each classmate in the fall — the responses, compiled ina class directory of names and addresses,are then sent to each classmate by late fall.That's where personal initiative comesinto play. Alumni are encouraged to use thedirectory: One way to insure that favoriteand familiar faces will be on campus in Juneis to call those friends and invite them. Ifyou're a member of a reunion class andinterested in renewing contact with friendsat reunion, please contact your reunionchair (names and years are listed below)and volunteer to be part of the networkingeffort. Check your class directory (mailed inNovember) for contact information.The 1994 reunion chairs are: Class of1989, Elizabeth Handlin, AB'89; 1984,Anna Feldman, AB'84, AM'86; 1979, MaryLisa Meier, AB'79, MBA'83; 1974, BarbraGoering, AB'74, JD'77; 1969, DennisWaldon, AB'69.Class of 1964, Peter Ascoli, AB'64; 1959,Donald Richards, AB'64; 1954, to beannounced (please contact the AlumniAssociation if you wish to help network);1949, lona Wishner Levenfeld, AB'49,AM'51; 1944, Carroll Sherer, AB'43, andElizabeth Headland Oostenbrug, AB'44;1939, Robert Greenebaum, AB'39; and1934, Herbert Portes, AB'34, JD'36.If you belong to a College class year endingin 5 or 0 — and you're interested in helpingwith plans for Reunion '95 — please contactthe Alumni Association at 312/702-2154.36 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994C lass NewsWhat's the news? We are always eager to receiveyour news at the Magazine, care of the Class NewsEditor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. No engagements, please. Items may be edited for space.Please specify the year under which you wouldlike your news to appear. Otherwise, we will listall former undergraduates under their A.B. yearand all former students who received only graduate degrees under the year of their final degree.AA Samuel M. Levy, PhB'23, won first place inM W a competition sponsored by the CincinnatiCivic Garden Center this past October for his designof the "Levy Floral Clock."MGlenna Mode Ball, AB'24, and her husband,Herbert A. Ball, SB'25, live in a retirementcommunity in Black Mountain, NC, where theywalk a "lovely nature trail." Berenice Davis Fligman,AM'24, after retiring from a long career in interiordesign, has been enjoying happy memories, including those of extensive world travel. Elizabeth Brewster Tempel, PhB'24, and her husband, a Stanfordgraduate, now live in a retirement home, Carlsbadby the Sea — half a block from the Pacific Ocean. At90, she fondly remembers her days at the U of C.William R. Burns, PhB'25, responds to thequery last issue from Virginia Buell Pope,PhB'25, ("Are there still any 'quadranglers'?"): "As apoor substitute for a beautiful QUAD, I wonder ifshe recalls one Bill Bums, Phi Gam, escorting her tothe Score Club Ball in 1922? We had a ball. I wouldlove to chat with her anytime. I have resided for 50years at 2052 Lincoln Park West, Chicago. Phone:(312) 549-1046." James W. Cooksey, PhB'25, livesin Greenwich, CT, where his wife, Helen, is in anursing home.Eva Wayman Weber, PhB'26, remarks,"After years in social work, I now live in aretirement community where I work as a volunteer inthe library and call on residents in the health center.My excellent education continues to enrich my life."Catherine Handmacher Winn, PhB'26, who had her90th birthday in June, taught as a school volunteerfor 27 years at P.S. 190 in New York City until 1989,when her husband suffered a stroke.M Frank Harding, PhB'33, travels one montha year and splits the rest of the timebetween coastal Maine and Lost Tree Village, FL.Sidney T. Feinberg, JD'29, who retired in1982, reports that his wife of 36 years, Ann,died in June 1992. "Ann was a well-known artistand pioneer in the field of Kirlian photography, andher works are part of the collection of the Smithsonian Institute." Sidney lives in Sedona, AZ, andinvites his classmates to visit him.Esther Fisher Buchanan, PhB'30, lives atQuaker Gardens, a senior retirement homein Stanton, CA. Her son, John, recendy spoke at aninternational conference in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on theuse of Internet in higher education.M Willis A. Redding, X'31, retired from medicine for 20 years, lives in a facility and isenjoying life.Viola Schnake Clark, PhB'32, reports,"having survived 'Andrew' in 1992, I'm trying to make it through my 88th year and the crimeso prevalent in Florida." Clifford M. Hughes, MD'32,exercises by "going around the block every day."M Katherine Dierssen Emrich, PhB'33, whoreports that she recently saw GeraldineSmithwick Alvarez, PhB'34, spent a week in Englandwith her husband this past October. Stanley Mosk,PhB'33, a California Supreme Court justice, has beenhonored by Southwestern University School of Lawwith a "Lifetime Judicial Achievement" Award.Reunion June 3.4-5 J94,MThis past April, Allen I. Bernstein, AM'34,attended the Edinburgh annual science festival, which featured lectures "running the gamutfrom UFOs and soap bubbles to AIDS research andthe effects of alcohol on humans." In September, hewas a two-week volunteer/intern at the AmericanYouth Hostel's national office in Washington, DCSylvia Katz Eckman, PhB'34, AM'35, is looking forward to the 1934 Class Reunion this June.Marion Werli Abbey, SB'35, is "happy tohave fond memories of Hutchinson days!"Elizabeth Riggs Caldwell, AM'35, retired 12 yearsago from her job as a technical editor. She remembers, from her days at Chicago, "that amazing 'kid,'Robert Maynard Hutchins, who had taken over theU of C....We discovered that he, his wife, littledaughter, and huge dog sometimes went walkinground our quadrangle in the warm autumn afternoons. What a thrill! "Jane E. Matson, AB'35, of La Canada, CA, hasretired from California State University, Los Angeles, but still works with students in the doctoralprogram in education at Nova University in FortLauderdale, FL. In addition, she enjoys reading,seeing friends, and traveling: she went to the Orientin January 1993, and to Russia in July. Pearl Selig-man Weisdorf, PhB'35, AM'37, reports that hergranddaughters, Molly, 12, and Jessica, 9, were featured as visitors to the Field Museum in the November issue of Discovery. They are the children of SethR. Tanenbaum, MD'80, a Chicago cardiologist, andhis wife, Deborah.Jean Prussing Burden, AB'36, whose latestbook of poems, Taking Light from EachOther, is doing well both commercially and critically, has given numerous readings at California colleges and universities. Edna Leake Steeves, AM'36,a professor of English at the University of RhodeIsland, has published The Plays of Mary Pix andCatharine Trotter, two volumes in the Garland seriesof 18th-century British drama. She has also contributed articles on Arthur Wing Pinero to The1890's, an encyclopedia of British literature, art, andculture. In April, she chaired the 1993 conventionof the American Society for Eighteenth CenturyStudies. LaVon Thompson Willan, X'36, remembers taking graduate courses with Lydia JaneRoberts, a "wonderful teacher." Morton Yohalem,MD'36, reports that he is "still, as John Mortimersaid, clinging to the wreckage."An Felix H. Ocko, MD'37, of Piedmont, CA, hasW# been enjoying the U of C alumni programsin his area. Bernard Silber, MD'37, recently swam in a National Masters meet and got five ribbons. Thesecret of his success: "Being 81 — the competition isdropping off." Marshall R Urist SM'37, professor oforthopaedic surgery at UCLA since 1948, receivedthe 1993 Bristol-Myers Squibb Zimmer Award fordistinguished achievement in basic science: he discovered the bone morphogenetic protein — used inregulating fracture healing, repairing bone defects,and incorporating bone grafts.Phyllis Greene Mattingly, AB'38, who hasowned and operated "Handwriting Services" for 25 years in Ft. Collins, CO, and Malibu,CA, was chosen Distinguished Document Examinerof 1993 by the National Association of DocumentExaminers.Rei/mon 94June 3-4-5 ^Erwin F. "Bud" Beyer, AB'39, is sailing a 28-foot sloop on Lake Champlain for his eighthyear. At 78, he is starting soaring lessons and continuing his work as an activist for a clean environment.J. Wesley Childers, PhD'39, and his wife, Margaret,now live in the Asbury Methodist Village retirementcommunity in Gaithersburg, MD. Margaret Merrifield Clark, AB'39, writes: "In May, 1 signed up to gowith a U of C trip to the Himalayas. When the triphad to be canceled, I went anyway and toured Nepal,Tibet, and Bhutan by bus. It was a wonderfultrip. ..we flew twice right by Everest, en route toLhasa and returning to Kathmandu."M Martin Levit, SB'40, AM'47, PhD'49, writes:'After retirement, I've kept fairly busy'saving the world' (via voluntary work in a dozensocial action groups), promoting interdisciplinarywork in some professional groups, and writing onthe philosophy of law with my daughter (she doesthe law — I do the philosophy)." Chester B. Powell,SB'40, MD'43, writes that the 50th medical reunionlast June was an "overwhelming success." Heenjoyed renewing close friendships begun 54 ormore years ago and was sorry that many didn't — orcouldn't — come to the celebration.^ 1 Kathryn Beck Brandon, MD'41, reports that^¦M she has retired. Charlotte Krevitsky Hurwitz, SB'41, edits the newsletter of the Weather-spoon Guild, a support group for the WeatherspoonArt Gallery at the University of North Carolina,Greensboro. Her husband, Melvin D. Hurwitz,SM'42, emeritus professor at UNC, Greensboro,authored a paper published in the September issueof the Journal of the American Association of TextileChemists and Colorists.« Theodore Fields, SB'42, semi-retired inFlorida since 1992, is an adjunct associateprofessor of radiology at the University of Miami,where he teaches residents, technologists, andphysicists. Sumner G. Fredd, SB'42, is in his 12thyear as chief of the outpatient clinic at the Department of Veteran Affairs in Ft. Lauderdale, FL. At 72,he has no intention of retiring. Melvin D. Hurwitz,SM'42, see 1941, Charlotte K. Hurwitz. RollinsLambert, AB'42, who retired in 1991, now spendshis time "discovering the beauties of New Mexico,often in the company of Ernest A. Dorko, SB*61,PhD'64, and his wife."Harold R. Steinhauser, AB'42, MBA'43, is not, aswas incorrectly reported in the October issue,deceased. In fact, he is quite lively: in addition toplaying racquetball two or three days per week, thispast year he hiked in the Alpine highlands ofSwitzerland, rafted on the white waters of the Trinity River in California, and traveled to Siberia with agroup of 60 educators to encourage Siberian teachers to base their educational system on Christianmorality rather than atheism.« Charlotte F. Andress, AM'43, took a two-week cruise this past summer, stopping atUniversity of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 37Scandinavian capitals, as well as ports in Gennanyand Russia. Michael Bonfiglio, MD'43, writes:"Many thanks to ihe Alumni Association for a mostenjoyable 50th Reunion last June! My only regret isthai more of our classmates could not be there toenjoy it." G. Campbell Cutler, MD'43, also reportsthai lie had a great time at the 50th medical classreunion in June. Harold R. Gordon, AB'43, and hiswile, Adele Whitaker Gordan, SB'45, celebratedtheir 50th wedding anniversary in September. Anni-beth Floyd Young, AB'43, enjoys teaching English asa Second Language in Coronado, CA.Reunion June 3-4-5A A. David C. Beebe, PhB'44, spent two weeksTI^B this past May in Italy, where he sang with achamber chorus in Bergamo, Venice, Florence, andRome, and toured museums and architectural ruins.AC Adele Whitaker Gordon, SB'45, see 1943,™5# Harold Gordon. Jeanne Grant, PhB'45,returned to Chicago at the end of October for the50th reunion of the class of '43 at South Shore HighSchool — she was the valedictorian. Ernst R. Jaffe,SB'45, MD'48, SM'48, and his wife "enjoyedimmensely" the 1948 Medical School class's reunionin June and look forward to the 50th reunion of theCollege class of 1945. Idabel Bowles Waddy,AM'45, reports that the U of C Club of Denver andsurrounding areas was fairly active this past year,with a variety of events.Mfi Jor,n F- Richardson, AM'46, received the^MJ bcst-oFshow award at the Tennessee ArtLeague Exhibition at the Parthenon in NashvilleJtWW Ernest V. Clements, AM'47, and his wife,Tl# Jackie, will celebrate their 50th weddinganniversary in March. They plan to make the occasion memorable by taking a U of C-sponsoredcruise around New Zealand. Alan B. Kuper, PhB'47,SB'49, a retired professor who volunteers for theSierra Club's efforts toward population stabilizationat home and abroad, argues that "rapid populationgrowth is at the root of environmental problems."This past November, Arnold L. Tanis, PhB'47,SB'49, MD'51, was the program director of the 4thAnnual Pediatric Symposium of the Joe DiMaggioChildren's Hospital at Memorial in Hollywood, FL.Active in pediatric practice, organizations promotingbreast-feeding, and the American Academy of Pediatrics, he describes his wife, Maxine Kroman Tanis,PhB'48, as his "support and source of inspiration."Ruthevelyn Pirn Zwick, MAT'47, enjoys life atQuadrangle, a retirement home in Pennsylvania.President of the residents' association, she writes thatthere is "always something to do, someone to talk to,and a lovely apartment to retire to."MO James C. Abegglen, PhB'48, PhD'56, a pro-^¦^P lessor at Sophia University in Tokyo, is chairof Gemini Consulting (Japan) and the Asia AdvisoryService K.K., as well as a trustee of Nishimachi International School and the International House of Japan.Gail Sparks Bauman, AB'48, has abstract paintingson display at the Matrix Gallery, 1255 S. Wabash,Chicago. Keith O. Campbell, AM'48, PhD'49, emeritus professor ol agricultural economics at the University of Sydney, received an honorary Doctor ofLconomics degree tram the University of New England for his contributions to the development of agricultural economics in Australia. His wife, ChristianaMcFadyen Campbell, PhD'60, is a historian.Virginia I. Pattison, AM'48, writes that she enteredChicago 62 years ago, and has never been sorry thatshe chose the LI of C. Alexander H. Pope, AB'48,)P'52, moved this summer to the Los Angeles officeof the Chicago-based law firm of Seyfarth, Shaw,Fairwcather & Geraldson. His youngest son, Daniel,after graduating from Lewis and Clark School of Lawin June, "took, and passed, both the Idaho and Oregon bar exams in one hectic July week." RichardA. Strehlow, SB'48, who retired from Oak RidgeNational Laboratory in 1992, was chair of the American Society for Testing and Materials' committee onterminology, 1988-93. William B. Stone, AB'48,AM'57, recently retired from teaching English at Indiana University Northwest. He is now preparing avolume of his memoirs under the working title, AnExamined Life. Maxine Kroman Tanis, PhB'48, see1947, Arnold L. Tanis.Reunion June 3-4-5 94« Joseph G. Foster, AB'49, remembers,"Spring 1950: I was a waiter at the QuadClub, usually serving faculty groups in the smallerdining rooms or the library. One day I had His Nibshimself (Robert Maynard Hutchins) hosting a distinguished group. I poured his coffee, and he asked forcream. A full pitcher stood two inches away from hiscup, and I didn't know what to say — 1 just stared atit. He caught my look, then looked at the pitcher,then at his cup, then at me and said, 'It's one of thosedays.' I thought he might need a nap."Joseph M. Gabriel, PhB'49, is "still working withno retirement in sight — only the grave! Long live thenational debt!" His nephew, Jeffrey J. Gabriel,received his M.B.A. from Chicago in June 1993.Norman Karlin, JD'49, has been named the 1993-94Irving D. and Florence Rosenberg professor of law atSouthwestern University School of Law. Charles W.Nelson, PhD'49, has recently developed a "Qualityof Life Role Stress Survey," measuring precursors tofour major illnesses.Harris L. Dante, PhD'50, emeritus professor of history and education at Kent StateUniversity, has three U of C alumni in his family:his son, John H. Dante, AM'71, is financial plannerand vice president of the Robert Heiman Organization in Chicago; daughter Nancy Dante Bennison,MAT'70, is a librarian at Goffstown (NH) HighSchool; and son-in-law Victor L. Bennison, SM'75,PhD'76, is a computer scientist at Raytheon Corp. inWayland, MA. Don K. Moeller, AM'50, has retiredafter working 40 years in industrial relations. PaulK. Stahnke, AM'50, who retired in 1988 from theU.S. Foreign Service, continues to work for the StateDepartment as senior inspector and as a consultantwith Global Access. He enjoys much travel for business and pleasure.Judith Levin Genesen, AB'51, AM'66, see1972, Peggy A. Sullivan. Robert F. Hombeck,SB'51, reports that his daughter, Nancy Jacobsen, is apediatrician in private practice in Watsonville, CA.Carmen E. Johnson, AM'52, accepted aninvitation this past May to spend two weeksin Osaka, Japan. Having lived in Nagoya and onShikoku Island as a civilian with the United Statesoccupation force from 1946 to 1951, she recentlypublished a Japanese book in Tokyo. Marshall D.Morin, X'52, retired in June 1992, and moved to thePoconos. He recently returned from a four-week,7,300-mile trip through the Northwest and Victoria,British Columbia,William M. Moremen, DB'53, retired in February 1993 after 36 years in the ministry ofthe United Church of Christ. He and his wife, GracePartin Moreman, AM'56, live in Hayward, CA.Reunion June 3-4-5 94MCarl Sagan, AB'54, SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60,received an honorary degree in Octoberfrom Queen's University in Kingston, Canada. EzatO. Negahban, AM'54, see 1958, Eugene H. Stivers.David K. Hartley, AM'55, a real estateappraiser working primarily with low-income housing in Washington, DC, is president elect of the George Washington chapter of LambdaAlpha, an international honorary society of land-useprofessionals.EC Marianne Abeles Ferber, AM'46, PhD'56,90 professor emerita of economics andwomen's studies at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, has been appointed the 1993-94 MatinaS. Horner Distinguished Visiting Professor in theRadcliffe College public policy program.BR Adah Bass Maurer, AM'57, who organizedIMm the group End Violence Against the NextGeneration in 1971, has spent the last 20 years publishing a quarterly newsletter, The Lost? Resort, andhelping to organize the National Center for the Studyof Corporal Punishment, headquartered at TempleUniversity and the National Coalition to Abolish Corporal Punishment in Schools, in Columbus, OH.Mary C. Megee, PhD'58, credits her U of Ceducation with helping her achieve successin the consulting business. She also writes that sheserved as a model for a lithograph by Charles BanksWilson, a graduate of the Chicago Art Institute. IEugene H. Stivers, PhD'58, recently bumped intoEzat O. Negahban, AM'54, in the Narberth, PA,Acme Market. Both are well and talked of old International House days.•Reunion June. 3-4-5Frederick H. Maclntyre, AM'59, wasordained on December 5, 1992, as a RomanCatholic priest. He is now associate pastor at St.Michael's Parish in Silver Spring, MD.Christiana McFadyen Campbell, PhD'60,see 1948, Keith O. Campbell. Judith VictorGrabiner, SB'60, professor of mathematics and ofscience, technology, and society at Pitzer College inClaremont, CA, reports that her daughter, Rebecca,is an undergrad at the U of C. This spring, Judithand her husband, Sandy, will go on sabbatical toEdinburgh.W Roger W. Axford, AM'49, PhD'61, a columnist for Arizona Senior World, is a professoremeritus of Arizona State University and runs theRecareering Institute in Tempe. He also has published a book entitled Zany Jokes for Crazy Folks!Charles G. Bill, MBA'61, writes: "Retirement is wonderful!" Ernest A. Dorko, SB'61, PhD'64, see 1942,Rollins Lambert.Jack A. Hirsch, AB'62, is starting his secondseason as principal clarinetist with the Community Music Center in San Francisco. W,Creighton Peden, AM'60, DB'62, who recently retiredas F. E. Callaway professor of philosophy from theUniversity System of Georgia and as executive director of the XX World Congress of Philosophy, continues as president of the Highlands Institute forAmerican Religious Thought, an internationalresearch institute devoted to the dialogue betweenreligious thought and classical American philosophy,with an emphasis on the Chicago School.Richard A. Ratner, AB'62, clinical professor ofpsychiatry at the George Washington UniversitySchool of Medicine and adjunct professor atGeorgetown University Law School, is also president of the American Society for Adolescent Psychiatric Association's juvenile justice issues committeeand secretary-treasurer of the American Board ofAdolescent Psychiatry. He has two daughters in college. Louise Kinzie Wornom, AM'62, reports thatshe enjoys learning languages, including writingRussian script. Her daughter has just begun collegeas a fine arts major, so she now has more time forthe AAUW — she is the Oak Park/River Forestbranch president — and the Alliance Franchise.Meryl S. Dann, AB'63, AM'65, and GlendaHawley Kapsalis, AB'63, have produced,and Joseph D. Brisben, AB'69, has edited, "a one-38 Universuy of Chicago Magazine/February 1994Street SmartsBarbara Gallen believes — andteaches — that the best -way tosurvive an assault may be tolaunch one yourself.Five and a half years ago, Barbara L.Gallen, MBA'77, was confronted nearher Los Angeles apartment: two youngmen held a gun to her head and demandedher money.Coming home from a Halloween party,Gallen assumed the teenagers were Halloween pranksters and responded, "Thatisn't a real gun." Angered, the attackers firedthe weapon near her head — but chose not toshoot her. Gallen believes she is alive todaybecause of her attackers' inexperience:"Those kids probably hadn't killed anyoneyet, and they weren't looking for me to bethe first. I was lucky."Determined not to rely on luck for hersafety any longer, Gallen — formerly a screenwriter and a consumer marketer at Leo Burnett advertising agency in Chicago — tookaction: "I decided that I'd been spending toomuch time going to the ballet and art museums, and it was time I learned how to takecare of myself on the street."So Gallen began martial arts training andboxing and, in her spare time, established avolunteer street patrol of more than 200members of her L.A. community, an experience which, she explains, opened her eyes:"I got my real education on the street, organizing and running the patrol for a coupleof years. It took what I'd learned as a martial artist out of the vacuum of the studio —where there's no emotion, where I had acooperative partner."Increasingly convinced that "stagy, chore- own "ambush" on the eyes, windpipe, andscrotum of their attacker — and, ultimately,escape.Gallen puts the children in the coursethough the same realistic "attacks" as theadults, a decision that has garnered somecriticism. But, she argues, "Criminals aren'twatering down their methods for attackingchildren anymore. I feel I shouldn't waterdown my methods for teaching them." Shecontinues, "Children aren't frightened bythe simulated attacks. The scary thing is thereal knife, not the plastic one."Gallen's courses, at $495 for adults and$250 for children, seem to respond to anational anxiety about the increasingviciousness of street crime. Recently featured in the L.A. Times and on the nationally syndicated "Home" show, she reportsthat her phone has been ringing off thehook. People seem determined to take control of their lives, she says, and her teachinghelps them believe that they can: "You canhave a lot of influence on whether you liveor die [during an assault]. If you want to gothrough life just praying that if you getattacked the guy won't kill you, good luck. Iwould never again let myself be dependenton the whim of a criminal." — C.A.M.ographed" martial arts training wasn'tpreparing her, or anyone else, for the unpredictability of street crime, in 1992 Gallenformed her own self-defense company, theDefense Department. In her 20-hour, individualized courses, given over one weekend,Gallen teaches up to ten students how tofight back "full force" in "extremely terrifying and realistic simulations" with actors ascriminals carrying plastic knives and guns.The tactics taught in the course derivefrom Gallen's belief that handing over yourmoney or your car no longer guaranteesyour safety. "Increasingly, you are likely tobe shot, stabbed, pistol-whipped, beaten, orstrangled, even though you have cooperated. ..You have to assume nobody iscoming to rescue you. You can pull youralarm — nobody's going to hear it, and ifthey do, they're not coming. You're in thison your own. That's the bad news." Brightening a bit, she continues, "The good newsis, no one has a better motivation to saveyour life than you do. And no one can do abetter job of it than you can."The Defense Department courses focusfirst on teaching men, women, and childrenhow to remain "aware" in potentially dangerous situations. Gallen explains, "Thefirst line of defenseis your willingnessto look people in theeye and, if you suspect someone iswatching you or getting too close to you,your willingness toset boundaries toclaim and protectyour space."Cognizant, however, that this tacticmay prove ineffective with persistent,armed criminals,Gallen also teachesher students how jto stay in controlduring an actualassault. The key?Not to resist: "Myclass is as muchacting training asit is combat trainng. Students developthe ability to createAcademy Award-winning impressionsof surrender." Whileseeming to surrender,the students seek awindow of opportunity during which Terminator 3: A student in Gallen's self-defense class practicesthey can launch their her eye-gouging technique on an actor during a simulated assault.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 39hour and 47-minute videotape of the class of '63'shootenanny" (the 30th reunion this past June). TheS25 tapes are available by calling Joe al 1-800-747-1213. Ingram B. Schwahn, AM'63, who teachesgeometry and algebra at Adamson High School inDallas, plans to retire this coming June. She has twodaughters and four grandchildren.Reunion June 3-4-5 94M Mildred B. Ford, X'64, was named 1993's"Outstanding Older American" in BarnwellCounty and the Lower Savannah Region of SouthCarolina. Signe Olson Rich, AM'64, is the managerof the community economic division for the city ofAlbuquerque, NM. Barbara Sherman Sussman,AB'64, AM'65, of Allentown, PA, received the outstanding volunteer award in May from the GreatValley Girl Scout Council. She has been a Scoutleader for ten years and has helped trained severalother volunteers.Thorn C. Roberts, AB'65, is "still living,still in the 'small-time' oil and gas businessin West Virginia, and still in a county without astoplight."Luigi Crudele, AM'66, a teacher in an overseas Department of Defense school, writesthat many foreign bases are closing: "This will bethe year the draw down will affect our post. Nextyear, hopefully, we shall be reassigned to other locations." Sidney L. Tamm, PhD'66, professor of biology in the Boston University's Marine Program alMarine Biological Lab in Woods Hole, MA, recentlydiscovered that marine comb jellies keep theirmouths shut by a reversible cell-adhesion mechanism, a finding which may be useful for studyingdisease-related abnormalities in cell-adhesion.IJH Sharon Young Cherry, AM'67, has beenW# promoted to professor at the University ofSouth Carolina, Spartanburg. Constance McNeelyHomer, AM'67, recently joined the Brookings Institution as a guest scholar; she'll study public management reform issues. She has also been appointedto the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. David B.Lewis, MBA'67, was recently elected to the board ofdirectors of the Lewis, White <Sr Clay law firm.Alan D. B. Bloom, AB'68, is completing his12th year as general counsel of the managed-care company Maxicare, and continues towrite and speak widely on health care issues.Morrie K Blumberg, AM'68, continues communityservice work in Albuquerque and tap dance classesat the University of New Mexico. With Democratsback in the White House, Morrie reports he is"available for additional development assignmentsin the developing world and/or in developing areasof the U.S." Gurdon H. Hamilton, MD'68, a geriatrician, city and public health officer, and medical consultant to psychiatric inpatients, describes hishobbies as "biking, raking leaves, painting, andbeing intermittent company for my teenagers."Rosella M. La Broi, AM'68, works as an educationalconsultant. Allen M. Young, PhD'68, curator of zoology and vice president for collections and research atthe Milwaukee Public Museum, was recently cited inthe 1993 Rolex Awards for Enterprise volume, TheSpirit of Enterprise, for his ongoing research on cocoapollination in Central America.Reunion June 3-4-5 94Richard Alexander, JD'69, of Palo Alto, CA,who leads a San Jose law firm focusing onconsumer class actions, is representing residents ofRichmond, CA, in a class action claiming injuriescaused by the 1993 General Chemical release of atoxic cloud of sulfuric trioxide — which sent 24,000people to local hospitals. He and his wife, Nancy, an urban planner, recently celebrated their 25thanniversary. They have two children: Marshall, ajunior at Boston College, and Meredith, a sophomore at Middlebury College. Joseph D. Brisben,AB'69, see 1963, Meryl Dann.IYA Nancy Dante Bennison, MAT'70, see 1950,#U Harris Dante. Harold H. Buls, AM'57,PhD'70, retired from teaching at Concordia Theological Seminary in Fort Wayne, IN, has been invited toteach for a semester in St. Petersburg, Russia. He hasserved for 48 years with the Lutheran Church/Missouri Synod. Robert E. Daniels, AM'64, PhD'70,who married Elizabeth Hahn this past year, reportsthat his daughter, Sarah, is back at Tulane after ajunior year abroad studying art in Paris, and his son,George, is a sophomore at the University of NorthCarolina, Charlotte. Maxine Hohman Reneker,AM'70, received a doctorate in library science fromColumbia University in 1992. She is director of theDudley Knox Library at the Naval PostgraduateSchool in Monterey, CA.ng John H. Dante, AM'71, see 1950, Harrism I Dante. Peter O. Kurz, AB'71, is deputy director of marketing for the Department of AgricultureForeign Agriculture Service in Washington, DC.Bartholomew Lee, JD'71, and Adam M. Lutynski,JD'71, see 1972, Wayne M. Liao.HA Wayne M. Liao, AB'72, practices law in hism wk own firm, concentrating on litigation andantitrust. He reports that "in the last few years, Ihave enjoyed the honor of being co-counsel withLaw School dean emeritus Phil Neal, the privilege ofworking with Adam Lutynski, JD'71 (on the recommendation of Bart Lee, JD'71), and the pleasure ofreferring a matter to the famous Jim Sack, AB'72."Peggy A. Sullivan, PhD'72, executive director ofthe American Library Association, recently attendedthe International Federation of Library Associationsand Institutions general council in Barcelona. Shereports on fellow alumni: Marilyn J. Kaye, PhD'83, apopular and prolific writer of novels for youngpeople, is working on a series called Video High;Judith Levin Genesen, AB'51, AM'66, has retiredfrom her position as executive director of the American Association of Law Libraries; and KathleenMcEntee McCook, AM'74, is dean of the library education program at the University of South Florida.Susan L. Waysdorf, AB'72, after completing a Skad-den Arps Public Interest fellowship, has beenappointed assistant professor of law at the District ofColumbia School of Law, where she also directs theHIV legal clinic.IV*9 Virginia Ferguson Ayers, AM'73, theM <0 audio-visual librarian at Evanston Township High School, received a "Those Who Excel"award in October from the Illinois State Board ofEducation. Chair of the school's human relationscommittee, she was dubbed "best goodwill ambassador" between the school and local community.Reunion June 3-4-5MMarc M. Edelstein, AB'74, MBA'88, whospent the last two years as a credit analyst atthe Chicago office of Credit Agricole, is now anunderstudy for Woody Guthrie's American Song, a biographical play by Peter Glazer. Bernice HaymanGross, AM'74, is the proud grandmother of threeboys and three girls. Kathleen McEntee de la PenaMcCook, AM'74, see 1972, Peggy A. Sullivan.Margery J. Schneider, AM'74, has taken a job as merchandising manager for Ingram Book Company inNashville, TN.MB Stephen M. Baum, AB'75, chief scientist of¦ W Xerox Imaging Systems, has been workingto develop reading machines for the visuallyimpaired and dyslexic. His wife, Lynn, teaches atthe Boston Museum of Science and, "with Jurassic Park fever, is an oft-quoted dinosaur expert." Theyhave one son, Nathaniel, a "vigorous and demanding 8-year-old." Mark Wasserman, AM'71, PhD'75,professor of history at Rutgers University, recentlycompteted a second one-year term as president ofthe Highland Park (NJ) board of education and aone-year term as president of the Middle AtlanticCouncil of Latin American studies. His book, Persistent Oligarchs: Elites and Politics in Chihuahua,Mexico, 1910-1940, was published in June by DukeUniversity Press.HA Victor L. Bennison, SM'75, PhD'76, see#0 1950, Harris Dante. Michael R. Cook,AB'76, formerly a vice president of Chase ManhattanBank in New York City, has been appointed chief ofstaff by Mayor Bret Schundler of Jersey City, NJ.IVIV William W. Cook, AM'77, Dartmouth pro-m M fessor of English and African & AfricanAmerican Studies, has been named New Hampshire'sprofessor of the year by the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education. Brigitte WarningWatkins, AM'77, a former associate director of majorgifts at the U of C, was promoted in October fromdirector to associate vice president of development atGeorge Washington University in Washington, DC.IVQ Douglas A. Conrad, MBA'77, PhD'78,a Vt editor of Frontiers of Health Services Management (Health Administration Press), has beenappointed to the graduate school council of the University of Washington. Joseph Kattan, AM'78, hasjoined the law firm Morgan, Lewis & Bockius as "OfCounsel" in the antitrust and trade regulation section of its Washington office. Anthony F. Martin,AB'78, AM'79, was recently named chair of thehuman resources technology group steering committee for Coopers & Lybrand's Human ResourceAdvisory Practice. As the U of C class agent for theclass of 78, he looks forward to hearing from classmates. Martin S. Simon, AB'78, main propulsionassistant on the U.S.S. George Washington, lives inChesapeake, VA, with his wife, Allison, and threechildren: Heidi, Lewis, and Katie.Reunion June 3-4-5 9%,HQ Ellen Forman Abramson, AB'79, and herm 9 husband, David, announce the October 6birth of their second child, Mara Leah. ChristineTyma DeGrado, AB'79, recently completed herPh.D. in Romance languages at the University ofPennsylvania with a dissertation on contemporarySpanish literature. Pamela L. Fair, MST'79, coordinator of technology for the North Thurston schooldistrict in Lacey, WA, has finished course work for aPh.D. in education and is working on a dissertationon microcomputer-based laboratories in elementaryscience. William P. Stewart, MBA'79, an associateprofessor in the college of agriculture at Texas A&MUniversity, is spending the 1993-94 academic yearin Japan on a Fulbright research award.Nina Petrosky Priebe, AM'80, works as aclinical social worker at Los Robles RegionalMedical Center in Thousand Oaks, CA. Seth R.Tanenbaum, MD'80, see 1935, Pearl Seligman Weis-dorf Garth D. Wilson, JD'80, completed the LL.M.taxation program at Georgetown University in May1993. He is an attorney with the Pension BenefitGuaranty Corporation in Washington, DC.W Phillip E.Jackson, PhD'81, former seniorvice president of the Greater Dallas Chamberof Commerce, is establishing a Dallas office for Cas-sidy & Associates, Washington's largest independentgovernment relations and public affairs network.Seth Lerer, PhD'81, professor of English at StanfordUniversity, recently received the 1993 Laurance andNaomi Carpenter Hoagland Prize for UndergraduateTeaching. He is the first English faculty member towin the annual prize. Lance D. Query, AM'81, has40 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994been named dean and professor of libraries at West-em Michigan University, Kalamazoo.M Rudolph Bouie, MBA'82, director, plantfacilities and services, Argonne NationalLaboratory, received the U of C's Outstanding Service Award for his efforts to obtain funding for construction and facilities rehabilitation. He alsoproduced Argonne's first long-range site and facilities plan — now a standard for all Department ofEnergy facilities. Vivienne Jane Kattapong, AB'82,AM'84, a neurologist, does clinical research at theUniversity of New Mexico. She and her husband,Todd Locher, announce the June 2 birth of a daughter. William F. Monroe, Sr., PhD'82, has beenappointed associate dean for graduate studies andresearch in the college of humanities, fine arts, andcommunication at the University of Houston.Nancy L. Segal, AM'74, PhD'82, is an associate professor of psychology at California State University,Fullerton.MarilynJ. Kaye, PhD'83, see 1972, Peggy A.Sullivan. Christine R. Marlow, AM'79,PhD'83, professor of social work at New MexicoState, Las Cruces, received the Burlington ResourcesFoundation Faculty Achievement Award for the1993-94 academic year. Amy Rosenblatt Rosoff,AB'83, recently completed her M.S. in humanresources management at the New School for SocialResearch in New York City. She now works forAmerican International Group, Inc., as a senioremployment specialist and lives in Stamford, CN,with her husband, Charles. Karl Voltaire, MBA'80,PhD'83, is in charge of the International FinanceCorporation's agribusiness department.Reunion June 3-4-5 94M James J. Campanella, AB'84, SM'88, see1988, Lisa M. Webber. Elizabeth FichtnerPector, MD'84, recently scored in the 99th percentile on the American Board of Family Practicerecertification exam. She is active as a family practice physician in Naperville, IL. Carolyn RodefferLibby, MBA'84, is a category manager responsiblefor new product development in the dinners andenhancers division of General Foods USA. She livesin Somers, NY, with her husband, Ned, and threechildren: Christopher, Emma, andjoanna. Daniel S.Wilson, AB'84, was appointed investment officer ofinvestment and funding administration at NationalCity Bank in Cleveland.Jeff E. Balkan, MBA'85 and MyndeeGomberg Balkan, MBA'86, announce theAugust 6 birth of their twin children, Max Robertand Elizabeth Ryan. Arthur W. K. Chan, AM'85,and Mary J. M. Cho, MBA'85, announce the birthon March 5, 1993, of their daughter, Emily MeiLing. They also have a 3-year-old son, Stephen.Larry D. Popelka, MBA'85, is director of marketingfor the Clorox Company in Oakland, CA, where hemanages all of the company's marketing and business planning efforts in the laundry and cat-litterproduct lines. Joan M. Spoerl, AB'85, who receivedher MAT. in early childhood education in 1990from Tufts University, now lives in Chicago andworks as a supervising teacher in the kindergartenat Lutheran General children's day care. This fall,she traveled to China as a U.S. delegate to theU.S./China joint conference on early childhood education, and met up with Samuel R. Gilbert, AB'85,in Beijing.Myndee Gomberg Balkan, MBA'86, see1985, Jeff E. Balkan. Alan M. Kanter,AB'86, married Sarah Willis on October 24. In attendance were: Roy M. Schuster, Jr., AB'86; KennethC. Baron, AB'87; Corey J. Mertes, AB'86; MatthewF. Keblis, AB'86; Terrence C. Trojanek, AB'86; andJoseph S. Mekonis, AB'85. S. Janelle Montgomery, The FinalFrontierFor astronaut John Grunsfeld,spaceflight may offer answers tosome of the mysteries of high-energy astrophysics — and theadventure of a lifetime.John M. Grunsfeld, SM'84, PhD'88,dates the beginning of his career as ascientist and an astronaut back tothird grade: "My teacher told us we allhad to write biographies. I was sitting inthe third row, so I got to hear two rows ofpeople getting assigned great people likeBabe Ruth and Abraham Lincoln. Thenshe got to me and said, 'Enrico Fermi.' Mylittle heart sank. Who was Enrico Fermi?"Since then, Chicago-born Grunsfeld hasnot only discovered just who Fermi wasbut also has adopted the Nobel prize-winning physicist as a model for his own life."Fermi had that wonderful gift of justsimply being curious, and it didn't matterthat some people were theorists and somepeople were experimentalists," Grunsfeldexplains. "He crossed those boundariesby saying, 'We're all interested in nature.'"Grunsfeld's own curiosity and interest innature eventually led him to MIT, wherehe received a B.A. in physics. Later, as agraduate student at the U of C, he workedwith professors Peter Meyer and DietrichMitller on high-energy astrophysics, conducting experiments via high-altitude balloons. The balloons — large enough tocontain the Regenstein Library and itsparking lot — carried close to 6,000 poundsof instruments 25 miles into the air, allowing Grunsfeld and his cohorts to studyradiation beyond the earth's atmosphere.Not satisfied merely to send instrumentsinto space, though, Grunsfeld decided thathe, too, wanted to escape the earth's atmosphere. Consequendy, when he finished hisPh.D. — based on data gathered from theChicago Cosmic Ray Nuclei experiment onthe space shuttle Challenger in 1985 — andbegan a W. D. Grainger postdoctoral fellowship at Chicago, he also applied toNASA's astronaut candidate program.Narrowly missing admittance after hisfirst interview in 1989 (there are usuallymore than 3,000 applicants for around 25spots), he was called back by NASA in1991, while a faculty member at Caltech,and in August 1992, joined the program to become a shuttle mission specialist. Assuch, he'll perform payload experimentsin space, operate the remote manipulatorarm, and participate in extra-vehicularactivities, or "space walks."During his year of "basic training" atNASA, Grunsfeld flew T-38 fighter jets,performed routine procedures in simulations of a shuttle's interior, trained in scubadiving, and practiced weightlessness in aspecially designed underwater tank.Although being underwater in a spacesuit is similar to being in space, to trulysimulate weightlessness the trainees tookto the air: "We have a modified Boeing 707that does very large parabolic arcs between25,000 and 35,000 feet, and when you goover the top of one of those arcs, you gettrue weightlessness. The problem is it onlylasts for 20 to 30 seconds and then you hitthe floor and are at 2Gs for a minute ortwo until the next one. Typically, we'll get40 of these parabolas on a flight."While such activities are not for the fainthearted, Grunsfeld maintains that thetraining hasn't been much of a shock to hissystem. An avid mountaineer like his heroFermi, Grunsfeld has never led a sedentarylife. And, having eaten his fair share ofcamping food, he rates dehydrated spacefood as "pretty good."Despite his daring life thus far,Grunsfeld is convinced that spaceflightwill prove to be "the ultimate adventure. "He'll have a chance to test his hypothesiscome December, when he boards thespace shuttle Columbia as a mission specialist for the ultraviolet astronomy mission Astro 2. — C.A.M.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 4 1AB'86, MBA'89, after leaving Costa Rica, now workson an oil palm plantation in Honduras and plans tomove on to San Pedro Sula soon. Ellen BrownEvanoff, AB'87, reports that Rachel J. Rios, AB'86,married Michael Cann on July 3, in Durham, NC.Bridesmaids were: Ellen, an assistant aircraft maintenance officer at Barbers Point, HI, where she fliesin C-130, E6-A and P-3 aircrafts, and V. SamanthaUpham Thorpe, AB'87, who recently celebrated,with her husband Mark, the birth of their daughter,Rachel. Also attending were Julie A. Pierog, AB'86,and Jane S. Jane, AB'86. The bride recently earned abachelor's degree in nursing and has joined the U.S.Army. Adena B. Schutzberg, AB'86, works for ESRIdoing technical marketing. She writes, "In short, I'mmaking the world safe for geographic informationsystems." Katarzyna C. Szydagis, AB'86, see 1991,Christine A. Dannhausen.Kermit A. Ecklebarger, PhD'87, has beenappointed vice president and academic deanof Denver Seminary. Ellen Brown Evanoff, AB'87,see 1986, Ellen Brown Evanoff. Dennis P. Flynn,MBA'87, has started his own trading firm, D. T.Trading, at the Chicago Board of Trade. Gary D.Reamey, MBA'87, is moving to Toronto for the nextfive years to head his firm's Canadian brokerageoperations. Mona Saraiya, AB'87, married Joseph P.Farrell, AB'87, in Bond Chapel in June. Attendingwere: Sapna Singh Rathi, AB'87; Sanjeev A. Rathi,AB'87, MBA'91; Susana C. Lapid, AB'87; MargaretA. Lynch, AB'87; Samuel A. Neusner, AB'87; Geor-gianne L. Arndt, AB'87; and Kristina Neumann,AB'86. Mona received her M.D. from Rush MedicalCollege in June and is doing a residency in preventive medicine and public health in Georgia. Joe is acaptain in the Air Force and will be attending lawschool in Georgia. V. Samantha Upham Thorpe,AB'87, see 1986, Ellen Brown Evanoff.M Andrew P. Barkley, AM'86, PhD'88, associate professor of agriculture economics atKansas State University, Manhattan, was selectedKansas Professor of the Year by the Council forAdvancement and Support of Education. Daniel H.Reich, SM'85, PhD 88, an assistant professor ofphysics and astronomy at Johns Hopkins University,has been awarded a $500,000 research fellowship bythe Packard Foundation for his work on experimental solid-state physics. Lisa M. Webber, MBA'88,married James J. Campanella, AB'84, SM'88, in July.In attendance were: Deborah A. Smith, AB'86, JD'88;Robert W. Herz, MBA'89; Kathryn L. McCabe,MBA'88; and Michael A. Kroupa, AB'79, PhD'91.Reunion June 3,-4-5 94,M Thomas E. Herzog, AB'89, lives in LongBeach, CA, with his friend Jeff, three dogs,two tortoises, and a cat. David R. Inman, MBA'89,and his wife, Emily, announce the April 26 birth oftheir second son, Peter James. Jill Sulzberg, AB'89,AM'90, is a first-year law student at NorthwesternUniversity, where she plans to focus on civil rightsor employment discrimination,April E. Abele, SM'90, is a second-year student at Vanderbilt Law School. George A.Eldridge, MBA'90, formerly with Kidder Peabody'sinvestment banking department, is now a financialolficer at Boston Life Sciences, Inc., in Waltham,MA. On July 17, he married Mary Ellen Reilly, aDartmouth classmate. Among those attending thewedding were Jeffrey M. Donahue, Jr., MBA'90;Richard T. Morrissey, MBA'90; Jeffrey A. Amell,MBA'90; and Glen M. Segal, MBA'90. Suzanne L.Dunn, MBA'90, was recently promoted to vice president of development at Zelosl, a San Francisco-based startup that publishes interactive CD-ROMproducts. Matthew Mintz, AB'90, and Jon D.Schnorr, AB'90, see 1991, Christine A. Dannhausen. WSridhar Balakrishnan, SB'91, received amaster's degree in 1992 from SUNY, StonyBrook. In February 1993, he founded AlligatorComputer Systems, an exclusively on-site computertraining firm specializing in personal computer software applications. He also recently became anadjunct faculty member at South Suburban College,South Holland.Christine A. Dannhausen, AB'91 — who workswith Emily Leish, AB'92, at La Rabida-Universiry ofChicago Research and Policy Center for the Study ofChildren and Their Families with Special Health CareNeeds — is planning to apply to medical school.Christine reports that Virginia Petersen, AB'91, andJon D. Schnorr, AB'90, were married September 5, inSouth Bend, IN. Virginia and Jon attend the University of Washington, Seattle, where she is in lawschool and he is working on a Ph.D. in biology.Bridesmaids were Christine; Katarzyna C. Szydagis,AB'86, a study skills counselor, director of the College core tutor program, and a Ph.D. student in education at Chicago; and Sharon L. Bain, AM'93.Kumar N. Paturi, a student in the College, wasgroomsman. Also in attendance were: Georg S.Muller, AB'91, who recendy completed his M.A. inindustrial engineering at Northwestern and is working on his Ph.D. in business at the U of C; MatthewMintz, AB'90, a fourth-year medical student atGeorge Washington University; Maria L. Jison,DeathsFACULTYWilliam H. L. Meyer, SM'37, PhD'47, professoremeritus in mathematics, died November 17 after along illness. He was 78. Concerned with math education at all levels, he established special educationalprograms to bring high school students to the U of Ccampus during summer months. Between 1957 and1975, he directed 20 National Science Foundationprograms for students, high school teachers, and college professors. Meyer joined the faculty in 1948; in1950, he received the Quantrell Award for excellence in undergraduate teaching. He is survived byhis wife, Margaret; a son; and a daughter.Walter L. Palmer, SBT8, SMT9, MD'21, PhD'26,the Richard T. Crane professor emeritus of medicine, died October 28. He was 97. A pioneer in thefield of gastroenterology, in the 1920s he led one ofthe first controlled clinical studies of the paincaused by peptic ulcers. An assistant professor ofmedicine when the School of Medicine opened in1927, he organized one of the nation's first full-timeacademic gastroenterology sections. In the 1950s,he helped devise new techniques for early diagnosisof gastrointestinal cancer, and in 1961, he waselected president of the U of C Cancer ResearchFoundation. Retiring in 1962, he continued seeingpatients until 1985. He is survived by two sons,including Robert H. Palmer, X'61; and a daughter.1910sCraig D. Butler, MDT9, died February 5 in aWaverly, OH, nursing home. He was 100. An OakPark pediatrician for more than 55 years, he waspast president of the Chicago Pediatric Society.Chair of the pediatric department at West Suburban Hospital from 1947 to 1963, he was professoremeritus at Illinois Medical College and at RushMedical College. Survivors include four sons, 12grandchildren, and 17 great-grandchildren. AB'92, and David A. Krueger, AB'92, both second-year students at Pritzker; and Marcos P. Rivas, AB'91,who entered medical school this fall. Christine alsoreports that Christian Brun, SB'92, attends Northwestern Medical School. Virginia M. Navarrete,AB'91, has two sisters attending the U of C: Isabel, atPritzker Medical School, and Clara, in the College.AM Christian Brun, SB'92, see 1991, Christine A.9fi Dannhausen. James R. ("Chip") Coldren,Jr.,AM'83, PhD'92, has joined the Harvard School ofPublic Health as deputy site director for its programon human development and criminal behavior, aneight-year longitudinal study based in Chicago. MariaL. Jison, AB'92; Emily Leish, AB'92; and David A.Krueger, AB'92; see 1991, Christine A. Dannhausen.Michelle N. Mason, AM'92, married Hisham Bizri onSeptember 11, 1993. Michelle is pursuing a Ph.D. inphilosophy at Chicago. Hisham, a filmmaker, is raising funds for his latest project. Gilbert N. Sorebo,AB'92, a computer analyst for the U.S. Senate, is working toward an M.A. at George Washington University.M Sharon L. Bain, AM'93, see 1991, ChristineA. Dannhausen. Jeffrey J. Gabriel, MBA'93,see 1949, Joseph M. Gabriel. Andrew S. Hyman,AB'93, is working for one year at Schopf & Weiss, aChicago law firm. Marielle V. Lifshitz, LLM'92,JD'93, joined the Chicago law office of McDermott,Will & Emery as an associate in its corporateoffice.Dorothy Dorsett Fisher, PhBT9, died December11 in Phoenix. She was 96. A secretary to professors L. L. Thurstone and W. Allen Wallis in theGraduate School of Business, she was a member ofPi Delta Phi club and an officer of the U of C Settlement League. She is survived by her son, David L.Fisher, SB'42, and two grandchildren.1920sLester H. Westerman, PhB'23, chair of the boardof Carbit Paint Co. and a resident of Oak Park, diedJune 7 after a long illness. He is survived by hiswife, Thelma; a son, Lester M. Westerman,MBA'73; and two grandchildren.Lloyd B. Jensen, SM'24, PhD'67, died July 10 atthe age of 96. A microbiologist who retired in 1957,he authored seven books, published more than 75scientific papers, and held more than 35 U.S.patents. In 1959, he received the Pasteur Medal andAward. Survivors include a daughter, Roalda JensenAlderman, AB'49, AM'67.Gladys Debs Broude, X'25, died August 27, Apsychologist, she practiced in Washington, DC,and California. She was an active supporter ofIsrael, and worked for the Red Cross during WWII.Survivors include a sister, Betty Debs Sobel, AB'42;a brother, Jerome H. Debs, PhB'28; a niece, NancyB. Sobel, PhD'82, MD'84; two nephews, includingRobert J. Debs, MD'77; and a cousin, Elaine O.Goldstein, AB'43.Irving Stenn, PhB'25, JD'27, a Chicago attorneyfor 66 years, died July 22 in his home. He was 87.Survivors include his wife, Florence Schwab Stenn,PhB'28; a son; a daughter; four grandchildren; anda cousin, Mildred Friduss, PhB'25.M. Frances Culver Sutphen, SB'25, died September 2. She was 91. A chemist for Champion Paper &Fiber in Hamilton, OH, and Gardner Paper in Mid-dleton, OH, she was also a member of the FrontStreet Presbyterian Church. She is survived by a42 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994son, a daughter, seven grandchildren, and four greatgrandchildren.Barbara Biber Bodansky, PhB'26, died September16. A child psychology and early educationresearcher, she chaired the child development facultyat Bank Street College from 1931 to 1960, anddirected the college's research division from 1950until 1963. With a grant from the National Instituteof Mental Health, in the 1960s she devised the basicprinciples for federally-financed day care and HeadStart programs. Survivors include a daughter; twograndsons; a sister; and two cousins, June Biber Freeman, PhB'47, SB'49, and Michael P. Biber, MD67.Ann Van Nice Gale, PhB'27, AM'30, died July 15in Evanston. She was 87. Employed by the Chicagopublic schools, she taught English, art, and art history, and served as principal of two elementaryschools and Amundsen High School. After retiring,she spent 15 years designing classes and service programs to integrate information about elderly peopleand the aging process into school curricula. She issurvived by two daughters and a grandson.Antoinette Killen Huston, SB'27, SM'30, PhD'34,died July 13 in Santa Fe at the age of 88. From 1955to 1970, she taught mathematics at Rensselaer (NY)Polytechnic Institute. She is survived by four sons,four grandchildren, and a great-grandchild.Elizabeth Ruth Jacobson, PhB'28, a Hyde Parkresident, died October 14 at Bernard Mitchell Hospital. She was 90. Involved with her husband'sresearch in muscular tension, she helped himdevelop Jacobson Relaxation. An active volunteer,she was president of the U of C Settlement League,and served as director of the Illinois chapter of theArthritis and Rheumatism Foundation. Survivorsinclude two daughters; a son; three grandchildren;and a nephew, Myron A. Hirsch, PhB'46.Karl A. Mygdal, SB'28, died July 30 in ChapelHill, NC, at the age of 87. He was a retired geologistand manager for PURE/UNOCAL/OGLE PetroleumInternational. Survivors include his wife, MargaretPringle Mygdal, SB'29.Helen King Rouse, PhB'28, a longtime resident ofWinnetka, died July 18. A civic leader, she served aspresident of the YWCA and the League of WomenVoters of Cook County, and chaired the Woman'sSociety of the Congregational Church for two terms.She is survived by a daughter, Joanne RouseStewart, AM'65; two grandchildren; and five greatgrandchildren.Victor Neumark, X'29, a Winnetka resident, diedJuly 9. He was 86. A lawyer who retired in 1985, hehelped establish no-fault divorce in Illinois, and was acofounder and life governor of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers. In 1969, he wasappointed by the governor to the Family Study Commission on Marriage, Divorce, and Parental Responsibility. He is survived by his wife, Thelma; a son; twograndchildren; and three great-grandchildren.1930sAlice M. Atwood, MBA'30, a Schaumburg resident, died March 18. She was 91. A teacher in Fairfield, IL, for many years, she was also a member ofthe First United Presbyterian Church.Clarence L. Barnhart, PhB'30, died October 25 inPeekskill, NY. He was 92. A lexicographer and dictionary editor, he edited the original American College Dictionary for Random House, and laterfounded his own company in Bronxville, producingdictionaries and encyclopedias. He is survived bytwo sons, seven grandchildren, three great-grandchildren, and a sister.Orlo L. Crissey, AM'31, died September 4. A pioneer in industrial and organizational psychology, hewas the first full-time psychologist with GeneralMotors. Survivors include a son and two daughters. Giles W. Garrett, SB'31, of Battle Creek, MI, diedAugust 28. He was 93. A Navy seaman duringWWI and an Army lieutenant during WWII, hewas a member of First United Methodist Churchand served as a president of Richmond's AARPchapter. He is survived by his wife, Mary; a daughter; four grandchildren; eight great-grandchildren;and two brothers.Louise Klein Roth, SB'31, a lifelong resident ofHyde Park, died September 12. She was 84. Aretired analytical chemist, she did biochemicalresearch at the U of C and Michael Reese hospitals.She was a past national board member of theWomen's International League for Peace and Freedom, and an active member of the Illinois CoalitionAgainst the Death Penalty, the Alliance to EndRepression, and the Hyde Park Peace Council. Sheis survived by two daughters, including Susan RothSherman, AB'60; a son-in-law, Malcolm J. Sherman,SB'60, SM'60; and five grandchildren, includingMichael J. Sherman, AB'91.Stuarta Barat Flynn, PhB'32, a retired accountantand longtime resident of Austin, TX, died July 8.She was 82. Survivors include her husband, Francis;a son; a daughter; five grandchildren; a brother,Stephen S. Barat, AB'37; and a cousin, Joseph S.Mohr, Jr., SB'48.F. Wilbur Gingrich, AM'27, PhD'32, died October 19. A New Testament scholar, he coedited andtranslated The Greek-English Lexicon of the NewTestament and also coedited The Shorter Lexicon ofthe Greek New Testament. Survivors include hisdaughter; a brother, Newell S. Gingrich, PhD'30;and a brother-in-law, Harry M. Buck, Jr., PhD'54.Emil H.J. Rintelmann, MAT'32, died this pastspring at the age of 96. A teacher for 60 years, hespent 49 years with the University School of Milwaukee, becoming supervisor of the junior high in 1932,and retaining administrative posts until he retired in1966. From his retirement until 1977, he was a substitute teacher in Milwaukee's public schools.Huntington Harris, X'37, died July 11 in Lees-burg, VA. He was 79. From 1971 through the1980s, he served as director of his family's HarrisTrust and Savings Bank. An entrepreneur, heheaded or directed several Virginia companies, andfounded Press Intelligence, Inc., a national newspaper clipping and news analysis service. Survivorsinclude his wife, Mary; a daughter; a son; twograndchildren; a sister; and a cousin, Stanley G.Harris, Jr., a trustee of the University.Thad R. Carter, AB'38, JD40, died July 6. After a15-year career as the owner of Carter Brothers' Ford-Lincoln-Mercury Automobile Dealership, he opened alaw practice at age 44. In 1965, he was appointed cityattorney of Alton, and during the 1970s, spent severalyears working for the American Cancer Society. Survivors include his wife, Sophia, and a daughter.Betty Newmann Geiger, AB'38, a freelance copywriter, died May 24. Survivors include a niece anda nephew, Benjamin Shneider, MD'86.August P. Baetke, AM'39, died February 1, 1993,in Waverly, IA. He was 94. A Lutheran pastor, hewas a professor and chair of the sociology department at Wartburg College. Survivors include hiswife, Ellen; a daughter; two grandchildren; andseven great-grandchildren.1940sPhilip Katch, AM'40, died October 27 inEvanston. He was 84. A social worker, he wasemployed for 15 years by the Jewish Vocational Service, where he aided handicapped clients throughvocational training. He is survived by his wife,Berenice; a son, Jerald Katch, PhD'90; a daughter-in-law, Jane Silverman Katch, MST'78; and twogranddaughters. John F. Melby, AM'36, PhD'41, died December18, 1992, at his home in Guelph, Ontario. Afterserving in the U.S. Foreign Service, Melby joinedthe faculty of the University of Guelph, where heestablished and was the first director of the politicalscience department. Survivors include his wife,Roxana; a brother, Everett K Melby, AM'38; and anephew, Christopher H.K Melby, AM'70.Irving Sheft, SB'41, SM'44, died this past summerat the age of 73. A chemist who worked on the U ofC team that first spht the atom, he spent 45 years asan inorganic chemist with Argonne National Laboratory. He is survived by his wife, Bemice BlumSheft, SB'41, SM'42; a daughter, a son; a granddaughter; and a sister.Avis L. Kristenson, AM'42, died March 29 ofAlzheimer's disease in Lexington, KY. She was 79. Acharter member of the National Association ofSocial Workers, she taught at the University ofNebraska, Rutgers, Columbia, Smith and Marywoodcolleges, and the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. She is survived by a sister and two nieces.John W. Fitzgerald, SB'43, died recently ofcancer. He was 73. A high school biology teacherand wrestling coach for 31 years, he served asmayor of Burbank, IL, from 1970 until his retirement in 1991. Survivors include a sister.Duiuap W. Oleson, SB'44, MD'46, died February15. After practicing pediatric medicine in Sarasota,FL, for 23 years, in 1975 he joined the staff ofAuburn University's Drake Student Health Center,where he served as assistant director, chief of medical staff, and director, retiring in 1987. He is survived by his wife, Isabella; five children, includingWrisley B. Oleson, X'64; five grandchildren; hismother; a grandmother; and an aunt.Helen Le Baron Hilton, PhD'46, died this pastsummer in Ames, IA. She was 83. From 1952 to1975, she served as dean of Iowa State University'sCollege of Home Economics. Survivors include twostepdaughters, a stepson, 12 step-grandchildren,and 12 step-great-grandchildren.Howard Morrison, MBA'49, died July 14 of cancerin Eugene, OR. He was 70. A longtime resident ofNaperville, IL, he spent 18 years with Ekco Housewares as an industrial engineer, transportation manager, purchasing agent, and package designer. He issurvived by a son, a daughter, six grandchildren,one great-grandchild, a brother, and three sisters.Samuel L. Rodriguez-Amador, PhD'49, retiredprofessor of business administration, died July 24in Gandia, Spain. Survivors include his wife, Maria.1950sPaul J. Aldus, PhD'51, died September 5 at hishome in Fredericton, New Brunswick. An Englishprofessor for many years, he chaired the departmentat Ripon College (WI), and later taught at AlgomaCollege and Marianopolis College in Canada. He alsoauthored a book on structure and meaning in Hamlet.Bettye Mae Jack, MAT51, died in December 1992.A teacher and supervisor, she spent many years inthe Mississippi schools: the Bettye Mae Jack HighSchool in Morton, MI, was named in her honor. Survivors include a brother, four nieces, and twonephews.Norbert P. Starshak, MBA'52, died September 28at his home in Fort Myers, FL. He was 85. A con-'roller for Walgreen Co., he spent more than 40years with the company before retiring. He is survived by his wife, Edna; three sons; three grandchildren; and a sister.Joseph Kodwo Ofori, AM'53, died April 2. ALatin teacher at Achimota College in Ghana, Africa,Ofori worked from 1956 to 1960 to recruit nativepersonnel into the civil service in preparation forthe country's independence. Later entering the phar-University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 43maeeutical business, he and two partners formedthe Ghana Drug House, Ltd. in 1963. Survivorsinclude his wife, Gladys, and three sons.Robert S. Schmidt, PhD'54, died August 21 in hisLoyola University lab. A member of Loyola's medicalfaculty since 1965, he studied anuran neuroethol-ogy — particularly the acoustic behavior of frogs andtoads — with the hope of gaining more insight intohuman neurobiology and behavior. He is survivedby his wife, Emily; three children; and two grandchildren.Sheldon M. Charone, MBA'55, died October 4 inhis Glencoe home. In January 1992, he retired assenior partner from Carmell, Charone, Widner,Matthews & Moss, a law firm, specializing in laborrelations, that he helped found in 1960. He is survivedby his wife, Rose; two daughters; two grandchildren;and two brothers, including Jerome J. Ex, MBA'55.George W. Roberts, AB'55, died November 25 ofcancer in Durham, NC. For more than 20 years, hetaught philosophy at universities in England and theUnited States, and published a number of papers andbooks. In 1985, he resigned from Duke University todevote himself to his family's gas and oil business inWest Virginia. Survivors include his wife, Edith; ason; and a brother, Thorn C. Roberts, AB'65.Arthur T. Macklin, Jr., MBA'56, died August 3 atMichael Reese Hospital. He was 68. A certified publicaccountant, he spent more than 20 years as a partnerwith Arthur Andersen and Co. He is survived by twosons, three daughters, and five grandchildren.E. Edwin Hansbrough, MBA'59, a longtime resident of Brevard, died December 4 at the age of 87.Personnel director for Abbott Laboratories andretired personnel director for Scarle Pharmaceuticals,lie was an active member of the First UnitedMethodist Church and served for six years as director of the United Way of Brevard. He is survived byhis wife, Byrniece.George W. Unverzagt, JD'59, died November 5 inhis Bloomingdale home. He was 62. From 1961 to1970, he was a general law practitioner in DuPageCounty. In 1970, he was elected to the 18th JudicialCircuit, and served as chief judge in DuPage from1975 to 1979, when he was appointed to the appellate court. Survivors include his wife, Elvera; twosons; two daughters; two stepsons; two stepdaughters; and a brother.1960sGerald W. Mungerson, MBA'63, died September5 at Illinois Masonic Medical Center, of which hewas president. He was 58. During his tenure, thehospital opened the Midwest's first alternativebirthing center, and established an AIDS treatmentcenter. In 1976, Mungerson chaired the ChicagoHospital Council, and in 1992 he chaired the Illinois Hospital Association. He is survived by hiswife, Cynthia; a son; and a daughter.Andre Niteeki, AM'63, died September 1 inEdmonton, Alberta, following a series of smallstrokes. He was 68. Retired professor of Library andInformation Studies at the University of Alberta, hewas an avid collector of West African art. He is sur-vived by his mother; a son; two brothers, Joseph Z.Niteeki, AM'63, and Matthew H. Niteeki, SM'62,PhDW; a sister-in-law, Doris Vinton Niteeki, AM'57;three nephews, including Zbigniew Niteeki, SB'65;and a niece.Arthur H. Schocnsladl, Jr., AM'64, died of heartfailure October 24. He was 57. A Chicago socialworker for 33 years, he was supervisor of the IllinoisDepartment ol Children and Family Services' program to ensure that foster parents and agenciesreceived their payments. He was also president of theSchocnsladl Family Foundation, established to distribute funds to charitable organizations and causes. Survivors include his wife, Jacqueline HammettSchoenstadt, AM'64; two daughters; and a sister.Robert A. Shuker, JD'66, associate judge of the DCSuperior Court, died June 28 while jogging. Aftermoving to Washington in 1968, he spent nine yearsin the U.S. Attorney's office, and was appointed to theSuperior Court in 1977. A facutty member of theNational Trial Advocacy Institute, he received awardsfor achievement and outstanding service from theJustice Department. Survivors include his wife, Ann,and a daughter.1970sJohn E. Burns, JD'74, of Los Angeles, died November 2. He was 48. A Peace Corps volunteer inVenezuela from 1969 to 1971, he spent two yearswith the U.S. attorney's office, and was a partner inthe law firm Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher. Survivorsinclude his mother; his twin brother; and his bestfriend, George Johnston.Jirina Stanek, MD'77, died February 20, 1993, inLoma Linda, CA. A pediatrician with a private practice in Colton, CA, she left her native Czechoslovakia in 1967 to escape persecution by the communistregime. She is survived by her husband, Edward.1980sMichael J. McTighe, PhD'83, of Gettysburg, PA,died February 4, 1992, of cancer. From 1986 until hisdeath, he taught in Gettysburg College's religiondepartment as an assistant professor, and authored abook on Protestant public life in Cleveland duringthe antebellum years. He is survived by his wife, Carolyn, and a son.ART AND ARCHITECTOREDaniel Herwitz, PhD'84, Making Theory/Constructing Art: On the Authority of the Avant-Garde(University of Chicago Press). Among the firstphilosophical texts to analyze the tendency ofartists and critics to enlist theory in their creationand assessment of artworks, this book explores thenorms, assumptions, historical conditions, andinstitutions that have framed the development anduses of theory in art and aesthetics.BIOGRAPHY AND LETTERSLewis C. Branscomb, PhD'54, Ernest CashingRichardson: Research Librarian, Scholar, Theologian,1860-1939 (Scarecrow Press). One of the foremostlibrary scholars and innovators of early librarian-ship in the U.S., Richardson wrote more than 200books. This volume examines how his work asdirector of "Project B" transformed the NationalUnion Catalog of the Library of Congress from aninsignificant record of 1.5 million titles to a tool ofseven million titles in known locations.Carol Koveleski Canfield, AB'51, Gifts of the Med-icineHorse (Vantage Press). A chronicle of a 21-yearcompanionship between the author and her horse,this book describes the "mind-meld" of musicianand mustang, and the gifts they gave each other.John Tolan, AM'86, PhD'90, Petrus Alfonsi and HisMedieval Readers (University Press of Florida) . Animportant and unusual figure in the "12th-centuryrenaissance," Petrus Alfonsi embraced polemicaltheology, astronomy, and literature — all areas in Patricia L. Wismer, AM'74, PhD'83, died August25, following a sudden illness. She was 43. A theology professor at Seatde University, she was appointeddepartment chair two years ago, and was researching ways in which theology can contribute to theexploitation or abuse of children. She is survived byher husband, son, and parents.NOTICE OF DEATH RECEIVEDEmanuel H. Hildebrandt, SB'22.Juan D. Campos, SM'23, December 1991.Abram N. Landa, PhB'26, August.Stanley W. Nichols, PhB'26, March.Rosamond Burgi Hall, AM'27, August.Frances Steulpnagel Bmce, AM'29.William J. Roach, PhB'29, PhD'35,July.Eleanor F. Hayes, PhB'30, August.Eona De Vere, PhB'31, AM'38, April.Robert S. Hoagland, X'32.John Paul Reed, AM'33, PhD'37, June.Elizabeth Schunk, AM'38, February 1993.Clark W. Seely, MD'38, October.Richard P. Morris, MD'39, May.Norman V. Williams, DB'40, July.Charles R. Buckley, Sr., AM'41, July.Isamu Sato, X'41, June.Maurice L. Silver, PhD'41, March.Mary Chapman Reese, AM'44, August.Vytold C. Yasus, AB'44, MBA'46,JD'49.Clemens F. Kowalczyk, SB'48.William R. Martin, SB'48, May.Paul Zhitnik, AM'50.Robert L. Nolan, MBA'57.Kenneth C. Wagner, MBA'70.Alan Welsh, AM'73, PhD'80, June.which he made important contributions to thedevelopment of medieval thought. Drawing on hisanalysis of nearly 170 manuscripts containingAlfonsi's works, as well as the works of later authorswho turned to Alfonsi as a source, Tolan uncoversmuch about his impact on medieval writers.RUSINESS AND ECONOMICSWallace E. Huffman, AM'71, PhD'72, and RobertE. Evenson, PhD'68, Science for Agriculture: A Long-Term Perspective (Iowa State University Press).Describing the evolution of the U.S. agriculturalresearch system and reporting on its accomplishments and economic impact, this book includes recommendations for the organization and funding ofsuch research.Assaf Razin, AM'68, PhD'69, and Efraim Sadka,The Economy of Modem Israel: Malaise and Promise(University of Chicago Press). This up-to-date studyof the Israeli economy explores the state's economichistory, focusing on links between Israel's economicgrowth, its integration into world markets, its taxand welfare systems, and the political conflicts inthe Middle East. The authors conclude that thefuture of Israel's economy depends on seriousefforts to secure peace in the Middle East.Richard H. Timberlake, PhD'59, Monetary Policyin the United States: An Intellectual and InstitutionalHistory (University of Chicago Press). Timberlakechronicles the intellectual, political, and economicdevelopments that prompted the use of central banking institutions to regulate the monetary system,concluding that central banking has largely involvedBooks by Alumni44 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994a series of politically inspired, government-servingactions that have burdened the private economy.Manuel London and Richard A. Wueste, JD'74,Human Resource Development in Changing Organizations (Quorum Books). Intended for human-resource professionals and their managementcolleagues in other fields, this book examines howthe human-resource professional can improve a corporation's chance for survival and growth in economically turbulent times by developing closeworking relationships with other corporate executives — thus ensuring that management decisionsconsider the human-resource perspective.CHILDREN'S LITERATUREGlenna E. Lang, AB'72, illustrator, The Children'sHour (David R. Godine, Publisher). An affectionatelove letter to his three daughters, this poem byHenry Wadsworth Longfellow tells the story of afather, ambushed by his children as he attempts towork, who turns the tables and captures the children forever in his heart. Illustrator Lang has setthis classic poem in Longfellow's famous home —today a National Historic Site.Anne Frisbie Malone, AM'78, Santa's Workshop: APunch-Out Village and Characters (Dover Publications). With this activity book, children can create aYuletide fantasy land. All figures and stmctures arefreestanding and decorated in full color on all sides.CRITICISMJohn L. Bryant, AB'71, AM'72, PhD'75, Melville &Repose: The Rhetoric of Humor in the AmericanRenaissance (Oxford University Press). Arguing thatMelville saw writing as a series of attempts to reachan unreachable union of word and thought, Bryantshows how the author attempted to place the readerin an equivalent condition of "tense repose," andhow he incorporated laughter into his prose as ameans of teasing the reader into deeper thought.Katherine H. Burkman, AM'56, and John L. Kun-dert-Gibbs, editors, Pinter at Sixty (Indiana University Press). In 1991, an international group ofscholars and theater artists gathered to celebrateBritish playwright and screenwriter Harold Pinter's60th year and to assess his achievements. The 18essays gathered in this volume discuss Pinter in production, his politics, and his poetics.Peter Haidu, AB'52, The Subject of Violence: The.Song of Roland and the Birth of the State (Indiana University). Employing a semiotics informed both bycontemporary theory and his historical research intothe bases of material production and the organizationof military and political power, Haidu explores howthe 12th-century Song of Roland helped transform theindependent and violent warriors of the feudal periodinto subordinate instruments of the nation-state byforcing them to subject to monarchical rule.Albert Leong, AB'61, AM'66, PhD'70, editor, Ken-tavr: Ernst Neizvestnyi oh ishussrve, literature ifilosofii (Progress-Litera). Ernst Neizvestny is considered the leading exponent of monumental synthesis in contemporary Russian and world art. Thisexpanded, Russian version of the English languageedition, Ernst Neizvestny, Space, Time, and Synthesisin Art: Essays on Art, Literature, and Philosophy, juxtaposes some of Neizvestny's essays on art, aesthetics, and literary criticism with a criticalintroduction, chronology, bibliography, and 200illustrations of his work.Richard Kennedy, AM'47, Robert Browning'sAsolando (University of Missouri Press). RobertBrowning's final volume of poetry, Asolando, has beenoverlooked by contemporary critics and readers,though at the time of its 1889 publication, it wasdeemed "charming" by reviewers. After a brief Mondrian's Legos (see Art and Architecture)overview of Browning's creative resurgence duringhis final years, Kennedy provides critical commentaryon each poem from this volume, indicating how theyare representative of Browning's ideas and practices.Jeffrey Segall, MAT'78, Joyce in America: CulturalPolitics and the Trials of Ulysses (University of California Press). This book traces the impact of politics and ideology on the American reception ofJames Joyce's Ulysses during the '20s and '30s anddocuments the way in which the canonization ofthe novel was delayed until the ascendancy of theNew Critics in the '40s.James B. Sipple, AM'59, Passionate Form: LifeProcess as Artistic Paradigm in the Writings of D. H.Lawrence (Peter Lang Publishing). Focusing onissues of criticism, philosophy, and theology, Sippleoffers a new reading of two of Lawrence's novels, TheRainbow and Women in Love, in the context of theirauthor's artistic method and powerful religiouspromptings.EDUCATIONChristie Anne Farnham, AM'62, PhD'77, TheEducation of the Southern Belle: Higher Education andStudent Socialization in the Antebellum South (NewYork University Press). This book examines howthe pre-war South offered women an educationexplicidy designed to be equivalent to men's, whilemaintaining and nurturing the gender conventionsepitomized by the ideal of the Southern belle.Robert Inchausti, PhD'81, Spitwad Sutras: Classroom Teaching as Sublime Vocation (Bergin &Garvey). Going beyond the basics of classroommanagement to consider the path of both teacherand student toward authentic intellectual maturityand spiritual growth, this book, written in first-person narrative, tells a seasoned teacher's story ofhis journey from graduate student at the U of C toninth-grade teacher in a Catholic high school,where he "manned the battle lines in the provincial,petty, sometimes even violent world of the American secondary school."FICTION AND POETRYMichael Andrew Williams, AM'71, The Inheritance of Fathers: A Black Man's Meditations (The Black Phoenix Press). This text offers an African-American scholar-poet's insights on the sacred purposes in Christian marriage, and has been designedas a home study work.GENDER STUDIESEllen Lewin, AB'67, Lesbian Mothers: Accounts ofGender in American Culture (Cornell UniversityPress). Examining the crafting of personal identityamong lesbian mothers and focusing on how womenconstruct a view of motherhood that reconciles elements viewed in the wider culture as contradictory orparadoxical, Lewin argues that an understanding ofthe meaning of motherhood in this apparendy marginal population points to broader interpretations ofongoing reproductive issues for women — both lesbian and heterosexual — in the United States today.Saundra Pollock Sturdevant, PhD'75, and BrendaStoltzfus, Let The Good Times Roll: Prostitution andthe U.S. Military in Asia (New Press). In this book,the women of the bar areas around the U.S. bases inOkinawa, the Philippines, and the southern part ofKorea speak about their lives working in economiesbuilt on the sale of sex to U.S. military personnel.They candidly describe their families and childhoods, the poor rural and urban areas they comefrom, life and work in the bar areas, and their attitudes toward the bar owners, the American customers, and themselves.HISTORY/CURRENT EVENTSDouglas H. Daniels, AB'64, Sucheng Chan, MarioGarcia, and Terry Wilson, editors, Peoples of Color inthe American West (D.C. Heath & Co.). This volumeis a collection of excerpts from scholarly works,autobiographies, and reminiscences, from pre-Columbian rimes to the present, by African Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, andMexican Americans residing west of the Mississippi.Caroline Ford, AM'80, PhD'87, Creating theNation in Provincial France: Religion and PoliticalIdentity in Brittany (Princeton University Press).Ford discusses how and why the inhabitants ofwestern Brittany — a region marked by profoundreligiosity and cultural differences — came to resist,appropriate, and create national allegiances as theyvoiced new political ideologies and identities fashioned from local understanding.Paul Gootenberg, AB'78, PhD'85, ImaginingDevelopment: Economic Ideas in Peru's "FictitiousProsperity" of Guano, 1840-1880 (University of California Press). Retelling the saga of Peru's 19th-century age of guano, this is the first book in Englishto explore the historical genealogy of Latin America's postcolonial economic thought. The authorargues that the surprising diversity, vitality, andsubtlety of Peruvian economic thinking challengesimages of Latin American liberalism as a borrowed,impoverished, and narrow conception of materialprogress.Peter B. Kovler, AB'74, editor, Democrats and theAmerican Idea: A Bicentennial Appraisal (Center forNational Policy Press) . Some of America's most distinguished historians recount how the Democraticparty was born 200 years ago, and how it has survived and evolved through triumph and defeat.Afterword by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.Joan Morrison, AB'44, and Charlotte FoxZabusky, American Mosaic: The Immigrant Experience in the Words of Those Who Lived It (Universityof Pittsburgh Press). The result of five years ofresearch and interviewing, this book presents therecollections of 140 immigrants from six continentsand 50 countries who settled all over the U.S. Theinterviewees, who range in age from 17 to 101 andcome from many social and economic backgrounds.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 45depicl the "human side" of immigration and revealthe rich ethnic heritage of every American.LANGUAGES AND LINGUISTICSSusan Steilbcrg Millington, AM'68, Nihongo PeraPeia (Charles E. Tultlc Company). Offering a systematic and entertaining approach to learning theonomatopoeic phrases that are used extensively inboth spoken and written Japanese, this book isintended for use by both casual and serious studentsof the language.MEDICINE AND HEALTHMaria C. Bartlett, AM'80, Married Widows: TheWives of Men in Long-Term Care (Garland Publishing). Based on interviews with 24 older women, thisbook explores the changes they experienced in rolesand family relationships over an average of eight yearsof caregiving for husbands at home. Although depression and financial hardship were not surprising consequences, Bartlett also finds that half of the womenwere abused by their husbands, a phenomenon whicheach woman attributed to her husband's illness.Virginia Olga Emery, AB'62, PhD'82, and ThomasE. Oxman, editors, Dementia: Presentations, Differential Diagnosis, and Nosology (Johns Hopkins University Press). A group of medical authorities exploredementing disorders and explain their differentialdiagnosis. Drawing data from historical and currentliterature as well as their own clinical experiences,the authors discuss the boundaries between nonnalaging and dementia; the most common dementia,Alzheimer's disease; and vascular, subcortical, anddepressive dementias,POLITICAL SCIENCE AND LAWCynthia Fuchs Epstein, X'58, Women in Law, 2nded. (University of Illinois Press). With a new prefaceand epilogue, this edition is updated through AnitaHill's allegations that Clarence Thomas sexuallyharassed her, and Thomas' subsequent confirmationas a member of the U.S. Supreme Court.Richard Ned Lebow, AB'63, and Janice GrossStein, Wc All Lost the Cold War (Princeton UniversityPress). Based on new documentary evidence andextensive interviews with Soviet and American policymakers, this book reconstructs the 1962 Cubanmissile crisis and the superpower crisis arising outthe 1983 war in the Middle East. The authors challenge conventional interpretations of both crises andthe lessons they spawned or confirmed, and offernew lessons relevant to the post-Cold War world.Joshua Mitchell, PhD'89, Not by Reason Alone:Religion, History, and Identity in Early Modem Political Though! (University of Chicago Press). Interweaving political, religious, and historical themes,the author offers a new interpretation of earlymodem political thought. Breaking with accounts ofhow modern thought directly followed a decisivesplit from Christianity, Mitchell argues that the linebetween the ages of faith and reason is not thatclear — that the ideas of Luther, Hobbes, Locke, andRousseau draw on history, rather than reason alone,tor a sense ol political authorityKenneth \Y. Thompson, AM'48, PhD'51, editor,Foreign Policy in the Reagan Presidency (UniversityPress ol America). In this compilation of essays,journalists and colleagues of Ronald Reagan examine how. although he acquired a "trigger-happy"image, Reagan's determination to go down in fusion as a president who kept the peace resulted inhis greatest foreign policy successes.David /iskind, PhB'23, JD'25, Emancipation Acts:Quintessential Labor Laws (Lillaw Foundation). Thisbook records the struggles to emancipate slaves in ancient, medieval, and modem times by delineatingmore than 300 statutes, treaties, decrees, and otherlaws promulgated against slaveholding in empires,colonies, and nations around the world. Detailingthe slavery debates in France, Britain, and theUnited States as they pertain to modem labor legislation, Ziskind examines the initial efforts of inter-nation conferences and the current human rights,anti-slavery programs of the United Nations.RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHYPeter P. De Boer, PhD'68, editor, Educating Christian Teachers for Responsive Discipleship (UPA). DeBoer and four other members of a Calvin Collegeresearch team propose changes in the teacher education programs of church-related colleges in orderto reflect a commitment to a biblical vision of"responsible discipleship."Millard J. Erickson, AM'58, Evangelical Mind andHeart: Perspectives on Theological and Practical Issuesand Evangelical Interpretation: Perspectives onHermeneutical Issues (Baker Book House). Volumeone of a new trilogy exploring perspectives anddynamics within evangelicalism, the first title"focuses on the questions that must be answered ifthe term evangelical is to continue to be relevantand yet remain true to its heritage." The second, acompilation of six essays by Erickson, examineswhat is meant by the inspiration of a human writerof Scripture, how the faith of a Bible interpreteraffects interpretation, and whether paraphrases anddynamic equivalent translations should be used.Gabriel Fackre, DB'48, PhD'62, Ecumenical Faith inEvangelical Perspective (W. B. Eerdmans). Believingthat evangelicals and ecumenicals have much to leamfrom each other, Fackre writes from the vantagepoint of evangelical-ecumenical convergence, ultimately focusing on Carl Henry from an ecumenicalperspective and David Tracy from an evangelical one.Douglas A. Fox, AM'57, Dispelling Illusion:Guadapada's Alatasanti (SUNY). This work containsa new translation of Guadapada's Alatasanti,together with an introduction that sets the work inhistorical and intellectual contexts, and a commentary that attempts to elucidate the text for Westernreaders. Guadapada's most systematic philosophicaltreatment of themes that were later made dominantby Sankara, "Altasanti" also serves to introduce thereader to some of the critical strengths and weaknesses of Indian non-dualism (advaita).Chester Gillis, PhD'86, Pluralism: A New Paradigm for Theology (W. B. Eerdmans). Gillis suggeststhat Christian theology should be constructed withan awareness of — and using the data of — other religions. Investigating the implications of pluralism forsoteriology, christology, and ethics, he outlines criteria for conducting interreligious dialogue.Germain G. Grisez, PhD'59, Living a Christian Life(Franciscan Press). In the second of his four-volumeseries, The Way of the Lord Jesus, Grisez respondsto Vatican IPs call for a renewal in Catholic moraltheology and attempts to synthesize relevant materials from Scripture, Christian tradition, Vatican IIdocuments, and other recent church teachings.Gary L. Harbaugh, AM'69, PhD'73, Caring for theCaregiver: Growth Models for Professional Leadersand Congregations (Alban Institute). Based on astudy funded by the Lilly Foundation, this bookreviews 16 denominational approaches to leadership and discusses the special support needs ofsingle pastors, women in ministry, multiple staffministries, and the challenges of conflict, substanceabuse, and sexual boundaries.Thomas E. Hosinski, AM'76, PhD'83, StubbornFact and Creative Advance: An Introduction to theMetaphysics of Alfred North Whitehead (Rowman &Littlefield). Drawing on examples from ordinary experience to illustrate Whitehead's metaphysicalanalysis and explain his technical terms, this introduction to Whitehead's "process" metaphysics iswritten for advanced undergraduates, beginninggraduate students, or anyone approaching thephilosopher for the first time. The final chaptersummarizes why this particular philosophical visionof reality is useful to Christian theology.Steven Kemper, AM'68, PhD'73, The Presence ofthe Past: Chronicles, Politics, and Culture in SinhalaLife (Cornell University Press). Focusing on theevolution of an ancient but ongoing Buddhistchronicle, Kemper examines ways in which ancientpractices enter modem contexts, and how historicalconsciousness shapes Sri Lankan party politics,ethnic conflict, and political exchanges between thestate, the monkhood, and the laity.Jaroslav Pelikan, PhD'46, Christianity and Classical Culture: The Metamorphosis of Natural Theologyin the Christian Encounter with Hellenism (Yale University Press). This account of the lives and writingsof four Greek-speaking Christian thinkers from 4th-century Byzantium (the Cappadocians), whose collective influence on the Eastern Church wasarguably comparable to that of Augustine on Western Latin Christendom, offers insights on how thesethinkers reconciled being both Greek and Christian.Sam A. Portaro and Gary Peluso, PhD'91, Inquiringand Discerning Hearts (Scholars Press). Using thedenominational records of the Episcopal and Presbyterian churches in the U.S. and the United MethodistChurch, as well as several private funding agencies,the authors trace the historical development ofmainline Protestant campus ministries in theirdenominational, institutional, and cultural settingssince WWII — ultimately offering a prognosis foryoung adult ministries on campus and a prescriptionfor how those ministries can be strengthened.Henry Hughes Presler, PhD'48, A Search for Credible Religious Healing in Islam, Christianity, and Hinduism (India Society for the Promotion of ChristianKnowledge). This report of fieldwork focuses on casestudies volunteered by Muslims, Christians, andHindus who argue that religious healing is moreeffective with some classes of ailments, and thatsupernatural intervention on behalf of the sick is areasonable expectation in light of current scientificindeterminism.Robert L. Randall, AM'69, PhD'73, The EternalTriangle: Pastor, Spouse, & Congregation (FortressPress) and What People. Expect from Church (Abingdon Press). The first book presents an analysis ofthe relationships between pastor, spouse, and congregation. Describing the core causes of individualand system difficulties that arise, it offers suggestions for resolution. The second book examines thefour major human yearnings which the churchmust meet to retain a vibrant ministry into the 21stcentury.John G. Stackhouse, Jr., PhD'87, Canadian Evangelicalism in the Twentieth Century: An Introductionto its Character (University of Toronto Press). Inthis portrait of 20th-century Canadian evangelicalism, Stackhouse argues that, far from being eitheran echo of its British heritage or American TV evangelists and the new religious political right — thetrue character of Canadian evangelicalism is moreaccurately found in institutions like the EvangelicalFellowship of Canada, Prairie Bible Institute, RegentCollege, and the Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship.David Weissman, AM'59, Truth's Debt to Value(Yale University Press). Considering various schoolsof thought on the nature of truth, Weissman positsthat truth exists in the correspondence betweenstatement and fact, and argues that what can be saidabout our world can be measured against a realitythat has a character and existence independent ofany property we ascribe to it.46 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994David C. Yu, PhD'59, Religion in Postwar China: ACritical Analysis and Annotated Bibliography (Greenwood Press). This book begins with two overviewchapters, followed by a chapter on works authoredby mainland Chinese scholars, and a final sectionincluding recent Western publications on traditional Chinese religions. The bibliographical entriesare organized in terms of 26 categories or subjects.SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYThomas A. Bass, AB'73, Reinventing the Future:Conversations with the World's Leading Scientists(Addison-Wesley). ln 11 interviews, Bass opensvistas into molecular and cell biology, genetics,chaos theory, and other research in the process ofshaping — and reinventing — the future.Timothy Rowe, SM'81, Thrinaxodon: Digital Atlasof the Skull (University of Texas Press). Known from225-million-year-old fossils found in Africa, Antarctica, and China, Thrinaxodon has played a centralrole in understanding early mammalian historybecause it possesses many anatomical details of theprimitive structure from which mammals ultimatelydescended. The first work to use the highest-resolution CAT-scanning technology for interpreting fossils, this CD-ROM includes 800 images of thecross-sectional anatomy of the Thrinaxodons skull,anatomical labels for the imagery, and animationdepicting the three-dimensional structure.Samuel M. Scheiner, AB'78, SM'80, PhD'83, andJessica Gurevitch, editors, Design and Analysis ofEcological Experiments (Chapman and Hall). Written for ecologists, this book explores underused butpotentially valuable methods of design and analysisfor manipulative ecological experiments and suggests ways to improve statistical techniques.SOCIAL SCIENCESDavid Allen, AM'51, Fear of Strangers and Its Consequences (Bennington Books). Allen argues that itis not moral failure alone that causes discriminationand prejudice, but also an innate fear of strangers —present from ants to apes — which surfaces spontaneously in human infants, regardless of culture, bythe eighth or ninth month.Murray S. Davis, AB'61, AM'62, What's So Funny:The Comic Conception of Culture and Society. Theauthor examines hundreds of contemporary jokes,canoons, and shticks to determine how people mustview the world in order to find the comic attack on itfunny. In particular, he articulates the linguistic, logical, anthropological, and sociological expectationsystems that comedy denies — and argues thatcomedy can be a powerful instrument for understanding human existence.Marcus K. Felson, AB'69, Crime and EverydayLife: Insights and Implications for Society (Pine ForgePress) and Routine Activity and Rational Choice(Transaction Press). The first book examines howthe structure of metropolitan life affects today'scrime patterns; the second focuses on routinesources of the impetus to commit a crime.Susan M. Fisher, SB'59, and Mary Watkins, Talking with Young Children about Adoption (Yale University Press). Starting with an overview of thecomplex concerns of adoptive parents and a developmental picture of how young children makesense of adoption over time, this book presents 20actual dialogues between parents and young children about being adopted. The text also reviews literature on adoption research — including genetic,bonding, and outcome research — and the mostprominent psychiatric and psychoanalytical workson adoption.Gerald C. Hickey, AM'53, PhD'58, ShatteredWorld: Adaptation and Survival among Vietnam's Highland Peoples during the Vietnam War (Universityof Pennsylvania Press). Hickey examines the cultures of ten groups native to Vietnam's central highlands, focusing on how their cultures have beenshaped by their mountain environment and by thedevastating changes in that environment caused bythe Vietnam War, and by policies of the postwarVietnamese government.Jack J. Himelblau, AB'58, AM'59, The Indian inSpanish America: Two Centuries of Removal, Survival,and Integration (Labyrinthos). This monograph discusses the philosophic conceptions, sociologicalperceptions, and pragmatic prescriptions offered by19th- and 20th-century Latin-American socialthinkers, politicians, and educators regarding thenature, role, and place of the Indian in Spanish-American society.Charles M. Keil, AM'64, PhD'79, Susan D. Crafts,and Daniel Cavicchi, My Music (University Press ofNew England). Culled from the responses of 150people who were asked by members of the Music inDaily Life Project, "What is music about for you?",this book explores the role of social circumstanceand history in the shaping of musical tastes, differing responses to live and electronically mediatedmusic, music as a means of expression or self-definition, and the significance of musical choices withinspecific social contexts.Guy J. Kelnhofer, Jr., PhB'49, AM'51, PhD'68,Understanding the Former Prisoner of War: Life afterLiberation (Banfil Street Press). A prisoner of war onWake Island during WWII, the author explores thesimilarities between the survivors of POW camps andpersons — such as battered wives, abused children,and victims of religious and racial persecution — whosuffer long-term physical and emotional trauma. Inparticular, he examines the suitability of using posttraumatic stress disorder as a clinical description ofthe results of the prison camp experience.Jordan I. Kosberg, PhD'71, editor, Family Care ofthe Elderly: Social and Cultural Changes (Sage Publications). Although family care has traditionally beenthe means by which societies have cared for theelderly, social and cultural changes in both developing and developed nations have adversely affectedthe ability, suitability, motivation, and availability offamilies to care for their aging relatives. This bookBirth of the Nation (see History/Current Events) describes changes in family care in 16 countries atvarious stages of development and the societal consequences of those changes.Eugene Narmour, PhD'74, The Analysis and Cognition of Melodic Complexity: The Implication-Realization Model (University of Chicago Press).Continuing the psychological theory laid out in TheAnalysis and Cognition of Basic Melodic Structures(University of Chicago Press), this volume demonstrates how the combining and chaining of eightbasic stmctures efficiently accounts for the cognition of melody from all styles and cultures.Daniel Nugent, AB'76, AM'80, PhD'88, Spent Cartridges of Revolution: An Anthropological History ofNamiquipa, Chihuahua (University of Chicago Press).What happens to a revolutionary town after the revolution? This question frames Nugent's discussion ofthe rural class structure, ideology, and the state, andhis analysis of the particular meanings of land, thelabor process, and politics for Namiquipans. Weavinglong-range history, current events, and anthropological and social theory, this book challenges previousanalyses of the Mexican revolution.Janet Reibstein, AM'77, PhD'81, and MartinRichards, Sexual Arrangements: Marriage and theTemptation of Infidelity (Charles Scribner's Sons).Basing their study on some 200 interviews in America and Britain conducted over the course of tenyears, psychotherapist Reibstein and psychologistRichards explore why the American concept of aperfect marriage is often the very cause for extramarital affairs. In addition, they examine how thesecrecy that accompanies affairs erodes marriages asmuch as the affairs themselves.Paul C. Rosenblatt, AB'58, Metaphors of FamilySystems Theory: Toward New Constructions (Guilford). This book provides extensive analysis of themajor metaphors of family systems theory, exploringwhat is gained by using these metaphors and whatthey obscure.Stuart A. Schlegel, AM'65, PhD'69, Children ofTulus: Essays on the Tiruray People (Giraffe Press).The author's fifth book on the Tiruray people of thePhilippine rain forest in southwest Mindanao contains 12 ethnographic essays on aspects of their culture and society.Karen Rose Schultz, AM'82, The River Within(Inner Space Publishing). Written by a licensedclinical social worker and professional speaker, thisbook offers a message of spirituality and self-love forthose working to break free from the bonds of lifelong trauma. Arguing that many victims of abuseunknowingly perpetuate that abuse, the author suggests a way out of self-defeating behavior patterns.Eric Singer, AM'78, and Valerie Hudson, editors,Political Psychology and Foreign Policy (WestviewPress). The authors combine a central overview ofpast scholarship with the latest empirical findingsand conceptualizations, while placing political psychology in the larger theoretical context of international relations.Bruce Beyer Williams, AM'70, PhD'75, Excavations at Serra East, George R. Hughes and James E.Knudstad, Directors. Parts 1-5: A-Group, C-Group,Pan Grave, New Kingdom, and X-Group Remainsfrom Cemeteries A-G and Rock Shelters (OrientalInstitute Press). In the early 1960s, the OrientalInstitute's Nubian Expedition excavated the cemeteries, the ancient fortress, and the late Christiantown of Serra East in northern Sudan. This firstvolume reports on the ancient burials and oudyingstructures found.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," please sendthe name of the book, its author, its publisher, anda short synopsis to the Books Editor, University ofChicago Magazine, 5757 S. Woodlawn Ave.,Chicago, IL 60637.University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994 470 ther VoicesJoinedin SongBy Marl Schindele:I arly each Sunday morning duringthe academic year, the 40 membersi of the Rockeieller Chapel ChoirI ascend four flights of stairs to thechoir loft. Alter the lirst hall of the service,we leave our allotted place to processthrough the congregation. These processionals typify the choir's role in the chapel:although we do have a special place in thechurch service, we choir members also havea relationship with the chapel communitythat goes beyond the musical. While weare — most of us, anyway — trained musicians who worry about getting all the notesright and keeping our tone beautilul earlyin the morning, we are also privileged tobelong to the chapel community.My first contact with Rockefeller Chapelwas with the building itself. A nervous 17-year-old, I came to the chapel for the opening convocation that would begin my life atthe U of C. I found myself surrounded byhundreds of strangers, in a beautiful butrather imposing building. Coming from astrict Lutheran family in Minnesota, I wasraised to believe that churches should beaustere, and so I was a little suspicious ofsuch a grand building. How could peoplekeep from feeling lost or dwarfed in such ahuge place?At the same time, I had been to Chicagoon school choir tours and knew what amoving experience it was to make music ina magnificent, live space. We could fill thespace with our voices, touch everyone withour songs, and hear our echoes comingback to us — these grand churches couldbind us together through reverberatingsound. Now, as members of the chapelchoir, we experience another kind of"reverberation" when our audience tells usthe music is emotionally and spirituallyaffecting for them as well as for us.During the past four years Rockefeller Music cannot be written orperformed without a gracious,generous spirit— whichRockefeller Chapel givessingers the chance to develop.Chapel has become a real community forme. Initially, 1 was faced with many musicalchallenges: Would I be able to learn somuch music so fast? How was I going to getup for a 9:00 a.m. rehearsal and not soundlike gravel? Would I be able to processdown the aisle sight-reading music withouttripping? (It's hard — try it sometime.) Now,however, the chapel is a comforting place togo each week.Each week we sing hymns familiar fromthe church where I grew up, but now Iknow all the alto harmonies. The peoplehave become familiar to me, too, and I'vebeen able to trace my growth at the University through the faces I recognize in Rockefeller. Four years ago I would see myprofessors; now I see my own students inthe pews. Even people I don't know byname I see each week, and I have exchanged furtive smiles with many of theworshippers, known and unknown, duringthe processional hymns.Yet with all its pleasant familiarity, the choir provides me with an important difference in my life. For one morning and oneevening a week, I can think in differentways, and about different things, than I dofor my work. As a graduate student andteacher, 1 regularly interact with othersthrough words and texts. Singing is communication through words, of course, butalso through emotions and beauty. We haveto think with our bodies and feelings inorder to produce music. You can't be worrying about your dissertation (for example),but must make sure you breathe properly,produce an even tone, and suggest the ideasbehind the work through phrasing and listening.And singing at Rockefeller has given me amuch-needed perspective on the texts 1read for my research — 17th-century Puritanconduct books. After a few of these oftenjudgmental and sometimes vengeful texts, Ineed an atmosphere of moral choice, charity, and mercy on Sundays. Music cannot bewritten or performed, I think, without agracious, generous spirit, and RockefellerChapel gives us all a chance to develop it.Several winters ago, on the night that theGulf War broke out, we had choir rehearsal. An hour before rehearsal began, 1watched our powerful country assault athird-world nation in an unequal battle thatseemed to me (and still seems) profoundlywrong. That night for some reason only thechoir loft was lit; the rest of the chapel wasdark and empty, and it felt as though wewere singing into enormous blackness.One piece we rehearsed, a beautifulHebrew prayer, implored God for solace.The music allowed me to feel sorrow, butalso comfort, because we were singing for apurpose, even in an empty building. I foundout later that Dean of the Chapel BernardO. Brown and Associate Dean StephaniePaulsell, who were also disturbed by thewar, had come into the chapel that night tosit quietly in the blackness and listen as wesang. In the dark and silent building, themusic connected us.Mart Schindele, AB'88, AM'89, a doctoral student in English, sings alto in the RockefellerChapel Choir. This essay is adapted from anarticle which appeared in the January 1994issue of Undercroft, published for friends ofRockefeller Memorial Chapel.48 University of Chicago Magazine/February 1994Opportunities Must Be SeenTo Be SeizedLet ProNet uncover challenging opportunities that may be of interest to you, while you're busydoing what you do best.Whether or not you are currently looking for a job, people do make offers you can't refuse. TheChicago ProNet service is designed to keep you abreast of challenging opportunities in a variety offields, including high-tech, venture capital, Fortune 500, start-ups, bio-tech, pharmaceuticals, aerospace,and many more.Here's how it works. A company calls ProNet and requests a search for the individual with the skillsthey need. This request is cross-matched against the profiles of participating alumni. If you're the onethey're looking for, you'll be notified. Confidentiality is maintained throughout and you can restrict therelease of your profile.It's easy. When you receive a ProNet information package, fill out the Registration Request form andreturn it to the Alumni Association. ProNet will then send you a complete registration kit. The registrationfee is nominal, only $35.For a ProNet information package, please write to the Chicago ProNet Registration Department, The University of Chicago Alumni Association, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, or call (800) 593-3085.Picture yourReunion 1994.Revisit familiar placesGreet familiar faces.And celebrate thebest and brightestminds at yourUniversity of Chicago.June 3-5For more information about Reunion 1994,please call 312-702-4456 or write:The University of Chicago Alumni Association5757 South Woodlawn AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobie Mouse, 5757 WoodlawnChicago, IL 60637ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED ********, -CAR-RT-|0RT**CR0*The University of ChicagoSerialVRecords Department Jrhiraao, IL 606™. ^ ^