VOLUME 84, NUMBER 6 AUGUST 199216192430 FEATURESConfessions from the CoreThis spring, a student turned professor came back toteach in the Common Core. Once again, it was alearning experience.HOMER GOLDBERGDays unlike any otherCamera and notebook in hand, the Magazine-alongwith 2,000 diumni-experienced Centennial Reunion.DEBRA LADESTROA director with attitudeHer critics say she's too intellectual, too political. But, asdirector of the New York Public Theater, JoAnne Akalaitisbelieves in making demands on her audience.JOE LEVINEPage 19Why images deserve a better imageThe 20th-century information explosion, argues aUniversity art historian, is really an image explosion­demanding a new form of visual education.MARY RUTH YOECover: JoAnne Akalaitis, AB'60, brings her own sense of imagery tothe New York Public Theater's production of Tis Pity She'sa Whore (seepage 24); photographs by Martha Swope.Page 30EditorMary Ruth Yoe2 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 Editors NotesON THE LAST TUESDAY IN JUNE, MYsix-year-old daughter took a sum­mer-school field trip to the Art Insti­tute. At dinner, I asked Hanna about her day."What was your favorite painting?""You know the one that's made up of pointsof different colors? The one with all thepeople in the park?""Sunday Afternoon on the Island of LaGrande Jatte," I supplied. "It's by a painternamed Georges Seurat.""Yes, that's the one-and you know why it'smy favorite, don't you?" she answered. "Be­cause Mr. Blair painted himself in it. ""Mr. Blair" was Walter Blair, AM'26,PhD' 31. Professor emeritus of English and apioneer in the study of American humor, hehad died the day before, at age 92 (his obituarywill appear in the October issue of the Maga­zine). To Hanna and her sister, Mairead, Mr.Blair was the deep-voiced, grandfatherlywidower who, as their first next-door neigh­bor in Chicago, had shared his leftover birth­day cakes, left holiday greetings at their door,and invited them to a private viewing of his"gallery" -the parodies of famous paintingswhich he and his late wife, Carol, had foryears sent as their holiday greetings. If youlooked into the background of their Seurat,for example, you could see the Blairs peram­bulating with the rest of the Sunday crowd.The paintings hung in the entranceway of hisapartment in the Cloisters, just above a book­shelf on which he kept the works of his students(Saul Bellow, Wayne Booth, Hamlin Hill, Phi­lip Roth, and Larzar Ziff, to name just a few).His own books had a far more modest perch inthe comer of his dining room.Maybe I disappointed Mr. Blair when I sawhis books, for instead of reaching for his clas­sic Native American Humor or Mark Twainand Huck Finn, I went straight for a book Ihadn't seen since 11 th grade, The UnitedStates in Literature, which he co-edited. Itwas the first (and last) textbook I ever readstraight through-even the study guides at theend of each section. But, if Mr. Blair wouldhave preferred that I had chosen one of his"real" works, he was too much of a gentlemanto show it.Being a gentleman, however, didn't meanbeing stuffy. One Saturday several wintersago, Hanna and Mairead invited him to lunch. /A neighborly note from Walter BlairAfter soup and sandwiches, they disappearedto watch a video, and he pushed his chair backfrom the table, ready to chat. Asked what hehad thought of President Hutchins, Mr. Blairmade it plain that as someone who supple­mented his University income by producingtextbooks-texts that, he happily noted, werethe choice of big book-buying school systemslike California and Texas-he'd had no pa­tience with Hutchins' proposal that, in returnfor a somewhat larger salary, faculty tum overtheir royalty rights to the University. "Caroland I wanted to like him, " the professor notedregretfully, "because he did have a wonderfulsense of humor. "Humor, rather than historical accuracy, mayhave been the basis of the story Mr. Blair toldnext. It happened (so he said) to a U of CPh.D. who got his first teaching job at North­western, where one of his duties includedteaching a course in freshman composition­generally not considered a plum assignment.But the young professor was able to find a sil­ver lining in his cloud when a student chose towrite an essay on the glories of nature. Oneparticular sentence with a spelling error-arabbit was seen bounding into its burro­allowed the teacher to realize his fondest pro­fessorial dream: "He was able," Mr. Blairsaid, delivering the punch line in a deliberatedeadpan worthy of Samuel Clemens, "towrite on a student's paper, 'You don't knowyour ass from a hole in the ground. ' "A few months later, we moved to anotherbuilding, and saw Mr. Blair only occasional­ly. But Mairead and Hanna continued to countdown the years until Mr. Blair turned 100;they wanted to fete him with a "Happy Birth­day" from Today show weatherman WillardScott. To them, such a greeting seemed t�epinnacle of esteem-and they were certatnMr. Blair deserved no less.-MR. Y.LettersMotivations of discriminationCongratulations to Tim Obermiller(and the Magazine's editor) for "TheBig Chill" (June/92), an excellenthistory of the University's struggle with thegender issue. I learned some facts that werenew to me and which, in turn, added to myunderstanding of the problem.I am particularly impressed by Mr. Ober­miller's conclusion, quoted from ProfessorBernice Neugarten's 1969 report, and itsSound Chicago-sociological outlook: socialroles are reciprocal, whether we're discussingrace, color, ethnicity, age, or gender. Indeed,as Professor Neugarten emphasized, tochange female social roles is to change malesocial roles-and change is always to some ex­tent a source of dissonance for all involved.It is ironic that earlier in the same issue yougive attention to Richard Epstein's ForbiddenGrounds: The Case Against Employment Dis­crimination Laws. He is quite right in arguingthat such laws undermine traditional conceptsof merit -as if the American tradition on thematter is one worth protecting: discrimina­tion against women and ethnic minorities ofall kinds (anyone old enough to rememberthe signs in factory windows: "Irish neednot apply"?), especially blacks and Asian­Americans.As the Los Angeles' riots emphasize, wehave on our national agenda-no matter howdistasteful it is-the problem of reconcilingthe free enterprise Epstein champions, andWhite folks' rejection of dark-skinned peo­ple's right to seek the American dreamthrough hard work and opportunity.As Professor N eugarten pointed out withrespect to women 20 years ago, social roles�re reciprocal-and if "merit" means theJUdgments of male white entrepreneurs, the"merit" to which Epstein refers has littlemeaning for large segments of the AmericanciVic community.ConSidering the lack of educational oppor­tunity for blacks, it is simply nonsense to ar­gUe that fear of Title VII suits influences anentrepreneur's decisions on the location of�lants, offices, and factories. Perhaps EpsteinIS not aware of the decline in unskilled andsemi-Skilled jobs into which blacks (andwomen) were so long directed. Indeed, withrespect to women, an employer is subject to possible Title VII suits no matter in whichsuburb he establishes his business. It is a pitythat Epstein didn't learn any labor history orsociology before attacking the purely legal as­pects of Title VII on grounds related to humanmotivations.LEONARD S. STEIN, AM'49, PHD'62EVANSTON, ILLINOISBabitat beginningsI enjoyed reading the June cover article onmy centennial classmates ["The Spirit of'92"], but I was surprised-and a littleembarrassed-to note that it had been report­ed that I had founded a city chapter of Habitatfor Humanity, and also that I had worked forthe Midwest Regional Office of Habitat. Ac­tually, during my second year I co-founded aUniversity of Chicago campus chapter, alongwith several other committed students andUniversity-related people. I served as secre­tary and publicity coordinator of this campuschapter. The city of Chicago has severalstrong neighborhood-based Habitat affili­ates, and also a few campus chapters; we wereby no means the first Habitat group to form inChicago, though we did first bring Habitat tothe University of Chicago.Currently, students working with the Uni­versity of Chicago Campus Chapter of Habi­tat for Humanity are helping to rehabilitate atwo-story, burned-out brick building in thePilsen neighborhood. The building, locatedat 1166 W. 19th Place, will house three fami­lies in need of a home. Like many not-for­profit organizations, we rely on donationsfrom individuals to continue our work. Alum­ni interested in supporting our campus chap­ter's work in Pilsen can send donations toUniversity of Chicago Habitat for Humanity,5600 S. Woodlawn Ave., B-3, Chicago, IL60637.ANNE E. HOLLISTER, AB'92CHICAGOA question of validityI have a few comments on HerbertPankratz's letter, "Typical Voices?"(June/92 "Letters"), which I should saywas generally civil in tone and represented agood U of C sense of reasonableness. ARGOYLESand more!Tuscan Gargoyle (Shown)18" - $98 (+$11.50 shpg)Also availableFlorentine Gargoyle6" - $19 (+$4.50 shpg)12" - $58 (+$7.50 shpg)Finishes: Antique stone, iron & greys toneAvailable for outdoor use, too. Call for details.Bust of Socrates10" x 9" x 22"Hydrocal $138.00 (+$14.50 shpg)Finishes:Antique stone, flat whiteSmall Ionic Capital10" x 10" xA '{2"$44.00 (+$5.50 shpg)Finishes:Flat white, antique stone, greystoneof replica sculpture & architectural artifacts.Each piece is hand-finished using casts importedfrom Europe in the 19th century.Gargoyle Brochure - FREEColor Catalogue withhundreds of works - $5.00To order or request literature write or phone1-800-525-0733, ext. 224.tTOSCANO,r'OF CHICAGO'15 E. Campbell St., Dept. 224Arlington Heights, IL 60005Visit our allery! Call 708-255-6760 for our hours.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 3THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONDancing 'til midnight ...A festive end to the Centennial year ...The Board of Governors of theUniversity of Chicago Alumni Associationcordially invites you to aGala Centennial Dinner DanceSunday, October 3, 19.92at theFairmont Hotel200 North Columbus DriveChicago, Illinois6:30 pm: Reception7:30 pm: Dinner and DancingChairmanB. Kenneth West, MBA'60Vice ChairmenLindy Bergman, AB'39William Scott Gray III, PhB'48, MBA'50Invitations will be extended within the Chicago area.If you live outside of the area and would like an invitation,please contact the Alumni Association at 3121702-2150.4 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 First, on homosexuality as "natural" and"valid." The American Psychological Asso­ciation, some 20 years ago, deemed homo­sexuality natural. It continues to be the con­sensus of psychologists (and increasinglygeneticists) that homosexuality is a variationin human behavior on the same order as blueeyes or left-handedness.Validity is another question entirely-one towhich science cannot speak but only rhetoric.r Validity is a moral and social concept. Thoseof us who are homosexual (and many others,of course) find validity in homosexuality. Andto those who don't, I remind them of the wide­spread practice earlier in this century of rap­ping the hands of schoolchildren who wrotewith their left hands. Validity changes in timeand space, and we should be wary of evenwidely accepted standards.Next, on the "typical U of C graduate."What's typical? I would have said: thoughtfulpeople who care about ideas; serious peopleengaged in solving problems; and open­minded people who wager opinions and listento others. Sexuality is not a good criterion fortypicality, any more than left-or right­handedness.Finally, on the question of families: Therehave always been unmarried people, alwayschildless people. Mr. Pankratz would do wellto recall that most of us don't wish to overturnthe social structure. We merely wish equaland just acceptance.DAVID JOHN FRANK, AB'85STANFORD, CAExplaiDiDg a gibeI am the author of the brief gibe at orga­nized homosexuality in the October/91"Letters" section ("Expanded cover­age?"), which has predictably unstrung somany of the P. C. 's among your readership.I was very pleased that you had the courageto run it.Only now do I catch up with the April/92 's"Editor's Notes" and find, to my great disap­pointment, that you have caved in under pres­sure to the homophile lobby.There were no "personal epithets" of anykind in my letter, and if it "inflicted hurt on alarge number of people, " that is only becausethey have redefined injury to include anythingthat disputes their intellectually fragile argu­ments. I suggest that no matter how delicatelyI worded it, their response would have beenthe same.The main point of my letter was not to criti­cize you for publicizing the homosexualrevels, but to draw attention to the exclusion ofall others.This is a serious argument, whether yOUagree with it or not, and is not to be dismissedby a labored analogy to ancient bias against***23-25, 1992 *OMECOMINGLUSCelebrate autumn on campus!FEATURING:Concert by the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center*Maroon-a-thon Alumni/Student Volleyball Tournament*All-Campus Tailgate Party*The U of C Maroons vs. Washington University of St. Louis*Post-game Affinity Receptions for Order of the "C"/WAA,DOC Films, WHPK, and University Theatre/Blackfriars Alumni*Games for Varsity Swimmers and Soccer Players*Many Enjoyable Alumni, Parent, Student, and Family Eventsinformation call the Alumni Association at (312) 702-21UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 5THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONInvites you to join distinguished faculty and alumni friends participatingin alumni travel/study programs during the coming monthsFinal 1992 Study TripsVoyage into AntiquityNovember 6-19Co-sponsored withColumbia UniversityWe will explore ancient coastal citiesand sites in Greece, Turkey, Israel,and Egypt at a season when skiesare clear and crowds are gone.Our ship will be the splendidnew Aurora II. Faculty leaderIngrid Rowland of the University'sDepartment of Art will focus onthe way that classical tradition hasinfluenced Western art and culture. Hong Kong on theThreshold of ChangeNovember 11-20Hong Kong is now living throughthe most exciting and uncertain timein its history, and we will view theterritory as it is today and considerwhat the future will hold after 1997.Two nights in Canton will completethis attractively priced study trip.Faculty leader Gregory Lee ofthe Department of East AsianLanguages and Civilizationswill be joined by colleagues fromHong Kong universities.Planned for 1993Voyage to VietnamFebruary 21-March 7Led by Professor Frank Reynolds ofthe Divinity School and South AsianLanguages and Civilizations. The Himalayan Kingdomsof Tibet, Nepal, and BhutanMarch 26-April 17Led by Professor Ralph Nicholas ofthe Departments of Anthropologyand Social Sciences and Director ofthe Center for International Studies.Exploring theNatural Treasures of theGalapagos Islands andCosta RicaMarch 8-19 Cruising the Mississippiaboard the Delta QueenApril 14-24Led by Professor Gwin Kolb of theDepartment of English Language andLiterature. Special guest lecturerwill be Ken Burns....Led by Professor Robert J. Richardsof the Departments of History,Philosophy, and Psychology.. The Journey of Odysseusthrough the Ancient MediterraneanAugust 28-September 13Led by Professor Herman Sinaiko of the Division of the Humanitiesand General Studies in the Humanities.Also scheduled are study trips to destinations including Mexico's Copper Canyon,the Yucatan, West Africa, and the Ukraine.For further information and brochures or to be added to our travel 1 studymailing list, call or write to Laura Gruen, Associate Director, University ofChicago Alumni Association, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago,IL60637. 3121702-2160.6 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 the Anglican clergy.I have often raised this point with P. C. 's(some of them my best friends), and havefound them unable to answer it convincingly. Ithink that is why they squeal so loudly when itcomes up.ALAN WHITNEY, X'49NEW YORK CITYrGralDmatically incorrectSHAME! Where were you when the fol­lowing sentence appeared in boldfacetype on page 20 of your June/92 issue?"One should not assume that because acritical mass of women on campus hasbeen reached that their place is in any wayguaranteed. "English grammar requires, of course, eitherthe first or the second "that" but not both.Apparently the debasement of language oc­curring throughout our culture has finallyreached even the University of Chicago.JOHN H. HAGAN, AM'50, PHD'57VESTAL, NYSearching for a philosopherIf anyone remembers my father, the lateDr. Albert Millard Dunham, Jr., whoattended the University of Chicago from1924 until receiving his doctorate in philoso­phy in 1933, please contact me. I am doingbiographical research. He was a brilliant stu­dent of African-American descent who stud­ied under Alfred North Whitehead (at Har­vard), T.V. Smith, and Charles Hartshorne.He graduated summa cum laude, Phi BetaKappa, and later was a collaborator on com­piling Mead's work in the posthumous vol­ume, Philosophy of the Act (published in1938).His doctoral thesis, "The Concept of Ten­sion in Philosophy," stands as an importantcontribution to American philosophicalthought. Dr. Dunham was also active a little intheater at The Cube, in his undergraduatedays. Before severe illness befell him, hetaught philosophy for one year at HowardUniversity (1933-1934).Any information would be appreciated.KAYE LAWRENCE DUNHAMLos ANGELESThe University of Chicago Magazine invitesletters from readers on the contents of themagazine or on topics related to the Universi­ty. Letters for publication, which must besigned, may be editedfor length and/or clari­ty. To ensure the widest range of voices possi­ble, preference will be given to letters of 500words or less. Letters should be addressed to:Editor, University of Chicago Magazine,5757 Woodlawn Ave. , Chicago, IL 60637.nvestigations21 sl Cenlury FamiliesAre American families on theverge of extinction? Are newspecies waiting in the wings?WITH A DIVORCE RATE THATnearly doubled between 1950 and1985, an unprecedented increaseof Women in the work force, and a rise in thenumber of adults delaying marriage to live in­dependently, it is fitting to ask: Are the days ofOzzie and Harriet finally over?That's just the question a University sociolo­gist and her colleague at Brown Universityattempted to answer in their book, New Fami­lies, No Families: The Transformation of theAmerican Home, a RAND Corporation studyPUblished recently by the University of Cali­fornia Press."Our study has taken the home ... as itsfocus," write Linda Waite, professor of soci­Ology at the University, and Frances Gold­Scheider, a sociology professor at Brown."We asked how a changing home life, inWhich some young people have experiencedtheir parents' divorce and remarriage andothers have left early to live independently,has influenced their later lives; and we haveeXamined how men and women manage theirtasks within the home as their work rolesbecome more equal."Basing their study on the "baby boom" gen­eration born after World War II, Waite andGoldscheider analyzed data from the Depart­tnent of Labor's National Longitudinal Sur­Veys, which followed groups of 5,000 menand 5,000 women from the late 1960s to thetnid-1980s.. The family, they found, is at a crossroads. ItIS being affected by two forces-one workingf�o.m the inside, bringing about change in tra­dItIonal family roles, and one working fromthe Outside, luring people away from familya��angements altogether.No families" -in which people live inde­pendently-are becoming more common,Waite and Goldscheider write. In fact, be- Today's children may not be tomorrow's homemakers, says sociologist Linda Waitecause of divorce, the rise in the average mar­rying age, and the aging of the population as awhole, nearly one in four American house­holds does not contain any kind of family.Living independently, even if the individualplans to eventually marry, does affect theprobability of marriage. Women who livealone away from their parents' homes are lesslikely to marry than women who remain athome until marriage. But men who live inde­pendently are more likely to marry than menwho remain at home. "For young men,"Waite and Goldscheider observe, "it seemslikely that these experiences are reinforcinggreater sharing, increasing the number ofmen who want families and are willing tospend more time as fathers."For young women," they continue, "evi­dence seems to point more equivocally toward'no families,' with family sacrificed to workin order to achieve greater independence. "Families are also facing pressure to changefrom the inside. The increasing autonomy ofwomen in today's society has changed the tra­ditional "rules" of marriage, the authors con­tend. Because working women have limitedtime and 'energy for traditional domestictasks, "new families," in which men andwomen share economic and domestic respon­sibilities, are being formed."More young men approve of mothers'working," Waite and Goldscheider write,"and more young women are planning their lives around work and fewer children and to asomewhat lesser extent [both] are changingtheir views of men's and women's roles in aless traditional direction." The change maybe slow, Waite adds, but it's happening.In these new families, men, particularlythose with more education, take on a biggershare of domestic chores. The researchersfound that married, educated men share sig­nificantly more in every chore-with the sin­gle exception of yard work and household re­pairs-than men with less education. Menwith post -graduate degrees take 30 to 50percent more responsibility for dishwash­ing, child care, shopping, housecleaning, andlaundry. In households where both parentshave post -graduate educations, husbands do80 percent more work around the house thando husbands in families where both parentshad 8th-grade educations, often substitutingfor the work children in less-educated house­holds do.One of the most surprising findings of theirstudy, Waite says, was "how little teenageboys do around the house." In general, chil­dren of both sexes "are not being taught thefundamental skills that underlie making ahome."In mother-only families, boys and girlsshare about half of the total household tasksequally. But in two-parent families, the re­searchers found, boys do significantly lesswork than girls. And, in homes where bothUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 7parents have advanced education, children ofboth sexes do less work because they are giventime for school assignments. This lack of ex­perience, the authors predict, may make boysfrom such households unequipped to functionas partners in new, more equitable marriages-in turn, possibly encouraging more womento stay single.Predicting the future is always risky, but re­cent trends, the authors write-including theleveling off both of the divorce rate and in thenumber of couples choosing to remain child­less-hint at an optimistic future for newfamilies."It is possible," Waite and Goldscheiderwrite, "that we may have to go into the 21stcentury with several generations of very [lowbirth rates]-as the children of chaotic fami­lies have few and unstable marriages produc­ing few and insecure children-until a newbalance of egalitarian norms is in place. Butour research makes us hopeful that this willhappen eventually. " -D. L.3·D ArchaeologyRESEARCHERS AT THE ORIENTAL IN­stitute have unearthed a tool that canaid in the future excavation of ancientsites: the computer."We can only understand an archaeologicalsite by getting up and away from the site, " saysMark Lehner, assistant professor at the Ori­ental Institute and the Department of NearEastern Languages and Civilizations. Di­gitized, three-dimensional computer maps ofEgypt's Great Sphinx and the Giza Plateau al­low Lehner to study Egypt's ancient sites froma faraway vantage point, a computer in theOriental Institute.Data about the Sphinx that he had gatheredin 1979 came into use a decade later whenLehner commissioned the Jerde Partnership,an architectural firm in California, to create acomputerized model of the monument. Jerdedigitized Lehner's measurements of theSphinx-collected mostly by photogramme­try (a stereoscopic camera process which cap­tures an object in three dimensions) and tapemeasurements. Every crevice, niche, andbump on the Sphinx's' surface larger than teninches has been stored in the computer'smemory and, by pressing a button on the key­board, Lehner can examine . the contour"map" of the Sphinx from any angle.Last year, John Sanders-research associ­ate and director of the Oriental Institute'scomputer lab-joined the effort. ContinuingJerde's work, he digitized data which Lehnerhad collected (in large part from publishedsources) to create a surface terrain model of a3 1I2-by-4 kilometer section of the plateausurrounding the Sphinx. Sanders then con-8 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 structed rough computer models of the pla­teau's pyramids, temples, and causeways, andplaced them in their exact locations on thecontour map, producing an accurate, three­dimensional plan of the plateau.Sanders sent this plan to Jerde, who then"dropped" the Sphinx model into it. Jerdealso created an animated video of the map, us­ing techniques similar to Disney animation,that reproduces the sensation of flying overthe plateau. Next, Sanders plans to replace theplateau's rough building models withabsolute-scale, articulated models. Finally, inwork Sanders estimates will be completed in1994, the monuments' interiors will be addedto the model. Lehner and Sanders expect a fi­nal video to "fly" the viewer around the pla­teau and inside each monument, providinga view of the architecture, paintings, andstatuary inside.Computerized models aid Lehner in hismain work: learning more about the workerswho built the monuments. Lehner theorizesthat the builders lived in a city on a harbor­much like the Loop of Chicago-into whichflowed anything they needed. "The computerallows us to hypothesize where this communi­ty might be located, " Lehner says.Beyond specific research goals, Lehner sayscomputer-aided archaeology may change theway researchers approach conservation.Even in the most advanced archaeologicaldig, he says, "we are destroying what we dig.The only thing that's left in many cases are ourdrawings, or photos, or scientific written re­ports." Once a tomb is opened for study, it be­gins to decay: art chips off the walls, bacteriagrow, and relative humidity rises above ac­ceptable levels."On the other hand," Lehner points out ironically, "to do an accurate documentationof ancient archaeological sites and monu­ments is itself an act of conservation." Withthe Giza Plateau electronically conserved forlater generations, Lehner sees a future wheresites-and even whole cities-can be saved inthis fashion."It may be the case that in the future, elec­tronic information will outlive the paper, pho­to, and ink of our reports, as well as the monu­" ments themselves." -J. H.Stemming the TideTHE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT'S MOSTrecent effort to stop the flow of illegalimmigrants from Mexico came in1986 in the form of the Immigration Reformand Control Act, which set new requirementsfor documentation to work in the U. S. and in­creased U.S.-Mexico border patrols. But theact did not cut down on illegal immigration atall, says Douglas Massey, professor in sociol­ogy and the Irving B. Harris Graduate Schoolof Public Policy Studies, in a new study. Infact, migration patterns have become so well­established between the U. S. and Mexico thatin some rural Mexican communities nearlyevery man migrates to the U. S. at least once bythe time he is 40.As part of a larger project sponsored by theNational Institutes of Health, Massey-alongwith Katharine Donato, a sociology professorfrom Louisiana State University, and JorgeDurand, an anthropologist from the U niversi­ty of Guadalajara-studied a random sampleof 1,350 men in seven Mexican communitiesin the winters of 1987, 1988, and 1989. Duringeach of the following summers, the research-Digital archeology: A southwest view of the digitized Giza Plateau includes a rough modelof the Pyramid of Khufu. Morefully detailed models are in the works.ers interviewed about 100 migrant families inthe United States.They found that, although additional bordersurveillance resulted in more arrests, the ar­rests did not reduce immigration. ''Appre­hended or not," the researchers wrote, "ev­ery migrant who attempted to enter the UnitedStates eventually got in."The researchers also asked immigrantsabout their experiences with "coyotes," theSmugglers migrants hire for help in crossingthe border. "If border crossing became in­creasingly risky and hazardous, we might ex­pect the demand for coyotes to grow and theirfees to rise," the researchers wrote, "leadingto an overall increase in the cost of the trip." Infact, migrants told the researchers that coyoteprices have remained virtually unchanged, inreal costs, since the 1960s.The Reform and Control Act's workplacerestrictions have also had little impact inreducing migration. Although employers arerequired to see proof ofa prospective employ­ee's citizenship and to keep that informationon file, the act does not establish a central reg­istry of the information the employers collect,and employers are not required to verify thedocuments' validity. As a result, the study re­ported, "an industry has grown up to supplythe necessary documents. Migrants' can pur­chase the kind of fake documentation theyneed for particular jobs."Despite the relative weakness of the act,the primary reason migration is difficult tostem, Massey says, is that it is a self-perpetua­ting pattern . Once Mexican migrants beginComing to the U. S. they send word for rela­tives and friends to join them, and a networkof contacts becomes established that suppliesinformation about jobs and housing. Thus,the act may have been doomed to failure.Illegal immigration, Massey says, "isn'tsomething you can just shut on and off like afaucet. " -D. L.ABSTRACTSTRANSPARENT SOLUTIONS: FACED WITHthe task of checking simple math prob­lems, most people know what to do. "Check­ing the math" of a mathematical proof billionsof lines long is a much more daunting task­especially'when a single mistake can invali­date its entire structure. But now computertheorists have devised a technique to checkeven the longest, most intricate calculations.The technique-developed by Laszlo Ba­bai, professor in computer science; LanceFortnow, assistant professor in computer sci­ence; Mario Szegedy, PhD' 89, of AT&T BellLabs; and Leonid Levin of Boston University-involves transforming the original proof orcalculation into a "transparent proof." These transparent proofs are written so that any sin­gle mistake in the original shows up morefrequently in the transparent version. For ex­ample, a single error in a billion-line proofwould cause errors in perhaps ten millionlines in the transparent version. Thus, bychecking only a few thousand randomly cho­sen lines of the transparent proofs, the re­searchers can accurately verify the original'scorrectness.And, regardless of how many lines in theoriginal proof, this method requires onlysampling a constant number of lines from thetransparent calculation. What this new meth­od allows you to do, says Babai, is to "take aproof, which is fragile, and turn it into thisvery sturdy thing."UNIVERSAL PANCAKES: ASTROPHYSICISTDavid Schramm's recent analysis of thestructure of the universe may provide an an­swer to a decades-long debate about whethergalaxies and clusters of galaxies began as flat"pancakes" of matter or as point-like"seeds." Schramm's verdict: the pancakeshave it.Building on work he did in 1985, Schramm,the Louis Block professor in the physical sci­ences, and graduate student Xiaochun Luoexamined recent data about the distribution ofgalaxies, clusters of galaxies, superclusters,and quasars within the universe. What theyfound confirmed earlier reports: all these ob­jects are distributed in the same way, no mat­ter what the average distance between them.In other words, the distribution of matter-onscales up to a few hundred million light years- is fractal."The new data seemed to fit the fractal mod­el even better than the data we had eight yearsago," Schramm says. ''And, it is consistentwith the new data from the Cosmic Back­ground Explorer Satellite," which showstructure on a scale larger than whatSchramm and Luo studied.The fractal structure of the universe differsfrom the classic mathematical fractals,Schramm explains, because, unlike puremathematical fractals, the universe's fractalstructure is not infinite, but is limited to sizesthat can be physically connected.When Schramm and Luo combined infor­mation about the universe's fractal structurewith a model-developed by U of C physicistTom Witten-that explains how fractal pat­terns form, they found that the current fractalstructure of the universe could have devel­oped only from two-dimensional, or pan­cake-like structures. "What we are seeingseems filamentary," Schramm says, "but itprobably grew from something that wassheet-like. "How were the first pancakes formed? The­ories abound: perhaps as flattened gas Schramm: The universe is like a pancake.clouds, or as the boundaries of regions thatcooled uniformly as the universe aged, oreven as the wake from passing cosmicstrings.HEART MOLECULES: CARDIOLOGISTSstudying heart cells at the University ofChicago Medical Center have identified amolecule whose misdirected action may ac­count for up to 20 percent of all deaths in theU.S.-from cardiac arrhythmia and suddencardiac death.The molecule-called a sodium channel- isa protein embedded in a heart cell's mem­brane, where it acts as a gate. It allowscharged sodium ions into a cell, thereby "ex­citing" the cell and propagating the wave ofelectrical current that sweeps along the heartmuscle, making it beat. During a heart attack,heart cells misfire, leading to deadly arrhy­thmias or fibrillation, an ineffectual flutteringof the heart's pumping chambers.In the May 22 issue of Science, the Chicagoteam describes how it made a tiny mutation inthe gene for the sodium channel in a rat'sheart, resulting in the switch of a single aminoacid residue. This minor change altered sev­eral of the channel's key properties­including its sensitivity to toxins-leading theteam to change its conception of how toxinsbind to the sodium channel, and to reviseits image of the channel's overall three­dimensional structure.''As we figure out the exact architecture andfunction of this crucial molecule," says mo­lecular cardiologist Richard Rogart, directorof the study, "we'll be able to design moreef­fective drugs to block ventricular fibrillationand arrythmias."UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 9FOR THE RECORDDouble bill: Arthur Quemwas named to the Universi­ty's board of trustees, andwill also chair the board ofthe University Hospitals.Quem, 49, is CEO andboard chair of RollinsBurdick Hunter, an insur­ance brokerage and riskmanagement finn inChicago. Hejoined thefinn in 1983, after servingas chief of stafffor IllinoisGov. James Thompson.Quem also chairs theIllinois Board of HigherEducation and the boardof directors of the FieldFoundation. He receivedhis B.A. in 1965 from St.John's University. AstroDomers set up shopiD next-to-fiDal froDtierTHE COLDEST, MOST INHOS­pitable spot on earth hasbecome a hotbed for astro­nomical activity, with the Universi­ty of Chicago leading the way.For certain types of observing,Antarctica is the best location onearth, says D. A. Harper, professorin the University's Department ofAstronomy and Astrophysics. Har­per is director of CARA, the Centerfor Astrophysical Research in Ant­arctica. He says that CARA is un­usual not just because of the loca­tion of its operation but because ofthe way it is organized.Several universities and corpora­tions have signed on as partnerswith the University in formingCARA under guidelines estab­lished by the National ScienceFoundation-making CARA "aspecial organism," in Harper'swords: or what the NSF calls a"Science and Technology Center."CARA is currently the only suchcenter operating at the University,and one of just 25 in the entire coun­try. For CARA, the NSF provided a$2 million start-up grant last year,and will give up to $13.6 million to­tal during the center's first five yearsof operation in Antarctica.Why Antarctica? For one thing,it's a "high-altitude" site-theSouth Pole's elevation is 2,835 me­ters, about the same as mountaintopobservatories like Arizona's KittPeak. Also, there is much less watervapor in the polar atmosphere thanin warmer climates-water vaporabsorbs infrared radiation, prevent-10 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 ing astronomers from observing themovement of distant galaxies, thelight from which is only visible inthe red and infrared parts of the ra­diation. spectrum. Astronomers atthe South Pole can also observestars and galaxies continuously, un­disturbed by the earth's rotation."In some cases," says Harper,"we may even be able to do as wellfrom Antarctica as we could fromspace."Although the advantages of aSouth Pole location are clear, estab­lishing a base of operation there willbe tricky, Harper concedes. LastDecember, a team of Princeton as­tronomers went down to the Poleduring its brief "summer" (frommid-November through mid­February) to check the site, makepreliminary plans, and erect thefirst structure of what will eventual­ly be the base of operation for one ofCARA's telescope projects, locatedabout a kilometer away from theNSF's Amundsen-Scott South PoleStation.The domed station, built in the1970s, is surrounded by a frozenwasteland stretching nearly 1,000miles in every direction. During thesummer it is a hub of activity:CARA astronomers compete for el­bow room with 40 other scientists,and another 100 or so cooks, con­struction workers, mechanics, trac­tor drivers, and other laborers.Antarctica's average summer tem­perature is a balmy -20°F, and thesun is up all the time. Between Feb­ruary and October, temperatures plummet to -100°F and the sun dis­appears entirely. In both winter andsummer, there is hardly any precip­itation, but the snow that does comedoesn't melt. To avoid the blowingsnow, CARA leaders decided tobuild the structural piers for theirtelescopes several feet above"ground." (Actually, you'd have todig through 2,000 meters of ice tohit real ground in Antarctica.)Snow is just one of myriad detailsthe Antarctic astronomers have todeal with. Even the grease used to lu­bricate the telescope motors has to bea special kind that won't freeze in thecold temperatures. "It's a bit ofan adventure," Harper admits,"physically and intellectually."One of the biggest challenges iscommunication between the poleand civilization. Harper and theother CARA scientists won't bestaying in Antarctica over the aus­tral winter. Because of the extremecold, planes are unwilling to land ortake off, so the skeleton crew left atthe base during winter is essentially"stuck" for the duration. If, howev­er, CARA's telescopes can be oper­ated from remote locations, Har­per's and the other scientists'presence at the South Pole won't benecessary at all.Remote observation is commonlyconducted via phone lines-in fact,the University is considered a pio­neer in developing such technology,most recently with its AstrophysicalResearch Consortium (ARC) tele­scope now being built in New Mexi­co. But phone lines won't be laidany time soon in Antarctica; astron­omers there depend on a small, "er­rant" NASA satellite which risesbriefly each day above the polar ho­rizon. That's fine for "E-mail" sizemessages, but when the telescopesU of C and Princeton researchers adjust a prototype of the COBRA telescope during a South Pole visit.are operational, the data will flow in'megabytes. Several firms are nowconsidering building satellites thatcould handle that kind of informa­tion, and CARA hopes to be able totake advantage of new capabilitiesas they become available.Despite such remaining looseends, Harper thinks the project hasan excellent chance of succeeding inall three of its major projects, an al­phabet soup known .as ASTIRO,COBRA, and SPIREX.In AST IRO (Antarctic Submilli­meter Telescope and Remote Ob­servatory), CARA will use a radiotelescope to study immense cloudsof gas and dust, where stars areborn. Wavelengths of light emittedby carbon atoms drifting in theseclouds can be seen at some observa­tories, but not all the time and onlyWith great difficulty. In contrast,AST IRO will have a clear view­and its observations, says Harper,should help explain "the processthat governs the behavior and evolu­tion of the interstellar clouds."The center's COBRA (CosmicBackground Radiation Anisotropy)project will look for subtle varia­tions in cosmic microwave radia­tion, a Big Bang relic that bathes the�niverse with almost equal intensityIn every direction. Until very re- cently, the best current measure­ments made this background radia­tion appear perfectly even; but thefact that matter in the universe is notspread evenly implies that the BigBang was, to some extent, lumpy.Finding traces of the lumpiness inthe microwave background (a hintof which was detected this summerby satellite observation) would pro­vide information about the pro­cesses which gave the universe itsstructure.The SPIREX (South Pole InfraredExplorer) project-led by MarkHereld, a senior research associateat the University-will take advan­tage of the South Pole's bitter-coldtemperatures to look directly atnewborn star clusters. Because ittakes so long for light to travel thevast distances of outer space, thelight we now see from distant galax­ies was emitted billions of yearsago. In our expanding universe,these galaxies are moving awayfrom us at great speeds. The move­ment increases the wavelengths ofthe light, shifting it into the red andinfrared part of the radiation spec­trum. Such light is normally washedout by the heat within the earth's at­mosphere, but the South Pole's frig­id environment allows infrared lightfrom space to dominate. All three projects should be in op­eration by 1996. If all goes well,more projects-probably involvingan international group of collabora­tors-will follow. There are manyCARA astronomers, says Harper,who would like to investigate thefeasibility of continuing their Ant­arctic work at another site, awayfrom the pole, on the highest pointof the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.Some of the challenges of establish­ing such a base might prove instruc­tive if the pipe dream of manyastronomers-establishing a scien­tific base on the moon-is one dayseriously considered. To astrono­mers like Harper, some little craternear the southern pole of the airlessmoon might just be the perfect placeto set up shop. - T. 0.Gray appointsCollege dean.II. HISIDRY PROFESSOR WILLbe the next dean of the Col­lege. President Hanna Grayhas appointed John W. Boyer,AM'69, PhD'75, to succeed RalphW. Nicholas, AM'58, PhD'62,College dean since 1987.Nicholas is leaving the position to Great teachers: This year'sQuantrell awards, thenation's oldest prize forundergraduate teaching,went to: Fred Donner,associate professor in theOriental Institute; associ­ate professor Joseph W.Iarabak, SB'56, MD'60,PhD'52, and professorThomas Jones, both inmedicine; Henry Frisch,physics professor; andhistory professors CharlesGray and Richard Saller.More great teachers:Burlington Northernawards for graduate teach­ing went to philosophyprofessor Leonard Linksyand to Rebecca West,professor and chair ofRomances Languages &Literatures. A new prize­the Amoco Foundationawards for undergraduateteaching-went to DennisHutchinson, associateprofessor in the Collegeand senior lecturer in theLaw School; John Westley,PhB'48, PhD'54, professorin biochemistry & molecu­lar biology; and chemistryprofessor N. C. Yang.$5 million carrot: If theAstrophysical ResearchConsortium (ARC) demon­strates its potential, it couldreceive an extra $5 millionin foundation funding.That was the stipulationof the Sloan Foundation,which recently provided$1. 7 million of an initial $3million grant to ARC for itsuniverse-mapping project("Chicago Journal, " Feb/91) and has agreed toprovide an additional $5million over the next fewyears if the project contin­ues its progress. To map thesky, ARC astronomers fromthe U of C, Princeton, andother institutions arebuilding a 2.5-metertelescope at an ARC siteon Apache Point in NewMexico. In all, the surveywill cost $25 million.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 11Market missionaries: Eightstudents in the GraduateSchool of Business Execu­tive M.B.A. program spenttwo weeks in Plezen,Czechoslovakia, in July asunpaid consultants for afiberglass tanks and indus­trial gears manufacturerthat employs about 35, 000workers. The studentsprovided information oncompetitive and marketresearch to the firm, whichnow finds itself in a highlycompetitive global market­place. GSB professorsMarvin Zonis and AlbertMadansky, AB'52, SM'55,PhD'58, accompanied thestudents.Winner's circle: Associateprofessor of East AsianLanguages & CivilizationsNorma Field ("Outside theCircle of the Rising Sun, "Feb/92) has won an Ameri­can Book Award for In theRealm of a Dying Emper­or. In the book, Fielddescribes the experiencesof three individuals whospoke out against conform­ity in Japanese society.Style and substance: "TheUniversity of ChicagoPress: A Century ofScholarly Publishing,1891�1991"openedinJune and continuesthrough Sept. 12 at theUniversity Library's De­partment of Special Collec­tions. Through letters,reviews, manuscripts,galleys, and over 150 first­edition titles, the exhibittraces the Press's history toits current status as Ameri­ca's largest universitypublishing house. In thattime, the Press has pub­lished more than 7,200titles-including the classicreference book, The Chica­go Manual of Style. New College dean: John Boyerdevote more time both to teachingand his administrative duties asdirector of the Center for Interna­tional .Studies. Among his otherappointments at the University,Nicholas has served as professorin anthropology and the socialsciences since 1971, and deputyprovost from 1982 to 1987. Thispast spring, he was named the Wil­liam Rainey Harper professor inanthropology.Boyer's appointment becomes ef­fective in the autumn quarter. Hewill continue as acting dean of theSocial Sciences division until a re­placement is named for recently ap­pointed provost Edward Laumann.Boyer has served as master of thesocial sciences collegiate divisionand deputy dean of Social Sciencessince 1987. He has chaired the Com­mittee on European Studies for nineyears and the Western Civilizationstaff for three terms. With historyprofessor Julius Kirshner, he wasgeneral editor of the nine-volume Uof C Press publication, The Univer­sity of Chicago Readings in J.testernCivilization (1986). Boyer haspublished widely in his area of ex­pertise: modern central Europeanhistory, with an emphasis on 19th­century Austrian history.Along with his other responsi­bilities, Boyer directs the MellonFoundation Minority FellowshipProgram on campus, which pro­vides scholastic and financial en­couragement to promising minorityundergraduates to pursue doctoraldegrees in the arts and sciences.Gray expressed confidence inBoyer's ability to provide strongleadership to the College, "buildingon the fine foundation that Ralph12 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 Nicholas has provided during hisdeanship." She described Nicho­las's five-year tenure as "a period ofsubstantial progress" for the Col­lege: under his guidance, enroll­ment stabilized while admissionsapplications increased, and the rateat which undergraduates completedtheir degrees reached an unprece­dented level-over 80 percent.Nicholas also presided over an in­crease in the number of internation­al students in the College, and hasadded new opportunities for Col­lege students to study abroad. Dur­ing his deanship, College facilitieswere upgraded-most notably, thenorth end of Cobb Hall, where addi­tional facilities for foreign languagestudies and a new film studies cen­ter were installed.The Class of '92-including alumniA TafAL OF 2,057 STUDENTSbecame alumni duringspring convocation cere­monies Friday, June 12, and Satur­day, June 13, in Rockefeller Chapel.At the ceremonies, the Universityalso conferred honorary degreeson 25 distinguished scholars­including 16 alumni, who are listedbelow.Graduates from the College in­cluded senior Elizabeth Leibman,44,-who returned to Chicago tofinish her education after a 20-yearhiatus-and Alkes Price, 16, a mathmajor who entered the University atage 12. In all, 773 bachelor's de­grees were awarded, along with 550M.B.A.s, 356 master's degrees, 176r.ns, 111 M.o.s, and 88 Ph.o.s.The convocation-the Universi­ty's 426th-was divided into foursessions, with the graduate schoolsand divisions on Friday, and theCollege on Saturday. David Be­vington, the Phyllis Fay Hortonprofessor in the Humanities, ad­dressed all four sessions (see "Voic­es from the Quads").The following alumni received hon­orary degrees at spring convocation:Doctor of Science:Harmon Craig, SM'50, PhD'51,is professor of geochemistry andoceanography at Scripps Institutionof Oceanography. His research, par- ticularly on the physical chemistry oflight-stable isotopes in natural envi­ronments, has changed the way thatscientists think about the earth's at­mosphere, oceans, and interior. Nor­man Davidson, SB'37, PhD'41, isthe Chandler professor emeritus ofchemical biology at Cal Tech. He pi­oneered new methodologies in phys­ical chemistry, including the chemis­try of trans uranium elements andtransition metals. In molecular biol­ogy, Davidson revolutionized theway scientists understand how genesare organized and expressed.F. Clark Howell, PhB'41,AM'51, PhD'53, is a paleoanthro­pologist and the most knowledgeableliving authority on the evolution ofour prehistoric ancestors and theirclosest relatives. He served on Chi­cago's faculty from 1955 to 1970,when he was named professor of an­thropology at Berkeley. Daniel E.Koshland, Jr., PhD' 49, is professorof biochemistry at Berkeley, andeditor-in-chief of Science magazinesince 1985. Koshland developed keyconcepts that constitute the frame­work for understanding the molecu­lar basis of enzyme action; the mech­anisms of perception and response inbiological systems at their most basiclevels; and the molecular regulationof metabolism.Donald E. Osterbrock, PhB'48,SB'48, SM'49, PhD'52, is profes­sor of astronomy and astrophysicsatthe University of California, San­ta Cruz. An expert on interstellargalactic matter and active galacticnuclei, he has also written widelyon astronomy's history. JeremiahP. Ostriker, PhD' 64, chairsPrinceton's astronomy departmentand is director of the Princeton U ni­versity Observatory. A theoreticalastrophysicist, he is especiallyknown for his theories on the evolU­tion of rotating neutron stars, orpulsars; and for research whichmarked the beginning of the seriousstudy of "dark matter. "CharlesM. Stein, SB'40, profes­sor emeritus of statistics at Stan­ford, taught at Chicago from 1951to 1953. His research in mathemati­cal statistics and probability theory-especially on problems in thefoundations of statistical inference-has reoriented the way theoreti­cal statisticians view their field.Through work on singular integralsand their applications, Elias l\1.Stein, AB'51, SM'53, PhD'55, haschanged the way mathematiciansapproach problems of harmonicanalysis, partial differential equa­tions, and representation theory.While a professor at Chicago from1958 to 1963, Stein helped in the de­velopment of the "Chicago School"of analysis. He currently teaches atPrinceton.Edward C. Stone, SM'59,PhD'64, is vice president of CalTech, and director of the Jet Propul­sion Laboratory. He has made fun­damental contributions to cosmic rayastrophysics-discoveries oftenbased on his development of sensi­tive space flight instruments. For thepast 19 years, he has been a projectscientist for the Voyager spacecraft.The Winzer professor of cell biologyat Stanford, Lubert Stryer, SB'57,is known for his study of the interac­tion of light with proteins and theircolored conjugates. His explorationsof protein function and structure pio­neered analysis of the molecularmechanisms that follow the proteinrhodopsin in the visual pathway.Stryer's introductory textbook Bio- .chemistry is in its third edition.Gerald Joseph Wasserburg,SB'51, SM'52, PhD'54, has pio­neered numerous high-sensitivitytechniques to study the isotopicvariations of elements found in me­teorites and lunar rocks. His lab hasassisted scientists in such tasks ascalculating the age of the solar sys­tem, and the history of volcanismand meteoric bombardment of themoon. He is the John D. MacArthurprofessor of geophysics at CalTech.Doctor of Humane Letters:Joseph N. Frank, PhD'60, pro­fessor of comparative literature andSlavic languages at Stanford, is bestknown for the first three volumes ofhis projected five-volume intellec­tual biography of Dostoevksy­considered among the most impor­tant contributions American schol­arship has made to Russian litera­tUre. In the late 1950s, linguistl\1orrisHalle, AM'48, founded thefield of generative phonology. Helater coauthored The Sound Patternof English, a classic in the fieldWhich set a new standard for de­�iled phonological description. HeIS Institute Professor at M.I. T.In books such as Emotion and Meaning in Music, Leonard B.Meyer, PhD'54, has used insightsfrom cognitive psychology to bothdefine and influence the fundamen­tal ways people hear and understandmusic. He taught at the Universityin the 1970s, and is now the Ben­jamin Franklin professor of musicat the University of Pennsylvania:Doctor of Law:Mary Ann Glendon's (AB'59,JD'61, MCL'63) work on familylaw and family property in Westernsocieties has fundamentallychanged scholars' understanding ofthe complex relationship betweenstate and private life. Glendon, pro­fessor oflaw at Harvard, is chief ed­itor of the International Encyclope­dia of Comparative Law. In morethan 250 publications, including hisseminal 1971 book, The Logic ofLaw, Gordon Tullock, JD'47, hasexpanded understanding of thestructure of constitutions, the effectof voting rules on political choice,the organization of legislatures, the behavior of bureaucracies, and theeconomic logic of law. He is theKarl Eller professor of economicsand political science at the Univer­sity of Arizona.Applicants crave"intellectual life" Star Trash: Keeping outerspace garbage-free was thegoal of an internationalsymposium held June24-26 at the University.Representatives fromFrance, India, Russia,China, and Japan dis­cussed space debris, andthe related problem ofradioactive materials inspace. University physicsprofessor emeritus JohnSimpson organized thesymposium, which hehopes will lead to aninternational treaty to limitspace debris. Abandonedspacecraft and rocketlaunchers, wreckage fromexplosions in space, evenpaint chips, are orbitingthe earth at about 24, 000mph-and becoming anincreasing threat. Onestudy estimates a 1 in 100chance that the Hubbletelescope could be destroy­ed by flyingjunk.WELL OVER 6,000 APPLICA­tions poured into the Col­lege Admissions Officethis past year. By early summer,that number had narrowed to 910students paying deposits to registeras first-year students.Of those, the Admissions Officeexpects that about 895 freshmanstudents will enroll in the fall­that's 40 more than last year, andwill bring the entire College enroll­ment to about 3,400 students-thelimit recommended by a facultycommittee in 1986.Gains were also noted in applica­tions for the graduate divisions.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 13Returning: Kenneth Dam,JD'57, will return to theLaw School this fall as theMax Pam professor ofAmerican and foreign law.Dam first joined the facultyin 1960, leaving in 1971 toserve in government,including an appointmentas executive director ofEconomic Policy in theNixon administration. Hereturned to the Law Schoolin 1974, and also servedtwo years as provost beforehis 1982 appointment asdeputy secretary of state inthe Reagan administration.He then joined IBM as vicepresident for law andexternal relations. Morerecently, he has served asinterim president of theUnited Way.Rewarding talent: LanceFortnow, assistant profes­sor in computer science,was named a NationalScience Foundation Presi­dential Faculty Fellow. Asone of 30 young U. S.scientists and engineersrecognized for their re­search and teaching,Fortnow will receive$500,000 to support hiswork over the next fiveyears. Fortnow is an expertin computational complexi­ty theory-the study of howmuch computer time andmemory are needed tosolve different types ofproblems.Society news: WayneBooth, AM'47, PhD'50,was elected to the Ameri­can Philosophical Society,founded by BenjaminFranklin in 1743. Booth,who retired in 1991 as theGeorge M. Pullman Distin­guished Service Professorin English, is consideredone of the nation's leadingliterary critics. Compared to last year, applicationsin the graduate divisions increasedby over 10 percent for the 1992-93school year-an increase of 60 per­cent compared to a decade ago. Di­vision enrollments totaled about3,000 students, which is 40 percenthigher than a decade ago, said Ma­deline Hamblin, director of the of­fice of graduate affairs.According to College AdmissionsDean Theodore O'Neill, AM'70, ofthe 6,671 high school students whoapplied to the College, 2,600 wereaccepted. Overall, O'Neill's officereceived about 10 percent more ap­plications than last year. He creditsthe upswing, in part, to publicitysurrounding the University's Cen­tennial. Another reason is the in­creased distribution and popularityof college guidebooks, videos, andthe like, among prospective appli­cants. "There's just a lot more waysstudents can hear about the Col­lege," says O'Neill.The main point that O'Neill worksto get out about Chicago is that "thisis a college unlike any other in itsdevotion to the intellectual life."The "long-standing, proven suc­cess" of the College's CommonCore of required classes also im­presses prospective students andtheir parents: O'Neill says that theAdmissions Office can rightlyclaim that none of Chicago's com­petitors "even comes close in de­monstrating such a commitment togeneral education." College shop­pers also like the smaller size ofChicago's classes, often taught byprofessors at the top of their fields.Although the growing number ofhigh school students who seriouslyconsider Chicago pleases O'Neill,he wishes more of those studentswere minorities. The number ofAfrican-American students en­rolled as freshmen this fall is about4 percent-"which is where it'sbeen for about the past three years."Not only does it appear that the poolof African-American high schoolapplicants to highly competitivecolleges is shrinking, "but the com­petition for recruiting such studentsis very great." Enrollment of His­panics students, at 4 percent, is alsosmaller than O'Neill would like, al­though it's increased from 2 percentin 1990.In contrast, Asians representabout one quarter of the incoming14 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 freshmen class. However, ''Asian''is a fairly meaningless distinction,says O'Neill, encompassing a hugediversity of ethnic backgrounds:Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai,Vietnamese, and so forth-almostall of whom are American-born.Acknowledging that the high num­ber of Asian students, relative totheir representation as a minority inthe general population, may sur­prise some people, O'Neill pointsout that Harvard and Stanford havesimilar percentages. "In fact, we'rejust trying to admit the best quali­fied, best prepared students" to theCollege, says O'Neill, "and it justhappens to break down [in percent­ages] that way. "Gelling Ihe wordouloncrime1IJ NIVERSITY ADMINISTRA­tors are working out a sys­tem that they hope will keepthe campus community better in­formed about incidents of crime inthe area.In May, a task force comprised ofUniversity faculty, staff, adminis­trators, and students submitted toProvost Edward Laumann recom­mendations for implementing acomprehensive crime notificationsystem on campus. In June, Lau­mann said he intended to act on allof the recommendations, as soon asthe appropriate details for imple­mentation are worked out.The task force was appointed byformer Provost Gerhard Casper inFebruary, after the abduction andrape of a University student. Manystudents were upset that official newsof the incident was released severaldays after it occurred, and adminis­trators agreed that a formal and con­sistent policy for releasing such in­formation was needed.Prior to its final submission toLaumann, a draft of the task force'srecommendations was distributedon campus, with members of thecommunity invited to offer sugges­tions in writing, or through a townmeeting held May 14.At this meeting, representatives ofeight organizations (including theOrganization of Black Students, theMedical Students Association,Womyn's Union, and GALA) gave their reactions to the proposal, withthe floor then opened for commentsfrom attendees. In addition, follow­up outreach sessions were held May18 at seven campus locations. "Al­though attendance was light at all ofthe sessions, we felt that the endeav­or was worthwhile," said the com­mittee's chair, Jeanne Altmann,PhD'79, professor of ecology andevolution.Especially important, said the taskforce report, was to provide acampus-wide bulletin system notify­ing the community of "alert" situa­tions, particularly those in which"violent crimes against persons"have been reported. Also, "patterns"of other types of crimes-such asrobbery, burglary, or vandalism­could be reported as alerts; as couldcrimes where it appeared that vic­tims had been singled out because ofrace, sex, national origin, religion,or sexual orientation.The report stressed that guidelinesshould be created regarding thecontent of these "alerts. " For exam­ple, "a description of the perpetra­tor should not be included unless thedescription is so detailed that itmight be of real use in apprehendinga suspect." That caveat was particu­larly supported by minority stu­dents who felt that general descrip­tions of a suspect's racial or ethnicappearance could create distrust,suspicion, or anger on campus to­ward students of the same generalracial or ethnic group.Even before receiving the taskforce report, Provost Laumann ini­tiated the first stages of the recom­mended alert system by postingbright-yellow bulletin boards con­taining security information aroundcampus. However, Laumann saysthat more work needs to be done inrefining the kind of information thatshould be distributed."If the information is too raw, it'snot helpful," says Laumann, ad­ding, "We want to empower peoplewith the information .... If peopleare misinterpreting the data, or areoverwhelmed by it, it could have theopposite effect."According to Robert Mason, ex­ecutive director of the South EastChicago Commission (SECC), get­ting information out about crime isimportant in encouraging residentsto be safety-conscious. But, he says,it really isn't helpful or fair to con-elude from such information thatHyde Park is a 'dangerous place.'"There are dangers, " says Mason,but Hyde Park is "no more danger­ous than any other community inthe city of Chicago or any other ur­ban community in this country."Mason was a Chicago Police detec­tive for 25 years before joining SECCnine years ago. SECC, formed in1952, supplements police action inthe area by compiling and analyzingcrime statistics, and running a victim!Witness assistance program.In a recent interview in the Uni­versity newspaper, the Chronicle,Mason said that" Hyde Park has thebest law enforcement coverage inthe city-you have the UniversityPolice here, who are professionalpolice officers, as well as policeCoverage by the city of Chicago."The University employs 62 full­time and about 45 part -time officers."It's easy to become paranoid,"notes Rudolph Nimocks, director ofUniversity Police, "and we don'tWant that to happen. We do wantpeople to be cautious and thinkabout what they're doing, and be'aware of where they are."Nimocks has directed the Univer­sity's police for the last three years,after 33 years with the Chicago po­lice department, where his appoint­ments included commander of thecity-wide homicide, aggravated­battery and sexual-assault division;commander of detectives; and chiefof the organized-crime division.The most frequent crime in HydePark-South Kenwood, says Ni­mocks, is against property­particularly auto-related crimes.Nimocks says crimes against stu­dents are "mostly thefts of one kindof another, things stolen out of bookbags. In the warmer months, bicyclethefts are very prevalent."Reports of sexual assault-thecrime which brought about the pro­vest's task force on crime notifica­tion-are much rarer, although Ni­mocks says, "I think it is generallyaccepted that sexual assault is one ofthe most under-reported crimesamong the serious crimes that wedeal with," particularly so-calledacquaintance rape. The Dean ofStudents Office notes that, in 1990,there were three recorded sexual as­�aults reported by U of C students;In 1991, none; in 1992, as of the endof spring quarter, three. - T. O. Voices from the QuadsPeople ask me, 'What did youstudy at the University of Chi­cago?' and I explain that they giveus tests when we go in and they findout what we know and what we don'tknow. What we know they don'tteach us, what we don't know theyteach us and then we know every­thing ... .In taking the exams, we raninto some really bizarre questions. Iwished I had saved them, to realizehow meaningless they look now.There was one question one time, Ithink,· on one of the Humanities ex­ams. It was: If Heraclitus had writ­ten The Wild Duck, what wouldBenedetto Croce say about it. Itcaused me physical pain.-SevernDarden, X'50, speaking at theClass of '52 S 40th Reunion Dinner.Taking pictures at that time[the Great Depression] wasvery revealing and it meant every­thing to me. I found out later that Ihad learned [through photography]to use my sympathy and imagina­tion to put together signs of otherpeople's lives and to understandmore about what made up thoselives, and what made up those peo­ple. I found it didn't satisfy me totake their pictures, in that respect. Ittaught me, but it didn't satisfy me. Ihad to really go on to write stories, to go ahead with what I had beenlearning. -Novelist Eudora �lty,speaking as a Moody lecturer abouther years of "snapshooting" in ru­ral Mississippi, the results of whichwere collected in a 1989 book ofherphotographs.I am a Chicagoan by adoption,not by birth. I grew up on theEast Coast, and thought of Chicago,when I thought of it at all, as a placeof traveling salesmen, organizedcrime, disorganized crime, and cold.... When I arrived in 1967 with myfamily to stay, we descended by carfrom the Skyway into the maelstromof Stony Island Avenue. What aplace for a university! One new col­league, Stuart Tave, subsequentlyDean of Humanities, explained thatthe University had to be a great in­stitution, because why else wouldanyone establish it or come here toteach and study? But come here wedid, and perhaps, now that we havetime to look back and reflect on 100years, we can appreciate the way inwhich our particular location is anintegral part of what made the Uni­versity of Chicago the place that istoday.-David Bevington, the Phy­llis Fay Horton professor in the Hu­manities, giving the 426 Convoca­tion address, "Only in Chicago." Choice picks: Out of 111members of the MedicalSchool's Class of '92, 83percent received one oftheir top three choices forfirst-year residencies-57percent received their firstchoice. Of the class, 19 willenter residency programsat the University MedicalCenter this year or next.Other popular first-pickswere Duke UniversityMedical Center, andTexas-Southwestern Medi­cal School. Internal medi­cine was the preferredinternship, followed bysurgical specialties, diag­nostic radiology, andanesthesiology.Goodfellows: Chicago'sgraduate students did wellin fellowship competitionthis year. Five students­more than from any otheruniversity-are among30 receiving SpencerDissertation- Year­Fellowshipsfor 1992-93.Chicago also leads thenation in receipt ofFulbright-Hayes Disserta­tion Fellowships. Only 69awards were presented thisyear (compared to 91 in1991)-12 of those went toChicago students. It's thefifth time in six years thatthe University has led theFulbright competition.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 15Returnin .--- 'to tThis spring,a student turnedprofessor came back toteach in the CommonCore. Once again, it was alearning experience.BYZANTINE SEQUENCE OFquestions on the solid geome­try of a pyramid of billiardballs, part of a scholarship ex­amination in 1941, is all that Irecall of my introduction tothe University of Chicago. After blindlyguessing the fractional spherical conse­quences of passing planes at various anglesthrough this configuration, and then listeningto the cocky kids from Hyde Park High glee­fully post-morteming the exam, I thought thatthis would also probably be my last encounterwith the University. Thanks to the fallibilityof multiple-choice examinations, I was wrongabout that; but the sense of being out of mydepth in a sea of smarter and more sophisticat­ed students persisted through my first year inthe College. And, in ways that I didn't expect,I experienced a similar feeling of founderingwhen I returned this spring to teach a Com­mon Core course in the Humanities.What lingers in memory from my first expe­rience of the College. is a series of images:David Grene pacing the front of Mandel Hallin muddy boots and embracing a pillar as helectured on Greek tragedy. Robert Hutchinsaddressing the University on December 8,1941 (although I can't remember what hesaid, it seemed important and comforting tohear him). Sitting in the library on a wintryday perplexed, dozing, but impressed by theintricate reasoning of St. Anselm's Cur DeusHomo. Wondering in Humanities discussionat a street-smart kid named Nick Melas, whoactually seemed to understand Plato's Repub­lic. Watching with fascination as Ralph16 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992Gerard continued his exposition of physiolo­gy while walking up from the well of Kent 105to loom over a student reading a newspaper.Desperately trying to write down every wordof Richard Mckeon's philosophy lecture inthe hope that I would later be able to figure itout. Sitting under a tree before what is now theAdministration Building on a mild spring dayreading Madame Bovary with more than in­tellectual interest. Arguing on the steps of theZBT house with Richard Levin, now a distin­guished Shakespearean scholar and my col­league of many years, about whether a musi­cian or actor could be legitimately consideredan artist.In those early days, I had little sense of theCollege as an entity. Although I recognizeddimly that together "Bi Sci," "Hum," "PhySci," and "Soc" were designed to provide anintroductory overview of the major fields' ofknowledge, these general education courseswere primarily requirements (i.e., obstacles)to be met or "placed out of" (i.e., evaded) inmy pursuit of a chemistry degree and therebya livelihood. Yet exposure to these "surveys"had a corrupting effect on that pristine voca­tional aim-the materials and questions ad­dressed in those courses were distractinglymore interesting than my "major interest."And in the endless discussions among sliderule-toting commuters over brown bag lun­ches in the Reynolds Club, issues of culture,politics, and what passed for philosophy pre­dominated over the latest additions to theBy Homer Goldberg periodic table of elements. Though I did notrealize it, my days as a chemistry major werealready numbered.T HE COLLEGE I RETURNED TO ASan instructor in English and theHumanities about a decade lat­er was in its heyday. Its feistyfaculty presided over a generaleducation program that had ex­panded to 14 required year-long courses. As adisciple ofR. S. Crane, Iwas confident that Ihad the Neo-Aristotelian key to all the knowl­edge worth having-in Norman Maclean'smemorable sidemouthing, "the four causes,pal, the four causes." I was, of course, com­mitted to what we called "the discussionmethod" : by asking the right sequence of ana­lytic questions, I would enable my students torecognize and articulate the formal structureof King Lear, Crime and Punishment, or anyother text that might come our way.It was when my Humanities II students per­versely and persistently refused to follow theclear paths I had planned out for them that myCollege education really began. Over the nextfew years, by listening to students and inquir­ing into their reasons for what they said, I be­gan to learn that the processes of reading andof reasoning about the interpretation of whatone has read are more complicated and varia­ble than I had thought. At the same time,through listening to and arguing with col­leagues in staff meetings, I grudgingly real­ized that there might coexist different validand productive approaches to construing andteaching the same material. When it worked,Goldberg: "Despite all the changes, some of the spirit of the old College remains."UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 17when we made headway together in the solu­tion of a problem or arrived at an understand­ing of the grounds for our differences, the un­predictable interplay of collective reasoningwas the most exciting intellectual experience Icould imagine. What Delmore Schwartz saidwhen a Humanities III student asked him whyhe wrote poetry, I would say about my class­room experience at that time: it was "a way tobe alive" -intensely alive.Most of us who taught in the College in theFifties disdained the popular view of our en­terprise as a continuation of Hutchins' andAdler's Great Books program. If "Nat Sci I"students still read Lavoisier, and Plato andAristotle could be counted on to turn up justabout anywhere, these monuments were stud­ied within a more intellectually sophisticatedanalytic framework of inquiry designed to il­luminate the organization, methods, andprinciples of the disciplines. However, thiscurriculum retained one fundamental prem­ise of the Great Books concept-that it waspossible to define a common body of knowl­edge that every truly educated man and wom­an should possess.In the late Forties, as the faculty's concep­tion of that essential knowledge became morerefined, the general education curriculumhad so expanded that most students neededthree-and-one-half years to complete it. Un­fortunately, the number of "early entrants"(high school juniors and seniors) for whomthe program was designed failed to keep pace.By the late Fifties, this combination of cir­cumstances spelled the doom of what was un­doubtedly the most ambitiously conceived in­carnation of the College.In contrast, today's College has half the gen­eral education requirements of its 1950s coun­terpart. Most radically reduced are the Hu­manities and Social Sciences components­down to seven quarters (not including a three­quarter Civilizational Studies requirement)from 21-the scope now allotted to the wholeCommon Core. Except for the choice of for­eign language, every student in the old Col­lege took the same courses; students now maychoose among several courses to satisfy eachCore requirement. Perhaps most significant­ly for the character of the student's education­al experience, the system of independentlyadministered comprehensive examinations asthe sole method of evaluating a student's workin a year-long course has given way to quar­terly grades assigned by the individual in-Homer Goldberg, AB'47, AM'48, PhD'61,is distinguished teaching professor emeritusof English and Stony Brook professor of hu­manities at the State University of New York atStony Brook. A member of Chicago s Collegefaculty from 1950 to 1960, he returned toteach in the Common Core this past spring.18 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992structor. In all these ways, Chicago's programhas become more like undergraduate pro­grams at other universities.YET THE COLLEGE LIVES. IT ISnot only that SUC.h fixtures asPlato, Aristotle, and Kant­and Herman Sinaiko, KarlWeintraub, and MarvinMirsky-are still in place; northat most courses in the program are year­long sequences designed specifically as gen­eral education rather than introductions tospecializations; nor that the University sup­plies the necessary institutional support forscores of small discussion classes-an im­pressive circumstance to someone visitingfrom a public university where the normalfreshman experience is a series of lectureclasses enrolling 200 to 600 students.Despite all the changes, some of the spirit ofthe old College remains. I found that spiritmost evident in the weekly meetings with mycolleagues teaching "Human Being and Citi­zen, " the most popular of the courses satisfy­ing the Humanities requirement. In thosemeetings, senior faculty, postdoctoral fel­lows, and graduate students trained in philos­ophy, history, law, literature, and psychologymet as natural colleagues. These men andwomen clearly do not regard teaching materi­al outside their special fields to beginning stu­dents as an imposition or a chore, but as anopportunity. Our lively, two-hour discussionsof texts and teaching reminded me of those Ihad found so rewarding in the Fifties.If my classroom experience did not similar­ly revive the Golden Age of discussion, I holdmyself primarily accountable. My 20 stu­dents were, for the most part, serious and dili­gent, but I failed to find the way to ignite theirenthusiasm. A major source of the problemwas my inability to master the central text inthe course, Kant's Foundations of the Meta­physics of Morals. I have taught a fair numberof demanding philosophic texts, and I fancymyself a better reader now than I was in theFifties, but in my recent prolonged grapplingswith Kant, I felt as baffled as I had been at 17by St. Anselm and McKeon.In my desperation to retain my limited graspon the material, I fell back into the rigid pat­tern of analysis so sensibly abandoned 40years earlier. Perhaps we would have mademore headway if I had relied more on the stu­dents, eliciting their questions and trying towork out answers with them. Certainly theyshowed more courage about engaging Kantthan I did. When I became apprehensiveabout the difficulty of the paper topic I hadassigned and gave them the opportunity toscrap it, they decided instead to attempt it.On the whole, the results vindicated theirjudgment: Most of them were able to reason from their understanding of Kant's thinking toplausible conclusions about how he might as­sess a moral proposition from Thoreau's CivilDisobedience.Contemplating.their seriousness and my in­eptitude while reflecting on the old Collegeand the new, I cannot help wondering how dif­ferent my experience with these studentsmight have been if the old system of compre­hensive examinations were still in place.r- That system had obvious liabilities: mostperniciously, because academic work done ornot done during the year had no direct effecton the grade of record, lulling immature stu­dents into sloth, inattendance, and, too often,academic disaster. But it also fostered rela­tions between teachers and students most con­ducive to learning: discussions were morelively because students could voice their hon­est opinions without either fearing the dis­pleasure or currying the favor of the persondetermining their grades. By candidly ap­praising work submitted during the course,the teacher could guide the student's progressin developing the competencies to be mea­sured by the examination. The old system alsoencouraged more serious students to exploreideas and pursue questions beyond the limitsof class discussion. Under the constraints ofaccountability within a period of ten or 11weeks, my current students are too pressuredcompleting labs, prepping for tests, and meet­ing paper deadlines to find time for disinter­ested curiosity or reflection.What is more, the existence of an indepen­dently administered assessment also requiredboth faculty, in constructing the examination,and students, in preparing for it, to define thecompetencies the course sought to develop. IfI have one criticism of the Humanities compo­nent of the present College (the only part ofwhich I have any experiential knowledge), itis that not enough thought is given to this wayof defining course goals. In our curricularpreoccupation with what contemporary liter­ary theorists call "canonicity," insuring thatstudents are exposed to significant works andthinkers, we may too easily settle for ac­quaintance or familiarity with, or even under­standing of, the work or position as our aim.But given the exponential amplification ofknowledge in the last half century, might wenot better enable our students to gain theknowledge most worth having by explicitlyseeking not to possess them of any definedbody of materials, but rather to guide them to­ward productive ways of inquiring into thoseand other materials, of formulating problemsand pursuing their solutions? Such an empha­sis on modes of inquiry, on learning to definerelevant questions and to articulate produc­tive methods of arriving at answers, might bean appropriate way for that old Phoenix, theCollege, to embark on its next flight.aij�I1S€ '.!lOfn���f0gtlQ2tt� pas Gkefell�� @hapel,. ob-scuring the bell tower from view, it dampens the grass, theleaves on the trees, and the wall-climbing ivy, making eachlook a more vibrant green. An elderly gentleman, wearinga "50th Reunion" button, is strolling across the mostly de-_j�_j serted quads. Suddenly, he stops and blinks, seemingly un­. able to believe his eyes. There, standing in the mist, areWilliam· Rainey Harper, John 'ID. Rockefeller, and Robert Maynard Hut­chins-or rather, life-size cutout photographs of the three men. The mythictrio has be�ll tempo�a�ily place� �n the q�a.ds by th: �lumni Association asa priafe"symbols to presideov;er an historic celeBtafion: tbe CentennialReunion, held June 4 through 7.PJ,ologr:aphy by James L. Ballard Alumni of all ages, andsome mythic figuresfrom the University'spast, had the chance toroam the quads onceagain at CentennialReunion, June 4through 7.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 19Thf Aillmn! Ilagp!peBand (above) playedmprching tunes for the.,Cavalcade of Classes.Picnic offerings: Hotdogs, hamburgers,chicken, veggie burg­ers, pasta salad ...22 Saturday's picnic on thequads made even futurealumni (above) happy.1\KING UP'JoAnne Akalaitis in the theater: "I think artists are outsiders."24 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992THE PUBLICNE WEEK BEFORE JOANNE AKALAITIS' PRODUCTION OF 'TIS PITYShe's a Whore is due to go into previews at the New York Shakes­peare Festival Public Theater, the cast is getting angry. For thepast hour they've been struggling with the play's climactic scene,in which the star-crossed hero, Giovanni, bursts into a stag ban­quet given by his sister Annabella's husband and displays her dis­emboweled heart on the point of a knife. "For nine months I en­joyed in secret sweet Annabella's sheets," he proclaims to thegathering, and then goes on to describe how his "dagger's pointploughed up her fruitful womb." � Incest, murder, betrayal- 'TisPity, a revenge tragedy by the 17th-century English playwrightJohn Ford, is strong stuff, to say the least, and Akalaitis, AB '60,seems to be trying to raise the temperature by resetting it in 1930sfascist Italy, replete with nude female torsoes from Salvador Daliand Man Ray, aggressively vivid costumes reminiscent ofSchiaparelli, stark de Chirico piazzas, and ominous, insistent,synthesized music. � Just now, however, Val Kilmer, playingGiovanni, is having trouble summoning the kind of passionate en­ergy his speech calls for. For the other actors, it's even worse: thescript gives them little to do besides stand and gawk during hisBy Joe Levinehorrific monologue. � Akalaitis has expended a lot of energy to­day on the scene's physical details-the placement of a vase on thebanquet table, the timing of a musical chord against a burst of off­stage laughter-but her acting notes have been cryptic. After anearlier run-through, her only comment was that she liked a par­ticular moment in which Giovanni made a sudden movement andthe banquet guests scattered in reaction. � "That was good, thathad the same violent energy you get from crazy people on thestreet in New York City, " she told the cast. "Remember, we don'tever want the scene to sink to the level of normalcy. The contexthere is madness." � Since then, the actors have been dutifullylooking for ways to apply her words, but the frustration in theroom is becoming palpable. Now, Erik Avari-a powerful, baldactor who plays the part of Vasques, the treacherous Iago-like ser­vant to Annabella's husband, Soranzo-throws up his hands andwalks to the edge of the stage. �. "I feel like we're just standingaround like idiots, not responding, " he says. "We can't figure outwhat the f--- we're doing. " � Five rows back in the darkened Critics call her toointellectual,too political, tooavant-garde.But, as director ofthe New YorkPublic Theater,JoAnne Akalaitiscontinues tomake demandson heraudience.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 25theater, Akalaitis nods sympathetically. At56, she is a lean woman with close-croppedred hair and red-tinted glasses. Her outfit isEast Village urban guerilla-black tights,black shoes, and a short, black-and-white­checked jacket."Yes, but I'm hoping that eventually youwill," she murmurs.Later, during break, she dismisses a ques­tion about the outburst with an impatient ges­ture. "Oh, God, look, this is such a difficultscene-it's such a dark, bleak play, and it'shard for these nice people to play these horri­ble characters. I don't know yet how you dothat-I don't have the answers for them. But Iknow it's going to be great. I know they'll get itwhen they really give themselves over to it."Besides, Nari and I are friends"-"Nari"is Avari's nickname-" and fighting is an im­portant part of how we work together. I used toworry about that, that we wouldn't be friends,but then I read this interview with David Rabewhere he said that at some point in every pro­duction, for each and every actor, the directoris going to become the enemy. And I think he'sabsolutely right, it's part of the process. Be­cause actors are the ones out there doing it all,and they have to be able to tell the director,'You're not helping me, you're not serving myneeds.' No, it's more than that-there has tobe a time when they can feel independent andpowerful and alone."T SEEMS THAT AKALAITIS IS AL­ways provoking angry reactionsfrom people who don't under­stand.It's one of her most admira­ble qualities, and also one that hascost her some blood."JoAnne has such a straightfor­ward personality-she wants peo­ple to like her, but it's not the mainthing with her," Deirdre O'Connell, whotook the part of Putana, Annabella's bawdynurse, told me. "She's just not at all political inthe way she deals with you, whereas mostpeople are, so it's a shock. At first you're like,'Whoa, that's rude. ,,,That style, as well as the response it oftengets, has carried over into Akalaitis' art.With Mabou Mines, the experimentaltroupe she co-founded in 1969 with then­husband Philip Glass (AB'56), Ruth Malec­zech, Lee Breuer, and David Warrilow, shewas branded an "agit-prop" director by somefor doing plays like Genet's The Screens,about the 1954 Algerian revolution against theFrench, and her own Dead End Kids, a multi­media, vaudeville-style history of nuclearpower in America. She touched off a minorfuror with her production of Leon and Lena(and lenz) at the Guthrie Theater in Minneap-Joe Levine is a writer in New York City.26 UNIVERSiTY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 CREATING A UNIVERSE IS WHA1Intuitive touch: Akalaitis can't say why she added the cutout to this 'Tis Pity scene.olis, where one of the corporate sponsors wasHoneywell, by dressing the bad guys injump­suits with the name "Moneywell" on theirbacks.In 1984, in a celebrated flap, the playwrightSamuel Beckett threatened to go to court toblock her production of his play Endgame atHarvard's American Repertory Theatre.Akalaitis' transgressions: she'd commis­sioned an overture composed by Glass, casttwo black actors, and set the play in an aban­doned subway station after a nuclear holo­caust (Beckett's stage directions called for anempty room with two windows). Beckett ulti­mately settled for the inclusion of his personaldisclaimer in the program, which read: "TheAmerican Repertory Theatre productionwhich dismisses my directions is a completeparody of my playas I conceived it. Anybodywho cares for the work couldn't fail to bedisgusted by this."And in 1990, upon being named to succeedthe legendary Joseph Papp as artistic directorof the New York Shakespeare Festival, Aka­laitis was immediately denounced by NewYork critics as the wrong person for the job.Papp, for 30 years perhaps the dominant fig­ure in American theater, was a colorful im­presario who could step on toes and charm atthe same time. He produced the work of a gen­eration of some of the world's finest seriousplaywrights-David Rabe, Ntozake Shange,Wallace Shawn, Caryl Churchill, David Ma­met, Vaclav Havel-and financed his opera­tion with more popular fare such as Hair andA Chorus Line.By contrast, Akalaitis was seen as too hu­morless, too cold, too avant-garde, too politi­cal, too intellectual. Describing the reactionto her appointment, Don Shewey of the Vil­lage Voice wrote: "I get the impression thatpeople feel intellectually intimidated by herwork ... And I suppose reciting the list ofworks she's directed-Beckett, Colette,Kroetz, Genet. .. could make some people want to stay home and put Tequila Sunrise onthe VCR again."Akalaitis' first two Public attempts at direct­ing classical theater did little to change thisperception. Frank Rich ofthe New lOrk Timescalled her humor in Henry IV, parts one andtwo, "noisy, broad and Teutonically choreo­graphed" and described her production ofCymbelineas "narcissistic" and "a travesty."Others objected to Cymbeline's anachronisticcasting and imagery: a white queen as motherto a black prince, Budweiser cans, TV sets.The nastiness in some of the reviews, as wellas some gossip columns about supposed in­fighting at the Public, have left Akalaitis bothangry and wary, but she hasn't lost confidencein what she's doing. That her plays havearoused negative feelings is not something sheviews as a sign of failure."Of course you want people to like what youdo, but you can't get trapped in trying to pleasethem," she says. "I'm interested in doingdark, difficult theater because it's a vehiclefor understanding big issues in human nature.I consider myself a hopelessly normal, well­adjusted sort of person, so it's a way of ex­panding my life. It's a spiritual adventure todeal as an artist with these murky, dark,frightening issues in behavior."Perhaps her approach to an audience is bestcaptured by her staging of the opening scenein 'Tis Pity, in which Giovanni argues withFriar Bonaventure about whether his incestu­ous desire is really a sin. Giovanni and thefriar-played by Wendell Pierce, a muscular,black actor-conduct their discussioncircling the stage, flinging a soccer ball backand forth."That scene is normally done as a very qui­et, intellectual conversation, with the friar asan older confidante," she says when askedabout the scene, "but I saw it as two muscular,attractive young men engaged in a life-and­death struggle. One guy needs to sleep withhis sister, and the other needs to save souls,80R AKALAITIS, DIRECTING IS ALL ABOUTand I thought that sports was a wonderful wayto convey that. Well, some people com­plained that they were talking too fast, it washard to understand. But I wanted to jump startthings, start the play with a kick. I was reallysaying to the audience, 'I'm gonna make a de­mand on you, you in the audience, you're gon­na have to listen harder than you do if you go toa N eil Simon play. You can't relax, you're gon­na have to struggle.' And I usually, in prettymuch all the plays I do, have something that'shappening when the audience comes in, sothey understand that they're entering intosome kind of universe. "II1II OR AKALAITIS, CREATINGa universe seems to bewhat directing is allabout. Cymbeline is set ina Victorian England fan­tasy land; Endgame in apost-holocaust subwaystation; 'Tis Pity in 1930sfascist Italy. Some criticshave called this gimmickry, but to Akalaitis,the settings represent a state of mind, not astatement; the imagery is intendedto high­light certain emotional dimensions and colorsrather than to specify a time and place."I'm not really very intellectual," she saysof her staging decisions. "I don't think theatershould be intellectual, either. Very often, Ihave no reason for doing something other thanthat I'm interested in seeing it on stage. If peo­ple ask me why it's there, I'll say, 'I don'tknow, I guess because I like it. '... Because Idon't think you have to know. You just have tofeel, you have to see animage and feel that it'sright.""JoAnne would rather watch a play than lis­ten to it, " Erik Avari told me, and in fact, shehas on occasion asked her audiences to doprecisely that. In 1981, she directed FranzXaver Kroetz' Request Concert, a play withno dialogue at all. The plot consists simply ofa middle-aged woman who lives alone goingthrough her nightly routine in her apartmentbefore committing suicide."The script is just several pages of descrip­tion of what this woman does," says JoanMcIntosh, 'the actress who took the part, andOne of Akalaitis' closest friends. "She comesin and puts away the groceries, puts on a bath­robe and rinses out her stockings, cooks din­ner, and listens to the radio-the news, the talkShows, a music station that takes call-in re­quests. The radio is her connection to theOutside world."Mclntosh and Akalaitis rehearsed theShow five hours daily for three weeks inan intense and, for the most part, wordless collaboration."We didn't deal with the psychology of thiswoman at all," Mcintosh says. "We agreed atthe outset that we didn't know what was insideher. We said, 'We have these actions, let's seeif they can take us to the center. ' And they did.The woman goes to the window, for instance,and stares out across the way. We decidedshe's watching a young married couple, a veryloving married couple. Other times, at maybethree points, she smokes, and the audiencewas meant to feel that she is thinking about herlife and how it isn't what it should be. The ac­tions are all very ordinary, but they create thesense that this night is different, her distresslevel is higher than it has been. And yet whenshe dies, there's no breast-beating. She justslips quietly away, in the same suffocatedmood in which she's lived her life."We had no idea how it would be received­I mean, who would be interested in a one­woman play about suicide with no dialogue?-but the audiences responded beyond ourwildest imaginings. The silences were so in­tense that people breathed along with thecharacter on stage. They could project them­selves onto her, and it was terrifying forthem."Even in more conventional plays in whichthe dialogue is central, Akalaitis' strongestconnection to the material is often visual.She'll tinker endlessly with minutiae of scen­ery and costumes. I watched her spend nearly20 minutes one day directing stagehands toswitch around two different -sized flats withthe same image by Man Ray of a woman's but­tocks; she felt the images were toosymmetrical."She's very rigorous about the look of a play-particularly about costumes, which, ofcourse, I like," says Gabriel Berry, costumedesigner for 'Tis Pity. "A lot of modern direc­tors are very afraid of costumes, that theywon't be able to control the effect on an audi­ence. They'll put all the men in suits, or every­one in very straight-ahead, identifiablethings. But JoAnne isn't afraid of people'ssubconscious reactions. She gets real plea­sure from textures and colors. She likesclothes. They give her very personal, visceralinsights into who the characters are."In one of 'Tis Pity's most powerful scenes,Putana is lured by Vasques into telling himwho has made her mistress pregnant. He lullsher with kind words and then, when he hasgotten the name, calmly puts out her eyes.Akalaitis initially envisioned Putana dressedin a matching sweater set; the violence wouldbe more terrifying, she felt, if Putana lookedneatly put together."But I wanted to wear pajamas for that scene, and JoAnne said, 'Okay, persuade me, ,,, De­irdre O'Connell says. ''And I hadn't reallythought it out, but I said, 'Well, here are Anna­bella and Putana in this new house, and every­thing is strange-they're staying up late, nevergetting dressed, eating at weird times. Really,their lives are falling apart. ' And JoAnne said,'Oh, okay!' I was really surprised, because itjust seemed so subjective."The pajamas may have opened the door to anentirely different kind of interaction betweenPutana and Vasques. In an earlier productionof 'Tis Pity in Chicago, Akalaitis had kept thetwo physically distant on stage, but at the Pub­lic, O'Connell and Avari convinced her to letthem play the scene as if their characters weresexually intimate. Avari's sudden violenttransformation became one of the play's mostterrifying moments.Avari believes that for Akalaitissuch seem­ingly obscure details-an article of clothing, avocal inflection, a gesture-become the emo­tional center for a scene, or sometimes eventhe whole play.Spontaneity, too, is a quality that Akalaitisholds sacred. Like ajazz musician, she is al­ways reacting to new variables, playing off aparticular audience, a particular theater, aparticular moment in history. In Request Con­cert, the appliances in the woman's apart­ment, including the radio, were all real. Thecharacter and the audience were listening tolive broadcasts. One night, the news that Pres­ident Reagan had been shot flashed on duringthe performance."It was an interesting moment," Joan Mcin­tosh recalls. "The audience wasn't sure if itwas true or not."Akalaitis' designers know that costumes andscenery are never final; her actors know theycan't get too comfortable."She intentionally underrehearses certainscenes, because she never wants her produc­tions to be without a certain sense of danger, "Avari says. "It's very scary, because you're outthere in all your nakedness and vulnerability,but it's very exciting, too. You've got to bevery focused, very there, just to survive, be­cause you don't know where your next emo­tion is coming from. That provides an energythat drives the scene. And often the final prod­uct is quite raw, but it also has tremendouspower."Again, however, the improvising works be­cause Akalaitis creates a context for it. Dur­ing the early rehearsals of most of her plays,she has her actors do a lot of dance and move­ment warm-up exercises. Part of the effect isto create an ensemble feeling among 20 ormore people who have never worked togetherbefore; but the exercises, particularly whenUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 27they are set to music, also create a mood forthe play. For Endgame, Akalaitis used musicfrom the Doors; for her production of Genet'sThe Balcony, which she set in Latin America,salsa.In 'Tis Pity, Akalaitis used dance exercisesto lay the groundwork for an actual scene inthe play, the wedding of Annabella and Soran­zoo Where most ofthe other scenes were donewith naturalistic dialogue, the wedding wasvery stylized. It opened with a long dance se­quence, in which the guests advance slowlytowards the audience. They are expression­less, but every few seconds, their faces con­tort into grimaces and leers, or they makesudden obscene gestures.''At first it was really difficult for us," Avarirecalls. ''At one point we were all supposed tolaugh in unison, and she kept telling us thatshe didn't want a naturalistic laugh-shewanted a psychosexual laugh. WeI), that wasthe subject of great amusement. 'Oh, sure, apsychosexual laugh, no problem. ' But even­tually someone did it the way she wanted it,and the rest of us caught the spirit of it. And Iknow that, for me at least, that scene becamevery important. It came to represent the realimage of the society we were portraying. Thedeep, underlying, twisted, perverted sorts offeelings- you know, all these people deckedout in beautiful clothes, but with hideousfaces under their masks, and with dark, per­verted thoughts under the surface. And whenI was playing other scenes, I was never faraway from knowingjust how vile these peoplecould be. I always had access to that."__ • WO YEARS AGO AT THEUniversity of Florida,Akalaitis workshop­directed The MormonProject, a sprawlinganthropological takeon what she has called''America's only sur­viving indigenous reli­gion." Discussing the production with DonShewey of the Village Voice, she describedMormonism as "very politically conserva­tive, racist, sexist, homophobic ... our dreamreligion" but added that it also "goes back inthe best sense to the conservative traditionalAmerican values, which are about communi­ty, closeness, family-things that all of usNew York artists don't have much of in ourlives."Those opposing sentiments reflect twoseemingly incompatible sides of Akalaitis:the passionately anti-establishment ideolo­gue and the lover of solid, middle-Americanthings."JoAnne is the most dichotomous personI've ever known," Erik Avari says. "She canbe expounding these incredibly feminist28 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992views at the same time that she's cooking youdinner."Akalaitis comes from a working-class fami­ly in Cicero, Illinois, a factory town populatedalmost exclusively by Lithuanian Catholics.Her father worked at Western Electric for 40years. Her dream was to be the first femalepitcher for the Chicago White Sox (she's still afan); she saw An American in Paris 13 times,and claims to have been awakened to the pos­sibilities of theater by the sight of Mary Mar­tin washing her hair on stage in the musicalSouth Pacific. To this day, she remains an avidsoap opera junkie, following as best she candespite her packed schedule; I was in her of­fice one afternoon when an assistant droppedoff the latest videotaped installment of Days ofOur Lives.When Akalaitis enrolled at the University ofChicago in the fall of 1956, she became thefirst in her family to go to college. She tookphilosophy courses with Richard McKeonand Mary Mothersill- "I'll always be grate­ful to her for awakening me to the unequal po­sition of women in the academic world" -andwrote her undergraduate thesis on faith andreason in the writings of Aquinas and Kant."I think that probably one of the best thingsthat ever happened to me was this intellectual birth that I had when I was at the University ofChicago, " she says. "It came out ofthis tradi­tion there where, you know, if you read Plato'sRepublic 13 times, something really sticks."She spent a year at Stanford as a graduatestudent in philosophy before leaving to be­come an actress."I would have made a mediocre philoso­pher," she says. "I was very interested inemotional, humanistic issues in the field. Irguess I went into the theater in part because Iactually did believe that there was this divi­sion between feelings and reason, and thatif you were an actor, you had to develop thefeelings side of yourself. "As a young actress in New York in the 1960s,Akalaitis ran into what she terms "classiccasting couch" experiences that left her "tornand devastated." Later, as a director, she hadto buck the conventions of a male world. In a1986 interview with Alisa Solomon of the Vil­lage Voice (later reprinted in Women in theAmerican Theater, by Helen Krich Chinoyand Linda Walsh Jenkins), she described the"closely knit male atmosphere" at the Ameri­can Repertory Theatre. "Guys complainedand I was scared ofthem. If a man were direct­ing, they'd complain behind his back, but theyfelt empowered to complain to my face."AKALA1T1S: "I CONSIDER MYSELf}T THE END OF MAY,'Tis Pity She's aWhore closed after arelatively brief but fa­vorably reviewedrun. Most of the crit­ics agreed that thestaging honed theplay's ironic edge andgave the savagery inflicted upon Annabellaand Putana a new impact. Even Frank RichBOPELESSLY WELL-ADJUSTED PERSON."After her separation from Philip Glass,Akalaitis also coped with the difficulties ofraising two children (now in their twenties)While working full time with Mabou Mines.To make ends meet, she co-founded a restau­rant in SoHo called Food, a collective enter­prise where meals were prepared in full viewof the customer- "way before that becamefashionable in L.A.," she says-and workedthere as chef for many years. The combineddemands on her time were overwhelming,and at one point, she led a fight for child careat Mabou Mines."Every regional theater should have a line inits budget for quality child care, " she told Sol­omon. "Because 'unlike other jobs wherethere's a regularity to the schedule, theater iscrazy. Once you're in tech reheasal, forget it.Forget everything. Forget life. You can dothat, but children still need stuff like dinner.Women in theater must work to truly revolu­tionize society or being a woman in theaterwill remain suicidal."It seems a logical enough guess that theseexperiences have given Akalaitis her sense ofsocial injustice, her sympathy for the under­dog (though years of being a White Sox fancould also be a factor). She is dedicated tobringing in more ethnically and culturally di- verse audiences to the Public and to castingmore actors of color. She has opened a book-'store in the theater's lobby, with many titles onAIDS and AIDS care. She traveled to theMiddle East last year to meet with membersof the Palestinian theater community, andwrote an article for the New York Times artsand leisure section detailing the conditionsthere. Even her definition of being an artist iscounter -cultural."I think artists are outsiders," she told me."They're on a spiritual quest, the point ofwhich is not comfort but the quest itself. And Ihappen also to be an outsider in the way of lifeI've chosen. I mean, on the one hand, I thinkI'm tremendously boring and middle class,and I love to cook dinners and sit around andtalk to people and watch television, but on theother hand, I don't seem to be doing the thingsI should be doing for people of my age andwhatever you want to call it. I'm not buying ahouse on Long Island or a car-maybe Ishould get a car, but I'm terrified of driving inNew York, I can't even parallel park -and I'mnot trying to make a lot of money, because Idon't think it's important to make a lot of mon­ey to be successful. And if you say that inAmerica, in this capitalist society, that's al­ready a primal confession."Still, the assumption that her experienceshave politicized her art is too simplistic-anentirely un-Akalaitis-like way of understand­ing her character. As she herself might say,better to start with the actions and let themlead to the center."I don't think of her as a political director atall," says actress Ruth Maleczech, who co­founded Mabou Mines with Akalaitis and hasworked with her on numerous productionsover the years. "I think she does a close read­ing of a play and directs what strikes herhonestly. In this day and age that's political,but in more normal times, it would simply begood art."Besides, she gets so involved in research­ing surrounding elements for plays that ittakes her in directions she would never haveplanned. What she discovers really takesover, and that's good art, too." did not protest as gratuitous Akalaitis'curtain-closing touch-a misogynistic, four­letter epithet scrawled grafitti-style high on aback wall, society's final judgment onAnnabella:"This is one of those evenings when youleave the theater convinced that the directormust have rewritten the text, for how could awork with language so frank and nasty andsexual politics so sophisticated have beenwritten almost four centuries ago? Yet Ms.Akalaitis has preserved Ford's words with anintegrity one rarely finds at the New YorkShakespeare Festival even as she weds thosewords to her own deeply personal vision of itsauthor's themes."There was some grumbling about the acting-while most reviewers praised the two leads,Val Kilmer and Jeanne Triplehorn, a few feltthat they were not up to the demands of speak­ing in verse. But Akalaitis, who says she is in­different to most reviews, negative or posi­tive, told me she was thrilled with 'Tis Pity'ssuccess."It proved that this is a town with a tremen­dous thirst for first-rate, adventuresome pro­ductions of classical plays," she said.With 'Tis Pity behind her, Akalaitis has re­turned to the full-time work of running thePublic, a prospect that seems to leave her withmixed emotions. She's excited about schedul­ing plays for next season, and about projectssuch as her desire to make the institution ahome for other theater groups around the city,but says that she dreads anything that feels toomuch like a regular job. Ultimately, what shewants to do most is to find more time todirect.She'd like, for example, to do Shakespeare'sTroilus and Cress ida , "which is just this enor­mously cynical play that I don't understand."She'd also like to direct Buechner's Danton sDeath, which is "about mob violence andmen talking about politics, and I'd like to fig­ure out how to do that." And she especiallywants "to do the Greeks, because I think theGreeks are like a study guide for political be­havior, for human behavior-for life."The Greek play she wants most to direct isthe Bacchae, in which the Theban queen andother female followers of Dionysus catch ayoung man spying on their revels and tear himto shreds, realizing only later that he is thequeen's son. "It's simply incomprehensible,"she says. "I just feel that we don't have anymechanism to assimilate the tragedy of theevents in that play."And therein lies the appeal. "I like to dothings that I have no idea how to do," JoAnneAkalaitis says, "because that's how I learn todo them."UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 29In this crowded dis­play cabinet (the1751 watercolor is bySalomon Kleiner),Barbara Stafford seesan aHemptto dealwith the 18th centu­ry's information ex­plosion. Like amodern-day comput­er, the case presents"information in apattern."�The 20th-century information explosion, argues art historian Barbara Stafford, is also an imageGiving images a30 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992arbara Maria Stafford pointsto the details of a delicately'tinted watercolor. Its sub­ject? An ornate display cabi­net containing part of afamous 18th-century phar­macological museum. To Stafford's eye, thecabinet-with its "cheek-by-jowl" juxtaposi­tions of skulls, miniatures, shells, medals,and Oriental daggers-bears a striking re­semblance to a very 20th-century way of orga­nizing information, a Macintosh "stacking"software known as HyperCard.Both the cabinet and the computer programillustrate an attempt to come to grips with aproblem that Stafford says has been aroundsince the 18th century, when a flood of newtechniques for looking at the world created a"destabilization" of information and a revolu­tion in the "visualization of knowledge."What has happened since that initial revolu­tion, argues Stafford, PhD'72, is that knowl­edge has increasingly taken the form of visualinformation. New ways of seeing and of orga­nizing the world have come with each newimaging technology, from the advent of color printing and the invention of microscopy tosuch 20th-century imaging sciences as PETscans and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). And yet, as the numbers and types ofimages continue to proliferate, Stafford notesthat very little attention has been paid to howthose images interact with, and exert influ­ence upon, the larger culture.One person who is paying attention is Staf­ford. The visualization of information servesas an underlying principle in each of herbooks. For example, in Voyage into Substance(1984), an analysis of 18th- and 19th-centuryillustrated travel accounts, she shows how theattempt to objectively record the naturalworld led to both new methods of observationand new artistic styles. In Body Criticism(1991)-a book carefully designed to "giveprimacy to the images, not the text" -she ex­amines the ingenious medical and artisticstrategies used in imaging the hidden featuresand processes of the human body-and theirmetaphoric implications.The visualization of information also fueledthe international and "transdisciplinary"symposium on "Imaging the Body: Art and�I() .SIOn-demanding a new form of visual education. To map the removal ofa brain tamor (seen asa white spot), sar­geons follow red "car­sors" across 3-D re­constractions (fromMRI and other scans)of the patient's brainand skin tissae.By Mary Ruth YoeetterimageUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 31Science in Modern Culture" which Staffordand Robert N. Beck, AB'54, SB'55, directorof the University's Center for Imaging Sci­ence, mounted this April. There, a heteroge­neous group of people concerned with imagesand imaging techniques-historians, archi­tects, linguists, radiologists, computer scien­tists, attorneys, television journalists, psy­chologists, and surgeons-joined with a coregroup of art historians. Topics crossed and re­crossed disciplinary borders, their exoticunions reflected in such titles as "Bosch, Al­chemy, and the Grotesque Body" and "TheN-Dimensional Face: Computer Imaging ofFacial Growth and Development."Images-Barbara Stafford argues, and willargue again in a forthcoming book on the im­portance of visual education-must be grant­ed the same intellectual "dignity" that textshave long enjoyed. The cultural prejudiceagainst images, she points out, goes back tothe "Platonic notion that knowledge is some­thing the mind can grasp. " In contrast to the32 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992solidity of a printed text, with its appeal to rea­son, the optical technologies of the 18th­century presented a more "evanescent" kindof knowledge.The images projected through a magiclantern's use of mirrors and smoke-like thesubvisible worlds revealed by a microscopiclens-were physically untouchable. Eachcould be dismissed as no more real than thefirelit shadows on the wall of Plato's cave.And while optical apparatus could be used todemonstrate the latest scientific principles,they were also the "staple of the magician,the conjurer, the fairground." It was littlewonder, then, that, as the 18th century drewto a close, experimental scientists and seri­ous artists alike grew anxious to distancethemselves from the "trickery" of imaginginstrumentation.But the power of images and imaging tech­nologies didn't fade away. In the 20th century,Stafford says, we are witnessing the most pic­torially oriented period in modern history, yet Microscopy-evenwhen it yielded anorderly array of aluldcrystals (below)­"destabilized" knowl­edge, "casting intodoubt things seen inthe macroscopicworld."Scientific demonstra­tions, such as SolarMicroscope alld Mag­nificatiollsPenormedill a Dark Boom (left),produced images thatcould also be seen asthe stuff of trickery."we never stop to analyze how images work."People need to "learn how to look at an imageand separate its effect into components."Those components include "the image's ownmessage, the impression that message makeson the viewer, and any associations the viewermight bring to the image. "What is called for, Stafford argues, is a newbreed of art historian, someone who looks notjust at "great art, " but at the entire range of anera's images. "It's in no way negating the im­portance of past art," she explains. "Rather,it's putting past art within a larger culture ofimages, and asking what we can learn frowthat past culture for our present culture."With its expertise in visualization, staffordsays, her profession has a chance to work-asequals-with practitioners in many fields:helping them become aware of the complex­ities inherent in the images now used almostroutinely.In the biological sciences, for example,medical imaging techniques "have turned theinside outside." The most private parts of apatient's body can now be seen-and read."With CAT scans or ultrasound, what youread is the potential for disease. You prognos­ticate. You make assumptions about the po­tential for malfunction." One particular areaof assumption-making is prenatal testing.Such testing=-imaging an unborn child­presents obvious bioethical dilemmas. Oneaspect of those dilemmas which needs fullerexploration, notes Stafford, concerns "ouraesthetic presuppositions" about what consti­tutes normalcy and deviancy.Law is another field where Stafford sees arole for imagists. Contemporary courts regu­larly admit a range of state-of-the-art imagesas visual evidence, including videos chroni­Cling a day in the life of an accident victim,complicated medical scans, and computer­ized animations. "Law school training re­mains primarily text-based," notes Stafford,"despite a flooding into the courtroom of vis­ua] material-material which can be manipu­lated. To understand how these images are be­ing presented requires as much, if not more,training as how to read, or deconstruct, a legalbrief. ""Indicating the uses of our disciplines forother fields," Barbara Stafford emphasizes,doesn't mean art historians should be "lord­ing it over" those fields. Her goal is an inter­plaY-like the juxtaposition of objects in the18th-century display cabinet, or the patternsof texts and images on a computer screen­from which new kinds of knowledge canarise. Some mold on abook's sheepskincover, magnified byRobert Booke in themid-1700s, revealed"a whole landscape."With such images,microscopy "desub­stantiated" knowledge. The optics section ofNouvelles recreations(1772) included anexplanation of howmagic lanternsproduce "paintingson smoke "-imageslacking the "solid"support of canvas.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 33lumni ChronicleCentennial Reunion honors Edward Hirsch Levi, PhB'32, JD'3S,LHD'7S. Levi, an "alumnus" of the Univer­sity since 1917, when he graduated from kin­dergarten at the University Lab Schools, hasbeen affiliated with the University his entireprofessional life except for two terms of gov­ernment service.Levi joined the Law School faculty in 1936,leaving in 1940 to become special assistant tothe U. S. Attorney General. He returned to theLaw School in 1945, where, as dean from1950 to 1962, he revamped the curriculumand attracted top faculty. Within the decadethe Law School was ranked among the na­tion's best. In 1962, he was named Universityprovost-in 1968, he succeeded George W.Beadle to become the University's eighthpresident. In 1975, President Gerald Fordappointed Levi U. S. Attorney General. HeOn Saturday, June 6, reunion-going alumnifilled Rockefeller Chapel for the Alumni As­sociation's annual awards ceremony (see"Days Unlike Any Other," p. 19). In an as­sembly that featured a performance by theMotet Choir and welcoming remarks fromPresident Hanna Holborn Gray, outgoingAlumni Association President John Lyon,AB' 55, presented this year's citations.The medalistsAwarded only when a worthy recipient isidentified, the Alumni Medal is given for ex­traordinary distinction in one's field of spe­cialization and extraordinary service to soci­ety. This year, the medal was presented to34 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 returned to the University in 1977 as the GlenA. Lloyd distinguished service professor inthe College, the Law School, the Committeeon Social Thought, and the Committee onPublic Policy Studies.Levi has served as trustee and director ofsuch organizations as the American Academyof Arts and Sciences, the Russell Sage Foun­dation, the National Endowment for the Hu­manities, and the John D. and Catherine T.�MacArthur Foundation. He is also an honor­ary trustee of the University.The Alumni Service Medal, awarded.for ex­tended and extraordinary service to the U ni­versity, was given to William Scott Gray III,PhB'48, MBA'SO. For 40 years, Gray hasserved the University in a variety of ways, in­cluding active leadership in its fund-raisingdrives. In 1972, he was a volunteer in the Har­per Library renovation campaign. During his1981-83 tenure as national co-chair of theGSB's Annual Fund steering committee, thefund set records for both the number of donorsand amount raised. As program chair of his40th reunion in 1988, Gray led the class toraise more than $11 0,000 (a $45,000 increaseover the previous year's contributions). APresident's Fund volunteer and fund agent forthe class of 1948, he is also active in the Cam­paign for the Next Century.He has served as a cabinet member of theAlumni Association, president of the Orderof the "C," and president of the board of trust­ees of Psi Upsilon Fraternity.Serving the publicPublic Service Citations, presented for crea­tive citizenship and exemplary leadership involunteer service, were awarded to eightalumni.Combining her interest in the arts with pub­lic service, Betty ("Lindy") Bergman,AB '39, has been a member of the governingboards of the Art Institute of Chicago, the Mu­seum of Contemporary Art, the University'SDavid and Alfred Smart Museum of Art, theRenaissance Society, and the Spertus Muse­um of Judaica. She is a trustee of the U niversi­ty of Chicago Hospitals and works on behalfof Chicago Lying-in and LaRabida Children'Shospitals. At the University Hospitals,Bergman created the Art in the Hospitals pro­gram, which has installed 2,500 framedprints in rooms and corridors.Minister emeritus of the First UnitarianChurch in Oakland, Calif., Arnold Cromp­ton, AM'39, began his service there in 1945,working with Japanese-Americans returningfrom WWII relocation centers. In the 1970s,he served on the cabinet of the Oakland chap­ter of the Japanese American CitizensLeague, raised scholarship funds forJ apanese- American children, and served aspresident of both the Oakland Fukuoka SisterCity Society and the International Institute ofthe East Bay.As the CEO of the Chicago-based marketresearch firm Market Facts, David K. Har­din, MBA' 50 , devoted much of his time topublic service. While still heading the firm,he became an ordained minister in the Episco­pal Church. Today, he is president of Oppor­tunity International, an organization devotedto solving world hunger through creating jobsand stimulating small businesses. He is thevolunteer president of the Chicago SundayEvening Club, the longest running Christiantelevision program in the U. S. He also servesas a member of the board of Oxfam America.Since retiring from the Foreign Service in1979, RobertH. Harlan, AB'40, JD'42, hasbeen an active volunteer in Freeport, Ill.­Working with the NAACP, United Way, andthe Governor's Council on Aging. He alsochairs the board of trustees of Highland Col­lege, a local community college.Professor of church history at the AsianTheological Seminary in Manila, JanetteRose Hassey, PhD'86, has worked extensive­ly with the urban poor-work that has led tothe construction ofa chapel , school, and com­munity center, and to instruction for pre­School and first-grade children. She hashelped establish both a community creditunion and a livelihood project which offersdressmaking classes and provides sewing ma­chines to local women. She also visits andcounsels the imprisoned, the sick, and thementally ill.Charles A. Pollak, PhB'31, helped foundajoint program between Washburn Universi­ty and the Menninger Clinic to train primarySchool teachers to identify and assist dis­turbed children. A past president of the LosAngeles Child Guidance Center, he is also di­rectly responsible for the construction of theWest Valley Counseling Center, which pro­vides counseling and literacy training for thePoor. He and his wife founded the Margaretand Charles Pollak Endowed Fund forWashburn University, providing scholarshipsin business, art, theater, education, and ap­plied and continuing education.In 1965, Elise R. Schweich, PhB'30, con­vinced the public schools of St. Louis to lether create a program that would bring knowl­edge of other cultures to inner-city children.lIer project, Springboard for Learning, nowserves over 30,000 children each year.Schweich single-handedly directed Spring­board's operations, raised funds, and recruit­ed teachers for the first 15 years of theprogram.Professor at the University of Illinois at Chi­cago and visiting associate professor of musicat the U of C, Richard A. Wang-who was adoctoral candidate in the University's music Twenty-seven alumni were honored for public service, professional achievement, and forservice to the U of C. Those pictured here include Alumni Medal winner Edward Levi(third from left) and Alumni Service Medal winner William S. Gray (tenth from right).department in the 1960s-helped to developthe Chicago Jazz Festival, and to create andorganize the U of C's jazz archives, recog­nized as one of the finest in the nation. He alsoparticipates in the music department's out­reach program and in arranging concerts atthe University.Outstanding in their fieldsProfessional Achievement Citations, recog­nizing distinguished achievement in a voca­tional field, were awarded to eight alumni.Professor of biomolecular chemistry at theUniversity of Wisconsin, James E. Dahl­berg, PhD'66, is a world leader in nucleic­acid research, and a distinguished author, edi­tor, and teacher. In 1981 he co-founded theCambridge BioTech Corporation.Chair of pediatrics at the State University ofNew York (SUNY) Health Science Center inBrooklyn, Laurence Finberg, SB'44,MD' 46, established the standard for diagnosisand treatment of childhood diarrheal diseases,the world's leading cause of death among chil­dren. A past president of the American Boardof Pediatrics, he has served on the NationalBoard of Medical Examiners.Known for his work on hematologic dis­orders, Ernst R. Jaffe, SB'45, SM'48,MD'48, is director of the Belfer Institute forAdvanced Biomedical Studies at Albert Ein­stein College of Medicine. A past president ofthe American Society of Hematology andeditor of its journal, he is president-elect ofthe Society for Experimental Biology andMedicine and serves on the board of the Na­tional Marrow Donor program.A world authority in immunology, Fred Karush, SB'35, PhD'38, continues researchas a professor emeritus of microbiology at theUniversity of Pennsylvania. Karush's workon the antigen-antibody reaction has beenfundamental to the understanding and preven­tion of infectious diseases. He received theNational Institutes of Health Research CareerAward for his work from 1962 to 1985.Vertebrate paleontologist, evolutionary bi­ologist, and professor emeritus at the Univer­sity of California at Los Angeles, Everett C.Olson, SB'32, SM'33, PhD'35, taught at theU of C until 1969. He served as chair of theDepartment of Geology and associate dean ofPhysical Sciences; in the 1940s, he formed theCommittee on Paleozoology, which was reor­ganized in the late 1960s as the Committee onEvolutionary Biology, with Olson as its firstchair. A widely published scholar, Olson isa member of the National Academy ofSciences.Distinguished professor emeritus at IndianaUniversity, Thomas A. Sebeok, AB'41, is apioneer in the field of semiotics. His workranges from traditional specialties to the link­ing oflinguistics, semiotics, biology, and cog­nitive sciences. He chaired the Research Cen­ter for Language and Semiotic Studies atIndiana from 1956 to 1991. A former presi­dent of the Semiotic Society of America andof the Linguistic Society of America, he haswritten hundreds of papers and edited numer­ous scholarly journals.A pioneer in cosmic ray research, MauriceShapiro, SB'36, SM'40, PhD'42, has heldappointments at Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, andthe Naval Research Laboratory, and now di­rects the International School of Cosmic RayAstrophysics in Sicily, a NATO-sponsoredUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 35institute. As a founding member of the Feder­ation of American Scientists, he has workedto emphasize the social responsibility of sci­entists in the nuclear age.A nationally known educator, Ralph W.Tyler, PhD'27, reshaped the field of curricu­lum and evaluation. From 1938 to 1953, heserved as chair of Chicago's education depart­ment and was the University Examiner, devel­oping the College's comprehensive exams.From 1948 to 1953, Tyler was dean of the so­cial sciences division. In 1953 he was ap­pointed founding director of the Center forAdvanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences.A credit to the UniversitySeven alumni received Alumni Service Cita­tions for outstanding service to the University.Former president of the University'S Alum­ni Association, Edward L. Anderson,PhB' 46, SM' 49, served the group' at a time oftransition. In 1979, as part of the SchultzCommission studying the status of the Uni­versity's alumni affairs, he helped recom­mend steps for improvement. He then servedon the Commission's implementation panel,and on the alumni governing body. Dedicatedto student recruitment, he was the first head ofthe Alumni Schools Committee.Chair of the University'S Library Societysince 1987, Philip M. Burno, AM'64, has in­creased the society's membership by 20 per­cent and has raised substantial sums for thesociety's endowment. He co-chairs the li­brary's Centennial Campaign Committee, is a member of the visiting committee to the li­brary, and has served on the visiting commit­tee for the Center on East Asian Studies.Catherine L. Dobson, MD'32, a clinicalassociate in obstetrics and gynecology at theU of C Hospitals, has been president of theMedical and Biological Sciences DivisionAlumni Association, and vice president of theUniversity'S Alumni Association. She has en­dowed the Catherine L. Dobson professor­ship of gynecology, established in 1991, andboth the University Library and the Depart­ment of Music will benefit from the CatherineL. Dobson Memorial Fund.As co-chair and class gift chair for the 50threunion of his class, Robert J. Greenebaum,AB'39, recruited volunteers, prepared mail­ings, and solicited funds-his class raised$143,000. He serves on the Campaign for theNext Century's Chicago major gifts commit­tee, co-chairs the 1938-40 Chicago alumnispecial gifts committee, and is a past chair ofthe President's Fund. A member of the Col­lege Visiting Committee, he also served onboth the Student Programs and Facilities Vis­iting Committee and the Citizen's Board.As national chair of the GSB's Dean's Cir­cle, William L. Rogers, MBA' 72 , and hisalumni committee earned a 9-percent in­crease in donations over the previous year. Healso chairs the Class of '72 reunion commit­tee, and is a past chair of the GSB Alumni As­sociation Board of Directors, as well asfounder of the New York GSB Alumni Club.In 1990 and 1991, he served on the GSB An­nual Fund's national steering committee.Namedfora 1918 graduate of the College andfeaturinga $500 honorarium, HowellMurray Awards are given to seniors chosen by the Alumni Association and the Dean ofStudents for their contributions to the vitality of student life.36 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 As national chair of the Admissions Office'sAlumni Schools Committee, Judy UllmannSiggins, AB'66, AM'68, PhD'76, overseesall volunteer activities, such as interviewingcandidates, hosting parties for prospectivestudents and their families, and visiting highschools. She is credited with having donemore for U of C recruitment efforts than anyother volunteer in the nation.John Webster, AB'37, served as chair for"the 50th reunion of his class, which set a re­cord for attendance, and has volunteered forreunion weekend each year since. He hashelped revive the Emeritus Club and serveson the President's Fund and the Annual Fund.A volunteer with the University of ChicagoClub of Metropolitan Chicago's hospitalitycommittee, he is also active in Alpha DeltaPhi's fraternity alumni activities.Two Young Alumni Service Citations werealso awarded. Laura Torres, AB'83,MBA'89-founding member of the HispanicAlumni Club-was honored for-her efforts infostering minority involvement with the Uni­versity. And Geralyn A. Yoza, AB'81,MBA' 87 -the key organizer of the 1988 localreunion of Southern California grads-washonored for work at the University AlumniClub's Los Angeles chapter.A dozen doersThe Alumni Association's Howell MurrayAwards, recognizing students' extracurricu­lar involvement, were given to 12 seniors.Julia Angwin, from Palo Alto, Calif. , con­centrated her College studies in mathematics.Angwin was the Chicago Maroon's editor,and served on the Centennial Fun and Festi­vals Committee. She was also a member ofMaroon Key, an organization made up ofthird- and fourth-year students chosen fortheir academic records and their contribu­tions to the University community.A four-year starter on the varsity footballteam, Steven Chudik, was the 1991 co­captain. The biochemistry major fromArlington Heights, Ill., received the 1991Haas Award for most-valuable player andserved as president of the undergraduateOrder of the "e."A psychology major from Scotch Plains,N.J., Christopher Costello, volunteered forthe Major Activities Board, serving as itstechnical director. He performed with theUniversity Wind Ensemble and the Univer­sity Theater.Paul Erickson, an English major fromMinneapolis, was an Orientation aide, a stu­dent marshal, and sports editor of the ChicagoMaroon. He also was a member of the EnglishUndergraduate Policy Committee and Ma­roonKey.A Russian civilization major from oxford,Ohio, Anne Flueckiger chaired Doc Films in1991-92. She also wrote for the Grey CityJournal, a section of the Maroon; worked as adisc jockey for WHPK-FM; and participatedin the Outdoor Adventure Club.Edward Funk, a music major from GreenBay, Wisc., participated in University The­ater and was musical director for" Miracle on59th Street." He also was a member of theMotet Choir, University Chorus, the Rock­efeller Chapel Choir, and Maroon Key.Concentrating in general studies in the hu­manities, Emily Kadens, from Toledo, Ohio,played varsity softball, was an Orientationaide, and volunteered for the AdmissionsOffice. She also led the Off-Off Campus im­provisational group, and was a member ofMaroon Key.From Sidney, Ohio, history major ShafaliLal participated in University Theater and theFestival of the Arts. She was a member of Uof C Dancers, serving most recently as presi­dent, and of Maroon Key.William Michel, a politics, economics,rhetoric, and law major from Syracuse, N. Y.,served as executive producer of the Univer­sity Theater. He was an officer for DudleyHouse, student chair of the Centennial Funand Festivals Committee, and a member ofMaroon Key,A political science major from Memphis,Shirley Pao chaired the Major ActivitiesBoard and was a member of the HomecomingCommittee, Chinese Undergraduate StudentsAssociation, University Theater, and theScavenger Hunt Club. She also worked in theMaroon's production department.A Chicago native concentrating in the bio­logical sciences, Hani Salti founded an Arab­JeWish peace dialogue group and worked withAmnesty International, serving as campuschair. He also was president ofthe Arab Cul­tural Club and a member of Maroon Key.Susannah Wolf, a history major from Phil­adelphia, was a member of the women'slacrosse club and University' Theater. Sheserved as an Orientation aide, a resident as­sistant, a peer health educator, and a memberof Maroon Key.Gifts with ClossIn anticipation of the University's next centu­ry, the reunion classes made record-settinggifts to the University. The 50th reunion classof 1942 gave over $1 million in gifts andpledges, and the 25th reunion class of 1967gave $500,000 in gifts and pledges-the larg­est 50th and 25th class gifts ever. In all, some2,500 alumni donated and pledged a total of$2 million. Of the total raised, $773,000 wascommitted to the College Fund and $1.23million in gifts and pledges went to the Uni­versity's endowment and other programs. 1993 Alumni Association AwardsCall for NominationsEach year the Alumni Association selects outstanding alumniwho deserve recognition for professional excellence, serviceto the University, and benefit to society. Recipients of the 1993awards will be honored in Rockefeller Memorial Chapelduring our June Reunion.• The Alumni Medal for achievements of national orinternational stature and benefit to society• The University Alumni Service Medal for extended,extraordinary service to the University• The Professional Achievement Citations for outstandingachievement in a professional field• The Public Service Citations for creative and exemplaryleadership in voluntary service to society• The Alumni Service Citations for outstanding service tothe University• The Young Alumni Service Citations for outstandingwork on behalf of the University by individuals aged35 and younger.If you know someone who deserves an Alumni AssociationAward," send for a nomination form or call the AlumniAssociation at 312/702-2160.Deadline for completed nominations: November 1,1992.*To be eligible, a nominee must have matriculated at the University and earned credittoward a degree. Persons currently enrolled or employed by' the University and votingmembers of the Board of Trustees and the Association's Board of Governors are not eligible.-------------------------------------------------------Please send me a nomination form for the 1993 Alumni Awards.�ame------------------�-----------------------------------Address-------------- �-------------City----------State ------- Zip- _Return to:Alumni AwardsUniversity of Chicago Alumni Association5757 Woodlawn AvenueChicago, IL 60637All nominations must remain confidential.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 37lass News38 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992"No news is good news" is one cliche to which we donot subscribe at the Magatine. Please send some ofyour news to the Class News Editor, University ofChicago Magaiine, 5757 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago,IL 60637. No engagements, please. Items may beedited for space.20 Henry L. Pringle, PhB'20, age 94 and anattorney for 59 years in the Florida bar,"has seniority in both age and experience" in LakeCounty, FL25 Felix Caruso, SB'25, writes: "I had break­fast in May with A. William Haarlow,X'36, and we played a round of golf with John JayBerwanger, AB'36. My grandson, Tom, who attendsLyons Township High School, received the 1992 statechampionship gold medal for diving."29 Melanie. Loewenthal Pflaum, PhB'29,who has lived on a hill overlooking the Medi­terranean for the last 25 years, has written 14 books-13 novels and one non-fiction-and many articles andshort stories for the Spanish magazine LOOKout. Sheis currently working on a collection of short stories.35 Ei Jackson Baur, AB'35, AM'38, PhD'42,coordinator for National Issues Forums inLawrence, KS, also serves on the boards of ACLUIKS, Common Cause/KS, Douglas County ACLU,and Douglas County. Senior Services. Robert A.Hall, Jr., AM'35, professor emeritus of linguisticsand Italian at Cornell University since 1976, receiveda professional achievement award from the Polytech­nic Preparatory Country Day School AlumniAssociation.36 A. William Haarlow, X'36, and John JayBerwanger, AB'36, see 1925, Felix Caruso.37 Walter Bateman, AB'37, of Rochester,MN, writes, "Twenty-six alumni shippedaboard the Delta Queen in New Orleans this spring inorder to carry Jelly Roll Morton's jazz up the Missis­sippi River to Beale Street in Memphis. We had a greattime. Perhaps the most memorable part was played byKen Burns and Barbara Fields, AM'70, who re­viewed the tragedy and triumph of the Civil War. How­ever, the documentary of Huey Long by Ken Burnssticks in my mind as a superb example of teaching. Thefilm presented two views and supported both, true tothe method of teaching by inquiry. The audience had toshare in the thinking; it went the way teaching shouldgo."39 Hortense Sworzyn Erde, SB'39, marriedto Frank Erde for 51 years, has three childrenwho graduated from the Lab Schools: Michael Erde,an attorney; Marsha Erde Estes, an artist; andMaryAnne Erde Spinner, MBA'80, a banker.42 JohnC. Stamm, SB'42, retired to two acresof forested land near the Klamath River inOregon, where he spends his time" canoeing; fishing;caring for trees, quail, deer, and gardens; and keepingup with classical organ repertoire, journals in bio­chemistry and nutrition, and selected reading in tec­tonics, astrophysics, and anthropology. Who said re­tirement isn't a full-time job?" Margaret DillonStarrett, X' 42, works for the Chamber of Commercein Paris, MO, promoting Mark Twain Lake. Afterleaving the U of C, she worked for the Atomic EnergyCommission, ran her own real estate office for 25years, and taught in elementary schools. Irwin H. Steinberg, AB' 42, a founder of Mercury Records inChicago, went to New York with the company as itschair when it became Polygram Records. He retired inthe mid-1980s, and formed recorded music and filmcompanies of his own; he is also an "obsessivegolfer."Mildred Rees Tordella, AB' 42, writes: "PresentlyI am trying to figure out what job I can do for the nextten years; it has to fit in with our lifestyle, our ninechildren, and our 21 grandchildren." AntoinetteMohr Tyskling, X' 42, retired after 47 years of teach­ing in independent schools, but still represents theser schools on a state and national level- "primarily toprotect their rights." Louise Galst Wechsler, AB' 42,AM' 44, fundraising coordinator for the Central Pacif­ic Coast region of Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Or­ganization of America, received a national leadershipaward.44 Robert C. Sorensen, AB'44, AM'48,PhD' 54, has appeared as an expert witness infederal courts across the country. He continues hisconsulting practice, applying survey research andmarketing to intellectual property and antitrust litiga­tion, from his New York office.45 Ann Hamilton Nagler, SB'45, and Ken·neth M. Nagler, SM'47, write that they"had a wonderful trip to Ecuador in March-eightdays in the Galapagos and a drive through the Andes toQuito. We ended up in the jungle rain forest on the Na­go River-a tributary of the Amazon." Janet DavisonRowley, PhB'45, SB'46, MD'48, the Blum-Riesedistinguished service professor in medicine and mo­lecular genetics and cell biology at the University, re­ceived an honorary doctor of science degree from theUniversity of Southern California in May. Thomas T.Tourlentes, SB'45, MD'47, is "retired but active" asa clinical professor of psychiatry at the University ofIllinois at Peoria College of Medicine; he is also a con­sultant and advisory group member in many profes­sional and community organizations.46 Oliver R. Rampersad, PhB'46, SM'54,PhD' 61, is retired from the U of C Hospitalsand Clinics. He lives in Hyde Park and has enjoyedattending the centennial activities. .47 DavidS. Broder, AB'47, AM'51, see 1948,Stanley M. Heggen. Arnold C. Harberger,AM' 47, PhD' 50, was honored at a dinner on April 25to mark the occasion of his retirement after 39 years onthe faculty of the University'S economics departmentand the GSB. He continues as a full-time faculty mem­ber at the University of California at Los Angeles,where he and his wife now reside. Kenneth M·Nagler, SM'47, see 1945, Ann Hamilton Nagler.Mary Ella Hopkins Reutershan, PhB'47, receivedher master's degree in gerontology from Long IslandUniversity this May at the Southampton campus.4· 8 Stanley M. Heggen, MBA' 48, sent in a clip­ping about David S. Broder, AB'47,AM' 51, associate editor of the Washington Post an? anationally syndicated columnist. Also a Pulitzer Pnzewinner for distinguished commentary, Broder re­ceived an honorary doctor of humane letters deg�eefrom Bates College this spring. John Hope Frankl�n,the John Matthews Manly distinguished servIceprofessor emeritus of history, also received a Bateshonorary degree.49 Hannah Diggs Atkins, BLS'49, adjun�t. professor of political science at the U niversI-ty of Central Oklahoma, will hold the Hannah D·Atkins professorship for political science and gove�­ment information at Oklahoma State University; thISnew, endowed professorship allows her to teach part­time until her retirement. John R. Craig III, PhB' 49dSM'50, has spent fourteen years living aboard ansailing his yacht, Evening Star; this summer heplanned to explore Chesapeake Bay. Helen RiceHarris, SB' 49, writes that she has a "master's degreefrom the University of Michigan-retired once andam now back to doing what I love. I have a husband,two grown children, and two growing grandchildren. "Robert A. Plane, SM'49, PhD'SI, was inauguratedas the 16th president of Wells College in May, afterserving as interim president.50 JostJ. Baum, AB'SO, JD'S3, s,ee 1987, Vic­toria I. Jensen. George Coutsoumaris,AM'SO, PhD'S3, is professor emeritus of economicsat the Athens University of Economics and BusinessSciences in Greece. Stephen H. Levin, PhB'SO,SM'S3, represents taxpayers before the IRS with hisown tax and accounting service, following a "very un­pleasant encounter with the IRS." Three of his fourchildren are married, and he has two granddaughters.5 I Boris Auerbach, AB'SI, JD'S4, see 1987,Steve Auerbach. John A. Jane, AB'SI,MD'S6, PhD'67, professor and chair of the neuro­surgery department at the University of Virginia for 23years, is also president-elect of the Society of Neuro­logical Surgeons, senior associate editor of the Jour­nal of Neurosurgery, and director of the AmericanBoard of Neurological Surgery. Currently, four U ofCmedical school graduates are residents in hisprogram.54 Alexander Abian, SM'S4, professor ofmathematics at Iowa State University, has re­ceived publicity over the last two years for his mathe­matical theories on how "judicious alterations" of theorbit and tilt of the Earth, and rearrangement of the so­lar system, "could greatly improve the quality of hu­man life, augment considerably the size of the planet,and ameliorate the ecology of our entire solar sys­tem." Susan Mathieu Auerbach, AB'S4, 'see 1987,Steve Auerbach.57 Dotty Hess Guyot, AB'S7, AB'S8, is in­volved in creating a new liberal arts college.Maruzen College, which will be located in Antrim,NH, and will "embrace both the East Asian and theWestern traditions. As in the Hutchins program, theeducational approach of this new college is to discusstimeless books in-a common curriculum."58 William L. Mathieu, AB'S8, see 1987,Steve Auerbach.59 Herma Hill Kay, JD'S9, has been nameddean of the University of California at Berke­ley's School of Law-the first woman to hold that posi­tion. Donald J, McCarty, PhD'S9, professorofedu­cational administration at the University of Wisconsinat Madison, has been named a charter member of theboard of visitors at Wisconsin's school of education;the board will advise the dean on long-range planning,and will strengthen ties between the school and theprofessional world. Hugh O. Nourse, AM'S9,PhD'62, a professor of real estate at the University ofGeorgia's Terry College of Business, received thisyear's James A. Graaskamp award, presented by theAmerican Real Estate Society.60 JagdishDave, AM'60, PhD'64, a professorof psychology and counseling, received ten­ure from Governors State University in May. Marjo­rie Wikler Senechal, SB'60, the Louise Wolff Kahnprofessor of mathematics at Smith College, deliveredthe Dan E. Christie memorial mathematics lecture atBowdoin College in April. Her topic was "Reflectionson Symmetry. "62 Apostolos Evangelopoulos, MBA'62,writes that "several MBA holders of Greekcitizenship will create a U of C GSB club in Athens,Greece-more news to follow." Stephen J. Hecht,AB'62, participated in the Blues/ Arts Ball'92, spon­Sored by Earth Center for the Arts, Brickyard Cam­pUs, in Colchester, IL. William Makely, AM'62, has opened his own public relations firm, William,Makely Associates, in Downers Grove, IL, followingsix yeas as director of McKee Public Relations, the di­vision of McKee Advertising he founded in 1985.63 Peggy Snellings Rampersad, AM'63,PhD'78, administrator of the economics de­partment at the University, was recently included inthe 1992-93 edition of Who s Who in the Midwest.64 Brian Heller, AM'64, PhD'7S, see 1987,Steve Auerbach.66 Norman A. Buktenica, PhD'66, professorof special education at Moorhead State Uni­versity, retired at the end of the 1991-92 academicyear. David H. Rosenbloom, AM'66, PhD'69, dis­tinguished professor of public administration at theAmerican University in Washington, DC, and editor­in-chief of the Public Administration Review, has re­ceived the distinguished research award of the Ameri­can Society of Public Administration and the NationalAssociation of Schools of Public Affairs andAdministration.67 Norman R. Bobins, MBA'67, president andCEO of LaSalle National Bank and vicechair of the board of directors of LaSalle National Cor­poration, received the American Jewish Committee'shuman rights medallion. Melvin E. Ebeling,MBA'67, has acquired the majority ownership in, andbeen elected chair of the board of, Tessek Ltd., a sci­entific products manufacturing company in Prague,Czechoslovakia. He lives with his wife, Darlene, inSunnyvale, CA.68 Vincent Kelly Pollard, AM'68, studyingfor his doctorate in political science at theUniversity of Hawaii at Manoa, was recently honoredas one of three outstanding graduate student teachingassistants. He also received a foreign language andarea studies fellowship this past June to study interme­diate Tagalog at the Southeast Asia Summer StudiesInstitute in Seattle, WA. Frederick R. Schram,PhD' 68, is professor of systemic zoology and zoogeo­graphy at the University of Amsterdam.69 Lois Grant Beck, AM'69, PhD'77, profes­sor of anthropology at Washington U niversi­ty in St. Louis, received research grants from the Na­tional Endowment for the Humanities and the SocialScience Research Council for fieldwork among no­mads in Iran. Her five-year old daughter, Julia, whotraveled with her to Iran, is the subject of a forthcom­ing article in Natural History. Margaret Cott Zarrel­Ii, AB '69, a special projects coordinator for a commu­nity action agency in Marshall, MO, is president ofboth her local Red Cross chapter and the county Inter­Agency Council. Her older daughter graduated fromcollege and her younger daughter graduated from highschool; there's also, she notes, "a new man in mylife."70 Kate Douglas Torrey, AM'70, formereditor-in-chief of the University of NorthCarolina Press, is now the press's sixth director-thefirst woman to hold that position. Barbara Fields,AM'70, see 1937, Walter Bateman.72 Thomas C. Berg, AB'n, is vice president,general counsel, and secretary at AMSTEDIndustries, in Chicago. Gary Bond, AM'n, PhD'7S,professor of psychology at Indiana University-PurdueUniversity at Indianapolis, received the Roger Barkerdistinguished research award and the NIMH researchscientist development award in April. He and his wife,Karen D. Lindig, PhD'76, have two children.Carolyn Pember Keith, AM'n, and her husband,Larry, have pledged $10,000 to the University ofNorth Carolina at Chapel Hill School of JournalismUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AuGUST 1992 39Trade Winds'Helping to set Mexico's tax andcustoms policies, Francisco GilDiaz is bullish about his country'sfinancial future.H n contrast to the growing movement to­ward protectionism in the U. S., itsneighbor to the south is greeting for­eign interests into its borders with a warmwelcome."Mexican companies don't feel hurt by theinflux of foreign business," says FranciscoGil Diaz, AM' 69, PhD' 82, undersecretaryof revenue for Mexico's Treasury Depart­ment, "because they're enjoying morederegulation and lower taxes" under thegovernment of President Carlos Salinas deGortari.But riding this wave of private prosperitywithout trying to control it, Diaz warns,could lead back to the chaotic days of the1980s, when runaway inflation and price in­stability were the country's norm. Keeping afirm hold on the reins of economic growth isa major challenge for the Mexican govern­ment -even as it works to improve the stan­dard of living for the nation's poorestpeople.One of the key figures in shaping Mexico'seconomic future promises to be Diaz, whostudied economics at the University. In themid-1960s, he was working at the CentralBank of Mexico when his supervisor­a prominent Mexican economist and afriend of Arnold Harberger, the Gustavus F.and Ann M. Swift distinguished serviceprofessor emeritus and former chair of theeconomics department-recommendedthat he do graduate work at Chicago. He40 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 took the advice, arnvmg in Hyde Parkin 1967 and receiving his master's two yearslater. In 1970, he headed back to Mexico fora job with the Treasury Department.But he soon returned to the University tocomplete his doctoral studies, bringing hiswife and children with him. The familyspent the next ten years living in Hyde Parkwhile Diaz worked part time on his doctor­ate, received in 1982 for his dissertationentitled "Three Essays on the Taxation ofCapital."Back in Mexico, he continued working forthe government, and in 1988 PresidentSalinas appointed him to his current post ofundersecretary of the Treasury-a positionwhose responsibilities can be likened tothose of aU. S. Customs or Internal RevenueService commissioner. From his MexicoCity office, he sets and administers policyon customs and taxation-managing thetreasury department's 33,000 employeesand traveling frequently within Mexico andto the United States and Europe.Diaz is bullish about the future of Mexico,even for its poorest residents. In the near fu­ture, Diaz says, the move from communal toprivate ownership ofland is one governmentstrategy that should help improve the plightof many of Mexico's poorest people­largely agricultural workers in rural areas.Although foreign companies (which oftenlocate manufacturing operations in Mexicobecause of the less expensive labor and over­head costs) furnish significant tax revenuesto the country's coffers, Diaz acknowledgesthat "money has always been able to flowinto Mexico, and money has always beenable to flow out of Mexico."Contributing, however, to Mexico's over­all growth is the country's open view on ex­port trade, liberalized long before it becamefashionable to do so, Diaz says. Financialmarkets are very open in his country, whichis the third-largest trading partner of theUnited States and has a higher per capitagross domestic product than most other Lat­in American nations.Diaz returned to the University in April toparticipate in a panel discussion at the GSB 's40th Annual Management Conference. Thediscussion, "The Prospects for LatinAmerica," examined business, political,cultural, and economic considerations forcompanies entering the large, and often un­tapped, Latin American market. Diaz saysthat predicting the effects of the proposedfree-trade pact among the United States,Canada, and Mexico is difficult, but he'scertain that the result is "going to be a three­way street." -Jaclyn H. Park and Mass Communication to establish annual awardsfor students interested in sports journalism. KennethLeshen, AB'72, an assistant public defender and at�torney in private practice in Kankakee, IL, is marriedwith one son, Zachary. George Mangan, AB'72, hasworked in "several small biochemistry laboratories ata large university over the last few years." In his sparetime, he reads, draws, collects old photographs, and"plays" the stock market. Joan Reisman, AB'72, isvice president of the health sciences group at Ma­kovsky & Company, Inc., a public relations firm.Mark Shapiro, AB'72, MBA'86, see 1986, P. Mi-r chelle Hart Muellner.73 Gregory S. Reeves, AB'73, was on the teamthat won the 1992 Pulitzer Prize for nationalreporting. The Kansas City Star received the awardfor a seven-part series on the Department of Agricul­ture's farm subsidy program. Reeves, who is the data­base reporter for the Star, analyzed 8.2 million USDAfarm subsidy payment records and discovered fraudand mismanagement of bill ions of dollars in taxes. TheU.S. Senate has scheduled a year-long investigation ofthe USDA as a result of the findings in the 16-monthnewspaper investigation.74 Bruce Tammen, AM'74, see 1987, VictoriaI. Jensen.75 J. William Melsop, MBA'75, is presidentand chief executive officer of the AustinCompany, an organization of consultants, designers,engineers, and constructors in Cleveland. Major Al­fred H. Novotne, AB'75, an ethics attorney with theU.S. Army Judge Advocate General's office, receiveda commendation medal, first oak leaf cluster, in May.He lives with his wife, Maureen, in Falls Church, VA.Michael I. Somers, MBA'75, managing director ofDillon, Read & Company, an investment bank in NewYork, married Stella Flame, a women's clothingdesigner and retailer.76 Judson C. Green, Jr., MBA'76, president ofthe Walt Disney Attractions division, is re­sponsible for managing operations in California,Florida, and Europe. Jeanine Greene Jasica,AM'76, see 1977, Raymond Jasica. R. RandallKelso, AB'76, professor at the South Texas College ofLaw, was quoted recently in the Houston Post aboutthe Ninth Amendment to the Bill of Rights. He com­mented that privacy cases requiring a defense based onthe Ninth Amendment may crop up over how compan­ies solicit business. "Information about your finances,your background, and other personal things is beingpassed around to anyone and everyone," he said.Karen D. Lindig, PhD'76, see 1972, Gary Bond.Martin Selzer, AB'76, AM'81, who received aPh. D. in applied statistics and organizational behaviorfrom Rutgers Graduate School of Management,works at AT&T and lives in West Orange, NJ..77 Karen Spreng Friend, AB'77, executivedl­rector of the Arizona Sign Association- anon-profit, statewide trade association dealing WIththe on-premise sign industry, also serves on severalcommunity committees, including the Greater Para­dise Valley Community Council and the Paradise Val­ley Village Planning Committee. Raymond Jasica,MBA'77, and his wife, Jeanine Greene Jasica,AM'76, have returned to Western Springs, IL, fromBialystok, Poland, where he served as a volunt:erwith the International Executive Service Corps. LIn­da Diamond Shapiro, AB'77, AM'78, MBA'88, see1986, P. Michelle Hart Muellner.78 Rita Mclure Cunningham, AM'78, see1987, Steve Auerbach. Jill Flores, AB'78;left a law practice in Arizona, and is now ownerOperator of a McDonald's franchise in Elkridge, MD.Daniel L. Hayes, AB'78, MBA'79, is vice presidentand brand director for Southern Comfort, SouthernComfort line extension, and spirits line extension forLouisville marketing at Brown-Forman BeverageCompany. Karen Leah Heller, AB' 78, a reporter andcolumnist for the Philadelphia Inquirer, marriedDavid Record Dye, the program director of WXPN,the radio station of the University of Pennsylvania,November 16 in Philadelphia. Barbara E. Shaeffer,AB'78, is a partner in the Boston law firm of Goulston& Storrs.79 Ophelia L. Barsketis, AB'79, an equity an­alyst for the Chicago-based investment man­agement firm of Stein, Roe & Farnham, Inc., was re­cently elected a principal. G. Alain Bonta, MBA'79,is vice president of strategic planning at SeagramCompany in London. Gerard Lacroix, AB'79, an as­sociate at Debevoise 8f Plimpton since 1986, has beenpracticing at the firm's Paris and New York offices;currently he is in New York. Paraphrasing a famousChicago T-shirt, he adds, "Like the University ofChicago, practicing law is funnier than you think(ho ho). " Bonnie Sprankle Oppenheimer, MAT' 79 ,is an assistant professor at Delta State University,Working with the Delta Mathematics Project. Shewrites that her husband, Seth Oppenheimer, AB'82,is an assistant professor in the department of mathe­matics and statistics at Mississippi State University.They have two children, Albert, five, and Kate, two.80 Larry F. Boyer, PhD'80, is an associate atGraef, Anhalt, Schloemer & AssociatesInc., a consulting engineering firm in Milwaukee. Jo­seph G. Haubrich, AB'80, is an economic advisorfor the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. He and hiswife have two daughters. Rebecca A. Jones-Biirk,AB' 80, MST' 89, and her husband, Christopher Biirk,had a daughter, Faye Kathleen, last October. Theynow live in Quetta, Pakistan, where Christopher leadsa consulting firm for regional development.John H. Krystal, AB'80, professor of psychiatry atYale University: married Bonnie R. Becker last Octo­ber; EdwinR. Priest, AB'80, MD'85, and Ann DiIi­bert Priest, AB'.81, MBA'91 , attended. Thomas S.Reif, AB'80, and his wife, Ann, have two daughters,Elizabeth Ann and Margaret Suzanne. Thomas H.Ryan, AB'80, is a research editor for medicine andhealth sciences with the Public Affairs Office of theUniversity of Illinois at Chicago.Charles M. Seigel, AB'80, is the director of nation­al affairs for the Apollo Group, Inc., the parent com­pany of the University of Phoenix and other subsi­diaries; he represents the company in Washington,DC. David L. Skelding, AB'80, a corporate financelawyer with Lord, Bissell & Brook in Chicago, and hiswife, Karen Deighan, had their first child, Conor, inJanuary. MaryAnne Erde Spinner, MBA' 80, see1939, Hortense Sworzyn Erde. Peter Treistman,AB'80, see 1982, Lisa Kim Harris.81 TeresaA. Gillen, AM'81, is deputy directorof commerce for the city of Philadelphia.Catherine Philips Malave, AB'81, had a son, Alex­ander Salvador, born in June 1990. She is working onWater quality data management for the State ofMinne­sora, and finds the Twin Cities to be "a friendly and ex­hilarating place (like Chicago)." Mark Podrazik,AB'81, and Karla Hill Podrazik, AB'81, live inLombard, IL, with their daughter, Erica; Gretchen,the pup; and cats Rebecca, Peri, and Tawny-Scrawny.Mark is a business manager at the Rauland-BorgCorp. in Skokie, and Karla is an internist in privatepractice in Elmhurst.Ann Dilibert Priest, AB' 81, MBA'91, see 1980,JOhn H. Krystal. Robert L. Seymour, MBA'81, andhis family returned to San Francisco after nine yearsoVerseas with GATX Capital Corp. He is now viceP:esident in the corporate finance department, spe­cIalizing in international financing. Peter Zale, AB' 81, who has his own business in Cleveland design­ing and illustrating publications, has published a com­ic book and syndicated a comic strip in the last year.82 John S. Burchfield, MBA'82, is vice presi­dent of human resources at Inspiration Re­sources Corporation in Sioux City, lA, a producer offertilizer and crop protection products. Lisa KimHarris, AB'82, MBA'84, and Peter Treistman,AB'80, had a daughter, Lyda Suzanne Harris Treist­man, in February. Tanja Kubas-Meyer, AB'82,AM'83, assistant director of Sojourner House­Services for Battered Women, is living in Rhode Is­land with her husband, Daniel, and son, Alec John.She regrets missing her tenth reunion, and hopes tomake the 15th.Bart Allen Lazar, AB' 82, an associate with theChicago law firm of Seyfarth, Shaw, Fairweather &Geraldson, married Lydia Beatrice Herman, a groupleader at Waste Management Inc., in Oak Brook.Gerard C.S. Mildner, AB'82, is assistant professorof urban studies and planning at Portland State Uni­versity. Seth Oppenheimer, AB' 82, see 1979, Bon­nie Sprankle Oppenheimer. Christopher Trojniar,X'82, see 1987, Steve Auerbach. James M. Van­Daalen, MD'82, see 1983, Cheryl Cook VanDaalen.83 Taylor J. Crouch, MBA'83, has moved toBerlin to take over the vice presidency ofmarketing and sales at Parexal-AFB Europe-a com­pany specializing in contract clinical research for themedical industry. Richard Royce, MBA'83, seniorvice president and resident manager of Smith Barney,Harris Upham & Co., Inc., and adjunct professor atPortland State University School of Business, recentlygave a talk to Portland's U of C Club, "From Marxismto Markets." Kevin Shalla, AB'83, see 1986, P.Michelle Hart Muellner.Gloria J. Santella, MBA'83, co-manager ofSteinRoe Capital Opportunities Fund at Stein, Roe &Farnham, Inc., was recently elected a principal. Sid­ney Skinner, AB'83, a homeopathic family nursepractitioner in Greenfield, MA, and her partner,Annemarie Monahan, recently founded a women'snatural health care clinic called New Ground. CherylCook VanDaalen, AB'83, and James M. Van­Daalen, MD'82, had a daughter, Rachel Ann, onMarch 8. They live in Louisville, KY, where James is athoracic surgeon in a private group practice.84 Celiza Braganca, AB'84, and her husband,David A. O'Toole, AB'84, MBA'88, bothreceived their law degrees from the University inJune; Celiza also received her M.B.A. They will bothpractice law in Washington, DC. Gregory M. Cor­kett, MBA' 84, senior vice president at Lehman Broth­ers in New York City, has a daughter, ElizabethAshley. James'O'Connell Cox, AB'84, MBA' 85, andhis wife, Holly, had their third child, Julia Pavline, inApril 1991.Kenneth M. DeLuca, AB'84, is working on aPh. D. in political philosophy. Ruth Hagan, X' 84, see1987, Steve Auerbach. Nick Perry, AB'84, MBA'86,an options trader in Chicago, and his wife, Christine,had a daughter, Natalie Helen, on December 15. Hergodparents are Helen Brock Probst, AB' 86, an attor­ney in Chicago, and Frank W. Connolly, AB'86, anattorney in New York. Woodward Clark Price,AB'84, is a foreign service officer serving with theState Department in Athens, Greece.85 Alex H. Beck, AB'85, a public defenderrepresenting indigents, was interviewed in arecent Chicago Tribune report on new Illinois druggeddriving laws. Alison Heller, X'85, see 1987, SteveAuerbach. Samuel David Kotis, AB'85, a foreignservice officer at the State Department in Washington,married Beth Lynn Silverman, who is completing hermaster's degree in international affairs at ColumbiaUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 4142 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992 University, on February 1. Les A. Thomassen, X' 85,earned his B.S. in mathematics in 1985 and his M.A.in communications in 1990 from Georgia State Uni­versity in Atlanta. He is now teaching communica­tions courses at Bauder College in Atlanta.86 Edward T. Baum, AB'86, see 1987; Victo­ria I. Jensen. Lisa E. Bernstein, AB'86, isan associate professor of law at Boston University'sSchool of Law, where she teaches contracts and corpo­rations. Mary Choldin, AB'86, is principal of a pri­vate therapeutic day school in Chicago. She and hersister, Kate Choldin, AB'86, are competitivetriathletes who spent last summer racing around theMidwest. Frank W. Connolly, AB'86, see 1984,Nick Perry. Liliane Corzo, AB'86, specializes in cor­porate international law in Los Angeles, CA.Juan Molina-Crespo, AM'86, is executive direc­tor of the Hispanic AIDS Network and vice chair of theHispanic Health Alliance, both in Chicago; and aboard member of the National Minority AIDS Coun­cil in Washington, De. P. Michelle Hart Muellner,AB'86, married Frank W. Muellner last September.Attending were: Susan Liebell, AM'89; KatherineBergman, MST'87; Victoria Ferrera, AB'89;Kevin Shalla, AB'83; Alan Supple, SM'91; MarkShapiro, AB'72, MBA'86; Linda DiamondShapiro, AB'77, AM'78, MBA'88; Jesse Sheid­lower, AB'89; Douglas Allchin, SM'91, PhD'91;Paul C. Rohr, Jr., AB'92; Elizabeth Hollenback,MD'92; Kyongtae Bae, MD'92; and DeborahRauens, X'86.Thomas O'Mara, MBA' 86, works at First Boston;he is married with one child. Helen Brock Probst,AB'86, see 1984, Nick Perry. Helen Diana Reavis,JD'86, married Steven Michael Engel on January 25in New York. He is the president of Hambro ResourceDevelopment, an investment banking firm, and exec­utive vice president of Cineworks, a television andfilm production company; she is a lawyer with thefirm of Beldock, Levine & Hoffman. Roy Schuster,AB'86, see 1987, Victoria I. Jensen.Lynette Silvestri, AB' 86, was admitted to the bar inFlorida, Washington, DC, and New York after receiv­ing her law degree from Boston College of Law. Shemarried Richard Pozhanski in May; guests includedJohn Culbertson, AB'86; Michael Hughes, AB'86;John Joseph Ludwicki, AB'86; John Uglietta,AB'86; and Malcolm McGowan, PhD'91. JosephJay Schinagle, MBA'86, married Bonnie Wynn SpiroJanuary 18 in Muttontown, Long Island, NY. She is alawyer with Rivkin, Radler & Kremer in Uniondale,Long Island, NY, and he is an analyst with Vasiliou &Company, a New York securities dealer.87 Mark E. Alder, MBA'87, product managerof chocolate/caramel brands for the Ameri­can Chicle division of Warner Lambert in MorrisPlains, NJ, is responsible for the Junior Mints,Charleston Chew, Sugar Babies, and Sugar Daddycandies. Steve Auerbach, AB' 87, currently enrolledin the GSB, married Alison Heller, X'85, on Septem­ber 1, 1991. Attending were: Susan Mathieu Auer­bach, AB'54; Boris Auerbach, AB'51, JD'54;Brian Heller, AM'64, PhD'75; Rita Mclure Cun­ningham, AM'78; Drew Novick, AB'87; ErikLieber, AB'87; Gregg Michel, AB'88; Paul Mon­sour, AB'87; Dan Moyers, AB'87; Sara SmithMoyers, AB'87; Clare Leinweber, AB'87; JohnWall, AB'88, AM'91; Arthur Gray, AB'87; RuthHagan, X'84; William L. Mathieu, AB'58; andChristopher Trojniar, X' 82.Katherine Bergman, MST'87, see 1986, P. Mi­chelle Hart Muellner. Trina Marie Burek, AB'87,supervises a facility for the Ray Graham Associationfor the Handicapped and teaches French at the Chica­go Academy for the Arts. She received a National En­dowment for the Humanities grant, and spent the sum­mer studying Montaigne's Essais in the Bordeauxregion of France. Tony Fisher, SM'87, PhD'91, see 1990, Sapna Gupta. Paul David Ginsberg, JD'87,married Nicole Lynn Felton on February 29 in NewYork. They are both associates in the New York lawfirm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison.Gary B. Grant, AB'87, completed his second yearof law school at 1.1. T. Kent in Chicago, and is also amember of its law review board. Victoria I. Jensen,AB'87, AM'88, married Edward T. Baum, AB'86,last September in San Francisco. Attending were thegroom's father, Jost J, Baum, AB'50, JD'53; matronof honor Catherine Goodwin, X'87; University di­rector of choral music Bruce Tammen, AM'74; Lu-"kass Franklin, AB'87; Mari Hoashi Franklin,AB'88; Roy Schuster, AB'86; James Thompson,AB'87; Molly Huber, X'87; and Michael Ellard,AB'88. Ed is a management information consultantwith Axiom Information Consulting, and Vicky is aresearch administrator for the California Pacific Med­ical Center; they also play rugby and work on theirhouse in Alameda, CA.Michael A. Leavy-Watts, AB'87, and ElizabethLeavy-Watts, AB'87, are "domestically partnered"and have two children-a two-year old namedPushkin, and an infant named Seneca Falls. WilliamJ. O'Connell, AB'87, see 1988, William R. Hughes.Robert K. Ritner, PhD'87, former senior lecturerand associate editor of The Demotic Dictionary at theOriental Institute, has been named the first MarilynM. Simpson assistant professor of Egyptology at YaleUniversity.Jeffrey Shepard, AM'87, manager of institutionalportfolios for Stein, Roe & Farnham, Inc. , was recent­ly elected a principal. Peter D. Weinstein, AB' 87, re­cently married Jacqueline Jacobson, AB'90, JD'92.Attending the wedding were: Joseph Bochenski,AB' 88; Heidi Cuesta Cipriano, AB' 87; Douglas Ci­priano, AB'87; Martin Goulet, SB'87; and matronof honor Crispin Corrado-Goulet, AB'89. Peterworks at the GSB Center for Research in SecurityPrices and attends the 190 Program at the GSB.88 Mary Lynne Birck, AB'88, who finishedher first year at the University of CincinnatiCollege of Law, is a fellow of the school's UrbanMorgan Institute, which is devoted to human rightslaw. She also received a fellowship to work with hu­man rights and women's rights in Kathmandu, Nepal,for the summer. Joseph Bochenski, AB'88, see 1987,Peter D. Weinstein. Andrew J. Brown, AB'88, grad­uated from the University of California Hastings Col­lege of Law in May, and now works in the San DiegoPublic Defenders Office.Michael Patrick Ellard, AB'88, lives in Oakland,CA, and hosted the San Francisco Area Club's trip tothe winter concert of the Lesbian/Gay Chorus of SanFrancisco. He recently attended the wedding of Vic to­rial. Jensen, AB'87, AM'88, and Edward T. Baum.AB'86. Mari Hoashi Franklin, AB'88, see 1987,Victoria I. Jensen. Beth Greenbarg, AB'88, has re­ceived her master's at the University of Illinois at Chi­cago in August 1991, and is continuing her work to­wards a Ph.D. in clinical psychology, also at UIe.William R. Hughes, AB'88, went to Virginia aftergraduation, but recently moved back to Chicago,where he sees Robert B. Lord, AB'88, and WilliamJ. O'Connell, AB'87; he also keeps in touch with Ni­colas Hirsch, AB'88, who is living in California.Gregg Michel, AB'88, see 1987, Steve Auerbach.Paul Raca, AB'88, see 1990, Sapna Gupta. JohnWall, AB'88, AM'91, see 1987, Steve Auerbach.Timothy Alan Wicks, AB'88, his wife, Brenda, andtheir daughter, April, moved from Minneapolis toBoston, where he has completed his first year at theHarvard Business School. He notes that "Brenda didnot attend the U of C, but. .. tolerates me well,nonetheless. "89 T. Kimball Brooker, AM'89, received the25th annual Sir Thomas More medal forbook collecting from the University of San Francis­co's Gleeson Library. Brooker, who lives in Chicago,is president of Barbara Oil Co., a director of MorganStanley & Company, and a member of several corpo­rate boards. He is being honored for his collection of16th-century Italian and 17th-century French litera­ture, which he uses as a resource for graduate study inart history.Crispin Corrado-Goulet, AB'89, see 1987, PeterD, Weinstein. Victoria Ferrera, AB'89, see 1986, P.Michelle Hart Muellner. Sunil Garg, AB'89, see1990, Sapna Gupta. Peter Godwin, AB'89, AM'89,graduated from Cornell Law School in May, and willbegin work as an associate for the Washington, DC,law firm of Dow, Lohnes & Albertson. Elizabeth LeeHandlin, AB' 89, is in charge of college and divisionalrecruiting, as well as human resources strategic plan­ning, at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.Susan Liebell, AM'89, see 1986, P. Michelle HartMuellner. Susan Matt, AB'89, recently earned amaster's degree and is continuing on for a Ph.D. inAmerican history at Cornell University; last Novem­ber, she ran the New York Marathon. Jesse Sheid­lower, AB'89, see 1986, P. Michelle Hart Muellner.MarcoA. Sims, AB'89, AM'91, MBA'92, works forthe Federal Reserve Bank of New York.90 Ellen Beatty, MBA'90, moved from Chica­go to Dallas to work for Maxus Energy as asenior financial analyst. Sapna Gupta, AB'90,shares an apartment in Washington, DC, with AnandRaman, AB'90, who is working for a congressman.Gupta, who works as a research assistant at ICF, Inc., in Virginia, with Sunil Garg, AB'89; Laura Ho­wenstine, AB'91; and Paul Raca, AB'88, attended'the Centennial Gala last November, and saw TracyYuen, AB'91; Britton Guerrina, AB'90, AM'90;Tony Fisher, SM'87, PhD'91; and Kevin Kennedy,MBA'91. Jacqueline Jacobson Weinstein, AB'90,JD'92, see 1987, Peter D. Weinstein.91 Douglas Allchin, SM'91, PhD'91, see1986, P. Michelle Hart Muellner. Marine2nd Lt. Anil D'Souza, AB'91, AM'91, graduatedfrom the Navy's Basic School. Maripat Gilligan,JD '91, MBA'91, married Sean Robert Carney on May2 in Chicago. She is an associate with Salomon Broth­ers' investment banking division in New York; he is anassociate with Sullivan & Cromwell, a law firm inLondon. Laura Howenstine, AB'91, and KevinKennedy, MBA'91, see 1990, Sapna Gupta.Malcolm McGowan, PhD'91, see 1986, LynetteSilvestri.Marine 2nd Lt. Anita Nikolich, AB'91, recentlygraduated from the Navy's Basic School. Alan Sup­ple, SM'91, see 1986, P. Michelle Hart Muellner.John S. White, AB'91, AM'91, recently graduatedfrom the Navy's Basic School. Tracy Yuen, AB'91,see 1990, SapnaGupta. AnneZasloff, AB'91, assist­ant to the office manager at Candlewick Press, a chil­dren's book publisher in the Boston area, hopes tomake the move to editing in the near future. She alsoplays volleyball; performs with an a capella,barbershop-style singing group in Harvard Square;and does Israeli folk dancing.92 Kyongtae Bae, MD'92; Elizabeth Hollen­back, MD'92; and Paul C. Rohr, Jr.,AB'92, see 1986, P. Michelle Hart Muellner.DEATHSraCULTY'Gerhard Closs, the A.A. Michelson distinguishedservice professor and chair of the chemistry depart­ment, died of heart failure in his Palos Park, IL, homeon May 24. A member of the National Academy ofSciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sci­ences, he received the American Chemical Society's�rthur Cope award for his "outstanding achievement�n the field of organic chemistry" in 1991. SurvivorsInclude his wife, Liselotte.June Louin- Tapp, University faculty memberfrom 1964-1972 and an expert on child developmentand public policy, died June 4 in Germany. Most re­cently a professor at the University of Minnesota's In­�titute of Child Development and a distinguished visit­ng professor at the University of Osnabruck inGermany, she was an assistant professor/research as­Sociate in the U of C's Committee on Human Develop­ment, a faculty associate in the Committee on South�sian Studies, and an associate professorial lecturerIn the social sciences. Among survivors are twodaughters, including Mara Tapp, AM'77; and fourgrandchildren.. Richard J. Thain, dean of external affairs and sen­IOr lecturer at the Graduate School of Business, diedMay 6 at his Hyde Park home. A nationally known ex­pert in career counseling and job placement issues, hehad been with the University since 1965. He wrote fivebOOks on employment matters and twice won the Gor­don Hardwick prize for best article in the Journal ofCollege Placement. Survivors include his wife, Jane;two daughters; and a granddaughter.Antoni Zygmund, the Gustavus F. and Anne M.SWift distinguished service professor emeritus of mathematics, died May 30 in his Hyde Park home. Afounder of the "Chicago School of Analysis," he re­ceived the National Medal of Science in 1986. Knownfor his work in harmonic analysis-the mathematicaldescription of vibrating objects that is crucial to space­craft design, crystallography, and laser holography­he wrote six books and 180 scientific articles. His text­book, Trigonometric Series, written in 1935, is still inuse. Survivors include four grandchildren.STAFFLeila S. Weaver, former head of Church WomenUnited in Greater Chicago, died April 4 in BillingsHospital. She held a number of positions at the Uni­versity, including a post in the geography department,until she retired in 1962 after more than 15 years ofservice. She is survived by her husband, WilliamWeaver, DB' 50, retired dean of students atthe Divini­ty School; a son; and two grandchildren.19105Louise Sulzberger Eisendrath, X' 14, who servedon the boards of several organizations devoted to im­proving the lives of children, died April 22 at her LakeView home. Gov. Adlai Stevenson appointed her chairof the Illinois delegation to the White House Confer­ence on Children and Youth in 1950; later she served aschair of the Illinois commission on Youth and Chil­dren. She also worked with the Institute for JuvenileResearch, the Scholarship and Guidance Association,Sunset Camp-later the Juvenile Protection Associa­tion-and the Red Cross Home Services Corps. Survi­vors include a daughter; a son; a sister, Helen Sulz-UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AuGUST 1992 4344 UNIVERSlTYOF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992berger Eisendrath, PhD'20; nine grandchildren;and eight great-grandchildren.Percy E. Wagner, PhB' 16, a developer and bankerwho builthundreds of South Side and south suburbanhomes with his brother during the 1920s, died April 7in his home. His last major business project involvedthe Park Forest South development, which includesGovernors State University. Among survivors are hiswife, Elizabeth; two daughters; three grandchildren,including Eugene Priest Forrester II, AB'77, andElizabeth Forrester Haselkorn, AB'83; and fivegreat -grandchildren.19205Charlotte McCarthy, SB '21, MD '24, an internistwho practiced medicine in Baltimore for more than 60years, died February 4 at Johns Hopkins Hospital ofpneumonia. She was 100 years old. After moving toBaltimore, she was the Bryn Mawr School physician,later opening her own practice. In 1935 she became theattending physician at the former Hospital for theWomen of Maryland, later absorbed by Greater Balti­more Medical Center, and in 1938 she was grantedprivileges at Johns Hopkins. Survivors include hertwo sisters, and several nieces and nephews, includingDeborah J. Stevenson, AM'87.Samuel J, Meyer, SB'21, MD'24, an ophthalmol­ogist and eye surgeon who practiced in the Chicagoarea for more than 50 years and whose patients includ­ed royalty and such movie stars as Mae West andTyrone Power, died April 5 in Highland Park Hospi­tal. Survivors include his wife, Dorothy; a daughter;and two grandchildren.Rabbi Irving A. Weingart, PhB'29, who served aNear North Side synagogue for almost 20 years, diedApril 5 in Northwestern Memorial Hospital. Until heretired in 1989, he was associated with Central Syna­gogue. He spent nearly four decades at congregationsB' nai Jacob in Fort Wayne, IN, and Tifereth Israel inDes Moines, lA, before returning to Chicago. Whilein Iowa, he also taught comparative religious studies atDrake University. Survivors include his wife, Hilda; ason; a sister; and two grandchildren.Elizabeth Hire Mentzer, AN22, a teacher for 45years, died in April.Helen MacGill Hughes, AM'27, PhD'37, died atKeswick Home in Baltimore on April 29. Survivorsinclude two daughters, Helen Brock and ElizabethHughes Schneewind, AB'59.Charles A. Smolt, MD'28, the Ventura (CA)County Medical Center's first family-practice resi­dent, died November 13 following a long illness. Sur­vivors include his brother, Maurice.Abraham Drucker, PhB'29, JD'31, former realestate lawyer and assistant state's attorney for the Illi­nois Commerce Commission, died March 31 in Hu­mana Hospital, Hoffman Estates. Survivors includea son, a daughter, four grandchildren, and a great­grandchild.Harry H. Hagey, Jr., PhB'29, retired partner andchair of the executive committee for Stein, Roe &Farnham, died April 27 in a Carmel Valley, CA, hos­pice. He served on the boards of Catholic Charities ofChicago, the Archdiocese of Chicago Financial Coun­cil, the Washington & Jane Smith Home, and the Hos­pital Planning Council of Metropolitan Chicago. Sur­vivors include his wife, Dolores; two daughters; a son;and 13 grandchildren.19305Ruth E.J. Bailey, AM'30, a retired teacher, au­thor, and librarian, died April 22 at the Pratt (KS) Re­gional Medical Center. She was 88 and the author ofseveral children's books, including Rod s Dog andCherokee Bill, which received the William AllenWhite medal. A member of the Pratt County Histori- cal Society and the Saratoga Community Club, shewas also a U.S. Navy WAVE veteran ofWWII. Survi­vors include three cousins.Morris I. Leibman, PhB'31, JD'33, a lawyer whOspecialized in commercial law, died April21 in North­western Memorial Hospital. Chair of the AmericanBar Association Committee on Education AgainstCommunism, he was a senior partner in the law finnof Sidley & Austin. He helped found the Center forStrategic and International Studies and the UnitedStates Institute of Peace, and was the director of theNew York-based National Strategy Information Cen-e ter. Survivors include his wife, Mary; two sons; anda sister.Peter S. Yang, PhD '31, died February 26 at the ageof93. He was the first Chinese chemist to manufactureinsulin in China during the Japanese occupation. Sur­vivors include his wife, Pei Wen Yang; two sons; andone daughter.Sidney R. Williams, X'32, civil rights activist andformer executive director of the Chicago UrbanLeague, died March 21 of heart failure in Humana­Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago. During World WarII he served as the American Red Cross's first black di­rector in London. Survivors include his wife, RuthCarey; two sons; and two grandchildren.Samuel Reshevsky, PhB'33, chess prodigy andgrandmaster, died April 4 at Good Samaritan Hospitalin Suffern, NY. He began playing at the age of six inPoland, and came to the U. S. when he was eight; with­in a week he had taken on 20 top faculty players at WestPoint and beaten 19 (he gave up one draw). As anadult, he won the U. S. Chess Championship seventimes, and defeated many of the world's top players.Survivors include his wife, Norma; a son; and tWOdaughters.John Marshall Weir, SB'33, MD'37, PhD'37, anexpert on tropical diseases and an official with theRockefeller Foundation, died on April 27 at his homein Manhattan. Survivors include his wife, MarySpensley Weir, PhB'32; two sons; and a daughter.Eleanor Cohen Gunther, AB'39, died in PaloAlto, CA, on April 26. She had been a Ship's ServiceOfficer in the Navy during World War II. Survivors in­clude her husband, Sidney Gunther, AB'39; a son;two daughters; and five grandchildren.19405Cornelius Groot, SB'40, SM'42, died March 27.Survivors include his wife, Elizabeth. HerlingerGroot, SB'42; two sisters, Ann Groot Piken, SB'39,and Jenny Groot Kubitschek, SB'43; and a niece,Carolyn A. Kubitschek, JD'73..John A. McGeachy, Jr., PhD' 42, professor emerI­tus of history at Davidson College, died May 4. From1962 to 1976 he was the secretary of the faculty atDavidson, and was active in the Davidson CollegePresbyterian Church, serving as elder, clerk of ses­sion, and an occasional teacher in the men's Bibleclass. His special interest was the late Roman Empi:e-his Ph.D. dissertation was published as a book I�1942, Quintus Aurelius Symmachus and the Senatori­al Aristocracy of the West. He also wrote articles andbook reviews for journals and the popular press.Survivors include his wife, Margaret; a son, JohnMcGeachy III, AM'73; and a sister..RicardoA. Caminos, PhD'47, a Brown UniversItyprofessor who was a leading scholar of ancient Egy�­tian hieroglyphics and writings, died May 28 at hIShome in London. He was 76. Working at shrines, tem­ples, and excavation sites, he copied ancient writingscarved into stone and inscribed on papyrus, and thentranslated and interpreted them. He held Rockefellerand Guggenheim fellowships and was a visiting pro­fessor and lecturer in Paris, Leningrad, and Buen.osAires. Survivors include his brother, Hugo, and a SIS­ter, Helena.Dorothea E. Hinman, AM'47, died March 15 inNew York City. Survivors include her mother, Wini­fred Franz Hinman, SB' 19, SM'22, PhD'44.Homer C. Harlan, AM' 48, PhD '75, a retired pro­fessor of social science at Truman College, died May25 in his Hyde Park home. He was a lieutenant inthe Navy during World War II, serving in the PacificTheater. Survivors include his wife, Nancy; a son; twodaughters; two brothers; a sister; and twogranddaughters.19505Albert E. Glock, X'50, a U.S. archaeologistand professor at Bir Zeit University for the past 16years, was shot to death in the Israeli territories onJanuary 19.Thomas Latimer, AB' 51 , executive vice presidentof the Illinois Small Businessmen's Association, diedMay 7 in his Lansing: IL, home. He had undergoneheart surgery a few years ago and was waiting for atransplant. Survivors include his wife, Mildred; a son;two sisters; his mother, Imogene H. Latimer, X'38;and five grandchildren.Syd S. Husain, PhD' 56, professor emeritus of mi­crobiology and former director of Indiana State Uni­versity's medical technology program, died March23. Survivors include his wife, Marian Hill Husain,SM'54; a daughter; two sons; two brothers; twoSisters; and one grandson.RossS. Benham, SM'57, PhD'57, died January d ofcomplications from emphysema and diabetes. He wasdirector of the microbiology laboratories of the Uni­versity Hospitals and Clinics until 1969; he thenbecame director of the microbiology laboratories atSt. Joseph Mercy Hospital in Pontiac, MI,. until hisretirement in 1977.19605Scott L. Norman, SM'62, PhD'68, a researchphysicist for GTE Research Lab in Waltham, MA, forthe last 25 years, died May 20 at Framington (MA)Union Hospital. The author of a book and more than100 scientific articles, he was credited for a number ofpatents held by GTE in the fields of computers andphysics. Survivors include his wife, Sharon; a daugh­ter; and his mother.Howard Schonberger, AB' 62, history professor atthe University of Maine at Orono and peace activist,died October 17 in Madison, WI. Over the past tenYears, he became interested in Central American con­flicts and helped form the Bangor (ME) Area CentralAmerica Solidarity Commmittee, which evolved into Peace in Central America. He was also the director ofa project on working conditions in the Maine woods:which culminated in the documentary film Cut andRun. Survivors include his father, Sidney Schon­berger, PhB'34, AM'37.Joel H. Goldstein, AM'68, PhD'73, professor ofpolitical science and director of the paralegal programat the University of Louisville, died April 14 of cancerat Jewish Hospital. He was 47. An expert on electoralpolitics and campaign-finance reform, he made regu­lar television appearances as an election analyst andwrote the book, The Effects of the Adoption of WomenSuffrage: Sex Differences in Voting Behavior. Healso edited Kentucky Government and Politics,coauthored American Government for Kentucky, andwrote numerous articles on campaigns and elections.Survivors include his wife, Alane; a daughter; a son;his mother; and a brother.1970sJames Nicholas Futris, AM'78, died May 31 at hisRogers Park home. As director of Chicago's public artprogram, he chaired the advisory panel that selectedpublic art for the Harold Washington Library. In 1986,he lobbied to increase the amount of the cost of newmunicipal buildings that must be set aside for artwork;in 1987, the city passed the amendment he drafted. Awell-known composer of liturgical music, he servedas choir director of St. John the Baptist Greek Ortho­dox Church in Des Plaines, IL, and also chaired theboard of the recently opened Hellenic Museum andCultural Center, the city's first Greek museum. Survi­vors include his father, Nick, and three brothers.Bryan P. Findlay, X '79, co-founder of Chicago'sCommunity Response, Inc., a community-based so­cial service agency for people with HIV-AIDS andtheir loved ones, died February 20 of AIDS.NOTICE OF DEATHRECEIVEDMarguerite Rice Crain, AM'25, February.Gordon E. Smith, PhB'26, January.Virginia Krugman Wegner, PhB'30, January.Alfred Von Rohr Sauer, X'32, September.Florence Pease Young, AM'32, February.George 1. Steiner, AM'34, August 1990.H. Leland Simkins, AB'39, 10'39.Ann K. Kennedy, MBA'43, April.Ida Wiley Van Nest, AB'43, April.August 1. Fry, DB'55, May.Carroll M. Baker, AM'57, April.Dorothy Tuell Moore, PhD'75, April.BOOKS by AlumniARTS a LETTERSCarol Perkerson Foster, AM'74, Cooking withCOffee (Simon & Schuster). This cookbook goes be­Yond drinks and desserts, introducing original recipesSUch as cappuccino French toast, coffee-and-cream�affles, mahogany glazed chicken, apricot bread ara­blca, and black Russian mousse. Also includes sec­tions on buying, storing, and brewing coffee.Lawrence M. Kreisman, AM'70, The StimsonLegacy: Architecture in the Urban Ui?st (WillowsPress). The story of the Stimson family and their im­pact Upon urban architecture, popular taste, and cul­t�ral endeavors is a case study describing how citiesfrom Los Angeles to Seattle shed their Old West image?f dirt streets and white clapboard cottages and movedInto the 20th-century urban experience. BIOGRAPHYLoren Beth, AM'48, PhD'49, John MarshallHarlan: The Last Whig Justice (The University Pressof Kentucky). A slaveholder who became the Su­preme Court's first advocate for a broad scope of civilrights under the Constitution, Harlan was known fordisagreeing with nearly every judicial colleague of hisday. His significance to today's reader is underlined bythe Supreme Court's adoption, beginning in the 1930s,of most of his positions on the Fourteenth Amendmentand the commerce clause of the Constitution.Norton John Eversoll, MD '20, My First 100 �ars:A Personal Journey (Phantom Literary Publications,Inc.). Eversoll, who began writing his autobiographyin 1985 at age 90, recounts his life experiences, includ­ing his time spent at Chicago's Rush Medical CollegeUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AuGUST 1992 4546 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992and his years in St. Louis as house physician for theGarrick Burlesque Theater and "the best little whore­house in St. Louis."BUSINESS & ECONOMICSJohn M. Letiche, PhD' 51, editor, InternationalEconomic Policies and their Theoretical Founda­tions: A Sourcebook, 2nd edition (Academic Press).These readings by internationally known economistsconcentrate on the basic principles of current interna­tional economic policies. Included among the 39 arti­cles, 16 of which are new to this edition, are topicssuch as the restructuring of Western Europe, the shiftfrom centrally planned to market economies, the newprotectionism, contemporary exchange rate determi­nation, and the new IMF and GATT procedures.Charles E. Phelps, PhD'73, Health Economics(HarperCollins). Designed for upper-division under­graduate economics majors and graduate students inpublic policy, public health, business, and hospital ad­ministration, this textbook looks at how both medicalcare and lifesty le choices affect health; the demand formedical care (theoretical and empirical); the supply ofphysician services; and the medicolegal system.CRITICISMRay Dubberke, AB'57, Dickens, Drood, and theDetectives (Vantage Press). An enthusiastic devotee ofsensational true-crime cases, Charles Dickens diedbefore completing his tale of crime and retribution,The Mystery of Edwin Drood. Dubberke explores howreal crimes, criminals, and detectives influencedDicken's last work; and then goes on to offer answersto the questions at the heart of Dicken's mystery, in­cluding his plans for the second half of the book.RichardS. Kennedy, AM '47, editor, Literary NewOrleans: Essays and, Meditations (Louisiana StateUniversity Press). This is a collection of ruminationson some of the most important writers who have beendrawn by New Orleans's intermingling of cultural in­fluences-French, Spanish, African, West Indian-aswell as the lingering vestiges of the frontier spirit andthe ordeals of the Civil War.EDUCATIONJohn J. MacAloon, AM'74, PhD'80, editor, Gen­eral Education in the Social Sciences: Centennial Re­flections on the College of the University of Chicago(University of Chicago Press). Social scientists whowere shaped by the U of C's "Social Science 2" classcontribute essays to create the biography of a coursethat has survived tumultuous change.James Phelan, AM'73, PhD'77, Beyond the TenureTrack: Fifteen Months in the Life of an English Profes­sor (Ohio State University Press). The author, whoteaches at Ohio State, kept this journal from January1987 to March 1988; it contains his reflections onteaching, advising, and writing literary criticism; onbeing recruited for another job; and on relating hisprofessional and family lives.Allan R. Odden and Lawrence O. Picus, AM'87,School Finance: A Policy Review (McGraw Hill). Us­ing a policy orientation, this book analyzes howschool finance issues play out in the real world of statepolitics. It includes a computer simulation which letsstudents apply the various school finance formulas tosee their fiscal, political, and equity effects.Murray G. Ross, X'39, The Way Must be Tried:Memoirs of a University Man (Stoddart Publishing).In this book Ross recounts the behind-the-scenes storyof the creation and early years of Canada's York Uni­versity. That story coincides with the 1960s, whentime-honored methods and traditions came underconstant attack and education experienced "unprece­dented" growth. FICTION & POETRYHarriet Paine Hahn, AB'40, James, the Connois­seur Cat (St. Martin's Press). The adventures of a Lon­don cat with expensive taste are recounted as he solvescrimes, identifies forgeries, and eventually arranges awedding.Harvey M. Plotnick, AB'63, AM'79, Notes ofaRefugee (Mellon Poetry Press). These poems are pop­ulated by many people-the narrator of the title poem,a stranger to his life and language; a skiptracer, ob­sessed with tracking down debtors; and an aging-group of bachelors, making their weekly futile trip to aSaturday night dance.James L. Weil, AB'50, What Keats Looked Like(Kelly- Winterman Press). These poems take as theirsubject portraits of the poet John Keats.GENDER STUDIESSara E. Melzer, AM'70, PhD'75, and Leslie WRabine, editors, Rebel Daughters: Women and theFrench Revolution (Oxford University Press). An in­terdisciplinary collection of essays examines the para­doxical relation of women to the French Revolution.The authors contend that the male leaders dependedon the women's active militant participation, whiledenying them the rights women helped to establish.HISTORY ICURRENT EVENTSGeoffrey Adams, PhD'54, The Huguenots andFrench Opinion, 1685-1787: The Enlightenment De­bate on Toleration (Wilfrid Laurier University Press).This work explores a shift in the treatment of the Hu­guenots in pre-Revolutionary France: from LouisXIV's decision to revoke the Edict of Nantes, therebyliquidating French Calvinism, to the edict of tolera­tion issued by Louis XVI which granted the Hu­guenots a modest bill of civil and religious rights.Abraham Doron, AM'61, and Ralph M. Kramer,The Welfare State in Israel: The Evolution of Social Se­curity Policy and Practice (Westview Press). The au­thors provide a microcosm of the key policy issues andtrends found in all modern social security systems,while looking at the distinctive Israeli process ofpolicy making and implementation in each case.Marilyn E. Gipson-Lashley, AM'71, AM'86,PhD'86, Public Television: Panacea, Pork Barrel, orPublic Trust? (Greenwood Press). This history ofpublic television over the last 20 years shows howpowerful political actors and the budget process haveseverely affected the public networks' strategic behaV­ior and programming.David Mitch, AB'73, AM'74, PhD'82, The Rise ofPopular Literacy in Victorian England: The Influenceof Private Choice and Public Policy (University ofPennsylvania Press). The author argues that themarked rise in popular literacy in England duringthe last half of the 19th century was spurred by thegrowth of working-class demands for literacy, as wellas by government policy (the factor traditionallyemphasized) .Albert L. Weeks, AM'49, Soviet Nomenklatura: AComprehensive Roster of Soviet Civilian and MilitaryOfficials, 3rd ed. (The Washington Institute Press).POLITICAL SCIENCE & LAWLouis Kriesberg, PhB'47, AM'50, PhD'53, 1nte�national Conflict Resolution: The US. -USSR anMiddle East Cases (Yale University Press). As thecold war comes to an end, world attention focusesmore on the tensions in the Middle East. This book eX­amines both the U. S. - USSR and Arab-Israeli conflictssince 1948 and uses the history of their negotiations-:­one successful, the other less so-to establish prinCI­ples that will be helpful in resolving conflicts.Revolutionary women (see Gender Studies)Arthur G. Rubinoff, AM'66, PhD'n, editor,Canada and South Asia: Political and Strategic Rela­tions (University of Toronto Center for South AsianStudies). These nine essays examine the historical re­cord that has shaped 'and defined contemporaryattitudes.James L. Swanson, AB'81, editor, i992 FirstAmendment Law Handbook (Clark, Boardman, Cal­laghan). This latest edition of an annual First Amend­ment guidebook included essays by Robert H. Bork,AB'48, JD'53; Edward de Grazia, AB'48, JD'51;II. Douglas Laycock, JD '73; and Law School profes­sors Cass Sunstein, Michael McConnell, JD'79, andDavid Strauss.Kenneth W. Thompson, AM'48, PhD'51, Tradi­tions and Values in Politics and Diplomacy: Theoryand Practice (Louisiana State University Press).Drawing on Burchardt's belief that "man divorcedfrom tradition is too weak and poor a creature to creategreatness," this study relates values to practice andnorms in politics and foreign policy.RELIGION a PHILOSOPHYEdward L. Cleary, PhD '75, and Hannah Stewart­?ambino, editors, Conflict and Competition: The Lat­In American Church in a Changing Environment(Lynne Rienner Publishers). Changes in Latin Ameri­ca have created a new political game, and the authorspredict that the Catholic church-the "voice of the�oiceless" in the 1980s-will find its political activityIncreasingly constrained in the 1990s. The authors ad­dress issues such as Vatican limits placed on LatinAmerican churches, strained human and financial re­sources, and competition from a massive surge ofevangelical Protestantism.William W. Hallo, AM'53, PhD'55, The Book ofthe People, Brown Judaic Studies, vol. 225 (ScholarsPress). Essays on the Pentateuch in the light of ancientNear Eastern literature, with annotated selectionsfrom that literature, illustrate the author's contextualapproach to the study of scripture.RobertB. Louden, AM'76, PhD'81, Morality andMoral Theory: A Reappraisal and Reaffirmation (Ox­f?rd University Press). This book puts forth alterna­tIve conceptions of morality and moral theory basedon central texts within the canon of Western philo­sophical ethics, particularly Kantian and Aristoteliantexts. John A. Mourant, PhB'26, PhD' 40, and William,J. Collings, translators, Four Anti-Pelagian Writings:"On Nature and Grace, " "On the Proceedings of Pe­lagius, " On the Predestination of the Saints, " and"On the Gift of Perseverance " (Catholic University ofAmerica Press). This volume, number 86 in theFathers of the Church Series, brings together writingsfrom early and late stages of Augustine's involvementin the Pelagian controversy. Taken together, thesewritings provide an occasion to examine the continuityand development of Augustine's theology of grace.Patrick Sherry, AM'67, Spirit and Beauty: An in­troduction to Theological Asthetics (Oxford Universi­ty Press). The book traces the connection made be­tween the Holy Spirit and beauty by early Christianwriters such as Iranaeus and Clement of Alexandria,and later theologians such as Jonathan Edwards, PaulEvdokimov, and Hans von Balthasar; and then dis­cusses the issues of theological aesthetics raised bytheir work.SCIENCE a TECHNOLOGYSusanna Samuels Epp, SM'65, PhD'68, AnthonyPeressini, Zalman Usiskin, John McConnell,SB'64, MAT'66, et al, Precalculus and DiscreteMathematics (Scott Foresman). This volume con­cludes a six-volume series for grades 7-12 developedas part of the secondary component of the U of CSchool Mathematics Project. (This item corrects alisting in the April issue.)Ronald G. Harvey, SM'56, PhD'60, PolycyclicAromatic Hydrocarbons: Chemistry and Carcino­genicity (Cambridge University Press). Polycyclic ar­omatic hydrocarbons, many of which are potent hu­man carcinogens, are widespread environmentalpollutants produced in the combination of fossil fuelsand refuse burning. This book reviews the chemistry,metabolic activation, and mechanisms of carcinogen­esis of these compounds.SOCIAL SCIENCESLois Grant Beck, AM'69, PhD'n, Nomad: A learin the Life of a Qashqa 'i Tribesman in iran (Universityof California Press). This anthropological study docu­ments the migratory cycle of Qashqa'i nomadic pas­toralists in Iran during a year of debilitating droughtand new, restrictive government policies. It focuses ona tribal headman, Borzu Qermezi, and the nomads un­der his political authority.Miriam Reitz, AM'62, PhD'82, and Kenneth W.Watson, Adoption and the Family System: Strategiesfor Treatment (Guilford Publications). All the issuesand types of families involved in the "adoption trian­gle" are discussed using the family systems theory forassessment and treatment.Daniel Segal, AM'83, PhD'89, editor, CrossingCultures: Essays in the Displacement of Western Civi­lization (University of Arizona Press). Through reex­amination of colonial and post-colonial encounters,this collection of essays makes a strategic interventioninto the current debate over the study of "WesternCivilization. "Yue-Man Yeung, PhD'72, and Xu-wei Hu, editors,China s Coastal Cities: Catalysts for Modernization(University of Hawaii Press). This culmination of alengthy collaborative research project among scholarsin China, Hong Kong, Canada, and other parts of theworld is the first systematic attempt to assess theim­pact of coastal zone development policies on China'smodernization.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," pleasesend the name of the book, its author, its pub­lisher, and a short synopsis to the Books Editor,University of Chicago Magazine, 5757 WoodlawnAve., Chicago, IL 60637.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AuGUST 1992 47BacMakingHistoryWhen it came to celebratingChicago's 50th birthdaybash, alumni weren't justalong for the ride.48 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/AUGUST 1992n N 1941, THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOreached a milestone. It was 50 years old-by institutional standards, a mere in­fant. Yet because this infant was such aprodigy-recognized internationally for itsscholarship and its daredevil curriculum-people came from everywhere to wish it"Mazel tov!" during a week-long birthdayparty Sept. 22-29.A special alumni reunion was also held thatweek; and former students were consideredan integral part of the week's celebration. In­deed, their various graduating years repre­sented the University'S entire history: Roar­ing Twenties graduates who toasted thememory of Stagg and knew Chicago's fightsongs by heart; Gay Nineties alumni who re­called the newborn campus as it quickly blos­somed under Harper's stern, steady hand-allwithin shouting distance of the 1893 World'sColumbian Exposition, which attracted mil­lions to the Midway.To provide a counterpoint to a week of seri­ous events, including more than 50 academicsymposia and a formal ''Academic Festival,"an alumni committee decided that the birth­day finale should be lighthearted. Gallons ofpaint and stacks of plywood later, these alum­ni had assembled in the Field House their ver­sion of the Columbian Exposition.Over two days, some 13,000 spectatorswould partake in the carnival. There was aFerris wheel, of course, as well as dancing,bingo, throwing games, and fortune-tellers. Crowds flocked to "Little Egypt," a veiledalumna who boldly recreated the legendarydancer's alluring moves. Many exhibitsspoofed the University-like the "highstrike," where participants were rewardednot with the customary cigar, but with an"honorary degree. "All ofthe week's events glowed with a famil­ial aura, although, as with all families, therewere moments of apparent tension-as when"someone decided it was time women were in­vited to the Order ofthe "C" dinner. (A photoshows several men exiting the dinner, chinsraised and arms linked in macho solidarity.)Perhaps most touching was a social in the" C"Shop for pre-1900 classes. Wrinkles, sags,and white hairs kept the classmates from im­mediately recognizing one another, but byafternoon's conclusion, said one of the partic­ipants, "it was just as if the years had rolledaway and we were young again."Presiding over all the week's festivitieswas U of C President Robert Hutchins.Although he had banned football-a sport be­loved by Chicagoans-and had spokenagainst America entering the war then ragingacross the Atlantic, he seemed to mesh com­fortably with the alumni present. During thealumni convocation in Rockefeller, he ac­cepted an honor roll listing 14,484 alumniwho had given a total of $510,072 during afund drive held in conjunction with thecelebration.Hutchins took the podium and proceeded toscold any alumni for whom the Universitywas a mere backdrop "before which the grad­uate and his playmates spent the gloriousspringtime of their youth. So when they meetagain at periodic reunions they vainly strug­gle, through frolic and firewater, to bring thespringtime back again. "The brimstone rhetoric continued to roll:"The University of Chicago purposes that theattachment of its graduates should be notmerely to the friends they made here or thefun they had, but also to the University itselfand to [its] aims .... Now, when we needsound character and disciplined intelligence.as never before; now, when humanity seemsto question whether it has any other powerthan those of brutes, your Alma Mater'scourse up to this point is justified .... "Like any good minister, Hutchins ended bycomforting his flock. "You are," he toldthem, "the kind of alumni body which univer­sity presidents dream of, but which they neverexpect to see .... Those charged with the man­agement of the University cannot think of thealumni without pride and gratitude. "- T. 0. .For their Midway recreation, alumni paint­ed placards-and each other (above). HydePark high schooler Martha Smalley (le/t)was crowned "Belle of the Ball."INTERNATIONAL UNIVERS/Th/1 F CHICAGO DAY 7 992PJba �x?'? ' '?)i,?,,(,,?,!X(\'C}';:�!}?'?\i:?'�iii'><;? rum busu �I q SiitlltlOY rudy ��bus Zoo Pim�;SatlJrdCl.�" Sj\.. <. e�;, 1 �:('Dl�\ S�"f�?OYb SePtember';!,�:3'S�� �o,rris(,\:,J\. ;'lL:\.{ ,(.r" \i�i Ste Nelson "518/���!�921 :;'{W0r'f" pI 61 46-1111 �i,t ...... , ..... .";\,\""t",,,,,,··,?;�,::?�:"?;;';\\j,',II'\5J8/46���Ql1,.",�or) .,,.\.>i)\'i;' avid Wolinsky """", .. ,So;11' take' City12/166-8116 'lw�rf<) Sugar �ouse POtkPicnic201/941-11 �? 5 (hb!l'e), \" Saturd�Yb September 19,Jane. Chapman Martin .,B01(51?-9322 (h?me)Dean ��fIinwood. ":B01/295�.1899 (home)"i�OY62�-1203 (work)'f�on··'l?iego· .. " .'. "\�afe,�� ... P�ckp-�> Synd�Y. S�pt��ber 20\i \ 'Roben .,Pasulko?l26�-4�OO (w()rk)9�?68""�9�2 ,(horne)Sd�;: �'roncisCO '""\::""I-I;sf��:ye�/�dl'::S��urda{., .Sep��m��r 19"Joan Blai� fl(),��ce,-4 91-3�17 (home)16�y�" •.. '.... ,),�� -, ,� •., ���.�w\�ee!�m� l.�James·'fini��s .." i',33�:7:201 .. (work)4··Z�51 ,(Wo�)ClevelandProl David BevingtonSuncl0Yb September 13Greg Balbierrz216/953-4193 (work)216/932-0044 (home) R��iJ 's.�"f�g�'i.' )S�ptember 19Micha&f Wiest06/654-7151 (home) S�t���?�f "�7piE!rriber j 9RidlOrd & Jo Edith Watt918/149-1109 (hOftle)To'ronto$lyIine Buffet Suppa,.SafurdoYb SepfembeJ 19John Twomey�16/444-113W (home)Pat Moynard416-964-8016Washington, DCRock Cmek Parle PimicSaturdoy. September 19Nvin Rosenthal301/681-1958 {home}Mo108110811Marilyn S108/219-1883 (home)To gather with alumni, parents, friends" and students your area', contoct your event represenfive listed above.Sponsored by The Alumni Association, 5757 Soot Woog[gv�r Aven.�e, Chicago, lllinois .�1�7.'. � .").ITHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobie House, 5151 WoodlawnChicago, IL 60631ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED