OOKSHAVEAN ENDURING QUALITY. University of Chicago Library. Your gift to the Fund for Books isneeded.Even as electronic information technology expands the borders ofscholarship, books remain a vital component of the resources thatsustain research and the quest for knowledge. The rapidlyescalating cost of printed materials makes it increasingly difficult tomaintain and further develop the distinguished collections of the For every $50 donation, a new book will be purchased and identifiedwith a bookplate bearing your name. The Library's Fund for Books is awonderful way to honor or me moralize someone special, in whichcase the bookplate will also bear the name of that person. The Librarywill send a copy of the plate and a note of appreciation to theindividual, or in the case of memorials, to family members.------------------------------------------------------------------------,THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO LIBRARY FUND FOR BOOKSPlease make checks payable to:The University of Chicago Library A particularly special occasion to celebrate thisyear is the centennial anniversary of theUniversity of Chicago and its Library. Abirthday gift to the Library Fund for Books is anespecially fitting tribute to the Library's pivotalrole in the life of the University and a century ofexcellence in education.Please accept this gift of $ for books at $50 per book.Given in honor of/in memory of (name as it should appear on bookplate)Please mail to:Mr. Martin Runkle, DirectorAttn: Fund for BooksThe University of Chicago Library1100 East 57th StreetChicago, IL 60637 Consider a lasting gift to the Fund for BooksI when you wish to honor friends and loved oneson special occasions such asbirthdays - graduations - anniversariesretirements - gestures of appreciationOn the occasion of (as the wording should appear on the bookplate)Donor's name (as it should appear on bookplate)Donor's Address City /State/ZipPlease inform_Your contribution is taxdeductible and may be eligible for a______________ �----- matching gift from your employer.City /State/Zip'NameAddressVOLUME 84, NUMBER 1 OCTOBER 1991L. CENTENNIAL SECTION: LOOKING BACKIn the TraditionWhatever the field, passionate research is nothing more, nothing less, than "trying to find out things. ". Page IIExtracurricularsSome Chicago students set out to create traditions, others to break them.Page VIII100 Years in the Life of the UniversityPresident McKinley, the Prince of Wales, and Miss Frances all appear on this centennial timeline.Page XVIBuilding the City Grey I« r c - �I C I /1 3 I rWhat do Rockefeller Chapel and the Administration r "l�umg have in common?Page XXVIA Great Book CollectionGetting and spending, the Library and Press built their powers.Page XXXIIThe Alumni ProfileThe Alumni Centennial Survey reveals what alumni think and do. Plus, a very little bit of name-dropping.Page XXXIVPARTICIPATORY FEATURESA Centennial SyllabusA new "common core" for the 1 DOth year is a list of books to be read, discussed-and improved upon.Page 14"Without the U of C, there'd be no-"Complete the sentence, in 500 words or less, and enter the Magazine's "Ideas of the University" contest.Page 572 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991Editors NotesEDITORS ARE MORE APT TO BE FOUNDpolishing phrases than furniture, butone afternoon this past summer, Ispent an hour in a library seminar room, care­fully rubbing furniture cream into the dustygrooves and cracked leather of an old swivelchair. It was my job to make the chair-itsgrainy black cushion torn, its dark woodchipped-presentable for a photo shoot thenext day.When a splinter pierced through the polish­ing cloth and into my finger, I did what onenormally does in such situations: stoppedwork and pulled out the offending object.Then came a moment of hesitation.For in my palm lay, tiny and antique, theUniversity of Chicago's equivalent of a pieceof the True Cross: a bit of William RaineyHarper's desk chair. Dare I throw it away?Yet keeping the sacred splinter-whethertucked into an envelope, enthroned in a reli­quary, or embedded in Lucite-would be amost Un-U ofC Thing to Do. This universitycelebrates the life of the mind, and so theplace where you are sitting when you have anidea doesn't matter. As the cliche goes, it's thethought that counts.Thus the first president's chair was in need of polishing precisely because it had beenstored away, safely but unceremoniously, inthe Harper Memorial Library stacks. Feelingvery U ofC-ish, I threw away the splinter (andseveral others that followed) just asunceremoniousl y.Thoughts count, yes; but, madeleine-like,objects can be potent reminders. So the nextday, we went ahead and photographed thechair, angling it back and forth before thecamera, trying to make it look as substantialas the man to whom it once belonged.On the Cutting Room FloorIn the middle of preparing this lOOth-birthdayissue, I chanced-belatedly-upon Lord Ac­ton's ''Advice to People About to Write Histo­ry: Don't." Which sent me barreling throughBartlett's-from "Life's a tough proposition,and the first hundred years are the hardest"(Wilson Mizner said it) to "History never em­braces more than a small part of the reality"(La Rochefoucauld wrote it).All this is by way of prefacing a listing of afew of the many items that couldn't besqueezed into the Magazine's look back at theUniversity'S first hundred years. For exam-pIe, our report on cultural literacy before theGreat War ended up on the cutting roomfloor:In December 1914, a professor of Englishdecided to test the" general knowledge" of hissophomore class, asking students to identifysuch terms as Philander, William Tell, hercu­lean labors, crossing the Rubicon, GretnaGreen, lotus eater, John Barleycorn, and theRiver of Doubt.Such a list, sniffed some of his colleagues inother departments, "was to have been expect­ed of a teacher of English ." Within the week, amember of the Department of Political Econ­omy had put his Jist before a class. The 42terms included: unearned increment, invis­ible imports, laissez-faire, sympatheticstrikes, Lombard Street, Peashine Smith, agreenback, Crusoe economics, liquid assets,and the iron law of wages.A few other items we wish we'd had roomfor:• On June 14,1921, MarieSklodowskaCu­rie became the first woman to receive an hon­orary degree from the University.• "I'm not a dean! I was one for years but Idon't have to handle those damned problemsanymore!" Although many ex-administra­tors might have said it, the English professor(and ex-dean) who did was James Weber("Teddy") Linn, when confronted by a stu­dent with scheduling problems, circa 1924.• Although he was world famous as a genet­icist' Sewall Wright also earned on-campusnotoriety because of his absent-mindedness.According to' a report in the January 1955Magazine, "Students like to recall the time hewas lecturing and tucked one of [his] ever­present guinea pigs under an arm, to have bothhands free. A few minutes later, working atthe blackboard, he absently took the startledanimal from under his arm and began wipingthe board with it.".• Then there's the story told about physiolo­gIst Anton 1. Carlson, who delighted in ex­posing all forms of quackery. Legend has itthat a mental-telepathy enthusiast from Kan­sas once told Carlson how he suddenly knewone evening at nine o'clock that his mother,who lived in New York City, needed his help.Be learned later that she had fallen down thestairs at exactly nine o'clock. Triumphantly,the man demanded of Dr. Carlson ''And whatd· ' ,o you think of that?" But the triumph be-�onged to Carlson: "My first thought is oftheOUr difference between central and easterntime."• The 1948 edition of the annual Quadran­gle Club Revels, a faculty-produced musicalrevUe with skits built around campus eventsand gossip, came as some Illinois legislatorsWere calling for an investigation of possible�o�munist teachings at the state's educationalInstitutions; "The Little Red Schoolhouse on Licensed to celebrate: Silvestre Vigilante's centennial platethe Midway" featured the requisite blusteringsenator, suspicious Russian, unthinking pro­fessor, and news analyst. The' evening's finalnumber, sung to the tune of "On Top of OldSmokey, " tweaked both the red-baiters and­even closer to the faculty players' hearts-anunpopular salary contract: "We're unique atChicago/We're maroon but not red/We keepall our commies/Hidden under the bed./Ourprofs are all simple/Our deans are muchworse/Vice presidents are guarded/By a prac­tical nurse./We can't make much money /Withour contracts 4E's/But we still are permitted/To say what we please. "• Moving ahead a few decades or so, in thefall of 1971, the rap (an alternative studentnewspaper) reported on a remodeled Medici.The 57th Street coffeehouse also had a novelnew item on its menu: pizza.In the end, the Magazine staff took LordActon's advice. We didn't write a history. In­stead, we did a lot of looking back. Once ev­ery century, it's fun.Bis Bearl on Bis PlaleLast October Silvestre Vigilante, head man­ager of the Reynolds Club barbershop, boughta new car. He'd shopped around for somethingmaroon, but in the end didn't find the color ina model he liked. That didn't keep him fromoutfitting his new car with his first -ever vanitylicense plate. For an extra $11, the state ofIlli­no is sent Vigilante the seven-character mes­sage he'd requested: "UOFC 100."Asked why he'd opted to celebrate the Cen­tennial so publicly, Vigilante replied, "I lovethis place. The University means everythingto me." When he came to the city from Italy27 years ago, he explained, he got his first jobin the campus barbershop-and there he has. remained, cutting the hair of a barber's dozenof Nobelists.Does he plan to get another U of C themeplate next year? "I haven't thought about ityet. I guess it wouldn't be a good idea to keep this one though." That's true, but somehow,"UOFC 101" doesn't have the same ring.Lefl Oul of Law a EconomicsSeveral readers called the Magazine to ex­press surprise that our August article on theLaw and Economics movement at Chicagocontained no mention of the role played byEdward H. Levi, PhB'32, JD'35, dean oftheLaw School from 1950 to 1962. Levi is, ofcourse, the Glen A. Lloyd distinguished ser­vice professor emeritus in the College and theLaw School, as well as president emeritus andan honorary trustee of the University.While the Magazine article focused on themovement's current directions, any discus­sion of Law and Economics at Chicago couldarguably begin with Levi.As Robert H. Bork, AB'48, JD'53, writesin an appreciation of Levi that is part of Re­membering the University of Chicago: Teach­ers, Scientists and Scholars (a collection ofessays edited by Edward Shils, distinguishedservice professor in the Committee on SocialThought and in Sociology, to be published bythe University Press this December), "Hissupport was strong and critical to the successof the endeavor. What came to be known as the'Chicago school,' was in fact merely the ap­plication of rigorous economics to the law.That it started at Chicago rather than else­where is to be attributed to the combination ofLevi and Aaron Director. "Another reader, George J. Benston,PhD'62, wrote to say that the same articleoverlooked the contributions of Henry G.Manne, JD' 52. In addition to writing seminalpapers on takeovers, SEC regulation, and in­sider trading, Manne, now dean of the GeorgeMason Law School, has taught at the Univer­sity of Miami and Emory University. He be­gan the first summer program in economicsfor law professors, the first Law and Econom­ics Center, and an economics program forfederaljudges.-M.R. Y.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 3"A fine intimate autobiography aboutAmerica's greatest University .. "George SteinbrecherALFRED DE GRAZIA'STHE STUDENTAt Chicago in Hutchins' Hey-dayStudent life, so dear to Americans, israre and mythic in books, its complicatedtruths evaded."The Student" is on-targettruth, beautifully written, whether it'sbeing tough, nostalgic, or funny. It's theUniversity half-grown, when RobertMaynard Hutchins, America's most fa­mous educator, held sway.Alfred de Grazia, the protagonist, takes to theNew Plan, graduates Phi Beta Kappa, falls in love,tests and rejects Columbia Law School, is theproverbial Research Assistant and Acting Instructor,goes to War, comes back father of a two-year old,does six-fold jobs plus a PhD, and off to Minnesota.The Student's Hutchins-Adler seminar; Hutchins'psyche; champion water polo; the football band; asymphony orchestra; how to beat the Depression;the Political Science Department of the Century; anodd cafe at Billings Hospital; digs of a gang uncov­ering sexology; the eerie West Stands before theBomb; high spirits of a: girl and boy in war andpeace; the war veterans; Hyde Park politics;greensummers and snowy winters; smells of rich libraries,innards of book stacks. .'The Student" mines history and mem­ories of a' world-class University as neverbefore! Compare him with Henry Adams,George Santayana, Vladimir Nabokov,Evelyn Waugh, Leonard Woolf: whoso­ever tells his story about life in the midstof the higher learning."THE STUDENT' is available at theUofC Bookstore and generally, or sendcheque for $22.95 (covers $19.95 + $3.00for handling and shipping) toQUIDDITY PRESSBox 1213, PRINCETON, NJ 085404 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991LettersSinging our songHOW beautifully and utterly Uni­versity-of-Chicago that our five­person musical jury was unable toagree on one winner in the Alma Mater con­test. Any other outcome would have beendisappointing.If a transcript exists of the deliberations thatresulted in 11 winners out of 56 entries, itshould be preserved along with the dialecticsof Schwab and Adler and the Redfield­Sinaiko dialogues.NORMAN L. MACHT, PHB'47NEWARK, DELAWARELaw. justiceI wonder if others of my generation are asdisturbed as I was by the article "Law &Economics" in the August/91 issue of theMagazine. I suppose I must cynically acceptthe fact that judicial decisions are often eco­nomically determined, but I seem to remem­ber that for a brief period of my life, while Iwas reading Plato in the College, Justice (witha capital J) was something independent of andsuperior to the laws of economics. It dis­tresses me that at the University of Chicago,of all places, justice has become subservientto the bottom line. I suppose fiat justitia, ruatcaelum should now be rendered fiat lucrum,ruat justitia.ROBERT A. DONOVAN, PHB'48, AM'50GUILDERLAND, NEW YORKLaw. ethicsAlthough my expertise is in differentareas (chemistry and chemical engi­neering), I was interested by the arti­cle "Law & Economics." A trend toward in­creasingly sophisticated mathematicalmodeling has occurred in my fields also. Twodifferences seem to be present between thattrend in chemical engineering and the one inLaw and Economics: (a) in chemical engi­neering, increasingly complex math model­ing is often pursued without scrutiny of the va­lidity of the underlying assumptions; and (b)in chemical engineering, this playing ofgames does less harm to the public.Troubling to me as a layman is what appearsto be the absence, in Law and Economics, of Taking issue with Law and Economics.ethical considerations. How are such things asthe Ten Commandments and the Golden Rulefitted in? Perhaps this was implicit in the finearticle by Mr. Roth; if so, I missed it.SOL W. WELLER, PHD' 41BUFFALO, NEW YORKLaw. the bottom lineI read your paean to Law and Economicswith both interest and amusement. Eco­nomic analysis is one of many toolswhich can and should be used in thinkingabout legal problems. But I have alwaysdoubted that such an approach can be consid­ered a sort of "unified field theory" of law,and there may even be problems with Law andEconomics theory when analyzing businesssituations.As noted in your article, one result ofthe as­cendancy of the Law and Economics crowdhas been a lack of enforcement against verti­cal price fixing, previously regarded as per seantitrust violation. I wasn't able to quantifyhow much we owe to the Law and Economictheorists until a Chicago Tribune article,serendipitously published the day after I readyour article, noted that vertical price fixing,rampant because of lack of antitrust enforce­ment, costs United States consumers some 23billion dollars a year.That may even be enough to send a child tothe College.Thanks, guys.BARRY D. BAYER, AB'64HOMEWOOD, ILLINOISLaw & economic benefitThe article on the theory that law shouldfollow economic benefit was certainlyinteresting. However, I find it hard tobelieve that anyone would take this seriously.If economic benefit was the deciding factor,then crippled people should be killed andturned into soap, just as Hitler wanted. (Theyeat more than they produce.) Dead humanbodies could be sold for hamburger meat.(Protein is protein.) Surgery for older peoplewould be outlawed. (It is expensive and it ischeaper to bury people than to put them into ahospital.)The idea that economic benefit should gov­ern law is fundamentally wrong. If JudgePosner does not realize that, I would be quiteshocked and amazed.LOWELLMYERS� MBA'51CHICAGOLaw & the burden of proofOne hopes that scholarly analysis inthe Law and Economics movementis considerably more precise than itsproponents. Daniel Fischel, JD'77, whoseclaim that "it's impossible to be considered aserious scholar in a field without integratingLaw and Economics into your work" has thesole analytic virtue of being falsifiable­though unfortunately the claim is renderedtrivial by being false on its face. One expectsmore of Judge Posner, whose decisions on the?ench may have very substantial impacts onIndividuals and society. However, he is appar­ently so imbued with methodological individ­ualism, which is part of the intellectual bag­gage of neoclassical economics, that he hasneglected institutions .. It. is not surprising that after decades of em­Pl:lcal analysis associated first with legal re­alIsm and later with the Law and Societymovement, many legal scholars find an en­�ompassing economic-based theory appeal­Ing. However, the limits of neoclassical eco­nomic analysis are well understood. Posner'sPosition on adoptions is a manifestation of?eociassical economics' inability or unwill­Ingness to incorporate the formation of socialpreferences. In treating the formulation ofeach individual's utilities as essentially a sep­arate case, it fails to address the social valuesand pressures that affect the utilities that largenumbers of individuals will simultaneously(but hardly spontaneously) share.h For example, neoclassical economics wouldaVe us believe that in one year almost every THE 'UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO .ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONInvites you to join distinguished faculty and alumni friendsparticipating in the alumni travel/study programs scheduled for 1992Voyage to AntarcticaJanuary 5-19A cruise aboard the M. V. Illiria tothe world's last frontier, accompaniedby the ship's staff of naturalists andour faculty lecturers Barbara Blockof the Department of OrganismalBiology and Anatomy and BruceSidell, on sabbatical at the University,who has spent five research seasonsat the Palmer Station in Antarctica. The Island Worldof IndonesiaMarch 28-April 12This spring study trip will take usto the islands of the Java Sea,Singapore, and Bali in company withProfessor Paul Griffiths, an experton the remarkable cultural andreligious diversity of the region.EgyptMarch 13-26Led by Professor Lanny Bell ofthe Oriental Institute, the trip willfocus on the salvage archeology doneby the University's Epigraphic Surveybased at Chicago House in Luxor.The trip will be preceded by aWinter Weekend on campusNovember 1-3 devoted to thepioneering Egyptology done atthe Oriental Institute. Mississippi River CruiseApril 15-25A riverboat cruise from New Orleansto Memphis on the Delta Queenwill study the course and influence ofthe river with University geologistPeter Crane. Ken Burns and BarbaraFields of the award-winning PBSdocumentary Civil War willbe on board to talk about theCampaign in the West.Also planned for 1992Spring voyage to Japan, Korea, and China, and autumnstudy trips to cities of the Mediterranean and downthe Columbia and Snake Rivers.For further information and brochures or to be added to our travel/studymailing list, call or write to Laura Gruen, Associate Director; University ofChicago Alumni Association, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL60/637. 3121702-2160.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 5Centennial YearUniversity of Chicago WinterWeekendsCelebrate a century of scholarly excellence and inspiredteaching at the University of Chicago. Our winter series ofexciting three-day courses will feature seminars, illustratedlectures, and tours led by eminent faculty and researchstaff.• Pioneering Egyptology: A Century of Progress 'I'at The University of Chicago �November 1-3, 1991 .>A weekend focusing on the historic discoveries madeby Egyptologists at the Oriental Institute and theirpioneering development of salvage archaeology.Special tours and lectures by Professor Lanny Bell andcolleagues.• The Mystery Cycle: "Creation"January 17-19, 1992With the Court Theatre's ground -breaking RockefellerChapel production of "Creation" as the weekend'scenterpiece, Professors David Bevington and NicholasRudall and members of Court's production companywill discuss performing a medieval drama in a moderncontext.• Extinctions in the History of LifeMarch 13-15, 1992Was it bad genes, bad luck, or chaos in space that ledto mass extinctions in the past-and what about thefuture? Professors David Raup, Paul Sereno, and PeterVandervoort will discuss extinction as a fact of life onearth.Accommodations are available at Chicago's luxuriousRitz-Carlton Hotel at special rates.For detailed brochures, call 312/702-2160 or write to WinterWeekends, Robie House, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue,Chicago, IL 60637.Winter Weekends are sponsored by the Alumni Associationin conjunction with the Office of Continuing Educationand the Office for the Centennial.r-------------------------------�Please send me information as it is published on:D Pioneering Egyptology, November 1-3, 1991D The Mystery Cycle, January 17-19, 1992D Extinctions in the History of Life, March 13-16, 1992Name__Address__City �- State _ZipCode _Daytime Telephone __Return to Winter Weekends, Robie House, 5757 S. WoodlawnAvenue, Chicago, IL 60637.�-------------------------------�6 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 student in a typical suburban high school hasan individually derived preference for Dock­sides, whereas in another year each would in­dependently satisfy his/her utilities regardingfoot gear by switching to Reeboks. Further, ascritics of the Law and Economics movementnote, markets cannot do everything. They failto capture the costs of externalities, are riddenwith information asymmetries, do not assuredistributive equity, and, perhaps most rele­vant to Posner's theories about adoption, theywill not typically register the preferences (orforeseeable interests) of future generations inthe allocation of scarce resources.Finally, even the most ardent proponents of"rational actor" models of individual behav­ior are apt to agree with Nobel Prize-winnerHerbert Simon, AB'36, PhD'43, in recog­nizing that human rationality is limited(bounded) so that generally the "best" we cando is act in intendedly rational ways. Simonbelieves cybernetics and computerization canvery substantially enhance our rationality andhe has dedicated much of his recent career topromoting that end. Many neoclassical econ­omists prefer to build their models on anassumption they know to be false.Economists are able to fall back on the con­testable claim that it doesn't really matter be­cause in the aggregate the theory works.However, American law deals with individu­als, with all their idiosyncrasies and peculiarstates of mind, as well as with aggregates.Consequently, a heavy burden of persuasionshould fall on the Law and Economics move­ment to show, through the formulation andtesting of hypotheses, that neoclassical-basedeconomic theory will work nontrivially andnontautologically in some areas of law.DAVID H. ROSENBLOOM, AM'66, PHD'69WASHINGTON, D.C.Law" rapeIn the article, "Law & Economics"(August/91), Richard Posner is shown tobe perpetuating a dangerous misconcep­tion. "Looking at rape through a cost-benefitprism, he [Posner] postulates that the mainreason rapists commit their crime is becauseoflow social skills: It is so difficult for them tofind a traditional mate that they substitute rapefor normal sexual satisfaction."The misconception here is that rape is a sex­ual act perpetrated because of the rapist's sex­ual desire for the victim. In fact, rape is not asexual act, it is an act of violence. The rapist ismotivated by his desire to hurt the victimthrough shame and through bodily harm, andby his desire to exert power by making the vic­tim helpless. A rapist becomes sexuallyaroused NOT by the victim's attractivenessbut by the suffering, the shame, and the senseof helplessness he inflicts. Rape, child moles-tation, and all forms of sexual assault are mo­tivated by the perpetrator's desire to vent hishatred.If Posner had researched this issue properlyhe would know that many perpetrators of sex­ual assault do have wives, mistresses, or otherregular sex partners, as well as access to pros­titutes. His hypothesis just does not hold up.Furthermore, by treating rape as an act moti­vated by sexual deprivation, Posner makes ittoo easy to blame the victim. Instead, we needto hold the perpetrator responsible for his ownfailure to control his violent impulses.ALIDA M. JATICH, AB'76CHICAGOLaw & Adam SmithI am happy that Diane Wood is representedas saying, "It's a matter of whose eco­nomics you're using," since I am unsurethat the author and several persons quoted inhis article have read Adam Smith, purportedto be "at the center of Law and Economics."To be sure, a certain Adam Smith is recog­nizable in the nostrums about free marketsand self-interest, but I can only hope that theprofessors' students also read Book V, Chap­ter I, Article II, last 14 paragraphs. Otherwisetheir preparation rriight prove to be still anoth­er illustration that Adam Smith is-as a cele­brated economist' has said-the economist"most quoted, least read."By the way, shouldn't page 31, column B,4th paragraph read "overestimates"? (1es, itshould-Ed. fit doesn't seem intelligent that acritic of L&E would fault the theory for "un­derestimating" resistance to exploitation.PAUL ANTAL, PHD'75BOULDER, COLORADOLaw & human decisionsTheodore Roth's informative article onLaw and Economics contained onestatement that amazed me: "TheseeConomists hold that individuals makechoices and decisions in a rational manner." Itis the first time I have ever heard it seriouslySuggested that most human decisions are ra­tional. One would find it very difficult to sup­Port that with examples from the real world.Instead, many psychologists, philosophers,and the rest of us would hold that most humandeCisions are b�sed on emotion (love, fear,greed) and then are rationalized with logic orpseUdo-logic. Humans must battle constantlyto recognize their emotional biases and try toact rationally in spite of them.. The further premise, "... fostering self­�nterest is the most efficient way for society tolOcrease its total wealth " leads one to wonderhow these economists define "society." Theapplication of their principles in the last ten PLEASE DETACH AND MAIL TO:The University of Chicago Bookstore, 970 E. 58th St., Chicago, IL 60637Please send me__ copy(ies) at $10 each (includes shipping and handling).Subtotal: $. _m. residents add 8% sales tax: +. _TOTAL AMOUNT OF PURCHASE: $_D Check enclosed made out to The University of Chicago BookstorePlease charge my D Visa D MasterCard D American Express D DiscoverAccount Number Exp. Date_Signature Daytime Phone_Name as it appears on credit card or check,__ -=:- _Address City State_ Zip __• NO CODs • NO POST OFFICE BOXES • STREET ADDRESSES ONLY •UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 78 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 years has left the U. S. the largest debtor nationin the world. Unbridled self-interest has des­troyed the savings and loan industry, comeclose to wrecking the banking system, andwill cost the taxpayers billions. This wouldlead one to guess that the "society" Fried­man, Scalia, and their ilk are concerned aboutis the relatively small group of the alreadywealthy. Law and Economics as a theory is aningenious rationalization of greed, onlyslightly less naive than "What's good for Gen­eral Motors is good for America."I hope and expect that the University of Chi­cago will remain a bastion of learning, andyes, rationality. If so, it will be in spite of Lawand Economics!LORNA JEAN KINGPHOENIX, ARIZONASignificant omissionOn page 17 of the August!91 issue ofthe Magazine, the person of colorshown in a photo is neither identifiednor acknowledged although the coupleStephen and Melinda Pruett-Jones-am I cor­rect in assuming that the white man and wom­an are married?-is identified. This omissionhas racial implications since it suggests thatthe only significant persons in the picture arethe white ones.In future issues I trust you and your staff willbe more careful and more sensitive.ERNECE B. KELLY, AB'58, AM'59BROOKLYN, NEW YORKMisplaced statueMay I correct a small error in the oth­erwise fascinating article on "Howthe Bull Got Plastered" (August/91)? In her description of the credentials ofMichel Bourbon, Jane Chapman stated thathis most recent feat before taking on the bullwas his duplication of" Donatello 's St. Mark,in the Church of St. Michael in Florence,"Donatello's statue of St. Mark isn't in anychurch, and furthermore, there's nochurch ofSt. Michael in Florence. The statue stands inan exterior niche of a fourteenth-centurystructure in Florence called Or San Michele,a curious, multi-purpose building that com­bined a religious shrine with the city granaryand corn exchange.JUDITH TESTA, AM '67, PHD'83DE KALB, ILLINOISWhat's good about GreeksWilliam Wilkerson, in his August!91 letter, took the opportunity tovoice his concern over the contin­ued existence of the Greek system at the Uni­versity. In his words, the members of such or- ganizations have yet to be rid of their "juvenileantics"; they are not "serious students."I applaud the long-due article in the June!91issue, "Greeks Survive Tense Year." As anactive alumna of one of the two NationalPanhellenic sororities on campus (AlphaOmicron Pi), I can attest to the fact that all ofthe fraternal groups at the University main­tain highly diverse memberships, in terms ofrace, ethnicity, and religion. Just glance atany group's composite photograph.A brief look at the long roll call of distin­guished Chicago alumni who were "Greek, "not to mention the many gifted and outgoingGreek-affiliated collegians now on campus,will indicate that University spirit and devot­ed community service remain rooted withinthe fraternal groups.Ask Wyler Children's Hospital, the HydePark Neighborhood Club, ALS, Studentsagainst Multiple Sclerosis, Arthritis Re­search, and the United Way, to name a few, tofind out just how "juvenile" the Greeks are,during their many selfless fundraising effortseach quarter. How "juvenile" is sitting on apole outside the chapter house for three hoursduring a rainstorm, getting pies thrown inyour face, see-sawing for an eternity, or beingdunked in a water tank, when the fun is all inthe name of charity and greater social aware­ness? We still finish our fourth-year papersand go on to achieve as Chicago graduatesshould. To be frank, the "serious" student isone who can do it all, teaming extracurricularleadership with academics.The Chicago Greek system still survivestoday because of its invaluable contributionsto the students ofthe College, and to the com­munity at large. I believe that we have evolvedfor the better since 1940.JESSIEA. WANG, AB'90CHICAGOFraternity diversityWilliam Wilkerson's letter in theAugust!91 issue of the Magazinewas extremely disappointing. Fora man who has had the good fortune to receivea liberal education from the University ofChicago, his tone in regard to fraternities wasdecidedly narrow-minded. Fraternities oncampus are extremely diverse in terms of theirmembers' ethnicities, interests, activities,and beliefs. As students with liberal minds ina liberal university, those involved in fraterni­ties do not condone or encourage the discrim­inatory behavior Mr. Wilkerson describes.We are, after all, living in the 1990s, not the1930s, and there are no longer exclusively"white," "Jewish," or "rich" fraternities.Members are chosen on the basis of their per­sonalities and common interests: some fra­ternities are for the beer-drinking type andsome are for the scholarly type and still othersare for people who defy these simplecategorizations.Additionally, in response to the question offraternities' "Greek" roots, the original fra­ternities used the Greek language for theirnames because Greek was the common lan­guage taught to college students and thereforesymbolized the college experience. Further,the decision to use Greek was also based onthese students' admiration ofthe Greek idealsof friendship and moral rectitude.LESLEY KIM, '92MEMBER, KAPPA ALPHA THETACHICAGOExpanded coverage?In re the "GALA fortnight" item ("Chica­go Journal, " August/91): Marvelous! Besure to let us know when the foot fetishistsand the enema enthusiasts hold their nexthoedown.ALAN WHITNEY, X' 49NEW YORK CITYThe grant behind the researchIt was a great pleasure to read the articleabout summer research projects in theJune/91 issue ofthe University of Chic a­go Magazine. We noted with particular inter­est the cover illustration of Dr. BarbaraBlock, an investigator who is supported, inpart, by a grant from the National Institute ofArthritis and Musculoskeletal and SkinDiseases.We wish to point out that some of the workdescribed in the article appears to be support­ed by this grant, which was not cited in the ar­ticle. This is contrary to the policies of thePublic Health Service and misses the oppor­tunity to inform people of activities supportedbyNIAMS.MARY GRAHAMRICHARD W. LYMN, PHD '70BETHESDA, MARYLANDGraham is grants management specialist andLymn directs the muscle biology program atNIAMS.More voices, better choicesIn response to Leonard Stein's letter in theAugust/91 issue attributing to me the mo­. tive of asking the federal government to:VIth?raw from funding the arts, I protest thisImplIcation. In my attack on the existing�vant-garde, I was pointing to the degenera­tion of a movement that began in a gush ofcre ti .. � lVHy early in this century but has nowdISSIpated itself in irrelevant bizarre andofte·· "n disgustmg channels. Alumni of all Divisions, Schools, and Eras-CELEBRATEJUNE 4-7, 1992THE CENTENNIALREUNION!Enjoy:• Reuniting with classmates• Seeing former professors• Visiting old dormitories• Attending classes and lectures• Touring University facilities• Savoring the grand international party onthe quads• Cruising on Lake Michiganfor more information, contact the Alumni Association at(312) 702-2160SEE YOu THERE!UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 9The Board of Governors ofThe University of Chicago Alumni Associationcordially invites you to aGala Centennial Dinner Dancein celebration of theUniversity's CentennialNew York CityTuesday, November 12, 1991Pegasus Suite at The RainbowRockefeller CenterHonorary ChairmanJames H. Evans, JD'48Organizing Co-ChairmenAnita J. Brickell, AB'75, MBA'76Mark C. Brickell, AB'74Honored Guests:Hanna Holbom GrayDavid Rockefeller, PhD' 40James D. Watson, PhB'46, SB'47 Washington, DCSaturday, November 23, 1991The Ritz-Carlton Pentagon CityArlington, VirginiaHonorary 'Co-ChairsCharles H. Percy, AB'41Sharon Percy RockefellerOrganizing Co-ChairsWarren E. Olson, AB'41Stephanie A. Wallis, AB'67Honored Guests:Hanna Holbom GrayJohn ChancellorEdward W. Rosenheim, AB'39,AM'46, PhD'53The gala evenings will include remarks by honored guests, the showing ofa film commissioned for the Centennial featuring some of the University'smost exciting' young faculty, a student quartet singing old and newUniversity songs, and dancing into the night. Celebrate the birthday of acentury!Additional Gala Centennial Dinner Dances are scheduled to be held in LosAngeles, San Francisco, and Boston in the Spring; and in Chicago inOctober, 1992. For more information call the Alumni Association at3121702-2150.10 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 Does this mean that the National Endow­ment for the Arts should disband? First of allthere is a good deal of consensus that balletcompanies, symphony orchestras, and muse­ums should continue to receive support frompublic monies. I perceive, in fact, more sup­port from taxpayers (admittedly among themiddle-class) for these expenditures at themoment than provision for, as Mr. Stein pre­fers, "food and shelter for the poorest amongus." (If the poor throughout history had prior­ity, art would never have existed. This is a re­ality the left has never confronted.)The problem for Mr. Frohnmayer, AM'69,as head of the Endowment is how to award andvalidate new art without endorsing, which isimplied in patronage of art, the extreme prac­tices of a small clique of artists and curatorswho have arrogantly developed aesthetics thatfew in society really care for. The Endowmenthas modeled itself on the practice of the Na­tional Science Foundation, where peer judg­ments by experienced scientists· are usuallyshrewd and successfully reward creative pro­jects. (Scientists seem able most ofthe time todifferentiate good science from charla­tanism.) Yet the Endowment has stumbledfrom one scandal to another as it tries to ac­commodate the avant-garde.My only suggestion for action then is torecast its method of choosing the futureMichaelangelos of America and include agreater cross-section of the artistic world,which would include art buyers, gallery own­ers, art historians, and museum goers, as wellas artists themselves.ARTHUR 1. WEITZMANAB'54, AB'56, AM'57CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTSAuthor's queryFor a biography of the late socialist lead­er Michael Harrington, AM'49,which is being written with the cooper­ation oftheHarrington family, I would appre­ciate hearing from anyone who knew himwhile he was a graduate student in Englishin 1948-49: Maurice Isserman, Departmentof History, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY13323.MAURICE ISSERMANCLINTON. NEW YORKThe University of Chicago Magazine invitesletters from readers on the contents of themagazine or on topics related to the Universi­ty. Letters for publication, which must besigned, may be edited for length and/or clari­ty. To ensure the widest range of voices, pref­erence will be given to letters of 300 words orless. Letters should be addressed to: Editor,University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637.�ventsExhibitionsThe Gray City: Architectural Drawings ofthe University of Chicago, through Decem­ber 8. The first in a series of three exhibits fea­�ures historical drawings of University build­�ngs constructed from 1893 to 1986, includingInterior and exterior architectural details asWell as plans and blueprints. Smart Museum;call 702-0200.Multiple Perspectives: Cubism in Chica­�o Collections, through December 1. Draw­Ing from public, corporate, and private col­lections in the Chicago area, this exhibitexplores the Cubist period in Paris duringand after World War I. Smart Museum;call 702-0200.Sifting the Sands of Time: The OrientalInstitute and the Ancient Near East,through December 31, 1992. Tracing the his­tory of the Oriental Institute, this exhibit doc­um:nts the University's early commitment to�nclent Near Eastern studies, looks at specif­IC exc.avations carried out by the Institute, and�xamInes such projects as the Assyrian Die­tI�nary. Oriental Institute; call 702-9514.C he University of Chicago Faculty: Aentennial View, through December 31, 1991. The first of a series of centennial exhib­its presents the research and scholarship of28notable faculty members through historicphotographs, manuscripts, notebooks, let­ters, and books. Department of Special Col­lections at the Joseph L. Regenstein Library;call 702-8705.Jessica Stockholder, through November10. The artist's work brings together materialsof widely different textures and composition-from paint, plaster, and light bulbs to lem­ons, old laundry, and wicker chairs. The Re­naissance Society; call 702-8670.LecturesThe History of Religions Lecture, spon­sored by the American Council of LearnedSciences; October 30 and 31, 4 p.m. and No­vember 1, 10 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. CarolynWalker Bynum, Columbia University, "Im­ages of Bodily Resurrection in the ChristianTraditions." Swift; Hall; call 702-8200.Olin Center Lecture Series, November 6,4 p.m. and November 18, 4 p.m. EugeneGenovese, University Center in Georgia,"Liberal Education and the Problem ofMulticulturalism in a Democratic Society." Botanist and ecologist Henry Cowles-oneprofessor featured in Special Collections'centennial exhibition on University faculty-was famous for his field trips. Here,Cowles (front row, fourth from right) andstudents take a watermelon break on Utah'sMt. Timpanogas.Social Science 122; call 702-3423.Centennial Lecture, November 20, 5:30p.m. This first centennial lecture, "To theEgyptian Dig: Freud's Encounter with Cul­ture," will be delivered by historian CarlSchorske, Princeton University. BreastedHall; call 702-9192.TheaterOff-Off Campus Fall Quarter Revue, No­vember 1,8, 15,9 p.m. and November 22,8p.m. and 10 p.m. Original sketches by Uni­versity Theater's student comedy group. TheBlue Gargoyle; call 702-3414 for tickets.Bum This, November 1-2 and 6-9,8 p.m.Lanford Wilson's story of an unlikely love af­fair born of tragedy; a big Broadway hit a fewyears back. University, Theater, ReynoldsClub; call 702-3414 for tickets.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 11Italian artist Gino Severini's 1913 collage, "Nature Morte au Violin, "from the LakeForest collection of Thomas and Frances Dittmer, is among the Cubist works displayed inthe David and Alfred Smart Museum's Multiple Perspectives exhibition.Awake and Sing, November 14-16, 8 p.m.Clifford Odets' classic work of social realism.University Theater, Reynolds Club; call 702-3414 for tickets.Measure for Measure, November 15-December 22. Shakespeare's problem playabout due process and punishment. CourtTheatre; call 753-4472 for times and tickets.The �ittle Clay Cart, November 21-23, 8p.m. and November 24, 2 p.m. UniversityTheater's presentation of one of the most ac­cessible of the ancient Sanskrit plays; it runsthe gamut from love story (complete with evilvillain) to political intrigue. Reynolds Club;call 702-3414 for tickets.Audience and Borderline, December 2-3,8 p.m. The first play, by Czechoslovakianpresident Vaclav Havel, treats with comic ab­surdity a confrontation between a dissidentwriter and his boss at a brewery. The secondplay, by John Bishop, is a nightmare about anordinary man's descent into sex, violence,madness, and murder. University Theater,Reynolds Club; call 702-3414 for tickets.For Colored Girls Who Have ConsideredSuicide/When the Rainbow is Enuf, Dec­ember 4-5, 8 p.m. Ntuzake Shange's Obie­award winning play about modern women ofcolor. University Theater, Reynolds Club;call 702-3414 for tickets.Home Free and Promenade All, December6-7,8 p.m. The first play is Lanford Wilson's12 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991tale in which the fantasy world created by anincestuous brother and sister comes crashingdown; the second, by David V. Robison, takesa look at sexual attitudes in several genera­tions of a family. University Theater, Rey­nolds Club; call 702-3414 for tickets.ConferencesHistory of Science: Experiencing Nature,October 30. This conference will examine theinteraction-from the 17th century to thepresent-between scientific and extrascienti­fie modes of thinking about the human experi­ence of nature. Call 202/357 - 2787.Third UCSMP International Conferenceon Mathematics Education, October30- November 1. Focusing on progress andperspectives in mathematical educationaround the world, this conference will includean Amoco centennial lecture (Mandel Hall,October 31, 4-6 p.m.), Speakers will be:Keith McHenry, Amoco, "Mathematics Ed­ucation: An Industrial View"; Jean-PierreKahane, University of Paris-Sud , "The Popu­larization of Mathematics"; Lynn ArthurSteen, St. Olaf College, "Will Everybody Ev­er Count?" Reservations and fee required;call 702-7397 or 702-1130.Seventh UCSMP Secondary Mathemat­ics Conference, November 2-3. Followingthe international conference (above), a two- day session for users and potential users ofUCSMP materials for grades 7 through 12.Reservations and fee required; call 702-7397or 702-1130.Religious Fundamentalism, November4-6. Swift Lecture Hall; call 702-1901.Electronic Structure, Geometric Struc­ture, and Superconductivity, November4- 5. Speakers will address the geometricaland electronic underpinnings of high­temperature superconductivity; John Goode­nough, U ni versity of Texas at Austin, will de­liver the keynote address. Hinds 101.Reservations required; call 702-6028.Altruism: Exploring the IntellectualConcept, November 7-8. This conferencewill examine the similarities and differencesbetween the ways various academic disci­plines use the concept of altruism. SSA Build­ing; call 702-1172.Literacy and Scribal Traditions in An­cient Egypt and Mesopotamia, November9. Five Oriental Institute professors will dis­cuss hieroglyphic and cuneiform writing sys­tems and the intellectual traditions withinwhich they were used. Oriental Institute. Res­ervations and fee required; call 702-9507.Reinterpretation in the History of Chris­tianity, November 14-15. A conference inhonor of Jerald C. Brauer, the Naomi Shen­stone Donnelley Professor of the History ofChristianity in the Divinity School. SwiftLecture Hall; call 702-8200.Conference on Democracy and Educa­tion, November 15-16. Topics will includethe history of the public schools in service tothe United States; an overview ofthe state ofeducation in the newly democratized coun­tries of Eastern Europe; and ways in which thecultural diversity of the U. S. affects curricu­lum. Judd and Ida Noyes Halls. Reservationsand fee required; call 702-8675.Department of Anthropology CentennialConference: The Transformation of Sys­tems of Value, November 18-19. Using com­parative discussion of case studies by recentPh.D. students, this conference explores thetransformation of anthropological treatmentof cultural phenomena. Call 702-7701.Asian Forum, November 18-19. The firstday will address perceptions and mispercep­tions of Asians and Westerners; the secondwill focus on economic concerns. Interna­tional House, the Fairmont Hotel. Reserva­tions required; call 702-1682.Josef Fried Symposium of BiorganicChemistry, November 22-23. A two-day se­ries of lectures in honor of Fried, the LouisBlock Professor Emeritus in Chemistry andBiochemistry & Molecular Biology. KentChemical Laboratory; call 702-7090.History of Science: Biology at the Univer­sity of Chicago, 1892-1950, November 23.Call 608/262-1406.MusicUniversity Symphony Orchestra Hallow­een Concert, October 31, 7: 30 p.m. The pro­gram, "Heroes Gone Astray," featuring cos­tumed orchestra members and numerousspecial effects, will include the music ofFranck, Wagner, and Dukas. Mandel Hall;call 702-8484.Pietro Rigacci Piano Recital, November3, 3 p. m. In his Chicago debut, Italian pianistRigacci will play sonatas by Clementi andProkofiev and preludes by Scriabin. Co­sponsored by the Istituto Italiano di Cultura.Goodspeed Recital Hall; call 702-8068.Martin Jean Organ Recital, November10, 8 p.m. Martin Jean; Valparaiso Universi­ty, will play the music of Albright, Durufle,and Liszt. Rockefeller Chapel; call 702-2100for tickets.Shostakovich String Quartet, November15, 8 p. m. The Chicago debut of this Moscowquartet will feature the music of Borodin,Shostakovich, and Tchaikovsky. MandelHall; call 702-8068 for tickets.University Chamber Orchestra, Novem­ber 16,8 p.m. Playing the music of Mendels­sohn, Spohr, and Haydn. Goodspeed Hall;call 702-8484.University Wind Ensemble, November23, 8 p.m. Music by Walton, Jacob, Elgar,Holst, Ives, Persichetti, and Reed. MandelHall; call 702-8484.Eroica Piano Trio, December 6, 8 p.m.The Chamber Music Series presents the win­nerofthe 1991 NaumbergAward, playing La­lo's Trio in C Minor; Brahms' Piano TrIo No.1 in B Major; and Kirchner's Trio (1954).Mandel Hall; call 702-7628.University Symphony Orchestra, De­cember 7, 8 p.m. Barbara Schubert conductsCentennial Fanfares, written by graduate stu­dents in the music department; Ravel's Valsasnobles et sentimentales; and Ives' SymphonyNo.2. Mandel Hall; call 702-8484.Handel's Messiah, December 8, 2 p.m.�he classic anthem performed by the Univer­sity chorus. A UC2MC reception at RobieHouse follows. Rockefeller Chapel; call 702-2100 for concert information, 702-2150 forreception information.Wolfgang Rubsam Advent Organ Recit­al, December 15, 8 p.m. Featuring Rubsam,Rockefeller Chapel organist and Northwest­ern professor of church music. RockefellerChapel; call 702-2100 for tickets.OhlheQuadsientennial Winter Weekend: Pioneeringgyptology, November 1-J. Lectures dis-cu· . 'SSlOns, films, and behind-the-scenes toursof the Oriental Institute will focus on the his­toric discoveries of U of C's Egyptologists. James Breasted, accompanied by his wife and son, led a survey team through the NileValley in the early 1900s. From "Shifting the Sands of Time: The Oriental Institute and theAncient Near East, " at the Oriental Institute through 1992.Reservations required; call 702-2150.University Memorial Service, November3, lOa.m. JaroslavPelikan, PhD'46, SterlingProfessor of History at Yale University, willdeliver the sermon at this special centennialmemorial service. Rockefeller MemorialChapel; call 702-2100.Latke/Hamentasch Debate, November26. Debating the relative merits of the culi­nary delicacies will be President Hanna Gray;Dean Philip Gossett; and professors Ted Co­hen, Wendy Doniger, and Francis Kinahan.Ida Noyes Hall; call 752-1127.InlheCilyMultiple Perspectives Lecture Series, Oc­tober 28, 4 p.m. Rosalind Krauss, City Uni­versity of New York, "Reading Cubism." Inconjunction with "Multiple Perspectives:Cubism in Chicago, " at the Smart Museum ofArt. Arts Club of Chicago, 109 E. Ontario.Reservations required; call 787-3997. Chicago: Cities of Books, City of Learn­ing, November 1. Librarians and historians atthis symposium-including the U ofC's NeilHarris-will discuss both the relationship be­tween public and private libraries and the roleof scholarly libraries. Harold Washington Li­brary Center, 400 S. State St. ; call 747-4092.Representation of Body and Soul, No­vember 8,8 p.m. The University'S CollegiumMusicum performs Emilio Cavalieri's 17th­century opera. Scottish Rite Cathedral, 915N. Dearborn; call 702-8484.Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Novem­ber 21. The city's orchestra presents the pre­miere of a centennial composition by musicprofessor Ralph Shapey. Orchestra Hall; call435-6666 for tickets.This new section highlights some of the cen­tennial year's many events. Telephone num­bers are listed for specific offerings; for gen­eral and updated information, please call theCentennial Office at 3121702-9192.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 13Looking fora FewGreat BooksThat was the quest undertaken by a group of College facultyas they created their Centennial Syllabus, a "common core"for the University's lOOth year. But the selectionprocess isn't over. Now it's your tum.14 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 .- ........ he conception of a "Centenni­al Syllabus" grew out of con­versations among facultymembers who teach in theCollege's common core cur­riculum. Together, the partici-pants in these discussions embodied well overa hundred years of experience in teachingCollege courses, making it difficult to esti­mate the number of different books and otherworks we may have taught, or the number ofstudents to whom we have taught them.What was most striking about our discus­sions was the ease with which each facultyparticipant was able to identify a handful oftexts that were certainly a part of "the greatreading list." Some contemporary thinkerswould identify the source of these selections,which seem so obvious, as the "hegemonyof the canon," passed down from an earlierintellectual era by white, male faculty mem­bers who insisted that all right-thinking stu­dents needed to know and treasure the con­tents of certain key texts. Modern-or post­modern-opinion holds that we ought to belooking elsewhere, reading work by peoplenot often heard from in the past, if we trulyvalue equality.There are a lot of items here that have beenpart of the curriculum of the College at Chica­go for many, many years. On sober reexami­nation, and consideration of their contentwith respect to such issues as the status ofwomen in society and postmodern criticalthought, we find many are still very strongworks, worthy of study now as they have beenin the past. While some selections are recentpublications, most have been around longenough to be "seasoned." Yet, we think, notone is stale or irrelevant to the contemporarycondition of humanity.While affirming these books' enduring val­ue, we readily agree that we could compile asecond list of works that are worthy of a con­temporary College syllabus, and which wouldnot have any items in common with thepresent one. We would like to hear from alum­ni about their choices for a Second CentennialSyllabus. We also encourage you to create a"gripe sheet" if you (!re dissatisfied with spe­cific choices on the list below.Above all, it is our hope that former students-perhaps joined by people who attended oth­er undergraduate institutions-will formgroups to discuss these works. To this end,each work is introduced with a few sentencesexplaining why we feel it belongs on a Centen­nial Syllabus, and the list is divided intogroups of works. We anticipate you will enjoysuch discussions as much as we did in prepar­ing this list. -Ralph Nicholas, Dean of theCollege.PhilosophyPlato: The Apology (Library of Liberal Arts,Bobbs- Merrill). Socrates' defense against thecapital charges that he corrupted the young andwas impious, this speech to an Athenian jury isthe statement of a philosopher to his communityin defense of his way of life. His argument is it­self a concrete exemplification of that life in allits complexity.Aristotle: The Nichomachean Ethics (trans.Ostwald, Library of Liberal Arts, Bobbs­Merrill). This classic argument supporting theview that virtue is the basis of human happinessand its own reward is developed entirely in termsof ordinary human experience and reason with­out reference to divine sanctions and command­ments or the threat of future rewards and punish­ments. Suggested selections focusing on thenature of virtue and its role in the good life: Bk I,chaps. 1-5, 7, 13; Bk II, chaps. 1-9; Bk III,chaps. 1-5, 6-9; Bk VI, chaps. 1-9; Bk X,chaps. 6-10.Alfred North Whitehead: Adventures of Ideas(Free Press). One of the great philosophers, andbest writers of the twentieth century reflects onthe way ideas and brute forces interact to shapehuman history, how science shapes our sense ofourselves and the cosmos in which we live, howphilosophy attempts to make fundamental senseof things, and how civilization itself creates, ex­plores, and embodies the core notions of beauty,truth, adventure, and peace.John Locke: The Second Treatise ... of CivilGovernment (In Two Treatises of Government,ed. by Peter Laslett, Cambridge UniversityPress). In this late seventeenth-century essay,Locke describes characteristics of human be­ings, nature, and society which he considersconducive to what we now recognize as a liber­al, democratic political system.David Hume: "Of the Standard of Taste" (inDavid Hume, Essays, Liberty Press). A won­derful eighteenth-century corrective to all thecontemporary dogmas about cultural, histori­cal, and personal relativism in matters of tasteabout the arts.SCienceCharles Darwin: The Origin of the Species(The preferred first edition is available in paper­back from Penguin classics and, in facsimile,from Harvard University Press.) The impact ofDarwin's revolutionary explanation for the evo­lution of natural diversity and the source of ad­aptations as a process of natural selection is stillbeing felt in both the natural and socialsciences. Sigmund Freud: The Interpretation ofDreams (Trans. James Strachey, Avon-DiscusBooks). The major statement on a theory of themind and the foundations of meaning and inten­tion by the founder of psychoanalysis, this ep­ochal volume presents the theory of mental ac­tivity (chapter VII) and an approach tounderstanding the' foundation of wishes,brought forth in dreams, as an expression of psy­chological conflict.Claude Levi-Strauss: The Savage Mind (Uni­versity of Chicago Press). Levi-Strauss intendsto demonstrate that, throughout history, humanthought has been "scientific." However, beforethe very recent appearance of modern, abstractscience, the mode of scientific thought was"concrete"; thinking was done in terms of ob­jects, species, and things, and their observablecharacteristics. He also attempts to demonstratethat modern people remain capable of "con­crete" scientific activity and continue to engagein it.Edwin Hubble: The Realm of the Nebulae(Yale University Press) and Steven Weinber�:The First Three Minutes (Basic Books). Wnt­ten by two of the distinguished physical scien­tists of our time, these are authoritative accountsof the most profound cosmological discoveriesof this century. Taken together, they offer a co­herent description of cosmology as a subdisci­pline of the physical sciences, and exceptionalexamples of the intellectual values and standardsthat apply in modern scientific research.Anita Gordon and David Suzuki: It's a Matterof Survival (Harvard University Press). �heinterface of ecology with politics, economics,sociology, and the rest of the social sciences iscontested ground. This new book presents thebasic problems of global ecology clearly andforcefully.The Human ConditionHerodotus: Histories (Trans. David Grene,University of Chicago Press). The first and, ar­guably, the greatest historical work in Westernliterature Histories tells the story of the greatwar bet�een the Greeks and the Persians inwhich the small but free Greek cities managedbriefly to combine their forces to expel �heseemingly overwhelming might of the Pe�sIanempire. By turns charming, ,:itty, ske?tIcal,and moving, Herodotus' narrative (des�It� ap­pearances to the contrary) is subtle, SOphIs�Icat­ed, coherent, and unified. Suggested selections:Bk I and Bk VII.Alexis de Tocqueville: The Old Regime and theFrench Revolution (Anchor Books). With thesame clarity of mind and cool brilliance as hisstudy of Democracy in America, Tocquevilletraces the background and nature of a revolutionthat went wrong in the eighteenth century. Heforesees the inevitable end of aristocracy and therise of equality. But Tocqueville also sees thatthe choice of the future will be between an equal- ity of freedom or an equality of servitude.Henry Adams: The Education of HenryAdams (Ed. Ernest Samuels, Houghton­Mifflin. The Riverside Edition contains usefulend notes elaborating on the sometimes crypticallusions discussed by Adams.) An engagingand self-revealing statement of the effort to findmeaning in modernity, Adams' memoir remainsa poignant expression of the manner in which westruggle to profit from our experiences and ourproblems.Hannah Arendt: The Human Condition (Uni­versity of Chicago Press). In essays she orig�nal­ly presented as Walgreen lectu�es at th� l!�Iver­sity, Arendt explores the distmc� actrvmes oflabor, work, and action that constitute the prac­tical life, as opposed to the life of contempla.ti.on.U sing terms and categories of ancient politicalthought to analyze the modern world, �rendtalso applies contemporary philosop�y: SCIence,and events to critique traditional political theo­ry, with stunning results.Simone de Beauvoir: The Second Sex (Trans.H.M. Parshley, Vintage Books). This volumedraws on perspectives from the social sciences,psychoanalysis, and literature, and from deBeauvoir's own observations of women as "theother" in contemporary society, in order to doc­ument the conflict between men. and women,and the plight of women in contemporary soci­ety as enslaved, devalued, and victimized. Alllater feminist writing depends in some measureon this classic statement.Global ClassicsConfucius: The Analects (Trans. James Legge,Dover). This collection of statements, conversa­tions, observations, and anecdotes about Confu­cius is, on the whole, the most accurate and au­thentic record we have of his thought and life.Brief and easy to read, but not so easy to appreci­ate and understand in depth, The Analects is thecore text of one of the world's great traditions ofethical and political thought.The Bhagavad-Gita (ed. and tran. by R.C.Zaehner, The Clarendon Press). This work ofHindu philosophy and theology, composed as adialogue in verse, defines human perfection andthe steps on the way to its attainment: throughdetachment from the people and things of thisworld and serene aloofness in carrying out one'snatural and moral duty (dharma). Contrast theHindu ideal of dharma with Western society'sideas about human action and responsibility,based on the concept of free will.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 15Homer: The Iliad (Trans. Richmond Latti­more, University of Chicago Press). The oldestpoem in our literary tradition, The Iliad hascharmed and moved listeners and readers for al­most three thousand years. Inspiring countlessscholarly, moralistic, and philosophical argu­ments, it has managed to survive all this andeven to preserve its freshness. A wonderful ex­perience, one largely wasted on young under­graduates, as it requires readers who knowsomething about life.William Shakespeare: Measure for Measure;Henry IV, Part I; Coriolanus; The Tempest(The Bantam Shakespeare). These four playswere chosen to represent a slightly different list,perhaps, from the usual and to include some ofShakespeare's problematic genres: the problemplay (a comedy that confronts extraordinary andnearly tragic problems) in Measure for Mea­sure; the Roman or classical tragedy in Cor­iolanus; the English history play iri Henry IV,Part I; and the late romance in The Tempest.Jane Austen: Emma (ed. Donald Gray, NortonCritical Edition). Perhaps more readers are fa­miliar with Pride and Prejudice, and certainlyone can't go wrong with any Austen novel, butEmma commands particular attention for its in­sights into a heroine whose flaws and virtues arecomplexly interwoven and thus require contin­ued readjustment on the part of the reader as towhat to make of Emma as she struggles to knowherself.Gustave Flaubert: Madame Bovary (ed. Paulde Man, Norton Critical Edition). This tower­ing novel provides insight into the role of womenin the nineteenth century, into male anxietiesabout a "transgressive" womanlike Emma, intothe medical profession, into French provinciallife-all told with unrivaled detachment and iro­ny by one of the great observers of the humancondition. As with Emma, the accompanyingessays' and editorial apparatus of the Nortoncritical edition provide valuable guidance.Leo Tolstoy: "The Death of Ivan Jlyich" (Sig­net Classics). With his usual genius for present­ing a totally convincing narrative, Tolstoy"demonstrates" in this late novella how a lifethat is ordinary, simple, and quite like each ofoursis also "most terrible."Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn (ed. WalterBlair, University of California Press; this edi­tion is by the University's distinguished emeri­tus professor of American literature and world­renowned Twain expert.) Twain's moving andfunny account of a young Missouri lad and ablack man on a raft in the Mississippi River rich­ly repays a second or third reading. The book'spertinence to current issues of racial conflict isall the more ironic in view of recent attempts toban it from library shelves for what appears to beits racist language.Thomas Mann: Death in Venice (VintageBooks). The novella treats the death of an artist16 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991whose career resembles Mann's own in many re­spects. The story of Gustave Von Aschenbach'slife and, most of all, his death raises troublingquestions about the nature of artistic creativityand the artist's relation to his society.William Faulkner: As I Lay Dying (VintageBooks). Faulkner's stature as a novelist contin­ues to rise-As I Lay Dying is one of his best nov­els and is of manageable length. Like Twain,Faulkner neither apologizes for nor condones asouthern world of blacks and whites, poor ten­ant farmers and plantation owners; his businessas novelist is to dramatize conflict and perceiveits universal dimensions in the story of the hu­man heart.Chinua Achebe: Things Fall Apart (Fawcett).A modern African novel about traditional Ibotribal culture before and during the coming ofEuropean colonialism. Based on the life ofAchebe's grandfather, the novel is deeply mov­ing without being sentimental and highly in­formative without being didactic.Anthology of Poetry: Selected poems from TheNorton Anthology of Poetry (Norton). No com­mon core would have balance and completenesswithout a chance to reflect on some great lyricpoetry of the British and American tradition.The selection we suggest ranges from Renais­sance metaphysical poetry (Donne) to modernAmerican poetry (Frost, Stevens, Moore,Brooks), and from.the ode (Keats) to the freerforms of the modern world. Our quick tour in­cludes not only the familiar greats of the Britishtradition (Milton, Wordsworth, Browning) butalso works of compelling genius from Ireland(Yeats), Northern Ireland (Heaney), and BlackAmerica (Brooks) .John Donne, "The Canonization" "The SunRising"Andrew Marvell, "The Garden"John Milton, "L' Allegro" "11 Penseroso"William Blake, "London"William Wordsworth, "Ode on Melancholy"Robert Browning, "Soliloquy in a SpanishCloister"Emily Dickinson, "Because I could not stop fordeath"Gerard Manley Hopkins, "The Windhover""Pied Beauty"William Butler Yeats, "Among School Children"Robert Frost, "Directive"Wallace Stevens, "Sunday Morning"Marianne Moore, "Poetry"W.H. Auden, "Musee des Beaux Arts"Seamus Heaney, "Mid-term Break", Gwendolyn Brooks, "We Real Cool" Social ThoughtAdam Smith: The Wealth of Nations (Ed. byEdwin Cannon, University of Chicago Press).In this classic statement of "economic man,"Smith maintains that pursuit of self-interest con­stitutes an "invisible hand" guiding prosperityfor society as a whole. His caution regarding theproblem of combination or monopoly amongcapitalists, together with recognition of the inev­Citable limits of regulation by the state, remains assignificant today as two centuries ago.Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Discourse on the Or­igins and Foundations of Inequality ("TheSecond Discourse") (Trans. Roger D. andJudith R. Masters, St. Martin's Press). Provid­ing the foundation for virtually all social theoryof the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Rous­seau is the first theorist to distinguish between agentle and equalitarian nature and constrainingculture, which results in inevitable inequalityand alienation: of persons from each other andfrom nature itself. Rousseau's critique providesan essential statement of the problems of sociallife relevant to our own time.Karl Marx: The German Ideology: Part I(In The Marx-Engels Reader, 2nd ed., ed. byRobert C. Tucker, Norton). Marx makes a num­ber of strong assertions in this essay, in an at­tempt to overthrow the putatively dominant ide­alistic philosophy of mid-nineteenth centuryGermany and to replace it with materialism. Hestates, for example, that "life is not determinedby consciousness, but consciousness by life"and "the ideas of the ruling class are in every ep­och the ruling ideas."Simone Weil: The Iliad: The Poem of Force.(Pendle Hill). Written in France in the summerof 1940, immediately after the German con­quest, Simone Weil's essay uses the The Iliad toreflect on the meaning of force and violence inhuman life. As good an essay on Homer as hasever been written, Weil's piece is also a clear andpowerful introduction to existentialist thought.We hope you will join us on campusduring Reunio.n and Homecoming,when faculty who helped compilethe Centennial Syllabus will lead special discus­sions of selected works. If you would like to or­ganize a discussion group in your local commu­nity, please send your name, address, andtelephone number to Laura Gruen at the AlumniAssociation, 5757 Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago,Illinois 60637 by December 1. Contact nameswill be printed in the Magazine's Februaryissue.The specific editions cited in this listing can beordered through the Seminary CooperativeBookstore at a special alumni discount of 10 per­cent. Contact The Seminary Cooperative Book­store, Inc., at 5757 S. University, Chicago, Illi­nois 60637, or phone 1-800-777-1456. Pleasespecify that you are ordering books from theCentennial Syllabus.J HE UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO turns 100this year. It's a mile­stone, the last institu­tional anniversary thatcan be comfortablyanthropomorphized.Unlike a quasquicen­tennial-what the University will celebrate inthe year 2016-a centennial lies within therange of human experience.After all, about 13 percent of Chicago's livingalumni received their first degree before 1941,the year the University turned 50. Their memo­ries, whether stored in real or cerebral attics,span at least half the University's life.Such proximity to the past, say professionalhistorians, makes for bad history. Such person­al connections, however; make it especially funto look back. One hundred yearsin forty pages.The bad news isthat many, manyimportant people,accomplishments,and ideasaren't mentioned.But, when you thinkabout it, that's alsothe good news.IAnd that's what the MagaZine, like any self­respecting octogenarian, has done. Foragingthrough institutional attics, including its ownback issues, it has pulled out assorted facts, bitsof yesterday'S news, names from the past, fadedposters, things it didn't want to throwawayThe pages that follow are filled with thekinds of information that the MagaZine hasalways contained: faculty research, studentsocial life and social activism, new campusbuildings, curricular innovations, and alumniaccomplishments.We hope it brings back memories.LTHOUGH Waller Blair PIONEERED the study ofAmerican humor, he has never wanted to examine itpostmortem. In the words of former student Saul Bel­low, "He didn't teach humor so seriously that you hadto stop laughing." Over six decades, Blair establishedAmerican humor as subject matter for scholarshipand as appropriate material for classroom discussion,writing with another former student, Hamlin Hill, the landmark AmericanHumor(1971). In 1975, the American Humor Studies Association gave himits first Charlie Chaplin award.Asked how he was lured into a previously unexplored topic, the emeritusprofessor replied in a deadpan style worthy of his favorite subject, MarkTwain: "You didn't have to read all thisFrom a ceDturyof research, hereis a selectioDof UDiversityprofessors­choseD to repre-, seDt differeDtdiscipliDes aDderas-whoseUDcommODability to make asubject theiroWllhassetastaDdardat ChicagoaDdbeyoDd. damned scholarship and criticism by otherpeople."James Breasted, the University's (and thenation's) first professor of Egyptology, con­ducted his first expedition into Egypt­coinciding with his honeymoon-in 1894,equipped with a donkey and a pocket cam­era. Between 1905 and 1907, he directed anexpedition to copy inscriptions surviving onmonuments along the Nubian Nile, and ledthe first party of archaeologists to run thedangerous rapids of the Fourth Cataract. In1919, funded by John D. Rockefeller, Breastedstarted the Oriental Institute; a dozen yearslater, he was supervising 12 expeditions anda $500,000 annual budget.Breasted saw the Oriental Institute as thefirst "laboratory" for the study of early civili­zation, and in his many popular books, hestressed the human "dawn of conscience,"describing it as "the greatest discovery in thewhole course of evolution."50phonisba Preston Breckinridge's ca­reer of "firsts" began in 1889, when she wasthe first woman admitted to the Kentuckybar. She then moved to Chicago to work as asecretary to University dean of women Ma­rion Talbot-while earning a doctorate in po­litical science. Despite objections from malestudents, she entered the Law School, and in1904 was its first woman graduate. As a member of the faculty of the down­town School of Civics and Philanthropy, shenegotiated its merger with the University,launching the School of Social Service Ad­ministration as the nation's first graduateprofessional school in social work in 1920.Other firsts: first woman to represent the U.S.in an international conference, editor ofthe first academic journal on social services,r and author of the first case book on familywelfare.'The work of the world," SophonisbaBreckinridge once remarked, "is not done bygoing to bed when you are sleepy."5ubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar's1930 postulation that collapsing stars cannotcontract indefinitely (a theory known asChandrasekhar's Limit) is recognized todayas a central finding of modem astrophysics­leading to the discovery of black holes andneutron stars-but was soundly rejected atthe time. So the young scientist simplymoved to other avenues of research: thestudy of the transfer of radiation through lay­ers of stars, the forces that act on large rotat­ing fluid bodies, and black holes.Accepting his 1983 Nobel Prize, Chandra­sekhar offered a philosophical summation ofhis scientific investigations: "The simple isthe seal of the true. And beauty is the splen­dor of truth."A member of the faculty from 1904 to 1939,Anton J. Carlson earned scientific fame atage 29, ending a century-old controversy byproving that the heartbeat begins in the nerve,not the muscle. Carlson often used himself asa research subject: for hunger studies, he fast­ed 15 days, cramming balloons attached to along tube down his throat into his stomach tomeasure its contractions.He also used self-experimentation to refutea classic Pavlovian theory, showing that gas­tric juices were not a conditioned response tothe stimulus of food, and was the first personto label alcoholism as a disease. In a thickSwedish accent, Carlson disposed of themedical quackery of his day with the an-the Traditiol1nouncement, "He iss a fraud," or, in a moreforgiving mood, "He is yust a damn fool.""If you had met John Dewey in person, youwould have found nothing impressive abouthim," education professor Robert McCaulonce noted. Yet "under that placid exteriorburned compulsions of the most powerfuland extraordinary kind." Dewey's attempts toreconcile conflicts caused by rapid changesin late 19th-century society, especiallyDarwin's evolution theories, resulted in in­strumentalism, a philosophy which heldthat, as an instrument to solve problems,truth must change as problems change.Within this, system, Dewey viewed democ­racy as a primary ethical value, and educa­tion as a vital tool to make democracy work.Joining the faculty in 1894, he tested thesetheories by creating an experimental schoolwhere youngsters would learn through directexperience. Dewey led the Laboratory SchoolUntil 1904, when he departed for Columbia,but his interlocking vision of school and so­ciety remained.The grandson of a runaway slave, JohnHope Franklin received his doctorate inhistory from Harvard in 1941. Eight years lat­er' he caused a sensation when he attacked abook by a prominent white Civil War histori­an as inaccurate and offensive. His own re­search often necessitated working around strict segregation rules. At one archive in theSouth, a room was emptied for him to sitaway from white researchers, and since it wasinconceivable for him to order a white to re­trieve materials, he was given a key to thestorage shelves-discriminatory measureswhich he ironically found advantageous.When he joined the University in 1964, hehad already written From Slavery to Freedom(1947) and Reconstruction After the Civil War­(1961). Resisting the label "black" historian,Franklin has insisted, "I teach the history ofthe South-black and white."Although Karl Llewellyn was expert inthe intricacies oflegal thought (he helped pi­oneer the systematic study of the Americanlegal profession), his approach to its applica­tion was decidedly humanistic. Among hiscauses: Sacco and Vanzetti; developing ac­cess to legal services for Americans either toopoor, too ignorant, or too frightened to con­sult an attorney; and Native American rights(he acted as unofficial legal adviser for NewMexico's Pueblos).Llewellyn told his students that a law edu­cation should have application not only inprofessional life, "but in your daily life," andunabashedly called his own popular courseon jurisprudence "the one with the most im­mediate practicality" of any in the LawSchool. Indispensable in highlighting differ- ent lines of legal reasoning was his multi­hued chalk, for, he asked, "who can teachjurisprudence without colored chalk?"His doctorate complete at Harvard, JohnMaHhews Manly announced he would stayon for a year of "self-directed study and read­ing" of the Harvard library-and was said tobe nearly halfway done when called fourmonths later to head Brown University'sEnglish department. In 1893, at age 33, Man­ly accepted the head English professorship atChicago. There he maintained a "sporting in­stinct" for research. Once, for example, hechased down a clue which led him to reject athen-current belief that three versions ofPiers Plowman were by one author, thus aid­ing a new theory on the evolution of medie­val drama.In his final years, Manly struggled to com­plete an eight-volume critical edition ofChaucer's Canterbury Tales. Despite poorhealth and the death of his colleague andmost distinguished student, Edith Rickert,he lived to see it published. A driving emo­tional power, he wrote, "is essential for everygreat intellectual undertaking."The son of the University's first professor ofchemistry, John Ulric Nef studied at Har­vard and the Brookings Institute before re­turning to Chicago as an assistant professorin 1929. Three years later, he published hisclassic The Rise of the British Coal Industry, abook that went beyond straight economichistory, examining the thoughts of England'sartists and theologians to discover the emo­tions behind the quantitative facts.Nef's belief in interdisciplinary scholar­ship led him-with Frank Knight, RobertRedfield, and Robert Hutchins-to found thegraduate Committee on Social Thought in1941. He saw its task as "the "unification ofall recent discoveries of the arts and sci­ences," providing a refuge for a variety ofscholars to share each other's knowledge andconcerns in a spirit of friendship. Its list offaculty reads like an intellectual "who'swho": Hannah Arendt, Saul Bellow, T.S. Eliot,A "sporting instinct" for research(clockwise from left): Blair's LittleTramp; Breasted and family atthe Amada Temple, 1906; anadministrative tablet, discovered inIraq by a 1904 Oriental Instituteexpedition; astrophysicistChandrasekhar; SSAfounder Breckinridge;the Dewey method,applied to Lab Schoolsquilt-making; Llewellyn'Sindispensable chalk;John Hope Franklin; amanorial scroll used byManly and Rickert;JohnDeweyUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 IIIChicagoSchools ofThoughtChicago School of Sociology. The nation'sfirst academic department of sociologyopened in 1892, but it was in the 1910s and1920s that a distinct and pragmatic style ofsociological study arose.Approach: Joining once divergent strains ofempirical and theoretical sociology, the Chi­cago School expanded the research toolsavailable to sociologists. The city became thelaboratory as Chicagoans collected personaldocuments, studied census tract data, anddid field research, studying gangs, immi­grants, race relations, hoboes, taxi dancers,and real-estate agents.Key Players: Robert Ezra Park defined andpromulgated the approach through his pa­pers, students, and Introduction to the Scienceof SOciology, a 1921 textbook he wrote withoffice mate and collaborator Ernest WatsonBurgess. William I. Thomas emphasized theuse of exhaustive data, and his The PolishPeasant in Europe and America (1918)brought the school to national attention.Through his course on ''Advanced SocialPsychology" (the content of which waspublished posthumously by his students asMind, Self, and Society in 1934), George Her­bert Mead elucidated such fundamental no­tions as symbol, self, meaning, and role. Wil­liam Ogburn underscored the importance ofquantitative data, using statistics and scien­tific methods, while Louis Wirth wrote onurbanism, race relations, and internationalrelations-including his 1928 landmarkbook, The Ghetto.Chicago School of Economics. Crystallizingin the Department of Economics in the1930s, this school has grown to include fac­ulty in the Graduate School of Business andthe Law School.Approach: The idea most strongly asso­ciated with the school is its belief in the abili­ty of the free market to allocate resources anddistribute income. Begun in an era whenKeynesian economics held sway, it is now adominant strain of economic thought, influ­encing political policy and business prac­tices in the U.S. and abroad. Over the years,the tools and concepts of price theory have been applied to situations outside econom­ics' traditional realm.Key Players: The school had two fathers,both adherents of neoclassical price theory:Jacob Viner emphasized applied theory,while Frank H. Knight analyzed the theory'sunderlying logical structure. Although theyoften disagreed, their influence was such thatthe department's Ph.D. requirementsstressed competence in applying price theo­ry-a rarity in the 1930s. A younger memberof the department, later the first economistappointed to the Law School, was Henry Si­mons, whose writings were influential in de­veloping the progressive income tax.The school's second generation includedtwo students from Viner and Knight's era,empiricists (and Nobelists) Milton Fried­man, perhaps best known as the man behindReaganomics, and George Stigler, known forhis work on regulation, industrial structures,and the functioning of markets. Both laterjoined the Chicago faculty: Friedman in eco­nomics, Stigler at the business school.By the mid-1950s, the school's influencewas felt beyond economics' traditionalboundaries: H.G. Lewis studied price theoryin relation to "demand and supply of union­ism," while Gary Becker examined the eco­nomics of racial discrimination and house­hold behavior (analyzing time as an economicresource). Meanwhile, in the Law School,foundations were laid for what eventually be­came the Law and Economics movement.Chicago School of Criticism. Gathering atthe University in the mid-1930s, the "Chica­go Critics" would remain associated with itfor the next two decades.Approach: Sometimes known as the "Chi­cago Aristoteleans" because of that philoso­pher's influence on its outlook, the groupexamined a literary work as a whole­analyzing each part to reveal its role in pro­ducing the overall effect on the reader An­other distinguishing feature was the group'sinsistence on careful distinctions among in­dividual genres.Key Players: Ronald S. Crane developedwhat he called "the disciplined consider­ation, at once analytical and evaluative, oflit­erary works as works of art" in collaborationwith Philosophy professor Richard McKeon.Crane, McKeon, Norman Maclean, ElderOlson, and Bernard Weinberg all contrib­uted essays on the art of criticism to Criticsand Criticism: Ancient and Modem (1952).The group provided an important strain inthe development of modem American criti­cism: that influence is clearly seen in WayneBooth's milestone work, The Rhetoric of Fic­tion (1961).IV UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 Frederich Hayek, Paul Ricoeur, and IgorStravinksy, to name a few.After finishing his University law degree,Robert Redfield took a 1922 vacation toMexico, where he met that country's leadinganthropologist, Manuel Gamio. Intrigued byGamic's assertion that, in order to truly helpthe poor villagers, one must seriously studyhow they lived and what they lived by,-Redfield abandoned law and returned toChicago to study anthropology under Fay­Cooper Cole.As a professor and, later, dean of Chicago'sSocial Sciences Division, Redfield wrotesuch classics as The Folk Culture of Yucatan(1941), advancing his belief that culturesshould be studied on a dynamic, rather thanstatic, basis-an approach used in his theoryof folk society and its relation to modem cul­ture. Convinced that social scientists hadmoral obligations, Redfield was not afraid totake unpopular stands-in response to alle­gations of communist leanings on campus,he commented that "this reputation for dan­gerous radicalism is evidence that the Uni­versity is doing its duty"History credits Howard Taylor RickeHswith discovering the cause of Rocky MountainFever; less known is the story of how Rickettsdied in his pursuit of medical knowledge. In1902, Ricketts joined the University's newlyfounded Department of Pathology and Bacte­riology Through early studies of a potentiallyfatal disease occurring in certain areas of theRocky Mountains, Ricketts determined itscause as the bite of a tick of that region.Investigating spotted fever, Ricketts notonly identified the tick-carrier, but also thefatal bacillus strains in the bloodstreams ofafflicted persons. Believing he could applythis knowledge to the study of typhus fever,Ricketts traveled in 1910 to Mexico, wherethe disease was rampant. He announced thediscovery of a bacillus carried by an insect ofthe region, four days after contracting thedisease himself. He died in Mexico. At a me­morial service in Chicago, it was said that "aGeneticist SewallWright (below); beforesatellites, Simpson sentcosmicrayexperimentsup in balloons.new name has been placed on the martyr rollof science."In 1987, the Smithsonian Institution askedJohn Simpson to prepare a massive docu­ment-an account of his own scientific ac­complishments. Simpson came to Chicagoin 1943 to work on the Manhattan Project.After World War II, he helped found a move­ment to assure civilian control of atomic en­ergy, and concurrently began a long series ofexperiments examining cosmic rays­created in the explosive deaths of massivestars, and prized as samples of matter beyondthe solar system. His ray-detectors were sentup in high-altitude balloons and, later, onNASA satellites.Simpson is known for producing results ona shoestring: he founded the University'sLaboratory for Astrophysics and Space Re­search in 1957 with an initial budget of$5,000. To test his first rocket-born experi­ment's ability to withstand shock, hedropped it from a third-story lab windowinto a sandbox. By July 1990, Simpson haddesigned 29 space-bound scientific instru­ments-including the only U.S. instrumentsto encounter Halley'S comet in 1986.Elizur Wright, "the father. of insurance,"used mathematical formulas to "lend certain­ty to a risky business-his great-grandson,Sewall Wrighl, would become "the father ofpopulation genetics" by using abstract, math­ematical models to outline the shifting bal­ances of another risky business: evolution.By patiently breeding generations of guineapigs, Wright picked up the necessary clues tohelp prove that natural selection-notchance or mutation-is the major force thatcontrols and guides evolution. Wright setforth his stunning theories in a quiet, formalmanner Students often audited his classesbefore enrolling in order to grasp their com­pleXities, and a colleague, upon hearingWright present a paper, commented that heunderstood only a fifth of it, but that wasenough to make it one of the most importantpapers he had ever heard. LetKnowledge'GrowTbe basiness of areseareh university isreseareh. Bow Ibalrese'arch shoalel 'econductecl--and 10 wbal'e.ds-,ale qaesliollS forwhich. the Universily' 5answea, over Ibe pasl'century have bolhchanged and slayedIbesame:.IN PLAIN ENGLISH, RESEARCH at itslowest terms is merely trying to find outthings.-Albion W Small, chairman of the De­partment of Sociology, in a 1924 article for theJournal of Applied Sociology.THE RESEARCH FUNCTION of a univer­sity is its greatest function. In biologicalterminology it may be said to represent thecentral nervous system of the university or­ganism. It stimulates and dominates everyother function ... .It affects the whole attitudetoward subjects and toward life. It has beendescribed as the "delirious yet divine desireto know." This devotion, not merely to theacquisition of knowledge, but chiefly to theadvancement of knowledge for its own sake,is the peculiar possession of universities. Itwas certainly intended to be the dominantfeature of this university, which, apart fromthis function, met no great need.-Botanychair John M. Coulter, 1915.BUT RESEARCH PROPERLY conceivedis the highest "form of education. With­out new insights and a new vision, no onecan recreate for himself or for others the great traditions of the past, understand the cul­tures of today, or work with theory as a livingstructure.-President Edward Levi, from hisspeech "The Choices for a University" at theUniversity of Tulsa, 1967.B ESEARCH WITH US is a serious under­taking, and not an occupational dis­ease.-President Robert Maynard Hutchins, ina 1942 faculty address.IT WAS TRUE IN EDUCATION, as it hasbeen in all the spheres in which sciencesdirectly related to human life have beenevolved, that the idea of investigating the fa­miliar facts of man's nature and his immedi­ate environment had to wait until scientificmethods of thought and observation weredeveloped by studying things remote. Menstudied the stars long before they thought ofmaking the family an object of scientificscrutiny. Even today, when a college studentis first introduced to scientific discussions ofthe family, he usually thinks of some familyother than the one in which he grew up.­Charles Hubbard Judd, dean of the School ofEducation, during the cornerstone laying of theGraduate School of Education, March 1932.WITH EVERY SPECIALIST beingbrought up in a particular jargon, gen­uine dialogue between scholars belonging todifferent fields of study becomes almost im­possible ... .Thus a noble and stimulating en­counter between scholars in central and de­cisive areas of culture becomes more andmore a rarity. The worst of the matter is that agreat number of scholars do not even regrettheir incapacity to communicate with theirfellows from other branches of learn­ing .... This amounts to a growing culturalparochialism which ultimately destroys ascholar's creativity in his very field of re­search.-Mircea Eliade, professor of socialthought and the history of religions, in a 1965article for the Magazine.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 VNATURE HIDES HER SECRETS withconsummate modesty and speaks usu­ally in an unintelligible tongue. By means of agood idea we can force nature to give a yes orno answer. An unequivocal answer of eitheryes or no is acceptable to the scientist. If theanswer is "maybe" then the experiment isbadly designed or poorly executed. The abili­ty to design a simple experiment is some­times designated as the genius of research.­Surgery professor and Nobelist Charles Hug­gins, from his 1947 address at the UniversityCancer Research Civic Dinner.OVER THE CENTURIES a belief in theprogressive capacity and efficacy ofscholarship has gone hand in hand with de­spair over the futilities and excesses, the limi­tations of what intellectuals have accom­plished in their worlds. Confidence in thepower and authority of scientific discoveryhas often been diminished and challengedby the awareness that scientific break­throughs may be double-edged swords, thattechnologies, for example, could take on anencroaching, even sinister, life of their own.5 elf­sustainingReactions The trust that saving grace would flow frompossessing and sustaining the civilizing heri­tage of thought and art and letters has alwayshad to contend with the revelation of whatsupposedly civilized people do and havedone in its name.-President Hanna Gray, inher 1987 'f\.ims of Education " address. year ago, inquiring as to whether the Univer­sity was willing to cooperate with them in thefield of research. I can imagine the shiver thatwould have gone down the back of the presi­dent of a medieval university when he wasasked to cooperate with the Institute of MeatPackers. I want to assure you no shiver wentdown the back of the president of the Univer­sity of Chicago. He recognized at once that-.... Meat Packers dealt with one of the practi­cal things of life, that the university was con­cerned with those practical things ... All thismust go on not, as I have said, to the sacrificeof those things that dwell in the clouds, un­der suns, and come down to earth in rain, butto the expansion of the field of university life.-President Ernest DeWitt Burton, addressingthe Executives' Club of Chicago, 1925.SCIENTISTS HAVE NOT heretofore feltthat it was their responsibility to fight forthe rational use of the products of their en­deavor. This responsibility they willingly leftto the. governments of their nations ... thepresent attitude of the scientists is different... .It is their duty, conscious as they are of thedanger which atomic power brings tomankind ... to carry forward the warning ofthis danger to all people of our country and toother nations of the Earth.-From the firstpublic statement issued by the Atomic Scientistsof Chicago, October 1945. SCIENCE, SCHOLARSHIP, AND LEARN­ING were recognized as worthwhile ac­tivities in themselves, quite apart from theirresults, many centuries before· materialthings came to play so large a role in ourTHE INSTITUTE OF MEAT PACKERS ap­plied to the University of Chicago over aA' T-SHIRT SEEN on the quads a fewyears back, embossed with a mush­room cloud, declared: "The Univer­sity of Chicago ... Where the End of the WorldBegan."For those gathered under the west stands ofStagg Field on Dec. 2, 1942, the achievementof the first sustained nuclear reaction was re­garded with a similar mixture of pride andguilt. "From this accomplishment, a straightline of progress led to the production of plu­tonium by the pound, the assembly of theatomic bomb, the destruction of Hiroshimaand part of Nagasaki," wrote one of those sci­entists, Samuel K. Allison, ten years later. "Inall this work," he noted, the scientists "weredrawn on by hope and goaded by fear."The hope was that the harnessing of atomicenergy would revolutionize science andtechnology, but it was fear-that the Germanswere close to developing their own atomicbomb-which led the Roosevelt administra- Moment of truth: First Controlled Nuclear Reaction, painting by Douglas M. Parrish.VI UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991scheme of values. Indeed, our materialprogress is in no small part a byproduct-acompletely unforeseen, unsought, and stillonly partially understood byproduct-ofuniversities and the processes of learning,scholarship, and scientific inquiry cultivatedby them. Seeking knowledge for knowledge'ssake, and seeking it in lieu of material goodsand services rather than as a means of attain­ing them, is the hallmark of the university. In­deed, knowledge is sought not even for itsown sake so much as for the sake of thesearch.-WAllen Wallis, dean of the GraduateSchool of Business, delivering the August 1962convocation address.THE UNIVERSITIES ARE ALWAYS in aweaker position. They have neither thephysical force nor the legal powers nor theeconomic resources to resist a strong-willedgovernment and in a tug of war betweenthem, the universities cannot resist the gov­ernment. Yet, the government too is limitedin its powers; it does not have the means of searching for the truth, it cannot educate theoncoming generations. It from its side de­pends on the universities. It can force univer­sities to do what is against their will and it candeform the universities so that they cannotdo what they alone can do. But it will nevercome to that pass if the government and uni­versities each recognizes its own obligationsand the other's rights.-Edward Shils, the dis-:­tinguished service professor in the Committeeon Social Thought and SOciology, from his 1979Jefferson lectures, sponsored by the NationalEndowment for the Humanities.I CONTEND THE UNITED STATES is un­derinvesting in research. The result is adrastic decline in the morale of even the bestacademic researchers. I believe that if U.S.science is going to have a chance to help thenation meet the challenges it faces, we mustcreate a new environment for research. Theideal environment is one in which any tal­ented scientist can obtain research funding ifhe or she has a good idea and can meet theburden of reasonable review and resistance.-Leon Lederman, the Frank L. Sulzberger pro-tion to pour massive funds into secret atomicresearch. By 1940, such research was inprogress not only at Chicago, but at Prince­ton, Berkeley, and Columbia, where EnricoFermi continued the Nobel-Prize winningwork with radioactivity he had started in Ita­ly before the war-work which had clearlyindicated the theoretical possibility of creat­ing a nuclear explosion.Fermi, Allison, Leo Szilard, and HaroldUrey were among the outstanding scientistsbrought to the University in 1941, when thegovernment decided to concentrate work onatomic chain reactions at Chicago. Historianand distinguished service professor emeritusWilliam McNeill, in his 1991 book Hutchins'University, says that the site selection hadmuch to do with the influence of physicschair Arthur Holly Compton, who had beenput in charge of the national effort to createsuch a reaction on the day before Pearl Har­bor's bombing. The extent of University Pres­ident Robert Hutchins' knowledge of the pro­ject "is entirely unclear to me," writesMcNeill, although Hutchins' compliancewould be harmonious with his 1941 decreethat the University be turned into "an instru­mentality of total war."Whoever was responsible for bringing thecode-named "Metallurgical Project" to Chi­cago, Enrico Fermi was indispensably incharge of ensuring its success. Throughoutthe fall of 1942, Fermi supervised as layer up­on layer of graphite and uranium were stack- fessor of physics, from his 1991 report aspresident-elect to the American Association ofthe Advancement of Science.To SAY THAT BASIC SCIENCE is excit­ing may sound like a contradiction.... the intellectual excitement of a man sit­ting over a microscope in a university base­ment, tracking down a clue, may seem prettytame. But I would remind you that there aretwo intellectual excitements that are nottame at all and that we remember all ourlives. One is the thrill of following out a chainof reasoning for yourself. The other is thepleasure of watching several strongly indi­vidualistic personalities argue about theirdeepest conviction. That is to say, the thrill ofa detective story and the pleasure of watch­ing a play by Bernard Shaw. These are exactlythe excitements I would claim basic sciencehas to offer-John R. Platt, professor of physics,in comments for the February 1960 Magazine.ltV AT IS THE EVIDENCE?,,-Biologypro­fessor Anton]. Carlson's repeated queryto colleagues and students.ed into a great pile, and detecting equipmentindicated the growth of greater and greaterneutron intensity. Fermi's slide-rule calcula­tions were so exact that days before the pile'scompletion in December, he was able to pre­dict almost to the exact brick the point atwhich its critical size would be reached.That moment occurred on Dec. 2 at 3:25p.m. when Fermi broke the tense silence ofhis assembled colleagues with a quiet an­nouncement: "The reaction is self­sustaining." Twenty-eight minutes later, acontrol rod was inserted to shut down thepile. As Samuel Allison later wrote, 'Thedemonstration was utterly convincing."Among the utterly convinced were militarybrass who promptly ordered the projectmoved to emptier landscapes out west. BothAllison and Fermi were present for the firstatomic test bomb explosion in New Mexico,July 16, 1945, with Allison conducting the fi­nal countdown.The subsequent bombing ofjapan, as wellas post-war revelations that the U.S. wasalone in possessing nuclear capability (Ger­many hadn't come even close), created a cri­sis of conscience among many of the scien­tists involved. They and other Universityfaculty-Edward Levi, Robert Redfield, andEdward Shils among them-helped to mountan intense post-war lobbying effort that re­sulted in the 1946 transfer of atomic energymanagement from the military to a new civil­ian Atomic Energy Commission.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 VIIATHER THAN PRIDING THEMSELVES on being un­traditional, the University's first students were keenlyaware that they lacked traditions, and set about to cre­ate some.President Harper encouraged these feelings: a goodfootball team, for example, would bring the Universityneeded recognition. But he also hoped for more intel­lectual pursuits such as a debate team and literary societies.One social organization he didn't want was the fraternity, but it proved abattle he could not win. At the first faculty meeting, the first item of busi­ness dealt with fraternities: the professors voted to establish them. Harper'sfears were realized as fraternity brothers consistently received lower grades- )r \.___.I _jthan other students in those early years.More than 20 societies, clubs, and associa­tions were formed the first year, includingpolitical clubs keyed to the upcoming presi­dential election. It's reported that footballpractice was held the first day of class, whilethe baseball team began playing in April andwon seven of their ten games. A decade be-Serious aboutsocial issues,Chicagostudents havealso beenserious abouttheir sociallives.fore the Daily Maroon, the University News andthe University Weekly began-and in the caseof the News, folded-within the first yearAs the first decade progressed, women de­veloped secret societies to rival fraternities;Dean of Women Marion Talbot-who, be­cause of Harper's lack of interest in under­graduates, wielded a lot of power over thesocial lives of the students-fought them,but the sorority-like societies sprung upanyway.For the 20 percent of women who lived. onVIII UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991campus, social life focused around the re­sidence halls-Foster, Green, Kelly, andBeecher-each of which had its own resi­dence head and its own identity. Talbot alsoorganized "umbrella groups" for the womenwho lived off campus. The Women's Union,founded by Talbot-in 1904, sponsored week­ly speakers like Jane Addams.Around the turn of the century, social lifecreated divisions as well as community. Thesocially active tended to be the upper-middleclass, who had the time and resources to de­vote to frivolity. Working-class students andthe commuters-often more than half of thestudent body-concentrated on getting aneducation.This division was heightened by a conflictbetween the administration and the stu­dents. The former had no patience for sopho­moric "traditions"; they discouraged hazing,rushing, and other pranks. But for studentsstruggling to create traditions, the only mod­els were the high-jinks of the all-male EastCoast schools. The two viewpoints frequent­ly clashed, as when Harper very sternly repri­manded a group of students who tried to cel­ebrate a football victory over Brown by takingthe day off.Then there was the matter of coeducation.Unaccustomed to being thrown together inthe classroom, men and women didn't knowhow to act outside academic confines. Soci­ety dictated that women not acknowledgemen to whom they had not been formally in­troduced. But what was the etiquette towardmen by whom they had sat-or been in­structed-in class for ten weeks?In 1902 these tensions came to a head, asmale faculty won approval for segregatedclasses. Although the controversial measure never firmly took hold, male-dominated ac­tivities began to overshadow the women's or­ganizations, which after 1916 were isolatedin Ida Noyes Hall. Football became a nationalpowerhouse; the Blackfriars, a popular all­male group, began in 1904; fraternitiesgained strength; and World War I brought anew recognition of the value of men.At the brink of war, the Magazine noted alack of "valiant impulse" among male stu­dents: only 350, less than 15 percent, regis­tered for a military training course. (In con-arstrast, many able-bodied faculty joined a drillsquad.) Within a week after war was de­clared, however, 700 students were drilling,and by Fall 1917, the number of male stu­dents had dropped almost 20 percent.Student life in the Roaring Twenties wasprobably as frivolous and free-spirited as it:ver got, at least for undergraduates. In aMemoir of the Twenties" in the October19 '67 MagaZine, Robert Pollak, PhB'24, re-marked that the era "marked the climax ofthe free lecture system then prevailing in higher education throughout the country.Almost any college student able to read andwrite could, by careful selection of snapcourses, wind up with a degree-even atChicago."The big men on campus were the footballplayers. Undergraduate politics were domi­nated by the fraternities, and interest innational politics and social issues "stoodvirtually at zero."Always a study in contrasts, the split be­tween Chicago's graduate and College stu- Social traditions:Blackfriars theatricals(inset) and the annualWashington's BirthdayProm.dents was particularly striking during thistime, according to historian and professoremeritus William McNeill. 'The graduate de­partments, where research was prized aboveall else, had never approved of the under­graduates' preoccupation with riotous livingand rah-rah athletics," McNeill writes in hisbook Hutchins' University (The University ofChicago Press, 1991). Graduate students fromacross the country "gravitated to Chicago onthe strength of its high reputation for re­search." The undergraduates, who in the1920s were nearly all from the local area, weredrawn largely by Chicago'S athletic success.Attempts to improve the quality of under­graduate education led, under PresidentHutchins, to the 1931 approval of the NewPlan. Bachelor's degrees were earned by pass­ing examinations; class attendance was vol­untary. The plan, whose first two years con­sisted of a series of survey courses, succeededin attracting top high school students na­tionwide. By 1933,47.3 percent of Chicago'Sfreshmen had ranked in the top 10 percent oftheir high school class.The College's composition was changing inother ways. While a statistical study of theentering class of 1932 showed that blacksand Asians totaled less than two percent, 26percent were Jewish, "a SOCiological factthat," writes Mcl-lcill, "made the Collegeunique in the country." As other private col­leges focused their admissions efforts onupper-class students, both Jews and Protes­tants from middle-class backgrounds weredrawn to Chicago "as a place to rise in the so­cial scale," observes McNeill, "where oldideas, old habits, and old prejudices were leftbehind."New ideas sometimes included new poli­tics. Two active student groups were the com­munist and socialist clubs, rivals until form­ing a "united front" in 1936. They sponsoreda 1934 May Day "Peace Rally" in which sever­al hundred young men took an oath never tofight on behalf of their country-makingnational headlines and leading to the 1935Walgreen investigation into the University'salleged "Red" leanings.The 1939 decision to abandon Big Tenfootball-after a decade brightenedonly by the nation's first Heismanwinner-sounded the death knell for a cer­tain collegiate lifestyle, and the U.S. entryUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 IXHey, Kids,Let's PutonaShow!IN 1898, THE UNIVERSITY SETTLEMENT wasdesperately seeking funds. So studentsand faculty decided to put on a play,with the proceeds going to the Settlement.The result was The Deceitful Dean.The show (whose cast included a slightlywooden A. A. Stagg) netted the Settlement$1,600. Four years later, with the-Settlementagain low on funds, faculty and studentscombined once more to produce The Aca­demic Alchemist.Then, in the winter of 1904, a studentnamed Frank Adams organized some fellowstudents-one from each fraternity plus oth­er men with an interest in acting-under thename of an old monastic order, Blackfriars.With their first musical comedy, The PassingofPahli Khan, an annual tradition was born.From campus burlesques (The Rushing ofRaxes, The Lyrical Liar), the Blackfriarsmoved to a "Classical Period," productionswith more universal themes. (In 1916, for ex­ample, A Rhenish Romance began as Otto vonAltenburg, "rich and powerful, arrogantly de­mands the hand of the Princess Ir­mengard .... ") Next came the "Syncopation,Period," with jazzier music, more profes­sional choruses, and titles like Plastered inParis.No matter what the show, all or some ofthe proceeds went to charity.The Blackfriars stage went dark in wartime,first in Spring 1918 and again in 1941-thattime, the hiatus lasted until 1955, whenwomen were allowed to join the order. By the1980s, original shows were increasingly in­terspersed with versions of Broadway hits.During the early 1950s, however, two differ­ent forms of campus theater took centerstage. One remained strictly a U of C phe­nomenon, another entered the mainstream.In the late 1940s, six students approachedCoach Erwin Beyer. They wanted to be cheer­leaders for the basketball team-and neededacrobatic training. Beyer enlisted the men'sgymnastic team, and within a month, the "The Chicago Girl" (below)in The Blackfriars' ThePassing of Pahli Khan wasplayed by a Chicago man­but the raccoon-coated"men" in a Mirror Reviewproduction (right) werewomen. group "had added adagio to acrobatics" aridforsaken cheerleading for something chris­tened "Acrotheatre."The new form combined "a bit of drama,circus, musical comedy, the ballet, acrobat­ics, and gymnastic exhibition." The first full­length production in Mandel Hall, Ideal,Girls, won raves.the second, Magic Rope, wascovered by Life. At its peak, the troupe­which followed the tradition of supportingthe Settlement-numbered 120 membersand ran a Iunior Acrotheatre program for fac­ulty offspring.More lasting, however, was a theatricalmovement that began in Autumn 1950 as To­night at 8:30, an avant-garde companion tothe more mainstream student theatrical ve­nue, University Theater. Many of the samestudents-including names like Ed Asnerand Mike Nichols-showed up again in animprovisational theater, the Compass Play­ers, that started in 1955 in a bar at 55th Streetand University Avenue.Disdaining scripts, the players built eachshow around audience suggestions or thebarest of plot outlines. A lot depended onchemistry-and the rapport between Nicholsand Elaine May catapulted them to nationalfame. Another offshoot of the Compass Play­ers was Second City, the North Side satiricalrevue that became the comedic grandfatherof "Saturday Night Live."The improv tradition continues. Off-OffCampus, a student improvisational groupthat grew out of a 1986 comedy class taughtby Second City impresario (and alumnus)Bernie Sahlins, this year made its second tripto Edinburgh's international arts festival. Ap­propriately enough, the troupe performed itsrevue, Innocence Lost, Paradise Found, as partof the festival's more experimental program-known as the Fringe."The suggestion was made that any person desiring 10 establisirthe table for two weeks, it could be established by a two-thirds vote.-'i!X UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991into World War II created another line of de­marcation. Almost immediately, the Univer­sity shifted gears to become, in Hutchins'words, "an instrumentality of total war."While Cokes were rationed at the C-Shop,students departed the quads in droves, re­placed by even greater numbers of militarypersonnel, enrolled in several wartime insti­tutes set up on campus. Bartlett Gym becamea barracks and training center, with sailorsstanding round-the-clock guard at its frontentrance.Traditions underwent adjustments. The Al­ma Mater, once played at 10:05 p.m. eachevening, was now played at 8:55 so as not towake the soldiers. However, the custom ofstepping around the University seal in Mit­chell Tower was impossible to enforce, theMagaZine wistfully observed, "partly becausethe soldiers were marching, and partly be­cause they don't remain on the campus longenough to acquire all the fine points of tradi­tional conduct."Student life following WWII was still verymuch a reflection of the war. By 1946, veter­ans studying under the G.!. Bill of Rightsmade up 40 percent of the student popula­tion. The influx created a shortage of on­campus housing, but a "Pre-Fab" city, rowupon row of cream-colored temporaryCottages, sprang up on the Midway's Green­Wood Field, with a view north of the Gothicskyline.The complexion of student life had alreadychanged dramatically with the 1942 creationof the Hutchins College, and its four-year,general curriculum designed for those whoenrolled after only two years of high school.(Despite this option, throughout the 1940s,more than half of all entering students fin­ished high school before enrolling in theCollege.)The dichotomy of younger students andolder veterans-and the College'S almost ex­clusive emphasis on a life of the mind­meaIit that extracurricular activities failed toregain their pre-war prominence. FootballWas gone, of course, and College studentsWere forbidden to join fraternities.. By its nature, the Hutchins College at­tracted a more serious student. With the ex­ception of St. John's College in Maryland,there was no school like it in America-thestudents' zeal reflected their feeling that theyWere participating in something rare and im­POrtant. . Students, notes McNeill, felt "theu .illverse revolved around the flagpole in thecenter of campus."The "principal common denominator" of The Battleof theSexesBy THE END OF THE U OF CS FIRST DECADE,the power and independence ofwomen on campus was beginning tomake some men nervous. As Lynn Gordon,AM'74, PhD'80, writes in Gender and HigherEducation in the Progressive Era, "In 1902, 268male seniors outnumbered 242 females, yetwomen made up 56.3 percent of the Phi BetaKappa membership and outnumbered menin the Junior College [freshmen and sopho­mores]. SOCially, the success of the women'sresidence halls and women's clubs gavewomen a prominent position and led to fearsthat they would overrun the University."Faculty, too, had difficulty accepting wom­en as students rather than as objects of adora­tion or mystery; English professor RobertHerrick's novel Chimes features a professorhero who "could not get over his dislike ofseeing women chatting familiarly with themen in the corners of the halls, or sitting inthe empty classrooms, flirting ... It offendedsomething romantic in him." Real-life phys­ics professor Albert Michelson married anundergraduate, as did Alonzo Stagg.In 1902 segregation of genders in theJuniorCollege was proposed, to help maintain thedistinction between the sexes and their roles.This suggestion sparked what one campushistorian termed Chicago's "only Civil War."Harper and his faculty argued that separateclasses would benefit both sexes, not to men­tion reduce crowding in Cobb. But womenfought fiercely against the proposal-fearingthat it would eventually lead to their com­plete exclusion from the University.The opposition, led by Dean of WomenMarion Talbot, came from alumnae, suffragegroups nationwide, the female faculty, 50male professors (including John Dewey andWilliam Hale), and undergraduates. MineolaGraham Sexton, a member of a women's suf­frage group, wrote Harper, stressing the deci­sion's potential national impact: "Thou­sands of club women all over the United States are watching with grave anxiety for thedecision of the University of Chicago overcoeducation. Women have worked so hardand for so long for the privilege they now en­joy of securing a college education, and somany women are looking forward to enter­ing your University, that the possibility of be­ing excluded in the future means far more towomanhood than you perhaps realize."During the summer of 1902, the FacultySenate voted 19-12 for segregation in theJunior College; the trustees ratified the deci­sion, 13-3. It went into effect in the winterquarter of 1903, and by the fall of 1904, 80percent of Junior College students had atleast one segregated course; but almost noone had all segregated courses. In 1906-07,only 50 percent of Junior College studentswere affected, and after 1907 there are no re­corded statistics on segregated classes. In a1916 letter, Marion Talbot noted that justnine of 54 Junior College classes wereaffected.Although the controversy quietly disap­peared, and women remained at the Universi­ty, the incident was for Chicago's female facul­ty and students an unpleasant indicator ofunderlying gender tensions-even in a Uni­versity considered a pioneer in coeducation.Ladies of theclub: Sigmamembers in1895.a tradition should present the same in writing, and, after lying onSo hungry were we for traditions in those days." -Theodore Soares, original graduate studentUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 XIIn 1901-02, 4,550 students (2,202 men,2,348 women) enrolled in the University'sGraduateProfessionSchools28.84 Junior andSenior Colleges26.31University(Extension) College10.55Enrollment for the 1990-91 fall quartertotalled 11,098 students (6,950 men and4,148 women).Downtown Graduate Schoolof Business 1.75ProfessionalSchools12.2 GraduateContinuingEducationPrograms 26.32the Hutchins College, McNeill writes, "wasthat passive learning was everywhere dis­counted .... discussion, endless discussion, inand out of class-was the preferred vehiclefor active learning." Students "commonlytalked about what they were reading at mealsand in other spare time during the day-andlate, late into the night."McNeill argues that in some ways this wenttoo far, and the College "became a collectionofidiosyncratic individuals who badly need­ed an effective way of expressing their collec­tive identity in an emotionally satisfying way.Arguing was not enough. It tended to isolate,not unite."Still, the campus had its share of ,:!on-XII UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991"Football has the same relation to education asacademic activity. The Documentary FilmGroup, an outgrowth of an informal film so�ciety formed by students in the 1930s, offi­cially moved on campus in 1941. Radio Mid­way went on the air in the fall of 1949,broadcasting Bach and be-bop from theBurton-Judson basement.When football departed Chicago, it hadbeen further proof in the public mind thatthe University was something less than a red­blooded, All-American institution-a repu­tation that stuck through the 1940s. But withthe dismantling of the Hutchins College, at­tempts to revive football, and a return of sev­eral campus rituals, the pendulum wasswinging back towards the traditional duringthe Kimpton administration of the 1950s.In a 1953 report to alumni, College DeanRobert Strozier happily reported that the newChancellor "not only crowns the queen atthe Intrafraternity Ball, but he brushes herlightly with a kiss and honors her with thefirst dance." Strozier went on to report thatthe moderate Independent Students Leaguehad soundly defeated the leftist Non­Partisan Student League in Student Govern­ment elections.A lighter campus mood was reflected in thepopularity of the Student Forum. A form ofdebate that encouraged audience heckling, itquickly spread to other campuses, and be­came known as the "Chicago style." Spoofingorthodox debates, the Forum argued suchtopics as "Resolved, that Groucho has donemore good for mankind than Karl." (The af­firmative won, hands down.)Gone was the earlier emphasis on single­sex groups; Ida Noyes and the Reynolds Clubhad been turned into coeducational meetingplaces (the first in 1935, the latter in 1945,when the military returned it to Universityuse). But a bigger change was in where stu­dents lived.In 1929,47 percent of students (59 percentof undergraduates) lived with their parents;only 11 percent (8 percent of undergrads)lived in dorms. Even in the mid-Fifties, al­most one in two commuted from their par­ents' home. Between 1957 and 1962, howev­er, the number of undergraduates inUniversity housing rose from 32 to 71percent.By the end of the 1960s, the shift from pa­rental abode to in loco parentis and beyondwas almost complete: 59.7 percent of under­graduates lived in University houses (com­pared to approximately 64 percent in1990-91), and one in three single studentslived in off-campus apartments.As more students settled in Hyde Park, stu- dent life became more entwined with com­munity life. In 1966, the largest student or­ganization was SWAP. Founded in 1963, theStudent Woodlawn Area Project offered tu­toring to local high school students. In threeyears, SWAP attracted 400 volunteers.TheMidwayMonster"F OOTBALLWASFARANDAWAYthegreatcollege game," wrote ThomasGoodspeed in his history of theUniversity, and from 1892 to 1935 he wasright. As many as 25,000 people might crowdinto old Stagg Field on a big game day, flow­ing well over its 8,000 capacity; Chicago's4-0 record against Notre Dame stands un­matched today.Seeing that a good football team wouldquickly bring national prominence to his ed­ucational venture, President Harper nur­tured the program, as usual, by hiring thebest: Amos Alonzo Stagg, a football star atYale in the 1880s. Harper won him as coachwith an annual salary of $2,500 and a ten­ured professorship.Starting in 1896, the team won seven West­ern Conference (later Big Ten) champion­ships. Football fever ran high in the campuscommunity, and one of the greatest fans wastrustee Harold Swift, AB'07, who sponsoredlavish train trips to away games, once takinghis entourage as far as Princeton.But by the mid-1920s, U of C football beganto lose its luster. The team claimed its last BigTen championship in 1924. Stagg's old­fashioned, small-scale recruitment methodswere blamed, but another factor was NotreDame's emergence as a powerhouse. Whenthe Irish began to play their home games inSoldier Field, the Maroons lost their city fansand dropped out of the national spotlight.All-American Jay Berwanger sparked re­newed interest in the early '30s, as he ran,kicked, and tackled his way to the first Heis­man trophy. But not even Berwanger couldbring home a title, and after his 1936 gradua­tion the team sank further, losing not only tobullfighting does to agriculture." -Robert HutchinsSuch grass-roots activism-what fueledsome Chicago students to join the Stu­dent Non-violent Coordinating Com­mittee in its 1960s "freedom schools" andvoter registration drives-also promptedstudents to reexamine their role as mern- bers of an educational institution: howmuch power should they have? Such ques­tions went hand-in-hand with questionsabout the University's role in local and na­tional issues. And, in the case of US. involve­ment in Vietnam, the two sets of concerns overlapped, providing a rallying point formany student groups.Like their counterparts on other campuses,students-in varying percenta.ges-Iet theirhair grow, wore jeans and Indian prints, didmarijuana and other drugs. Being Chicagorivals like Michigan (85-0) but to smallschools like Beloit.President Hutchins decided to call a halt.Ignoring a suggestion that the University buy-or rent Stagg Field to-the Chicago Bears,he recommended to the trustees that inter- collegiate football be banned. Over the quietprotestations of Harold Swift, the board vo­ted in December 1939 to abolish football.When Lawrence Kimpton, a football fan,succeeded Hutchins in 1951, rumors ranrampant that Chicago would return to BigTen football. In 1955 a "football class" wasformed, heightening speculation. In fact, thatsame year, a Kimpton-appointed committeedid recommend restoring the sport, but theFaculty Senate later defeated the proposal.Throughout the 1960s, as football was gradually upgraded to a club sport, periodicstudent spoofs and protests arose. There werethe "flying Bolsheviks" in 1961, who calledsignals in Russian, referred to their ends asleft-Wing and right-wing extremists, andplayed teams like Wisconsin's MaoistMaulers. A 1963 scrimmage between a Chica­go group and a local college-filmed by CBS­was interrupted by a 50-yard-line demonstra­tion. The game was delayed for 90 minutes be­fore the protesters were hauled away.Varsity football came back quietly in 1969,heralded only by a marching kazoo band. Intheir first season the Maroons won two andlost four, prompting coach Wally Hass tojoke, "We won't accept a bowl bid this sea­son." Still, when Notre Dame coach Ara Par­seghian reported a $350,000 profit for theyear, Hass was quick to point out that theChicago squad had made money as well:$62.15.By 1990 the new gridiron record stood at47-122-2; not quite enough for a conferencechampionship, but sufficient to inspire amention in Sports Illustrated's article on"Smart Ball," which asked, "Who says foot­ball players can't be rocket scientists?"The first Heisman trophy went to JayBerwanger, AB'36. But schedules weretough, game balls were few, and "BigBertha" leftfor the University of Texas.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 XIIITakingaStandIN 1892 STUDENT WAITERS organized forbetter hours and more time to visit theColumbian Exposition. During WorldWar I, activists walked out of Chapel when ajingoistic chaplain prayed, "Thank God wehave learned to hate." In 1948 1,000 studentsprotested racial discrimination at BillingsHospital. Student protests didn't begin in the1960s.But the first sit-in came on january 23,1962. A few days earlier, members of thecampus chapter of the Congress of RacialEquality (CORE) and Student Government(SG) had presented President Beadle with re­sults from a survey in which blacks andwhites "applied" for University-ownedapartments. In every case, whites were ap­proved for apartments blacks were denied.Next, the students issued a resolution ask­ing the University to demonstrate its com­mitment to equal housing. When Beadle re­sponded that the only disagreement betweenthe protesters and the University was overthe rate at which desegregation should beaccomplished, CORE called for sit-ins. Over the next few days, students demon­strated at Beadle's office and at the UniversityRealty Management offices (where studentsand non-students were arrested). On Febru­ary 5, further demonstrations were bannedunder threat of suspension. Beadle met withCORE members and sympathizers, agreeingto form an investigative committee of faculty,student, and community representatives. Inturn, CORE suspended the sit-ins.Many 1960s protests centered on the war inVietnam. In May 1966, Students Against theRank (SAR) organized a sit-in at the Admin­stration Building to protest the provision ofmales' class standings to the Selective Service(where they were used to determine eligibili­ty for the draft). A year later, when faculty vo­ted to end separate ranking of male students-but to provide class standings for all stu­dents-SAR mounted a "study-in."The most bitter protest began in January1969, when students known as the "Com­mittee of 85" demanded the rehiring ofMarlene Dixon, an assistant professor in So­ciology and the Committee on Human De­velopment. Arguing that the non-renewal ofDixon's contract had been in response to herradical political views, they also demandedthat the Division o'f Social Sciences disclosethe criteria used in the decision and that stu­dents share equally in all future decisions.Unappeased by the appointment of a Uni- versity committee to review the Dixon caseor by a statement from President Levi empha­sizing that departments should take studentopinions into consideration when makingappointment decisions, on January 23 theCommittee of 85 issued a second list of de­mands, including equal student control overhiring and rehiring. If the demands weren'tmet within a week, the group threatened"militant action."That action began on January 30, as stu­dents occupied the Administration Building.The administration responded by issuingdisciplinary summons. Hearings began thenext day, and over the next month, moved,circuit-rider style, from building to build­ing, room to room, to avoid disruption bydemonstrators.By February 11, 1,708 students and 584employees had signed a petition calling foran end to the sit-in; a day later, the reviewcommittee recommended a one-year exten­sion for Dixon-she did not accept.On February 14, about 50 of the demon­strators (President Levi and other adminis­trators had relocated to other offices) votedto leave the building. That afternoon, after arally on the outside steps, they did.Overthe next month, angered by the expul­sions and suspensions meted out to the dem­onstrators, students marched on the Presi­dent's House, stormed the Quadrangle Clubdining room, assaulted a professor, and setoff stink bombs in classroom buildings.Some worked to create a "Committee of 500Plus," hoping to get so many students claim­ing a role in the sit-in that the Universitycould not possibly discipline them all. Whenthat effort failed, the protest was over, thoughits scars would remain.During the 1980s students protested long­est and loudest against the University's in­vestments in companies doing business inSouth Africa. An October 1985 rally coin­cided with the end of a three-day hungerstrike for divestment by six students, and twoweeks later, a Teach-In on South Africa andApartheid attracted hundreds.In 1990-91, students demonstrated for gay� and lesbian rights, against sexual harass-�-e ment, in support of U.S. troops in the Gulf,I and against U.S. involvement in the Gulf.'0.�e!I:8 Ir\"Scholarships Not Batleships," read signs at a1933-34 peace strike."A lot of things begin to look different. Your paper fodoesn't seem so significant if you knoXIV UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991LSnow job: pre-dawn exercises at Lake Michigan are part of an Eighties "tradition," Kuviasungnerk.students, they argued the issues of the day re­lentlessly. The result was a sense of excite­ment-and tension.In the months following the 1968 presiden­tial election, those tensions came to a head.The firing of an assistant professor of sociol­ogy touched off three months of often mili­tant protests, leaving both combatants andobservers exhausted.But politics remained a way of life. In theearly 1970s, the social organization of choicewas the special-interest group. Groups forwomen's liberation included NOW, WRAP,and WITCH; there were gay liberationgroups, peace groups, anti-pollution groups,abortion and health reform groups, andblack student groups. The campus alphabetsoup also contained conservative acronyms:SCAF, for example-stood for Students forCapitalism and Freedom.Then there was SVNA, or Students for Vio­lent Non-Action, organized in 1969 by un­dergraduates devoted to satire. SVNA eventsincluded a nude swim-in at Ida Noyes­sponsored by a subgroup called StudentsKrazy for Institutional Non-DenominationalNaked and Educational Diving Into Pools(SKINNIEDIP). The group also started aStudent Project for Equal Rights for Men(SPERM).In March 1970, SVNA sponsored the firstLascivious Costume Ball, an Ida Noyes galaattended, the Maroon reported, by 1,500 peo­ple in "various stages of dress and undress."Among the entertainment: "a body-paintingroom, complete with strobe lights, two rockbands, and steaming vats of 'wild lightningpunch.'"The 1980s brought more-and different­students. The College was larger than it had been in many years (from 2,148 in 1971-72to 3,504in 1990-91). The number of womenwas going up (41.4 percent in 1990-91, com­pared to 35.9 percent ten years earlier). Theminority population included a growingnumber of Asian (16.56 percent in 1990-91)and Hispanic students (2.3 percent) whilethe black population hovered at 3.5 percent.Another modest demographic shift camewith the increase of foreign students in theCollege, from 1.05 percent in 1980 to 2.24percent a decade later.Meanwhile, an administrative push to bal­ance the College's reputation for serious studywith pressure-relieving activities led to a re­turn to more traditional collegiate pursuits.More students showed up to play-or tocheer-when Chicago joined with other re­search universities to form the University Athletic Association. Academic teams alsoflourished: the U of C team won the 1990College Bowl championships. Politics didn'tdisappear: The Maroon was also home to theliberal Grey City Journal and the conservativeFourth Estate.The new "fun" traditions built on the "seri­ous" past. There was Sleepout, a spring camp­out to be first to register for. autumn classes.And there was Kuviasungnerk, a winter festi­val of ice sculpting and pre-dawn exercises.Somewhere over the last century, a tradi­tion had emerged. In their own way, two stu­dent T-shirts made the point. On one, a phoe­nix dripped icicles. Its message: 'TheUniversity of Chicago: Hell Does FreezeOver." On the other, a gargoyle laughed, "Ho,ho, ho. The University of Chicago is funnierthan you think."DIIsliDalioa: ClliaagoNorlh Atlantic12.23Inits first year, the University attracted 744 graduate and undergraduate students-almosthalf of them from the state of Illinois. (Chart information is given in percentages.)Norlh Central(excluding III.>31.45South Atlantic2.29Pa.leography 201tha.t you might never live to take 202." -A draft-age student writing in the Maroon a"he approach of World War IIWest2.42South Central1.21Foreign5.24UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 XVDpening Dal"__The first day is like any other, including the noon service in thechapel (a large room at the north end of Cobb Hall). Trustees,faculty,students, and other friends attend. Dressed in cap and gown­academic garb still unfamiliar in the Midwest-President Harperleads the service of hymns, prayers, and readings. There is no ser­mon, no litany of glOWing predictions for the University's future, nomention of its benefactor.But the next day, an irreverent newspaper account suggests a newset of lyrics for the "Doxology" with which the first service began:Praisejohnfrom whom oil blessingsjlow,Praise also Bill, who gets the dough,Praise john! Praise Bill! and all the host,But when you praise, praise john the most.ge Grove to theesbyterian Church tostablish a college. Thatdenomination turns himdown, but Baptist pastorJohn Burroughs securesthe land for his church.1859 September19: The Old University ofChicago begins its firstfull year of classes.1867 Octoberenty-fiveyears after its birth theseminary will merge withthe new University ofChicago to become itsDivinity School.Years inthe LifeofaUniversity 1886 April:Beset by money troubles(including a $174,000mortgage foreclosedupon the year before),the trustees of the OldUniversity ask a 30-year­old academic wunderkindnamed William RaineyHarper to serve aspresident. He refuses.June 16: With springconvocation, the trusteesdecide to abandon thefiscal fight to save the OldUniversity of Chicago. 1889 May 15:The world's first billion­aire, John D. Rockefeller,es to give $600,000founding of a newcollege- 1890 May 28:Chicago businessmenand Baptists across thecountry meet Rockefel­ler's challenge, raising$459,000. Marshall Fieldfulfills his own promise,donating 10 acres oflandalong the MidwayPlaisance.September 10: Afterthe trustees of the firstUniversity of Chicagoformally change its nameto "The Old University,""I f the first faculty had met in atent," s. id President RobertMaynan Hutchins in his in­augural ddress, "this stillwould have been a great university."The professors assembled on OpeningDay, 1892, were indeed an impressivebunch: lured from colleges all over thecountry, they had been drawn to Chica­go by the idea of a community of greatscholars. As Charles O. Whitman, wholeft Clark University to head the biologydepartment at the new institution, en­thusiastically put it, '.'The time has nowcome when we must recognize and livethe Secretary of Stateissues a certificate ofincorporation for the newUniversity of Chicago.Ten days later, the n/ewtrustees unanimouslyelect William RaineyHarper president.1891 February16: Harper, after con­vincing Rockefeller thatthe new institution shouldbe not a small college, buta great university, acceptsthe presidency.1892 October 1:As sculptors etch "CobbLecture Hall" above theentrance of the firstbuilding, classes begin.October 20: The Colum­bian Exposition opens.Student waiters at theUniversity Commonsorganize to get betterhours, free time to visitthe fair.1893 January 1:The University Extensioninaugurates its eveningand Saturday classes.Among the lecturers:Lorado Taft, speaking onthe art of the Columbian Glory days: a pennantfrom the University's BigTen era.Faculty members, feelingthe need for a place togather and exchangeideas, form the Quadran­gle Club. Its first club­house, at University and'58th, is traded for a newhome on 57th when theUniversity decides tobuild the OrientalInstitute; the originalbuilding is then hauledacross campus andbecomes Ingleside Hall.1894 January 1:Students and professorsestablish the UniversitySettlement in the StockYards district, trying toimprove living andeducation conditions.According to founderand head resident MaryMcDowell, the settlement"expresses a modernmethod of neighborlinessadapted to new andcomplex cityconditions. "up to the necessity for greater organicunity among kindred sciences."In addition to 15 members of Clark'sstaff-including Albert Michelson, headprofessor of physics, and John Nef,chemistry professor-the initial roll offaculty included eight college presi­dents. Thomas Chamberlin left the toppost at the University of Wisconsin tohead up geology; Ezekiel Robinson de­parted Brown for the chief role in Ethicsand Apologetics; Albion Small desertedColby to command the social sciences.The president of Wellesley became theUniversity'S first Dean of Women when 1898 October:The College of Com­merce and Politics-laterCommerce and Adminis­tration-becomes thenation's second school ofbusiness (Pennsy I vania'sWharton School is first).October 17: At its 26thConvocation, the Univer­sity awards its firsthonorary degree, toPresident WilliamMcKinley "in recognitionof the wisdom and skillshown in conductingpublic affairs in a greatinternational crisis" -theSpanish-American War.1899 ThorsteinVeblen, who preferswriting and editing toclassroom teaching,In the Yards: thepublishes The Theory ojthe Leisure Class. Eventhose who don't read thebook will use a phrase hecoins: "conspicuousconsumption. " Rule #169: where to placethe word "only. " William Rainey Harperchasing John D. Rocke­feller across the HudsonRiver and back Harperhanging a giant stocking for Santa Rock-efeller. Harper kneeling to pray afterRockefeller tells him not to ask for mon­eyagain.This is the way the first president of theUniversity of Chicago was portrayed bythe popular press during his tenure: as aspendthrift, a salesman, a dreamer pur­suing an impossible.goal with other peo­ple's money-and, as the newspapersgood- naturedly acknowledged, generallysucceeding beyond expectations.Indeed, Harper was an ambitious,driven man, one who believed ferventlyin his own capabilities and in his own vision. Once persuaded to leave Yale forthe helm of the fledgling U of C, thethirty-one-year-old professor of Semiticlanguages was determined to make itconform to his ideal. He wanted only thefinest professors, the biggest names, themost important researchers. He was will­ing to "steal" professors from otheruniversities, to pay what were then astro­nomical salaries, even to make a 28-year­old football star America's first professo­rial football coach, to ensure that hisuniversity had the best of everything.Harper's dedication to his plan and theevangelical zeal with which he ap­proached his work made it inevitablethat he have disagreements; he was seenas a hard man by some, stubborn andautocratic. People described him in1901 February16: The University ofChicago Press ushers in anew era in publishingwith its "Style Book,"the precursor to TheChicago Manual ojStyle,which premieres in 1906.Just 21 pages long, the"Style Book" contains169 rules of grammar. contradictory phrases: kind' yet ruth­less, conservative yet a gambler; un­couth yet heroic. English professor Wil­liam Vaughn Moody once admitted, "Heis as yet a strangely mythical figure in mymind."Harper died after just 13 years as presi­dent. But his legacy was one of success:he brought together a world-class facul­ty and created a respected academic in­stitution almost overnight. Only 15years after the University opened, thehead of its physics department becamethe first American to win the Nobelprize. Pitchman, dictator, or benevolentpatriarch, Harper achieved his goal: heinvented a university out of nothing buthis own dream-and a few million do­nated dollars. Seat oflearning:President Harper'sdesk chair.1923 July 12: Atage 67, Ernest DeWittBurton, after five monthsas acting president, isnamed president. Burton,who came to Chicago in1906 January 10: 16 years. Within two 1914 May: 1916 June 1: Ida 1919 James House veteran who has aAt age 49, President years, he has balanced 1911 March 11: Physics department chair Noyes Hall, designed to Henry Breasted receives Ph. D. in economics fromHarper dies of stomach Harper's optimistically The west tower of Harper and first American Nobel fulfill women's needs for a letter from John D. Chicago-and a strawcancer. On his deathbed, extravagant budget-and Memorial Library laureate Albert Mi- a gymnasium, lounge, Rockefeller, promising hat. Her name: Edithwill keep it balanced. collapses mysteriously chelson is named one meeting space, and a to support the work of Abbott.To do: Harper's red book. during its construction. of the top 12 men of cafeteria (provided for Breasted's OrientalNo one is hurt. The east science. His latest men in Bartlett Gym, the Institute for five years attower is checked, the experiment involves Reynolds Club, and $10,000 per year. Thetower is rebuilt with a digging ditches under Hutchinson Commons) institute's work: to studysteel frame, and the Lake Geneva as part of opens to great applause, the origin and develop-library is dedicated 15 a test to determine the particularly from ment of civilization.months later. rigidity of the earth- alumnae.1902 October 1:The Law School opensfor 78 students, withHarvard's Joseph HenryBeale acting as dean. Sixmonths later, PresidentTheodore Roosevelt laysthe cornerstone for theschool's new building. he prays, "May it be thatfor me there shall be lifebeyond this life, and maythere be in that life workstill to do, tasks still toaccomplish." rather more rigid thansteel, according topreliminary reports.Over one thousandpeople march fromBartlett Gym to spankingnew grandstands,celebrating the dedicationof the University ofChicago Athletic Field.Thirteen months later, thestadium is officiallynamed Stagg Field inhonor of 52-year-oldcoach Amos AlonzoStagg, already referred toas "the grand old man."The first combinesTennyson ("Let knowl­edge grow from more tomore") with Virgil ("Lifebe enriched") to suggestlearning and publicservice. The second, "thephoenix gules, " showsnew life emerging fromthe ashes of the OldUniversity of Chicago. 1915 October 12:On its second tour of theOrient, the Maroonbaseball team defeatsJapan's Waseda Univer­sity, 8-1, in Tokyo.Associate professor ofpolitical economyChester Wright serves aschaperon on the journey,which includes a matchagainst U.S. soldiers inManila.Alice Freeman Palmer agreed to take thejob on a part-time basis-her husbandcould not be seduced away from Har­vard. Harry Pratt Judson, later U of Cpresident, came from Minnesota to actas Head Dean. January 20: Harry PrattJudson, originally ahistory professor andlater head of the Depart­ment of Political Science,is elected acting presi­dent. A year later, onFebruary 20, 1907, he isnamed president, a posthe will hold for the nextAlso on the staff at the beginning wereEliakim Hastings Moore, who camefrom Northwestern to teach mathemat­ics, and Rabbi Emil Hirsch, the first lew­ish scholar to teach in a Christianschool (and grandfather of U of Cpresident-to-be Edward Hirsch Levi).The potential of this U of C communi­ty was recognized by an excited AlbionSmall, who hoped that Chicago wouldprovide a forum for what he saw as themain goal of his own field: "to organize aNovum Organum of all the scienceswhich contribute to an understandingof life." Past and futuremerge in themotto and seal. Hat couture:1892 as head of theDepartment of NewTestament and EarlyChristian Literature, wasnamed director of thelibraries in 1910. He willserve for only two years,dying of intestinal canceron May 24,1925.1917 Spring: TheUniversity prepares forwar; even PresidentJudson drills. A yearlater, more than 70faculty members willbe in war service. October 1: An OrientalInstitute team starts tocompile a new Assyriandictionary. The predicteddate of completion: 1930.Seventy years later, workcontinues. 1924 May 21:Two U of C studentscommit what they think isthe "perfect" murder.Eight days later, theirarrest shocks the nation.Nathan Leopold,Ph.B. '23, a law student,and Richard Loeb, agraduate student inhistory, are traced to theirarbitrary victim, 14-year­old Bobby Franks, by theunusual pair of glasseswhich Leopold droppedr.ear Frank's body.1920 August 10:The School of SocialService Administration,the first school of socialwork to be part of aresearch university, opensits doors. The newschool's dean is a Hull 1922 June 20:Harold Swift, '07, who in1914 was the first U ofCalumnus elected to theboard of trustees, ischosen as its thirdchairman.Military drills replacefootball practice on StaggField during WWI.It began with a letter-postmarkedApril 13, 1935-which drugstoreking Charles Walgreen sent toPresident Hutchins-and simul­taneously, to every Chicago newspaper-announcing that he was withdrawinghis niece from the University's College,where she had been exposed to "Com­munist influences." The Herald Examin­er, owned by William Randolph Hearst,ran a series of inflammatory articles,and a Hearst-friendly legislator inSpringfield promptly introduced a billto outlaw tax exemption for the Univer­sity, as long as it continued to teach- communist doctrines.Legislative hearings were scheduledfor mid-May. In the meantime, futile at­tempts by a Herald Examiner undercov­er reporter posing as a coed to dig upsmut about the private lives of studentsand professors became so obvious thatthe woman was exposed and gave a shamefaced confession.The legislative hearings proved equal­ly farcical. Walgreen's niece admittedshe didn't recall her professors making asingle effort to induce her into favoringcommunism; Walgreen himself con­fessed to being "somewhat bewildered"about the source of his niece's corrup­tion, although he mentioned a jestheard by the young woman in passing,by a political science professor, in de­fense of "free love."In the end, all but one of the commit­tee of Illinois legislators voted to· stopthe investigation. Even Walgreen wascontrite, later giving $SSO,OOO to estab­lish a Walgreen -Foundation for theStudy of American Institutions.The Hearst press did not take its defeatsilently. Denouncing the legislative re­port as "whitewash," it continued topublish accounts of subversive activi­ties on campus. Indeed, although most faculty were staunchly conservative,student communist and socialist groupshad a steady and vocal following, andHutchins maintained his belief in freeand open speech. All of which led to asecond legislative show-down in 1949.Many campus groups had sent repre­sentatives to Springfield to protest apending proposal that universities'charters be withdrawn if their faculty,students, and administrators refused toadhere to certain "McCarthy-era" prin­ciples. Their appearance convincedseveral legislators that Chicago'S stu­dents had been "indoctrinated withCommunistic and other subversive"theories, and a full investigation was ordered.It was the Walgreen investigation re­dux. This time, both Chicago'S DailyNews and Sun- Times gave the Universityvigorous support, turning into laugh­ingstocks the legislators who, red-faced,gave the school a "clean bill of health."One typical exchange came as Hut­chins was being cross-examined aboutthe communist activities of a former fac­ulty member, the noted cancer research-er Maud Slye. »-"As I have indicated," Hutchins toldthe examiner, "Dr Slye's associationswere confined on our campus to [labo­ratory] mice. She could not, I think, havedone any particular harm to our stu­dents, even if she had been so minded.""May I ask," the examiner pressed, "ifin your educational theory there is notsuch a thing as indoctrination byexample?"Hutchins: "Of mice?"Darwinian theories ofevolution (later, he getsoff on a technicality).Dean of the DivinitySchool Shailer Mathewshad argued on Scopes'behalf that a belief inevolution is compatiblewith a belief in God. 1941 January23: In a speech on"America and the War"broadcast nationally onthe NBC network,Hutchins tells listeners,"I speak tonight becauseI believe the Americanpeople are about tocommit suicide." Heabruptly reverses his anti­war position when war isofficially declared.October 13: The Princeof Wales comes to call,lunching with 200prominent Chicagoans inHutchinson Commons.The Magazine notes thatHis Royal Highnessshould feel at home:Hutchinson is a replica ofChrist Church hall atOxford University, theroyal alma mater. 1940 Summer:Direct campus interest inatomic energy beginswhen Professor A.H.Compton requests thatVolney Wilson "surveythe possibilities of therelease of nuclearenergy." Wilson's reportcalls attention to the factthat the metal beryllium,used with uranium, mightpermit the construction ofan aggregate from whichatomic energy could beextracted.1926 May 5: TheCarnegie Corporationgives Chicago $1.385million to fund a Gradu­ate Library School, thefirst such program in thenation. The school opensin October 1928; DeanGeorge Works is dis­turbed when only womenenroll that year. April: President Hutch­ins turns down an offerfrom a businessman whoproposes establishing(and endowing) a Schoolof Engineering atChicago.November: The Ma­roons, with three winsand three ties, are theonly undefeated footballteam in the Big Ten,winning their firstconference championshipsince 1913-it will also betheir last. 1927 July: TheAlbert Merritt BillingsHospital opens its doors.The new hospital is partof a complex of medicalbuildings which tookthree years and $5 millionFall quarter: Hutchinsand a young philosophyprofessor named Morti­mer Adler team-teach aspecial, two-year coursein what the Magazinedescribes as "all the great 1936 Hutchins'first book, The Higher.Learning in America, ispublished, furtherpublicizing his "radical"views on highereducation. 1938 JuneConvocation: The firstawards for excellence inundergraduate teaching­$1,000 each-are given.The then-anonymousdonor is trusteety. The ceremony, heldin Rockefeller Chapel,marks the first time aUniversity president hasbeen inaugurated withpomp and circumstance. tied. Stagg was the firstcoach to use a huddle,diagram plays, put a manin motion-and putnumbers on his players'jerseys.1932 A straw voteshows the faculty firmlyin favor of Hoover overRoosevelt. Meanwhile, astatistical study of thePresident No.4:Max Mason. 1934 February24: President Hutchinsends "the Great MergerMystery, " announcing 1942 January22: The "HutchinsCollege" advocated bythe president for morewho transferred toNorthwestern-andimproved the IQ of bothschools?" October: Preparing forimpending war, theUniversity forms anInstitute of Military1925 October 1:Charles Max Mason, amathematical physicistwho invented the Masonhydrophone used by theBritish and U.S. navies todetect German U-boatsduring WWI, becomesChicago's first "outsider"president. Three yearslater, he will leave theUniversity for theRockefeller Foundation,replaced by FredericWoodward as actingpresident. to complete and whichhouses the new Univer­sity Medical School,designed to providecloser contacts betweenthe teaching of medicineand research in the basicsciences. Meanwhile,the Chicago Lying-InHospital-with some6,000 obstetrical casesyearly-agrees to erect anew building directlywest of Billings; in 1938,Lying-In becomes part ofthe University. books that everyoneshould have read and noone has." The hand­picked students (10 men,10 women) begin withselections from the Iliadand are scheduled tofinish, two years later,with readings fromSigmund Freud. entering class of 1932shows that 62.7 percentare commuters. that a rumored consolida­tion with NorthwesternUniversity is off. Underthe plan, graduate studieswould have been centeredat the South Side campus-a fact that did not sitwell with NU boosters.They may be anticipatinga joke told at Chicago inthe 1950s: "Did you hearabout the U of C student May: The Magazinereports that the libraryhas acquired severalmajor book collectionson Abraham Lincoln,making it "one ofthe fivechief Lincoln librariesin the United States."Among the thousands Midsummer: TheMagazine notes thatphysics professor Arthur1. Dempster has inventeda "hypersensitiveweighing instrument,"a "mass spectrograph"capable of weighingatoms. Ernest E. Quantrell, andthe winners are William1. Hutchinson, Americanhistory; Joseph 1.Schwab, biologicalsciences; and Reginald 1.Stephenson, physics. Studies, with courses inbasic training, militarytheory and law-and amarksmanship coursetaught by AssistantProfessor of EnglishNorman Maclean. than a decade is finallypassed by the FacultySenate. The plan letsstudents enroll in theCollege at the end of theirsophomore year of highschool. It also elirriinatesall specialized depart-October 13: AmosAlonzo Stagg retires aftermore than four decades ofcoaching. His record is229 won, 108 lost, and 27"1 greatly fear that my administration will be remem­bered solely because it was the one in which intercol­legiate football was abolished. "-Robert M. Hutch­ins, in The State of the University, 1929-1949.1937 May23:John Davison Rockefellerdies. From his first gift tohis last ($10 million, inten installments startingin 1911), he gave$34,708,375.28 to theUniversity he visitedjust twice.July 25: At the ScopesTrial in Tennessee, HydePark defense lawyerClarence Darrow watchesas John T. Scopes, aDayton schoolteacherwho will study geologyat Chicago, is foundguilty of teaching 1929 November29: A month after theGreat Crash, RobertMaynard Hutchins, the29-year-old dean of YaleLaw School, becomes thenation's youngest presi­dent of a major universi- ment courses, with aCollege curriculumdevoted to generaleducation.1939 December21: After a 46-0 loss toIllinois, PresidentHutchins calls for the endof football at Chicago,and the trustees vote towithdraw from intercolle­giate competition. The1939 schedule producedtwo wins and six losses,with Chicago scoring 37points to its opponents'308.Unbreakable: water pitcherfrom the Alben MerrittBillings Hospital. Fall quarter: The LawSchool begins a new four­year curriculum, blend­ing "so-called non-legalmaterial" with conven­tionallegal studies. First­year students take Britishconstitutional historyand psychology, whilesecond-year studentstackle accounting andeconomic theory. Third­year students get ethics,and fourth-years study- principles of economicorganizations/1930 April2S:Ground is broken for thenew Oriental Institutebuilding. of items: a leaf from anexercise book pennedby Lincoln and a signedcopy of the EmancipationProclamation.October 30: The facultyvotes to abolish Harper'sgraduate school struc­ture, replacing it withfour graduate divisions:Physical Sciences,Biological Sciences,Social Sciences, andHumanities. 1935 In the causeof cancer research,biologist Maud Slye hasautopsied a total of131,500 mice, "a world'srecord." Slye makes thenews in other ways (see:' Seeing Red atChicago")."It is only those who are ignorant, both of the originand nature of the Bible and of the facts in our uni­verse, who are terrified lest science make them losetheir faith." -Shailer Mathews, dean of the DivinitySchool, at the Scopes Trial of 1925. Tattered schedule,tattered dreams: thefinal season of BigTen football.The ManhattanProject receivesa Chianti toast.February: Among thesacrifices of wartime,students are alarmed tolearn that Cokes willbe "rationed" at theC-Shop.September: The Univer­sity holds 103 war-relatedgovernment contracts forresearch and the trainingand housing of armedforces personnel.Although generalenrollment has dropped10 percent, the campusoverflows with more than3,000 soldiers, sailors,and nurses. A Navysignal and radio schooloccupies Bartlett Gym.November 16: Hutchinsproposes changes in theUniversity constitution:the president, appointedfor a seven-year term,could be dismissed at anytime if the faculty refusedhim a vote of confidence.In return, the presidentwould have completeexecutive authority inmatters of educationalpolicy. The trustees andthe Faculty Senate form acommittee to consider theproposal. December 2: At 3:53p. m., under the weststands of Stagg Field,Professor Enrico Fermiorders a shutdown of theworld's first self­sustaining nuclear chainreaction. The scientiststoast their success withpaper cups filled withChianti-the bottle ispassed around for allto sign.1944 January12: An impatient Hut­chins, waiting for thetrustees to act on hisrequests for moreexecutive power, rocksthe boat. At the annualtrustee-faculty dinner, hecalls for a revamping ofthe graduate divisionsalong the lines of hisCollege, with a Ph.D.awarded for generalstudies, and he alsosuggests the abolitionof academic rank. Thefaculty is horrified.May 22: Called intoextraordinary session,the Faculty Senate signsa "Memorial" to thetrustees, asking them toaffirm that the senate "There is no people wise enough or good enough tohold atomic weapons asa sacred 'trust. "-RobertRedfield, dean of the Division of Social Sciences,in a 1946 Roundtable Broadcastkeep its final say on allproposals which substan­tially affect educationalpolicies and organization.The president, the senatemaintains, "shouldproceed by persuasionrather than authority." weeks, the U.S. releasesbombs on both Hiroshi­ma and Nagasaki. University's role in thedevelopment of theatomic bomb. The firstofficial statementacknowledging theUniversity's involvementin the project had beenreleased the previoussummer.July 1: Reorganizing hiscentral adminstration,Hutchins becomesDecember 28: Thetrustees approve newstatutes reorganizing theUniversity's constitution­al structure. Replacingthe Faculty Senate is anew elected facultycouncil, with membersfrom all professorialranks. President andcouncil will have vetopower over the other'sactions; impasses willgo to the trustees forresolution. After Hutchins:Metallurgy Project,Lawrence A. Kimpton. University dean ofstudents, vice-president1948 September: and dean of faculties, andvice-president in chargeDorothea H. Elmer, IS, of development, KimptonCommission and in of Flint, Mich.-whose is described as "friendly,cooperation with 25 other father, mother, aunt, approachable, andMidwest universities, are uncle, and two grandfa- interested," possessingtemporarily housed in the thers are alumni-enters "hard common sense."the College and becomes One immediate contrastMuseum of Science and the University's 250,000 with Hutchins: he likesIndustry. matriculant. football.June: To house an influx September: A publicity November 8: The Hydeof veterans, the Universi-ty builds 200 pre-fab campaign for the Great Park-Kenwood Cornmu-Books Foundation, nity Conference, acottages, set row on row founded in 1947 by coalition of about 40on the Midway. The Hutchins and Adler, kicks residents, both black andfurnished units rent for off with an appearance by white, forms to discuss$37-$42 per month. both men in Chicago's problems facing theNovember: Construe- Orchestra Hall, where community: overcrowd-tion begins on a new they lead a discussion of ing, reconversions,Plato's Apology before a 1950 September: interracial living,$920,000 Administration capacity audience. A with the New Year. suburban flight, poorBuilding-despite an Time cover story on Entering freshman 1. President Colwell will schools, and high crimeoutcry from alumni, who Hutchins in November Edward Nelson, 17, is theserve as acting chancellor rates.call the plans "gro- t first student to show, byheightens interest -Great until a permanenttesque," "a monstrosity," Books groups are soon his performance on the replacement is found. 1952 May:Ataand "a nondescript sprouting up across the placement tests given tohodge-podge. "country. all entering students, 1951 January 10: mass meeting in Mandelthat he already has the Hall, the South EastDecember 8: Although 1949 January equivalent of a College Hutchins gives a rnelan- Chicago Commission isthe University'S hospitals, education. Bypassing the choly farewell address to born. With Kimpton aslike its classrooms, are 12: At the trustee-faculty College completely, he some 800 trustees and president and Julian Leviofficially opened to dinner, Harold Swift, begins graduate work in faculty at the South Shore as executive director, theeveryone by 1945, covert AB'07, announces his mathematics. Country Club. "My project will bring anDecember 5: Hutchinsgives the Chicago DailyNews his shortlist, the tengreatest books of theWestern world: works byHomer, Plato, Aristotle,Thucydides, St. Augus­tine, Thomas Aquinas,Dante, Shakespeare,Pascal, and Tolstoy. "I donot include the Bible inmy list, " Hutchinsexplains. "I assume it."by Hutchins and to sing University Chancellor. form the Federation of discrimination practices retirement as chairman of December 19: Ringing administration, " he says, entirely new look to the"The Star Spangled He retains executive Atomic Scientists. Aimed permanent home for at Billings and the the board. In thanking out the Old. At a lunch- "has ended without any down-at-the-heels blocksBanner." authority, but day-to-day at educating politicians Argonne National medical school are Swift, Hutchins says, "I eon of deans and adminis- notable progress being around 55th Street andadministrative duties go on the possible uses-and Laboratory, successor to alleged by hundreds of have never seen him do trators, Hutchins an- made toward the creation Lake Park Avenue in theJune: A petition signed to a "president," Divinity potential dangers-of the wartime Metallurgical students who take part in anything or heard him say nounces that-after of a dedicated heart ofHyde Park.by several scientists in the Dean Ernest C. Colwell. atomic energy, the group Laboratory, is selected in a noon protest rally. anything except what he almost 22 years as the community. " Aging, deterioratingMetallurgical Laboratory holds several "off-the- DuPage County. The Hospital administrators thought was in the interest University'S chief buildings will be replacedis sent to President October 5: In a low-key record" dinners with facilities, operated by the insist the charges are of the University of executive-he will April 12: The trustees with modern housing andTruman, beseeching him ceremony in Mandel congressional leaders. University under contract unfounded. Chicago." Swift's resign, effective June 14, elect 40-year-old Law- a shopping center.not to use the atomic Hall, the War Department with the Atomic Energy successor is Chicago at the conclusion of a renee A. Kimpton as Acquisition and demoli-bomb unless it's essential presents a certificate to attorney Laird Bell, leave-of-absence to begin chancellor. Former chief tion costs, paid by publicBuying victory: WWIl bond drive. for U.S. victory. Within Hutchins, honoring the JD'07. administrator of the funds, eventually amountNovember 1: Represent­atives from atomiclaboratories at LosAlamos, Oak Ridge, andChicago come together to1945 May 8: OnVE-Day, 2,000 studentscrowd into RockefellerChapel to hear a speechAmos Alonzo Stagg may havebeen the most publicly fa­mous figure in the history. ofthe University, but RobertMaynard Hutchins, its fifth president,remains the quintessential embodi­ment of its perceived character His ad­ministration, nostalgically recalled, isthe academic equivalent of Kennedy'SCamelot: a flowering of accomplish­ment; a rare fulfillment of ideals intoreality.Surprising-in contrast to this mythi­cal "Hutchins era"-is the fact that he ac­complished so little of what he intend­ed. His biographers detail endlessstruggles with faculty, largely over hisdesire to impose an broad, interdiscipli­nary curriculum of general education upon professors who had staked theiracademic reputations in separate, spe­cialized disciplines. Such specialitieswere so many blind alleys to Hutchins,whose grand vision of moral reformthrough intellectual development re­quired a cohesive foundation of thoughtupon which that development couldgrow through fruitful study and debate.Hutchins found the inspiration forthis movement in certain key texts of,Western thought, mostly philosophical,which he and his cantankerous com­rade Mortimer Adler dubbed "The GreatBooks." Stymied in their attempts to re­form the University's curriculum (theHutchins College being the one notableexception), Hutchins and Adler boldlytook their cause directly to the public. December: The campus­based Bulletin of theAtomic Scientists pre­mieres. Its declaredpurpose is to "makefellow scientists aware ofthe new relationshipbetween their own worldof science and the worldof internationalpolitics."It was a salesman's job for which Hut­chins-with his eloquent wit andmovie-star looks-was well-suited. Hemade the cover of Time, and many of hisspeeches were broadcast nationally.There was talk he might make a goodvice-presidential candidate for Roose­velt. Had he been of more superficialcharacter, he might have aged gracefullyamidst all this glamour and adulation.But it was a gloomy Hutchins who pre­sided over the University in the lastyears of his tenure, occasionally stirringup the faculty with plans for reform hemust have known had no chance of ap­proval, while walking through the rolesof fund-raiser and hand-shaker, jobs heperformed well but found dull.One wonders what Hutchins would have to say about current debates ragingon American campuses over "politicalcorrectness" or the Great Books canonhe helped to popularize. Perhaps hewould suggest that educators worry lessabout what persons should be readingthan about the fact that few are readingat all. For Hutchins, higher learning wassimply the best available means to cur­ing society's ills, not an end in itself.When he commented in his 1951 fare­well address that he had failed to createa "dedicated community," he was notcomplaining about his personal popu­larity on campus, but his failure as aleader to bring the case of higher educa­tion convincingly before the Americanpeople."I should have refused to entangle my- to $10.2 million, withredevelopment andconstruction costinganother $18 million.October 3: "The DingDong School," hostedby Frances RappaportHorwich, PhB'29,premieres on Chicago'sWNBQ- TV. Within ayear, the program will bebroadcast nationally andthe former RooseveltCollege dean of educationwill be known to millionsof children as "MissFrances."1953 Spring:Hollywood producerCecil B. DeMille visitsthe Oriental Instituteto do backgroundresearch for The TenCommandments.self in anything that interfered with thispurpose," he told the assembled facultyand trustees. "But thinking is an ardu­ous and painful process, and thinkingabout education is particularly disa­greeable ... .Since people do not like toexamine their assumptions, education­al discussion usually proceeds at crosspurposes and degenerates into argu­ments about trivial details, like the vari­ous aspects of academic housekeep­ing .... You will say that I am living in aworld of dreams, that everybody knowsthat the primary responsibility of thehead of a university is to raise moneyand promote public relations. I say thisis what is wrong with the higher learn­ing in America and that it is time some­body did something about it."1960 March 29:Kimpton announces thathe will resign after nine Regenstein Foundation. Ityears as chancellor. division, is elected will be used to help buildScientists hope to learn Endowment is up by $100 chancellor of the Univer- a $20.5 million graduatemore about the structure million, the neighbor- sity. His first day on the research library: theof matter by recording hoods have been impro- job is March 16. In Joseph L. Regensteinthe rays' high-energy ved. Vice-president of the October, the trustees Library.particles as they bombard University and dean of abolish the title ofthe earth. faculties R. Wendell chancellor, and Beadle 1966 September:Harrison steps becomes president. A plan for reorganizingFebruary: The nation's in as acting chancellor. the College-proposedfirst nuclear-powered 1962 January last year by Provostelectric generating plant October: A U of C team 23: The first sit-in. Thirty Edward Levi and ap-goes into operation at heads for an archaeologi- members of the Congress proved by the FacultyArgonne National cal crash program to on Racial Equality Senate and the trustees-1955 March: Laboratory in Lemont, investigate the ancient (CORE) position them- goes into effect. It splitsIll. Run by the University sites of Nubia. The sites, selves in front of Pres i- the College faculty intoUniversity archaeologists for the Atomic Energy soon to be inundated by dent Beadle's office to five divisions, eachled by Robert Braidwood Commission, the plant the flooding Nile, are a protest the University'S headed by a master and aannounce the discovery of can produce 5,000 casualty ofthe Aswan rental policies: to 12-member governinga prehistoric settlement in kilowatts of electricity, High Dam. The expedi- "stabilize" the neighbor- committee. Students inIraq. Dated at pre-5,000 enough to power a town tion will remain in Egypt hood, it was University the divisions share aB. C., it is the earliest of approximately 10,000 until Apr.iI1964. policy to rent only to "common core" of one-known permanent inhabitants. whites in certain of its year courses, and eachsettlement. buildings. division elects membersMarch 27: A debate to the ruling CollegeApril 14-17: The first between national mem- 1964 January 3: Council.annual Festival of the bers of AmericanArts opens to the pealing socialist and communist Time magazine dubs the 1967 Septemberof bells of Rockefeller parties is held in Mandel Committee on SocialChapel in a special Hall, despite American Thought-an elite, 15: Edward Hirsch Levi,program by Carillonneur Legion demands that it be interdisciplinary group dean of the Law SchoolJames R. Lawson. halted. President Kimp- of scholars established from 1950 to 1962 andWilliam Carlos Williams ton expresses confidence within the Social Sci- provost, is namedreads his poetry, and in the "intelligence and ences Division by John U. president-elect. The firstFafA culminates in a competence" of students. Nef in 1942- "the oddest alumnus to head thegaily costumed Beaux Outside the debate, a graduate school in the University, Levi graduat-Arts Masquerade Ball. stink bomb is released. United States." ed from the Lab SchoolsDecember 7: Chicagowins 200-120 overGeorgetown on NBC'sCollegiate Quiz Bowl.The Chicago team knowswhich sailor led theMutiny on the Bounty,but fails to answer aquestion on a currentpopular song. May 7: About 200students hold a rally atStagg Field to drum upenthusiasm for the returnof football. The paradingstudents are showeredwith fireworks and waterbombs by anti-footballstudents from Burton­Judson. announces plans to razethe house to make way fora dormitory. The Univer­sity steps in to save the"Prairie School"masterpiece.1958 August:Among those attendingthe laying of the new Law"The relationship between basic research and tech­nology is rather like that between a small fish and alarge lamprey-the lamprey becomes very annoyedwhen the fish dies. "-Albert V Crewe, director ofArgonne National Laboratory, speaking to a re­porter in 1963.1956 February22: A monitoring deviceset up on the roof of theEnrico Fermi Institute forNuclear Studies registerswhat is then the bestexample detected of thesun's production ofcosmic ray particles. November 15: A musicalcomedy version of AlCapp's comic" Li 'IAbner," by NormanPanama, '36, and MelvinFrank, '34, opens onBroadway. It's a hit.1957 April: TheChicago TheologicalSeminary, owner ofFrank Lloyd Wright'sRobie House at the cornerof 58th and Woodlawn, School cornerstone areSupreme Court chiefjustice Earl Warren andLord High Chancellor ofGreat Britain, ViscountKilmuir. The building, tobe completed in the fall of1959, will cost $4.1million.A sign from the 1960s:"Make Love, Not War." , "If the desire is to make of universities one more gov­ernmental agency, then of course all that will result isone more governmental agency"-Edward H. Levi,president-designate, speaking to alumni on "TheUniversity and the Community," 1968.1969 January30: A group of protestingstudents occupy the Ad December 9: Wilson,Building, charging that who at 61 feels that "thesociologist Marlene board would want aDixon had been denied younger president," isreappointment because of October: The Cummings the board's choice for theher radical views and Life Science Center-an position-which hedemanding that she be ll-story building with 40 agrees to fill for onlyrehired. Levi refuses to chimneys (exhaust three years. During thosecall in police to break up conduits) is dedicated. years, he concentrates onthe sit-in=-which lasts 16 The $ 12-million research difficult budget issues-days and results in 42 building is the second and launches a capitalexpulsions and 81 tallest on campus, trailing campaign that, amongsuspensions. Dixon Rockefeller Chapel by 35 other things, pays for therefuses a compromise feet. renovation and expansionoffer of a one-year ofthe Henry Crown Fieldterminal reappointment. 1974 October: House.1970 Fall: Inan The David and Alfred 1977 October 19:Smart Gallery hosts itseffort to make the College first exhibition, featuring His Royal Highness, themore manageable and to works donated to the Prince of Wales, visits-provide undergraduates University. In 1990, the 53 years after his ancestorwith more individual building and the 7,000- dropped by. Charles, whoattention, the entering object collection get a spends most of his timeclass is cut from 730 to new name, the David and with undergraduates, is500 students. Alfred Smart Museum. unperturbed by several1965 March 17:"The Grand Old Man,"Amos Alonzo Stagg, diesat age 102. in 1928, the College in1932, and the Law Schoolin 1935. 1972 May:George P. Shultz, formerdean of the GraduateSchool of Business, isnamed Secretary of theTreasury, joining anothermember of the president'sCabinet with a Chicagoconnection: Secretary ofCommerce Peter G.Peterson, MBA' 51.1968 June 13:The Pritzker family ofChicago announces a $12million gift to theMedical School, renamedthe Pritzker School ofMedicine.May: Work begins onWyler Children's Hospi­tal, to be completed inearly 1966 at a cost ofnearly $8 million,making it the costliestcampus building-untilNovember, when Presi­dent Beadle announcesa $IO-million gift fromthe Joseph and Helen November 14: At 1973 September15: A series of explosionsrip through Jones Lab­damage to Jones, neigh­boring Kent Lab, and thecontents of both buildingsis estimated at $2.5million.1961 January 5:George Wells Beadle, aNobel-Prize winner inchemistry and chairmanof the California Instituteof Technology's biology 1975 January 6:President Levi resigns tobecome U.S. attorneygeneral under PresidentGerald Ford. John ToddWilson, a former Nation­al Science Foundationofficial who serves asLevi's provost, is namedacting president.In 1972, addressing the entering,class, University PresidentEdward Levi paraphrased RobertMaynard Hutchins' most famousremark about the Midway institution:"He said it really is not a very good Uni­versity but it happens to be the best."Levi paused. "Sometimes I think it is theonly University."Edward Hirsch Levi, Chicago's eighth-and first alumnus-president, beganhis University career at age 5, as a stu­dent in the Laboratory Schools kinder­garten. Graduating from the Schools in1916, he enrolled in the College: "I nev­er thought of going anywhere else."In fact, with three exceptions-a yearas a Sterling Fellow at the Yale Law students holding "FreeIreland" placards:"What's a universitywithout a reasoned bodyof protest?"December 10: HannaHolborn Gray is electedChicago's tenth-and firstfemale- president.Acting president,provost, and professor ofhistory at Yale, she taughtRenaissance and Refor­mation history at Chicagofrom 1961 until 1974-when she moved brieflyto Northwestern as itsdean of arts andsciences. advanced expository. writing to students in alldisciplines, is so popularthat Professor JosephWilliams and colleaguesdevelop a course with thesame name: its first classfills its 80 seats longbefore registration isover. May 21: Ground isbroken for a new buildingto house Court Theatre,the University's 26-year­old repertory company.Spring: President Grayappoints the BakerCommission to studygraduate education.Among its recommenda­tions will be: helpstudents prepare for non- 1981 May: The650,000-volume JohnCrerar Library-one ofthe nation's leadingcollections of scientific1978 October 6:"Vi vat Hanna, " readbanners draped acrossHarper's towers, a studentcontribution to theinaugural festivities forPresident Gray. academic careers; cutcourse requirements forPh.D. candidates; andestablish workshops toimprove graduate-levelresearch in the humani­ties and social sciences. and technical information-will be merged with thUniversity'S scienceholdings, bringing thetotal volume count up tomore than a millionitems.1980 The "LittleRed Schoolhouse" opensits doors. The non-creditlecture series, teachingSchool, a World War II stint with the Jus­tice Department, and two post­Watergate years as the nation's AttorneyGeneral-Levi has spent his life in theUniversity's service. In the aftermath ofWorld War II, the bow-tied young pro­fessor of law-who taught his first-year"Elements of the Law" course in prob­ing, Socratic style-found time to be aprincipal draftsman of atomic energylegislation. Then, in 1950, Hutchins ap­pointed Levi dean of the Law School.The position called for energy and op­timism. After a burst of post-war activity,the school, like its quarters, was show­ing its age. Levi wooed top faculty, re­vamped the curriculum, and led an am­bitious building program. Within aMarching fordivestment: studentsmake their point atReunion 1985.Student Tshirts pick up ontelevision icons from the1980s-and a long­standing Chicago theme. October 15: The MedicalCenter dedicates thecenterpiece of itsmultimillion-dollarmodernization andrenovation program, theBernard Mitchell Hospi­tal. The 468-bed acutecare hospital replaces the56-year-old AlbertMerritt Billings Hospitalas the center's mainpatient care facility.Billings will be used as anoutpatient and researchfacility.UNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO1985 Spring:Work on the 64th editionof the Cap and Gown isunder way-the year­book, founded in 1893,had been published onlyintermittently, undervarious names, since1969.4HlbLDODfREEZE Mil1983 July 1: TheUniversity establishes aDepartment of ComputerScience. Enrollment in atwo-year undergraduateprogram has beengrowing "almostexponentially. " October 22: More than500 students pack a KentHall debate betweenPresident Gray anddivestment activist Jennifer Davis. Thedebate is part of a day­long "Teach-In On SouthAfrica and Apartheid. "1986 Winter:The Magazine reportsthat 32 of the 45 membersof the physics depart­ment's active researchershave signed a petitionopposing PresidentReagan's StrategicDefense Initiative, callingthe "Star Wars" plan fora space-based missileshield "ill-conceived anddangerous. "Mother's Day: AtSleepout, the night beforeundergraduates registerfor fall classes, more than800 College studentscamp out to get an earlycrack at the classes theywant.Fall: Chicago joins withseven other researchuniversities to found anational athletic confer- ence, the UniversityAthletic Association(UAA). The new confer­ence, which does notpermit athletic scholar­ships, will inaugurate afull competition schedulefor men's and women'steams in Fall 1987.Fall: General educationmakes a comeback with anew two-year "commoncore" requirement. Itincludes four quarters inthe humanities, three orfour quarters in a foreignlanguage, six in naturalscience, a three-quartersequence in socialsciences, a three-quartercourse in the study ofcivilization-and threequarters of physicaleducation.ERSIT'Y 'decade, the Law School was among thenation's best, and another president,George Beadle, asked Levi to work simi­lar magic at the University level.As provost Levi performed as Beadlehad hoped, and in 1964, he was issuedanother tough order: revive the long­neglected College. Within a year, Levi,who was graduated during the secondyear of Hutchins' Chicago Plan, had hisown plan. It also emphasized liberal ed­ucation, requiring students to choosefrom a "common core" of courses. Smallwonder that when Beadle announcedhis retirement in 1967, the board oftrustees, after the shortest presidentialsearch in its history, picked Edward Levito fill the post. Levi's term as president coincidedwith an era of student protests. By refus­ing to call in police to break up demon­strations, Levi lost points with somemembers of the University community;by insisting on trying the protesters un­der University law, he incurred the ap­probation of others.By his own reasoning, there was noother course of action: "The universitymust stand for reason and for persua­sion by reasoning," Levi noted in 1969.u:.... The university must show it valuesand respects the individual mind, thatdiscussions can always proceed, butthat a threat to the disciplined freedomof the university is a threat to its very ex­istence and purpose." Gift of life: Liverdonor Teresa Smithwith Alyssa. 1987 No.1 on theNew York Times best­seller list is The Closingofthe American Mind,in which Allan Bloom,a Hutchins Collegegraduate and professor inthe Committee on SocialThought, lambasts thestate of undergraduateeducation in the U.S. Hefeels somewhat betterabout his alma mater:"It's still the mostintellectual university."Fall quarter: TheGraduate School ofPublic Policy opens itsdoors. An outgrowth ofthe Committee on PublicPolicy Studies, it looksat fundamental socialproblems from aninterdisciplinary ap­proach. Three years later,the school is named tohonor its major benefac­tor, Chicago philanthro­pist Irving B. Harris.1989 November27: Christolph Broelsch'ssurgical team removes theleft lobe of Teresa Smith'sliver and transplants it into her 21-month-olddaughter, Alyssa. It's thefirst time in the U.S. thata living donor hasprovided liver tissue fora transplant operation.1990 Spring:Argonne NationalLaboratory beginsconstruction of its $456million Advanced PhotonSource. The largestproject ever undertakenby the lab, it will producehigh-brilliance x-raybeams for detailed studyof atomic and molecularstructure.October 16: EconomicsProfessor Merton Millergets a wake-up call-he'sto share the year's NobelMemorial Prize inEconomics with CUNY'sHarry M. Markowitz (aU ofC alumnus) andStanford's William F.Sharpe. A day later,Jerome Friedman, anMIT physicist and U of Cproduct, shares the 1990Nobel in his field-for atotal of 61 Nobelists whohave taught, studied, orconducted research atChicago.November: Astronomersfrom the University ofChicago, the Institute forAdvanced Studies, andPrinceton Universityannounce plans for a ten­year, $14-million "digitalsky survey" to produce a3-D map of one milliongalaxies, 300,000quasars, and much, muchmore.1991 October3: With a centennialconvocation in Rockefel­ler Chapel-followed by acampus-wide picnic thatfeatures 10,000 pieces ofbirthday cake-theUniversity of Chicagoturns 100.BuiTake ton uponton of Bedfordlimestone, adda generoushelping ofgargoyles,then seasonwith a fewstreamlined,modernstructures.Garnish withivy, andmarinate intime. N 1892, MANY PEOPLE got their first view of the University ofChicago from the top of the giant Ferris Wheel at the Colum­bian Exposition. The campus's proximity to the World's Fairgarnered a lot of free publicity for the new school, while firmlyidentifying it with the progressive and modern-like the FairFair-goers saw only four buildings as they looked north:Cobb, the main lecture hall; Blake, a graduate dormitory; andGates and Goodspeed, the Divinity School dormitories. Cobb Hall was nat­urally built first, the finishing touches being put on as classes began-withHarper responsible for the furniture and trustee president Martin Ryersonfor the coat hooks. Named for donor Silas Cobb and designed by architect.Henry Ives Cobb, the building was constructed of Bedford (Indiana) lime-stone. Cobb Hall's neo-Gothic collegiate ar­chitecture set the tone for the structures thatfollowed; until 1948, every University build­ing followed in the neo-Gothic tradition.The inside of Cobb was stark: brick wallsadorned only with a portrait of Rockefeller.On the first floor were the chapel, the mainlecture hall, and offices of the Press, the Ex­tension, the Deans, and the President. Theupper floors housed classrooms, departmen­tal offices, and a library.Between 1892 and 1899, seventeen Cobb­designed, neo-Gothic buildings-includingthe women's dormitories, Walker Museum,Ryerson Laboratory, and the natural sciencesquad-went up in the swampy acres north ofthe Midway. (Cobb also designed Yerkes Ob­servatory, in the Romanesque style, in Wil­liams Bay, Wisconsin.) The buildings wereplaced in general accordance with Cobb'sXXVI UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 master plan for the campus, which basicallyorganized related departments aroundquadrangles and unified different buildingsthrough their overall style and similarity ofmaterials. The core of his plan endured; theonly specifics which did not come to fruitionwere the library and chapel, which Cobbwould have placed at the west and east ends,respectively, of the main quad.The rapid early growth was just short of mi­raculous for an institution with little moneyand an architect it didn't particularly trust; asearly as 1891 Thomas Goodspeed was com­plaining to Harper, "We have found it simplyimpossible to hurry Mr. Cobb. We havehaunted his office. We have urged, exhorted,entreated, in short we have exhausted all theresources of pressure on him in vain." WhenCobb opened a Washington office, the trust­ees' displeasure increased.In 1899 the trustees turned to Shepley,Rutan, & Coolidge, a firm the boardknew from its work on the city's Art In­stitute. Between 1900 and 1916, Coolidgedesigned 11 buildings, including the "TowerGroup"-Mitchell Tower, Hutchinson Com­mons, Mandel Hall, and the Reynolds Club­which. was based on structures at Oxford.Bartlett Gymnasium, Ida Noyes Hall, the oldStagg Field, and Harper Memorial LibraryCobb's plan (above) called fora chapel on the main quads;instead, Rockefeller (below) isat 59th and Woodlawn ..,..were also Coolidge designs.Of the other architects working on campusduring this second period, most significantwas Dwight Heald Perkins, who designedHitchcock Hall, a men's dormitory. Perkins,.. selected by the donor, Mrs. Charles Hitch­cock, was a leading advocate of the "PrairieStyle," but he managed to work within theGothic tradition, blending low, horizontallines with finial-tipped buttresses andarched windows, and adapting Gothic stoneornamentation with carvings of ears of cornand prairie wildlife.Harper's death in 1907, coupled with aneconomic depression, slowed new construc­tion. President Judson oversaw the comple­tion of several projects, including Harper Li­brary, but it was not until Ernest Burton tookover in 1923 that interest in building wasrenewed.During the Burton era, planning for theconstruction of the University clinics­Billings and Bobs Roberts hospitals-causeda reevaluation of the Gothic style: how didthis ancient design mesh with progressivescience and technology? Beyond aesthetics,could the University afford a massive and up­to-date building in Gothic? Despite numer­ous objections-some from the hospitals' ar­chitects, Coolidge and Hodgdon-MartinRyerson had the final word: "The proposal to change our style of architecture does notstrike me as favorable at first glance." Themoney was found and the hospitals built-instate-of-the-art collegiate Gothic.The 1920s also saw an aborted scheme tomove the undergraduate College south of theIT WAS ONLY A SHANTY, BUT ..."HEN THE COLUMBIAN EXPOSITIONended in 1893, it didn't entirelydisappear; the Palace of the FineArtsf later the Museum of Science and Indus­try) remained, as did many of the local hotelsbuilt to house visitors. At the corner of 57thand Ellis, another vestige ofthe Fair lingered:a tiny refreshment stand, converted into alunchroom.Students and faculty of the young U of Cgathered daily at 'The Shanty" for coffee androlls, served piping hot by the proprietress,Mrs. Ingham. When the shop closed in 1907,it was eulogized in the Cap and Gown: "Therewe meet oft in the morning when alarmclocks fail to call,! When we have a sneakyfeeling that we won't reach class at all." Early Reunionclassesreconstructedtheir favoritehangout.The Shanty itself was demolished in 1912to make way for Stagg Field, but its memorylingered on. In 1919 members of the classesof 1893 to 1900 built a replica of the buildingand established the Shanty Organization;originally limited to those 19th-centuryclasses, privileges were later extended toclasses of twenty years' standing.Throughout the 1920s, Reunion saw theannual resurrection of the Shanty on thequads, where food reminiscent of the originalwas served. Until 1935 and sporadically after­ward, new members signed The Book of theShanties, which registered those who "shall atsuch times as are set apart for Reunion comeback to those fair quadrangles wherein theygloried and grew wise in youth."XXVIII UNIVERSITY Of CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 Midway. Charles Klauder, a well-knownpractitioner of Gothic, drew up an elaborateplan for an entire, self-contained College.Only the men's dormitories-Burton-JudsonCourts-were built; the overall plan wasscrapped for both financial and philosophi­cal reasons, as opponents argued that theCollege should be within rather than simplyat the University.In 1928, the University Chapel was built.Rockefeller's last outright gift to the Universi­ty had stipulated that $1.5 million be used fora chapel (which was renamed RockefellerChapel after his death in 1937). BertramGrosvenor Goodhue, a leading contempo­rary architect in the ecclesiastic Gothic tradi­tion, designed the building, still the tallest oncampus.With the 1932 completion ofInternationalHouse-a tall and narrow Gothic dormitoryfunded by the Rockefeller Foundation to pro­mote international understanding andsqueezed onto a quarter-block-campusbuilding ground to 3 halt. In the 1930s, theDepression meant there was no money, inthe 1940s, the war focused campus attentionelsewhere, although temporary, govern­ment-funded housing for GIs-and latermarried students-briefly mushroomed.It was not until 1946 that planning beganagain, with the Administration Build­ing. Once again the practicality of Goth­ic was debated-and this time, there was noMartin Ryerson to block the move to moder­nity. Trustee Herbert Zimmerman explainedthat the board had just three options: aGothic building, which of necessity couldonly suggest the Gothic style; a Classicalbuilding, which "we concluded would satisfyno one"; and a "frankly modern building."They chose the third option, and touchedoff a volatile debate. Alumni dissent pouredin, complaining that the building was "gro­tesque" and "a monstrosity." Nonetheless,A SIDE FROM THE USUAL ISSUES of faculty,curriculum, and students, the origi­nal trustees of the U of C faced a cru­cial dilemma: what style of architectureshould they use in their new enterprise?They had the unusual opportunity to createan entire campus from a master plan. Theolder East Coast universities had grown infits and spurts-encompassing differentstyles of architecture as they went in and outof fashion-but the University of Chicagocould be, architecturally speaking, a unifiedwhole.The chosen architect, Henry Ives Cobb,was known for his Romanesque work;ground had just been broken for his massiveNewberry Library in downtown Chicago. Infact, in 1891 Cobb presented drawings ofpossible U of C buildings done in Romanes­que. On the other hand, the Columbian Ex­position opening up next door incorporatedneo-Classicism: glistening white buildingsadorned with columns and domes, ornatelydecorated.Yet the trustees found fault with both styles.Romanesque was fashionable, but groundedin no easily recognizable tradition. Classi­cism was popular and had roots in the build­ings and temples of ancient Greece, but Imposing Rockefeller Chapel (lejt)-theUniversity's tallest building-is a campusfavorite, while the modern AdministrationBuilding (above) holds the dubious distinction ofbeing most unpopular.ground was broken in October 1946 and thenameless limestone building was completedtwo years later.With the turn to a more modern style, thetrustees decided that the overall campus plan-the University had continued to followseemed somehow fleeting, as represented bythe destined-to-be-destroyed Exposition.Throughout Europe, too, Classicism repre­sented bourgeois values and the palaces ofthe wealthy, greedy nobility.The building committee turned to Gothicas a representation of what they hoped toachieve with their university. Its archingspires and uplifting lines were seen as glori­ous, majestic, striving upward to the divine.The style would reflect the belief that, as Har­per wrote, "The university is the keeper, forthe church of democracy, of holy mysteries,of sacred and Significant traditions."As the architecture of choice of the greatEuropean universities, Gothic could also ex­press a link with these revered seats oflearn­ing. As Charles Jenkins noted in ArchitecturalRecord, Gothic was selected "to remind oneof the old English Universities of Cambridgeand Oxford; in fact, to remove the mind ofthe student from the busy mercantile condi­tions of Chicago and surround him by a pe­culiar air of quiet dignity which is so notice­able in old university buildings."In addition to looking back at an admiredtradition, the Gothic style also allowed theUniversity to look forward. The Gothicbuildings of Oxford and Cambridge had en- /', ""fl,dured for five hundred years. The Universityof Chicago was meant to. The basic stylecould be adapted throughout the years;buildings could be erected as money came inwithout disrupting the overall look; un­wieldy donors with whimsical notions ofdesign could be deflected without offense.The new-old Gothic look of the campusproved a success. At the Quartercentennial,the Chicago Tribune echoed the awe of JohnD. Rockefeller.jr, writing, "It is beautiful andwonderful. Chicago University is, compara­tively speaking, a new institution. But as onelooks at the massive Gothic piles of stone,many of them covered with ivy or other run­ning vines, it is hard to realize that they atenot 'ancient of days' and redolent of scholas­tic traditions."UNIVERSITY Of CHICAGO MAC;AZINE OCTOBER 1991 XXIXBEAVENS' GATETHREE DAYS AFTER the U of C opened itsdoors, Charles Yerkes, the Chicagostreetcar magnate who built the city'selevated train system, offered to buy whatwas then the world's largest telescope-witha 40-inch lens-and donate it to the Univer­sity. In addition, he agreed to build a giantobservatory to house his gift.Thrilled, the University set about findingan architect and a location. The architect waseasy- Henry Cobb was willing and able-butthe locale was not. At first Harper and hiscommittee planned to build in Chicago­following their own rule that all Universitybuildings must be within a day's drive of themain campus-but were reminded that thecity sky is polluted and never truly dark.Twenty-six offers of land rolled in, but thewinner was Williams Bay on lake Geneva inWisconsin, which fit all the criteria. 'The site is high and beautifully located, the atmo­sphere is clear, without danger from the en­croachment of manufactories, railroads, orelectric lights," it was reported in 1893.The home for the huge telescope-whichwas exhibited in the Manufactures Buildingat the World's Fair-was to be on as grand ascale as its prize. Cobb returned to the Ro­manesque style for the building, which hedesigned in the shape of a cross, with threedomed telescope towers at the ends of thearms. The largest dome holds the main tele­scope; the others originally housed tele­scopes donated by astronomer WilliamHale, whose son George was a Universityprofessor. The brown brick observatory,opened in 1897, is ornately decorated withintricate terra cotta carvings=-includingApollo in his chariot and caricatures of thatlesser god, Charles Yerkes. roughly Cobb's original-needed updating.In 1955 the board invited Eero Saarinen tosubmit a new master plan. His first effort sug­gested placing a central library between Swiftand Rosenwald; designing "activity clusters,"in which each department would have itsown complex oflibrary, housing, and meet­ing facilities; and rerouting traffic off theMidway, essentially turning it into a giantquadrangle.r Saarinen's revised plans called for the li­brary to be built where it eventually was, onold Stagg Field, and toned down some of hisearlier, more expensive suggestions­although he continued to favor an auto­mobile-free Midway. The U of C legacy ofSaarinen, who died in 1961, lies in the posi­tion of the library and the siting of Cum­mings life Science Center, and in the twobuildings he designed, the laird Bell lawSchool Quadrangle and the WoodwardCourt dormitory complex.In the early 1960s the University reached amid-life crisis. Its buildings, on the cuttingedge when they went up, were in dire need ofrenovation; the library was woefully inade­quate; and academic areas such as the sci­ences, music, and the Graduate School ofBusiness were all desperately overcrowded.The institution took the first steps towardsrenewal in 1964, renovating Cobb-whichthe city had threatened to close for buildingcode violations-and overseeing the com­pletion of the Social Service AdministrationBuilding, designed by ludwig Mies van derRohe. lacking the resources to fulfill theirother plans, the trustees submitted a propos­al to the Ford Foundation for a $25 millionchallenge grant. In 1965 the money was allo­cated, and work began on some of the mostpressing campus needs.The Ford grant and the resulting donationsprovided the funds for several new sciencebuildings, including the High-Energy Phys­ics Lab (1967), Searle Chemistry Lab (1968),the Henry Hinds Geophysical Labs (1969),and the Cummings Life Science Center(1973).A long-standing need was filled in 1970with the building of the Joseph L. RegensteinLibrary. With space for nearly 3,000 studentsand 3.5 million volumes, the "Reg" quicklybecame a campus social hub. The 1973 reno­vation of Harper and the 1984 building of theJohn Crerar science library completed thecomprehensive library system.The arts got a home in the 1970s, as well, inthe Smart Museum, Court Theatre (complet­ed in 1981), and Cochrane-Woods Arts Cen­ter-the only completed portion of an at leasttemporarily abandoned 1970s plan to estab­lish a new College campus north to 55thStreet between Ellis and Cottage Grove ave­nues. Renovations in Mandel Hall and Good­speed Hall improved life for student musi­cians and actors; Henry Crown Field Housewas rejuvenated in 1980 for the University'Sathletes.The crowning accomplishments of the1980s, however, were the completion ofBernard Mitchell Hospital-the 1983 high­tech medical treatment facility-and of thescience quadrangle, the university'S eighthand "informal" quad. Both located on thewest side of Ellis Avenue, their proximitymeant new convenience for science studentsand faculty. The buildings of the sciencequad-Crerar Library, Hinds Lab, CummingsLife SCience Center, and Kersten PhysicsTeaching 'Center-emphasize light, with lotsof windows and glass-walled atriums, whilethe gray stone and graceful front arch ofCrerar Library just barely suggest the grandGothic style. GREEN GRASS, RED FLOWERSGEORGE BEADLE, the University's sev­enth president, really liked grass. Hecould envision gorgeous, plush greenlawns covering the main quads. The troublewas, U of C students hardly noticed whatthey walked on. As a result, the University'Sgrounds were looking more than a bit raggedaround the edges-hardly in keeping withthe institution's elite image.So in 1962 Beadle launched a campaign tosave the grass. For a week in the spring, trac­tors and bulldozers plowed the quads under,while a new sprinkler system was installed.The fresh dirt was seeded with Kentuckyblue grass. And in an effort to keep studentsfrom stomping on the struggling seedlings, aherald in medieval costume was sent forth tothe quads to read a proclamation whichquoted variously and verdantly fromChaucer ("Whan that Aprille with hisshoures sotte"), a mail order catalogue("Kentucky blue grass is a beautiful deepgreen color"), and the Song of Solomon.As reinforcement, placards were set up on the dirt, with such messages as, "Don't coupde grass," "I want to be a lawn," and "Don'ttread on me." Beadle, acting as chair of theCommittee on Grass, wound up the wholeceremonial first sally by penning a "Be it Re­solved" order "that young grass, like ideas, beallowed to grow freely, and without oppres­sion, on the campus of the University ofChicago."Beadle's gardening efforts were successful,and his admonitions live on in the signs thatcrop up every spring, including a 1991 edi­tion that seems destined to become a classic:"Nobel Laureate Crossing Only."The beautification efforts got a boost in1979, when trustee Ferdinand Kramer pro­vided funds for the flower beds by the Ad­ministration Building as a memorial to hiswife, Stephanie, a landscape architect. Cam­pus legend has it that these flowers must al­ways be red. Indeed, each season a differentvariety appears: red tulips in spring, crimsongeraniums in summer, and maroon chrysan­themums in fall.A Great BookCollectioSome peopleinvestinstamps; otherslook for coins.But the U of C'sfavoriteacquisitionshave alwaysbeen books.ILLIAM RAINEY HARPER SET ABOUT ac­quiring a library for the U of C the way he did ev­erything: he went for broke. While traveling inBerlin in 1891, Harper made a deal with the 75-year-old owner of one of the city's best-knownbooksellers, Calvary &: Company, to purchasethe entire store-some 300,000 volumes-for$45,000. With particular strengths in classical philology and archaeology,the stock also included part of the library of Pope Pius VII, three letters byRaphael, and one of four extant copies of Goethe's dissertation.The sale made instant headlines throughout the U.S., including a front­page item in the New York Times. Harper was acclaimed a hero. Although inthe end only about 57,630 volumes and39,000 dissertations actually made it to Chi­cago, the Berlin collection, as it came to becalled, formed the backbone of the Universi­ty's book collection for its first decade.In addition to the Berlin collection, the U ofC initially acquired holdings from the OldUniversity of Chicago, the Baptist UnionTheological Seminary of Morgan Park (which became the Divinity School), and theAmerican Bible Union. Within five years ofthe University's opening, its library was thelargest in the city and the second largest uni­versity collection in the country.The main library was first located-like ev­erything else-in Cobb Hall, in room BB. Ayear later, it moved to the comer of 57thStreet and what was Lexington Avenue (nowXXXII UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 One great book: Martin Ryerson gave thisChaucer manuscript to the U of C library in1929; generations of Mid die English scholarshave studied it.University). In addition to the central library-and just as important-there were depart­mental libraries, located in the office of eachdiscipline.By 1912, when Harper Memorial Libraryopened, the University's collection boasted3Bl,351 bound volumes, and was growingthrough donations. Dr. Frank Gunsaulus wasone early benefactor, contributing manu­scripts, his collection of Eugene Field books,and autographs, including letters by GeorgeWashington, Thomas jefferson.james Madi­son.john Adams, and Abraham Lincoln.In 1913, the library bought a collectionfrom Reuben Durrett of Louisville, who had avast store of manuscripts on early Kentuckyhistory and a general collection of about30,000 volumes. The following year, Ebene­zer Lane and his sister Fanny gave their fa­ther's 9,000-volume collection-which fo­cused on history, art, and literature-forfaculty and graduate student use.Martin Ryerson was a chief donor to the li­brary during its early years. Among his con­tributions was one of the BO surviving man-uscripts of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, givenin 1929. Together with photostatic reproduc­tions of all the extant Tales manuscripts andfragments-purchased with money from theestate of Frederick Ives Carpenter-theChaucer manuscript provided the back­ground for John Manly and Edith Rickert'scritical edition of the Canterbury Tales.During the 1930s, the libary became one ofthe foremost holders of Lincoln ian a throughthe acquisition of three collections: the Bar­ton collection, the Hannah collection, andthe Oldroyd papers. The Thirties alsobrought an anonymous donation which pro­vided the funds to purchase the private pa­pers of Harriet Monroe, the founder and edi­tor of Poetry magazine: 25,000 pieces,including corresponce with such literarylUminaries as Ezra Pound, Edgar Lee Masters,Carl Sandburg, and Edna St. Vincent Millay.The library's collection had grown to1,300,000 volumes by the early 1940s, andspace was at a premium. Departmental li­braries were still scattered over the campus-37 units, including the main stacks in Harperand Wiebolt. Echoing an early campus plan,it was proposed to build a central library onthe west side of the main quad. Others sug­gested a continuous string of departmentallibraries placed in the buildings surroundingthe main quad; plans for an annex to HarperWere also drawn up but never came to pass.By 1962, the combined U ofC libraries con­tained over two million volumes, but itwasn't until 1965 that relief came for theswollen campus stacks, as the Joseph andHelen Regenstem Foundation pledged$10,000,000 for the building of a new centralcampus library. Five years later, the Joseph L.Regenstein Library opened on the site of oldStagg Field. Seven floors provided 584,886square feet: enough room for 3.5 million vol­umes and nearly 3,000 study seats.In 1981 the University negotiated the ac­qUisition of the 650,000 volumes of the JohnCrerar Library, which had been housed at theIllinois Institute of Technology. The CrerarCollection of science and technology worksbrought the U of C's scientific holdings toOVer a million items. Three years after the ac­qUisition, Crerar Library, close to the medicalSchool and the science buildings, was erect­ed to hold the collection.Today the combined U of C libraries­r�nked 15th among university libraries na­tIonally-contain over five million volumesand receive more than 50 000 serials andhave an archival collection' which nu�bersseven million pieces. The libraries also own350,000 maps and aerial photographs; over500,000 study photos of visual art; and 15,000phonograph records. Regenstein Libraryalone-the centerpiece of the library system­serves an average of 5,000 people a day. PRESIDENT HARPER'S DECISION toinclude a scholarly press as part ofhis initial university organization­on an administrative par with academic de­partments-was a ground-breaking one. Itprovided ample opportunity for his profes­sors to be published-and served as a gentlereminder that they must be. .At first, the University could not afford torun the Press, as Harper had envisioned, oncampus; from 1892 to 1894, the Press func­tioned as an independent corporation, withits production offices-run by D.C. Heath­located downtown. The University was ableto purchase the struggling company in 1894;gave it its own building on 58th and Ellis in1902; and established an endowment for itin 1903.The first book published by the Press wasthe initial volume of Assyrian and BabylonianLetters Belonging to the K. Collection of the Brit­ish Museum, by Robert Francis Harper, associ­ate professor of Semitic languages (and thepresident'S brother). In its first ten years thePress published over 200 scholarly booksand began a dozen journals, and in 1905 itfirst began to accept works from scholarsoutside the University.Over its 100 years, the Press became knownfor tackling projects that other publishers­because of length or controversy-rejected.For example, research for The Lisle Letters, theedited letters of Edward IV's illegitimate son,was begun by author Muriel St. Claire in1930. When the book was published-in1981-it received the Carey-Thomas Awardfor Creative Publishing from PublishersWeekly A current Press project is The Worksof Giuseppe Verdi, edited by professor andHumanities dean Philip Gossett; the 37-volume set is expected to take 30 years. But the country's largest university pressmay be most famous for two style guides.Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of TermPapers, Theses, and Dissertations, firstpublished in 1937, is its all-time best seller;the manual sells about 120,000 copies a yearThe "other" manual is the ubiquitous Chica­go Manual of Style, which was developed inthe early 1900s as a guide for the DecennialPublications, celebrating the University'stenth birthday.Other Press works which have had a lastingimpact include Head Professor of Philoso­phy and Education John Dewey's School andSociety, in print since 1899; Thomas Kuhn'sThe Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962);John Boswell's Christianity, Social Tolerance,and Homosexuality (1980); and Lucy FlowerDistinguished Service Professor of SociologyWilliam Julius Wilson's The Truly Disadvan­taged (1987).To continue its tradition of scholarly block­busters, the Press is banking on The HumanCareer, by anthropology professor RichardKlein, which won last year's Gordon Laingprize for best Press publication by a Universi­ty professor, and 1990's Mythologies, by Mir­cea Eliade Professor in the Divinity SchoolWendy Doniger, a two-volume, ten-years-in­the-making translation of a French encyclo­paedia of myths.XXXIIIEstimated number ofstudents who havematriculated at theUniversity of Chicagosince its founding: AlumniNumbers500,000Number of persons whohave earned degrees,from 1892 through Sum-.mer Convocation 1991: 163,902Number of persons whohave earned Collegedegrees: 56,098Number of persons whohave earned Ph.D.degrees: 19,015Number of livingalumni: 105,559 The AlumniHETHER THEY ATTENDED the College, thegraduate divisions, or the professional schools,alumni rate their Chicago experience highly.Asked by the Alumni Centennial Census to gaugetheir overall experience as U of C students, 95.1percent were strongly positive (46.5 percent) orpositive (48.6 percent).Ratings stayed high among younger alumni. While the largest proportionof negative (9.6 percent) or strongly negative (2.6 percent) ratings camefrom under-35 alumni of the graduate divisions, still 86.6 percent of thatgroup rated Chicago positively, compared to 94.6 percent of those over 35.When U of C alumni were asked how they rated their classroom or labora-tory education, the ratings went even higher:96.9 percent were strongly positive (55.6percent) or positive (41.3 percent). Again,among under-35 alumni of the graduate divi­sions, the ratings fell slightly: 41.6 werestrongly positive about their education,while 50.5 percent were positive.In general, alumni seem to agree with Rob­ert Maynard Hutchins' oft-quoted assertionthat Chicago "is not a very good university,simply the best there is." Asked to rank the Uof C among the nation's colleges and univer­sities, 84 percent put Chicago in the Top 10,15.5 percent in the Top 25. Asked to gaugehow they think the general public ranks the'University, the numbers dropped somewhat:58.2 percent of alumni put Chicago in theTop 10,40 percent in the Top 25.Political Values. "Moderate" is how 28.8percent of Chicago alumni describe theirpolitics. That proportion is relatively con­stant across both academic divisions andalumni generations. But when values leavethe middle ofthe road, differences appear.For example, while 30.2 percent of allalumni term themselves "liberal" and anoth­er 13.6 percent "strongly liberal," the Gradu­ate School of Business presents a mirror im­age: 42.3 percent of GSB alumni report thatthey are "conservative" and 10.9 percent are"strongly conservative" (compared toUniversity-wide figures of 22 and 5.4 per­cent, respectively).Over all, the under-35 versus over-35 dif­ferences are slight. Political values solidifywith age; across the board, older alumni areless likely to call themselves moderates. Inthe GSB, for example, the pendulum swingstoward the right, while in other professionalschools (Divinity, Social Service Administra-XXXIV UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 tion, Library Science, and Public Policy), per­centages of over-35 alumni in the "liberal"and "strongly liberal" categories are slightlyhigher than for under-35 alumni.Giving. Asked to estimate their 1989household contributions to charitable pur­poses, 9.1 percent of alumni reported contri­butions ofless than $100, while 41.9 percentsaid they gave between $100 and $999; 43.9percent, between $1,000 and $10,000; and5.1 percent, $10,000 or more.A 1989 survey by the Gallup Organizationfor Independent Sector found that 75 per­cent of all U.S. households reported charita­ble giving: 16 percent gave $100 or less, 30percent gave from $100 to $999, and 15 per­cent contributed $1,000 or more (the other14 percent did not report amounts).U of C alumni also are more likely than theaverage American to be a volunteer. Whilethe May 1989 Current Population Surveyfound that roughly four out of ten collegegraduates age 25 or older participated in vol­unteer work, 62.3 percentof Chicago's alum­ni reported participating in organized volun­teer service in 1989.Rates of participation went up to 73.3 per­cent among an alumni group that includedthe Divinity School, the School of Social Ser­vice Administration, and the Graduate Li­brary School. Also above the overall averagewere Law School alumni, at 68.8 percent. Ingeneral, alumni under age 35 were less likelyto report volunteer service than over-35alumni (where percentages are most likelybolstered by retirees).Interests. Asked to list favorite activities,44.1 percent included travel among their an­swers-followed by music (37.3 percent),sports and fitness (35.1 percent), and theaterProfile(30.1 percent). Approximately one in fourrespondents reported an active interest ineducation, business and professional associ­ations, museums, religion, spectator sports,and civic and political affairs.Where They Work. When the U of C sur­veyed its alumni in 1955, the three leadingoccupational categories were educators (26percent); business workers (13 percent); andhousewives (12 percent).Thirty-five years later, education providesjobs for 29.74 percent of all U of C alumni;23.98 percent are in higher education. With10.69 percent of al umni working in banking,finance, insurance, or real estate, and anoth­er 8.09 percent in manufacturing, the per­centage of alumni in business is sharply up,reflecting the fact that over the last 25 yearsthe annual number of GSB grads has gonefrom approximately 200 to 1,000. The num­ber of respondents who described them­selves as homemakers ("housewives" wasnot a survey category this time around)dropped to 1.54 percent.The tradition of public and community ser­vice remains strong: 6.67 percent of alumniare employed by federal, state, or local gov­ernments (that figure was about 5 percent in1955), and 3.93 percent work for non-profitgroups.While 8.53 percent work in medical profes­sions, the percentage who describe them­selves as physicians/surgeons is 4.88 per­cent, down from 1955's 10 percent. Inaddition, 7.37 percent of alumni report theiroccupation as attorneys, compared to 6 per­cent in 1955.What They Earn. Four out of every fivealumni returning a questionnaire providedinformation on their household incomes. Ofthose, 28.6 percent had 1989 pre-tax house­hold incomes of less than $50,000; 55 per­cent, between $50,000 and $149,000; 12percent, between $150,000 and $300,000;and 4.4 percent, above $300,000. In contrast,the 1989 national median household in­come was $28,906-with 3.9 percent of thepopulation reporting household incomesabove $100,000 and 76.4 percent reportinghousehold incomes below $50,000.Differences showed up among the schoolsand divisions: 26.4 percent of GSB alumniresponding reported total household in­comes of $150,000 or more-as did 37.2 per­cent of the Law School respondents, and 33.5percent of the Medical School/Rush alumni. Alumni PoliticsAll Alumni--- Strongly Liberal13.6 %Liberal30.2%Moderate28.8%Conservative22 %Strongly Conservative5.4%Don't Know1.1%GSBAlumni-------- Strongly Liberal2.3 %------- Liberal12.6 %;..._------ Moderate31.1 %,....------- Conservative42.3%------ Strongly Conservative10.9 %,...------, .. Don't Know0.9 %Where Their Jobs Are Three out offour U of Calumni work in one ofeight broad fields.------------ Education 29.74 %Blgher23.98 %Secondary 2.09 %Primary 1.44 %Other 2.23 %Banking, Finance,Insurance, Real Estate10.69 %Medical Professions8.53 %Manufacturing8.09%Legal Services7.69%Non-Profit Groups3.93%Federal Government3.87%'--------- State and LocalGovemment2.80%---------- Other24.66 %Four out of five alumniwho completed theSurvey reported theirtotal, pre-tax householdincome for 1989,Under $50,00028.6%------- $50-$ 150,00055 %--------- $150-$300,00012 %'------------.- ..... Above $300,0004.4%Where They Live'New England------------------------------------------------------6.2 %Middle Atlantic: ----------------------------------------------- ...."12.5%East North Central----------------------------------------.42.4%(Illinois 33. 8 %)West North Central4.3 %Mountain ---,..,.....------------ ....4.0%Pac:ific:14.1 %South Atlantic:11.8 %East South Central1.4 %West South Central3.1 %Robert Andrews Millikan, X'94, 1923 Prizein Physics: work on the elementary charge ofelectricity and the photoelectric effect.Clinton Joseph Davisson, SB'08, shared1937 Prize in Physics: experimental discov­ery of. the diffraction of electrons by crystals.Ernest Orlando Lawrence, X'23, 1939 Prizein Physics: invention of the cyclotron.Chen Ning Yang, PhD'48, and Tsung-DaoLee, PhD'50, shared 1957 Prize in Physics:investigations of nuclear physics' so-calledparity laws, disproving the law of parityconservation.Paul Samuelson, AB'35Edward Lawrie Tatum, X'31, shared 1958Prize in Physiology or Medicine: discoverythat genes act by regulating specific chemicalprocesses.Owen Chamberlain, PhD'49, shared 1959Prize in Physics: confirming the existence ofthe antiproton.James Dewey Watson, PhB'46, SB'47, sharedJames Cronin,SM'53, PhD'55 Meanwhile, 45.3 percent of alumni from theother professional schools (Divinity, SocialService Administration, Library Science, andPublic Policy) had household incomes un­der $50,000, as did 38 percent of Collegealumni.Those income differences are most pro­nounced early on: two years after graduating,approximately eight of ten Law School andGSB graduates report household incomes of.more than $50,000 annually, compared toonly 10 percent of College alumni.Basic Demographics. U of C alumni stickclose to Chicago: 33.8 percent reside in Illi­nois-compared to 4.8 percent of the generalU.S. population-significantly bumping upthe proportion of alumni who live in the EastNorth Central region (Illinois, Indiana,Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) to 42.4 per­cent, well above the national percentage of17.2 percent.Next comes the Middle Atlantic region,with 12.5 percent of alumni, followed by theSouth Atlantic states (ll.8 percent). NewEngland, with its high concentration of aca­demic institutions, is home to 6.2 percent ofalumni (and 5.3 percent of the generalpopulation).Sixty percent of the 4,777 alumni who live1962 Prize in Medicine and Physiology:work in establishing the molecular structureof DNA and its significance for informationtransfer in living material.Robert S. Mulliken, PhD'21, 1966 Prize inChemistry: work on the electronic structureof molecules.Luis W Alvarez, SB'32, SM'34, PhD'36, 1968Prize in Physics: contributions to the physicsof subatomic particles and techniques fortheir detection.Paul Samuelson, AB'35, 1970 Prize in Eco­nomic Science: contributions to nearly allareas of economic theory.Saul Bellow, X'39, 1976 Prize in Literature:for such novels as Henderson the Rain King,Herzog, and Mr. Sammler's Planet.Milton Friedman, AM'33, 1976 Prize in Eco­nomic Science: theories on the importanceof money supply in determining a nation'seconomic health.Herbert Simon, AB'36, PhD'43, 1978 Prize inEconomic Science: work on the decisionmaking process in economic organizations.Herbert C. Brown, SB'36, PhD'38, 1979 Prizein Chemistry: production of reducing agentsbasic to physical and organic chemistry.outside the United States are concentrated inten foreign countries: Canada is first, with994 alumni; next comes Japan (545); theUnited Kingdom (452); Israel (249); France(224); Belgium (95); Germany (83); Aus­tralia (169); India (54); and Switzerland(48). Alumni also live in 106 other coun­tries, from Afghanistan (2) to Zimbabwe 0).Men outnumber women almost two to one:64.9 percent versus 35.1 percent. Six timesout of ten, the U of C person is married: at57.68 percent, the proportion of marriedalumni is almost a perfect match with the na­tional figure. Of those married alumni,11,328 are wed to other U of C alumni.Slightly over a third (35.35 percent) are sin­gle; 3.64 percent are divorced (about halfthe national figure), and 3.03 percent arewidowed.While 44.11 percent of alumni are child­less, 10.05 percent have one child, 23.91 per­cent have two children, 13.65 percent havethree children, and 8.32 percent have four ormore offspring.And alumni are, of course, a highly educat­ed group: 55.88 percent of those with de­grees from Chicago have at least one degreefrom another school, while 15.66 percent re­port two ormore degrees from the University.James W Cronin, SM'S3, PhD'SS, shared1980 Prize in Physics: discovery of a matter­prone particle showed that subatomic parti­cles do not have an equal tendency towardcreating matter and antimatter-a step to­ward proving the big bang theory.Roger Sperry, PhD' 41, shared 1981 Prize inPhysiology or Medicine: work on the func­tions of the brain's hemispheres.George]. Stigler, PhD'38, 1982 Prize in Eco­nomic Science: studies of industrial struc­tures, market functioning, and the causesand effects of public regulations.James McGill Buchanan, PhD' 48, 1986 Prizein Economic Science: developing the con­tractual and constitutional basis for thetheory of economic and political decisionmaking.Jack Steinberger, SB'42, PhD'49, shared 1988Prize in Physics: experiment producing andusing a beam of neutrinos.Jerome Friedman, AB'SO, SM'S3, PhD'S6,shared 1990 Prize in Physics: experimentsproving the existence of quarks.Harry M. Markowitz, PhB'47, AM'SO,PhD'S4, shared 1990 Prize in Economic Sci­ence: portfolio investment theories, formu­las measuring risks associated with assets. ClassNewsworthiesCulled from the "Class News" section ofthis magazine, here are a few names,household and otherwise, of alumnifrom 1892 to 1975. (More recent grads willhave to wait 'til the Quasquicentennial.)1892-1910Leonard Dickson, PhD' 1896, wrote some 15books on mathematics, earning a reputationas "the greatest American number theorist."Ethel Percy Andrus, PhB'03, founded theAmerican Association of Retired Persons andthe National Retired Teachers Association­serving as president of both organizations.Operating on a lung cancer patient, Evarts A.Graham, MD'07, was the first chest surgeonto successfully remove a human lung.Economist Harold Glenn Moulton, PhB'07,PhD'14, was the Brookings Institution's firstpresident. The University Press publishedseveral of his books, including Principles ofMoneyRobert R. William, AB'07, SM'08, synthe­sized vitamin B-1, donating $4 million inpatent rights to a nonprofit foundation re­searching dietary diseases. Twenty years af­ter graduating, John Dille, PhB'09, createdthe comic strip "Buck Rogers." The HubbleSpace Telescope is named for astronomerEdwin Powell Hubble, AB'lO, PhD'17; inwhat is known as Hubble's law, he offered ev­idence supporting the theory of the expand­ing universe.1911-1920William S. Gray, PhB'13, PhD'16, was a read­ing expert whose widest audience came ascoauthor of the primary reading series fea­turing Dick and Jane. Louis Wendlin Sauer,MD'13, PhD'24, produced a vaccine forwhooping cough, as well as a three-waywhooping cough-diphtheria-tetanus vac­cine. Pioneer balloonist Jeanette Ridlon Pi­card, SM'19, set a world record in 1935, as­cending 57,599 feet; with her was herhusband, University professor Jean Picard,who used the flight to measure cosmic rays.1921-1930Rachel F. Brown, SM'21, PhD'33, codis­covered nystatin, the first antifungal antibi­otic safe for human use. In the early 1940s, The strip thatDille made;star-tracker/track starHubble; Gray's"Dick andJane"taught millions.Vivian Carter Mason, PhB'21, directed theNew York City welfare department's socialservice division-it was then the highestcivil service position ever obtained by ablack. JournalistJohn Gunther's (PhB'22) In­side series, based on his experiences as a for­eign correspondent, were 1930s and '40sbest-sellers.Joseph B. Rhine, SB'22, SM'23, PhD'25,coined the term extrasensory perception,doing pioneering experiments in the phe­nomenon. us. historian Henry Steele Com­mager, PhB'23, AM'24, PhD'28, taught at Co­lumbia University and, later, at AmherstCollege. His books include Majority Rule andMinority Rights (1943) andJefferson, Nation­alism, and the Enlightenment (1975).While a psychology professor at the U of C,Nathaniel Kleitman, PhD'23, identified Rap­id Eye Movement (REM) sleep, when mostSusan Sontag,AB'51Thomas Victor dreaming occurs. Best known for his T.v. roleas Grandpa Walton, Will Geer, SB'24, wasalso a noted Shakespearian actor. BenjaminE. Mays, AM'25, PhD'35-president of More­house College in Atlanta (1940-1967)-delivered the eulogy for Martin LutherKing,Jr.As an agent with the US. Department ofJustice's Prohibition Bureau, Eliot Ness,PhB'25, broke Al Capone's Chicago crimesyndicate. Calvin S. Fuller, SB'26, PhD'29,was one of a three-person team at Bell Labo­ratories who invented the first successful so­lar battery. John Larson, MD'28, invented thecario-pneumo-psychogram test, aka the liedetector. James T. Farrell, X'29, wrote fictionthat often dealt with life in Chicago's Irishslums and was best known for his Studs Loni­gan triology (1932-53).Compass Player MikeNichols, in 1955 1931-1940Mathematician Mina Spiegel Rees, PhD'31,was elected the first woman president of theAmerican Association for the Advancementof Science in 1970. Studs Terkel, PhB'32,JD'34, won a 1985 Pulitzer Prize for The GoodWar: An Oral History of World War; since the1940s, he has hosted radio programs inChicago.Benjamin O. Davis, X'33, the first blackgraduate from West Point, served in the Nix­on administration as assistant secretary oftransportation. Abraham Ribicoff, LLB'33,was governor of Connecticut, secretary ofHealth, Education and Welfare, and a US.senator. Through her Children' Workshop,Katherine Dunham, PhB'36, teaches danceto disadvantaged youth in East St. Louis. Inthe 1940s, Dunham gained internationalfame as a dancer and choreographer.Katharine Graham, AB'38, became presi­dent of the Washington Post Company (pub­lisher of the Washington Post and Newsweek)in 1963, and has chaired its executive boardsince 1973. As an FDA medical officer,Frances Oldham Kelsey, PhD'38, MD'50,blocked thalidomide's use in the US., pre­venting birth deformities caused by the drug.She holds the first Ph.D. in pharmacologygranted at Chicago.The only woman scientist present at thefirst sustained nuclear chain reaction in1942, Leona Marshall Libby, SB'38, PhD'43,later taught physics at the University of Cali­fornia, Los Angeles. After serving as Presi­dent johnson's press secretary and specialassistant, George E. Reedy, Jr., AB'38, wroteThe Twilight of the Presidency.1941-1950Charles H. Percy, AB'41, was Bell & Howell'sc.E.O. and served as a US. senator from Illi­nois. John Paul Stevens, AB'41, was judge ofthe US. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Cir­cuit from 1970 until 1975, when PresidentFord appointed him to the US. SupremeCourt. John H. Johnson, X'42, created andpublishes the magazines Ebony andJet.James B. Parsons, AM'46, JD'49, the firstblack appointed to a Federal district bench inthe continental US., is US. District Courtjudge for the Northern District of Illinois. In1984, Robert McCormick Adams, PhB'47,AM'52, PhD'56, left the University-wherehe'd been director of the Oriental Institute,dean of social sciences, and provost-to be­come secretary of the Smithsonian Institu­tion. Best known for the Mary Tyler Mooreand Lou Grant television series, Ed Asner,X'48, has won seven Emmy awards-morethan any other male actor.Max Palevsky, PhB'48, SB'48, was presidentand founder of Scientific Data Systems andchair of the executive committee of XeroxCorp. Beryl Sprinkel, MBA'48, PhD'S2, wasundersecretary for monetary policies for theTreasury Department, and chaired the Coun­cil of Economic Advisers during the Reaganadministration. In his 1962 book The OtherAmerica, Michael Harrington, AM'49, intro­duced America to the poor; the best-sellerhelped stimulate President Johnson's "war"on poverty. Patricia Roberts Harris, X'49,was secretary of the Department of Health,Education, and Welfare under PresidentCarter1951-1960Noam Chomsky, AM'Sl, PhD'SS, revolu­tionized the study oflanguage with his theo­ry of generative grammar, proposed in his19S7 book Syntactic Structures. RamseyClark, AM'SO,JD'Sl, was u.s. attorney gener­al under presidents Johnson and Nixon. In1980-after serving five terms eachin the Illi­nois legislature and the u.s. Congress­Abner]. Mikva,]D'Sl, became a u.s. Court ofAppeals judge in Washington, D.C.Novelist, essayist, filmmaker, and critic, Su­sanSontag,AB'Sl, won a 1977 National BookCritics Circle award for On Photography Herlatest books are AIDS and Its Metaphors andDeath Kit. Mike Nichols, X'S3, cofounder ofthe comedy troupe Second City, won the1965 Tony award as best director for The OddCouple. His films include The Graduate, Car­nal Knowledge, and Regarding Henry.In researching the possibilities of extrater­restriallife, Carl Sagan, AB'S4, SB'SS, SM'S6,PhD'60, demonstrated that amino acidscould be produced from basic chemicalsthrough radiation; he's also known to mil­lions and millions as the host of public televi­sion's Cosmos. Philip Roth, AM'SS, author ofGood-bye, Columbus and Portnoy's Com­plaint, based his 1981 book ZuckermanBound on his experiences at Chicago.Philip Glass, AB'S6, composer of the operasEinstein on the Beach and Sa tyagraha, has alsowritten film scores and multimedia workssuch as 1000 Airplanes on the Roof DonaldSteiner, MD'S6, SM'S6, discovered proinsul­in, the first protein precursor to be isolated.At the University, he codirects a national cen­ter for research and treatment of diabetes.Seymour Hersh's (AB'S8) stories for theNew York Times and the Atlantic Monthly haveWon numerous awards, including the 1970Pulitzer Prize for international reporting.As project scientist for the u.s. Voyagerprobe, launched in 1977, physicist EdwardC. Stone, SM'S9, PhD'64, coordinated the ef­forts of 11 research teams. He now heads thephYSics, math, and astronomy divisions atthe California Institute of Technology. FrankL. Brown's (AM'60) novel Trumbull Park wasbased on his experience as a leader of blacksWho Were targets of physical attacks at the formerly all-white Chicago housing project.He was a student in the Committee on SocialThought and writing a second novel when hedied ofleukemia in 1962.1961-1975James F. Hoge, AM'61, former editor-in-chiefof the Chicago Sun Times, is publisher of theNew York Daily News. Robert Coover, AM'6S,winner of the 1966 Faulkner award for TheOrigin of the Brunists, also wrote The UniversalBaseball Association (1968) and A Political Fa­ble (1980). At age 24, Leon Botstein, AB'67,became the youngest college president in thenation, as head of Franconia College in NewHampshire; in 1975, he was named presi­dent of Bard College.A leader of the Weather Underground,Bernadine Dohm, AB'63, JD'67, was a keyplayer in the "Days of Rage" riots in Chicago-today she practices law in Manhattan.Dohrn recently talked about her experiencesbefore a packed house at Chicago'S CulturalCenter Willie Davis, MBA'68, won fourworld championships with the Green BayPackers, as the team's defensive end; in 1986,Davis, a U of C trustee, was elected to foot­ball's Hall of Fame.Sara Paretsky, AM'69, MBA' 77, PhD'77,writes the best-selling VI. Warshawski detec­tive novels, set in Chicago. Anthony Yu,PhD'69, completed the first English transla­tion of the classic 16th-century Chinese ep­ic, The Journey to the West. Donald Carl Jo­hanson, AM'70, PhD'74, discovered fossilevidence of a new species, Australopithecusafarensis. Nicknamed "Lucy," the fossil wasthe first positive link between primates andhumans.Paul A. Volberding, AB'7i, is an oncologistwho helped implement the nation's first out­patient and inpatient units devoted to thecare of persons with AIDS. Kurt Vonnegut,jr.,AM'll, is famous for his darkly humorousnovels such as Slaughterhouse Five (1969). Ed Asner, X'48, gets ahand from EugeneTroobnick, X'53Philip Glass,AB'56Leon Botstein, AB'67Wille Davis, MBA'68 Sara Paretsky, AM'69,MBA'77, PhD'77DonaldJohanson, AM'70, PhD'74Chicago is a relDarkable institution-in process ofbecolDing, let us hope, far 1D0re relDarkable.-Max Mason, 1928."LOOKING BACK" was prepared by the staff ofthe University of Chicago MagaZine: MaryRuth Yoe, editor; Tim Obermiller, associ­ate editor.jane Chapman, AM'90, editori­al assistant; and Allen Carroll, designer. ard Born, AM'7S; John Bowman, AB'83;Patrick Bova; Norman Bradburn, AB'42;Mary Braun; Jeanne Buiter, MBA'86; Rich­ard Bumstead; William Burton; AuroraCalzolaio; Kimbeth Coventry; GerrieDraus; Richard Dreiser; Stephen Duffy,AM'76; John Easton, AM'77; CynthiaEchols, AM'78; Teri Edelstein; Ed Ernst;Scott Foresman & Co.; Jill Fosse; AmyGoerwitz, AB'83; the Green Bay Packers;Laura Gruen, AB'67, AM'68; Andrew Han­nah; William Harms; Alice Haskell; Feli­cia Antonelli Holton, AB'SO; Ronald Kim,AM'89; Mary Jean Kraybill.jeanne Marsh;Nancy Maull, AM'69, SM'73, PhD'74;James McConville; Daniel Meyer, AM'7S;Katherine Dusak Miller, AB'6S, MBA'68, PhD'7l; Louise Miller; Merton H. Miller;Patricia Monaghan; Morehouse College;Bill Murphy, AM'70, PhD'8l; Chris Nick­leman; Hana Okamoto; William Pattison,PB'48, AM'S2, PhD'S7; Margaret Poethig;Richard Popp, AM'8l; Rina Ranalli; Rich­ard Redden, AB'47; Julie Robinson;Edward Rosenheim, AB'39, AM'46,PhD'S3; Donna F Stonich, AM'll; Lorna P.Straus, SM'60, PhD'62; Ralph Strohl,AM'78, PhD'84; Maxine Sullivan; Chris­tine Svoboda; Emily Teeter, PhD'90;Charles Tenbrink; Raymond Tindel,AM'72, PhD'89; Lawrence Tinsman;Marlene Tuttle; Silvestre Vigilante; Tho­mas Weingartner; Gail Wilson; and Cyn­thia Wilkinson.Research: Steven 1. Benowitz, Lesley Mar­tin, and Ralph Pugh, AM'8l. Color photo­graphy: James L. Ballard.The Magazine thanks the following per­sons and organizations for their sugges­tions, legwork, loans of valued objects,and general helpfulness: Christian Ander­son; Larry Arbeiter; Megan Beardsley;Frances Beko; Walter Blair, AM'26,PhD'3l; Walter Blum, AB'38,]D'4l; Rich-T UNIVERSITYhink of the thousands of thoughtful and inventive people who, over the course of thepast 100 years, have done all or some oftheir thinking and invention at the Universityof Chicago. 'Next, think of some of the ideas they've had. 'Now comes th� hardpart. Pick what you think is the most important of those ideas. Then write a short es­say to support your choice. ,To get you thinking, here are some guidelines: It couldbe a book, it could be a theory. It could be famous, it could be ahead of its time. Itcould be the work of a professor (or two) or the work of an alumnus. It could be some­thing that was mentioned in the birthday section of this issue. Or it could be one ofthemany ideas that weren't. ,Those whose essays are chosen to appear in these pages will receive$100. The Magazine will accept essays until January 3, 1992. We'd like writers to remember thatnot only is brevity the soul of wit, it also allows more essays to be printed. Thus, we suggest an up­per limit of 500 words. Please send essays to the University of Chicago Magazine, in care of theeditor, and marked "The Ideas of the University."UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 57Seeking $500 million, the Campaign for the Next Century is far andSpecial ReportPlaDniDgfortheNextCeDturyThe first gift: Rockefeller's written pledge0/$600,000 (opposite page).58 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991In typical Chicago style, the Universitybegan to celebrate its Centennial by is­suing itself a challenge. On October 5,two days after the centennial yearopened with a special convocation in Rock­efeller Chapel, the announcement came: theUniversity has set out to raise $500 million ingifts from individuals, corporations, andfoundations.In announcing the start of the public phase ofthe five-year "Chicago: The Next Century"campaign, the University also announced thatdiscussions with trustees and other individu­als close to the University, as well as certaincorporations and foundations, had yieldedadvance commitments of$117 million towardthe $500 million goal.Campaign priorities, outlined below, fallinto three categories. First, $234 million­almost half the total-is targeted for the en­dowment. If achieved, that particular objec­tive would increase Chicago's endowment,which today ranks 11th among the nation'sprivate universities, by almost 25 percent, al­lowing a much greater share of the Universi­ty's operating costs to be met by endowmentincome.Another $75 million is targeted for bricks­and-mortar projects, including the first phaseof a pioneering Bioscience Learning Center;a new downtown classroom building for theGraduate School of Business; and expansionand improvement of the Oriental Institute'smuseum. An additional $191 million ($143million in designated programmatic support,$48 million in unrestricted gifts to the Univer­sity's several annual giving programs) isaimed for current operations of specificschools, departments, and ongoing teachingand research programs."W hy go to all this work for Chica­go?" asks University trustee B.Kenneth West, MBA'60, chairof the campaign steering committee. His an­swer is equally brief and to the point: "To en­sure the future. "Realizing the vision of the University's nextcentury, concurs President Hanna HolbornGray, will require "a major investment inpeople, programs, and facilities comparableto that which launched this university a hun­dred years ago."The goal, writes Gray in the case statementfor the new campaign, is to keep Chicago "auniversity human in scale, energetic in seekingout what it can do best, willing to question andchallenge fundamental assumptions and prac­tices, and offering a model of the highest aspi- rations of the private research university."Indeed, "Chicago: The Next Century" isthe result of a decade of institution-wide plan­ning by faculty, administrators, and trusteesto determine priorities for the 1990s. Fromthose priorities, carefully pruned, came thecampaign's priorities-and a monetary goal.The result, says Warren Heemann, vicepresident for development and alumni rela­tions, is "a 'stretch' goal, an ambitious goal,an optimistic goal-but one which appearsachievable. "To be successful, the campaign must raise anaverage of $1,923,077 a week during its five­year run (July 1, 1991 through June 30, 1996)."The good news," says Heemann, "is that wealready have $117 million committed. The badnews is that we are not at all sure from whomthe balance will come. It is a leap of faith."Among the factors that make the goal astretch is the factthatthe U ofC has substantial­ly fewer alumni than do several peer institu­tions also currently engaged in multimillion­dollar fund drives. Chicago has 89,081 alumniupon whom it can call for support, of whichonly 28,506 are College graduates, a groupwhich is usually the heart of any campaign.Stanford University, for example, which iscompleting a $1.1 billion campaign, has ap­proximately 142,000 alumni; Columbia,which recently announced a $1 billion, seven­year campaign, has over 198,000 alumni.On the plus side of the ledger is Chicago'sstrong alumni-giving record. During the1980s, an average of 30,043 alumni made atleast one gift each year, putting annual alumniparticipation at 32.31 percent. (The size ofthe average gift was $117. 18.) Alumni giftsduring the 1980s averaged $24.7 millionannually.Another good omen is that the University isentering the campaign after three years ofstrong giving. Base support (that given eachyear, excluding special campaign gifts) hadplateaued at about $30 million a year formuch of the 1980s; it has been moved up toabout $45 million for the past few years. "Oursuccess," notes Randy Holgate, associatevice president for development and alumni re­lations, "is due in large part to the excellentwork of our volunteers, especially those onthe trustee campaign committees."Keeping up that momentum-and buildingupon it-is, of course, the challenge. Leadingthe work is a cadre of trustee volunteers, head­ed by Ken West and the other members of thecampaign steering committee: trustee chairBarry F. Sullivan, Weston Christopherson,Gaylord Donnelley, Robert Halperin, Edgaraway the largest fund-raising drive in the University's history.Jannotta, Howard Krane, Charles Marshall,and Ormond Wade. (President Gray,Heemann, and Holgate also serve on thesteering committee.)Marshall serves as chair of the major giftscommittee; HarveyB. Plotnick, AB'63, is hisvice chair. Ormond Wade and Wes Chris­topherson are chair and vice chair, respec­tively, of the corporate gifts committee. BobHalperin, PhB'47, heads the annual giftscommittee, and Ned Jannotta, the outreachcommittee. West, Sullivan, and Gray carriedthe principal responsibility for securing theadvance gifts which comprise the $117 mil­lion announced at the campaign kick-off.Because the university's. intellectualcapital is inextricably linked with itshuman capital, much ofthe campaignwill focus on maintaining Chicago's ability toattract and keep the best faculty in an increas­ingly competitive climate.The projected national shortage of facultythrough the 1990s-particularly in the artsand sciences-will come just as a large num­berofthe University's senior faculty retire. Tofill those vacancies well, Chicago must offercompetitive salaries and an environment thatsupports the highest quality teaching andresearch.Ensuring that Chicago remains accessible tothe brightest students, regardless of their abil- ity to pay, is also a major purpose of the cam­paign. Today, six of ten undergraduates re­ceive need-based scholarships directly fromthe University: from 1981 to 1991, under­graduate financial aid expenditures leaptfrom $2.5 million to $16.3 million.Financial aid is also needed for graduate stu­dents-one in two of whom receive Universi­ty support. The need is particularly importantgiven the number of Chicago graduates whoenter education, social work, government,and other fields with comparatively low sala­ries; in addition, many graduate students ar­rive on campus with large debts from financ­ing their undergraduate education. Increasinggraduate financial aid has societal benefits aswell; for example, working against the pro­jected shortage ofPh.D.s.The University's commitment to close fac­ulty and student interaction-and to smallclasses-requires a higher ratio of faculty tostudents than at most universities. And its fo­cus on advanced education makes the Univer­sity an inherently costly enterprise. Whilemost research universities have a 3: 1 ratio ofundergraduate to graduate and professional­level students, Chicago has twice as manygraduate and professional-school students asundergraduates.Also placing demands on the Universitybudget is the escalating cost of conducting ad­vanced research. Although examples could come from every field, one from the biologi­cal sciences makes the point: in 1970, it costapproximately $100,000 to provide a seniorprofessor with state-of-the-art facilities. To­day, that cost exceeds $500,000. Twentyyears ago, computers were still a novelty; nowthey're standard equipment for researchers inevery field. Over the same two decades, thecosts of books and scholarly journals havenearly quadrupled.With pressing needs on many fronts,Chicago has opted for what Univer­sity administrators call a "compre­hensive" campaign, with all annual expenda­ble gifts and capital gifts for endowment orconstruction counting towards the goal. Addi­tionally, all parts of the University and the Lab­oratory Schools are participating.A major campaign thrust is to strengthen re­lationships with corporations, foundations,and not - for-profit associations-contributorsthat generally support a specific Universityprogram or unit that's closely matched to theirown institutional priorities. Chicago expectsto attract $143 million in designated gifts andgrants, much of it from the business commu­nity, social agencies, and philanthropicorganizations .. No less than $48 million, to support the cur­rent operations of the University's differentunits, is to be raised by increasing contribu-UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 59tions to-and participation levels of-the an­nual funds already organized to benefit thoseacademic units. The campaign's leaders stressthe importance of alumni continuing their an­nual giving while at the same time making acommitment to one of the campaign's featuredcapital objectives. While annual gifts are usu­ally made from one's income, capital gifts aremost often made from an individual's accu­mulated assets.The remaining three-fifths of the campaigngoals are targeted for specific endowment andfacilities needs.Endowment GoalsFully half of the endowment funding beingsought during the campaign is for faculty sup­port: $114 million in endowed chairs andresearch funds.University professorships, Chicago's high­est faculty honor, are endowed positions usedto attract and to recognize persons of excep­tional talent and reputation. Other endowedchairs include distinguished service profes­sorships, honoring senior faculty who havesubstantially contributed to teaching and re­search at the U of C; senior professorships,endowing positions at a specific school, divi­sion, or program, and often crucial to a unit'sability to recruit or retain a valued professor;and visiting professorships, faculty from oth­er colleges whose expertise complements thecurriculum or research programs. Gifts ofbetween $1.5 and $2.5 million are needed toestablish a named professorship.Other endowment funds are being sought torecognize younger faculty who have greatpromise as classroom instructors and to at­tract postdoctoral researchers in particularareas. The endowed research funds includedin the campaign assist both senior scholarsand those younger faculty who have not yetestablished the credentials needed to attractmajor government or foundation support.Unrestricted and General Endowment.As institutional needs change over time, unre­stricted or general endowment funds offer themost flexibility in responding to thosechanges. To that end, the campaign has set acombined goal of $48 million for two types ofendowments: unrestricted (gifts in which thedonor leaves to the president and the trusteesdecisions on how best to use the fund's annualincome) and general (in which the donor des­ignates the income for the unrestricted use of aparticular academic unit).Student Assistance. In 1991-92, Universi­ty scholarships and fellowships to undergrad­uate, graduate, and professional students willtotal $56.9 million. The average undergradu­ate award is $6,900; to endow a scholarship ofthat amount costs approximately $125,000.Compared to other private universities, Chi-60 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991cago is relatively weak in the amount of en­dowment earmarked for student financial aid;to help address that need, the campaign seeks$46.5 million.Special Programs. Another $18.5 millionin endowment priorities target several inter­disciplinary institutes and centers.• The Irving B. Harris Graduate School ofPublic Policy Studies wants to raise $5 millionin endowment to establish and staff several in­terdisciplinary centers focusing on issues ofdemography and population growth, familysize and structure, and energy and naturalresources.• The Law School has an endowment goalof $4.5 million to support its interdisciplinaryprograms in Law and Economics, Law andGovernment, and Legal History-as well asits Center for Studies in Criminal Justice andthe student -based Edwin F. Mandel Legal AidClinic.• The fledging Chicago Humanities Insti­tute seeks $4 million to underwrite research,especially at the junior faculty level, as well asjunior faculty exchanges, leaves for Chicagoand other scholars to participate in the Insti­tute, and interdisciplinary symposia.• The Divinity School is seeking $1 millionfor continued support of the Institute for Ad­vanced Study of Religion, which functionsboth as its research arm and as a forum forwider religious discussion and debate.• Three affiliate institutions of particularimportance to the University also have en­dowment goals: The David and Alfred SmartMuseum of Art, $1 million, to help under­write its four visiting exhibitions each year;the Court Theatre, $1 million, to continue itsfull schedule of classical, modern, and exper­imental drama; and the Laboratory Schools,$1 million, for scholarships (currently 11 per­cent of its students receive such aid) and facul­ty development.• To help underwrite the seven undergradu­ate Residence Halls' programming of infor­mal contacts between faculty, students, andadministrators, endowments from $100,000to $300,000 (varying with the size ofthe hall)are needed.Endowment for the University Library.With a combined goal of $12 million, supportfor the University Library is a priority objec­tive. The Joseph Regenstein Library and theJohn Crerar Library have targeted $5 millionin endowment for acquisition and preserva-, tion in Regenstein's humanities and social sci­ences collections and Crerar's holdings inmedicine and science. Another $5 million inendowment is needed to maintain the Univer­sity Library facilities and to modernize proc­essing and retrieval systems.As the costs for books, journals, and accessto on-line databases continue to climb, boththe Law School and the Divinity School have set $1-million endowment goals for acquisi­tions and the preservation of their collections.Facilities GoalsAt a cost of $30 million, the first phase of theBioscience Learning Center is the campaign'smost ambitious single initiative. The centercomplements Chicago's bell wether programof curricular reforms and innovativelaboratory-based education in the life sci­ences-a program aimed at improving scien­tific literacy and addressing the growing na­tional shortage of researchers, clinicians, andeducators in the biological sciences. In its de­sign, the facility represents an integrated ap­proach that is a Chicago tradition, serving alldisciplines in the life sciences and all levels ofbioscience education through advanced post­doctoral and medical training.The center, which will feature facilities forcomputer-simulated biological experimenta­tion, will be linked to the planned Jules F.Knapp Medical Research Building (where re­searchers in genetics, immunology, cell biol­ogy, and biochemistry will collaborate onfundamental questions of human disease).The facilities' juxtaposition will underscorethe interrelationship between learning and re­search-letting students witness, and partici­pate in, the process of scientific discovery.GSB Downtown Center. With burgeoningenrollments in its evening, executive, andweekend MBA programs, the GraduateSchool of Business is seeking a minimum of$10 million for a new downtown Chicago cen­ter, one with three times the space of its over­worked facilities at 190 Delaware.The new building-with auditoriums, com­puter lab, and library as well as class andmeeting rooms-has several other potentialusers, including the University's ContinuingEducation program, the Chicago area alumniclub, and the University's investment office.Bartlett Gymnasium Replacement. Builtin 1904, Bartlett Gymnasium has grown in­creasingly inadequate for intercollegiate, in­tramural, or recreational athletics. Becauseany attempt at renovation-particularly, toexpand and improve the swimming pool­would cost too much for too little improve­ment, a replacement gym has been designed.Complementing the Henry Crown FieldHouse, the North Campus building will con­tain a swimming pool for competition and rec­reational use; a multi-purpose gym with seat­ing for 1,500; and a sports medicine unit, aswell as locker rooms, equipment rooms, of­fices, and classrooms. The cost of the firstphase is estimated at $10 million.Once the new gym is in place, Bartlett willbe converted into a student activities center,with a bookstore and offices and meetingrooms for student organizations.Other Athletic Facilities Improvements.With 20 intercollegiate varsity teams, 28 clubsports, 52 organized intramural sports, and28 open recreational tournaments, all campusathletic facilities are showing the strain ofheavy use-the campaign goals include $2million for needed overall improvements.Harris School Wing. The Irving B. HarrisGraduate School for Public Policy Studiesshares space on the Midway at University Av­enue with two complementary organizations,the National Opinion Research Center(NaRC) and the Chapin Hall Center for Chil­dren, next door to the Laird Bell Law Quad­rangle. That location echoes the units' sharedactivities; thus, the school plans to meet itsgrowing requirements for faculty and re­search space by adding a wing on the existingbuilding, at an estimated cost of $6 million.Other funding will be needed to reconfi­gure, expand, and improve the NaRC andChapin Hall facilities.Oriental Institute Addition. After a 1969conservation study showed that many of theOriental Institute's 70,000 excavated objectsfrom the Near East had suffered deterioration-and that the entire collection, both in thegalleries and in storage, was at risk, interimsteps were taken to preserve the most endan­gered items. To provide permanent securityand preservation as cost-effectively as possi­ble, the Institute plans a new wing with therequisite climate control in both display andstorage areas, while the existing galleries willbe used for other Institute activities. The esti­mated cost is $5 million.Survey Telescope. Chicago is part of asmall consortium engaged in the Digital SkySurvey, a ten-year project to map the universe100 times more completely than ever before.Central to the survey is a state-of-the-art tele­scope, with a special digital camera androbot-controlled spectrograph, to be locatedon New Mexico's Apache Point. The Univer­sity's share of construction funds for the pro­ject totals $4 million.Consortium for Advanced RadiationSources. When the Advanced Photo Source(APS), a synchrotron now under constructionat Argonne National Laboratory, is complet­ed in 1995, it will produce X rays 10,000 timesmore brilliant than any now possible-andwill be used across the biological and physicalsciences to probe molecular mysteries. Withother Illinois universities and national usergroups, Chicago has formed a consortium todemonstrate APS research applications in thecorporate sector. To support that effort, theUniversity is seeking $3 million to developcompatible technology and to construct ex­periments at the APS facility.Language and Film Centers. A total of $2million is sought to upgrade the LanguageF acuity Resource Center and the Film Studies Center, both located in Cobb Hall. As videoand computer technologies grow increasinglyimportant in language instruction, the Lan­guage Faculty Resource Center will provideinteractive classrooms, as well as space for stu­dent viewing of satellite transmissions offoreign-language news broadcasts. A new FilmStudies Center will include a 100-seat auditori­um, videotape library, and film archives.Skinner Organ Renovation. RockefellerMemorial Chapel's E. M. Skinner Organ,considered the finest romantic 20th-centuryorgan built in America, is also included in thecampaign objectives. To properly restore theorgan, improve the organ chamber, and estab­lish a small endowment to inaintain the Skin­ner, will require $2 million.Lab Schools Renovation. The lJniversity'sLaboratory Schools will seek $1 million forrenovations to Belfield Hall, an all-schoolslibrary, and new assembly and gymnasiumspace. The . campaign for Chicago, trusteechair Barry Sullivan writes in theconclusion of the campaign's casestatement, goes far beyond the University:"The future of America will be shaped inlarge part by American higher education-thenation's primary mechanism for producingthe leadership of the next generation, for fur­thering scientific and technological progress,and for providing an understanding of our cul­ture and the values necessary for a free andpluralistic society."Our University," Sullivan continues, "hasfulfilled this role in a superlative manner for acentury. The challenge for all of us is to carrythis extraordinary institution into the nextcentury. It could not be created again as weknow it, although surely it must undergo aconstant process of being recreated if it is toendure. For that process to continue, we willneed your help. Together we can set a coursefor the University's next century."UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 61lumni ChronicleDining on a grond scoleAlumni Association associate director DannyFrohman describes this year's series of GalaCentennial Dinner Dances as "larger, andgrander" than anything the Association hasrecently attempted in the six cities where theevents will be held in the coming year.Invitations to the dinners will be sent toalumni, parents, and other friends within themetropolitan areas of New York, Washington,Los Angeles, San Francisco, Boston, andChicago. Alumni outside those geographicboundaries who would like to attend a dinnerare welcome to contact the Alumni Associa­tion about receiving an invitation, saysFrohman, adding, "We hope these events willdraw out those members of the alumnipopulation we don't usually see at other typesof functions-as well as those we do seeregularly. "A centennial dinner is also scheduled inHong Kong Nov. 8, with Nobel laureate Mer­ton Miller as the featured speaker, and anevent for European alumni was held Oct. 5 in Brussels for European alumni and friends.According to Jeanne Buiter, executive direc­tor of the Alumni Association, the idea for thedinners had its genesis after "many of ouralumni expressed a desire to celebrate theCentennial in a special way in their own com­munities, as well as on campus. "The basic format of the dinners will be thesame in every city: an hour-long cocktail re­ception, followed by a multi-course dinner,after which a master of ceremonies will intro­duce speakers, toastmakers, and honoredguests= including President Hanna Gray,who is scheduled to attend all of the galas.The after-dinner program will feature a spe­cial showing of a documentary about the Uni­versity produced by television journalist BillKurtis, a vocal performance by a studentquartet, and dancing.In every one of the six cities, special centen­nial dinner committees have been or are beingformed to help organize the event. "Thesecommittees," says Buiter, "are comprised ofvolunteers from every aspect of the Universi-62 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 ty community-donors, trustees, and alumnifrom the College, the professional schools,and the graduate divisions, representing awide range of ages and interests.""We're also grateful to the honorary chair­persons of these committees who have enlist­ed the assistance of benefactors to hold ticketprices down," to between $75 and $100 perperson, says Buiter.For more information about attending a galadinner in your area, or volunteering to serveon a centennial dinner committee, contactFrohman, 312/702-2154.From affinity ond bockDid you camp it up in Blackfriars? hone yourcinematic sensibilities through Doc Films?frantically finish a Maroon article minutesbefore deadline? or participate in anyone ofdozens more activities that provide lastingmemories of your life as a Chicago student?The Alumni Association Office is interestedin helping alumni who share an affinity for aparticular student group, activity, or era to re­unite for special receptions during the Cen­tennial Reunion in 1992, and beyond.During last spring's reunion, two such re­ceptions were held: for alumni who had par­ticipated in the Independent Student League(ISL), the political party that dominated Stu­dent Government in the 1950s, and for alumniof the Hutchins College.The ISL reception was initiated by MonicaKozasa Mod, AB'56, who contacted theAlumni Association months before reunion,asking for help in reuniting her with StudentGovernment classmates."We were able to provide a computer direc­tory of people listed in our files as havingparticipated in the ISL," says associate alum­ni director Michelle Uhler, "and then to pro­vide mailing labels when Monica was ready tosend out letters to those alumni."U sing the Alumni Association list, Mori be­gan networking with other ISL alumni, refin­ing and adding to the list until a total of 500 in­vitations were eventually sent: of those, about50 actually attended the reception and otheractivities planned around reunion."The Alumni Association can also helpthese affinity groups to plan their receptionsaround the main Reunion activities," saysUhler. "We can find locations on campus forreceptions, and print up times and locations inthe main reception brochure-but only ifwe're given enough time to prepare in advancefor such requests."Uhler suggests that alumni interested informing affinity group receptions for the spe­cial Centennial Reunion '92 get in touch withher as soon as possible, so that she can helpwith an initial contact list and offer othersuggestions. Call Uhler at 3121702-2158.lass News"No news is good news" is one cliche to which wedo not subscribe at the Magazine. Please send someof your news to the Class News Editor, University ofChicago Magazine, 5757 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago,IL 60637. No engagements, please. Items may beedited for space.20 Hazel Schmidt Patzlaff, PhB'20, see 1948,Martha Hays Mandlow.23 Sam Malcolm Levy, PhB'23, who turns 90this November, recently donated a glass gal­lery to the Cincinnati Art Museum and a floral clock tothe Cincinnati Park Board. He was also given a key tothe city by Cincinnati's mayor and was designated aKentucky Colonel.25 FelixF. Caruso, SB'25, a member of Stagg'strack and football teams, now lives in Hins­dale, IL. His son notes that a friend once called Carusothe "finest player alive" and that "Amos Alonzo Stagghad sold his soul to get Caruso." Nine of Felix's chil­dren, grandchildren, and their spouses are attorneysand two are accountants.27 Kurt Leidecker, PhD'27, a professor of phi­losophy at Mary Washington College formany years, received the 1991 Americanism Awardfrom the Daughters of the American Revolution. Theaward honors a naturalized citizen who has contrib­uted to the community; Leidecker was cited for in­creasing understanding between the West and theOrient.28 Estelle Rochells Greenberg, PhB'28, andher husband, David, celebrated their 60thwedding anniversary in June in Fresno, CA, wherethey have lived since 1931. She is a volunteer at St.Agnes Medical Center. The couple has one daughterand two grandsons.31 Alice Ebel, AM'31, a retired Illinois StateUniversity political science professor, washonored as a "Woman of Distinction" by the McLean(Il) County YWCA.32 Lucy Riddell Huntington, PhB'32, and herhusband, Donald, celebrated their 58th wed­ding anniversary in September, and three of their eightgrandchildren graduated from college and graduateprograms last spring. Lucy recently published a bookof poetry. John Heide, PhB'35, is living in ArroyoGrande, CA, where he rides his motorcycle, keepingthe streets clean by collecting bottles and cans forrecycling.36 Katherine Mann Byrne, AB'36, AM'43,is working as a legal assistant in her daughter�argaret's Chicago law office. She was recently pro­fl�ed in the Chicago Sun- Times. Adelaide AndresenElserer, SB'36, and her husband, Paul Eiserer,�hD' 48, are active in community and church affairs in. endersonville, NC. They have two daughters andfIve grandchildren.38 La Vinia Bowles Williams, PhB'38, hasmoved to Lincoln Park Retirement Apart­ments in Chicago.41 Librada Castillo Luis, AM' 41, founder ofthe Philippines Women's Club in Hilo, HI,Was honored in January for her 30 years of service. 42 Betty Debs Sobel, AB'42, writes that thePrint Mint Gallery in Winnetka, IL, whichshe helped open in 1972, is listed as one of the 700 old­est in the country. She especially enjoys finding printson request.43 Helen Berry von Dallwitz- Wegner,AB' 43, was married in April; she and herhusband plan to spend their summers in Munich andtheir winters in Vero Beach, FL.44 Mark Beaubien, SB'44, MD'46, and hiswife, Harriet Frazier Beaubien, AM'49,are retired and live in Washington, DC. They recent­ly toured Antarctica on a cruise and highly recom­mend it.Lloyd Blakeman, SB' 44, donated 80 acres of wil­derness land in Marathon County to the Wisconsinchapter of the Nature Conservancy. The gift was inmemory of his late wife, Louise Ecklund Blakeman,X' 45, and his mother, Louise Pabst Blakeman, a grad­uate of the Chicago Kent College of Law who passedthe Illinois bar in 1918.45 Jeanne Grant, PhB'45, has been keepingParker Brothers on its toes: she found over 50mistakes in the "Vintage Years" edition of Trivial Pur­suit, and reports that the company has promised tocorrect most of the errors. Charles A. Messner,PhB'45, retired from Carleton College where hetaught French and Italian for 37 years.47 Botanist Clark Ashby, SB'47, PhD'50, re­ceived the 1991 William T. Pless Award,given by the American Society of Surface Mining andReclamation.48 Esther Conwell Rothberg, PhD' 48, earnedXerox's President's Award-the highest hon­or that the company bestows. Rothberg has worked atXerox since 1972, doing research on the transportproperties of conductive polymers. Paul Eiserer,PhD'48, see 1936, Adelaide Eiserer. ThomasFreeman, PhD' 48, celebrated his 40th anniversary asminister at the Mt. Horem Baptist Church in Houston.Harold Katz, PhB'48, AM'51, recently retired after13 years at UCLA. Most recently he was assistant di­rector of financial analysis in the capital programs de­partment. His wife, Barbara Press Katz, AB'49,also retired from her teaching position at Long BeachCity College, where she worked for 24 years. Both areusing their new leisure time to sail and explore culturalprograms.Martha Hays Mandlow, AM' 48, writes of a "hap­py discovery" she and her husband, SamuelMandlow, SM'63, made when they moved toaFlori­da retirement community: friend and neighbor HazelSchmidt Patzlaff, PhB '20, who, in addition to havinggraduated the year Martha was born, is "no slouch atTrivial Pursuit. " Martin Ostwald, AM' 48, a classicsprofessor at Swarthmore College, has been named aFellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sci­ences. Ostwald also received the Charles A. GoodwinAward of Merit from the American Philosophical As­sociation for his book From Popular Sovereignty to theSovereignty ofl.aw. He is currently the only Americanon the editorial board of the Cambridge Ancient Histo­ry IV-VI. Richard A. Strehlow, SB'48, a researcherUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 6364 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge NationalLaboratory, has been named co-chair of an interna­tional symposium on standardization of terminology,to be held in Cleveland, Ohio.49 Harriet Frazier Beaubien, AM'49, see1944, Mark Beaubien. Barbara PressKatz, AB'49, see 1948, Harold Katz. Albert Weeks,AM'49, has joined the faculty of the Ringling Schoolof Art and Design, teaching world affairs, and was ap­pointed to the board of the Sarasota Institute for Life­time Learning. Last spring he published articles onSoviet affairs in various national newspapers. In 1985,Harriet Weller, X'49, wrote a book on the Chinatravels of her late father, J. Marvin Weller, SB'23,PhD '27, a geology professor. This year the book is be­ing translated into Chinese, and in September she wentto China to retrace her father's journey.50 William Brandt, JD'50, with his daughter,Susan, and his son, Peter, were featured in aFather's Day article in the Bloomington (fL) Panta­graph. Both Susan and Peter are lawyers like their fa­ther. Raymond Ewing, AM'50, has retired as profes­sor and director of the graduate program in corporatepublic relations at Northwestern University's MedillSchool of Journalism. Richard J. Israel, AB'50, see1957, Sherry Feinberg Israel.51 William Cross, AM'51, sociology profes­sor at Illinois College, presented a paper onthe impact of environmental problems in Eastern Eu­rope at the annual meeting of the International Associ­ation for Impact Assessment in June.54 William C. Hillman, X' 54, has been nameda U.S. bankruptcy judge for Massachusetts.Marian Hill Husain, SM'54, see 1956, Syd Husain.5 5 Joan Molner Kunitz, X' 56, sends word thather husband, Dan Kunitz, AB'55, AB'56,AM'61, received the Human Rights Award from thecity of Newton, MA. Harriet Lange Rheingold,PhD' 55, received a 1991 distinguished scientific con­tribution award from the Society for Research in ChildDevelopment. Lucille Simmons Whipper, AM'55,is a South Carolina state representative and recentlyhelped establish the Avery Research Center forAfrican-American History and Culture there.56 Syd Husain, PhD'56, retired in 1988 as pro­fessor and director emeritus of the Center forMedical Technology at Indiana State University. He stillteaches one course a semester. His wife, Marian HillHusain, SM'54, retired last year from her position asimmunization representative for the Indiana StateBoard of Health. Joan Molner Kunitz, X'56, see1955, Dan Kunitz. Robert K. Tsutakawa, SB'56,SM'57, PhD'63, chair of the department of statistics atthe University of Missouri, has been named a Fellow ofthe American Statistical Association.57 Sherry Feinberg Israel, AB'57, is now anassociate professor at the Hornstein Programin Jewish Communal Service at Brandeis Universityin Waltham, MA. She and her husband, Rabbi Ri­chard J. Israel, AB'50, have four children and twograndchildren.J. Antony Lloyd, X'57, vice president of publicaffairs at Beth Israel Hospital in Boston, has beenelected president of the board of Boston's Handel &Haydn Society. He is also national chair of the publicaffairs group of the Association of American MedicalColleges.58 Peter Langrock, AB'58, JD'60, was re­cently reelected to the American JudicatureSociety board of directors. Langrock is also a Vermontcommissioner to the National Conference on UniformState Laws and a member of the American Bar Associ­ation's House of Delegates and the American Law In­stitute. June Sochen, AB'58, a Northeastern IllinoisUniversity history professor, has edited and writtenthe introduction for Women s Comic Visions, a bookabout contemporary women's humor and womencomedians. 59 Norma LaRene Despain, AB'59, an asso­ciate professor at the University of Hawaii,received a Fulbright grant to spend the 1991-92 aca­demic year teaching American literature in Ghana.Dirk Willms, MBA'59, is now a partner at BrinsonPartners, Inc., an investment management firm.60 Allan Devitt, X' 60, is president of the Crite­rion Bar Association, a scion society of theBaker Street Irregulars. His wife, Susan Diamond,AB '70, is the organization's secretary and editor of thenewsletter. See also Books. Arthur Peterson, AB'60,retired from the Alaska attorney general's office lastOctober, and in April joined the Juneau law firm ofDillon & Findley. He also took first place for his agegroup in Juneau's 1990 Empire Cup Runners Series­but, he qualifies, "only because the guy who came insecond missed more races than I did."61 John Agria, AM'61, PhD'66, was recentlyinaugurated as president of the University ofDubuque after serving as vice-president for academicservices at Thiel College in Greenville, PA. VirgilBlanke, PhD'61, received a distinguished teachingaward from Ohio State University, where he is a pro­fessor of educational policy and leadership. AlbertLeong, AB'61, AM'66, PhD'70, has been promotedto professor of Slavic languages at the University ofOregon. Earlier this year he was named academic di­rector for a cooperative Russian language program atLeningrad State University for the 1991-92 academicyear. See also Books.62 v. Olga Beattie Emery, AB '62, PhD '82, ad­junct professor of psychiatry at DartmouthCollege, received the 1991 Margaret Riggs Distin­guished Contribution Award from the New HampshirePsychological Organization, recognizing her "newconceptualization and research on pseudodernentia."63 Nancy Auer Falk, AM'63, PhD'72, a pro­fessor of religion at Western Michigan Uni­versity, has been awarded a grant to conduct researchon women and religion in India. Samuel Mandlow,SM'63, see 1948, Martha Hayes Mandlow. MauriceMcSweeney, JD'63, was recently reelected to theAmerican Judicature Society board of directors.McSweeney is also a member of the American Collegeof Trial Lawyers. Elizabeth Fiss Watson, AM'63, isa manager and librarian at South Walkerville Libraryin Windsor, Ontario. She's looking for other GLSalumni in the area.64 Gene Feit, SM'64, PhD'68, is the directorof contamination-free manufacturing atSEMATECH Corporation. William Freedman,PhD'64, is interviewing "impassioned baseball fans,especially those who date back to the 1940s or' 50s, fora book on fans, fandom, fanhood, whatever." If you'dlike to be interviewed, please contact him in care of theEnglish Dept., University of Haifa, Haifa 31 999, Is­rael. Frank Reilly, MBA'64, PhD'68, professor ofbusiness administration at the University of NotreDame, recently received an honorary doctoral degreefrom St. Michael's College in Colchester, VT.65 William Adler, MBA' 65 , was given the Dis­tinguished American Award by the Chicagometro chapter of the National Football Foundation andHall of Fame. Lynn Breger, AM'65, president of aCalifornia public relations firm, is currently workingwith the Jewish National Fund of San Francisco andthe Pacific coast region. Paul Peckar, SM'65,PhD'68, is recovering from life-threatening injuriesreceived in an explosion; he is a psychiatrist in privatepractice in Alexandria, VA.66 Linda Gellein Gertenbach, MAT' 66, re­ceived the Louis A. HarufMemorial Awardfrom the Iliff School of Theology in Denver, Co.Maggie Puner Levin, AB'66, writes, "I have recent­ly graduated from Plato to Play-Doh, havingjust beenawarded a diploma in Early Childhood Education af­ter a two-year course of study." She also received amedal for earning the highest grade point average inher school.67 Edward DeCarbo Jr., AM'67, has been ap­pointed dean of students at Macalester Col­lege. Jack Lapidos, MBA'67, has taken a partner, aCPA and lawyer, into his practice; he hopes it will easehim into early retirement. Paul Lazarow, AB'67, isprofessor and chair of cell biology and anatomy atMount Sinai Medical School in New York. He adds: "Ihave just returned from two weeks of a sailing vacationin Denmark, which was full of wind and waves, freshfish, cold beer, and good company." Fred Mandell,AM'67, PhD'72, was named a vice president by IDSFinancial Services. Judy Beckner Sloan, AB '67, willjoin Southwestern University School of Law as a visit­ing associate professor of law.Judith Testa, AM'67, PhD'83, received grantsfrom Northern Illinois University and from the Na­tional Endowment for the Humanities for research onSimon Bening, a European manuscript illuminator.James Woolley, AM'67, PhD'72, associate professorof English at Lafayette College, received the ThomasRoy and Lura Forrest Jones Award for "superiorteaching and scholarly contribution to his discipline."68 James Borland, AM'68, PhD'73, a profes­. sor of English and computer science, is inter­rm vice president and dean for academic affairs at Adr­ian College. Linda Dykstra-Rylander, AM'68,PhD'72, is the William R. Kenan Jr. professor of psy­chology at the University of North Carolina at ChapelBill.Ronald Ramseyer, MBA'68, has been, appointedsenior vice president, direct marketing, at Talbots, aretail chain. Gene Paul Strayer, AM' 68, received hisPh.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, awardedjOintly by the religion and music departments. He iscurrently organist and choirmaster for Trinity UnitedChurch in York, PA, as well as seminary organist andadjunct professor of church music and world religionat Lancaster Theological Seminary. RussellWheeler, AM'68, PhD'70, was recently reelected tothe American Judicature Society board of directors.69 Grace Pachman Allison, MAT'69, JD'79,has joined the Northern Trust Company astax counsel. Richard Rack, AB'69, former editor ofChicago Review and Chicago Literary Review and au­t?or of Linear C and Other Stories, is editor and pub­hsher of a new literary magazine, Oxygen. ConsueloLauda Kertz, AB '69, associate professor of businessa� Emory College, was named president of the univer­Sity's senate, which represents faculty, student, andstaff interests. David Kuebrich, AM'69, PhD'73,�M'74, has been awarded a Fulbright grant to lecture10 Mexico during 1991-92.70 Mark Bohnhorst, AB'70, staff attorneywith Southern Minnesota Regional LegalServices, won the Bernard P. Becker Legal ServicesStaff Award, presented for the first time this year. Su­san Diamond, AB '70, see 1960, Allan Devit. DanielLauber, AB '70, was named Volunteer of the Year byt�e Independent Voters of Illinois-Independent Pre­ClOct Organization. Paul Laudicina, AB'70, is a vicepresident at A. T. Kearney. Richard Leventhal,MB�70, married Kathy Ann Neisloss in April. He ispreSident of Fedway Associates, a liquor importer and;h?lesale company in Kearny, NJ. Reena MiriamPlcehandler, AB'70, AM'72, graduated as a rabbifrom the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College thisyear. Reena and her husband Jeremy Brochin havetwo . , ,hi children. Lawrence Stout, AB'70, who receivedIS. Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Illi­�IS in 1974, has been promoted to professor at IllinoisesleYan, where he has taught since 1977. He's 100, TooA pioneering teacher andresearcher in education andpsychology, Guy Buswellremembers when both he andthe University were young.In 1914, Guy Buswell, MAT' 16,PhD '20, came by train for his first lookat Chicago. Around Union Station, herecalls, "I had never experienced such noisyconfusion." Later that day he arrived inHyde Park, which was "beautiful and im­pressive." It would be his home for most ofthe next 35 years.In synch with the University'S own Cen­tennial, Buswell turned 100 years old lastJanuary. Born on the prairie not too manyyears after it was a frontier, he became aneducational psychologist as that field was inits developing stages.Just before his birthday this year, Buswell,now living in a retirement apartment in Lin­coln, NE, updated a short autobiographybegun ten years befote.In it he recounts hischildhood as the son of a Nebraska preach­er, moving from Lincoln to Plattesmouth toNehawka to Broken Bow. He remembersmilking the family cow, and the shock ofPresident McKinley's shooting in 1901. In1909, Buswell's family moved to York so hecould attend York College, a small churchschool. While there, he also studied phar­macology by correspondence."Being a druggist was interesting," hesays. "We worked very closely with the doc­tors." But second thoughts about that careerwere reinforced by reading books sold in thepharmacy, including some on psychology.Thus he was receptive to York's dean, C.E.Ashcraft, AM'17, who introduced him tothe University of Chicago. In what was aconsiderable adventure at the time, GuyBuswell withdrew his $200 in savings andheaded to Chicago for graduate school.Buswell says he arrived just as educationand psychology were converging in fasci­nating ways. Until that time, for example,schools taught oral reading almost exclu­sively. Chicago led the way in teaching silentreading as a separate process altogether.Working with Charles Judd in Educationand James Angell in Psychology, Buswellearned his Ph.D. through combined studiesin both departments.In the summer of 1920, he was appointedprofessor of educational psychology. Muchof Buswell's early work involved a device called the "eye movement camera," devel­oped at Chicago, which tracked the reader'seye as it moved across the page. Differencesbetween good readers and poor ones couldbe analyzed by the number of "fixationpauses" per line. Buswell also wrote theWheeler Silent Reader, a textbook for ele­mentary schools. He shared his knowledgeof reading-and, later, arithmetic education-with Lab Schools teachers such as IdaDePencier and Lenore Johns, who have re­mained lifelong friends.As Buswell's reputation grew, so did hisfamily. He and his wife, Eva, had a daughterand a son, and built a house at 69th and Cre­gier when those streets were lined with va­cant lots. The move was partly to enjoy openspace, but also to live outside the academiccommunity, which was expanding hastily aswell. Judd Hall became the most moderneducational laboratory in the country, and asBuswell settled into his office, he couldwatch Rockefeller Chapel go up across thelawn.In 1949, the Buswells moved to the Uni­versity of California at Berkeley. Chicagowould remain his spiritual home, but Berke­ley gave him the opportunity to reach morestudents. His overriding philosophy wasthat better reading and general educationwould "lead to a clearer understanding ofthe social and economic problems of theday, which are presented largely throughnewspapers and current periodicals," as hewrote in his 1937 monograph "How AdultsRead."As he looks over 100 years of life, Buswellexpresses little but satisfaction. Even thereading teacher in him remains optimistic."Television? I don't think it has reducedreading," he says. "If anything, it has in­duced a greater field of interest, and Ithink people read more as a result."-Jay PridmoreUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 65Enduring SpiritThrough a life filled with firsts,Loraine Green has made a lastingimpression on both the Universityand the dty of Chicago.lL. oraine Richardson Green, PhB'18,AM' 19, was a black woman ofachievement at a time when socialconstraints made success difficult for blacksand women. Yet, she recalls, breaking barri­ers was never much of a problem."We were something extra," Green nowsays of herself and her late husband, Wen­dell Green, JD'20, who became the firstblack Circuit Court judge in Cook County in1942. "No one mistreated us. This is some­thing I would use when I talked in front ofgroups. I said, 'If you can be the first atsomething, you are always important.'"Green's earliest aspiration when she ar­rived from Kansas at the University of Chi­cago in 1916 was to become" a good wife to agreat lawyer, " but her ambitions didn't stopthere. Directly after becoming the firstblack woman at Chicago to earn a master'sdegree in sociology, she was made a board66 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991member of the Urban League-cominghighly recommended by her professor, Ro­bert E. Park, who was a founder of the Chi­cago chapter. She was Supreme Basileus(national president) of her Alpha Kappa Al­pha sorority for three years. Chicago politi­cos were impressed by her leadership on thestate board of the League of Women Voters."I found that once you get going, every­body thinks you ought to be a member oftheir organization, " Green says. She super­vised students for United Charities, workedwith Sophonisba Breckinridge at the Chica­go School of Civics and Philanthropy, andorganized support for Mary McDowell atthe University of Chicago SettlementHouse. In 1935, she joined Jane Addamsand the Women's International League forPeace and Freedom, meeting with EleanorRoosevelt in an attempt to head off WorldWar II.She was a born speaker-her voice can stillfill a room. Her first speaking engagementcame while still a student, when she was in­vited to Cornell College in Mt. Vernon,Iowa, to lecture on the sociology of inner­city Chicago. "Those students had neverhad a black on the campus," she remem­bers. ''Afterwards, I had girls come up tome, crying, and saying that they wanted todo something about the race question."As her stock as a speaker rose, she touredcampuses to lecture on social issues on be­half of the Women's Interracial Committeeof the YWCA, and, later, she stumped forwar bonds in a Red Cross uniform, making330 speeches in one year. Today she admitsshe was never sure if her audiences, mostlywhite, fully understood her message. "Butthey always left with the feeling that some­thing had occurred. "As the first black person appointed to theChicago Board of Education by Mayor Rich­ard 1. Daley in 1958, Green also struggled toget her message across. During her tenure,she notes, "The record will show many votesof 10 to 1. And I was usually the one."Loraine Green still lives in Hyde Park andrelishes her association with the University,and with the city. "It makes me think of thespiritual 'I Heard of a City Called Heav­en,''' she says. "For me it must have been'I Heard of a City Called Chicago.' "Green is a featured speaker in the Univer­sity's centennial video, Stand Fast, Chica­go, and at recent reunions she has been theonly member of her class able to attend­receiving lavish ovations. "It always makesme think, honor goes not to the swift, notto the strong, but to him who endures."-Jay Pridmore 71 Kang Moy Chiu, MAT'7l, represented Illi­nois at the White House Conference on Li­brary and Information Services. Ralph Rossum,AM'71, PhD'73, has been elected president ofHampden-Sydney College. Rossum previouslyserved as vice president and dean of the faculty atClaremont McKenna College.72 Theodore Berland, AM'n, spoke at CraneTechnical High School's annual reunion inMay. In June he received the outstanding biomedicalcommunicator award from the Chicago chapter of theAmerican Medical Writers Association. R. VictorHaas, AM'n, president of Haas Business ValuationServices Inc., was a featured speaker at the "Confer­ence on Divorce," sponsored by the Pennsylvania In­stitute of Certified Public Accountants Foundation forEducation and Research. James Huffman, JD'n, aprofessor at Northwestern School of Law, Lewis &Clark College, won a Burlington Northern Founda­tion faculty achievement award. Timothy Schlind­wein, MBA'n, has been named the chief executive ofStein Roe & Farnham Inc.73 Gail Christie, AB'73, writes, "I markedtwo milestones in May-I received tenureand welcomed a daughter, Carolyn." An associateprofessor of microbiology and immunology at Virgin­ia Commonwealth University, she and her husband,Herschell Emery, have three children. Gordon Katz,AB '73, a partner at the Boston law firm ofWidett, Sla­ter & Goldman, chairs the Massachusetts Bar Associ­ation's committee on alternative dispute resolution.He recently lectured on securities before the Ameri­can Arbitration Association. George MacKenzie,MBA'73, is now vice president and treasurer of Her­cules Incorporated. Thomas Patrick, JD'73, waselected vice president of regulatory affairs and gassupply acquisition for Peoples Gas Light and CokeCompany and North Shore Gas Company.74 Richard Brinkmann, MBA'74, has joinedU.S. Trust Corporation as senior vice presi­dent and comptroller. Chung-Hsuan (Winston)Chen, SM'74, PhD'74, a photophysics group leaderin the Health and Safety Research Division at OakRidge National Laboratory, received the division's an­nual excellence in research award. Mark Ross,MBA' 74 , and his wife had a son, Samuel Jordan, inApril. Samuel joins sister Meredith, born in October1986. Mark Smith, AB'73, PhD'79, lecturer in An­cient Egyptian and Coptic Studies at Oxford Universi­ty, is studying an ancient Egyptian papyrus which ap­pears to contain early teachings of Jesus, according tothe London Financial Times. Hy Steingraph,PhD'74, was named the Austin (TX) Writers' LeagueWriter of the Month for June.75 Peter Gallanis, AB'75, was elected to hissecond term as chair of the board of gover­nors of the City Club of Chicago. He is also a partner atthe law firm of Rudnick & Wolfe, a trustee of the Lin­coln Legal Foundation, and a Republican committee­man for the 43rd Ward. Stephen Gessner, AM'75,PhD '91, who was assistant director of operations forthe Laboratory Schools, was appointed head of SandySprings Friends School in Maryland.76 Vernon Dorweiler, MBA'76, an instructorin strategic management and legal topics atMichigan University, spoke at the 1991 conference ofthe International Trade and Finance Association inMarseilles, France. Tamara Brady Erickson,AB'76, has been named managing director of ArthurD. Little's North American Managing Consultingbusiness. Allan Froehlich, MBA' 76 , was recentlyelected to the partnership of KPMG Peat Marwick.Bruce Levine, JD'76, is a U.S. administrative lawjudge in Kansas City. Tom McNamara, AB'76, andhis wife, Rosemary, had a son, Sean Joseph, in July.He joins sister Dana. Barbara Pinsky, AM'78,teaches freshman English and composition at severalcampuses in Atlanta, GA. She formerly taught at Bos­ton University and Northeastern and was elected a del­egate to the Modern Language Association Assembly.She can be reached at P.O. Box 468332, PerimeterHall Branch, Atlanta, GA 30346.7 7 Charles Etmekjian, MBA'77, has been pro­moted to director of marketing services atOscar Mayer Foods Corporation. Deborah Yost VanDervort, AM '77, and her husband, Robert, had a son,Robert Woods Van Dervort, in May.78 Robert Brudzinski, MBA' 78 , was namedvice president and general manager of Bos­sert Industrial Supply, Inc. David Jaffe, AB'78,JD' 81, assistant general counsel of Guardian Indus­tries Corp., was recently reelected to the American Ju­dicature Society board of directors. Howard Levine,PhD '78, has been named vice president of product de­velopment at Repligen Corporation, a biopharma­ceutical company in Cambridge, MA. Roger Parfitt,MBA'78, and his family live in Hanover, Germany,Where he is a vice president for AM Wohlenberg, arnanufacturer of paper handling machinery. BarbaraPinsky, AM'78, see 1975. Marty Simon, AB'78,earned his master's degree in systems engineeringfrom the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. He is nowoperations officer aboard the U.S.S. John Young.79 Harry Burke, AB'79, AM'80, PhD'87,MD'88, began as an assistant professor ofrnedicine at the Medical College of Wisconsin on July1. Elaine Chin, AB '79 ,.MAT' 80, recently completedher Ph.D. in education at Stanford. She and her hus­band, Jerry Dyer, AB'79, MAT'80, have moved toAnn Arbor, MI, where she is an assistant professor ofedUcation at the University of Michigan.80 Kate Brett, AB'80, earned her doctorate inepidemiology from the University of NorthCarolina in May and works as an epidemic investiga­tor for the National Center for Health Statistics inWashington, DC. Jon Koplik, MBA' 80, and his wife,Sharon, had a daughter, Lisa, in July. Laura Uerling,AB'80, see 1987, Myra LaVenue. Dan Wolf, AB'80,and his wife, Anne, are the parents of Rachel Grace,born in May. Rachel joins brother Benjamin David.81 Jerome Bauer, AB'81, AM'82, is a Ph.D.candidate in Oriental studies at the Universi­ty .ofPennsylvania. He researched his dissertation, onJama religious literature, in Ahmedabad, India.Jeanne Koepsell, AB'81, has left for El Salvador toWork with Aesculapius International Medicine after�eceiving her M.S. from the University of Illinois in��ternational public health sciences. Jeanne says she ishealthy and happy!" Matthew Muldoon, AB'81,and his wife Leslie Mix Muldoon SB'82 PhD'86had a son,' Ethan, in August. Will Rodenkirch:i�' 81, and his wife, Jeanne, had a daughter, Sarahhzabeth, in July. They live in Glenview, IL.82 �aya Berman, AB'82, married Bill AtwellS. In November 1989. They live in Silverd pnng, MD. Joseph Cosby, AB'82, received his lawegree from the University of Michigan in 1987 and�ent 1988 as a clerk for the judge of the U. S. Court ofthPpeals for the Fifth Circuit. He is now a lawyer withE;,Boston firm ofPostetznak, Blankenstein & Lund.P ic Flamm, MBA'82, see 1986, Jill Martz Flamm.I eter Hirsch, AB'82, MBA' 85 , and Bridgette Sa­it�rHirsch, AB'82, see 1987, Myra LaVenue. LeslieM IX Muldoon, SB'82, PhD'86, see 1981, Matthewuldoon. David Zarfes AB'82 AM'83 recentlyrec '. .'"C elVed hIS LL. M. from Georgetown University Lawenter, and has joined the New York office of the Philadelphia law firm of Schnader, Harrison, Segal &Lewis, where he is practicing corporate and tax law.83 Kathleen Murphy Castillo, AM'83, of De- .troit, MI, has been named an associate pro­gram director at the W.K. Kellogg Foundation. Ken­neth Chiacchia, AB'83, recently received an awardfrom the New England chapter of the American Medi­cal Writers Association. John Collier, AB'83,MBA' 87, see 1985, Maria Christine Collier. Law­rence Gyenes, MBA' 83 , who had been vice presidentof commercial operations with Lorex Pharmaceuti­cals, has been appointed corporate controller ofSearle. Stephen Jeffries, AB' 83, was part of a four­man crew who sailed a 34-foot boat from Villamoura,Portugal, to Antigua last winter. James Johnson,AM' 83, PhD' 88, an assistant professor of history atBoston University, received the school's Kahn Awardfor significant work in the humanities. Johnson is aspecialist in French music. Christopher Kimball,AM'83, PhD'89, married Elizabeth Williams,AM' 84, in June in Aurora, CO. They live in Minneso­ta, where he is an American history professor at Augs­burg College. Brian Patterson, AB' 83, is the residentmanager and chef at Needham House, a mini-hotel inWashington, DC, operated by the American MedicalAssociation.84 Anne Goerwitz Ball, AB '84, and StephenBall, AB'84, welcomed into the world theirsecond child, Emily Elizabeth, in July. Stephen hasstarted law school full time at the University of Mary­land and Anne is enjoying being a mother. FernandoCavero, AB'84, is finishing up his internal medicineresidency at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. AmyCrutchfield, AB'84, is a cultural/press attache at theU.S. Embassy in Berlin, after a lO-month stint in La­gos, Nigeria.Kathleen Kelly, AB'84, is attending ESADE, abusiness school in Barcelona, during the fall quarter.She plans to stay in Spain for a year, then return to Min­nesota to finish her M. B. A. John Kloos, Jr., PhD' 84,see 1988, Michelle Wynn. Dmitry Krass, AB'84,earned his Ph.D. in applied mathematics from JohnsHopkins in 1989 and is now a professor of manage­ment science at the University of Toronto. He and hiswife, Kathy, have a two-year-old daughter.Andrew Lewis, MBA' 84, has been promoted to vicepresident of finance and administration at Buena VistaTelevision, a subsidiary of the Walt Disney Company.Corey Justin Smith, AB'84, earned his J.D. fromPenn Suffolk Law School in 1988 and his LL.M. intaxation from Boston University in 1991. He was re­cently appointed a federal prosecutor for the JusticeDepartment. Randall Smith, AB'84, MBA'86, see1986, Christine Cho. Brian Sullivan, AB'84, and hiswife, Lori, had a daughter, Rachel Charlotte, in June.Brian is an associate in a Burlington, VT, law firm,while Lori runs Sullivan & Associates and is presi­dent of the state's occupational therapy association.Elizabeth Williams, AM'84, see 1983, ChristopherKimball.85 Maria Christine Barr Collier, AB'85,MAT'86, and John Collier, AB'83,MBA'87, announce the arrival of their first child,Laura Naomi. James Geoly, JD'85, and his wife, Vi­Iia Dedinas, JD' 85, are leaving California to return toChicago, where he will be an associate for the law firmof Mayer, Brown & Platt. DonElsenheimer, AB'85,and his wife, Mary Grady-Elsenheimer, who weremarried in August 1988, had a daughter, Megan Mau­reen, in May. Don is working toward his Ph.D. in geol­ogy at the University of Wisconsin; after he completeshis degree the family plans to move to Japan, where hewill do a post -doc at the Geological Survey.Chris Keiter, MBA' 85, left Andersen Consulting inMarch 1990, and spent a year traveling in Alaska. Heis now a computer consultant at an insurance companyin Portland, ME. Richard Kloos, AB' 85, and DuaneCaneva, AB'85, MD'89, see 1988, Michelle Wynn. Jennifer Magnabosco, AB'85, AM'85, has com­pleted her first year of doctoral work at Columbia Uni­versity, where she is studying social policy adminis­tration and analysis in the School of Social Work.Nicholas Meriggioli, AB'85, MBA'87, has been pro­moted to product manager of the consumer productsdivision at Oscar Mayer Foods. Arthur Puff, AB' 85,is an emergency medicine resident at the Medical Col­lege of Pennsylvania. He recently visited the gorillasin Zaire and hiked in the mountains of Uganda. Hewrites, "It was even more exciting than the ShoreyHouse International Tour. Sorry, Ted N."86 Julie Burros, AB'86, and David Budil,PhD'86, see 1987, Myra LaVenue. I1onaDi­mants, AB'86, has earned a J.D. at the University ofPuget Sound School of Law. See also 1987, MyraLaVenue. Christine Cho, MBA'86, and RandallSmith, AB'84, MBA'86, were married on August 17.She works for General Motors, and he is an accountsupervisor with Saatchi & Saatchi, both in New YorkCity.Jill Martz Flamm, MBA'86, and Eric MortonFlamm, MBA'82, had a son, Brian Irving, onJuly25.The Flamms, including their daughter, Michelle, livein Marietta, GA. Louis Petrich, AM'86, a student inthe Committee on Social Thought, spent 1990-91 inRomania, teaching American literature, culture andcivilization at the University of Iasi. Brain Singer,MBA'86, has been promoted to partner by BrinsonPartners, Inc., a investment management firm.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 67Brunetti, a former English major who sayshe "doodles all the time," co-authors "FineArt Force" with Thad Doria, AB'88, andintends for the series to anchor Biff BangPow for at least a year. "We want to tell thehistory of high art through the medium of thelowest art form possible, the superhero ad­venture comic," Brunetti explains. ThusRenaissance Man is the mastermind;Matisse Cut-Out Man can disable bad guys'�fi��li��ill�I:!I� with horrific paper cuts; and Captain Cubist= _"",.:'"<_,rg[ is almost impossible to shoot. They travel byUii!l:1iii1m� Calder Mobile.None of which is beyond plausibility'srealm in the world of alternative comics. Ev­er since the 1950s, when Mad magazinebrought satire to comic books, they havebeen a place where alienation and humorconspire to entertain in ways "recommend­ed for adult readers." "Fritz the Cat" wasone of the first titles to make it into the rela­tive mainstream in the '60s and early '70s,and its creator, R. Crumb, developed a num­ber of perverse characters. "He was ex­ploring his id in ways that got pretty dark, "says Brunetti.Perhaps it was a beckoning from his own"dark side" that compelled Brunetti toabandon post-graduate plans for a career inadvertising and stick with cartoons. Whileworking a "day job" at the U ofC Press, heis hoping to build Paisano Publishing into agoing concern with partners Doria and JoeSchmitt, AB '91 � He has several new pro­jects on the board and is looking for freshtalent to inspire additional publications.Among the current stable of cartoonists, BiffBang Pow contributor Jessica Abel, AB'91,has "the best shot at critical success,"judges Brunetti.Meanwhile, Brunetti continues to developLeek, whose asocial humor was the subjectof Paisano's first effort, a "Misery LovesComedy" anthology in 1989. The artist sayshe has an "affinity for warping America'scultural icons. " Among his adventures,Leek is a guest on a quiz show with the GrimReaper as host. In another, a psychopathicneighbor calls to borrow a chainsaw. Themost demented strips are "from my blue pe­riod," Brunetti says. "I was in school andjust trying to figure things out. Now all I seein some of them is death, decay, pain, andalienation. "A somewhat more mature (kinder,gentler?) Leek will make appearances inBiff Bang Pow. And if fate smiles (it rarelydoes in this strip), "Misery Loves Comedy"may be anthologized yet again. "So far,"Brunetti says, "Leek is my most marketablecharacter." -Jay PridmoreMJ>t:RY Lo�ES COIV\£d Y .'by IVM(?) & IH.£" MYSIERIAHS.'The Joy of LeekIvan Brunetti, known on campusfor his comic strip with a twist, isready to pitch his vision in theBig Time.A Dadaist madman named Dali La­ma threatens to turn the aestheticworld into surrealistic goop. Re­naissance Man-a da Vinci look-alike-ismarshalling the forces of good to stop him.And cartoonist Ivan Brunetti faces a turningpoint in his career with a new team of su­perheroes, the "Fine Art Force."Brunetti, AB' 89, is best known on campusfor his "Misery Loves Comedy" strip whichhas appeared for four years in the Maroon.The strip features "Leek," a condom­shaped alien constantly victimized by themysteries of sex, pain.rand death. Despitethe lovable little guy's infatuation with sui­cide, he perseveres, continuing to appear inthe Maroon each week."Fine Art Force" debuts in a new publica­tion, Biff Bang Pow, issued by Brunetti'sown Paisano Publishing Company. Brunettihopes that the bimonthly comic digest willcatapult him into the lofty obscurity ofalternative comics, where R. Crumb of(now defunct) Weirdo magazine and HarveyPekar of American Splendor made theirreputations.68 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 87 Steve Amsterdam, AB' 87, is a kindergartenteacher at a Manhattan school for autisticchildren and volunteers as a Cub Scout leader. He andDave Robison, AB'88, just returned from a two­month cross-country tour-the highlight of which, hesays, was the Reunion celebration on the quads!Seema Chandnani, AB'87, is a civil liberties attor­ney in Boston; she lives in Cambridge with her hus­band and her daughter. Robert Garisto, AB'87, haspublished a paper in the American Journal of Physicsconcerning an error he discovered in Isaac Newton'sdetermination of planetary properties. Robert is work­ing towards his Ph.D. at the University of Michigan,but his interest in Newton began at Chicago in a classwith Noel Swerdlow. Arthur Cameron Gray,AB'87, is a first-year student at the University of Illi­nois College of Medicine, Chicago campus. T. EmilHomerin, PhD'87, assistant professor of religion atthe University of Rochester, has received the Abraham1. Karp Award for excellence in teaching.Myra LaVenue, AB'87, married Jonathan Cole,AB' 87, on May 26 in Fort Smith, AR. Guests includedPhyllis Williamson, AB'87; Shandor Badaruddin,AB'87; Mary Uerling, AB'87; Annabelle Me­Donald, AB'87; Maria Rivero, AB'87, MD'91; Me­lissa Wagner, AB'87; and Jacob Park, AB'87. Alsoputting in an appearance were Peter Hirsch, AB'82,MBA'85; Bridgette Salyer Hirsch, AB'82; JulieBurros, AB'86; David Budil, PhD'86; Laura Uerl­ing, AB'80; Ilona Dimants, AB'86; and Lisa Mag­nas, AB'88.Harold Tsai, AB'87, received his M.D. from RushMedical College in June and will be a resident at theMontefiorel Albert Einstein College of Medicine inthe fall. His sister, Jenny, planned to begin at the Col­lege this fall. Jennifer Wynn, MBA' 87, see 1988,Michelle Wynn.88 Lisa Magnas, AB'88, see 1987, Myra LaVe­nue. The Henry Luce Foundation has select­ed Robert McKenna, JD'88, for the Luce ScholarsProgram. As a Luce Scholar, McKenna will spend ayear in Asia working as an aide to a member of the J ap­anese Diet. Andrew O'Conor, MBA'88, marriedKatherine Mackie in April. They live in Boston,where he is a consultant with Arthur D. Little. DaveRobison, AB'88, see 1987, Steve Amsterdam. Mi­chelle Wynn, AB'88, married Richard Kloos,AB'85, in Lakewood, Ohio. Participating in the wed­ding were: John Kloos Jr. , PhD'84; Duane Caneva,AB'85, MD'89; Jennifer Wynn, MBA'87; Kim­berly Bayard, AB'88; and Heather Harper Keat­ing, AB'88.89 Nancy Ann Barlow, MBA'89, and JudsonTigerman, MBA'89, were married in June.She is an associate at Kenneth Leventhal and he is anoptions trader with Paribas, both in New York City.Lynne Green, JD'89, and her sister, Denise, haveopened their own law firm, Green & Green, in Wash­ington, DC. Gregory Hedges, MBA' 89 , has beenpromoted to senior manager in the audit and financialconsulting services division at Arthur Anderson &Co. Navy Ensign S. Pratt Hokanson, AM'89, re­cently reported for duty aboard the U.S.S. Harold E.Holt. Gregg Miller, AB'89, is back from a volunteerstint in Central America and will begin work on amaster's degree at American University in Washing­ton, DC.90 Bhuvan Bhatnagar, AM'90, AM'91, isworking as a consultant in the internationaleconomic relations department of the World Bank inWashington, DC. Ayhan Lash, PhD'90, traveled toTurkey with a colleague this summer to share their ex­pertise in cancer treatment. Marine 2nd Lt. TerrenceMoore, AB'90, recently reported for duty with the3rd Force Service Support Group, Okinawa, Japan.DEATHSFACULTYCharles Amick, professor of mathematics, died ofcancer on June 3. He was 39. An internationally rec­ognized expert in applied mathematics, his work cen­tered on mathematical problems in fluid dynamics.Survivors include his wife, Joanna Hawthorne; adaughter; a son; his parents; and two sisters.Lynn Anita Ballard, an assistant professor of den­tistry at Wyler Children's Hospital, died in July atthe age of 42. She also ran her own pediatric dentalpractice in Hyde Park. Survivors include a sonand her parents.Alan Donagan, a former philosophy professor atthe U ofC, died on May 29 ofa heart attack. He was 66.A professor at the California Institute of Technology,he had been preparing for a month-long fellowship tripto Italy. He taught at the U of C for 14 years, and wasthe Phyllis Fay Horton Professor of Humanities whenhe resigned in 1984. Survivors include his wife, Bar­bara; a brother; and a sister.Stanley Kaplan, PhB'31, JD'33, professor emeri­tus in the law school, died July 13 at age 80. A special­ist in corporate law and securities regulation and a not­ed authority on ethics and professional responsibility,he came to the U of C in 1960 and retired in 1979. Heand fellow law professor Walter Blum, AB'38, JD' 41,Were the authors of Materials on Reorganization, Re­capitalization, and Insolvency, a bankruptcy text­book. Kaplan was also a founding member of theACL U in Chicago and served as chief reporter for theAmerican Law Institute's Corporate Governance Pro­ject from 1980 to 1984. Survivors include his wife,Joan Peters, and a daughter.Harvey Klein, associate professor in the depart­ment of ophthalmology, died July 11. He was 60. Aspecialist in the use of lasers on retinal disease andglaucoma, Klein joined the U of C in 1975. He wasalso a diplomate with the American Board of'Ophthal­mOlogy and a member of the American Academy ofOphthalmology. Survivors include his wife, Jean; adaughter, Merian; and a son, Lorin.1910sMarie Farnsworth, SB'18, PhD'22, died June 8.Survivors include a sister, Goldena Farnsworth,SM'28. .1920sDorothy Hirsch Engerman, PhB'21, one of thefounders of the Developmental Institute of HumanaHospital-Michael Reese, died June 30 at age 94.�mong survivors are a brother and two sons, includ­Ing Allen Engerman, JD'58.Edna Friedlander Lowenstein, PhB '21, died De­cember 27, 1989, at age 92. Survivors include herdaughter, Idell Lowenstein Blum, PhB'44.Samuel Shambaugh, PhB'21, JD'22, died April22 at age 94. A lawyer, he joined thefirm of Chapmanand Cutler in 1928, retiring as partner in 1963. Survi­Vors include a daughter, Estella Pederson.p Guy B. Johnson, AM'22, died May 23 at age 90.rofessor emeritus of anthropology and sociology atthe University of North Carolina, where he taught for� years, he pioneered African-American studies int e Southeast United States and worked to improverace relations in the region. Survivors include twoSons and five grandchildren.nElmer!. Olson, SB'23, MD'27, died July 18 at ageC . A ChIcago native, he was on the staff of Roselandommunity Hospital from the late 1920s until 1963. Survivors include a daughter and three grandchildren.Hubert Robertson, JD'23, died April 1 in SilverCity, NM. He was a longtime New Mexico lawyer, be­ginning his practice in 1929. Survivors include adaughter, Virginia.Arthur "Doc" Small, SB'23, AM'35, died May26 at age 91. He taught physics at Gage Park HighSchool in the Chicago area for 28 years. Survivors in­clude a son and a daughter.John J, Abt, PhB'24, JD'26, died August 10 at age87. For most of his career, he was counsel to the Com­munist Party of the United States. In 1965 he won whathe considered his greatest legal victory, a unanimousSupreme Court ruling that individuals may invoketheir constitutional privilege against self-incrimina­tion in refusing to register as Communists with the fed­eral government. Survivors include his wife, Vita, anda stepdaughter.Eugenia Campbell Bidwell, PhB'24, died Sep­tember 14 in Bernard Mitchell Hospital. A longtimeresident of Hyde Park, she is survived by a son,Charles Bidwell, AB'50, AM'53, PhD'56, the Wil­liam Claude Reavis Professor in the Depts. of Sociolo­gy and Education; and a grandson.Ralph Butz, JD'24, one of the oldest practicing at­torneys in Illinois, died July 5 in La Grange. He was94. He practiced law for 65 years and served as presi­dent of the Lone Pine Manor Real Estate Company. Hewas also director emeritus of La Grange Hospital andformer president of the hospital's board of directors.Survivors include a son, a daughter, six grandchil­dren, and six great-grandchildren.Violet Knutson Burmeister, AM'27, died Decem­ber 5 at age 85. She taught school for the Greendale(WI) public schools for 24 years. Her specialties wereliterature, social science, and political science. Survi­vors include a daughter, Joan.Louis Goldberg, PhB'29, JD'30, died June 16 atage 85. He practiced law in Chicago for 61 years. Formany of those years he was in partnership with hisbrother in the firm Goldberg & Goldberg. Survivorsinclude his wife, Wilma; two sons; and three grand­children.Olga Lattof, PhB '29, died June 9. She was 83. Shegave lectures on the Middle East, where she had livedfor several years, and also worked for her husband'sauto dealership. Survivors include two daughters, ason, eight grandchildren, and four great-grand­children.1930sWillis Harvey Bell, SM'30, PhD'32, died March28. A biology professor for 40 years, he taught at DukeUniversity, the University of New Mexico, IndianaUniversity of Pennsylvania, and Catawba College.Survivors include his wife, Essie Lowder Bell; a son;and two grandsons.Jessie Odebrecht Komar, SB'30, AM'49, diedJune 29 at age 92. She was a high school chemistryteacher inChicago for 35 years, retiring in 1965. Sur­vivors include a son and a granddaughter.Henry Seyfarth, JD'30, died August 16 at age 83.He was the founder of the Chicago labor law firm Sey­farth, Shaw, Fairweather & Geraldson, which he or­ganized in 1945. During the 1980s he was counsel tothe Chicago Tribune Co. He moved to Naples, FL, in1987. Survivors include his wife, Elizabeth; a daugh­ter; a son; eight grandchildren, including RogerThompson, MBN72; and two great-grandchildren.Arline McChesney, PhB' 31 , died June 10. A mem­ber of the University United Methodist Church in Syr- acuse, NY, she sang in its choir. Survivors include herhusband, Evan McChensney, SB'26, SM'28; twodaughters; a son; six grandchildren; and three great­grandchildren.Helen Adele Cahoon Bobbitt, PhB'32, died May28. During the Depression, she was a case worker forthe city of Chicago; later she worked as secretary to thepresident of Summy-Birchard, music publishers. Herhusband, John Bobbitt, PhB'31, died in 1983.Marjorie Culver Keenleyside, PhB'32, X'53,died May 7 at age 89. She was Roosevelt University'sfirst librarian in the 1940s; in the 1950s she traveledto Nicaragua to do humanitarian work. Survivorsinclude a sister.Tobie Simon Raff, SB' 34, died March 24. She wasa social worker for the Cook County Bureau of Agingand the United Charities of Chicago and also volun­teered for community and religious groups, includingMeals on Wheels and B'nai B'rith Women. Survivorsinclude three daughters and seven grandchildren.Clinton Compere, SB'36, MD'37, died May 26 inTucson, AZ. He was 80. An orthopaedic surgeon, hefounded the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago andalso worked for the Cubs baseball team during the1960s and 1970s. In 1965 hejoined Northwestern as aprofessor; he chaired the orthopaedic department andheld a named professorship. Survivors include hiswife, Hildegard; a daughter; a son; three grandchil­dren; and a brother,Edward Compere, Jr., SM'54.Marjorie Piera Hanfstaengl, AB'38, died June28. Survivors include her husband, Egon.Elizabeth Foster Jeffords, PhB'38, died June 6 attheage of 88. She taught in Chicago public schools for38 years, retiring in 1967 as assistant principal ofSteinmetz High School. Survivors include two sons, adaughter, five grandchildren, and one great-grand­child.1940sDouglas Krause, SB'42, died December 13. Heworked with Enrico Fermi on the Manhattan Projectand later was employed at Argonne National Labora­tory. From 1961 to 1983 he was an engineer for Gener­al Motors. Survivors include his wife, Beatrice.Howard Spragg, X' 42, died February 26 at age 73.A Congregational minister, he was instrumental informing the United Church of Christ and served as ex­ecutive vice presidentfor the homeland missions ofthat church. He was also on the board of the NationalCouncil of Churches. Survivors include his wife, JaneNichols Spragg, SB'43, MD'48; three daughters;and two sons.Daniel Fogel, AB' 43, JD' 49, a veteran trial lawyerand personal attorney to Los Angeles mayor TomBradley, died July 5. He was a past president of the LosAngeles Trial Lawyers Association and served on theboards of the California Trial Lawyers Associationand the Association of American Trial Lawyers. Sur­vivors include his wife, Gladys; two sons; and fourgrandchildren.R. Elberton Smith, AM' 46, PhD' 47, died June 21.His economics dissertation, "Customs Valuation inthe United States, " was published by the U of C Pressin the 1940s. He was a professor at Northwestern, theUniversity ofIndiana, and California State Polytech­nic Institute, from which he retired in 1978. Survivorsinclude his wife, Genevieve; a son; a daughter; andeight grandchildren.Edwin Kitch, MBA'48, died May 8 at age 76. For30 years he worked at the Quad Cities Ordnance Plant;he later worked for 15 years as marketing research di­rector for the Scripture Press of Wheaton, IL. He wasan elder at the First Presbyterian Church of River For­est. Survivors include a son, Lorin.Jerome Herbert Stein, JD'48, a Chicago attorneyfor 32 years, died July 9. He was 68. A resident ofHighland Park, he served as president of the justiceUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 69lodge of B'nai B'rith and as chair of the local HeartFund. Survivors include his wife, Iris; a son; a daugh­ter; and six grandchildren.O. James Werner, PhD'48, JD'56, died March22. He was the head librarian of the San Diego CountyLaw Library from 1972 to 1987. Survivors include hiswife, Nora.1950sJudson B. Jerome, AM' 50, died August 5. He wasthe poetry columnist for Writers Digest and professoremeritus at Antioch College. The author of nine vol­umes of poetry, four plays, and three novels, he wasworking on another volume of poetry at the time of hisdeath.Isidore Hodes, PhD '53, died July 17. Survivors in­clude his wife, Phyllis.Isabel Miller, AM'53, died May 23 at age 86. Avolunteer at the Sitka, AK, Historical Society, she alsoserved her local Presbyterian Church for many years.Leslie Shankman, X' 57, died July 17. Director andformer president of a confectionary firm, Leaf Inc.,he was president of the Sonia Shankman Foundationfor Emotionally Disturbed Children and Democraticprecinct captain and treasurer in Lake County, IL.Survivors include his wife, Sugar, and two sons.1960sKenneth Schurter, MBA' 67, died February 15 of aheart attack. A self-employed plastics broker, he wasalso a past president of the Rotary Club of Mendham,N1. Survivors include his wife, Janet; a son; and adaughter.1970sFred Rayfield, MBA'70, died May 24, 1990. Survi­vors include his wife and two sons, Scott Rayfield, MBA'80, and Frederick Rayfield, AB'74, AM'n,PhD'80.Warner Alden Morse, PhD'72, died July 1. A phi­losophy professor at the University of Kansas for 25years, he also served as director of undergraduate stu­dies. Survivors include his wife, Jane Fowler Morse,AB'63; a daughter; two sons; and a sister.James Smerz, MBA'n, president and CEO of AirComfort Corp., died June 7. He was 52; A member ofthe Chicago Sheet Metal Contractors Association, hewas chair of the board of trustees for the welfare fundof his union local. Survivors include his wife, Nancy;a daughter; and two sons.1980sMichael Dolan, MBA' 84, died June 2 at age 45 . Forthe past 15 years he was director of informational ser­vices at National Manufacturing Company in Rock­ford, IL. Survivors include his wife, Sandra; a son; adaughter; his parents; a brother; and a sister.NOTICE OF DEATHRECEIVED:Sylvia Hammer, PhB'17, March.Margaret Hackworthy, PhB'24, June.Carl Wisner, PhB'26, JD'29, June.Helen Wilczynski, AM'39, March.Selma Levinson, AM'41.John 1. Schneider, MD'43, PhD'48, October 1990.Anne Frances Sory Brown, AM'44.Dorothy Large, AM'45, May.Nicholas Adams, MBA'48, May 1989.Marguerite Simmons Marsland, AM'48, June.Carl Peterson, X'48, October 1990.Marjorie Dixon Taylor, MBA'48, April.C. Richard Walker, 10'50, May.Jack E. Holmes, PhD'64;, May.BOOKS by AlumniARTS a LETTERSRobert Binnick, AM'68, PhD'69, Time and theVerb: A Guide to Tense and Aspect (Oxford UniversityPress). A survey of the scholarship on tense from theancient Greeks to the theorists of the 1980s, this bookconcentrates on the Classical and modern Europeanlanguages.Ira Stuart Jacknis, AM'76, PhD'89, Objects ofMyth and Memory: American Indian Art at the Brook­lyn Museum (The Brooklyn Museum in associationwith University of Washington Press). This catalogueaccompanies a traveling exhibition from the museumwhich focuses on native art objects collected between1903 and 1911.Edward G. Klemm, Jr., PhB'32, Conversationwith Shakespeare (International University Press).This annotated reference list of quotations fromShakespeare offers suggestions on using them in ev­eryday conversation.F. David Martin, AB'42, PhD'49, and Lee Jaco­bus, The Humanities Through the Arts (McGrawHill). This art textbook emphasizes the relation of thehumanities to values, and attempts to teach an appreci­ation of art through participation and involvement.BIOGRAPHYRobert Alvarez, AB'34, PhD'39, Library Log:The Diary of a Public Library Director (Administra­tor's Digest Press). This personal journal records the70 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991author's efforts to revitalize the Nashville Public Li-brary in the mid-1940s. IRichard Niehoff, PhB'33, AM'34, Floyd Reeves:Innovative Educator and Distinguished Practitionerof the Art of Public Administration (University Pressof America). This biography of education professorReeves describes his involvement with educational in­stitutions and projects and his contributions to nation­al policy, including his work on passing the GI Bill.BUSINESS a ECONOMICSSusan Z. Diamond, AB'70, Records Manage­ment, Second Edition (AMACOM). A practical guideto establishing and maintaining a corporate recordsmanagement program.CRITICISMSeth Lerer, PhD '81, Literacy and Power in Anglo­Saxon Literature (University of Nebraska Press).Looking at Beowulf and other texts, the author con­siders the construction of an early English culturalmythology of writing.Joe D. Thomas,· PhB'29, AM'30, contributor,Myth and JiJice of Texas Writers: A Festschrift in Hon­or of Joe D. Thomas (Liberal Arts Press). This collec­tion of essays-compiled in honor of Rice UniversityEnglish professor emeritus Thomas-offers contrast­ing interpretations of Texas myth by modern fictionwriters and scholars. EDUCATIONBurton Gorman, X'45, and William H. Johnson,Successful Schoolingfor Everybody (National Educa­tional Service). Stressing the importance of hope andhigh expectations for all, this book questions somecommon wisdoms about education.Rita Kramer, AB'48, Ed School Follies: The Mis­education of America s Teachers (Free Press). Charg­ing that teacher training schools too often neglect thenecessity for firm subject know ledge in favor of socialand therapeutic approaches, this critique offers sug­gestions for improvement.-Muriel Shishkoff, AB'36,' Transferring MadeEasy: A Guide to Changing Schools Successfully (Pe­terson's). This reference book provides advice for stu­dents changing colleges and for adults returning to col­lege, addressing the ten most common concerns andpitfalls.FICTION a POETRYSavkar Altinel, AB'76, Kralice Viktorya 'nin Dusu(Queen Victoria s Dream) (Siir Ati Yayincilik, Istan­bul). This collection of 21 poems includes literaryportraits of figures such as Eliot and Conrad.Lauren Fairbanks Jagernauth, AM'85, MuzzleThyself (Dalkey-Archive Press). A book of feministpoetry.Edward G. Klemm, Jr., PhB'32, Eric, My Friend(International University Press). This novel centerson two men's friendship as one tries to rebound from apainful affair.James McClintock, MD'42, Clint (VantagePress). A novel based on the author's experiences as asurgeon in World War II.James Weil, AB'50, Lovely Lessons (WarwickPress). In this book of poetry, inspired by a quote fromKeats, the poet remembers his former teachers, in­cluding poets, artists, and a Keats scholar.Donald C. Wellington, PhD'66, The Fund Drive(The Evelin Press). A novel pitting Anglicans againsteconomists.GEOGRAPHY a TRAVELJohn M. Ball, SM'52, A Return to Tepic, Nayarit,Mexico: A Personal Geography (Inman Park Publica­tions). In this pamphlet, the author discusses his re­turn to the city that was the subject of his doctoral dis­sertation 25 years earlier.HISTORY ICURRENT EVENTSJohn Groh, PhD'72, Facilitators of the Free Exer­cise of Religion: Air Force Chaplains, 1981-1990(U, S. Government Printing Office). This study exam­ines how the Air Force's Chaplain Service has helpedits personnel exercise their freedom of religion aroundthe world.Willard Albert Johnston, SB'22, The AmericanPeace Mission to China (Johnston Books). This per­sonal remembrance of the Marshall Peace Mission toChina in 1946 draws on diaries and oral accounts.William McNeill, AB'38, AM'39, Hutchins' Uni­versity: A Memoir of the University of Chicago (Uni­versity of Chicago Press). McNeill, the RobertMillikan distinguished professor emeritus in the histo­ry department, describes and reflects upon the 21 tu­multuous years of President Robert Hutchins' admin­istration.Gary Mokotoff, X'59, and Sally ann Amdur Sack,Where Once � Walked: A Guide to the Jewish Com­munities Destroyed in the Holocaust (Avotaynu, Inc.).Providing information on more than 21,000 Jewishtowns in ten countries, this reference book includes aphonetic indexing system to help users locate towns.Kenneth W. Thompson, AM'48, PhD'51, For-eign Policy and Arms Control: Churchill s Legacy(University Press of America). This look at Chur­chill's approach to arms limitation examines its possi­ble relevance for the 1990s.MEDICINE a BEALTBGary Anderson, PhD'83, editor, Courage to Care:Responding to the Crisis of Children with AIDS (ChildWelfare League of America). This collection of worksby 23 pediatric AIDS experts provides up-to-datehealth information and examines how AIDS affectsthe American family and child welfare services. It de­scribes programs and includes recommendations ontraining for community education.Nicholas Ashford, PhD'65, JD'72, and ClaudiaMiller, Chemical Exposures: Low Levels and HighStakes (Van Nostrand Rheinhold). This look at chemi­cal sensitivity includes explanations of technical ma­terial, a bibliography, descriptions of recent research;and governmental policy recommendations.Nicholas Ashford, PhD'65, JD'72, Christine Spa­dafor, Dale Hattis, and Charles Caldart, Monitoringthe Worker for Exposure and Disease (Johns HopkinsUniversity Press). In examining the practice of moni­toring workers, the authors address scientific ques­tions along with ethical and legal issues.Leonard Hamilton, PhD'68, and C. Robin Tim­mons, Principles of Behavioral Pharmacology: ABiopsychological Perspective (Prentice-Hall). Ad­dressing topics such as emotional behavior, stress, de­pression, schizophrenia, and substance abuse, thistext provides an introduction to the relationship be­tween brain chemistry and behavior.POLITICAL SCIENCE a LAWNicholas Ashford, PhD'65, JD'72, and' CharlesCaldart, Technology, Law, and the Working Environ­ment (Van Nostrand Rheinhold). This guide to legalramifications of technology-related problems showshow working conditions can be improved.Carl Q. Christol, PhD'41, Space Law: Past,�resent, and Future (Kluwer Law and Taxation Pub­�lshers). A comprehensive analysis of critical issues inlTIternational and municipal space law and policy.. Robert Janosik, JD'71, The American Constitu­tzon: An Annotated Bibliography (Salem Press). A ref­erence source annotating 1,000 book-length worksdealing with a full range of constitutional issues.RObert Monks and Nell Minow, JD'77, Power andAccountability (Harper Business). This study of themodern American corporation investigates the return�o accountability and competitiveness made possibley the capital of institutional investors.Eric Neisser, AB'67, Recapturing the Spirit: Es­f�YS on the Bill of Rights at 200 (Madison House Pub­/shers). This collection of essays focuses on issues ofree expression, privacy, discrimination, rights of thepoo�, the criminal process, and freedom of religion.G Vmcent J. Samar, PhD'86, The Right to Privacy:ay�, Lesbians, and the Constitution (Temple Uni­verSIty Press). Developing a definition oflegal priva­cy, this book attempts to answer questions abouts�ope, content, and legal justification for a generalnght to privacy and examines constitutional and ethi­Cal issues of gays' rights to privacy.James Swanson, AB'81, editor, 1991 First Amend­���t Law Handbook (Clark, Boardman, Callaghan).b IS latest edition of an annual First Amendment guide-Dook contains essays bv Robert Bork AB'48 JD'53'o I J ",S ug as Ginsburg JD'73' Law School dean Geoffreytone; and law pr;fessor Michael McConnell. 'RELIGION a PBILOSOPHYu-; Mary Jeremy Finnegan, PhB'29, AM'3l, Theomen ofHelfta: Scholars and Mystics (University of A Chicago remembrance (see History)Georgia Press). This study of 13th-century womenmystics in a Saxon monastery focuses on their writingsas valuable firsthand accounts of mystical experiencesand daily life.Richard Hutch, AM'71, PhD'74, Religious Lead­ership: Personality, History, and Sacred Authority(Peter Lang Publishers). This study of the personalityand power of religious leaders-including MartinLuther King, Jr., Oral Roberts, and the Dalai Lama­gives special attention to the methodology of a scien­tific study of religion.Robert Inchausti, PhD'811 The Ignorant Perfec­tion of Ordinary People (State University Press ofNew York). This examination of the lives of" ordinarypeople" such as Mahatma Gandhi, Solzhenitsyn, andMartin Luther King, Jr., argues that their shared ethichas given birth to a postmodern perspective on exist­ence that recovers traditional religious truths fromboth literary modernism and neo-Marxism.Albert Leong, AB'61, AM'66, PhD'70, The Mil­lenium: Christianity and Russia, 988-1988 (St. Vla­dimir's Seminary Press).RobertB.Louden, AM'76, PhD'81, Morality andMoral Theory: A Reappraisal and Reaffirmation (Ox­ford University Press). The author argues that con­cepts of morality are not static but change with culturaldevelopments.Carl Pietsch, AM'70, PhD '77, Young Nietzsche:Becoming a Genius (Free Press). This Freudian inter­pretation of Nietzsche's early life and search for amentor examines the philosopher's own theory of thenature of genius.Gail Hinich Sutherland, PhD'88, Disguises of theDemon: The Development of the Yaksa in Hinduismand Buddhism (State University Press of New York).This analysis of a popular demon in Indian religioushistory also looks at its implications for our under­standing of the nature of evil.SCIENCE a TECHNOLOGYS. K. Chakrabarti, PhD'85, Transonic Astrophy­sical Flows (World Scientific Company). This text ex­plains the mathematical properties of astrophysicalflows around compact objects.Alida M. Jatich, AB'76, CICS Command LevelProgramming (John Wiley & Sons). This textbookshows how to write CICS programs for the IBM main­frame computer and for microcomputers running theCICS OS/2 system, covering SAA CUA screen design and the use of CICS with ANS 85 COBOL and withSQL.Daniel S. Levine, SM' 68, Introduction to Neural &Cognitive Modeling (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates).This introductory textbook uses perspectives fromcomputer science, psychology, neurobiology, andmathematics to explain the design and study of net­work architectures that perform cognitive functions.SOCIAL SCIENCESGloria Count-van Manen, PhD'67, contributor,Journal of Mental Imagery (Brandon House). Sevenessays by Count-van Manen on subjects such asGeorge Herbert Mead, lynching, and terrorism makeup the bulk of the spring issue of this journal.Douglas Daniels, AB'64, Pioneer Urbanites: ASocial and Cultural History of Black San Francisco(U niversity of California at Berkeley and Los AngelesPress). A paperback version of a previously releasedbook.Paul Diesing, AM'48, PhD'52, How Does SocialScience Work? Reflections on Practice (University ofPittsburgh Press). This analysis of social science re­search from sociological, psychological, political,and philosophical perspectives points out commonweaknesses and errors and suggests improvements.Robert Michael Franklin, PhD' 85, Liberating Vi­sions: Human Fulfillment and Social Justice inAfrican-American Thought (Fortress Press). Thisbook discusses the major paradigms that have shapedboth the moral development of African-Americanleaders such as Booker T. Washington and MalcolmX, and their respective visions of a good society.Morris Janowitz, PhD'48, On'Social Organiza­tion and Social Control, edited by James Burk (Uni­versity of Chicago Press). This selection of scholarlywritings by Janowitz, a U of C sociology professorwho died in 1988, provides an overview of his variedinterests.Albert Leong, AB'61, AM'66, PhD'70, OregonStudies in Chinese and Russian Culture (Peter LangPublishers).William Sax, AM'82, PhD'87, Mountain God­dess: Gender and Politics in a Himalayan Pilgrimage(Oxford University Press). This book discusses thecult and pilgrimage of the central Himalayan Hindugoddess Nandadevi as it relates to local women's lives.Donovan Smucker, AM' 54, PhD' 57, The Sociolo­gy of Mennonites, Hutterites, and Amish, fiJI. II,1977-1990 (Wilfrid Laurier University Press). Thisannotated bibliography summarizes and evaluates Ca­nadian and American books and articles written in thelast 13 years on the sectarian religious groups of Men­nonites, Hutterites, and Amish.Nathan Szajnberg, AB'74, MD'74, Educating theEmotions: Bruno Bettelheim and American Psycho­analysis (Plenum Books). This collection of essaysexamines the implications of Bettelheim's works for anumber of other fields in social science and thehumanities.Kath Weston, AB'78, AM'81, Families WeChoose: Lesbians, Gays, and Kinship (ColumbiaUniversity Press). Based on interviews with gay menand lesbians in the San Francisco area, this book ex­plores the ways homosexuals construct their ownnotions of family.Vernon Wiehe, AM'61, Perilous Rivalry: WhenSiblings Become Abusive (Lexington Books). An at­tempt to sensitize parents to physical, emotional, andsexual abuse of one sibling by another, behavior whichis often dismissed as simple sibling rivalry.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," pleasesend the name of the book, its author, its pub­lisher, and a short synopsis to the Books Editor,University of Chicago Magazine, 5757 WoodlawnAve., Chicago, IL 60637.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OCTOBER 1991 71'R>wARO.5 !!VENINCiA CLe .... " 3T"AT�GI!MENABLI!S HIMTo £5CAPIt �'TThe $34.7-million man$34,708,375.28., That'show much the Founder waspersuaded to donate to theUniversity of Chic;ago ,during his lifetime.'72 . UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/OC\!=>BER 1991 Bac·P60PLE TALK 0'"THE 'IDLE ",eH:·MODEST MAN, JOHN DAVISONRockefeller refused to have theschool he founded named after him-the first board of trustees decid­ed on its own to use his name on the officialseal, and the University Chapel was only re­named after his death in 1937. Still, the Stan­dard Oil magnate made the institution hislargest individual beneficiary.Many of Rockefeller's charitable giftshinged on the recipients raising money ontheir own from other sources; his initial dona­tion of $600,000 to the University, for in­stance, was to be given only if William RaineyHarper and his cohorts could raise an addi - 'tional $4,00,000. This type of carrot was inkeeping with Rockefeller's philosophy onmoney: that it should reward hard work. One - of his favorite axioms was reportedly, "Do notbe afraid to work," and the New York Timesquoted him saying, "Sons of wealthy parentshave not the ghost of a chance compared withboys who came from the country with a deter­mination to do something in this world."Rockefeller's own father, a New York coun­try doctor, could not afford to send his son tocollege, and perhaps this is why the eventualbillionaire made education one of his favoritecharities. In addition to the U of C, Rockefel­ler helped found Spelman College (named forhis wife's family), an Atlanta college for blackwomen. At that college's 50th anniversary, in1931, he declared that no investment had giv­en him more satisfaction.In much the same vein, on one of his two vis­its to the University of Chicago (the Foundercame to campus only for brief appearances atthe quinquennial and the decennial celebra­tions), Rockefeller called the U of C "the bestinvestment I ever made in my life. "In keeping with his values, Rockefeller didnot approve of seeing his practical invest­ments garbed in pomp and circumstance.When Harper invited him to participate inopening ceremonies for the U of C, Rockefel­ler gruffly advised against holding any spe­cial exercises at all and added that in any caseit would hardly be possible for him to attend.Rockefeller's philanthropic gifts were oftensmall, as his belief in working one's own wayup restrained his charitable impulses. He wasfamous for passing out dimes to children; inNyack, NY, near one of his five homes, hewould hand out the slender silver disks as herode the ferry from Nyack to Tarrytown, andthe ferryman proudly boasted of owning fourRockefeller dimes.Over Rockefeller's 97-year lifetime,though, the small gifts added up: nearly 350million ten-cent pieces to the U of C alone.And given the oil magnate's careful nature, it's­likely that he knew exactly where each ofthose dimes ended up. At his death-25months shy of his goal of living to 100-theUniversity could say of Rockefeller what heonce wrote to Harper: "No man could havetaken YO,u_rylace. " -J. CNewspapers loved spoofing Harper's_handling of Rockefeller; Alexander Jamesportrayed the Founder seriously.1891-1991Celebrate 100 years of extraordinary teaching and learning - and a century of distinguishedpublishing - with Centennial Books from the University of Chicago Press.Remembering theUniversity of ChicagoTeachers) . Scientists) and ScholarsEdited by Edward ShilsGraduates of the University of Chicagoreflect on their teachers and colleaguesat the University. Essays includeKameshwar Wali on S. Chandrasekhar,V. L. Telegdi on E 'co Fermi, Gary S.-r---.lWOI.�!;.JJ,!J.J,l�' mn Friedman, EdwardShils on Robert Maynard Hutchins,Robert Bork on Edward Levi, ElderOlson on Richard McKeon, and EricaReiner on Leo Oppenheim.Cloth $24.95 616 pages 48 halftonesI§ Robert M. HutchinsPortrait of an EducatorMary Ann Dzuback"This book is an eloquent and timelyI analysis of the greatest universitypresident of the twentieth century.Hutchins' ideas about education reso­nate throughout roday's debate aboutthe purposes and contents of theundergraduate curriculum. Dzuback'sanalysis is both affectionate andcritical." - Leon Botstcin, President,Bard CollegeCloth $24.95 448 pages 43 halftonesOne in SpiritBased on the University ofChicago ArchivesHutchins' UniversityA Memoir of the University of"Chicago) 1929-1950William H. McNeillHutchins' 1929 inauguration as theUniversity's fifth President coincidedwith a drastically changed social andeconomic climate. McNeill tells whatit was like to come of age at the I Using the University'S remarkablyUniversity during those heady times. comprehensive and candid archives, this"A gripping story, elegantly told." spirited account follows the University-DonaldN. Levine, University of Chicago from opening negotiations with John"Explains better than any other D. Rockefeller to recent efforts torecent study the myths and realities review curricula in the light of latej behind the renowned educator. . . twentieth-century needs.and the university he ran for more Paper $12.95 120 pagesthan 20 years." - Publishers Wiekly 120 halftonesI Distributed for theCloth $24.95 204 pages 31 halftones University of Chicago-----·()RDER F()R�------------------- ---------------------------------------------------Please send me: D Check or money order enclosed-- �-:�7���;-�E$��.��ING THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 0 Charge my D VISA D M�stercard__ Copies 01 HUTCHINS' UNIVERSITY 0-226-56170-4 $24.95__ Copies 01 ROBERT M. HUTCHINS 0;226-17710-6 $24.95__ Copies 01 ONE IN SPIRIT 0-226-77720-0 $12.95Total orderSales tax(IL addresses, 7%; Chicago addresses, 8%)Shipping & handling _(Add $2.00 lor first book;$.75 lor each additional book.) 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