VOLUME 85, NUMBER 4 APRIL 1993III222130 FEA'URESGetting down to fundamentalsReligious fundamentalist groups· are increasing innumber, power, and voice worldwide. A global studybased at the University seeks to find out just howinfluential these movements are.DEBRA LADESTROBorn in the UAASince the Maroons joined the University AthleticAssociation, varsity competition has changed.LESTER MUNSONCatch a falling rayNobel laureate James Cronin_;_known for experimentalparticle physics-looks skyward for some cosmicanswers.TIM OBERMILLER Page 26It's happened many times beforeEach time a woman is raped, says Barbara Engle, AB'75,the individual assault takes place within larger patternsof sexual violence.JAMIE KAL VENCover: Illustration by Cary Henrie (see page 16).Opposite: Maroons basketball coachPat Cunningham gives some time-outadvice; photograph by Dan Dry.2 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993Editors NotesFOR ME, AS FOR MOST MEMBERS OF THECollege Class of 1993, this springmarks the fourth that I've spent onthe quads. And like most of the otherfourth-years, I intend to spend at least aportion of April and May being nostalgic.There will be differences in our nostalgia,of course. As the Magazine's editor, whenthe traditional strawberries-and-champagnereception that follows Convocation on june12 is over, I won't be expected to finishclearing out my room or my apartment, toload up the family station wagon, and tomove on to the real world. Supposedly, I'malready there.Knowing that I don't have to leave theplace that's been home for the past fouryears, I won't need to take long sunsetwalks with friends whose paths will soonpart. I won't sit dawdling over a conversa­tion and asecond or third cup of coffee, allthe while trying not to think about wherewe'll be or what we'll be doing a year fromnow. I won't bake a batch of peanut-buttercookies when I should be studying forcomps. I won't-in what psychologistsmight term an action born of separationanxiety-pen an arrogant note on my finalbluebook: "This question seems ratherirrelevant to me, but since you ask .... "I did all those things the first timearound, as a fourth-year (we called them"seniors") at Washington College, a smallliberal arts college on Maryland's easternshore. That was in 1973. In other words, Ihave sweaters that are older than almost allof this spring's flock of fourth-years.A few weeks ago,Washington's alumnioffice sent out a cheerful-yellow, pre­reunion mailer to the members of the Classof 1973, asking us to write, in one page orless, "the story of how you've spent the last20 years." The resulting pages will be com­piled into a reunion book, and to add tothe anxiety stakes, the instructions com­manded, "Be creative."Even for someone who's learned, as edi­tors do, to "write short," the assignmentseemed daunting. Several paragraphs into afirst draft came the realization that therewas no room for transitions, none of thenarrative flow of how being there led tobeing here. There was no time for chrono­logical order.Forced to write down only the most rele- vant details of one's post-college life meantbeing forced to decide what those relevantdetails were. Marriage, yes. Children, yes.Job, yes. After that, the decisions got harder.Was it important to remind formerfriends of where you'd gone to graduateschool, or the title of your thesis? I begaIlto feel the way you do when sending outmimeographed holiday letters: will thepeople at the receiving end really care?Behind the uncertain question was, Ithink, the same impulse that keeps thiSyear's fourth-years taking long walks andhaving long talks: the urge to make themost of a too-short opportunity to saysomething that's meaningful, somethingthat will remind those people whose pathSare already parting, have already parted,that they were once close friends.So, skipping the stuff that shows up onone's resume, I wrote about the kinds ofthings that we used to talk about. Whatbooks were changing our lives (or just agood read). What kind of music we werelistening to these days. What, if we could,we'd like to change about ourselves. Whatwe'd learned since we saw them last. Whatwe planned to do next.I can't say that what I wrote was pro­found. My future plans, at the moment,include becoming the owner of a Wels�springer spaniel puppy. No mention 0writing the Great American Novel, retiringbefore age 50, or finding inner peace.But looking back on the springtime con­versations of 20 years ago, the contentseems less important than the context. Andwatching the fourth-years, it doesn't see�too much to hope that nostalgia is suIwhat it used to be.-M.R. Y.Required ReadingWith this issue, the Magazine introduceswhat we hope will be a more than occa:,sional department. "Required Readingwill feature essays by faculty in the coIflege, outlining the goals and concerns 0a course they teach and including a sug­gested syllabus of readings. We'll alternatebetween asking professors to write aboutnew courses and about those classes whosetitles-and at least some of the books onthe syllabus-should already be familiar togenerations of College graduates.LettersCost-conscious outrageI found it ironic that "Benefits extend tosame-sex partners" ("Chicago Journal,"February/93) followed an articledescribing the budget crunch the Univer­Sity is experiencing.I certainly do not expect the Universityadministration to allow the alumni a voicein Whether to adopt such programs as theeXtension of spousal benefits to qualifiedsame-sex domestic partners of faculty, staff,and students. At the same time, however,as a loyal alumnus who has conscientiouslystretched his personal budget to supportthe University with an annual donation, Iam outraged by this action, which I con­Sider unwise and immoral. Therefore,please be advised that my financial supportof the University has been terminated.ROBERT B. MERRIFIELD, AM1SO, PHD'S7NASSAU BAY, TEXASBeyond toleranceIt is one thing to be tolerant of viewsand behavior that are controversial. Itis quite another to facilitate conductconsidered by many to be regrettable if notrepugnant, and thus to endorse and tacitlyenCourage its adoption. The recent proudannouncement of the extension of gener­OUs "spousal benefits" to faculty, staff, andStudents (!) living with a sexual partner ofthe same sex raises interesting questionsnOt only about the University's social re­sPonsibility but its fiscal stewardship as:VeIl. One wonders if the supporters of anInstitution of higher learning they greatly�es?�ct realize their donations serve toegUlmize as well as help finance homo­sexual households.Traditionally-and, perhaps, naively-wehave looked to academia for informed wis­dom about the best directions for society�o take. We have thought of it as beingree to liberate us in turn from old notions�ow seen to have been misconceived in theIrSt place and overtaken by events in thesecond. Ironically, however, it seems atP�esent not free at all, but almost paralyzed:Vlth fear of giving offense (however sub­Jectively offense may be defined) to anySegment of our motley society likely to�etaliate by loud public outcry or costlyegal action. Those who consider suchresPonses undignified must accept such euphemisms as "political correctness,""freedom of choice," "freedom of speech,"and "courage," for which read respectively:capitulation to the most obstreperous,avoidance of consequences, primal scream,and the flaunting of rebellion. Making avirtue of perceived necessity may be oneway to deal with problems, but it's prettywimpish, and makes for hypocrisy.It doesn't help that the tone of yourannouncement made a clear implication ofprejudice (excuse the expression) againstthe talents of heterosexual candidates .:VIRGINIA HYDE KENNAN, PHB'27CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIAAn immodest proposalI am disturbed by the recent controversyconcerning the University's decision toextend domestic partnership privilegesand responsibilities to homosexuals. Itseems to me that those who begrudge theUniversity's nascent inclusiveness have notgone far enough.Why admit homosexuals-whether fac­ulty, students, or staff-to the University inthe first place? If gays and lesbians wereexcluded from the outset, there would beno need to quibble over minutiae like civilrights, tolerance for diversity, and humandecency. If the University's intellectual andcreative stature is threatened by theserestrictions, at least its homogeneity andorthodoxy will be insured.A logical corollary would be to subject allunmarried individuals affiliated with theUniversity to a rigorous cross-examinationregarding their sexual practices, fantasies,and preferences. To further this moralrebirth, the University should considerwhether it might also exclude heterosexualswho masturbate, or exercise their sexualpreference out of wedlock, or indulge inpositions other than the "missionary."Divorced as well as celibate, single personswould be suspect: they pose a sure, if subtle,threat to the idea of marital superiority.In sum, there is no reason why the sexualconduct of every individual should not be amatter for public concern, and thereforeaccessible to public scrutiny and evalua­tion. The University could do itself nobigger favor than to reverse its current po­sition and embrace the new religious right'sstance on "family values." Why would an The Centerfor Middle EasternStudiesUniversity of ChicagoandDr. John E. WoodsofferTURKEY:A HOLIDAYIN HISTORY19 Days-September 3-21, 1993$3,490 per person(limited to 20 participants)A spectacular journey revealing thecultural, archaeological, and historicalwonders of Western and CentralAnatolia. We visit the landscapes andcities of early empires-Hittite, Byzan­tine, Roman, and Ottoman-and enjoythe breathtaking beauty of Turkey'sunspoiled Mediterranean and Aegeancoasts. This is a journeyforthe curioustraveler who wishes to explore a landof geographical diversity, historicaltreasures, and to meet a generous andhospitable people.For informationand the detailed itinerary,write or call:TOPKAPI640 South Federal St., Suite 706Chicago, Il60605Telephone: (312) 939�3194Specializing inTravel and Tours to TurkeyUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 3"By far the most excitingHutchins book ever. Hisstyle, wit, and passion­and his insigh,t-put itinto a class by itself."-Studs T erkelAt age 28, he was dean of Yale LawSchool; at 30, president of theUniversity of Chicago. By his mid-30s, Robert Maynard Hutchins wasan eminent figure in the world ofeducational innovation and liberalpolitics. Mayer gives an intimatepicture of the remarkably outstand­ing, and fallible, man whoparticipated in many of thiscentury's most important socialand political controversies. institution of higher learning want to lendcredence to the possibility that there maybe more than one way to live a productiveand principled existence?SUZIN M. HAGAR,GRADUATE STUDENT IN ANTHROPOLOGYCHICAGOII's all Greak to usThe terms "panogamy" and "panoga­mous" which Martha McClintockadopted upon advice by ProfessorJames Redfield to describe the mating be­havior of Norwegian rats ("From the Out­side In," October/92) should be accuratelyrendered as "pangamy" and "pangamous."This is easily seen in analogous Englishwords of Greek origin such as "pan­theism," "pan-egyric," "pan-demonium,""pan-creas," "pan-acea," "pan-oply," and"pan-orama." A less accurate but stillacceptable solution would be "pantogamy"and "pantogamous," as the genitive of theGreek term "pan" is "pantos," but this termcould be used more accurately to denotesomeone who would mate with anything.In no case however can the term "pan­ogamy" be used, since to any knower ofGreek the .term "panogamous" could onlydenote a being that mates with or like Pan(genitive: Panos), the satyr god of the forest,whose mating habits might have includedpangamy but were not limited to it.With pedantic regards,PHILIP V. KARGOPOULOS, AB'73THESSALONIKI, GREECEJames Redfield, AB'54, PhD'61, the HowardL. Willett professor in the Committee onSocial Thought and classical languages andliteratures, replies: My heart sank when Iobserved that the solecism "panogamy" hadbeen attributed to me in the pages of yourmagazine-in fact I raised the issue withProfessor McClintock at a seminar only lastmonth-and my worst fears were realizedwhen you sent me a copy of Professor Kar­gopoulos' letter to you. In this tense elec­tion season-I am currently standing forDirector of the American Philological Asso­ciation-it seems only too likely thatUnderlying-dentalgate will blow up into thebiggest philological scandal of the year. Iam therefore glad that your correspondentgives me the chance to set the recordstraight and (it is to be hoped) bury thematter forever. .I was tempted by Professor Kargopoulos'concluding suggestion and thought brieflyof claiming that my intended allusion wasto the god Pan all along-after all the Panosgamos, Panic marriage, is a real Greek con­cept. Unfortunately, the sense is wrong;ROBERTMAYNARDHUTCHINSA MemoirMILTON MAYEREdited by John H� HicksForeword by Studs Terkel$35.00 cloth, illustrated, at bookstoresor order toll-free 1-800-822-6657.University ofCalifornia PressBerkeleyLos AngelesNew YorkLondon *18.9 3 � 19 934 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 Pan, as we know, is dyseros, unlucky inlove, and doesn't finally make it withanyone except the occasional goat.Adopting instead the "hangout route" letme say in all candor that I have no memoryof coining this term. I therefore have noidea how the error occurred. ProfessorMcClintock tells me that the transactiontook place at Dartmouth, where in thelicentious atmosphere of a northern NeWEngland summer a certain amount ofphilological hanky-panky unquestionablygoes on. (The most popular classics courseof that summer was on Greek myth andlocally known as "My ThologylY our Thol-.ogy.") Nevertheless I can't imagine doingthis. I have pled with Professor McClintockto correct her usage.While we're being pedantic, what doeSProfessor Kargopoulos mean when he saysthat "pantogamy" (my preferred term, bythe way) "could be used more accurately todenote someone who would mate withanything"? Pan (from pant- + zero by loSSof final dental) is unquestionably neuter(or in this case more accurately, adverbial)while pan to- (the full stem plus thematicvowel) could be of any gender.Martha McClintock, professor in psychol­ogy and the College and chair of the Commit­tee on Biopsychology, responds: I wish toabsolve Jamie Redfield from any and allresponsibility for the term "panogamY,"which I introduced to describe mating sys­tems, such as that of the Norway rat, forwhich the term "promiscuous" is an under­statement. I did seek Redfield's help inselecting a term, after locating him inHanover, New Hampshire, where he wasreportedly teaching summer school atDartmouth. He graciously offered to po�tthe problem on the bulletin board for hISstudents to solve, and subsequently treatedme to a most entertaining (and erudite)discussion of the pros and cons of eachterm proposed.But it was I who selected the term "pan­ogamy" (in the face of Redfield's definit;and clear reservations). I simply couldn lresist a pun. As I have previously reporte(McClintock, 1984. Advances in the Study ofBehavior. 14: 1-50), the term is "an allusiO�to the Greek nature god, Pan, a guardian 0"flocks noted for his satyric escapades.Flocks of sheep display a mating systerJlsimilar to that of rats (Synnott et al., 1981:Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. 61.355-361).I also wish to absolve my classics profes­sor at Wellesley College, who, I now knOW,should remain unnamed since my effortS toapply my liberal arts education may havetarnished her reputation as well.Feminists bewareNot having read Professor MaryBecker's article "Maternal Feelings:Myth, Taboo, and Child Custody,"I am wary of misinterpreting her argument.But if the synopsis offered in the Decem­ber/92 issue ("Investigations") is accurate, Iam obligated to comment.By advocating a "maternal deferencestandard" in child custody cases, Beckerargues against equality before the law andfor primary consideration of mother's emo­tions in the award of child custody. Thisruns counter to the general premise under­riding the U.S. constitutional system andthe specific interests of children aroundWhich most custody law is framed. Beckerstates that" [0] n average, women tend to beemotionally closer to their children thantheir fathers," and that even under "pri­mary caretaker standards" judges overlookthe fact that "mothers still do the lion'sshare of work and are almost always emo­tionally closer to their children .... " Sheclaims that "only a systematic preferencefor awarding custody to mothers ... can giveappropriate weight to the strong emotionalbond that exists between most women andtheir children."Professor Becker's base for making theseclaims is that "a gender-neutral standard· .. eliminates from consideration the repro­ductive labor only women can do: preg­nancy, childbirth, and breast-feeding."liow does playing the role of incubator andthe physical expulsion of the fetus consti­tUte prima facie evidence of a strong emo­tional bond between mother and child?With the increased use of in-vitro fertiliza­tion and surrogate mothers, Becker's rea­Soning becomes all the more tenuous onthese grounds. Given the increased promi­�ence of single, working mothers and two­InCome households in U.S. society, and thecorresponding rise in the use of day-care�acilities, women who breast-feed increas­Ingly are the well-to-do or the chronicallyPOor. Most mothers do not fall into theseCategories, and do not breast-feed as atnatter of course.The point is, all of these female-exclusivereproductive tasks mayor may not beUndertaken by mothers, which mitigates;gainst the view that they provide groundsOr a Singular emotional bond betweentnother and child. To rest an argument thatadvocates systematic bias in the law on�uc�. grounds is specious at best. Thosettnlhar with family courts can attest to theb�ct �hat there already exists an implicitlas in many courts in favor of women.Most child custody is awarded to womenOn the grounds Becker argues for, but ina formally gender-neutral framework in THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONInvites you to join distinguished faculty and alumni friends participatingin alumni travel/study programs during the coming months1993 Summer and Autumn Study TripsWaterways of RussiaJuly 17-28Our Swiss-managed riverboatwill cruise the waterwaysbetween Moscow and St. Petersburgwhile we discuss the dramaticchanges taking place in the country.Leader will be internationally­known economist D. Gale Johnson,who has studied Soviet agriculturefor more than four decades. The Journey of Odysthrough the 'Ancient Med·August 16-SeWe will fOdysseus, 0Troy �h path ofsite of ancientocations myth hasadventures. Facultyer will be ProfessorHe an Sinaiko of the Divisionof the Humanities and GeneralStudies in the Humanities.Voyage to West AfricaNovember 14-27Morocco and the Canary Islands,Mauritania, Gambia, and Senegalwill be our stops on this cruise,which will focus on the naturalhistory, culture, and politics of theseWest African countries. Our facultyleader will be Jeanne Altmann,an expert on behavioral ecology,who has spent nearly three decadesstudying the animals of Africa.Help Chart the Course for 1994Ten study trips are tentatively planned for the coming seasons.Write to the address below to tell us which interest you andadd your own ideas for future destinations, topics, and faculty leaders.WinterSnorkeling in Bonaire (8 days);Cruise to Indonesia with side trips toVietnam and Angkor Wat (14 days);Expedition to Antarctica and theFalkland Islands (16 days) SummerNorwegian Fjords and Spitzbergen(16 days-family rates); DanubeRiver Journey from Munichto Prague (12 days)SpringItaly's Historic Cities and TuscanCountryside (12 days); HimalayanKingdoms of Tibet, Nepal,and Bhutan (21 days) AutumnWalking Tour in England(8 days); Retracing the FourthCrusade from Venice to Istanbul(17 days); Columbia and SnakeRivers Cruise (8 days)For further information and brochures or to be added to our travel/studymaili,!g lin, call or write to Alumni Traoel, University of Chicago AlumniAssociation, 5757 Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 312/702-2160.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 5usLegendaryTurkeyand beyond ...18 DaysExotic LandsUniversity LecturersAn imaginativeand educationalfully escorted tour.Explore Istanbul andBursa - capitals ofthe Ottoman Empire thatstand as Living Museumsattesting to the artistic andcultural achievements of theOttomans. Then traveltheGreat Silk Route visitingTashkent, Samarkandand Bukhara.A guest lecturer from theUniversity of Chicago'sCenter for Middle EasternStudies will accompany eachgroup.• Dr. Richard L. Chambers• Dr. John E. Woods• Mr. Paul E. LosenskyDepartures: (1993)May 18, June 15, July 13,August 10, September 7, October 5Tour Cost: $3325 per personPlus roundtrip airfare U.S.lIstanbulIncludes: Hotels, meals, tourescort, sightseeing including localguides and entrance fees, allground transportation, servicecharges and taxes and airfareIstanbullTashkentFor More Information &Brochure Contact:WorldOfOzLtd.211 East 43rd StreetNew York, NY 10017Tel: 212-661-0580 or800-248-0234Fax: 212-599-1755 which the best interests of children aregiven foremost consideration.Feminists have good reason to be alarmedby her argument. Not only does it reinforcetraditional stereotypes of women as littlemore than reproductive agents, but if car­ried to its logical conclusion, the "maternaldeference standard" implies a return bywomen to their traditional roles in thefamily and society: subordinate to men,engrossed in childcare obligations, andunencumbered by the responsibilities of.outside work and societal participation thatwould otherwise undermine any claims toa stronger emotional attachment betweenwomen and their children. In a society asmobile as the U.s., where women are in­creasingly being emancipated from theirtraditional roles and where men are beingeducated to assume greater responsibilityfor children's upbringing, arguments likethose espoused by Professor Becker arearchaic and divisive.PAUL G. BUCHANAN, PHD'85PATAGONIA, ARIZONALaw school professor Mary Becker, jD'80,� responds: I do-not argue for a maternalpreference only or primarily because ofwomen's role in pregnancy, childbirth, andnursing. There are two primary reasons fora maternal preference given results undercurrent standards. First, judges are biasedagainst mothers. Mothers who work orhave less money than fathers, or have aboyfriend who sleeps over even occasion­ally, or have done less than everything interms of child care, are too likely to losecustody to fathers who have done morethan the average father but less than themother.Second, "traditional stereotypes" are not amatter of history; fathers are not spendingequal time raising children and performingrelated domestic tasks. Indeed, fathers intwo-wage families spend less time withtheir children than fathers in one-wagefamilies. In most families, the mother con­tinues to be primarily responsible for thehome front. The father "helps" some. Yetfathers are getting the advantage at divorceof a legal system in which "traditionalstereotypes" are forbidden despite theirpersistence in the real world.You speak of my standard causing areturn to traditional roles, but most womenhave never escaped the traditional roleof being primarily responsible for theirchildren. What they have "escaped" iseffective legal recognition of and protectionfor their greater involvement. There is asharp conflict of interest here between theneeds of most ordinary women and theagenda of the elite women (and men) who6 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE! APRIL 1993 have argued for the current constitutionalstandard.Judicial bias poses a problem, not just forwomen who have been primary caretakersin cases in which custody is actually liti­gated, but in settled cases as well. Fathersuninterested in custody and only margin­ally involved in their children's lives areable to threaten custody litigation in orderto extract economic concessions frommothers. This contributes to the relativeaffluence of the father after divorce com­pared to the mother and children.I do, however, think that we should givesome weight to pregnancy, childbirth, andnursing. For example, when the child isonly a few weeks old when a custody diS­pute develops, these factors should beimportant since they represent a muchlarger investment by the mother than thefather in the welfare of the child to date.And they are likely to be accompanied byan emotional bond. Granted, that bondmay not always be especially strong, but onaverage mothers feel much closer to infantSthan do fathers. And, again, judges cannotbe expected to do a very good job of judg­ing emotional closeness on a case-by-casebasis.Your letter illustrates the point that re­productive work done only by women isundervalued. You trivialize the very realphysical and emotional labor of preg­nancy and childbirth: "playing the role ofincubator and the physical expulsion of thefetus." Your reference to "in-vitro fertiliza­tion and surrogate mothers" is either a redherring or, again, a denial of the work doneby women. In vitro fertilization does notchange at all who is pregnant, goes throughchildbirth, or nurses. Indeed, in vitro fertil­ization adds immensely to the pain, diS­comfort, 'and effort required of the motherrelative to the father. And the number ofbirths to surrogate mothers is significantonly in terms of media attention. The per­centage of births to surrogate motherswould be far closer to 0 percent than to ,1percent. And even in those brave new famI­lies with children carried by someone oth�rthan the wife, it is the wife who is the prI­mary caretaker once the infant joins thehousehold.The University of Chicago Magazine invitesletters from readers on the contents of themagazine or on topics related to the Univer­sity. Letters for publication, which must besigned, may be edited for length and/or clarity·To ensure the widest range of voices possible,preference will be given to letters of 500 wordsor less. Letters should be addressed to: EditoriUniversity of Chicago Magazine, 575Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637.ventsExhibitionsPicturing Britain: Time and Place in 1700-1850,through June 25. As publishing expanded andGreat Britain emerged as a nation-state, illustratedbooks assumed, a prominent place in the process ofestablishing a British national identity. This exhibi­tion illustrates the relationship between print andpolitical culture through publications-most ofwhich include maps or illustrations-by architects,cartographers, landscape designers, novelists, polit­ical commentators, travel writers, and others. De­partment of Special Collections at the Regensteinlibrary; call 702-8705.Emma Goldman in Her Own Words: Perspec­tives from the Ludwig Rosenberger Library of]udaica, through May. Through books, pamphlets,and trial reports, this exhibition presents the viewsof Emma Goldman (1869-1940) on subjects rang­ing from anarchism and the Russian Revolution towomen's emancipation and modern drama. Firstgalvanized to political protest by Chicago's Hay­market affair and deported from the U.S. followingher 1917 trial on charges of conspiracy against thedraft, Goldman remains a symbol of anti-establish­ment protest. Special Collections Reading Room atthe Regenstein Library; call 702-8705.Sifting the Sands of Time: The Oriental Instituteand the Ancient Near East, through June 30. Usingartifacts, historic photos, and archival material, thisexhibition. traces the Oriental Institute's achieve­ments in recovering the history, language, andculture of the ancient Near East (Egypt, Palestine,Syria, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Iraq). The Ori­ental Institute; call 702-9520.Vanished Kingdoms of the Nile: The Rediscov­ery of Ancient Nubia, through June 30. ThisaWard-winning exhibit traces more than 3,500years of the history and culture of ancient Nubia(SOuthern Egypt and northern Sudan) throughobjects excavated by the Oriental Institute. The dis­play includes decorated pottery, jewelry, and itemswhich reflect daily life and funerary beliefs. TheOriental Institute; call 702-9520.LecturesRyerson Lecture, May 17. Humanities DeanPhilip Gossett will present this annual lecture. MaxPalevsky Cinema; call 702-8370.·I<ovler Lecture Series, May 20 at 4 p.m. JamesWatso,n, PhB'46, SB'47, co-winner of the 1962NObel' Prize in Medicine and Physiology for hisWork in establishing the molecular structure ofDNA, will speak. Kent Hall 120; call 702-8925.DUke Ellington Panel Discussion, May 24 at 3P·m. Assistant professor of music Ingrid Monsonand others discuss Ellington's role in the evolutionof jazz. Goodspeed Hall; call 702-8068.'heaterd.Pantomime, April 16-May 23. Jonathan Wilsonlrects Court Theatre's production of Derek Wal­f_OU's play about a former actor, trained in the Eng­lS� music hall tradition, who pits his performance�klns against those of a West Indian calypso playerIn a "little pantomime" which becomes a discovery of personal prejudice and respect. Court Theatre;call 753-4472.Off-Off Campus Spring Quarter Revue, April23-May 21 at 9 p.m. and May 28 at 8 p.m. and 10p.m. Original sketches and improvisations by theseventh-with some members of the sixth-gener­ation of University Theater's student comedy en­semble. University Church second floor theater;call 702-3414.Love and Happiness, April 28-May 1 at 8 p.m. Inthis student-written play, a terminally exhaustedprotagonist searches for an empty room-andthe answers to life's problems-in a hotel fullof illusions. Reynolds Club first floor theater; call702-3414.Getting Out, May 5-8 at 8 p.m. University The­ater presents Marsha Norman's gritty, surreal playabout Arlene, a woman in her late 20s who returnsto her hometown after being released from prison.As Arlene tries to set up a new life, the playwrightforces her to confront who she's been by placingthe younger Arly onstage. Reynolds Club thirdfloor theater; call 702-3414 ..Pippin, May 27-June 5 at 8 p.m. A 1970s musicalwith a 780 A.D. setting, this University Theater pro­duction combines the Holy Roman Empire with arhythm-and-blues score and a college graduatewhose future seems empty. Guided by a sinistergroup of Players, Charlemagne's son and Universityof Padua graduate Pippin explores several pursuits,including holy war, revolution, and free love.Reynolds Club first floor theater; call 702-3414.MusicMusical Pranks: A Spring Showcase by the Uni­versity Symphony Orchestra, Chamber Orchestra,and Wind Ensemble, May 1 at 8 p.m. Directed byBarbara Schubert, Guy Bordo, and Wayne Gordon,respectively, this program includes Kabalevsky,Richard Strauss, P.D.Q. Bach, Mozart, and Haydn.Mandel Hall; call 702-8484.Gospel Festival, May 2 at 4 p.m. As part of "Chi­cago Day '93," this festival features the 200-memberApostolic Church of God Sanctuary Choir, the Bar­rett Sisters, and Heaven Sent-an all-female, acapella student and alumna quartet. RockefellerMemorial Chapel; call 702- 2100.Collegium Musicum Con­cert, May 9 at 8 p.m. Thisconcert of Renaissance andEarly Baroque music is dedi­cated to the memory ofHoward Mayer Brown, theFerdinand Schevill distin­guished service professor inthe music department. [Pro­fessor Brown died February20. His obituary will beincluded in the June issue.­Ed.1 Rockefeller MemorialChapel; call 702-8484.University Wind Ensem­ble Spring Concert, May 16at 8 p.m. Wayne Gordonconducts a program of Per­sichetti, Jenkins, P.D.Q.Bach, and Bruckner. MandelHall; call 702-8484.Young Composers' Con­cert, May 21 at 8 p.m. Bar­bara Schubert guest conductsthe world premiere of worksby advanced U of C studentUT's improv group, Off-Off­Campus performs thisspring quarter. composers. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.Jazz Benefit Concert, May 23 at 7 p.m. Trum­peter Clark Terry leads the 16-member DukeEllington Big Band in transcriptions of originalrecordings of Ellington's classics. Mandel Hall;call 702-8068.University Symphony Orchestra Spring Con­cert, May 29 at 8 p.m. Barbara Schubert directsGustav Mahler's Symphony NO.6 in A Minor,Tragic. Mandel Hall; call 702-8484.On the QuadsMonsters of the Midway Criterium Bicycle Race,May 9. Much like the Tour de France, the annualT our of Illinois bicycle stage race determines awinner through a series of ten races, held on week­ends in April and May throughout the state. The Uof C Velo Club hosts the final stage of the Tour, a1.1-mile loop around the Midway. Ida Noyes Hall;call 684-6553.In the CityChicago Day '93, May 2 from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.Events across the U of C and the city pay tribute tothe first multicultural event in Chicago'S history­the World Columbian Exposition of 1893. Interna­tional House's annual "Festival of Nations" show­cases more than 25 countries, including displays ofethnic crafts and demonstrations of cultural arts.The SSA will open its exhibit, "100 Years of Ideas:The Midway Plaisance," which documents plansproposed but never implemented for the mile-longstrip of land linking Washington and Jacksonparks. Other events across campus include perfor­mances by student groups, and tours of campusbuildings and exhibitions; call 702-7368.UC Dancers, May 4 at 12:15 p.m. This troupededicated to modern dance performs downtown atthe Cultural Center as part of the continuing FirstTuesday Performing Arts Series. The series cele­brates the beginning of the University'S second cen­tury and supports the City of Chicago Departmentof Cultural Affairs' continuing efforts to providefree cultural opportunities in the Loop. PrestonBradley Hall; call 702-3414.equired ReadingBoundaryWritersFor centuries, Alnericanwriters and artists havetried. to cross lines ofrace and class to becolnethe "other."By Christopher Looby8 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEIApRIl1993J E est un autre.-Arthur Rimbaud.As the performance artist and cul­tural critic Coco Fusco has wittilywritten, "The other is in." Con­temporary cultural criticism finds in theso-called "other"-the alien, subaltern,marginal, or perverse-one of its preferredobjects of interest. Recent cultural theory,however, frequently takes pride in itsascetic refusal to "colonize" the other byclaiming to possess secure knowledge of it,or to be able to represent it authentically,or speak for it reliably. "No single termcurrently enjoys a greater prestige withinthe world of academic discourse than 'theother,'" writes Geoffrey Harpham in Get­ting It Right: Language, Literature, andEthics. "Contemporary thinking seemsinspired by the idea of an otherness thatremains other, that resists assimilation, Starting with the man in the mirror: JohnHoward Griffin wrote Black Like Me.accommodation, and reconciliation."The principled refusal to usurp the placeof the other, however, can all too readilydegenerate into a defeatist attitude towardthe equally urgent ethical project of findingcommon ground between self and other,between the norms of one's own cultureand the different values of another culture.Especially in a pluralistic society like thatof the United States, a consistent refusal totake the risk of imaginatively transportin�oneself into the space of the other woulseem to condemn us to a perpetual stand�off among permanently irreconcilable andnon-communicating social fragments.Toni Morrison, in her recent study of therepresentation of blackness in the literatureof white America, cautions against such arefusal. Imaginative art, she writes, has aparticular role to play in granting accessto other subjectivities. And she urges notCaution in this effort, but a daring and will­ful attempt to do more than merely projectoneself into other subject positions: sheurges that we transform ourselves into theother. "I am interested in what promptsand makes possible this process of enteringWhat one is estranged from .. .imagining isnot merely looking or looking at; nor is ittaking oneself intact into the other. It is, forthe purposes of the work, becoming."A course that I'm teaching for the firsttime this spring-English 253, "Becomingthe Other"-is designed to take a criticallook at how and why the "other" has be­Come so fashionable an element in contem­Porary critical discourse, but it also aims totrace some of the contours of a particularAmerican form of becoming the other­racial transposition or transformation.One of the earliest American literarygenres, the captivity narrative (usually sto­ries about white Americans captured byNative Americans and assimilated intotheir culture) traces a process by whichone is literally incorporated into an alienculture and given a new, other identity. ANarrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison(1824) tells of a Pennsylvania woman who,as a 15-year-old girl during the French andIndian Wars, was captured by a Shawneeraiding party and eventually taken to west­ern New York, where she lived as an Iro­qUois wife and mother and by her ownchoice did not return to her original cul­ture. Patty Hearst's later tale of her abduc­tion by the Symbionese Liberation Armyand her assimilation into their anti-bour­geois revolutionary ethos repeats the basicPattern with uncanny resonance..Such involuntary or violent incorpora­tIons . into other cultures are matched inAl11erican literature by countless examples?f voluntary artistic assumption of otherIdentities. Walt Whitman's celebration ofAl11erican diversity in Leaves of Grass is fullof his ,characteristic claims to occupy thePOSition of the other:The disdain and calmness of martyrs,The mother condemned for a witchand burnt with dry wood, and her chil­dren gazing on;The hounded slave that flags and leansby the fence, blowing and covered withSWeat,The twinges that sting like needles hislegs and neckThe murd�rous buckshot and thebUllets, All these I feel or am.I am the hounded slave ....Lines like these have seemed presumptu­ous to some of Whitman's readers: howcould he really know what it was like to bea hunted, fugitive slave? To other readers,these same lines have seemed a heroiceffort imaginatively to cross boundariesof race and class. Many white Americanwriters have had an ongoing romance with,in particular, the native American andAfrican American others. This course willparticularly focus on the xenophilic strainin American writing, the desire and identi­fication frequently felt by white writers forthe abjection and exoticism attributed toIndians and blacks.John Howard Griffin's Black Like Me(1960) may be the most extreme exampleof this literary phenomenon: the authorused chemicals and black stain to turnhimself black in order to pass for a Negroin the American South in the 1950s; all inan effort to know what it was like to liveas an African American. Earlier, anotherwhite American, Thomas Wentworth Hig­ginson, joined as an officer the first blackregiment in the Union Army, and claimedthat with no other white faces in sight hecould forget that he was not black, couldimagine himself turning "as black as coal."James Agee in Let Us Now Praise FamousMen (1941) finds himself struggling anx­iously to penetrate the mystery of the pain­ful lives of the sharecropper families hevisited in the South, all the while respect­ing the dense otherness of their experience.Robert Mapplethorpe's Black Book (1986),a collection of photographs of black menby a white artist, is a meditation on theexplosive combination of fear and desire,fascination and aversion, that characterizeswhite men's attitudes toward black men.The racial gaze is reversed in LangstonHughes's story collection The Ways of WhiteFolks (1934), in which white Americansare depicted as weirdly fascinating objectsof scrutiny. And the fantasy of racial trans­formation is inverted and satirized inGeorge S. Schuyler'S odd 1931 novel BlackNo More, in which an African Americanscientist invents a process by which blackpeople can become white. Ironically, inSchuyler'S tale, when all black Americanshave done so and white Americans there­fore can no longer distinguish themselvesby skin color, white folks decide to rein­vent their otherness by turning black.What all these texts do is ask the questionposed by critical theorist S. P. Mohanty:"Just how other, we need to force ourselvesto specify, is the Other?"UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 9FOR THE RECORDOn board: John McCarter,Jr., senior vice president ofthe consulting firm BoozAllen & Hamilton, hasbeen elected a trustee ofthe University. McCarteris a member of the visitingcommittee to the Irving B.Harris Graduate School ofPublic Policy Studies. Heis also a director of A.M.Castle & Co. and of W. W.Grainger Inc. Since 1989he has chaired. the board ofChicago Public Television,WTTW/Channel11. Costs and benefits: ending. mandatory retirement,. HE UNIVERSITY'S BOARD OFtrustees has recentlyapproved new policies forfaculty retirement: offering incen­tives for retirement at age 70 orbefore, guaranteeing lower-costhealth insurance for retired fac­ulty, and expanding financialcounseling services for facultymembers.These policies are based on therecommendations of the TaskForce on Faculty Retirement­a group made up of faculty,trustees, and administrators andchaired by Robert Hamada, theEdward. Eagle Brown professor inthe Graduate School of Business.The task force grew out of theUniversity's need to respond tothe uncapping of mandatoryretirement for tenured professors.A 1986 amendment to the AgeDiscrimination in EmploymentAct had made mandatory retire­ment at age 70 illegal. The act,however, did not immediatelyapply to tenured university pro­fessors: under a temporary clause,universities were allowed torequire faculty to retire at age 70.That clause expires at the end of1993, and observers predict thatthe uncapping is likely to havethe most effect on top researchuniversities-like the U of C­where teaching conditions andresearch opportunities make itmore attractive for senior facultyto stay on past age 70.Studying the effects uncappingmight have at Chicago, the task10 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 force found that, "between theyears 1994 and 2010, we will lose,if we do nothing, almost 90 newappointments. Second, as we be­come a more senior faculty, aver­age University salaries will rise.By the year. 2000, if we do noth­ing, these increasing salarieswill create a budget gap of morethan $3 million annually; by 2010,more than $4 million annually(both in constant 1992-93 dol­lars). These annual deficits areequivalent to a decrease in ourendowment between $80 millionand $100 million."While the report praises thecontributions of senior faculty, itnotes that an inability to hireyounger faculty threatens theUniversity's intellectual vitality.Task force head: Robert Hamada. "The new policies related to fac­ulty retirement," President HannaGray told the University Chroni­cle, "will be critical to maintain­ing the vitality of our university,sustaining the important contri­butions of senior faculty, andensuring the institution's intellec­tual vigor for the future."The approved recommenda­tions-aimed at maintaining aconstant tenure-track faculty size,and keeping the budgetary gap toa minimum-include:-The formation of a standingcommittee on retirement issueS,consisting of faculty, trustees, an�administrators. "As we see it,the task force writes, "the uncer­tainty of the faculty's responseto the uncapping of mandatoryretirement and to each of ourrecommendations to change theUniversity's retirement poliCYwarrants constant monitoring toinsure that our loss of vitality and'_ tbudget gap do not quickly go o�of control." The standing commIt­tee will also make recommenda­tions for any additional changesto retirement policy.- Early retirement buy-out plansthat would pay bonuses to facultywho retire early. For exampl.eifaculty who retire at age 65 WI\receive a one-time payment equato 200 percent of their averageannual salary for their last threeyears of full employment. 10receive this payment, they musthave, by age 63, given an irreVO­cable commitment to retire. FaC­ulty older than 65 but youngerthan 70 can also receive bonuseSif they retire-provided they t��give two years' notice-but WIreceive decreasing payments. F�(Jexample, those retiring at 69 WIreceive a lump sum equal to 80percent of their average annualsalary during their final threeyears.• The adoption of what the taskforce calls a "defined replacementratio plan" for pension payments.Under this plan, the UniversityWill stop contributing to a facultymember's pension plan whenthat plan's accumulation is suffi­cient to purchase an annuityequal to 75 percent of his or herfinal salary. The task force esti­mates that, combined with SocialSecurity, the defined replace­ment ratio pension plan shouldprovide retirement benefits equalto between 90 and 100 percentof the final year's salary for mostfaculty.• A cap on the rate of increasefor health insurance premiums.The premiums for the Blue Cross/Blue Shield health insurance planfor retired faculty and spousesWill not exceed the rate of in­crease in Social Security benefits.• Strengthening the post-tenurereView process. "Salary increasesshould be based on merit andindefinite increases cannot bepresumed, implying zero percentnominal· raises be given morefrequently when changes inindiVidual performance over thelife cycle justify such action," thetask force writes, noting also thatthe standing committee mightbe required to make more drasticchanges if the "University's intel­lectual vitality and financialhealth are in danger after theUncapping. "• Expanding the responsibili­ties of the staff benefits office. TheOffice will provide morepersonal financial counseling ear­lier in a faculty member's careerand more often. For faculty andStaff �)Ver age 55, the office willprovIde annual projections ofretirement income from allemployment-based retirementPlans and will make availableretirement planning services fromOUtside vendors.According to Henry Webber,aSSOciate vice president for Hu­lllan Resources Management andAdministrative Planning, these�Olicies will begin to golnto effect in the spring, when theStanding committee is formed. Campaign passeshalfway markTHE CAMPAIGN FOR THE NEXTCentury, the University'sfive-year, $500 millionfund-raising drive, entered Marchwith nearly $258 million in itscoffers. Major gifts received lastfall-including support for a newprofessorship, public policy pro­jects, and a new Ph.D. program­all helped push the total over thehalfway point.The campaign began its publicphase at the start of the Univer­sity's Centennial-October 1991-with $117 million. As of February28, gifts, grants, and pledgesreached $257,929,862. Thus,more than $140 million wasraised in only 17 months.B. Kenneth West, MBA'60,trustee and chair of the campaign,says, "Our momentum is steppingup as we head into the middlepart of the campaign-generallyregarded as the most difficultphase of any major fund-raisingeffort. ".Through the campaign, the Uni­versity seeks to increase endow- ment for faculty, students, andprograms by almost 25 percent. Italso wants to support several con­struction and renovation projects.Plans were recently unveiled forthe new University AthleticsCenter. That project joins the Bio­sciences Learning and ResearchComplex, the U of C/GraduateSchool of Business DowntownCenter, and additions to the Ori­ental Institute and LaboratorySchools as campaign-financedbuilding projects.College bill goesup for 1993-94THE COST OF A TERM IN THECollege will increase by4.5 percent for the nextacademic year.The breakdown of the 1993-94term bill is: $17,910 for tuition;$6,130 for room and board; and$297 for health services and stu­dent activities fees. Comparablefigures for the 1992-93 Collegeterm bill are: $17,061, $5,940,and $285.A substantial increase in funds Cancer prevention:Olufunmilayo Olopade­assistant professor inmedicine and directorof the Medical Center'sCancer Risk Clinic-wasawarded a three-year,$412,000 cancer researchfellowship from the JamesS. McDonnell Foundation.Olopade works primarilywith a gene thought to be a"tumor-suppressor" -onethat codes for crucial pro­teins that keep cell growthin check, thereby prevent­ing tumors. The fellowship,one of five awarded, isaimed at attracting newpeople to cancer research.The other four recipientsare from Columbia,Harvard, Stanford, andYale.Urban development: TheSteans Family Foundationhas initiated a $2 millionendowment fund for theIrving B. Harris GraduateSchool of Public PolicyStudies. Called the SteansInitiative for Urban PolicyDevelopment, the fund willsupport students and fac­ulty engaged in projectswith urban policymakers.The Steans Family Foun­dation has committed $1million toward the fund,with another $500,000committed as a challengematch.Winning students: Threestudents were awardedfellowships from theGrainger Foundation fortheir work in experimentalphysicS. Fifth-year doctoralstudent Gerald Seidlerreceived the GraingerGraduate Fellow Award,which provides tuitionand a quarterly stipend;College fourth-year NicoleMorgan received theGrainger Senior Scholar­ship for 1992-93, whichprovides full tuition for theyear. They join postdocEdward Ehrichs, who wasselected in September 1992to be the Grainger Post­doctoral Fellow, a positionthat provides a two-yearstipend and funds for pro­[essional expenses.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 11Division master: AndrewAbbott, AM'75, PhD'82,professor of sociology, wasappointed master of theSocial Sciences CollegiateDivision. He succeedsJohn Boyer, dean of theCollege. Abbott, a facultymember since 1991, stud­ies occupational structuresand is the author of TheSystem of Professions: AnEssay on the. Division ofExpert Labor (U of CPress).The Chicago Review'smost recent issue on con­temporary Indian litera­ture will be published thissummer by the PenguinIndia press-the first timein 25 years that it will bepublished by a major tradepress. Founded by Univer­sity students in 1946, theReview is edited by grad­uate students andHydePark residents, and isfunded, in part, by thehumanities division.Crime drop: Crime in theHyde Park-Kenwood areain the first two monthsof 1993 decreased by 14percent compared to thesame period in 1992. Thisdecrease follows an overall5 percent decline in crimefor 1992, according to theSouth East Chicago Com­mission. Burglaries, how­ever, went up 10 percent inthe first two months of theyear, with most happeningin East Hyde Park. for student financial aid wasannounced along with the tuitionincrease. The University will pro­vide $23.2 million for scholar­ships to undergraduates in1993-94, compared to $21.4 mil­lion this year. In 1980-81, theUniversity provided $2.5 millionin aid.The University will continue itsneed-blind admissions policy in1993-94. Under that policy, theCollege admits the most qualifiedapplicants regardless of their abil­ity to pay. "We are committed toa broadly diverse student body,"President Hanna Gray said. "Weencourage all qualified students. to apply. We will work with themto make it possible for them toattend." Sixty-three percent ofChicago's undergraduates cur­rently receive scholarships.Graduate and professional divi­sions costs will also increase nextyear. Graduate tuition, for exam­ple, will increase about 5 percent,from $17,415 to $18,285.And now, a wordfrom the rightTHE REAGAN REVOLUTIONmight be over in Wash­ington, but conservativeopinion is alive and well at theUniversity of Chicago.Two publications serve up aconservative view of the news: theWhip-a one-year-old, right wing,tabloid-sized newspaper-and theFourth Estate, a self-described"more centrist, more mainstream"section of the official student news­paper on campus, the ChicagoMaroon.Both papers have ties to theMadison Center for EducationalAffairs, a Washington, D.C.-basedorganization that provides sup­port-including small grants anda toll-free advice line-to conser­vative papers across the country.According to Jeff Muir, programofficer at the center, roughly halfof the newspapers in the center'snetwork receive financial assis­tance. The average yearly grant is$2,500 to $3,000."What the Madison Center doesis try and help establish publica­tions at schools where only one12 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 side of the story is being put out,"Muir says, adding that thenumber of such newspapers isgrowing. "Ten years ago therewere virtually no conservativestudent newspapers. Now thereare more than 100." And, he pre­dicts, that trend will continue."The demand for our assistance isgreater than ... we can meet."Although the Dartmouth Reviewis often thought of as the grand­daddy of conservative studentpapers, the conservative studentpress, in fact, got its start at the Uof C. According to the MadisonCenter and other historians of thephenomenon, the first conserva­tive paper, Counterpoint, was pub­lished at the U of C in 1979, withthe help of a small grant from theMadison Center's precursor orga­nization, the Institute for Educa­tional Affairs. Upset with the coverage of campus affairs in t�eMaroon, students published thISlow-budget magazine to offer aopposing viewpoint. From thatstart, says Muir, the MadisO�Center's collegiate network anewspapers was born..Since then, conservative publI­cations have consistently beeIlavailable on the quads in aIleform or other. The current elderstatesman in this category is aspecial section of the Marooncalled the Fourth Estate, now [nits fourth year of publicatioIl.While the Fourth Estate makes itSown editorial decisions concerIl-ing the content in its section, it isofficially a department within theMaroon, and "is treated like aIlYother section-like the sports seC­tion or the news section," saysFourth Estate editor and coneg�second-year Cory Scott. The 4editor is chosen by the Maroon'seditor-in-chief, and a 4E staffersits on the Maroon's editorialboard.The Fourth Estate was started in1989 as a reaction to anotherMaroon insert, the Grey City Jour­nal. Unlike the 4E, the Grey CityJournal is a "sister publication" tothe Maroon. While it is insertedinto and distributed with theMaroon, the Grey City Journal iseditorially independent. The GreyCity joumal-s-or, as it sometimesjokingly calls itself, the GodlessCommunist Journal-started pub­lishing news of the countercul­tUre in the 1960s. But in theEighties, notes Scott, "The GCJstarted publishing more socialist,leftist, political editorial." And theMaroon, he notes, was being criti­cized because it did not have anyCOunterpart to the Grey City Jour­nal's leftist slant. Thus, the FourthEstate was born.Since it first began publication,the 4E's tone has changed some­what. "Basically we started out asa pretty far-right publication, butWe were pretty abstract," saysScott. "We talked about foreignpolicy, anti-political-correct­ness-basically abstract conserva­tive thought." Over the years,Scott says, the paper has becomelllore campus-oriented ("We'vebeen a constant critic and constantWatchdog of Student Govern­lllent," he says) and less rightWing. "We have moderates, cen­trists, libertarians" on staff, heSays, noting that the staff is also�iversified in gender and race.But we are still a conservativepress, no doubt about it."The Whip considers itself fartherto the right than the FourthEstate. Started last summer byeditor and College second-yearJason Hirschman, the Whip wasliirs2hman's answer to what he�aw as the need for a completelyIndependent conservative paperon campus. Unlike the FourthEstate, the Whip is not an officialStudent activity; it receives nofunding from the University anddoesn't even have an office oncampus-except Hirschman's?ormitory room, where the paperIs headquartered."The Fourth Estate is a goodPublication," Hirschman says, "but I think it is somewhat com­promised by being part of theMaroon. It doesn't have the abilityto go one-on-one with the GC] ifit so chooses."The Whip is published threetimes each quarter and onceduring Orientation Week, with3,000 copies distributed by Whipstaffers to various campus loca­tions. Hirschman says they've hadpositive feedback from their stu­dent readers-"especially fromthe younger students" who readthe paper's Orientation Weekissue. "People who disagree withour ideology might not look at usso kindly, but I think that's to beexpected." The Whip, he says, has,proudly published good wishesfrom such well-known conserva­tives as Milton Friedman, AM'33,and William F. Buckley.Barry Nelson, director of stu­dent activities, notes that whileconservative newspapers are notnew to the U of C he's. not surehow large their readership is.Although his office has neverstudied the political views of stu­dents here, he says, "I have a gen­eral sense that they probablydon't speak for a very large per­centage" of the student body.Cory Scott concurs. "The politi­cal atmosphere is pretty apathetic.I would say there are definitelymore liberals than conservatives, but there is a great big mass ofamorphous moderates that wecall the mushy middle." Of hispublication, he adds: "We're rele­vant and we're needed."Maclean workwins awardNORMAN MACLEAN'S POSTHU­mously published YoungMen and Fire, the story of a1949 Montana forest fire thatkilled 13 firefighters, has receivedthe National Book Critics CircleAward for best general non-fiction.Maclean, PhD'40, the WilliamRainey Harper professor of Eng­lish who died in 1990, hadworked on the book almost con­tinuously since the publication ofhis first work of fiction, A RiverRuns Through It and Other Stories,in 1976.Young Men and Fire was unfin­ished at the time of his death.Edited by the University ofChicago Press, which publishedthe book last summer, it becamean almost immediate best-seller.It, and a new paperback edition ofA River Runs Through It, releasedto coincide with a movie versionof the novella, remained on theNew York Times "Best Sellers" listfor months. Birthday surprise: For his70th birthday, BernardSahlins, AB'43, co-founderof Second City and boardmember of the University'sCourt Theatre, received anunusual gift: The BernardSahlins Collec,tion ofTheatrical Works, anendowed book fund to behoused in the Departmentof Special Collections atthe Regenstein Library. Apresent from friends andfamily, the endowment willbe used to acquire bookson theatrical performanceand scholarship and im­portant editions of the­atrical works. Sahlins tolda reporter that his firstreaction to the gift was,'''But I'm not dead yet!"En garde: Second-yearCollege student WaiGenYee won the 1993 UAAfoilchampionship in NewYork. His overall fencingrecord is 98 wins and 24losses. The fencing coach­ing staff-head coachJanusz Steplowski andassistant coaches NeilRifkind, Carrington Ward,and George Lewis- wasselected as UAA CoachingStaff of the Year.Location, location, loca­tion: The Woodlawn andNorth Kenwood-Oaklandneighborhoods that sur­round the University arebeing slated for urbanredevelopment. A coalitionof neighborhood groupsand city agencies is plan­ning to rehabilitate oldapartments and constructnew homes-4,OOO unitstotal-in the area. Thecost of the project is esti­mated at $480 million,withconstruction to beginthis summer.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 13Documenting Douglas:The Department of SpecialCollections has acquired agroup of more than 2,000manuscripts and otherrecords documenting thelife and work of Stephen A.Douglas. A gift from fourmembers of the Douglasfamily, the papers are asignificant addition to the15,000 historical docu­ments relating to Douglasthat the Library purchasedin 1932. Included in thegift: a letter from AbrahamLincoln setting the termsof the Lincoln-Douglasdebates.Way of giving: By earlyMarch, contributions tothis year's United Way/Crusade of Mercy andOther Charities hadreached $225,000, or 94percent of the University'sgoal. Through the cam­paign, University employ­ees make gifts to charitiesbenefitting the local com­munity. Campaign coordi­nator Evelyn Williamssays, "We're pleased thatso many people have beenable to contribute, consid­ering the state of the econ­omy in the recent past."Last year, the Universitytopped its $225,000 goal.Molecular medicine: TheUniversity's biological sci­ences division has receiveda five-year, $3.2 milliongrant from the Lucille P.Markey Charitable Trustto support a new Ph.D.program in molecular med­icine. The Markey programwill train scientists seekingto focus molecular tech­niques on human. diseases.The grant will suppori.jac­ulty, students, and their re­search as well as fund newcourse development andprogram activities. Thefirst students are expectedto enter next fall. Social Sciencesgets new deanCOLIN LUCAS, PROFESSOR ANDchair of history, has beennamed dean of the SocialSciences division. He succeedsEdward Laumann, the GeorgeHerbert Mead distinguished ser­vice professor in sociology, whobecame provost of the Universitylast year. John Boyer, AM'69,PhD'75, dean of the College, hadbeen acting dean of the divisionsince last April.Lucas came to the University. in 1990 from Balliol College,Oxford, where he had taughtsince 1973. An Oxford-trainedspecialist in French history, Lucashas a particular interest in theFrench Revolution. He has editedfive books on the subject and iseditor of The French RevolutionResearch Collection."I want to keep the division asstrong and active as it has been under my predecessor," Lucassays. "I'm also very interestedin promoting the internationalconnections of our division. Forexample, I think the U of C hasa great international reputationand I think we will want to profitfrom that and develop what wealready have in place."The division has also beenreevaluating the importanceof the social science core cur­riculum. More than 100 socialsciences faculty and staff metrecently for a retreat addressingthe Common Core curriculum.Called by College dean Boyer,the one-day retreat attempted toexamine the methods currentlyused to teach the social sciencesin the core."Chicago stands out in its stub­born dedication to general educa­tion," Boyer told the Chronicle,"but it is essential that, from timeto time at least, we try to restatewhy we believe that our system ispreferable to a loose system ofdistribution requirements and aVoices from tbe QuadsA Ian Greenspan is my newestauthority on the African­American family. Last week, heappeared before the Congress totestify on the state of the econ­omy .... He said American house­holds and businesses are introuble today because they haveundergone, in the last few years,unprecedented restructuring, dueto major changes in the macro­economic system. Technologicalchanges have forced economicchanges that have forced a lot ofvery strong institutions-likeIBM, Sears, General Motors, U.5.Steel-to tremble ....That's exactly what has beenhappening to African-Americanfamilies: unprecedented restruc­turing brought on by changes inthe economy and in technology.This massive restructuring didnot begin, however, just a fewyears ago, like IBM's trouble. Thistrouble began in the middle of the1950s when the technologicalrevolution made its major shiftfrom production to high technol­ogy, to the information society.-Andrew Billingsley, X'55, pro-14 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 fessor of family and communitydevelopment at the Universityof Mary land and author of Climb­ing Jacob's Ladder, speakingat the SSA.It comes as no surprise in thisera of global communicationsand culture that the icon of globalculture, Madonna, has been con­sumed in the new capitalist Chinaas elsewhere. Of course, the prob­lem wi th making yourself soavailable is that you tend to bereproduced and redeployedwhether you like it or not....It should therefore come as nosurprise that in an official mass­circulation music magazine likeMusic Life, Madonna should befeatured as the cover girl-to helpsell the product, the magazine.And yet the promise of the coveris rewarded with not one article,photograph, or song which hasanything to do with Madonna.Instead, what one finds is a col­lection of nationalistic and Com­munist, party songs, such as "HailTomorrow's Sun," "Love theMotherland," "The Love of the New dean: Colin Lucas .series of '101' survey courses."Lucas agrees: "These kinds ofgatherings-where faculty gettogether to reflect-are veryimportant ways to help us do ourjobs better and be aware of whatbinds us all together."Compiled by Debra Ladestro.Coal Miner" "China You're onYour Way'to Great' Heights,""The New Great Wall," and -ob.Party, Forever Youthful Mother."-Gregory Lee, assistant profes5�rof East Asian languages and ciVl�lizations, speaking at an alumnl'Winter Weekend' seminar on,"Contemporary China: Culture,Politics, and the Future. "Scalpers were selling ticketSfor $150 a pieee, the highestprice for any ticket in New yorkon the night of October 2, 1989.But when the intermission arrivedafter almost two-and-a-half hoursfmany of the wealthy patrons 0the event went home. Yet the pre­miere of the reconstructed ver­sion of DW. Griffith's 1916 f�l�classic Intolerance-accompameby the Brooklyn Philharmonic,playing the original music byJoseph Carl Breil-was a success.It received a five-minute standin�ovation from those who staye 5the entire three hours and 4minutes. Still, one of my frien�:stayed to the end only because hiwife made him sleep in his seatrather than go home early.The reviews of this screening ofIntolerance, and the one duringthe New York Film Festival atAvery Fisher Hall, were generallyraves. But there was a counter­Point of implied ordeal, or partialfailure. In the New York Times,October 29, 1989, Vincent Canbycalled the reconstruction a "tri­umph of scholarship, sleuthing,and dedication," and the perfor­mance "a stunner." Yet the head­line read "Seeing Intolerance ishard work."I have titled this talk "ToleratingIntolerance." I was referring to myOWn attitude towards this film,Which is really a love-hate thing.The reconstruction took eightyears-not full time, of course.But when [film historian] PeterWilliamson and I worked on it, itwas unimaginably tedious, frus­trating work. We had to try allPossibilities for any given seg­ment of the film. Which meantcOunting the number of musicalbeats in the score and then plug­ging the number of beats, thenUmerical tempo if there was one,Or the number of film frames intoan algebraic equation my physi­Cist husband had supplied-andmUltiplying and dividing over andOVer again until we had workedOUt all the possibilities of lengthand sequence for every scene inthe three-and-a-half hour film.I am not a patient person. For­tunately, Peter Williamson is. OrWe would both have gone nuts.But restoration of any work of art,:Vhether it is a painting, a build­lng, a musical work, a novel or afilm, requires tedious, painstakingwork. And it requires that you bea. master at delayed gratifica­hOn.-Gillian Anderson, musicolo­gist at the Library of Congress at aSYmposium on music and silent�inema before the Chicago screen­Ing of Intolerance.S Orne interesting anagrams I. found for the phrase "Univer­Slty of Chicago" using the ArsMagna anagramming program forthe Macintosh ....R.etouching ivy fiascoUgh, oh scientific ovaryo I try achieving focuso feat! Ivy is crouching!Baving ferocious city To refreshen civic guyOf young, rich cavitiesEvict you of chairings-From: djb6@ellis.uchicago.edu(alias Dennis Brennan, a second­year student in the College), postedelectronically to a University newsgroup.We cannot know ourselveswithout understanding Rous­seau. At any rate, Rousseau isespecially helpful for answering aparticular question about our­selves that I want to raise today.And that question is: Why are weso obsessed with sincerity? Forthe canonization of sincerity-itselevation to the highest or mostfundamental human virtue-con­tinues to be one of the definingcharacteristics of our age.... Onecould object, of course, that thegoal to which we are truly ob­sessed is rather wealth, or mater­ial success. But perhaps one of thestrangest things about our societyis that, while everyone chasesmoney, few wholeheartedlybelieve in it.Virtually every American willtell you that Americans are toomaterialistic and sell out tooeasily. Somehow we have allinternalized the old critique ofbourgeois culture. We are all crit­ics of our own lives. And on this second critical level, when we askourselves what it means not tosell out, the little voice within usalways gives the same reply: betrue to your inner self. That is ourobsession ....In the larger sense, [by sincer­ity] I mean the phenomenon thatAllan Bloom describes in sayingthat in our thinking about ourhuman happiness and humanaction, [sincerity] has replacedthe traditional vocabulary ofvirtue and vice with such newpairs of opposites as inner-dir­ected/other-directed; real-self!alienated-self; and sincerelhypo­critical. For example, if one askswhat character trait has been thesingle greatest subject of condem­nation and loathing by intellectu­als and artists in the past century,one would have to answer,hypocrisy. And conversely, if oneseeks to name the positive charac­teristic that our culture uses todefine the happy and healthysoul, one would have to say,being oneself. If the modern agehad a theme song, it would be, "Igotta be me." -Arthur Melzer,associate professor of political sci­ence at Michigan State University,on "Rousseau and the Cult of Sin­cerity," part of the Olin Centerlecture series on "The Legacy ofRousseau." Centennial footnote: TheRegenstein Libray's SpecialCollections departmentreceived a Special Awardof Merit from the Asso­ciation of College andResarch Libraries for theconception, execurion, anddesign of the series of cata­logs and exhibitions cele­brating the Univer-sity's Centennial. Thedepartment's work waschosen unanimously bythe association for re­cognition-they noted "theinnovative approach to theproblem of a traditionaltype of event, the centen­nial exhibit and catalog. "Catalogs are availablethrough Special Collections.Behind closed doors: TheSmart Museum will closefor renovations for fivemonths beginning May 3.Improvements will includeupgrades for the heatingand air conditioning sys­tems and glass doors atgallery entrances to allowfor more sophisticated cli­mate control.The Film Studies Center and DOC Films sponsored a screening of the restored D. w. Griffith filmIntolerance as part of a February symposium on music and the silent cinema.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 15I S FUNDAMENTALISM. IN ONEform or another, the wordappears on the pages of neWS�papers nearly every day. "Hindufundamentalists battle. ... " "Christian funda�mentalists blockade .... " "State Departmentwarns Islamic fundamentalism threatens .... "So frequently is it blasted across headlinesReligious fundamentalist groups are increasing in number, that, to the average newspaper reader, anyreal meaning is often lost, replaced insteadby a vague sense of unease: Fundamental�ists, readers conclude, are irrational, vio�lent, and want to take over the world.Tucked away in a corner of Swift Hall onFONDAMENTALISMpower, and voice worldwide. A global study based at the University the University's main quadrangle is anunassuming office housing a study that'Strying to clear up the mystery behind theword. For five years now, the Fundamen�talism Project has worked to understandthese conservative religious movementSand the ways they affect the societies inwhich they exist.Of course, not everyone is happy aboutthe study's goal. "If you're a fundamental�FONDAMENTALLYCRANGING ist you're not going to like this project,"says associate director Scott ApplebY,"Because Christian fundamentalists don'twant to be compared to the AyatollahKhomeini, and the Ayatollah Khomeini'Sfollowers probably don't want him beingcompared to Jerry Falwell. People don'tlike comparisons," and fundamentalistSare no exception. As project directO.rMarti� Marty pointed out to a Chicago Tn:bune columnist, "If fundamentalists ranthe country, we couldn't do this study."The study had its beginnings in 198�when the American Academy of Arts anSciences received a five-year, $3 milliongrant from the John D. and CatherineT. MacArthur Foundation to fund aprogram in public policy studies. Thoughnot intended for a specific project, thegrant did come with some strings attached.According to Joel arlen, executive directorat the Academy, the MacArthur Founda�tion wanted the money to fund a studythat was international, interdisciplinary,multicultural, and of public significancearound the world.Religious fundamentalism, the AcademYdecided, was one topic that met all of thOS�conditions. To head the study they tUmeseeks to find out just how much influence the movements have.By Debra Ladestro Illustrations by Cary HenrieSOCIETY?16 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993to the University's Martin Marty, PhD'56,the Fairfax'M. Cone distinguished serviceprofessor in the Divinity School, and awell-known and prolific scholar of modernChristianity. Marty, in turn, asked oneof his former students, R. Scott Appleby,AM'79, PhD'85, to work with him."The Academy formed a committee tooversee the initial stages of the project,"says Appleby, "but they didn't put anysevere constraints on us. They said, 'Here,. Martin Marty and Scott Appleby and youradvisory council, go to it.' And, taking theiradvice and working out a few things on ourown, we conceptualized the various stagesof the project."What Marty and Appleby conceptualizedis a gargantuan effort, involving nearly 200scholars worldwide, and covering religiousfundamentalisms on all seven continents.To disseminate their scholarship theyplanned a six-volume series of essays. Thefirst, Fundamentalisms Observed, publishedin 1991, defines 14 different fundamental­ist movements. The second and third vol­umes, released this year, discuss the impactfundamentalist movements have on socialand state policies. The fourth, expectedlater this year, will look at how fundamen­talisms have changed over time. Due outin 1994, the fifth and sixth volumes willbe more reflective than previous ones,Appleby says, and will step back to com­ment on the phenomenon, looking at howfundamentalisms have become powerful.To help the scholars develop their essays,the project adopted a format of public andprivate symposiums where authors couldpresent versions of their work for. discus­sion and critique by colleagues. As direc­tors of the project, Marty and Appleby alsohave written the foreword to a 1991 paper­back on Islamic fundamentalisms and thePersian Gulf war; acted as consultants on aseries of three hour-long documentariesproduced by the University's Benton Broad­cast Project for public television and radioin 1992; and written an illustrated compan­ion volume to the broadcast series, TheGlory and The Power: The FundamentalistChallenge to the Modern World (BeaconPress, 1992). All of these activities havestruggled with a key question: What isfundamentalism?,. HE QUESTION IS NOTeasily answered. Many of thereligious movements often des­cribed as fundamentalist disagreeon the term's meaning and whether itapplies to them at all. As Nancy Ammer­man, associate professor of the sociology ofreligion at Emory University, notes in Fun­damentalisms Observed, the current usage of18 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993the word "fundamentalist" can be tracedback to a series of Protestant tracts, TheFundamentals, published between 1910 and1915. First released in the U. S., and thenin other Protestant countries, The Funda­mentals addressed Protestant factions thatrejected the more liberal theology of themainline churches in favor of living by.lir­eral translations of biblical text. Since then,the word has crossed both religious andnational borders to apply to a growingnumber of conservative movements.One thing for certain, Appleby notes, isthat each of these movements is a thor­oughly modern phenomenon. "They mayhave 19th-, IBth-, or 17th-century ante­cedents," he says, "but they are movementsthat have come to life, in their currentform, in the 20th century."In their very essence, fundamentalismsare movements that fight back. They arenot reactionary, notes Martin Marty, somuch as reactive-they fight back againstmodern, secular society. "I use the image ofjujitsu," Marty says. "A l.Otl-pound womancan throw a 200-pound man if he comesat her fast enough and with enough forceand she has the skill. The fundamentalistworld view is one that is extremely awareof modernlty. And whatever modernitythrows at them, they throw back.""Fundamentalists begin as traditional­ists," Marty and Appleby explain in theintroduction to Fundamentalisms Observed.As traditionalists, they "perceive somechallenge or threat to their core identity,both social and personal," and they opt toresist the challenge and fight back. Forweapons, they return to the "real or pre­sumed pasts, to actual or imagined idealoriginal conditions and concepts," andselect what they regard as fundamental­not necessarily the whole of the past, butthose features that best reinforce theirbeliefs.Fundamentalisms fight against outsiders.The enemy, Marty and Appleby write,"may be the infidel, the agent of antitheti­cal sacred powers, the modernizer; buthe or she may also be the friendly messen­ger who seeks compromise, [or 1 middleground .... " Most importantly, fundamen­talisms believe that in this fight, God is ontheir side.. Why study fundamentalism at all? Thereis a notion, Marty writes in an essay thatappeared in the Chronicle of Higher Educa­tion last fall, that "these movements arefossils, remnants of outmoded stages ofhuman development that are destinedto wane as people become enlightened, rea­sonable, and scientific." Yet, he continues,"our research has provided good empiricalevidence that this comforting prejudice is ill-founded." In fact, he argues, justthe opposite is the case. In recent years,fundamentalisms have surged in NorthernAfrica, the Middle East, the southernregions of the former Soviet Union, otherCentral Asian republics, the Asian subcon�tinent, Malaysia, and Indonesia. "Keep aneye on new hard-line Protestant gains inCatholic Latin America," Marty notesin the Chronicle. "And as many tirelessfundamentalists exist in North Americanow as there were when the Moral Major�ity was in its prime. You see aggressivenew movements threatening old stabilitieSeverywhere. "The question then becomes, how muchinfluence do these growing movementShave on the societies in which they eXist�That is the topic of Fundamentalisms anSociety: Reclaiming the Sciences, the Family,and Education, the second volume of essaysin the Fundamentalism Project's series. AsMarty and Appleby write in the introduC�tion, one explanation for the fundameWtalist's desire for influence over thesesegments of the public sphere stems fro�their belief that "control of the moral anspiritual formation of children and youn1adults is the certain path to the eventua"transformation of society as a whole .. ··The essays collected in FundamentalisntSand Society examine ways in which diffe�ent fundamentalist groups have attempteto transform their surrounding societies.The examples below refer to Islamic andChristian fundamentalisms, two groupsthat, in the U. S., have received the lion'sshare of newspaper headlines.VIRTUALLY ALL FUNDAMEN­talisms can be characterized bytheir eagerness to "reclaim"aspects of modern society as theirOWn, when it suits their needs. This idea,says Everett Mendelsohn, professor of thehistory of science at Harvard University,frees Islamic fundamentalists, for example,to adopt parts of Western culture withouthaVing to compromise their religious ideas."Fundamentalist intellectuals ... may bealienated from the culture of modern uni­versities and scientific research centers of nature-fossil anomalies, for example­that would disprove the theory of evolu­tion, and thus "prove" the story of creationtrue.The ICR's influence, notes Moore, lec­turer in the history of science at the OpenUniversity in Milton Keynes, England,has been widespread. According to Moore,as of 1984 the institute has published morethan 55 creationist books and mono­graphs-which have sold more than onemillion copies. It runs summer institutes, agraduate school, alibrary, a museum, and apress. Its scholars give hundreds of publiclectures, and make expeditions in search offossil and geological evidence that theybelieve would prove evolution false.The ICR and other fundamentalist believ­ers in creation science have tried to use the ences they are willing to adopt from theWest in fact originated in Islam." Their"adoptions" are thus viewed "as an act ofrepossession. "Muslim fundamentalists, says Tibi,professor of international relations atGeorg-August University of Gbttingen,Germany, acknowledge that the techno­scientific achievements of the modernWestern world helped foster the seculariza­tion of Islamic societies. To reclaim theirsocieties, as Tibi writes in "The Worldviewof Sunni Arab Fundamentalists: Attitudestoward Modern Science and Technology,""they argue accordingly that Islam mustfocus attention on modern science andtechnology. "The need to master military technologyin particular is a major theme in currentIF THERE IS ONE THING FONDAMENTALISMS HAVE IN CO MON,IT IS A HIERARCHICAL AND PATRIARCHAL STRUCTURE.FATHERS RULE OVER MOTHERS, PARENTS OVER CHILDREN.THERE IS NO ROOM FOR AMBIGUITY AS TO WHO'S IN CHARGE.the West," Mendelsohn writes in his essay,"R.eligious Fundamentalism and the Sci­ences," "but they insist they are notStrangers to science. To the contrary," heCOntinues, "they claim 'modern' scienceand many of its basic understandings hadtheir roots in the golden age of their reli­gious civilization."logical though it might seem to believeOtherwise, fundamentalist religions, as thisfirst essay in Fundamentalisms and SocietyPOints out, are not opposed to modern sci­ence and technology. Fundamentalisms­Islamic and otherwise-like science, butthey like it their own way.1\ pf ime example is the Institute forCreation Research, established in 1972on the campus of Christian Heritage Col­lege, a fundamentalist school in San Diego.funded by contributions from private citi­zens and churches (its 1984 budget was$1.2 million), the ICR concentrates on theStUdy of Creationism as a science. Biblicalcreationism refers to the "six-day, youngeanh, global Flood cosmology," writesJal11es Moore in his essay, "The Creationistiosmos of Protestant Fundamentalism."ur the ICR "scientists" search for clues in courts to get creation science taught inschools, but so far they have been unsuc­cessful. No matter, says Moore. "Funda­mentalist creationism in North Americaretains all the vitality of a well-heeled pop­ular movement using advanced, technolo­gies-film, television, video, computerizeddirect-mail promotions-to commendits cosmos as genuine science .... " Moorecontinues: "From being anti-evolutionsixty years ago, Protestant fundamentalistshave become pro-creation. From basingtheir creationism on biblical arguments,they have endeavored to make their argu­ments scientific. From lacking scientificcredentials or having amateur status atbest, they have acquired the insignia ofprofessionalism .... "While the Protestant fundamentalists ofthe ICR try to create their own version ofscience, fundamentalist Sunni Muslims inEgypt and Pakistan, for example, fullyembrace secular science and technology,even while they demand to "de-Western­ize" that knowledge. Bassam Tibi notes inhis essay in Fundamentalisms and Societythat these Muslim fundamentalists"believe that the aspects of modern sci- Islamic fundamentalism. FundamentalistMuslims, Tibi states, see weapons technol­ogy as "both the symbol and substance ofthe threatening modern." Thus, in typicalfundamentalist reaction, they "seek toharness technology'S power and turn itagainst the oppressor." They are not alwayssuccessful. Tibi notes a recent example:"During the Gulf War of 1991, SaddamHussein's slogan, 'Islamic belief againsttechnology,' designed to win fundamental­ist support, fell on deaf ears. The Iraqi fail­ure to master modern technology was dulynoted."In Sunni Islam, the impact of funda­mentalist theories on science is felt morestrongly in the realm of education thanin any state policy. Schools teach sciencethrough rote memorization, rather thanthrough experimentation and data collec­tion, because in the Islamic fundamentalistworldview man is subordinate to God, andman, without God, cannot create knowl­edge. Thus, Tibi states, Sunni Islamic funda­mentalism affects education by "impedingthe unfolding of human creation activities,"because, he says, Muslim fundamentalistsbelieve "God is the only Creator."UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 19EDUCATION IN IRAN HASbeen strongly influenced byIslamic Shi'ite fundamentalism.When the fundamentalist regime,led by the Ayatollah Khomeini, seizedpower in Iran in 1979, one of the firstthings the Ayatollah did was demand abasic rewriting of school textbooks. Hisgoal, notes Majid Tehranian, professorof communication at the University ofHawaii and former fellow at the Centerfor Middle Eastern Studies at Harvard, was"to purify them of all past secular and for­eign influences." The Ayatollah was verysuccessful, Tehranian writes in his essay,"Islamic Fundamentalism in Iran and theDiscourse of Development." By 1989, 10percent of all school books in use had beenwritten after the 1979 revolution and the T ehranian writes, "in which kings and theirunderlings are castigated while IslamicImams and ulama [holy men and religiousscholars 1 are portrayed as true heroes."In the United States, Christian fundamen­talists have not been as successful as theAyatollah in changing school texts-butthey've had an impact. Influenced by .theefforts of the Christian right, textbook pub­lishers have avoided "publishing materialthat might be construed as unpatriotic,anti-capitalist, or anti-Christian," writesSusan Rose in her essay, "Christian Funda­mentalism and Education in the UnitedStates." Rose, associate professor of sociol­ogy at Dickinson College, details one of themore successful attempts to influence thecontent of school books: Norman and MelGabler's textbook review service, begun the books and materials in the DiffusionNetwork because, they say, the materialscontradict their own worldview and exposechildren to, as Rose notes, the '''expecta­tions and orientations of Black Americans'(The Learning Tree); and to homosexualauthors (Oscar Wilde, Tennessee Williams,Gore Vidal, Walt Whitman)."Fundamentalists in the u.s. have perhapsbeen most successful in influencing thecontent and pedagogical approach to clas­sic texts. "Activists have chipped away atRomeo and Juliet," Rose writes, "to thepoint where publisher Scott Foresman andCo. deleted nine lines from act 3, scene 2,in which Juliet dreams of a last tryst withher exiled lover, removing the famouswords, 'if love be blind.' In an approvedtext for ninth graders, 320 lines were cutIN LATIN AMERICA, WHERE "MACHISMO" HAS BEEN PARTOF THE FABRIC OF THE CULTURE, THE FUNDAMENTALISTMESSAGE OF RESPONSIBILITY-AS FATHER, BUSBAND, ANDHEAD OF THE FAMILY-IS VERY ATTRACTIVE TO WOMEN.other 90 percent were new editions of pre-1979 books.The new books and rewritten editions,T ehranian explains, attempt to teach stu­dents a set of values which the Ayatollahperceived as essential to Islam. They speak,for example, of the "New Islamic Person."In addition to upholding traditional Islamicmoral standards (belief in God, piety,chastity, trustworthiness, and so on), aNew Islamic Person must be prepared tobecome a martyr for the revolution."Schoolchildren are inculcated with thebelief that a society based on martyrdomcan never be conquered," T ehranian writes,"since surrender and defeat come aboutonly as a result of the fear of death."The new books also teach that Iran shouldachieve cultural independence, something,they say, that can be attained by rejectingWestern models and returning to "anIranian-Islamic identity." And finally,Tehranian writes, the books provide a hier­archy of the Shi'a Islamic saints and heroesto emulate and also show which models toabhor-that is, "West-intoxicated" intellec­tuals. The new books "thus have under­taken a major rewriting of Iranian history,"20 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993in 1975. Working out of their home inLongview, Texas, the Gablers independentlyreview books and send their opinions to theTexas Textbook Selection Committee."The Gablers, like many other evangeli­cals, want textbooks to stress traditional,patriotic values," Rose writes. They disap­proved of one American government textbecause of the line "'year after year theDefense Department takes a very substan­tial slice of the federal budget,'" Rose notes."The Gablers argued that 'this showed asubtle bias in favor of disarmament.'" Inthe early 1980s, more than two-thirds ofthe books the Gablers disapproved of werelater rejected by the committee. And sinceTexas is one of the nation's largest text­book-buying markets, its decisions greatlyinfluence the content of school books inevery state.Christian fundamentalists also have hadsuccess in limiting funding for federalcurricular programs to which they object.Since the late 19805, the Department ofEducation has distributed curricula toschools nationwide through its NationalDiffusion Network. Right-wing fundamen­talist groups have objected to some of from Romeo and Juliet and approximately100 lines from Hamlet."IF THERE IS ONE THING FUN­damentalisms have in common,Martin Marty and Scott Appleby note,it is a hierarchical and patriarchalstructure. "We have not seen any funda­mentalism anywhere that doesn't not onlylean toward, but prefers, an exclusivelymale imagery connected with Allah, orjaweh, or the father of Abraham," Martysays. "It's extremely important that He beall powerful, all knowing, commandin�,and compelling," he continues. "And thISthen is the model or prototype for earthlyaffairs. Fathers rule over mothers, parentSover children. It's very hierarchical andthere is no room for ambiguity as to whO'Sin charge. If marriage has two vote�, o��vote is weighted over the other and It WIIalways be the man's vote.". tSMuch of the debate between seculans dand fundamentalists in the Islamic worlcenters on the status of women, marriage,. aand family law, notes Shahla Haefl,research fellow at the American Institut�of Pakistan Studies. The Islamic ideal 0Women, Haeri writes in "Obedience versusAutonomy: Women and Fundamentalismin Iran and Pakistan," is that of "femininemodesty (veiled and silent) and obedience(sacrificing and selfless)." When womenbehave otherwise, crises can erupt. Con­sider the following:Since the Islamic revolution in Iran, a"Women's Day" has been celebrated on thebirthday of Fatimah, the Prophet Muham­mad's daughter. "On that day in February1989," Haeri writes, "two producers of aradio show interviewed women regardingtheir choice of role models. A youngWoman identified Oshin, the heroine of aJapanese television serial popular in Iran,as her ideal woman. When asked whyshe did not prefer Fatimah, the youngwoman explained that Fatimah had lived�any centuries ago (and, by implication,Is no� a suitable role model for contempo­rary Iranian women). This insolent expres­sion of individual will, coming as it didfrom a woman, provoked the AyatollahI<:homeini's wrath. Unceremoniously andWithout further provocation, he called�or the producers' heads." Only throughIntense mediation by the Ayatollah's owndaughter and another religious adviser didhe back down.Not only did this woman consider analternative role model, she announcedher choice publicly. This "'disobedience'and 'willfulness' was perceived ... as disrupt- ing the 'natural' order of reciprocal male­female duties and obligations," Haeri states,"and transgressing the greater boundariesbetween leader/follower, male/female, andprivate/public functions and domains."Obedience, Haeri continues, is the cor­nerstone of the Islamic vision of a justsocial order. In marriage and family life,then, a wife's obedience to her husband isher "divine obligation" and a woman's sub­servient position extends to divorce. In1985, the Islamic regime issued a set ofdirectives known as the "conditions at thetime of marriage contract" which are to beread and signed by both husband and wifeat marriage.The first condition reads, "In a marriagecontract if divorce is not requested by thewife, and if in the court's judgment, therequest for divorce - is not due to her illtemper and behavior, then the husband isrequired to pay her up to half his income[or its equivalent] earned during the timethey have been married together."As Haeri notes, this directive leaves thewife completely powerless. "The interpreta­tion of good or bad behavior is of coursesubjective. Potentially a wife is always in aperilous state of being accused of disobedi­ence." And, if a woman tries to initiate adivorce, she will receive nothing in sup­port, and is even required to pay her hus­band to secure her freedom. If the womanhas children, there is even less incentivefor divorce. Custody decisions in Iran arebased on traditional Shi'ite Islamic law inwhich custody of boys older than 2 andgirls older than 7 is automatically given tothe father. If the husband is absent or dead,custody goes to the husband's father. "Onlyin the absence of the father or his father,"Haeri notes, "is a mother given custody ofher children."Instead of restricting women and keep­ing them subservient, the Protestant evan­gelical fundamentalism of Latin America,in one sense, empowers them. For funda­mentalist church communities in LatinAmerica, family life "is the raison d'etreof the church community itself," writesJorge Maldonado in his essay, "Building'Fundamentalism' from the Family in LatinAmerica."Fundamentalist churches in Latin Amer­ica tend to appeal primarily to lower andlower-middle classes. In many of thesepoorer families, writes Maldonado, execu­tive secretary for the Family EducationOffice of the World Council of Churches,"males do not remain physically at home ina regular permanent manner." Thus thefundamentalist message of responsibility­i.e., economic support and fidelity-in therole of father, husband, and head of the family is very attractive to women. "In aregion where machismo has been part ofthe fabric of the culture," Maldonado says,"the 'headship' ideology may be perceivedas protection of women and children andthe attempted easing of a heavy burdenfrom the shoulders" of lowe� and lower­middle class women.Another characteristic of Latin Americanfundamentalist churches is the practice ofemploying couples as missionaries. Forexample, at the Comunidade Evangelicacongregation in Goiania, Brazil, marriedcouples act as ministerial teams. "Theempowerment of couples in the leadershipof the church," writes Maldonado, who ishimself an ordained minister in the Evan­gelical Church of Ecuador, "and the recog­nition of women as partners in the ministryhave been of paramount importance in acountry where Catholicism traditionallyrequires that only celibate men and celibatewomen reach the status of sanctity, piety,and ministry .... " The participation ofwomen in these fundamentalist churches isvery high, Maldonado notes. Regardless oftheir age, education level, or marital status,they serve a variety of roles-teachers,evangelists, pastors, organizers.WHEN MARTIN MARTY ANDScott Appleby first conceivedof the enormous scopeof the Fundamentalism Pro­ject, they did so with one goal in mind:understanding. Marty explains: "Our mottois from Spinoza: 'When I set out to under­stand human actions, I made a sedulouseffort not to laugh, not to cry, not todenounce, but to understand.'" And that,he says, is what has been driving themall along."In the Middle Ages," he continues, "theyused to draw maps that showed all of theknown world, and then in the unknownworld they would draw dragons and write,'Here be monsters.' Well, fundamentalistsaren't all monsters. And we have to learnwhen they aren't and why they aren't."As fundamentalist movements continue todominate headlines-most recently in con­nection with the bombing of New York'sWorld Trade Center-understanding willbe increasingly important. ConfessesAppleby: "What surprised me about thisproject-and this is unsettling in a sense­is that the rise of these fundamentalismswas so rapid and so pervasive. We knewthey were there, we knew they'd continueto be there, and we knew they'd playa part."But they're playing a bigger part morequickly than we expected and they'llcontinue to playa part well into the nextcentury."UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 21The cheers have changed a bit,and so have the crowds, butwhen it comes down to basics,the Maroons are still playingthe same game.Getting psych'ed: Ce.nter Tina Klawinski(above) takes a half-time break; a momentof solidarity (right) in the homestretchagainst UAA rival NYU.By LESTER MUNSONPhotography by DAN DRY22 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 ea ueefore each home foot­ball game at the Uni­versity, the Departmentof Physical Educationand Athletics hosts aluncheon in BartlettGymnasium for theplayers' families. It's ajoyous and noisy affair, burying pre-gameanxieties in food and fellowship. At one ofthese luncheons a few years ago, a crowdgathered around the family of runningback Bruce Montella, AB'86, MD'90.A week earlier in a muddy and gloriousgame, Montella had run for an amazing305 yards, a University record. In a rare bitof recognition for a Division III athlete,Sports Illustrated a few days later namedMontella its offensive player of the week.Within the crowd around Montella'sfamily at Bartlett Gym, the word "congratu­lations" was heard again and again. Was itbecause of Montella's recognition as playerof the week? No.The shared joy around the Montellafamily was because Montella, a senior, hadachieved early admission into the Univer­sity's Pritzker School of Medicine.It's a nice story, and it says a lot aboutathletics at the University of Chicago.In a typical day, nearly 2,000 men andwomen stride. through the turnstiles of theHenry Crown Field House, through theornate doors of Bartlett Gymnasium, downthe stairs to the swimming pool in IdaNoyes, or around the Stagg Field track.Some come for personal workouts or afriendly game of squash. For others, com­petition is key.Each year, nearly 500 students performon 20 varsity teams. Some 1,200 participatein 33 club sports. Another 8,500 athletesplay in 2,300 intramural contests-thiswinter's basketball intramurals attracted110 teams.Those numbers surprise many people,but they would be a particular surprise toWilliam Rainey Harper and Amos AlonzoStagg, who set Chicago on quite a differentcourse, assembling elite athletes and seek­ing recognition for the fledgling Universitythrough athletic supremacy. The numbers might be a bigger surprise to Robert May­nard Hutchins, who turned Chicago's backon athletic supremacy, the better to em­phasize its scholarly achievements.Yet over the last several years, graduallYand quietly, the University has put togetheran athletics program that offers students inthe College a chance to enjoy the best ofboth Harper and Hutchins, to compete at anational level while pursuing a rigoroUSundergraduate education.Since 1973, the University has competedin NCAA Division III, the home of the"scholar-athlete." Its athletes hone theirskills, perfect teamwork, win an occasionalchampionship-and, according to StarkeyDuncan, PhD'65, professor of psychologyand the University'S NCAA faculty repre­sentative, score higher grade point averagesthan the rest of the students on campus.Since 1986, Chicago has been part of aDivision III conference called the Univer­sity Athletic Association. The UAA was thebrainchild of Dennis O'Brien, PhD'61, pres­ident of the University of Rochester, andWilliam Danforth, chancellor of Washing­ton University."We were on a tour of the University ofMinnesota during the annual meeting ofthe Association of American Universities[the 50 top research universities in thenation], and the tour guide pointed out ahuge and expensive-looking building andproudly announced, 'That is our indoorfootball practice area,'" O'Brien recalls."I turned to Bill Danforth and I told himthat we must make sure we never, everhave one of those. "O'Brien and Danforth soon found them­selves trading ideas about the kind of ath­letic conference they'd like to have: a groUPof research universities committed to excel­lent academics and athletics, with varsityteams travelling among major cities. Soonthey were making a list of such schools-with the University of Chicago at the .toPfaccording to Mary Jean Mulvaney, chair 0the U of C's Department of Physical Educa­tion and Athletics from 1976 to 1990.The more they talked, the better O'Brienand Danforth liked their idea. The nextstep was inviting the presidents of theschools on their list to St. Louis to discusssuch a conference.President Hanna Gray couldn't attend,but she sent Charles O'Connell, AM'47,then dean of students (now retired), in herstead. "It came at the right time for us,"O'Connell remembers. "We were increas­ingly unhappy with our current confer­ence," the Midwest Collegiate AthleticConference. In 1983, Carleton College­�like the U of C, one of the nation's top lib-. eral arts colleges-had withdrawn from theMCAC to play in an all-Minnesota confer­ence, and its place had been taken by asmall and relatively unknown Wisconsincollege."We did not like the direction things hadtaken," O'Connell says. Problems with theMCAC were growing: long bus trips allover the Midwest, as well as a lack of com­mitment to women's sports and specialtreatment for star athletes at certain MCACschools.Three university presidents joinedO'Brien, Danforth, and O'Connell at thefirst meeting in St. Louis, and then thingsstarted happening quickly. Within months,nine schools were ready to sign up, eventhough the conference would cover theentire eastern half of the U.5. and meanmajor money commitments for additionalfacilities, more coaches, and travel expenses.At Chicago, O'Connell and Mulvaney dida detailed cost and feasibility study forPresident Gray and the faculty, estimatingthat the cost of competing in the UAAwould be an extra $150,000 a year. InJune1986, the University announced it wouldjoin. Mulvaney, an expert on the intricaciesof the NCAA's ten-pound rule book, helpedput together a set of UAA rules and bylawsto ensure what O'Connell likes to call a"Simon Pure athletic program" at eachUAA school. Athletes are measured againstthe same standards as other students inadmissions and in maintaining academicprogress, as well as in financial aid.In addition to Chicago, Rochester, andWashington, the schools that joined theconference in its first year were EmoryUniversity, Carnegie Mellon, Case WesternReserve, New York University, and JohnsHopkins. Brandeis came along in 1987.The only schools from the original O'Brien­Danforth list of 11 that didn't sign on wereM.LT and Rice University.For Chicago, an immediate and signifi­cant result of joining the UAA was a dra­matic expansion of women's competition.Lester Munson, jD'67, who writes for SportsIllustrated, is also the father of a formerMaroon offensive tackle, Lester Munson III,AB'89.24 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIl1993Budgets, facilities, and schedules werequickly set in a scheme that is a modelsolution for what the sports pages now callthe "gender equity problem" at otherschools. It's a process that was alreadyunder way at the University, but thingshappened faster as part of the UAA.Schedules changed, too. U of C varsityathletes, who once rode buses to CedarRapids and Galesburg, now jet to NewYork, Boston, and Atlanta: (Bus trips aren'textinct, however, as many sports-bothclub and varsity-continue to competeagainst non-UAA Midwesternschools.)Crowd participation has also changed.The fact that UAA schools reside in largecities means alumni based in those citieshave an opportunity to see their teams play , 'T he University'S commit­ment to the UAA is thebellwether of the Univer­sity's commitment tothe non-academic life ofits students," says Lorna Straus, AM'60,PhD'62, professor of organismal biologyand anatomy, and Chicago's faculty repre­sentative to the UAA. "I do not want to usethe term 'extracurricular,'" Straus empha­sizes, "because it makes the athletics pro­gram less important than it should be.""It is easy to underestimate our commit­ment to athletics," agrees Thomas Wein­gartner, who took over as Chicago's chairof physical education and athletics in 1990."We are not like Ohio State, where gateand television receipts pay for the rest ofA show of hands: Headed toward victory, the Maroons use a time-out.on the road. U of C alumni turned out forreceptions at Rochester and New York inFebruary following men's and women's bas­ketball games; and Chicago-based alumnifrom other UAA schools often attend whentheir schools are playing at the U of C.And the cheers have changed. In yearspast, after a Maroon miscue-a fumble oran interception or an airball-the student­section cheer was: "That's all right, that'sokay/You're going to work for us someday.""That cheer," Duncan notes ruefully, "dis­appeared as soon as we joined the UAA." the athletics program. Our money comesfrom the University budget," he says. "ourcommitment is a greater commitment thanOhio State's."The interlocking expenses of the Univer­sity's athletic budget (the staff teaches aswell as coaches, facilities are used simulta­neously for varsity and recreational pur­poses) mirror what Starkey Duncan sees asthe interlocking goals behind the Univ�r­shy's investment in the UAA and athletiCSin general: to provide "the best availablevarsity athletic experience, an enrichedprogram that combines real respect for theacademic standing of the other schools andmore challenging competition."With the University's continuing invest­ment in the UAA, Chicago and its student­athletes are becoming more competitive. Ithas been a struggle. In the first five years ofUAA competition, the Maroons won onlyfour of 104 conference championships.Three came in wrestling, under the coach­ing of Leo Kocher, MBA'87, who has pro­duced a continuing line of Division IIIAll-Americans. The 1989 women's basket­ball team, lead by Division III All-AmericanKristin Maschka, AB'91, won the Maroons'other UAA championship. (This year, theMaroons added another championship, inwomen's cross country.) During the sameperi�d, only Carnegie Mellon and CaseWestern Reserve, among the nine UAASchools, did as badly or worse. In contrast,Rochester and Washington won a com­bined 51 championships, and Emory,thanks to superior men's and women'stennis teams, won 16.For the U of C, the most visible competi­tive struggles have been in football, theSPOrt that was once Chicago'S glory. TheMaroons won their first UAA game lastseason-a one-point win over WashingtonUniversity_;_after 14 straight UAA losses over four seasons.(Five schools play UAAfootball.) But both Weingartner and thefootball coaching staff believe they haveturned the corner. They may be right. Theteam played particularly well in its lastthree games, and, according to assistantcoach Matthew Limegrover, AB'91, theteam will enjoy "its best recruiting classever" next season.The fortunes of the football team typifywhat Weingartner is trying to do toimprove the quality of the University'sUAA entries."The single most important factor inbecoming more competitive is to attractand to retain excellent faculty as headcoaches," the athletic director says. SinceWeingartner arrived two-and-a-half yearsago, he has "shuffled the deck," hiring fournew head coaches, installing full-timecoaches in sports which previously hadonly part-time coaches, and reassigningother faculty to get teams staffed as well aspossible. The results are beginning toshow. After a couple of dismal years in theUAA, the Maroon teams have in the lasttwo years managed 11 second- and third­place finishes in conference standings, insports ranging from women's volleyball tomen's indoor track.Weingartner's other emphasis has been to"support those faculty members with addi­tional resources for recruiting." This doesnot mean scholarships. It means phonecalls, postage; computers, and time to visitprospective students."The students we are looking for arehighly desirable," Weingartner explains."Not only have they earned good gradesand tested in the 1300-l400 [SAT] range,they have managed to excel in a noticeableway in a sport. We are competing with theIvies and the service academies for thesestudents, and it is tough." Being in theUAA makes Chicago more attractive to thestudents, but recruiting remains tougherthan the coaches would like.Rich Parrinello, head football coach atRochester and former head coach at the Uof C, understands Chicago's recruiting dif­ficulties. "Chicago is ina unique positionbecause of its admissions standards. Theyare much more difficult than Rochester's orCarnegie's or Washington's. Chicago mustspend more money and expand the recruit­ing base by getting the coaches out ofChicago and into other areas. They mustcast out a much larger net. They know that,and they are moving in that direction."While seeking better faculty and recruit­ing more and better athletes, Chicago haspostponed major investment in athleticfacilities. It's not that they aren't needed,argues Lorna Straus: "Facilities must improve." A lack of space means "we haveintramural basketball games at one in themorning and at seven in the morning."But the University's $500 million "Cam­paign for the Next Century" fund-raisingdrive includes on its needs list $lO milliontoward the new, 83,000-square-foot U of CAthletics Center. The new facility will in­clude an eight-lane, 50-meter pool; a sec­ond gym; locker rooms; and departmentoffices. The new pool-"We have needed apool for 15 years," says Straus-will elimi­nate what may be the most embarrassingdeficiency in any part of any program any­where in the University: the existing pool isfive yards too short for collegiate competi­tion, with too few lanes and no diving well.Back in 1986, O'Connell, Mulvaney, andothers involved in the decision to join theUAA anticipated the difficulties that wouldcome: tougher competition, along with thelarger budgets for staff, travel, and recruit­ing. But they also expected that the Univer-. sity, the UAA, and individual athleteswould gain increased recognition-evennationally-as the conference becameknown in the major cities where its schoolsare located. This has not happened."We simply have not enjoyed the recog­nition we expected," O'Connell says.Chuck Sadowski, Chicago'S sports infor­mation director for six years until he leftlast year for a similar job at the Universityof Redlands in California, thinks he knowswhy. "With the exception of Rochester,each of the schools play in a major urbancenter. The teams are competing for cover­age with professional teams and Division Icollege teams. It is sad to say, but ourteams do not even receive as much cover­age as some high school teams. Division IIIsports, they say, do not sell papers."The UAA "should have more recognitionat the national level," says Lorna Straus."We should be watched and copied. Divi­sion III sports, and the UAA in particular,should receive more coverage in thenational media. We should be the Big Sisterthat everyone is watching. Our kids carejust as much about winning."Tom Weingartner is philosophical aboutthe UAA's lack of media coverage. "We arenot doing this for publicity, though recog­nition is always nice. Our concern is offer­ing our athletes the same kind of rich andextraordinary experience in their competi­tions that they enjoy in the classroom."On that scale, says Straus, the UAA is asuccess: "There is no dissonance betweenthe rhetoric and the reality. Like schoolsare competing against like schools. Thecompetitors share the same experiences.They are trying to win-and they are tryingto get into med school. "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 25"0 sludy Ihehighesl-energyparlicles fromouler space, aChicago leam islesling a newslyle ofaslronomy.By,.imObermillerJames Cronin was experienc­ing a scientific mid-life crisis.In 1980, he'd won a NobelPrize in physics for his exper­imental investigations in the 1960s,using the particle accelerator atBrookhaven National Laboratory.He'd gained all of the perks, andpains, one inherits with the prize:fame, respect, countless calls tospeak at scientific symposiumsand dinner functions.In 1984, Cronin did what is,to date, his last accelerator experi­ment, with some students andpost-docs at CERN (the EuropeanCenter for Nuclear Research). "Itwas, I'm told, the cheapest experi­ment ever done at CERN-lO,OOOSwiss francs, and we measured thelifetime of a particle called a pi zero.It was," he says, "justfun to do."Such small-scale experimentswere becoming increasingly rarein the field of particle acceleratorphysics, where 400 scientistsworking on a single project is notuncommon. It's not, Cronin says,that such epic-scale experimentsaren't "unassailably important, justabsolutely"-they simply weren'this cup of tea."Particle physics had become verybig, very complex," he explains."And I had always worked in smallgroups with small teams," startingwith his graduate work at the Uni-26 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993Particle detectors: JamesCronin (left) leads CASA."Charlie Brown" (above) is one@f 1,089 CASA stations spreadacross 80 acres in Utah.Versity of Chicago in the 1950s,Under the great physicist Samuel K.A.llison. (Cronin received his Ph.D.in 1955, later joining Princeton's�aculty before returning to Chicago1n 1971.)"I guess when you grow up in acertain age," Cronin muses, "you'renOt Willing to make the change toaccommodate these big experi­tnents. It's a matter of training andStyle of work."Around the time of his 1984CERN experiment, Cronin's fancyWas caught by some accounts he'dread from far-flung teams-in"Russia, China, India, Germany,England, and Japan-doing inter-e' .}StIng experiments in cosmic rayPhysics. In particular, a Germantealll from the University of Kiel�ad presented data suggesting that a� aUble-star, known as Cygnus X-3,In OUr galaxy was emitting cosmictays of extremely high energy.The highest -energy form oftnatter in the known universe��Slllic rays were discovered byIctor Hess in a 1911 balloon:Xperiment. Bombarding EarthtOlll Outer space, the actual number of cosmic rays are small,but their energies go all the way upto 1020 electron volts (eV). That's anenergy trillions of times higher thana chest x-ray (104 eV)-and it'sten million times higher than theenergies that would be obtained bythe Superconducting Super Col­lider, the proposed 54-mile-roundparticle accelerator, to be builtin Waxahachie, Texas.Scientists are interested in thesesuper high-energy cosmic ray parti­cles, partly because at the lowerenergies their origins and existencehave been adequately explainedthrough balloon and satellite exper­iments-many by U of C scientists,including Arthur Holly Compton,John Simpson, and Dietrich Muller.Particles up to 109 eV can be pro­duced by ordinary stars-for exam­ple, our sun-and are detectedconstantly in the solar winds. Evenenergies up to a 1014 eV can bereasonably explained. Supernovasand exploding stars, although rareevents in our galaxy, could acceler­ate particles to that magnitude.But what in the universe was accel­erating particles to an energyequal to that of a tennis ball going100 kilometers an hour?"That's a stunning fact," saysCronin. "That nature, one way oranother, manages to accelerateparticles to 1020 electron volts. That's macroscopic energy-and itresides in one elementary particle,a proton, weighing something like10 -24 grams, yet with the energy ofa high-speed tennis ball. How doesnature do that?"Nature has so far been stubbornin revealing this secret. That'sbecause 99.9 percent of cosmicrays are charged particles. Thesecharged particles-mostly pro­tons-are bent and twisted by ran­domly distributed magnetic fieldsin our galaxy, making it impossibleto tell where they come from origi­nally. The only cosmic rays thatcould potentially point back totheir origins are neutral particles.The most common neutral parti­cles, neutrons, would decay backinto protons long before theyreached Earth. Only gamma rays(high-energy photons) would sur­vive a trip from source to Earth­but gamma rays constitute onlyone or two out of every 100,000cosmic rays.The challenge of detectinghigher-energy rays-be they neu­tral gammas or charged cosmics­is made more difficult because theflux of cosmic rays drops dramati­cally as their energy increases. Atlower energies, up to 1012 eV, aballoon or satellite could feasiblycatch and record cosmic raysdirectly. Beyond 1012 eV, however, you'd have to have a space detectorin orbit for several months to belucky enough to intercept a handfulof rays."It's the good fortune of nature,"says Cronin, that just at the energylevel where it becomes impracticalto study cosmic particles in space,they become detectable on theEarth's surface. The reason: whenparticles of 1012 eV and above col­lide with the Earth's atmosphere,they break apart, producing show­ers of smaller-energy particles.Depending on the energy of theoriginal particles, these showers cancontain millions of particles, andcan range hundreds of metersacross. Building a ground-baseddetector to study such a shower inorder to tell something meaningfulabout the original particle was anexperimental challenge that JamesCronin found irresistible.As a particle physicist, Croninwas used to dealing with needle-in­a-haystack ratios-trying to pickthrough thousands of particle­accelerator collisions to find oneor two that might be of potentialinterest. Finding those one or twoevents was strategically somethinglike finding the gammas amid acomparative torrent of cosmic rays.Nor was Cronin put off by thefact that he wasn't an astrophysicistby training. His most famous parti­cle experiment, after all, had pro­found cosmological implications.In 1963-using what was then theworld's highest-energy particleaccelerator, at Brookhaven NationalLaboratory-Cronin and a Prince­ton colleague, Val Fitch, reported astartling find .. They had been exam­ining the K-meson, a neutral parti­cle experimentally discovered atBrookhaven by U of C physics pro­fessor emeritus Leon Lederman afew years earlier.As with all neutral particles, theK-meson holds matter and anti­matter in equal amounts, causing iteventually to annihilate itself,decaying into other particles. Build­ing an apparatus to detect thatdecay, Cronin and Fitch found thatK-mesons had a slight preference todecay as positrons rather thanelectrons. The symmetry wasn'tperfect, as theorists had previouslyassumed. The discovery led toan explanation of how, during itsformation, the universe couldUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 27have evolved from equal amountsof matter and antimatter to thematter-dominant universe that weknow today. And it led, in 1980, toNobels for Cronin and Fitch.The experiment represented thedawn of an era when particle physi­cists and astrophysicists are increas­ingly asking the same questions:what are the basic components thatmake up the universe, and by whatprocesses are those componentsproduced or changed over time?Energy was a key to unlocking thatmystery. The energies first seen incosmic rays, and later recreated byparticle accelerators, had revealedsubparticles like quarks and lep­tons-thought to be the basic stuffof matter. An equally sophisticatedanalysis of high-energy particlesfrom space might reveal processesexplaining how energy and matterinteract on a cosmic level. But with­out knowing where in space theycame from, such particles wouldremain mysteries-like smoke froman invisible gun.Was Cygnus X-3 a source of high­energy gamma rays, as the Kielastronomers indicated? Croninfound the evidence suggestive, butfelt that no experimental apparatushad yet been built that could proveor disprove Kiel's evidence conclu­sively. That's when he started todream up CASA. If he built it, thegamma rays would come.From a distance, CASA (theChicago Air Shower Array)looks like a giant outdoormattress sale. Hundreds offlat, rectangular boxes are deployedon a square grid of IS-meter spac­ings across 80 acres of Utah desert,land that is part of a military prov­ing grounds called Dugway.Each box is an independent sta­tion, designed to detect particles incosmic ray showers. CASA beganrunning in December 1988 with49 detectors, added 480 more byDecember 1989, and became fullyoperational on January 1, 1992,with a total of 1,089 stations.Over a billion "events" (cosmicand gamma ray showers) have beenrecorded by CASA's detectorsduring its short life-data nowbeing analyzed at a laboratory inthe University's High EnergyPhysics building.Rene Ong, assistant professor of physics and one of the original par­ticipants in the CASA project, non­chalantly pulls open a drawerof one of the lab's many filingcabinets, filled with what could bemistaken for standard audio cas­settes. A new advance in technol­ogy, these eight-millimeter cassettescan "store about a gigabyte" ofinformation, says Ong-approxi­mately one day's work for CASA."So think of a Macintosh hard­drive-the big ones are 100megabytes-we fill about 20 ofthose a day."The trip from Cronin's drawingboard to this production of gigabyterivers of data was surprisingly shortfor CASA-once the funding was inplace in 1987. "Nobel Prize or not,"admits the laureate, "it wasn't easyto get that money.""The astronomy division of theNational Science Foundation [NSF]just couldn't conceive of this,"Cronin told Science magazine, "andas for particle physics, it's a stretchof imagination saying we're doingparticle physics." After "lots oftrips to Washington" to discuss theproject with NSF program officers,Cronin finally got his rubber stamp,providing $3 million to buildCASA, and another $l.8 million tofund its first three years of opera­tion. (This coming fall, CASA will\ apply for a new three-year NSFgrant-Cronin is optimistic thefunding will go through.)As funding proceeded, the projectbegan attracting several youngsenior research associates and post­docs-Corbin Covault, Brian Fick,Ken Gibbs, Brian Newport, LeslieRosenberg, and Ong, who laterjoined the faculty. As would beexpected, several graduate studentshave worked on CASA-moreunusual is the number of under­graduates involved, about 20 so far,many of whom have completedsenior theses on CASA-relatedresearch projects. Contributing "ona spiritual level," as Ong puts it,were Dietrich Muller and MarkWiedenbeck, both of the EnricoFermi Institute, whose suggestionshelped guide CASA through itsplanning phase.With "Gibbs and Newport fromastrophysics, and Rosenberg andOng from particle physics-it wasa wonderful combination," saysCronin. "It was really those people who made the design."You have to give a lot of intel­lectual freedom to young people,"he adds. "That's how things aregoing to develop at this or anyother university. You can't hang ontoo long with some older scientistwho is set in his ways and domi­neering. When I was a youngperson at Princeton I had that free­dom, and I'll never forget it."In the case of CASA, "the bulk ofthe intellectual effort focused onthe electronics," says Cronin. "Therest is pretty low-tech. Photo tubesand plastic boxes."In each box are four scintillationcounters-miniature versions ofthe particle detectors used by giantparticle accelerator labs. The coun­ters are made of a special plasticthat produces a flash of light whenstruck by a charged particle. Eachtiny light flash-or scintillation­is funneled to an electronic photo­multiplier (the "photo tubes"Cronin referred to) that convertsthe signal into a sharply definedelectronic pulse.This pulse, in turn, is superim­posed on an electronic train ofclock pulses so that the particle'sarrival can be recorded to a bil­lionth-of-a-second precision. Bydetermining the exact time eachparticle in a gamma shower hitsthe ground, scientists can approxi­mate the angle of the original parti­cle's entry into the atmosphere.From there, they can determine the"celestial coordinates" of the parti­cle-where in space it came from.Hundreds of detectors can beactivated in a single shower,recording thousands of particles.Because the detectors are spaced15 meters apart, the scientists mustmathematically fill in the gaps­out of a shower of four million par­ticles, only 17,000 particles mightbe detected. By estimating thenumber of particles in a shower,CASA can determine the energy ofthe original particle when it hit theatmosphere: the more particles, thehigher the energy. Particles beyonda certain energy level (1017 eV) areso rare that CASA can't collectenough to make their study worth­while. But that limitation is accept­able, because most gamma rayshave energies below 1015 eV.The process of sorting outCASA's enormous data collection begins with computer boardsinstalled in each of CASA's 1,089detectors. Designed by a team ledby Leslie Rosenberg (now a juniorfaculty member at M.LT.), thesehomemade boards take the raw sig­nals from the photomultiplier tubesand convert them into digital .output. "I think the need for thiS ISobvious," says Ong. "You couldn'trun thousands of cables into a cen­tral [computer] site, it would becrazy. There are technical reasons,too. The signals start to look reallybad if you run them maybe half akilometer. So we decided to havewhat's called distributed intelli­gence. We would have our intelli-gence out in the field.". dThe computers' signals are hnke ,via an Ethernet network, to a cen­tral computer at the Dugway site."We're pretty pleased with the factthat the entire experiment gets runout on three cables," says Ong."There's PVC piping which runs daround the Dugway site-miles anmiles of it-which connects allthe cables and keeps them pro­tected from the animals. We have28 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993a big enough pipe now that theycan't bite through."Cable-chewing animals are justone of myriad technical glitches theteam has had to work out in the�tah wilds, where the term "fron­�ler science" takes on special mean­lng. 'There was a whole litany of�tUPid mistakes," says Cronin. "Younow, low-tech errors you tend totholnk you don't need to worryabout." Getting the boxes sealed so�ey Were moisture-proof was one.ow, he says, "we can work in allseasons, all weather. We were�der two feet of snow, and theset ings worked just fine."AU of the equipment was con­Structed in Chicago by the CASAtealll-Cronin himself glued thou­sands of photo tubes onto scintilla­tors. The finished product, installedatDu . h ... gway, IS t e most sensitrve�trument of its kind in the world.or all the credit goes to the Uni­ver .Slty of Chicago, however. One�hason Cronin wanted to build atthe Dugway site was that already" ere, buried underground, was asplendid" array of muon detectors, Portrait of a cosmic shower: Inthis computer representation,the denser parts of a particleshower are indicated bywarmer colors.built by the University of Michiganin the late 1980s. Large numbers ofmuon particles often accompanycosmic ray showers, but very feware seen in gamma showers. Thus,detecti,ng a large number of muonsin a shower helps the Chicago teamdiscard that shower in its search forthe much rarer gamma rays."I n terms of astronomy, thisis still a fishing trip," ReneOng says of CASA-"fish"being the precise galacticsource of high-energy gamma rays.To date, however, CASA has hadsome enticing nibbles. And, ofequal importance, CASA has toldastronomers where in the cosmicpond not to look. Cygnus X-3, forexample.Using an array considerablysmaller than CASA's to collect itsdata, the team from Kiel University reported gamma rays from theCygnus double-star at 1015 eV. Ifthat were correct, CASA shouldhave recorded a huge number ofgamma ray events coming fromCygnus X-3 every time it passedoverhead. None were seen. Since itwasn't likely that the weak "signal"the Kiel astronomers thought wascoming from Cygnus had suddenlyshut off, most astronomers nowbelieve that what the Kiel groupwas seeing were merely statisticalfluctuations.One promising area of the sky inwhich CASA is currently danglingits line is the Crab nebula, theremnant of a supernova that blewup in the 11th century (as noted atthe time by Chinese chroniclers).Lower-energy gamma rays fromthe nebula have already beenconfirmed. In analyzing its massesof data, CASA is also following upon leads provided by the ComptonGamma Ray Observatory (GRO).While not able to detect thehigher-level gamma rays, the orbit­ing GRO satellite can see energyranges lower in the spectrum."The GRO can tell us where tolook" in the data for gamma-raysources, says Ong, "because ifa source doesn't have the lower­energy gamma rays it probablydoesn't have the higher, either."Most intriguing are hundreds ofgamma "bursts" that GRO hasdetected, coming from all over thesky and not traceable to anyknown stars. Cronin's team willwork to try to trace these "bursts"in its own data to determine howenergetic they are.Solving these problems-if, infact they can be solved-is going totake time and patience, Ong says.He admits that CASA is "kind ofrisky, kind of on the edge.""This is a new frontier of astron­omy," Cronin agrees. "Astronomybegan with optical measurements,what could be seen with the sensi­tivity range of our eye. And asscience developed, one becameaware of a whole electromagneticspectrum-infrared, ultraviolet, x­ray, radio-of which physical lightis just a minute fraction."The basic thing we tell people is:we're trying to extend the range ofastronomy. We're doing astro­physics at the very highest ener­gies, using particle physics techniques." Although it may takeseveral years, Cronin is confidentthat, "before we're through, CASAwill see a few genuine sources" ofhigh-energy gamma rays.Beyond CASA's sensitivityremains those positively chargedcosmic rays-between 1017 and 1020eV, or perhaps even higher. Push­ing this kind of astrophysics to thehighest threshold will require evenlarger and more sensitive detectors.Cronin is stumping for interna­tional support to build two hugearrays of detectors, 5,000 squarekilometers each-one in the North­ern Hemisphere, one in the South­ern-to capture particles at thishighest range of the cosmic rayspectrum. Because particles at thislevel of energy are so rare (a one­square-kilometer array woulddetect about one event per century)such large arrays are needed to cap­ture enough events to offer mean­ingful data for analysis. The costalso would be large-scale-$50 or$60 million. But that cost, Croninpoints out, is only a fraction ofwhat it will take to build the pro­posed $8 billion Super CoUider.If built, the arrays could offerimportant clues to how natureserves up particles with energies ofa high-speed tennis balL Rightnow, researchers assume that theseparticles come from outside ourgalaxy-perhaps accelerated by theforces of black holes or neutronstars. Just finding out the highestlevels of the cosmic ray spectrumwould be of enormous importanceto astrophysicists. It might, forexample, offer experimental proofof the Big Bang. Theoretical modelsindicate that a remnant backgroundradiation from the Big Bang explo­sion should pervade all of space.Particles interacting with thismicrowave background should notbe able to exceed a certain level(6 X 1019 eV) of the electromag­netic spectrum. The giant arrays,says Cronin, might be able to con­firm if such an energy cut-off exists.Jetting around the world togenerate interest in the giant-arrayproject, Cronin admits, "I feel a bitlike a traveling salesman-but it'sworth it. I tell people, if you're seri­ous about dealing with this prob­lem, this is what you have to do.Aristotle can't solve this problem.You're going to have to measure it."UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 29Each time awoman israped,sa,sBarbaraEngel, AB'79,the individualassault takesits placewithin largerpatterns ofsexualviolence­patternssociet, mustacknowledgebefore the,can bechanged.itting with a friendover tea on a wintryChicago afternoon,Barbara Engel findsit hard to talk aboutanything else butthe news fromBosnia.According to jour­nalists and humanrights groups, Serbshave used system­atic mass rape as aweapon in their campaign to drive Muslimsand Croats from Bosnia. Estimates of thenumber of victims, as of the first of theyear, range from 20,000 to 50,000. Manywomen and children are thought to havedied during or after rape.Earlier in the day, Engel had been work­ing the phone, talking with other anti­rape activists and with the United NationsCommission for Refugees, searching outavenues to get training materials translatedand into the hands of rape counselors inBosnia. But now, as we sit talking in thelate afternoon light, she seems uncertainhow to proceed. She confides that for sev­eral weeks she has been carrying arounda Newsweek cover story on the Bosnianrapes, unable to read beyond the first para­graph for fear that, if she opened herself towhat was happening in Bosnia, she would"implode." •ttentlonMust Be Paid30 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIl1993 By Jamie Kalven Photography by Patricia EvansThat seems, at first, a surprising reactionfor someone who has spent much of herlife on the front lines of the anti-rapemovement. For close to 20 years, Engel,AB'75, has been among the strongest voicesin Chicago speaking. out against sexualviolence. From 1978 to 1988, she was thedirector of Women's Services at the YWCAof Metropolitan Chicago. For the last sev­eral years, in order to spend as much timeas possible with her children-Aaron, 6,and Daniel, 3-she has worked out of theByde Park home she shares with her hus­band, Jesse Hall, MD'77, associate professorof medicine at the University.As we talk, it becomes apparent that whatmakes the reports from Bosnia so hard forher to take in is not only the scale of thesuffering but also the questions the patternof mass rape pose about men.There is mounting evidence that therapes in Bosnia are a deliberate strategyin an organized campaign of terror-thatrape is being used to drive people fromtheir homes and a people from their home­land, that it is being used to annihilate, byWay of the cruelties inflicted on women'sbodies, the very idea of home,"If this is a military strategy," says Engel,"then men really know this about rape.". She seems stunned by the thought. ThisIs not rape as a crime of opportunity in themidstl of the chaos of war. It is as deliber­ate as the dropping of a bomb and, in itsWay, as destructive-not only of the vic­tims' lives but of their communities andsociety."What's so horrifying to me," she contin­Ues, "is the idea that some men can order�hat this be done and other men will carryIt Out. It's so clearly about destroying aCUlture. The anger and hate are so obvi­ous. Still, somehow, on a personal level, itcan be eroticized-men's penises will gethard and they will do this to nine-year-oldgirls. What complex connection is there between hatred and destruction and enter­ing a woman's body? This is not just afew aberrant individuals. When there are20,000 or 30,000 or 40,000 women beingraped, think of the number of men whomust be raping. How can that be possible?What do they think about women, whenyou scratch the surface, to be capable ofthis? As the lover of a wonderful man andthe mother of two boys, I'm just stopped inmy tracks. It scares me to the marrow."Civil war has racked Bosnia for closeto a year. In the United States in 1990,more than 100,000 rapes were reported.Allowing for underreporting-surveydata suggest that as few as one in ten rapesare reported-the number of U.S. womenraped in a single year may approach amillion."I wonder," says Engel, "whether there'sany difference when it's rape by soidiersin a war. I don't assume there necessarilyis-in any situation it must be shattering.But the question that so confuses so manyof us who've been victimized is: whyme? In Bosnia there's a clear answer."The rapes occur in the midst of generaldevastation: other women and childrenraped, men killed, villages razed, mosquesand churches destroyed. "You know theworld has gone crazy and what you'reexperiencing is part of that."In the U.S., the rape victim must strugglewith the fact that the larger patterns ofsexual violence, of which the assault on heris an instance, are rendered largely invisibleby the force of society's collective denial.Many rape victims remain sealed in theirprivate fates, blaming themselves, ship­wrecked in the midst of their everydaylives. "They often experience a terribleloneliness," Engel observes. "The worldseems to go along pretty much like it didbefore, but you don't. And you wonder ifyou're going crazy."Barbara Engel knows these feel­ings deeply .It happened on a Februarynight in 1972. She was 20 yearsold, a student at the U of C,returning home from Regenstein Library.She lived in an apartment over a storefronton 55th Street next to the Illinois Centraltracks. She pulled her car into a vacant lotacross the street from her apartment (sincebuilt upon, it was then used as a parkinglot.) As she opened the car door, a hoodedman put a knife to her neck and forced herback into the car. She struggled, but hequickly subdued her."During the rape," she recalls, "a phrasewent over and over in my head: 'This hashappened so many times before. This has happened so many times before.' At thatmoment, I felt connected to this river ofwomen from the past and into the futurewho were assaulted and who would beassaulted. I'd tapped into this horribleunderground truth-this deep river ofpain." •A person of embracing warmth and goodhumor, Engel becomes sharply focused andutterly serious when talking about violenceagainst women. Her presence takes on aquality of gravity, and she looks search­ingly into the eyes of the person she isaddressing as if following the course of herwords to see if they have struck home.Her assailant proved to be a man who hadcommitted seven rapes in the month sincehe had been paroled from prison after serv­ing a sentence for rape. She was not, how­ever, allowed to prosecute. Because sheowned a diaphragm and her roommatesincluded an unmarried couple, she says,the authorities decided that she would notmake a credible witness. The man waseventually convicted for another rape, buther case was dropped."Remember," she says, "this was the early1970s. There were no rape crisis centers,no hot lines, no services of any kind forvictims. There were no advocates to helpvictims deal with hospitals, the police,the courts. There were no rape shield laws,no progressive legislation of any kind.There was intense denial. A conspiracyof silence."That silence was about to be brokenaround the country by women like Engelwho, over the next 20 years, would createservices for victims, work to sensitize thepolice and criminal justice system, rewritelegislation, and seize every opportunity tomake visible the extent of sexual violencein our society.Before she was raped, Engel had beenfeeling her way towards forms of politicalengagement that were only just thencoming into being. A native of Hyde Park­Kenwood, she attended Hyde Park HighSchool; then, in the fall of 1968, at theage of 16, she entered the U of C. Shejoined Students for a Democratic Society(SDS) and that winter participated in theoccupation of the Administration Building.Having been identified in a photograph ofprotesters, she was called before a discipli­nary committee. Seemingly loath to sus­pend a first-year student, the committeeinvited her to avoid suspension by sayingshe had only been in the building on thatone day. She declined the invitation, toldthe committee she had been there through­out the occupation, and was suspended forthree quarters.This act of solidarity notwithstanding,UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 31she was coming to feel increasinglyestranged from SDS and the males whodominated the organization. She haddecided she wanted to work on women'shealth issues. "I didn't yet know how toformulate why I thought it was so impor­tant, but I knew that's where I wanted towork." During this period she helpedestablish the first pregnancy counselingprogram in the city. Finding males onthe left tone-deaf to her concerns, shewas drawn increasingly into the dawningwomen's movement. "What happened tome working with women was a wonderfulsense of being able to contribute and beingable to say anything and have it listened toand getting a sense of my own power. Thatwas very heady wine."Soon after she was raped, she left Chicagoand went to Boston, where she helped setup one of the first rape crisis hot lines inthe country. When the hot line went intooperation, the first call Engel received wasfrom an 87-year-old woman."It sounded like it had just happened. Shewas so relieved to have someone to tell andsome place she could say the words outloud."The woman, it turned out, had beenraped when she was 17 years old and hadnever spoken with anyone about it."I was completely undone," recalls Engel."I had felt that I was recovering from theeffects of the rape, that I was functioningwell." She had been educating herself aboutrape, preparing to work in the area. But theelderly woman's phone call derailed her."It threw me back into my own pain," sherecalls. "I realized I was nowhere nearready."She retreated from anti-rape work. Itwould be several years before she couldeven bring herself to read about rape. Shecircled back by way of travel in Europe,academic work at the University of Illinois­Chicago where she got a master's in publichealth, and a job working with abusedchildren. Then, in 1978, she became direc­tor of Women's Services at the YWCA indowntown Chicago.Over the next decade, under her direc­tion, Women's Services grew from two staffmembers to 14 and took on a range offunctions. But the heart of the operationwas always the counseling sessions withindividual women. who had suffered vio­lence at the hands of men. The effort wasto create "a safe place" where victims couldtell their stories and struggle to make senseof what had happened.Jamie Kalven, a Hyde Park writer, is complet­ing a book about sexual violence, to be pub­lished by the W. W. Norton Company ..32 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993As Engel recounts it, the unfolding of theanti-sexual assault movement was, in asense, an ongoing inquiry into the natureof the phenomena. She and others likeher around the country had a special per­spective on sexual violence. Every day newvictims sought them out. Learning fromone another, connecting the dots, theycame to see that their individual injurieswere instances of larger patterns of injustice.Often, Engel notes, it is by way of recogniz­ing the cruelties inflicted on other womenthat victims come to realize that they them­selves have suffered a terrible injustice. ize you. One must remap the world inlight of that knowledge. For many women,this is a process of extraordinary forceand depth, of intense grieving and fiercequestioning, of struggling in small waysand large to recover the world. It cannot beevaded except at great cost. Engel speaksof feeling "honored" to have borne witnesSto this process in the lives of other women,then quickly adds, taking care not to ob­scure harsh realities, that "many victimSnever heal."I ask her what she tells rape victims whenshe first meets with them. She usually says"There's so much self-blame. For manyvictims, that's the first great question: whyme? Trying to make sense of it, you thinkin some way that if bad things happen, youmust be to blame."Engel stresses the importance in working. with rape victims of following the victim'slead-of providing a certain quality ofattention, "a generosity of listening," with­out being prescriptive or directive. "Youmust recognize that you can't make itbetter for the victim-you can't fix it."What you can do is listen deeply and welland thereby contribute to the conditionsfor her to heal herself.Yet there is one point on which she isexplicit with victims from the start: "Imake it completely clear that, no matterwhat, rape is an ugly and unforgivablething. No matter what the circumstances,no one deserves having their body violatedand their will taken away and their senseof who they are hurt in the way that rapedoes."To recognize that the assault is not one'sfault, observes Engel, is to be relieved ofself-blame but to take on the burden of"terrible knowledge'v=-knowledge that evilis not elsewhere, that your world includesthose who, given the chance, would terror- Barbara Engelspeaks not onlyas a seasonedorganizer againstsexual violence,but also as themother of twoyoung sons.very little, she replies. She listens as deeplyand sympathetically as she can, trying todiscern what the issues are for the individ�ual. If the person expresses concern abo�tthe intense and turbulent emotions she ISfeeling, Engel tries to reassure her thatwhat she is feeling has been felt by manyother women. "Something catastrophic ha�happened to her, affecting every aspect 0her life. These are natural responses."And I always tell her," says Engel, hereyes flooding with tears, "how very sor�I am that this terrible thing happeneto her."hen Engel came toWomen's Services, itwas essentially a rapecrisis center provid�ing short-term help tovictims in the immediate aftermath of and toassault. Early on, she saw the neeprovide counseling on a long-term, ope��ended basis and moved the organization Inthat direction. 1She also saw the need to train mentahealth professionals. Their orientati?n�she says, tended to be "incredibly vict�f1lblaming" ("The most typical questlot1.. 7''')was, 'What did you do to provoke hIm·Bu t they also represented importantpotential allies. "We were never going tosee all the rape victims. And there were lotsof professionals out there doing greatdamage to already vulnerable women.One thing we could do was minimize thedamage they were doing and open up theirperspectives. "Over time Engel and her staff-"a self­defined feminist grass roots group"-estab­lished themselves as experts in the field,providing training for psychiatrists andpsychologists, social workers, hospitalstaffs, and so on.The women who came to Women'sServices told not only of the violence theyhad suffered at the hands of the men whoraped and battered them but also of theWays the institutions they turned to forhelp-hospitals, the police, the courts­had failed them and, in some instances,compounded their injuries. Engel and herstaff, like others around the country, tookon the role of advocates for rape victimsWithin these institutions.As she stepped into the public forum,Engel made certain discoveries about her­self. In her classes at the U of C she hadbeen afraid to speak. Now, addressing mat­ters she cared passionately about and knewdeeply, she found her voice.Her powers of expression, her eloquence,seem somehow to arise out of the way shelistens-out of the deeply attentive wayshe has absorbed the stories of others, thestories of the particular fates of particularWomen."She has a real earnestness to makeothers understand," observes Sunny Fis­cher, AM'82, a foundation executive andlongtime friend. "There is a deep courtesyin this. She really thinks you can under­stand. She is a true educator." These quali­ties, says Fischer, make Engel particularlyeffective in dealing with media and in"taking it to the boys." Unawed by maleauthority, she does not shy away from con­fronting the mayor or police chief. She isSUstained by optimism. "She really believesthat people can understand and things willchange."It was in this spirit-unafraid of conflictand believing in the possibility of under­Standing-that she endeavored to developa Working relationship with the ChicagoPOlice Department."When I started this work, I saw thePolice very much as the enemy. These werethe people you turned to after you wereraped, the institution you were dependenton, but interactions with the police sooften compounded the injury. I came to seet�em as deeply implicated in patterns ofVIolence against women. But at the same time I realized that we couldn't make themthe villains. We would have to work withthem, to develop relationships with them,to appeal to the best in them and the bestof them. Sometimes I feel like I took a leapbefore I believed it."Initially, according to Engel, feministgroups were patronized and shrugged offby the police department. Several mediaexposes of police handling of rape cases­stories for which Engel was a principalinformant-helped get their attention. "Webecame a force to be reckoned with, in partbecause of our influence with the media."Over time, Engel and her associates "devel­oped a sense of partnership with thepolice"-designing training programs andhelping to develop protocols for the han­dling of rape cases.There was resistance within the depart­ment. Most detectives much prefer amurder investigation to a rape case-"acorpse to a distraught living woman"-butthere were exceptions. "It meant a greatdeal to find allies within the department."Rudolph Nimocks, director of UniversityPolice, was at the time a senior official inthe Chicago Police Department. Amonghis responsibilities was improving police'practices in rape cases. He worked closelywith Engel and remembers her as "level­headed and effective." She was, he added,knowledgeable about police proceduresand culture and hence "realistic" in herdemands for change. He recalls warningassociates who were to appear on publicpanels with her to do their homeworkbecause "she knew her stuff."The next phase in the movement'sunfolding was a concentrated effort toredraft the Illinois state laws the policeare charged with enforcing-to give coher­ence and clarity to a body of law that waschaotic and antiquated. The chief aims ofthis effort were to redefine "rape" to reflectthe variety of assaults that occur and toshift the focus of legal inquiry from thevictim's conduct to that of the assailant.Engel joined with several other activists­"we were known as the Gang of Four"-todraft the legislation and lobby for its pas­sage in Springfield. It was enacted in 1984.Talking with Engel, one is struck byhow much has been accomplished overthe last 20 years. But that perception isquickly overtaken by another: the inci­dence of sexual violence appears only tohave increased in recent years. Some por­tion of the increase may be due to a greaterwillingness of victims to report, thoughEngel is convinced that is not a sufficientexplanation.She likens sexual violence in the U.S. to "aform of terrorism against women that remains largely invisible to men and tomany women." Despite advances in aware­ness, she wonders whether "we have notcome up against a solid stratum of denial." Itis almost as if the more the realities becomevisible, the more intense the denial becomes.Engel is especially troubled' by the scar­city of male voices in the public discourseabout violence against women. "I don'tknow what stands behind the silence ofmen," she says, "and it frightens me. Whyis it so hard for men-men of conscience­to comprehend these realities and speakout? After 20 years of organizing againstrape, I've come to regard this as a genuinemystery."Asked what she sees as the movement'snext phase, she replies, "It seems to methat men and women have to sit down andfigure out how to talk about this."These conversations will be extraordi­narily difficult, she warns. They willrequire great care and patience. But she cansee no way of reducing the violence with­out engaging men-and the wider commu­nity-in the sort of discourse that has beenso transforming for many women.She speaks not only as a seasoned orga­nizer against sexual violence but as themother of two young sons. "The youngwomen who began this work," she notes,"were between families"-no longer livingwith their parents, not yet raising familiesof their own. Now, these same womenare middle-aged and many have children,including male children. This developmen­tal phase in the lives of those who built themovement suggests the possibility of a newphase in the movement as well.Talking for a few final moments in thedarkening light, before leaving to pick upher children, she evokes the possibility of aprocess by which the terrible knowledgecarried by individual victims-knowledgethat is so often isolating-would be trans­formed into public acknowledgement of theimpact of sexual violence on our society."If we could only transform the obsessionwith the act of rape to the reality of whatrape means over time for the survivor,the way it changes her world and affectsall those around her-if we could onlyadmit the fear and despair it creates forsurvivors-then wouldn't men, old folks,kids, everyone in our communities join inoutrage at the ugliness it creates at theheart of our world? Perhaps then when welook around us we would see what theatrocities in Bosnia make so clear: sexualviolence devastates not only individuallives but communities and institutions.Perhaps then we would see the ways inwhich such violence blights and diminishesthe world we share."UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 33nvestigationsChallenging AssumptionsHistorian Lorraine Dastonwants to unsettle ourcertainties and subvert ourself-evidencies in orderto understand why we thinkwhat we think.WHAT IS A FACT? HOW DO WE DIS­tinguish between facts and evi­dence? What is the definitionof the natural? Whenwe ask questions likethese, questions that look at categoriesseemingly so self-evident that we canbarely bring ourselves to examine them,then we are entering Lorraine Daston'sterritory."I'm interested in the emergence andslow, zig-zag development of the catego­ries that structure our thoughts and argu­ments," says Daston, professor of thehistory of science, "categories like fact, evi­dence, objectivity, and nature."Although a listing of her projects-rang­ing from marvels and miracles in earlymodern natural philosophy to the natural­ized female intellect to classical probabilityin the Enlightenment-may seem wildlyeclectic, everything Daston does is in­tended as specific entries into "the bigproblem" of historical epistemology, whichshe calls "a kind of glass mountain-whereit's very difficult to get a foothold unlessone has very pointed clamps in the form ofvery specific problems."Daston, whose bachelor's and doctoraldegrees are from Harvard, is at work on abook tentatively entitled Wonders and theOrder of Nature: European Naturalists Con­front the Marvelous, 1150 to 1750. Thebook, which she's writing with KatharinePark, professor of medieval history atWellesley College, will explore what natu­ralists do with the anomalous-"withevents which seem to straddle categories,or shatter regularities, or in some way to34 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993"Monstrous birth": Suchphysical anomalies-onceinterpreted as a sign ofGod's displeasure-werethought of merely as factsof nature by the 1600s.affront expectations." In other words, astudy of the boundaries of the natural.Daston believes that we define the naturalmostly by oppositions-that the conceptof "nature" is too huge to give a positivedefinition. "We look at nature as a many­sided polygon and on each of those sideswe station a sentry, an opposition," so thaton one side it's the natural vs. the supernat­ural, on another it's the natural vs. the arti­ficial, and on yet another it's the natural vs.the preternatural.All sides of the polygon are necessary tounderstand the meaning of nature, and inher work Daston questions "how we cometo have the definition that we do and theoppositions that we do and, also, hownature was cordoned off' and made a sepa­rate entity that has a real influence on howwe think.Intermingled with ideas about the naturaland its defining oppositions are questionsabout the nature of facts and the differencebetween facts and evidence. Daston arguesthat the first scientific facts only partiallyresemble our 20th-century facts-"they'recousins, but not twins"-and that theyevolved in part from medieval religiousportents.In "Marvelous Facts and Miraculous Evi­dence in Early Modern Europe," publishedrecently in the journal Critical Inquiry, Daston explores this evolution. In medievaltimes, portents were seen as divine signs ofGod's will. As part of sweeping changes innatural philosophy and theology in the16th and 17th centuries, portents weretransformed from signs into neutral facts.For example, if a child with four legs an�three arms was born in the Middle Ages, Itwas taken as a sign of God's displeasurewith some aspect of society (which aspectdepended on the current religious andpoli tical turmoil), and it was up t.ohumankind to remedy the situation. ThISattitude had changed by the 16th century,when such a "monstrous birth" was seen asa simple fact of nature and offered withoutinterpretation.The change in attitude introduced theconcept of a neutral fact; one untainted byintention or motive. The portent-turned�fact has no inherent purpose, and is there�fore the most compelling type of evidencebecause it is seen as unbiased. hDaston believes that the 16th and 17tfcenturies are a key episode in the history 0conceptual categories of fact and evidence.From that time she traces a link to modern,. UScommon, accepted, and unself-consclOideas about the desirability of facts that areneutral and, depending on the point to bemade, can be utilized by all sides. "In orderfor facts to qualify as credible evidence,they must appear innocent of human inten­tion," she writes in Critical Inquiry. "Factsfabricated as evidence, that is, to make aparticular point, are thereby disqualified aseVidence."Daston hopes to make us conscious ofalternatives to our ways of thinking, butstresses that showing "other alternativesare thinkable by no means debunks ourCurrent beliefs, it only exposes as fraudu­lent the absolute authority with which wethink them."In the end, Daston-who joined the his­tory department this past fall-hopes tofOster among her readers and her studentsa kind of intellectual tolerance, as well as"a kind of perspective suppleness; that is,the ability to think one's way into anotherWorld." And that, she concludes, "is theonly moral justification for my work: tounsettle the self-evidence of our beliefstructure and encourage an intellectual asWell as a moral empathy with other waysof thinking. "-M. T.Bloclcing Cancerat the SourceA CHEMICAL THAT CAN BLOCK THEaction of a cancer-causing gene hasbeen developed by researchersfrom the University of Chicago MedicalCenter and the Kyowa Hakko Kogyo phar­l11aceutical company of Japan.The researchers-headed by Fuyuhiko!amanoi, associate professor of biochem­Istry and molecular biology, and Jasper�ine at Berkeley-reported their findingsIn the March 15 Proceedings of the NationalAcademy of Sciences. Their report showedhow a family of antibiotic compounds iso­lated from soil bacteria had successfullyslowed the growth of tumors in mice. Thecompound is the first anticancer agent thatblocks the transport of a cancer-causingprotein to its site of action.The cancer-causing gene, the ras onco­gene, is responsible for the production ofthe ra� protein, which in turn regulates cellgrowth. Ras is implicated in the uncontrol­lable cell growth of several deadly humancancers, including lung, colon, and pancre­atic tumors.To find the inhibitory compound, the�eam took advantage of the fact that yeastas a protein very similar to ras. Both thetas protein and the yeast protein-calledG-gamma-are activated inside the cell bya lllolecular tag that routes the proteins tothe inner surface of the cell membrane,Where they govern cell division.The tag that attaches to these proteins is one of the building blocks of cholesterol:"Both ras protein and the yeast G-gammaprotein require activation by farnesylpyrophosphate-an intermediate of choles­terol biosynthesis," Tamanoi explains. "Ifyou block farnesylation, ras [and G­gamma] will not make it to the cell mem­brane and cause proliferation."The researchers first developed a strain ofyeast that dies unless its G-gamma proteinis blocked. This allowed them to screentens of thousands of potential chemicalblockers on laboratory yeast cultures injust three years. Tamanoi's Japanese collab­orators found that a culture broth of strep­tomyces-a soil bacterium that producesseveral antimicrobial compounds-con­tains chemicals that block farnesylation ofthe G-gamma protein, allowing the teststrain to survive.The active ingredients in this broth, theresearchers found, are manumycin-anantibiotic known for 30 years-and twoclosely related compounds. Tamanoi's labshowed that manumycin is a potentinhibitor of protein-famesyl transferase, orPFT-the enzyme that activated the G­gamma protein and, they think, the rasprotein.While Tamanoi's lab has shown that thedrug can slow tumor growth in mice, fur­ther testing on the effectiveness of the drugin vivo will be left to other laboratories. Inany case, Tamanoi says, many more pre­clinical (tissue-culture and animal) trialsneed to be conducted before testing thedrug in human trials.Meanwhile, the team in Japan continuesto search for other PFT inhibitors, andTamanoi plans to use manumycin to probethe structure of PFT. By gaining moreknowledge about the enzyme, he says, "wehope that we could then design even moreeffective" tumor-inhibiting drugs.-T.O.American ApartheidA NEW STUDY ON SEGREGATIONdescribes how racism, discrimina­tory real estate practices, and laxenforcement of open-housing laws havecombined to create a systematic isolationof African-American neighborhoods frommainstream society.This "American apartheid" is visible inanalyzing 1990 U.S. Census figures, saysociologists Douglas Massey and NancyDenton. The census figures show thatChicago and other northern metropolitanareas are the most residentially segregatedareas of the U.s. Chicago ranked third onthe most-segregated list with a score of86--meaning 86 percent of Chicago'S blacks would have to move out of their neighbor­hoods in order for the city's metro area tobe evenly integrated. Even higher on thissegregation index were the Gary-Ham­mond-East Chicago area (90 percent), andDetroit (88 percent). Other cities with highscores were Cleveland, 85; Milwaukee, 83;New York, 82; and Buffalo, 82.Massey, a University of Chicago profes­sor, and Denton, a professor at the StateUniversity of New York at Albany, releasedtheir findings in the book AmericanApartheid: Segregation and the Making of theUnderclass (Harvard University Press).In the book, published this winter,Massey and Denton argue that the African­American ghetto has been created by thepersistence of racial prejudice and by realestate practices designed to insulate whitesMassey: Segregation 'poisons' our society.from blacks; it is perpetuated by publichousing policies and by weak enforcementof federal open housing laws.For Massey and Denton, the book culmi­nates a decade's worth of research-butit's not the first time they've received atten­tion for their work. In 1989, they releaseda widely publicized study in which theycoined the term "hypersegregation" todescribe the extreme isolation from whitesthat African Americans experience in majorAmerican cities. Despite increases in in­come and education, blacks-a-unlike anyother group in the nation's history-havebeen largely unable to secure housing out­side restricted areas.Segregation forces African Americans tolive in poverty areas, creating a separateghetto culture that becomes "an entity untoitself, remote from the rest of Americansociety and its institutions, and driftingeven further apart." And segregation pre­vents working- and middle-class blacksfrom breaking free of the ghetto culture­as parents, those blacks find it difficult toUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 35insulate their children "from the competingvalues and attitudes of the street.""The emergence of a culture of segre­gation limits the number of minority fami­lies who aspire to leave the ghetto," writeDenton and Massey. "As 'minority' culturebecomes more firmly established anddeeply rooted, members of the minoritywho seek integration within the largersocial and economic institutions of thesociety will come under increased pressurefrom others to stop acting like a majoritymember."The only way to stop this "drifting apart"of cultures, they say, is to "dismantle" theghetto, and the only way to do that is toend the practice of segregation, particularlyin the north-where Denton and Masseysay that, decades ago, whites began usingzoning laws and restrictive covenants onthe sale of property to limit the expansionof African-American neighborhoods.Although federal housing laws passedin the 1960s were designed to combatthis segregation, they have been weaklyenforced, say Massey and Denton. Thatwas especially true during the Reaganadministration, when "the number of casesprosecuted under the Fair Housing Actdropped precipitously."Massey and Denton propose several stepsfor dismantling the ghetto. The federalgovernment, they say, should increasefinancial assistance to local fair housingorganizations; establish a permanent test­ing program to identify realtors who dis­criminate; scrutinize data to determine ifbanks and savings &. loans are discriminat­ing against blacks; promote desegregationthrough rent subsidy programs; and passnew laws to speed prosecution andtoughen. penalties under the Fair HousingAct."Until we face up to the difficult task ofdismantling the ghetto, the disastrous con­sequences of residential segregation willradiate outward to poison American soci­ety," the authors warn. "Until we decide toend the long reign of American apartheid,we cannot hope to move forward as apeople or a nation."-T.O.Winds of Change"S OME PEOPLE THINK THAT HURRICANESare an act of God," says T.Theodore Fujita, "but you oughtto know how God will act."Fujita is not a theologian, but a geophysi­cal scientist whose discovery of a danger­ous wind produced by hurricanes couldhelp explain some of the most severedamage Hurricane Andrew caused to36 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993.Blown away: Fujita's discovery of a new wind could explain hurricanes' worst damage.southern Florida last August.Studying thousands of aerial photos ofthe damage, Fujita-the Charles E. Mer­riam distinguished service professor emeri­tus and an authority on violent weather­discerned a phenomenon which he calls"spin-up vortices." At speeds up to 200m.p.h., Andrew's spin-up vortices occurredonly in narrow bands, about 100 feet indiameter. For example, photos of the dev­astated Naranja Lakes and Pine WoodsVilla areas showed that permanent homeswere destroyed while some nearby trailerhomes were left untouched.Fujita believes that spin-up vortices arecreated inside the hurricane's "eyewall."The area surrounding the quiet "eye," theeyewall is home to the storm's strongestsustained winds. Inside the eyewall, Fujitabelieves, small whorls of wind form, thenget pulled upward, pulsing and spinningfaster and faster. Andrew's vortices, lastingten seconds or less, spun at about 80 m.ph.,but pushed by the hurricane's 120 m.p.h.winds, they gained a force of 200 m.p.h.Spin-up vortices don't happen often, saysFujita, but knowing about them can helpexplain why Andrew's worst destructionoccurred-and how to protect vulnerableareas fro� future hurricanes. Most build- ing codes in southern Florida require cowstruction capable of withstanding sustaine�winds of 120 m.p.h. But those codes do�address the higher-velocity vortices that, 111mere seconds, can cause the most devastadtion. Builders should know "we don't neesustained winds to blow the roof off ahouse," fujita says.Although he recommends that municipal­ities in hurricane areas revise their bu�ldling codes, Fujita doesn't think it's practlC�to require all buildings to withstand 20m.p.h. winds: such bursts happen tO�infrequently to justify the huge costS 0protecting every single home against ther!1·Instead, he suggests that people be awareexactly how strong their homes are in prodtecting against these stronger winds-aIlshould receive the information needed forthem to evacuate when necessary. 1Fujita acknowledges that many meteoro -ogists remain skeptical of his theory_theywant more data. To acquire more evidencefor spin-up vortices, he will look at oth�:hurricanes-including Iniki, which. �\Hawaii on September 11, 1992. His inltl�study of Iniki indicates the hurrican� sdamage took place in just a few secon s,suggesting the presence of spin-UPvortices. --T O.Back to the quadsThe Alumni Association is gearing up tohost its annual all-alumni reunion june 4,5, and 6. Reunion '93 includes a few sched­Uling changes from the previous years, anda lineup of events to reacquaint alumni withtheir alma mater.Friday, june 4-declared "Alumni Col­lege Day"-has been reserved for College­wide events. In his "Aims of Education"address, james Redfield, AB'54, PhD'61, theBoward L. Willett professor in the Com­tnittee on Social Thought and classical lan­guages and literatures, will revisit hisclassic speech on the question, "Why areWe all here?" Redfield first gave the addressto entering students in the class of 1978.Friday afternoon is reserved for the popu­lar Uncommon Core classes. "Mythology ofWomen and Goddesses" will be taught byWendy Doniger, the Mircea Eliade profes­SOr in the Divinity School. Michael LaBar­bera, an associate professor in organismalbiology arid anatomy, will teach "BiologicalFlUid Mechanics." "Women and ChildrenFirst, but Not in Utopia" will be taught byBelen Harris Perlman, the Samuel Deutschdistinguished service professor emeritus inthe SSA. Edward W. Rosenheim, AB'39,AM'46, PhD'53, the David B. and Clara E.Stern professor emeritus in English, willlead a class on "Dover Beach and DoverBitch." Herman Sinaiko, AB'47, PhD'61,professor in humanities and the CollegeWill teach "Plato: The Apology." And "WhatDo We Know about the Earliest History ofthe Universe?" is the subject to beaddressed by Michael Turner, professor inastronomy &: astrophysics and physics.Friday afternoon's events will beanchored by the Helen Harris Perlman Lee­tUre. Sponsored each year by the SSA, thisYear's address will be given by David A.liatnburg, president of the Carnegie Cor­Poration of New York.All returning alumni and their familiesare invited to a Friday night barbeque onthe quad, with dinner served family style atSPeCially marked class tables. To encouragealUlllni to bring their entire families, theeVent features a reduced price for children.DUbbed "Alumni Class Day," Saturday,JUne 5, will allow time for alumni to meetwith their own reunion classes. In addition, campus-wide events will highlight the day.The keynote address-featuring MartinMarty, PhD'56, the Fairfax M. Cone distin­guished service professor in the DivinitySchool, and Marvin Zonis, professor in theGraduate School of Business and the Col­lege-will take on religious fundamental­ism as its topic. In "Who's Afraid of theFundamentalists?" Marty and Zonis willdiscuss the influences of fundamentalistreligions on government and political life,on economies, legislation, and culturalexpression in the U.S. and around theworld.The afternoon's class events range fromthe Class of 1973's rap session at the Cobb Hall Coffee Shop to the Class of 1963'sroundtable disscussion titled "From theWoman's Point of View ... Lessons Learned:Students from the '60s/Women of the '90s."The classes of 1933, 1938, and 1943 arejointly sponsoring a lecture by WilliamMcNeill, AB'38, AM'39, the Robert A. Mil­likan distinguished service professor emeri­tus in history. In "Hutchins' University,"McNeill, who was both a student and a fac­ulty member during the Hutchins era, willshare his insider's view.For more information about reunionevents, call 3121702-4456. A final exhorta­tory note: alumni who register for reunionbefore May 1 receive a lO-percent discount.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 37lass News"No news is good news" is one cliche to which wedo not subscribe at the Magazine. Please sendsome of your news to the Class News Editor, Uni­versity of Chicago Magazine, 5757 S. WoodlawnAve., Chicago, IL 60637. No engagements, please.Items may be edited for space.211! Katherine Barrett Allen, PhB'25, of Rock­iI port, ME, celebrated her 90th birthday lastAugust at a surprise party held in Cornish, NH,attended by many relatives and friends. Katherinecontinues her volunteer work, which brings hermuch pleasure.28 Alice Kastle Brown, PhB'28, writes, "OnSeptember 19 we had a very nice alumniluncheon in Phoenix; so nice that we hope it willbe repeated. Noon get-togethers are better for usolder Sun City people. Wishing you all a goodsecond century of education at Chicago!" FlorenceGosch Odenweller, X'28, wonders how many arestill alive from the classes of 1927 and 1928-sheknows of two besides herself: Elizabeth WyantMartin, SB'27, of Palo Alto, CA, and FrancesKendall Upham, PhB'28, of Lee's Summit, MO.30 Jerome 1. Metz, PhB'30, of Palm Springs,CA, writes the feature article and consult­ing column each month for Word & Word Productsmagazine. Despite the work load, he still gets insome golf.31 James M. Sheldon,Jr., PhB'31, and his wife,Isabelle, of Osterville, MA, celebrated their61st wedding anniversary on October 29.32 Milton H. Pettit, PhB'32, of Arcadia, CA,writes, "It's hard to believe 60 years haveelapsed since I escaped Mr. Hutchins in 1932. ButI'm still glad to have been associated with the Uni­versity of Chicago and the City of Big Shoulders."Gladys M. True, PhB'32, of River Forest, IL,recently drove to New England with Mildred John­son Williams, AB'33, AM'61, where they visitedfellow Kelly Hall residents Harriet Parker Salerno,X'32, and Elizabeth Bixby, X'34.33 Beulah Wright Berghult-Lynes, SB'33, andher husband, Jack, visited Jean StillmanDuffield, SB'33, during a trip to England last Octo­ber, and attended a party in Oxford to celebrateJean's birthday. Charles A. Stansfield, AM'33,sends greetings to "all of you who make the U of Cgreat. Special best wishes to friends from 1932-33,the year I got my master's in history. You could notexpect me to be very studious then-a country boyin the big city, with all the temptations of theWorld's Fair. It broke my heart when Dr. WilliamE. Dodd, my choice professor, departed to becomeambassador to Hitler's Germany." Herman Wolf,AB'33, owns and runs the Herman Wolf & Associ­ates public relations firm-they've run "moresuccessful political campaigns than anyone else inConnecticut history, electing five Democraticgovernors, four U.S. senators, plus congressmen,legislators, mayors, etc." Wolf has three grownchildren, six grandchildren, and "a 14-year-olddaughter and a young wife who keep me alert."38 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 199334 Lucile Gottschalk Lieberman, PhB'34,AM'65, see 1939 Irwin M. Lieberman.Charles C. Hauch, PhB'34, AM'36, PhD'42, andRuthadele LaTourrette Hauch, AM'39, of Sun City,AZ, "have followed with special interest the eventsof this Columbus Quincentennial year, whichcoincided with the University's Centennial, espe­cially since [they 1 were married in 1941 in SantoDomingo, where Columbus founded the first per­manent European settlement in the western hemi­sphere." Kelsey C. Milner, PhB'34, and his wife,Doris, of Hamilton, MT, celebrated their fiftiethwedding anniversary in March 1992. Their fourchildren and spouses, and nine grandchildren, allattended the party..II! Charlotte Tragnitz Hatfield, AB'35, movedIIiIiI to Freedom Village, a retirement home inLake Forest, CA, in 1992. She still maintains anactive volunteer schedule. Edwin F. Zukowski,AB'35, JD'36, retired since 1980 and living inTampa, FL, plays violin with the University ofSouth Florida Symphony on a regular basis.36 Gretchen Warren Dean, X'36, has taughtfor' 27 years-IS as chair of a high schoolart department and 12 teaching adult painting atfour centers in St. Petersburg, FL. She notes thather late husband, Everett K. Dean received hisbachelor's degree from the U of C in 1937, and herson, Mark W. Dean, has two degrees from the U ofC-a bachelor's in 1973 and a master's in 1975.Ellis K. Fields, SB'36, PhD'38, former scientist withAmoco Chemical Corporation, is now the Alva C.Todd professor of chemistry at the Illinois Instituteof Technology. Joan E. Kain, AB'36, AM'38, ofBethesda, MD, has been retired for the past 12years. Maurice M. Shapiro, SB'36, SM'40, PhD'42,professor of physics and astronomy at the Univer­sity of Maryland at College Park and a Ph.D. stu­dent under Arthur Holly Compton at the U of C,presented the banquet talk at the Compton GammaRay Observatory Symposium, held at WashingtonUniversity in St. Louis this past October to com­memorate the centennial of Compton's birth.37 Alice Hutcheson Acree, AB'37, AM'40,of Norwalk, OH, enjoyed Reunion 1992and her stay at International House; "thanksto the Alumni Association for good planning."English professor emeritus Mark Ashin, AB'3 7,AM'38, PhD'50, is fully retired after 50 years ofworking for the University, including the last 12as secretary of the faculties-"the record so far."Dorothy Jones Bey, AB'37, AM'44, of Chicago, ispresently "focusing her concern on the plight ofchildren in the United States." Thomas E. Riha,AB'37, and his wife, Evelyn, of Geneva, IL, enjoyvisits from their four grandchildren and their par­ents at their summer cottage on Green Lake, WI.Thomas "still paints, inspired by that wonderfulinstructor, Mr. Glesbert."38 Ralph J. Greenberg, S8"'38, a neurosur­geon, has been practicing medicine for 50years. His wife, Florence, is the acting coach anddirector of the New York City Actors Workshop; their son Jon does immunology, AIDS, and cancerresearch in Heidelberg, Germany; and their sonLawrence H. Greenberg, AB'70, is a computerconsultant in New York City.39 Ruthadele LaTourrette Hauch, AM'3�, s��1934, Charles C. Hauch. Irwin M. LIebe.man, AB'39, AM'41, works full time as a labor arbi­trator, and his wife, Lucile Gottschalk Lieberrn�n,PhB'34, AM'65, is an artist. Their son Hal R. Lte­berman, AB'64, is chief counsel of the disciplinarycommittee of the New York City Bar Association,and stepson Richard D. Heimbach, AB'56, 5B'57,MD'60, practices medicine in San Antonio, TX.. d40 May Gomberg Elinson, SB'40, has reureas a prenatal nutritionist, and is noW;nutritional consultant in New Jersey. Robert dMiner, SB'40, is a consultant with SRI Incorporateof Menlo Park, CA. d41 Robert C. Boyer, AB'41, AM'48, has retireafter 31 years as a campus minister: 25 yea�Sat Penn State and six years at Indiana Universitf �Bloomington. Theodore E. Klitzke, AB'41, PhD 5 ,is president of Baltimore News Network, an alter­native news service. An article on orphan trains byhis late wife, Margaret Gaughan Klitzke, X'41, ISbeing published posthumously by Crossroads, aquarterly publication of the Orphan Train HeritageSociety of America. Leibert J. Sandars, MD'41, h�sretired as director of Washoe Medical Center Sdepartment of radiology in Reno, NV. He is no.""devoting his time to painting and playing golf. IrvtnZelitzky, AB'41, of Foster City, CA, is active in.t""�local volunteer mediation programs and receivean award for his "outstanding contributions." I42 Eleanor O. Christie, PhB'42, recent �spent ten days in the hospital because 0diabetes, but is now back in Westminster-Canter­bury, a retirement home in Lynchburg, VA. Ja�esJ. McClure, Jr., AB'42, JD'49, of Chicago wnt�'"the 50th reunion for the class of 1942 and t I:University'S Centennial made 1992 a memora�year." Shirley Buro Robeson, AB'42, AM'43, w_ �teaches Latin at Chicago'S Lane Technical J:-hg. dentSSchool, IS happy to report that one of her sturis now studying Latin at Harvard with a profes�Orwho, in turn, studied Latin at the U of C un. enProfessor Hale many years ago-"the traditIOgoes on!"- B'4343 Last year Victor H. Deutsch, Ph �MBA'47, was elected president of the L�Angeles chapter of the Financial Executive Inst:;tute; his term ends in June. He was also elec�e Scommunity representative to the Los Ange :yCounty Head Start Program. Emilie Rashevs toStrand, AA'43, AB'44, of Washington, DC, plansattend Reunion this June. r44 Laurence Finberg, SB'44, MD'46, profe�sodof pediatrics at SUNY-Brooklyn, rec�l�enthe American Academy of Pediatrics nutn�:4,award in 1992. Monica Erlach Martin, ABrretired from teaching German in WestchestdCounty, NY, in 1985 and moved with her husbanJ,Frank, to the west coast of Puerto Rico. �lanas�Strauss, PhB'44, SB'46, PhD'56, retired thiS P h­August from the Massachusetts Institute of leCeonology's Lincoln Laboratory, where he had beleader of the electronic materials group. ty-411! Gary Garrison Somers, AM'45, of lwen atiI nine Palms; CA, writes, "It waS gree_attending our Centennial celebration in LoS An�s,les-meeting old friends and making new onincluding Dean Jeanne Marsh of the SSA.", 7 of46 Charles G. Higgins, Jr., SB'46, �M \' ofCarmel, CA, retired from the Ulllversl Yca1California at Davis, is still pursuing geologlresearch on his own. A. Jayne Cowen Seliger,PhB'46, AM'48, and Louis Seliger, AM'48, live inPebble Beach, CA, where Jayne works with alcoholaddiction programs. Louis is a steel distributor andreturns to Texas for work every month. FlorenceDate Smith, AB'46, of Eugene, OR, frequentlyspeaks at public schools and local colleges on herexperience in the WWII internment camps for theJapanese. Charles H. Swift, Jr., DB'46, retired forthe third time last October, after 12 years as direc­tor of the Redlands (CA) Crisis Hotline. Paul E.Waggoner, SB'46, of the Connecticut AgriculturalExperiment Station, was a featured speaker at thefirst International Crop Science Congress at IowaState University last July. Waggoner is also chair ofthe task force set up by the Council for AgriculturalScience and Technology to work on a new report,"Preparing U.S. Agriculture for Global ClimateChange."47 Christine E. Haycock, PhB'47, SB'48, pro­fessor emeritus of surgery at the Universityof Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, was madean honorary member of the New Jersey branch ofthe American Cancer Society. Marjorie SchecterlleUerstein, AM'47, teaches at the MassachusettsCOllege of Art in Boston and recently publishedessays on Gustave Flaubert and Virginia Woolf.Walter R. Koehler, PhB'47, SB'49; of Huntington,CT, retired this past August as a research chemistWith Richardson-Vicks, He and his wife, Stacy,plan to travel, spend more time with their family,and pursue other hobbies. Marcia Rike Reardan,PhB'47, and her husband, Edwin, of Westfield,NJ, retired in 1992 and now have time for babysit­ting their grandkids, wintering in Naples, FL,COOking, reading the daily paper, and investingto "maintain a standard of living into the nextcentury." Lawrence Rieser, PhB'47, AM'51, is incharge of a program for older skiers at a JacksonBOle, WY, ski resort. During the summer, he oper­ates his own tour business in Jackson. Carl E.ThOrkelson: AB'47, works full time in the foreign­trade business. During one recent trip to Europehe broke his ankle; while in England on another,he attended the 50th reunion of the 100th BombGroup, 8th Air Force, for which he flew 25 combatmissions as a B-17 pilot. Herman Will, AB'47, andhis Wife, Margarita, went on a 12-day study trip toCUba for journalists in March 1992. The trip wasorganized by Pax World Service, a company whichdevelops creative, small-scale projects and fosters�dUcational travel. Joan Frye Yoken, AB'47, retiredIn 1991 as bookstore manager at Pace Universityand subsequently began a new career as an elemen­tary substitute teacher in White Plains, NY. She hasf�ur grandchildren: 9-year-old Max and 5-year-old�Ia live in Brooklyn, NY; 17 -month-old Anna RoseIVes in Memphis, TN; and 15-month-old Hannahl<aarina lives in Stockholm, Sweden.48'1 Minna Rodnon Buck, AB'48, the firstwoman judge in Onondaga County, was�eelected to her second term as a family court judgeIn Syracuse, NY. Ane Longstreet Hanley, AB'48,and her husband, Tim, of Fergus Falls, MN, were�lected delegates to the Minnesota Democraticd�rn:'er Labor Party conventions at the county,IStnct, and state levels. Raymond 1. Holly, AB'48,�f �errin, IL, is coordinator of American MENSA'sl Plscopal special interest group. Emerson E.)'nn, Jr., PhB'48, is finishing his term as boardm�rnber and chair of the Kansas Highway Com­miSsion and is a regular commentator on public�:levision's "Kansas Week." In addition, he pub­�shes and edits the lola Register. Throughout 1992on Reifler, MBA'48, and his wife, Maria, of Los Angeles, have worked with Chrysler Corporation inthe Customer One program as trainers for dealersnationwide. Frederick E. Samson, Jr., SB'48,PhD'52, of Lake Quivira, KS, retired four years ago,but still does neuroscience research because "it'sthe best game in town and it's free." Louis Seliger,AM'48, see 1946, A. Jayne Cowen Seliger. RobertE. Stearns, AB'48, AM�50, a retired foreign serviceofficer with the U.S. Information Agency, is cur­rently executive director of the Santa Fe Council onInternational Relations. Robert N. Stewart, X'48,was recently elected for his third term as mayor ofColumbus, IN.49 Harry E. Groves, JD'49, professor emeritusat the University of North Carolina atChapel Hill School of Law, was a visiting professorat the University of Minnesota Law School this pastfall. Myra Estrin Levine, SB'49, professor emeritusat the University of Illinois at Chicago'S College ofNursing, received Loyola University'S honorarydoctor of humane letters degree in January 1992.50 Eugene 1. Balter, AB'50, MD'56, writes, "Iam alive, well, married, 15 pounds heavier,and have 80 percent less hair than in college." Heand his wife, Judith Margolis Phillips, AM'll, livein Chicago. After 14 years of teaching at SarahLawrence College, six years at Temple University,and 18 years at San Diego State University, MauriceS. Friedman, PhD'50, retired in June 1991. He isnow codirector of the Institute for Dialogical Psy­chotherapy and teaches in their training program.John B. Goodenough, SM'50, PhD'52, of Austin,TX, was elected foreign associate of the FrenchAcademic des Sciences in 1992. The InternationalAssociation of Schools of Social Work, located inVienna, Austria, established the Katherine A.Kendall award for "distinguished international ser­vice to social work education." Katherine A. TuachKendall, PhB'50, presented the first award toArmaity S. Desai, AM'59, PhD'69, director and vicechancellor of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences inBombay, India. Former secretary-general of theassociation, Kendall is now honorary life presidentand life member of its executive committee andboard of directors.51 Beatrice A. Gibson, AB'51, retired last year, after 36 years in the corporate computersystems business. She is busy painting and hasbeen accepted as a docent trainee by the Fine ArtsMuseum of San Francisco. Park Honan, AM'51,professor of English at the University of Leeds inYorkshire, England, has been named one of the 55most significant American literary biographers ofthis century. Twice a Guggenheim fellow, Honancoauthored a book on Robert Browning and wrotebiographies of Matthew Arnold and Jane Austen.He is currently working on a life of Shakespeare forOxford University Press. Karl E. Zimmer, AB'51,retired in 1991 from the linguistics department atthe University of California at Berkeley.52 Paul Melius, SM'52, retired as professoremeritus from Auburn University'S chem­istry department.53 Judy Davidson Kamin, AB'53, AM'57, is apsychotherapist with a private practice inChicago. Jane Newsome Welker, AM'53, retiredfrom the faculty of human development and familystudies at the University of California at Davisin July 1991, and changed her name to Jane E.Newton.54 Carol K. Kasper, AB'54-professor ofmedicine at the University of SouthernCalifornia and director of the World Federation ofHemophilia's International Hemophilia TrainingCenter at Orthopaedic Hospital in Los Angeles- received the National Hemophilia Foundation'sKenneth M. Brinkhouse award for clinical researchlast November.55 Frank M. Byers, PhD'55, retired fromLos Alamos National Laboratory in 1988,but continues as a part-time laboratory associatewith the geology/geochemistry group of the labora­tory's earth and environmental sciences division.George M. Joseph, JD'55, retired in December after15 years on the Oregon Court of Appeals, including12 years as chief judge. Harold Kaiser, PhD'55, andhis wife, Esther, of Davenport, lA, are now retiredand devoting their time to research in the fields ofchild guidance and development.56 Richard Heimbach, AB'56, SB'57, MD'60,see 1939, Irwin M. Lieberman.57 Edward A. Kolodziej, AM'57, PhD'61,attended the weddings of three of hissons last summer: Andrew F. Kolodziej, SB'85,to Jeanette Jacobson on July 5; Peter Kolodziej toCaroline Mullaney on September 5; and MatthewE. Kolodziej, AB'88, to Dana Richards on June 6.Matthew and Dana live in Providence, RI, whereMatthew studies painting at the Rhode IslandSchool of Design.58 Stanley I. Mour, AM'58, PhD'69, recentlyreturned to teaching after 18 years as chairof the University of Louisville's early- and middle­childhood education department. He served twoterms as chair of the faculty senate and a five-yearterm as chair of the board of directors of the Uni­versity Club, where he is now a member of theboard of trustees. After all that, he is "looking for­ward to retirement."Armaity S. Desai, AM'59, PhD'69, see1950, Katherine Tuach Kendall.Harvey Choldin, AB'60, AM'63, PhD'65,professor of sociology at the University ofIllinois at Urbana-Champaign, just finished writinga book about the u.s. Census. His wife, MariannaTax Choldin, AB'62, AM'67, PhD'79, a professor inthe University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign'sInternational Library Program, spends most of hertime on airplanes to and from Moscow, where sheis organizing an exhibition and conference on cen­sorship. At the 25th anniversary banquet for theAlaska Legal Services Corporation, a statewideorganization providing free legal services to thepoor, Arthur H. Peterson, AB'60, received a plaquefor his five three-year terms as a member of theboard of directors. He has also served as presidentof the corporation.61 George J. Papagiannis, AB'61, programchair of the International Development Edu­cation program of Florida State University's Collegeof Education, recently coauthored a policy mono­graph for UNESCOIlIEP, The School RestructuringMovement in the United States: An Analysis of MajorIssues and Policy Implications, and was guest editorof Educational Policy for the special issue, "Floridain Comparative Perspective." His son, John, is inmiddle school, and his daughter, Katherine, willstart at St. John's in Santa Fe, NM, this fall. BruceF. Powers, SM'61, of Alexandria, VA, is a seniorexecutive with the Navy at the Pentagon, and hasbeen recognized with several awards, including aNavy superior civilian medal.62 Philip G. Altbach, AB'62, AM'63, PhD'66,professor of education at the State Univer­sity of New York at Buffalo, has been appointedsenior associate of the Carnegie Foundation for theAdvancement of Teaching. His wife, Edith HoshinoAltbach, AB'62, MAT64, is managing editor of thejournal Education Policy and editor of the Interna­tional EncyClopedia of Book Publishing. Marianna5960UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 39Tax Choldin, AB'62, AM;67, PhD'79, see 1960,Harvey Choldin. Richard W. Seaton, PhD'62, isprofessor emeritus of architecture at the Universityof British Columbia.63 Frederick B. Hoyt, AB'63, is associate pro­fessor of marketing at Illinois WesleyanUniversity. Robert L. Moxham, PhD'63, works in aToronto consultancy practice, specializing in geol­ogy, geochemistry, and the economics of mineraldeposits. Currently he is on assignment as adviserto the United Nations Transitional Authority inCambodia, working on future minerals develop­ment policy for that country. Richard E. Pyler,SB'63, of Golden, CO, completed his term as presi­dent of the American Society of Brewing Chemistslast September.&4 Arthur S. Dover, SB'64, SM'65, was chosenhead of pediatrics at Interplast, an interna­tional plastic surgery charity organization. Doverand his wife, a pediatric nurse, have made eighttrips to South America with the group. Daniel R.Gross, AB'64, an operations officer with the WorldBank, lives with his wife, Silede, in Bethesda, MD.They have two children: Sylvia, a sophomore atYale, and Anthony, a senior in high school.Christopher Chang Hong, PhD'64, is a professor ofNew Testament and Greek at Happdong Presbyter­ian Theological Seminary in South Korea. Hal R.Lieberman, AB'64, see 1939, Irwin M. Lieberman.Charles R. Norris, MBA'64, is serving his fourthterm as an Oregon state representative for UmatillaCounty, District 57. Signe Olson Rich, AM'64, isdirector of Albuquerque's Community EconomicDevelopment Office. Barbara Sherman Sussman,AB'64, AM'65, of Allentown, PA, had two of herhandwoven tallitot (prayer shawls) exhibited in"The Art of the Tallit" at the Hillel jewish StudentCenter Gallery in Cincinnati last May. Kenneth C.Williams, MBA'64, retired from Pacific Bell andstarted a new career as director of business servicesat Contra Costa College in San Pablo, CA.65 Barbara j. Katz, AB'65, AM'69, recentlymarried Robert H. McGuckin in a smallceremony at their home in Hollin Hills, VA. For­merly a journalist, Barbara is now an attorney withthe enforcement division of the U.S. Securities andExchange Commission. Robert is chief of theCenter for Economic Study at the U.S. CensusBureau. He was also a Victor H. Kramer Fellow atthe U of Cs Law School during the 1978-79 acade­mic year. B. Keith Swigger, AB'65, AM'75, is deanof the School of Library and Information Services atTexas Woman's University.66 David Eisenbud, SB'66, SM'67, PhD'70,professor of mathematics at BrandeisUniversity, recently coauthored a paper on themathematics of juggling for the American Mathe­matical Monthly. But, he assures us, he "still takesmath seriously most of the time." Stephen R. Holz­man, SB'66, chair of the department of psychiatryat Manchester Memorial Hospital, lives in Con­necticut with his wife, janis, and two daughters,Sarah and jessica. William M. Poppei, MBA'66,professor of finance at DePaul University, gave apresentation, "Winds of Change: The Future Is NotWhat It Used To Be," at the 1992 Council for theAdvancement and Support of Education districtconference in Chicago.67 Ellen Williams Blais, AM'67, has taughtin the English department at MansfieldState University since 1968, and was recentlypromoted to full professor. Marylou j. LioneUs,PhD'67, director of the William Alanson WhiteInstitute for Psychoanalysis, is also senior editorof a three-volume overview of interpersonal theory40 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993in psychoanalysis, to be published this year byAnalytic Press. Franklyn G. McClintock, MBA'67,retired from the Collier County School Board in1990, is now involved in the Naples, FL, commu­nity adult vocational education program. David R.Minge, jD'67, see 1971, Fred H. Cogelow. LoisWolf Schwartz, AB'67, AM'72, AM'90, teaches legalresearch and writing and advanced legal research atSanta Clara University School of Law. Her husband,Lawrence I. Schwartz, AB'67, is assistant chief ofinternal medicine at Summer Medical Center inOakland, CA. Mady Wechsler Segal, AM'67,PhD'73, is professor of sociology and associate deanfor undergraduate studies at the University ofMaryland at College Park. john W. Vail, MBA'67, isCFO of both Sub-Surface Construction, of Com­stock, MI, and Utility Contracting, of Sparta, MI.68 Lois Danielson Carlson, AM'68, is alicensed clinical social worker for LutheranSocial Service of Kansas and Oklahoma. She'sworked there for the past five years, helping per­sons or families struggling with adoption issues,and developing a post-adoption services program.David A. Klotz, AB'68, of New Britain, CT, was laidoff from General Electric after 18 years spentmostly in engineering education, and has started atechnical education and training consulting busi­ness with a partner. He is "having a great time, aswell as keeping the bills paid, and hopes he neverhas to go back to an 8 to 5 job again." Marion S.Sirefman, BF A'68, works for the Illinois Depart­ment of Professional Regulation as an. investigator.Married with two children and living in Oak Park,IL, she also does calligraphy and art work. Henry j.West, MBA'68, is a vice president at the MarmonGroup. He consults with and advises membercompanies in the electronic equipment and wireand cable business.69 Dan D. Vandeportaele, PhD'69, has retiredand returned to Chicago after 13 years ascountry director for the United Nations PopulationFund in the Philippines, Turkey, Sri Lanka/Mal­dives, and Zimbabwe!Namibia. William C. Weese,MD'69, a former president of the Arizona ThoracicSociety, just completed a two-year term as presi­dent of the Arizona Lung Association.70 William H. Coffenberry, MBA'70, of Bet­tendorf, lA, retired after 34 years of federalcivil and military service and now does consultingwork on government contracts. He also interviewsprospective students for the College, and hasrepresented the University at high schools in hisarea. Patricia Kuttner Danzon, AM'70, PhD'73,professor of health care systems and insurance atthe University of Pennsylvania'S Wharton School,has been elected to the National Academy ofSocial Insurance. Barbara Curcic Freeouf, AB'70,MA 1'71, is program officer for the WestchesterEducation Coalition of White Plains, NY. Shewill direct a four-year project involving local col­leges to improve teacher education in technology,diversity, math &: science, and work-based learn­ing. Lawrence H. Greenberg, AB'70, see 1938,Ralph J. Greenberg. Helen E. Hughes, PhD'70,founding editor of The Creative Woman, reportsthat after 15 years of being published at GovernorsState University, the journal is moving elsewhere.71 Fred H. Cogelow, AB'71 of Willmar, MN,reports the victory of David R. Minge,jD'67, in the 1992 race for Minnesota's 2nd Con­gressional District seat in Congress. HaywardFarrar, AM'll, PhD'83, assistant professor of his­tory at Virginia Tech, is presently converting hisdissertation on the history of Baltimore's blacknewspaper, the Baltimore Afro-American. For his next project, Farrar plans to study the Hamptollestate, which was a slave plantation in Marylandduring the 19th century. Richard Feinberg, AM'71PhD'74, serves as both vice chair of Kent State Unl'versity's faculty senate, and on the editorial boardof Kent State University Press. Kathleen L. Komar,AB'71, professor of German and comparative litera­ture at the University of California at Los Angeles,was appointed dean of the graduate division lastAugust. She has published two books on Germanand American literature. Diane F. Trewin, AB'7!'lives in Oakland, CA, and is director of the diSa�iljity programs branch for region IX of the SocIaSecurity Administration. Richard E. Wayman,MBA'll, is director of global financial reportingdevelopment at Amway Corporation in Ada, Ml..72 Lawrence E. Luckom, AB'72, lives IIINorth Andover, MA, with his "first andonly" wife, Maureen, and two sons: Raphael, 7, andDaniel, 3. Lawrence makes his living writing soft­ware, and "when not consumed by work, draWS,paints, and makes photographs." Donna K Spike�,AB'72, a clinical assistant professor at Stanford UnI­versity, is part of a team researching the genetiCSof autism by studying families with two or morechildren with autism.73 Steven L. Fisher, jD'73, and wife Ricki hada son, Zachary Samuel, last August, w�ojoins his brother Eli in the family's Philadelph�home. Thomas M. Harlan, MBA'73, is the CEof Chinese Hospital in San Francisco, subsequentto being laid off after 18 years with his formeremployer. David A. Kandel, AB'73, became a fatherfor the second time, when Emma Kandel-Kriegerwas born last year. David helps raise julia, age Jand teaches part time at the University of MarylanSchool of Social Work. Matthew M. FranckiewicZ,jD'?3, of North Versailles, PA, has expanded hiSpractice as a labor relations "neutral"; he nowserves as an arbitrator, fact-finder, or m�diatO�in Illinois, Maine, New Hampshire, OhIO, anPennsylvania. With a background in compu,terprogramming, he also does commercial arbitratIonin computer fields..74 Richard P. Almquist, MBA'74, and hISwife, Loretta, have returned to their Nape.r­ville home after three years living and working Inthe Netherlands. Dorothy R. Caeser, AB'74, a fre��lance editor of art books, and her husband, RobeMcCabe, had a son, David Caeser McCabe, born onjanuary 4,1992. They live in New York City. , t75 Stephen M. Baum, AB'?5, chief scientISdat Xerox Imaging Systems, has introducea reading machine for the blind at a conferenceon computer aids for disabled persons. carl�SG. Rizowy, AB'75, PhD'81, recently chaired t ,eexhibit opening at Chicago'S Spertus Museum en,trtled "Voyages to Freedom, 500 years of jewish L! ein Latin America and the Caribbean." He has a s�been appointed a member of the board of directOrof the Spanish Coalition for jobs and general coun-f f C merce,sel or the Latin American Chamber 0 amrRobert A. Shiley, jr., MBA'75, has been a recruiteowith Brethet, Barnum and Associates, a TOr?��,search firm specializing in the health care h�75since September 1990. Wai-Kwan A. Yung, MD s:professor of neurology at the University of !e��eHenderson Cancer Center, does research Inarea of growth regulation of human glioma. of76 Martin L. Green, MBA'76, is presi.d��t n,Leica's ophthalmic instruments dlvlSIO [­which manufactures eye-care instruments in �urJ1falo, NY. john B. Hancock,jD'?6, see 1977, MirIaofCattrall Hancock. Jonathan M. jacobs, SB'76, dyPiedmont, CA, was a contestant in the "jeoparTournament of Champions" in the fall of 1991, andfinished as a semifinalist. Philip]. Landry, AB'76, adistrict sales manager for a software company, livesin Cary, NC, with his wife and three daughters.Clifford L Ratza, MBA'76, is director of marketingfor UniMed, a pharmaceutical company based inBuffalo Grove IL77 Miria� Cattrall Hancock, AB'77, is startinga new biotechnology company in Oakland,CA. She, her husband, John B. Hancock, JD'76,and their two children have just finished a majorremodeling of their house. John C. Holt, PhD'77,professor of religion at Bowdoin College, hasbeen awarded a fellowship by the National Endow­ment for the Humanities. He will be traveling toVaranasi, Pondicherry, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil­nadu in India during the first six months of 1994 todo archival and field research for a book on Bud­dhist iconography. Markes E. Johnson, PhD'l7,Was elected chair of the Subcommission on SilurianStratigraphy at its August 1992 meeting in Prague.78 Demetrios G. Logothetis, MBA'78, anaudit partner with Ernst &: Young, is cur­rently in Frankfurt, Germany, working to coordi­nate the firm's professional services in Europe.Yvonne P. Lucero, AB'78, residency program direc­tor for Schwab Rehabilitation Hospital in Chicago,and her husband, David Barker, live in RiversideWith their two dogs, Onyx and Lucky. Charles A.Sorrentino, MBA'l8, is vice president of Unitedl-Iealth, a Milwaukee-based provider Of specializedhealth care services, programs, and products. EllenB. Tabor, AB'78, director of adult inpatient psychi­atry at King's County Hospital in Brooklyn, is alsoaSSistant professor at SUNY-Brooklyn HealthSciences Center.79 Caron L Atlas, AB'79, AM'80, continuesto advocate for community-based artsas director of the American Festival Project, withCUltural exchange projects in central Appalachia;lOUisville, KY; San Diego, CA; Lewiston, MA; andMontana. She traveled to Czechoslovakia twice lastYear as an arts consultant under the auspices of theSUitcase Fund and Arts International. Richard D.Barclay, AB'l9, AM'83, manager of engineering sys­�ems at ARCO Products in Los Angeles, and Mar­JOrie Edison Barclay, AB'80, MBA'84, manager ofcorporate units audit at ARCO, have a daughter,�atherine Elizabeth, born March 10, 1992. Marcus. Chandler, JD'l9, and Steven K. Humke, JD'85,�.long with several other members of the Indianapo­IS law firm Ice, Miller, Donadio &: Ryan, haveStarted an entrepreneurial services practice groupWIthin the firm. The group will advise companieson such planning issues as raising capital throughP.Ublic offerings or other means, business expan­SIOn through overseas markets, and planning forthe transition of family-owned businesses to thenext generation. Fanny]. Crawford, AB'79, a child�re technical assistance director for the Westernaryland Child Care Resource Center, is also aConSUltant on a project to develop multicultural�Utrition education materials for the national Head1 tart office. Christine Tyma DeGrado, AB'79, seeA.9�1, William F. DeGrado. Mark D. Handel,t B 79, of Cambridge, MA, "recently wanderedhrough rubble as a member of a NOAA disaster�rv.ey team after hurricanes Andrew and Iniki."1. aVId B. Harrison, AB79, MD'83, a pediatrician,�ves in Coral Springs, FL, with his wife, Gigi, andaaUghters Cassandra, five, and Adriana, 20 months.O Marjorie Edison Barclay, AB'80, MBA'84,Bl see 1979, Richard D. Barclay. S. StevenN�ck, AB'80, and his wife, Kristie, of Lancaster,, had a daughter, Kelsey, on January 17, 1992, who joins brother Logan. David 1. Bogetz,MBA'80, and his wife, Sharon, of Deerfield, IL, hada son, Samuel Ethan, on August 18, 1992.81 Lynn Saltzman Clarke, AB'81, is a partnerin the Charleston, WV, law firm of Spilman,Thomas, Battle &: Klostermeyer. William F.DeGrado, PhD'81, and Christine Tyma DeGrado,AB'79, of Moylan, PA, had a son, Joseph Anthony,onFebruary 4, 1992, who joins his sister Jessie, agesix. Alison A. Evans, AB'81, received her doctoratein epidemiology from Harvard University in 1991and is now a postdoctoral fellow at the Fox ChaseCancer Center in Philadelphia where she is work­ing on virus-associated human cancers. Renee Col­will Lovelace, MBA'81, is of counsel at Needham,Johnson, Lovelace &: Johnson, a medical malprac­tice and business litigation firm where her hus­band, Joe, is a name partner. She is also in theprocess of forming Blackwell &: Lovelace, a lawfirm which will concentrate on general corporatelaw, computer law, software issues, copyrights,trademarks, and entertainment law. Renee and Joeare actively involved with the Texas Alliance for theMentally Ill. Nancy Battista Morgan, AM'81, ownsher own company in Glenview, IL, producing edu­cational videotapes for staff development. JanetHebenstreit Tavakoli, MBA'81, is a senior vicepresident in fixed income sales for NIKKO Securi­ties in New York. Robert D. Vesely, MBA'81, isCPO of Technology Marketing, a small, publiclyheld technology company in Irvine, CA. Patrick].Wallace, AB'81, MD'89, is a senior surgical residentat Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital inChicago.82 William M. Cunningham, AM'82,MBA'83, an investment analyst in Wash­ington, DC, recently worked with the u.s. Episco­pal Church, analyzing minority-owned banks inthe nation's inner cities in order to choose severalfor the church to invest in. Mary M. Flaherty,AB'82, is an instructor at Suffolk University LawSchool in Boston. She and her husband, Richard T.Congdon, jr., X'84, became the "very nervous, veryproud" parents of Winifred Petrosino Congdon onFebruary 22, 1992. William H. Gmeiner, AB'82, isan assistant professor at the Eppley Institute forResearch in Cancer and Allied Diseases in Omaha,NE. 'Richard R. Spaete, PhD'82, resigned fromChiron Corporation and joined Vestor Pharmaceu­ticals, a start-up biotechnology company in the SanFrancisco Bay area. Francesca B. Stodolski, AB'82,a physician/administrator for the Vein TreatmentCenter in New York, married Clyde A. Shuman,AB'82, a research biologist for the federal govern­ment, on May 2, 1992. David Y.K. Wong, AM'82,PhD'87, is now executive director of United Over­seas Enterprises, in Hong Kong. His wife, OdaliaHo Wong, AM'83, PhD'87, is a lecturer in thedepartment of sociology, and director of the sociol­ogy research lab at the Hong Kong Baptist College.83 Linda Agress Connelly, MBA'83, is livingin New York City and working for a healthcare advertising agency. Robert]. Migliore, AB'83,of Cheny Hill, NJ, has been validating pharmaceuti­cal manufacturing operations for the past year.Odalia Ho Wong, AM'83, PhD'87, see 1982, DavidY.K. Wong.84 John A. Castaneda, AB'84, an attorneywith the Chicago law firm of Vicki LaferAbrahamson &: Associates, sings in a choir and inpiano bars, and plays the blues harmonica. JosephB. Heitman, SB'84, SM'84, and his wife, MariaElena Cardenas Corona, had their first child, PabloFrancisco, on September 30. Joseph is an assistantprofessor in both the genetics section and depart- ment of pharmacology, and an assistant investiga­tor with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, atDuke University Medical Center. Mark F. Hoff­mann, AB'84, has moved to Irvine, CA, as nationalmanager of restaurant acquisitions for Taco BellCorporation. Vincent E. Krasevic, AB'84, is a resi­dent in psychiatry at Loyola University MedicalCenter. He'd like to hear from any old friends inthe area-he lives at 110 North Kenilworth Street,#2F, Oak Park, IL 60301. Vesna Martich, AB'84,MD'88, see 1990, Timothy C. Kriss. Robert A.Miller, AB'84, and Gretchen Brockmeier Miller,AB'85, MAT86, had a daughter, Eliza Grace, onJune 25, 1992.85 Michael D. Camber, AB'85, married SabinaWeitzman last December in Miami, FL.Attending were: William P. Whitely, AB'86,MBA'90; Edward F. Malone, AB'86; Karl E.Lie tz an , AB'85; Craig C. Parker, AB'91; andAlexander V. Stern, AB'86. Manuel]. Chaknis,AB'85, got married last May in Atlanta. Attendingwere: Barry ]. Waterman, AB'85; George M. Edel­son, AB'85; James C. Walsh, AB'85; Andrew P.Michitson, AB'86; and Bob Goepp, X'85. Manuel iscurrently serving a rotating internship at M.L. Bas­sett Hospital in Cooperstown, NY. Denise O'NeilGreen, AB'85, the graduation, retention, and pro­gram coordinator for Central Michigan University,received her master's in public affairs from Prince­ton University in 1987 and was the coauthor of"Invisibly Pregnant: Teenage Mothers and theChicago Public Schools," an article published in1988. She has been married for five years, and has a3-year-old son. Steven K. Humke, JD'85, see 1979,Marcus B. Chandler. Terrence R. Huser, MBA'85,principal and compensation practice leader in theIndianapolis office of William M. Mercer Incorpo­rated, and his wife, Kathy, had their tenth child inJanuary. Andrew F. Kolodziej, SB'85, see 1957,Edward A. Kolodziej. Curtis S. Long, AB'85, execu­tive director of the Delaware Symphony Associa­tion in Wilmington, DE, received his M.B.A. innon-profit management from the University ofCalifornia at Berkeley in 1991. His wife, RobinR. Henke, AB'85, continues to work towards herPh.D. in educational psychology at Berkeley.Gretchen Brockmeier Miller, AB'85, MAT'86,see 1984, Robert A. Miller. Mary Moon, PhD'85, ascientist with Sherwin-Williams in Cleveland, OH,recently competed in the American Horse ShowsAssociation's National Dressage Championshipsin Chicago. With her horse, Wizard, she placedsecond in the regional championship for adultamateur riders at first level. Tom B. Parker,MBA'85, vice president in high-yield research atFirst Boston, married Michelle Griffin, manager ofmarket planning for the Bed and Bath Group ofSprings Industries, on July 4 in San Francisco. Thecouple lives in New York City. Kenneth E. Volpert,MBA'85, is assistant vice president at the VanguardGroup of Investment Companies. The group man­ages 70 portfolios owned by some four millionindividuals and institutional investors. Jerry R.Wallace, MBA'85, assistant director of finance atGeneral Motors Saturn Corporation, and his wife,Pamela Williamson, a manufacturing engineer atSaturn, had a son, Lucas Austin Wallace, last May.86 Martin E. Elling, AB'86, graduated fromHarvard Law School last June, and is now aRobert Bosch fellow at the Trust Agency in Berlin,Germany, until May. In August he begins as a man­agement consultant with McKinsey &: Co. in NewYork. Francis C. McGovern, AB'86, is executivedirector of the Ririe-Woodbury dance companyin Salt Lake City, UT. Wilbur Wai Bong Mok,MBA'86, married Claudia Hsu in Hong Konglast November. S. Janelle Montgomery, AB'86,MBA'89, is living in San Juan, Costa Rica, on aUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 41A Helping HandThose who are mentally illas well as deaf bear adouble burden. Karen Grahamwould like to make life alittle easier for them.,. hink of lobbyists and you thinkof closed-door meetings, powerlunches, and all-expenses-paidtrips for pampered legislators. It's not animage that fits Karen Kozlowski Graham,AM'82. Working with a team of othercommitted, unpaid lobbyists, Grahamadvocates on behalf of a group mostpeople don't think about: deaf peoplewho are also mentally ill.Graham immediately qualifies hergroup's success: "Lobbying is like shav­ing-you may do it great one morning,but you still have to get up the nextmorning and do it all over again." Sheknows her group's success is far fromguaranteed,' what with money problems,a lack of involvement by younger people,and the reality of ever more people-neglected, mistreated, or ignored­who need their help.But the success stories keep her going.It can be as simple as helping a youngdeaf man stay out of a mental institutionand in a job for longer than he oncecould have imagined, or as complicatedas working three years to get funding foran alcohol abuse treatment center fordeaf people. In such cases, the obstaclebecomes getting people to acknowledgewhat seems incredibly obvious: deafpeople can't succeed in a rehab program42 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIl1993if there is no one there who can commu­nicate with them.In 1985, after researching and writing a60-page report for the Illinois Depart­ment of Alcoholism and SubstanceAbuse (DASA) on the need for treatmentfacilites for deaf substance abusers,Graham and her fellow lobbyists weretold they had a valid concern, but therewas no money to do what they wanted.So they went back to work: writing let­ters, making phone calls, meeting withlegislators in person. The result? In 1988,the state passed a bill requiring DASA toprovide such services to deaf people.There's now a ten-bed treatment centerin Chicago that is always full.Graham first became interested in theproblems of the deaf while an undergrad­uate music major at Northwestern Uni­versity. Suffering from a slight hearingloss herself, she learned sign languageand began volunteer work with the deaf.After graduating from the SSA in 1982,Graham started to work with Thres­holds, a Chicago-based psychosocialrehabilitation center-first as an inter­preter and then as a full-time staffmember.Recognizing that many deaf peoplewith mental illnesses didn't need to be inan institution, the center began Thres­holds Bridge for the Hearing Impaired in1984. (Although Graham recently lefther position as director, she continues towork as a consultant.) The program pro­vides counseling and oversees severalgroup homes. Crucial to Thresholds' suc­cess is its staffs knowledge of sign lan­guage and the psychology of deafness.Graham admits that when she beganworking to move deaf patients out ofmental institutions and into Thresholds'program, she wasn't optimistic: "I didn'tanticipate that people would do wellbecause, you know, a person can lookpretty bad in a mental hospital."She's been pleasantly surprised; Grahamestimates that Thresholds has reducedhospitalization among its members byabout 90 percent, and she believes thatmost of these people won't ever need togo back into institutions-with the rightconstellation of community services.When Graham is asked-e-frequently-c­what kind of "magic" Thresholds per­forms, she replies, "There's nothing.We're just getting them up in the morn­ing and talking to them. and putting themthrough the paces that everybody elsegoes through." -M. T. temporary assignment for Chiquita Brands Inter­national. Pamela L. Person, AB'86, is writing herthesis for a Ph.D. in immunology from the Univer­sity of Pennsylvania and hopes to graduate in May·Navy Petty Officer 3rd Class Warren J. platts,AB'86,. recently returned �r.om a six-mont� deploY;ment III the western PaCIfIC and the Persian G�l hWhile there, he served on the USS Acadia, WhiCprovided repair and supply support to units servingin the Middle East.Michael S. Rabieh, AB'86, married Linda Rebucklast August in Toronto. Attending were Paul !hUlrich, AB'86, and Jeffrey C. Trapp, AB'89. B�t.Michael and Linda are doctoral candidates in pohtl­cal science at the University of Toronto. Lisa AnneReynolds, AB'86, a pediatrics resident at Harb�r�UCLA Medical Center, lives in Los Angeles WIther husband, Dave Sanders. Roy M. Schuster, jr.,AB'86, recently moved back to Chicago and is aconsultant with Axiom Information Consulting,along with Edward T. Baum, AB'86. Roy has beencompeting in a race with Kenneth C. Barori, ��'8�iand Alan M. Kanter, AB'86. Their goal: to VISIt a28 major league baseball parks.Wendy Ann Parshall, AB'86, AM'87, an interna­tional flight attendant for American Airlines, rna:­ried David Witt, AB'87, who is working on �lSmaster's in computer science at DePaul UniverSIty,last October. Attending were: maid of honor Jill �.Wicinski, AB'86; Sara H. Dell, AB'85; Dwayn� 0:Paul, AB'85; Julie Corcoran Weissman, AM 7 ,Mary I. Ishii, AB'87; Kate Choldin, AB'86; MaryCholdin, AB'86; Michael P. Clifford, AB'87; P�i�Thompson Clifford, AB'87; Kevin W. Choy, AB,8/MD'90; James S. Park, AB'88; Philip E. Co, AB 8 ,and Daniel D. Kim, AB'88. 887 Masuyo Shibuya Ando, AM'87, see 1�8 /Takashi Ando. Kenneth C. Baron, AB 8 ,see 1986, Roy M. Schuster, Jr. Jean Louise Fraser�AB'87, is a second-year resident in the departrne�.of pathology at Beth Israel Hospital in Boston, MAlison M. McElhinney, AB'87, works at Ornicr�nConsulting, a computer consulting company InPhiladelphia, and is pursuing her master's in inforrmation systems at Drexel University'S Colleg� �Information Sciences. Kevin A. Nelson, AB 8 'received his master's in liberal studies, with a c�n;centration in geology, from Wesleyan Univers1t._in 1992. He is currently a graduate student in ep1fdemiology and biostatistics at the University 0Alabama's School of Public Health in Birmingha�Deborah D. Pierce, AB'87, recently graduated fro dthe University of Massachusetts Medical School an.is currently a family medicine resident at the �;;versity of Rochester. Anthony N. Pritzker, MBA ;is happily married and living on the beach in sa�teMonica, CA. Edward E. Somekh, MBA'87, a v�Spresident at Merrill Lynch in New York, and 1N· oe,wife, Elizabeth, had a daughter, Amanda lC'81on August 6, 1992. Judith A. Swanson, phD �assistant professor of political science at Bo.S�oalUniversity, published a book of Aristotle's poh��1,philosophy last April. Joseph P. Ward, A� r­received his Ph.D. in history from Stanford Unl��s_sity last June, and is now assistant professor of �dtory at Wayne State University in Detroit. Va"lWitt, AB'87, see 1986, Wendy Ann Parshall.'dent88 Takashi Ando, MBA'88, is vice pres1 }-Iisat the Mitsubishi Bank in New Yorkj edwife, Masuyo Shibuya Ando, AM'87, c.omp.:\oher master's of business at New York Ulllvers1'l.ceh· Wll"December. Steven G. Gillan, MBA'88, and �s astLynne, had a daughter, Georgia Rosa, thIS P atAugust. Steve is the external reporting manager oYRaychem Corporation, a materials science cornpabased in Menlo Park, CA. Anizia Karmazyn,AM'88, is the curator of collections at the HistoricalSociety of Western Pennsylvania. Responsible forthe acquisition and conservation of collections, sheis working on the 1995 opening of the PittsburghRegional History Center. Mark R. Koenig, AB'88,and Erin M. Roche, AB'89, were married on Febru­ary 29, 1992 in Reno, NV. They currently live inBellevue, WA. Matthew E. Kolodziej, AB'88, see1957, Edward A. Kolodziej. David G. McAfee,AB'88, is a Peace Corps volunteer for an aquacul­ture program in Gabon, West Africa.89 Dana K. Campbell, AM'89, is administra­tor of the University Catholic Center at thelJniversity of Texas at Austin. Robert M. Doone,MBA'89, financial manager of the project manage­lllent division at 3DI, a construction services firmin Houston, TX, was recently elected secretary ofthe company and secretary to the board of direc­tors. Masaaki Katsuyama, MBA'89, assistant man­ager at theNorinchukin Bank in New York, and hisWife, Hisae, had a son, Sho-whose name means"good luck" in Japanese-on October 21, 1992.Mary E. Knecht, AB'89, married Adam D. Shep­ard, AB'89, MBA'90, in Ocean, NJ, on September6, 1992. Attending were Mary's parents, JamesW. Knecht, SB'60, MD'63, and Judith Franzettil<necht, SB'61, PhD'66; MaryAnn Kalina Winkler,AB'89; Elizabeth de Grazia, AB'88; Stephanie Cox,AB'90, AM'91; Jody Schermerhorn, AB'90; GurjotSidhu, AB'90; Gregory Smith, MBA'90; Raj Nanda,AB'88, AM'88; Diana Bigelow Johannsen, AB'89;David Johannsen, AB'87; Eric Kuwana, AB'88;Gerald Spahn, AB'88; Sajal Sahay', AB'90; DanBolger, AM'86, PhD'88; Lisa Marie McLeod, X'89;Avanti Kumar, X'92; Samir Gandhi, AB'90; andMichael Grillo, AB'89.JUlia L. Llewellyn, AB'89, is in her second year oflaw school at the University of Arkansas in Fay­etteville. Patrick C. McGuire, AB'89, is working onhis dissertation at the University of Arizona and"looking for dark matter." He participated inNASA's cosmic ray balloon campaign this pastsUmmer in Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada. PamelaJ. Olson, MBA'89, is an associate in the Chicagooffice of Booz, Allen &: Hamilton. Scott R. Ranges,AB'89, teaches middle-school science and math inCOlumbia, Sc. He is also in charge of the school'srecYcling club, which recycles on campus andraises money for different environmental causes.Ihis past October the club won the TheodoreRoosevelt conservation award, given throughoutthe nation "in recognition of outstanding accom­plishment and achievement in the areas of conser­Vation and wise stewardship of natural resources."Erin M. Roche, AB'89, see 1988, Mark R. Koenig.Sharon Wydrinski Sullivan, MBA'89, is a StateFarm agent in Elmhurst, IL.80 Sonia Bychkov, AB'90, AM'90, is finishingher third year at the U of C Law School,and writes that: Colby Green, AB'91, is in his firstYear at Loyola Law School; Gayle S. Shepardson,AB'90/is teaching high school in New Jersey;and Elizabeth L. Manning, AB'90, is doing researchat the U of C Hospitals and applying for Ph.D.�ograms in biology. James Chadam, AB'90, andalter c. Dauterman, Jr., AB'90, AM'91, see 1991,�ohn K Song. Michael S. Firstenberg, AB'90, a stu­eru at Case Western Reserve School of Medicine,traveled to Nice, France, last year to present the�esults of research done at the Cleveland ClinicoUndation at CARDIOSTIM, an internationalSCientific congress in cardiology. While in Nice, heCOlllpleted the International Nice Triathlon: a 4-K�Willl, 140-K bike ride, and 30-K run. Timothy. I<riss, MD'90, married Vesna Martich, AB'84,�D'88, last September in Libertyville, IL. Timothyis dOing a neurosurgical residency at the University of Kentucky; Vesna has completed her radiologyresidency at the University of Chicago and is nowdoing a pediatric radiology fellowship at CincinnatiChildren's Hospital. She will join the University ofKentucky's radiology department in July.91 Roland E.V. Anglin, PhD'91, is on leavefrom Rutgers University, where he is assis­tant professor of political science, and working as aprogram officer in the Ford Foundation's urbanpoverty unit. Joseph T. Cuenco, AB'91, is now inhis second year at Loyola Medical School. ColbyGreen, AB'91, see 1990, Sonia Bychkov. Robert L.Herman, AB'91, recently passed his Ph.D. qualify­ing exam in geochemistry at Cal Tech in Pasadena,CA. Michael M. Leifman, AB'91, has spent thelast year working as a case manager for homelessfamilies at Citizens' Advice Bureau, a community­based, not-for-profit agency in the Bronx. He isnow applying to schools for a master's in publicpolicy or public administration. Noelani V. Nitz,AB'91, writes, "Thanks to all the people whohelped me get into Santa Clara University LawSchool. However, California is not my kind ofplace-the U of C looks like a bastion of radicalleftwingers from here."John K. Song, AB'91, who lives and works in theWashington, DC, area, attended a cocktail hourhosted by Mary M. Johnston, AB'91, last spring,where he ran into several alumni with whom hestarted a coed soccer team. They ended the seasonwith a 4-1 record and a victory in the champion­ship playoffs. The team included: Giancarlo Nar­dini, AB'91, "star center forward who defended the theory that beer enhanced his play"; WalterC. Dauterman, Jr., AB'90, AM'91, "enthusiastichalfback who ran a successful demonstration ofanaerobic and aerobic exercise each game"; JamesChadam, AB'90, "excelled in ball control, shotplacement, biting insults, and performance falls­all talents accrued from the Chicago Varsity team";Chris]. Pollard, AB'92, "perhaps One of the bestdefensive players in the game"; John K. Song,AB'91, "organizer, captain, player-coach, headresponsibility boy"; and Stan Kim, '93, "muchneeded auxiliary man, who valiantly substituted forall our unhealthy players." The team enjoyed goodsupport from local and visiting alumni. Amongthose who attended the games and/or post-gametavern sessions were: Sandra Melone, AB'88;Christopher Sugrue, AB'92, AM'92; David T.Pauletti, AB'92; Edgar D. Bueno, AB'92; Mary M.Johnston, AB'91; and Sarah B. Miller, AB'92.92 Anne J. Barthel, AB'92, writes, "I feellucky to have found a job at all-especiallya terrific one as assistant editor at Bonus Books, asmall trade publishing house. I'm living in Lake­view now, but starting to miss Hyde Park. Didyou all know there's a Harold's up here?" Anne E.Hollister, AB'92, is living in Bethesda, MD, andworking as a social services coordinator for twonon-profit agencies in Washington, DC: Bread forthe City, a food and clothing distribution center,and Zaccharus Free Clinic, which offers free legaland medical care for the poor and uninsured. She isapplying for a joint M.Div.IM.A. program in min­istry and social work at the U of C.DEA,.BSFACUL"Richard T. Bruere, professor emeritus in classi­cal languages and literatures, died November 28 atSt. Mary's Hospital in Madison, WI. A facultymember from 1937 until he retired in 1975, Bruereserved as chair of the classical languages and litera­tures department from 1960 to 1969. A member ofthe American Philological Association, he con­tributed many articles to philological journals,and, from 1951 to 1974, he was editor of the jour­nal Classical Philology. Survivors include his wife,Katharine Morris Bruere, SB'40.George R. Hughes, PhD'39, a leading Egyptolo­gist and former director of the Oriental Institute,died December 21 at the University's MedicalCenter. He was 85. A specialist in the language,literature, and civilization of the Demotic Egyptianperiod (7th century B.C. to 2nd century A.D.),he was the author of seven books and numerousarticles on Coptic and Demotic script. His researchincluded the translation, completed in 1965, of aCoptic prayer book found by Oriental Institutearchaeologists in an abandoned Egyptianmonastery. He is survived by his wife, Maurine.Francis X. Kinahan, associate professor of Eng­lish, died of a heart attack February 3 in his HydePark home. He was 48. An expert in 19th- and20th-century Irish poetry and literature, Kinahanspecialized in the work of William Butler Yeats andJames Joyce. Winning the Quantrell award forundergraduate teaching in 1976, he helped todevelop the University'S "Little Red Schoolhouse"course, a nationally recognized seminar in writing .Kinahan served for ten years as the faculty directorof University Theater, and, together with SecondCity director Bernard G. Sahlins, AB'43, he orga- nized U'T's Off-Off-Campus. He is survived by hiswife, Mary, an administrative assistant in the phi­losophy department; and a daughter, Caitlin.Werner H. Kirsten, former professor and chairof pathology, died December 24 at his Hyde Parkhome. He was 67. A leading researcher of RNAtumor viruses, he is perhaps best known for his1967 discovery of the Kirsten mouse sarcoma virusin cultured mouse tumor cells, which has beenused widely in cancer research. Joining the facultyin 1961, Kirsten became a full professor in 1968and left in 1988, when he became director of theNational Cancer Institute's Research and Develop­ment Center. He is survived by his wife, Inger;three sons; and one granddaughter.Arthur Mann, the Preston and Sterling Mortonprofessor emeritus in history, died February 7 atthe Medical Center. He was 71. One of the nation'sleading scholars of American reform politics, hewas an authority on Fiorello La Guardia, mayor ofNew York City from 1934 to 1942, and also wroteabout immigration and the development of anAmerican identity. Mann served on the U of C fac­ulty for 24 years before retiring in 1990. Survivorsinclude his wife, Sylvia; two daughters; and twograndsons.Bernard E. Meland, BD'28, PhD'29, professoremeritus in the Divinity School, died February 8.He was 93. Professor of constructive theology from1945 until his retirement in 1964, Meland devel­oped a distinctive method of theological studythrough his extensive writings on contemporarytheology and the philosophy of religion. Coeditorof the Journal of Religion, Meland wrote more than70 articles for journals, reviews, and magazines,and was the author of more than ten books. He issurvived by a son, a brother, and a niece.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 43FRIENDSHelen Monroe Puttkammer, a member of theBoard of Govenors of International House from1958 to 1968, died February 7 in her Hyde Parkhome. She was 94. In 1991, l-House established theHelen Puttkamer Award for the outstanding resi­dent at International House. She and her late hus­band Ernst Wilfred Puttkammer, professor in theLaw School from 1919 to 1956, endowed the E.W.Puttkammer Criminal Law Book Fund in the LawSchool's library. She is survived by her daughter,Lorna Puttkammer Straus, SM'60, PhD'62, profes­sor in organismal biology and anatomy, and son-in­law, Francis H. Straus II, MD'75, SM'64, professorin pathology; a son, Charles; and seven grandchil­dren, including Helen E. Straus, AB'84, MD'90,and Christopher M. Straus, AB'88, MD'92.1920sRuth Pfingst Lathrop, PhB'23, died October 23 atthe age of 95. Survivors include two sons, John F.Lathrop, AB'55, and Paul A. Lathrop, AB'63.Robert C. Levy, SB'26, MD'29, died December 18at the age of 86 in his son's home in Lincolnshire,IL. He served in the Medical Corps during WorldWar II, and practiced internal medicine in Chicagofor 56 years. Survivors include his wife, RosalieAllman Levy, PhB'25; one daughter; one son; andfour grandchildren.Walter E. Marks, PhB'27, died November 24 inMarshall, IL, at the age of 87. After serving IndianaState University for 44 years, he retired as dean ofthe School of Health, Physical Education, andRecreation. In addition to receiving the IndianaAssociation of Health, Physical Education, andRecreation honor award in 1969, he was inductedinto ISU's Athletic Hall of Fame in 1982. He is sur­vived by his wife, Kathryn; two sons; one brother;four grandchildren; two great-grandsons; and sev­eral nieces and nephews.Harold L. Mason, PhD'27, of Rochester, MN,died November 10 of a respiratory failure followinga brief illness. He was 91. In 1928, he began work­ing at the Mayo Clinic, retiring as senior consultantin biochemistry. Appointed a full professor at theMayo Graduate School in 1949, he was certified asa specialist in clinical chemistry in 1952. Survivorsinclude his wife, Maude; two sons, includingNorman R. Mason, AB'50, SB'53; a daughter; sixgrandchildren; and five great-grandchildren.1930sJulia Hanson Danielson, MD'31, an anesthesiolo­gist in Litchfield, MN, died last August. She is sur­vived by her husband, Lennox Danielson, MD'31;and a daughter, Sally Montebello. .Ethel Goldberg Mullison, SB'31, SM'35, PhD'38,died July 16, three months after the death ofher husband, Wendell R. Mull ison, PhD'38. Agardening writer and an herbicide consultantfor Dow Chemical Co., respectively, the couplelived in Midland, MI. They are survived by a son,George; a daughter, Helen; a brother, Mayer Gold­berg, PhB'27, jD'29; and a sister, Rose GoldbergKlowden, AM'56.Emanuel M. Goldman, PhB'32, died December12 in Northwestern Memorial Hospital at the age of80; In 1933, he became a caseworker, mainly forSoutheast Side unemployed steelworkers, then in1939 went to work with his brother and father inthe printing business. From 1975 to 1987, he pub­lished Curriculum Review-a journal that reviewedsecondary and elementary school texts. He is sur­vived by his wife, Irene; a son; a daughter; and agrandchild.44 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL1993Lester K. Olin, jD'36, died December 15 inNorthwestern Memorial Hospital at the age of 80.In 1948, he founded Evans Food Products, a SouthSide snack food company of which he was presi­dent until he retired in 1984. Survivors include hiswife, Rosalyn Wechter Olin, AB'36; two daughters,Nancy Olin Unferth, AB'65, AM'74 and MargaretD. Olin, AB'68, AM'77, PhD'82; two sons-in-law,Robert Unferth, AB'62, MBA'64, and Robert S.Nelson, chair of the University'S art department;and four grandchildren.Ruth Wolkow Shnider, SM'37, of Burlingame,CA, died September 24 of cancer. A nuclear physi­cist, she worked for 26 years as the U.S. Navy'sprincipal investigator on the effects of nuclearweapons. In 1961, she was the first woman dele­gate to attend the Tripartite Conference on NuclearWeapons-organized by Britain, Canada, and theUS. She joined the San Francisco Zoological Soci­ety in 1958, and she and her husband becamedocents after they retired in 1990. She is survivedby her husband, jack.Robert Sherrick Brumbaugh, AB'38, AM'38,PhD'42, died july 14 at the age of 73. A Yale facultymember for 37 years, he was an authority on Plato,the history of philosophy, and the philosophy ofeducation and metaphysics. The author of 15 booksand numerous articles, with a colleague he initiatedthe Plato Microfilm Project, spending more than 30years microfilming and cataloging every knownpre-1600 manuscript of Plato's writings. He is sur­vived by his wife, Ada Steele Brumbaugh, X'40;two daughters; a son; his mother, Marjorie Sher­rick Brumbaugh, MAT'43; an aunt, Dorothy Sher­rick, AM'43; a sister; and seven grandchildren.jean Hart Buckley, AM'38, of Chicago Heights,died May 5 at age 74. She is survived by herhusband, Thomas; eight children; and ninegrandchildren.Aaron Kellner, MD'39, died December 11 at hisNew York City home of Lou Gehrig's disease. Hehelped create a reliable blood system for transfu­sions by founding the New York Blood Center,which draws, stores, tests, and distributes blood to250 area hospitals. After leading the center for 25years as executive director and later as president,he retired in 1989. He is survived by his wife, ZiraDeFries; three sons; three sisters; a brother; andthree grandchildren.1940sClio Argiris, AB'41, of Chicago, died recently.She is survived by her sister, Demetra Argiris Bour­baki, AB'39.Eugene W. Gleason, AA'42, of Albuquerque, diedin October of cancer. He is survived by his wife,Virginia Coward Gleason, X'45.Patricia Lyding Thornburgh, SB'42, died October11 in Torrance, CA. She is survived by her hus­band, Warren; a sister, Joan Lyding Bell, SB'41; anda brother, John Lyding, X'45.Gloria McCray Briggs, AB'45, died December 1in Loveland, CO, of complications from lung dis­ease. She was 64. A Chicago native, she settled inKansas after her graduation and marriage. After herhusband's death in 1972, she gained accreditationwith the American Association of Marriage andFamily Practice, and set up a private practice as afamily therapist. She is survived by two daughters;a son; two sisters; and 11 grandchildren.Mary Gould Connolly, PhB'46, died November18 in Amherst, NY, at the age of 67. In 1976, shebegan an l l-year real estate career in the Buffaloarea as a licensed real estate broker and office man­ager. She is survived by her husband, Thomas E.Connolly,.AM'47, PhD'51; three daughters; twosons; and four grandchildren. William C. Stone, SM'49, PhD'52, died April I!,1992. A faculty member at Union College in Sche­nectady, NY, since 1942, he retired in 1991 as theMarie Louise Bailey professor of mathematics.1950sMarcella Tilton Gewirth, SM'54, died December19 in her Hyde Park home at the age of 64. She suf­fered from Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Anactivist and editor, she worked from 1980 to 1981as an environmental scientist for the U.S. Environ­mental Protection Agency's Great Lakes NationalProgram Office.While serving as environmentaleditor for the Hyde Park Herald, she was honoredby the EPA and the Audubon Society for her workin describing how the constant light from ChicagO'Sstreet lamps caused stress on trees. She is survivedby her husband, Alan, distinguished service profes­sor of philosophy; two sons, Andrew and DanielGewirth, SB'82; a daughter, Letitia; a step-daugh­ter; a step-son; her father; a sister; and a brother.William M: Phillips, Jr., PhD'57, died November3 at his home in Skillman, Nj. A member ofAlpha Kappa Delta National Honorary SociO­logical Fraternity, he was a sociologist at RutgersUniversity from 1963 to 1987, and authored tWObooks, many articles, and numerous scholarlYreports. Volunteering for and serving as a consul­tant to many community-based and public serviceinstitutions, he was instrumental in creating theOffice of Research and Development of the NeWjersey Department of Education. Survivors includehis wife, Marie; two sons; a brother; and fourgrandchildren.1910sBarbara Cohen Joslyn, AM'64, of Great Barring­ton, MA, died in a car accident at the age of 52. f,counselor at Williams College since 1974, she alsOmaintained a private psychotherapy practice. sur­vivors include a daughter, a son, and a brother. fBruce D. Kaplan, AB'66, AM'68, president 0Flying Fish Records, died December 15 in IllinoiSMasonic Hospital of viral meningitis. He began theChicago record company in 1974 to produce mUSICby contemporary folk artists who might not other­wise be heard; a recent release featured folk songssung by Vietnam veterans. Survivors include hiSwife, S�ndra; a daughter; a brother; and his mother.1970sMary Patricia Grear Gump, AB'73, jD'76, seniorcounsel with the Bank of America in San FranciSCO,died October 12 of breast cancer. Survivors includeher son, Matthew; her mother and father, Joseph f,.Gump, MBA'74; and 11 brothers and sisterS,includng Holly Gump, AB'83, and ElizabetbGump, AM'90. fStephen S. Mayer, jD'77, died December 18 0lung cancer. A partner in the New jersey law fir�of Grotta, Glassman &: Hoffman, which he hajoined in 1983, he frequently contributed article:on employment law to the New Jersey Law Journa·Survivors include his wife, judy; a daughter; tWOsons; his parents; and a brother, David, a graduatestudent in the SSA.1980sRobert R. Buresh, MBA'83, a manager in finaO-cial services with PPG Industries in Columbus, aI-I,died suddenly November 29. He is survived by hiSwife, Miriam; two children; his father; two broth­ers, including James C. Buresh, AB'83; and �grandmother.10,.ICE OF DEA,.I RECEIVEDlouise F. Davis, PhB'18.Carljoseph Weber, MD'21.Anna Katz Agulnick, SB'23, February.Barry Brandman, SB'25, MD'30, November.Ruth Sherer Anderson, PhB'26, February 1991.Thelma Bogart Boucher, SM'28, November.Belen Brainerd Harding, PhB'29, April 1992.Wallace Ness jamie, PhB'30,July 1989.hna Risch Kieffer, PhD'31.Rosma Hengen Schulze, PhB'31, November.Inez Lenz Mueller, SB'33, August.Rufus M. Reed.jr., SB'34, November.Ingrid Spetz Riesz, SB'36. Carvel E. Collins, AM'37, PhD'44, April 1990.Robert C. Adair, AB'38, April 1992.j.Joe Biery, MBA'40, February 1991.Rolf W. Leefe, SB'41.Joseph K. Rotskoff, AB'41 , February 1992.Earl N. Lockard, PhD'47.Thorleif M. Fostvedt, SM'48, May.Wallace E. Ogg. AM'48. PhD'49.Elsie Johnson Peterson, AM'49, August.Robert C. Poole, AM'52, JD'56, September.Dorothy McWilliams Evans, AM'56,December 1991.Nadine Winkelried Gentry, AM'59, May 1991.Donald L. Janis, JD'61, October.Michael J. Pertel, AB'88, December.OOKS by AlumniAR,.S AND LET7ERSGunnar Anderson, PhD'89, editor, La coronicade Adramon (juan de la Cuesta). This two-volumeWork is the first edition of a previously unstudiedlate medieval Spanish book of chivalry. Dating to1492 or before, the plot revolves around theadventures of an exiled pretender to the Polishthrone, Adramori, and his eventual attempt toregain his royal patrimony under the guidance andprotection of the 12 sibyls. A notable digressionrecounts an extended religious and secular pil­grimage through Italy, replete with verifiably accu­rate details and encounters with historicalPersonages.Zachary Moshe Baker, AB'72, and Bella Hass:Veinberg, editors, The Yiddish Catalog and Author­Ity File of the YIVO Library (G.K. Hall and Com­Pany). Volume one of this five-volume set containsan introduction and part one, "The YiddishAuthor-Title Catalog of the YIVO Library." NewYork City's YIVO Library houses the westernhemisphere's largest collection of Yiddish-languagePUblications-more than 40,000 volumes.Van Akin Burd, AB'36, editor, Christmas Story:John Ruskin's Venetian Letters of 1876-1877 (Uni­�ersity of Delaware Press). This volume makes theull text of Ruskin's Christmas Story available for�he first time, along with his related interpretativeetters. The letters describe Ruskin's mystic experi­ence, which he believed placed him under thegUidance of the soul of his lost love, Rose LaToUche, through the mediation of Saint Ursula­the culmination of Ruskin's personal search for theSPiritual world.Anthony T. Grafton, AB'71, AM'72, PhD'75,�dit�r, Rome Reborn: The Vatican Library andl.enalssance Culture (Yale University Press). Pub­Ished in association with the Library of Congressand the Vatican Library, this volume tells the storyof the Vatican Library, holder of one of the richestcO.liections of western manuscripts and earlyPrinted books, as a political and scholarly super­�ower during the Renaissance. The book repro­a �ces nearly 200 items from the library, includingaVe letter from Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn, ana�tographed poem by Petrarch, Galilee's drawings� Sunspots, and a 9th-century manuscript ofuclid's Elements.Jean Kwon Herrmann, AB'57, Gale Huntington,�nd John Moulden, Sam Henry's "Songs of theb eOp�e" (University of Georgia Press). Collected/ Inshman Sam Henry, an amateur folk musicianth.d folklorist, nearly 680 selections are included inThs volume, thoroughly annotated and indexed.e Songs, of mostly 19th-century origin, are grouped under three broad headings-life in theold country, the Irish homeland, and personalrelationships-and then further classified into 25thematic subjects.David A. Kronick, PhD'56, Scientific and Techni­cal Periodicals of the Seventeenth and EighteenthCenturies: A Guide (Scarecrow Press). These scien­tific and technical periodicals are a primary sourcefor studying this period's intellectual history. Theauthor has compiled a list of over 1,800 periodicalsfrom all the countries of Europe and America, andincluded names of editors, publishers, translations,and availability of reprints and film copies.BIOGRAPIYAlzina Stone Dale, AM'57, Maker and Craftsman:The Story of Dorothy L. Sayers (Harold ShawPublishers). Published for the 1993 centennialcelebration of Sayers' birth, this book explores herenthusiasm and creativity, her sense of humor, andher gift of language. Best known for her Lord PeterWimsey detective stories, Sayers also wrote playsfor British radio, translated Dante's Divine Comedy,and spoke and wrote on women's rights and thearts.Richard G. Hewlett, AM'48, PhD'52, Jesse BallduPont (University Press of Florida). This is a biog­raphy of the Virginia-born schoolteacher who mar­ried Alfred 1. duPont and, with her brother EdwardBall, turned duPont's assets into a financial empirethat virtually dominated Florida's economy by the1930s. After her marriage, Mrs. duPont providedcollege scholarships to needy students and gavemore than $100 million to colleges, universities,hospitals, charities, and churches in the southeast­ern states. The Jesse Ball duPont Fund, establishedafter her death in 1970, continues her philan­thropic work.Wu Ningkun, AM'49, A Single Tear: A Family'sPersecution, Love, and Endurance in CommunistChina (Atlantic Monthly Press). In 1951, Ningkunleft the University of Chicago to return to hishomeland and a professorship under Mao's regime.Two years after his return, Ningkun was labeledcounterrevolutionary and ultra-rightist for hisWestern teaching methods and curriculum. Forthe next two decades, he and his wife, Li Yikai­considered enemies of their country-were sepa­rated, reunited, and relocated at the whim of thegovernment. This is the story of their struggle tosurvive and keep their family together.Elaine Pomper Snyderman, AB'56, AM'65, LineFive: The Internal Passport (Chicago Review Press).This volume recounts Jewish families' odysseysfrom the USSR to the USA. BDSINESS AND ECONOMICSG. Michael Moebs, MBA'75, Pricing FinancialServices (Dow Jones Irwin). Before deregulation,financial institutions spent little effort marketingand pricing products and services. Today, priceis the product as competition increases. Thisbook aims to help businesses achieve a profitablepricing structure by integrating theory withimplementation.Joseph G. Werner, AM'78, MBA'83, Managing theProcess, the People, and Yourself (ASQC QualityPress). This book outlines how a company's suc­cess is the result of harmonizing three main com­ponents: the science, methods, and measurementsof a business (the process); how departments worktogether (the people); and yourself-your goals,style, and how you manage change.CRI,.ICISMEdgar M. Branch, AM'38, Mark Twain and theStarchy Bays (Elmira College Center for MarkTwain Studies at Quarry Farm). In this secondQuarry Farm volume, Branch expands Twain's ownaccount of the Mississippi River pilots' union interms of its bearing on Twain's development asboth a pilot and a writer-specifically, the relation­ship between Twain's involvement with the unionand A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court.Therese Budniakiewicz, SB'71, Fundamentals ofStory Logic: Introduction to Greimassian Semiotics(john Benjamins Publishing). Drawing largely onV. Propp's pioneering work and A.j. Greimas'revised version of the same, this book is aimedat consolidating their view of the narrativeand extending it through a series of concreteapplications. The volume offers a critical examina­tion of narrative structure in terms of its two basicsets of operations, action and events.George A. Klawitter, PhD'81, editor, RichardBarnfield: The Complete Poems (Susquehanna Uni­versity Press). Barnfield, a contemporary of Shake­speare, published four books of poetry from 1594to 1598. Working from original texts, Klawitterprovides thorough glosses for all the poems, pref­aces the edition with an introduction that givesBarnfield a Renaissance context, and surveys avail­able criticism of the poems from the 17th centuryto the present.Timothy P. Redman, AM'74, PhD'87, Ezra Poundand Italian Fascism (Oxford University Press).Based on extensive archival research in Italy andthe United States, this book is a historical accountof the American poet's support of Italian fascism.Michael N. Salda, AB'80, AM'82, PhD'88, andJean E. jost, founders and editors, Chaucer Year­book: A Journal of Late Medieval Studies (EdwinMellen Press). This new annual is devoted to thestudy of British literature written between 1350 and1500. The first volume explores Chaucer's literaryand historical contexts, and contains reviews of 17recent books on a variety of medieval topics.EDDCA,.IONPatrick J. Finn, PhD'73, Helping Children LearnLanguage Arts (Longman). This college text forcourses in teaching writing, reading, speaking,and listening skills presents widely recognizedapproaches, specifically advocating the "wholelanguage" approach.Harvey B. Sarles, PhD'66, Teaching as Dialogue(University Press of America). In exploring thepotential of dialogue in teaching, Sarles defines dia­logue as an activity that demands critical awareriessand enables students to pursue knowledge whilegenerating a strong sense of purpose.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993 45FICTION AND POETRYAlice Wirth Gray, X'52, X'56, What the Poor Eat(Cleveland State University Poetry Center). Of this,Gray's first book of poetry, poet Amy Clampitt says,"A sense of the absurd that spares nobody has ledGray into repeated poetic collision with anynumber of received wisdoms-Freudian, feminist,and new-age ecology are only the beginning."Robert W. Nordan, PhD'68, Death on Wheels(Fawcett Books). Third in the Mavis Lashley series,this book features the amateur sleuth workingundercover, hoping to discover who's killing theresidents of a local nursing home-including herfriend, Miss Luna Dixon.HISTORY ICURRENT EVENTSAnthory T. Grafton, AB'7l, AM'72, PhD'75, NewWorlds, Ancient Texts: The Power of Tradition andthe Shock of Discovery (Harvard University Press).Describing an era of exploration that went farbeyond geographic bounds, this book shows howevidence of the New World shook the foundationsof the old, upsetting the authority of the ancienttexts that had guided Europe. Explorers such asCortez, Columbus, Scaliger, Munster, and theircontemporaries struggled to make sense of theirdiscoveries as they confirmed, contested, andfinally displaced traditional images and notions ofthe world beyond Europe.James G. Moseley, AM'll, PhD'73, john Win­throp's World: History as a Story; The Story as His­tory (University of Wisconsin Press). One of themost famous American journals is that of l Zth-cen­tury Puritan leader John Winthrop, the first gover­nor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Moseleybegins by examining Winthrop as a writer, usinghis journal to show a man of pragmatic intelligenceas well as religious conviction. Moseley then traceshow historians have responded to Winthrop-andhow his journal has been read and misread bythose who have filtered the man and his culturalcontext through many lenses.Lynn H. Nelson, AB'50, translator, The Chronicleof Sanjuan de la Pena: A Fourteenth-Century OfficialHistory of the Crown of Aragon (University of Penn­sylvania Press). Nelson's translation of the earliestcomplete history of the Crown of Aragon includesan introduction which sets the historical contextwithin which the Latin text was written and sug­gests various aproaches to the work. Extensivenotes provide explanations of critical passages andpoint out historical inaccuracies embedded withinthe text.Walter T. Nugent, PhD'61, Crossings: The GreatTransatlantic Migrations, 1870-1914 (Indiana Uni­versity Press). Unchecked by government restric­tions, wars, or. economic depressions, and aided bythe new technologies of steamships and railroads atthe turn of the century, millions of people uprootedtheir lives and set off for new lands. Nugent looksat this massive movement from both sides of theAtlantic, tracing the migrations of more than adozen national groups from Europe to the fourmajor receiving countries: Argentina, Brazil,Canada, and the United States.MEDICINE AND HEALTHFredrick J. Stare, MD'41, Panic in the Pantry(Prometheus Books). Professor emeritus of nutri­tion at the Harvard School of Public Health, Starewrote this book for "those of us who look forwardto meals" as he "puts in perspective those alarmingstatements so frequently made by consumeractivists with little or no training in nutrition orhealth."46 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993Progress redejined (see Social Sciences)Fredrick J. Stare, MD'41, Your Guide to GoodNutrition (Prometheus Books). Intended for thegeneral public, this question-and-answer bookdeals with more than 300 subjects, including vita­min and mineral supplements, weight control, anddiet in relation to heart disease and cancer.POLITICAL SCIENCE/LAWLynton K. Caldwell, PhB'34, PhD'43, BetweenTwo Worlds: Science, the Environmental Movement,and Policy Choice (Cambridge University Press).Science and technology are fundamentally chang­ing traditional beliefs about human opportunitiesand limitations-and these changes are slowlybeing reflected in national and international poli­cies and laws. The author argues that the presentera represents a transition between the assumptionsand conditions that have so far characterized themodern world, and those of the post-modern worldthat is emerging.Stephen Cohen, AM'70, PhD'74, Australian CivilLiberties Organisations (International BusinessCommunications). The book identifies 465 organi­zations in Australia which profess to be centrallyconcerned with civil liberties, and articulates ineach case what principles are being advocated ascivil libertarian. Also provided are contact names,addresses, and numbers for all organizations.Iliya F. Harik, PhD'64, and Denis]. Sullivan, edi­tors, Privatization and Liberalization in the MiddleEast (Indiana University Press). This volume takesstock of the progress of economic liberalization andprivatization in the Middle East and North Africain the 1980s and highlights the problems andprospects of economic reform.Michael H. Hoffheimer, AM'78, PhD'81, justiceHolmes and the Natural Law (Garland Publishing).This work studies the origins of Oliver WendellHolmes' legal philosophy and challenges prevailingviews of Holmes by critically reassessing thesources and meaning of Holmes' break with tran­scendentalism. The author relies on previouslyunpublished material and employs methods rang­ing from psychoanalysis to close textual reading inorder to approach the influences behind Holmes'work. Included are his early philosophical writingsand previously unpublished photographs. Alfred A. Marcus, AB'71, AM'73, Business andSociety: Ethics, Government, and the World Econo»:Y(Irwin Press). This textbook discusses strategICdecisions managers must make regarding ethi.cs,public policy, and global competition. ExtenSIvecomparative material and case studies providestudents with practical knowledge in handlingconcrete issues.Alfred A. Marcus, AB'71, AM'73, ControversialIssues in Energy Policy (Sage Press). This book di.s­cusses the long-term challenge the world faces I�breaking the link between economic growth anenergy consumption. Examining both the relation­ship between the economy and energy conSUmp­tion and the way the U.S. has coped with pastenergy shocks, the author argues for an increase. Inenergy taxes, making U.S. energy prices more hkethose of other countries.Alfred A. Marcus, AB'7l, AM'73, Rogene Bueh,holz , and James Post, Managing EnvironmentaIssues: A Casebook (Prentice Hall). Part of a projectsponsored by the Corporate Conservation Coun-cil/National Wildlife Federation to develop curric�­lum for teaching environmental management Inbusiness schools, this book has sectiOn�on environmental perceptions, public policy an.economic approaches, and managerial techniques,each section is followed by case studies. dAlexander J. Morin, AB'41, Science Poli�Y anfPolitics (Prentice Hall). This book offers a VIeW °1the relationship between science and the federagovernment, and the forces affecting that relation­ship. Chapter topics include the composition, or��­nization, concerns, and influence of the scienuflccommunity; the beginnings of federal support forresearch and the establishment of the National 50-ence Foundation; and summaries of events sinCe1950 that have affected research.David L. Schaefer, AM'67, PhD'll, and Robert!!Rubel Schaefer, AM'69, PhD'77, editors, The Stat�S­man by Sir Henry Taylor (Praeger Publishers). ong­inally published in 1836, this book is believed tohave been the first written on the subject of dem.oc­ratic public administration. The Schaefers' edWollreprints Taylor's. expanded version, published ill1878, and includes an extensive interpretative ess�Yrelating Taylor'S thought to contemporary issues I�political science and public administration, as weas explanatory notes to the text.RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHYAaron Ben-Ze'ev, PhD'81, The Perceptual Syste1fl;A Philosophical and Psychological Perspective (pe�eLang). Intended to provide an alternative to tIaccounts of perception implicit in some traditiOn!!_ways of thinking about the mind, this book coJ:llobines psychological and philosophical materials texamine issues surrounding perception. 1 ceStephen Cohen, AM'70, PhD'74, A Commonp afMoraliser: Insights and Outrages (University Press �_America). After a discussion of the nature of mora Iizing, the author introduces the reader to m��!!rreasoning through consideration of some famll�_situations. An eclectic range of topics include: Vlllcarious pride, women's gymnastics, insistence °dhaving the last word in a display of gratitude, artthe significance of "I'm too busy" as an excuse .. carlGerald E. Forshey, AM'67, PhD'78, Amen dReligious and Biblical Spectaculars (Greenwo�rPublishing). This book explores why spect�C� alfilms involving biblical figures or set in bIb:��estimes have been a staple of filmmaking since ta Iofbegan. Forshey looks at the generic conventiOns r­these films, and suggests that the underlyin? P;i­pose has been to mediate between a monasuc� uSentific worldview and a dualistic, religlOworldview.David Novak, AB'61,Jewish Social Ethics (OxfordUniversity Press). Novak has compiled ten essayson Jewish ethics. Drawing on classicalJewish tradi­tion as well as modern critical scholarship, he aimsto point out certain common features of Jewish andChristian ethics, such as natural.law and covenan­tal obligation, and the implications of this overlap­ping, while keeping in mind basic doctrinaldifferences. The essays address issues of ecology,War and peace, the treatment of minorities, and anapproach to AIDS patients.Kenneth W. Phifer, ThM'68, DMN'70, Becomingat Home in the World (Castellio Press). This collec­tion of writings revolves around the questions weask abou t our lives, exploring the traditionalanswers and the challenges modernity brings tothose answers. This book is meant to "speak toanyone of any background who seeks to live his orher life in a spirit of openness and of searching, oflarger inclusiveness and of love for life."Bernard H. Suits, AB'44, AM'50, The Grasshop­per: Games, Life, and Utopia (University of TorontoPress and David R. Godine Books). The title char­acter appears here not as the foil of Aesop's cau­tionary fable, but as the martyr to the ideal of agame-playing utopia. Through a series of dialoguesand illustrative anecdotes, a definition of games isadvanced and defended, and it is argued that "theplaying of games so defined is the logical outcomeof the non-utopian endeavors of humanity."SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYAlvin M. Weinberg, SB'35, SM'36, PhD'39,editor, The Collected Works of Eugene P. Wizner,volume 5 (Springer Verlag). This volume contains42 of Wizner's papers on nuclear energy, 13 of hisPatents, a previously unpublished diary from 1941to 1947 relating his experiences with the Manhat­tan Project-many of those years spent at the U ofC-and an essay by Weinberg discussing Wizner'sCOntributions to nuclear energy.Alvin M. Weinberg, SB'35, SM'36, PhD'39,NUclear Reactions: Science and Trans-Science (Amer­ican Institute of Physics). Part of the Masters ofModern Science series, this is a collection of 22essays written over the past 30 years. WeinbergCOined the term "trans-science" to describe thet:ltel'l1y of the state (see Biography) questions we ask in weighing the benefits of tech­nology against the risks-for example, do therewards of nuclear reactors come with an accept­able degree of risk?SOCIAL SCIENCESMarcia Heller Marcus Anderson, AM'56, CivilRights and the Social Programs of the 1960s(Praeger). The concept of social justice is applied toselected social programs-including the CivilRights Act of 1964, the Economic Opportunity Actof 1964, Medicare and Medicaid in 1965, HeadStart in 1965, and the Community Mental HealthAct of 1963-to illustrate differences in social pro­grams and public policies between the 1960s andthe 1980s.Victor C. Ferkiss, PhD'54, Nature, Technology,and Society: Cultural Roots of the Current Environ­mental Crisis (New York University Press). Ferkissanalyzes and critiques how societies, movements,and individual thinkers, from the ancient Greeks tothe contemporary Greens, have dealt with the rela­tionship among society, nature, and technology.Louis Kriesberg, PhB'47, AM'50, PhD'53, andDavid R. Segal, AM'63, PhD'67, editors, The Trans­formation of European Communist Societies OAIPress). In this 1992 volume in the Research inSocial Movements, Conflicts, and Change series, agroup of international scholars builds on recentactivities of the American SOCiological Association'ssection on peace and war to explore the ongoingtransformations in the former Soviet Union andWarsaw Treaty nations, and the consequences fortheir relationships with the West.Carol Meyer, AM'73, PhD'81, Glass from Quseiral-Qadim and the Indian Ocean Trade (OrientalInstitute Press). This volume is the final report onglass-1st- and 2nd-century AcO. Roman and 13th­and 14th-century Islamic-excavated on Egypt'sRed Sea coast. The report also studies the glass dis­tribution from the Red Sea to Arabia, East Africa,and India, and raises questions about the export ofglassmaking technology and the character of long­range trade in glass in both periods.Lynn H. Nelson, AB'50, coeditor, Classics of East­ern Thought (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich). Thisselection of primary source readings for college stu­dents features a wide range of materials, includinghistorical summaries, introductory essays, andannotated bibliographies.Almerindo E. Ojeda, AM'78, PhD'82, LinguisticIndividuals (Center for the Study of Language andInformation, Stanford University). Based on thesemantics of number in nouns and pronouns, theauthor argues that "the relation between kinds andtheir instances imposes complete Boolean struc­tures on linguistic universes of discourse."C. Owen Paepke, JD'78, The Evolution ofProgress: The End of Economic Growth and theBeginning of Human Transformation (RandomHouse). Drawing on history, economics, science,and sociology, the author explores the nature ofprogress and argues that economic growth iscoming to an end, to be replaced by a new kind ofprogress-the transformation of human abilitiesthrough advances in genetic engineering, neurobi­ology, gerontology, and artificial intelligence. In thecoming decades, Paepke argues, we will not bewealthier, but our grandchildren will be smarterand healthier, our lives will be longer, and ourcomputers will be thinking for themselves.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," please sendthe name of the book, its author, its publisher,and a short synopsis to the Books Editor, Univer­sity of Chicago Magazine, 5757 S. Woodlawn Ave.,Chicago, IL 60637. Other VoicesContinued from page 48is not that their computers are too weak ortheir data inadequate, but just' that it's notpredictable.If the weather is a chaotic system, surelythe same is true of the stock market, orthe former Soviet Union. This, from a his­torian's point of view, is a very pleasingconclusion. It finally justifies that peculiarclaim of historians, disdained as illogical bymany social scientists, that while you can'tpredict events, you can explain them afterthe fact-but not immediately, only aftera certain time has elapsed. That's prettymuch how it is with descriptions of chaoticsystems in nature. After the fact, you cantrace the sequence that led to the disinte­gration of one pattern into turbulence,and-when enough time has elapsed for anew pattern to take hold-you can tracethe emergence out of turbulence of thatnew pattern. Before the fact, however, thereis no way of predicting that exact sequence.The observer can only be more or lessquick in noticing the disintegration of anold pattern, and more or less quick in iden­tifying the emergence of a new one.Still, I don't want to let the experts off thehook altogether. "Fighting the last war" isthe occupational hazard of all experts, notonly military ones. No matter what theirfield, the experts' main expertise is as histo­rians. They are people who know the pat­terns of the recent past-which means thatthey tend to have a professional investmentin those patterns. It's no wo�der that whenbig changes occur, the experts tend to benot only as surprised as anybody else, butalmost more surprised-and a bit aggrievedas well.So don't pay too much attention to theexperts' instant commentary on the col­lapse of the Soviet Union or any otherstrange and wonderful event. There's littlethey can honestly say except that thesystem has entered a phase of turmoil, andwho knows what will emerge. But givethem a year or so to analyze the new pat­terns, and then some of them-the nimbleones who can cut their losses on the oldparadigm, the wise ones who know historyis a chaotic system-will start makingsense again.Sheila Fitzpatrick is a professor in modemRussian history and the College. This articleis adapted from "Changes of State," theaddress she delivered to graduates at the Uni­versity's 428th Convocation, held in Rocke­feller Memorial Chapel on December 18.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ APRIL 1993 47t herVo icesThingsHappenBy Sheila Fitzpatrick00 ARDL Y ANYBODY THINKS THAT THEcourse of an individual humanlife is predetermined, eventhough we don't think of it aswholly random either, and acknowledgeall sorts oflimiting conditions-genetic,environmental, historical. We recognizethe contingent in individual human lives.But what about the contingent in the livesof societies and nations?Here we find an odd thing. Although wehave no difficulty recognizing the contin­gent and accidental elements in individuallives, we do not easily acknowledge thatthere might be anything accidental inaffairs of state--in the lives of societiesand nations. The unspoken premise is thatthe contingencies that demonstrably existat the microlevel of individuals must auto­matically cancel each other out at themacro level of societies, leaving only what isnoncontingent, predictable. Big historicalevents-revolutions, wars, changes ofpolitical regime, falls of empires, economicdepressions-must happen for a reason, wethink (and not a trivial reason). They arenot accidental; they have to happen.Russians, in their Soviet days, werealways fond of that phrase, "not accidental"(ne sluchaino). They use it partly becausethey were (and are) great conspiracy­lovers, always quick to see the sinisterhidden hand behind events, and partlybecause they operated intellectually withina Marxist framework in which the conceptof historical inevitability-zakonomernost',from the German Gesetzmassigkeit, "devel­opment according to law"-loomed large.There were no accidents, contingencies, orcoincidences in the Soviet Marxist view ofthings. The world was predictable; humanhistory followed rules. At least that's what48 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1993And th� experts don'talways foresee them. Yetthe experts keep onpredicting-perhapsbecause they don't thinkcarefully about the premiseunderlying prediction.it did until the Great Collapse of 1991-the fall of Communism, the disintegrationof the Soviet Empire, the repudiation ofMarxism, the demolition of the statues ofLenin and other founding fathers-whenmany of the. best-loved laws of historicaldevelopment (though not, pace FrancisFukuyama, history itself) came to an end.It's not a problem for us that Soviet Marx­ism failed to predict the collapse of theSoviet Union. But it seems to be a problemthat we failed to predict it. By "we," I meanthe Western experts on Russia, Sovietolo­gists. There's a lot of head-shaking in thepress about this, and probably in thepublic, too. "Why didn't they tell us thiswas going to happen?" is the cry. "Whatkind of experts are they if they can't give usadvance warning?"I take the Soviet example because for meit's close to home, but it's only one of manycases where the experts' failure to predictevents has provoked head-shaking fromeditorialists and columnists and mockeryfrom cartoonists. Why don't the econo- mists tell us wheri the recession will end?Why didn't the meteorologists warn us thatHurricane Andrew would devastate Home­stead, Florida? Why can't the geophysicistStell us exactly when and where the big Cal­ifornia earthquake will happen?There are all sorts of good reasons forcriticizing experts, perhaps particularlymeteorologists and Sovietologists. But oneof the best reasons to criticize them is thatthe experts have so often set themselves upas futurologists, people who can predictwhat will happen to societies, economies,polities. They do this for a variety of rea­sons. Some (especially economists) actuallyseem to believe they can predict, for all theempirical evidence against them. Others(including some Sovietologists and earth­quake specialists) may not believe it, butthey get pulled into the business of prediC­tion because that's what the journalis.tSask of them: if you want a pundit's slot InNewsweek and on "Nightline," you hav� t�make predictions about Yeltsin's survivatime or the big California earthquake. Thatyour predictions will be wrong half thetime doesn't matter. Everybody knows theexperts are usually wrong; that's part of thefun of watching them.On a more serious level, I think experts-that is, scholars, scientists-just don't. ethink carefully enough about the premlSunderlying prediction. You can only pre­dict in a situation governed by laWS,zakonomernosti in Soviet Marxist terms. Inthe social sciences, most scholars (not al�will tell you they don't believe that sUClaws exist. In the natural sciences, it's morecomplicated. They have laws there, cer­tainly, but in real life there are not man�complex systems that can be describefully in terms of physical laws.In the last ten to 15 years, scientists ha�ebeen talking more and more about chaoucsystems in nature. If you are a humanistunfamiliar with this term, forget what yo.Dthink you know "chaos" means; thiS �ssomething different. A physicist'S chaoucsystem is not random (which is wh<lt.iJ.1 n­humanist means by chaos). It has regu adties and patterns, but it cannot be reduceto a linear equation, and exact outcoIll:�. navYcannot be calculated. The weather IStsaid to be a chaotic system, and I suspe�cearthquakes are another. In a chaot�system, there are sudden, unpredict<l� �shifts of pattern, periods of turbulen�� Wl�runpredictable outcomes; the regulannes relements of predictability don't carry ovenfrom one pattern to another. The re<lS�ethat meteorologists can't predict. t.tSweather, except within quite narrow hIllIge41Continued on paTHE RIGHT Q!!ESTIONSA University of Chicago education is not about having all the answers.It's about asking the right questions.That ability has helped you get a lot out of life.Now you're thinking about giving something back. A special gift.To mark the Campaign for the Next Century.To honor a loved one. To make a difference.A PLANNED GIFT MAY BE THE BEST WAY TO DO IT.TO FIND OUT, ASK YOURSELF SOME CUJESTIONS.1. Are you in your peak earning years? Do you want to put more moneyinto a retirement plan than your present plan or IRA will allow?MAKE A GIFT THROUGH A DEFERRED PAYMENT CHARITABLE GI FT ANNUITY, RECEIVEA TAX DEDUCTION IN THE CURRENT YEAR, AND DEFER INCOME UNTIL THE YEARYOU CHOOSE.2. Are you putting off selling highly appreciated stock because youdon't want to pay capital gains tax? Would you like to avoid the taxand realize a better return from this asset?SEVERAL TYPES OF LIFE INCOME GIFTS CAN HELP YOU REALIZE THESE GOALS.3. Do you want to receive income for life from a fund that hasopportunity for growth, thus increasing your income over time?Do you want an immediate charitable income tax deduction?THE UNIVERSITY'S POOLED INCOME FUND STRIKES A BALANCE BETWEEN\GROWTH AND INCOME INVESTMENTS AND PROVIDES A CURRENT-YEARDEDUCTION.4. Have you considered naming the University of Chicago in your will?Rare books, manuscripts, and ephemera from Special Collections, Joseph Regenstein Library,including William Rainey Harper's desk and Napoleon's glasses.THE OFFICE OF GIFT PLANNING CAN WORK WITH YOU ON A BEQ1JEST THATSUPPORTS THE UNIVERSITY PROGRAM YOU CHOOSE.I,would like to know more about planned giving opportunities at the University of Chicago.Please send me information on the subjects I have checked below.o 1. DEFERRED PAYMENT CHARITABLE GIFT ANNUITY02. OTHER LIFE INCOME GIFTS o 3. POOLED INCOME FUNDD 4. BEQ1JESTSNAME --- DAYTIME TELEPHONE _ADDRESS SCHOOL _CITY/STATE/ZIP DEGREEIYEAR _Return this reply coupon to: Office of Gift Planning,The University of Chicago, 5733 University Ave., Chicago, IL 60637-1507;or call Judith Rose at (312) 702-0882.All replies will be held in the strictest confidence.Tulips with a view: spring comes to the School of Social Service Administration building on the Midway. Photograph by Jim Wright .«, �. �- \.,.30PTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobie House, 5757 Woodlawn AvenueChicago, IL 60637ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED It •:·1. , "<..:1