THE UNIVERSITYIOCTOBER 1993PAPER CHAS% In a rush, post-Communist\ nations struggle to crec'democratic constitute 4 •THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOLIBRARYPRESERVING A UNIVERSITY TREASUREJohn James Audubon. Ik Birds of America.London: Published by the Author, 1827-38.168. Forked-Tailed Flycatcher, A lusiiivif w smwtw. Even as electronic information expands the traditionalboundaries of scholarship, books remain an integralresource in the quest for knowledge. Some bookspossess extraordinary qualities that cannot beduplicated through microfilm or digitization.An outstanding example is John James Audubon'smonumental Birds of America (1827-38), one of the greatmasterpieces of printing and book illustration. TheUniversity owns one of only 134 known complete sets of thefirst edition, which is a highly important source for book andart historians, naturalists, and researchers in an astonishingvariety of fields. The present physical condition of theUniversity's set, however, threatens continued use andfuture stability.The rarity, beauty, and scholarly value of Birds of Americamake it a singularly important resource to conserve forfuture generations. The comprehensive cost of treating thistowering work, which contains 435 handcolored plates eachprinted on paper more than three feet by two feet, isestimated at $75,000. Recently the University Women'sBoard awarded the Library a $15,000 challenge grant to helprestore the Audubon; an additional $60,000 must be raisedimmediately. A delay in action will only result in furtherdeterioration and increased treatment costs. Your support tohelp preserve Birds of America is needed.Please consider a gift to preserve this University treasure.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO LIBRARYAUDUBON PROJECTPlease accept this gift of $ for theconservation of Audubon's Birds of America. $5,000* $500 $50 $1,000 $100 Other NameAddressCity_State _Zip_'Contributions of $5,000 or more will be recognized through a bookplatewhich will be placed in the preserved work.Please make your check payable toThe University of Chicago Library.Gifts may be mailed to:The University of Chicago Library Audubon Project1100 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637Call (312) 702-7695 for additional information.THE UNIVOLUME 86, NUMBER 1 OCTOBER 1993DEPARTMENTS FEATURES2 Editor's notes3 Letters6 EventsAutumnal pleasures.8 Required readingThe imagination yields agoad return.10 Chicago journalLaw School dean GeoffreyStone is lapped to become theUniversity's next provost.14 InvestigationsNada Stotland on the socialsciences' role in (he study ojthe menstrual cycle; JohnFrederick on the spread ofozone-poor ait:36 Alumni chronicleWho's who in the U of C'sNew York and IA offices.38 Class news43 Deaths45 Books by alumni48 Other voicesWill Pritchard, SM'92, talksabout family values, down-home music, and makingpolitical hay. 182432 Present at the creationThe UofC Law School finds that framing democraticconstitutions in post-Communist nations is an exercisein patience — for both the creators and those looking onJACLYN H. PARKSerial numbersIn a fall exhibition, the Smart Museum shows off itscollection of German and Austrian print portfolios.MARY RUTH YOEWhich came first, flowers or insects?Examining the fossil record, a professor and analumnus think they have the answei': Bugs.TIM OBERMILLERInto AfricaThe Field Museum of Natural History — with the helpof Deborah Mack, AB'76 — has designed "Africa" as anew way to see a storied continent.MICHELE THOMAS Page 24Cover: The road to a democratic constitutionisn't always smooth (see page 18).Illustration by Steve McCracken.EditorMary Ruth YoeManaging EditorTim Andrew ObermillerAssociate EditorJaclyn H. ParkArt DirectorAllen CarrollEditorial AssistantCatherine Mitchell, AB'93Student AssistantJeanette Harrison, '94Contributing EditorJamie KalvenEditorial office: The University of ChicagoMagazine, Robie House, 5757 S. Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312) 702-2163. Fax (312) 702-2166.The Magazine is sent to all University ofChicago alumni.The University of Chicago Alumni Association has its offices at Robie House, 5757 S.Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Telephone (312) 702-2150 Fax (312) 702-2166.The University of Chicago AlumniAssociation Board of Governors:Officers: William C. Naumann, MBA'75,president: Richard L. Bechtolt, PhB'46,AM'50, vice president: Jack J. Carlson,AB'40, treasurer: Linda Thoren Neal, AB'64,JD'67, secretary: and Jeanne Buiter,MBA'86, executive director.Clifford K. Chiu, MBA'82; N. Gwyn Cready,AB'83, MBA'86; Robert Feitler, X'46; TrinaN. Frankel, AB'64; Caroline Heck, AB'71;Warren Heemann, *Vice President, Development and Alumni Relations; Le Roy J.Hines, AM'78; Randy Holgate, 'AssociateVice President, Development; Susan Carlson Hull, AB'82; Michael J. Klingensmith,AB'75, MBA'76; Patricia Klowden, AB'67;Michael C. Krauss, AB'75, MBA'76; JosephD. LaRue, AM'59; Robert F. Levey, AB'66;Katherine Dusak Miller, AB'65, MBA'68,PhD'71 ; Theodore A. O'Neill, AM'70, "Deanof College Admissions; Susan W. Parker,AB'65; Harvey B. Plotnick, AB'63; Louise E.Rehling, AM'70, SM'74; Jean MacleanSnyder, AB'63, JD'79; David M. Terman,AB'55, SB'56, MD'59; Mary B. Van Meeren-donk, AB'64; Peter O. Vandervoort, AB'54,SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60; Marshall I. Wais, Jr.,AB'63; Gregory G. Wrobel, AB'75, JD'78,MBA'79; Mary Ruth Yoe, 'Editor, Universityof Chicago Magazine.'Ex OfficioMagazine Advisory Committee: Michael J.Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76, chair: RichardL. Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; Robert Feitler,X'46; Mary Lou Gorno, MBA'76; Neil Harris,the Preston and Sterling Morton Professor inHistory; Susan Carlson Hull, AB'82; MichaelC. Krauss, AB'75, MBA'76; Robert F. Levey,AB'66; Katherine Dusak Miller, AB'65,MBA'68, PhD'71 ; Marva Watkins, AB'63.The University of Chicago Magazine (ISSN-0041 -9508) is published bimonthly (October,December, February, April, June, andAugust) by the University of Chicago incooperation with the Alumni Association.Published continuously since 1 907. Second-class postage paid at Chicago and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: sendaddress changes to the University ofChicago Magazine, Alumni Records, RobieHouse, 5757 S. Woodlawn Avenue,Chicago, IL 60637. © 1993 University ofChicago. Editors NotesLetters, we get letters. And in recentmonths, we've also heard from hundreds of our readers through anothermedium — two reader surveys which followed our February and June issues. Thepolls — conducted by Pulse on America, anational research firm — yielded 245 pagesof computer printouts, giving us whatMichael Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76—who chairs the Magazine's advisory committee (and who pores over similar sets offigures in his job as publisher of Time Inc.'sEntertainment Weekly) — calls "an enormousamount of information about readers' feelings toward the Magazine."Of the 2,000 people who received surveys, 638 — or 32 percent — responded.There's no such thing as an average U of CMagazine reader, but we can tell you ourrespondents' median age (50), their male tofemale ratio (57:43), and that 33 percentlive in Illinois (16 percent are Califomians;5 percent are New Yorkers). Seven in tenare married, and respondents report amedian household income of $77,400 (one-third report household incomes of$100,000 or more). Forty-two percent havedegrees from the College, while 51 percenthave master's degrees and II percent havePh.D.s; 3 percent have M.D.s; and 8 percenthave J.D.s from Chicago.Seventy-one percent get most of theirnews about the University from the Magazine, while 16 percent rely on other U of Cpublications. Readers spend an average of50 minutes on an issue, with one in fivereading an issue from cover to cover. Justover 38 percent of our readers say they'vebeen very satisfied with the Magazine over the past 12 months (1.5 percent say they're"not at all satisfied").February's special report on incomingPresident Hugo Sonnenschein and June'scover story on retiring President HannaGray were read by almost every respondent,each receiving an "approval rating" of 70.Both that rating and readership scores ingeneral, notes Klingensmith, "exceededwhat are very good scores for Time Inc.publications — publications which spend alot of money on writing, editorial, and art toachieve comparable readership levels."Almost every reader turns to the classnotes. "Letters," the lead news story in the"Chicago Journal," and "Course Work"(where the Magazine watches professors atwork in the classroom) are also popular.Asked what kinds of reporting they'd liketo see more of, 46 percent of the respondents called for more on developments inacademic disciplines, while 40 percentwanted more features about faculty andtheir work, and 35 percent said they'd likemore features on alumni and their accomplishments. A fair share (20 percent) calledfor fewer features on student life and evenmore (41 percent) wanted less informationabout student extracurricular events.Asked to rate the Magazine from "interesting" (1) to "not interesting" (9), respondents placed us at 3.6. Asked whether theMagazine is "too serious and academic" (1)or "too light and gossipy" (9), readers putus almost in the middle, at 4.8. And, as ourannual solicitation campaign begins, we'repleased that 40 percent "definitely or probably would contribute" to the Magazine. Wehope to hear from them all. — M.R.Y.2 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993LettersAssured deliveryJn his article on letter writing ["BeyondTalking on Paper," August/93], BruceRedford states that "by the 1 740s it waspossible to send and receive letters with considerably more assurance than in the late 20thcentury." That may be true in the U.S.; inthe U.K., however, the postal service continues to impress, as first-class mail is delivered the day after posting.Mark Rasmussen, MBA'79LondonLet sleeping traditions dieYour piece on the decision to put"Sleepout" ["Chicago Journal,"June/93] to sleep, and the studentindignation over it, reminded me of anotherUniversity tradition killed while I was at theCollege. While the "Lascivious CostumeBall" was not the most profound experienceof my first year, it was in fact a historic one.That spring evening of 1984, hundredsscampered around Ida Noyes Hall donned,for the most part, in only underwear. ..orless. Entertainment included pornographicvideos and strippers, and swimming in thebasement pool (my best friend, a lifeguard,had to be distinguished by a red ribbon tiedaround her wrist, to give you a sense of thepool rules.) Yes, Mom and Dad, all of thiswas University-sponsored! Two years later,when it came time for the biannual event tobe held again, it was the subject of muchdebate and criticism. Expected lines weredrawn between students advocating theirright to personal expression and others,notably administrators, promoting a morecautious consciousness about the newimplications of sexuality. It seems to me, ifmemory serves, that white paper suits weresuggested. I believe it was a much reducedand not well-attended Ball, effectively extinguishing the last remnants of the era of"free love." I didn't go. By then, my thirdyear, I had moved on to other folly.These days, when a red ribbon referencessex in far more grave terms, and as I beginto teach college students myself, I thinkabout what must now be a generation gapbetween them and me. Students are stillprone to front fierce battles on ethicalgrounds over issues that are, in fact, more about letting go of youth than about politicsor principle — like "Sleepout," which wasalready a rather vacant and disruptive happening when I was in school. It is clearly amark of technological progress that there isnow an equitable and efficient alternativeway of registering for classes. I, for one, amglad that the University of Chicago continues to reconsider its "traditions" and toconsign them to the archives when they nolonger fit the changing world. As for disappointed students, I never could have imagined a decade ago that I'd be the one toremind them that college is also aboutlearning to choose adult battles to fight.Joselyn Zivin, AB'87Durham, North CarolinaDisarming contradictionsJt is always interesting to observe a zealotpreaching a message so lofty that he candispense with the checking of mere fact.One such is Ernest L. Snodgrass, PhD'37,["Letters," June/93]. Snodgrass feels that weshould ban all "lesser armament manufacture," and confides that Shaw "exposed thisprofitable trade in Arms and the Man nearlya century ago."Arms and the Man has, of course, nothingto do with the armament trade. In that playShaw was concerned with puncturing certain zealous romantic pretensions, and didso through the Swiss soldier Bluntschli, aprofessional who thoroughly understandsthat it is more useful to stock your web beltwith chocolate than with cartridges.Perhaps Snodgrass is thinking of MajorBarbara — but here again he is in for a disappointment. First, Shaw by no means"exposed" the fact that armament manufacturers existed and — gasp! — made a profit;that was well known to all. Second, a central character in the play is Andrew Under-shaft, a munitions tycoon, who in the endconverts his daughter, Barbara — a zealousSalvation Army officer — to his thesis thatshe cannot save souls until poverty, thedestroyer of souls, has been eradicated.Profit, at least with a Shavian wink, carriesthe day.So what did Shaw think of banning themanufacture of arms? Well, as he wrote,"The notion that disarmament can put a ARCHAEOLOGY FOR THE1990s AND BEYONDA Symposium co-sponsored by theOriental Institute and the Archaeological Institute of AmericaSaturday, November 6, 19938:30 a.m. - 4:00 p.m.Archaeology has always been surrounded by an aura of romanticism,conjuring up images of lost cities andfabulous caches of gold. Today's archaeologists, aided by the latest techniques and technology, are recoveringthe past in ways as fascinating as unearthing a pharaoh's treasures.Call 312/702-9507for more information.THE ORIENTAL INSTITUTETRAVEL PROGRAMJoin our study tours designed for theinformed traveller, featuring scholarsand archaeologists from the world-famous Oriental Institute.ISRAEL/JORDANMay 24 - June 9, 1994$4995/person,with international airfareGuide: ArchaeologistTimothy Harrison,The Oriental InstituteOMAN/YEMEN/BAHRAINOct. 31 -Nov. 20, 1994$5950/person,exclusive of international airfareGuide: Assistant CuratorEmily Teeter, Ph.D.,The Oriental Institute MuseumCall 312/702-1677for more information.of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 3The University Of Chicago Alumni Association AnnouncesCHICAGOPRONETa career servicefor peoplenot lookingfor a job...and thosewho are.D on't miss the opportunity of a lifetime because a companydoesn't know you are there.From venture capital firms seeking senior management for start-ups to Fortune 500 companies searching for experienced professionals, companies of all types and sizes are alwayslooking for top talent.Content as you may be with your current position, there are opportunities out therethat might entice you to make a change. And, if you're actively looking for a new position,ProNet can help you, too.Registering with ProNet assures that a profile of your experience and abilities is available to employers seeking to fill challenging positions you wouldn't hear about otherwise.HOW DOES CHICAGO PRONET WORK?A company calls ProNet and requests a search for the individual they need. This request iscross-matched against the profiles of participating alumni. If you're the one they're lookingfor, you'll be notified. Complete confidentiality is maintained throughout this process andyou can restrict the release of your profile.WATCH YOUR MAIL FOR DETAILSProNet information packages were mailed in September. If you have not received one,please write to Chicago ProNet Registration Department, The University of Chicago AlumniAssociation, 5757 So. Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, or call (312) 752-8350. Venture CapitalHigh-techFortune 500Start-upsBio-techManagementEngineeringPharmaceuticalsChemicalsManufacturingstop to war is contradicted by the nearestdogfight."Lucian Chimene, PhB'46Austin, TexasWorldwide watchdogI salute Professor William McNeill,AB'38, AM'39, for acknowledging in hisarticle "Living in the Shadow of theBomb" ("Other Voices," February/93) thatthe only guarantee against a thermonuclearholocaust is a "global sovereign power," i.e.a world government. However, I vehemently disagree with his claims that creating such an institution "would indeed meanthe abolition of the United States as we'veknown it" and that "it would almost surelymean the end of democratic government."To say that a global sovereign powerwould mean the abolition of the UnitedStates as we've known it is misleading atbest, inaccurate at worst, and in either caseinappropriate. It is true that creating andjoining a world federation, the only politically feasible form of world governmentthat could be peacefully established, wouldrequire the abolition of our country's abilityto wage war on other nation states, with thesame constraint placed on other membercountries. This of course might require oneor more constitutional amendments, butthis does not mean abolishing the uniquedemocratic framework of our Constitution.If and when the leaders of the world'snation states sit down to establish a "globalsovereign power," one of their primaryobjectives will be to maintain the integrityof the political systems that provide themwith power and authority. Their creationwould therefore have to be a world federation where sovereign power would bedivided between the global authority andthe member states. The world constitutionwould most likely limit the global federation's jurisdiction to exclusively international issues, such as the supervision andmaintenance of disarmament.The world federation would thus have tobe structured to preserve democracy anddemocratic institutions where they alreadyexist. This would necessitate a world bill ofrights to prevent the world governmentfrom usurping the rights of citizens of themember states, and a system of checks andbalances to ensure the rule of law.These and other, more elaborate, safeguards would preserve democracy where itexists, even if many of the world legislaturemembers represent authoritarian regimesnot chosen by the populations they rule.Sean M. Harte, AB'88Tewksbury, Massachusetts Symposia in Celebration of the Inauguration ofHugo F. Sonnenschein as the Eleventh President of the University of Chicago"LET KNOWLEDGE GROWFROM MORE TO MORE'October 20, 19932:00 p.m. "Liberal Education and theAdvancement of Knowledge"The role played by collegiate education in the growth of theUniversity of Chicago and the American research universityPanel: John Boyer, Dean of the Colkgr, Richard Storr, York University, author of Harper's University;Roger L. Geiger, Pennsylvania State University; Donald Levine, former Dean of the CollegeHarper Library, Room 130, 1 1 16 East 59th Street"Transplantation: The Second Revolution"The state-of-the-art, practice, and ethical implications of transplantationPanel: Dr. Jeffrey Bluestone, pathology and immunology; Dr. Jeffrey Leiden, pathology and gene therapy;Dr. Mark Siegler, medical ethics; Dr. J. Richard Thistlethwaite, transplant surgeryKent Laboratory, Room 120, 1020-24 East 58th Street"The Evolution of the Physical Universe"The current paradigm of the evolution of the physicaluniverse, focusing on the role of Chicago cosmologistsPanel: Michael Turner, cosmology; Edward W. Kolb, cosmology;Richard Kron, cosmology; Noel Swerdlow, history of scienceKersten Physics Teaching Center, Room 115, 5720 Ellis Avenue3:30 p.m. "Altruism and Egotism"Whether rational self-interest explains human social behaviorPanel: Richard Epstein, law; Gary Becker, economics and sociology;Jon Elster, political science and philosophy; Marshall Sahlins, anthropologySwift Hall, Third Floor Lecture Hall, 1025-35 East 58th Street"Music: Theory and Practice"How theory and practice interact in the performance and study of musicPanel: Philip Gossett, opera; Ingrid Monson, jazz and cultural theory;Charles Rosen, classical instrumental musicGoodspeed Hall, 1010 East 59th StreetPersons with disabilities may request assistance in advancefrom Jennifer Shaw at (312) 702-3315. For more information call theOffice of Special Events at (312) 702-8370.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 5Continue living graciouslyat Casa Dorinda.It's little wonder Casa JhDorinda is rated one ofthe 15 best continuingcare communities in theU.S.*Formerly an elegant48-acre estate, CasaDorinda is in SantaBarbara's lovely suburb,Montecito. We offer anactive-as-you-wishlifestyle and full in-house medical care. Our staff-to-resident ratio is IV2to 1, assuring residents of total freedom from household obligations.The 239 apartments range fromstudios to large,two-bedroomunits. The common areas,including the dining room, library,game room andgrounds are reminiscent of thetasteful eleganceof another era.You'll be delightfullysurprised at the affordabilityof Casa Dorinda. For detailsand fee schedule, contact:Elizabeth Orsburn, CasaDorinda Admissions, 300- CHot Springs Road, Montecito,CA 93108. (805)969-8011.Retire Graciously \nPicturesque Santa Barbara'Choices For Living magazine, November 1992Accredited by the Continuing Care Commission • License #421700160 EventsExhibitionsRobin Winters, October 3-November 7. In addition to surveying this New York-based artist's portrait work from the past ten years, this exhibitionfeatures a new series of sculptures created for thesite. For the first three weeks of the exhibition,Winters will be in residency in the gallery, makingportraits and collaborative works with visitors, andconducting interviews and discussions. The Renaissance Society; call 702-8670.Art and Artisans in Ancient Egypt. The OrientalInstitute's new permanent exhibit focuses on thetools and techniques of ancient Egyptian artisans,and includes displays of both the artisans' tools andwork — drawings, paintings, stone carvings, and tileornamentations. Oriental Institute Museum; call702-9520.German Print Portfolio 1890-1930: Serials for aPrivate Sphere, through December 12. This exhibition examines the print portfolio's central role inGerman and Austrian graphics and how it developed in relation to the aesthetic, social, and politicalforces of the period. Other events organized in conjunction with the exhibit include a film and lectureseries. (See "Lectures" and "On the Quads," as wellas page 24.) Smart Museum; call 702-0200.The Tradition and Influence of the GermanWoodcut, through December 5. A complement tothe German Print Portfolio, this exhibition examines the history and development of the woodcut.Smart Museum of Art; call 702-0200.Will Cuppy: The Natural History of a ModemHumorist, November 17-January 24. As a columnist for the New Yorker and the Saturday EveningPost, Cuppy, PhB'07, AMT4, satirized evolutionarytheory and commented on the ironies of human history. Drawn from Cuppy's papers and the University Archives, this exhibition traces the writer'syears at the U of C; he authored several series,including The Decline and Fall of Practically Everybody. Department of Special Collections, RegensteinLibrary; call 702-8705.William Butler Yeats and Chicago, November8-january 10. This exhibition traces the Irish poetand dramatist's lecture tours in Chicago and hisconnections to Poetry, a Chicago magazine foundedby Harriet Monroe in 1912. Department of SpecialCollections, Regenstein Library; call 702-8705.Lothar Baumgarten: Carbon, November21-December 31. The German artist will show 50new photographs focusing on the territorial clashbetween Native Americans and the "Manifest Destiny" of the United States, as embodied in the continental expansion and entrenchment of the railroad.The Renaissance Society; call 702-8670.LecturesKultur/Kommerz/Kommunikation: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Austria and Germany, 1890-1950, Mondays at 5:30 p.m. through December 13.Held in conjunction with the Smart Museum'sGerman Print Portfolio exhibition, this lectureseries on German and Austrian art and politics features talks on the politics of abortion, Fritz Lang's1921 film, Destiny, and the role of broadsides in the6 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993public sphere. Cochrane-Woods Art Center, room157; call 702-0200.William H. Zachariasen Memorial Lecture,November 11 at 4:15 p.m. Mildred S. Dresselhaus,PhD'59, Institute professor of electrical engineeringand physics at M.I.T. Kersten Center; call 702-7006.The Works of the Mind Lectures, November 21and December 12 at 2 p.m. Ph.D. candidateStephanie Nelson will speak on "The Death ofLear," and Robert J. Richards, professor of history,philosophy, and psychology, will talk "On Darwin:The Origin of The Origin of Species," respectively.Judd Hall Auditorium; call 702-1722.The Kunstlump (Art Scab) Debate, November 21at 1 p.m. Court Theatre and the Smart Museum present a dramatic reading of letters, statements, andother writings generated by the 1919-20 debate overwhether art is a "holy relic" or a bourgeois luxury.Smart Museum; call 702-0200.TheaterThe Triumph of Love, through November 21.Written in 1732 by Pierre Marivaux, this complicated fairy tale combines a commedia dell' arte figurewith characters who explore real emotions insearch of love. This Chicago premiere is presentedin rotating repertory with Cloud 9. Court Theatre;call 753-4472.Off-Off-Campus: Fall Quarter Revue, October29-November 19 and December 4 at 9 p.m. Theseventh generation of University Theater's improv-isational group, begun by Second City's BernardSahlin, AB'43, performs original skits and improv.University Church, second-floor theater; call 702-3414.As You Like It, November 10-13 at 8 p.m. University Theater presents Shakespeare's romanticcomedy. Reynolds Club Third Floor Theater; call702-3414.To Be Young, Gifted, and Black, November 17-20at 8 p.m. Based on Lorraine Hansberry's writings,this UT production is a collage of her dreams, plays,journal entries, and correspondence, adapted byRobert Nemiroff. Reynolds Club First Floor Theater; call 702-3414.Cloud 9, through December 5. By placing one Victorian family in both the 19th and 20th centuriesand mixing ages and genders, Caryl Churchill'scomedy examines the sexual attitudes of a priggishand colonial society. In rotating repertory with TheTriumph of Love. Court Theatre; call 753-4472.Once Upon a Mattress, December 2-11 at 8 p.m.UT presents this musical comedy, in which aswamp princess and simple prince can't live "happily ever after" until they outmaneuver the prince'soverbearing, overprotective mother. Reynolds ClubThird Floor Theater; call 702-3414.ConferencesInaugural Symposia, October 20 at 2 p.m. and3:30 p.m. To celebrate the inauguration of HugoSonnenschein as the University's 11th president,several panel discussions will be held on topicsranging from "Liberal Education and the Advancement of Knowledge" to "The Evolution of the Physical Universe." Faculty participants includesociologist Donald Levine, astronomist Edward W.Kolb, economics Nobelist Gary Becker, and composer John Eaton; call 702-3315.Archaeology for the 1990s and Beyond, November 6. The Oriental Institute presents a day-longsymposium on the latest developments in NearEastern archaeology, featuring six Chicago scholarswho will speak on topics ranging from life on anexcavation to the use of computers and satellitetechnology in analyzing and preserving information from deteriorating sites. Mandel Hall; call 702-9507.MusicTafelmusik, November 12 at 8 p.m. Beginning theseason's Howard Mayer Brown International EarlyMusic Series, Jeanne Lamon directs this periodinstrument orchestra from Canada in a program ofPurcell, Bach, Telemann, Avison, and Vivaldi.Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.New Music Ensemble, November 14 at 8 p.m.Barbara Schubert conducts a concert of 20th-century works. Goodspeed Hall; call 702-8484.University Chamber Orchestra, November 20 at8 p.m. Guy Victor Bordo conducts a program ofMozart and Bach. Goodspeed Hall; call 702-8484.Ilya Kaler with Boris Slutsky, December 3 at 8p.m. As part of the Chamber Music Series, thisRussian duo, a violinist and a pianist, will perform aprogram of Schubert, Beethoven, Schnittke,Prokofiev, and Ravel. Mandel Hall; call 702-8484.University Symphony Orchestra, December 4 at8 p.m. Barbara Schubert conducts a program ofWagner, Mahler, and Shostakovich. Mandel Hall;call 702-8484.Advent Lessons and Carols, December 5 at 5p.m. Edward Funk conducts the University Chorusin a program of motets by Golovanov, Guerrero,and Sweelinck. Rockefeller Chapel; call 702-6063.The Pocket Opera Company, December 8-11The Contemporary Chamber Players introduce theU of C's professional chamber opera company inPeer Gynt and Lets Get This Show on the Road! (AnAlternative View of Genesis), two new operas by JohnEaton. Court Theatre; call 702-3427.Handel's Messiah, December 12 at 2 p.m. and 8p.m. This annual production features the Rockefeller Chapel Choir, the Motet Choir, soloists, andthe Symphony of the Shores. RockefellerCenter Stage Memorial Chapel; call 702-6063.On the Quads14th Annual Humanities Open House, October 30. This annual event includes a keynoteaddress by Shakespeare scholar David Bevington,tours of University exhibitions and museums, aperformance of and lecture on the works of Verdiand Rossini, open rehearsals at Court Theatre andUniversity Theater, and more than 30 Universityprofessors lecturing on topics from "Socrates andFreud: Talk and Truth" to "Magic at the Cradle:Babylonian and Assyrian Lullabies." Registrationat Reynolds Club; call 702-8469.New Public Spheres: Aesthetics and Activismin Early German Cinema, Wednesdays at 8 p.m.through December 8. Shown in conjunction withthe Smart Museum's German Print Portfolioexhibit, this Documentary Film Group (DOC)series explores issues of seriality in early Germancinema. Max Palevsky Cinema; call 702-8574.Oriental Institute Sunday Films and FamilyPrograms, Sundays at 2 p.m. Each half-hour filmis followed by a tour of the museum gallery. Forfamilies, the museum offers tours as well ashands-on activities for children. Call 702-9507.In the CityFirst Friday Lecture Series, first Friday of eachmonth at 12:15 p.m. Joseph Alulis, AB'71, AM'77,PhD'87, assistant professor at Lake Forest College, will speak in November on "When Law andRight Collide: Abraham Lincoln and the American Poltical Tradition." In December, Ph.D. candidate Debra Romanick talks "On JosephConrad's Under Western Eyes." Chicago CulturalCenter; call 702-1722.Court and Spark: Princess Leonide (Kate Collins) masquerades as a young man andplots to capture the heart of her family's enemy, Agis (Bruce Orendorf), in CourtTheatre's The Triumph of Love. Showing through the end of November, Triumph marksthe Chicago directorial debut of Court's new associate artistic director Charles Newelland will be presented in rotating repertory with Cloud 9.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 7R equired ReadingThinkingin MarketTermsBy Philippe DesanEverything in our physical andmental environments has avalue and a price. It's a way ofthinking that has roots in theRenaissance. More and more often, humanbeings fabricate their mentalworld through the medium ofan economic logic. How often,for example, do we refer to day-to-day"reality" in terms of exchange, commerce,profit, loss, or market? Everything in ourphysical and mental environments possesses a value and a price.Modern forms of entertainment also replicate the economic model that comes togovern our "free time." One can see this atwork in the daytime game shows that havefor a goal finding the "right price" of merchandise, or accumulating colored cards(upon which are printed prices) to beexchanged for prizes. The famous "Wheelof Fortune" — an image drawn directly fromthe iconography of the Middle Ages and theRenaissance — is recuperated as an economic symbol that has nothing to do withthe control of destiny (as it did in past centuries) but facilitates the "winning" of carsand televisions. In our age, the purchase ofa winning lottery ticket passes for theAmerican dream — that is to say, economicsecurity and therefore, implicitly, happi ness. The imagination has been reduced toa sum of money.The economic represents not only anempirical reality at the level of an individual, but is moreover the supreme sign of thegood health of a society or country. Theheroes who formerly won recognition onthe battlefield or in the domain of the artsor literature today establish themselves inthe stock markets. Glory, celebrity, and fortune now have but a single economic connotation.Hollywood is the indicator par excellenceof our society's extremes of imagination,where reality and imagination merge in afantasy that makes culture itself a valuablemerchandise — for the imagination yields agood return. Perhaps this is why it isdoubly correct to call it the economic imagination.In teaching French 348 "The EconomicImagination of the Renaissance," I want togo back in time to see how, and why, in theearly modern period — in this case, theRenaissance — the economic models wetake so much for granted emerged andflourished. Students will address the economic imagination of the Renaissance froma literary perspective but read primary literary texts in their socioeconomic context.The parallel between literature and theeconomy is not a new idea, preciselybecause there exists a noticeable connection between the two domains. What betterway to study the imagination of a certainculture at a certain time than to study a literary text, truly the imagination at work.While the Renaissance represents an agetypically defined as pre-economic, in thesense that the first modern economic theories took shape in the 17th century, there , aconvergence of language and the economicdiscourse in the Renaissance. Well beforethe theoretical contributions of Montchre-tien, Laffemas, or Colbert, the works of DuBellay, Ronsard, and Henri Estiennedemonstrate that mercantilistic thoughttranspired in the second half of the 16thcentury. In the works of these poets, thelanguage of the bourgeoisie, swollen withexpressions of trade and commerce, spillsinto the artistic domain and influences literary production.Renaissance society had a particular conception of work. In this age as today, workpermitted the evaluation of all production — mental as well as material — andbecame a dogma invoked to justify a remuneration or a profit. It is enough to considerthe place of work — in all the forms it cantake — in the literature of the Renaissance tosee to what extent the idea of labor itselfoccupied the mind. Work served as thekeystone to a bourgeois ideology that, as we8 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993will see in Calvin, Beza, and Du Bartas, ultimately confounded work and religion.The 16th century marked a decisive tumin the social organization of Europe. Thesocial and economic overlapped so severelythat they were soon inseparable. Never hadcivilization been more matirielle than in theRenaissance. Active participants in the economic life of their time, poets and writerswere not exempt from this societal vision.Like the merchants who ran from fair to fairwith their letters of change, the poetsmoved in the shadow of their patrons,always ready to offer them an occasionalpiece on demand, following the model of aproduction directly adapted to the market.The novelists and the poets participatedactively in the economic life of their time.Ronsard regarded his poetic production asmerchandise, seeing his profession as poetin strikingly materialistic terms. Poets,those children of the muses, even came toconsider themselves as real manual laborers. Du Bartas, for example, interests himself in divine work, struggling todemonstrate how the creation of the worldexpresses a "labor without labor." In DuBartas, as in Ronsard, one can do an archaeology of this fundamental obsession withthe cornerstone of modern ideology: work.With his own special irony, Rabelaisapproaches the "mystery of the economiclife" in the Renaissance. There is no question of moral stance, nor of normativeinstruction, nor a knowing critique of theeconomic phenomena shown in his novels,simply a comic, saucy — in short, Rabelaisian — investigation of the mechanisms ofloans, of exchange, and of commerce in itsrelationship with the social. Rabelais revealsthe secrets of the economy without seekingto explain them. Still, it is possible to readRabelais in terms of his economic preoccupation with exchange, commerce, loans,etc. Considering that Pantagruel, Gargantua,and Le Tiers Livre were written in Lyonsduring the golden age of Lyonnaise fairs, itbecomes indispensable to study them intheir social and economic context.Another great thinker of the Renaissance,Michel de Montaigne, makes exchange thebasis of his writing and approaches hisessays as a veritable account book in whichhe enters credits and debits in function ofhis perpetual "commerces" with others.Existence reduces itself to a series ofexchanges of which it is necessary to leavean account for posterity, the fiction of hisaccount book offering itself as an exem-plum for other "merchants" to come. Theentire form of the human condition is, forexample, found in Montaigne's Essais,which attempt to "take stock" of a life.When one studies the various compo nents comprising the double-entry bookkeeping methods of the early Renaissance,one comes to the realization that Montaigneconceives the writing of the Essais in a similar manner. The double-entry method is notsolely aimed at the merchant; its goal is alsoto organize thought according to a quantitative logic. As Montaigne's transactionsreflect a succession of operations, ratherthan a single exchange, each reading of theAncients results in a credit or debit situation for which he must then account.In general, the course's intention is not todemonstrate that the economy systematically organized the literature of the Renaissance, nor even to prove that the authorsstudied offer original reflections on the economic problems of their age. Nevertheless,it is clear that the economy held a noticeable influence on the poetic and novelisticimagination of the 16th century. Whether itis a matter of value, of exchange, of writingaccounts, of labor, of accumulation, or ofconsumption, we inevitably encounter theeconomic imagination.That there can be other equally importantaspects in Ronsard, Rabelais, and Montaigne is beyond denial. The economic isbut one imagination among others in theRenaissance, but it is an imagination essential to our understanding of the 16th century as much from a historical as a literarystance. It could, of course, be argued thatsuch an analysis of social and literary relations seen from an economic perspectivemerely replicates a present preoccupationand does not correspond to the reality ofthe Renaissance. In response, I would quoteLouis de Mayerne, a merchant who, almost400 years ago, wrote several treatises for theeducation of merchants. Mayerne sums upquite well the idea that Renaissance peoplehad about merchandise and commerce:The Prince with his subjects, theMaster with his servants, friends amongthemselves, the Captain with his soldiers, the husband with his wife,women among themselves: in one wordall the world scrambles in search ofmarkets. In fact, everything becomes acommerce and is subject to exchange, atall times and in all places. Not only thatwhich nature produces, such as fruits ofthe earth, animals and their hides,metals and similar things; but also thosewho make merchandise from the workof their own hands or from the labor ofsomeone else: those who sell words andtrade in human skin and blood. Thereeven exist merchants so clever that theyeven convince people to let themselvesbe sold to others. And we even haveseen recently some who have succeeded Worth ReadingThe reading list that PhilippeDesan, professor in Romancelanguagages and literatures masterof the Humanities Collegiate Division, has compiled for "The Economic Imagination of theRenaissance" emphasizes primarysources. Along with treatises on theeducation of merchants, accountingtechniques, fairs and markets regulation, students will read:Montaigne, Essays.Rabelais, Gargantua, Pantagruel, LeTiers Livre.Ronsard, selected poems.Du Bellay, Dejfense et Illustration dela langue francoyse.Du Bartas, La Sepmaine.In addition, Desan has assignedthe following secondary sources;Pierre Bourdieu, Language andSymbolic Power (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991).Fernand Braudel, Capitalism andMaterial Life, 1400-1800 (London:Fontana/Collins: 1974).Philippe Desan, Les Commerces deMontaigne (Paris: Nizet, 1992) andL'lmaginaire economique de la Renaissance (Paris: Editions InterUniversi-taires, 1993).Kurt Heinzelman, Tfte Economicsof Imagination (Amherst: Universityof Massachusetts Press, 1980).Donald N. McCloskey, If You're SoSmart: The Narrative of EconomicExpertise (Chicago: University ofChicago Press, 1990).Ferruccio Rossi-Landi, Language asWork and Trade: A Semiotic Homology for Linguistics and Economics(South Hadley: Bergin and Garvey,1983).Marc Shell, The Economy of Literature (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978).Immanuel Wallerstein, The ModemWorld-System, Capitalist Agricultureand the Origins of the EuropeanWorld-Economy in the Sixteenth Century (New York: Academic Press,1976).in transforming souls into merchandise.In sum, everything that comes in contactwith man, his hands, his discourse, hismind, is nothing hut merchandise.Literary imagination or economic reality?The interrelations are so complex that itbecomes difficult to separate them.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 9hkago JournalFOR THE RECORD Law School's dean tobecome U of C provostInternational leader:Ralph Nicholas is thenew head of International House. A memberof the University facultyfor some 20 years,Nicholas, AM'58,PhD'62, was dean of theCollege from 1987 to1992 and deputy provostfrom 1982 to 1987.International House,home to more than 500students each academicyear, provides lectures,cultural programs, andother opportunities tolearn about other countries. Built on the University's campus in 1 932,f-House is one of fivesuch residences in theworld. Nicholas succeedsC. Lester Stermer,AB'51 , who retired after12 years as the House'sexecutive director. G<:I eoffrey R. Stone, the dean| of the Law School and an' authority on civil rights andthe First Amendment, will becomethe University of Chicago'ssecond-ranking officer, effectiveJanuary 1.President Hugo Sonnenscheinmade the appointment in lateAugust. Earlier that month, otherchanges in the provost's officewent into effect with the hiring oftwo new associate provosts.As the chief academic officerafter the president, the provost isresponsible for academic appoint- Jments, programs, and budgetary %priorities. |Stone, JD'71, the Dean andHarry Kalven, Jr., professor in theLaw School, will succeed EdwardO. Laumann, who was appointedby former President Hanna H.Gray and who said at the time hewould serve during the transitionin administrations."As dean of the Law School,"said Sonnenschein, "Geof Stonehas maintained and strengthenedthe quality of the school's facultyand academic programs. He iscommitted to the importance ofteaching and to nurturing facultycollegiality and scholarship."Lee Bollinger — law school deanat the University of Michigan andprovost designate at Dartmouth —described Stone's appointment as"sensational," adding that "toserve for six years as dean of oneof the great law schools and tohave maintained universal respect Committed to scholarship: provost-designate Stone.and affection from his colleaguesis an enormous achievement."Stanford President GerhardCasper — a former U of C lawschool dean and provost — characterized Stone as "deeply committed to academic quality and theseriousness of the academicenterprise. His capacity to be analytically discriminating, to askquestions, and to get to the bottom of something, is immenselyimportant — particularly whenmaking academic appointments."He is also," Casper said, "verypersonable and very friendly."A native of New York, Stone is a1968 graduate of the Universityof Pennsylvania. He received hislaw degree in 1971 from Chicago,where he was editor-in-chief ofthe Law Review. In the early 1970s, he clerked for U.S. Courtof Appeals Judge J. Skelly Wrightand Supreme Court JusticeWilliam Brennan. Stone joinedthe University's faculty in 1973,and was namedlaw school deanin 1987.Co-author ofthe nation's leading constitutionallaw case book,Stone also editsthe Supreme CourtReview. He, wifeNancy, and theirdaughters, Julie,25, and Molly,14, live in HydePark.In announcingStone's appointment, Sonnenschein expressedhis gratitude toEd Laumann —the George Herbert Mead Distinguished Service Professor ofsociology and former dean of thesocial sciences division — for hisservice as interim provost "at atime when he was also completing two books and conducting amajor research project."Just prior to Stone's appointment came the announcement byLaumann of the appointments oftwo associate provosts: Gene F.Mazenko, professor in physicsand former director of the JamesFranck Institute, and PatriciaSwanson, assistant director of theScience Libraries.The appointments came withthe departure of deputy provostNancy Maull, who accepted thepost of administrative dean of thefaculty of arts and sciences at Har-1 0 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993vard University.As associate provost, Mazenko —who joined Chicago's faculty in1975 and directed the FranckInstitute from 1986 to 1992— will"expand the role he has playedeffectively during this past year asSpecial Assistant for Science,"said Laumann. In that capacity,Mazenko advised the provost'soffice on a range of science policymatters at the University.Mazenko's new duties willinclude advising on scienceappointments, overseeing theOffice of Research Administration, and serving as chair of theCouncil on Research and as theprovost's representative to theLibrary Board,Swanson, whom Laumann credited with playing "a critical role inthe move of the Crerar Library tothis campus," will coordinate thefaculty appointment and promotion process, along with a numberof oversight duties, including theSmart Museum. She will also co-chair the Personnel Review Committee with Arthur Sussman,general counsel and vice president for administration.Swanson joined the Library'sstaff in 1970, serving as actinghead of reference before herappointment as assistant directorfor library sciences in 1983.Maull's departure for Harvardcomes after eight years of University service — first as special assistant to the President, then as deanof students and, since 1989, asdeputy provost. Maull is also a Uof C alumna, with three degrees:AM'69, SM'73, and PhD'74. SaidLaumann, "The University hasbenefited in many, many waysfrom Nancy's wise, versatile, andstrong administrative leadership.We will miss her as a colleague,and a friend."Fund-raising highFund-raising progress forthe University totaled $97.5million — the highest total inthe institution's history — for fiscalyear 1992-3, surpassing last year'sfiscal record by 4 percent. TheCampaign for the Next Centurynow totals $295.4 million, or 59 1 WkL S « The Class of '979fr Mt-rP§^^Rr*e* Their high school rankGraduated in the..., ¦^VlJfc, $^ -.jM Top 5% 46%j ^Hb&«^bB% '¦& v^ra&a^H Top 10% 68%¦" 1 I HflliRii Top 15% 80%3 Top 20% 89%i5 Below 2C)0l i% 11%The basics High schc Where they're fromApplicants: 6,335 Parochial: 72 Midwest: 405Accepted: 2,994 Independent: 207 Mid-Atlantic: 180Enrolled: 900 Public: 621 West: 108New England: 72Demographics Their SAT scores South: 54Men: 513 1500 - 1600 2% Southwest: 45Women: 387 1400 - 1499 19%1300 - 1399 37% International: 36Black: 45 1200-1299 24% Financial AidHispanic: 36 1100-1999 9% 540 first-year students1000-1099 7% receive U of C scholarFigures provided byCollege Admissions Below 100C ) 2% ships: the average aidis $10,000.percent of its $500 million goal."This is the best year ever in funding for the University in new giftsand pledges," said Warren Heemann, vice president for Development & Alumni Relations."This year's figures hold a lot ofpromise for reaching our campaign goal. We're nearing the endof the second year of the campaign and it's progressing quitewell — a bit ahead of schedule."During the 1992-93 fiscal year,the University received 21 commitments of $1 million or more,totaling $35.3 million.The single largest commitmentduring the fiscal year was a $3.5million grant from the ShermanFairchild Foundation for the Bio-sciences Learning and ResearchComplex. Twelve of the commitments of $1 million or morecame from individuals — giftsfrom foundations made up theother nine.According to Heemann, increased volunteer efforts contributed to this year's fund-raising success.Through 1992-93, the SpecialGifts staff recruited more than 300chairpersons and volunteers for21 regional campaign committees,and nearly 50 additional volunteers for the 50th and 25th College reunion gift committees. Heemann also noted that arecord amount — $29 million —was received from foundationsthis year, surpassing last year'samount (the previous record) by6.6 percent.A new high was also reached forthe College Fund, which achieved40 percent alumni participationfor the first time in Universityhistory, with a record 11,889alumni contributing. Participationin the Graduate Fund by alumniwith advanced degrees rose to 31percent.More good news: a recordamount was raised in gifts to theParents Fund by parents of College students. More than 40 percent of the parents contactedmade gifts in 1992-93, and for thesecond year in a row, the ParentsFund totals grew by more than 18percent."In some ways, the second halfof the campaign will be more difficult than our first," cautionedHeemann. "But everyone — staffand volunteers alike — is greatlyencouraged by the intense interestshown by President Sonnenscheinin making the campaign a success.He is already making a number ofkey solicitations and has scheduled scores more for the next fewmonths."The five-year Campaign for the Cultural preservation:The U of C is collaborating with MOZHI, anIndian trust based inMandras, to preserveand maintain one of theworld's most importantcollections of books anditems related to Tamilculture. The librarybelonged to book-loverRoja Muthiah, who diedlast year. Its publications date from 1804,and contain strong holdings in literature, folklore, religious texts,women's studies, music,and cinema.Citation for citations:Collectively, chemistrypapers from the U of Cand Argonne NationalLaboratory — operatedby the University for theDOE — get cited morethan chemistry papersfrom any other institution in the world,according to ScienceWatch. Citations totaled11,414 from 1988 to1992 among the 393,898journal articles examined in the count. Separately, the U of Cranked fourth andArgonne fifteenth, withHarvard University firstat 8,465 citations.Over there: Sixteen University of Chicago students received awardsfor overseas study andresearch during the1993-94 academic year.Of those, 13 students —including two Collegestudents who graduatedin June — were awardedgrants through the Fulbright Graduate StudenlProgram. The programprovides fellowships fornearly 600 U.S. graduate students, young professionals, and artists tostudy and conductresearch in more than100 different countries.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 1 1The Campaign for the Next Century is helping to raise funds for — among other things — a proposed athletic complexPlaid comedy: UniversityTheater's improvisa-tional comedy troupe,Off-Off Campus,returned to Scotland thispast August to perform inEdinburgh's FestivalFringe. It was the group'sthird appearance at thefestival in six years.Development grant:Edwin Ferguson, assis-iant professor of molecular genetics & cellbiology, was named a1993 Pew Scholar in Biomedical Sciences. Thefour-year, $200,000awards go to promisingyoung researchers investigating basic and clinicalsciences relevant tohuman health. As adevelopmental geneticist,Ferguson studies molecules that govern how theembryo is formed duringthe earliest stages ofdevelopment.Cinema Latino: The U ofC hosted the ninthannual Chicago LatinoFilm Festival in earlyOctober. Films by Portuguese, Chilean,Venezuelan, and Argentine filmmakers wereshown during (he two-dav/estival, sponsoredby DOC Films, the FilmStudies Center, and theCenter for Latin American Studies. Next Century began its publicphase in October 1991 with $117million in nucleus-fund contributions. Through the campaign, theUniversity seeks to increaseendowment for faculty, students,and programs by almost one-quarter and to support several majorconstruction and renovation projects, including an athletics center,the Biosciences Learning andResearch Complex, the Downtown Center, and additions to theOriental Institute and the Laboratory Schools.GSB's SpanishacquisitionR [DING THE WAVE OF GLOBALbusiness, the GraduateSchool of Business hasestablished an international executive M.B.A. program, based inBarcelona.Classes, which are scheduled tobegin in July 1994, will be taughtin English by some of the samefaculty who teach on the Chicagocampus. The curriculum comprises a series of ten short learning"modules" convened over a timespan of less than two years. Theschedule is designed to allow business executives throughoutEurope to work full time andtravel to Spain by planes, trains, orautomobiles for stints of intensestudy.During the summer, two classmodules will each meet for twoweeks, while the rest of the yearmodules will run one week. Pilotenrollment will be capped at 80 executives, with students assignedto small study groups that arediverse in nationalities, industries,and job functions.Most executive M.B.A. programsin the U.S. have addressed theneed for an international perspective only limitedly, said GSB deanRobert Hamada. "Many programshave made changes that, in ouropinion, affect perception morethan substance, such as anoptional two-week trip overseas ora course on international business," he said."With this new program, wehave built a powerful internationalperspective into the executiveM.B.A. curriculum from theground up rather than attemptedto tack something on to existingcourses."Argentaria, a banking and financial services holding company inSpain, has donated a building inBarcelona where the GSB will holdclasses.The GSB will target the sametype of middle- and upper-levelbusiness executives for itsBarcelona school as it does for itsChicago-based executive M.B.A.program, which was the first of itskind in the United States. Theschool anticipates that Europeancompanies will nominate theirhigh-potential managers as students, Hamada said.During students' second summerin the international program, thecurriculum calls for an international rotation in which Europeanand Chicago executive programsare integrated. Each class willtravel to the other location for twoweeks of team case analysis, guest speakers, and company visits.Executive M.B.A. programs typically are geared toward businesspeople with extensive work experience, usually at least ten years.The courses of the Barcelona program will keep this perspective inmind, while placing greateremphasis on international business. Tuition will run about$40,000 per year.Digging inJANE BUIKSTRA, A PROFESSOR INthe department of anthropology and the biological sciences division and president of theCenter for American Archaeology,usually spends summers at the Uof C Archaeological Field School,teaching undergraduate and graduate students the methods ofarchaeological fieldwork andresearch.This summer, however, in addition to these tasks, Buikstra,AM'69, PhD'72, and her buddingarchaeologists built sandbaglevees to protect the buildings ofthe Field School from the swollenwaters of the Illinois River.Nestled in the tiny village ofKampsville, the Center for American Archaeology — which housesthe Field School during thesummer — is located in CalhounCounty, a peninsula between theMississippi and Illinois Rivers insouthwest Illinois.As a result of its watery borders,Calhoun County became virtuallyinaccessible during the floods thissummer, leaving the students and1 2 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993staff of the Field School relativelyisolated from the rest of the country. According to Buikstra, "normally, you can access CalhounCounty by four ferries, threeroads, and one bridge. For most ofthe flooding, we had only onenarrow road through the uplands."Rather than allowing the badconditions to spoil their summerexpeditions, though, the studentsand staff of the Field Schoolbanded together with some of theresidents of Kampsville to buildsandbag levees to protect thebuildings of the Center from flooddamage. Their work allowed theField School programs to continuepretty much as scheduled.Each summer, the Field Schooloffers five- and nine-week programs for undergraduates andgraduate students interested intaking classes on archaeology,excavating riverbed sites, andworking on independent analysesof their finds — culminating in afinal research paper.All these activities continuedthroughout the flooding, althoughthe students were forced to relocate to sites on higher groundwhen a levee on the Illinois Riverbroke in July, flooding theriverbed "Mound House" site.Buikstra reports that the flood ing of this particular site was atremendous loss given its potential to answer questions about thecontext of burial grounds from2,000 years ago."We were just down to a habitation level, and we had someceramics exposed when the leveebroke. Fortunately, all the mapping of the site was done, and thestudents were asked to do a further narrative of what they mightnot have put down in their notesalready."The exact damage to the sitecannot be determined until theeight feet of water covering itrecedes (as of mid-September thewater still had not drained). However, Buikstra explains, "The siteis sufficiently important that it ison the National Register of Historic Places, so there may be somespecial funding available so wecan go back once the water isgone and actually evaluate it — seewhat data we should collect beforewe actually fill it in."The loss of the Mound Housesite was not the only adversityfaced by the students and staff ofthe Field School. Under a "boilorder" for most of the summer,they relied on the Red Cross forfood and water supplies. To lessenthe strain, local community mem bers volunteered to cook forthem — preparing hams andturkeys and donating cakes andpies.According to Buikstra, struggling against the flooding IllinoisRiver became a communal experience with everyone in Kampsvillemonitoring the rising water."Each of us had our own littlebenchmark out there that wewatched the water come up on.Many of us were watching thesign for our museum until it wascovered. Some of the more religious folk around town werewatching it come up on a statue ofthe Virgin in front of theirchurch."When the levee built by studentsand staff to protect the school didfinally break on August 3, nearlyeveryone was safely out of rangeof the rushing waters. Buikstraremembers, "Happily, it was thetime of day when there were reallyjust two people in the flood zone,so no one was hurt."I have to emphasize that wewere very fortunate throughoutthe whole course of events thatnobody really suffered any majorillness or injury — because therewas the potential." — CM.Compiled hy Tim ObermillerUnderwater archeology: Students and staff of the University's Archeological Field School in Kampsvillerush to construct a sandbag levee, protecting the school from the rising waters of the Illinois River. "Trade you an AlanBlinder for a MiltonFriedman": The University 0/ Michigan at Flinthas produced a set oftrading cards called"Economics Greats. " Theset — naturally — containsseveral UofC economists (professors andformer students), including Nobelists GaryBecker, AM'53, PhD'55,(above) and Friedman,AM'33. Each card's backholds stats on the 29scholastic greats, including recommended readings. The Flintdepartment created thecards ($5 a set) to fund afield trip to the ChicagoFederal Reserve Bank.Bring home the gold:Dean Jens — a 17-year-old from Ankeny, Iowa,who entered the Collegethis fall — was the onlyAmerican awarded agold medal at the 24thannual InternationalPhysics Olympiad, heldthis past summer at theCollege of William andMary. More than 200students from 42 countries competed in a week-long program of physicstests and problem-solving. Extracurricularactivities included a visitto Busch Garden — whereparticipants used a rollercoaster to solve physicsquestions.Provident Hospital, at 500E. 51st St., reopened thissummer as a satellite toCook County HospitalMore than $55 millionwas spent to renovate thecounty hospital, closedsince 1987.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 1 3I nvestimtionsLife CyclesPsychiatrist Nada Stotlandtalks about what turnspremenstrual syndrome intodisabling depression.When Nada Stotland wants tomake a point, her favorite officechair kicks into high gear.Ensconced in a wood rocker that bears theU of C seal, the respected psychiatristmatches the flow of her arguments to therhythm of her rocking. The hotter thetopic, the more furious the meter.Stotland, an associate professor in psychiatry and obstetrics & gynecology, has hadplenty to rock about in her 20-some yearsas a women's health specialist. Althoughher primary research interest has alwaysbeen the link between mind and bodyduring pregnancy and childbirth (she wasonce vice president of a national Lamazeorganization), recently she has spoken outon a more volatile subject: the psychologyof the menstrual cycle.This past July, Stotland, SB'63, MD'67,found herself in the public eye whiledefending the American Psychiatric Association's decision to classify some of the moresevere symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) as signs of a mental illness —which it dubbed premenstrual dysphoricdisorder (PMDD).To be diagnosed with PMDD, a womanmust have symptoms that appear a weekbefore her period begins and which disappear within a few days of the period's start.These symptoms must "markedly interfere"with work, education, or social relationships — and include at least one of the following four symptoms: markedly depressedmood; marked anxiety or tension; "markedaffective liability" (sudden sadness, forexample); or "persistent and marked" irri-lability or anger.The role of spokeswoman, which foundStotland being interviewed for national and Nada Stotland: Why should women have to "hide" anger or sadness behind PMS?international media, was an ironic one forthe doctor. As head of the APA's women'scaucus and a member of the committeeconvened to study the classificationoptions, she had argued against formulatingPMDD on the grounds that "the jury is stillout" on whether PMS — let alone PMDD —exists.However, once the 36,000-member APAapproved the classification, she made peacewith the decision, concluding that it wouldat least draw physicians a universallyaccepted sketch of "premenstrual" conditions and promote more, much-neededresearch. And because the doctor had hadexperience working with the media and hadbeen a woman leader in the APA for years,she also agreed to explain the APA's classification to other medical professionals andfeminists angered by the move. TheNational Organization of Women, for ex ample, denounced the PMDD diagnosis,arguing that it pathologizes a natural, hormonal cycle and supports what normally isconsidered a circuitous-at-best link betweenhormones and mental illness."I do think that some of NOWs methodological, scientific and social questions arevery good," Stotland says. "But 1 don't agreewith the idea that PMDD is a major money-making scheme on the part of the APA."Also, as Stotland told the Wall Street four-nal, "PMDD isn't PMS but a disablingdepression." Its diagnosis is far from casual,she adds, and it requires two months ofdaily self-evaluation by the patient as wellas a professional psychiatric examination.Stotland agrees that no research has everunequivocably established "raging" levels ofprogesterone or estrogen as the cause of"premenstrual" characteristics such as irritability or depression. But while she doesn't1 4 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993doubt that a woman experiences real physical and emotional pain during her monthlycycle, she isn't convinced that such perceived patterns are anything more than psy-chosomatically induced.Why would a woman want to "make" herself have PMS? Because, Stotland reasons,the term "premenstrual" in everyday conversation now connotes a medical conditionbeyond a woman's control and because itgives a woman a socially acceptable explanation for feelings or behaviors that makeher uncomfortable. If a normally cheerfulworker suddenly snaps at her boss, forexample, PMS gives her the excuse to do sowithout much threat of reprisal."Not only do more people think they haveit than have it," she adds, "but they insistupon having it. They're determined to begiven that diagnosis."The APA's grasp on PMS has never beenauthoritative. In the 1987 edition of theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of MentalDisorders — the psychiatrists' bible, used byinsurance companies in determining claimscoverage and foundations for determiningresearch funds — "late luteal phase dysphoric disorder" is regarded as the precursor to PMDD. But it is listed under "MentalDisorders Not Otherwise Specified" andtucked into the appendix — signaling itsless-than-certain status.PMDD will appear in next year's updatededition of the manual, but its listing in themain text — under "Depressive DisordersNot Otherwise Specified" — continues tocloak the disorder in some ambiguity, calling PMDD a "proposed diagnostic categoryneeding further study." Criteria for PMDD,relegated to the appendix, must be "confirmed" by the patient's daily ratingsthrough two menstrual cycles.One problem in diagnosing PMS orPMDD is that current methodology can bebiased by a woman's psyche. Retrospectivemethods, in which researchers ask womenif they feel bad before their periods, bringforth a litany of generalizations — "I alwaysget so weepy" or "I'm never quite myself."Prospective methods, in which womenrecord daily their moods on a calendar, arean improvement, Stotland says, but still canbe skewed by women who look at the datesand expect to feel bad because that's theday they have always felt bad.Stotland believes that researchers studyingthe menstrual cycle should take a harderlook at the social science behind it. "Mildlyannoying," she says, are those biomedicalprofessionals who insist that factoring inthe social context or psychology of womensullies the "pure" science of their research."They don't understand what science is,"Stotland says. "Science is a product of soci ety. It's not an absolute thing. It doesn'tcome down from heaven. What we chooseto study in science and what we do with itcome from society."She argues that, to cut to the core ofwomen's pain, more time and research areneeded to determine what societal forcescause a woman to feel distressed and whysociety deems it wrong for her to expressthat anger, sadness, or anxiety — J.P.Catching Extra RaysEach springtime in Antarctica, theozone hole that has worried environmentalists and caused sensationalheadlines disappears. As the chemical cyclethat destroys ozone shuts off, warmer airfrom the north — containing normalamounts of ozone — blows over the continent. Gradually, levels of ozone return tonormal.But scientists have wondered exactlywhat happens to the ozone-depleted aircreated each winter. Does it disperseevenly throughout Antarctica's atmosphere? Or do pieces of the ozone-poor airbreak away and drift north, possibly passing over populated places, and eventuallygetting mixed into a larger portion of theair over the Southern Hemisphere.In a recent Journal of GeophysicalResearch, professor of geophysical sciencesJohn E. Frederick presented evidence that"blobs" of ozone-deficient air do drift farenough north to hit populated areas.During the summers of 1990 and 1992,doses of ultraviolet radiation as much as 45percent higher than normal were recordedin Ushuaia, a mountain resort town in southernmost Argentina (about 650 milesnorth of Antarctica).Finding proof of this increase, however,was no easy task. To interpret the ultraviolet radiation measurements, Frederick firstneeded to construct a climatology ofUshuaia and its environs — so he wouldhave a baseline against which he couldcompare his measurements. UV radiation,contrary to popular expectations, is notfixed: it can vary naturally from 10 to 20percent yearly. In addition, cloud cover canaffect how much UV light an area receives.Once he established a baseline, Fredericknoticed two things. First, until 1987, ozonelevels were relatively systematic, showing agradual decrease over the years. But, after1987 — when the ozone level over Antarctica dropped by more than two-thirds —ozone measurements over Ushuaia becameless regular — almost erratic."What I think you're seeing here is thatone year, ozone-depleted air from Antarctica decides to move over Ushuaia, and thenext year it doesn't," says Frederick. Thevariation, he believes, is proof that pieces ofair from Antarctica remain ozone-deficientlong enough to move over human habitats.Eventually, he says, these blobs will diffusethroughout the atmosphere — like a drop ofred dye dissipating in a glass of water — creating the overall small decrease in ozonelevels noted in years when the "blobs" donot move directly over Ushuaia.But Frederick is quick to point out thathis findings say nothing about whethereither the gradual annual decreases or thesporadic, drastic ozone changes affect thepeople, plants, or animals of the region.Since he hasn't observed any effects, he'sskeptical of some environmentalists' claimFrederick used ozone-measuring balloons — like this one in Antarctica — to collect data.University- of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 15Lost and found: Records from an Oriental Institute dig at Medinet Habu, site of the Great Temple of Ramses HI (above), have resurfaced.that the planet is "on the brink of destruction" — he notes a lack of concrete findingsdetailing what the increased dosage of ultraviolet radiation means for life on earth.Part of the problem is that most experiments seeking to gauge that effect havebeen done in laboratories, using specialultraviolet lamps. Those lamps, says Frederick, are "lousy" simulators of energy emitted by the sun. "The wavelengths that comeout of those lamps can be very differentfrom what we get — or are likely to get — inthe real world." That makes it difficult,Frederick and biologists agree, to extrapolate lab results to actual conditions.Still, Frederick has found some satisfaction along with the frustration. His datafrom Ushuaia have given biologists a real-world example of increases in ultravioletradiation, a place where they can study thelight's effects on life forms without worrying about faulty lab conditions. Now hehopes to bring his findings to the attentionof photobiologists — researchers who examine exactly how energy such as UV radiation affects living things. "I'm essentiallytelling them, 'Here is a well-documentedchange in ultraviolet radiation. Now tell mewhat it means."'But Frederick won't simply be waiting tofind out how ultraviolet radiation affects lifein Ushuaia. He's ahead)' at work on plans totrack the ozone-poor blobs as they continuetheir journey north. To help him in thetask, the Argentine government will establish three additional research sites at the same longitude as Ushuaia, but morenortherly latitudes. From his work at thosesites, Frederick hopes eventually to determine where the blobs finally dispersethrough the atmosphere, becoming indistinguishable from normal air. — J.H.For the RecordAnyone who has ever cleaned houseand exclaimed "So that's where itwas!" at a rediscovered stray sockor wayward knick-knack should be buoyedby news from German officials whounearthed a cache of weathered notebooks:Oriental Institute field records which hadbeen presumed "lost" for more than 50years.The fortuitousness of the find is almostovershadowed by the history it represents.The recovered documents chronicle thelargest expedition the Institute ever conducted in Egypt — at the sacred site ofMedinet Habu on the west bank of the NileRiver (not far from the Institute's outpostat Luxor).Although artifacts from the dig, whichoccurred from 1926 to 1932, were dividedbetween the Oriental Institute and theCairo Museum, German researchers work-Found in the 1931-32 season, this glazedtile, part of a repeating frieze, is from thedoorway of the palace of Ramses III. Nowthere are documents to go with it. ing for the University at the time took therecords to Berlin to study, with plans foreventual publication. The outbreak ofWorld War II foiled those intentions — andthe documentation and study notes werereportedly destroyed during the wartimebombing of Berlin. It wasn't until after thecity's reunification in 1990 that the Germangovernment located the records and offeredthem to the Institute."Having the field records is of supremeimportance," explains William Sumner,director of the Oriental Institute, "becausethey tell us the context in which the artifacts were found. We know from the field1 6 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993records, for instance, in which strata artifacts were found."We know which artifacts were foundtogether," Sumner adds, "and what theirrelationship was. We now know what kindof building they were found in — whetherit was a temple, a home, or a workshop."Led by Uvo Holscher, University teamsexcavated more than 5,000 artifacts atMedinet Habu. Among the excavatedobjects at the Oriental Institute (approximately half of the finds are now inChicago) are statues, figurines, glazedplaques, jewelry, tools, weapons, offeringtables, and pottery.Medinet Habu was occupied from about1500 B.C. to 800 A.D., Egyptologists speculate. A complex of ancient Egyptian temples, it includes the mortuary temples ofkings Aye (1325 B.C. to 1321 B.C.) andHoremheb (1321 B.C. to 1293 B.C.), whosucceeded Tutankhanmun, and of RamsesIII (1182 B.C. to 1151 B.C.).The Ramses mortuary temple, among thelargest and best-preserved in Egypt, is aseries of columned courts and chamberssurrounded by a 60-foot mud brick wallthat at one point sheltered commonersseeking safety from invaders. The temple'ssouth exterior also boasts the longest hieroglyphic inscription in Egypt (the U of CEpigraphic Survey published a transcription — a calendar of religious and cult practices^ — in 1934).The reappearance of the Medinet Habupapers will help Egyptologists advancetheir knowledge in fields as diverse asancient religious practices, folk art, and theeveryday lives of the common people. "Forexample, we now have information aboutthe relative depth of the bronze statueswhich were found in the so-called OsirisGrave — a pit filled with statues of theOsiris, the major god of afterlife," saysEgyptologist Emily Teeter. As assistantcurator at the Oriental Institute Museum,Teeter traveled to Berlin in late summer tocollect the "missing" documents ."This may allow us to determine if thestatues were deposited at one time, or overa long period of time," she says. "This sortof information will give us a better idea ofthe cult practices at Medinet Habu."So much of what we know about theancient Egyptians," she says, "is related tocourt life. By determining which objectscame from commoners' homes, we gainwhole new insights into the Egyptian wayof life."And Teeter admits — paging through oneof the old ledger books with its penciledsketches and annotations — there's also thesimple, scholarly excitement at theprospect of a "paper excavation." Political scientist DawsonCitationsPolitics of Poverty. In 1989, Michael Dawson, associate professor of political science, and Yale researcher Cathy Cohen interviewed 916 people, including 448African Americans, in the Detroit area, looking for relationships between poverty andpolitical involvement. Their conclusion, published in the June American Political ScienceReview, is that African Americans who live in the poorest urban neighborhoods — thosein which 30 percent of the households are below the poverty line — are politically as wellas socially isolated.Social and political isolation seem to go hand inhand, the researchers found — with the formerbreeding the latter. Giving money to politicalcauses, attending political meetings, talking politics,or even hoping for community change all are activities that African Americans in poor neighborhoodsroutinely eschew.Organizations — churches, for example — whichtraditionally provide what Dawson calls the "institutional backbone" for politics in African-Americancommunities, are being forced out of needy neighborhoods by their own economic woes. As a result,Dawson says, "The institutional infrastructure ismissing. It's much harder for residents of theseneighborhoods to influence the officials and networks necessary to get a response." And, he notes, since poor neighborhoods are oftenpart of larger, more affluent districts, the elected officials may be miles geographicallyand light-years socioeconomically from the constituencies they claim to represent.But political estrangement is everyone's problem, Dawson argues. "Morally, it hurts thecharacter of a democratic nation when people who reside within that nation cannot participate and are prevented from participating in the political and economic mainstream.There has been a breakdown of democracy."Nuts Up? Three University physicists have answered that confounding question,"Why, when you shake a can of mixed nuts, do the Brazil nuts go to the top?" Theiranswer is convection. By shaking their own can of "nuts" — a 35-mm wide cylinder filledwith glass beads of different sizes — graduate student James Knight and professors Hein-rich Jaeger and Sidney Nagel have found that the agitation creates a symmetric, flowingpattern, carrying the beads up through the cylinder's center and back down again alongthe side. While the upward stream's flow accommodates the larger beads, once at thetop, the larger beads can't fit into the narrower, downward path. The convection itself,the scientists speculate, is caused by friction between the beads and the container wall.The discovery could benefit the pharmaceutical, construction, and agricultural industries, which rely on keeping different-sized particles uniformly mixed.Grand Old Rag. Meriting mention everywhere from the New York Times to the"Tonight Show," the identification of the world's earliest known piece of cloth wasthe talk of the town this past summer. Robert Braidwood, PhD43, professor emeritus atthe Oriental Institute, and his wife, Linda Braidwood, AM'46, an Institute research associate, helped discover and identify the swatch of white cloth (slightly smaller than a business card) which radiocarbon dating found to be about 9,000 years old — 1,000 yearsolder than any textile previously unearthed. The scrap was found clinging to the handleof a tool-like object excavated at Cayonu, in southeastern Turkey.Body Heat. Animal physiologist Barbara Block has concluded that some 25 species ofwarm-blooded, or endothermic, fish keep their eyes, brains, or entire bodies warmso that they can swim into colder parts of the ocean where new food sources can befound (see Magazine, August/91). Block's "niche expansion" explanation for why somefish can regulate their body temperatures stems from using a computer program to scrutinize the DNA and the evolutionary relationships among endothermic species of fish,such as tuna, butterfly mackerel, and swordfish. In drawing new diagrams of their evolutionary trees, Block discovered that — instead of inheriting endothermic ability from acommon ancestor — the fish emerged at three different evolutionary junctions.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 1 7PRESENTat theCREATIONThe University's Law School finds thatframing democratic constitutions inpost-Communist nations is an exercise inpatience— for both the creatorsand those looking on.Two years after East Germany idled its production, the Trabant liveson in scattered sightings throughout Central and Eastern Europe.While thousands of the mostly fiberglass carcasses of the tiny,exhaust-belching automobile — once the only car to be had in EastGermany — litter the countryside, a tenacious few can still be foundwheezing through the streets of the liberated Soviet bloc, tarnishedsymbols of Communism's obsolescence.Now imagine a Trabant rolling down a hill. Unable to stop the momentum but desperate to control it, bewildered mechanics feverishly try changing the low-grade partsin hopes of transforming the two-cylinder contraption into a venerable Mercedes.Stephen Holmes, a professor in political science and the Law School, uses thismetaphor of the scrappy car to describe the process of drafting constitutions in thecountries once veiled by the Iron Curtain. The constitutions are the paper versions ofTrabants, the provisions are the hodgepodge of parts, and the flustered Central andEast European politicians and government officials are the mechanics charged with theduty of running alongside to avert disaster. Instead of racing toward a finish thatrewards hard work and perseverance, however, East Europeans are finding the realityof creating constitutions to be far more circuitous and far less noble than they hadexpected — wavering somewhere between the realms of necessity and absurdity.BYJACLYN H. PARKILLUSTRATIONS BY STEVE McCRACKEN1 8 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993//s*>*"^University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 1 9Complicating the effort is the unprecedented demand that most Central and EastEuropean countries pen new constitutionswhile simultaneously moving from autocracy to democracy and from command toprivatized markets. Those drafting constitutions find themselves saddled with an endless stream of urgent decisions, rangingfrom choosing a form of popular representation to providing stable currency. Meanwhile, political instability has made thedrafters in several countries feel their ownmortality — those in charge today may begone tomorrow.Stephen Holmes is part of acadre of University scholars fascinated by this process — wartsand all — of distilling a higherlaw, one that cannot bechanged by the ordinary lawmaking procedures of a popularly elected congress orparliament. With Communism's collapse inlate 1989, this desire to view constitutionalhistory in the making motivated Holmes,along with political science/philosophy pro-lessor Jon Elstcr and law/political scienceprolcssor Cass Sunstcin, to found theCenter for the Study of Constitutionalismin Eastern Europe, under the auspices ofthe U of C's Law School. Although Holmes,Elster, and Sunstcin had been discussingthe idea of a center for several months, itsgenesis came in a split-second decision.Elster and then University provost Gerhard Casper were attending a series ofEuropean conferences in 1990 when theymet Wictor Osiatynski of Poland andAndras Sajo of Hungary, both highlyregarded legal scholars. "Casper and 1decided right then and there," Elster recallsof the chance encounter, "to commissionthem to write papers for a center that hadnot yet formally been created."From this prophetic beginning, theCenter has thrived in a similar, catch-as-catch-can vein. Despite chaotic events inEurope and staggering paperwork on theU.S. end of operations — which are run froman overflowing' office in the D'Angelo LawLibrary — the U of C project has establisheditself as an authority on the constitution-making process throughout Europe:employing local correspondents in the 15nations it now covers, building extensivearchives of documents and audio and videotapes, holding conferences both in Europeand Chicago, publishing the quarterly EastEuropean Constitutional Review, and planning a book scries of essays on topicsrelated to constitutionalism.The Center's work is funded in large partby the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthurFoundation, which has provided $300,000 over three years, and by the Ford Foundation, which gave $50,000 in seed moneyand recently upped its contribution to morethan $100,000 because of the Review's success. In addition, the Soros Foundationcontributes $150,000 a year which theCenter must spend in Eastern Europe. Created by Hungarian-born currency speculator George Soros, the foundation supportsthe Center as an affiliation of the CentralEuropean University, which Soros alsofounded from ground zero in 1990. Inreturn for Soros' support, the Law Schoolregularly sends faculty to the CEU. Professors Holmes and Lawrence Lessig, forexample, have spent summers teachingconstitutional law at the campus inBudapest.Ethan Klingsberg, director for the SorosFoundation's Institute of Constitutional andLegislative Policy — what he calls the"activist cousin of the Chicago center" —says the institute works with Central European officials on drafts of laws and educational seminars, but relies on materials from the Chicago center and the Review todo that work as well as to feed its scholars."Just putting out a journal on constitutional processes," Klingsberg says, "serves aneglected community."It's a service that requires a lot of legwork.Dwight Semler, AM'87, a Ph.D. candidate inpolitical science, navigates the Center'slogistical labyrinth as its executive directorand chief administrator. His job is to keepthe Center's loose network of 15 to 20 correspondents and other European employees(the Center operates a small office of four inMoscow) paid and happy, and to answer tothe University comptroller when the onlyreceipts the Center can produce are inCyrillic. Semler estimates that the studyproject costs about $300,000 a year, withhis monthly phone bills alone regularly topping $2,000 and monthly subscriptions toEuropean periodicals hovering near $3,000.Correspondents receive roughly $500 foreach quarterly report they submit to theCenter. Making the job even more attractive, the Law School provides computers20 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993and the chance to travel regularly to western Europe and the United States for conferences on constitutionalism — bothinducements to scholars in economicallyravaged countries.Even though the Center scored a coup bysigning up Wictor Osiatynski and AndrasSajo as correspondents, professors Holmesand Elster discovered that locating one ortwo observers to report from other countries would be far from easy. The two mentraveled throughout Eastern Europe severaltimes in late 1990 and early 1991, reviewing writing samples and interviewing andcourting candidates. Although candidateshad to have a thorough knowledge of law and/or current events in theregion, be proficient inEnglish, and be "pure" ofan apparatchik past, theprofessors found they hadto adjust their standards to take into account eachcountry's culture."If you can't work withformer Communist partymembers," Semler pointsout, "you can't work withanybody in Russia."The correspondents'reports, along with anysupporting documentation,are used as the basis for thecountry- by- countryupdates on constitution-making progress publishedin the quarterly Review.Each issue of the Reviewalso focuses on a singletopic that concerns thecountries in transition: forexample, separation ofpowers', human rights; orlustration — the opening ofsecret government files.Now available in Russian aswell as English, the scholarly journal already hasbecome somewhat of afeather in the Center's cap,according to Semler, withCentral and East Europeanpolicy-makers and aninternational audience ofacademics relying on itsscope and analysis of events."You can go into parliaments all overEastern Europe and find the Review on thetable," reports Semler, who speaks fromexperience — he estimates that he's loggedsome 100,000-plus frequent-flyer miles ontrips to and around the area.As the Center for the Study of Constitutionalism has grown from studying seven countries (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary, Albania, Bulgaria andYugoslavia) to more than double thatnumber with the breakup of the SovietUnion, it concurrently has cultivated crossing boundaries between academic disciplines."The Law School has long had a traditionof having important roots in interdisciplinary work," says dean Geoffrey Stone,JD'71, who gave the Center the green lightand secured its initial fundings. "Law andeconomics is the most visible example, butlegal history is another. It would be veryunnatural for most other law schools tohave a center that came from two people inpolitical science — Holmes and Elster — butat Chicago that was quite natural."While the Law School and political science department already have made a marriage of it, the Center also hopes to bringthe history and Slavic departments into thefold once events in Eastern Europe stabilize, says Elster."The Center has to be an interdisciplinaryproject," Holmes agrees. "Post-Communism is a terrain, not a discipline. It's neverbeen studied before because it never existedbefore. There is no intellectual frameworkthat is adequate to it."The area-studies people who were studying this part of the world had little or nocompetence in markets, Western legal systems, or reform of bureaucracy. And peoplewho studied those things never studied thispart of the world. Therefore, we need talents, insights, and intellectual techniquesfrom all disciplines to tackle this."The Center takes a decidedlyhands-off approach to draftingconstitutions or critiquing legislation for East Europeancountries. When pressed, itsleaders reluctantly will play advisory roles,but the Center collectively tries not to promote this function as a primary objective.Impartiality not only divorces the Centerfrom identification with any one party orformula for constitutional processes, but italso protects the Center's credibility."Our philosophy is that before you help acountry," Holmes says, "you should knowwhat's happening in the country — knowwhat's at stake, what are the problems, whythe debate is occurring in one way ratherthan another."By letting East European countries knowthat, in a sense, they're being watched byWestern observers and scholars, it actuallyaffects in a good way what's happening intheir countries. They want to be watchedbecause it's useful for them in pushing theirreactionary forces down the road a bit." The spectators, besides Chicago, includethe American Bar Association. In 1989, theABA launched its Central and East European Law Initiative, which actually has ABAattorneys reading, commenting, and advising on drafts of laws and advocating anongoing relationship approach to aid. Twoother well-known institutions, the Berkeley-Stanford Program in Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies and the Harrirnan Institute atColumbia University, both maintain officesor affiliates in Eastern Europe as well. Theirmain objective, however, is to train American scholars interested in researching andteaching on Eastern Europe.The ABA's Central and East EuropeanLaw Initiative sees itself as being a "guide-post" for countries drafting constitutions,says its executive director Mark Ellis. Itshands-on aid includes sponsoring technicalassistance workshops where both Americanand West European lawyers study and discuss drafts of constitutions — often two orthree times a year as drafts are revised.Another program places resident liaisons,American legal specialists who live in a hostcountry for up to a year and serve as advisers on a gamut of Initiative projects."We don't send anybody over there unlesswe're invited," Ellis emphasizes. "This hasbeen a request-driven program from thestart, and so there has been an eagerness inthe countries we have been working in forassistance."Although some critics perceive this assi-tance as amounting to American imperialism, Ellis insists that the experience U.S.lawyers can share on such issues as an independent judiciary or minority rights is quitewelcome — especially at a time when manyEast European nations view creating substantive, enforceable constitutions as anadmission ticket into the inner circle ofdeveloped nations.Unfortunately, these newly liberated stateshave discovered, a constitution, by itself, inno way guarantees entry. Eastern Europeand the former Soviet republics haveemerged dazed and disheveled from a 40-year miasma — only to face the specters ofailing economies, age-old ethnic tensions,and the crippling social fallout of Communism. These crises demand governmentaltriage, and the juggling of priorities formsthe backdrop against which constitutionsare being formulated and academics aretaking notes."It's difficult to overestimate the degree towhich our vision of political processes andpolitical change was shaped by the ColdWar — the division of the world into Eastand West, the battle of Communism," saysStephen Holmes. "So naturally, as thisenmity of East and West collapsed, theUniversity of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 2 1premises, the presuppositions, and theframework within the social sciences alsowere radically challenged."Therefore, it's natural for social scientiststo be attracted to this region, which is theepicenter for rapid changes that affect us all."Although Jon Elster has studiedwaves of constitution-makingaround the world — beginningin the late 18th century withthe United States and France,and continuing up through the 1970s whendictatorships fell in southern Europe — hesays that the curl engulfing Eastern Europetoday is unprecedented because of its three-pronged charge. Unlike the pressed andpowdered, single-minded drafters of theU.S. document, for example, the haggardlawmakers of Eastern Europe are grapplingwith the need to transform at once from acommand economy to a market economy,from an autocracy to a democracy, andfrom chaos to constitutionalism.What link the processes of 1993 to 1787,however, are the motivations that emerge.Elster enumerates three driving forces inconstitution making — interest, reason, andpassion — which reverberate as true today inthe halls of the Polish Sejm as they did backin Independence Hall in 1787. Interest isseen in the political parties and lobbyinggroups who scramble to leave some indelible mark on the new constitutions. Reason,on the other hand, has been manifested ininstitutions such as the constitutionalcourts and central banks, created in impartial consideration of the long-term,common good."The worst thing is probably passion,"states Elster, who groups seething desiresfor retribution and restitution, ethnichatred, and envy of wealth under this category. "Backward-looking issues like retribution and restitution will be there for a verylong time. Perhaps clever politicians will beable to contain these passions, but they areunbelievably strong — and easy to understand, especially when you see the formeroppressors in some countries becoming thenew rich."The success of establishing any constitution, academics agree, rides on the shoulders of a constitutional culture, in whichpeople accept the document as a higher lawand refrain from transforming every political battle into a constitutional contest.While East Europeans are trying on thiskind of culture for size, it takes time to fitafter decades of mismanagement, Holmeswarns.'When you have a constitutional culture,people have pious feelings and reverencetoward constitutional rules," he explains. "The fact is that the rules under whichpeople are operating now are ad-hoc compromises created under conditions that havenow disappeared. Therefore, it's completelyunreasonable to expect them to be retained."Wictor Osiatynski, now a co-director ofthe Chicago Center and a former adviser tothe Constitutional Commission of the democracy should operate — and, in fact,does so in the United States through amendments to the Constitution. While somefixed, absolute rules regarding property orcivil rights may be installed in EasternEurope so that people can learn to liveunder these laws and avoid complete anarchy, a freedom develops from continuouslyeason, interest, and passion reverberate as truetoday in the Polish Sejm as they did back inIndependence Hall in 1787.Polish senate, coined a game metaphor toillustrate how key players in the East European power plays create consititutionalguidelines while having a vested interest inthe game's outcome. Because the rules willdetermine these leaders' own roles in thefuture power structure, he observes, self-interest motivates them to create draftingprocedures and actual constitutions thatgive them elevated status or preserve thestaus quo.Yet Lawrence Lessig, an assistant professor at the Law School who specializes inseparation of powers, defends such askewed game theory as the heart of how shaping the other rules, he argues. "Youplay the game a little bit, you see who's getting hurt, you see who's getting helped, andwhether you can justify it all."0 ne tendency of the newly liberated East European states is toweigh down their constitutional drafts with a menagerieof do's and don'ts. Law/politicalscience professor Cass Sunstein, also a co-director of the Chicago Center, staunchlyopposes cluttering constitutions, or "over-constitutionalizing." He points out that theCommunism-inspired predecessors of East11 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993European constitutions often articulated alitany of "positive" social and economicrights, as well as duties, for their citizens,only to turn the value of those stipulations — such as the right to work and theright to leisure — into little more than inkon paper.Instead of learning from these vacuouspromises, several consti-¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦ tutions today have settheir sights even higher,and guarantee entitlements they are in noposition to deliver. Forexample, Semler says, the Czech, Slovak,Romanian, Bulgarian,and Hungarian final constitutions all committhemselves to an "excessive" stream of positiverights, such as fair housing, old-age pensions,and, in some cases, eventhe right to a healthyenvironment. TheLithuanian document,moreover, protects theright to an "adequate"living standard and thegeneral right to "adequate payment.""Generally, the moreabsurd or harmful rightsyou put in the constitution, the more you riskdevaluing truly important rights like freedomof speech," Elster adds."If people observe thatsome constitutionalrights are not respected,then they may not takeseriously the violation ofthe political rights. Thebad rights drive out thegood ones."Poland's Osiatynskiviews his nation's enumeration of social and economic rights asyet another compromise made on the longroad to forging a constitution. The country's new Bill of Rights divides social andeconomic rights into two categories: thosethat can and should be enforced regardlessof economic conditions (the rights to education, freedom of employment, safe working conditions, basic medical care, andsocial security), and those that providebenefits but are not offered judicial protection (aid to families, advanced healthcare, and the protection of the environment). This separation, the Polish scholarsays, provides a sobering recognition of'X the nation's limited resources.Not nearly so receptive to compromise —and further hamstringing the constitution-drafting process — is the thorny issue oflustration, or the opening of secret state andpolice files. Lustration among most Centraland East Europeans who support the tacticnot only aims to punish former members ofthe fallen governments for past crimesagainst the public, but also to compensateindividuals for any opportunity lost orharm incurred under a police state.Opponents of lustration argue that itechoes with the hollow satisfaction of doingwhat is right if not what is good. It's likeopening a Pandora's box, says Osiatynski,who claims that the only reason lustrationworked at all in post- World War II Germany is that the occupying Western forcesacted as judge and jury. Who, he asksrhetorically, will be the judge in Poland,where the courts are weak and the KGBfiles are distorted?"This is a problem without a good solution," the Polish legal scholar sighs.From Elster, the advice is simple: "Burnthe records. Burn the property records andburn the archives of the secret police. Startall over." While this option, advocated inthe Czech Republic by President VaclavHavel, may seem grossly simplistic, it doescircumvent the danger of becoming miredin the past. In addition, Elster claims, therisk that "the tyranny of the majority" mayprompt a witch hunt of collective guilt orguilt by association outweighs any benefitsof retribution and restitution.Whichever stand governments choose totake on lustration or individual rights, theybear the burden of creating democraciesable to separate powers so as not to repeatautocracy — yet still able to produce an efficient government. As a result, says law professor Lessig, the question of separation ofpowers is especially dear to East Europeans,who, when offered a spectrum of choicesfor structuring their governments, arealmost overwhelmed by their options.East Europeans fear a powerful executive,Lessig observes, but they also don't quitetrust democracy 100 percent. Such giddytension, while manageable in a nation witha history of separation of powers, stallsnations unfamiliar with this concept or withchecks and balances.Even the parliamentary structure, theubiquitous choice for governmentsthroughout most of Western Europe, mustvault major hurdles in the East — mainlybecause voters in many states feel alienatedfrom their parliaments after years of goingunheard or ignored. As Holmes observes:"The sense that parliaments are corrupt,that they are full of absenteeism, that the elected representatives don't really represent anybody, is strong."Nevertheless, conclude Holmes and his Uof C peers, the constitution-makingprogress in Europe has been surprisinglysuccessful so far, if not impressively swift."Except for Yugoslavia and some places inthe former Soviet Union, we have seen theremarkable fact of massive social changewithout violence," Holmes says. "Nobodywas sure that that could happen, but it has."For its part, the Center for theStudy of Constitutionalism inEastern Europe has proven thatspeed and flexibility rankamong its greatest achievements. "Normally, if you think about starting some major center like this," says GeofStone, "you would spend two years thinking it all out and trying to map out exactlywhat it would do and how it would be organized. Then you'd submit all these grantproposals, and refine the idea, and so on."Here, because of the fact that events werehappening, it had to begin with very littlesense of exactly what would happen. Thatfeel, for better or for worse, has continued."The Center does operate on the assumption that if it exists indefinitely, seat-of-the-pants or otherwise, it won't have achievedits goal of chronicling the stages of a finiteset of decisions. And while the Center'sconstitutional archives may be forever, mostof the Chicago forefathers agree that by1997 or 1998, real decisions must be maderegarding if or when to shutter the shop."In theory, the Center is designed to studya transitional process," says Stone, who willleave the Law School in January to becomeUniversity provost. "Hopefully, in the realworld, the process will not be a permanentstate of affairs."Eastern Europe's inablity to spend its ownprecious time or resources in setting uparchives has been remedied with a deluge ofhelp from abroad. In contrast, a lack of contemporary documents, news articles, ordrafts forces Americans to speculate on theoriginal intent of the Constitution's framers."Because of what we're doing, if 200 yearsfrom now someone wants to know aboutthe original intent of the framers of the Bulgarian constitution, they could find it here,"says Stone. "They won't find it in Bulgaria."Moreover, Stone adds, if Poland ends upwith a different constitutional system fromUkraine's, the Center's files should tell aninquisitive historian whether the aberrationis random or a reflection of personality."It's like having 15 kids all born on thesame day," Stone muses, "and being able tostudy them over the course of time to try tofigure out what makes them different."University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 23i JJxaminmg the < lashbetween dcsij'f and socialconvention in fcitc J 9th-ccnfniy European society.Max Winger's Eine Liebe(Opus X) brains ivitJiEine Bewcgungcn (FirstEncounier). us a manspies a uiiiiiiin in an opencarriage Tlie dense vegetation hints of fertility —and ilieii eluince Hireling's f/agic consequences a Incorporating elements of a musical composition into his ten-printcycle, Klinger breaks theportfolio's lyrical progression from meeting (oconsumation with Intermezzo. The allegoricalimage of Adam and Eve,kneeling to plead withDeath, foretells how thewoman will be punishedfor her sinful indulgence. Art for aPrivateSphereThe German print portfolio wasan art form created for privateownership rather than publicdisplay. An exhibition at theUniversity's Smart Museumtakes a sequential look.lew times call for new art forms, andin early 20th-century German and Austriansociety, graphic artists turned to the printportfolio — sharing romantic, realistic, andexpressionistic images of a society in transition with a new, more broadly based audience.Leading artists from Max Klinger to Oskar24 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993|ith Tod(Death), the story ends.From the shadows, Deathreappears, holding thestillborn child and beckoning the dead or dyingwoman. Her remorsefullover rests his head besidehers, echoing the fourthprint, called Gluck (Happiness). If the symbolismseems contrived today,Klinger's contemporariesfound it liberating.Kokoschka used the serial print to communicate ideas that require a sequential reading, telling stories or juxtaposing individualvignettes. True to the form, the SmartMuseum's fall exhibition, The German PrintPortfolio 1890-1930: Serials for a PrivateSphere, presents ten portfolios from tenartists (nearly 200 prints) as thematic series rather than as individual masterpieces.The show, which ends December 12,marks the Smart's reopening after asummer-long renovation. It includes a lecture series, dramatic readings from theartists' letters and poems, and a film seriesin partnership with DOC Films. With eightportfolios from the Smart 's collection and two on loan from Marcia and GranvilSpecks of Evanston, the exhibition isaccompanied by a catalog, written by RobinL. Reisenfeld, AM'82, who teaches at Dickinson College, and edited by Smart curatorsRichard A. Born, AM'75, and Stephanie L.D'Alessandro, AM'90. U of C art historianReinhold A. Heller wrote the introduction.*"**Ms& ""*^B^*-w^*"^Wi J JfUniversity of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 25BY TIM OBERMILLEROR A BASEBALL PLAYER, the ultimate fantasy is to sail a homerover the fence, bases loaded, bottom of the ninth. For a scientist,it's discovering something that completely upsets conventionalwisdom — those unchallenged statements duly highlighted byundergraduates in their bulky texts. "It's gone! It's outta here!"Better print another edition.One such classic piece of conventional scientific wisdom states that insects andflowering plants coevolved — with the evolutionary success of insects dependentupon those flowering plants. In the July 16 issue of Science magazine, J. JohnSepkoski, Jr., and Conrad C. Labandeira declared the error of this prevailingbelief. Insects, they say, successfully populated the planet millions of yearsbefore flowering plants arrived on the scene.When it conies to diversity and resistanceto extinction, insects have no equal.#PALEOZOIC MES0Z01C CENOZOICDipleraTrichopteraLepidopteraHymenopteraHypopcrlidaZoraplcraPsocopteraPhlhiraplcraThysanopteraHomopteraHctcroplcraC llll AMU IISProtelytropteraCaloneurodeaThis diagram charts family diversity within insect orders. A mass extinction in theearly Mesozoic wiped out most Paleozoic-era insects — replaced by ones that haveendured to the present, such as Lepidoptera (butterflies) and Diptera (flies).28 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 Sepkoski, an authority on the evolution ofdiversity through geologic time, is a professor of paleontology at Chicago. Labandeira,PhD'90, curates the Smithsonian Institution's vast fossil insect collection. Realizingtheir interests were perfectly compatible fora comprehensive study of insect diversity inthe fossil record, the two teamed up in1991."Our intention was simply to look at thefossil record, not to challenge any specificorthodox views of insect evolution," saysSepkoski. "We were as surprised as anyoneelse by the results we found."Not everyone is ready to accept thoseresults, however. Digging in their heels, afew biologists have already declared themethods and conclusions of the Sciencearticle as specious. Countering theseattacks, Harvard sociobiologist Edward O.Wilson — author of the recent book TheDiversity of Life — described the article as"an excellent piece of research." Yale paleo-botanist Leo J. Hickey agreed, telling theNew Yorh Times that it called "into seriousquestion some of our conceptions and preconceptions. All of us were quite comfortable with the idea that flowering plantsmust have had a major effect on insectdiversity."Observers of nature, at least since Aristotle, have marveled at insect abundance anddiversity. Found in nearly every habitat onboth land and water, insects comprise about70 percent of all animal species on earth.Linking this diversity to flowering plants,says Sepkoski, "originates from the correctobservation of very close interactionsThe limestone Jossil,right, dates from around280 million years ago.From the Palaeodicty-optera order, the extinctspecies resembles amodern dragonfly.between certain insects and certain flowering plants.... With all these observations, ahypothesis of coevolution would naturallyarise."While conceding that the insect fossilrecord could potentially confirm thishypothesis, most biologists assumed thatthe record was too sketchy to study withaccuracy. Small and fragile, insects are preserved as fossils only under special conditions. For example, an insect falling into apond rapidly covered with silt could be preserved, if the rock resulting from the silt didnot undergo severe stress. Another means,made famous in the movie Jurassic Park, isfor an insect to become trapped in stickypitch from coniferous trees, with the resulting resin hardening into an amber coffinthat preserves the insect whole.Although there are some spectacular fossildeposits of early insects in North America — including Mazon Creek, just 50 milessouthwest of Chicago — the record is inconclusive over the span of geologic time. Yet,in looking to the foreign literature, Labandeira and Sepkoski found they could fill thenecessary gaps to tell their evolutionarystory."If we did not have the foreign literature — particularly from the former SovietUnion — this project would never have beendone," says Labandeira, who became familiar with such literature during graduatestudies at Chicago. "I was encouraged to atleast transliterate Russian — as a matter offact, it was part of the conditions for mydoctoral work." Library facilities at Chicagoand, later, the Smithsonian, allowed Laban deira to obtain "very esoteric articles fromobscure journals that are important toamassing a data set of this type."Not only did Labandeira have to find andabsorb this foreign literature — with information on deposits from China, Botswana,Brazil, and Australia, as well as the formerU.S.S.R. — he also had to assess whether thefossils mentioned were assigned to theproper family, and the correct geologicaltime. From there, Sepkoski took over, discerning the evolutionary patterns usingLabandeira's completed database.THE PICTURE they assembled begins 390 millionyears ago: the age of afossil specimen identifiedby Labandeira in 1988.Called a bristletail, thewingless insect — a distantrelative of the silverfish that infest modemhouseholds — was found in a chunk ofmudstone on the north shore of Quebec'sGaspe Bay. Not only the world's oldestinsect, the tiny bristletail became the oldestof any animal yet found in North America.Excluding this spectacular find, the fossilrecord is barely visible during insects' first60 million years — probably because therewere few appropriate terrestrial deposits topreserve them, rather than because insectsthemselves were sparse. The record picksup 325 million years ago, when it appearsinsect evolution really took flight. Wingedgroups evolved — and spread — rapidly, asdid insect families with other innovativebody parts. Of special interest to Labandeira and Sepkoski were the mouthparts insects developed and used to consume the primitiveflora that predated flowering plants. In adetailed examination that began as his dissertation work at Chicago, Labandeiragrouped insect mouthparts into 34 classes,such as wood borers, leaf miners, pollinators, and piercers-and-suckers.The mouthparts told I-abandeira and Sepkoski an important fact: that up to 88 percent of these mouthparts evolved before thespread of flowering plants 140 million yearsago. Only 1 to 7 percent originated aftertheir spread. While it's true that insectsswitched to flowering plants (angiosperms)as a major feeding source when theyappeared, the mouthparts used to consumethose plants had already evolved: a fact thatcontradicts the idea that insects and flowering plants coevolved."Shortly after angiosperms first appearedin the fossil record," says Sepkoski, "theyunderwent just a massive radiation — certainly unprecedented in the plant world,and among the most impressive radiationswe see anywhere in the fossil record."Within a few tens of millions of years,these plants had gone from being rare components of the flora to the dominant groupon virtually all continents and at all latitudes. However, there is no signature forthis event in the fossil record of insects."Indeed, the scientists' data suggest a declinein insect diversity during the angiospermboom.Sepkoski noticed something else in thefossil record. Another conventional wisdomUniversity of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 294about insects has been that their diversityresulted from rapid rates of evolution, butSepkoski found that this diversity couldinstead be traced to "an extraordinarilylow" extinction rate. Mass extinctions thatwiped out other species — like the oneending the dinosaurs' reign 65 million yearsago — seemed to hardly bother insects.The only exception, he says, happenedduring what's been called "the mother of allextinctions" — the one between the Permianand Triassic periods, 250 million years ago.That extinction eliminated out about 65percent of all insect families.Not much is known about the cause ofthis extinction. It's been speculated that theamalgamation of land masses into onesupercontinent, Pangaea, created extremeclimate changes. Says Labandeira, "Weknow that, right at the base of the Triassic,there was a huge and very swift marinetransgression — the ocean rose and sweptover virtually all the lowland terrestrialhabitats." Not only land animals werewiped out: up to 96 percent of marinespecies also disappeared.OME OLD-TIMERS fromthe Paleozoic era, such asgrasshoppers and dragon-flies, survived this massextinction, but most remaining species were members oforders that had emergedlater, during the Mesozoic era — in particular, the Coleoptera (beetles and weevils); the Diptera (flies and mosquitoes); the Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths); and theHymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants). Acommon denominator among many ofthese species is that individuals develop viacomplex, or holometabolous, metamorphosis: the egg hatches into a larva; the larvamolts several times as it grows, until itbecomes a pupa, from which emerges the(usually) winged adult.Such a metamorphosis permits occupation of more than one habitat by the sameinsect at different stages of its life. Thedevelopment allowed insects to rapidlyoccupy new habitats. It wasn't long beforeinsects, once again, could be found almosteverywhere.And they've stayed nearly everywhere, andin much the same form. According to thestudy, 84 percent of insect families living inthe Cretaceous period 100 million years agoare still around. By contrast, less than 20percent of the vertebrate families living thenhave survived to the present.This resistance to extinction could be dueto the large species membership in insectfamilies. One family can encompass thousands of species: there are, for example,more than 28,000 species of beetles in theU.S. alone, compared with 4,000 species ofmammals in the entire world."If you have two families," says Labandeira, "and one family is ten times morediverse than the other, with everything elsebeing equal, the family that's more diverseis going to weather extinctions preferen tially over the less diverse family."Yet even at the genus-level within insectfamilies, Sepkoski and Labandeira foundthat insects endured. Tetraphalerus, amodern beetle genus, closely resembles153-million-year-old Jurassic fossils, andthe modern crane fly genus Helius and leaf-mining moth genus Stigmella have beenidentified from 90-million-year-old deposits.Why are insects such an evolutionary success story? "They have very high reproductive rates," says Sepkoski, "as we knowfrom nuisance species such as mosquitoes.Given the right conditions, they can populate an area very, very quickly."Another advantage: "Insects eat everything," says Labandeira, "and they've developed mouthpart strategies and structures todo it. Also, they're small, so they're able topenetrate habitats on land and — to a morelimited degree — water that other organismshave never penetrated."And lastly, it may be — as Edward Wilsonhas mentioned — that insects got there first.They preempted other organisms becausethey had already monopolized these nichesbefore potential competitors arrived."There is one potential competitor, though,against whom insects may have finally mettheir match: humans."As most people know, there is currentlya biodiversity crisis," says Sepkoski. "Thereare estimates that up to 100 species a dayare becoming extinct as a result of deforestation, especially in the tropics. The vastmajority of these species that are disappear-The rocky relationshipbetween humans andinsects is as old as civilization. Among ihe mostreviled pests, weevils —with their robustmandibles — can devastatecrops. The weevil fossil,left, dates from the mid-Eocene epoch.30 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993ing are small in size — including insects."Indeed, Sepkoski and Labandeira believethe current crisis could rival the massextinction that wiped out insects 250 million years ago. Recalling roaches, fleas, mosquitoes, ticks, and myriad other insectswho disturb our domestic tranquillity, onemight be tempted to respond, "Good riddance!" Labandeira answers that response:"When you eat an orange, or chew abanana, or have a fig cookie or a chocolatebar, you have insects to thank for thoseproducts. Insects have immense beneficialimplications for humans in providing usour daily bread indirectly — as well asdirectly. In many disadvantaged countries,insects are an important food source."And what, Labandeira asks, would theworld be like without butterflies or bumblebees, a world where one could no longersee a golden-jeweled scarab beetle flittingacross a heliconia vine, or a dragonfly capturing a fly in midflight? "These are thingsthat make the world meaningful to us, andit would be a sad loss for humanity to seethose wonders of nature disappear."So it may be, says Labandeira, that thelowly insect will become the ultimate judgeof how deserving humans are in their roleas planetary stewards. "Insects represent agood kind of trip wire, if we're abusingthat stewardship," he says. After all, ifearth's most successful animal cannot survive the changes wrought by human civilization, can humanity itself expect to avoida similar fate?i A prize find for paleontologists are insects, like this dancefly, preserved inamber. The below chart shows insect families' diversity compared to tetrapods(four-limbed vertebrates).6004001 200zDevonian Carboniferous Permian Triassic JurassicI I I400 million years ago 300 200 TETRAPODSCretaceous Tertiary1 I100 TodayUniversity of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 3 1"I think the exhibitachieves an honestpicture of contemporary Africanlife" says DebbieMack (left). Amongihe glimpses intothat life: pots(below) presentedas a bridal giftamong the nomadicTuareg people ofnorthern Africa.In helping to create theField Museum's centennial exhibit, anthropologistDeborah Mack hasworked to help Africanstell their own stories.By Michele ThomasPhotography by Dan Dry It's free day at the Field Museum ofNatural History, and both parkingand Debbie Mack, AB'76, are hardto find. Finally Mack and 1 meet inthe main hall, where she's waitingto talk about the project that hasoccupied her professional life forthe past five years — the museum'snew, permanent exhibit on Africa.Filling over 15,000 square feet in theDaniel R. and Ada L. Rice Wing, the exhibitmarks the occasion of the Field's 100thanniversary. "Africa" officially opens onNovember 13, but Mack, project directorand senior developer, predicts completionby the end of September. "All that's left,"she says with excitement and relief, "are thedetails."As we slip through a door in themakeshift walls that surround the work-in-progress exhibition, Mack's normally measured speech speeds up, and continues todo so as we wind our way through thelabyrinth of rooms which, when finished,will have cost the Field $3.8 million. "Thisis a new way for the Field — and for museums in general — to create exhibits. Wewant to help Africans tell their own stories,rather than to present their lives for them."The process was difficult at times," Mackcontinues. "So many of the stories are mul-tidisciplinary, and there are lots of peopleand ideas to coordinate. With all the competing forces, you have to try and remainhonest. And even though there's not onestory, not one voice, I think we've achieveda representative picture of contemporarylife in Africa."Mack, born and raised in South Chicago,went to Africa for the first time as a juniorat the U of C. It was 1973, and the OrientalInstitute sent her to photograph some of itswork in Egypt. "I was hooked and decidedthat, when the job was over, I had to getback to Africa somehow," she remembers."So I applied for a United Nations fellowship to spend my senior year there" andended up working as a research assistant fora sociologist studying the impact of theAswan High Dam on surrounding Nilecommunities.Intending to get her degree in anthropology, Mack suffered from some last-minutetheoretical uneasiness during her senioryear and switched fields, receiving her A.B. in geology. Her ambivalence about anthropology derived from her sense that the discipline was not as "upfront" as it shouldhave been in recognizing its own agendas,and not as sensitive as it should have beento the connections between knowledge andpower."You know, knowledge for knowledge'ssake is a ridiculous idea," she says now."Knowledge is a social construction. Peopleinvent their universes, they invent whatthey know and why they know it. Andthat's based on cultural priority. You alwayshave to keep in mind where scholars arecoming from and why they are studyingwhat they are studying. Everyone has anagenda."Deciding to create her revolution fromwithin, Mack returned to anthropology andearned her master's and Ph.D. from Northwestern University in 1977 and 1986,respectively. She concentrated on legalanthropology, with a thesis that looked at aSudanese equivalent of U.S. civil rights legislation. She was interested in "how peoplecan and do manipulate their situations —how they represent themselves, what voicethey have, and who appropriates their voicein the courts."Mack, who began to teach at Lake ForestCollege in 1986, heard about the Field'snew project in 1988. "I was immediatelystruck by the opportunity to provideknowledge to a broad spectrum of people,"Mack remembers, "so I called to volunteermy time."I think this exhibit is long overdue," shecontinues. "It's taking scholarship that islight years away from public awareness andmaking it very accessible to people whocan't afford $25,000 a year in tuition andwho don't have access to a specializedlibrary, yet are very intelligent and articulate people."Gradually assuming more and moreresponsibility as her ability to coordinateand oversee all of the exhibit's diversestrands — and her extensive knowledge ofAfrica — were recognized, Mack left LakeForest College and joined the Field's staff inlate 1990.At that stage, the planners were developing individual aspects of the exhibit basedon what they had learned during the firstyear of research, a year spent talking to thepeople who were going to make up theiraudience. "We wanted to know whatpeople knew about Africa and what theywanted to know, so we held forums, sentout questionnaires, and asked people in themuseum and out on the street," Mack says."We found out that most people didn'tknow very much, and what they did knowwas consistently wrong. For example, it'sINTOUniversity of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 33The exhibit recreates an altar of theOba people to theirdivine ruler (below)and Cameroon'sRoyal Palace, homeof the Bamum peoples' king.important to address what happened in thetransference of people from Africa to theAmericas because African Americans stilldon't know their past."0Barred windows(above) reinforce thechilling recreationof a slave holdingcell — a stark contrast to the naturalAfrican landscape(opposite page), complete with giraffe. ne of the most dramatic and controversial stories the exhibit tellsis that of the Diaspora of slavesfrom Africa to the Americas. Thissection comes after visitors havewalked through a Senegalese neighborhood,Cameroon's Royal Palace, a theater fromZaire, and the desert homes of the Tuaregpeople, as well as displays on the continent's environment, ecology, and miningtechnologies.After getting a sense of the Africa that thenatives would be leaving behind, you entera final section, walk through a brief introduction area, and then into a recreation of aholding cell on the African Coast. Thesmall, dark room routinely held people forweeks — or months — before they were loaded onto the boats for their months-longjourney across the Atlantic.From the cramped holding cell you moveto a long, narrow room that resembles aship's hull. Its walls are covered with amural depicting the men, women, and children who made these trips. As was the casein the actual ships, the men are on one sideand the women and children on the other.An audio tape provides background noise —the low hum of people talking, the creak ofthe wooden vessel, and the constant noisesof the ocean.At four points during your walk throughthe ship, a person begins speaking in anAfrican dialect. As each voice graduallymakes the transition to English or Spanish(emphasizing the fact that many Africanstransported to the New World ended up inthe Caribbean and South America) you hearone person's story of their journey.The stories — told by two men, onewomen, and a young girl — are based on34 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993historical documents. "We chose thisapproach because we didn't want to projectour vision of what the crossing was like,"Mack explains. "We wanted these people —like the others in the exhibit — to be able totell their own story."This section is a very closed, privateexperience — almost claustrophobic," Mackpoints out. "We wanted it to resemble theexperiences of the people being transported. And we wanted it to be a very personal experience — we wanted the audienceto feel the story."In contrast, the next part of the Diasporaexhibit is very public, though no less personal. After leaving the ship's hull, you findyourself in the American South of the early19th century. Here a bustling scene ofpotential buyers stretches in front of anauction block, where there are three different sets of footprints — one each for a man,woman, and child. When you step in theappropriate footprints, an audio tape comeson and you are being discussed and bid on.You are being sold."Because it's controversial," Mack says,"we had to fight for this section, but it's animportant part of the message. The auctionblock had a huge impact on the slave experience in the United States. Only in the U.S.were families and communities routinelyseparated in this way. In Brazil, for example, families and even whole communitieswere transported and settled together. Inthe United States, families were brokenapart and new configurations were forced.The slaves had to create new communitiesinstead of continuing them."Which is why the final space in theexhibit examines the African-American culture and community that have developedsince the days of the auction block. "Peopledidn't bring anything from Africa with themexcept what was in their heads," Mack says."Since they were from different parts ofAfrica and many didn't speak the same language, their cultural knowledge necessarilymixed over time."This cultural creolization is sometimeseasy to see — we can see a certain traditionboth in Africa and the U.S., and it's donethe same way, and it means the same thing.Sometimes, however, it's not so easy tofigure out — the tradition looks the same butthe meaning has changed, or the appearance has changed but the meaning is thesame."One of the traditions that hasinfluenced Debbie Mack tremendously is that of communityinvolvement. "A lot of African-American scholars, no matterwhat their field, feel an obligation to use what they know and study to affect policy,daily life, teaching, et cetera. That's been astrong emphasis in our historical background. Many of us were raised to believethat whatever you accomplish, it should beused to benefit your community andfamily — your social universe."Given that African Americans as a socialgroup are not in comfortable circumstances," Mack continues, "there's a verypressing, immediate need to help, and mostof us are connected with that. Within mostof my colleagues' immediate or extendedfamilies, there are people who have allkinds of problems or issues as a result ofour historical legacy in this hemisphere.The whole point of scholarship is that wecan make a contribution — the idea of whichis hammered into us from an early age. Ifwhat you do isn't for the good of the peopleof the environment, it should be a lowerpriority."After the Africa exhibit opens, Mack willcontinue her personal tradition of educatingthe public in several ways. She is workingwith the Illinois Board of Education on twoprojects: a traveling exhibit to Africanmuseums in Senegal, Mali, Niger, andCameroon that will use local languages todiscuss the African Diaspora, and a teachertraining and exchange program with severalAfrican countries.She will also spend at least six monthsdoing follow-up work with the Fieldexhibit — getting feedback from visitors,seeing what's working and what isn't, whatpeople like and what they find confusing.And although her position at the Field willofficially end with the opening of theexhibit, she has been asked to stay on at themuseum, and is negotiating what her newrole will be.As the lunch hour ends and the workersbegin returning to the exhibit, we make thetransition back to the noisy and crowdedmain hall, and Debbie Mack talks about theunexpected turn her career has taken. "Inever expected to work in a museum," shelaughs. "But doing this exhibit at this timeand in this place represents the convergence of a number of great things."The mission of the museum is beingredefined and refocused — the feeling is thatmuseums should be centers of public learning, and that really hits home for many ofus. While this isn't a new attitude in termsof what museums articulate, it's new interms of practice. And this exhibit is one ofthe best places for seeing that talk being putinto practice."Michele Thomas, the Magazine's former editorial assistant, is an anthropology majorturned premed student.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 35A lumni ChronicleEast and WestFor alumni in the New York and Los Angeles metro areas, coming home to the University doesn't require a plane ticket toChicago, or even a long-distance telephone call. All it takes is some familiarity with theUniversity's two coastal outposts.The U of C's New York office, directedby Lisa Barsanti Hoyt, serves about 13,800alumni, parents, and friends in New York,Connecticut, and New Jersey. A similar operation, run by Genie Talmy in LosAngeles, serves more than 13,000 in California. That number is expected to rise to19,000 next spring, when the officeexpands its scope to cover nine westernstates, including Hawaii."How do you make the University comealive from such a distance?" is the questionboth offices constantly address. For Hoyt,Talmy, and their small staffs, the answer liesin phone calls and one-on-one meetingswith alumni and others tied to the University. "We have to wear a lot of hats," Talmysays. "We want to be a resource."Although people tend to assume that theoffices are satellite campuses of the University ("Because we're a local number in thephone book, we get all sorts of calls," Hoytnotes), both are more slanted toward development and alumni relations than towardadmissions or curriculum concerns. Theoffices can answer most questions aboutthe University and route people to the correct names or phone numbers, but theirmain goals are to act as liaison between theinstitution and the local alumni club, and,of course, to support the University's fund-raising programs.Chicago has maintained a presence inNew York and California since at least the1970s, but alumni in these areas oftendon't even realize that the offices exist — orthat they are connected to the campus bythe wonders of telephones, electronic mail,and regular visits by staff to Hyde Park."We'd certainly love the alumni to sharewith us what might be useful or helpful tothem," Hoyt encourages.To reach the New York office, alumnishould call 212/265-9144. The number ofthe Los Angeles office is 310/477-0477.That time againPull out the date book, Filofax, or calendar:it's never too early to save the date forreunion.Reunion 1994 will blanket the campusJune 3-June 5. Although the classes of1989, 1984, 1979, 1974, 1969, 1964, 1959,1954, 1949, 1944, 1939, and 1934 will betargeted for special celebration, all alumniare encouraged to return to Hyde Park forthe weekend-long party. In addition, theSchool of Social Service Administration,University Theater, and the English department will be honoring their alumni.Reunion '94 will offer familiar sights andsounds from the past, such as the annualAlumni Awards assembly, the Cavalcade ofclasses to Rockefeller Chapel, and the all-alumni barbecue on the main quad. New in1994, however, will be a tour of the University of Chicago Graduate School of BusinessFromtheAlumniCalendarAlumni are invited to participate in five campus symposia commemorating HugoSonnenschein' s inauguration on Wednesday, October 20.• "Liberal Education and the Advancement of Knowledge" will reflect on collegiateeducation's role in the growth of the U of C and the American research university.Moderated by College dean John W. Boyer, AM'69, PhD'75, the panel includes RichardStorr, author of Harper's University; Roger L. Geiger, professor of education, Pennsylvania State University; and sociology professor Donald Levine, AB'50, AM'54, PhD'57.• "Transplantation: The Second Revolution" will discuss transplantation's presentand promise, as well as its moral and ethical implications. Jeffrey Bluestone, chair ofthe Committee on Immunology, will moderate; panelists include cardiology chief Jeffrey Leiden, AB'75, PhD'79, MD'81, Mark Siegler, MD'67, director of the Center forClinical Medical Ethics; and transplantation surgery chief J. Richard Thistlethwaite.• "The Evolution of the Physical Universe" will focus on the current cosmologicalparadigm and Chicago's role in creating that paradigm. Moderated by Michael S.Turner, professor of physics and of astronomy and astrophysics, the panel includesthree professors from astronomy and astrophysics: Edward W. Kolb, Richard Kron,and Noel Swerdlow.• "Altruism and Egotism" will explore to what extent an assumption of rational, individual self-interest best explains human social behavior. Moderated by law professorRichard Epstein, the panel includes Gary Becker, AM'53, PhD'55, economics and sociology; Jon Elster, political science and philosophy; and Marshall Sahlins, anthropology.• "Music: Theory and Practice" will examine how theory and practice interact inmusical performance and study at Chicago. Moderated by humanities dean and operascholar Philip Gossett, the panel includes professors Ingrid Monson, on jazz and cultural theory, and Charles Rosen, on classical instrumental music.For more information on the symposia, see page 5.36 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993Downtown Center (scheduled for completion in spring 1994) and an expanded, ten-session program of Uncommon Coreclasses.Joyful noiseThe University of Chicago Alumni Association Pipe Band took the high road this pastsummer and returned home with honor.The 22 bagpipers who represented thepopular campus music-makers were chosenas the best overseas band in their grade atthe Royal Scottish Pipe Band AssociationWorld Championships, held in August inEdinburgh. Almost 200 bands in fourgrades (based on self-assessed level of ability) converged in Scotland's rolling landscape for the competition — some travelingfrom as far away as China, Pakistan, andNew Zealand. The University pipers competed against 47 other groups at the gradethree level."It's actually the best the band has everdone," says manager Jerry Cadden, whoadds that about three-quarters of the 28members started playing with the band justthis year.Pipers were judged on accuracy, intonation, and presentation. In theory, Caddensays, the difficulty of the chosen music isnot supposed to influence judging. "Thejudges don't judge what you play but howyou play it," he says.Cadden, a graduate student in ethnomusi-cology; his wife, Carol, an administrativeassistant at the Graduate School of Business; and English/education professorGeorge Hillocks are the three Universityrepresentatives in the band. The organization began in 1975 as the Invermich GaelicSociety, and was brought under the AlumniAssociation's sponsorship in 1991. Sincethen, the band has become a traditionalsight at homecomings, reunions, and commencements.The pipers' next University appearancewill be at the inauguration of Hugo Sonnenschein as president this month. The bandwill play at the banquet the night before theinaugural ceremony and lead the celebratory parade.Have snorkel, will travelThe Alumni Association is offering a snor-keling safari in Bonaire, the Caribbeanisland once known as the "flamingo isle."The February 5-12, 1994, trip will be ledby U of C marine biologist Michael LaBarbera, who will provide an introduction tothe planet's most complex ecosystem: thecoral reef. For more information, call312/702-2161. 1994 Alumni Association AwardsCall for NominationsEach year the Alumni Association selects outstanding alumniwho deserve recognition for professional excellence, serviceto the University, and benefit to society. Recipients of the 1994awards will be honored in Rockefeller Memorial Chapelduring our June Reunion.• The Alumni Medal for achievements of national orinternational stature and benefit to society• The University Alumni Service Medal for extended,extraordinary service to the University• The Professional Achievement Citations for outstandingachievement in a professional field• The Public Service Citations for creative and exemplaryleadership in voluntary service to society• The Alumni Service Citations for outstanding service tothe University• The Young Alumni Service Citations for outstandingwork on behalf of the University by individuals aged35 and younger.If you know someone who deserves an Alumni AssociationAward/ send for a nomination form or call the AlumniAssociation at 312/702-2160.Deadline for completed nominations: November 15, 1993.To be eligible, a nominee must have matriculated at the University and earned credittoward a degree. Persons currently enrolled or employed by the University and votingmembers of the Board of Trustees and the Association's Board of Governors are not eligible.Please send me a nomination form for the 1994 Alumni Awards.Name. Address-City .State Zip.Return to:Alumni AwardsUniversity of Chicago Alumni Association5757 Woodlawn AvenueChicago, IL 60637All nominations must remain confidential.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 37C lass NewsA new wrinkle for class news: Please specifythe year under which you would like your newsto appear. Otherwise, we will list: (1) all formerundergraduates by their year of graduation(including those who later received graduatedegrees); and (2) all former students whoreceived only graduate degrees by the year oftheir final degree. Whatever the year, though, weare still eager to receive your news at the Magazine. Send it to the Class News Editor, Universityof Chicago Magazine, 5757 Woodlawn Ave.,Chicago, IL 60637. No engagements, please.Items may be edited for space.Ol Faith Prentice Hale, PhB'21, is living atHi Plymouth Place, a retirement home in LaGrange Park, IL, She will celebrate her 95thbirthday in October and remains active. Faithenjoys visits from her three children, eight grandchildren, and four great-grandchildren. She wonders if there is correspondence from others in theClass of '21.OKJ Felix F. Caruso, SB'25, "Order of the C"¦*5P in Football and track, recently played golfwilh Robert G. Bohnen, SB'33, and John JayBerwangcr, AB'36, "Order of the C" in footballand the first recipient of the Heisman Trophy.The three "competed in trying to shoot theirrespective ages."AH Madi Bacon, PhB'27, AM'41, was recentlyMm m honored by the San Francisco BoysChorus on the occasion of her 87th birthday.Madi directed the chorus from its inception in1948 until retiring in 1972. A former professor ofmusic at the U of C and head of music extensionat UC Berkeley, Madi was added to the San Francisco Examiner's "Honor Roll of DistinguishedWomen" in 1967. She continues to give privatevoice and piano lessons, as well as lecture anddemonstration classes in choral conducting at BayArea schools.4A Max E. Sonderby, PhB'30, attended theiOWJ graduation of his grandson, Christopher P.Sonderby, JD'93, from the Law School in June. Hereports: "It is the first generation repeat in myfamily."MJohn B. Holt, PhB'31, is enjoying the Mainecoast and seashore recreational opportunities at Thornton Oaks retirement community, nearBowdoin College, Brunswick. He writes, "Duringour years in the U.S. Foreign Service, the worldwas our oyster; never a dull moment. Proud tohave a son teaching and researching at ihe university Am reading subjects which 1 regret havingTailed to explore further under Ogburn, Merriam,Lasswell, TV. Smith, Wilder, Haydon, and manyother 'greats."HA Harold Laufman, SB'32, MD'37, was namedtffi the 1993 Dislinguished Alumnus by RushMedical College's alumni association. A pioneer vascular surgeon, he is the founder of the first bloodvessel bank in Chicago, a hypothermia researcher.operating room designer, violinist, artist, and developer of a tent hospital used during the Gulf War.M Robert G. Bohnen, SB'33, see 1925, Felix F.Caruso. Lorraine Solomon Moss, PhB'33, is the recipient of this year's Governor's Award forUnique Achievement. A member of the ChicagoDepartment on Aging's advisory council, shelaunched the Sensory Assistance Program, whichhelps hospital staff identify patients with hearing,speech, or visual disabilities. Bernard G. Sarnat,SB'33, MD'37, was elected honorary fellow in theAmerican Association of Plastic Surgeons, based onhis lifetime contributions to plastic and reconstructive surgery in the areas of education, research, andclinical excellence.Reunion June 3.4.5 94M Robert E. Langford, PhB'34, has lived forthe past 35 years in Florida, where he builtthe Langford Resort Hotel in Winter Park and YogiBear's Jellystone Park Campgrounds near Disney-world. Herbert Portes, AB'34, JD'36, see 1939,RobertJ. Greenebaum.Rosa E. Dooley, PhB'35, has retired toFlorida, where she continues her work inpainting and ceramics. She cites a ceramic wall asher "masterpiece of achievement." TheodoreKahan, SB'35, placed first in both men's tennis singles, ages 80-84, and the 100-meter dash at thePhiladelphia Senior Games held in May. He alsocompeted in tennis at the National Senior Olympicsin Baton Rouge this June.^fcJJ John Jay Berwanger, AB'36, see 1925,WW Felix F. Caruso. Katherine M. Dunham,PhB'36, founder of the Katherine Dunham Centerfor Arts and Humanities in East St. Louis, IL,received an honorary doctor of fine arts degree inMay from the University of North Carolina atChapel Hill. She has appeared worldwide in theaters and on film and television, carrying the message of increased cultural and racial understandingthrough dance.Reunion June 3.4.5RobertJ. Greenebaum, AB'39, who has saton the boards of several corporations andcharitable foundations, recently accepted his latestposition: chair for the Class of '39's 55th reunion,June 3-5. He will also work with Herbert Portes,AB'34, JD'36, to plan next June's EmeritusReunion.ill Thomas A. Sebeok, AB'41, a distinguished^mm professor emeritus of linguistics and semiotics at Indiana University, was recently elected anhonorary member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He writes: "The 153rd General Assembly ofthe Academy, which chose me, seems to have beenthe first at which elections free of political constraints could be held, and this means a great deal tome." He has three daughters: Jessica will enterChicago as an undergraduate this year; Veronicaworks at Billings Hospital; and Erica will start highschool in the fall.« Beryl Brand Walther, PhB'43, and her husband, Harold, celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary on June 26 in Anchorage, AK.Active in the Latter Day Saints church, they haveeight children ("two attorneys, three teachers, one master librarian, and the youngest is in dentalschool") and 28 grandchildren.Reunion "June 3-4*5Jgjg Burton I. Ditkowsky, PhB'44, CEO ofHFw Delphi Capital Corp., graduated with amaster's degree from the U of C's social sciencesdivision in August. He is currently in his secondyear of the division's doctoral program and hopes tofinish by the year 2020.^¦0 Jewel Stradford Lafontant-Mankarious,^BW JD'46, was recently named a partner atHolleb & Coff, a law firm in Chicago. She hasserved under five U.S. presidents and on 17 corporate boards during her career.MtW Alvan R. Feinstein, SB'47, SM'48, MD'52, theTl m Sterling professor of medicine and epidemiology at Yale University School of Medicine, has beennamed one of five 1993 Gairdner Foundation International Award recipients. Recognized for his contributions to clinical epidemiology, he is the author offour books and more than 300 scientific articles.Matthew H. Kulawiec, SB'47, retired as deputy meteorologist in charge from the National Weather Service in 1980. He has been the president of theCancer Victors Support Group since then. ElaineMazlish Wyden, PhB'47, has become a licensed realtor since retiring from the directorship of the BryantLibrary in Roslyn, NY. She is affiliated with theWilliam Pitt Real Estate Company in Ridgefield, CT.Mtf Ernst L. Gayden, PhB'48, was keynoteTi^» speaker and consultant at a neighborhoodplanning workshop in Anchorage, AK, in April. Hereturned to Huxley College in late March afterspending winter quarter teaching for WesternWashington University's foreign study program inMorelia and Oaxaca, Mexico. Last October, Ernstwas part of a delegation of urban planners, developers, and engineers who met with Chinese counterparts in Beijing and Shanghai.Reunion June 3.4.5 JHL« Phillip R. Grover, AB'49, after 21 years ofteaching at the University of Sheffield inEngland, has taken early retirement and gone tolive in France, where he will divide his timebetween Paris and Dordogne, This year he will beteaching at the universities of Poitiers and Limogesand organizing the 16th International Ezra PoundConference at Perigueux. Richard S. Harrison,AB'49, MBA'50, writes: "Lately, 1 taught the Russian and Chinese areas for Elderhostel. I startedstudying, teaching, and officially traveling in theselocales 35 years ago. As an economist and retirednaval officer, it seemed natural."Gertrude Rosenberg Rothschild, X'49, a retiredreference librarian, is active in the University ofCalifornia, Irvine, Medical Center Associates, avolunteer support group. She is past president anda member of the board of directors and wasrecently awarded a 5,000-hour pin. Her husband,Bill F. Rothschild, SM'49, a retired electrochemist,is a docent at the Santa Ana Zoo, where he teachesclasses for schoolchildren, leads tours, and assistson "zoomobiles." Charles K. Sapper, AM'49,recently retired as the dean of instruction of DiabloValley College after 37 years. He writes: "My wifeand I divide our time between California and Memphis, Tennessee, where our first granddaughter,LeeAnn, was born this past year." Joan GitzelSchroeter, AB'49, AM'55, received a Ph.D. fromNorthern Illinois University in May and has sincemoved to Chicago.Jeanne Bodine Hansen, AB'50, was listed inthe 1992 edition of Who's Who in the East.Freda Gould Rebelsky, AB'50, AM'54, AB'55,38 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993Frankly UniqueDespite her late start as apainter, Alyce Frank nowexpresses in her art aunique vision of the beautyof the New Mexico landscape.Forty-three years ago, Alyce Frank,AB'50, graduated from the Universityof Chicago at the age of 18 after threeyears' study. "I was in a big hurry," sheexplains. "I'm not sure why." Her approachto art, however, proved to be much moreleisurely. Having begun painting in 1973,after her three children were grown, Frankcredits her success as an artist in large partto her late start: "I rue sometimes the lackof drawing experience I would have had if Ihad started earlier. But I like very much thatmy work is quite unique because I don'thave the usual academic training."In fact, Frank's early training consisted ofa liberal arts education — "I learned how tolearn" — and three years spent as the onlyfemale member of the U of C rifle club, anextracurricular activity which, she quips,improved her hand-eye coordination. Bythe time she had graduated from the College, the only artistic experience Frank hadunder her belt was attending an early VanGogh exhibition at the Art Institute. Sherecalls, "It knocked my socks off."Despite her fascination with Van Gogh, atthat time in her life Frank didn't even consider becoming a painter. Nevertheless, shebelieves that she was "storing up" experiences for later use in her art. For example,after moving to Los Angeles in the 50s, shespent ten years working with her husband,Larry, as an educational film producer andeditor, a job which she describes as "a studyin composition." In their spare time, theyfrequented L.A.'s museums and galleries.Frank didn't begin painting, however,until she and her family moved to an adobe morado built by the Penitentes in ArroyoHondo, a small village outside of Taos, NewMexico. Transfixed by the beauty of thecountryside near her home and inspired bythe achievements of the German Expressionists and the Fauves, Frank, then 43,began painting New Mexican landscapes inthe bold colors and expressionist stylewhich have become her trademark."Within 20 miles from my house, I canpaint high mountain scenery, the snow line,the tree line where it is bare; I can paint thegorge of the Rio Grande, high desert, androck canyons. There are also orchards andfarmland because of the irrigated valleys thatthe Spanish have developed. And then," sheadds, "we have this beautiful light."Frank's enthusiastic appreciation of theNew Mexico landscape springs from over 20years of traipsing through it, looking for asubject for her next painting. She usuallypaints outdoors with a partner, and while herwork can by no means be described as realism, she prides herself on the fact that, bylooking at her paintings, "the people aroundhere know exactly where 1 was, what I waslooking at." Frank explains that she intendsto create in her art "a feeling of place."This feeling of place manifests itself mostdramatically in the colors she chooses toconvey her own "joyous" appreciation ofthe vistas of rural New Mexico. Most of herpaintings, particularly the early works,begin with a "red ground." First coveringthe entire canvas with red paint, Frank thenadds another layer of the brilliant colorswhich have become her signature. "I amfree from the restraints of the actual colorsof the landscape," she explains. "The scenegives me the idea of form and value, but thered ground appearing in the sky, mountains, valleys, and fields acts to flatten thesurface — a contradiction of reality."Born in New Iberia,Louisiana — home ofTabasco sauce —Frank seems drawnto the color redalmost by birthright.However, rather thanusing the color tospice up her landscapes, she values itsneutrality. "Red is inthe middle of thecolor values — whichmakes it quite neutral, even though it isquite strong. So, itturns out to be agood choice for aground. If you usebright yellow, forinstance, you've got "Blade Rock, Canyon de to fight with it all the time. It wants to jumpoff the canvas toward your face."Although best known for her strikinglandscapes, Frank doesn't limit herself tobucolic subjects. In the winter, when thecold weather discourages painting outdoors,she usually focuses on equally arresting caricature porttaits. In addition, she has createdan entire series of miniatures from her ownpaintings. Not surprisingly, these miniatures, too, were conceived in an unorthodoxway. "I kind of work backwards, actually.Most people work from sketches and thenthey do big paintings. I do the reverse."Despite her late beginnings and non-standard training, Frank has carved a distinctniche for herself in the Southwest art scene.Featured in close to 30 art shows in the pastten years, her work has been exhibited mostrecently during much of October at theZaplan-Lampert gallery in Santa Fe. Frankhas also proven to be prolific; since shebegan numbering her work just before herfirst show in 1981, she has finished 402paintings — an average of almost 35 a year.That's no small feat, given her leaningstoward large canvases.Having suffered polio as a child, though,Frank anticipates a time when she will haveto slow the pace — when she will no longerbe able to pack up her easel and roam theNew Mexico terrain in search of inspiration. "I think some day I won't be able to goout. It's physically difficult for me now,"she muses. "But I don't think I'll just paintfrom photographs. I'll have to change mystyle. I will probably just get more andmore abstract." But, lest she seem disheartened, Frank immediately launches into anenthusiastic description of her future plansto do a "huge" triptych — a three-paneledpainting that promises to be bigger thananything she's done before. — CM.Chelly," oil on linen, 30" x 40University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 39professor of psychology at Boston University,recently received the first BU Faculty CouncilAward for Faculty Community Sen-ice. She has alsobeen chosen to participate in the 1 5th annual American Psychological Association symposium, "Eminent Women in Psychology: Historical and Persona]Perspectives," in Toronto.(51 William M. Cross, AM'51, professor of soci-91 ology at Illinois College, Jacksonville,received the Charles E. Frank Faculty Award inMay, Morris E. Eson, AM'44, PhD'51, has beennamed professor emeritus of psychology after 42years of teaching at SUNY, Albany. B. Ross Guest,PhD'51, received the Alumni Loyalty Award fromNebraska Wesleyan University for his involvementand service to the school. Lowell J. Myers, MBA'51,recently retired from his law practice in Chicago. Anarticle about him appeared in the April/93 issue ofDeaf Life. James W. Ramey, AB'51, reports, "Thisyear's trip to Ecuador brought my total of countriesvisited to 127."Kathryn Pendleton Meadow-Orlans,AM'52, senior research scientist at Gal-laudet University in Washington, DC, was honoredat the 1993 meeting of the American PsychiatricAssociation in San Francisco as a "pioneer in deafness and mental health." She also received the 1993Stuart A. Rice Award from the DC Sociological Society for career contributions to the disciplineReunion June 3.4.5 94Mlris Reed Shannon, AM'54, associate professor in the College of Nursing at Rush University, has been named to ihe William A. and RuthF. Loewenberg Chair of Excellence in Nursing atMemphis Slate University for the fall 1993 semester.Virgil E. Matthews, SM'52, PhD'55, is nowchair of the department of chemistry atWest Virginia State College. He worked in researchand development at Union Carbide for 32 yearsbefore retiring in 1986. Adalbert U. Scharpf,AM'55, is still living in Germany as a monk "serving the nuns here and the folks in our hamlet." Hesuffered his second near-fatal heart attack threeyears ago, but has recovered sufficiently to continue his work. His "old love" is the work he didin Tanzania.Martin E. Marty, PhD'56, the Fairfax M.Cone distinguished service professor of thehistory of modem Christianity at Chicago, gave thecommencement address at the University ofNebraska, Lincoln, in May. He was also granted anhonorary doctorate of letters.W Harold J. McWhinnie, MFA'57, has spentthe past two years translating from Spanishthe ceramic glaze formulas of J. Llorens Artigas, themaster glaze maker who helped artist Joan Miro withhis ceramic tiles and sculptures. Harold has alsobegun developing a body of creative work based onthe images of Miro which he will present in March1994, at Dundalk College art gallery in Maryland.Carmen G. Kanapi, SM'58, reached retirement age in 1990, but the University olSanto Tomas in the Philippines has extended herappointment as dean of the college of science for thethird year. Peter F. Langrock, AB'58, JD'60, a seniorpartner in the Middlebury and Burlington, VT, lawfirm of Langrock, Sperry & Wool, recently becamea member of the board of governors of the American Bar Association. He will serve a three-year termJack H. Prost, AM'58, PhD'61, an associate professor ol anthropology at the University of Illinois,C htcago, was among 1 1 U1C faculty members toreceive the Amoco-Silvcr Circle Award in May forexcellence in teaching,William R. Rogers, DB'58, PhD'65, has been,since 1980, the president and a professor of psy chology and religious studies at Guilford College inGreensboro, NC. George K. Romoser, AM'54,PhD'58, professor of political science at the University of New Hampshire, will be a visiting professorat Freiburg University in Germany, next wintersemester. This marks his fifth research or teachingvisiting appointment at a German university and histhird Fulbright grant. June Sochen, AB'58, professorof history at the college of arts and sciences atNortheastern Illinois University, has been namedUniversity Distinguished Professor for 1993-1994.Reunion June 3.4.5 94Robert E. Dalton, SB'59, married Judy Eygeson July 17 in Marblehead, MA. His son,Stephen H. Dalton, AB'85, was the best man, andJohn M. Janetos, AB'81, "came down from New-buryport but missed the garter."Theodore M. Norton, AM'55, PhD'60, professor of political science at San Jose State University, was recently given the title of honorarysenator by the Academic Senate for his long serviceand contributions as a member. Theodore reports thatFauneil J. Rinn, AM'54, PhD'60, was also commendedby the senate for her outstanding work as editor of thejournal Sanjose Studies. Both retired in May.Albert Leong, AB'61, AM'66, PhD'70,recently promoted to professor in the Russian department at the University of Oregon,received a 1993 1REX travel grant for research onNeizvestny in the former Soviet Union.Jane Wilken Andringa, AB'62, professor ofspecial education at Governors State University, has been awarded tenure. Betty Glad,PhD'62, professor in the department of governmentand international relations at the University ofSouth Carolina, recently became president of theInternational Society for Political Psychology. She isalso chair of the psychopolitics group of the International Political Science Association. Her book, ThePsychological Dimensions of War, was published inDecember 1990. Charles J. Lerner, SB'62, wasrecently elected president of the Texas InfectiousDiseases Society, a statewide organization devotedto academic and clinical research and treatment.Edward A. Yonan, DB'62, AM'65, PhD'68, has beennamed the Griswold distinguished professor of religion at Millikin University. The two-year appointment provides for a reduced teaching assignmentand support for research and study. He plans tocomplete a book.Bruce Mason, MBA'63, chair and CEO ofFCB Communications, Inc., a worldwideadvertising agency based in Chicago, was appointedto the board of directors of the Advertising Councilin June. Roberta F. Reeder, AB'63, is teaching Russian avant-garde art at the KunstgeschichtlichesInstitut, and Russian film at the lnstitut fiir Medien-wissenschaft at Philipps Universitat in Marburg,Germany. In addition, she is the translator andeditor of a new edition of Russian Folk Lyrics (Indiana University Press).Reunion June 3-4.5 94M Douglas M. Costle, JD'64, of Woodstock,VT, has joined the board of trustees of theMITRE Corporation, an independent, not-for-profitsystems engineering firm. The company is undercontract with government agencies for projects thatbenefit the public. Jan H. Finder, SM'64, of Albany,NY, believes that the accepted birthdate of ArthurUpheld, the author of the Inspector Napolean Bonaparte mysteries, is incorrect, and he is currentlyresearching his theory. Trina Newslein Frankel,AB'64, see 1991, Laura Frankel. Thomas B.Johnson, MBA'64, has returned to the management consulting practice of Deloitte & Touche after several years as head of the firm's Midwest valuationpractice. He and his wife are longtime residents ofGlenview, IL. Margaret Shiling Sharfstein, AB'64,has worked as a college health doctor at the University of Maryland, College Park, for 15 years. Oneday each week she works in a small communitypediatric clinic. She and her husband, Steven S.Sharfstein — now president, medical director, andCEO of Sheppard Pratt Hospital in Baltimore — havethree children: Joshua, a first-year student at Harvard Medical School; Daniel, a junior at Harvard;and Sarah, a junior at Friends School in Baltimore.K William A. J. Adler, MBA'65 has beenelected to the 1993 University of RochesterHall of Fame and the Chicago chapter of theNational Football Foundation and College Hall ofFame. Eve Baruch, AB'65 — having served as advertising sales and marketing manager for Dance magazine's directory issue and on the staff of MusicalAmerica — has founded the Arts Marketing Workshop, a company providing promotional materialsand marketing strategies for self-managed dancersand classical musicians. Joseph M. Miller, MBA'65,retired governor of the Chicago MercantileExchange, has returned from Sofia, Bulgaria, wherehe served as a volunteer with the InternationalExecutive Service Corps. As a member of lESC'sEastern European office, he helped companies thereadjust to privatization, democratization, and theestablishment of free-market economies.M Jeffrey Frankel, MD'66, see 1991, LauraFrankel. William M. Freund, AB'66, head ofthe department of economic history at the Universityof Natal in South Africa, is a member of the Economic Trends Research Group and was recentlyelected president of the Economic History Society ofSouth Africa. Robert F. Levey, AB'66, has become themid-moming talk show host on radio station WMALin Washington, DC. His show deals with both localand national issues and includes listener calls as wellas guests. He continues to write "Bob Levey's Washington," his column in the Washington Post.Eugene I. Lowenthal, AB'66, recently becameexecutive vice president of LIM International, ahigh-tech firm which develops analytical softwareproducts for traders and researchers in the financialindustry. He lives in Austin, TX, with his wife,Linda, and children, Sarah and John, Lloyd E. Shef-sky, JD'65, was presented the 1993 Award of Excellence by the Sports Lawyers Association. The awardis granted yearly to "sports lawyers who have madea substantial contribution to the advancement ofsports through business or practice and/or throughinvolvement in charitable or nonprofit organizations or events." Laura Campbell Rees, AB'66,AM'69, see 1973, Philip H. Rees.AH David M. Stameshkin, AB'67, executive%Mm assistant to the president and former associate dean of students at Franklin and Marshall College in Pennsylvania, has been promoted to associatevice president of alumni programs and development.Douglas N. Upshaw, MBA'67, retired vice presidenlof International Harvester Company and president,Global Consulting, Inc., has returned from Martin,Czechoslovakia, where he served as a volunteer withthe International Executive Service Corps, a not-for-profit organization of Americans who provide managerial and technical assistance to private enterprisesin developing countries.M Edward M. Chikofsky, X'68, will be a visiting professor in 1993-1994 at WashingtonCollege of Law of the American University in Washington, DC. He is adjunct professor of law at Ford-ham Law School and has litigated three cases beforethe U.S. Supreme Court in the past five years.William D. Marder, AB'68, AM'72, PhD'90, hasbeen promoted to area manager for Health Services40 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993Research & Evaluation at Abt Associates, a Cambridge, MA, firm that provides economic and statistical research and management consulting togovernments and corporations worldwide.Vincent K. Pollard, AM'68, is working on hisPh.D. in political science at the University of Hawaiiat Manoa, where he has received several scholarships. Vincent will be doing dissertation research in1994, in Metro Manila, Philippines on "independentforeign policy" in former colonies. George F. Ster-man, SB'68, a physics researcher at SUNY, StonyBrook, is coediting a handbook intended to bridgethe gap between experimental and theoreticalphysics. The 200-page document was written by 1 7physicists from a ten-institution consortium.Reunion June 3.4.5Matthew A. Crenson, AM'65, PhD'69,who chairs the political science department at Johns Hopkins, has been appointed actingdean of the university's school of arts and sciences. Jeffrey T. Kuta, AB'69, JD'72, a partner inthe Chicago law firm of Holleb & Coff, has beenelected 1993-1994 chair of the American BarAssociation's Forum Committee on AffordableHousing and Community Development Law.Alexander P. MacGregor, AM'64, PhD'69, anassociate professor of classics at the University ofIllinois, Chicago, was among 11 UIC faculty members to receive the Amoco-Silver Circle Award inMay for excellence in teaching.111 Neil S. Caiman, AB'71, director of family• m medicine at Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Centerand assistant clinical professor of epidemiology andsocial medicine at the Albert Einstein College ofMedicine, received a $100,000 award as presidentof the Institute for Urban Family Health for his"vision in bringing first-rate medical care to someof the poorest neighborhoods in the South Bronxand Manhattan." Geoffrey A. Clark, PhD'71, amember of the Arizona State University facultysince 1971, won ASU's Outstanding GraduateMentor Award for 1992-1993. He also edited therecently published Perspectives on the Post, whichdeals with epistemological issues in circum-Mediterranean hunter-gatherer archaelogy.Charles H. Hambrick, AM'67, PhD'71, emeritusprofessor of religous studies at Vanderbilt, taught atthe university from 1968 and served as director ofEast Asian studies for ten years until his retirementin June. In 1986, he received the Alumni Outstanding Freshman Adviser Award. Future plans includeteaching part-time, volunteer work, and travel. InFebruary, Frederick L. Miller, JD'71, of New York,married Julia Spring — not Julia Springer, as thename reads in the August class news. The Magazineapologizes for the error.MM Leo I. Higdon, Jr., MBA'72, an expert in• ¦¦ global investment banking and international finance, became dean of the University ofVirginia's Darden Graduate School of BusinessAdministration in July. Richard L. Liming,MBA'72, has joined Digital Equipment Corporationas vice president of systems integration. He hasworldwide responsibility for delivery of Digital'ssystems integration services, including applications, networks, custom hardware systems, emerging technologies, and strategic alliances. DianeStewart Pollard, AM'67, PhD'72, recentlyappointed full professor in the department of educational psychology at the University of Wisconsin,Milwaukee, was named the 1993 recipient of theDistinguished Public Service Award at Wisconsinfor her work to improve the educational experienceof Milwaukee's African American children.Jonathan P. Wolfe, AB'72, has been appointeddirector of development at Brandeis University. ¦y*fe Richardson M. Bentley, MBA'73, reportsm %B that "the sky is falling." David A. Greenwood, JD'73, a lawyer concentrating in generalcommercial litigation, construction, and securitieslitigation, was recently elected to the board of directors of the law firm of Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall &McCarthy in Salt Lake City. Gordon P. Katz, AB'73,has become a shareholder of the Boston law firmSherburne, Powers & Needham, PC. He concentrates his practice in civil litigation. Marc A. Pri-mack, AB'73, see 1975, Susan J. Friedman. Philip H.Rees, AM'68, PhD'73, professor in the School ofGeography at the University of Leeds in Englandand author of numerous publications, has beenappointed coordinator of the Economic & SocialResearch Council census. His wife, Laura CampbellRees, AB'66, AM'69, is a violin teacher. Rocco R.Vanasco, PhD'73, the chair of the research committee of the Institute of Internal Auditors, ChicagoChapter, was recently awarded the 1993 IIA International Research Award for his manuscript titled"The IIA Code of Ethics: An International Perspective." The manuscript will be published in the Managerial Auditingjoumal.Reunion June 3.4.5 94M Robert F. Mater, Jr., MBA'74, is the president of Reese Products, Inc., a supplier ofhitches and towing accessories for the recreationalvehicle and automotive aftermarket industries.Eileen P. Mullady, AB'74, AM'74, has beenappointed dean of faculty and associate headmasterof the Lawrenceville School in New Jersey. Previously, she was the associate dean of the faculty atPrinceton. Eugene Narmour, PhD'74, has beennamed the Edmund J. Kahn Distinguished Professorof Music at the University of Pennsylvania. Twice avisiting fellow at Wolfson College, Oxford University, he will be a fellow in 1993-1994 at the Institutefor Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences inPalo Alto, CA.Anthony Seeger, AM'70, PhD'74, continues at theSmithsonian Institution as curator of the Folkwayscollection and director of Smithsonian/FolkwaysRecordings. He has been elected to the AmericanAcademy of Arts and Sciences. Louise WillettStanek, PhD'74, a professor at the New School forSocial Research, will teach a creative writing courseon a 17-day cruise through the Panama Canal andup the coast to Vancouver, B.C. This year, she haspublished two papers in the School Library Journaland will publish one in the Wilson Library Bulletin.^ Susan J. Friedman, AB'75, AM'76, formedFriedman Associates, a real estate consultingfirm. She lives in Chicago with her husband, MarcA. Primack, AB'73, and 2-year-old daughter, Hilary.Steven K. Hazen, JD'75, has joined the internationallaw firm of Mayer, Brown & Piatt as a partner in theLos Angles office. He left the L.A.-based law firm ofPaul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, where he was apartner and the cochair of its Asia-Pacific practicegroup.Vfi Tamara J. Brady Erickson, AB'76, has» «w been elected senior vice president and amember of the senior management group ofArthur D. Little, an international managementconsulting firm. She will retain her position asthe managing director of the firm's North American management consulting business. Alan C.Stockman, AM'76, PhD'78, is the Marie CurranWilson and Joseph Chamberlain Wilson professor of economics at the University of Rochester.Bonnie A. Urciuoli, AM'76, PhD'84, is associateprofessor of linguistics at Hamilton College. Aspecialist in linguistic and cultural anthropology,she works with the Puerto Rican speech commu-nitv in New York. m* Neil S. Chemoff, AB'77, MBA'79, has joined¦ m the management consulting firm CSC Index,Inc. as vice president in the San Francisco office.Itzhak Goldberg, AM'75, PhD'77, joined the WorldBank in 1991, after working for 11 years with DeadSea Works, Ltd., in Israel — most recently as directorof control and economics. Now he is moving to theInternational Finance Federation, where he is working on Eastern European projects. Nancy ZabelJenson, AM'77, served for seven years as fiscal officerfor the office of public counsel, an Illinois agencywhich represents citizens in public utility matters.The agency was abolished this July by the Illinoislegislature during its budget session — Nancy writesshe is "looking for work and anicipating higher utility rates." Beatriz Diaz Penso-Buford, AB'77, AM'78,received an award in April for 15 years of service asthe counseling coordinator in the student supportservices program at Northeastern Illinois University.The mother of three boys — Rudolph, Adrian, andGregory — she has "managed to keep sanity and full-time employment."Iffl Ann D. Braude, AM'78, was recently pro-m ^9 moted to associate professor of religion atCarleton College in Minnesota. Barry Friedman,AB'78, professor at Vanderbilt Law School, wasrecently elected to the executive committee of theAmerican Judicature Society, a national organization of citizens working to improve the nation's justice system. Paul E, Gootenberg, AB'78, PhD'85,assistant professor of history at SUNY, Stonybrook,has been awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship for1993-1994. He will study the origins and nature offree-trade regimes in post-independence LatinAmerica. Le Roy J. Hines, Jr., AM'78, member ofthe U of C alumni association board of governors, isthe dean of administration and was recently namedinterim director of Chicago campus operations forNational-Louis University.Mark W. Kontos, MBA'78, is vice president,finance, and chief financial officer of Armco SteelCompany. He was formerly a vice president withCitibank in New York, where he had worked since1978. Paul R. Nadolny, AB'78, administrator in thecertified public accounting firm of Dennis Nelson &Company in Bethesda, MD, was recently elected president of the Association of Accounting Administrators. Wade T. Wheelock, AM'73, PhD'78, receivedhis M.Div. from the Meadville/Lombard TheologicalSchool in June. He and his wife, Anne Marsh, havebegun as co-ministers of the Unitarian UniversalistChurch in Canton, NY.Reunion June 3»A-5HA Richard A. Albright, AB'79, has just fin-m 9 ished a two-year intensive Arabic programat the State Department language school in Tunisia.He is now the economic officer responsible forreporting on Saudi oil policy and OPEC at the U.S.Embassy in Riyadh. Frank Burch Brown, AM'72,PhD'79, delivered the 1993 Hussey Lecture in theChurch and the Arts at Oxford University on thetopic "Mozart and the Music of Forgiveness." Thelectureship was endowed by the late Walter Hussey,former dean of Chicester Cathedral. Robert W.Dahlberg, MBA'79, has been named vice presidentof application engineering and sendees at SynopsysInc., a computer software company in California.Damon Darlin, AB'79, after more than six years asa foreign correspondent for the Wall Street journalin Tokyo and Seoul, has returned to the U.S., wherehe is working in L.A. as the Pacific Coast bureauchief for Forbes Magazine. He recently marriedSharon Hahn, a 1988 graduate of Cornell University. Sander M. Davidson, AB'79, and his wife.Suzanne, joyfully announce the birth of twin sons,Gabriel and Paul, on April 5. They join brother.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 41Justin, who is 4. Sander is senior partner of Davidson & Sober, a law firm with offices in Rockville,MD, and Washington, DC. David E. Johnsen,AB'79, was recently appointed chair of the radiologydepartment al Danville Regional Medical Center inDanville, VA. Drew S. Mendoza, AM'79, is founding director of the Loyola University ChicagoFamily Business Center. Drew also consults to business-owning families throughout the U.S. and is anassociate clinical therapist at the Adjustment Centerin Skokie, IL.MMary Casey Finan, PhD'80, associate professor of business administration at WhittierCollege, has written and presented numerouspapers at conferences in the past year. Mostrecently, she presented a paper entitled "How CanWe Teach Corporation in a Competitive World?" atthe Business Teaching Conference in Minneapolis.Joanne V. Gabbin, AM'70, PhD'80, director ofJames Madison University's Honors Program, wasone of 1 1 Virginia professors named winners of theseventh annual Outstanding Faculty Awards. PaulN. Harris, AB'80, was recently promoted to assistantsecretary of Revco D.S., Inc., a company based inTwinsburg, OH, that operates 1,190 drug stores innine contiguous eastern states. Jeffrey A. Heller,JD'80 , and his wife, Nancy, announce the birth oftheir son, Benjamin Roy, on May 16, They also havetwo daughters, Deena and Rebecca.Aaron A. Rhodes, AM'76, PhD'80, was recentlyappointed the executive director of the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, anongovernmental, not-for-profit organization thatseeks lo promote compliance with the humanrights provisions of ihe Helsinki Final Act. RafaelLopcz-Sanz, AM'80, released two books to theVenezuelan public in May and June: The jazz Cityand Other Essays and Elhnia and Class in theVenezuelan Society. Stephen M. Prichard, MBA'80,was recently named vice president for humanresources and administration of DNA Plant Technology Corporation. Kathryn F. Wolford, AM'80,AM'81, was recently elected executive director ofLutheran World Relief, an overseas relief and development organization.John M. Janetos, AB'81, see 1959, Robert E.Dalton. Joanne Comi McCloskey, PhD'81,professor at the University of Iowa College of Nursing, was awarded a University of Iowa FoundationDistinguished Professorship in Nursing. She is theCollege of Nursing's first such distinguished professor. Marie F. Pribyl, AB'81, has joined the law firmof McDermott, Will & Emery as an associate in thehealth law department. Scott M. Rauland, AB'81,has been appointed director of the America Housesoon to be opened in Baku, Azerbaijan. He willspend four weeks training for the position in Washington, DC, and two years at the post in Baku,Daniel G. Emberley, AB'82, received anM.B.A. from Suffolk University in May. Hecurrently holds the position of technology managerwith the National Academy of Sciences. GeoffreyEtherington III, JD'82, has been practicing law withEdwards & Angell in New York city for almost ayear and reports he is "beginning to feel like a realNew Yorker." Lisa K. Harris, AB'82, MBA'84, hascompleted a Ph.D. in wildlife ecology from the University of Arizona and has started her own consulting company, the Harris Environmental Group. Hercompany "applies marketing tools to wildlife management issues, particularly urban wildlife."James A. Morone, AM'76, PhD'82, associate professor of political science al Brown University,received a Barrett Hazcltine Citation, given as anexpression of respect and appreciation from the1993 graduating class. He is the author of TheDemocratic Wish, which won the Gladys M. Kam-mcrer Award for best book in American national policy in 1991. Gregg S. Sodini, AB'82, was electedto a partnership in Cuyler, Bork & Matthews lawfirm. He and his wife, Kathleen, are expecting theirthird son and are open to suggestions for a namebeginning with "A" to join Alexander, 5, andAndrew, 2.John R. Collier, AB'83, MBA'87, see 1985,Maria Christine Barr-Collier. James J. Eccle-ston, AB'83, has founded the Law Offices of James J.Eccleston in Chicago, concentrating in litigation. Inaddition, he is principal of Legal Cost ManagementAssociates, a case management and auditing firmthat works to reduce legal costs. Keith A. Horvath,AB'83, MD'87, helped perform the first transmyocar-dial laser revascularization at the Brigham andWomen's Hospital in Boston as the culmination ofresearch he did during a fellowship at the WellmanLaboratories of Photomedicine. Keith lives in Cambridge, MA, with his wife, Catherine. They enjoytennis, golf, and bungee jumping. Lana HartmanLandon, AM'76, PhD'83, has been named the Outstanding Faculty Member of 1993 by the students atBethany College. She was selected for the sameaward in 1991. Peter G. Leemputte, MBA'83, hasbeen named corporate controller of Armco, Inc., adomestic producer of stainless and electrical steels,headquartered in Parsippany, NJ,Reunion June 3-4-5 94M Peter L. Allen, AM'79, PhD'84, has beenpromoted from assistant to associate professor of modern languages and literatures at PomonaCollege, Douglas W. King, JD'84, was elected apartner at the law firm of Bryan Cave in St. Louislast January. Arlene Hernandez Almodovar-Miller,AM'84, will be celebrating her 10th weddinganniversary to Dayne Miller-Mendez, AB'84. Theyare also celebrating the birth of their son, LukeJames, who joins two sisters, Dahlene Kim andKayla Marie. Dayne recently joined Betz-Entec astheir South Florida sales representative, and Arleneis on leave from her job as consultant for CRA inPlantation, FL.Maria Christine Barr-Collier, AB'85,MAT'86, and John R. Collier, AB'83,MBA'87, announce the arrival of their seconddaughter, Lisa Catherine, on April 18. She joins herolder sister, Laura Naomi. Stephen H. Dalton,AB'85, see 1959, Robert E. Dalton. Roger W.Gilman, AM'75, PhD'85, living in Oak Park, IL, ismarried to Deborah Holdstien, and has two children, Emily and David. He spent last summer inSanta Cruz, CA, at a NEH Institute on Moral Development and was recently promoted with tenure inthe department of philosophy at Northeastern Illinois University. Marlene A. Munnelly, AB'85, married John Bagley in June.Michael D. Camber, AB'85, and his wife, SabinaWeitzman, attended the wedding. The couple honeymooned on Maui and now reside in SantaMonica, CA. Marlene recently passed the California bar exam and is jobhunting and enjoying thesunny weather. She would love to hear from U ofC friends and classmates, especially those who livein Southern California. Lyle M. Rupert, MBA'85,was promoted to associate professor of economicsand business and granted tenure at Hendrix College in Arkansas. Andrew Satinsky, AB'85, MD'89,has finished his radiation oncology residency atGeorgetown University Hospital. He is now practicing in Milwaukee, where he lives with his wife,Maria, a registered nurse. Herbert W. Silverman,AB'85, lives in Atlanta and loves the city and itsenergy. After having suffered a stroke two-and-a-half years ago, he is progressing quite well with anattitude which he describes as "mellow and uplifting." He wonders whether other former members of Henderson House will also write a note for theclass news.Elena L. Alvarez, AB'86, married TomZanussi last November in South. LakeTahoe, CA. In attendence was Matthew Mack,AB'84. Andrew J. Boshardy, AB'86; Patricia FarrowBoshardy, AB'86; and son Drew are moving to Pitts-field, IL, where Andrew will join an internal andfamily medicine practice as a part of Quincy Physicians and Surgeons Clinics. Jeffrey A. Cohen,AB'86, and his band, 80 Pages, recently releasedtheir first CD, Soul Cola, on the Drill Press labelowned by David J. Ross, AB'83, MBA'85, andThomas H. Underberg, AB'87. Jeff writes that hedeveloped his "Machiavellian stage presence playingin Hutch Commons and the Reynolds Club inbetween political science classes,"Thomas B. Cox, AB'86, of Portland, OR, continues to write and lecture on client-server, relational,and object-oriented technologies, and recentlyjoined FDSI as a staff consultant. Mary LynnFaunda, MBA'86, is managing director of theAtlanta unit of Interstate/Johnson Lane's corporatefinance department. Barbara I. Kazmierczak,AB'86, SM'86, received her Ph.D. in genetics fromRockefeller University in June. Dorothy J. Ownes,AM'86, is living in Golden, CO, and working forCARL Systems, Inc., a major library automated systems vendor. Her husband, Michael, is makingsnowboards for Agression of Boulder. They are bothlearning about lawns.Geoffrey B. Pingree, AM'86, has been named aCharlotte W. Newcombe Fellow for 1993. He is astudent in the English Ph.D. program at the U of C,concentrating on "Documentary Representation ofthe Spanish Civil War." Raymond G. Young,MBA'86, was recently promoted to Europeanregional treasurer of General Motors. He will bebased in Brussels. Previously, he was the director ofcapital markets and foreign exchange in the NewYork treasury office.QIV Helen Markey Bonds, AB'87, and husbandO m Anthony had a son, Curtis Russell, November 13. He joins sister Cora, who is one-and-a-half,Thomas M. McKibben III, AB'87, and Grace P.Chan, AB'90, AM'90, announce the birth of theirfirst child, Jessica Tien-Yan, bom July 25. Tom andGrace are still working toward their respectivePh.D. degrees — Tom is studying physics at the University of Illinois, Chicago, and Grace is studyinglinguistics at the U of C. They are also residentheads in Upper Wallace House, Woodward Court.Donald F. McLellan, AB'87, AM'87, JD'90, a corporate attorney with Winston & Strawn, marriedMartina M. Keller, AB'87, an immigration attorneywith Donald B. Kempster & Associates, May 1 inChicago. Included in the wedding party were:Dong-Uk Daniel Chung, AB'84, MBA'87, and JulieA. Fernandes, AB'87. Attending the wedding andreception were: E. David Litwack, SB'88; PhoebeEaton, AB'87; John Halpern, AB'90; and Oscar A.David, JD'87. The couple honeymooned in Portugaland reside in Chicago. Faye-Marie Morgan Brownfield, AB'87, received her J.D. from the New YorkLaw School in June. Stuart M. Feffer, AB'88, married Loren J. Butler, PhD'92, in May. In attendencewere: Samuel L Gassel, AB'87; Hope Cohen,AM'87; and Marcia L. Balisciano, AM'90.Ralph A. Jefferson III, MBA'87, has been promotedto investment officer in the securities department ofthe Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co., Milwaukee. Heidi-Anne Sandquist, AB'87, received herM.B.A. from the Leonard N. Stem School of Businessat New York University in May 1993, and is now anassociate with Credit Lyonnais. Jay D. Woldenberg,AB'87, MBA'89, has moved to New York and joinedthe investment banking firm Lazard Freres as a seniorassociate in the real estate group.42 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993James H. Bolin, Jr., AB'88, graduated fromYale Law School in May and has moved toWashington, DC to serve as law clerk to JudgeHarry T. Edwards of the U.S. Court of Appeals forthe DC circuit. He spent last fall semester workingas an intern at the Sierra Club Legal Defense Fundin Denver. Nicholas G. Hahn, Jr., MBA'88, hasjoined Loomcraft Textiles and Supply Co., based inVernon Hills, IL, as chief financial officer. Stuart M.Feffer, AB'88, see 1987, Stuart M. Feffer.Brandon C. Look, AB'88, AM'90, a graduate student in the U of C philosophy department, and SaraP. Crovitz, AB'89, JD'93, were married in Oak Park,IL, in March 1993. Attendants included: L. GordonCrovitz, AB'80; Debbie Crovitz Manus, AB'84; NeilC. Kerr, AB'88; and Anne Puotinen, AB'89. Guestsincluded 20 alumni and nine Chicago graduate students. Scott A. McDonald, MBA'88, has beenappointed chief financial officer of Pride ContainerCorporation, an independent manufacturer of corrugated products. He was formerly a vice president withMerrill Lynch, Inc.Reunion June 3-4-5Sara P. Crovitz, AB'89, see 1988, BrandonC. Look. Patrick J. Greenlee, SB'89, recentlyreceived the Doctoral Dissertation Award from StateFarm Companies Foundation. He is currently working on his dissertation, "Joint Bidding for OffshoreOil Leases," at Northwestern. Christopher J. Miller,AB'89, graduated last year from Case WesternReserve School of Law and passed the Illinois barexam. He has recently returned to Chicago and isdelighted to be back.Scott R. Ranges, AB'89, married Trudy Thompsonon June 19 in Columbia, SC. The groomsmen wereJeffrey C. Groulx, AB'88; George C. Best, SB'89;Kurt H. Hackemer, AB'89; and Patrick L. Valdez,AB'91. Also present was Suzanne T. Gurland, AB'91.The couple honeymooned in the Tennesse mountains and reside in Columbia. Eric M. Schudy, AB'89,see 1992, Ayelle A. Dayan. Marco A. Sims, AB'89,AM'91, MBA'92, is joining the Foreign Service of theDepartment of State and will be posted overseas. Heis training in Washington, DC. Brian D. Smith,MFA'89, recently had a show entitled "LandscapePaintings" at the Artemisia Gallery in Chicago.Brian K. Boonstra, AB'90, see 1991, AmyKyung Wha Lee. Grace P. Chan, AB'90,AM'90, see 1987, Thomas M. McKibben III. BarryY. Freeman, AB'90, an associate at Anspach Associates, a Toledo, OH, law firm, married Karen Schiffin May. Guests included John Alfano, AB'90; StevenL. Goldstein, AB'90; Sima Medow Oberlander,AB'90; Michael Oberlander, AB'90; and Michael J.Sherman, AB'91. Richard B. Harper, AB'90, JD'93,see 1991, Laura Frankel.Nathan W. Judd, AB'90, is aboard the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, homeported in Alameda,CA, on a six-month Western Pacific, Indian Ocean,and Persian Gulf deployment. Natalie H. Vania,AB'80, after receiving a Ph.D. in philosophy fromthe University of Maryland and enjoying a year asan assistant professor at St. Cloud State University,is now a faculty member in the department of philosophy at Stanford, As perhaps the first American-bom Parsi Woman, she writes, she is "fortunate toenjoy activity in the Federation of Zoroastrian Associations of North America."Teresa M. Alvarez, MBA'91, and her husband,Peter Gerritsen, are pleased to announce thebirth of their first child, Anthony Elias, in July. JohnA. Flaherty, JD'91, joined the law firm of McDermott,Will & Emery in Chicago as an associate in the corporate department. Laura Frankel, AB'91, marriedRichard B. Harper, AB'90, JD'93, in Summit, NJ, onJuly 3. In attendence were: John P. Tullsen, Jr., AB'90; AlpaJ. Patel, AB'90; Joan R. Patterson, AB'91;James W. Ducayet, AB'91; Patrick C. Valdez, AB'91;Noel J. Francisco, AB'91; Suzanne T. Gurland,AB'91; Renee L. Potter, AB'92; Suzanne D. Ryan,AB'92, Jennifer E. Goldberg, AB'92; Jennifer A.Madan, a student in the College; and Laura's parents:Trina Newstein Frankel, AB'64, and Jeffrey Frankel,MD'66. Richard is clerking for a federal judge, andLaura is attending graduate school in industrial andlabor relations.Amy Kyung Wha Lee, AB'91, a third-year sociology graduate student at the University of Michigan,Ann Arbor, married Brian K. Boonstra, AB'90, afourth-year mathematics graduate student at Michigan, in May at the U of C's Bond Chapel. Bridal attendants included: Naoko Ishibe, AB'91, a second-yeargraduate student at the Harvard School of PublicHealth, and Linda H. Chin, AB'90, who works atBrown Brothers Harriman. Groomsmen includedPanayotis G. Panayotaros, SB'90, a fourth-yearphysics graduate student at the University of Texas,Austin, and David S. Graff, SB'90, a fourth-yearphysics graduate student at Michigan. Also attendingwere: John D. Wong, AB'90; Anton I. Neilsen, AB'90;Christine Kelly Neilsen, AB'90, AM'90; Ken Ono,AB'89; Erika Anderson Ono, AB'90; Elizabeth L.Manning, AB'90; David Cheng, a student at Pritzker;and Mary C. Brinton, associate professor of sociologyat Chicago.Ronald E. Barker, MBA'92, has been namedexecutive vice president of American SteelFoundries, a division of AMSTED Industries. LorenJ.Butler, PhD'92, see 1987, Stuart M. Feffer. MaryLuCianciolo, MBA'92, was recently hired as executivevice president and general counsel of Hoemer Therapy, Inc., a rehabilitation management company.Ayelle A. Dayan, AB'92, married Eric M. Schudy, AB'89, in May 1993 at the Chicago Hilton andTowers. Attending were: Scott A. Schudy, AB'90;Panina Medow Licht, AB'92; Jacob Licht, AB'93;David S.Janus, AB'93; Rachel B. Levin, X"92; WilliamM. Bryant, AB'92; Gail Gutterman Bryant, AB'92;Andrew M. Slobodien, AM'90; Michael S. Kochin,AM'92; Janet Skloot Katz, AB'89; Ashley E. Wivel,X'92; Jeffrey B. Kaufman, AB'88; Neil A. Chriss,SB'89, PhD'93; Sandra L. Storey, AB'89, AM'93; AlanJ. Roche, SM'89; and Deirdre A. Terry, AB'92.Kevin R. Eckert, AB'92, recently graduated fromthe Basic School at Marine Corps Combat Development Command in Quantico, VA. Jason L.Engeriser, AB'92, embarked in August on a year ofteaching English in Poland and Kaliningrad, Russia,under the auspices of WorldTeach, a private nonprofit organization based at Harvard University.Joseph G. Manning, AM'85, PhD'92, has left theOriental Institute after having been a graduate student and, most recently, a research associate. As aformer resident head in Broadview Hall, he invites"all interested friends and former students to lookme up in my new job in the department of classics,Princeton University."James A. Harrill III, AM'89, PhD'93, has ajoint appointment as lecturer in New Testament and Early Christian literature at the U of Cand assistant professor of New Testament studies atthe Catholic Theological Union in Chicago. Scott D.McKinney, AB'93, has joined American Management Systems, Inc. as a business systems analyst intheir Washington, D.C. office. Stephen J. Rolfs,MBA'93, has been hired as an investment analyst byBrown-Forman Corporation, a diversified producerand marketer of consumer products. He is based inLouisville, KY. Christopher P. Sonderby, JD'93, see1930, Max E. Sonderby.HeathsFACULTYAlbert A. Dahlberg, professor emeritus in theWalter G. Zoller Memorial Dental Clinic and theanthropology department, died July 30 of heart failurein his home in Franklin Grove, IL. He was 84. Whileat the U of C, Dahlberg established in the anthropology department one of the world's leading centers forthe anthropological study of dentition. Part of a teamorganized in 1967 to study the adaptability of Eskimos to the Arctic climate, Dahlberg contended thatteeth played an important role in the survival of thepeoples who migrated across the land bridge fromSiberia to Alaska. He is survived by his wife, Thelma; adaughter, Cordelia Dahlberg Benedict, AM'67; twosons, Albert E. Dahlberg, MD'65, PhD'68, and JamesE. Dahlberg, PhD'66; and eight grandchildren.Walter D. Fackler, professor emeritus in the Graduate School of Business, died July 22 in Chicago. Hewas 71. A faculty member since 1960, he served asassociate dean of the GSB from 1962 to 1969 andacting dean from 1968 to 1969. The author of manyarticles on economics and a consultant to businesses,government agencies, and foundations, Fackler wasperhaps best known among Chicago alumni andfriends for his 31 consecutive appearances as akeynote speaker at the GSB's annual Business Forecast Luncheon. He is survived by his wife, Hazel;three sons, including Neil E. Fackler, MBA'79; twogranddaughters; a brother; and three sisters.Roy R. Grinker, SB'21, MD'21, professor emeritusof psychiatry, died May 9 at his home in Chicago. Hewas 92. A former student of Sigmund Freud, hetaught psychiatry and psychoanalysis for nearly six decades. In 1951, he founded the Institute of Psychosomatic and Psychiatric Research and Training atMichael Reese Hospital. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Award by the American PsychiatricAssociation in 1972. He is survived by his wife, Mildred; a daughter; a son, Roy R. Grinker, Jr., PhB'47;five grandchildren; and five great-grandchildren.Thorkild Jacobsen, PhD'29, former director of theOriental Institut and dean of humanities, diedMay 2 in Lebanon, NH. He was 88. In 1950, hehelped to unearth Sumerian clay tablets and translatecuneiform symbols written 3,800 years earlier. Healso led a team that discovered a 6,000-year-old irrigation canal near the Euphrates River. Most recently,he taught at Harvard for 12 years, until his retirement in 1974. Survivors include his wife, Katryna;four stepdaughters; a sister; and six grandchildren.A.K. Ramanujan, the William E. Colvin Professor in South Asian Languages and Civilizationsand the Committee on Social Thought, died July13 in Chicago. He was 64. An internationallyrenowned poet and scholar who studied mythology, folklore, poetics, and South Indian and English literatures, he was the author or editor of morethan 15 books. His most recent translationsinclude Poems of Love and War (1985) and Folktales from India (1991). His translation Speaking ofSiva (1973) was nominated for a National BookAward and became the basis for a BBC-producedopera. At the time of his death, he was working ona translation of women's oral tales from the Indianlanguage Kannada. He is survived by his formerwife, Molly Daniels; a son, Krishna; and a daugh-University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 43ler, Krittika. A University memorial service will beheld in the fall1910sAlberta Stimson Drake, PhB'19, of LaGrange Park,IL, died in her sleep on June 10. She was 96. She issurvived by two sons, Richard Drake, AM'50, andGeorge A. Drake, DB'62, AM'63, PhD'65; a daughter; a son-in-law, Charles Erickson, AM'50, DB'51;ten grandchildren; 1 1 great grandchildren; and acousin, Anne Macpherson, AB'44, SB'45, AM'54.1920sJoseph F. Bohrer, PhB'23, JD'24, a retired attorney, died May 24 in Bloomington, IN. He was 94.Throughout his life, he served on numerous boards,including those of the Mental Health Association,Parklands Foundation, and the Adlai E. StevensonLecture Series. Survivors include his wife, Margaret;two daughters; three grandsons; and two great-grandsons.Henry D. Ephron, AB'25, died at his home in Missoula, MT, August 22, 1992. He was 87. Survivorsinclude his wife, Marguerite Heinsch Ephron, X'35.David J. Shipman, PhB'24, JD'27, a former Masterin Chancery in the U.S. District Court, died April11. Active in civic duties, he was president of theChicago City Club in 1960. He is survived by adaughter, Nan Spector; a son-in-law, Marshall Spec-tor, SM'59; a grandson, Anthony J. Spector, AB'91.AM'93; a granddaughter, Jessica Spector, AM'92;and Jessica's husband, Michael Delgass, a student atthe Law School.Philip R. Toomin, LLB'26, a longtime Chicagoattorney specializing in civil litigation and appellatereview, died May 23. He was 91. After he wasappointed associate justice of the High Court of theU.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific in 1957, he andhis wife, Pauline, spent several years on Moen, inthe Truk Islands.' He is survived by his wife, a son, adaughter, and two grandsons,Mamie Harmon, AM'27, painter, editor, graphicdesigner, and writer, died of a heart attack June 19 inRed Bank, NJ. She was 86. From 1928-1932, shetaught English in girls' academies in China and studied painting and calligraphy. She later became a reference book editor at Funk & Wagnalls in New Yorkcity. She is survived by a nephew and many friends.Caroline Lander Adams, SM'28, a former professorof botany at George Washington University and abiology teacher at the National Cathedral School, diedof cardiopulmonary failure March 3 1 in Alexandria,VA. As an American Association of UniversityWomen fellow, she earned a Ph.D. in botany from theUniversity of Wisconsin. Survivors include a daughter, Joyce B. Adams, AM'62, PhD'68, and a grandson.Robert McDougal, Jr., JD'29, a lawyer and retiredpartner in the law firm of Winston & Strawn, diedMay 23 in Chicago. He was 88. President from 1948to 1962 of the Chicago Child Care Society, he alsoserved on the national board of the NAACP LegalDefense and Educational Fund. Survivors includehis wife, Helen; a daughter, Nancy McDougal Fry,MAT'60; a son; and six grandchildren.1930sHelen Griffin Tibbitts, AM'30, PhD'68, formerexecutive secretary of the behavioral science andhioslatislies fellowship review committees at theNational lnslilulcs of Health, died of a heart attackDecember 19 in Newton, MA. She was 86. Survivorsinelude three daughters, 12 grandchildren, 12 greatgrandchildren, and two sisters.Dale A. Letts, PhB'31, JD'35, a retired attorneyand former associate municipal court judge in Amarillo, TX, died June 3. He was 83. A collegiatemiddle-distance runner, he won NCAA championship races in 1931 and 1932. He is survived byhis wife, Louise; a daughter; a son; grandson; and abrother, Louis N. Letts, X'42.Robert W. Mollendorf, SB'31, SM'40, a retiredChicago elementary school principal and mathematics teacher, died in May. He was 94. Survivorsinclude a sister and three nieces.Donald M. Crooks, SM'29, PhD'33, who retiredafter 28 years from the U.S. Department of Agriculture as an assistant director of crops research, diedof a stroke November 19 in San Diego, CA. He was90. Earlier in his career, he taught biology at BallState University and the University of Arizona. He issurvived by two daughters, seven grandchildren,and seven great-grandchildren.James W. Tobin, MD'34, who practiced medicineand surgery in Elgin, IL, for more than 50 years,died June 12. He was 85. A major and the chief surgeon of the 95th station hospital in Kunming,China, during WWII, he was awarded a meritoriousservice citation. He is survived by a sister; a brother,John R. Tobin, MD'42; and a niece,Joseph E. Killough, MBA'36, a former vice president of National Bulk Carriers, died January 6 in FtLauderdale, FL. He was 78. A naval officer duringWWII, he served as an assistant to President Roosevelt at the Yalta Conference. He is survived byfamily, and by friends throughout the world,William H. Safranek, SB'36, a retired electrochemical engineer for Battelle Research Institute in Ohio,died April 16 after a long illness. He was 78. Activein the American Electro-Plating Society, he was apast president of the organization. Survivors includehis wife.Jeanette; three sons; and three grandsons.Robert S. Leavitt, JD'37, a Seattle businessman,died May 5 of complications related to lymphoma,A philanthropist, he was one of the founders of theChildren's Benevolent League, later known as theAssociation of Retarded Citizens. He is survived byhis wife, Rhea; three brothers; two daughters; a son;and five grandchildren.Virginia Schwarz Softer, AB'37, a retired psychiatric social worker, died June 15 at her home in Fremont, CA. She was 80. Active in communityactivities, she was a member of the Fremont LibraryAdvisory Commission and the political action committee of the National Organization of Women. Sheis survived by a sister, a niece, and a nephew.Gertrude A. Heidenthal, PhD'38, professor emeritus of biology at Russell Sage College, died January 29after a brief illness. She was 84. Involved in geneticsexperiments at the Rockefeller Institute, she studiedthe effects of radiation on future generations of thewasp Habrobracon. There are no immediate survivors.Melvin Greenstein, AB'39, MBA'40, retired executive director of the Orchard Mental Health Center inSkokie, died February 1. He was 72. Formerly abusinessman, he began a career in the human services field at the Chicago Jewish Vocational Serviceand, later, as executive director of the Kennedy JobTraining Center in Palos Park, IL. Sunivors includehis wife, Rebecca; two daughters, Judith GreensteinSloss, AB'68, and Barbara P. Greenstein, AB'71; ason; a son-in-law, Peter Sloss, SM'66; six grandchildren; a sister, Adeline Greenstein Zweig, PhB'35;and two cousins, Benjamin Greenstein, PhB'31,AM'33, and Melvin Gerstein, SB'42, PhD'45. Hisfirst wife, Pearl, died in 1988.1940sRobert E. Joranson, SB'40, MD'44, a physician fornearly 40 years, died of respiratory failure in CouncilBluffs, IA, February 26. He was 74. He spent muchof his career at Jennie Edmunson Memorial Hospital,where he served two terms as chief of staff. He is sur vived by his wife, Virginia Johnson Joranson, AB'39;two sons; a daughter; a grandson; and a nephew.Elwood Meschter, X'40, MBA'49, a commercialwriter who worked most recently for AmericanMetal Market, died May 28 in Westmont, IL. He was75. An avid stamp collector and gardener, he wasalso an active member of the Church of Holy Nativity and its vestry. He is survived by his wife,Josephine Bailey Meschter, AM'43; two brothers; ason; and two grandchildren,Svea Gustafson Rydin, AB'40, the teaching supervisor of St. Joseph Hospital School of Medical Technologists in Arizona until her retirement in 1970,died of a heart attack June 19 in her home. She was77. Svea had fought diabetes for 62 years. She is survived by her husband, Russell.Leo Srole, PhD'40, a former sociology professor atColumbia University, died May 1 in Queens, NY,He was 84. In 1962, he authored the Midtown Manhattan Study, an often-cited report finding that only18.5 percent of 1,660 New York city residents studied were in good mental health. He is survived byhis wife, Esther; a son; a daughter; a brother; asister; two grandchildren; two step-grandchildren;and a step-great-grandchild.Irving Sheft, SB'41, SM'44, a chemist on the U ofC research team that first split the atom, died of amassive coronary in June. A native Chicagoan, heworked for 45 years as an inorganic chemist withArgonne National Laboratory. He is survived by hiswife, Bernice Blum Sheft, SB'41, SM'42; a daughter;a son; and a sister.John W. Fitzgerald, SB'43, who was mayor ofBurbank, IL, for 2 1 years, died May 1 1 in his Floridahome after a long battle with cancer. A psychologyand biology teacher at a Burbank high school, healso coached the school's wrestling team to threestate titles. Survivors include a sister,Barrmgton D. Parker, JD'46, a federal district courtjudge, died June 2 in Washington, DC. He was 77.Appointed to the bench by President Nixon in 1969,he presided over the trial of John Hinckley, Jr., thewould-be assassin of President Reagan. He is survivedby his wife, Majorie Holloman Parker, AM'51, PhD'51;two sons; an uncle; and three granddaughters,James B. Parsons, AM'46, JD'49, a federal judgefor the northern district of Illinois since 1961, diedJune 20 in Chicago. He was 81. Appointed by President John F. Kennedy, he was the first AfricanAmerican to receive a lifetime appointment as a federal district court judge. He is survived by a son, asister, and a grandson,Victor A. Schmidt, SB'46, a retired meteorologistin the US Air Force, died May 12 in Warner Robins,GA. He was 71. He is sun'ived by his wife, Jerry-dine; a son; two stepdaughters; six grandchildren;and two brothers.Grant E. Curtis, AM'47, emeritus dean of financial aid at Tufts University, died May 6 at his homein Winchester, MA. He was 72. In the 1950s, he wasa leader in the movement for need-based financialaid. He survived by his wife, Elaine; a daughter; ason; and two grandchildren.Jack E. Jones, AM'47, a Baptist minister of congregations in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Indiana, diedMay 6 in Milwaukee. He was 74. He is survived byhis wife, Gladys; two sons; nine grandchildren; hismother; a sister; and two brothers. .Woodson W. Fishback, PhD'48, retired associateprofessor of educational administration at SouthernIllinois University at Cabondale, died May 27 inSpringfield, MO. He was 83. During his career, hepublished in professional journals and spoke atnumerous educational conferences. He is survivedby his wife, Mildred; a son; four grandchildren; andtwo great-grandchildren.T. D. Lingo, PhB'48, AM'51, died of heart failure inhis cabin on Laughing Coyote Mountain, CO. He was44 University of Chicago Magazine/October 199368. With the money he won on the 1950s "You BetYour Life" show, he founded the Dormant BrainResearch and Development Laboratory; arguing thathumans use only 10 percent of their brain capacity,he developed a series of techniques designed to helppeople stimulate their untapped intellectual potential,Barbara Blumenthal Miller, AB'49, AM'63, diedMarch 14 in Evanston, IL, after a long illness. She issurvived by her husband, Sheldon; two daughters; agrandson; an aunt, Sarah Blumenthal Schaar, X'23,and a cousin, David L. Blumenthal, AM'49.1950sJoseph E. Layeock, PhD'52, professor emeritus ofthe faculty of social work at the University ofToronto, died April 14 in Toronto. During the1950s, he served as executive secretary of the Welfare Council of Ottawa, where he instituted new services for the sick, aged, and destitute.Edward C. Posner, AB'52, SM'53, PhD'57, died ina traffic accident June 15. He was 59. At the time ofhis death, he was the chief technologist of thedepartment of telecommunications and data acquisition at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena,CA, and a visiting professor of electrical engineeringat Caltech. Survivors include his wife, Sylvia KouzelPosner, X'51; a son, Steven K. Posner, AB'83; adaughter; and a sister.David I. Cheifetz, AM'50, PhD'56, professoremeritus of psychology at Rush Presbyterian-St.Luke's Medical Center and the first chair of thedepartment of psychology and social sciences,died May 24 in Chicago. He was 70. His recentpublications concerned visual perception, motordisabilities, and emotional disturbance in personsbeing treated for Parkinson's disease. He is survived by his wife, Laurann; a daughter, Davina L.Cheifetz, AB'75; two sons; five grandchildren; anda sister.Sidney R. Bernstein, MBA'56, chair of the executive committee of Crain Communications and theformer editor and publisher of Advertising Age magazine, died May 29 in Chicago. He was 86. A nativeof Chicago, he began his career at Crain as a messenger and remained with the company for 71years. He is survived by his wife, Adele, and a son.Clayton A. Smith, jr., AB'56, SB'57, director ofthe astrometry department of the U.S. Naval Observatory, died of cancer May 27 at his home in Washington, DC. An authority in the cataloging of stellarpositions and motions, he was a principal contributor to an international attempt to map the northernsky. Survivors include his companion, George A.Mathews; his mother; two sisters', two brothers; andcousin, Ruth F. Hanke, SB'44.1960sFrederickJ. Streng, DB'60, PhD'63, a member ofthe faculty of the Program in Religious Studies atSouthern Methodist University, died of cancerJune 21 at his home in Dallas. He was 59. As a theologian, he centered his writings around a definition of religion as "a process of ultimatetransformation." He is survived by his wife, BetteSue; several children and grandchildren; and otherfamily members, including a brother, Adolph C.Streng, Jr., AM'64.David A. Lilly, AB'66, a physicist and former president of Unitronix Corporation, died of lymphomaMay 2 at his home in Haddonfield, PA. He was 48.He is survived by his wife, Susan Lutz Lilly, AB'66;two sons, including Thomas H. Lilly, a third-yearstudent in the College; his mother; and four brothers, including James Lilly, AB'68, AM'69, MBA'80.Constance E. Cronin, AM'62, PhD'67, an associateprofessor of anthropology at the University of Arizona. died April 22 after a long illness. She was 60. Based onher early research of Sicilian villagers in Sicily and asimmigrants to Australia, she wrote a book entided TheSting of Change. There are no immediate survivors.Marianne Bell Jackson, AB'67, a fourth-gradeteacher in Wisconsin, died recently, the victim of adrunk driver. She was 49. Survivors include herhusband, Michael R. Jackson, AM'74; a daughter;and a sister.1970sPhilip L. Davis, AB'72, a health food store manager, died June 9 in Chicago. He was 43. He is survived by his longtime companion, David Zahara;and seven sisters and brothers.1980sKelly E. Stephens, MAT'83, was fatally injuredJune 13 during a sudden eruption on Mt. Krakatoa,Indonesia. She was 37. A former English teacher at arefugee camp on the island of Galang, she hadworked for the British Council since 1986, developing English language centers throughout Indonesia.ART AND ARCHITECTUREStephen D. Korshak, AB'74, editor, A HannesBok Treasury (Underwood-Miller). A science fiction illustrator for 30 years, Hannes Bok is bestknown for his paintings, woodcarvings, and illustrations. This book features some of his previouslyunpublished paintings and drawings, and raresamples of his work in costume design and papermache masks.Buford L. Pickens, AM'37, The Missions ofNorthern Sonora (University of Arizona Press). In1935, the National Park Service surveyed theSpanish missions founded by Padre Eusebio Kinoin Sonora, Mexico, during the 1690s and early1700s to prepare for its restoration of the missionat Tumacacori, Arizona. This volume reproducesthat previously unpublished report in full, focusing on 16 missions and including maps, drawings,and photographs.Dickinson Weber, SM'58, Downtown Street Views(c. 1990) of Early Tall Buildings from the BaysideCities and Tidewater Towns of Northern California: AMain Street California (c. 1930) Sentimental Sketchbook Collection (Sandscape Press). This book is oneof the "Downtown" series of travel books, alsoincluding The Great Capitals series and The California Region.BIOGRAPHY AND LETTERSJames L. Rice, AM'64, PhD'65, Freud's Russia(Transaction Publishers). Rice traces Freud's Russian connections and interests, friends and patients,his family background in Odessa, and his long fascination with Dostoevsky.Emilie M. Townes, AB'77, AM'79, DMN'82,Womanist Justice, Womanist Hope (Scholars Press).Ida B. Wells-Bamett (1862-1931) was an African-American activist, social reformer, and church-woman. This book recovers her life and historicalcontext, examining the extent to which her perspective is a resource for a contemporary womanistChristian social ethic. The author pays particular She is survived by her parents, a grandmother, abrother, two sisters, a niece, and a nephew.Notice of Death ReceivedLouise Magor, PhBT8, March.BemiceJ. Clifford, PhB'25, May.Isabelle Williams Holt, PhB'26, March 1990.Gertrude Wright Wessman, PhB'26, December 1992,Mary Wright Wilson, SB'27,June 1991.Harriet Dinier Partridge, PhB'28, March.Alice M. Atwood, MBA'30, March.Jessie Stilwell Ellingson, PhB'34, December 1991.Robert E. Gregg, SB'35, PhD'41, January.Bernice Quateman Madison, AM'37, PhD' 52Wallace S. Baldinger, PhD'38, January.Harold R. Steinhauser, AB'42, MBA'43.Yau Luen Li, AM'44, April.Elizabeth Sturdevant Ashton, AB'46, December 1992.Robert E. Lawhome, PhB'48, January.Catherine O'Neill Temple, AM'54.Frank E. O'Brien, MBA'55, December 1992.Thomas D. Wofford, Jr., MBA'66, November 1992.Donald G. Snider, SM'70, December 1992.Robert B. Wilson, AB'77, March.attention to Wells-Barnett's participation in theanti-lynching campaigns of the late 19th century.BUSINESS AND ECONOMICSColin J. Coulson-Thomas, X'75, DevelopingDirectors: Building an Effective Boardroom Team(McGraw-Hill). This book draws upon theauthor's extensive experience of working withdirectors and boards, and suggests a route toeffective action. It offers trainers practical solutions in such matters as: how boards can play amore effective role in the organization; how directors should be prepared for the boardroom; andwhat qualities and competencies directors mustpossess and develop.David L. James, JD'60, Doing Business in Asia(Betterway Books). A guide for owners and managers of small and medium-sized businesses onhow to succeed in the dynamic markets of EastAsia and Southeast Asia, this book explores thebusiness practices and cultures of ten Asian countries. Each country's profile includes the story of anAmerican company that is succeeding there.Steven E. Landsburg, SM'75, PhD'79, The Armchair Economist: Economics and Everyday Life (FreePress/Macmillan). Using ideas from economictheory to illuminate human behavior, issues of justice and morality, news reporting, public policy, andscience and religion, this book is a compendium ofessays about how economists think, the things theyfind mysterious, and how they try to solve those-mysteries. The author writes, "There are a lot ofgood reasons to leam about economics, but the onestressed in this book is that economics is a tool forsolving mysteries, and solving mysteries is fun."CHILDREN'S FICTIONV. Valiska Gregory, AM'66, Through the MickleWoods (Little, Brown & Company). This children'spicture book, with illustrations by Barry Moser, celebrates the capacity of the human spirit to choose love,as told in the story of a boy who convinces a king toBooks by AlumniUniversity of Chicago Magazine/October i 993 45make a snow)1, midnight journey through the greatwoods 10 find an old bear.Vicky Shiefman, AB'64, Good-bye to the Trees(Atheneum). This children's novel, set in 1907, follows 13-year-old Fagel from her home and family inRussia to her first home in America with an aunt anduncle, focusing on her later work as a live-in servantfor a bossy neighbor and her budding romance witha boy she meets at a dance. Throughout her struggles, Fagel wrestles with a resentment which callsinto question the "blessings" of the New World.Mary Walter Woodrich, AB'38, The Christmas TreeRide (Holiday House). In this children's book, a familygoes looking for a Christmas tree on a snowy day andmeets Mr. Pennyman, a lonely tree farmer. The familywelcomes him into their home for a Christmas dinnerby the tree they picked out together.CRITICISMEyal Y. Amiran, AB'81, Wandering and Home:Beckett's Metaphysical Narrative (Penn State Press).Amiran explores how Beckett's fiction actuallytransposes a complex logic from the Western metaphysics it is often said to disown, and, as a result,inhabits a place in a literary and philosophical tradition that extends from Plato to Yeats and Joyce.Carol Greene Duncan, AB'58, AM'60, The Aesthetics of Power (Cambridge University Press). Published as part of the series "Cambridge Studies inNew Art History and Criticism," this volume gathers the author's key essays from the past 20 years,examining (among other things) images of mothers,fathers, and children in 18th-century art and culture, avant-garde paintings of female nudes, and therole of art criticism in today's art marketHarriet Schwartz Murav, AB'76, AM'77, HolyFoolishness. Dostoevsfcy 's Novels and the Poetics ofCultural Critique (Stanford University Press). Thisbook traces the ways in which Dostoevsky's appropriation and reinvention of the Russian holy fool,from Crime and Punishment to The Brothers Karama-Zov, serve as the locus of three interrelated problems: narrative innovation, cultural critique, andauthorial representation.Eric C. Rasmussen, AM'83, PhD'90, and DavidBevington.the Phyllis Fay Horton professor in theHumanities, editors, Doctor Faustus: A- and B-texts(1604, 1616) (Manchester University Press), One ofthe series of "Revel Plays" in which the editors seek"to apply to Shakespeare's predecessors, contemporaries, and successors the methods that are now usedin Shakespeare editing," this book offers both textsof Christopher Marlowe's work. The editors arguethat the two texts are products of strikingly differentconditions of authorship and collaboration, revisionand expansion, and theatrical management.EDUCATIONH. Gene Blocker, AB'60, and Michael J. Parsons,Aesthetics and Education (University of IllinoisPress). Designed to help art educators, potentialeducators, and curriculum developers integrate aesthetics into the study of art in the school curriculum, this book introduces some of art'sphilosophical problems and questions, encouragingteachers and olhers to form a personal outlook.Robert E. Boostrom, PhD'91, David T. Hansen,AB'76, PhD'90, and Philip W. Jackson, the David LeeShillinglaw distinguished professor in the educationand psychology. The Moral Life of Schools (Jossey-B.iss). Focusing on a variety of elementary and secondary school classrooms, this book reveals the waysin which moral complexity and ambiguity permeatethe everyday lives of teachers and their students,Karen Carlson Zelan, AM'67, The Risks of Knowing: Developmental Impediments to School Learning The Aesthetics of Power (see Criticism).(Plenum Press). Zelan traces the psychotherapeutictreatment progress of 60 young people who, havingretreated from learning for psychological reasons,work with the author to resume their "knowing"attitude toward learning,FICTION AND POETRYDante A. Puzzo, AB'40; AM'45, PhD'56, PeeringInto the Darkness (Randatamp Press). An inquiryinto the essence of 20th-century life, this book isconcerned not only with salient historical events butalso with the hopes and fears of ordinary men andwomen. As an "esstory," it is "both essay and fiction, a biography of the children of an age."GENDER STUDIESSister Frances Bernard O'Connor, AM'61, LikeBread, Their Voices Rise! (Ave Maria Press). Crossingcultural and institutional barriers, O'Connor presentsan in-depth exploration of the questions central to thelife of Catholic women in the U.S., Brazil, Bangladesh,and Uganda. Disappointed by the church's policiestoward women, the author calls for women to emergefrom their nameless place and claim their rightful roleas equal members of the church.Sarah Friedberger LeVine, AM'66, with Clara Sunderland Correa, Dolor Y Alegn'a: Women and SocialChange in Urban Mexico (University of WisconsinPress). A compilation of vignettes from 15 mothers,grandmothers, and great-grandmothers in Cuer-navaca, Mexico, this book explores the experiences ofworking- and lower middle-class women, most ofthem transplants from villages and small towns to adensely populated city neighborhood. Combiningthese vignettes with ethnographic material, surveyfindings, and observations, the author traces thechanging role of women in Mexican culture.HISTORY/CURRENT EVENTSWilliam F. Brundage, AB'81, Lynching in the NewSouth (University of Illinois Press). Based on ananalysis of nearly 600 lynchings, this book examines the complex relationship between lynching andmob violence. By focusing on Virginia and Georgia,the author explores how lynching variations overspace and time can be explained; to what extent lynching was a social ritual affirming traditionalvalues; and what factors, finally, caused its decline.David L. Protess, AM'70, PhD'74, and Rob Warden,Gone in the Night: The Dowaliby Family's Encounterwith Murder and the Law (Delacorte). This bookchronicles the effect of the criminal justice system andthe news media on a suburban Chicago family aftertheir 7-year-old daughter was abducted from her bedand murdered. The parents were charged with thecrime and the father convicted, only to be exoneratedby new evidence uncovered by the authors.MEDICINE AND HEALTHJames G. Carson, MAT'75, A.W. Hafner, andJohn F. Zwicky, Guide to the American Medical Association Historic Health Fraud and Alternative Medicine Collection (American Medical Association). Oneof the outcomes of a two-year cataloging and preservation project, this book is a comprehensive guideto the AMA's unique collection of primary sourcematerial on health fraud, quackery, patent medicines, and alternative medicine.Elmer E. Cooper, SB'36, MD'39, Take a DeepBreath (Nortex Press). This book is a collection of theauthor's experiences during 44 years of practice ininternal medicine and cardiology in San Antonio, TX.Barbara Beigun Kaplan, AB'65, AM'66, "Divulgingof Useful Truths in Physick": The Medical Agenda ofRobert Boyle (Johns Hopkins University Press). Thisfirst in-depth study of Boyle's medical writingsargues that, in addition to his reputation in chemistry, Boyle deserves recognition for his strong medical interests. In both his published andunpublished writings, the 17th-century English scientist called for medical reform and outlined theproper means for initiating such reform.POLITICAL SCIENCE AND LAWRobert L. Hardgrave, Jr., AM'62, PhD'66, andStanley A. Kochanek, India: Government and Politicsin a Developing Nation, 5th ed. (Harcourt BraceJovanovich). This analysis of Indian domestic politics and international relations addresses such majorissues as the separatist insurgencies in Punjab andKashmir, caste conflict, and the rise of Muslim fundamentalism and Hindu revivalism,Ellen S. Podgor, MBA'87, White Collar Crime in aNutshell (West Publishing Company). This bookprovides a general overview of white collar crime, agrowing area of law,Robert H. Puckett, AM'58, PhD'61, editor, TheUnited States and Northeast Asia (Nelson-Hall). Thiscollection of 11 original essays analyzes emergingtrends in Northeast Asia from several perspectives.The contributors discuss the increasingly multipolarbalance of power; potential interstate, as well asinternal, conflicts; and the role of the U.S. in themove toward security structures based on greaterregional self-reliance.RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHYNorman J. Girardot, AM'68, PhD'74, and Julian F.Pas, translators, Taoist Meditation: The Mao-shanTradition of Great Purity (State University of NewYork Press). Isabelle Robinet's 1979 work is the firstand only scholarly study to discuss the ancient Mao-shan Taoist tradition of visionary meditation while,at the same time, helping to clarify the little-understood relationship among the early Taoist classics,the Buddhist tradition, and the later Taoist religion.Theodore F. Peters, AM'70, PhD'73, God as Trinity: Relationality and Temporality in Divine Life(Westminster/John Knox Press). Peters bringsTrinitarian theology conversation to a new level byexamining the works of Karl Barth, Karl Rahner,46 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993Eberhard Jungel, Jurgen Moltmann, Robert Jenson,Wolffian Pannenberg, and Catherine MowryLaCugna. Addressing the relationship of God's eternity to the world's temporality, Peters claims thatthinking of God as Trinity affirms that the word"God" applies to both eternity and temporality.T, Richard Rice, AM'72, PhD'74, Reason and theContours of Faith (La Sierra University Press). Thecentral purpose of this book is to find an alternativeto both fideism — the idea that reason has nothing todo with faith — and rationalism — the conviction thatreason has everything to do with it. Rice argues thatreason contributes in important, but limited, ways toour understanding of religion; and that reason cansupport religious commitment, but never produce it.J. David Rich, JD'69, Myths of the Tribe: WhenReligion, Ethics, Government and Economics Converge(Prometheus Books). Against a background of cosmology, this book examines the interrelationshipsamong religion, ethics, government, and economics,concluding that three concepts connect the fourprincipal topics, and provide an objective ethicalframework.SOCIAL SCIENCESAlan Page Fiske, AM'73, PhD'85, Structures ofSocial Life: The Four Elementary Forms of HumanRelations (Free Press). This book shows how peoplecombine communal sharing, authority ranking,equality matching, and market pricing to motivate,construct, coordinate, negotiate, and evaluate manyaspects of social relationships in diverse cultures.The book synthesizes classical social theory andwork in cultural anthropology, social and cognitivepsychology, sociology, economics, and evolutionarybiology; it also includes a detailed ethnographicillustration of how the models operate within theMoose tribe of Burkina Faso.Ann Grodzins Gold, AB'75, AM'78, PhD'84, ACarnival of Parting: The Tales of King Bharthari andKing Gopi Chand as Sung and Told by Madhu Nati-sar Nath of Ghatiyali, Rajasthan (University of California Press). A farmer with no formal schooling,Madhu Natisar Nath is also a singer, musician, andstoryteller. At the center of this book is his oral performance of two linked tales about the legendaryIndian kings, Bharthari of Ujjain and Gopi Chandof Bengal. Both characters, while still in theirprime, leave thrones and families to be initiated asyogis — a process that offers unique insights intopopular Hinduism's view of world renunciation.Three introductory chapters and an interpretiveafterword provide ethnographic, historical, and cultural background.Henry L. Munson, Jr., AM'73, PhD'80, Religionand Power in Morocco (Yale University Press). Tracing the evolution of the political role of Islam inMorocco from the 17th century to the present,Munson integrates anthropology and history, illustrating to what extent Moroccan fundamentalism isrooted in classical Islamic notions of "just rule" andto what extent it represents an invented tradition,similar to recent forms of politicized revivalism inother religions.Eric G. Singer, AM'78, and Valerie Hudson, editors, Political Psychology and Foreign Policy (West-view Press). This volume combines a centraloverview of "post-scholarship" with the latestempirical findings and conceptualizations, whileplacing political psychology in the larger "theatrical" context of international relations.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," please sendthe name of the book, its author, its publisher, anda short synopsis to the Books Editor, University ofChicago Magazine, 5757 S. Woodlawn Ave.,Chicago, IL 60637. Other VoicesContinued from page 48condition of country music.Most often, country songs figure homeand family in opposition to the honky-tonk.There are numerous variations on thistheme: the man comes home from thehonky-tonk, the honky-tonk becomes theman's new home, the woman decides shecan honky-tonk, too. What makes the bestof these songs fascinating is the richness ofdetail with which they enact the collapsingdomestic ideal, and the loss, resignation,humor, and occasional defiance whichaccompany the collapse. Perhaps thestrangest twist to this theme is in "I'mGoing to Hire a Wino to Decorate OurHome," as David Frizell sings:"She said I'm gonna hire a wino /To -decorate our home, /So you'll feel more at easehere,/And you won't need to roam. /We'lltake out the dining room table, /We'll put abar along the wall, /And a neon sign willpoint the way /To our bathroom down thehall..."Still, there is one home that remainsunharmed by the honky-tonk, and that isthe home in which the singer grew up. Thechildhood home is always depicted as aplace where life was impossibly difficult —and the family unimaginably close. LorettaLynn puts it most succinctly in her song"Coal Miner's Daughter": "We were poor,but we had love."Dolly Parton punctures Lynn's brand ofnostalgia with her song "In the Good OldDays (When Times Were Bad)": "Noamount of money could buy from me /Thememories that I have of then. /No amountof money could pay me /To go back andlive through it again...."More typical and more popular wasJohnny Cash's "Daddy Sang Bass" (writtenby Carl Perkins) .which obeys the sentimental conventions of the song about the childhood home: "No, the circle won't bebroken/By and by, Lord, by and by; /Daddysang bass, Mama sang tenor, /Me and littlebrother would join right in there/ In thesky, Lord, in the sky."The interpolation of "Will the Circle BeUnbroken" both tells us what the familysang, and positions "Daddy Sang Bass" as acontinuation of the old spiritual. Religion,as the politicians know, lurks just below thesurface of country music's rhetoric of home.It's no coincidence that "Stand by YourMan," "Daddy Sang Bass," and "Okie fromMuskogee" all were #1 hits in 1969, whenmany Americans were seeking ways to rebut and rebuke the counterculture. Ofcourse, at the same time, the counterculturewas also tapping into the power of country:1969 was the year of Bob Dylan's NashvilleSkyline, the Flying Burrito Brothers' TheGilded Palace of Sin (the cornerstone ofcountry-rock), and the Rolling Stones'"Honky Tonk Woman."In 1993, we again find country musicenjoying unprecedented popularity, whileremaining as ambivalent and contradictoryas ever — from Randy Travis' Bush-derived"Points of Light" to Garth Brooks' pro-gay"We Shall Be Free." It is country music'snostalgia, resignation, faith, and hope — or,rather, its simplified versions of these qualities — that presidents and candidates appropriate and allude to. And it is the"combination" of these qualities (to quoteNixon's Grand Ole Opry speech) thatmakes country ripe for more surprisingappropriations, such as Sinead O'Connor'siconoclastic version of Loretta Lynn's "Success (Has Made a Failure Of Our Home),"or k.d. lang's now-discarded country stance,or the playing of "Stand By Your Man"(Lyle Lovett's version) over the closingcredits of The Crying Game.Country music provides musicians andpoliticians with a rich set of narrow, versatile, and seemingly inexhaustible cliches,cliches which are particularly useful atmoments when national norms are beingcontested — or, as Nixon put it, "whenAmerica needs character." Yet countrymusic is also proof that the "silent majority"may not be as pliable or simple as politicians might believe, or hope.During the Vietnam War, Loretta Lynnrecorded "Uncle Sam," about a womanwho, with "trembling hand," writes to thegovernment on behalf of her soldier-lover,"You said you really need him, but youdon't need him like I do."The song concludes abruptly as the "woman receives a telegram: "I'm sorry toinform you...." Her quavering voice, speaking over the countrified version of "Taps,"is quite hokey, but also quite chilling. Thereare rock songs from this era which addressthe war more defiantly and angrily, butnone attempts to express this sort of weariness and disbelief. It's not exactly a protestsong, but it's not a real flag-waver, either.Nixon wouldn't have requested it.WiH Pritchard, SM'92, is a graduate studentin English. This article is adapted from a talkhe gave during "A Family Values Conference," held at the University last May.University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993 470 thr VoicesDaddySang Bass,MamaSang TenorBy Will PritchardJust five months before he resigned aspresident, Richard Nixon appearedonstage at the opening of the newGrand Ole Opry House in Nashville.Addressing perhaps his only remaining supporters, Nixon had this to say:"What country music is, is that it firstcomes from the heart of America — becausethis is the heart of America, out here inMiddle America. Country music, therefore,has those combinations which are so essential to America's character at a time whenAmerica needs character."Country music helped Nixon to locatesuch formerly metaphorical places as "theheart of America" and "Middle America" —it gave voice to his silent majority. Ofcourse, Nixon acknowledged no discrepancy between country (which is prettymuch all white) and the country. In Nixon'sformulation, country music articulated andnourished the nation's waning characterand, by association, his own.In the score of years since Nixonaddressed the Opry-goers, liking countrymusic seems to have become as necessaryfor presidents and candidates for the job asshaking hands and kissing babies — to loveyour country, you have to love country. Yetcountry music is, in truth, ambivalent andcontradictory about those things it is presumed to value unequivocally: God, home,marriage, childhood, mama and daddy, thelaw, the job.Take Merle Haggard's 1969 song, "OkieFrom Muskogee" — the most explicit statement of what might be called the family-values or silent-majority party line, the tuneNixon once requested when Johnny Cash Country music is ambivalentand contradictoiy about thosethings it is presumed to valueunequivocally: God, home, marriage, childhood, mama anddaddy, the law, the job.sang at the White House.There's something very fishy about thissong. Do we really believe that Haggardever holds hands and pitches woo, as thelyrics suggest? What do we make of the factthat Muskogee's "biggest thrill of all" ismoonshine whiskey? Does the knowledgethat Haggard spent two years in SanQuentin for armed robbery compromise orstrengthen the song's praise of "living rightand being free"?Then there's "Stand by Your Man," thesong that got Hillary Clinton into troublewhen, apropos of her husband's allegedinfidelities, she said: "I'm not sitting herelike some little woman, standing by myman like Tammy Wynette." The remarkwas spun by the Bush campaign into an attack on the sanctity of the family, a rejection of woman's role in marriage, and anexample of post-hippie disrespect for thetraditional values represented by countrymusic.Yet "Stand By Your Man" is a tricky song,too. It begins, after all, with the admissionthat "sometimes it's hard to be a woman,giving all your love to just one man." Andwhen heard in the context of Wynette's previous single, "D-I-V-O-R-C-E," "Stand ByYour Man" seems less of a prescription andmore of a last hope, a plea for those sacrifices which are so essential to a marriage'scharacter at a time when marriage needscharacter.Such anxiety about marriage is not surprising — it is a rare marriage in a countrysong that isn't in some kind of trouble. Thebottle, the other woman, the other man, thenight life, hard times, or good times alwaysthreaten to undermine the family, whateverit values. The breakdown of the traditionalfamily, a condition much bemoaned in the1992 electoral campaigns, is almost a pre-Continued on page 4748 University of Chicago Magazine/October 1993CAMPAIGN FOR THE NEXT CENTURY • PLANNING YOUR GIFT"Our charitable gift annuities provide my wife and me with tax savings as well asincome. The University gave me the training for a successful career and now I cangive something back. 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And full, practicalcoverage of the computer in each stage of thepublishing process — from manuscript preparation to printing.Plenty.What hasn't changed is the standard ofexcellence — and the commitment to clarity,consistency, and good sense — that has made theManual the choice of hundreds of thousands.Since 1906, the Manual has been the indispensable tool of writers, editors, and publishers.Starting in September, a new generation willfind out why. To learn more about what's new,ask your Chicago sales representative forcomplete details. Or call us at (312) 702-7748.The new edition of the "definitive writingreference work, revered by scholars,universities, publishers, and editors."— The B/oomsbury Review. 936 pages 6x9? Shipping September. ISBN: 0-226-10389-7 $40.00• 60,000-copy first printingChicago Fall 1993THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobie House, 5757 WoodlawnChicago, IL 60637ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED