BOOKS ARE.. THE TREASUREDWEALTH OF THEWORLD, THE FITINHERITANCE OFGENERATIONSAND NATIONS.-HENRY DA VID THOREAUEven though the rapid growth of information technology has greatly expanded the borders of scholarship, booksremain a vital component of the resources that sustain research and the quest for knowledge. Over the last ten years,the price of scholarly books has risen approximately 250%. In the face of these dramatically escalating costs, yourgift to the Fund for Books is needed to help maintain and further develop the highly respected collections of theUniversity of Chicago Library.For every $50 donation, a new book will be purchased and identified with a book plate bearing your name. TheLibrary's Fund for Books is a timeless way to honor or memorialize someone special, in which case the bookplate willalso bear the name of that person. The Library will send a copy of the plate and a note of appreciation to theindividual, or in the case of memorials, to family members.Consider a lasting gift to the Fund for Books when you wish to honor friends or loved ones on special occasions suchas: birthdays-graduations-anniversaries-retirements-gestures of appreciation-new additions to the family-marriagesHelp support the Library's pivotal role in the life of the University and a century of excellence in education.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------�-Please accept this gift of $ for books at $50 per book.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO LIBRARY FUND FOR BOOKSGiven in honor of/in memory of (name as it should appear on the bookplate)On the occasion of (wording as it should appear on the bookplate)Donor's name (as it should appear on the bookplate) Donor's Address City /State/ZipName AddressPlease inform_City /State/ZipPlease make checks payable to: The University of Chicago LibraryPlease mail to: Fund for Books, The University of Chicago Library, 1100East57thStreet,Chicago,IL 60637Your contribution is tax deductible and may be eligible for a matching gift from your employer. CHICAGOVOLUME 85, NUMBER 116222832 FEATURESThe making of a media consultantWith a killer instinct, David Axelrod creates messages thattum political candidates into winners.TIM OBERMILLEROther voices, other roomsThe best things that happen in universities happen in theclassroom. But when classrooms are separated from oneanother, there's a steep educational price to payGERALD GRAFFA cult classic goes HollywoodThe filming of Norman Maclean's A River Runs ThroughIt had its share ofU of C footnotes.DEBRA LADESTROSex, rats, and videotapeStudying the interplay between social activity and basicbiology, biopsychologist Martha McClintock has found that,when it comes to reproduction, behavior affects hormones.JOHN EASTON Page 28Page 32Cover: David Axelrod, AB'76, helps politiciansfine-tune their media messages (seepage 16); photograph by Dan Dry.2 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992Editors NotesFOR AN EDIIDR, ONE OF THE BEST PARTSabout coming back from vacation isprospecting through the piles of corre­spondence that have accumulated during yourabsence.Even after you've discarded the glossy bro­chures for products you'll never need and an­nouncements of coming events that have comeand gone, an embarrassment of postal richesremain. Back issues of Science and alumnimagazines from other institutions, piles of Uof C press clippings. And correspondence­postcards, notes, newspaper articles, manu­scripts, poems, scoldings-from the Maga­zine's readers.Thus, on the Tuesday after Labor Day, thepile of papers on my desk included a manu­script about the role Volney Wilson, PhD'38,played in the Manhattan Project and the firstnuclear chain reaction. An essay on "the newAmerican professional," an entrepreneurialbreed of "self-employed, project-focused,knowledge-based specialists." Three otherstory ideas. And a letter wondering why a sug­gested story idea hadn't yet been acted upon.Margot Schnitzer de Neuhaus, AM'70, senta poem inspired, in part, by the August coverstory on Public Theater director JoAnne Aka­laitis, AB' 60. The Magazine's policy is not topublish poetry, even if the Magazine itselfgets a mention: "Yesterday I also read a maga­zine article about a theater director." Still, it'snice to be considered inspirational.Louis E. Ludwig, SM'36, wrote to say thathe'd enjoyed June's "Looking Back," with thelate biologist Thomas Parks' (SB'30,PhD'32) recollections of the Beehive jazzclub-but he noted that the accompanyingdrawing by Stephen Longstreet "may be artbut the artist never played clarinet. The play­er's hands are reversed. Having played clari­net for 65 years," Ludwig added, "I'm surethat you will never get anything very musicalout of a clarinet with your hands in thatposition."Aaron Bell, AB'37, wrote from Helsinki tocomment on Sydney Kasper's (PhB'33) story(in the June "Letters") about a 1948 NORCpoll that had supposedly predicted an electionvictory for Harry S Truman but which hadbeen quietly buried:"The story that I got about the misinterpre- tation of the polls in the 1948 election was thatthe pollsters correctly reported that of thoseinterviewees who had decided how they weregoing to vote, more reported that they weregoing to vote for Dewey than for Truman orWallace, and that about 5 percent were' don'tknows.' The pollsters presumed that the'don't knows' would split the same way as the'do knows' and thus they predicted a Deweyvictory. It turned out that the 'don't knows'had been mostly undecided as to whether theywould vote for Truman or for Wallace and hadended up plumping mostly for Truman-notfor Dewey! And Truman won the election."Had the pollsters really neglected to askthe 'don't knows' in the 1948 polls, 'Why don'tyou know?'" Bell wondered. "That wouldhave been a serious blunder on their part,but would have been less of a violation ofprofessional ethics than quietly burying theirown data."Bell also wondered if any readers are intouch with one of his U of C friends from the1930s. Angelo Georgopolis was a chemistrystudent and a Greek immigrant who, Bell be­lieves, eventually changed his name to themore American-sounding "Henry Miller."Advisory NolesThe Magazine's advisory committee has had achange in leadership. After two years as chair,L. Gordon Crovitz, AB' 80, resigned this pastsummer. Gordon's resignation coincided witha change in jobs: he left a post as assistant Edi­torial Page editor at the Wall Street Journal tobecome the editor of the Hong Kong-basedFar Eastern Economic Review.Succeeding Gordon as chair is Michael 1.Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA' 76 , who is thefounding publisher of Entertainment Weekly.Also new to the committee are Richard L.Bechtolt, PhB'46, AM'50; WilliamH. Ham­mett, AM'71; and Katherine Dusak Miller,AB'65, MBA'68, PhD'71.The August article on art historian BarbaraMaria Stafford, PhD'72 ("Giving Images aBetter Image") neglected to give Stafford'Sinstitutional affiliation: she is a professor inthe Department of Art and the College.-M.R.Y.LettersThe decent thingThe research cited in "Stemming theTide" [August/92. "Investigations"]misses the point: The United Statesgovernment willnot, dare not" stem the tide"of illegal immigrants from Mexico as long asU.S. employers are willing, even anxious, totap into this bonanza of low-paid, docile (be­cause they are illegal) labor.Why not do the decent thing and make this alegal immigration?GERALD ALLEN X' 51KEWAUNEE, WISCONSINMind over genderAs the years go by, I become increas­ingly aware of how difficult it is foreach new generation to see the reali­ties of the generations that preceded it.In a recent issue of the University of ChicagoMagazine there is a reference to the "pre­feminist 1960s" ["The Big Chill," June/92]. Ihave always considered myself at least a mod­erate feminist, and my most active years werefrom 1920-':'1970. In 1920, ConstitutionalAmendment XIX was ratified. It reads: "Theright of citizens of the United States to voteshall not be abridged by the United States orany State on account of sex." In 1940, I be­longed to two national organizations for wom­en. One was a very active supporter of theEqual Rights Amendment, and the other hadnot yet endorsed it. For my own peace of mindI had to decide on which side I stood, and I be­came an active supporter of the amendment.That was over 50 years ago and still no actionon the amendment!In the same Magazine article, Lauren�erlant says that when she talks with womenIn their fifties and sixties who attended theUniversity of Chicago they say that "they feltSOrt oflucky to be able to go to a school wherethey didn't have to think about their gender­Where they were valued because they hadminds." My first year at the University ofChicago was 1926-27. If "sort of" is omitted,the preceding statement would express myfeelings as of that much earlier date.My greatest wish for the world today is thatWe concentrate on the things that bind us to­gether rather than on the things that divide us,sUch as gender and color. One of my treasuredmemories of the University of Chicago goes back to the 1926-27 academic year. The Chi­cago Symphony Orchestra gave a series ofconcerts on the university campus at a veryreasonable price. My supply of money andsupply of free time were equally limited, but Ibought a season ticket and attended each con­cert. The ticket entitled me to the same re­served seat in Mandel Hall for each concert.The person in the seat next to me would nowbe called a very dark "Afro-American male."I was a very blond "Euro- A�erican female."We talked some during intermissions, and Ilearned that he was from Mississippi and thathe was working in the South Chicago steelmills to earn the money that was paying for hisgraduate study. I do not know anything abouthim after that year, but I still value the memo­ry of the two of us using our limited moneyand limited time to listen to one of the world'sgreatest orchestras playing some of theworld's greatest music.GRACE M. SPROULL, AM'27, PHD'37WEST UNION, OHIOMass cautionI was disturbed to see the misleading articlein the February/92 ["Investigations"]issue concerning the work of TonyTurkevich. The article suggests that his experi­ment leads to a conclusion that the electronneutrino mass is about 14 electron volts. In factthere exist a number of other experiments stu­dying the same process (neutrinoless beta de­cay) in other elements which give an upper lim­it of about two electron volts. Thus, the onlyreasonable conclusion is that previous calcula­tions of the expected result of Thrkevich's ex­periment if the neutrino mass were zero wereincorrect. In fact it is known that the nuclearcalculations for uranium are very uncertain.There is a tendency in the press to emphasizethe most sensational conclusion to be derivedfrom a new scientific observation. When thisconclusion turns out to be erroneous the pub­lic may get the impression that science cannotbe trusted. Both scientists and the pressshould be cautious in their claims.LINCOLN WOLFENSTEIN, SB' 43,SM'44, PHD'49PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIATurkevich replies: The suggestion that neu­trinos with a mass of about 14 e V might be in- Fast FromYour PastRemember US?We're the people who askedyou to give up a meal or twoat the dining hall so wecould help fight hunger and povertyaround the world.We called it the Fast for aWorld Harvest.The Fast is now in its 19th year,and it's going stronger than ever­at the University of Chicago, and atschools, churches, and homes acrossthe country.] oin us-again, or for the first time.Give up a meal on November 19 (theThursday before Thanksgiving) or justsend a donation. It's easy, and it saveslives.Call 800/597-FAST or mail thecoupon below.r t�AOXlam�Amencainformationabout the Fast fora World Harvestcampaign andOxfam America.rA�r..0- _I W'oaL.HARYES ...II NAMEI------------------------I ADDRESS1 CITY1 -1 STATEIZIPI MAn. TO: Fast Director, Oxfam America,115 Broadway, Boston, MA 02116L .:..._ __ 2��UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 3FEATURING:Concert by the Chamber Music Society of. Lincoln Center*Maroon-a-thon Alumni/Student VolleyballTournament*All-Campus Tailgate Party*The U of C Maroons vs. Washington Universityof St. Louis*Post-game Affinity Receptions for Order of the"C"/WAA, DOC Films, WHPK, and UniversityTheater/Blackfriars Alumni*Games for Alumni Varsity Swimmers andSoccer Players*Blues and Ribs Party*Jesus and Mary Chain Concert*Reception for all Alumni and ParentsFor additional information call the Alumni Association at(312) 702-21604 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 volved in uranium double beta decay followedfrom the much faster observed rate thanthat predicted (for zero mass neutrinos) byreputable scientists and published in apeer-reviewed journal. This conclusion wascommunicated to the theorists beforedissemination.Professor Wolfenstein is correct in pointingout that the disagreement of this deducedr mass value with lower ones derived from ex­periments on lighter elements should havebeen mentioned in the Magazine article.I am happy that he appears to be in generalagreement with the conclusions as expressedin the final quotation of the article.A crimson herringThe tone of Mr. Herbert Pankratz's let­ter in your June issue is a refreshingcontrast to the stridency of manyothers on the subject of homosexuality. How­ever, one element of Mr. Pankratz's argumentdemands comment.Mr. Pankratz asks, "Have the proponents ofhomosexuality considered what kind of fami­ly and social structures there would be if theirdesideratum were pushed to the point of uni­versal acceptance?" Behind this question liesa line of reasoning which seems to be a stapleof everyday ethical discourse in this at-least­ideally democratic society: "What wouldhappen if everybody did it?"The trouble with this line of reasoning,when applied to homosexuality, is that it is­whether so intended or not-a blazing crim­son herring. While many things about homo­sexuality are in dispute, one thing that is not indispute is that predoininantly homosexualorientation is characteristic of only a minorityof the human species-around 10 percent, bymost authoritative estimates. There is thus noreason whatever to suppose that, even underthe most favorable circumstances, everybody-or even anything approaching a majority ofpeople-would become primarily or exclu­sively homosexual.The answer to Mr. Pankratz's question,therefore, is that even if those whom he calls"proponents of homosexuality" completelyachieved all their aims, approximately 90percent of couple-based family units wouldcontinue to involve opposite-sex couples. Thesurvival of the species may be exposed tomany threats these days, but homosexuality isassuredly not one of them.I believe that someone once observed thatthe true test of a democracy is how it treats itsminorities. While Mr. Pankratz's argumentseems quite fair-minded at first glance, theseeds of majority tyranny lurk distressinglyclose to its surface.JAMES G. CARSON, MAT'75CHICAGOIn its entiretyMost of the following letter appeared inAugustl92; in transcribing the letter, howev­er, we inadvertently omitted a portion of thetext.-Ed.I am the author of the brief gibe at orga­nized homosexuality in your October/91letters column which has predictably un­strung so many of the P. C. 's among your read­ership. I was very pleased that you had theCourage to run it.Only now do I catch up with the April "Edi­tor's Notes" andfind, to my great disappoint­ment, that you have caved in under pressure tothe homophile lobby.There were no "personal epithets" of anykind in my letter, and if it "inflicted hurt on alarge group of people," that is only becausethey have redefined injury to include anythingthat disputes their intellectually fragile argu­ments. I suggest that no matter how delicatelyI worded it, their response would have beenthe same. .The main point of my letter was not to criti­cize you for publicizing the homosexual rev­els, but to draw attention to the way the mediaglorify this one sex deviation to the exclusionof all others.This is a serious argument, whether youagree with it or not, and is not to be dismissedby a labored analogy to ancient bias againstthe Anglican clergy.I have often raised this point with P. C. 's(SOme of them my best friends) and foundthem unable to answer it convincingly. I thinkthat is why they squeal so loudly when itcomes up.ALAN 1. WHITNEY, X'49NEW YORKCosmic possibilitiesThe fractal structure found for the uni­verse by Professor David Schramm("Investigations," August/92) poses aproblem for the Divinity School: namely, thequestion of whether man is a fractal of God.Such a conclusion would appear to be con­Sistent with the biblical statement that Godcreated man in His own image, and also clear­ly wuh. the early Freudian idea that mancreated God in his own image.The obvious symmetry between the biblicaland Freudian statements raises the furtherqUestion of which way that symmetry breaks,Or if it breaks at all.Common sense would seem to imply thatthe symmetry must break, one way or the oth­er, but Freud's theory of the unconsciousallows a basic sense in which it could remainUnbroken, as if the Freudian unconsciousWOuld say, "God created man in His own im- THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONInvites you to join distinguished faculty and alumni friends participatingin alumni travel/study programs during the coming months1993 Study TripsCopper Canyon: Mexico's Sierra MadresJanuary 9-16A 10,000- square- mile maze of magnificent gorges, some deeper than the Grand Canyon,will be the focus of our 1993 study trip to Mexico's Sierra Madres. This week-long,attractively priced journey will include visits to the Tarahurriara Indiansand a trip aboard the Chihuahua al Pacifico railroad.Voyage to VietnamFebruary 21-March 7This cruise will offer one of the first opportunities to visit a country that has beenclosed off for two decades. Professor Frank Reynolds of the Divinity School and theDepartment of South Asian Languages and Civilizations will discuss the impact of religiousand cultural traditions on art, literature, politics, economics, and the social order.The Realm of the Maya: Yucatan, Chiapas and TabascoMarch 4-13Our second trip to Mexico will focus on the art, science, and culture of the Maya,Mesoamerica's pre-eminent artists and architects. Tom Cummins of the University'sDepartment of Art will lead this attractively-priced trip.Exploring the Natural Treasures of theGalapagos Islands and Costa RicaMarch 8-19We will travel to the regions that transformed the scientific vision of nature with a Darwinspecialist, Professor Robert J. Richards of the Departments of History, Philosophy,and Psychology. Our voyage will be aboard the splendid new Aurora II.The Himalayan Kingdoms of Tibet, Nepal, and BhutanApril 26-May 17This very special journey will offer our small group of travelers a privileged insight into thecultural and natural history of three remote Himalayan Kingdoms. Our faculty leaderwill be Ralph Nicholas, professor of Anthropology and Social Science anddirector of the Center for International Studies.Cruising the Mississippi aboard the Delta QueenApril 14-24A riverboat cruise from New Orleans to Memphis will explore Civil War themesand the influence of the river on American literature. Led by native MississippianGwin Kolb, emeritus professor of English Language and Literature, we will also haveas guest lecturer Ken Burns of the award-winning PBS documentary Civil War.The Journey of Odysseus through the Ancient MediterraneanAugust 28-September 13We will follow the path of Odysseus from the site of ancient Troy through the locationsmyth has given his adventures. Faculty leader will be Professor Herman Sinaiko ofthe Division of the Humanities and General Studies in the Humanities.Also planned for 1993 are study trips to West Africa and the Ukraine.For further information and brochures or to be added to our travel/studymailing list, call or write to Laura Gruen, Associate Director, University ofChicago Alumni Association, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago,IL60637. 3121702-2160.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 5Live Your Own Lifestyleat Casa DorindaCASA DORIl'iPA is situated on anhistone 4�-acre Montecito estatenestled beneath graceful oak trees between the mountains and the PacificOcean. It offers active and gracious retirement living with comprehensivemedical care and freedom from household obligations.Casa Dorinda has 241 apartments ranging in size from studios to largetwo bedrooms, a splendid dining room, licensed health facilities and well­trained, e:x;perienced staff.For more information, call or write Casa Dorinda admissions,300-C Hot Springs Road, Santa Barbara, California 93108, (805) 969-8011.Name _Address ____________________ State Zip _C 10/92�A Superb Retirement CommunityLocated in Picturesque Santa BarbaraLicense #4217001606 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 age, and man created God in his own image"-not one or the other, but both.The fractal concept handles all possibilitiesneatly, by being equally consistent with thesymmetric and asymmetric alternatives.Physics and psychology could be linked bythe finding that the human mind is a fractal ofthe firmament -that the brain is a quantumanalog computer whose normal modes arethe normal modes of the universe, so that whatcannot be reached physically can be reachedmentally, because the forces of nature are atwork in the minds of the researchers, andcan just as well be found there as in celestialobjects or elementary particles.In the final analysis, the psyche is at thecrossroads of the infinite and the infinitesi­mal, and holds the key to both.KENNETH 1. EpSTEIN, SM'52CHICAGOSiamp supportPrompted by a concern over decliningcollege ranks among Blacks and His­panics, I proposed an idea for a com­memorative stamp to honor Dr. Ernest Ever­ett Just, an unheralded scientific genius.Just received a Ph.D. from the University ofChicago in 1916. He went on to a distinguishedcareer as a research biologist at Howard Univer­sity, making lasting contributions to our under­standing of the life of the cell, especially the cellmembrane, thus making possible many sub­sequent advances in biology and medicine.Out of 31 people currently in the GreatAmerican Stamp Series, it should be notedthat there are no Blacks. In an increasinglytechnical age, we have few strong and positiverole models. In the sciences the picture is in­deed bleak. Ernest Everett Just, however, isexemplary of the kind of role model that mi­norities and all Americans can admire.I'm writing to urge alumni to join PresidentHanna Gray, Congressman Donald Payne,Dartmouth College, and others in writing tothe U. S. Citizens Stamp Advisory Commit­tee, c/o Stamp Department Marketing, 475L'Enfant Plaza SW, Room 4485, Washington,DC 20260-6750, to support honoring Dr. Justwith a commemorative stamp.DON LYONSEAST BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEYThe University of Chicago Magazine invitesletters from readers on the contents of themagazine or on topics related to the Universi­ty. Letters for publication, which must besigned, may be editedfor length and/or clari­ty. To ensure the widest range of voices possi­ble, preference will be given to letters of 500words or less. Letters should be addressed to:Editor, University of Chicago Magazine,5757 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637.EventsExhibitionsThe University of Chicago Presidents: A Centen­nial View, through January 15. Examining the contri­butions of the U ofC's ten chief executives, this exhibi­tion marks the final in a series celebrating the U of CCentennial. Special Collections at the Regenstein Li­brary; call 702-8705.Visual Poetry: Brossa/Parra, through December13. Avant-garde artists Joan Brossa and Nicanor Parracreate "visual poetry" by juxtaposing everyday ob­jects and language in prints, drawings, and sculpture.Smart Museum of Art; call 702-0200.TheaterOff-Off Campus Fall Quarter Revue, October30-December 4. Original sketches and improvisa­tions by University Theater's student comedy ensem­ble. The Blue Gargoyle; call 702-3414.The House of Blue Leaves, November 13-Decem­ber 20. In John Guare's award-winning play, ArtieShaughnessy-a zookeeper and aspiring songwriter­tries to put his wife in a rest home so he and his mistresscan go to Hollywood. Court Theatre; call 753-4472.Happy Birthday, Wanda June, December 2-5 at 8P·m. University Theater presents a darkly comedictale by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., AM'7!. Harold Ryan, agreat white hunter who has been missing for eightyears and is presumed dead, returns from Africa tofind his wife engaged and his son a stranger. ReynoldsClub first floor theater; call 702-3414.Conferences50th Anniversary of the Fermi Experiment, De­cember 1-2. This symposium focuses on the history ofthe physical sciences atChicago during the Universi­ty's first 50 years-the period which culminated withthe Fermi experiment. Kersten Physics Teaching Cen­ter Auditorium; call 702-7006.Proliferation Issues: Past, Present, and Future,December 3-5. Cosponsored by the American Acade­my of Arts and Sciences and the Albert Einstein PeacePrize Foundation. Max Palevsky Cinema; call 753-8162.MusicFretwork, November 13 at 8 p.m. For its Chicago�ebut, London's five-viol ensemble performs worksy English composers. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.Orpheus Chamber Orchestra, November 20 at 8�m. Part of the 50th anniversary season of the U ofC'sI hamber Music Series, this 25-member, conductor­�ss ensemble will perform works by Mozart, Wagner,okofiev, and Copland. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.I JUilIiard String Quartet with soprano Benita Va­ent�, December 4 at 8 p.m. Continuing the ChamberM_USIC Series, this program features the Chicago pre­llJ.lere of John Harbison's The Rewaking for sopranoand string quartet. Mandel Hall; call 702-8068.George Frideric Handel's Messiah, December 6�t 2 p.m. and 8 p.m. Bruce Tammen directs the Uni­t! ��Slty Chorus, with Symphony of the Shores. Rocke­e er Memorial Chapel; call 702-6063. "I went on an I'II-go-if-you-go dare and, to my surprise, enjoyedmyself a lot." -Richard Mohr, AB'72lilt was a great time. Did we try to impress each other? Qid wetalk about how much money we make? No. There was none ofthat. We had fun and we learned a lot."-T. Kent Mitchell, MBA'65If you missed the last University reunion,don't miss the next one:Reunion 1993June 4-6A weekend of close friendsand good memoriesFor information contact:The Alumni Association, 5757 Woodlawn Avenue,Chicago, Illinois 60637, (312) 702-2160UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 7ourseWorkProblemTeacher The first time Constantin Fasolttaught in the University's summerprogram for Chicago public highschool teachers, his students tookone look, then took their complaint to theprogram's organizer. "What can this guy pos­sibly teach us?" the students-all seasonedveterans of the city's blackboard jungles­asked Laura Bornholdt, director of the Officeof University-School Relations. "He's just akid."That was in 1985. Seven years later, Fasolt-whose special area of interest is late medie­val political thought-continues to spend fourweeks each summer teaching in the program.And the associate professor of history (a win­ner of the 1989 Quantrell award for excellencein undergraduate teaching) still has the"World's Best Teacher" mug those once­doubting students gave him at seminar's end.Fasolt's ability to turn skeptics into believersmirrors the program's own success. Begunwith a grant from the Floyd A. Fry Founda-For Constantin Fasoll, itwas a busman's holiday.For 14 history teachers, itwas a chance to go back toschool.8 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 tion (this year's funders also included theHoward Hughes Institute and the Women'sBoard of the University), the program is de­signed to bring high school teachers up-to­date in their field and to renew their intellectu­al interest in scholarly activity.This June and July, 120 teachers from 49high schools took part in seven seminars, infields from biology to writing. Classes gener­ally met three times a week, with moststudents receiving a stipend and a book allow­ance. Course credit from the Chicago Boardof Education , full privileges at Regenstein Li­brary, and weekly luncheons featuring Uni­versity faculty as guest speakers also contrib­uted to what organizers and teachers alike sawas an experience worth repeating.When Constantin Fasolt-wearing jeans anda turtleneck-walks into a Cobb Hall seminarroom on a cool Monday in June, he looksyouthful, but no younger than most of the 14teachers (ten men, four women) who have"You are people who know your history,"Constantin Fasolltells his students. "You know how10 leach. But I want you to have a problem."signed up for his history seminar. Exudinga first -day-of-class, on-your-best -behavior ti­midity common to students from kinder­garten on, they listen quietly as Fasolt goesOver logistics: forms to fill out and return,how to find the Seminary Coop Bookstore andthe Swift Hall coffeeshop, where "we'll take abreak each day when it's clear that people arerunning out of steam."Then he turns to the seminar topic, "Civili­zation Before the Industrial Revolution." ItWas, he explains, "initially conceived assomething of a course about the Middle Ages.I am a medievalist and," he adds, "I hate that�ord, because I don't think it describes whatIS interesting about that period."The course readings-starting with Jane Ja­cobs's The Economy of Cities and ending withEric R. Wolf's Europe and the People WithoutHistory-have been chosen, he says, to in­form a certain set of questions: "What is thenature of civilization? What is it that is essen­tial to civilization? What is the role of valuesin civilization?""One of the purposes ofthis course," Fasoltemphasizes, "will be to make it clear what isnot 'medieval,' but quite contemporary,about the Middle Ages."The next morning, students turn pages in TheEconomy of Cities as Fasolt, coffee in hand,enters the room. "Because you've had verylittle time to do this reading," he begins, "IWant to start out by stating very clearly themain thesis of this book." Jacobs' central the­sis is, he says, "quite radical. It is that citiesare the primary agent of civilization-and thatagriculture is not. That the picture we carryaround is wrong. In fact, that you have to in­Vert it: that agriculture rests on an urban basis.!hat agriculture is an export from the city-an�ndustry, and in the Middle Ages, the onlyIndUstry."Jacobs also takes issue with another com­monly held belief: "She is convinced that it isa. mistake to think of cities only in terms ofSIZe." Rather, "to fulfill the function of civili­�ation," cities "must have another character-Istic" h .. ' t ey must be places of creation andInnovation, adding new kinds of work-suchas,: for example, agriculture.But What about political authority?" asks John, a teacher from Bogan High. "Thatwasn't dispensed by the city to the country.How would Jacobs explain that?""I don't know how she would explain it,"Fasolt answers, "But I think she would saythat state power is in conflict with the processthat she's describing, which is innovation.Adding new work creates conflict with bu­reaucracy, " as change conflicts with the exist­ing interests of the state. "This is an examplewith which you are all familiar," he adds."You know what you could do in the class­room to improve, but the bureaucracy is notinterested, " he says to rueful laughter."Jacobs also says that change is more basicthan stability," Fasolt concludes. "To her,that's a basic economic truth. Now," he says,opening up discussion, "I've prevented youlong enough from saying what you wantedto say."The discussion that follows is nothing if notwide-ranging: Chrysler's failure to poll itscustomers; the attraction of cities for peoplewith ideas; Charlemagne's failed attempt torevive the Roman Empire by relying on taxa­tion and bureaucracy; the rise of suburbs asinner cities decay; the role of trade in a city'svitality; the inevitable death of cities ("Socialorganisms die").Perhaps inevitably, the discussion turns toteaching. "I was thinking," admits Ron, ateacher from Morgan Park, "that practicallyevery high school textbook begins withthe building blocks of agriculture and thencities. I'm wondering what I'm going to doin the fall. ""In my Western Civ classes, I'm going to doaway with textbooks completely," confessesFasolt. "I've been so frustrated with lookingfor textbooks that don't confuse the students­and confuse me. Standard textbooks don'tgive answers to the questions that people areasking now. They make the picture largerrather than rethinking it. ""I'm wondering," says Noreen, a MatherHigh teacher, "if whether in our society-politics, the unions, individual teachers­we've developed a feeling that change issomething horrible. ""Because," Fasolt agrees, "change issomething that requires an enormous effort.How can you change the city's tunnel system? How can you change the University ofChicago?"It's the last day of class, and the stiff silence ofthe first session has long since been replacedby the easy flow of debate. After coffee break,Fasolt shifts gears, turning from the day's as­signed text to his own hopes for the class."You are people who know your history, " hetells the teachers. "You have your curricula.You know how to teach. But I want you to havea problem: 'How am I going to use what I havenow learned?'"I want you to be sitting, preparing for aclass, and suddenly something pops into yourhead," a fact or question from the seminarthat will make it impossible for the partici­pants to teach their own class the way they'vealways done."I want you to have that problem," Fasoltrepeats, "because you already know your his­tory." In contrast, he says, when he teachesWestern Civ courses to U of C undergradu­ates, "I have to build up. I have to tell them thestory, I have to give them the facts and thedates." He smiles, admitting that he also triesto show his undergraduates the loose ends thatmake up the "excitement" of history. "Some­times my students say, 'Please, no more ex­citement. Just give us the facts. ,,,"I think this course will prompt manyamong us to search for additional sources, forverification of what was said here, " says Ron.But he's cautious. "I don't want to teach some­thing new just for the sake of teaching some­thing new, but I will keep an eye out - ""You can't throw out the whole thing,"Fasolt agrees. "You continue to teach thecourse that you've taught before. But, at a spe­cific point where you had a problem, you see asolution. Or, at a point where you didn't knowyou had a problem, you now realize that youhave one."You've been reading these books in orderto make something that was relatively fixedmore moveable.""When you're teaching, " offers Donovan, asoft-spoken teacher from Dunbar High,"you're learning at the same time."Fasolt's reply is immediate. "You're neverlearning more than when. you're teaching."-M.R.Y.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 9nvestigations"Life on the EdgeThe crazed squiggles and sur­real monsters on illuminatedmanuscripts aren't so crazed,says one medieval scholar whosees meaning in the margins.THE DOODLES IN THE MARGINS OFmedieval illuminated manuscriptsoften look like the work of a day­dreaming monk or scribe on a coffee break.To the casual observer, they seem to have norelation to the page's text. Not so, says Mi­chael Camille. In his new book, Image on theEdge: The Margins of Medieval Art, Camillesystematically shows that the maraudingmonsters, grimacing gargoyles, and copulat­ing couples on the pages' edges directly com­ment on the text they decorate."This is the first book," says Camille, anassociate professor in art and the Col­lege, "to look at what's happeningwith images in relation to the text inthe center. " Previous studies,Camille says as he pulls a thicktome off the shelf in hisCochrane-Woods Art Cen­ter office, just looked at theimages alone. Indeed, thereference book he flipsthrough is organized asan encyclopedia would be-with images listed alpha­betically by subject.Although his own book isliberally illustrated with 86color and black-and-whitephotographs of the worksdiscussed, Image on theEdge is comparativelyshort at 160 pages. "I hadjust written my big, boringbook," notes Camille. "I wanted to write this one short and lively." Itgrew, he says, out of a graduate class he taughtat the University in 1984. Written in a year,the work was first published by London'sReaktion Books, and was released in theUnited States this past spring by Harvard U ni­versity Press.Camille argues that it was in the margins­either on the page or on the capitals of col­umns or secluded comers of cathedrals-thatmedieval artists parodied and questioned the"rigidly structured and hierarchical" medie­val culture without going far enough to under­mine it. To buttress his argument, he dis­cusses marginalartwork in all segments ofmedieval society: monastery, cathedral,court, and city.To the unseasoned eye, these images are sur­prising: knights with their pants down receiv­ing arrows in the behind, lovers copulating inplain view, noble ladies accepting bowls ofturds, and monkeys aping the gestures of cler­gymen pictured on other parts of the page.Marginal art, as Richard Locke noted in aWall Street Journal review of Camille's book,functioned as "a way of letting off steam tokeep the engine running smoothly."In the eighth century most books were pro­duced by a single monk for a religious audi­ence. "The monastic scribe-illuminator hadbeen a revered figure," writes Camille."Sometimes his writing hand was veneratedas a relic because it relayed the Word of God. "But by the later Middle Ages-the periodCamille concentrates on in Image­manuscripts were produced by professionals.Usually a scriptor would copy the text firstand an illuminator would fill in the drawings.These paid-by-the-page workers were not im­mune to professional rivalry. For example, inthe margins of a 14th-century missal from theChurch of St. Jean at Amiens, a drawingshows a monkey displaying its bare buttocksto a tonsured scribe. The illustration, Camilleexplains, "was presumably inspired by an un­fortunate word division seven lines above. This line ends by breaking the word culpa(sin) in a crucial place, thus it reads Liber est acui-the book is to the bum!""Just as we come across courtly personnellike fools, manic musicians and lovers in themargins of sacred texts," writes Camille, thereligious equivalents of these figures decoratemargins oflay texts intended for a courtly au­dience. In the margins of Lancelot Romancefrom the John Rylands Library in Manches­ter, a nun suckles a monkey in what Camillecalls" a jibe against lax monastic celibacy."And, he continues, in the distinctive medie­val style in which "what was considered lowand dirty was inverted to become the high andholy," scatological references fill the marginsof these secular texts. In the margins of Ro­mance of Alexander, from the Bodleian Li­brary at Oxford, can be seen a nun praying to aman bending over before her, worshipping hisdroppings as "relics." "Although clericalcommentators such as Pope Innocent IIIsaw in human sputum, urine and excrementthe 'vile ignobility of human existence.:"Camille writes, "it was the nobility who en­joyed a taste for it" and marginal artists whoplayed on that affinity.In researching his book, Camille spentcountless hours in libraries around the world,flipping through manuscript after manu­script. "They're not cataloged in any way,"Camille says. "You can't catalog all these im­ages. This book only scratches the surface."In fact, 90 percent of the illustrations used inCamille's book were previously unpublished."Literally, you open up new vistas every timeyou open a book. I think that's why manu­scripts are fascinating to work on."Camille has already started work on anotherbook, and his attention is still focused on themargins. "The edges of anything are really in­teresting because of the tension of one thingclosing up to another." In his new work,Camille looks at how one 14th-century illumi­nator deals with death in all his works."What's amazing is that even that is delightedin-all these rotting skeletons. There's a sortof joy, a pleasure, in the macabre."For a medieval scholar and art historian, theGothic University of Chicago is an apt envi­ronment in which to work. "I should do acourse on the gargoyles on campus one day, "says Camille, noting some of the fantasticMarginal artwork courtesy of the Pierpont Morgan Library. New york,creatures and visages of past academics thatadorn the campus buildings. His favorites, hesays, are the two figures that flank the gatewayacross from the Regenstein Library. "Theyare two incredible monsters," he says withadmiration.ReallDtelligeDceWIPE OUT THE IMAGE OF THE GLIS-. tening gold, and rather dashing,anthropomorphic figure the robotC3PO cut in Star fllirs, and forget about thehulking biceps' and human appearance ofArnold Schwarzenegger's android characterin The Terminator. The robots of the 1990s arehumbler looking than their fictional counter­parts. In fact, the robotic pride and joy of theUniversity's computer science departmentmeasures only two-and-a-half-feet tall andone foot in diameter. Robot builder and assist­ant professor in computer science Jim Firbysizes it up this way: "It looks like a cylinder. "But it's this "cylinder" that is helping Uni­versity researchers overcome some majorobstacles to the goal of creating artificial in­telligence. The robot-dubbed "Chip" byFirby and his associates-is the culminationof two years of part-time building by Firbyand graduate students. "We needed a machineto interact with the world," Firby explains."We would have bought a robot if we couldhave, but when we started there was no storethat sold them."Researchers have traditionally tried to cre­ate computers that can think, via artificialintelligence, by installing in them huge data­bases of information. Such databases workfine if the computer is asked to solve a diag­nostic problem-a medical question, for ex­ample-but a computer fueled by these data­bases is unable to learn frdm its experiences.In building Chip, Chicago researchers areattempting a new approach to artificial intelli­gence, modeled on human learning.For example, Charles Martin, assistant pro­feSsor in computer science, is trying to teachcomputers to understand human languages. Acomputer installed in a robot will have con­crete objects and experiences to talk about."It's much easier to talk about a magic mark­er, which the robot can see and pick up," he�,ays, pointing to the highlighter on his desk,than to talk about interest rates. "Chip is also being used to study planning.When humans plan, Firby explains, "theyplan part of what they're going to do, and waitUntil they're in the situation to see what's hap­hening and what to do next." Chip, Firbyopes, will be able to plan in the same way. "Itw?n't have to predict what the world is like, itWIll be able to see what the world is like" andadjust its plans according to its surroundings Learning to think: "Chip, "the U olC's robot.Chip is actually fueled by three differentcomputers. One computer on board handleslow-level reactive behaviors-its sonar sen­sors keep Chip from bumping into things.Another computer off board controls the vi­sion system-the specialty of assistant profes­sor in computer science Michael Swain-anda third off-board computer controls higher­level skills and task planning. "This seemslike the ideal arrangement," says Firby.The researchers had the chance to test theirideas about intelligence in a contest at theAmerican Association for Artificial Intel­ligence's national conference in San Jose,Calif. , in JUly. Pitting robot against robot in alarge arena scattered with objects, the contesttested their ability to move around without hit­ting any obstacles, to choose speciallymarked objects, and to remember locationsby revisiting some of those specially markedobjects. Unfortunately, the computer boardthat controls Chip's vision malfunctioned,temporarily blinding the robot and making itunable to finish the competition."Chip did very well in the first stage of thecompetition. I was very encouraged to seehow Chip compared to the other machines, "Firby says with fatherly pride. "We'll defi­nitely get them next time."No RejectioDORGAN TRANSPLANTS MAY BECOMEless risky, thanks to a new drug beingtested by University researchers.Currently, transplant patients must takedrugs indefinitely to keep their bodies fromrejecting the foreign tissue. While the drugs prevent rejection, they also suppress the pa­tients' immune systems, leaving them moresusceptible to other infections.To avoid this catch-22, Chicago researchersare testing an experimental drug-a geneti­cally engineered protein called CTLA4Ig,manufactured by Bristol-Myers Squibb-thatstops the body's immune system from recog­nizing transplanted tissue as foreign. Thedrug prevents the body's rejection of the tis­sue, but it does not suppress the entire im­mune system. Instead, it blocks a key signalthat immune cells (or T cells) must receive be­fore they attack transplanted tissue. Withoutthat signal, the transplant tissue is tolerated."This protein allows us to select out the onesmall subset of the T cells that is responsiblefor rejection of this transplanted tissue andshut down only those cells," says the study'sdirector, Jeffrey Bluestone, chair of the im­munology committee and associate professorin pathology and the Ben May Institute at theUniversity of Chicago Hospitals.In a study published in the August 7 issue ofScience, a U of C team transplanted insulin­producing human pancreatic tissue into dia­betic mice. Half of the mice were treated withCTLA41g for two weeks. The untreated micecompletely rejected the grafts within four tosix days. The mice treated with the protein didnot reject the tissue, and that tissue continuedto function normally and produce insulin.In a follow-up study, 44 days after the origi­nal transplant, the researchers removed thepancreatic graft from four of the CTLA4Ig­treated mice and gave them new transplants.Two of these mice received tissue from the do­nor of their first graft, and two received trans­plants from different donors. After 100 days,the mice that received tissue from their origi­nal donors did not reject the second graft,even though they did not receive any moreCTLA4Ig. The mice receiving grafts fromnew donors rejected them within five days."That demonstrated that the immune sys­tem's unresponsiveness was donor-specific,"says Bluestone. "The therapy affected onlythe T cells that recognized tissue from that do­nor. The remainder of each mouse's immunesystem remained intact."Bluestone and his colleagues stress that. itcould take years to determine whetherCTLA41g has any unsuspected toxicities orother side-effects before they can begin to testit on people.Still, 1. Richard Thistlethwaite, chief oftransplantation services at the U of C MedicalCenter and co-author of the study, is hopeful."If this approach works as well in humans as itdoes in this animal model, we will have solvedthe major problem facing organ transplanta­tion today. "Compiled by Debra LadestroUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 11FOR THE RECORDOff to a good start: TheCampaign for the NextCentury is moving closer toits $500 million goal. Whenthe books closed for the1991-92 fiscal year, theCampaign total was $197. 8million (including $117million in commitmentssecured prior to the Cam­paign's October 1991kickoff). At nearly 40percent ofitsfive-yeargoal, the Campaign hasattracted $121.2 million ingifts from individuals,$23.4 million from corpo­rations, and $14. 7 millionfrom associations. Sincethe Campaign's launch, 44gifts, including an anony­mous $5-million bequestintention, have been in the$1-million plus range.Dennis Hutchinson,associate professor in theCollege and senior lecturerin the Law School, becamemaster of the New Colle­giate Division (NCD) inluly. The NCD overseesfour interdisciplinaryconcentrations: Funda­mentals: Issues and Texts;Tutorial Studies; Ideas andMethods; and Laws,Letters, and Society.Hutchinson, who hastaught at the Universitysince 1981, has B.A. andM.A. degrees injurispru­dence from MagdalenCollege at Oxford and anL.L.M. from the Universityof Texas at Austin. AD "equitable" agreemeDtOD iDdirect cost chargesOVER THE SUMMER, THE UNI­versity and the federal gov­ernment reached what U ofC comptroller William Hoganterms a "reasonable and equitable"agreement on indirect-cost­recovery rates through the 1994-95fiscal year.Indirect costs represent the ex­penses of doing research that cannotbe attributed directly to a particularproject. They include such items aslibrary expenses, building mainte­nance, utilities, and administration.The indirect cost rate was nego­tiated with the Department ofHealth and Human Services (HHS)for the 1990-91 and 1991-92 fiscalyears at 65 and 60 percent, respec­tively. For 1992-93, the rate was setat 51 percent, and rates for both1993-94 and 1994-95 were set at55 percent. HHS is the federalagency which oversees the Univer­sity's federal grants and contracts.In 1991, indirect costs became thestuff of headlines when a nationalinvestigation was launched into howuniversities bill the federal govern­ment for conducting sponsored re­search. While Stanford Universityreceived the lion's share of mediaattention, Chicago made localheadlines after a May 1991 reportthat it was among a dozen universi­ties that had wrongly claimed a totalof$14 million in indirect costs. Theamounts ranged from $4.9 millionto $32,537. Chicago's share,according to the government, was$348,050-but the University dis­puted the charge. Now the U niversi-12 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 ty has agreed to reimburse thefederal government a total of$229,600.Hogan told the campus news­paper, The Chronicle, that thosedisputed charges fell into two cate­gories. One concerned $69,000 incharges the University voluntarily. withdrew from its indirect cost pro­posal in April 1991. After closerscrutiny, HHS decided that some ofthose charges had indeed been al­lowable. In the end, the Universityagreed to reimburse the government$42,100 for each of the fouryears, 1987 -88 through 1990-91, inwhich similar charges had beenmade, for a total of $168,400.The second category involvedcosts associated with the AlumniDevelopment Database System(ADDS). While HHS auditorsagreed that ADDS did support re­search because the University usesit to process research grants, theymaintained that some of the ADDSexpenses were incorrectly chargedto the federal government. The U ni­versity agreed to reduce its 1992-93allocation of ADDS costs from$177,234 to $156,834, and to reim­burse the government a total of$61,200 for previous ADDS fees.Earlier press reports had confusedthe University's total annual ADDSbudget ($1.032 million) with theamount the University was billing tofederal research. "So with $1 mil­lion in the headlines," Hogan ex­plained, "the actual difference was$20,400."Of course, of primary concern to the University's long-range re­search capabilities is the indirect­cost rate negotiated for future fiscalyears. Although there is a drop­from 65 percent and 60 percent,respectively, for 1990-91 and1991-92, to 51 percent in 1992-93- Hogan said that the temporarydrop reflects an adjustment to com­pensate for the higher provisionalrates of the previous two years, be­fore the 55-percent rate takes effectin 1993-94.A rate of 55 percent means that forevery federal dollar received for di­rect costs of research (salaries, sup­plies, etc.) the University receivesan additional 55 cents as a reim­bursement for its indirect costs. Ofthat 55 cents-under the agreementmade with the HHS- 26 cents go toadministrative costs, 25 cents tospace-related costs (including de­preciation, and operation and main­tenance of the physical plant), andfour cents for library costs.It is in the area of administrativeindirect costs that the government ismaking a nation-wide reduction­ordering a cap on the reimburse­ment for indirect costs at 26 centsfor every dollar. "Given the 26-percent cap on administrative costs-which we disagree with," Hogansaid, the 55-percent rate is "a rea­sonable and equitable" reflection ofwhat the University's costs are. "Itis fair to the federal government andfair to the University."Although the shrinkage in govern­ment reimbursement of indirectcosts-particularly the rate of 51percent set for 1992-93-will havean effect on the overall budget, itsimpact will be somewhat softenedby a reserve created for that pur­pose. "Because we have beenoperating under a provisionalrate for the past two years," notedUniversity President Hanna Gray,"we created a reserve to cushionUs against the possibility of a lowerfinal rate."The University has also been ableto reduce the costs of maintaining itsphysical plant-spending 5 percentless in real terms for gas and elec­tricity than it did in 1980-81, de­Spite the concurrent growth of thephysical plant. And it has reducedthe administrative share of thebUdget from 37 percent in 1980-81to 24 percent in 1990-91.Awareness key toburn preventionA BURN AWARENESS PRO­gram based at the Universi­ty of Chicago will launch anational effort this fall, working todecrease burn injuries, particularlyamong children.Over 3,000 children die each yearas a result of burn injury (flameburns, scalds, and electrical injurycombined). Each year, one millionchildren in the u.s. receive burn in- juries; of those, about a quarter mil­lion require emergency care, and30,000 are admitted to burn centersfor treatment. Many of these chil­dren suffer permanent scarring,physical deformity, social isolation,and emotional trauma."Burn injury remains a leading,unsolved problem in children'shealth care today," says physicianDavid Teplica, who recently gradu­ated from the University's plasticand reconstructive surgery sectionand who is administrative directorof the Children's Burn AwarenessProgram.Although the National Institute ofBurn Medicines estimates that halfof all burn injuries could be prevent­ed, the Burn Awareness Program isthe first image-based nationalawareness campaign to target the is­sue. Its weapons will include post­ers, billboards, television publicservice announcements, a film doc­umentary-and a traveling exhibitwhich begins a twelve-city tour witha Nov. 2 opening at Gallery 1 of theChicago Athenaeum, in the Ameri­can Medical Association Building.An opening benefit, kicking off theprogram's national launch, will be held Nov. 12, with all U of Calumni, staff, and students invited.The central core of the exhibit,which runs through Dec. 5 in Chi­cago, are black-and-white photostaken by Teplica, who has anM. F. A. degree in photographyfrom the School of the Art Instituteof Chicago. The non-sensationalis­tic images-chronicling the pain,suffering, and disfigurement ofchildren who have been burned­will be accompanied by an essaywritten by a burn survivor.Teplica's photos, and the entireChildren's Burn Awareness Pro­gram, were inspired in part by thework of a turn-of-the-century pho­tographer, Lewis Hine, X'04,whose documentary photos of childlabor abuse "added an immeasur­able dose of visual clout to the ChildLabor Reform Movement, " Teplicasays. "Legislators finally saw theproblem," and strict labor reformlaws were quickly written andenforced.''Although Hine has served as arole model for countless sociallyconcerned photographers, " saysTeplica, "to date, his lead has notbeen followed by the medical com- Two heads: The title ofdirector at the NationalOpinion Research Centerhas been eliminated-withresponsibility for thedirector's job divided intotwo new positions. On Sept.1, former NORC directorNorman Bradburn, AB'52,became director of re­search, and Phil DePloybecame president of the50-year-old quantitativeresearch organization,headquartered at theUniversity. DePloy comesto Chicago from the Centerfor Naval Analyses, wherehe was president. He has aPh.D. from Stanford.Trade-in: "It's a menace toclean air," said UCRecyclecoordinator Jamie Cahil­lane, describing the fumingold truck that picked upcampus recyclables. Theair will be a little saferthanks to a $30,000 grantfrom the Illinois Depart­ment of Energy and Natu­ral Resources for purchaseof a new truck. The old onewas sold for scrap. UCRe­cycle picks up about 25 tonsof materials each month.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 13Virtual learning: A $3.5million gift from the Sher­man Fairchild Foundationwill fund construction of aVirtual Learning Center,where the Division ofBiological Sciences willdevelop a universal com­puting environment,integrating teaching,research, and clinicalinformation resources. Thecenter will be housed in thenew Biological SciencesLearning and ResearchComplex, to be completedin late 1993. It will provideimmediate access to manyforms of information­including text, data,graphics, and video-andwill make that informationavailable, via desktopcomputers, throughout theMedical Center:Bloom honored: AllanBloom, PhB'49, AM'53,PhD'55, was appointed theUniversity'sfirst John U.Nef distinguished serviceprofessor. The professor­ship was named after thelate John Nej, cofounder ofthe Committee on SocialThought, of which Bloomis a faculty member. Thissummer, Bloom was one offive Americans awarded aCharles Frankel Prize bythe National Endowmentfor the Humanities for hiscontributions to the pub­lie's understanding oftopics in the humanities.A specialist in politicalphilosophy, Bloom is bestknown as the author of TheClosing of the AmericanMind (1987) and as co­director of the John M.Olin Center for Inquiryinto the Theory and Prac­tice of Democracy.Campus veterans: "The 25Year Club" is not a trendynightclub, but a designa­tion awarded to 225 non­academic employees whohave worked a quarter­century or more for theUniversity of Chicago,including 34 new membersceremonially inducted lastspring. The club includes11 employees who haveworked for the U of C for40-plus years. Some 9, 700people work for theUniversity. munity. Medical imagery has notbeen systematically employed as atool to boost national awareness forinjury and disease prevention."The public's current lack of burn­injury awareness, says Teplica, canbe gauged by the fact that most peo­ple are unaware that any liquid, in­cluding hot water direct from thefaucet at 125 degrees F. and above,can cause significant scald injury-82 percent of such tap-water scaldshappen to children under the age offive. The program encourages pre­vention measures: installing anti­scald devices in faucets and showerheads; covering radiators; turningpot handles "in" when cooking;never using tablecloths or place­'mats if toddlers are present.Another aim is to make both thepublic and physicians more awareof the prevalence of child abuse byburns, which Teplica says "fre­quently goes unrecognized and un­derdiagnosed." Indeed, an estimat­ed 20-30 percent of all pediatricburn patients in the U.S. may be vic­tims of child abuse and neglect.The program is supported by theMcGraw Foundation, the Profes­sional Imaging Division of EastmanKodak Company, and KendallHealthcare Products Company. Inaddition, it has been endorsed by theAmerican Burn Association, andthe American Society of Plastic &Reconstructive Surgeons. Colla­borating with the program is theAmerican Medical Association.Locally, the Chicago Fire Depart­ment remains the program's prima­ry partner in distributing burnawareness and prevention materi­als, an effort that Teplica hopeswill become a model for citiesnationwide.Stalled sex surveyhas second lifePROBABLY FEW WOULD DENYthe importance of studyingthe transmission of AIDS,or the problems of teenage pregnan­cy, child abuse, and workplace ha­rassment. Just don't bring the word"sex" into it.That was the discovery made by ateam of sociologists who, four yearsago, began their quest to obtainfunding for a national survey of sex-14 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 ual behavior. One of those research­ers-Edward Laumann, the GeorgeHerbert Mead distinguished ser­vice professor and University ofChicago provost-shared the expe­rience with his peers this past sum­mer at a meeting in Pittsburgh of theAmerican Sociological Associa­tion. Laumann read from a papercowritten with fellow researchersRobertT. Michael, dean of the Uni­versity'S Irving B. Harris GraduateSchool of Public Policy, and JohnGagnon, AB'55, PhD'69, sociolo­gy professor at SUNY at StonyBrook.Their paper documents the bu­reaucratic roadblocks the research­ers encountered when they set outto do what a government agencyhad, in fact, asked them to do: de­sign and implement a national sur­vey of sexual attitudes and practices-a survey which Laumann saysvirtually every "relevant publichealth, medical, and social and sci­entific" professional organizationconcurred was vitally important inunderstanding the transmission ofAIDS and shedding light on myriadother health and societal issues.While recounting this rocky "Po­litical History of the National SexSurvey of Adults," Laumann alsohad some good news to pass along.The first stage of a national surveyof sexual behavior has been com­pleted-albeit on a smaller scalethan was originally proposed for afederally sponsored survey. Fund­ing for the $1.7-million surveycame from seven private founda­tions. Over a six-month period, be­ginning in February 1992, morethan 3, 100 adults were interviewedby researchers at NORC (the Na­tional Opinion Research Center,based at the University). Those in­terviews covered a wide range oftopics, including marriage and co­habitation, lifetime sexual histo­ries, childhood experiences withsex, and attitudes toward sex. Theresearchers hope to present prelimi­nary results of their work early in1993.The list of foundations funding thesurvey is a prestigious one: theRobert Wood Johnson Foundation,the Henry 1. Kaiser Family Founda­tion, the Rockefeller Foundation,the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation,the John D. and Catherine T. Mac­Arthur Foundation, the New York Community Trust, and the Ameri­can Foundation for AIDS Research.Yet Laumann and his colleagues re­ceived the funding only after con­vincing the foundations that federalmoney for their proposals was notpossible, particularly in this elec­tion year.The great need for a nationalsurvey of sexual practices first oc­curred to Laumann and Michael in1987, when they attended a AIDSseminar cosponsored by thePritzker School of Medicine and theSocial Sciences Division. Theywere "at once fascinated by therange of intellectual and practicalchallenges" that the epidemicposed, "as well as alarmed by theremarkable ignorance and impov­erished base of knowledge at handto address them."In July 1987, Laumann and Mi­chael teamed up with Gagnon, in acollaboration with NORC, to suc­cessfully bid on a federal contractcompetition for what was to be thefirst large-scale survey of sexual be­havior ofU.S. adults since the histor­ic Kinsey studies of the early 1950s.(A national survey of sexual attitudesand behavior among teenagers­later canceled-was awarded at thesame time to a research group basedat the University of North Carolinaat Chapel Hill. )While busy preparing for thelarge-scale survey, Laumann's teamwas approached by the Centers forDisease Control (CDC) and severalother federal agencies in the springof 1988 about conducting a supple­mentary survey, smaller in scalethan the national survey and spe­ciifically focused on AIDS. Theyobliged, preparing this "mini":survey-which; like all govern­ment - funded surveys, first had to becleared by the Office of Manage­ment and Budget (OMB). News ofthe proposed study appeared in theJan. 20,1989, issue of Science mag­azine, and was later picked up by theconservative Washington Times.Almost immediately, Laumann re­called, "there was a series of attackson the study in right-wing publica­tions and widespread media cover­age." These attacks, he said, wereriddled with errors, including a re­port that the mini-survey would cost$15 million-which was, in fact, anearly estimated cost for the large­scale survey.In September 1989, the Senatepassed, 66-34, an amendment in­troduced by South Carolina SenatorJesse Helms, transferring federalfunds set aside for a national adultsurvey into an Adolescent FamilyHealth Program urging adolescentsto "say no" to casual sex. In makingthe proposal, Helms said such sexsurveys were designed to "legiti­mize homosexual lifestyles, " argu­ing that his amendment presented achoice "between support for sexualrestraint among our young peopleor, on the other hand, supportfor homosexuality and sexualdecadence. "The American Association for theAdvancement of Science wasamong several groups protesting theamendment, which was eventuallystruck down in a compromise votethat pulled funding for both the Ad­olescent Family Life Program andthe national sex survey.Despite the initial passage ofHelms' amendment, Laumann toldhis fellow sociologists he doesn'tbelieve that most of the senatorsWere "in any self conscious sense"opposed to such research. Indeed,he said, "the Senate has for yearsknowingly funded NIH efforts toconduct research on this and relatedtOpics," albeit on a smaller scale.Instead, La�mann said, he believesHelms was ultimately successfulbecause he played on a basic "anxi­ety, and even fear" that many feelabout "studying and revealing di­mensions of adult sexual behavior"+fears that in themselves are "evi­dence of the need for scientific in­quiry to enhance understanding ofsexual behavior."Still, the researchers place blamepartly at their own doorstep.Laumann warned his peers at thesociological association, "To fail toUnderstand this larger process" in­VolVing politicians, the media, andthe general public "is to invite di­saster along the lines we haveexperienced. "lI'de Park centergets the treatmentTHE HYDE PARK SHOPPINGcenter, built during HydePark's pioneering urban re­neWal efforts in the 1950s, will be remodeled and expanded.The $6.5 million remodeling pro­gram began Oct. 1, with a grand"opening" expected sometime nextsummer. The shopping center, at55th Street and Lake Park Avenue,is owned by Lake Park Associates,a subsidiary corporation of : theUniversity.Alexander Sharp, vice presidentfor business & finance, says hehopes the renovation will spark "anew era of commercial life in theUniversity community. This planshould provide a vibrant new centerto serve the Hyde Park-South Ken­wood neighborhood."The remodeling includes demoli­tion of the building where the F. W.Woolworth Co. store is located­and construction of a new buildingjust northeast of the old one, withWoolworth's as its prime tenant.According to Harold 1. Carlson,whose Chicago firm manages theshopping center, removing the oldWoolworth's building "will open upthe shopping center on Lake Park Avenue. We think the new designwill allow patrons easier access toall stores and will redefine the pe­destrian traffic pattern."The center's south end, now par­tially enclosed by the building thathouses Fannie May Candies andParklane Hosiery, will be openedup by removing that building andmoving the two tenants to otherstorefront locations. The center'scement columns and canopies willalso be removed and replaced withsheltered walkways and plantings.Buildings will be refaced, the light­ing improved, and the entire park­ing lot will be landscaped.Most of the current tenants are ex­pected to remain, says Carlson, al­though the refurbished center willbe able to accommodate severalnew retailers as well. "The goal,"Carlson sums up, "is provide a vari­ety of services that complementeach other and best meet the needsof the community. "Compiled by Tim Obermiller After the original: Aplanned Nigerian school'scurriculum will be modeledafter the University'sLaboratory Schools. Theschool-to be built inOkpulo Atubi Ehere, inthe Albia state-is beingestablished by Steve Dan­chimah, a Chicdgo podia­trist whose daughter,Onyekachi, is a 1988graduate of U-High.High note: Sir Georg Solti,music director laureate ofthe Chicago SymphonyOrchestra, was awardedthe University's Rosen­berger Medal for outstand­ing achievement in thecreative and performingarts. During his tenure asdirector, Solti and the CSOreceived 23 Grammyawards. Established by Mr.and Mrs. Jesse L. Rosen­berger, the medal was firstawarded in 1924.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 15IT'S THE MONDAY AFTER JULY'S DEMOCRATICnational convention, and David Axelrod istired. Very tired.So his friends say. You wouldn't really know,just meeting him. It could be that his charac­teristic wit is off a quarter-beat, but he stillmanages to roll off the quips:"People talked about Dukakis being thevictim of character assassination, but I've al­ways described it as character suicide. ""It would take an extraordinary opportunityto get me to move to Washington. I don't havePotomac fever. I think Potomac fever is a stepon the road to madness.""You know, one of Bill Clinton's big prob­lems is that he speaks in 40-minute soundbites."Axelrod-called a "rising star" in nationalDemocratic politics by the newsletter Cam­paigns and Elections-gained national recog­nition in 1984 as manager of the Illinoiscampaign of Paul Simon, one of just twoDemocrats to oust Republican senators asPresident Ronald Reagan swept 49 states.After that victory, Axelrod managed to buildthe first successful Chicago-based politicalconsulting firm. His clients have includedChicago Mayor Richard M. Daley, the lateHarold Washington, former U. S. Senator Ad­lai Stevenson III, and Arkansas GovernorBill Clinton. At 37, Axelrod,AB'76, has become aplayer in the corri- dors of power to a degree that -as a journalistfresh out of the University of Chicago, cover­ing politics for the Chicago Tribune-hecould once only fantasize about.A profile of Axelrod in the Tribune lastspring suggested that his departure from jour­nalism was motivated by a desire for "moremoney, more power, more action." This im­age-of a once idealistic newsman turnedcampaign mudslinger-emerged full-blownlast winter in the Chicago press when Axelrodtook on Al Hofeld as a client. Hofeld, JD'64,spent millions, much of it his own money, inan attempt to defeat incumbent Illinois Sena­tor Alan Dixon, in what the Tribune calledone of the most bitter primary campaigns inrecent history. Both men ran aggressivelynegative ads about the other and, in the end,both lost to a virtual political unknown namedCarol Moseley Braun, JD'72, who is runningin the general election this fall against Repub­lican Rich Williamson.Two days before the March primary, theChicago Sun- Times ran an editorialtitled "Axelrod engineersmudslide for Hofeld"in which the paper's political editor, Steve Neal, calledAxelrod "the Mr. Flexibility of Illinois po­litics .... Though he insists he won't work forjust anyone, he is flexible in choosing clients... Axelrod goes where the money is."There's no question that Axelrod has mademore money since switching careers. Hisfirm, Axelrod & Associates-which employsseven public relations and media specialists,rone who works in Washington-placed $7million in advertising in 1991, which wasn'teven a major election year. But it's hard toascribe money-and-power motives to adecision Axelrod made last year, turningdown an offer he seemingly could not refuse:to become Bill Clinton's full-time media spe­cialist. Axelrod did help Clinton set uphis current campaign crew, andhis advice was essentialto the Democrat'sBy Tim ObermillerPhotography by Dan DryWith a killer instinct,media consultant David Axelrodcreates messages that turn candidates into winners.16 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 199218 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992crucial Illinois primary victory. He alsopitched in on Clinton's well-received accept­ance speech at the July convention, and hewill remain on retainer with the campaignthroughout the election. Still, it's clear that hepassed on a major business opportunity in de­clining Clinton's original offer, but thatdoesn't seem to bother him. "I can always goand make money, " he explains, "but the fami­ly considerations were such that I couldn't­you know. I've got three kids. And I simplycouldn't abandon my family."In a business all about creating image,Axelrod maintains a decidedly relaxed fa­cade, prefering T-shirts, baggy pants, andsneakers to silk ties and Armani suits. Whenhe does wear a tie, as often as not it will showsome visible evidence of a past, quickly eatenmeal. His own mother once compared his de­meanor to an unmade bed. Axelrod tends toshake his leg when he talks, and he talks all thetime. Negotiating his Saab through snarledtraffic from the Oak Park home he shares withhis wife, Susan, MBA' 82, and their three chil­dren, to his office suite in the chic River Northdistrict, he clings to his cellular telephone likea lifeline.His bare cupboard of an office is sprinkledhere and there with framed mementos (in­cluding a note from one politician thankingAxelrod for not taking on her opponent's cam­paign), family pictures, an ancient Schlitztrophy that stands waist-high. With a focused,driving energy, he talks of his life's great pas­sion. It's not money that's got David Axelrodrevved up on a day when he has every right tobe tired. It's politics.hat passion for politics seemsalmost a genetic imperative.Soon after learning to read,Axelrod remembers rushingto the doorstep of his parents'Manhattan apartment in theearly morning to scan the headlines of theNew York Times. Axelrod's father was a psy­chologist; his mother, a freelance writer wholater became "sort of a pioneer in qualitativeresearch" in advertising for the New Yorkfirm of Young and Rubicam. Both were "yourclassic New York leftist Democrats" forwhom politics was standard dinner-tableconversation."I remember going to see John F. Kennedyon the street corner in 1960 when I was fiveyears old," says Axelrod, "and I rememberwhen I was nine handing out leaflets forRobert Kennedy, who was running for theSenate." He looked forward to visits from hisparents' precinct captain the way some kidsanticipate the jingle of an ice cream truck.At 17, Axelrod arrived at the University ofChicago campus, intent on pursuing his polit­ical interests, although he wasn't sure exactly how. "I was struck by what an extraordinarysocial and political environment Chicagowas, and I was disappointed that the U niversi­ty didn't do more of a contemporary nature. Itseemed to me- I was in political science­there was very little interest in. things thathappened after 1800."Among the students, Axelrod also foundthat "interest in politics was pretty dormant.back then, and there was a certain introspec­ti ve and cloistered feel to the campus that real­ly frustrated me. I think it's much differenttoday, actually. I think that what happenedwas that there was this burst of activity in thelate Sixties and then a real effort to filter outthat sort of activism and sort of quiet thingsdown."Axelrod vented his frustration by writingabout local politics for the Hyde Park Herald,which led to stringing assignments for Timemagazine. Upon graduation, he'd built upenough clips to get a summer internship at theChicago Tribune."That summer led to a full-time job, " he re­calls. "I was on nights covering fires and hom­icides and all manner of disasters, and I spentmy free time trying to dig up little politicalstories to insinuate my way onto the politicalbeat. They used to throw me some bonesevery once in a while to reward me for myefforts." One bone tossed his way in 1979 was"this clearly doomed, kind of fanciful cam­paign," Jane Byrne's first run for Chicagomayor. He'd never cover another fire.Throughout her campaign, Axelrod wroterapturously about Byrne's platform of re­forms-stories he now has little doubt helpedget her elected. "Perhaps I was guilty ofnaivete as a 24-year-old kid," he says today,"although so was virtually the entire presscorps. The only guy who.was r£a]]¥JauodicecLabout her from the very beginning was the lateHarry Golden, Jr., who was dean of the cityhall press corps and knew her well andthought, in his words, that she was a 'horriblefaker.' And, in fact, that's what she turnedout to be."After Byrne's election, Axelrod detailed instories-and, later, in his own column-howthe mayor had "systematically broken all hercampaign promises." In response, Byrnetried to have the young reporter barred fromcity hall, an attempt that only enhanced hiscareer-by 1981, he was the Tribune's top po­litical writer. Four years later, he stunned col­leagues with the announcement that he had"succumbed, after months of resisting," toCongressman Paul Simon's opportunings thathe serve as press secretary in Simon's Senaterace against three-time Republican incum­bent Charles Percy, AB' 41."I loved the newspaper business," Axelrodsays of his departure. "But I think too manypeople in journalism make the mistake ofstaying too long and end up on the rewrite deskon some outpost, writing about the LombardLily Festival ... .I think it was a smart idea toget out while I was on top, rather than waitingto be forced out. "What Simon-a downstate politician withfew friends in the Chicago press corps­wanted was Axelrod's media connections, butwhat he got was" a political message genius, "says Forrest Claypool. Claypool, currentlyIllinois deputy state treasurer, had joinedSimon's campaign on something of a whim,acting as communications aide through theprimary, "but they traded in their Chevy for aCadillac when David arrived." Within a shorttime, Axelrod was promoted to campaignmanager."He was like the backup quarterback who'sbeen waiting on the sidelines to test out hisarm in the big game, " says Claypool, "and hefinally got his big shot. I think he wanted totest his skills in the arena of political combat,as opposed to being a journalistic observer,and I think he felt supremely confident-heimmediately went in and took command of themessage of the campaign, which was sorely inneed of message-direction."The message, In a nutshell: Percy was moreinterested in globe-trotting, foreign affairs,and meetings with the Dalai Lama than in thehard, unglamorous task of assisting Illinoisbusiness and workers through hard times."People in the state were really suffering backthen," says Axelrod. "We were in the midst ofa harsh recession, and I felt that we ought to befairly straightforward about our attack ... .Itall came down to 'Who can you count on?' Wedrove the debate that way. ""David's very good at political intrigue,"Simon said after his election, "and I don'tmean that in a negative sense."Axelrod turned down Simon's offer to joinhis staff in Washington. Instead, he and For­rest Claypool decided to start their own,Chicago-based, media-consulting business,setting up shop in borrowed office space-andon borrowed time."In those days, every campaign seemedmake-or-break," says Claypool. The prob­lem for new kids on the consulting block isthat they tend to get the" hopeless" campaigns-neophyte challengers who could only af­ford the bargain basement fees that Claypool�nd Axelrod were offering. To become estab­lIshed in the business, they had to turn thosehopeless campaigns around. It didn't always�ean winning, says Axelrod, but it did meanbeating expectations-doing better thananYone thought you had a right to do. "One early campaign was for Wayne Cryst, aMissouri farmer running for Congress. Crysthad become something of a folk hero in thee�rly Eighties when he raided and removedhIS SOYbeans from a grain elevator after they'd been seized by federal creditors. By the timeAxelrod and Claypool were brought in,Cryst's quixotic campaign trailed badly in thepolls. "His campaign manager had, unfortu­nately, not managed the store too well, and hehad blown most of his money, " says Claypool.With the little cash left -and money out ofAxelrod's own pocket -he and Claypoolwhipped out a series of televison ads focusedon Cryst's down-home appeal. The farmerlost by only four percent of the vote.A 1986 race for Kentucky's vacant attorneygeneral post ended in victory for another po­litical unknown, a state legislator named FredCowan. "We started out 33 points behind,"says Claypool, "and then David crafted somehard-hitting spots that tied Cowan's opponentto a series of legal and ethical lapses over theyears, questioning his judgment and integrity.I remember that towards the end of the cam­paign, the candidate's wife and all his aideswere challenging David's strategy, saying weneeded to talk about what a good person Cow­an is-because he was, in fact, a good personand he had a great record in the legislature."But the point was, Cowan was totally un­known-running against a guy with 90 per­cent name recognition-with limited time anda limited amount of money to spend. David'sview was, the only way you canwin is to makethis a referendum on your opponent. In otherwords, make that person's name recognitionwork against him by showing that he's a badrisk for the job." Cowan ultimately backedAxelrod; but Claypool vividly recalls theharsh glares cast their way from Cowan'scamp on election night, turning to warmsmiles as it became clear their candidate, andAxelrod's roll-of-the-dice strategy, werewinners.What really put Axelrod on the media­consulting map was Harold Washington's1987 primary race for mayor against JaneByrne. Axelrod anticipated that the whiteByrne would go after the black Washington ontwo issues "that would be code words for race,and those were taxes and crime. And indeed,that's where she went. The challenge was tomake people understand that she was a formermayor and that her record on both was terriblecompared to Washington's. So we did twocomparative spots, one on crime and one ontaxes, that I think effectively ended the elec­tion." Byrne has since agreed that Axelrod's"attack" ads were decisive in her narrow loss.n 1982, while still reporting for theChicago Tribune, David Axelrodwrote a profile on Richard M.Daley, at that time Cook Countystate's attorney, whose late fatherruled Chicago politics for decades.''As Daley fields questions, he behaves a bitlike a man in a dentist's chair," Axelrod ob-UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 19served. "He squirms in his seat, checks theclock periodically, and approaches every turnin the conversation anxiously, as if somethingmight be awaiting him around the bend.When his father was alive, Daley routinelyspurned reporters, suspicious that any storywould be an attempt to embarrass him or themayor, and perhaps aware of his own short­comings as a speaker .... But today, Daleygrudgingly accedes to interview requests,mindful that the news media, particularlytelevision, has replaced the precinct captainas the tool that shapes a politician's publicimage."Axelrod admires Daley, son of the ultimatemachine politician, for his smarts in realizingthe machine was on the fritz; that TV, not par­ty politics, was the new kingmaker. Daleyalso had the smarts to hire Axelrod to do themedia for his 1988 mayoral race. AlthoughAxelrod was approached by every other Dem­ocratic candidate running, he chose Daley"because I felt most comfortable with him."Axelrod helped the candidate improve his fal­tering speaking skills and overcome his imageas "Dumb-Dumb Daley" (as one opponentnicknamedhim), shaping a strategy and mes­sage that produced a landslide victory.If party loyalists couldn't take credit for thewin, at least it was a victory they could swal­low. Not so with Axelrod's choice of candi­dates in the 1990 primary race for the power­ful and mysterious post of Cook CountyBoard president. Axelrod bucked the party'schoice, backing millionaire Winnetka lawyerRichard Phelan. After financing Axelrod'smedia blitz, Phelan wound up winning thefour-man race, with party favorite Ted Lecho­wicz finishing third. The candidate whoplaced last, Stanley Kusper, moaned after­wards that Phelan had "bought the election"-not under the table, but over the airwaves."I would think," said Kusper, "that anybodywho really wants to win from now on is goingto have to have the money to go to TV and ra­dio. If they don't, they won't win."Phelan tells the Magazine it wasn't just mon­ey that won him the election: it was Axelrod.Late in the campaign, his opponents werehaving success framing him as a starchyNorth Shore dilettante. A poll showed Phelanslipping."We got the poll on Friday," says Axelrod."I literally woke up with this idea for a spot onSaturday, which actually happens to me alot." Axelrod knew of a popular tavern calledCoogan's that Phelan frequented for lunch (infact, Phelan owns the establishment). OnSunday, Axelrod had Phelan in the bar, shoot­ing a spot, run on local TV channels the fol­lowing Monday, in which the candidate con­fides how his parents sacrificed so he couldstudy law at Notre Dame. His opponents,Phelan warns, claim he is "too successful" to20 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992govern Cook County, but that's because theyknow "I'll run things for the taxpayers, andnot political insiders." The clincher comeswhen Phelan turns toward the bartender, whosets down a beer. "Or did you want yours in achampagne glass?" he asks. Phelan just grinsand replies, "Get outta here!""You see, you laughed!" says Phelan, re­counting the commercial with obvious glee."That was the whole point. It was sheer ge­nius, that's the only way I can describe it."From the reported $1 million Phelan spenton the commercials, Axelrod got 15 percentof the media buy, plus a consulting fee. Yet hedenies he backed Phelan-and bucked theparty-strictly for money. "If the party struc­ture had prevailed," Axelrod says, "then TedLechowicz would have been the candidate forpresident. And I don't think there's any ques­tion that Dick Phelan is a better county boardpresident than Ted Lechowicz. If the partystructure had prevailed, Pat Quinn wouldn'tbe state treasurer. He's certainly the best statetreasurer we've had since Adlai Stevenson.""I've worked for people with lots of moneyand I've worked with people for no money, "Axelrod recently told the Chicago Tribune."When Pat Quinn ran for treasurer, I lent himmoney. If he runs for governor in '94, I'llwork for him, and he'll be the least well­funded candidate in the race. "His critics may not buy such selfless claims,but there's little doubt that Axelrod himselfbelieves them. A seemingly indestructibleconfidence, in both himself and in the candi­dates he represents, translates to great effectin the award-winning campaign ads that he writes, produces, and directs. While it maybe hard for some to distinguish betweenthe "country-clubbing" Republicans thatAxelrod disparages and some of the million­aire Democrats whom he's helped win elec­tions, there's no mistaking their differenceswhen filtered through the sounds and imagesof his radio and TV ads.He will occasionally push the outer enve-.lope of such contrasts. One rather notoriousmailing his office sent out on behalf of AlHofeld against Alan Dixon, designed to looklike an American Express brochure, could bemistaken for a rabidly Marxist diatribe:"Money-stained fingers smear fine crystalglasses. Fancy colognes mix with the odor ofcorruption. Expensively dressed diners canhardly control their obscene appetites forwealth and power. "More typical, however, are ads like the TVspot Axelrod did for Indiana CongressmanFrank McCloskey, in which a woman offers aplain, heartfelt testimonial for McCloskey,whom she says helped keep open the factorywhere she and her husband worked: "He saidhe'd help and he did. He saved my job and myfamily." The way her voice catches on theword "family" says more about the dailyhopes and fears of blue-collar America than atruckload of political speeches.One Axelrod opponent, declining to beidentified, says, "I think we ran better lookingspots than [he] did; but they didn't have thesame impact. He's very good at definingthemes that resonate with average voters."Indeed, not all of Axelrod 's admirers areDemocrats. The late Republican nationalchairman Lee Atwater paid public tribute toAxelrod's hard-hitting TV ads that linked JillLong's GO P opponent to high taxes in a highlypublicized 1989 race for Dan Quayle's oldcongressional seat.Axelrod explains his success this way. "Ithink we understand, as other consultantsdon't, that the spots are only the end of a pro­cess. And the process is understanding whatthe message is that's going to win. "Partly, it's having the right instincts, butAxelrod says he also relies heavily on polling,"because the thing you learn very quickly inthis business is that people are counter­instinctual. YO,u may think you have thekeenest insights in the world, and they willfool you. That's one of the great things aboutthis business-because one would hate tothink that people are so predictable that youcan know in every instance how they're goingto react. So polling and qualitative research,focus groups, become very important in un­derstanding people's attitudes."Axelrod also claims he has more successthan most consultants in getting cooperationfrom newspaper and television reporters. It'shard to imagine Axelrod saying even privatelyWhat Republican communications strategistRoger Ailes once said publically about jour­nalists: "F-k the media!" Given a choice,Axelrod would probably still prefer the rowdycamaraderie of a barful of city desk reportersto the staid, Federal Register musings of someBeltway politicos. "I appreciate the role of thepress," he says. "It's not to coddle the politi­cians." And the press mostly seems to appre­ciate Axelrod. Instead of wasting their time with bad P.R., he gives them meaty leads:even facts about opponents' shortcomingswhich he's dug up himself."Many times I'll talk to them off the recordand we talk more freely and they get a sense ofwhere I'm coming from," says Axelrod. "Inever try to intentionally mislead anybody.It's not only wrong, it's unwise-because youmay get away with it once but in the future it'sgoing to come back and bite you. "Ironically, Axelrod says that the most diffi­cult trust to build is with the actual clients­candidates who are often wary from experi­ences with professional consultants who dis­miss them as amateurs. In contrast, Axelrodand his associates "recognize that, generally,the campaign manager and the candidate aregreater repositories of wisdom about theircommunities than we are. And, therefore,their ideas have to be taken seriously."Likewise, he disputes perceptions that heand other consultants can fill their candidates,like so many empty vessels, with "a load ofmagic malarkey," and then get those candi­dates elected. "I think for a campaign to be ef­fective the message has to really flow fromwho that candidate is. If the message doesn'treflect the candidate, people are going to fig­ure it out. And, you know, basically whencandidates go out there, they are very muchputting themselves on the line. The least youcan do for them is to make sure that the mes­sage they're carrying is one they can feelcomfortable with.""My experience," Axelrod recently told theChicago Reader, "has been that, by the end ofevery campaign, people have made judg­ments about candidates that are fairly accu­rate. And in the amalgam of all the spots andall the public debate comes through an imagethat tends to be fairly accurate. "He refuses to buy allegations-like one readto him from The Spot: The Rise of PoliticalAdvertising on Television by Edwin Diamond,PhB' 47, AM' 49, and Stephen Bates-that hisprofession may be harming the democraticprocess by "turning campaigns and electionsinto a kind of spectator sport ... to watch andenjoy but not necessarily to participate in byvoting.""Isn't it interesting," he says, leaning for­ward in his chair, jaw tense, "that peoplewould suggest that competition could hurt thedemocratic process? I think that competitionis good for the democratic process. What's re­ally hurt the democratic process is that office­holders have let people down. I mean, itwasn't the political consultants who createdWatergate or the S&L crisis or the VietnamWar, or all the things that have led to this mas­sive cynicism among voters."Still, he concedes, candidates need moneyto buy media, and so the candidates with morebucks have the advantage. People may point to Carol Moseley Braun and her Illinois pri­mary victory as an example of voters rejectingbig-money candidates, but Axelrod says theyare missing the point. "Some folks from theBraun camp approached me about her race inthe beginning, and I told them bluntly I didn'tthink she could raise the money to put a win­ning campaign together, one-on-one, againstDixon."It looked like she was above the fray, butthe truth is, she was below the fray. I mean,she really wasn't involved in the campaign.And just by not being involved in it she lookedbetter than the two guys who were in it. AndI'm happy she won. If we couldn't win, I'mcertainly happy she did- I think she'll be agood, strong vote in the Senate. But the truthis, she could never have beat Alan Dixon if AlHofeld had not been in the race, spending thekind of money that he spent."Given that reality, Axelrod says, the onlyway to truly help less funded candidates is tooffer more "free media" opportunities. "Ifeel strongly, " he says, "that television and ra­dio stations ought to be compelled, as part ofthe privilege of using the public airwaves, togive a certain amount of free time to candi­dates so there is at least a minimal level of ex­posure for all the candidates. That would dotwo things: it would make these races morecompetitive and it would also cut in half thecosts of campaigning. And by doing thatyou're really reducing the influence of specialinterests. "That such changes would also reduceAxelrod's bank account doesn't even seem tooccur to him, but that's typical, says ForrestClaypool. "In more instances than I canname, David has basically let his heart getin the way of his head in terms of the finan­cial side of the business .... That's an admir­able characteristic, but I think it's alsodangerous. "Even in the unlikey event that Axelrod doesone day manage to lose his food-stained shirt-or, more likely, that he simply wearies ofthe daily stress of media consulting­Claypool doesn't doubt his friend will landsquarely on his feet: "David is going to be oneof those people who have four or five careersin their life. Personally, I would like to see himbecome the editor of a major paper, or per­haps have some sort of strategic or communi­cations role in the White House, with the ap­propriate Democratic president. "In the meantime, Axelrod is resigned to thefact that columnists will continue to label hima money-hungry mudslinger; that people, ingeneral, will think of his business as a "dirty"one. Once he gets into a race behind a candi­date he believes in, it's no longer about whathis critics or opponents say about him-it'sabout winning. And winning is somethingDavid Axelrod has clearly not grown tired of.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 21The best things thathappen in universitiesare the things thathappen in the classroom.But when classroomsare isolated from oneanother, there's a steepeducational price to pay.By Gerald Graff N UNDERGRADUATE TELLS OF AN ART HISTORY COURSE INwhich the instructor observed one day, ''As wenow know, the idea that knowledge can be ob­jective is a positivist myth that has been ex­ploded by postmodern thought." It so hap­pens the student is concurrently enrolled in apolitical science course in which the instruc­tor speaks confidently about the objectivity ofhis discipline as if it had not been" exploded"at all. What do you do? the student is asked."What else can 1 do?" he says. "I trash objec­tivity in art history, and 1 presuppose it in po­litical science."22 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 A second undergraduate describes a historyteacher who stresses the superiority of Westernculture in developing the ideas of freedom, de­mocracy, and free market capitalism that therest of the world is now rushing to imitate. Shealso has a literature teacher who describes suchclaims of Western supremacy as an example ofthe hegemonic ideology by which the UnitedStates arrogates the right to police the world.Asked which course she prefers, she replies,"Well, I'm getting an A in both."To some of us these days, the moral of thesestories would be that students have becomecynical relativists who care less about convic­tions than about grades and careers. In fact, ifanything is surprising, it is that more studentsdo not behave in this cynical fashion, for theestablished curriculum encourages it. Thedisjunction of the curriculum is a far morePowerful source of relativism than any doc­trine preached by the faculty.. One of the oddest things about the universityIS that it calls itself a community of scholarsyet organizes its curriculum in a way that con­ceals the links of the community from thoseWho are not already aware of them. The courses being given at any moment on a cam­pus represent any number of rich potentialconversations within and across the disci­plines. But since students experience theseconversations only as a series of monologues,the conversations become actual only for theminority who can reconstruct them on theirown. No self-respecting educator would de­liberately design a system guaranteed to keepstudents dependent on the whim of the indi­vidual instructor. Yet this is precisely the ef­fect of a curriculum composed of courses thatare not in dialogue with one another. Among the factors that makeacademic culture more con­fusing today than in the past isnot only that there is morecontroversy but that there iseven controversy about whatcan legitimately be considered controversial.Traditionalists are often angry that thereshould even be a debate over the canon, whilerevisionists are often angry that there shouldeven be a debate over "political correctness, "or the relevance of ideology and politics totheir subjects.A recent feminist critic says she finds it "as­tonishing" that it still needs repeating at thislate date that "the perspective assumed to be'universal' which has dominated knowledge... has actually been male and culture­bound." Since the feminist argument, how­ever, is that we still fail to see how culture­bound our thinking is, it is hard to see why thiscritic should be astonished that she still needsto make the point. Another political criticwrites that "we are perhaps already weary ofthe avalanche of papers, books, and confer­ences entitled 'The Politics of X, , and we haverecently begun to question that most hallowedof all political slogans on the left, 'everythingis political. ,,, Yet the idea of politics that thiscritic and her audience are already "wearyof" is one that most people have not yet en­countered and might well find incomprehen­sible. The "advanced" academic and the lay­person (or the traditional academic) are so farapart that what is already old news to one has. not yet become intelligible to the other.Imagine how this affects students who, at themoment they are negotiating the difficulttransition from the lay culture to the academicculture, must also negotiate the unpredictableand unfathomable discrepancies between ac­ademic departments and factions. Whenthere is no correlation of the different dis­courses to which students are exposed, it be­comes especially difficult for them to inferwhich assumptions are safe and which arelikely to be challenged. The problem is thatknowledge of what is and is not consideredpotentially or legitimately controversial can­not be learned a priori; you cannot get it out ofE. D. Hirsch's Dictionary of Cultural Legacy.Such knowledge comes only through interac­tion with a community, and that interaction isUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 23precisely what is prevented by a disconnectedsystem of courses. Then, too, assumptionsabout what is and is not potentially controver­sial tend to change from one moment to thenext and one sub-community to the next, andthey are changing at a faster rate today than inthe past.Thomas S. Kuhn in The Structure of Scien­tific Revolutions describes moments of crisisor "paradigm shift" in the sciences, when "alaw that cannot even be demonstrated to onegroup of scientists may ... seem intuitively ob­vious to another." The fate of Kuhn's ownbook is an interesting case in point. Even ashis sociological account of scientific para­digm change has been treated as virtual holywrit by many literary theorists (for a while itseemed almost obligatory to begin every bookor essay with a respectful bow to Kuhn), hiswork has often been ignored or dismissed byscientists and philosophers of science, whoaccuse him of subverting the concept of ob­jective truth in reducing scientific discoveryto "mob psychology." As the controversy overKuhn has revealed, both the literati and thescientists have remained largely walled upwithin their clashing assumptions about ob­jectivity, the smugness of which might havebeen punctured had these parties been forcedto argue with each other in their teaching.This mutual smugness has persisted in thesniper fire that continues to be exchanged overthe issue of objectivity and the extent to whichknowledge is independent of the social situa­tion of the knower; revisionists sneer at theconcept and traditionalists sneer at the veryidea of questioning it.The question neither groupseems to ask is what it must belike to be a student caught in thecrossfire between these con­flicting views of objectivity,each one prone to present itselfas "intuitively obvious" and uncontroversial.A rhetoric scholar, Gregory Columb, hasstudied the disorientation experienced by abright high school graduate who, after doingwell in a humanities course as a freshman atthe University of Chicago, tried to apply hermastery to a social science course, only tocome up with a grade of C. Imagine trying towrite an academic paper when you sense thatalmost anything you say can be used againstyou and that the intellectual moves that gotGerald Graff, AB'59, is the George M.Pullman professor in English Language &Literature and the College. This article isadapted from Graff's new book, Beyond theCulture Wars, to be published in November.©1992 by Gerald Graff. Reprinted with per­mission of the publisher, W. W. Norton &Company, Inc.24 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992you an A in existentialist philosophy may getyou a C minus and a dirty look in Skinnerianbehaviorism.Consider the fact that the passive voice thatis so standard in sociology writing ("it will becontended in this paper ... ") has been peren­nially rebuked in English courses. Or consid­er something so apparently trivial as the con­vention of using the present tense to describeactions in literature and philosophy and thepast tense to describe them in history. Platosays things in literary and philosophical ac­counts while in historical accounts he saidthem. Experienced writers become so accus­tomed to such tense shifting that it seems asimple matter, but it reflects deep-rooted andpotentially controversial differences betweendisciplines. Presumably, Plato speaks in thepresent in literary and philosophical contextsbecause ideas there are considered timeless;only when we move over to history does itstart to matter that the writer is dead. We Eng­lish teachers write "tense shift" in the marginwhen student writers betray uncertainty aboutthis convention, but how do we expect them to"get" it when they pass from the very differ­ent time zones of history and philosophy /English with no engagement of the underlyingissues?One of the most frequent comments teach­ers make on student papers is "What's yourevidence?" but nobody would ever finish apiece of writing if it were necessary to supplyevidence for everything being said, so in or­der to write, one must acquire a sense ofwhich statements have to be supported by evi­dence (or further argument) and which ones awriter can get away with because they are al­ready taken for granted by the imagined audi­ence. What happens, then, when a writer hasno way of knowing whether an assumptionthat he or she got away with with audience Awill also be conceded by audience B? It is nowonder that students protect themselves fromthe insecurity of such a situation by "psychingout" each course as it comes- and then for­getting about it as soon as possible after the fi­nal exam in order to clear their minds for theseemingly unrelated demands of the next setof courses.It is not only ideas and reasoning processesbut the recall of basic information as well thatfigure to be impaired by disjunctive curricularorganization. To use the jargon of informationtheory, an information system that is experi­enced as an unrelated series of signals will beweak in the kind of redundancy that is neededfor information to be retained. Faced with acurriculum overloaded with data and weak inredundancy, students may find it difficult toknow which items of information they aresupposed to remember. Then, too, a studentmay be exposed to the same information inseveral courses while failing to recognize it as "the same," since it is contextualized differ­ently in each course. When students fail toidentify a cultural literacy item on a test, theproblem may be not that they don't know theinformation but that they don't know theyknow it; they may have learned it in a contextwhose relevance to the test questions theydon't recognize. What is learned seems sospecific to a particular course that it is diffi-" cult for students to see its application beyond.The critic Kenneth Burke once comparedthe intellectual life of a culture to a parlor inwhich different guests are forever dropping inand out. As the standard curriculum repre­sents the intellectual life, however, there is noparlor; the hosts congregate in separate roomswith their acolytes and keep their differencesand agreements to themselves.To venture a comparison, it is as if you wereto try to learn the game of baseball by beingshown a series of rooms in which you see eachcomponent of the game separately: pitchersgoing through their windups in one room; hit­ters swinging their bats in the next; then in­fielders, outfielders, umpires, fans, field an­nouncers, ticket scalpers, broadcasters, hotdog vendors, and so on. You see them all intheir different roles, but since you see themseparately you get no clear idea of what thegame actually looks like or why the players dowhat they do. No doubt you would come awaywith a very imperfect understanding of base­ball under these conditions. Yet it does notseem farfetched to compare these circum­stances with the ones students face when theyare exposed to a series of disparate courses,subjects, and perspectives and expected notonly to infer the rules of the academic intel­lectual game but to play it competentlythemselves.t is tempting to blame these problemson bad teaching, seemingly rectifiableby encouraging instructors to be moresensitive to their students' predica­ment. Certainly more sensitivity onthe part of teachers would help. Buteven the most sympathetic and sensitiveteacher cannot be sure which of his or herviews may be flatly contradicted by the nextteacher encountered by his or her students.Then, too, though good teaching may have itsinherently individualistic aspects, we all needothers at times to counteract our biases and tomake up for our gaps in knowledge. For thisreason the problems I have been discussingcannot be effectively addressed at the level ofindividual teaching. They are curricularproblems, and a curriculum is not simply thesum total of separate acts of teaching but a sys­tematic organization of teaching. In fact, thehabit of reducing all questions about educa­tion to questions about individual teachingdiscourages us from thinking systematicallyabout the curriculum. Our very use of theterm "the classroom" to stand for the entireeducational process is a symptom of this con­stricted way of thinking, which I call the"Course fetish, " though it might also be calledthe "cult of the great teacher. "How well one can teach depends not just onindividual virtuosity but on the possibilitiesand limits imposed by the structure in whichone works. It may not hold for everyone, but Ibelieve I am a better teacher when I am able totake my colleagues as reference points in myclassroom. As long as teaching is viewed as aninherently solo performance, too much ismade to depend on the teacher's personalresources, something which puts teachers un­der inordinate pressure and makes for burn­out. Only a weak system would depend onperpetual feats of personal virtuosity to keep itfunctioning at its best.This point has been made by a powerful crit­ic of the course system, Joseph Tussman, a re­former who helped develop an experimentalprogram at the University of California atBerkeley. In a book on the program publishedin 1969, Tussman pointed out that the coursesystem had become so pervasive "that wehave come to regard the conditions of courseteaching as the conditions of teaching in gen­eral." He argued that the problem with thecourse system is that since "the courses aregenerally unrelated and competitive, ... eachprofessor knows that he has a valid claim toonly a small fraction of the student's time andattention. The effect is that no teacher is in aPosition to be responsible for, or effectivelyconcerned with, the student's total education­al situation. The student presents himself tothe teacher in fragments, and not even the ad­Vising system can put him back togetheragain." These limiting conditions, notedTUssman, are ones "of which every sensitiveteacher is bitterly aware. But there is nothinghe can do about it. He can develop a coherentcourse, but a collection of coherent coursesmay be simply an incoherent collection."As Tussman maintained, the only effectiveUnit for educational planning is the program,not the course. We tend, however, to associateprograms and systems with bureaucracy,mechanization, and institutionalization,terms lacking in the sentimental emotionalresonance that we attach to the idea of "theclassroom" presided over by the great teach­�r. The magical aura of "the classroom" liesIn the illusion that it is not part of a system atall, that it is an island somehow exempt fromthe incursions of bureaucracy. We know thatthe truth is otherwise, that courses have to beScheduled, assigned to rooms, listed in the�atalog, and assimilated to the grid of credith ours, requirements, and grades. The course,b OWever, is experienced not as an extension ofUreaucratic organization but as a force that transcends and redeems bureaucratic organi­zation and makes it tolerable.This explains why we frequently hear aca­demics speak irreverently about the existenceof departments but hardly ever about theircourses, though the course is an expression ofthe same process of bureaucratic specializa­tion and privatization that produced the de­partment. The department is thought to epito­mize the divisive, competitive, meanlyprofessionalized aspects of academic life. Itsexistence is a reminder of the arbitrary fenceswith which each discipline selfishly guards itsdisciplinary turf, of factional rivalry and anarrowly self-serving and proprietary view ofintellectual life. The faculty meeting, an ex­pression of the departmental ethos, typifiesthis realm of petty strife from which thecourse is felt to be a saving escape. As Tuss­man put it, "the faculty meeting-college,departmental, or committee-is the abrasiveordeal from which one flees to the delicious,healing privacy of one's own course."Whereas the department epitomizes the bu­reaucratic aspects of academic life, the coursedoes not feel like a bureaucratic entity at all.Thus "the classroom" is believed to be whatthe university is really all about after we factorout the necessary evils of administration, de­partments, publish or perish, research, facul­ty meetings, and even the curriculum itself,which are seen as realms of conflict. Thissymbolic opposition in all its sentimentality isneatly exemplified in the recent popular filmThe Dead Poets Society, in which a brilliantlycreative and eccentric teacher of literature ispitted against a puritanical, repressive, andlife-denying prep school administration.ut the most familiar representa­tion of the sentimental image ofthe course as a scene of conflict­free community is the one pre­sented on untold numbers ofcollege catalog covers: A small,intimate class is sprawled informally on thegently sloping campus greensward, shadytrees overhead and ivy-covered buildings inthe background. Ringed in a casual semicir- cle, the students gaze with rapt attention at ateacher who is reading aloud from a smallbook-a volume of poetry, we inevitably as­sume, probably Keats or Dickinson or Whit­man. The classroom, in these images, is agarden occupying a redemptive space insidethe bureaucratic and professional machine. Itis a realm of unity and presence -in a worldotherwise given over to endless difference,conflict, competition, and factionalism.The classroom resembles the primitiveProtestant Church, freed from the ecclesiasti­cal externals that only tend to intervene be­tween the believer and the authentic experi­ence of the sacred texts. The curriculum, bycontrast, is identified with the bureaucraticmachine and is represented in the catalog notin pastoral images but in mechanically num­bered lists of departments, courses, and re­quirements, although the cold linearity ofthis organization in its own way obscures theconflicts between departments and courses.To the extent that the curriculum is asso­ciated with alien bureaucracy, the course fet­ish carries with it a certain disbelief in thevery need for a curriculum. Underlying thecourse fetish finally is a conviction (as Irecently heard a prominent philosopher andeducational theorist say) that there is nothingwrong with today's education that cannot becured by getting good teachers together andsimply turning them loose. And there is a cer­tain truth to this view.No doubt the best things that happen in uni­versities are the things that happen in "theclassroom." But the romance of "the class­room" blinds us to the steep educationalprices we pay when classrooms are isolatedfrom one another."The classroom" embodies a contradic­tion: In the process of creating one kind ofcommunity it thwarts the community that itcould be constituting with other courses. It isnot surprising that professors flock in increas­ing numbers to professional conferences andsymposia, where they find the kind of colle­gial discussion that rarely occurs at home. Nowonder they feel a lack of community at homewhen they spend so much of their time thereisolated from one another in their courses.To say this, to be sure, is to go against thewidespread belief that professors now spendall too little of their time in their courses. Thisis sometimes indeed the case-though I thinkfar less commonly than is thought. The morefundamental question we should be asking inmost cases is not how much time teachers arespending in the classroom but under whatconditions. Spending adequate time in theclassroom is obviously crucial, but that timewould be spent less wastefully if each class­room were not off limits to other classrooms,if classrooms formed a conversation insteadof a set of ships passing in the night.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 25M adean's onlydaughter,Jean Snyder,provided the actors withinsights into her family. Left:Tom Skerritt and BrendaBlethyn as the Rev. and Mrs.Maclean; below: CraigSheffer and Emily Lloyd asNorman and jessie.The real Norman Maclean(right), photographed onthe day he finished hismanuscript for A RiverRuns Through It andOther Stories. Maclean'sfirst work offiction, it hasbecome one of the U of CPress' best-selling titles.28 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 The book was nominated for (though it did notreceive) the 1977 Pulitzer Prize for fiction,and the title story became something of a cult­classic-reissued four times in different hard­cover editions by the Press.The story-the semi-autobiographical taleof a Presbyterian minister and his two sons,fly-fishing, and the inability to help the onesyou love-was Maclean's attempt to unify ther two sides of himself: the outdoors man fromMontana and the University professor. And itwas Maclean's "love poem" written for hisyounger brother, Paul, who was murdered ina Hyde Park alley in 1938-an event thatMaclean still struggled to come to terms withso many years later. In the story's final pas­sage, Maclean revealed his inspiration:"Indirectly, though, {Paul] was present inmany of our conversations. Once, for in­stance, my father asked me a series of ques­tions that suddenly made me wonder whetherI understood even my father whom Ifelt closerto than any man I have ever known. 'You like totell true stories, don't you?' he asked, and Ianswered, 'les, I like to tell stories that aretrue. 'Then he asked, /tfter you have finished yourtrue stories sometime, why don't you make upa story and the people to go with it?'Only then will you understand what hap-pened and why.'It is those we live with and love and shouldknow who elude us. 'Now nearly all those 1 loved and did not un­derstand when I was young are dead, but I stillreach out to them.Of course, now I am too old to be much of afisherman, and now of course I usually fishthe big waters alone, although some friendsthink I shouldn't. Like many fly fishermen inwestern Montana where the summer days arealmost Arctic' in length, I often do not startfishing until the cool of the evening. Then inthe Arctic half-light of the canyon, all exist­ence fades to a being with my soul and memo­ries and the sounds of the Big Blackfoot Riverand a four-count rhythm and the hope that afish will rise.Eventually, all things merge into one, and ariver runs through it. The river was cut by theworld s great flood and runs over rocks fromthe basement of time. On some of the rocks aretimeless raindrops. Under the rocks are thewords, and some of the words are theirs.I am haunted by waters. "When he finished writing the story,Maclean read it aloud to Snyder and her hus­band. "When he read the ending, tears wereflowing from his eyes," Snyder remembers."He said, 'This is the first time I've been ableto cry for my brother. ' It had been more than30 years that he had been hurting."Quite to his surprise, Norman Maclean'sspare, tightly woven, 104-page story attractedattention from Hollywood. "The first thoughtDad had in relation to a movie, " says Snyder,"was absence of thought. Then eventually hebegan to think about it, but always with fasci­nation and fear -and a strong dose of both.""N.. ··· :!'��/�:db::,:c:v��:�:road," Norman Macleansaid about Hollywood pro­ducers in an interview withEsquire in 1981. "One studio sent out someSoft -talker first to tell me about art and the in­tegrity of what I'd written. Then they sent me ayellow-dog contract saying they could doWhat they wanted with my stories, that theycould publish a book about the movie-aboutmy stories, my brother, the people I loved andlove-and choose anybody they wanted toWrite it. I told them, 'When we had bastardslike you out West, we shot them for coyotebait.' "Hollywood actors weren't spared Maclean'sacerbic tongue either. William Hurt joinedMaclean for a fishing trip in Montana to dis­CUss movie possibilities. And while hebrought with him what the Chicago Tribunecalled a "Hollywood-style entourage, "hene­glected to bring a fishing license. MacleanWas not impressed. Then, after fishing withBurt, Maclean summed up the actor'sChances: "Well, you're a pretty good fisher­man but not good enough to be my brother.". Norman Maclean was a man firmly planted10 the West. He grew up in Montana, foughtforest fires in his youth, and when he later be­came the William Rainey Harper professor inEnglish at the University, he still spent everysummer in Montana fishing and reaffirminghis attachment to the woods. He didn't takekindly to offers from Hollywood. That is, notUntil the right offer, from the right person,came along.Between the fall of 1986 and the spring of1987, Robert Redford made three visits toNorman Maclean at his home on WoodlawnA.venue to discuss the possibilities of turningA. River Runs Through It into a movie. "Myheart is in the West," Redford explained later�o the New York Times. He was drawn to the�Ok, and the possibilities for filming it, he�,ald, after reading it nearly a dozen years ago.I 1 think the reason Norman resisted for soOng Was that he was fearful the book would beturned into pornography, " Redford said. "He:as afraid that his deeply loving family woulde portrayed as disturbed. I assured him thatwas not my intention.""I think Redford knocked Norman off his feet," says Joel Snyder, SB'61, University ofChicago art professor and Jean's husband."Redford said to Norman, 'Look, it's going tocost millions of dollars to make the film. Thepeople who are going to invest in the film aregoing to invest in me and not in you. I've got tobe in the position of having the final word.'"Noone had spoken that directly to Normanbefore. Redford said to him, 'I will listen toyou. I will take what you have to say very seri­ously. ' But he also said, very honestly, 'This ismy film, and if you can't be comfortable withknowing that if we get into a disagreement,I'm going to make up my own mind, then youjust can't be comfortable with this. ,,,Redford's straight talk apparently appealed to Maclean. In February 1988, Maclean andRedford signed a contract that had been nego­tiated by Jean Snyder, an intellectual propertylawyer at the Chicago firm D' Ancona &Pflaum: Redford would produce and directthe movie, and Maclean would have a voice inthe creative process. If Maclean, who was 85at the time, became unable to work on thefilm, the contract stated, his daughter couldtake his place. "Then there was a wait whileJune 26The script: It is by no means finished.There are revisions being made all the time.A difference between the script and thebook is that there are little added bits ofJuly 17The set dressers, working under the lead­man, bring in everything you see in the set,from drapes to furniture to all the bric-a­brac in the rooms. The labor is not all cleanUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 29Redford did other things," she says. "Unfor­tunately, during the wait, Dad got too sick toprovide any input. "Because A River Runs Through It is ratherlong on character but short on plot, Redfordand screenwriter Richard Friedenberg(whose most recent movie was the JuliaRoberts vehicle Dying Young) set the movieback ten years-to the time of the courtshipbetween Norman Maclean and wife-to-be,Jessie Burns. They wanted real-life incidentsfrom the family's past on which to base thefilm's plot. "Richard Friedenberg had hopedto talk to Dad," Jean Snyder says, "but henever was able to." Instead, Jean and JoelSnyder taped conversations with Macleanand pulled together previously published in­terviews for the screenwriter to use as sourcematerial.N orman Maclean died in August 1990. The next summer, filming of A River began onlocation in Livingston, Montana. And true tothe letter of the contract, Maclean's daughterand son-in-law were there.The T-shirt Jean Snyder is wearingshows an ink drawing of a riverwinding through a forest with thewords, ''A River Runs Through It"printed below. Like every other rcast and crew member, the Snyders were giv­en T-shirts and sweatshirts bearing the logo atthe end of the filming. The shirts are a tradi­tion in the movie business, she explains likethe movie hand she's become, and aren't avail­able commercially.Snyder sits back in her chair and smiles asshe tells the story of her summer on location."The film company rented a house for us thatlooked out over Livingston, a gorgeous littletown," she says. The entire family, in fact,had a place in the film. Joel Snyder, who isalso a professional photographer, was hired tophotograph the filmmaking and to take photo­graphs of the actors that would be used in thefilm-pictures that would look as if they had30 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 been taken in the early part of the century. TheSnyders' oldest son, Jacob (a 1990 LabSchools graduate), worked in "craft ser­vices, " providing food for the crew, and alsowas filmed as a piano-playing extra. Sixteen­year-old Noah Snyder, Jacob's brother, gar­nered a walk-on part as a copy boy in Paul Ma­clean's newspaper office. And, thanks to a"handshake agreement" between Redfordand Maclean, two U of C undergraduateswere interns on the film. English major PaulErickson, AB'92, worked with the soundcrew and appeared as an extra and humanitiesmajor Maren Linett, AB '91, floated to vari­ous crews, including set design and costumes(see sidebars)."Everybody who worked on the movie wasvery respectful of the book," says Jean Sny­der, who alternated her time that summerbetween Montana and Chicago. "Most of thepeople were very high-quality professionals,experienced in the industry, who welcomedthe opportunity to work on this movie becausethey respected the work and they respectedRedford," she adds. ''And I very much feltlike I was part of the process. "Snyder's insights into her parents were in­valuable for the actors-Emily Lloyd, CraigSheffer, and Brad Pitt cast as Jessie, Norman,and Paul, respectively. "Before we went toMontana that summer, I got out a bunch of myparents' old love letters that I discovered in myfather's house after he died," she says. "Say­ing that it was homework, I made myself readthrough the letters, which, I think, absent themovie, would have been a pretty painful expe­rience. When I was on the set in the beginning,I talked to the actors about my parents. I gavethem copies of the letters, and really workedwith them to come up with characters youcould be proud to call 'Jessie' or 'Norman.'"As Redford had made clear in his talks withNorman Maclean, the advice the Snydersgave would be listened to, but not always fol­lowed. "There were many frustrations," saysJoel Snyder. "I made lots and lots of sugges­tions that I was told were just too literary, tOOintellectual, too this, too that." Still, some ad­vice was taken. For example, the script calledfor Norman to refer to his employer as a "pri­vate university." Jean Snyder had that linechanged to "the University of Chicago."And Joel Snyder's "literary" suggestionswere helpful on at least one occasion."There's a scene in which the actors who playNorman and his father recite lines from one ofNorman's favorite poems, Wordsworth's 'In­timations' ode,'" says Joel Snyder. ''And Icould hear Norman reading the poem-hewas one of the best readers of poetry I've everheard. But the two actors were mangling it.They read it as if they were knowingly doing acaricature of Dylan Thomas reading poetry.And I said to the director, 'You can't readpoetry that way. It's going to embarrasseverybody. And moreover, no one's going tounderstand what it was about poetry thatcould ever have attracted this lumbermanfrom the West.'" Acknowledging Snyder'spoint, Redford directed the actors to read thepoem with a little less bombast.The atmosphere of a movie on location isOne of almost crazed energy. Thirteen- or 14-hour days and six-day weeks are not uncom­mon, and hundreds of people, each responsi­ble for a different task, are required toproduce a film. "The amount of work, plan­ning, and scheduling that goes into a movie isjust amazing," s<ays Jean Snyder. Even crea­tures as lowly as flies require a specialhandler.In an episode that became known as the"bare-assed scene," two characters fallasleep nude in the sun. Redford wanted to filmsome flies buzzing around the characters'sunburned bodies, but soon discovered heCOUldn't just put out a piece of rotten fruit andlet nature take its course. ''A bona fide 'flyWrangler' showed up withhis flies in a plasticbag," Jean Snyder says. But apparently theprofessional wrangler didn't take the swelter­ing Montana heat into account. "When thetime came for the flies, the wrangler steps up,opens his little plastic bag and the flies had alldied," she says with a healthy laugh.Dead flies and all, the filming was complet­ed in just over 11 weeks. However, Carolco,the film's original backer, ran into financialtrouble and the movie languished for a whilein the editing stages until Columbia Picturesacquired distribution rights for the film ear­lier this year. Now, under Columbia's watch­ful gaze, the film is scheduled for an Octoberrelease in Chicago. Jean Snyder, who hasbeen in contact with Redford throughout thefinal stages of editing and production, is alsohelping to organize a special screening whichwill benefit the University'S Norman MacleanScholarship fund.Before her father died, Snyder says, he ad­mitted that he had second thoughts . aboutmaking the movie. "He had turned very im­POrtant events in his life into art as a way of ex­�ressing them, " she says. ''And as much as theIdea fascinated him, he wasn't eager, after all,to see another interpretation of his story. "Snyder shifts in her chair, takes the last sip ofCoffee, and glances down at the now-sleepingPUppy. Her father would have been hard toPlease, Snyder admits, but in the end, shethinks he would have appreciated this effort.A few days earlier she had seen a version ofthe film at a screening in Los Angeles. "I wishbad Were here to see it. He might still havehad regrets but I think it would have pleasedhim very much." And, she adds, after thebriefest of pauses "I think it would have madehim sad." , A aor Brad Pittplayed Maclean's brother,Paul (left and below), whosedeath affected Macleandeeply. After reading A RiverRuns Through It to hisfamily, Maclean wiped awayhis tears, telling them "thisis the first time I've beenable to cry for my brother."As the film's creative con­sultants, the Snyders spentthe summer on location inMontana. From left,jacob(dressed for his role as apiano-playing extra),jean,Noah (who appears as acopy boy in Paul's news­paper office), and joel.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 . 31Examining the interplay between social activity and basic biology, researcher MarthaB Y J 0 H N EASTONPHOTOGRAPHY BY DAN DRYMcClintock has found that, when it comes to reproduction, behavior affects hormones.32 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992To call them promiscuous wouldbe an understatement. Polyga­mous was also insufficient,since that implied that only onegender had multiple partners.Even polybrachygamous-given to multiple,. brief, and indiscriminate matings- fell short.There was no polite term for a social groupwhere both males and females mate with sev­eral partners, shifting from one to another re­peatedly in the midst of the enterprise, evenbefore an act was completed. Finally biopsy­chologist Martha McClintock had to turn toclassicist James Redfield, AB'54, PhD'61, toConcoct a new word. He joined the Greek pan+-of the whole, altogether-with gamos­marriage-to spawn panogamy, where every­body couples with everybody.At first blush, this sounds like the stuff ofdaytime TV, and in fact all the action is pains­takingly recorded on videotape. But the sheervolume of carnal activity and the seemingcomplexity of procreative interactions, of pa­ternity and maternity and method and may­hem, are probably too much for even the mostloyal soap-opera fans.For the few devoted observers 'who pickapart the videotapes frame by frame, how­ever, it's a glorious opportunity to uncover thehidden patterns in apparent chaos. It's also achance to study a severely neglected phenom­enon: how factors such as individual or groupbehavior can affect physiology. Specifically,MCClintock is focusing on how social interac­tions-a blend of cooperation and competi­tion-affect who gets pregnant and who sireswhose litter in a cluster of Norway rats. Herfindings should help researchers understandhow the interplay between social behavior andbasic biology can regulate something as com­plex as reproduction.Unfortunately, says McClintock, professorof psychology and chair of the Committee onBiopsychology, a common bias among biolo­gists is to approach massive topics like repro­duction by reducing them to smaller phenom­ena, searching for ever-more-molecularclues that might explain each minute bio­chemical step of the process. "Someone�ho 's interested in one part of the cycle, liketiming of ovulation, might begin with theOvary," bemoans McClintock, "then turn tohow the hypothalamus and the pituitary con­trol the ovary, then to individual neurons inthe hypothalamus, then to the proteins thatregulate one type of calcium channel in eachneuron. I don't mean to say that's not impor­tant. It is. But at the same time, there's more tooVulation than tickling calcium channels."Instead, she takes a top-down, mind-over­�atter approach, charting the ways that socialInteractions such as solicitation of mating partners, determination of social status orcompetition between rivals as well as envi­ronmental cues, behavior, and even mood canaffect reproductive physiology-everythingfrom puberty to menopause, including ovula­tion and conception through pregnancy, birth,and lactation.''All kinds of social and environmentalevents affect fertility," she insists, "and insome circumstances these events are going tobe better predictors of the timing of ovulation,for instance, than the more molecular clues. "If you want to understand a complex problemlike reproduction, says McClintock, "youhave to combine information from both ends.You can't just look at the effects of hormoneson behavior, you have to look at the effect ofbehavior on hormones."So McClintock relies on her randy rodentsto help her pick apart all the factors that regu­late the reproductive cycle. She scrutinizeshow they select partners, mate, raise their off­spring, grow old, and die. And it all began withan unexpected fmding in a dormitory full of res­olutely non-panogamous college women.As an undergraduate at Welles­ley College in the late 1960s,Martha McClintock noticedthat many of the women in herdorm had their menstrual peri­ods at about the same time. Others hadstumbled across this phenomenon before; itwas a generally accepted bit of folk wisdomamong college women. But no one had evertried to quantify it, to prove that it really oc­curred. When McClintock mentioned it tosome male researchers during a summer fel­lowship at Jackson Laboratory, in Bar Har­bor, Maine, "it was met," she recalls, "bymuch skepticism." So that fall she began tocollect menstrual records from all 135 womenin her dorm, a project that turned into hersenior thesis.She found that, during the first four monthsof the school year, the cycles of women whowere friends did indeed gradually mesh to­gether. By January, many of those who wereclose friends or roommates had nearly identi­cal cycles, and the degree of synchronizationcontinued slowly to increase throughout theschool year. Curiously, women who had littleor no contact with men- "you could onlydo this study at Wellesley," chuckles Me­Clintock-had slightly longer cycles, whichsuggests they may not have been ovulating."This was one of the first real examples ofsocial interactions affecting basic biology,"says McClintock, "of behavior altering a neu-John Easton, AM'll, is director of mediarelations for the U ofC Medical Center. roendocrine mechanism." The next year, shementioned her college thesis to Edward 0.Wilson, head of comparative zoology at Har­vard and a founder of the new field of socio­biology. Astounded, he suggested that shesend a brief description of her work to theprestigious, and highly selective, journalNature. The journal published her paper inJanuary 1971.''At the time, " recalls McClintock, "I didn'trealize what it meant to publish something inNature. I was the only author on the report. Igot a lot of attention.""It's one of the most famous papers that I'veever come across," says psychologist Nor­man Adler, associate dean of the college at theUniversity of Pennsylvania. John Vanden­bergh, chairman of zoology at North CarolinaState, still remembers reading the two-pagepaper. "It was extremely important, " he says."For the first time it described scientifically ahuman phenomenon that was recognized onlyin hindsight. It was soon verified by othersand it quickly stimulated a lot of people to be­gin looking for human chemical signals andfor animal models." It also had a tremendousimpact on animal husbandry, says Vanden­bergh, especially for breeding dairy cattle.The following year, McClintock transferredinto a graduate program in Adler's laboratoryat Penn and began searching for an animalmodel she could use to dissect the phenome­non she had uncovered. There were a fewknown examples of mutual entrainment, thetendency for separate biological entities to actin unison. The flashiest was fireflies that sig­naled together, but the neurons that regulatethe human heart, fish-fin movements, evencyclic AMP production in slime molds, allseemed to rely on a similar mechanism. Eachsystem featured two chemical signals: onethat advanced the underlying rhythm, short­ening the cycle, and another that delayed therhythm, lengthening the cycle.McClintock soon found a convenient mod­el: ovarian synchrony occurred in laboratoryrats. To test how the signal was relayed, sheisolated several rats in cages connected onlyby a common air supply so that they couldn'tsee or hear or touch each other. "But theysmelled each other," she says, and withinthree cycles about 50 to 75 percent of thegroup were synchronized. "So we knew themessage was airborne. "Isolating those airborne signals, known aspheromones, took some imagination. "Wehypothesized that, as in the other synchroniz­ing systems, female rats produce two sig­nals," says McClintock, "one pheromonethat accelerates ovulation and one that sup­presses it." So she began to collect smells byhousing ovulating females in .a box for 24UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 33hours and replacing them each day with afresh set of ovulating females. "Pretty soon"says McClintock, "that box began to accumu­late a strong 'eaudor'" (an acronym for eaudovulating rat). When she blew air over thebox and onto another set of animals livingdownwind, "10 and behold," she recalls,"they ovulated later than expected." Thesame test, this time with pre-ovulatory rats,hastened ovulation.Yet some groups, about one out of ten, neversynchronized. "For a long time I consideredthem experimental failures," says McClin­tock, "but I never knew what had gonewrong." She has now spent nearly two dec­ades, first at Penn and since 1976 at Chicago,refining her understanding of synchrony.Working with doctoral student. Susan Gans,AM'92, she developed methods to samplehormone levels in response to pheromones,and began trying to understand how individu­al variations or slight changes in timing influ­enced each animal's response. But there wereso many variables that experimental testingsoon became "daunting and unrealistic." Soshe and post-doctoral fellow Jeffrey Schank,AM'91, PhD'91, developed a computersimulation of this complex system.With this program, McClintock can nowcreate model rats with model pheromones andmodel ovaries, all based on actual biology,then just "push a button and see how the sys­tem behaves." To her surprise, the approachhas been "wildly successful." The first reve­lation was finding why some groups failed tosynchronize. It wasn't a technical mistake af­ter all. Synchronization, the computer sug­gested, depended on where each female wasin her cycle when she first joined the group:rats at opposite points of their cycles tended tolock into opposing cycles."The model predicted and explained whatwe had always thought of as experimentalerrors, " says McClintock. "It quickly gave usa much richer appreciation of the data wealready had and we've been able to confirmsome of its predictions in the lab. Now itallows us to leapfrog our experimental work,pinpointing new experimental questions andguiding research design."So after 20 years of animal work, McClin­tock is returning to research on pheromonesin humans. "We've worked out the systemwell enough in rats to design a good experi­ment to test for human pheromones," shesays, a prospect she considers "terribly excit­ing." If she can document their existence,possibly even distill the chemosignals respon­sible, "we'll actually have our hands on com­pounds that affect ovulation directly," saysMcClintock. "We could use them to treatinfertility, or for contraception."34 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992BUt why do pheromones exist?What is the evolutionary pur­pose of synchronized ovula­tion? The advantage to Welles­ley women remains obscure,but for rats, McClintock has found, coordi­nated ovulation is crucial to getting pregnantand raising pups. 'Rats are extremely social creatures. Theylive in underground burrows where they hud-Talk to McClintocklong enough andyour grandmotherwill come up. Manyof her pet ideas havebeen floating in thesoup of oral traditionfor generations, buthave never been putto the test.dle together, sleeping in clusters and chat­tering away at ultrasonic frequencies. BeforeMcClintock, however, no one had ever stud­ied their mating behavior in a group, as itwould occur in the wild.Instead, . most prior studies focused on thebehavior of domestic rats under constrainedlaboratory conditions, one male and onefemale placed together in a small cage."Studying mating behavior in a cage was likestudying swimming behavior in a bathtub,"says McClintock. Since rats, given thechoice, do everything else in groups, why notstudy mating in groups?So she built a large, semi-natural environ­ment based on the burrow of a group of wildNorway rats, with a large open area litteredwith sticks, rocks, wire mesh tubes, and a"forest" of wooden dowels, connected to a se­ries of "underground" tunnels and nestingareas. In this setting, rats behaved just likethose in the wild. They built nests, hoardedfood, scurried about-and shunned the run­ning wheel, the opiate of bored, caged ro­dents. Since rats are nocturnal, McClintockmounted an infrared-sensitive video cameraand several red lights to record activity afterdark. This allowed her to monitor their behav­ior without even entering the room.What she found would radically change thefield-but not overnight. "It was the sort ofwork that required people to go back andchange all the textbooks, " says Adler. It mademuch of the previous work in the area imme­diately irrelevant, "and so it became very po- litical." Although there were no scientificcriticisms of the work, "it took years to getthat thing published," he recalls. "Editorswould come up to Martha at meetings andapologize." Once published, the paper soonbecome known, to McClintock's dismay, asthe first "rat feminist paper. "She had found what she later labeled pano­gamy, with females clearly controlling someaspects of mating. When rats mate in groups,the females work together to entice males­something that was physically impossible in asmall cage-while systematically regulatingthe pace of copulation in a way that increasedtheir odds of getting pregnant."One has to mate to get pregnant, ofcourse," she explains, "but rats have to matein a specific pattern to stimulate the hormonesthat allow them to get pregnant." Before thelining of her uterus will thicken, allowing im­plantation of an embryo, a rat needs adequateforeplay, including a series of intromissionsfrom a male. Consequently, traditional artifi­cial insemination doesn't work in rats.Ovulating females are most likely to getpregnant when a series of intromissions,spaced 10 to 15 minutes apart, precedes in­semination. Males are more likely to ejacu­late if they can mount a female about once ev­ery three minutes. When paired rats mate in acage there is no room for the female to keepher distance, a technique used in larger set­tings to control the timing of copulation. Somales mount them about once a minute, hard­ly optimal for either partner. But when ratsmate in groups, as they would in the wild,there are usually more females than males.Given enough space, the females cooperate topace intromissions at the optimal rate for bothsexes.In small groups, males actually take turnsmating. The dominant male will go first, fol­lowing and mounting whichever female solic­its his attention, changing partners after eachintromission until he ejaculates. Then he willrest while a subordinate male mates with allthe females. The females do compete for theinitial, most potent ejaculations from thedominant male, but they also hedge their bets;before a session is over most will collectsperm from every male. (For the first time,McClintock also looked at mating behavior inwild rats, collecting them from sewers andgarbage dumps-and finding little differencebetween the wild and domestic animals' mat­ing behavior.)The result of all this, of panogamy and coop­eration and competition, "is a pattern ofmating that is elegantly coordinated," saysMcClintock, "with the neuroendocrinemechanisms of successful reproduction fromboth the male and female perspectives." Inother words, neither the rats' mating behaviornor reproductive physiology made sensealone. To understand the animal's basic biolo­gy, researchers first had to recreate the envi­ronment in which the species evolved. "That'sWhy we go to these Herculean lengths to vide­otape in a complex, realistic environment,"adds McClintock. "The more we can mimicthe behavioral context, the clearer the endo­crine picture becomes. "Further studies, done with Mark Blumberg,AM'87, PhD'88, and Julie Mennella, SM'87,PhD'88, of group mating in the semi-naturalenvironment revealed more advantages tosynchronized ovulation. Females who givebirth together nurse their young communally,Which allows one mother to rest or forageWhile the other feeds the newborns. Pupsraised by these tag-team mothers weigh moreat weaning than those raised by a single moth­er. TWo-thirds of asynchronous litters, on theother hand, produce no survivors. The older,stronger pups from neighboring mothers in­Vade their nests, pushing the newborns awayand monopolizing their mother's milk.More recently, McClintock has found thatthe influence of the social milieu reaches farbeYond the timing of fertility; it can alter there�rOductive life span, and even "the big A:agIng, " says McClintock. She and her formergradUate student Judith LeFevre, AM'84,PhD'86, recently published the first long­�errn study of ovarian function in rats. TheyoUnd female rats isolated in separate cagesentered menopause 30 percent sooner than those housed with four to six comrades. Theisolated rats tended to have higher estrogenlevels, which is thought to damage the hypo­thalamus and prevent ovulation. They alsohad longer and more irregular ovarian cycles.And they were twice as likely to drift into apost-menopausal state known as constantestrus, characterized by unusually high andpotentially harmful estrogen levels.Isolated rats not only went through meno­pause earlier, they died an average of sevenmonths sooner, forfeiting about one-third ofthe life span of rats raised in groups. Mostdied of pneumonia, which infected the iso­lated rats earlier and killed them quicker. Ifpneumonia didn't get them, breast cancer did.It was three times as common in isolated rats,Early puberty appears to be the crucial periodwhen social isolation can trigger this effect.Rats sequestered during late puberty or earlyadulthood had normal life spans, even thoughthey lived in seclusion for most of their lives.The crucial importance of the timing ofisolation and its lifelong impact on ovarianfunction led McClintock to suspect that sus­ceptibility to both pneumonia and mammarytumors may be tied to altered reproductivehormones. "We're pretty sure it's not simplythe stress of isolation," she says, "because theisolated rats' stress hormones are within thenormal range."But isolation during early puberty does havea profound effect on ovarian steroids, makingthem a likely suspect. While there have beencontradictory reports on the effects of these In McClintock scrowded lab,researchers andgrad studentscompeteJorspace with note­books, files, and"semi-natural"rat environments.steroids on the immune system, some prelim­inary data gathered by Cordelia Tomasino, adoctoral student in McClintock's lab, suggestthat early social isolation can impair the im­mune system, leaving secluded rats less ableto fight off an infection. Female hormonessuch as estrogen have also been linked withthe growth of breast cancers. "But the rela­tionship is complicated," says McClintock,"and the mechanism is unclear. It's going tobe very difficult to sort all these factors out,something we're just starting to do, but I thinkwe've developed the techniques to teaseit all apart."McClintock's prototype indeveloping such new tech­niques was Rube Goldberg.Adler remembers her inven­tive approach as a graduatestudent to problems that had long stumpedmore senior investigators. "Martha was ex­traordinarily creative, not just as a scientist­where she could rub two ideas together andmake fire-but in building whatever apparat­us she needed to test her theories, " he recalls.Behaviorists before her simply didn't workwith wild rats because they are so difficult tomanage in the lab; they can bite right throughchain-mail gloves. "But she came up withways to handle them," says Adler. She de­vised containers to transport them, built clev­er settings to study their behavior, and adapt­ed early video technology to record their ac­tions in darkness. "It was not the most elegantUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 35equipment," he recalls, "but it got the jobdone. If it looks too polished, I don't trust it."Her current laboratory would retain his con­fidence. The crowded basement rooms arepacked with notebooks, files, cages, and bitsof the Plexiglas and wire structures used to as­semble semi-natural environments. Studentsand research technicians- are crammed intowhat they call "the big room, " a 1O-by-15 footcinder-block space where they operate, runassays, install catheters, hold lab meetings,compare notes, and "do what needs to bedone." Some of the current research subjectssport little homemade denim jackets, de­signed to prevent them from disturbing thecentral lines that allow researchers to drawblood without stressing the donors. Even themicrophone used to record rat repartee lookslike a relic from the glory days of radio. Whilemany laboratories have standing orders withhigh-tech suppliers, McClintock appears tohave furnished hers at Am Vets and stocked itat Ace Hardware. "We get a lot of bang for theresearch buck, " she boasts.The bargain-basement aspect may tickle thecasual visitor, but lab conditions are a sorethumb for McClintock. "The University ofChicago is one of the places where biopsycho­logy began," she points out, "one of the fewplaces that combines animal and human workof this sort. The committee is ranked amongthe best in the nation. Yet it is in imminentdanger of ceasing to exist because the labora­tory space necessary for behavioral researchhas not been upgraded or replaced in morethan 25 years."In many ways, the committee is a victim ofits originality. One of the first interdiscipli­nary committees at the University, it wasformed in 1936 to study the relationships be­tween behavior and the brain. Shortly afterWorld War II, the committee became the firstbiopsychology doctoral program in the coun­try. But its scientific wayfaring left it adminis­tratively homeless, as it wended its way backand forth between two divisions, gainingsound footing in neither. ''As a result," la­ments McClintock, "we've been neglected.We've lost faculty and we cannot hire replace­ments without better research space. "Biopsychology also suffers from a biasagainst downward causation, McClintocksuspects. More than 90 percent of the articlesin the key journal, Hormones and Behavior,are about the effects of hormones on behavior,and less than 10 percent are about the effectsof behavior on hormones. "That's truly a bi­as," she insists. "It doesn't reflect the actualbalance in the direction of causality." Somehard-core molecular biologists are evenworse, she says. "They often relegate us. tococktail party conversation. When I tell themabout my work, " she notes, "I often hear 'Oh,that's neat,' or 'My, how strange.' Then they36 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992go back to talking about gene expression.There's no doubt that the molecular level ofanalysis can be essential. But there are a lot ofquestions that are best answered on a higherlevel of analysis, such as: what aspect ofbehavior regulates gene expression? The re­ductionist people in general haven't evenasked those questions."Running against the reductionist bias hasn'thurt McClintock professionally. She hasracked up awards throughout her career andwas just chosen, at the comparatively youngage of 45, as a fellow of both the American As­sociation for the Advancement of Science andthe Animal Behavior Society. This year sheapplied for a five-year research grant from theNational Institute of Mental Health and re­ceived instead a MERIT Award with eightto ten years of funding. "She's one of thepeople we are most pleased to support," saysRodney Cocking, a program chief at NIMH."Martha's proposals are always regarded ascutting-edge work." But federal research sup­port can't be used to upgrade her lab space.As she turns her attention more and more tohuman behavior, trying to understand howhormones and behavior interact in everydaylife, McClintock-who spent two years in apsychiatry residency after completing herPh.D.-has been moving outside her labora­tory, inventing . creative ways to follow hu­mans in a semi-natural environment. "One ofour hypotheses is that because most people'sbehavior is so constrained, hormones affecttheir wishes and desires more than they affecttheir behavior," she says. "So with humanswe want to include the subjective perspectivewhen we look at these interactions. You can'tfind that by having people sit in a cinder-blockroom with fluorescent lights, checking offboxes on a questionnaire. That distorts reallife."Instead, she and her former doctoral stu­dents LeFevre, Ruth Breckinridge Church,AM'80, PhD' 87, and Cynthia Hedricks,AM' 81, PhD' 85, devised a radio-collaredfield study for humans. To study changes insexual desire in human couples over thecourse of the menstrual cycle, they recruited15 couples who were married or living togeth­er, gave them pagers, and beeped them threetimes a day for a month to find out where theywere, whom they were with, how they felt,what were they doing, what were they think­ing about-which was seldom what they weredoing-and what they would like to be doing.It was designed to measure mood, activation-measured on a scale from alert and outgo­ing to drowsy and withdrawn-sexuality, feel­ings about their partner(s), concentration,and sense of control."If you like gossip," she reports, "it's a greatstudy." They reached people who were takinga shower, sleeping, in court, fantasizing about their partners. "It gave us a huge data set,"says McClintock, "a very rich picture of therelationship between the menstrual cycle andeveryday life. We're still analyzing it."A preliminary look found that, although themenstrual cycle had a detectable effect onboth mood and activation, the social settingwas at least as important, especially formood. Men were just as variable in theirmoods as women and their activation variedwith their partner's menstrual cycle. A relatedstudy with Kathleen Stern, PhD'92, demon­strated that the strongest correlation with hor­mones followed the initiation of sexual activi­ty. The women's desires "tracked theirhormones just beautifully," says McClin­tock, and peaked just prior to ovulation. "Imean, it's so much like rats it's amazing."Men, on the other hand, maintained a steadystate; they were eager to initiate sex when itwas up to them, but they felt no need to whentheir partners made the first move. "Ofcourse, your grandmother could have told youthis," says McClintock. "But no one's everbeen able to document it so unequivocally,and it could have come out differently."Talk to McClintock long enough and yourgrandmother will come up now and again.Many of her pet ideas-the concept of men­strual synchrony, the consequences of isola­tion, the influence of mind over matter-havebeen floating around in the soup of oral tradi­tion for generations but have never been put tothe test. "We often start out with a sort of folkwisdom," she explains, "and see if it's true. Ifthere is a correlation, we ask how it works.Then, we devise reliable ways to test ourtheories and conduct experiments that areiron-clad. And finally, we use our results asconcrete examples of downward causation­to make the argument that if this non­reductionist approach is so essential to under­standing a large and complex problem likefertility, then it's probably going to be very im­portant for understanding other biologicalproblems as well."Besides" she continues "our work isn't atodds with �he molecular p�ople. We just askdifferent questions. I want to take the ad­vances they have made at the molecular levelof the brain and the endocrine system and inte­grate that with the advances we have made athigher levels of analysis, and to understandthe reciprocal interaction between the two."The human interest is driven at our level, "she adds. "When an infertile couple walkSinto a physician's office they don't say, 'Help.My luteinizing-hormone-regulating hor­mone and my medial pre-optic areas aren'tfunctioning.' No. They know in their soulsthat's only part of the story. They're upset,they're disappointed, they're a little embar­rassed, and they ask a much richer question:'We can't have a baby-why?'"lumni ChronicleInspired goolsBill Naumann is a man with a mission. Elect­ed president of the Alumni Association for atwo-year term that began July I, Naumann,MBA' 75 , approaches the job with a combina­tion of long-term goals and the drive to seethem through.Naumann-who received a bachelor's de­gree from Purdue University in 1960 and wasmost recently corporate vice president andchief quality officer for the Whitman Corpo­ration-has a history of service to the Univer­sity. He served many years on the board of thebusiness school's executive program club andWas elected president of the group in 1980. HeWas a founding board member ofthe Univer­sity of Chicago Club of Metropolitan Chicago(UC2MC), and became the club's third presi­dent in 1986. Naumann also was active in theD of C 's national alumni cabinet, which laterevolved into the current alumni board ofgovernors.Why has he volunteered so consistently?"Because I'm easy, " he jokes before going onto explain the reasons for his commitment. "IWent to the University later in life. I had al­ready been working for 15 years before IWent back to school, " he says. "So I think myeXperience with the U of C was more relevant.I made many good friends with the facultyand students, and I wanted to continue thoserelationships. "Naumann has taken over the presidentialpost from John Lyon, AB'55. ''As a devotedalumnus from the Hutchins College, John wasthe right person to lead the association duringthe important years of planning for the cele­bration of the Centennial," says Jeanne Bui­ter, MBA'86, executive director of the Alumni:'-ssociation. ''And Bill's background, rootedIn grassroots alumni organization, makes him�he right person for the next era of strengthen­Ing alumni support for the University."Naumann's plans include:• Identifying strategic issues common tothe University and the Alumni Associationand developing a long-range plan to addressthese issues.• Increasing the visibility of the Alumni As­sociation and its potential to the University.• Ensuring that the necessary resources:re available to support a vital association.QUite frankly, it takes money to support an Hail to the chief: Bill alumni association," Naumann ad­mits. "In some areas right now, we're under­resourced. "• Improving communication betweenalumni and the University. "We need to findnew ways to communicate and strengthen existing ways," he believes."For example," Naumann says, "there'snever been a link between the board of gover­nors and the University's board of trustees.That is changing." Naumann is working withtrustees chair Howard Krane, JD'57, to ar­range to have a trustee sit on the board of gov­ernors. That way, he says, "we can have con­tinuing communication."Naumann plans to charge ahead with thefirst of these goals at the October meeting ofthe Alumni Association board of governors."I don't see any reason why we can't accom­plish our full agenda," Naumann says confi­dently. "We have a strong board that is anx­ious to take the Alumni Association to its nextlevel."Call for nominationsNominations are being accepted for the 1993Alumni Association Awards. To be eligible, anominee must have matriculated at the Uni­versity, earned credit toward one of its de­grees, and must show a continuing interest inthe U of C. Alumni can be nominated for thefollowing: Alumni Medal, the UniversityAlumni Service Medal, Alumni Service Cita­tions, Professional Achievement Citations,Public Service Citations, and Young AlumniService Citations-a new award establishedduring the Centennial. For a list of 1992winners, see the August/92 ''Alumni Chroni­cle." To receive a nomination form, call3121702-2160.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 37lass News"No news is good news" is one cliche to which we donot subscribe at the Magatine. Please send some ofyour news to the Class News Editor, University ofChicago Magasine, 5757 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago,IL 60637. No engagements, please. Items may beedited for space.19 Dorothy Crowder Chessman, PhB'19, ofPeoria, IL, writes that "at 92 years of age,this past reunion was my 71st, but I actually attendedonly one in the flesh!"23 James Roy Jackson, PhB'23, MBA'24,PhD'27, of Wentzville, MO., was 100 yearsold in August. Professor and head of the finance de­partment in St. Louis University's School of Com­merce and director of St. Louis' Investment AnalysisBureau in the 1930s, he is quoted in ten textbooks oninvestments and has written articles for financialpublications.26 Wallace W. Atwood, Jr., SB'26, see 1932,Mary Katherine Flynn.32 Mary Katherine Flynn, PhB'32, AM'61,sent in a clipping about the contributions ofthe late Wallace W. Atwood, Jr., SB '26, and his wife,Celia Kingman Atwood, in the founding of Shady HillSchool in Cambridge, MA. While the Atwoods wereat the U of'C, they were associated with Colonel Fran­cis Parker, SB'07, X'12, and John Dewey, pioneers inprogressive education; upon moving to Cambridge,they joined forces with the Hocking family to open theschool on the Hockings' back porch.33 Ramona Sawyer Barth, X'33, founder ofMaine's National Organization for Women,is the state chair for the forthcoming celebrations com­memorating the 100th birthday of Rockland-born poetEdna St. Vincent Millay.34 Jeannette Geisman Coral, PhB'34, was avolunteer AARP tax aide in 1992.38 Joseph J. Jeremy, X'38, retired after 40years of federal service with the U. S. Depart­ment of Commerce, the International Trade Adminis­tration, and the U. S. and Foreign Commercial Service-the last 20 years were spent in Nevada. Cecil H.Patterson, AB'38, recently celebrated his 80th birth­day in Asheville, NC, with his seven children, includ­ing Dr. Penny Patterson, the teacher of Koko, the go­rilla made famous for learning to "talk" through signlanguage. Cecil is working on a book to be titled A Uni­versal System of Psychotherapy, and the fifth editionof Themes of Counseling and Psychotherapy.Ralph Slutkin, SB'38, retired from the Metropoli­tan Water Reclamation District of Chicago in 1984,writes in with news of his son, Gary Slutkin, MD'75,who, for the last five years, has been chief of the officeof intervention, development, and support for theWorld Health Organization's Global Program onAIDS. Gary recently gave a talk at the AIDS Interna­tional Conference in Amsterdam.39 David Kritchevsky, SB'39, SM'42, whoreceived the Robert H. Herman award fromthe American Society for Clinical Nutrition in April,38 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992was invited to address the July meetings of the UnitedKingdom Nutrition Society, held at Trinity College inDublin.41 Sara Richman Harris, AB'41, executivedirector of the Center for the Study of Aging,received a ceremonial medallion from the Universityof Jyvaskyla (Finland) at the third International Con­ference on Physical Activity, Aging, and Sports. She isthe first American and the 37th recipient of this a ward.Leota Baumgarth Heshmati, X'41, see 1942, AliHeshmati.42 Ali Heshmati, X'42, and his wife, LeotaBaumgarthHeshmati, X'41, have lived forthe past 25 years in a retirement community in SantaCruz, CA. He writes, "Except for an occasional visitto our condo in Hawaii, I seldom travel anymore.Leota is the traveler in the family." Albert A. Schy,SB'42, retired after 37 years of research in aerospacenavigation, guidance, and controls at NACA andNASA, is now an active volunteer in communityaffairs-especially peace center activities. He has fivechildren and six grandchildren.Shirley Walders Serbell, AB'42, retired after 45years as a social work director in several hospitals, iscurrently president of the League of Woman Voters ofNorth Pinellas (FL) County, and works part time withher husband, who IS a silversmith and jewelry maker.Margery Moses Shurman, SB'42, currently serveson the boards of both the Illinois Society for the Pre­vention of Blindness and the Cook County CourtWatchers. She and her husband, Frank, have twochildren and three grandchildren.David N. Siebert, AB'42, city treasurer of LaCanada, CA, where he and his wife reside, is alsoa consultant with Deloitte & Touche. William E.Siri, SB'42, president of the Save the San FranciscoBay Association from 1968 to 1988, has taken part inseveral expeditions over the years, including three An­dean high-altitude research expeditions in the 1950s.A past director and president of the National SierraClub, he also led the California Himalayan expeditionin 1954, the international Antarctic expedition in1957, and the American Mt. Everest expedition in1963.Ira R. Slagter, AB'42, who retired after 35 yearswith Time Warner Inc. , spent seven years as executivedirector of Denominational Religious Broadcastingbefore taking full retirement. Evelyn SteinbergSmith, AB'42, retired in 1984 as a social servicessupervisor from the Minnesota Dept. of Health,where she worked With handicapped children. Herhusband continues in the family plumbing businessand their three daughters are settled in Houston; Prin­ceton, NJ; and St. Paul, MN.Robert E. Smith, AB'42,retired as vice presidentof development with Pan American World Airlinesafter 29 years, lives with his wife in Costa Rica andcontinues to travel. Elaine Rusnak Solomon, X'42,and Jerry Solomon celebrated their 51st wedding an­niversary on April 4. Harold R. Steinhauser,AB'42, MBA'43 , retired in May 1991 after 49 years ofteaching in northern Illinois-24 years in high schooland 25 years in community college.Granville K. Thompson, MBA'42, and his wife,Marion Siedler Thompson, AB'42, have volun­teered for various projects in support of the WycliffeBible Translators-their work has taken them to many parts of the U.S. and Mexico. Marilyn LeonardWright, AB' 42, is a volunteer book buyer for two giftshops at the Wildlife Prairie Park, west of Peoria, IL,and her husband, Robert O. Wright, AB'42, is re­tired after serving as city manager of three cities, deanof administration of Peoria Medical School, and exec­utive director of the Peoria economic developmentassociation.48 Ralph M. Goldman, AM' 48, PhD'51, pro­fessor emeritus at San Francisco State Uni­versity and adjunct professor of politics at the CatholicUniversity of America in Washington, DC, is presi­dent of the newly established Center for Party Devel­opment in that city. He writes that his daughter, MegGoldman, AB' 81, working in the field of communitydevelopment-most recently with YouthBuild USA­and her husband, Gary Prince, live in Cambridge,MA, with their daughter, Laurel Arianna, who wasborn in May.Chalmers H. Marquis, PhB'48, received the 1992Ralph Lowell award from the Corporation for PublicBroadcasting, partly for his work in developing andsecuring passage of the Public Broadcasting Act of1967. His public TV career began as one of the found­ing producers of Chicago's WTTW-Channel 11,whose studios were then in the Museum of Scienceand Industry-he writes that "one of my fondestWTTW memories is of the University'S 'Humanities'series, led by Ned Rosenheim."Muriel Zavis Pfaelzer, see 1981, Farley Grubb.Kaniz Ataullah Siddiqi, AM' 48, PhD' 50, retired af­ter working for 29 years as head of Government Col­leges in Pakistan. She welcomes friends from the U ofC to her home in Islamabad. Corey Venning, AM' 48,PhD'68, (formerly Betty Sanderson) retired from thefaculty of Loyola University in 1986 and has recentlymoved to Olympia, WA.49 John I. Goodlad, PhD'49, director of theCenter for Educational Renewal at the Uni­versity of Washington, received an honorary degreefrom the University of Manitoba. William T. Martin,JD'49, appeared in the April production of the musi­cal 1776 by the University Company of the Universityof Tennessee in Knoxville. Morris A. Springer,AM' 49, PhD' 61, who reviews Israeli productions forOpera News and Opera Canada, is working on a mys­tery novel based on his career (1961-73) at RooseveltUniversity. He is also a member of the planning com­mittee of the recently organized Israel chapter of theU ofC Alumni Association.50 Robert G. Lindblom, SB'50, retired from. Chevron USA in November 1990, is current­ly a consulting professor of petroleum engineering atStanford University. He writes, "We are so fortunateto have [former U of C provost] Gerhard Casper atStanford!"51 WilliamM. Cross, AM'51, professor of so­ciology at Illinois College, received theMalcolm Stewart award for intercultural education.Thalia Cheronis Selz, AM' 51, received a grant fromthe Papanikolas Charitable Trust to complete a mono­graph on "Greek-Americans in the Visual Arts:1910-1975." She also had a short story in Pleiades andessays on writing in Bernay's and Painter's What If?and in Susan Sellers' Taking Reality By Surprise.52 Joyce Zeger Greenberg, AB'52, repre­sented the World Monuments Fund at its sec­ond concert in the Tempel Synagogue in Krakow, po­land-the Fund is working to restore the synagogue.Sven Lundstedt, AB'52, PhD'55, professor at OhiOState University's School of Public Policy and Man­agement, recently wrote a review for the Journal 0/Higher Education about General Education in the So­cial Sciences, edited by John J. MacAloon, AM'74,PhD'80. (See "Books by Alumni," August/92.)55 Alfred L. Blondel, MBA'55, opened an ex­hibit of his sculptures at the Centre d' Art deRouge-Cloltre in Brussels this past June. Donald A.Fisher, AB'55, AB'56, shares news about his son,David, a doctoral candidate in astrophysics at theUniversity of California at Santa Cruz, who gave apaper, "The Nature of Early Galaxies, "on the Isle ofElba, Italy; and his daughter, Merida, who managesFASTIES Cafe in Salzburg, Austria.57 Captain EdwardF. Bronson, AM'57, retiredfrom the Navy, received the AFCEA 1992 dis­tinguished service to education award for "his vital con­tributions to the success of the Washington chapter's ed­Ucational program." David N. Hartman, AM'57,retired in June after 36 years of teaching at Rancho San­tiago Community College in Santa Ana, CA. His prin­cipal area of teaching was in political science-where heserved as department chair for 15 years and as social sci­ences division dean for six years.58 As a result of a scouting mission last year byCharles E. Hussey, JD'58, and Ruta Stro­pus, the Chicago law firm of McDermott, Will &Emery will soon become the first U.S. law firm toopen a branch in Lithuania. Roger D. Masters,AM'58, PhD'61, has been named the Nelson A.Rockefeller professor of government. at DartmouthCollege. His most recent books are The Sense of Jus­tice: Biological Foundations of Law, co-edited withMargaret Gruter; volumes two and three of CollectedWritings of Rousseau, co-edited with ChristopherKelly; and The Neurotransmitter Revolution: Sero­tonin, Social Behavior and the Law, co-edited withMichael T. McGuire. E. Richard Singer, MD'58, re­located his medical practice to Willcox, AZ, where hehas a small ranch with cattle and horses.S9 Robert Bumcrot, SB'59, SM'60, is in his. ninth and last year as chair of the mathemat­ICS department at Hofstra University in Hempstead,NY, after which he will resume teaching and writing"until the lure of early retirement bonuses becomesoverwhelming." Martin J. Plax, X'59, Cleveland di­rector of the American Jewish Committee and adjunctaSsociate professor of political science at ClevelandState University, was appointed by Ohio's governor tothe state's boxing commission in March. G. EdwardSChUh, AM'59, PhD'61, dean of the HubertH. Hum­Phrey Institute of Public Affairs at the University ofMinnesota, received an honorary doctorate in agricul­ture from Purdue University in May.60 Earl J. Johnson, Jr., JD'60, a justice withthe California Court of Appeals who re­ceiVed the 1991 judicial achievement award from theCalifornia Trial Lawyers Association, was selected tochair a joint committee of several national law associa­tions to assess the possible establishment of a compre­hensive national library compiling the history oflegalrepresentation of the poor.Donald G. Shropshire, X'60, president and CEOof Tucson Medical Center, received an honorary de­gree of Doctor of Laws from the University of Arizo­na. EdwardM. Stricker, SB'60, SM'61, Universityof Pittsburgh professor and chair of the department ofbehavioral neuroscience, has been awarded the Chan­cellor's distinguished teaching award, and was hon-60red at a reception hosted by the chancellor.2 Eugene N. Borza, AM'62, PhD'66, see1965, Briggs L. Twyman.63 Earl J. Jacobson, MBA'63, is area viceC . president of Marshall and Stevens Inc.'shlcago office.64 Frank M. Clover, AM'64, PhD'66, see1965, Briggs L. Twyman. Ruth Eliashberg Marcus, SM'64, senior research statistician at theAgricultural Research Organization in Israel, wasnamed a fellow of the American Statistical Associa­tion at an August ceremony in Boston. Richard E.Peterson, SM'64, chair of the geosciences depart­ment at Texas Tech University, received his Ph.D. inatmospheric science from the University of Missouriin 1971, held a NAill postdoctoral fellowship at theUniversity of Oslo's Institutt for Geofysikk, and was avisiting professor at Purdue University. He and hiswife, Becky, have two daughters and a son.Robert Seward, MBA' 64, resident manager ofSmith Barney, Harris Upham & Co. 's Pittsburgh of­fice, is a member of the New York Stock Exchange, theSecurities Industry Association, the Chicago BoardOptions Exchange, the Chicago Bond Club, and sev­eral other organizations.65 Iris Cleveland, AB'65, MBA'67, received aNational Endowment for the Humanities fel­lowship to participate in a summer seminar for schoolteachers. She attended a six-week seminar, entitled"The Theatre of the Holocaust," at the University ofWisconsin- Madison.Briggs L. Twyman, AM'65, ppD'n, is editor of amemorial issue of the journal Ancient World for thelate Stewart I. Oost, AB'41, AM'47, PhD'50, Uni­versity professor of history and classics, who died in1981. The issue included articles by many of Oost'sformer students, including Frank M. Clover,AM'64, PhD'66; Eugene N. Borza, AM'62,PhD'66; AlfredS. Bradford, AM'66, PhD'73; Ken­neth G. Holum, AM'69, PhD' 73; Stephen Ru­zicka, AB'68, AM'73, PhD'79; and Lawrence A.Tritle, PhD'78.66 Alfred S. Bradford, AM'66, PhD'73, see1965, Briggs L. Twyman. Leonard P.Edwards, JD'66, presiding judge of Santa ClaraCounty (CA), has been named "juvenile court judgeof the year" by the National Court Appointed SpecialAdvocates Association. Edwards, a strong proponentof children's rights, helped form a child advocate pro­gram for Santa Clara and San Mateo counties.Larry Haverkamp, AM'66, former staff writerwith the GSB dean's office, is now working as an inde­pendent college counselor in Hyde Park. George E.McDonough, X'66, director of the George HallauerMemorial Library and professor of bibliography atWestern Evangelical Seminary in Portland, OR, willparticipate in the 1992 faculty renewal program spon­sored by the Lilly Foundation at Stanford University.Robert C. Miller, AM'66, director of libraries atthe University of Notre Dame, spent the spring 1992term as a visiting professor at the Library School of theUniversity of Warsaw, Poland. While there, he lec­tured at the USIS Library, the National Library ofPoland, and the University ofLodz; and prepared a re­port for the Association of Research Libraries on thePolish book trade. He also recently conducted a semi­nar on issues in American research libraries at theUniversity of Notre Dame.67 Bobbie M. Anthony-Perez, PhD'67, pro­fessor of psychology at Chicago State Uni­versity, was selected the United American ProgressAssociation's 1991-92 "Woman of the Year." She alsopresented a paper discussing "international net­works" in Nepal in January, and papers on "cross­cultural sensitization through interviews and throughknowledge of school and work experience" in Leigeand Brussels, Belgium, in July.Roger Fecher, MBA' 67, is vice president for admin­istration and finance at Rose-Hulman Institute ofTechnology. Marylou Lionells, PhD'67, is the firstpsychologist and second woman to head the WilliamAlanson White Institute of Psychiatry, Psychoanaly­sis, and Psychology in New York City. RobertE.Sabath, MBA'67, is vice president and head of log is­tics practice at Mercer Management Consulting'sChicago office. .ludy.Beckner Sloan, AB'67, has been named a fullprofessor oflaw at Southwestern University School ofLaw in Los Angeles, where she teaches bankruptcy,commercial paper, sales, secured transactions, anduniform commercial code transactions. Arvid F.Sponberg, AM'67, professor of English at ValparaisoUniversity, has been named a research professor for1992-93. He plans to complete A. R. Gurney: A Case­book, the first book-length study of the Americanplaywright.Judith Testa, AM'67, PhD'83, a professor atNorthern Illinois University's School of Art, wasnominated for the university's excellence in teachingaward. She also received a grant to participate in a Na­tional Endowment for the Humanities' summer semi­nar for college and university teachers-the seminar,''Architecture and Urbanism in Rome: 1500-1750,"was held in Rome. Robert Vare, AB'67, AM'70, edi­tor at the New York Times Magazine, was the editor of"Grady's Gift" by Howell Raines, winner of this year'sPulitzer Prize for feature writing. Joe Weintraub,AM' 67, PhD '73, is director of publications planningand marketing for the American Bar Association.68 Sandra Cross, AB'68, is a senior associatespecializing in banking at the law firm ofWright, Robinson, McCammon, Osthimer & Tatum'sSan Francisco office. Stephen Ruzicka, AB'68,AM'73, PhD'79, see 1965, Briggs L. Twyman.69 ElliotJ. Feldman, AB'69, formerly of Ack­erson & Feldman, has become a partner inthe law firm of Howrey & Simon, where he will con­tinue his work in international law. Kenneth G. Ho­Ium, AM'69, PhD'73, see 1965, Briggs L. Twyman.Juliana Geran Pilon, AB'69, AM'71, PhD'74, is di­rector of programs for the Americas, Asia, and Eu­rope at the International Foundation for ElectoralSystems.James Marshall Unger, AB' 69, AM'7l , professorof Japanese and chair of Hebrew and East Asian lan­guages and literatures at the University of Maryland atCollege Park, had a Japanese translation of his 1987book, The Fifth Generation Fallacy, published bySIMUL Press this year. Paula Wolff, AM'69,PhD'n, former visiting fellow at the John D. andCatherine T. MacArthur Foundation and lecturer inthe U ofC's School of Public Policy, is the new presi­dent of Governors State University in Illinois.70 David M. Emery, MBA' 70, is executivevice president of operations and finance forOfficial Airline Guides, which produces flight sched­ules of the world's airlines in print and electronicform, as well as hotel, cruise, shipline, and cargoguides. LaVon Much Green, MBA'70, is associateprofessor and head of Purdue University at Calumet'sdepartment of information systems and computerprogramming.Bartholomew Ng, SM'70, PhD'73, professor andchair of the mathematical sciences department at Indi­ana University-Purdue University, has been appointedvice president of programs for the Society for Industri­al and Applied Mathematics. Donald E. Palumbo,AB'70, a specialist in modern and fantasy literaturewho has written four books and 45 articles and thepresident of the International Association for the Fan­tastic in the Arts, recently became chair of East Caro­lina University's English department.71 Gary A. Curtis, AB'71, a partner with theBoston Consulting Group, has been nameddirector of their worldwide information technologypractice. Michael Fleming, AM'71, is executive di­rector of total quality improvement for Entergy Cor­poration. Victor A. Friedman, AM'7l, PhD'75,was recently reappointed chair of the University ofNorth Carolina at Chapel Hill's Slavic languagesdepartment.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 39Sorting Outthe SixtiesMembers of the Class of 19 72gathered to discuss their Collegedays, the sit-in, and more.In August 1968, violence rocked thecity of Chicago, as anti-Vietnam War. protesters clashed with police outsidethe Democratic National Convention. Onemonth later, the College Class of 1972 ar­rived in Hyde Park for O-Week.By winter quarter, protests hit home.Marxist sociologist Marlene Dixon was de­nied tenure, galvanizing campus politics.Angry students took over the Administra­tion Building, demanding Dixon's reap­pointment and student participation in fac­ulty hiring. The 16-day sit-in disrupted anddivided the academic community-42 stu­dents were expelled and 82 suspended.At their 20th reunion last spring, membersof the Class of '72 remembered college ca­reers influenced as much by political andsocial movements as by the intellectualtraining that distinguishes the U of C. Closeto 100 people crowded into a Cobb Hallclassroom to reflect on how the political,moral, and spiritual debates of the Sixtiesmade them who they are today. Here is someof what was said:Charlie Gans, AB'75, an editor for theAssociated Press who covered the Solidari­ty uprising in Poland for the Chicago SunTimes, participated in the sit-in, was sus­pended for two quarters, lost his scholar­ship, and had to leave the dorms. "The sit-inwas a defining moment," Gans said, "aturning point in many people's lives. Itknocked me off the comfortable, guaranteedtrack I had been on.""The sit-in presented me with a tremen­dous moral dilemma," said Bill Sterner,AB ' 69 , MBA' 82, married to MargotBrowning, AM'78, PhD'89. "I came from aworking-class background, and had strug­gled to reach the University and everythingit represented. The student political leadersclaimed to be acting in the interests of theworking class, but losing my educationalopportunities was not in my interest. "Sterner, who supported the sit- in but did notjoin it, now works for the University's aca­demic computing office.Barbara Engel, X'72, a "red-diaperbaby," had been exposed to radical politicsat home. But with the sit-in, "for the first40 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992time I had to make my own personal deci­sion of conscience."Engel, then 17, was called before a disci­plinary committee after being identified in aphotograph with Pete Seeger, who had cometo sing at the protest. "The committee essen­tially said to me, 'You can tell us you wereon! y there that one day, and you won't be sus­pended. 'The question for me then was, 'DoI skate, or do I take ethical responsibility formy actions?'" She was suspended for threequarters. Raped in Hyde Park in 1972,Engel has since focused on women's legal is­sues, co-authoring Illinois' first sexual as­sault legislation.Steve Metalitz, AB'72, said the sit-in'stiming was "critical, coming as it did in ourfirst year. We all arrived with our own par­ticular hopes and dreams about what this ex­perience would be and our illusions wereshattered early on. I was left with a generalcynicism about institutions. I also saw thatthe student movement was not tackling thebig problems. I felt I had to go off campus tohave an impact." After working in draft andmilitary counseling, Metalitz earned a lawdegree, then worked for the extension of theVoting Rights Act and scrutinized federalcourt nominees for the Senate NominationsTask Force. Today, he's general counsel for atrade association.Richard Mohr, AB'72, a philosophy pro­fessor at the University of Illinois-Urbana,admitted that "in college I was a non­political nerd. Decades later, I'm a politi­cally engaged, openly gay professor writingon current gay controversies." Mohr, whosesoon-to-be-published Gay Ideas: Outing and Other Controversies, has created a fu­ror in the world of university publishing,said that the University introduced him toformalist thought. But it was only after suf­fering a personal crisis and "coming out,"that he was able to apply those abstract prin­ciples to his own life. "I now defend the free­dom, equality and dignity of gay peoplewithin this general framework."Beth Haugen Williams, AB'72, after 17years in human resource management, isbeginning graduate studies to combine man­agement with mediation and therapeutic in­terventions. "The U of C was the first placewhere I was challenged to think indepen­dently and find arguments to support thosepositions," she said. "I saw that I couldn'tchange the world by protesting, so I decidedto work inside the system and try to changethings from within. I believed in what wasgoing on in the Sixties, and those beliefs arenot going away. I'm living my life in a waythat is congruent with those values."Margot Browning, AM'78, PhD'89,teaches about race and gender in the Col­lege. "In the Sixties, everything was politi­cal," said Browning, who attended the Col­lege in the early Seventies. "We had to dealwith the meaning of political power becauseof the daily impact of the draft and the Viet­nam War on our lives." Now it is Browning,not her students, who brings politics into theclassroom."I am still wrestling with problems ofpower and still doing it with the intellectualway of looking at things I learned at the U ofC, ". she added. "I try to perform a dialecticbetween . the fundamental questioning ofvalues that came out of the Sixties and thetraditional disciplines of the humanities."Amy Ryan, AB'72, a research chemist atthe Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena,California, who interviews prospective stu­dents for the College, saw similarities be­tween then and now: "I attended the GALAreception at Reunion, and that populationseemed to feel the same way we did. Theyloved the educational process, learning toquestion and analyze. But, like us, they feltthat the U of C was not addressing the socialor emotional needs of undergraduates."Ryan, who sits on the steering committeeof the Institute of Gay and Lesbian Educa­tion in West Hollywood, takes a "subver­sive" view of her recruiting role, "becausethe U of C needs people who will questionand shake it up. "Like Ryan, David Nufer, AB'n,MBA'76, vice president of marketing andstrategic planning for the California-basedMCKesson Corporation, interviews candi­dates for the College. "If the role of an eliteCollege is to prepare people to make a contri­bution to society," he said, "then the Uni­versity of Chicago is doing a good job intel­lectually but not in other areas. The vortex ofthe late Sixties and the sit-in had the greatestimpact on the classes of 1971 and 1972, butSome of the problems we experienced areendemic to the University."Many U of C graduates face enormouscrises if they are not going straight to gradu­ate school. The issues of how we use ourminds and our education to make a differ­ence in society were heightened by thosetimes, but they are issues that graduates ofthe College still face."Tina West, AB '73, returned to the U of Cto study art history in the late 1970s: ''Anoth­er student said to me, 'Aren't you glad yourtime was an anomaly and things are back tonormal now?' I asked myself, if my timeswere anomalous, what am I left with?"I still believe that we can change things,"Said West, who works on environmental is­SUes as solid-waste coordinator for a Texascommunity association. "You can't havebeen part of that era and not believe that it isP?Ssible for people to say and do things as in­dIViduals, coalesce as a group, and changewhat seems unchangeable.""I feel positive about our time in college.We learned to question, and by probing hon­estly, to arrive at a higher level of knowl­edge. That is the legacy of the U of C."-Ellen Kirschner Popper, AB ' Popper is a freelance writer who reportsOr the New York Times. Frederick L. Miller, JD '71, supervises the outsidecounsel which handles malpractice litigation for theHome Insurance Company in New Jersey. He lives inNew York, and would be happy to hear from alumni inthe area. Timothy O'Brian, AB '71, who received hisdegree from the Chicago School of Professional Psy­chology in April, is now working as a therapist at theBeacon Therapeutic Center, a day school for adoles­cents and children.J. Virginia Stevens Peiser, AB '71, senior associateat the Walnut Creek, CA, law firm of Schofield &Schiller, was elected president of the Contra CostaCounty Bar Association Tax Section for the 1991-92year. She has a son and a daughter. Susan Scheid,AB '71, is counsel to the Medicaid managed-care pro­gram in the NYC mayor's office.An oceanographic research vessel in the North At­lantic turned out to be an alumni reunion of sorts inearly June. Daniel S. Schwartz, AB'71, commanderof the Seward Johnson, operated by the Harbor BranchOceanographic Institution, teamed up with KarenWishner, AB'72, associate professor of oceano­graphy at the University of Rhode Island and chief sci­entist for the mission, to study whales, zooplankton,and the oceanic foodweb in the Gulf of Maine. AfterWishner departed, the chief scientist for the nextmission turned out to be Robert Whitlatch, PhD'76,professor at the University of Connecticut, who wasparticipating in a multidisciplinary study of theenvironmental impact of offshore municipal dump­ing upon the northeast Atlantic continental shelf.Schwartz notes that "for a midwestern, inland univer­sity without a marine science department, Chicagoseems to have spawned a surprising number ofoceanographers. "72 Bruce D. Fischer, MBA' 72, professor ofmanagement at Governors State University,is involved with a GSU/Poland cooperative program.Three students went with him to Poland this past sum­mer; he has arranged lecture tours for several col­leagues and hopes to do more. Mark L. Johnson,AM'72, PhD '77, professor and chair of Southern Illi­nois University at Carbondale's philosophy depart­ment, received the university's outstanding scholaraward for research and creative activity. His currentresearch focuses on moral theory and the role of imag­ination in reasoning and problem-solving.Ramona Lauda, AB'72, commissioned a "Ken­tucky Colonel" by that state's governor in recognitionof her work on behalf of Vietnam veterans, was alsoappointed to the District of Columbia's AdvisoryNeighborhood Commission, representing Foggy Bot­tom. She recently returned to the National ScienceFoundation after an assignment with the President'sCouncil for Management Improvement to work withthe Department of Veterans Affairs' total quality man­agement efforts.Peggy Sullivan, PhD'72, director of university li­braries at Northern Illinois University and a past pres­ident of the American Library Association, has beennamed to serve as executive director of the AmericanLibrary Association through August 1994. KarenWishner, AB'72, see 1971, Daniel S. Schwartz.73 Tehming Liang, PhD'73, former dermato­logy resident at the U of C Hospitals, is nowassociate professor of dermatology at Wright StateUniversity School of Medicine. Frank R. Lichten­berg, AB'73, is a professor at Columbia University'sGraduate School of Business. Paul Sears, MBA'73,professor in Baldwin-Wallace College's division ofbusiness administration, is the new director ofM. B. A. programs and coordinator of graduate pro­grams in the business administration division.74 Janice Stadther Anderson, MAT'74, is ex­ecutive assistant for external relations and personnel at Metropolitan State University in Minne­apolis. T. L. Brink, AM'74, PhD'78, received the St.Ignatius medal for teaching excellence from Ibe­roamerican University in Mexico City; he also deliv­ered a commencement address at the AutonomousUniversity of Guerrero in Acapulco. David A.Kalow, AB'74, JD'76, his wife, and their three chil­dren live in New York, where he does "the most funtype of law," working in Leiberman, Rudolph & No­wak's intellectual properties department. "Has any­one found good answers to 'where does the time go?'"Kalow wonders, "and how to have time to readbooks?"John J. MacAloon, AM'74, PhD'80, see 1952,Sven Lundstedt. Janet E. Snoyer, AB '74, teaches atWells College in Aurora, NY, and at the MontessoriSchool ofIthaca, where her l l-year-old daughter is astudent. Brian Stonehill, AM'74, PhD'78, associateprofessor of English and coordinator of media studiesat Pomona College, received the school's 1992 Wigdistinguished teaching award.7 5 Stephen M. Baum, AB '75, chief scientist atXerox Imaging Systems, is currently devot­ing much of his time to improving a reading machinefor the visually impaired and another machine to assistteachers working with learning disabled students. Heand his wife, Lynn, a teacher at the Boston Museum ofScience, have one son, Nathaniel. Gary Slutkin,MD'75, see 1938, Ralph Slutkin. Henry G. Walker,MBA'75, executive vice president of Albuquerque'sPresbyterian Healthcare Services, has been namedpresident and CEO of Tucson Medical Center.76 Keith Mostov, AB'76, assistant professor ofanatomy and biological sciences at the Uni­versity of California in San Francisco, received aCharles E. Culpeper Foundation scholarship in medi­cal science for 1992. The award will provide $100,000a year for up to three years to fund his research on howthe cells that line mucosal surfaces transport special­ized antibodies, thus blocking infectious agents fromentering. Robert Whitlatch, PhD'76, see 1971,Daniel S. Schwartz.77 Andrew J. Weinberg, AM'77, manager ofbenefits operations for PepsiCo, was a key­note speaker at the second annual Northeast ManagedHealth Care Congress in New York this past August,speaking on "Employer Initiatives: A Message toProviders. "78 Mark Herskovitz, AB'78, and his wife, Ni­li, had their fourth child-a boy named Yosef-in Cleveland, where Mark is the president of a com­pany that restores houses in a historic neighborhood.Isik Ayse Kubali, AB'78, AM'79, lives with her hus­band and two children in Scottsdale, AZ, most of theyear=-and in New York the rest of the time. AnthonyF. Martin, AB '78, AM '79, president of Friends of theParks, presided over Chicago's city-wide Earth Dayparks cleanup, at which Governor Jim Edgar took theopportunity to announce his new environmental pro­gram. Martin also recently skippered a bareboatsailing charter through the Aegean Sea for ten days,while "recollecting Greek philosophers from theCommon Core."Paul R. Nadolny, AB '78, firm administrator for thecertified public accounting firm Dennis Nelson &Co., in Rolling Meadows, IL, was recently electedvice president of the Association of Accounting Ad­ministrators. Lawrence A. Tritle, PhD'78, see 1965,Briggs L. Twyman. Gregory A. Volk, AM'78, is avice president at Lawrence University in Appleton,WI.79 David E. Johnsen, AB '79, a partner at Dan­ville Radiologists, Inc., in Danville, VA,writes that "our newest arrival renders me a FredMacMurray analogue-our third son, HarrisonUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 41Whitt, arrived November 30, 1991." Jim Schwabe,MBA' 79 , is vice president of NEC Technologies'graphics group. Amy Purdum Marks, AB'79,MBA'80, is senior vice president of strategic plan­ning, business development, and marketing atUSF&G Corporation in Baltimore.David E. Winters, AB'79, SM'81, MD'83, is act­ing medical officer at the Salvation Army ChikankataHospital-a 240-bed facility in rural Zambia that hasbecome a leader in innovative responses to AIDSamong hospitals in developing countries. Winters re­cently received a diploma in tropical medicine and hy­giene from the University of Liverpool, England. Heand his wife, Diana, have two children, Damon andRobyn. Frank Y. Yang, AB'79, SM'81, MD'83, ageneral surgeon in private practice in Pinehurst, NC,and his wife, Jill, have a son, Evan, who is almostthree.80 Edmund B. Galvin, MBA' 80, has beenelected to the Chicago-based Economic De­velopment Council's board of directors; the EDClinks private and public sectors in discussions of cur­rent and emerging business development issues. Car­ol S. Kazmer, AB' 80, works with the staff of World­wide New Ventures of Amoco Production Co.; herhusband, Stephen F. Barrett, PhD'86, works withAmoco Eurasia, traveling frequently to Russia andother CIS republics.M. David Samson, AB'80, assistant professor ofart history at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, marriedPatricia E. McGowan in Cambridge, MA. Marlene J.Schmidt, AB'80, married Neil Frank in August of1990. She completed her child and adolescent psychi­atry fellowship in June 1991, and moved to Wisconsinto work in a large, multi-specialty group practice. Ma­jor Howard Lee Suls, AB'80, a family practice resi­dent at Andrews Air Force Base's Malcolm GrowMedical Center in Maryland, is a veteran of OperationJust Cause but did not have the opportunity to deployfor Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm.81 David Blain, SB'81, his wife, and their twochildren are spending 18 months at the MobilOil Centre de Recherche in Notre Dame de Graven­chon, France. David holds 14 U.S. patents. RachelSchachter Edelson, AB'81, her husband, JohathanT. Edelson, MD'86, and their two sons, ZachandEli,moved to Bloomfield Hills, MI, last November. "Inaddition to taking care ofthe kids," Rachel is "orga­nizing a bone-marrow donor blood test drive in thename of a friend with leukemia who needs a match fora transplant. "Meg Goldman, AB'81, see 1948, Ralph M. Gold­man. Farley Grubb, AM'81, PhD'84, recently ap­pointed to the editorial board of the Journal of Eco­nomic History, married Anne M. Pfaelzer de Ortiz,the daughter of Muriel Zavis Pfaelzer, PhB' 48.DanielF. Heitjan, SB'81, SM'84, PhD'85, associateprofessor of Biostatistics at Penn State University'sCollege of Medicine, lives in Hershey, PA, with hiswife, Helene Kim Heitjan, AM'87, and their chil­dren, Phyllis and Frederick.82 Jerrold Brandell, PhD'82, associate pro­fessor at the Boston University School ofSocial Work, is also director of the school's post­graduate certification program in advanced child andadolescent psychotherapy. Arthur B. Busbey,PhD'82, associate professor of geology at TexasChristian University, lives with his wife, Janet BusbeyNilsson, and their two daughters, Saramae and Lara­len, in Fort Worth, TX.Donald C. Dowling, Jr., AB'82, a lawyer atGraydon, Head & Ritchey, and his wife, Nancy HillDowling, AB'84, a lawyer at Proctor & Gamble, livein Cincinnati with their son, Grant. Donald recentlygave a speech on customs law in Salzburg, Austria,and has recently published articles on the interna­tionalization of U.S. labor law practice and on Euro­pean Community company law.42 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992Donald L. Dyer, AM'82, PhD'90, received the1992 liberal arts outstanding teacher award from theUniversity of Mississippi, where he is an assistantprofessor of Russian and linguistics. Ruth I. Eisen,AB' 82, is managing counsel for business and corpo­rate affairs at Hyundai Motor America, an automobiledistributor in Fountain Valley, CA. Katherine Grif­fith, AB '82, and her husband, Soren Hauge, who cel­ebrated their first anniversary on June 29, spent thelast six months traveling, studying, working, and re­searching in Costa Rica and Chile-Griffith made acoloring book with a bilingual text of Chile's flora anafauna. They are now back in Wisconsin, where Grif­fith is working with the Rural Development Center asa writer/community organizer.EdwardM. Kelly, AB'82, his wife, Lisa, and theirdaughter, Virginia Claire, are living in Houston,where he is a senior representative in marketing oper­ations for Texas Eastern Transmission-a natural gaspipeline that transports approximately one-half ofNew England's and one-third of the Middle Atlantic'sgas. He writes, "Hope things are well with the 01' U ofC, the Greenwood Gang (it should have been con­demned long before we were there), and Rochelle."David Menefee-Libey, AM'82, PhD'89, assistantprofessor of politics at Pomona College, received its1992 Wig distinguished teaching award.83 Jeremy B. Fein, AB'83, see 1984, An­toinette Edgar Fein. Daniel B. Hirschhorn,MAT'83, MAT'83, PhD'91, is an assistant mathe­matics professor at Illinois State University. Alongwith Elaine, Lilly, and Miss Otis (wife, daughter, andcat, respectively), he welcomes visitors to their newhome.84 Charles Edward Carleton, AB'84, an at­torney for the California Supreme Court, re­cently married Bo Quigley, an attorney for the FDIC.They live in San Francisco, where "life is extraordi­narily pleasant, even though you can never afford tobuy a house, and if you do buy one, an earthquake willknock it down the day after you close escrow."Nancy Hill Dowling, AB'84, see 1982, Donald C.Dowling, Jr. Antoinette Edgar Fein, AB'84, andJeremy B. Fein, AB'83, have a daughter, FriedaRose, born last year in Edinburgh, Scotland. Theywill soon move to Montreal where Jeremy will be anassistant professor in McGill University's geology de­partment. Pamela Holland Seeman, AB'84,AM'85, see 1986, Corey Seeman.Stephen Thomas Shandor, AB' 84, MBA' 88, a da­ta assistant at the Art Institute of Philadelphia, recent­ly wrote an op-ed piece for the Philadelphia Inquireron "Putting some kick in U. S. competitiveness." He isstudying French at l' Aillance Francaise de Philadel­phia, and "going through the process of buying myfirst home, which is one of the more nerve-wrackingthings I've ever done!" Jennifer Thurber Willis,AB'84, lives in Cincinnati with her husband, Chris,. and their son, Eric, born in March.85 J. Scott Johnson, AM'85, finished hisPh. D. in political science at Stanford Univer­sity and is now teaching at St. John's University in Col­legeville, MN. Brian Luntz, MBA' 85, is president ofthe Marquette Steel Co., in Cleveland, OH. MichaelA. Nixon, MBA'85, is assistant treasurer of risk man­agement and treasury planning at Chrysler FinancialCorporation. Priscilla Purnick-Phalen, SB'85, andThomas Phalen, AB'85, are living in Bronx, NY,with their daughter, Lena Ann, born in February.86 StephenF. Barrett, PhD'86, see 1980, Car­ol S. Kazmer. Beth Bell, AB'86, receivedher D.M.V. from the University of Florida in 1991,and began a fellowship at Cornell University's labora­tory for pregnancy and newborn research in June.Kathy Gail Bortz, AB'86, teaches in the gifted pro- gram for 7th and 8th graders in Santa Fe, NM. KarenSpigner Case, MBA' 86, is vice president and divisionhead for LaSalle National Bank's commercial realestate department.Jonathan T. Edelson, MD'86, see 1981, RachelSchachter Edelson. Martin E. Elling, AB'86, re­ceived a Robert Bosch Foundation fellowship for1992-93. The nine-month program includes high­level, full-time work experience in the public and pri­vate sectors in Germany. Mary Lynn Faunda,MBA'86, is vice president for corporate finance at thePrudential Capital Corporation in Newark, NJ.Jeanne Marie Gravois, AB'86, is practicing law inNew Orleans, and reminds "anyone who needs adivorce to give me a call."Heidi Hunter, MBA' 86, a group marketing manag­er for CIBA-GEIGY's pharmaceutical division, re­cently transferred from Switzerland to South Africa;she is enjoying the sunshine and learning golf. At theCity College of San Francisco Jonathan Katz,AM'86, is the first full-time, tenure-track facultymember in what is thus far the only undergraduate de­partment of gay and lesbian studies in the country. Aswell as developing curriculum, he concentrates on gayand lesbian studies in the arts.Carol E. Klammer-Allen, AB'86, lives with herhusband, Shawn Allen, in Hampton, CT, where shedirects a small, parent-cooperative daycare center.Jorge Liderman, AM'86, PhD'88, assistant profes­sor of music at the University of California at Berke­ley, traveled to Munich, Germany, in April for the pre­miere of his opera at the Munich Bienniale-a Germanfestival showcasing new music from around the globe.Anne Myles, AM'86, see 1989, David Nicholls.Ruth Pennington Paget, AB'86, who lives in Pariswith her husband, Laurent, and one-year-old daugh­ter, Florence, is on leave from the communications de­partment of Deloitte & Touche/France, but continuesto write freelance. Her most recent published articlesinclude "Opening Your Own Business in France" and"Gold Medal Menus from Barcelona." Classmatesvisiting Paris can contact her at 47-88-78-94. NavyPetty Officer 3rd Class Warren J. Platts, AB'86,recently deployed aboard the destroyer tender USSAcadia, for six months in the Western Pacific.Eric M. Premack, AB'86, AM'89, left his job aseducation finance staffer with the California state leg­islature and is now working with the firm School Ser­vices of California as an education finance and man­agement consultant. He spends his winter weekendSas a part -time ski instructor and "ski bum."Wayne Scott, AB'86, AM'89, a clinical socialworker at Midwest Family Reserve in Chicago, willhave an article, "Group Therapy with SexuallyAbused Boys, " in the Winter 1992 issue of Clinical So­cial Work Journal; his theater reviews appear regular­ly in the Windy City Times. He reports that his partner,Elizabeth Thielman, AB'86, AM'91, works in theoffice of litigation management at the Illinois Depart­ment of Children and Family Services. They will becelebrating their fourth anniversary in October.Corey Seeman, AB'86, and Pamela HollandSeeman, AB'84, AM'85, have recently moved toPittsburgh, PA, where Corey is the coordinator of thearchives for the Historical Society of Western Penn­sylvania. Grace Rao Sekimitsu, AM'86, and herhusband, Ichiro, had a daughter, Miyuki, on March 20in London, where they have lived since 1987..87 Frederick W. Backus, AB'87, is an assoCI­ate at Baker & Botts Houston office. PaulBoisen, SM'87, PhD'90, married Krisztina Szekelyon October 5, 1991, and their daughter, Dorottya I(a­talin, was born August 2. They now live in Budapest,Hungary, where Paul has a one-year Fulbright re­search fellowship at the Mathematical Institute of theHungarian Academy of Sciences. They plan a Cat�O­lie wedding ceremony in December, in a church WhIChwas closed during the Communist regime.Helene Kim Heitjan, AM'87, see 1981, Daniel F.Heitjan. Richard A. Linden, MBA'87, is vice presi­dent of management information services at MMICompanies, Inc., which provides comprehensive riskmanagement consulting, education, and insuranceproducts to the healthcare industry.88 Steffani Avis Burd, AB'88, is working onher Ph.D. in New York City. Fern P. Finger,SM'88, a Ph.D. student at Yale University School ofMedicine, received a Miles scholar award. Her re­search centers on the power of yeast genetics to identi­fy genes whose products are used to transport proteinsto the cell surface. Katherine Hamilton-Smith,AM' 88, is curator of the Curt Teich Postcard Archivesat the Lake County, Museum in Wauconda, IL, thelargest publicly held archives of postcards and relatedmaterials in the U. S.Mark A. Kolodny, AB'88, is "currently dividing[his] time between New York and Chicago, avoidingmarriage, children, and military entanglements."Richard T. Rinaolo, AB'88, AB'90, a doctoral stu­dent in the classics department, married Beth E. Lar­son, AB '91, a nursery school teacher, last January inHYde Park. Esta A. Spalding, AB'88, finished her�.A. in English at Stanford and now teaches at Phil­hps Academy in Andover, MA.89 Thomas W. Clay, AM'89, is a: consultant inAlexander & Alexander Consulting Group'sorganizational effectiveness practice, in Lyndhurst,NJ. David M. Conway, AB' 89, ofBrooklyn, NY, has:'discovered that I really enjoyed the U ofC and I missIt." JohnP. Curran, AB'89, see 1990, Andrea Sims.Shannon E. Gaffney, AB' 89, is a political analyst�or the Interagency Council on the Homeless in Wash­Ington, DC.Mary Knecht, AB'89, see 1991, Koren Cech.Gerry Nalepa, MBA'89, is now with Air Productsand Chemicals, Inc., working "Federal Relations" inWashington, DC. David Nicholls AM' 89, and AdityaRehl, AM' 89, edited a recent issue of the quarterly lit­erary magazine Chicago Review, which focused on�ontemporary Indian literatures. Other Review staffInclude Anne Myles, AM'86; Mark Morrisson,AM'89; Angela F. Sorby, AM'89; Jennifer N.IILeuer, AB'91; Alison Landsberg, AM'91; andaura Reed, AM'91.SUsanne Erickson Skidmore, AM' 89, is a psycho­�erapist with William Puga, M.D. & Associates inarrington, IL. James S. Tuan, MBA'89, relocatedfrOm Chicago to Middleton, WI, to become managerof product development for Agracetus, Inc., a subsidi­ary of W.R. Grace which specializes in the develop­ment of human gene therapy and genetically engi­�eered organisms. Laurene von Klan, AM'89,�rmer director of the Illinois chapter of the Natureh onservancy, is now executive director of Friends oft e Chicago River.90 Kristin J. Angelino, AB'90, began at1\1' Fordham University's School of Law this ICha�1 J. Collins, AB'90, is working on his Ph.D. ine University of New Mexico's mathematics depart­ment. Sandra S. Collins, AB'90, has a new job as aconsulting analyst with MAC Group/Gemini, a man­agement consulting firm. Peter H. de Jong, AB'90,�arried Jill L. Olson, AB'90, this June in Madison,I. Stephanie Cox, AB'90, AM'91, was maid ofhon­�r Ellen Reap, AB'90, was a bridesmaid; J. Derek�rtlOan, AB'90, was best man; and Maneesh K.ora, AB'90, was a groomsman. Peter is a branch�anager for Household Bank and Jill is in the M.D./8�' program at the University of 111 Derrenger, AB '90, married Tere Iglesias soonlf��� graduating, and they are living in Spain whereS�l .IS a consultant with Monitor Co., a strategic con-hng firm. Paul A. Estin, AB'90, AM'90, is in his second year in a Ph.D. program in cognitive psycholo­gy at the University of Michigan. Maj Fischer,AB'90, started her two-year assignment teachingEnglish in Poland with the Peace Corps this June.Christine M. Graves, AB'90, works at Park LawnServices in Alsip, IL, where she does vocational train­ing with developmentally disabled adults. She is thechapter advisor ofthe Phi Chi chapter of Alpha Omi­cron Pi at the U of C.Robert W. Matanky, MBA'90, vice president ofMatanky Realty Group, was a panelist at Chicago'sCoppin Memorial AME Church in June, speaking oneconomic development. Anton I. Nielsen, AB'90, isliving in Ohio and working at the Wright Pat Air ForceBase. PaulE. Pedersen, AB'90, has begun his Ph.D.program in philosophy at Cornell University, wherehe received the Sage graduate fellowship; "it's a happyending to a difficult year or so, as I joined the ranks ofrecent college grads unable to find decent jobs .... Butit's all over now. I made it to the Ivy League after all."Jody Schermerhorn, AB'90, an assistant staffmanager with AT&T, recently transferred back toChicago from Minneapolis. Andrea Sims, AB'90,married John P. Curran, AB'89, this June in Chica­go. Andrea works with the St. James Church commu­nity outreach office and Hesod House, a homelessshelter in Aurora, IL. John is an associate in SmithBarney's public finance department.Derrick H. Smith, AB'90, formerly an investiga­tor for inmate affairs for the State of Georgia, is nowin law school at the University of Florida. CherylToman, AM'90, a doctoral student in expandedFrench studies specializing in African francophoneliterature at the University of Illinois at Urbana­Champaign, and her husband have returned from Eu­rope, where she was searching for elusive researchbooks; she will teach undergraduate French this fall. Holly Wittenberg, AB'90, is an assistant accountanton an MGM picture taking place in New Orleans.91 Scott L. Brody, AB'91, lives in Israelwhere he attends Ateret Kahanim, a reli­gious institution located in the Muslim quarter of Jeru­salem's Old City. He writes, "I spend my time gainingwisdom in the hopes of someday living as a human be­ing should." Koren Cech, AB'91, married JoelStembridge, AB'91, on June 20, in Salem, OR. In at­tendance were maid of honor Mary Knecht, AB' 89;best man Robert S. Stomp, Jr-, AB '91; and honor at­tendant Melissa D. McPherson, AB'91. Jennifer N.Heuer, AB'91, and Alison Landsberg, AM'91, see1989, David Nicholls. Beth E. Larson, AB'91, see1988, Richard T. Rinaolo.Laura Reed, AM'91, see 1989, David Nicholls.Penny T. Tucker, AB '91, assistant director for theTampa field office of the Florida Public Interest Re­search Group, is working to pass statewide legislationgoverning solid waste disposal. Tracy Yuen, AB'91,will be in Nanjing, China, for the 1992-93 academicyear; she hopes to keep in touch with old friends, andwelcomes anyone traveling in Asia to get in touch aswell, c/o the Johns Hopkins University/Nanjing Uni­versity Center for Cfiinese and American Studies,Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, Peo­ple's Republic of China.92 Niti Dubey, AM'92, married Roland Vil­linger last winter in India. The couple movedto Vienna, Austria, after their second wedding cere­mony on the island of Main au, Germany. Both will be­gin work on their doctoral degrees in management stu­dies at Cambridge University, England, in the fall.Alfonso Garcia-Mingo, LLM'92, is an associate,focusing on international business transactions, in thetax department at McDermott, Will & Emery'sChicago office.DEATHSFACULTYWalter Blair, AM'26, PhD'31, professor emeritusin English language and literature, died June 29 in hisHyde Park home. During more than 35 years of teach­ing-nine of them as chair of the English department-Blair wrote or edited more than 30 books, antholo­gies, and textbooks on American literature, humorand folklore. He is considered to have pioneered thestudy of American humor with his 1937 publication,Native American Humor: 1800-1900. Among survi­vors are his sister, two nephews, and a niece.Miriam Dahl Burno, AM'61, PhD'70, visiting pro­fessor at Roosevelt University, died March 31 in herhome. She received her doctorate in medieval Englishliterature and taught in the University's humanities pro­gram before joining Roosevelt's faculty. Survivors in­clude her husband, Philip Burno, AM'64; a son; adaughter; her mother; and two sisters.Gladys Campbell, PhB'18, AM'37, professoremeritus in the Humanities, died July 1 in her HydePark home at the age of 100. She taught at the Labora­tory Schools from 1922 to 1929, when she joined theUniversity faculty-teaching humanities and Englishuntil her retirement in 1957. Her poems appeared fre­quently in the journal Poetry, and were collected in avolume titled The Momentary Beach. She is survivedby three nieces and a nephew.Allison Dunham, the Arnold I. Shure professoremeritus in the Law School and former general coun- sel of the University, died July 26 at his Pomona, CA,home. He was 78. The author of Modern Real EstateTransactions, a property law casebook, he was a spe­cialist in probate and property law, as well as laws af­fecting the growth of urban areas. He also co-authoredMr. Justice, a book of essays on famous U. S. SupremeCourt justices. Survivors include his wife, Anne; twosons; two brothers; and two grandchildren.Paul J. Gapp, Pulitzer Prize-winning architecturecritic for the Chicago Tribune and director of the Uni­versity'S urban journalism fellowship program from1969 to 1972, died July 30 at Northwestern MemorialHospital. Among survivors are his wife, Mary Joan;two children; and three grandchildren.Albert Lepawsky, PhB'27, PhD'31, professoremeritus of political science at the University of Cali­fornia at Berkeley, died June 2 at age 84. While teach­ing at the U of C during the 1930s, he was assistant di­rector of its public administration clearinghouse andhead of the civilian defense training program. Duringthe early 1940s he was an outspoken advocate of homerule for Chicago, and wrote The Judicial System ofMetropolitan Chicago and Home Rule for Metropoli­tan Chicago, early classics in social science research.Survivors include his wife, Rosalind Almond Le­pawsky, X'35; a son, Michael Lepawsky, MD'66;three daughters; a sister; and 11 grandchildren.Elder J. Olson, AB'34, AM'35, PhD'38, distin­guished service professor emeritus in English lan­guage and literature, died of pneumonia July 25 in Al-UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 43buquerque, NM. He was 83. A noted poet and critic,and one of the founding members of the "ChicagoSchool" of literary criticism, he wrote three volumesof literary criticism as well as many widely antholo­gized articles and numerous reviews that placed him inthe forefront of literary theorists. Among survivorsare his wife, Jerri Hays; three daughters; a son; and tengrandchildren.John R. Platt, a physicist and biophysicist, diedJune 17 in Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.He taught at the University from 1945 to 1965, re­searching molecular biophysics and the biophysics ofvision and perception. Survivors include his wife,Elizabeth; two sons; two stepdaughters; a stepson;and nine grandchildren.Franklin F. Snyder, died June 9 at Brigham andWomen's Hospital in Boston. He was 94. Associateprofessor emeritus of obstetrics and anatomy at Har­vard Medical School, he taught at the University ofChicago from 1938 to 1947. Survivors include hisdaughter and grandson.STAFFLewis Freedman, founding director of the WilliamBenton Broadcast Project, died June 25 in his HydePark home. He was 66. Before coming to the Universi­ty in 1987, he worked for CBS-TV and the PublicBroadcast Service-winning numerous Emmy andPeabody awards-and for the British National Theatreand Transatlantic Films in London, as well as otherproduction companies.19205Ulrich Reinhold Laves, SB'20, SM'25, an Okla­homa petroleum geologist for over 40 years, diedApril 18 in Springfield, MO, at the age of 94. Survi­vors include his brother, Gerhardt K. Laves, PhB '27,AM'29; a daughter; a son, Robert S. Laves, AB'49;seven grandchildren; and four great-grandchildren.Charlotte Murray Russell, PhB '21, a novelistwho published 20 mysteries between 1935 and 1953,died May 22 in Palos Heights, IL. She also taughtFrench and Latin at Rock Island (IL) High School andworked at the Rock Island Public Library. Amongsurvivors are a daughter, five grandchildren, and 11great -grandchildren.William W. Watson, SB'21, SM'22, PhD'24, aformer chair of the physics department at Yale Univer­sity who helped develop the atomic bomb, diedAugust 3 at the age of 92. Survivors include his wife,Elizabeth Wells Watson, SB'26; two daughters; twograndchildren; a nephew, James D, Watson, PhB'46,SB'47; and a niece, Elizabeth Watson Myers,PhB'49.William Earl Dodge Stokes, Jr., X'23, formerpresident of the Chesapeake and Western Railroad andseveral other companies, died March 10 at the Berk­shire Hills North nursing home in Lee, MA. Amongsurvivors are his son, Houston H. Stokes, AM'66,PhD'69; a daughter; a half brother; a half sister; andtwo grandchildren.Brother H. Charles Severin, SB'25, SM'27,PhD'30, honorary president of St. Mary's College ofMinnesota, died June 2 at St. Anne's Hospital inWinona, MN. The author of Biology, a popular highschool textbook, he was elected president of theNational Association of Biology Teachers in 1955.Simon Agranat, PhB'26, JD'29, an American­born Israeli who headed Israel's Supreme Court from1948 to 1977, died August 10 in Jerusalem after alengthy illness. Survivors include his wife, Carmel,and five children.Verone Fieldse Gitter, SB'26, a teacher at ClaySchool in Hegewisch, IL, for 25 years, died May 21 inher South Shore home. She was referred to as the "toylady" at La Rabida Children's Hospital in the 1950s,44 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992and spent many years collecting funds for the hospitaland donating her afternoons to the children.Brita Linnea Nelson Fredrickson, PhB'28, diedJune 29 in La Crosse, WI. Survivors include a son, adaughter, and two grandchildren.Everett Ladd Gordon, PhB'29, JD'31, a formerU.S. district attorney in Arizona and an executivewith a Chicago football helmet manufacturer, diedJune 14 in his Kenilworth, IL, home. Among survi­vors are his wife, Agnes; a daughter; a son; and fivegrandchildren.Saul Stone, X'29, the founder and chair emeritusof Saul Stone & Co., died May 4 in his Palm Springs,CA, home. He received Israel's President's Clubaward, was a member of the Prime Minister's Club,and received the Mission of Mercy award and theMaimonides award from the American Red MogenDavid for Israel. Survivors include his wife, Sylvia; adaughter; a son; a sister; ten grandchildren; and twogreat-grandchildren.19305Elmer A. Friedman, SB'30, MD'35, a retiredphysician and surgeon specializing in ear, nose, andthroat treatment, died June 24 in Good SamaritanHospital in Downers Grove, IL. Among survivors arehis wife, Shirley; a daughter, Karen Friedman,PhD'73; a sister; a brother; and two grandchildren.Frances K.A. Nelson, PhB'30, a former secretaryin the Children's Bureau of the Department of Health,Education, and Welfare, died August 23, 1991, inFairfax, VA. Since 1981, she drove for the Annandale(VA) Churches for Christian Action, giving transpor­tation to medical appointments. Survivors include abrother, two sisters; and many nieces and nephews.Donald L. Vetter, LLB'30, a partner with the for­mer law firm of Bradley, Pipin, Vetter & Eaton who re­tired in 1987, died in May at the Beacon Hill retirementhome in Lombard, IL. Survivors include his wife,Mertice; two daughters; a sister; five grandchildren;and two great-grandchildren.Joseph L.Mack, PhB'32, JD'34, a Chicago attor­ney for more than 50 years, died June 10 at Northwest­ern Memorial Hospital. Survivors include his daugh­ter, Eve; his son, Sidney; a brother; and a grandchild.Harold Press, PhB'32, a longtime Chicago busi­nessman, died June 13 at Northwestern MemorialHospital. Survivors include a daughter, three grand­children, a great-grandchild, and three sisters.Louis B. Newman, MD '33, a pioneer in the field ofphysical medicine and rehabilitation, died June 27 atNorthwestern Memorial Hospital. In addition toworking at several Veterans Administration Hospitals,he taught at Northwestern University. Survivors in­clude his sister and a niece.Annie Louise Walker Wilkerson, MAT'33, a re­tired teacher, violinist, and scholar who wrote manyarticles, died May 22 at her home in the Chathamneighborhood. Survivors include a son and a sister.Leon J. Galinsky, MD'34, died June 28 at the ageof 84. Among survivors is his cousin, TheodoreGilinsky, AB'46, JD'47.Margaretha Moore Kerr, PhB'34, died on May22. Survivors include her husband, Donald R. Kerr,PhB'34, JD'36; a son; a daughter; three grandchil­dren; and two great-grandchildren.AlexanderSpoehr, AB'34, PhD'40, ananthropol­ogist, professor, and curator who was in charge of thePacific collection at the Field Museum of Natural His­tory in the 1940s and 1950s, died June 11 in Honolulu.Survivors include his wife, Anne; a scm; a daughter;and two grandchildren.Jeannette Fox, SB'35, a teacher in Chicago from1926 to 1972 and former chair of the science depart­ment at Taft High School, died April 14 in St. Peters­burg, FL, at the age of 84. Survivors include her sister,Charlotte Fox Rogers. Albert Parry, AB'35, PhD'38, professor emeritusof Russian civilization and language at Colgate Col­lege and founder and former chair of Colgate's Rus­sian studies program, died May 4 in Los Angeles. Sur­vivors include his former wife, Louise GoodmanParry; two sons; and three grandchildren.Cyril B. Bond, X'36, a contract administrator forthe U.S. Government at O'Hare Field for 22 years,died March 27 at Ballard Nursing Home in DesPlaines, IL. Survivors include his wife, Viola Somer­ville Bond, PhB'30; a sister; two nieces; and twonephews.David Crawford, AM'36, died June 6. A pioneerin the uses of television in the classroom, he was super­intendent of public elementary schools in Rochelle,IL, from 1941 to 1972. Among survivors are his son,his daughter, and four grandchildren.George S. Speer, SM' 36, professor emeritus at theIllinois Institute of Technology, died March 17. Survi­vors include his daughter; a son; a brother, David G.Speer, AB'37, AM'39; and three grandchildren.(This corrects the June listing for Mr. Speer.)Otto Wirth, AM'36, PhD'37, for many years ateacher, dean, and trustee at Roosevelt University inChicago, died June 6 in Tucson, AZ. Survivors in­clude his wife, Magda; a sister and a brother; and eightnieces and nephews, including Elizabeth WirthMarvick, PhB'44, AM'46, and Alice Wirth Gray,X'52, X'56.Beatrice Beal Jones, AB'37, died July 7 in Naples,FL, after a five-year bout with cancer. A volunteerwith the United Way and Red Cross, she was also ac­tive with the Lancaster (PA) Friends of the Library, theLancaster Day Care Nursery, and the local YMCA.Among survivors are four daughters, and sixgrandchildren.Harriet Minola Smith, AM'37, a retired teacherfrom Evanston and a lecturer in anthropology at theField Museum of Natural History, died May 18 inEvanston Hospital.ArthurC. Lundahl, SB'39, SM'42, thefirstdirec­tor of the Central Intelligence Agency's NationalPhotographic Interpretation Center, and the personwho, in 1962, informed President Kennedy that theSoviet Union had installed missiles in Cuba, diedJune 22. Among survivors are two children and agranddaughter.19405Mary Cusack Knaus, AM' 40, former principal ofKelly High School on the Southwest Side and districtcoordinator for the Chicago Public School Headstartprogram in the late 1960s, died July 8 in Holy FamilyHealth Care Center, Des Plaines, IL. Among survi­vors are two sisters, including Margaret CusackIrmiger, PhB'35; a brother, Robert E. Cusack,AB'38; and four grandchildren.Elmer Tolsted, SB' 40, SM' 41, a professor ofmathematics at Pomona College for more than 40years and an accomplished cellist, died June 23 inChampaign, IL, where he was visiting friends.Among survivors are two sisters, six nieces and neph­ews, and five grand-nieces and nephews.Robert P. McNamee, AB'41, JD'47, a retired at­torney in the San Francisco Bay area, died July 25. Beis survived by his wife, Hilda.James A. Kokoris, X'42, professor and formerchair of Northeastern Illinois University's economicsdepartment, died June 11. A specialist in issues relatedto economic development in East Asia, he was on thefaculty at NIU from 1966 until his death and served aschair for 12 years from 1977 to 1989. Survivors in­clude his wife, Fumiko.JamesE. Richard, AB'43, a management consul.t-ant with many corporations and visiting professor IIIBoston College's School of Managment from 1968 to1973, died August 1 of leukemia. Survivors includehis wife, Adrienne Gooder Richard, AB'43; threesons; three grandchildren; two brothers, includingFrank Richard, X'43; and a nephew, Jay H.Richard, AB' 69.Richard B. Stoughton, SB'45, MD'47, professoremeritus of dermatology at the University of Califor­nia at San Diego School of Medicine, died May 24 af­ter a 16-year battle with leukemia. Among survivorsare his wife, Gwendolen Schmidt Stoughton,PhB'45, SB'47, PhD'54; his son; and threegrandsons.Dorothy Williams Collings, PhD'47, died March6, 1991. Former chief of the documentation section ofthe educational clearing house at the United Nations,she taught at the University of the West Indies from1971 to 1974, and returned in 1976 when, funded byUNESCO, she worked as a library consultant with theNational Council .on Libraries, Archives, andDocumentation.John H. Kornblith, SB'47, MBA'48, chair, presi­dent, and CEO of the Twenty-First Century Corp.,one of the largest franchise holders of McDonald 's res­taurants, died oflung cancer July 27 in New York. Ac­tive in community service, he also served in the ArmyAir Corps in World War II's Pacific Theater. Amongsurvivors are his wife, Dorothy; one son; three daugh­ters; four grandchildren; and a sister.Marion Trozzolo, PhB'47, MBA'50, a formermaker of Teflon-coated frying pans who was creditedWith being the first U.S. manufacturer to apply thenon-stick material to cookware, died June 30 at hisKansas City, MO, home. Survivors include his wife,Phyllis; two sons; five daughters; two brothers, in­clUding Anthony M. Trozzolo, SM'57, PhD'60; and11 grandchildren.John Buettner-Janusch, PhB'48, SB'49, AM'53,chair of New York University's anthropology depart­ment during the 1970s, died July 2. One of the nationsleading physical anthropologists, he was the author ofOVer 100 scientific articles and a widely used text, Ori­gins of Man, but his career was marred when, in 1980,he Was convicted of making illicit drugs in his campuslaboratory. (Paroled, he was later convicted for at­tempting to poison the drug-trial judge.)Frederick A. Johnson, Jr., SM'49, PhD'51, asenior exploration geologist with Exxon USA and aformer cellist with the Midland, TX, Symphony, died�pril 7 in his home. He was 68. Among survivors arehIS son, a sister, three granddaughters, and four great­grandchildren.Constantine G. Panos, AB'49, MD'56, a retired?eneral family practitioner at the Caylor-Nickel Med­�cal Center in Bluffton, IN, died March 9 after suffer­Ing a stroke the week before. He served on the board ofthe First Presbyterian Church and the United Way, and�as president of the Bluffton Lions Club. Among sur­VIVors are a son, a brother, and three sisters.19505�1aurice E. McGaugh, PhD'50, a retired Central-MIchigan University professor and chair ofthe geog­raphy department, died March 17. Survivors includeOne brothel; and two sisters.�oannaHollenbergSher, AB'52, SB'56, MD'56,a dIstinguished service professor of clinical pathology� the �tate University of New York Health ScienceC enter l� Brooklyn, died July 4 at Downstate Medicalb enter ill Brooklyn. Among survivors are her hus­band, Norman Sher, MD' 56; a son; a daughter; and arother.h�illiam Gellman, PhD'55, former professor and�. an of the department of rehabilitation administra­�?n at DePaul University, died May 18 in his Northh ld� �ome. He was also director of the Council of Re­a;blhtation Affiliates, an organization he foundedR..�er retiring in 1978. Survivors include his wife,oda; a daughter; and two grandchildren. 19605Dorothy Wagner Clover, AM'64, coordinator ofthe Madison, WI, Coalition for the Aging from 1975to 1992, died July 25. Among survivors are her hus­band, Frank M. Clover, AM'64, PhD'66; two sons;her father and mother; and her sister.Robert.I, Krug, MBA'65, a hospital finance officerand village trustee, died May 24 in his LaGrange Parkhome. Before retiring last year, he was associated withthe Holy Cross Hospital, the Illinois Hospital Associ­ation, the Chicago Hospital Risk Pooling Program,and the Illinois Compensation Trust. Survivors in­clude his wife, Ann; a son; a daughter; his father; anda sister.Peggy Wai Chee Hochstadt, AM'66, chieflibrari­an of the National University of Singapore, diedAugust 10, 1991, of cancer. Survivors include herhusband, H.R. Hochstadt.Michael Merritt, AB'67, a prominent Chicago setdesigner who won eightJoseph Jefferson Awards, diedAugust 4 at his Lincoln Park home. He designed setsfor the plays and movies of David Mamet, and formany theatrical productions in Chicago. Among sur­vivors are his parents, a brother, a�d a sister.Donald J. Cioeta, AM'69, PhD'79, acquisitionseditor at the University of Washington Press and ad­junct professor of Middle East history at the Universi­ty of Washington, died of cancer July 8 in his Seattlehome. He was 46. Survivors include his wife, Corin­na; a son; his mother; two brothers; and three sisters.19705Daniel Hopkins, MST'71 , a teacher and former as­sistant principal in the Chicago public schools, died inhis South Side home July 25. He also served as generalsuperintendent of a church school at Olivet BaptistChurch. Survivors include five brothers and threesisters.Ronald J. Fitzgerald, MD '75, died April 9 in Fon­tana, CA. Chief resident in psychiatry at Northwest- ern University before joining Kaiser PermanenteHealth Maintenance Organization in 1979, he wasnamed chief of psychiatry at Kaiser in 1985. Amongsurvivors are his wife, Terry, and his mother, Elvira.Lawrence J, Petko, AB'79,PhD'86, MD'87, ape­diatrician and faculty member at the University ofCalifornia at San Francisco, died July 17 of an AIDS­related illness. He was 35. Survivors include his com­panion, Michael Canfield; his parents; and a sister.NOTICE OF DEATHRECEIVEDGemS. Tyler, SB'21, April 1991.Constance Votey, X'21.Ruby Benton Johnson, PhB'22, AM'26, July 30.Lucile Horton Latting, X'22, May.Helen Byland Fishleigh, PhB'24, May.Florena Stauffacher Solomon, X'24.R. Wynne Morris, SB'27.Mary Styles Carroll, PhB'29.Emma Helen Strmic Jessup, SB'31, May.Edith Read Redman, AB'36.Harold F. Redman, AB'36.Grace T. Gunn, X'39, March.Irene Vetter Droegemueller, X' 43.Tirzah Niles, AB'45.Lydia Reitz, SM'46, June.Ira L. Beck, X'47, June.Philip H. Arend, SB'48.Aileen Ruby Hirsch Hillyer, PhB'48, May.St. Joseph Toy, PhB'48, SM'50.Purnell Benson, PhD'52.James H. Roche, MBA'55, April.Susan Fields Maynard, AB'61, July.Francis L. Saliamonas, MBA'65, May.Ronald A. Steen, MBA'66, February.Christopher Scarfe, SM'67.Joel Goldstein, AM'68, PhD'73.Leonard F. McLaughlin, MBA'70, May, 1990.John L. Stange, MBA'71.Joseph Cosgrove Kelley, MBA'73, March.BOOKS by AlumniARTS a LETTERSMargaret R. Olin, AB'68, AM'77, PhD'82,Forms of Representation in Alois Riegl s Theory of Art(Pennsylvania State Press). Alois Riegl was a pioneerin the history oflate Roman, 17th-century Dutch, andBaroque art; he also influenced scholars in art theory,psychology, sociology, literary criticism, and philoso­phy. Olin uses archival material and Riegl's publishedwritings to locate his theory of representation withinthe Viennese, and the wider European, intellectualcontext of the late 19th century.Philip G. Altbach, AB'62, AM'63, PhD'66, edi­tor, Publishing and Development in the Third World(Hans Zell Publishers). This collection of essays deal­ing with books and publishing in developing countriesfocuses on how to stimulate indigenous publishing,and includes case studies from Africa and Asia.BIOGRAPHYDavid Colfax, PhD'64, and Micki Colfax, BardTimes in Paradise (Warner Books). "Blacklisted" inthe 1950s, the Colfaxes, anti-war and civil rights activ­ists, moved to the mountains of Northern California,where they cleared land, built a house, raised live­stock, and home-schooled their children, three of whom went on to graduate from Harvard.Helen Clifford Gunter, AB'24, Navy WAVE:Memories of World War II (Q.E.D. Press). This per­sonal history of World War II commemorates the 50thanniversary of the founding of the Women Acceptedfor Volunteer Emergency Service. Gunter, one of thefirst to join the organization, was a classical archaeol­ogist who enlisted in the Navy after being denied per­mission to join an archaeological expedition becauseof her sex.Joseph M. Heiser, MBA'56, A Soldier SupportingSoldiers (U.S. Government Printing Office). Heiser'smemoir traces the 50-year, four-war career of a mili­tary man who never planned to spend even a day in theU.S. Armed Forces.Brucia Fried Witthoft, AB' 53, The Fine-Art Etch­ings of James David Smillie (1833-1909): A Cata­logue Raisonne (The Edwin Mellen Press). This biog­raphy of James David Smillie emphasizes eventsrelevant to his career as a printmaker.BUSINESS a ECONOMICSVictor J. Elias, AM'64, PhD'69, Sources ofGrowth: A Study of Seven Latin American Economies(ICS Press). By examining the sources of economicgrowth in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexi-UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 45co, Peru, and Venezuela, the author comes to some in­teresting conclusions about the roles of factor inputsand economic sectors.Paul G. Keat, AM'52, PhD'59, and Philip K.Y.Young, Managerial Economics: Economic Tools forToday's Decision Makers (Macmillan). This textbookfor undergraduate seniors and first-year MBA stu­dents stresses the application of microeconomics tobusiness decisions, and. includes an integrated casewhich runs throughout the text.Daniel M. Lauber, AB'70, Professional's JobFinder, Non-Profits' Job Finder, and Government JobFinder (Planning/Communications). Revealing some4,500 different sources of job vacancies, these booksdescribe the job hotlines, specialty periodicals, job­matching services, computerized job databases, anddirectories where 80 percent of positions not adver­tised in newspaper classifieds can be found.David M. Levy, AM'70, PhD'79, The EconomicIdeas of Ordinary People (Routledge). Siding againstthe behavioral psychologists and with the classicalScottish political economists David Hume and AdamSmith, Levy discusses the importance of how consum­ers talk about their economic activities and whethertheir talk influences their economic actions.Frank R. Lichtenberg, AB'73, Corporate Take­overs and Productivity (The MIT Press). This study ofthe relationship between productivity and changes inownership finds that takeovers significantly reducethe employment and wages of white-collar workers(except R&D personnel), but not of blue-collarworkers.James Barney Marsh, AB'61, AM'67, PhD'72,editor, Resources and Environment in Asia's MarineSector (Taylor & Francis). This collection of 19 origi­nal essays on the international aspects of Pacific fishe­ries, aquaculture and marine ranching, seabed miner­al development, ocean transport, oil spills, andmarine pollution, stresses adjustment to the establish­ment of exclusive economic zones.Bruce H. Schoumacher, MBA'63, JD'66, andRonald McKenzie, Successful Business Plans forArchitects (McGraw-Hill, Inc.). This sourcebookfor architects includes extensive discussion on plan­ning for risk and retirement, avoiding legal problems,and negotiating successful professional serviceagreements.CRITICISMRuth Levitt, AB'42, George Eliot: The JewishConnection (Massada Press). In 1876, George Eliotwrote her last great novel, Daniel Deronda, which hada tremendous impact on Jews. The author examineshow Eliot came to write a Zionist novel and hermotives and achievements.EDUCATIONClifford Adelman, AM'65, PhD'76, The »ay WeAre: The Community' College as American Thermom­eter (U.S. Government Printing Office). Althoughcommunity college students are more interested inutilitarian learning than in earning credentials, thisstudy of the education and labor market experiences ofcommunity college graduates versus those who eitherattended four-year schools or did not attend college atall also shows that there are no clear-cut occupationaloutcomes of community college attendance.Robert Arnove, Philip G. Altbach, AB'62,AM'63, PhD'66, and Gail Paradise Kelly, AB'62,editors, Emergent Issues in Education: ComparativePerspectives (SUNY Press). The contributors providecomparative perspectives on such key issues in educa­tion as gender questions, equity, and economicfactors.Vivian Gussin Paley, PhB' 47, lOu Can't Say lOuCan't Play (Harvard University Press). Paley's sev-46 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992enth book about life in the classroom discusses child­hood rejection and her attempts to put into effect a newrule for children that says, quite simply, you cannotreject other children.Edward John Kazlauskas and Lawrence O. Picus,AM'87, Administrative Uses of Microcomputers inSchools (ASBO International). This book develops asystems framework to help school business adminis­trators choose microcomputer systems to assist withschool district business functions.James Zigerell, PhD'62, The Uses of Television inHigher Education (Praeger). Examining how televi­sion has extended postsecondary education and train­ing opportunities, this book covers early successesand failures as well as the latest instructional uses.FICTION a POETRYJean Prussing Burden, AB'36, Taking Light fromEach Other (University of Florida Press). Burden'ssecond book of poetry plays upon the themes of love,loss, human kinship to animals, and the nature ofseasons.Gilbert Schedler, PhD'70, Starting Over (PiscesPress). This volume is the author's fourth book ofpoetry.Susan Sontag, AB' 51, The Volcano Lover (Farrar,Straus & Giroux). Based on the lives of Sir WilliamHamilton, his celebrated wife, Emma, and LordNelson, and peopled with many of the great figures ofthe late 1700s, Sontag's first novel in over 20 years isabout revolution, the fate of nature, the condition ofwomen, art and the collector's obsessions, and, aboveall, love.GENDER STUDIESClifford Adelman, AM'65, PhD'76, J#Jmen atThirtysomething: Paradoxes of Attainment (U. S. Gov­ernment Printing Office). Using college transcriptsand labor market experiences, this analysis of the edu­cation and careers of women from 1972 to 1986 at­tempts to explain why, since women's educationalachievements were superior to those of men, rewardsin the labor market for women were thin bycomparison.Marifran Carlson, PhD'83, Feminismo: TheWomen's Movement in Argentina from its Beginningsto Eva Peron (Academy Chicago Publishers). Thisbook traces the Argentine women's movement throughindividuals in its vanguard who differ widely in per­sonality and political orientation, such as socialistactivist Dr. Alicia Moreau de Justo, internationalliterary figure Victoria Ocampo, and the legendaryEva Peron.Lynn D. Gordon, AM'74, PhD'80, Gender andHigher Education in the Progressive Era (Yale Uni­versity Press). Focusing on the universities of Califor­nia and Chicago, and on Vassar, Sophie Newcomb,and Agnes Scott colleges, the author examines the re­lationship between gender, higher education, andAmerican society from 1890 to 1920.Laura Harris Hapke, AM'69, Tales of the Work­ing Girl: »age-Earning J#Jmen in American Litera­ture, 1890-1925 (Twayne/Macmillan). This study ofwomen's work experiences as reflected in a host of pe­riod subgenres-tenement tales and labor romances,as well as social protest, cross-class, and upward­mobility novels-includes analyses of James, Dreiser,Crane, 0. Henry, and Wharton.Antony H. Harrison, AM'71, PhD'74, and Be­verly Taylor, editors, Gender and Discourse in Victo­rian Literature and Art (Northern Illinois UniversityPress). Featuring a representative selection of artistsfrom the Victorian period-poets, novelists, painters,sculptors, playwrights, and dancers-these criticalanalyses explore the ways in which women as artists,as subjects, and as icons function either to challenge and revise or to reify their society'S genderideologies.HISTORY/CURRENT EVENTSFrank J. Allston, MBA'88, Con-glom-er-ate (11-lumina Concepts). This case history shows how thestruggling Illinois Central Railroad diversified into aprofitable conglomerate-IC Industries, Inc.-underthe leadership of William B. Johnson (who is also a lifetrustee of the University) while other conglomerateswere failing. Included is a foreword by Walter D.Fackler, professor emeritus of economics at theUniversity.David Bensman, AB'70, co-author, Who BuiltAmerica vol. 2 (Pantheon). Written from a multi­cultural perspective, this history of American societyand labor relations from 1877 to the present empha­sizes how American working people adapted tochanges in the nation's economy and political system-and how workers shaped the United States to satisfytheir own values, needs, and cultural traditions.Michael H. Fisher, AM'73, PhD '78, Indirect Rulein India: Residents and the Residency System1764-1857 (Oxford University Press). Focusing onthe interactions between Residents (British politicalagents posted in India to advance British interests),South Asians in the service of Residents, and Indianrulers, this book explains the origins, growth, and pro­cess of indirect rule through the Residency System.Joseph M. Heiser, MBA'56, Logistic Support inVietnam (U.S. Government Printing Office). Cover­ing the Vietnam era, this history oflogistics describesthe structure of and problems with logistics, as well aslessons learned from the Vietnam experience.Norman Maclean, PhD'40, Young Men and Fire(University of Chicago Press). The Mann Gulch fireof August 1949 went into history as one of the most cat­astrophic and controversial ever fought by the ForestService. Maclean first saw the fire at age 18, and spentthe last 14 years of his life researching and writing thisstory about Montana, forest fires, Smokejumpers, andthe ways of the west.Kaoru Okuizumi, AB'90, Kent E. Calder, andGerrit W. Gong, The US. -Japan Economic Relation­ship in East and Southeast Asia: A Policy Frameworkfor Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (WestviewPress). The authors offer a comprehensive appraisalof ways to strengthen and stabilize the economic rela­tionship between the United States and Japan at alllevels-multilateral, bilateral, and regional.Juliana Geran Pilon, AB'69, AM'71, PhD'74,The Bloody Flag: Post-Communist Nationalism inEastern Europe (Transaction Publishers). Pilon'sstudy of nationalism's dual nature-its ability to drawpeople together or drive them apart-focuses on theexperiences of post-Ceausescu Romania, where siz­able minority groups have increased the risk of nation­alist conflict. The author argues that the political sys­tem which best allows Romanians and other EasternEuropeans to embrace the positive aspects of national­ism is the classical-liberal model.Joel Schwartz, AB'62, AM'65, PhD'72, The NeWlOrkApproach: Robert Moses, Urban Liberals, andRe­development of the Inner City (Ohio State UniversitYPress). This revisionist analysis of Robert Moses andTitle I shows how the "best elements" of liberal NeWYork collaborated with the "Power Broker" Moses tobulldoze and rebuild the city after World War II.Lawrence Guy Straus, AB'71, AM'72, PhD'75,Iberia Before the Iberians: The Stone Age Prehistoryof Cantabrian Spain (University of New MexicOPress). This book examines the current thinking abouthominid adaptations throughout the Stone Age.John E. Tashjean, X'55, Past in RevieW,1941-:-1991 (United Press of America). Major themesweaving together these sketches of the last half centuryinclude the transition of 20th-century geopolitics intothe aerospace age and the U.S. before, during, and af­ter the cold war. Includes a chapter describing the au­thor's U of C Law School experience.MEDICINE a HEALTHClifford M. Foust, AM' 51, PhD' 57, Rhubarb: TheWondrous Drug (Princeton University Press). AnAsian plant reported to possess mysterious catharticpowers, medicinal rhubarb has spurred Europeantrade expeditions and obsessive scientific inquiryfrom the Renaissance to the 20th century, as explorers,traders, botanists, gardeners, physicians, and phar­macists tried to adapt rhubarb for convenient use inEurope.Terra Ziporyn, AM'81, PhD'85, Nameless Dis­eases (Rutgers University Press). Drawing on patientaccounts, case studies, medical literature, and the his­tory of medicine, the author explores "nameless" ormisdiagnosed diseases, as well as the physical, psy­chological, and financial distress of people who sufferfrom these diseases.Cynthia Stuen, AM'73, Prospective Payments andHospital Discharge Planning with Older Adults (Gar­land Publishing). This book examines how the pro­spective payment reimbursement method has changedthe way discharge planners arrange post-hospitali­zation care for older adults.POLITICAL SCIENCE a LAWGeorge E. Colomb, Seymour H. Moskowitz, LindaD. Moskowitz, and Earl Johnson, Jr., JD'60, Feder­al Trial Guide (Matthew Bender Co.). Based on theCalifornia Trial Guide, designed and authored byJohnson, this set of four office books contains detailedchecklists and ready-to-use scripts and forms.Bernard Grofman, SB'66, AM'68, PhD'72, LisaHandley, and Richard Niemi, Minority Representa­tion and the Quest for J.Vting Equality (Cambridgel!niversity Press). This evolutionary review of votingrtghts law focuses on social science testimony andemerging legal.issues of the 1990s.Andrew Kull, JD'77, The Color-Blind Constitution(�arvard University Press). The author proposes ahIstory of the contention that "Our Constitution isc.Olor-blind," tracing its evolution from the aboli­tIonism of the 1830s to the affirmative action of the1970s.Rachel M. McCleary, PhD'86, editor, SeekingJustice: Ethics and International Affairs (WestviewPress). Part of the Case Studies in International Af­fairs series, this volume brings together studies illus­trating ethical concerns that arise in international af­fairs: from the U.S. invasion of Panama and theWithdrawal from Vietnam, to the uneven application�fthe Law of the Sea and the equally uneven distribu­tIon of trade favors emerging from the integration ofthe EUropean Community.Richard L. Samuels, AB'44, JD'50, and EarlJohnson, Jr., JD'60, co-authors, Illinois Civil Trial?�id� (Matthew Bender Co.). Designed for use byIhnoIS civil trial attorneys, this guide consists of fouroffice books and a trial book.IlELIGION a PHILOSOPHYK. Lawson Younger, Jr., William W. Hallo,�M:'53,.PhD'55, and Bernard F. Batto, The BiblicalCanon In Comparative Perspective: Scripture onOntext, IV (The-Edwin Mellon Press). The fourth ina series of collected essays by participants in Hallo's�ummer seminars for college teachers held at Yale; the�nt�odUctory essay compares the concepts of canonic­Ity In cuneiform and Biblical literature.C William V. Hudon, AM'83, PhD'87, MarcelloI ervini and Ecclesiastical Government in Tridentinelaly (Northern Illinois University Press). In reassess- CLIFFORD M. FOUSTStalking the stalk (see Medicine and Health)ing traditional scholarly interpretations, the authordraws from archival sources, including personal cor­respondence, to show how Cervini-long regarded asone of the most important ecclesiastical figures in theTridentine reformation-profoundly influenced re­form before, during, and after the Council of Trent.Richard A. Hutch, AM'71, PhD'74, ReligiousLeadership: Personality, History, and Sacred Author­ity (Peter Lang). This study of religious leadershipguides the reader through the personalities and actionsof world religious leaders, including Martin LutherKing, Jr.; Ramakrishna; Helen Blavatsky; Oral Ro­berts; Emmanuel Milingo; Salama ibn Hassan Sala­ma; Jonathan Edwards; and the Dalai Lama.Harry M. Neumann, AM'54, Liberalism (Caro­lina Academic Press). Taking the position that atheismis the worst crime-far more criminal than racism,sexism, or murder-Neumann writes: "If there is noGod, no eternal non-arbitrary standard of good andevil, nothing, including racism or sexism, is good orbad, right or wrong."David Novak, AB'61, Jewish Social Ethics (Ox­ford University Press). This collection of studies dealswith theoretical issues-natural law, covenant, tradi­tion-and normative issues-criminal justice, eco­nomic justice, minority rights-from the perspectiveof the author's political theology.Paula Richman, AM'80, PhD'83, Many Ramay­anas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in SouthAsia (University of California Press). The author ana­lyzes how social location, gender, religious affilia­tion, genre, and intended audience shape the manytellings of the Ramayana- India's best -loved religiousepic. Included are translations from tellings of thestory previously unavailable in English.SCIENCE a TECHNOLOGYAlida Jatich, AB'76, and Phil Nowak, Micro FocusWorkbench: Developing Mainframe COBOLApplica­tions on the PC (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.). A PCprogramming environment for coding, testing, anddebugging COBOL applications.Bruce V. Lewenstein, AB'80, editor, When Sci­ence Meets the Public (American Association for theAdvancement of Science). These 1991 workshop pro­ceedings address the need for better public under­standing of science, as well as its context and audi­ence; different ways audiences understand the social implications of science; barriers to communicatingpublic understanding; and suggestions on how toreach various audiences.David McGoveran, AB'79, with c.r Date, AGuide to SYBASE and SQL Server (Addison-WesleyPublishing Co.). This in-depth tutorial and referenceguide covers the SQL Server-which handles SY­BASE advantages such as scalable high performance,server-enforced integrity, and security; data manage­ment functions; transaction processing; and window­based tools.SOCIAL SCIENCESJerrold Brandell, PhD' 82, editor and contributingauthor, Countertransference in Psychotherapy withChildren and Adolescents (Jason Aronson, Inc.). Thisbook highlights the central importance of a clinician'ssubjective experience in psychotherapy; reviews thedevelopment of countertransference theory; and ad­dresses the wide range of problems encountered inchild psychotherapy.Tarsicio Castaneda, AM'77, PhD'79, CombatingPoverty: Innovative Social Reforms in Chile duringthe 1980s (International Center for EconomicGrowth). Under Pinochet's regime in the 1980s, Chilelaunched bold social reforms using vouchers, privateservice providers, and decentralized program con­trols. This book analyzes the successes and failures ofreform in education, health, low-income housing, andsocial security. Included is a foreward by Theodore W.Schultz, the Charles L. Hutchinson dstinguishedservice professor emeritus of economics.Anoop Chandola, PhD'66, Contactics: The DailyDrama of Human Contact (University Press of Ameri­ca). Divided into two parts, the first section of this textshows through analysis and small scenarios what con­tactics is and how it works, while the second sectionpresents case studies illustrating how contactics as asocial science is used for problem-solving.Sigrun Klara Hannesdettir. PhD' 87, The ScandiaPlan: A Cooperative Acquisition Scheme for Improv­ing Access to Research Publications in Four NordicCountries (Scarecrow Press, Inc.). The Scandia Planwas founded in 1956 to share acquisitions of researchmaterials in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden.This study in international, and particularly Europe­an, Iibrarianship explores the plan's social and politi­cal background, and the reasons it was abandonedin 1980.Robert W. Preucel, AM'79, Processual andPostprocessual Archaeologies: Multiple Uizys ofKnowing the Past (Center for Archaeological Investi­gations, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale).Essays by leading archaeologists address the influenceof the postmodern/postpositivist debate on the field ofarchaeology, and raise issues of epistemology, the in­dividual and society, and cultural history processes.Emmett Velten, AB'63, and Albert Ellis, WhenAADoesn't Workfor fuu: Rational Steps to Quitting Alco­hol (Barricade Books). This cognitive-behavioralself-help book covers a range of problem drinking:recognizing the problem, developing and achievingself-help goals, eliminating denial, and preventingrelapse.Pierre Bourdieu and Loic Wacquant, AM'86, AnInvitation to Reflexive Sociology (University of Chi­cago Press). A systematic overview of Bourdieu'spioneering theory and method, this book provides in­terpretative keys to the internal logic of Bourdieu'swork, explicating its underlying thematic and meth­odological principles.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," pleasesend the name of the book, its author, its pub­lisher, and a short synopsis to the Books Editor,University of Chicago Magazine, 5757 WoodlawnAve., Chicago, IL 60637.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 47BacAlookat whatalmost was THE LETTERS TO THE MAGAZINEwere unequivocal: the new admin­istration building-the first non­Gothic structure on campus-was a"cracker box," a "sandstone boxcar," and a"grotesque structure," according to the U ofC's disapproving graduates.But alumni reading of the building and see­ing an architect's rendering of the final struc­ture in the Magazine's December/46 issueonly knew half the story. Before the decisionto erect the building was made, the University.toyed with other options for the site.For example, acknowledging the shortage oflibrary space on campus, University officialscommissioned architects to design a jointlibrary and administration building for thevacant spot. The result: a gargantuan Ll-storybuilding that would have stood smack-dab inthe middle of what is now the circular drive.One glance at the architects' rendering wasenough-the University scrapped the idea infavor of an administration building alone.Proposals for this building, along with otherprojects that were never realized, are part ofthe Smart Museum's new installation, "TheGray City Unbuilt: Architectural ProposalsA Smart Museum exhibitreveals the unbuiltUniversity-campusprojects that, for beUeror worse, were designedbut never constructed.48 U-JIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1992 for the University of Chicago." On displayuntil December 6, the 20 drawings that com­prise the exhibit provide a glimpse of a Uni­versity that might have been.Unbeknownst to most casual campus pas­sersby, Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, archi­tect of the University Chapel (renamedRockefeller Chapel after its benefactor'sdeath in 1937), designed more than the chapelalone. Taking its cues from the campus quads,Goodhue's original plan gave the chapel itsown quadrangle to anchor-a complex thatwould have included a new house for the Uni­versity's president and a series of unspecified .buildings forming a cloistered courtyard.Standing alone as it does, Rockefeller Chap­el, completed in 1928, sharply contrasts withthe rest of the campus quads. Why the sur­rounding buildings were never built is a "mys­tery," says University planner RichardBumstead, who acted as guest curator of theexhibit. "My hunch is that the Depressioncame along," and the University did not havethe funds to implement the whole plan.Money, or rather, the lack of it, was a factorin the fate of many never-built proposals­with the fine arts feeling the budgetary pinchnot once, but twice. Fund-raising for an Insti­tute for Fine Arts, and work on sketches of theGothic building that would house it, had be­gun in the late 1920s. Although the architect isunknown, the proposal included an art galleryand faculty offices on the Midway. But theDepression got the best of this plan and theidea wasn't revived again until the 1960s.In the late 1960s, the University hiredEdward Larrabee Barnes to design an arts cen­ter for the block between Ellis and Greenwoodavenues and 55th and 56th streets. The com­plex was to anchor the University's plannednorth campus-an area that would include stu­dent housing and what Bumstead calls "avillage-like atmosphere." Barnes' proposal in­cluded a music performance hall, a large the­ater, art and music department offices, and anart gallery. While the plans for the north cam­pus were, at least temporarily, abandoned, theUniversity did build a portion of Barnes' plan-the Cochrane-Woods Art Center-in the1970s, and a scaled-down version of his theater-the Court Theatre-in 1981.With the wisdom of hindsight, it is easy to seethe folly in many of these proposals. In 1946,writing about the new and unloved Ad Build­ing, Magazine editor William Morgenstern,PhB'20, JD'22, summed it up: "One of thegreat difficulties about an academic building isthat it is practically imperishable," he wrote,"and so, an academic plant is even harder toimprove than a curriculum." -D.L.Towering fiasco: this library cum adminis­tration building would have dwarfed othercampus structures.Praise fa the long-awaitedetc book by4NORMAN MACLEA,N, "An extraordinarily wise and lyricalnarrative of wildfire and smoke­jumpers; a haunting commentary onbirth, sex, death, memory, and rebirth;a memoir of 'heat and loneliness.'"-GRETEL EHRLICH"Norman Maclean was one of our finestwriters. Here the author uf A'-R�iver RunsThrough It has given us the deep and com­pelling true story of Montana's Mann Gulchfire. "-ANNIE DILLARD"Maclean argues for life and couragewith the unpretentious rectitude of agreat writer."-ToM MCGUANE"Norman Maclean's obsession becamemy obsession. One hour in a forest fireof nearly half-a-century ago becomes soreal and so close that one feels the heatof the fire and hears the panic of theyoung men it devoured."-ALEX KOTLOWITZ"A paean to manhood, bravery, andthe mysteries of the spirit."-KIRKUS REVIEWS****************CAR-RT-SORT**CR042318977The University of ChicagoLibrarySerial Records Department1116 East 59th StreetChicago, IL 60637