lJohnFrohnmayerguides the N.E.A.VOLUME 83, NUMBER 4 APRIL 1991172428 FEATURESGlass, cans, and automobilesKen Dunn, AM'70, has spent the past two decades recyclingreusable resources from the city of Chicago's "garbage."JAMIE KALVENJust like everyone elseStudents at the U of C do have social lives. They makefriends, watch movies, date, dance, fall in love-all thatgood stuff But. ..JOHN SCALZI, '91A matter of perspectiveAs head of the National Endowment for the Arts, JohnFrohnmayer, AM'69, has been reviled in tum by conservativesand liberals. He still likes his job.CHRISTOPHER MYERSCover John Frohnmayer, AM'69,head of the NationalEndowment for the Arts (seepage 28); photos by BillDenison, assembled by AllenCarroll. Opposite: Alleyentrepreneurs bring their findsto Hyde Park's Resource Center(page 17); photograph byPatricia Evans.2 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 mditors NotesTo YOU, IT MAY BE APRIL, BUT TO A LOTof people on campus, it's six months­and counting-until the University'scentennial celebration begins. A short ac­count of the plans and the planning appears inthis issue's "Chicago Journal" (see page 10).As you might expect, the Magazine is in themidst of its own centennial planning. We envi­sion a special issue in October; a contest forour readers (no, we're not going to ask you towrite a new Alma Mater, or even fresh lyricsfor the old one); and a series of reports on thespecial events that will be held throughout thecoming academic year.A part of our plans includes a look at theUniversity's past. We've asked you before,and we'll ask you again, but we're asking withgreater urgency now. If you have a memoryor a photograph to share, write in. The timeis ripe.Elvis, Ray Charles, and the LawOne of the responsibilities of this magazine'seditors is reading the sundry newspapers pro­duced by University students. Each of thesewell-read rags has its peculiar merits, but thisyear we've developed a personal favorite: thebiweekly newspaper produced by students atthe Law School.There's lots to like about the Phoenix, butwhat we like most is its sense of humor. As wesee it, you've got to love a newspaper thattackles a subject like "The Jurisprudence ofElvis. "By sifting through legal databases, third­year Marc Fagel was able to make the casethat "there is a whole lot of Elvis in the law."Most mentions of Presley, he points out, comeup in trademark and copyright suits. "For ex­ample, in Estate of Elvis v Russen ... , the de­fendant was enjoined from performing THEBIG EL SHOW, in which he dressed likeElvis, handed out scarves to the audience likeElvis, sang Elvis songs, and imitated thevoice, poses, and body movements of Elvis."But the singer also makes an appearance­as he so often does, posthumously-in Smith vNat'l Home Life Assurance Co. In that insur­ance fraud suit, the court" noted that the fraudwas perpetrated later than planned becausethe news that Elvis had just died upset Mrs.Smith to such a degree that she simply could not buy any insurance that afternoon."In addition, Fagel makes note of "the trulyirrelevant criminal cases pulled up on a ran­dom LEXIS™ search." To prove his point, hesuggests that readers "see Illinois v Morris(theft of two Elvis Presley whiskey decant­ers); Tennessee v Prather (shooting outsidethe Stop-N-Go Grocery on Elvis Presley Bou­levard); Tennessee v Crawford (assault victimtaken to the Elvis Presley Memorial TraumaCenter)." In short, "too long this man's con­tributions to the law ... have gone unrecogniz­ed. No more, my friends, no more."But the Phoenix tackles the hard issues, too.In its February 8 editorial, "The Real Thing, "for instance, we learned that "the most in­tense battle raging at the Law School thesedays is Coke versus Pepsi."A bit of background may be in order: in Jan­uary, the University's soda vendor switchedbrands. Some people didn't even notice thequiet revolution in pop alternatives. Others, ofcourse, did-including a fair number of LawSchool students. According to the editorial,''A petition appeared, with many students ac­tually claiming that the brand change serious­ly hampered their ability to work effectively atthe Law School. 'Coke v Pepsi' replaced talkabout politics, even sports, almost overnight.Nothing else seemed to matter."Perhaps geopolitical realities have becomeso terrifying," the editorial continued, "thatwe're afraid to think about them. Maybe theLaw School administration runs the school sowell that they've left us nothing else to com­plain about. Or perhaps being immersed in asubject as ephemeral as the law forces us tochampion whatever cause we can find whichwill have any visible impact on our own lives.But it has to make you wonder when the mostpressing issue at the Law School, among suchhighly educated people, is the school's choiceof soft drinks."It is reassuring to actually apply that sharp­ly honed rhetorical ability we've developedhere-and it's nice to know that law studentsaren't apathetic. But somehow it seems thatthose skills could be put to better use on someother front. The choice is yours, " the editorialconcluded with a solemnity almost worthy oftheNew York Times-before adding, in its bestRay Charles, Pepsi-commercial style, "Uh,Huh!"-M.R. Y.ilnettersFaint praiseOrdinarily, on getting the Universityof Chicago Magazine, I read the ne­crology and the class news andthrow the issue away. The February number,however, made me alter my way. On receipt Idid read the necrology (knew only one de­parted) and the class news (nobody I remem­bered), but I kept the issue, and ifI find time, Imay read the articles.As possibly your cruelest critic over the dec­ades I would like to say that for a change youhave produced a book that looks good. Thelayout is fine. You have tamed those dopeyfamily-group shots that cluttered every page.Still too much boosterism and tiny type andpointless headlines. And try to get rid of thoselong-winded honorifics such as John JacobJingelheimer, the Oxbow Memorial Profes­sor and Distinguished Service blah-blah-blahof Eskimo Studies, etc.DAVID KINSLER SB'37, AM'39CLEVELAND HEIGHTS, OHIOLouder praiseTo be plain about it, the U of C is a pret­ty stuffy place much of the time, butyou've been doing a good job of bal­ancing the intellectual! research pieces withrealistic visions of student life, past andpresent. The teacher articles are what hookme in most issues-I had Karl Weintraub'sWestern Civ, so of course I read that one, andthis month I read the piece on Lauren Berlant(FEBRUARY/91). It wasn't a class I wouldsign up for, but just reading it brought me backto Hyde Park and demonstrated that in someessential ways, the place hasn't changed.I appreciate the wider view, which goes be­yond scholars to the streets, as demonstratedby "A Matter of Time" in the same issue. Liv­ing in Hyde Park was part ofthe U ofC experi­ence and deserves coverage too.DAN WISE, AB'77MANCHESTER, NEW HAMPSHIREClassic WeintraubYour article about one of the greatestteachers I've encountered ("CourseWork," DECEMBER/90) recalls aclassic Karl Weintraub anecdote, clearly apocryphal-except that I lived it. This wasWestern Civ (that I ventured to take) in 1964.As usual, he came into the room like an onlyslightly unrestrained steam engine, pipesmoking."Now class: vhat is Thucydides's view ofhistory?" was his first demand. This wasbefore we were thoroughly intimidated-andremember: we were arrogant, intellectualbrats. "Well," said some venturesome wom­an at the back, "I think it's cyclical.""Aha," Weintraub responded enthusiasti­cally. "Do you mean that Thucydides consid­ered events to recapitulate themselves incycles ... " and he went on to draw complexdiagrams on the board, invoking Cicero andVico in a brilliant two-minute exposition. Wewere awed. "Is that vat you think, Miss? Isthat it?" "Oh yes, yes," she responded withenthusiasm."VELL, YOU'RE WRONG!!"I've always wished I had the guts to respondthat way to my undergraduates, but theywould never get over it. Perhaps this says asmuch about the U of C as it does about KarlWeintraub; it certainly says much about him. Ilearned more that has lasted from him thanfrom almost anyone else at Chicago: except ofcourse for Ralph Lerner, Elder Olson, WalterBlair, Norman Maclean, and others I gainedas much from out of the classroom.Incidentally, I confronted Karl (as he de­mands me to address him now; I still feeluncomfortable) with the classic SecondCity routine "Museum Piece," with SevernDarden, X'50 (and others). The response, "Idon't like it," is followed by an almost exactreplication by Darden of the "VeIl, you'rewrong" that I heard in that 1964 classroom.Karl knew nothing of the sketch. Severn,genius of the U of C '50s, did you steal fromsomeone (grin)?JACK KOLB, AB'67Los ANGELESPartisan lapsesRashid Khalidi's "Shifting Sands in theMiddle East" in the FEBRUARY/91issue of University of Chicago Maga­zine presented a truly refreshing look atAmerican policy in the Middle East. Profes­sor Khalidi argued cogently that the Cold War Explorethe evolutionof thehuman mindA Lecture Series:The Science of HumanityApril 18"Race in Anthropology"Professor George Stocking, Director,Fishbein Center for History of Scienceand Medicine, University of Chicago.May 16"The Mind of the Leader"Professor Hyman Muslin, M.D.,Department of Psychiatry, Universityof Illinois School of Medicine.June 20"How Man is Governed"Professor Lloyd Etheredge.July 18"The Mind of the POlitical Terrorist"Professor Richard Pearlstein.Admission is $5/person. Students wnh I.D.and Academy members admitted free. Payat the door or make reservations by calling(312) 943-9260.The Chicago Academy of Sciences2001 North Clark Street at ArmitageUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 3• ALBANY. ATLANTA. BOSTON. CHICAGO. CLEVELAND. DALLAS. DENVER. DETROIT. has dominated American policy toward theo; Middle East, although many of the region's� crises and conflicts have long since dimin­:; ished in impact on the East-West struggle.� Professor Khalidi also remained remark-"• ably evenhanded even though political discus-� sions about the Middle East seem to lend� themselves to partisanship in the many con­� flicts: Arab-Persian, Kurdish-Turkish,• Christian-Muslim, Sunni-Shiite, and, of5 course, Arab-Israeli. Khalidi made every25 effort to remain above the fray and give a real­S istic assessment of the region. It is only be­� Cause Professor Khalidi achieved such overall• success that the two places where he chose to5 take sides stand out so greatly.� The first instance of partisanship is his com­� ment on American aid to Iraq: " [ it] was made� simpler by the fact that Iraq was less involved• in the confrontation with Israel than Syria,5 and so faced less sniping from Israel's power­; ful American partisans." After arguing with-4o great force that the U. S. has allowed the Coldz• War to dictate too much of its Middle East pol-� icy, Khalidi reverses himself and points to thez infamous Zionist lobby as the reason the U. S.ent supplied Iraq with arms. Khalidi puts himselfCO) in very poor company by making comments=t-< that vaguely suggest the bogeyman of a• Zionist/Jewish conspiracy that controlsb American Middle East policy.: The second instance is even more jarring.25 After discussing the 1958 Iraqi revolution, the� 1967 Arab-Israeli war, and the 1956 Suez cri­en sis, Professor Khalidi refers to the "1947-49; imbroglio over Palestine." The 1947-49 war,i> precipitated by an Arab invasion of the newly'� proclaimed state ofIsrael, claimed the lives of• tens of thousands of Arabs and Jews; doubt­� less they did not consider the war an "imbrog­� lio" (according to my dictionary, a "confused� altercation"). Khalidi would not presume to� insult Americans by referring to the Ameri­• can Revolution as the "1775-81 imbroglio� over the New World colonies," or the Civil� War as the "1861-65 imbroglio over the Con­� federate States of America." It is equally in­� appropriate for Khalidi to dismiss the Israelien• War of Independence as an "imbroglio overz Palestine, " and thereby to denigrate the state's; struggle against the nearly half-dozen Arabo states that refused to heed international law or::u::;; negotiate, but instead invaded the fledgling):Itz state of Israel with the promise that any "lineen• drawn by the United Nations will be nothingz but a line of blood and fire."� ; Unfortunately, Professor Khalidi's aberrantCI � comments marred my enjoyment of an other-• � wise insightful, provocative, and masterlyi • article. I hope that Professor Khalidi and the:s � University a/Chicago Magazine will keep up� � their otherwise excellent work.c.. i> ABRAHAM BELL, AB' 89• HDl:fnaS.L.Lld • XIN30Hd • VIHdl3CV1IHd • Sn:lVd • VNVICNI MN • VNIlOI:fVO HUlON • CHICAGOoQzoI­ezI(/)er:�•:::EoQezi2QwI-Z:::>••oI­Zoa::oI-•o�oI-••(/):5o.........:(/)•......:::>ow(/)•w......l­t­er:w(/)•oo(/)(3zer:a::I&.Zer:(/)•o<:)wiszer:(/)•(/)wi=(3 THANK YOUto our many University of Chicago Clubvolunteers around the world who have organized• programs featuring Mrs. Gray, faculty,trustees, and administrators• cultural outings and social gatherings• book clubs exploring contemporary fiction,the Great Books, and current events• the annual Motet Choir tour• annual International University of ChicagoDay events• club newsletters and surveysThank you for creating these opportunities foralumni, parents, and friends to• learn about current faculty research• stay informed about issues at theUniversity• enjoy each other's company• continue to, participate in the exchange ofideasWE APPRECIATE YOUREFFORTS!THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION4 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991Platform for propagandaThe article by Rashid Khalidi is anti­American and full of inconsistencyand bias. If "Shifting Sands in theMiddle East" is representative of what heteaches at the University, it is disgraceful thatthe University gives him support and a plat­form from which to spread this type ofmaterial.For the past week, I have been hearing thatIraq hid a military bastion under an umbrellaof civilian shelter. Now, I see that the Univer­sity provides an umbrella of academic free­dom, under which is hidden a bastion of biasand intemperate propaganda.Take these samples from the article: "TheShah's absolutist regime, imposed on Iran in1953 by the United States ... " "The Shah's re­gime was turned into a keystone of Americanpolicy as a regional proxy, with its militarymight inflated to grotesque proportions ... ""U.S. involvement in the Middle East. .. ortheir bastard offspring .... "Khalidi also writes, "Before Suez-for ex­ample, during the 1947-49 imbroglio overPalestine-the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. were onthe same side, Israel's .... " Yet, he says,"... over 70 percent of all Soviet military andeconomic aid to less developed countries,from 1945 until 1970, was spent in the MiddleEast .... " But not one cent of this went to Isra­el, nor was the U.S.S.R. ever on its side. Thebattle for survival of a small, new nation,against a coalition determined to exterminateit, is hardly a mere imbroglio.He is derogatory in comparing Americanfaithfulness to alliances and commitments to"what are alleged to be the Middle East's un­iquely treacherous and suddenly shifting alli­ance patterns." But he goes on to say, "Wehave seen startling shifts in alignments in theregion."Finally, Khalidi writes, "the United Statesdoes not need the pretext of the Cold War tohurl its forces into massive interventions atthe drop of a hat. " He equates a waiting periodof almost half a year to the drop of a hat!This writer has overstepped the limits of ac­ademic freedom. No matter what the groundsfor his initial appointment to the Universityfaculty were, his retention is not consistentwith the standards for a university professor. Ihave been a professor for over 40 years, and Iwould be embarrassed to have him serve onthe same faculty.JAY 1. JACOBY, PHD'47COLUMBUS, OHIOAgainst interpretationI was saddened to see in the February issuethat standards of scholarship have sunk solow at the U of C. If Rashid Khalidi'sessay is any indication, his course in modern THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONInvites you to join distinguished faculty and alumni friendsparticipating in the alumni travel/study programs scheduled for 1991In the Wake ofLewis and ClarkMay 19-26A spring cruise on the Columbiaand Snake Rivers from Portlandto Pasco will explore the history,geology, and nature of theremarkable river system thatplayed a vital part in the openingof the American West.Berlin to Bergen:Northern Lands of LightJuly 5-19Beginning with three days inreunited Berlin, the study trip willthen visit Sweden, Denmark, andNorway aboard the Illiria.Anna Lisa Crone, AssociateProfessor of Slavic Languages andLiteratures, will lecture along withher husband Vladimir Donchik,a noted architect.Alaskan Wilderness andNative CulturesJuly 26-August 6By ship, rail, and air we will visitsome of the most scenic areas ofAlaska's coastline and interior.Professor Jerrold Sadock, an experton the native languages andcultures of the region, will beour faculty lecturer. Greenland andthe Canadian ArcticAugust 17-27This cruise will explore the areaabove the Arctic Circle,traveling first to Baffin Islandand then across Baffin Bayto the fjords and coastal islandsof Greenland. Stephen Pruett-Jonesof the department of ecologyand evolution will focus onthe wildlife, geology, andecology of the region.Walking Tourin SwitzerlandAugust 22-September 7Participants will choose amongdaily guided hikes or strolls fromEngleberg, Zermatt, Celerina,and Appenzell. The trip will beled by Professor MihalyCsikszentmihalyi, author ofthe acclaimed Flow: ThePsychology of Optimal Experience.Also planned for 1991Study trips to the Rhine andMosel Rivers, Yucatan andthe Great Barrier Reef of Belize,Port Cities of the WesternMediterranean, andWashington, D. C.For further information and brochures or to be added to our travel/studymailing list, call or write to Laura Gruen, Associate Director, University ofChicago Alumni Association, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL3121702-2160.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 5Where is your diploma?Thcked away in a drawer?Or in a plain frame?Order one of these uniqueand attractive frames foryourself - or for a perfect gift.These frames come ready for you toinsert a diploma next to a vibrant8" x 10" color photograph of Rocke­feller Chapel or the Reynolds Club(specify choice when ordering) in apremium quality 14" x 22" gold colormetal frame with maroon mat underglass. This frame is for an 8 '/2" x II"diploma. Other sizes upon request.$69.95 ea. Michigan residents add4% tax. Please include $5.00 ea. forshipping and handling - continentalUSA only. Payment can be by check,money order, VISA, or MasterCard.Include full account number and expir­ation date for credit card orders.Phone orders welcome - (517) 351-1788Satisfaction GuaranteedPbR Photography profess.ion. 0' ,Mom""l• Picture '91603 Woodmgham Dr. Framers--.Association IE. Lansing, MI 488236 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 Middle Eastern history is not a history courseat all, but an interpretation of American for­eign policy. Even as such, it lacks any quali­ties of scholarly excellence. The purposeshe attributes to America are not our statedpurposes, nor are they reasonable infer­ences from the nature of our political life.It might be possible to defend his analysis,but Mr. Khalidi seems to think it unnecessaryto do so.DAVID BROYLES, AB' 50WINSlDN-SALEM, NORTH CAROLINATolhepoinlRashid Khalidi's article certainlyaroused my respect and admiration: itgot right to the point about Americanforeign policy in the Middle East.THOMAS ISRAEL, AM'84CAPE GIRARDEAU, MISSOURIWords of Many Syllables Dept.A side from Brobdingnagian tuitionbills which arrive with great regulari­ty, one of the pleasures of having mydaughter attend the University of Chicago isthat of receiving the University of ChicagoMagazine. I find your magazine interesting toread and well written.Your article entitled "Course Work: WhatThey Talk about When They Talk about Love"in the February 1991 issue was of interest tome because of its sesquipedality. May I sug­gest, however, that when you employ a wordsuch as synecdochical you check its spellingbefore the article is published.I am sure that you love the English languageas much as I do and concur that careful proof­reading is the mark of a superior publicationsuch as the University of Chicago Magazine.ALEXANDER A. LEVITANFRIDLEY, MINNESOTABack in limeTim Obermiller's article in the Febru­ary issue of the Magazine on LoradoTaft's Fountain of Time stirred memo­ries of more than 70 years ago. In October1914, my family moved into 5805 BlackstoneAvenue, and I entered the newly opened RaySchool at 57th and Kimbark which, until thatyear, had been Hyde Park High School. ThusI joined the class which would graduate inJune 1918.As the school years passed and for reasons Inever knew, Lorado Taft took an interest in theclass. On several occasions he stopped by topay us a visit, and, I think it was in the springof 1918, the whole class visited his studioacross the Midway. Mr. Taft lived in a largehouse on the southwest corner of Ellis Avenue and 60th Street; in back of his home was hisstudio-which had been a two-story stable-abig covered space loaded with statuary in vari­ous stages of completion or rejection. On theoccasion of our visit, Mr. Taft went on to showus the development of the Fountain of Time,and told us of the origin of the idea in AustinDobson's poem. I had forgotten who was thepoet, but I still recall Mr. Taft's saying, "Timestays; you go."The first essay was a minuscule series ofclay figures with Father Time facing themwhich could have been set on a large dinnerplate; from that, the series progressed to cardtable size; the final preliminary model waslarge enough to fit on a billiards table. Howev­er, the war was on and further action awaitedits completion.I have no visual recollection of Lorado Taftother than that he was well provided with thesort of facial hair suitable for a person of hisilk at that time. His studio, as I saw it, was inmuch greater disarray than the portion shownin your photograph. Apparently a clean-upsquad went to work before the photographertook over.Mr. Taft's interest in our 1918 class was suchthat he was the principal speaker at our gradu­ation services. He had a captive audience ofall of our 39 families and other well-wishersas well as the Ray School faculty. I do not re­call the subject of his remarks but no doubt itwas his regular set of remarks about his planfor the beautification of the Midway. It wouldgo over well with a bunch of locals.I have no doubt that I have seen the Fountainmore often than anyone but the streetcar mo­tormen or the bus drivers on Cottage GroveAvenue. For many years I had a daily drivefrom my home at 6726 Oglesby Avenuethrough Jackson Park to the Midway and outGarfield Boulevard to my offices at the Amer­ican Phenolic Corporation in Cicero, passingthe Fountain en route. On my return, when thefigure of Father Time loomed in the easternoffing, he welcomed me to raise the mostpleasant of thoughts: in five more minutes Iwould savor the comforts of home!CARL WISNER, PHB'26, JD'28FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDATime and cultureI enjoyed the article in the October issue ofUniversity of Chicago Magazine describ­ing SSA professor Dolores Norton'swork with inner-city mothers and babies. Thequotation about the" time culture of the class­room" was particularly cogent.From my experience working in county­operated clinics that serve disadvantaged pop­ulations, the phenomenon of disavowing thetime culture may be of fairly recent origin. Inaddition to the sad reasons documented byProfessor Norton, it may possibly be a mani­festation of black cultural awareness.FRED MATTHIES, MD'53TORRANCE, CALIFORNIAKey is keyI agree with Stephen Appel about theAlma Mater ("Letters," DECEMBER/90), and I hasten to add that my experi­ence with school songs is not wholly casual.Even before I got to high school I realized thatthe school's loyalty was actually the "IllinoisLoyalty" ("We're loyal to you, Poky Hi").However, senior class songs were alwaysoriginal, and a friend and I wrote a song,"Senior Prayer," for my senior class ("DearGod, who reigns on high/ Our work is throughat Poky Hi ... "). At Idaho State I was some­thing of a co-conspirator for a new and origi­nal pep song, "Growl, Bengals, Growl!," butmy University of Denver Alma Mater was 90percent Cornell loyalty except for the quasi­yodel phrase "She's the pride of Col-o-rad­O!" that breaks the Cornell calm. Then thereis the U of C song, which I liked from the veryfirst despite its cotton-mouthed prose.The prose aside, a problem with the U of CAlma Mater is that it is usually written/performed in A-flat or B-flat: fine for Chapelchoir elitism but uncomfortably high for theStagg Field crowd. Put it in F-major so that ittakes on a Reebok air, and then maybe it couldcatch on. ("Growl, Bengals, growl" was inE­flat, so low that the second" growl" was verynearly onomatopoeic-and Idaho Staters stillgurgle at it.) I guarantee you that if the statelyRockefeller Chapel choir had had the habit ofsinging "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" in A­flat, the Lab Schools kindergarten would haveheld a competition decades ago for a people­friendly replacement.However it all turns out, I WILL salute thenew Alma Mater, no matter how kitschy it is,too! But don't ruin it all by publishing it in anunfriendly key.And no, I do not intend to write a song for thecompetition. My composing days came to aself-imposed termination not long after mydays were through at Poky Hi. God said,"Ugh!"JOSEPH D. LA RUE, AM'59CHICAGOThe University of Chicago Magazine invitesletters from readers on the contents of themagazine or on topics related to the Univer­sity. Letters for publication, which must besigned, may be edited for length and/or clari­ty. To ensure the widest range of voices, pre}erence will be given to letters of 500 wordsor less. Letters should be addressed to: Edi­tor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. On PUBLIC TELEVISION Friday, May 24, 1991 10PM EST(check your local Public Television station for time in your area)9{fhru, Indira (jandhi, 1\fljiv (jantfhi.The power of one family and three rulers.Fifty years of Indian history.Historical analysis byUniversity of Chicago professors Lloyd and Susanne Rudolph.Produced by Drew AssociatesNarrated by Cliff RobertsonTHE HEART OF THE STORYChicago Premiere Broadcasts7 :30 PM SundaysApril 7 - May 26, 1991WFMT FINE ARTS RADIO98.7 FM Chicago(WFMT is carried nationally on many local cable channels)Seven half-hour radio programs about story and storytelling, full offascinating tales and rich commentary. University of Chicago scholarsWendy Doniger, Vivian Paley, Norval Morris, Betsy Hearne and othersexplore the nature and uses of narrative. Professor Wayne Booth isadvisor to the series.Hosted by Dick Van DykeTwo Premieres from theWilliam Benton Broadcast Projectof theUniversity of ChicagoLewis Freedman, DirectorUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE! APRIL 1991 7ourseWork justice system-What is blameworthiness?What mechanism determines it? What are theconsequences of the determination?-are ex­amined on the basis of texts produced both in­side and outside the system. Texts includeAntigone, Billy Budd, and selected judicialopinions from Anglo-American cases."It is "not," Hutchinson says, "a class inwhich a lawyer applies legal techniques to theworks of fiction discussed." Instead, he re­verses that formula, applying "literary tech-TheLongArmoftheLawReaching into the pagesof literature, DennisHutchinson offersstudents in "Crime andPunishment" a differentperspective on legal issues.8 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 Dennis Hutchinson is poised half­way up the aisle of a Law Schoollecture hall-arm extended fulllength, fingers splayed againstsome unseen tension. Like a school crossingguard. Like a retriever holding a point. Like atrial-worn attorney making one final dramaticgesture toward the ladies and gentlemen ofthe jury.Or, like a professor of legal history bringinghis judicial powers to the question at hand:how trustworthy is the narrator of HermanMelville's novella Billy Budd?In this case, the jury is the 70 or so students-about 35 from the Law School, the rest Col­lege students and a sprinkling of BentonBroadcast fellows-who have gathered on araw February afternoon for PERL 251,"Crime and Punishment: Fault, Trial, andTariff." The catalog describes the Politics,Economics, Rhetoric, and Law course as fol­lows: "The central questions in a criminal niques to bring out issues about the law."The associate professor, a former RhodesScholar and clerk for Supreme Court JusticeWilliam 0. Douglas, joined the University in1982 after teaching at Georgetown UniversityLaw School. Believing that "law in literaturereveals to us things that we need to know aboutlaw which can't be revealed in any other way,"Hutchinson, who won the Quantrell Awardfor undergraduate teaching in 1984, uses liter­ary techniques in a lawyerly style.Which means that the gestures, like theman, are writ large. Asking for amplification,he holds a cupped hand to his ear; registeringincredulity, his face twists into a questionmark; a moment later, considering a re­sponse, his hand to his forehead, deep inthought, he could model for Rodin.The professor deserts the podium a momentafter calling the class to order. For the next 75minutes, the first of four sessions on BillyBudd, he'll pace the aisles of the tiered room,encouraging his students to enter into thegive-and-take of debate."Today, we'll move from drama, from Anti­gone, to something Melville called an 'insidenarrative.' What does that mean to you?"A young man in a blue-and-black stripedshirt goes first: "You're getting the truestory.""That there's no guile, that it's all as trans­parent as a pane of glass?" Hutchinson comesback. "That's page one. What about page 75?Do you still feel that way?"There are actually two narratives in BillyBudd, aren't there?" he prods. No takers. Hereads from Chapter 29, which the narratorbills as a naval newspaper's account of theBilly Budd affair:"'On the tenth of the last month a deplorableoccurrence took place on boardH.M.S. Belli­potent. John Claggart, the ship's master-at­arms, discovering that some sort of plot wasincipient among an inferior section of theship's company, and that the ringleader wasone William Budd: he, Claggart, in the act ofarraigning the man before the captain, wasvindictively stabbed to the heart by the sud­denly drawn sheath knife of Budd. ,,,"What's wrong here?" he asks. This time,the answers come quickly."I don't recall any stabbing.""The event didn't take place in thearraignment. ".The first 28 chapters go this way: Billy Buddis the Handsome Sailor, an innocent and inar­ticulate seaman who, during the 1797 Britishnaval mutiny, is taken from the Rights-ofMan, and impressed into service on the Belli­potent. There, he incurs the enmity of theship's master-at -arms, Claggart, who accuseshim of plotting mutiny. Vere, the ship's cap­tain, is convinced that Claggart is lying andcalls Billy to hear the accusation.But Billy-unable even to stammer a defense-strikes out. His single blow kills Claggartand, in Vere's eyes, seals his fate. Rather thanput Billy in irons and take him back to portto be tried by the admiral, Vere calls a drum­head court-martial to try Billy at sea. Pro­nounced guilty by Vere, he is hanged from theyardarm the following dawn. His final wordsare "God Bless Captain Vere!""What's Melville trying to accomplish,"Hutchinson asks in a question that has both lit­erary and legal overtones, "by serving up thisvery lean outside account -an account that iserror-ridden? ""You're left with a clear-cut execution,"someone answers."Yes, and the whole book up to this pointemphasized complexity," Hutchinson re­plies. "Conflicting feelings and moods andperplexities on the part of the principalplayers." That was the interior narrative. But Chapter29, he argues, could be termed "the prece­dential narrative," the version of the story thatis meant to have a specific, here-is-the­lesson-to-be-learned effect on its audience."It's almost like a judicial narrative." In thiscase, the newspaper account of a thwartedmutiny will be read by sailors.In Billy Budd, mutiny is "at the back of ev­erybody's minds," Hutchinson says, "but it'sout of everybody's minds." Why? With a grin,�ear the end of theclass, Dennis Hutchinsonpolls the jury. "Is thereanyone who feels, havingread the novella, that Billyshould have hung?"the professor invites the class, "Take a stabat it.""It adds to the complexity of Melville's sto­ry," a student offers. If, instead of being ahinted-at possibility, a mutiny-whether ornot Billy was involved-was clearly about tooccur, then Captain Vere's decision to let Billyhang would not be open to question."That makes Billy Budd a not very interest­ing story," Hutchinson agrees. Rather thanfollow up that literary point, he concentrateson the question of judicial motive. "Whatmakes it tricky is to understand why Vereexercises his enormous power-power thateveryone agrees he has-against a back­ground of mutiny but in the midst of apparentcalm.""There wasn't an atmosphere of purecalm," the student retorts, as the professornods approval. "There are people in the lowerdecks who are talking mutiny. And when Bil­ly Budd gets to the Bellipotent, he's almost alightning rod for Claggart. It's a destabilizingkind of influence." .One way to get at the blameworthiness of analleged criminal is, of course, to look at howthe determination of guilt was made. On theBellipotent, Billy's fate was decided by Cap­tain Vere."None of you is as handsome as Billy," Hut­chinson tells the class. "You identify withVere. For better or worse, Vere is you, and youare Vere.""What," he asks, "is the physical appear­ance of Edward Fairfax Vere?""He looks like a kind of a dry man," astudent ventures. "He looks like a ...professor? ""This is a nice tie," the navy-blazered Hut- chinson protests in mock dismay, fingeringhis patterned tie amid general laughter beforereturning to the question. "Is Vere tall? Wedon't know."Like a prosecuting attorney, he enumeratesthe evidence: "You know he reads books. He'sthe bookish man who can't really deal withpeople."And yet: "One of the indications that some­one is a person of substance is that other peo­ple stand back when that person enters theroom. Because you can't touch Superman'scape. Well, that's the reaction to Vere, andthat's very peculiar. ""Vere follows the Peter Principle," a stu­dent protests. "He's risen to his level of in­competence. He's in over his head.""I have the sense that 'in over his head' ismuch too harsh," Hutchinson returns."Melville is at pains to suggest that as a sea­faring man, he's a good one."A dissenting opinion gets voiced: "He maybe a good captain, able to navigate well-buthe's certainly no leader of men.""I don't see him that way at all," a womanobjects. "I think Vere gave a lot of thought tohis decision."In reply, Hutchinson polls the class, effec­tively asking the jury to judge both Billy andthe captain. "Is there anyone who feels, hav­ing read the novella, that Billy should havehung?"Along the rows of seats, a few scatteredhands slowly go up. "One, two ... " As a fewmore hands inch up, then down, he abandonsthe count.Even if Billy was technically guilty, a red­bloused woman suggests, Vere didn't have toact so quickly. Why not return to port and theadmiral's court?Hutchinson dons the guise of devil's advo­cate. "The killing of Claggart is a real threat.Vere is out there on the ship, far from land=- "he breaks off. "Mr. Sherman?""I didn't raise my hand, but we don't reallyknow if Billy should have hung.""How much is this story about political real­ities?" Hutchinson says, back to the verdict'spossible consequences- "and how much is itjust about an evil sea captain?""You can't forget that this is a warship," astudent points out."You get the last word," Hutchinson nods inresponse, "because that's where I want tostop."Making his way to the podium, he an­nounces that the next class will focus on thetrial that is at the story's center. The drumheadcourt is "reserved for extraordinary events,"he reminds the students as they shrug intocoats and backpacks. "Pursue that point," hedirects them. "Ask if special procedures,special standards are required in time ofwar."-M.R. Y.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 9FOR THE RECORDNew trustee: Ann DibbleJordan, AM '61 , was electedto the University's Board ofTrustees on February 14.Jordan, a former assistantprofessor in the School ofSocial Service Administra­tion, now works as a socialwork consultant and is onseveral boards of directors.In the past she served aspresident of the Women'sBoard of the Chicago UrbanLeague and as a member ofthe Women's Board of theGoodman Theatre.Tetsuo Najita, the RobertS. Ingersoll DistinguishedService Professor in Histo­ry, has been elected presi­dent of the Association forAsian Studies, effective inApril 1992. Najita is anexpert on Japanese politicaland intellectual history. A centenDial recipe:food for thought, and fun11 ONATHAN KLEIN BARD NEEDStwo nouns to describe thecharacter of the University'Supcoming centennial celebration."It'll be a time of celebration and atime of reflection," says Kleinbard,vice-president of University Newsand Community Affairs, who isoverseeing the yearlong centennialobservance."Some of the events," he ex­plains, "will be a critical look at thehistory of the University, and an at­tempt to articulate an agenda for itsfuture. And because it's the 100thanniversary, some of the events willbe quite festive and celebratory.""What we're hearing from alum­ni," says Kineret Jaffe, AM'74,PhD' 82, director of the CentennialOffice, "is that they're very proudof the academic strengths of theUniversity; and that they would notbe happy with a Centennial thatwas just a party with cake andlemonade."Which is not to say there won't belemonade and cake-in fact, oneconspicuously large cake, to beserved to the thousands of alumni,faculty, students, and guests expect­ed to attend a party in the mainQuadrangles on Oct. 3, 1991, whenthe Centennial officially begins. Aspart of that day's festivities, a spe­cial convocation attended by repre­sentatives of academic institutionsfrom around the world will be heldin Rockefeller Chapel. The day willend with a performance of Tchai­kovsky's 1812 Overture, punctuatedby specially choreographedfireworks.10 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 CHI'CAGOThe official centennial logo wasunveiled this winter.Although this opening bash willbe appropriately "lavish and splen­diferous," Jaffe emphasizes it is byno means the main event. "We'respreading the celebration out overthe course of a year because we real­ly feel that each of the University'Sdifferent components deserves itsown time-needs its own moment ofattention. "Indeed, Walter Blum-AB'39,JD'41, the Edward H. Levi Distin­guished Service Professor Emeri­tus in the Law School-recalls thatwhen the faculty centennial com­mittee he currently chairs first metin 1988, "we discussed having acondensed, two- or three-week cel­ebration. And I think almost every­one there rejected the notion."To condense it that way, you'reinevitably going to have the purelyfestive aspects of the celebration overwhelm more serious-and, re­ally, more interesting-aspects ofthe place. I've seen this happen atother universities like ours that haveattempted one big blowout-wherethe real character of the institutiongot lost in all the hoopla. We decid­ed right away that was something wewanted to avoid."Of the many academic confer­ences being planned by faculty dur­ing the centennial year, Blum saysmost will have a "multi-tiered ap­proach-so that at the Law School,for example, there may be aspects ofa conference that will appeal espe­cially to alumni in the field, as wellas lawyers from other parts of thecity and from other schools."Then, there will be segments ofsome conferences, or entire confer­ences, designed to have a broaderappeal. We're identifying thosenow, and there are some really quiteexciting ideas being generated bythe faculty, which we'll look at co­ordinating with popular alumnievents like Reunion and Homecom­ing, so that a really wide audiencecan attend and enjoy these."Some of these special centennialconferences may also be "packagedand taken out on the road" to alumniclubs in major cities, says JeanneBuiter, MBA'86, executive directorof the Alumni Association. Stillothers may be incorporated intospecial weekends in Chicago, andpossibly other major cities, basedon the popular "Winter Weekend"concept launched by the AlumniOffice, in partnership with the Of­fice of Continuing Education andthe Centennial Office, this year.The weekends will offer in-depthstudy on a special theme, illumina­ted by lectures, seminars, and toursconducted by University facultyand staff. An optional part of theseweekend packages includes luxuryhotel accommodations and meals.The concept of these educationalweekends was proposed by an alum­ni subcommittee of Blum's facultycommittee, chaired by Edward Ro­senheim, AB'39, AM'46, PhD'53,the David B. and Clara E. SternProfessor Emeritus in English,and reflects alumni interests in themore intellectual aspects of thecelebration.According to Rosenheim, most ofthe more than 100 suggestions he'sreceived from alumni (sent in re­sponse to a request in the WINTER/88 Magazine) "focused on the pridepeople have in this University as oneof the greatest, most intellectuallydedicated institutions in the world."The alumni expect this place tocarry on like a community of schol­ars," says Rosenheim. "If we don'tbehave as if we were crusaders in thecause of enlightenment, then they'regoing to be very disappointed."Of course, not every alumni sug­gestion has been solemn. Twomembers of the Alumni Associa­tion Board of Governors-LindaThoren Neal, AB'64, JD'67, andKatherine Dusak Miller, AB'65,MBA' 68 , PhD'71-are organizingan all-volunteer Centennial Showfor Reunion 1992. Written by Ro­senheim and Robert Ashenhurst,professor in the Graduate School ofBusiness and University marshal, the show follows in the lightheartedtradition of the Faculty Wives andRevels shows of the past, saysJeanne Buiter.Whether "celebrating" in a fes­tive way or "reflecting" in a moreserious vein, Jonathan Kleinbardhopes the University is able to con­vey some of its special qualities toan outside audience during theCentennial."It's our feeling that the centennialobservance is an opportunity tomake the University more accessi­ble and more visible-especially inChicago-but also nationally, " saysKleinbard. Trustee and facultycommittees have discussed ways tobuild institutional identity and visi­bility during the Centennial. "Thatdoesn't mean we're going to pro­mote ourselves in a garish or inap­propriate way," Kleinbard hastensto reassure, "yet who we are andwhat we do here is very important tosociety in general, and how to carrythat message in the centennial yearshould be key."One of the major themes of theyear will be the University and thecity, " Kleinbard adds. "We areplanning projects with all of Chica­go's major cultural institutions, " in­cluding the Museum of Science andIndustry, the Art Institute, and theChicago Symphony Orchestra.Faculty-led seminars will also ex­plore the historical relationship between the University and the cityof Chicago."I think what's happened as we'vegotten closer to this celebration,"muses Kineret Jaffe, "is that we'vebeen realizing that there are allkinds of things that go on here, andthat none of us-whether alumni,faculty, or students-are complete­ly aware of this incredible range ofactivity." She pauses. ''And I sup­pose if I had to pick a single themeor purpose for this Centennial, it'sthat sense of rediscovering the Uni­versity, and rejoicing in all the dif­ferent things we have to offer. "Ned Rosenheim, who was oncampus for both the 50th and 75thanniversary celebrations, agrees."We should be telling the wholewide world, 'Hey, we've beenaround for a hundred years, we'vedone some remarkable things thatwe're damned proud of, and we'relooking forward to our next onehundred years. ' "As federalsupporldrops, tuition risesRESIDENT HANNA H. GRAY,in announcing a 6.7 percentincrease in the College termbill next fall, said that a significantpart of the increase was necessary toreplace equally significant drops inPutting the Centennial on the map: Walter Blum, Kineret Jaffe, and Ned Rosenheim. Wing to honor Knapps: Theplanned Jules F. KnappMedical Research Building,which will house an Insti­tute for Molecular Medicineand form one wing of a newBiological Sciences Com­plex for Learning andResearch, honors Knapp,who with his wife, Gwen,made a $IO-million gift tothe University. Knapp ispresident and chair ofUnited Coatings, Inc., andhis wife is president of theLupus Foundation of North­ern Illinois. The gift willestablish the Gwen KnappCenter for Lupus andImmunology Research.The Graduate School ofBusiness's Chicago Mercan­tile Exchange Professor­ship, currently held byfutures and exchange expertKenneth French, has beenrenamed the Leo MelamedProfessorship in honor ofthe recently retired chair ofthe Exchange.Life achievement awards:Three students in the Col­lege have received Morton­Murphy Awards for out­standing contributions tostudent life. Naomi Swin­ton, a second-year student,is chair of the Environmen­tal Concerns Organization;first-year Leslie Teo wroteand produced the Interna­tional Student Handbookforthe International ConcernsOrganization; and DanielKemper, afourth-yearstudent, is president of theModel United Nations.UN at UC: More than 1,000high school students from 17states attended the thirdannual Model UnitedNations sponsored by theU ofC in February. Theeventfeatured discussionsof issues with strong reso­nances to real-world eventssuch as the Persian Gulfwar, rainforest preserva­tion, and upheaval inEastern Europe.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE! APRIL 1991 11Critical crossing: A cross­disciplinary faculty group,called the Faculty Commit­tee on Critical Practice, willteach courses and work­shops beginning next year.The group, led by EastAsian Languages andCivilization professor HarryHarootunian, plans semi­nars on topics such asEnglish as linguafranca,multi-ethnic nationalistnarratives, and the role oftransnational institutionsin the global politicaleconomy.Byrd's-eye-view: TheUniversity will collaboratewith eight other institutionsto develop a Center forAstrophysical Research inAntarctica. Under thedirection of Astronomy andAstrophysics professor D.A. Harper, the NSF-fundedinstitution will take advan­tage of the South Pole'sclear, dark skies to studythe origins of the universeand the birth of stars andgalaxies.Six researchers at theMedical Center havereceived American CancerSociety grants for theirwork. The professors are:Oscar Colamonici, DennisHallahan, Nissim Hay,Mark Hochstrasser, Nava_Segev, and James Urban,PhD '82, MD '84. Fourth­year medical student MauraDickler also received agrantfrom the ACS.Shure funding: ArnoldShure, PhB'27, JD'29,Chicago attorney, and hiswife, Frieda, have endoweda Law School fund. Themoney will aid facultyresearch and publicationsand support the acquisitionof rare books and docu­ments. Faculty grant recipi­ents will be known as ShureScholars. federal support for faculty salariesand student aid.The tuition hike was only part ofan overall strategy to cope with theUniversity's rising burden of cost­a strategy that includes aggressivereductions in administrative costs,said Gray.The 1991-92 term bill will includetuition of $15,945, room and boardcharges of $5 ,685, and fees totaling$267 for health services and studentactivities. The comparable figuresfor 1990-91 were $14,895, $5,390,and $240.Tuition will increase from$15,21Oto $16,275 in the four grad­uate divisions, with roughly similarincreases in most professionalschools. (See table.)The tuition gain is accompaniedby a substantial increase in funds forstudent financial aid: the Universitywill provide $18.7 million for schol­arships to undergrads in 1991-92,up from $17.1 million this year and$2.5 million in 1980-81.Gray stressed that the Universitywill continue its "need-blind" Col­lege admission policy, in which themost qualified applicants are admit­ted regardless of their ability to pay.She noted that 57 percent of Chica­go's undergraduates receive directgrants from the University-withother sources of support, such aswork study, that figure rises to 64percent.Including $38.2 million in finan­cial aid earmarked for graduate andprofessional students, University12 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 grants to all students will total $56.9million in the coming academicyear. Even when discounted for in­flation, said Gray, University ex­penditures for financial aid havemore than doubled since 1980-81.In comments to the Universitynewspaper, the Chronicle, Graysaid that the University continues toinvest in areas of academic prioritywhile making major reductions inadministrative costs. As a result ofcost-containment efforts-the elim­ination, consolidation, and reduc­tion of some programs, along with areduction in the size of theworkforce-the share of the budgetdevoted to administrative supportand facilities costs has decreasedfrom 37 percent in 1980-81 to 26percent in 1989-90, said Gray.Also, due to aggressive conserva­tion efforts, expenditures for elec­tricity and natural gas have alsobeen cut by 5 percent in real termssince 1980, despite a substantial ex­pansion in teaching and researchfacilities.At the same time, Gray said, theUniversity continues to invest inareas of academic activities-inparticular, faculty salaries, re­search, and teaching support-aswell as student financial aid. A largeportion of the increase has beennecessary to replace federal sup­port, which Gray said has declinedgreatly in real terms over the yearsfor both faculty salaries and studentaid. Expenditures for academic ac­tivities alone have grown from 63 percent of the budget in 1980-81 to74 percent in 1989-90.DefiDiDg urbaDpoverty: a debaleIP OVERTY RATES AMONGurban blacks have grownalarmingly since 1970, withthe reasons for this growth now hot­ly debated. Two of the most influen­tial, and seemingly divergent, ex­planations are set forth by a pair ofUniversity sociologists, WilliamJulius Wilson and Douglas Massey.The two men had a chance to sitdown to discuss their differences ina public "conversation" Feb. 25 atMax Palevksy Cinema, sponsoredby the Coordinating Council forMinority Issues and the StudentGovernment Association.Wilson, the Lucy Flower Univer­sity Professor in Sociology and theWilliam Julius WilsonIrving B. Harris Graduate School ofPublic Policy, gained internationalrecognition forhis award-winning1987 book, The Truly Disadvan­taged: The Inner City, the Under­class, and Public Policy, which ar­gued that shifting economic trendsand the flight of middle- andworking-class blacks from tradi­tional ghetto neighborhoods had ledto increased poverty in those areasduring the 1970s.Massey, professor in sociologyand the Harris School, capturedheadlines with studies released inthe late 1980s. Using 1980s censusdata to measure five different stand-Douglas Masseyards of residential segregation,Massey showed how blacks in 10major U.S. cities were segregatedby at least four of those five mea­sures. For this level of extremesegregation, Massey used thephrase "hypersegregation." UnlikeWilson, Massey did not detect a ma­jor "out-migration" of higher­income blacks from such areas-hisstudies show that blacks, no matterwhat their income, remain extreme­ly segregated.In opening the discussion, mod­erator Gary Orfield, AM'65,PhD'68, professor of political sci­ence and education, noted that dis­crepancies between the two re­searchers' findings had beenwell-reported in the media, "whichmay be," he told the packed audi­ence of faculty and students, "whymany of you are here today. "Massey went first. He began bynoting that he hopes his researchwill "force public policymakersand scholars to pay attention to resi­dential segregation as an important,if not primary," cause for the per­petuation of black poverty in theU. S. Although a 1968 report by theKerner Commission (a national ad­visory committee appointed byLyndon Johnson) pinpointed segre­gation as a leading cause of"sepa­rate and unequal" black and whitesocieties in America, Massey ar­gued that the issue has since "fallenoff the agenda"-replaced by dis­cussions of family structure, wel­fare policy, employment, and edu- cation, with policymakers seemingnot to realize that" all of these inter­act with the fact that African Amer­icans are more segregated than anygroup in U. S. history."Because fair housing laws createdin the 1960s have been mostly unen­forced, Massey pointed out, "ablack family earning $50,'000 ayear or more is just as segregated asa family earning under $2,500."His own studies also found thatblacks in L.A. or Chicago earningover $50,000 were more segregatedthan Hispanics earning under$2,500; thus, "the wealthiestblacks are more segregated than thepoorest Hispanics. "If higher-income blacks havemoved out of ghetto areas-an im­portant tenet of Wilson's analysis­"where are they going?" Masseywondered. His own studies showed"they aren't going to white neigh­borhoods." Massey said the rejec­tion of "black flight" as a majorcause for the increased poverty inurban black areas was important: ifupper-income blacks weren't leav­ing, then the rise in poverty demon­strates the damaging effects of seg­regation' as it forces blacks to live inareas with substandard publicschools, high unemployment, andother conditions which they mightotherwise escape if they were al­lowed, and encouraged, to liveelsewhere.Agreeing with Massey that deter­mining the cause of growing urbanpoverty was critical if effective pub­lic policy measures were to bedevised to counteract that growth,Wilson saw the explanations he putforth in The Truly Disadvantaged asa more complex analysis of the situ­ation-one that resists blaming theinstitution of a welfare state forcreating ghettos, a favorite right­wing claim, or distilling the prob­lem into one of simple racism, asseen by the left.Both the left and right approachoverlook important economicchanges of the 1970s. It's no coinci­dence, Wilson said, that theseeconomic shifts- "from goods­producing to service-producing in­dustries; the increasing polariza­tion of labor markets into low-wageand high-wage sectors; the reloca­tion of manufacturing and indus­tries out of the central city; and peri­odic recessions" -coincided with the startling growth in urban pover­ty in that decade.Declining employment opportu­nities sparked a vast exodus ofworking- and middle-class familiesfrom ghetto neighborhoods-a mi­gration that damaged the long-termhealth of these areas, "because thepresence of those families broughtsocial and economic stability tothose areas, now sorely missing. "Wilson went on to say that Mas­sey's method of research, while pro­viding interesting and worthwhileresults, wasn't really appropriate asa test of Wilson's hypothesis in TheTruly Disadvantaged. He arguedthat Massey's methods "provide adescription of the overall level ofconcentrated poverty in metropoli­tan areas ... but do not identify what Blasting the past: Universi­ty archaeologist McGuireGibson, AM'64, PhD'68,said in March that he had"no doubt there's beendamage" to ancient Meso­potamian artifacts andmounuments as a result ofthe gulfwar. "Once you getinto the alluvial plain insouthern Iraq, which iswhere we were fighting,practically every hill is anarchaeological site. " Thesite of his work in Nippur(SUMMERI90) may beintact: "nothing of strategicvalue" is nearby. He'sunsure when he'll get acloser look: the US. put atemporary ban on allprojects there last summer.Because-he's-smarterdepartment: The ChicagoTribune's Mike Royko notedin his column that comparedto most military analysts­who warned of an Iraqiground war lasting weeks,or months-political scien­tist John Mearsheimerpredicted in a Jan. 150p-edpiece that "the campaignshould be over in a week orless and probably fewerthan 1, 000 Americans willdie in combat. " AskedRoyko, ifa U ofC professor"knew with such confi­dence" the war's outcome,why "didn't our vast intelli­gence establishment ... ?"History cum fiction: Chil­ean writer and diplomatJorge Edwards, a visitingprofessor in RomanceLanguages and LatinAmerican Studies at the UofC, spoke on "History asFiction" in February. Thelecture examined the rela­tionship between creativewriting and history in LatinAmerica.Pulling rank: The Universi­ty rankedfirst in the nationin 1990 in attracting gradu­ate students with U. S.Department of EducationJavits Fellowships in thehumanities, arts, and socialsciences=Il of the 123fellowship winners are nowenrolled here. Chicago wasalso first last year in attract­ing Charlotte NewcombDoctoral Fellows, SpenserDissertation �ar Fellows,and Fulbright-Hays Doctor­al Dissertation AbroadFellows.President Hanna HolbornGray received the ComeniusMedallion and an honoraryDoctorate of HumaneLetters from MoravianCollege (Bethlehem, PAY inFebruary. The ComeniusMedallion is presentedannually to a person"whose influence on educa­tion parallels that of Com­enius in his day. "14 has happened in particular neigh­borhoods" -a level at which theout-migration of higher-incomeblacks can be, and has been, de­tected. Wilson cited his study ofeight poor black Chicago neighbor­hoods, which recorded a net blackmigration of 42 percent between1970 and 1980. As a result, six ofthose communities moved from thehigh poverty range (rates of povertyexceeding 20 percent) to extremepoverty (over 40 percent).Wilson quoted other studies­including one conducted at Har­vard's Kennedy School-whichconfirmed that a 'black flight' in the1970s had caused major growth ofghetto poverty. According to thosestudies, many blacks who had lefttraditional ghetto neighborhoodsoften merely fled to the next availa­ble "ring" of housing, once popul­ated by whites who had abandonedthose areas-" areas that thereforeexperienced increasing segregationand poverty" during the 1970s and1980s-and accounted for Massey's"hypersegregation. " In response, Massey reiterated his"skepticism" that out -migrationwas ever really a factor in higherconcentrations of inner-city pover­ty, calling such studies "faulty... since it's impossible from censusdata to calculate those rates of out­migration." Massey didn't see hisstudies of segregation as broader orless definitive than those Wilson cit­ed-indeed, he argued, the latterstudies used only two measures ofsegregation; his own application offive measures, he went on, gave amore precise picture of the degreeof segregation, as well as the differ­ences among minority groups.Rather than out-migration, Mas­sey found a more plausible andcompelling explanation for the riseof black urban poverty in segrega­tion, including the creation of pub­lic housing projects, which en­couraged an "in-migration" of evenpoorer people into already poorneighborhoods, and made highconcentrations of poverty a per­manent feature of many blackneighborhoods. In his rebuttal, Wilson reempha­sized that Massey's measures ofsegregation "are averages on themetropolitan level and thereforeobscure changes that have occurredin the out-migration of non-poorblacks from inner-city ghettoneighborhoods" -the focus of anal­ysis in The Truly Disadvantaged.During a question-and-answer pe­riod, the two researchers also re­vealed contrasting opinions on howthe problem of growing black urbanpoverty should be handled-withWilson stressing "race-neutral pro­grams" and Massey emphasizingthe need for more stringent enforce­ment of civil rights laws. The twoagreed that a larger commitment oftax dollars was needed than theAmerican public seems currentlywilling to provide.Unfortunately, Wilson said, anappeal to help poor blacks wouldnot be enough to stir the con­sciences of public policymakers.Rather, "race-neutral programs"would more likely "attract thebroad base of support one wouldneed to form a coalition to bringabout change." He cited the currentsurge to reform public education asone example of how a broad-basedmovement can ultimately benefitblacks and Hispanics, although themovement is not specifically forthat purpose.Massey agreed but said "the prob­lem with schools is just the worstpart of a larger problem: The prob­lem is that as Americans, we don'tgive two hoots about the future, andwe've stopped investing in it. Theleadership of this country seeks towave magic wands and speak of re­forms and changes but ... untilsomeone is willing to invest the re­sources, I can't see how we're goingto have the widespread changes thatare needed. "In conclusion, Massey said hemostly agreed with Wilson; "myonly point is that economic explana­tions are incomplete unless placedin the context of segregation ....Segregation-which is a race prob­lem, not a class problem-needs tobe considered as a fundamental partof the problem."Wilson emphasized that he hadnever proposed a dichotomy ofrace and class in an examination ofurban poverty- "it's the inter­action between race and class, " notrace or class separately, that ac­counts for its growth."We should both try to read eachother's work a little more careful­ly," Wilson told Massey. "I thinkwe're working in different arenasand once we start recognizing thatwe won't be arguing so much aboutwhat it is that's really takingplace."NCAA championhighlights sportsJJ UNIOR PETER WANG BECAMEthe first national NCAA wres­tling champion in the history ofthe University during Division IIIfinals held March 1-2 at Angus­tana. A three-time All-American,(Wang finished fourth in Nationalslast year and third as a freshman),Wang's performance helped theteam to a 14th-place finish out of 53schools in the finals. Also qualify­ing for Nationals were freshmanMario Springer, wrestling at 142 Archival technology:Thanks in part to a $1.4million grant from theNational Endowment forthe Humanities, the CrerarLibrary History of Technol­ogy Collection, increasinglyvulnerable to everydayhandling, will be trans­ferred to archival-qualitymicrofilm.Time Out: Kristin Maschka (center) and teammates absorb Coach Brower's game plan.pounds, and junior Frank Aradoin the 126-pound class. Wang,wrestling at 177 pounds, lost onlyfour of his 31 matches this pastseason.Although they finished with a14-11 record, the women's basket­ball team didn't fulfill Coach SusanBrower's high expectations goinginto the season. The Maroons had been picked to be number one in theUAA in a pre-season poll, butwound up with a conference recordof 6-8. Senior Kristin Maschka ledthe team in scoring, averaging 14.2points a game, but illness forced herto miss several crucial games. Mas­chka ends her Maroon career as thesecond highest scorer, with 1,299career points (Gretchen Gates,Model program: The Uni­versity's recycling program,UCRecycle, has been citedby the Illinois RecyclingAssociation as a "modelinstitutional re2yclingprogram. " The programbegan two years ago inresponse to student con­cerns; it now collects nearly40 tons of recyclable materi­als on campus each month.Helen Harris Perlman, theSamuel Deutsch Distin­guished Service Professor inthe School of Social ServiceAdministration, received a1990 President's Awardfromthe National Association ofSocial Workers for excel­lence in education andcontributions to the fieldof social work.15X-trafunding: The Univer­sity has received a $2million grantfrom the W M.Keck Foundation to developnew technologies for x-raycrystallography ofmacro­molecules. The results willbe used at Argonne NationalLaboratory s AdvancedPhoton Source, which willbe the world s brightestsource of x-rays when itbecomes operational in1995. Marvin Makinen,professor and chair ofbiochemistry and molecularbiology, directs the x-raycrystallography program.Passing on tradition:Teachersfrom Chicagopublic schools came tocampus during winterquarter to learn aboutAfrican oral traditions andhow to teach them to theirclasses. The seminars wereorganized by history pro­fessor Ralph Austen andfunded by a grant from theNational Endowment forthe Humanities. Professorsfrom several Chicago-areauniversities were seminarleaders.Cancer specialist HarveyGolomb, AB '64, professorof medicine, received the1990 Esther Langer Award,given annually for outstand­ing contributions to cancerresearch. Golomb s special­ty is hairy-cell leukemia andother cancers of the bloodand lymphatic system.Computer congregation:Graduate studies in com­puter science merged inJanuary when the depart­ment moved into new officequarters, as the renovationof the fourth floor attic ofRyerson Physical Laborato­ry was completed. Previous­ly, members of the depart­ment were scattered inspaces throughout thecampus. AB'86, maintains the top spot with1,924 points.) Junior Tina Kla­winski led the team in rebounds,averaging 6.6 per game.The men's basketball team had a7 -15 (3-11 conference) record.Matt Krapf was leading scorer forthe third consecutive year, averag­ing 14.9 points per game. He wasalso only the sixth men's player inMaroon history to score over 1,000career points, and Krapf -a junior-has one more year to try to topGerry Clark's (AB'74, MBA' 76) ca­reer record of 1,394 points. SeniorEric Chilenskas had 10.6 points agame, and led the team in rebounds,averaging 7. 1 .The fencing team finished fourthin the UAA and sent five fencers­the largest number in Maroon histo-Voices from the QuadsWeare in a society where thebankers, rather than the lib­erals, are breaking the banks.­Gary Orfield, AM '65, PhD '68,professor of political science, com­menting on the federal Savings &Loan bail out, as moderator of a dis­cussion on urban poverty sponsoredby the Coordinating Council forMinority Issues.Out of every 100,000 blackmales in our population, theAmerican criminal justice systemimprisons an overwhelming 3,100.In South Africa, even with its fewerconstitutional protections, theyonly manage to incarcerate 722black males per 100,000. What thismeans is that African-Americanmales face a four times greaterchance of being incarcerated in theUnited States than a black South Af­rican does in his own country.­Donna Franklin, associate profes­sor in SSA, from her keynote ad­dress commemorating the birthdayof Martin Luther King, Jr., in Rock­efeller Chapel.S addam Hussein's belief that hecould invade Kuwait and getaway with it was not completelywithout foundation. It was a gam­ble. There was nothing inevitableabout the American military oppo­sition to the invasion that material­ized. Saddam didn't expect theArabs to resist him effectively.16 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 ry-to the Midwest RegionalNCAA Qualifier at Notre DameFeb. 23-24. The fencers were: sen­iors John Katsanos and Rick Kellet,foil; senior Edoardo Kulp and jun­ior Greg Zissu, epee; and juniorCraig Albright, sabre. Senior SungKim was selected as a first alternate,sabre.Senior Kris Alden, 1989 men's Di­vision III breaststroke champion,won the UAA 100-yard breaststrokefor the fourth consecutive year -thefirst four-time winner in UAA his­tory-with a time of :59.12, qual­ifying for Nationals (results werenot available at presstime). Sopho­more Suzi Schairer placed fourth inthe UAA in the 100-yard backstrokewith a time of 1 :06.03, a new varsi­ty school record, and also placedEgypt's position was critical. Sad­dam calculated that Egypt would re­main neutral. It didn't have to sidewith him, but if Egypt remainedneutral it would be unlikely thatSaudi Arabia would then have theresolve for inviting the U.S. to pre­pare for this military action. And, infact, Saddam Hussein tried to bribeEgyptian president Hosni Mubarakby putting some $25 million in Mu­barak's own bank account. That'sSaddam's view of how you dealwith people, through fear andgreed. Its right from Machiavelli.That's what Saddam Hussein is allabout.-Laurie Mylroie, Center forMiddle Eastern Studies at Harvard,from her speech, "Saddam: TheMethod and the Madness, "present­ed by the John M. Olin Center at theUniversity.I fyou're going to uphold the Billof Rights , it's your job to be terri­bly unpopular. When the ACLUfought the internment of JapaneseAmericans during World War II, wewere not popular-you can believe. it. But today the internment is rec­ognized as one of the greatestshames in U. S. history. The Bill ofRights limits majority rule and de­fending it will never be popular.­Jay Miller, executive director of theAmerican Civil Liberties Union, Il­linois, urging Law School studentsto join the school s new ACLUchapter. fourth in the 50-yard freestyle.The women's indoor track teamfinished third in UAA champion­ships hosted by the University, ledby sophomore distance-runnerAlexandra Newman, who won the5,000-meter run with a time of18: 17.83, and placed second in the3,000-meter run. She qualified forNationals, as did junior Neal Cawi,who placed second at the UAAmen's indoor track championshipsin the shotput (results of both per­formances at Nationals were notavailable at press time). In the 35-pound-weight throw, freshmanWesley McGhee was third-placeUAA . finalist with a school-recordthrow of 47' 11 ", while overall themen finished sixth in the UAArankings.In Broward County, Florida,they've had school-based man­agement since 1972 ... and thechanges that have occurred sincethen are zero. Because the princi­pals, given the power to do whateverthey wanted, continued doing prettymuch what they'd always done.That's a problem with shareddecision-making, especially whenit comes to running schools. Be­cause we didn't learn about schoolswhen we became teachers. Welearned about schools when we en­tered kindergarten, and we've had avery long apprenticeship. Whenyou've spent that many days andhours sitting in a room with some­one in front talking in certain ways,it's very difficult to think about al­ternatives.-Albert Shanker, presi­dent of the American Federation ofTeachers, speaking in a series on"Policies and EducationalChange" organized by the Depart­ment of Education and the Irving B.Harris Graduate School of PublicPolicy Studies.The National League will neverhave a designated hitter as longas I'm around, and as long as thereare trees, we won't have aluminumbats.-William White, president ofmajor league baseball s NationalLeague, on campus in February as aMarjorie Kovler Visiting Fellow.Compiled by Tim ObermillerIt may look like a dump, but the Resource Center in .yde Park is actually anorderly demonstration in practical polilics-a demonstration that Ken DUIIII,AM'70, has been waging for more than two decades.burning forests down needlessly. People in cities were burning up for­est products needlessly, too."Dunn approached local stores. Save your cardboard, he told them,I'll collect it and sell it. Although he did not realize it at the time, hehad found his vocation. Last year, the nonprofit organization thatevolved out of his efforts-the Resource Center-recycled some24,000 tons of material at its South Side locations, generating grossrevenues of two million dollars.Like other major cities, Chicago is confronting a garbage crisis. Aslocal landfill sites fill up-at present rates, it is estimated they will befull within a few years-the city faces the prospect of shipping its gar­bage ever farther away at ever greater cost. Recycling, once a quixoticventure of committed environmentalists, is now widely recognized tobe an economic necessity. But the question of how best to design acitywide recycling system isa matter of intense controver­sy. In the debate over alterna­tive approaches, Ken Dunn'svoice has particular reso­nance, for he speaks out ofvast practical experiencewith different strategies forrecovering reusable re­sources from the flood of"garbage" consumer societyhas loosed upon the world.hen Ken Dunn arrived in Hyde Park in thefall of 1967 to begin graduate studies in philos­ophy at the University, he was appalled by howdirty the air was. Having grown up on a farm incentral Kansas and having just spent the pre­vious three years working as a Peace Corpsvolunteer in the interior of Brazil , he could feelthe Chicago air abrade his throat and lungs.He tried to distinguish the different kinds of smoke it contained.Coal was still being burned in the city then; that accounted for some ofthe pollution. But there was also another kind of smoke- "a bit likeburning leaves but different" -that he could not place. Sniffing theair, he followed his nose to the source: local grocery stores were dis­posing of their empty cardboard boxes by burning them."In Brazil I had worked onrain forest preservation,"Dunn, AM'70, recalls. "Myproject was to redirect agroup that had been involvedin slash-and-burn agricul­ture. In Chicago I discoveredfor the first time that not onlywere people in the AmazonBuying back resources bythe shopping-carlload.Text byJamie Kalven Photography byPatricia EvansUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 17As Dunn tells it, the initial impetus for theResource Center came in part out of frustra­tions generated by "the many trips, in shorttime, driving to and from Washington" that heand friends made during the late 1960s to par­ticipate in demonstrations against the Viet­nam War. After one particularly gruelingweekend drive, he and several friends beganto talk about the meaning of the word "dem­onstration" -about its evolution from whatDunn terms "a logical demonstration, the useof one's analytic abilities to demonstrate a po­sition," to mass political demonstrations inwhich one is "only a body rather than a mindwho could actually demonstrate the reason­ableness of his position."Dunn decided to reorient his efforts. Insteadof going to Washington to attack "the mostsignificant problem of our age, " he would try"to change people's habits and thinking aboutthe seemingly least significant aspect of theirdaily lives-how they throwaway their gar­bage." He would do so by demonstrating, inthe medium of action, a set of propositionsabout consumption and waste. The vision thatmoved him then, as now, was that changes inconsumption habits occurring from house­hold to household would build ultimatelytoward changes in government policy and inour national posture in the world.Jamie Kalven, currently at work on a bookabout sexual violence, is the editor of A Wor­thy Tradition: Freedom of Speech in Americaby his late father, Harry Kalven, Jr., AB'35,JD '38, who taught for many years at the LawSchool.18 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 ks like a farmerThe Resource Center is not a business,Dunn stresses, it is an educational institution.He describes the work of the Center as "therhetoric of action, " explaining, "How do youconvince the city of Chicago to stay away fromincineration and land filling and do recyclinginstead? You do it by demonstrating that recy­cling works." And in order for that demon­stration to be persuasive, "the continuingchallenge is to keep the rhetoric of action at ascale that cannot be dismissed."unn may talk like a philoso­pher, but he looks like afarmer. He has the physicalvigor and weathered look ofone who has lived his lifelargely outdoors. Dressedin sturdy work clothes, dirty from the day'slabors, he looks out at the world through wire­rimmed glasses that seem too small toaccommodate the breadth of his vision, yetcontribute to an impression of sharp focus andclarity of purpose.Over the years, he has become a familiarpresence in Hyde Park. He always seems to beon the move, hastening slowly, from place toplace by means of a variety of vehicles­ranging from a bicycle (often, in years past,with one of his children perched on the han­dlebars) to large truck rigs. In many minds heis identified, above all, with the fleet of bat­tered VW vans that have, since 1976,traversed Hyde Park's streets and alleys col­lecting the newspapers, cans, and bottlesplaced out on the curb each week byresidents. At the ResourceCenter's transferfacilities, KenDunn (right) hasbrought aneccentric order toan abandoned railyard.,talks like a philosopher.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/APRIL 1991 19He was first drawn to Chicago by the pres­ence in the philosophy department of RichardMcKeon. A renowned authority on Aristotle,Richard McKeon was, until his death in 1985,a commanding presence on campus. While inBrazil, Dunn had come upon a comment byMcKeon, quoted in a news magazine, thatspoke to questions about technologicalchange and human values that were coming toconcern Dunn deeply. Planted in him by hischildhood on a farm in an Amish area of Kan­sas and sharpened by his experience in Brazil,those questions had assumed great urgencyfor him by the time he reached Chicago.At their first meeting, Dunn recalls, Me­Keon expressed misgivings about his aca­demic background-Dunn had no Greek orclassical studies. "You could pick up Greek in your firstyear," said McKeon."No, I think not," Dunn replied. "I've gotother things I'm very interested in, things I re­ally want to learn." He would just have to trustthe existing translations, he said. Later Dunnlearned that McKeon" often spoke oflearningbeing connected to a vital interest." Perhaps,he speculates, that is why the professorwaived the language requirement and admit­ted him to the department.The philosopher and his eager student "al­ways got on well," Dunn says. "In classes Ididn't often have the right answer, but I thinkhe was always pleased with my participation.I never said anything I thought I should say. Ionly said the things I really felt wererelevant." Dunn's studies in philosophy and his recy­cling activities soon flowed together to be­come aspects of a single effort. His disserta­tion topic was "Resources and Discontent,"an inquiry into the interaction between thewaste of natural and human resources. Hewrote several chapters, but never finished. Orperhaps it would be more accurate to say thathe went on to articulate his thesis in anothermedium.Dunn's ongoing conversations with Me­Keon continued after his formal academicstudies ceased. He regularly came by Me­Keon's house to help out with manual tasks."He always needed more bookcases," Dunnrecalls with a smile. "He would stand aroundtalking with me about what I was interested in,while I was making bookcases for him.20 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991I would never go there to work on bookcasesunless I had what I thought was a topic worthyof his consideration. "Over the years, Dunn was also a regular in­structor in the University's Continuing Edu­cation division, teaching the "Great Books"in its Basic Program. A colleague recalls thatstudents were sometimes taken aback byDunn's appearance. "He always looked likehe'd just come out of the junkyard. That putsome people off. On the other hand, he wasvery conscientious and had a sort of pacifyingeffect on people-he was able to hear the otherside of the argument. "n a cold January morning,Dunn gives a tour of one ofthe settings where his ideascan be seen in action: theResource Center transferfacilities, located in anabandoned rail yard at 70th and Dorchester,about a mile south of campus. It is here that re­cyclable materials are deposited, processed,and then hauled away to be sold.This is the destination of the VW vans andother Resource Center vehicles that collectnewspapers, cans, and bottles in Hyde Parkand in other communities where the center,'& of purposeful activity. Dumping leavesfor compost isquick work; fillinga shopping cart orsorting mountainsof glass is not.under contract with the city, provides curb­side collection. The center also has a contractwith the Chicago Park District to take the yardwaste-leaves, grass, trees, etc.-that thePark District collects: five to ten truckloadsare delivered daily. Under a similar arrange­ment with the Chicago Police stables, truck­loads of horse manure are delivered. Mixedwith lawn waste, the manure will yield com­post. Trees brought in by the Park District andprivate tree companies are processed for fire­wood and wood chips.Then there are the freelance recyclers.Some come in cars and trucks, but most pushshopping carts or haul their loads on theirbacks. They are the scavengers, the urbanhunter-gatherers who have become a com­mon sight in American cities, picking throughgarbage cans and dumpsters. About a hun­dred different individuals come through ev­ery day.They unload their carts, have the contentsweighed, then go to the "buy back" window.Dunn knows many by name. He estimates thata person with a cart will come away withabout $8 to $10 per cartload; most make twotrips to the transfer facility each day. (Lastyear, the Resource Center paid out more than$400,000 to these alley entrepreneurs.) ManyUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 21IEverything in sight is recycled.Freelance re­cylcers (right)earned 5400,000last year; old bar­rels and vans arereused to storerecyclables.of the recyclers are on welfare; this is a way ofmaking a little extra money. It is also, Dunnadds, "a way of feeling they have somethinguseful to do every day. There is somethingintuitively pleasing about finding things."The rail yard is a hive of quietly purposefulactivity. What might seem from afar or inpassing to be an undifferentiated junkyard is in fact the expression of a highly ordered vi­sion. The space is articulated! by walls andbarriers formed by old truck bodies and thecarcasses of VW vans.Under the roof of a Quonset hut -open atboth ends-workers sort through the never­ending avalanche of newspaper, separatingout magazines, cardboard, and brown paper bags. Elsewhere, others sort cans and thenfeed them into a machine that compresses 800aluminum cans into 27 -pound cubes whichDunn refers to as "biscuits." Another groupof workers picks through a mass of glass con­tainers, creating piles of different hues­green, brown, clear.Talking with Dunn, it becomes apparent that22 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991the Resource Center is directed toward recov­ering lives as well as resources. The organiza­tion employs 60 people-most in collectionand processing, a handful in administration.There are fifteen employees at this site. Manyof those who have found a livelihood with theResource Center are from the impoverishedsurrounding neighborhoods. "Most people assume that day laborers or unskilled peopleare stupid and don't care," Dunn says, "butthese guys really work hard. Their productionis phenomenal. "Some employees have worked for the Re­source Center for more than ten years. Dunnpoints out one of the first workers he hired."His pride in his work is even beyond ours. Notice his jacket. It's monogrammed with hisown name and it says 'Resource Center' on it.We can't afford to do that. He bought ithimself."With the exception of a few brightly coloredpieces of machinery, everything in sight is re­cycled-used and reused and used again. It isa strangely consoling-and even, in its way, abeautiful-place. In this setting, man-madematerials take on an almost organic quality­perpetuated, reincarnated, given ongoing lifeby the care conferred upon them. And the pos­tures of the workers, winnowing throughthese artifacts, suggest both the hard laborand the dignity of farmers bringing in theharvest.ver the years, an intricatecommunity of people,some largely invisible toothers, have come to col­laborate with Ken Dunn inhis demonstration. Yet ithas remained, in essential respects, a one­man operation-animated by one man'svision, and sustained by his single­mindedness.Now that recycling is on the city's politicalagenda, Dunn and the organization that em­bodies his vision stand at a critical juncture.No longer confronted by indifference on thepart of the city, they must now contend withcompeting interests and agendas. As regionallandfills approach capacity, there is littlequestion that citywide recycling is necessary.The questions are how it is going to be doneand by whom.Last fall the city announced a plan underwhich mixed recyclable items will be collect­ed in a single bag by city garbage trucks. Ad­vocates of the plan argue that it is the mostcost-effective alternative and that the conven­ience of placing all recyclables in a single bag,rather than sorting them, will encourage citi­zens to participate. Dunn and other criticscounter that the studies on which the city planis based are biased and flawed, and that thesingle-bag approach would result in contami­nation-and hence the waste-of a large per­centage of the materials.Dunn and other independent recyclers arenegotiating with city officials, urging them toscrap the plan. At stake, as Dunn sees it, is notonly the future of the Resource Center but alsothe potential of recycling as a vehicle for so­cial change.The future of recycling in Chicago may beuncertain, but one thing is clear: city officialswill not find it easy to ignore this patient manin dirty clothes who, day after day; year afteryear, presents to his neighbors and fellow citi­zens an argument for change cast in the formof the rhetoric of action."I am," says Ken Dunn, "still demonstrating."UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 23By John Scalzi, '91Illustrations by Mary Jones"He� Bob,haveyouheard the oneabout theU of C studentwho wenton a date?""Surehaven't,Joe." ollege is a time originallycreated by Western civiliza­tion with the expectationthat adolescents would useit to wrestle not only withhormonal angst, but alsowith some of the majorphilosophical, social, and personal problemsthat inevitably crop up, things which youmight not have time to deal with if you were,for example, scraping coal out of the bottomof a mine shaft.From this point on, life's obligations and re­sponsibilities constrain free time much in thesame way a sumo wrestler on your chest mightconstrain movement. You'll still have some,but you'll have to really work for it. And, ofcourse, once you get it, you'll be too worn outThat's not the punch line.To hear it-and to get anundergraduate'S view ofsocial life at the College-read on.24 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 to do anything with it. As the amount of freetime I and my fellow fourth-years have leftremaining in our lives becomes increasinglyshort, common sense dictates that we shoulduse that time to its best effect, which, in ourcase, means going out and getting some sortof social life before it's too late. Eat, drink andbe merry, for tomorrow it won't fit into theschedule.This exhortation echoes strangely at theU of C, which is known for being as accom­modating to a social life as a medical sterilizeris to bacteria. The fact is, not only is there asocial life in the College, but it is, all thingsconsidered, a pretty good one. It's just, well,different. Right about now, I'm sensing somesniggering out there in the peanut gallery.Obviously someone has left this magazine inthe reach of the heathen unwashed. Let's getthis done and over with:"Hey, Bob! If the U of e social life were aclass, what kinda class would it be?""I give up, Joe, what kinda class wouldit be?"''A fiction class! "Ba-doom, ding!"Hey, Bob, what do you call someone whowants to date a U of e student?""I give up, Joe, what wouldya call 'em?""Desperate! "Ba-doom, ding!"Hey, Bob, have you heard the one about theU of C student who went on a date?""Sure haven't, Joe!""Neither have I!"Ba-doom, ding! nough, already. People atthe U of e do have sociallives. They make friends,watch movies, date,dance, fall in love, imbibe,go to plays and concerts­all that good stuff that de­fines what a social life is. 1 know they do: I'vedone most of that stuff personally, and 1 suredidn't do it all by myself. What's more, 1 con­sider myself the shy, retiring type; 1 don't getout nearly as much as most of my friends.The appetites and desires of the typical U ofe student are not, at their root, considerablydifferent from anyone else's, and anyone whotells you otherwise is simply yanking yourchain. We want to go out, have fun, engage inwitty conversation, and make out in the back of a '53 Studebaker. Just like everyone else.Apropos de rien, this might be a good timeto define the terms we're bandying about. Forthe purposes of our discussion, let's define"social life" as "the time which one has, inde­pendent of other obligations, to pursue socialactivities." This definition is important be­cause it nicely avoids the question of quantityof time in relation to social life.1 don't think there can be any question thatU of e students have proportionally less timefor a social life than many other college stu­dents do. This is brought on by our work loadand not, you may be sure, by inclination. Butthere is time enough; our discussion centersmore on how effectively that time is utilized.Quality, not quantity.What people never seem to get through theirUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 25damnably thick heads is that the University ofChicago just isn't like anywhere else. We whotoil here may have the same wants and desiresas the rest of the world, but how we go aboutfulfilling them, well, that's something elseagain. This is not to imply that this place isbetter than anywhere else, although, ofcourse, it is, but simply a plea for recognitionof our nature. The mechanisms by which thisUniversity runs are fragile, intricate, convo­luted, and interconnected, comprising ahuge, gorgeous timepiece that, for better orworse, runs counter-clockwise.College life at the U of C necessarily isn'tlike anyone else's, because its College isn'tlike anyone else's. If we can keep from impos­ing outside assumptions while we go lookingfor the College's social life, it suddenly be­comes easier to find and explain: the reasonthe U of C doesn't have a college social life isbecause the social life isn't at the College.No, this isn't a self-reflexive, Zen answer.What I mean to say is that the focus of socialinteraction at the College doesn't lie inside theCollege itself, but rather away from it, inde­pendent of the College structure. Or, to put itin even simpler terms, we make our own fun.Off campus.Interestingly enough, the reason for this hasnothing to do with the University, as an insti-26 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 tution, discouraging a social life. As a matterof fact, the University has done a number ofthings to encourage a more active campus life.One was a 50-percent increase in the studentactivities fee, which increased the amount ofmoney available to registered student organi­zations (of which there are more now thanever before), and to the Major ActivitiesBoard, which funds concerts on campus.Another was the formation, a few yearsback, of the University Athletic Association,an athletic conference of similarly constitutedinstitutions of higher learning. This gave oursports a level and realistic base of competi­tion, encouraging spectators, who come ex­pecting a real fight between peers, rather thana one-sided blow-out courtesy of a schoolwhose relation to the U of C has more to dowith its geography than its philosophy.Finally, the U of C has been trying to re-instilla good, old-fashioned "collegiate" atmo­sphere: this year's homecoming, for example,had all the trimmings,· up to and includingflashy maroon-and-white pom-poms.The University also unintentionally en­couraged a College social life when it in­creased the size of the College enrollment­from about 2,800 to the present 3,400-overthe course of the last few years. Cynic that Iam, I sincerely doubt that concern about the dearth of campus activity was even tangential­ly discussed when the decision was made,although I'll be the first to concede that itmakes a good rationalization now.But the addition of 600 students means that,if nothing else, there's an additional 600 post­adolescents looking for something to do inHyde Park. Trickle-down theory suggeststhat at least some of them will choose to do iton campus. The increase of students has alsomade for wider variety in the types of studentson campus, making the University, as a mi­crocosm, more reflective of the outsideworld.Yet however much the University tries, in­tentionally or unintentionally, to foster acampus-based college life, it has to contendwith a couple of factors that work to inhibit theattempt. The first factor is, of course, thestudents themselves.One of the important things to keep in mindwhen thinking about U of C students is thatthis place is largely self-selecting; you don'toften find the U of C without looking for it.Because of this, even with the larger numberof students and the wider variety thereof,there are some things that we share in com­mon. And one of these things is a nature suspi­cious of all things typical; we're not going tosubmit readily to the icons of the usual colle­giate experience.Quite a number of us are, in fact, jealouslypossessive of our school's idiosyncrasies; inlarge part, they're why we came here. Assuch, any move on the University's parttoward the center of American culture fillsour souls with horror.The day the homecoming pom-poms ar­rived, for example, I went from student tostudent, waving them excitedly, because Ithought the idea of shredded maroon andwhite strips of plastic molded onto a polyure­thane stick was uniquely refreshing, and Iwanted to share the experience with others.The response was almost universal: completeand utter shock that such a thing existed in ourworld, followed. immediately either by aguarded sarcastic smirk or a simple, genuinegape of betrayal.The University functions that are successfulare precisely the ones that reflect the nature ofthe U of C. Kuviasungnerk is an example.Sleepout is another. These events don't,couldn't, exist anywhere else. So, of course,we love them.But other, more commonplace activities fallunder the not-altogether-unreasonable rule ofthumb that dictates that University socialfunctions are inherently square. Therefore,there's no reason to stay once you've managedto stuff as much of the free food as you can intoyour backpack. This is the second fact theUniversity has to contend with.This probably seems like an arbitrary rule tothose unfamiliar with the mechanics of theU of C, but remember, rules of thumb arerules of thumb because they're generallyright. And in this particular case, the rule ofthumb is right. University functions are gen­erally pretty square. They have to be. It's dic­tated by law.For example, the law that dictates that per­sons under 21 can't drink in the State of Illi­nois. Which, since 21 is the age that aboutthree-quarters of the College student body isunder, forbids the University from having anysort of alcoholic drinks at College functions.And which also, as a coincidence, under­mines the University's position as a purveyorof fun on campus.Hey, now. Don't get angry at me. I'm justcalling it like I see it. I'm neither condoningunderage drinking nor criticizing the Univer­sity's policy. But I am using imbibing as themost obvious model of an aspect of the stu­dent social life that the University is unable toprovide. Look at it this way: if you like todance, chances are, with all other things beingequal, you're not going to go somewhere thatyou can't dance, if you can go somewhere elsewhere you can. It's just not as much fun. Andif it's not as much fun, why do it? After all, thisis your social life we're talking about. Onceyou spend it, you're not going to get it back.The fateful influence of student attitude andUniversity squareness does not immediatelywrite off a University function. The MajorActivities Board concerts, University The­ater, and DOC films are almost always im­mensely popular. And, for all the horror overthe pom-poms (to say nothing of the student inthe velour gargoyle costume), this year'shomecoming game was the best attended inrecent history.But it does explain why a University danceon a Friday night takes a distant third to a fra­ternity party one block over and any numberof private parties all over Hyde Park, and why,if you're not from the U of C, you'd think thatwe were all at home, reading Thucydides witha fevered passion, rather than out gettingpleasantly toasted with our good friends.kay, I see a lot of wavinghands out there, so let'sgo directly to the studioaudience for the ques­tion-and-answer portionof this article. Yes, youthere, in the strikingpaisley print-Q: I couldn't help noticing that you haven'tmentioned the city of Chicago as a cause forlack of a social life on campus. How can youso blithely ignore a great metropolis?A: Because, on average, that's what U of Cstudents do. To be sure, the U of C suffersbecause it is not the only game in town, and U of Cers do hit the town, especially duringbaseball season. But Hyde Park isn't so easyto get out of, and not just because the buses ef­fectively stop running when the sun goesdown. I think it's safe to say that the city is un­derused as a recreational tool by the students.Q: What about grad students? Do they havesocial lives?A: Good question. WeaskedA.B.D. student"Fred" (not his real name) this very samequestion, and this is what he said:"NO!!! I HAVEN'T CORRECTED YOURMID-TERM!!! CAN'T YOU SEE I'MBUSY?!? I'M WRITING MY DISSERTA­TION!!!! AAUGGH!!!"Well, I think that answers that.Q: Hey, I heard that one of the most socialplaces on campus is the library.A: Yes, that's true.Q: Geez, that's a stupid place for a sociallife! You're all geeks!A: And thank you, sir, for pointing that out.You are obviously possessed of stunning in­sight. We'll be sure to remember that later,when you come looking for ajob.Q: Hey, wait. He's got a point. Why is thelibrary the social center on campus?A: Well, if you have to study (and you do),why be stuffy about it? The Reg is the socialcenter of the campus, not by choice, but by ne- cessity. Give credit where credit is due; U ofCstudents have given themselves incentive todo their homework by turning study time,ordinarily dry and boring, into a festive andcolorful social occasion.Q: In my day, students went on dates.A: But that's so labor-intensive. Thank Godwe live in an automated age, where machinescan do our dating for us, quicker, more effi­ciently, for just pennies a day!Of course we go on dates. They're some ofthe very few times we get out of Hyde Park.And that, of course, is reason enough.Q: One last question. What's the differencebetween a Northwestern party and a Universi­ty of Chicago party?A: About twenty-five miles.I'm serious. Having attended some of both(and lived to tell the tale), it just comes downto the fact that a good party is a good party, funis fun, and a dance floor shakes just as hard inHyde Park as it does way up in Evanston. Oranywhere else, for that matter.John Scalzi, '91, expects to be graduated inJune as a philosophy major. During his fouryears in the College, he edited the Maroon,workedfor the University as Student Ombuds­man, wrote for the Chicago Sun-Times, andmade time for a social life.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 27FOR ALMOST A DECADE,]OHN FROHNMAYER, AM'69, HAD KNOWN WHATTHE IDEAL]OB WOULD BE: CHAIRMAN OF THE NATIONAL ENDOW-MENT FOR THE ARTS. IN THE FALL OF 1989, HE GOT HIS WISH.OHN FROHNMAYER SAYS HIS TENURE AT THE NATIONAL ENDOW­ment for the Arts has been "extraordinarily difficult." It's a char­acteristic understatement.Frohnmayer has been chairman of the endowment through themost tumultuous period in the agency's 26-year life. Over the lastyear and a half he has been reviled in tum by both conservativesand liberals, spending most of his time as chairman defending him­self and the endowment against a steady drumbeat of criticism.But Frohnmayer, AM'69, is resolutely good-humored in talking about his timeat the agency. There is no flaming rhetoric, no bitter bile welling up in his throat.He says that the agency has gone through a crisis and that he has made some "mis­cues, " but for the most part he accentuates the positive."I feel very optimistic about the future of federal support of the arts, " he says. "Ithink we've been through a great deal, and it has made us stronger, more focused,and better able to deliver the quality arts to the people."Looking forward to a period of political peace for the agency, he hopes to takeadvantage of such a lull to begin using his position as a bully pulpit from which totell Americans about the importance of art to their individual and collective lives:"That's what my job is.""I am an advocate for the arts," he continues, "a spokesperson for the arts, adevotee of the arts, a participant in the arts, and I would hope that by who I am andthe position that I hold I could articulate for the country why the arts are essen­tial to our existence. "Frohnmayer has long dreamed about being such a national advocate for the arts.Growing up in Medford, a small city in the orchard and lumbering country ofBY CHRISTOPHER MYERSPHOTOS BY BILL DENISON, ASSEMBLED BY ALLEN CARROLL28 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 29southwestern Oregon, he was surrounded bymusic and the law. His mother is a pianist andsinger; his father is a lawyer. Two of his sib­lings have gone on to become professionalsingers; his brother Dave is Oregon's attorneygeneral. An accomplished singer himself,Frohnmayer eventually chose a career in lawbut has remained an active amateur singer."I'm sort of a transitional figure," he says,"between lawyers and singers in my family."Frohnmayer went to Stanford University,then spent a year at Union Theological Semi­nary before earning a master's degree inChristian ethics at the University of Chicago.He served three years in the Navy, and then in1972 finished a law degree at the University ofOregon and began practicing law.He also began participating in public artsplanning and advocacy. From 1978 through1985, he was a member of the Oregon ArtsCommission, including four years as thecommission's chairman. "All the time that Iwas practicing law," he says, "I was alwaysheavily involved in the arts, and 1 always knewthat's where my heart was."When Ronald Reagan was elected presidentin 1980, Frohnmayer's mind turned to thepossibility of'leading the N.E.A. "It had al­ways seemed to me that if there were one job inthe country that most fit both my training andmy passion, this was it, " he says, and he heldon to his ambition.But by the summer of 1989, when GeorgeBush was looking for an N.E.A. chairman,the job might not have seemed wildly attrac­tive anymore, because the endowment w:!swell into what looked to be a sustained crisis.The outline of the saga is famil­iar. Early that year, severalmembers of Congress beganattacking the endowment forsupporting works that thelawmakers denounced as sac­rilegious or obscene. Exhibit A was a work byAndres Serrano called Piss Christ, a photo­graph of a crucifix submerged in urine. Ex­hibit B was a retrospective of the works of thelate photographer Robert Mapplethorpe, in­cluding some explicit sexual images.The ensuing debate-in Congress and else­where-amounted to a national cultural war,and raised fundamental issues of free expres­sion, the proper use of tax money, and the roleof the government in American life. But thedebate, as the Economist put it, "quickly de­generated into an unwinnable argument be­tween those who object to obscenity (mostpeople) and those who object to censorship(most people)."Christopher Myers is an assistant editor at theChronicle of Higher Education, where he re­ports on the National Endowment for the Arts.30 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 When the endowment's budget bill came upfor consideration that year, members of Con­gress moved to reduce the agency's funds as awarning signal to the endowment that it need­ed to exercise greater accountability in usingtaxpayers' money. Those efforts were largelythwarted, but Sen. Jesse Helms (R- N. C.) suc­ceeded in attaching to the Senate's version ofthe bill a rangy amendment that would havebarred the endowment from supporting, awide array of works. Helms's proscriptioncovered work deemed "obscene or indecent"as well as "material which denigrates the ob­jects or beliefs of the adherents of a particularreligion or non-religion" or "which deni­grates, debases, or reviles a person, group, orclass of citizens on the basis of race, creed,sex, handicap, age, or national origin."Eventually the Helms amendment wastrimmed and tailored to fit with the SupremeCourt's obscenity ruling in the 1973 .case ofMiller v. California. The endowment was leftwith legislation that barred it from supportingwork that was obscene, "including but notlimited to depictions of sadomasochism, ho­moeroticism, the sexual exploitation of chil­dren, or individuals engaged in sex acts" andwhich "when taken as a whole lacked seriousliterary, artistic, political, or scientific val­ue." It was the first content-specific restric­tion ever placed on the endowment.Frohnmayer's nomination came up in Sep­tember 1989, in the middle of the Congres­sional battle over what became known as "theobscenity clause," but he says that the sim­mering conflict did not discourage him fromseeking the chairmanship. '�t that point 1thought it was even more important that 1 con­tinue to seek the position because the artswere clearly coming into a crisis era," hesays, "and I hoped that my combination ofskills and training would be helpful. "His nomination came as a surprise to mostobservers of the national arts scene. Amongsupporters of the endowment, the hope wasthat Frohnmayer's low profile and mild man­ner would help ease the agency through thetroubled terrain ahead. Things didn't workout that way.Only weeks after his nomination sailedthrough the Senate, Frohnmayer steppeddeep into controversy. In early November, heannounced that he was revoking a $10,000grant that had been awarded to a Manhattangallery, Artists Space, for an exhibition ofworks dealing with AIDS.Frohnmayer said that the show, called "Wit­nesses: Against Our Vanishing," hadchanged since it was first proposed to the en­dowment, and had become "political ratherthan artistic in nature." He pointed in particu­lar to an essay by multimedia artist DavidWojnarowicz in the exhibit's catalog. In theessay, Wojnarowicz described his fantasies of NLY WEEKS AFTERHIS NOMINATION SAILEDTHROUGH THE SENATE,JOHN FROHNMAYERSTEPPED DEEP INTOCONTROVERSY.throwing 'conservative congressman WilliamE. Dannemeyer off the Empire State Buildingand dousing Jesse Helms with gasoline andsetting him on fire.When Frohnmayer announced his decisionto revoke the grant, the arts community as­sailed him. Not long after, he visited ArtistsSpace, toured the exhibit, and talked to its or­ganizers. A few days later, he announced thathe was reinstating the grant to cover the exhib­it-but not the catalog. It was a brisk reversalof field that left both conservatives and liber­als suspicious of the new chairman.Many observers at the time speculated thatFrohnmayer simply wasn't prepared for thepolitical firestorm and media blitz his actionswould trigger. "There's some truth to that,"he says now. "I was told before I came here bypeople who had been in Washington that younever can appreciate what Washington is likeuntil you've lived through it, and there's somereal truth to that. It's a unique place. It's abso­lutely a fishbowl, and this agency and I havebeen part of that fishbowl for the last year anda half."But one hopes," he adds, "that one learnsfrom the miscues, and certainly the learningcurve I have had has been absolutely verti­cal." Looking back, he says that the ArtistsSpace controversy opened a dialogue betweenhim and the arts community and that the dia­logue "ultimately was beneficial."If 1989 had been a tough year for the en­dowment, 1990 promised to be posi­tively gruesome. The endowment'soperating legislation was due to expirein the fall, so throughout the year Con­gress, as part of the reauthorizationprocess, would be examining the agency'soperations. In addition, it was an electionyear. Lawmakers would be looking for issuesthat could ignite the passions of voters. Ob­scenity was a good one.Surprisingly, the first big rumble of the yearcame not from Congress but from the endow­ment's own grant recipients. Frohnrnayer hadput the language of the obscenity clause intothe agency's terms and conditions for grants.As had always been the case, grant recipientshad to sign off on those terms before theycould receive their money. But now penshesitated.Artists and arts organizations complained strenuously about the certification require­ment, saying it amounted to an anti-obscenityoath or pledge. Many refused to sign and sur­rendered their grants in protest.Frohnrnayer had said from the outset that hethought Congress's new restrictions on the en­dowment were not needed. But he says he hadgood reason for including the obscenity lan­guage in the grant certification: ''After thatdebate in the fall of 1989, an awful lot of peo­ple in the arts world thought that the Helmsamendment had been defeated, and I thoughtit was important that the arts world know ex­actly what the law was," he says. ''As a law­yer, I know you can't paraphrase it-you haveto put it in there verbatim. And it was also im­portant that Congress be comfortable that thisagency was enforcing what had been passed asthe law."In a lot of ways," he adds, "my reasons forputting it in there were borne out, because all of a sudden people did discover this law andfind out that they had problems with it, and ul­timately it was reviewed by some courts." (Afederal court in California late last year ruledthe anti-obscenity pledge to be unconstitu­tional. The endowment settled another suit inFebruary by agreeing to drop the pledge.)In the meantime, however, the certificationrequirement brought unceasing criticismdown on Frohnrnayer. "I think some peoplegot carried away-there was some self­righteous breast-beating there, " he says. "Onthe other hand, the First Amendment is anarea of great sensitivity. It was a very difficultissue, and it was an issue where I was beingportrayed in a way that was certainly not con­sistent with what I believed as a person."It was a law that was not of my making. Itwas a law which I said from Day One was anunnecessary law and one which was poten­tially infirm constitutionally. But my positionis not one where I can unilaterally declare alaw inoperative or unconstitutional. "By the middle of last summer, the endow­ment was in a world of trouble. The flap overthe anti-obscenity pledge had come to a highboil. The endowment's reauthorization wasstalled amidst bitter disagreements overwhether the content restrictions should be ex­tended. Congressional critics of the agency,led by Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (D-Calif.),periodically staged sharp, well-publicizedattacks on the endowment.Frohnmayer's every action was reported inthe newspapers, sometimes even before hehad taken it. Conservative columnistsRowland Evans and Robert Novak reportedthat the endowment was about to give grants toseveral potentially controversial performanceartists, including Karen Finley, whom the col­umnists referred to as a "chocolate-smearedwoman." Frohnmayer ousted his top deputyonly months after hiring him. The WashingtonTimes reported that Frohnmayer was receiv­ing singing lessons during work hours from amember of the endowment's staff. Rumorsflew that the chairman was being pressured toresign by the White House and conservativelawmakers."Mid-summer was probably the lowest ebbof this whole conflict," says Frohnmayer.Asked if he considered resigning, he replies,"I would be less than candid with you if I toldyou the thought had never crossed my mind,but the reason that I came here was to do whatI really could to promote the arts, and I wasdetermined to see that through."He says that throughout the summer he re­mained hopeful that the battle over the endow­ment would be resolved favorably. "I alwaysfelt that Congress would see the wisdom of nottrying to place content restrictions on an agen­cy whose function it is to promote creativity, "he says. "You really have diametrically oppo-UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 31NTHEROLEOFTHE ARTS IN AMERICA: "THEYHOLD A MIRROR UP TO US;THEY HELP US UNDERSTANDWHO WE ARE ... AND WHATWE CAN BE."site ideas when you're talking about creativityon the one hand and content restrictions on theother."Eventually Congress did "see the wisdom."After frantic wrangling in the waning mo­ments of the Congressional session, lawmak­ers reauthorized the agency for three years.The obscenity language was removed fromthe endowment's guidelines. In its place wenta rule that grant recipients must return anyfederal money used for works that a court sub­sequently rules to be obscene. In addition, theendowment's guidelines were modified todictate that the chairman must ensure grantsare made "taking into consideration generalstandards of decency and respect for the di­verse beliefs and values of the American pub­lic." "The decency clause," as the languagecame to be known, triggered a mass suck­ing in of breath among endowment backers.Frohnmayer handled the new directive gin­gerly. He consulted with legislators, endow­ment staff, and members of the NationalCouncil of the Arts, which oversees the agen­cy. He then announced that the agency wouldcomply with the decency language in the nor­mal course of reviewing grant applications,by ensuring that peer panels had a broadmembership drawn from various ethnicgroups and regions of the country. He said re­peatedly that he would not set himself up as the nation's "decency czar. "He says now, "The point is that I don't thinkanyone person is wise enough, or has abreadth of vision that is adequate to take intoaccount all the diverse beliefs and values ofthe American people. That's a groupdecision."So far, the approach seems to be working,and he is hopeful that the agency is entering" anew phase" in which "it can surge forward to­ward fulfilling its mission."The exact nature of that mis­sion was itself one of the myr­iad issues of contention in thewar over the endowment.Some of the endowment'scritics said that the agencyhad wandered away from the role intended forit by Congress and become little more than afeeding trough for voracious artists. Somequestioned whether the federal governmenthad any business dabbling in the arts.Many others, however, agreed with the as­sessment of the art critic Robert Hughes, whosaid in an essay in Time magazine that the en­. dowment had been, and remained, "the mostdistinguished and useful vehicle of patronagein American cultural life. "To Frohnmayer, the mission of the endow­ment has not changed. It remains, he says,32 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 two-fold: "One is to support the best-qualityart in the country, and two is to make that qual­ity art accessible to, and available to, theAmerican people. To use an architecturalmetaphor, .�'s a bridge with two pillars­artistic excellence on the one hand and acces­sibility on the other. "And to the fundamental question of whetherthe government should be involved in sup­porting the arts at all, he has a ready answer:"The arts is one of the few areas in which thefederal government really pays attention to thehealth of the mind and spirit of the Americanpeople. The arts hold up a mirror to us; theyhelp us understand who we are; they help usunderstand what it is that has made America agreat country, and they help us create a visionfor what we can be. And to say that the govern­ment doesn't have any business doing that isessentially to say that the government doesn'tcare about the soul of the nation and that it'snot important that we be anything other thanfed and protected. "To that end, he is excited about several newinitiatives at the endowment, including an in­creased role in promoting arts education and aprogram to stimulate the planning and designof low-cost public housing. The architectureof public housing, he argues, is an area inwhich the arts can have a tangible role "in thebetterment of society. "That idea takes him on to his broader notionof the place of art in the life of the nation. "Ifthere's one thing that I would hope could hap­pen, it is that every person would recognizethat the arts can enhance their lives, " he says."We have always hoped that we can leave theworld a better place for the next generation,and we've done a lousy job of it over the centu­ries. We have despoiled the environment; wehave left toxic substances, built ugly build­ings, paved over much of the landscape. If wecan see that progress can still happen, theeconomy can still be strong, and that we can atthe same time make our lives more aesthetic,more fulfilling, more complete, that will bethe time when the arts will be seen as central tothe whole business of society."What I'm aiming toward is a sense of thearts in the community-a sense of the arts asthe cosmic glue that expresses us and holds ustogether and fulfills us and makes us think andmaybe even makes us mad."John Frohnmayer says he doesn't know whatthe future holds for the endowment political­ly. "I'm not a seer," he says. "But it's clearthat the arts, in fulfilling a necessary functionin society, often ask hard questions. Theydon't necessarily provide the answers, but onehopes that those questions are going to stimu­late honest debate."He pauses. "A sculptor once told me that increating public art, the worst thing that couldhappen is that nobody would notice. "nvestigationsGenetic Zip CodeGeneticist Graeme Bell hasspent three-and-a-half yearstracking down a DNA markerfor a form of diabetes. His nexttarget, he says, may be thegenes themselves.THEY'VE FOUND THE NEIGHBORHOOD,but not the address. After three-and -a­half years of meticulous molecularsearching, geneticist Graeme Bell and his col­leagues have uncovered a genetic marker-afragment of DNA-that may help pinpoint thelocation of the genes behind diabetes. Themarker is inherited along with the gene onchromosome 20 that causes a form of a com­mon type of diabetes."This is an important first step," says Bell,professor in biochemistry and molecular biol­ogy and medicine, and a researcher at theUniversity's Howard Hughes Medical Insti­tute. "Now we know where to look for thegenes involved in causing the disease."A key to the finding was the work of Univer­sity of Michigan endocrinologist Stefan Fa­jans, who spent 32 years following five gener­ations of one family-some 40 of the 275persons he studied had a form of type II, ornon-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,known as maturity-onset diabetes of theyoung, or MODY. Normally, non-insulin­dependent cases are difficult to trace, sincemost symptoms don't show up until after age40. But MODY can be detected in children asyoung as nine, which helps in tracking inher­itance patterns.With Fajan's records and cell DNA fromblood samples, Bell's group used molecularprobes to wade carefully through the family'sgene pool, searching for areas on chromo­somes shared by those with diabetes. Aftertesting more than 80 DNA markers on 21chromosomes, late last summer research as­sociate Kun-san Xiang found one marker Graeme Bell methodically studies the genetics of diabetes.within the adenosine deaminase gene onchromosome 20 that consistently linked withthe MODY disease gene."This is the first family in which genetictechniques have been used to identify a genet­ic abnormality as causing diabetes," saysBell, who has already used the gene marker topredict correctly that a 17-year-old would de­velop the disease. "Had Fajans not studiedthis family so rigorously, it would have lookedlike a typical type II diabetic family, withoutthis clear pattern of inheritance. Many ofthe family members didn't have the usualsymptoms-high glucose, thirst, wounds thatdon't heal. "The newly found marker may offer clues toaid researchers in "unraveling the mecha­nisms controlling glucose regulation anddeveloping better therapies to perhaps treatand prevent this and other forms of diabetes, "Bell notes."We think there are a small number ofdiabetes-susceptibility genes," he says. "Wehave a marker for only one of them. " Now thatthey know where to look, finding a second oreven third marker for this type of diabetesshould be easier. Still, a diabetes gene itselfmay not be easy to locate. "We really didn'thave a clue as to which chromosome mighthave the guilty genes when we started out. Webegan with three billion possible base pairs,and we've narrowed it down to 10 million." The researchers also plan to study severalother families with type II diabetes. Suchfamilies, Bell notes, may have similar mark­ers on chromosome 20, or on other chromo­somes. His group has already begun follow­ing diabetes among the Pima Indians ofsouthern Arizona, who have the highest inci­dence of type II diabetes in the world.Just ArchitectureARCHITECTURAL HISTORIAN KATH­erine Taylor has spent the last eightyears studying the evolving architec­ture of the Palais de Justice in Paris. It's an ev­olution, she asserts, that reflects the evolutionof the French system of justice.Taylor, assistant professor of art, notes that"only within the past two decades and withmy generation are people becoming interest­ed in how such disparate notions as architec­ture and justice interact." The Palais hadhardly been studied from this perspective, shesays. She spent two years-from 1983 to 1985-in Paris pouring over court documents, oldFrench newspapers, memoirs, architecturalreviews, and administrative records for herdissertation at Harvard. As a 1990 J. Paul Get­ty postdoctoral fellow in the history of art andthe humanities, she worked to expand theUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 33dissertation's themes for a book to bepublished in late 1992 or early 1993.She explains that architectural historianshave traditionally concentrated on structureswhose history-from concept to reality-canbe traced. The Palais rebuilding project in­volved a much more complex interplay of so­ciety and its view of justice."I was very interested in the modernizationof the image of justice, " she says. "But histo­rians of French justice have until recentlyonly looked at the history of French justice interms of the system in place at the time of theRevolution and Napoleon. They haven't real­ly thought about how it evolved in practice inthe 19th century. "Located on the lIe de la Cite, at the geo­graphic and historic heart of Paris, the Palaishas long occupied a central place in Frenchlaw and culture. In 1835, the French govern­ment began to streamline the labyrinthine for­mer palace. It was to hold seven law­enforcing agencies, including the FrenchSupreme Court, the Paris city courts, the Pre­fecture of Police of Paris, and several prisons.Four generations of architects-and "a nego­tiation of visions" -worked to create decorthat would "represent these new institutionsof justice that were to characterize a modern,progressive France." The renovation, whichalso coincided with the beginnings of ahistoric-preservation movement, was com­pleted in 1914.In France's pre-Revolution inquisitorial sys­tem, trials were private affairs at which ex­perts considered evidence and written testi­mony. Judges were all-powerful; there wasneither a jury nor a defense counsel. The sys­tem guaranteed few rights for the defendant."The spectacle of the trial was its outcome­the punishment that would take place in thestreet in public," Taylor says. "The state, inthe case of a heinous crime, would literallytear the guilty apart. "In 1811, Napoleon, believing that a strongcriminal court system was vital to a nation stillstruggling to carve its political identity afterthe bloody 1789 Revolution, reorganized theFrench criminal justice system "to operate ina more codified, democratic way," Taylorsays. "The French wanted a clear, modern im­age of justice, its guidelines spelled out,working from a concise, simple code. This isour image of the Napoleonic code."The court architecture changes from a veryaustere image to an image which is lusher,gentler, and more flexible," she continues."The courthouse shows dignity and prestige,and provides, architecturally speaking, animage of order." The evolving 19th-centuryFrench system of justice has often been com­pared, she says, to traditional English crimi­nallaw, which was seen as the" ideal model ofprogressive, modern law."34 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 ]""l�19th-century French courtrooms were rebuilt with extravagance.In the English accusatorial system, evidencewas presented orally in public to a lay jury.Courtrooms were cramped and chaotic, and"sometimes you couldn't even tell who thejudge was." Defendants and plaintiffs weregiven equal time and courtroom space; judgesfunctioned as silent umpires.While the French borrowed English notionsof justice-defendants' rights, defense coun­sels, and juried trials, for example-they keptcertain French institutions, such as a strongmagistrate. In this "politically volatile" era,Taylor contends, the French "were very con­scious of power relationships. Trials had acharged atmosphere and the French devel­oped an architecture to match it."Redesigned French courts "offered muchmore open space than did English court­rooms, " Taylor says. "When a person spoke,it wasn't from the middle of a crowd. Thespeaker was isolated, surrounded with peoplewatching from every side. Lawyers, witness­es, and so forth could gesture, move around,and speak to particular constituencies. Thecourt became a stage; trials were often theatri­cal and melodramatic, which influencedcourt decisions and fostered a justice in whichthe press and the public were intimatelyinvolved."The revised French courts system employed"humane judges, clearly stated courtroomrules," and promoted active participation byall parties. These procedural changes "werecommensurate with the stylistic, lushercourtrooms, which didn't inspire the samefear. " These changes prompted debate amonggovernment, press, and public. A gentler ju­diciary was seen as a necessity for a Francewishing to present itself as a democratic soci­ety. To others, "the lusher courts were asso­ciated with decadence and decline." The debate was never fully resolved. Taylornotes that France's defeat by the Prussians in1871 influenced the rebuilding of ruinedcourtrooms; the government eschewed agold-ground crucifixion, for example, seeingit as wealth wasted on punishing society'sdregs. But misdemeanor courts, rebuilt on theeve of World War I, were made richer. In thiscase, Taylor suggests, a plusher courtroommight have represented society'S moral supe­riority to those being punished.ComputingComplexitiesCOMPUTER THEORIST LASZLO BABAItackles problems whose answers takeso many calculations that they stumpeven the fastest computers.Take the classic Traveling Salesman puzzle:Find the shortest route for a salesman visitingnumerous cities. The number of possible an­swers is out of sight. A salesman travelingthrough 100 cities, for example, could wanderthrough more possible routes than there areatoms on earth."There are problems that on the surfaceseem similar to traveling salesman prob­lems, " Babai explains, "but they can actuallybe solved by taking certain mathematicalshortcuts." Though such problems are easierto solve, "unfortunately, the traveling sales­man problem and problems like it-finding aclass schedule with the fewest conflicts, forexample-don't fall into this category thatallows shortcuts."So theorists don't hope to be able to find effi­cient solutions to salesman-type problems.Instead, they attempt to classify them accord­ing to their complexity. Sometimes, saysBabai, a mathematician and professor of com­puter science, problems that appear quite dif­ferent may actually be closely related in termsof their difficulty. "Solving one of themwould be a major breakthrough," he notes."Then, you could solve all of those at the samelevel of complexity."But, even if theorists find a supercomputerprogram they think can handle such a load,how do they know whether or not the soft­ware's solution is correct? The supercompu­ter may be "inadvertently cheating," Babaisays. "You want to make sure that the softwarewill do what it says it will, but how can yoube sure?"Help may be on the way. A series of discov­eries, made by several research groups in theUnited States and in Israel in just seven weeks,and announced by Babai and others at a na­tional computer science symposium held latelast year in St. Louis, showed' that for hugeclasses of problems, checking solutions ismuch easier than finding them.The new method allows "small machinesand simple software to test vastly larger super­computers and their more powerful soft­ware," Babai says. The smaller machine, in asense, plays computer detective- "the verifi­er, or policeman, cross-examines the prover-the criminal." It challenges the untestedprogram with a series of simpler, randomlychosen problems drawn from a large pool ofpossible questions. If the answers aren't con­sistent, then the procedure-known as an in­teractive proof-has shown that the ultra-fastcomputer has made a mistake. It was surpris­ing, Babai admits, "that problems so enor­mously difficult could be self-checked in thismanner."If a computer claims to answer a travelingsalesman problem-that is, finding a routeshorter than the one the salesman originallyintended to take-then it can substantiate itsclaim by giving an alternate route. The time ittakes to check the computer's answer is knownas "polynomial time, " and such problems areknown as NP, or "non-deterministic polyno­mial time problems." But if the computer saysit can't find a better path, then checking thisanswer requires the computer to compare ev­ery possible route-a task deemed more orless impossible, given a fairly large numberof cities.That's where the interactive proof comes in.Conceived by Babai and separately, by otherresearchers in 1985, it "evolved from a limit­ed class of problems, with applications in datasecurity and cryptography." The proof be­came the key to the spate of computer theorybreakthroughs that began at the end of 1989.Noam Nisan, then at M.I.T., demonstratedthat any negative answer to the traveling sales- man problem could be checked by a multiple­prover interactive proof, in which two ormore ultra-fast computers are questionedseparately on the same problem. He an­nounced his results to his colleagues throughelectronic mail.Within a few weeks, three Chicago comput­er researchers-assistant professors HowardKarloff and Lance Fortnow, along with then­graduate student Carsten Lund, SM'89,PhD'91-showed that multiple proversweren't needed at all. Instead, negative an­swers to NP problems could be checkedthrough a single-prover interactive proof."That was a major step," says Babai, provingthat "interactive proofs were more powerfulthan anyone had thought."Of Mice and SldnTo BIOCHEMIST ELAINE FUCHS, EPIDER­molysis bullosa simplex (EBS) wasjust another skin disease. She knew itwas an inherited, painful, and sometimes fa­tal illness that affects roughly one in 50,000Americans.Yet no one knew what caused the disease.Now, Fuchs and her University coworkers,using what they term a "reverse-genetic" ap­proach, recently uncovered a gene defect thatmay lead to EBS. If they're right, says Fuchs, aprofessor of molecular genetics and cell biol­ogy, biochemistry and molecular biology, andan investigator at the Howard Hughes Medi­cal Institute, the technique could help uncoverthe causes of other genetic diseases as well.Normally, a pair of genes carries the blue­print for creating keratin, the protein stuff ofskin cells. Roughly 20 to 30,000 keratin pro­teins make up a keratin filament, hundreds ofthousands of which form cables that givestructure to epithelial cells, and provide pro­tection to the skin's epidermis.In 1984, Fuchs's team announced that it haduncovered one keratin-making gene; fouryears later, the researchers found the other.But Fuchs wanted to know more."If! had been a dermatologist, I would haveprobably begun by examining patients withdifferent skin diseases, looking for alterationsin keratin in those patients, " she explains. In­stead the biochemist went after the keratingenes, isolating and characterizing theirchemical codes. "We learned, more or less,genetically how the epidermis of the skinforms. "Fuchs's team, with help from U of C geneti­cist Michelle LeBeau, had found that chro­mosomes 12 and 17 contained the keratin­making genes. "But there weren't any knowndiseases that had been mapped to these chro­mosomes that were likely candidates for ge- Elaine Fuchs: Findingafatalflaw.netic defects in keratin genes, " Fuchs says.So they introduced biochemical changesinto keratin genes to see if a defective keratinprotein would be produced. They quicklyproved that a shortened keratin gene alteredthe filaments of cultured cells, and that as lit­tle as one percent of mutant keratin couldaffect the filament formation in the test tube.The next step was to see what would happento live animals given an altered gene. The re­sults were unexpected. Mice given the mutantgene showed nearly every EBS symptom.Their paws had blisters, and some mice"wore their epidermis like clothing," shesays, which "clued us in to the subset of thekinds of human diseases that exist." Examin­ing skin samples under an electron micro­scope, the researchers found that the "cellsthat were expressing the mutant keratin pro­tein were breaking apart." The mice also had"disorganized keratin filament networks,"she notes, similar to those found in EBS suf­ferers, and were much more likely to contractinfections. The researchers have since exam­ined 25 families of specially engineered mice,each of which developed EBS."The implications," Fuchs says, are that "atleast some EBS patients have some damage onat least one of the two genes we have charac­terized on chromosomes 12 and 17." Theteam now is culturing and analyzing cellsfrom eight Chicago-area patients to see"whether they have defects in either of thekeratin genes that we've studied."We can't say yet whether or not there is an­other gene defect that could cause the sametype of disease," she cautions. "It might turnout that only a small percent of patients havethe defect in their keratin genes. It's not trivialto isolate and characterize the abnormalgene." Still: "We'd be disappointed if wedidn't know the answer within the year."Compiled by Steven I. BenowitzUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 35lumni ChronicleReunion '91: A meeting of mindsThe schedule of events for this year's alumnireunion, to be held the weekend of June 7-9,includes opportunities to greet yesterday'sfriends-and to confront today's issues.In "Political Crisis and Political Economy:The Middle East in the 1990s," three U of Cprofessors-Robert Z. Aliber, an expert oninternational finance; Rashid Khalidi, associ­ate director of the Center for Middle EasternStudies; and Marvin Zonis, a leading authori- ty on Iranian politics-will discuss the Per­sian Gulf war and its political and economicaftermath.Another lecture will go back to find the fu­ture: In "The Persistence of Things Past:Some Musings on Memories and TheirUses," Helen Harris Perlman, the SamuelDeutsch Distinguished Service ProfessorEmeritus in the School of Social Service Ad­ministration, will discuss how both favorableand unfavorable memories can be used to36 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 understand one's strengths and satisfactions.Alumni who want to relive their College ex­perience can sign up for "The UncommonCore," and take part in one of eight lecture/discussion classes offered on topics in the bio­logical sciences (including a "lab course"),humanities, physical sciences, and social sci­ences. Alumni will also have a chance to com­pete against student academic teams.In addition to dinners and receptions for thisyear's reunion classes, as well as PresidentGray's All-Alumni Reception and Dinner,there will be special receptions sponsored bya number of groups-including several resi­dence halls, International House, the Com­muter Students Association, the Coordinat­ing Council for Minority Issues, the Gay andLesbian Alliance, the Order of the "C," andW.A.A. There will also be a special Friday­afternoon reception for Hutchins College andIndependent Students League alumni.On Saturday morning, a Cavalcade of Class­es will march to Rockefeller Chapel for theannual alumni awards ceremony, includinggreetings from President Gray and a perform­ance by the University's Motet Choir.Off-campus events will include several Chi­cago Architecture Foundation Hyde Parkwalking tours, a Saturday alumni night at theWoodlawn Tap (Jimmy's), and a Sunday­morning Chicago-skyline cruise.All alumni are invited to return to campusfor reunion. If you are not a member of a classthat ends in 1 or 6, but would like a reunionbrochure, please write the Alumni Associa­tion, Robie House, 5757 Woodlawn Avenue,Chicago, IL 60637, or call 3121702-2150.Centennial informotion lineIf you have a question about the University's1991-92 centennial celebration, you nowhave a number to call. The telephone informa­tion line, which opened in March, comescomplete with a mnemonic number: 312/702-9192. During business hours, an operatoris available to answer your questions; afterhours, there's a recorded announcement ofcurrent campus events.Give 0 memoryDuring this June's reunion, alumni with a mo­mentto spare and a memory to share are en­couraged to stop by the Memory Booth on theQuads. Operated by the University of ChicagoMagazine, the booth will be open throughoutthe day on Friday and Saturday.Your favorite U of C anecdote-whether itconcerns a memorable professor, an outra­geous prank, or an inspiring lecture-will betaped, transcribed, and presented to the Uni­versity Archives, with some stories appearingin the Magazine during the centennial year.lass News"No news is good news" is one cliche to which wedo not subscribe at the Magazine. Please send someof your news to the Class News Editor, University ofChicago Magazine, 5757 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago,IL 60637. No engagements, please. Items may beedited for space.17 Marguerite Sieweke, X' 17, is nearly 96 andlives in Lyons, IL.18 Eva Adams Sutherland, SB' 18, was an as­sistant dean at the GSB during World WarII and now lives in Friendship Village in Kalama­zoo, MI.22 Sydney Shire, SB'22, is 95 and lives in anursing home in Orland Park, IL.23 John Whitaker, MBA'23, worked forAmerican Stores in Philadelphia from 1930to 1963. Retired, he now lives in Green Ridge Villagein Pennsylvania.25 Henry Ephron, AB'25, remembers payingless than five cents per credit per day in hisfirst year at the U niversity- "maybe cheating a little, "he admits, to come up with that figure.26 Helen Liggett Hagey, PhB'26, is still livingnear Clemson University in South Carolina(" Number One in ' 81, " she reminds us) and maintainsclose friendships with three U of C classmates. LucyLamon Merriam, PhB'26, lives in San Franciscoand has a weekend home in Marin County. She enjoystraveling to France to visit her granddaughter, wholives there. Evelyn Turner, PhB '26, lives in Casey,IL, and recently took a cruise with her cousin. LouisWiner, PhB'26, was elected chair of the board ofSolomon Shechter Day Schools of Northbrook andSkokie,IL.27 r,c Clark, SM'27, writes that while atU of C he was a member of the Gamma Alphagraduate science fraternity, and that he would like tohear news of his fellow members. Evelyn Cohen Laz­zari, PhB'27, is cataloguing the artistic works of herlate husband, Pietro Lazzari. She is also donating var­ious pieces to educational institutions. Allen Weller,PhB'27, PhD'42, is working on his second book onLorado Taft, the Chicago sculptor featured in theMagazine in February. Nancy Farley Wood,MAT' 27, founded N. Wood Counter Laboratory in1949, and still supplies radiation detectors worldwide.28 Allan Filek, SB'28, MD'33, works a coupleof days a week at a plasma donor center inPhoenix, AZ, and is treasurer of the Sun Cities Physi­cians' Club. He also likes to travel and play the organ.Mildred Bryan Marion, PhB'28, at 86, is executivesecretary for Delta Mu Delta Honor Society.29 Arthur Frutkin, PhB'29, JD'31, hasmoved from Florida to Rockville, MD.30 Daniel Benton, PhB'30, JD'32, is active inthe World Affairs Council of the Desert andin a senior center in Palm Springs, CA. Corinne WeilMattuck, PhB '30, is teaching psychology and educa­tion at Goddard College in Plainfield, VT, and cele­brating her 56th year of marriage. John Menzies,PhB'30, is "still kicking (feebly) in Arizona" which"sure beats shoveling snow!" Helen Newcombe,X'30, spends a lot oftime in Maine and plans to moveto a retirement home there in a few years. JeanetteTargow, PhB'30, CLA'30, co-wrote a chapter on couples' groups, which appears in the Group Psycho­therapists Handbook. She maintains her private prac­tice on a part-time basis.31 Milton Applebaum, PhB'31, JD'33, isstill a practicing Chicago lawyer. ArthurCahill, PhB'31, had a hard time finding a place topark when he last visited the campus; he hopes to havebetter luck at the 60th Reunion in June.32 J.W. Anderson, PhB'32, AM'35, lives in aretirement center in Batavia, IL, where hesponsors a small discussion group. Elizabeth OrtonJones, PhB'32, see 1933, Katherine Shelley.Stillman Frankland, PhB'32, is resting comfortablyafter surgery in Long Beach, CA. John Tiernan,PhB'32, goes camping and fishing in Canada for amonth every year; he is involved with gardening asso­ciations and amateur radio.33 Inez Lenz-Mueller, SB'33, is approaching80 and enjoys watching her three-year-oldgrandson grow. She keeps busy with her computer,origami, kirigami, and Japanese painting. Rosa-HallBaldwin Randall, PhB'33, see 1947, F.S. Randall.Katherine Dierssen Shelley, PhB'33, writes that shereceived a note from author Elizabeth Orton Jones,PhB'32, who says, "I have had a very exciting career,have enjoyed life to the nth degree, and am still enjoy­ingit."34 Paul Cliver, SB'34, and his wife, MaryEllison Cliver, PhB'34, AM'75, enjoyedthe alumni trip "Perspectives on Mediterranean Civi­lization" in October. Charles Hauch, PhB'34,AM'36, PhD'42, and his wife, Ruthadele La­Tourette Hauch, AM'39, celebrated their 50th wed­ding anniversary on January 1 with a dinner given bytheir three daughters, including Charlotte HauchHall, AM'67, who is married to Robert Hall,PhD'69. Helen Moyan, AB'34, AM'36, lives inare­tirement center for former church workers in Clare­mont, CA. She volunteers at the center's folk art muse­um. Doris Emberson Neumann, PhB'34, and herfamily held a mini-reunion in Oregon, where her sonplans to retire.35 Charles Barnes, SB'35, MD'37, is retiredbut continues to teach medical students atCase Western Reserve University and to make resi­dent rounds. Philip Doolittle, PhB'35, enjoyed a tripto Turkey in the fall of 1989. Joseph e. Varkala,AB'35, AM'36, and his wife, Francoise, celebratedtheir 50th wedding anniversary in November. Joe isfounder and president of the Mouli ManufacturingCorporation (a housewares company), and a memberof the New Jersey Forestry Association.36 Shirley Meyerovitz Berc, SB'36, cele­brates the good news, "I'm still here!" Gret­chen Warren Dean, X'36, has taught for the last tenyears in the adult education department for PinellasCounty (FL) schools. P. Blair Ellsworth, SB'36,MD'39, flew around the world on the Concorde lastyear. Estelle Markin Greenhill, AM'36, works parttime supervising volunteer ombudsmen who visit nursing homes. William Keast, AB'36, PhD'47;lives in Lebanon, NH, when not travelling. WilliamKoenig, AB'36, reports thattwoofhis four grandsonswill graduate from college soon, one from the U niver­sity of California at Berkeley and the other from Vas­sar. He won't be able to make the 55th Reunion butlooks forward to the 60th. Richard White, SB'36,is still a consulting geologist; his wife, SaraBaumgardner White, SB'36, is retired but workingwith Planned Parenthood of South Texas.37 Ruth Braver, AM'37, is active in politicaland community activities in Highland Park,IL. John Morris, AB '37, wrote in January that he hadbeen working to stop the war in the Persian Gulf.Stephen Stepanchev, AB'37, AM'38, continues towrite poems, appearing most recently in The NewYorker, Poetry, and New York Quarterly. BlancheWoodruff, SB'37, is 91 and lives in South Bend, IN,where she taught for 40 years. William Zusag,AB'37, survived a World War II prison camp throughhis "education in geography and knowledge of base­ball;" he asserts that he's enjoyed every day since.38 Bernard D. Bard, SB'38, and his wife, Lil­lian, celebrated their 50th anniversary inPuerto Vallarta, Mexico, with their three children andfive of their six grandchildren. They split their timebetween Northbrook, IL, and Boca Raton, FL. H.Virgil Bower, MAT'38, a retired banker, is still activein the Boy Scouts in Kansas City, MO. Alfred Court,AB'38, recently enjoyed the "gut-wrenching" Lon­don production of Miss Saigon.39 Martin Bronfendrenner, PhD'39, is leav­ing Tokyo after nearly seven years as an eco­nomics professor. He will be a visiting distinguishedprofessor at Trinity University in Texas from Januaryto June. Sydney Edwards, MD'39, retired in 1983after 45 years as a family practitioner. He and his wife,Ruth, celebrated their 50th anniversary in 1989.Ruthadele LaTourrette Hauch, AM'39, see 1934,Charles Hauch. Edward Schlies, SB'39, MD'42,continues his allergy practice. John R. Van de Water,AB'39, JD'41, is a presidential appointee to the Fed­eral System Impasses Panel, which arbitrates federallabor-management disputes. He is also president ofhis own firm of consultants for executive evaluationand development. Leonard Weiss, AB '39, is a seniorcouncillor to the U.S. Atlantic Council, a center forthe formulation of policy recommendations on prob­lems shared by the developed nations.40 Frank Banks, SB'40, SM'46, thought the50th reunion was great and is "looking for­ward to number 75." Ellen Beckman, AM'40, is avolunteer musician at Veterans Hospital in Washing­ton, DC. John Kendrick, X'40, is now professoremeritus at George Washington University, and spentthe spring of 1990 teaching in China. See also Books.Max Milberg, SM'40, MD'40, and his wife are rais­ing their three grandchildren. Robert Miner, SB' 40,is retired but keeps busy with consulting work, speak­ing in local schools, and the Presbyterian Church.41 Marjorie Berger, AB'41, went on a safariin Kenya with a U of C alumni trip. Shepraised it as "exciting and extremely well managed."UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 37Marjorie Berg Long Burmeister, AB' 41, an organ­ist and pianist, plays the organ for the Christian Sci­ence church in Rockford, IL, and performs with musi­cal groups throughout the state. Bernice GlicksonCohen, AB'41, AM'42, has retired as editorial coor­dinator for the curriculum department of Chicagopublic schools.Norman Greenman, AB'41, SM'48, PhD'SI,looks forward to the SOth reunion of ' 41, and hopes tomake it to the SOth of his other two classes as well.Lawrence Lee, AM'41, PhD'S7, wrote an introduc­tion to Land and Law in California, which will bepublished in 1991. Caroline Grabo Moyer, AB'41,hopes to see lots of classmates at the SOtho BettyEvans Price, AB' 41, hopes to make the SOth too andwrites that Ruth Steel Wilson, SB'41, and her hus­band, Jim Wilson, PhB'48, MBA' 62 , expect to bethere. Richard Stare, AM'41, retired after some 2Syears as director of Clayton College for Boys in Den­ver. He keeps busy with various jobs and volunteerwork as well as his family of four children and eightgrandchildren. Angela Sutherland, MBA'41 , is avolunteer library worker and reading tutor. IrvinZelitzky, AB' 41, retired in January 1988.42 Alice Lurie Gittelson, SB'42, of Santa Ana,CA, looks forward to the 1992 reunion. BenLandsman, AB'42, AM'43, is retired as budget di­rector of the Jewish Federation in Chicago and nowvolunteers for the EZRA Hotline. His wife, MyrilLandsman, AB'42, AM'44, has retired from theEvanston school system as a social worker but contin­ues to work for the district as a private contractor,working on an intergenerational project and a programto reduce stress for children entering a new school.Bradley Patterson, AB'42, AM'43, and his wife,Shirley DoBos Patterson, SB'43, report on theirthree sons, all U of C graduates. Bruce, AB'70, is aphysicist with PSI/RCA Laboratories in Zurich.Glenn, AB'72, is assistant district chief of the U.S.Geological Survey in Columbia, sc. Brian, AB'83,is the sous-chef of the Mt. Airy Plantation and Inn inUpper Marlboro, MD, and teaches classes.Marcia Merrifield Schenck, AB'42, plays musicfor church and synagogue services and volunteers forhospitals, the Humane Society, and her church. Ro­land Stevens, CLA'42, retired from general surgeryin 1982; one of his 11 grandchildren is a first-year at UofC. He lives, "happy and healthy," in Rochester, NY.43 Thelma Gladstone Bilsky, AB' 43, is chiefregistrar for the Plotkin Judaica Museum inPhoenix, AZ. Bette Rose Katz Blair, AB'43,CLA' 43, is president of the Chicago regional branchof Women's American ORT, an organization whichoperates technical and vocational schools worldwide.Victor Deutsch, PhB' 43, MBA' 4 7, retired last June asvice president of Fishking Processors in Los Angeles.Bertha Larson Doremus, AM'43, though retired, isan auxiliary faculty member at the University ofWashington in the department of rehabilitation medi­cine. She serves on several social service boards andas a consultant to Helpline House, a multi-serviceagency.Shirley DoBos Patterson, SB'43, see 1942, Brad­ley Patterson. Helen Patton, AM'43, is enjoying herNorth Carolina retirement after a fulfilling career inthe arts field. Eleanor Bernstien Seegman, AB'43,AM'44, is the proud grandmother of Kaitlin KerrySeegman, born April2S, 1990.44 Jack Batten, PhB'44, MBA'SO, is retiredfrom the stewardship council of the UnitedChurch of Christ. He and his wife, Margaret, plan toremain in St. Louis. David Beebe, PhB'44, spent twoweeks in Thailand last September, an "altogether de­lightful trip." Susan Hubbell Dawson, AM'44, see1947, Joe Dawson. Laurence Finberg, SB'44,MD'46, is chairman of pediatrics and dean of theCollege of Medicine at SUNY-Brooklyn.Elvira Vegh Gil de Lamadrid, SB'44, see 1948,38 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 Jesus Gil de Lamadrid. Margaret Hoffman, AM' 44,recently moved to a retirement center in Denver.Konrad Kingshill, SM'44, received the Order of theWhite Elephant, Third Class, from the King of Thai­land for his 41 years of service in education to the peo­ple of Thailand. Barbara Monser Ruml, AB'44,looks forward to attending Centennial celebrationevents in '91 and '92. Ruth Waddell, AB'44, see1949, John Henry Waddell. Muriel Braxton Wilson,X'41, boasts a family of U of C grads: son ArthurWilson, AB'7S, AM'82, PhD'90, and his wife, AnneSilberger Wilson, AB'81, AM'86; and son HughWilson, Jr,, AM'72, and his wife, Katherine Bowie,AM'81, PhD'88. Hugh expects to receive his Ph.D.this year.45 Oswelda Badal, PhB'4S, edited the secondissue of the Chicago City Council Report, apublication of the Citizens' Information Service.Charles Buhrow, SB'4S, MD'48, is living in Ocean­side, CA. Hadassah Samuels Daniels, AB'4S, see1948, Jesus Gil de Lamadrid. Betty Foyer Johnson,AB'4S, and Betsy Ann Kelly, AB'4S, regularly ex­change visits; Betty lives in Honolulu and Betsy livesin Chicago Heights, IL.Tom Tourlentes, SB'4S, MD'47, though retired,serves on several medically oriented committees andadvisory groups and busies himself taking lots of pic­tures when travelling. Idabel Bowles Waddy,AM'4S, moved from Chicago to Aurora, CO, about ayear and a half ago, and likes it very much, observingthat to live there, "you must love football and skiing."She volunteers at an Army medical center.46 Marilyn Anderson, X'46, see 1947, JohnAnderson. Ruth Hazlewood, MBA'46 ,lives in Texas, enjoys the company of friends, and ap­preciates her courses at the U of C. Charles Higgins,SB'46, SM'47, has retired after nearly 40 years withthe geology department at the University of Californiaat Davis. See also Books. Herbert Siegal, AM'46,has retired after 48 years in public education; he nowhas a private psychotherapy practice.47 John Anderson, AB' 47, and his wife, Mari­lyn Menaugh Anderson, X' 46, write, "Wehad a blast at the Fiftieth of the Class of ' 40 and wereglad to see how well we've survived ... Looking for­ward to 2000! " Joe Dawson, AM' 4 7, PhD' 49, and hiswife, Susan Hubbell Dawson, AM'44, live in BatonRouge, LA; Joe just made a pilgrimage to his highschool. Laurel Sacks Fischer, PhB' 47, spends hersummers in Atwood Lake, OH, and her winters inMelbourne Beach, FL. She has six grandchildren andenjoys interviewing prospective students for theAlumni Schools Committee. John Heckman, X'47,ran for the U.S. Senate from Colorado in 1990. RobertHoward, PhB'47, writes, "I am alive and, well, in theheart of deepest, darkest central Arkansas."48 Jesus Gil de Lamadrid, SB'48, SM'49,and his wife, Elvira Vegh Gil de Lamadrid,SB' 44, had a wonderful time with Hadassah SamuelsDaniels, AB'4S, and her husband, Ed, at the 1990 re­union. Jesus is a math professor at the University ofMinnesota and Elvira is a member of the FacultyWomen's Club there. Richard Gable, AM'48,PhD'SO, belongs to a University of California taskforce studying sites for a tenth state campus. HarrisonHood, PhB'48, recently retired after 33 years at East­man Kodak, where he was an expert in solving elec­trostatic problems.Peter Small, PhB'48, SB'SO, is semi-retired aspresident of a mail order company, though continuingas marketing director. He's begun a second career as asculptor, as he had a critically acclaimed show inWestchester, NY. "I'm as surprised as everyone else!"he writes. Ruth G. Waskey, MBA'48, works for theDepartment of Education in Florida and journeyed to Mexico and France last year. Charlotte Ann BeerWeber, AB' 48, retired in June as a school librarian forthe Richardson (TX) school district, but works parttime to help the schools become computer-automated.Francis Williams, SB' 48, lives in the Sangre de Cris­to mountains of Colorado with his wife, Christine. Hevolunteers as a disk jockey at a local listener­supported radio station. Jim Wilson, PhB'48,MBA' 62 , see 1941, Ruth Steel Wilson. JeromeZiegler, AM'48, who stepped down as dean of theCollege of Human Ecology at Cornell University twoyears ago, is now a professor there and the director of astate-wide parent education program.49 Robert Barry, AB' 49, is an associate of theTraining Institute for Mental Health in NewYork City. E. Thomas Gambert, MBA'49, marriedAngela Sharpe in May 1989, a day before being electedto a one- year term as a district governor for Toastmas­ters. Joseph Lash, PhB'49, is retired from allergypractice after 36 years. Kaspar Locher, PhD' 49, re­tired in 1987 but still teaches a class in Nietzsche atReed College.Murray Newman, SB'49, has returned from Mi­cronesia, where he was studying coral ecology andfish behavior in a Truk lagoon. Alan Whitney, X' 49,gleefully pointed out an error in a "Question Box" fea­ture of the New York Times sports section. The authorhad asserted that only five teams-Michigan, TexasA&M, Florida State, Georgia, and Yale-held win­ning records against Notre Dame's football team; Alanpointed out that the U of C's 4-0 record against theIrish is the best of any college's.John Henry Waddell, X'49, and his wife, RuthHolland Waddell, AB' 44, left their Arizona home fora trip to the Midwest last summer, appearing at severaldedications of John's sculpture. Some of his works arealso on view in Phoenix locations and at the Retro­spective Gallery in La Jolla, CA.50 Ira Cohen, AM'SO, PhD'SS, visited HorstWeinberg, MD'S3, in Fresno, CA, lastsummer. Harry Fisher, AB'SO, JD'S3, reads about abook a month for Talking Tapes for the Blind, and en­joys spending time with his three granddaughters.David Green, AM'SO, recently founded People ofEarth, Inc., a non-profit, pacifist organization.Richard Hennes, AM'SO, is in his second term as in­spector of the United Nations and its specialized agen­cies. He lives in Geneva, Switzerland. Julius Lewis,AB'SO, AM'S4, has been elected a trustee ofthe ArtInstitute of Chicago.In May 1990, O.J. Krasner, AM'SO, received anaward from the Price-Babson College Fellows pro­gram for "bringing entrepreneurial vitality toacademe." Rica Anido Rock, AB'SO, MST'S7, hasretired to enjoy her country house and part-time teach­ing. Gregory B. Votaw, AM'SO, joined the Interna­tional Food Policy Research Institute in July as direc­tor of development and administration. He continuesto live in Bethesda, MD.51 Gerald Brody, AB' SI, works at Raytheonas a program manager. for a Navy satellitecommunications project. Lloyd Dodd, AM'SI, spentthe spring and summer of 1990 on sabbatical in Istan­bul doing research on Ottoman art and architecture.He teaches at John Cabot University in Rome.Charles Garvin, AM'SI, PhD'68, is director of thedoctoral program in social work and social science atthe University of Michigan. Helen Perks, AM'SI,lives in the San Francisco Bay area and keeps busywith oil painting and knitting. Archie Wilson,SM' SO, PhD' SI, retired from the chemistry depart­ment of the University of Minnesota in 1989 and took a"fabulous" tour of Alaska with other U of C alumni.52 NorrnanBilow, SM'S2, PhD'S6, retired aschief scientist at Hughes Aircraft in 1985; hethen worked for Ciba Geigy until 1989 and stillconsults for them. He has two grandchildren. PaulCarroll, AM' S2, gave a reading from his new book ofpoetry at the Chicago Historical Society last Thanks­giving. See also Books. Louis Gluck, MD'52, is aprofessor of pediatrics and obstetrics at the Universityof California at Irvine. Oliver J.B. Kerner, PhD'52,is professor emeritus at Northwestern's medicalschool and president of the Chicago Center for Psy­choanalysis, Nathan Keyfitz, PhD'52, is head of thepopulation program of the International Institute forApplied Systems Analysis, and planned to receive hisdoctorate of laws degree from the University of Sienathis year. Richard Lechowich, AB'52, SM'55, is thedirector of Illinois Institute of Technology's NationalCenter for Food Safety and Technology. Peggy Pep­per Schrier, AM' 52, teaches for Sequoia Adult Edu­cation in San Mateo (CA) County.53 Richard Dobson, MD'53, writes that he hasalmost rebuilt after the destruction of Hurri­cane Hugo. He is editor of the Journal of the AmericanAcademy of Dermatology and was honored with a dis­tinguished alumni service award by his fraternity, PhiGamma Delta. Most importantly, he says, he has twonew granddaughters.Anton Kasanof, AB'53, is retired after a career indiplomatic service. He was elected supervisor for thetown ofHaicott, NY, and is also an adjunct professor atSUNY-New Paltz. Tony Leitner, AB'53, is studyingTibetan Buddhist philosophy and meditation in NorthHollywood. Horst Weinberg, MD'53, has been inprivate pediatric practice for 31 years in Fresno, CA;he is also an associate professor at the University ofCalifornia at San Francisco. See also 1950, Ira Cohen.54 Lawrence Fisher, PhD'54, is professoremeritus of the University of Calgary andnow consults part time in medical and legal education.G.C. Hoyt, AM'54, retired from Simon Fraser Uni­versity in Vancouver, keeps busy with community ser­vice and the city opera. Henry Maguire, MD'54, isnow a research professor of medicine at Thomas Jef­ferson University in Philadelphia. James Redfield,AB'54, PhD'61, see 1989, Ingrid Booth. CarolHorning Stacey, AB'54, AM'57, participated in thealumni "study cruise" to Antarctica last year and saysit was an "amazing experience."55 James Blawie, JD'55, is now professoremeritus of the University of Santa ClaraLaw School. Elizabeth Robinson Cohen, AB'55,AB'59, AM'63, and her husband are partially retired,attending classes at the University of Denver. "It iswonderful to stretch our brains in company with 20-year-olds," she writes. Douglas Johnson, PhD' 55,retired as captain after 35 years with the Naval Intelli­gence Command. He expects to retire from CaliforniaState University at Sacramento this year.Harold Kaiser, PhD'55, of Davenport, lA, contin­ues his research on the reading problems of college­bound students. Belden Paulson, AM'55, PhD'62, isworking with an international group to develop a glob­al think tank, known as the Plymouth Institute. He at­tended the Soviet-American summit in Moscow inJanuary 1990 and a conference in Shanghai in April1990. Daniel Perlman, AB' 55, AM' 56, PhD'71 , wassworn in as the ninth president of Webster Universityin S1. Louis in November. Donald Walker, PhD'55,has been selected as one of the inaugural Fellows of theAmerican Association for Artificial Intelligence.56 Janet Lippincott Kneale, AB'56,MAT'56, is a special education teacher inElk River, MN, public schools.57 Norman Lewak, SB'57, is a pediatrician inBerkeley, CA, has "the same wife I startedwith," and is a member of the California SIDS Advi­sory Council.58 Irving Bruhn, AM'58, and his wife cele­brated their golden wedding anniversary in1989. They live in the Holmstad Retirement Commu­nity in Batavia, IL. Leon Kass, AB'58, MD'62, see1989, Ingrid Booth. Peter Langrock, AB'56, JD'60,who lives in Salisbury, VT, just bought a team of draft Before the '60sStudent government leaders in the'1950s shook up the campus-andthe state-with their "ResponsibleLiberalism. "H n 1949, Illinois state senator Paul Broy­les introduced a bill to the legislature inSpringfield, proposing that universi­ties' charters be withdrawn if their students,faculty, and administration refused to ad­here to certain McCarthy-era principles.Students at the U of C were largely united invehement opposition to such a bill, and de­cided that it was their duty to take action.The majority party of the Student Govern­ment, the Independent Students League(ISL) , hastily assembled the first All­Campus Civil Liberties Union, which drewdelegates from every organization on cam­pus, from the Glee Club to the dorms to thefootball team. Representatives from thisgroup stormed down to Springfield and tes­tified against the proposal on the floor of thelegislature. The bill failed.This action by the ISL was one of its moststunning achievements-the group was alsoinstrumental in defeating similar bills in1951, 1953, and 1955-but it was far fromthe only accomplishment of the student po­litical party, which was founded in 1947 andlasted through the late '50s. The ISL,according to Roger Woodworth, AB'52,president of both the SG and of the secondACCLU in 1951, was a coalition of politi­cally concerned students who felt that stu­dent government should be exactly that:government of students, by students, and forstudents, a democratic body wrestling withthe issues that affected students in theireveryday lives. Woodworth remembers,"There were cases of injustice throughoutthe country, but we didn't believe we couldget into every courtroom in the country; wethought that should be left to the juries. Wefelt there were enough problems on campusfor us to worry about."During its ten-year history, the ISL was aneffective force on campus. In 1953, for ex­ample, the ISL-led SG faced the problem ofimplementing the "Michigan Plan," whichtackled the issue of race relations on cam­puses. This proposal decreed that studentorganizations which did not eliminate dis­criminatory clauses in their charters byOctober 1 would lose SG recognition. Thestudent politicians agreed with the ideas be­hind the plan, but argued-among them- selves and with the administration-overhow to enforce it. One fraternity failed tomeet the deadline, so as Herbert Schwartz,AB'52, AB'58, (SG vice president in 1952)recalls" the SG persuaded the University tohonor its commitment to the agreement andthe fraternity was thrown off campus.The ISL didn't limit itself to moral princi­ples; it also made an effort to address stu­dents' day-to-day needs. Its members estab­lished a Student Services Center in thebasement of the Reynolds Club, containinga book exchange, a ticket agency, a loan ser­vice, and a mimeograph service; institutedan exchange program with German stu­dents; and set up a listing of local landlordswith non-discriminatory rental policies.The ISLers campaigned vigorously for theirpositions and debates sometimes lastedthree days. "We were fascinated by thewhole political process," says Woodworth."We wanted to learn what it was to compro­mise, to lobby, to be effective legislators. Itwas a broad educational experience. "Woodworth went on to work for EdwardBrooke, the first popularly elected blackU.S. Senator, and has been active in Massa­chusetts state politics, recently retiring fromfederal service in the Department of Healthand Human Services. The most well-knownISL alumnus still in politics may be SanderLevin, AB'52, currently a Democratic rep­resentative from Michigan, who was SGpresident in 1951.Student government and student activismbecame less formal in the 1960s, and thatshift brought with it the decline of the ISLand its "Responsible Liberalism." But themembers recall their political successeswith pride, and are planning their own re­union-part of a special reception for Hut­chins College alumni-during the Universi­ty's Reunion in June. As Schwartz reflects,"It was a way of life for a lot of us. "-J. C.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 39Cause for ActionHeather Booth combines Sixtiesidealism with organizationalpragmatism as she works for socialchange.he helped found the citywide Chica­go Women's Liberation Union. Shealso founded the Midwest Academy,a Chicago-based national training center forsocial activists. During the energy crisis ofthe 1970s, she directed the Citizen LaborEnergy Coalition. In 1979, while presidentof the Midwest Academy, she was one of thecore founders of Citizen Action, a nationalhealth care, environmental, and family pol­icy advocacy group which today has two anda half million dues-paying members.Last year, Heather Tobis Booth, AB'67,AM'70, left Citizen Action to start a new ac­tivist group. With Senator Howard Metzen­baum of Ohio, she founded the Coalition forDemocratic Values. Its aim: "to consis­tently, steadily, regularly project a progres­sive political message. "The coalition's policy messages-re­duction in defense spending, a nationalhealth care plan, campaign finance reform,redistribution of tax burdens-aren't new,Booth admits. What is new is the organizedeffort to get these ideas voiced "by a vehiclethat can be heard." Booth and Metzenbaumhave recruited a core group of "nationallyrespected leadership" -65 members of the40 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 House and Senate, as well as several hundredacademics, political activists, and entertain­ers-and planned a course of action that in­cludes advertising, public hearings, and na­tional conferences on progressive issues.The coalition's timing, she thinks, is right.There's "a new opening, a new sentiment inthe country." She sees this shift toward"people-oriented values of justice, democ­racy, freedom, opportunity" as a chance to"bring the Democratic party back to thepeople." As she sees it, the coalition has theopportunity to take the changing sentimentand turn it into a political movement, by con­vincing potential Democratic presidentialcandidates-battered and beleagueredthrough the 1980s-ofthe vote-getting pow­er of progressive politics.Booth's years at Chicago were an immer­sion in studies ("I took many more creditsthan 1 should have taken," she says) and so­cial organizing. As a first-year in the fall of1963, she joined the Student NonviolentCoordinating Committee, helping to run"freedom schools" on Chicago's SouthSide. That summer, she traveled south towork in the voter registration drives. "Thesame kinds of discussions we had at the U ni­versity of Chicago," she notes, "we couldthen have on the dirt roads, of Mississippi­discussions about the meaning of democra­cy, the meaning of society, about what isworth living for. "Back on campus, Booth joined in calls forexpanded student rights, such as a protestagainst the University's in loco parentisrules. Those rules included an 11 p.m. cur­few for women, she recalls, "and we felt,'Look, the University is not my parent-andthey're parenting unequally. '" Out of theseprotests came "one of the first women'sgroups on any college campus. "At one campus sit-in, protesting the Uni­versity'S supplying of students' academicrank to the military'S draft board, Booth mether husband. Paul Booth is now director oforganizing field services for the AmericanFederation of State, County, and MunicipalEmployees.Booth founded the Midwest Academy in1973 with money she'd won from a back-paysuit (she'd been fired for organizing a secre­tarial group). Her description of the Acade­my, which continues to train organizers,could apply to the coalition as well. It's "acontinuation of the freedom schools." And,Heather Booth adds, "in a way it's a continu­ation of the stimulation of an educationalcenter like the University of Chicago-butwhere action and philosophy are united."-Ethan Feinsilver, AB '89 horses to help in his farming; he says they result in fer­tile fields and a small savings of diesel fuel. RichardPichler, SB'58, works as an engineer for Babet Engi­neering of Houston, TX.Thomas R. Saving, AM' 58, PhD'60, is director ofTexas A&M's Center for Education and Research inFree Enterprise. Jack Urner, PhD'58, has lived inBhutan, in the Himalayas, since 1986. He works withthe department of education there to improve primaryschooling; the project also hopes to increase the num­ber of trained teachers and better equip the depart­ment's offices and libraries.59 Robert Groh, MBA'59, is an administratorfor a nursing home in Adrian, MI. StanleyKalkus, AM'59, was named to the newly establishedposition of Librarian of the Navy in September, moni­toring all Navy library programs. Calvin Redekop,PhD' 59, is researching Mennonite entrepreneurs andcomparing them with other religious groups, andworking on a book of profiles of entrepreneurs.60 Gene Moss, SB'60, CLA'68, is president ofBehavioral Medicine Associates, Inc.,which has offices in Beverly Hills and New York City.The firm designs and implements mental health pro­grams for hospitals. Dionisia Rola, PhD'60, retiredas chancellor of the University of the Philippines in1987 and since then has served on the Education, Artsand Culture staff of Senator Edgardo Angara and as aneducation consultant. She is now executive director ofthe Congressional commission to study Philippine ed­ucation. Bruce Stewart, SB'60, is the seismic safetyplans examiner for the city of Redlands, CA; he is incharge of a program to retrofit 80 buildings for safetyfrom earthquakes.61 Patrick Gannon, SM'61, chair of the mete­orology department at Lyndon State Collegein Vermont, presented a paper at the eighth conferenceon hydrometeorology in Alberta, Canada. ThomasHarris, AM' 61, now professor emeritus at LakeheadUniversity in Ontario, has been travelling and plans tomanage family business interests in Australia. ChanLien, AM'61, PhD'65, became governor of Taiwan inJune 1990. Art Lorber, SB'61, who lives in Carmel,IN, would like to hear from classmates. John Mills,SB'61, is on sabbatical in Melbourne, Australia, re­searching infectious diseases.62 Garry Crane, AB'62, has worked for Seat­tle City Light since 1983 and enjoys Seattle­area alumni events. His son, Daniel Crane, AB'90, isworking in London and Dublin this year and will at­tend graduate school at the University of Pittsburghnext year. Gary Greenberg, AB'62, AM'63, spentmuch of 1989 and 1990 preparing for and conductingthe longest civil trial in the history of the DelawareChancery Court; the dispute centers around the 1983takeover of Technicolor. Amy Apfel Kass, AB'62,see 1989, Ingrid Booth. Donald Irish, PhD'62, pro­fessor of chemistry at the University of Waterloo inOntario, received the Union Carbide Award forChemical Education this past JUly. Brunson McKin­ley, AB' 62, works on European policy for the StateDepartment. He and his wife, Nancy, have a son, Har­ley, and a daughter, Sarah. Charles Lewis Nelson,AB'62, is retired after a career in international trade.Bob Unferth, AB'62, MBA'64, owns a chain of com­puter rental stores, mostly located in the Southwest.63 Rodney Barber, MBA' 63 , has been ap­pointed principal investment officer for theCA Public Employees' Retirement system in Sacra­mento. Howard Kain, AB'63, MBA'70, is presidentof First Illinois Bank of Evanston and senior vice pres­ident of the First Illinois Corporation. MariluBartholomew Meyer, AM'63, was named 1990Woman of the Year by the National Association ofWomen Business Owners and 1990 Woman Entrepre-neur of the Year by the Women's Business Develop­ment Center. President Bush has also appointed hervice chair of the National Women's Business Council.David Segal, AM'63, PhD'67, delivered the Januarycommencement address at Towson State Universityand received an honorary degree at the ceremony.64 Chester Leathers, AM'63, is director of thecommunity education program in AlachuaCounty, FL; the organization was cited as outstandingby the National Community Education Association inNovember. Philip Mason, AB'64, JD'67, see 1966,Charlotte Sanford Mason. Lee Nucero, X'64,MBA'64, is president of the Cornucopia Group, amarketing communications firm.65 Ruth Levine Beiersdorf, AM'65, is re­tired, but volunteers with Planned Parent­hood and the League of Women Voters-for which sheis chair of environmental issues-in San Diego. JohnScott Colley, AM'65, PhD'69, is serving as actingpresident of Hampden-Sydney College for the1990-91 academic year. He continues as provost at theschool. Jerry Felmley, MBA'65, is living in Tucson,AZ, working for R&D Consulting, but travels fre­quently. England and Scotland were the sites of his lat­est combination business/pleasure trip. Susan SederFreehling, MBA'65, has opened a second cookwarestore to accompany her Hyde Park shop; the new storeis in Flossmoor.Robert Krug, MBA' 65, a trustee of LaGrange Park,IL, is also a trustee of the Metropolitan ChicagoHealthcare Council and chair of the Chicago HospitalRisk Pooling Program. Felice Levine, AB'65,AM'70, PhD '79, is program director oflaw and socialscience at the National Science Foundation. In Augustshe becomes executive officer of the American Socio­logical Association. Glenn Loafmann, AB'65,writes that his "contributions to the body of knowl­edge have been limited to fragments of a letterpublished in Sports Illustrated. "Rosalind Silberman, MST'65, is the educationaldirector for the Jewish Center in Princeton, NJ, and isworking on a children's High Holidays book. See alsoBooks. Edward Versluis, AM'65, PhD'72, and hiswife, Diana, spent last July living in a teachers' loungein an East Berlin high school and teaching English toGerman teachers. They will return this year and willalso teach and make videos in southern Germany.66 While traveling in Italy, Andrea Borr,AB'66, ran into Barbara Hawley, AB'72,and Gary Engle, AM'70, PhD'73, at a castle in Assi­si. Robert Craig, MBA'66, has started his own win­ery in Napa, CA. Terry Feiertag, JD'66, has joinedclassmates Al Lipton, JD'66, and Henry Waller,10'66, at the Chicago law firm of Mandel, Lipton &Stevenson. Stuart Laiken, SB'66, and Nora LesserLaiken, SB'67, are happy to announce the birth oftheir second daughter, Ariella. They live in SanDiego, CA. Marshall Lykins, SB'66, recentlyadopted daughter Elizabeth. George Edward McDo­nough, X'66, is professor emeritus and directoremeritus of the Weter Memorial Library at Seattle Pa­cific University. Charlotte Sanford Mason, AB'66,taught in China for four months in 1989 and before thatfor a month in Paris. She is a teacher at Newton (MA)North High School, and she and her husband, PhilipMason, AB'64, JD'67, have three children.67 Robert Anderson, AM'67, PhD'71, is pro­fessor of communication and chair of thecommunity economic development center at SimonFraser University in British Columbia. See alsoBooks. Larry Coffey, MCL'67, is a lawyer in Char­lotte, NC, specializing in international investment.Louis Galie, SB'67, SM'68, and his wife, Martha, an­nounce the birth of their daughter, Grace, in February1990. Charlotte Hauch Hall, AM'67, see 1934, Charles Hauch .. Nora Lesser Laiken, SB'67, see1966, Stuart Laiken. Boardman Lloyd, JD'67, hasleft the Boston law firm of Choate, Hall & Stuart to be­gin a new business. Margaret Olsen, AB'67, is acounsel to the Naval Air Systems Command.68 Irwin Abraham, SB'68, practices generalinternal medicine in upstate New York,where he lives with his wife and two children. DavidL. Curley, AB'68, AM'73, PhD'80, taught at theUniversity of British Columbia and at the Universityof Washington this past year. He also helped design aworkshop for the United Methodist Church on over­coming racial barriers. His wife, Jayrne Curley,MAT'69, is a businesswoman.William Hall, PhD'68, is a psychology professor atthe University of Maryland and spent a recent sabbati­cal as a visiting scientist at the Laboratory of Develop­mental Psychology in Bethesda. Carl Maertz,MBA'68, was appointed compliance officer at GainerBank in Merrillville, IN.69 Abe Aamidor, AB'69, a writer for the Indi­ana polis News, won first place in the featuresdivision of the Indiana AP Managing Editors Associa­tion competition. Grace Allison, MAT'69, JD'79, isa partner at the Chicago law firm of Katten, Muchin &Zavis. She and her husband, David White, are the par­ents of Daniel Andrew White. Robert Hall, PhD'69,see 1934, Charles Hauch. Michael O'Neill, MD'69,is medical director at Fox Valley Hospital, a psychiat­ric facility in Green Bay, WI.R. Michael Perry, SB'69, who received his mas­ter's and doctoral degrees in computer science fromthe University of Colorado, edits a cryonics newslettercalled Venturist Monthly News. Renee Ginsburg Ra­binowitz, AM'69, PhD'74, married Stanley Wagnerin November. Renee is legal counsel for ColoradoCollege in Colorado Springs, co. Bruce Taylor,AB'69, PhD'76, his wife, Sally, and their two childrenrecently moved to Pueblo, CO, where Bruce has a pri­vate orthopaedic surgery practice.70 Frank Day, AB'70, is working on arms con­trol issues in the United Nations Political Af­fairs office in Washington, DC. Gary Engle, AM'70,PhD'73, see 1966, Andrea Borr. Robert Gilbertson,MBA:70, is president of Data Switch Corp., whichwas named turnaround company of the decade by CFOMagazine. He is also secretary of the American Elec­tronics Association and chair of the Regional Trans­portation Systems Management Council in southwestConnecticut. David Kirby, PhD'70, an assistant pro­fessor, was voted clinical teacher of the year by familypractice residents at the University of Wisconsin atMadison. He also practices at Group Health Coopera­tive in Madison.Shelley McEwan, JD'70, was appointed SuperiorCourt commissioner for Solano County, PA, andserves on the state's judicial council advisory commit­tee on juvenile courts.Bruce Patterson, AB '70, see 1942, Bradley Patter­son. Kathy Atlass, AB'70, AM'73, see 1989, IngridBooth. S. Edward Rutland, MBA'70, is senior vicepresident of marketing and sales for LM Food, Inc. , inNew York. Fredrick Silverman, MAT'70, is a pro­fessor of education at the University of Northern Col­orado. He presented a session at the 1990 conferenceof the School Science and Mathematics Association.Frank Vodvarka, MFA'70, is an associate professorof art at Mundelein College and a producer of set de­signs for dance performances. He is a co-author of adesign-theory text scheduled to be published in 1991.Lincoln Yung, MBA'70, notes that his son, JohnYung, graduated from the College last June.71 Henry Balikov, JD'71, counsel with thelM. Huber Corporation in New Jersey, issecretary of the Carbon Black Industry Committee on Environmental Health. Albert Eng, AB'71, and hiswife have a second child, Kimberly Joyce. The familylives in San Francisco. Dawn Esser Eng, AB '71,AM'75, recently translated Hugo Friedrich's Mon­taigne from the German for the University of Califor­niaPress. David Lavallee, SM'68, PhD'71, is associ­ate provost at Hunter College in New York.Alan Smith, SB'71, MD'75, lives in Clearwater,FL, with his wife, Donna, and their three children,ages 12, eight, and one. Leonard Wass, MBA'71, wasremarried in June 1989. He continues as director ofworldwide energy services for Cresap, managementconsultants in Chicago.72 Bernie Burson, AB'72, married Carl Ber­man in September. She works as a court in­vestigator for Sam Mateo (CA) County SuperiorCourt. Lynn Garst, AB'72, and her husband, DonChiasson, have a second daughter, Michelle. The fam­ily lives in Victoria, British Columbia. Tom Guter­bock, AM'72, PhD'76, has just returned to his teach­ing post at the University of Virginia after a ten-monthstay in Tokyo. Barbara Hawley, AB'72, see 1966,Andrea Borr. Janet Levin, AB'72, and her husband,Frank Gruber, AB'74, had a son, Henry LeonardLevin Gruber, in December. Steve Metalitz, AB'72,is vice president and general counsel for the Informa­tion Industry Association. He and his wife, Kit Gage,have two daughters. William Minier, MD'72, and hiswife, Rebecca Rae Anderson, have three children.William is medical director for Health America inLincoln, NE. Glenn Patterson, AB'72, see 1942,Bradley Patterson.Andy Segal, AB'72, see 1974, Ellen Mazer. HughWilson, AM'72, see 1944, Muriel Wilson. OlehWeres, SB'72, PhD'72, is chair of northern Califor­nia's Committee to Aid the Ukraine. Karen Wishner,AB'72, a professor at the University of Rhode Island,recently returned from a sabbatical at England's Insti­tute of Oceanographic Sciences. She writes, "In addi­tion to lots of good science, I enjoyed hiking in Wales,wandering through ruins, and sampling Londontheatres."73 James Adams, MBA'73, is director of healthcare consulting and administrative servicesfor the Administrative Management Group in Arling­ton Heights, IL. Miriam Kalichman, AB '73, and herhusband, Charles Firke, AB'73, have two sons: Sa­muel, who is in first grade, and Frank, who was bornin March 1990. Charles is director of the computernetwork for the YMCA, and Miriam is director of thecenter for handicapped children at the University ofIl­linois at Chicago.74 J. Gary Fox, MBA' 74, has left GeneralFoods to become vice president of researchand development for American Crystal Sugar inMoorhead, MN. Jack Fuchs, AB'74, is a partner atthe Cincinnati law firm of Thompson, Hine & Flory.He and his wife, Jill, who is also an attorney, have twochildren. Timothy George, AB'74, MBA' 75 , is amanaging director at Morgan Stanley, in charge of theworldwide food and beverage group. He and his fami­ly live in Greenwich, CT. Frank Gruber, AB'74, see1972, Janet Levin. Irene Capp Kerr, AM'74,MBA'76, see 1975, Don Kerr.75 Stan Biles, AB'75, deputy director of theWashington State Dept. of Natural Re­sources, has received a fellowship to study hazardouswaste disposal in Europe. Barbara Bruns, AB'75, isa senior economist in the Brazil department of theWorld Bank. She and her husband, Miguel Bachrach,had a daughter, Elena Francesca, in March 1990. Aspresident of the Academic Staff Association at Mur­doch University, Jan Currie, PhD'75, led a 21-campus professors' strike for better working condi­tions at Australian universities. Stephen Daniloff,AB'75, is general sales manager for a television sta­tion in West Palm Beach, FL. Russ Dickerson,AB'75, will participate in an NSF-sponsored "CenterUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 41for Clouds, Chemistry, and Climate, " in the Geophy­sics Department at the U of C.Shoshana Grossbard-Shechtman, AM'75,PhD'78, has four children and is a professor of eco­nomics at San Diego State. Mark Gruenberg,AB'75, has been elected to the board of directors forthe Regional Reporters Association and is listed inWho S Who in the East. Don Kerr, MBA'75, and hiswife, Irene Capp Kerr, AM'74, MBA'76, have twochildren. Irene is a manager at Abbott Labs and Don isa partner at Booz-Allen and Hamilton. JamesMetzger, AM'75, is president of Histecon Associ­ates, an economic consulting firm in Little Rock, AR;his wife, Deborah Baldwin, AM'n, PhD'79, ischair of the history department at the University ofArkansas at Little Rock. Rodney Rothstein, PhD'75,is an associate professor of genetics and developmentat Columbia University's College of Physicians andSurgeons.James Sugarman, AM'75, is director of resourcesfor the AIDS program of Palm Beach County, FL. Healso consults in volunteer and non-profit programmanagement. Arthur Wilson, AB'75, AM'82,PhD'90, see 1944, Muriel Wilson. Jack Witlin,MBA'75, is now partner in charge of general manage­ment consulting for the Midwest region at Chicago'sDeloitte & Touche. Gregory Wrobel, AB'75, JD'78,MBA' 79 ,and his wife, Gini Marziani, welcomed theirsecond child, Giovanni Anton Marziani Wrobel, inOctober.76 Patricia Burke, AB'76, married John Prof­fitt in August and joined the department ofmedicine at Loyola University. Frank Ellsworth,PhD '76, president of Pitzer College, received the Treeof Life award from the National Jewish Fund in Janu­ary. In just four short years, Steven Feldman, AB '76,AM '79, has gotten married, taken out a mortgage, andbecome the father of a boy and a girl. "Top that, " hechallenges classmates. He also works as an assistanteditor at Biblical Archaeology Review and Bible Re­view magazines in Washington, DC.Stanley Fox, AB '76, has been board certified by theAmerican Academy of Family Practice. He is in pri­vate practice in Oneonta, NY. David Hansen, AB'76,is an assistant professor of education at the Universityof Illinois at Chicago. Joan Miller Rogoz, MBA'76,and her husband had a daughter, Ellen, in January1990, joining Philip and Frances. Sister Rita AnneWeitekamp, AM'76, works part time for an adultsocial program at the Claremont Friendship Centerin San Diego, CA.7 7 Mark Biggs, AB '77, AM' 85, has completeda documentary about life in a Vietnamesehospital. He is a professor in the communications de­partment at Southwest Missouri State University.Douglas Conrad, MBA'77, PhD'78, is a professor inthe health services department at the University ofWashington. He is also editor of Frontiers of HealthServices Management, and chair of the accreditingcommission for education in Health Services Admin­istration. George Cooper, AB'77, is an associatelawyer with Bath & Associates in Denver. RobertMillstein, AB '77, is experimenting with life at Kripa­lu, a yoga ashram in Lenox, MA. Gene Paquette,X'77, is a manager of a Powell's Bookstore on Chica­go's North Side. He and his wife, Liz Widdicombe,X'80, live in Hyde Park with their dog, Max.78 Deborah Gottlieb Beitler, AM'78, and herhusband, Stephen Beitler, now live in Chica­go, where she is the director of public policy and chap­ter advocacy for the Alzheimer's Association. DavidBrody, AB'78, and his wife, Barbara, have twodaughters and "continue to believe in Brooklyn."Arthur Durant, AM'78, is on leave from his positionas director of CSATP in Lansing, MI, working on his42 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 Ph.D. at Brandeis University. Laura Ellin Handlin,AB'78, is an assistant district attorney in Brooklyn,NY. Her husband, Joseph, is also a lawyer. LeeMann, AM'78, received his law degree in 1988 andhis doctorate, in neuropsychology, in 1990, both fromGeorge Washington University.Margaret Katz Radcliffe, AM'78, is informationofficer for the mining and minerals department at Vir­ginia Tech. She and her husband, David, and theirdaughter, Anna, live in Blacksburg, VA. Jonn Salo­vaara, AB'78, see 1979, Bobbye Middendorf. JohnWoodward, MBA'78, lives in San Francisco with hiswife, Leslie, and their two daughters. He continues towork as an investment banker specializing in healthcare finance.79 Kenneth Bernstein, MBA'79, has beentransferred to Dallas by Ernst and Young. Heand his wife, Ginger, are busy raising their four-year­old daughter, Rachel. Last November, MichaelDonnella, JD'79, won a basketball shooting contestduring halftime of an NBA game and received a freetrip to Raleigh-Durham, NC. Robert Fine, MD'79, isan assistant professor in hematology-oncology andpharmacology at Duke University. Landy CarienJohnson, AB '79, is director of the Council on Agingfor Shrewsbury, MA.Bobbye Middendorf, AB'79, and her husband,Jonn Salovaara, AB'78, had a daughter, Isabel Mid­dendorf Salovaara, in May 1990. Moises Sandler,MBA' 79 , became the father of twins Marcos and Sa­muellast August. He writes, "I regret to announce thatmultiple birth brings diseconomies of scale: all ex­penses triple at least." After completing his residency,Jon Rynning, AB'79, plans to enter private psychia­try practice in New Orleans in July. Robert Waner­man, AB'79, is an assistant regional counsel in theNew York office of the federal Department of Healthand Human Services. He lives in Brooklyn with hiswife, Linda, and their son, Richard.80 Andrea Bonnette, MBA' 80 , has movedfrom Chicago to San Francisco to becomeassociate executive director of the Sierra Club. Gre­gory Clarke, AB'80, see 1981, Lynn SaltzmanClarke. Kathleen Brewer Thoman, X'80, see 1982,Henry Thoman. Jim Verhulst, AB'80, heads the na­tional and international news sections of the St. Peters­burg (FL) Times. His wife, Suzanne Lewis Verhulst,AB'81, is taking time off to raise their son, Benjamin,and is studying French and accounting. Liz Widdi­combe, X'80, see 1977, Gene Paquette.81 Katherine Bowie, AM'81, PhD'88, see1944, Muriel Wilson. Lynn SaltzmanClarke, AB'81, is an associate with the Charleston,WV, law firm of Spilman, Thomas, Battle & Kloster­meyer, while her husband, Greg Clarke, AB'80, re­ceived his M.D. from West Virginia University in1989. They have two daughters, Rachel and Anna.Greg Cliburn, AM'81, has been named Senior Edi­tor at Outside magazine, based in Chicago. RichardFriedman, MBA'81, and his wife, Susan, announcethe birth of Jackie's brother, Joshua Scott, last Octo­ber. Richard is a general partner with Goldman, Sachs& Co. in New York City.Nobuaki Katsura, X' 81, is assistant controller ofNihon San Microsystems in Japan. Joseph Rugg,JD'81, and seven colleagues founded their own lawfirm, Kalish & Ward, in September. He is also chair ofthe Florida bar's committee on the elderly. SuzanneVerhulst, see 1980, Jim Verhulst. Ann SilbergerWilson, AB'81, AM'86, see 1944, Muriel Wilson.PaulZarowin, MBA'81, PhD'85, is an associate pro­fessor at New York University'S business school.82 Lee Badgett, AB'82, earned her Ph.D. ineconomics at the University of California atBerkeley and is an assistant professor at the University of Maryland. Alan Friedman, MD'82, and his wife,Dena Seifer Friedman, MD'82, live in New Jersey,where Alan is an obstetrician and Dena works parttime as a psychiatrist and most of the time raising 19-month-old Jennifer Allison. Howard Kaplan,AM'82, received his Ph.D. in theater and drama fromNorthwestern last year. He is now doing further grad­uate work at DePaul University and serves as adminis­trative director for the Humanitas Institute, an artseducation and psychosocial rehabilitation program inChicago. Jonathan Lemberg, AB'82, is an associatein the Tokyo office of the law firm of Shearman & Ster­ling. Robert Lowe, AM'82, is a staff attorney at theNevada Supreme Court and teaches criminal proce­dure at Western Nevada Community College.Lawrence Pincsak, AB'82, and his wife, JoanneZienty, had a daughter, Cecily Rose, in November1990. Douglas Smith, SM'82, is a hydrogeologistworking on groundwater contamination studies in thePacific Northwest. His wife, Teresa, is a manager oftechnical writers for Mentor Graphics Corporation.Henry Thoman, JD'82, is senior counsel for Chi­quita Brands, International. He and his wife,Kathleen Brewer Thoman, X'80, have two children,Victoria and Nicholas. Brian Weber, MBA'82, soldhis business and now works for Merrill Lynch as afinancial consultant in Scottsdale, AZ.83 Kevin Bright, AB'83, received his M.D.from Loyola in 1989 and then married medschool classmate Tamis Coachy. Kevin and Tamis arein the U. S. Army Medical Corps in Denver, CO. Ken­neth Chiacchia, AB'83, has left biochemistry re­search to pursue a career in writing. He predicts he'lleither "see the gang at the Centennial or be panhan­dling in Harvard Square." Robert Elkin, JD'83, see1984, Robin Kosberg Elkin.Jerome Frazel, AB'83, is a partner with the Chica­go law firm of Nealis & Frazel and married NancyWilder in September 1989. He sends news of class­mates: Alec McAusland, AB'83, is assistant corpo­rate counsel for the City of Chicago; Ruth O'Brien,AB'83, married Scott Lyden, AB'85, AM'88, rin July 1990 and is a student in the SSA; and PaulO'Donnell, AB'83, married Alice Dorsey in Septem­ber, is an assistant editor at Newsweek magazine, andis working on his first novel.Victor Goldberg, SB' 83, lives in Castle Rock, CO,with his wife, Debra. He works as a sub-project man­ager for TRW. John Hilgart, AB'83, received hisPh.D. in physics from the University of Wisconsin andis working at the European Center for Nuclear Re­search in Geneva. Masanori Itatani, MBA'83, is adeputy general manager at Nomura Securities inTokyo. He is married and has a son. Marc Moss,AB'83, lives in Los Angeles, where he says he is"presently not selling screenplays." Brian Patterson,AB'83, see 1942, Bradley Patterson. Amy Ro­senblatt, AB' 83, reports that she married Charles Ro­soff in June. She is an assistant manager in the invest­ment banking division of Lehman Brothers in NewYork City.84 Toru Aizawa, AM'84, and his wife and sonplan to live in New York City for another yearand a half. James Campanella, AB'84, SM'88, isworking towards his doctorate in biology at CaseWestern Reserve University and looking forwardto the publication of his first novel, Standards ofCreation, later this year. Robin Kosberg Elkin,JD'84, and Robert Elkin, JD'83, had their seconddaughter, Hannah Lauren, last August; Hannah joinstwo-year-old Rachel Deborah. Gwenyth BaileyFlynn, AM'84, and her husband, Dennis Flynn,MBA' 87, announce the birth of their daughter, Victo­ria Elizabeth.Jane Marie Swanberg Law, AM' 84, is an assistantprofessor of Japanese religion at Cornell. She is alsocontinuing field research on Japanese folk religions onthe island of Awaji in Japan. Bruce Scott Levinson,MBA' 84, is awaiting publication of a novel he co­wrote; he claims it is the world's first environmentalregulatory thriller. Jonathan Tubman, AB'84,earned his Ph.D. in human development and familystudies from Penn State and is a post-doc at the Re­search Institute on Alcoholism in Buffalo, NY. AndyWarinner, SB'84, see 1985, Wiweka Warinner. Pe­ter Youngwerth, MBA'84, writes that his daughter,Jeanie, will begin medical school at the U of C in thefall of 1991.85 Andrejs Bocek, MBA'85, and his wife,Brenda, announce the birth of their son, Mi­chael Alexander, born in February 1990. Carin Ste­rner Chadow, MBA'85, and her husband, Hal, had ason, David Morris, in August 1990. ManuelChaknis, AB'85, is ajunior at the Medical College ofGeorgia. Jeanne Chapman, AB'85, see 1986,George Reimonn. Bill Coplin, AB' 85, is a resident inneurology at the University of Washington in Seattle.Jacqueline Glomski, PhD'85, is in the master'sprogram in library science at Columbia University,specializing in rare books. Mitchell Harwood,JD'85, is an associate at the New York law firm ofDavis, Polk & Wardwell. Scott King, AB'85, re­ceived his Ph.D. in geophysics from California Insti­tute of Technology in 1990 and now has a postdoctoralposition at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in LaJolla, CA. David Kaufman, AB'85, see 1989, IngridBooth.Ann Kuhns, AB' 85, is a senior fiscal and policy an­alyst with the legislative analyst's office in Sacramen­to, CA, where she lives with her husband and theirbeagle, Barney. Scott Lyden, AB'85, AM'88, see1983, Ruth O'Brien. Gene Merutka, SB'85, earnedhis Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University ofIowaand now has a postdoctoral position at the Scripps Re­search Institute in La Jolla, CA. Guy Parker, AB'85,SM'89, see 1989, Ingrid Booth. Susan Pavloska,AB'85, is a lecturer in American literature at the Uni­versity of Kyoto in Japan. She returns to the U.S. inSeptember. Wiweka Kaszubski Warinner, AB'85,earned her Ph.D. in biochemistry from the Universityof Illinois in January. She and her husband, AndyWar inner , SB'84, are moving to Geneva, Switzer­land, where she will work for Glaxo Pharmaceuticals.'IIDe,·a·986 Douglas Anderson, MBA'86, was recentlyelected a managing partner of the San DiegoCPA firm of Steres, Alpert & Carne. Kevin Balio­zian, MBA' 86, married Mary Holland in August1990. Dawn Bunting, AB'86, see 1989, IngridBooth. Alexander Gurvich, AB'86, is studyingphysics at the Universite Pierre et Marie Curie inParis. Scott Hoffman, AB'86, see 1989, Ann Cote.Pieter Landman, MBA'86, was married last summerto Ivonne Pessy. They live in the Netherlands. Wil­liam Larkin, X'86, works for Allendale, a propertyinsurer, as an account representative. He notes that itssister company, Arkwright, currently underwrites allU of C property.Steve Levitan, JD'86, MBA'86, is an associate inthe bankruptcy department of the New York City lawfirm of Weil, Gotshal & Manges. Donald Petersen,AB'86, works for Bickle & Brewer in Chicago.George Reimonn, AB'86, and Jeanne Chapman,AB'85, were married in 1989. Jeanne planned to be­gin as an associate at the San Francisco law firm ofMurphy, Weir & Butler in the spring. Andy Steinfeld,AB'86, is an intern at the U.S. consulate in Shenyang,China. Phyllis Knox Willard, MBA'86, and her hus­band, Chuck, had a daughter, Elyse Marie, in 1990.87 Mads Asprem, MBA'87, has completed herfirst year as an equity analyst with CreditSuisse First Boston in London. Dennis Flynn,MBA'87, see 1984, Gwenyth Flynn. Deborah Good­man, AM' 87, is a curatorial assistant at Yale U niversi- Missionary ZealPamela Ferguson, president -electof Grinnell College, is dedicated tothe liberal arts-and to action.etting goals. Defining a mission. Re­specting the individual. These are theissues the eleventh-and first female-president of Grinnell College raises whenshe discusses the job ahead. Pamela Ander­son Ferguson, SM'66, PhD'69, will as­sume the top post at the highly ranked Iowaliberal arts college on July 1, succeedingGeorge Drake, DB'62, AM'63, PhD'65,who plans to return to teaching after servingtwo years in the Peace Corps.Ferguson is currently associate provostand dean of the graduate school as well as aprofessor of mathematics at the Universityof Miami. In addition to succeeding a U of Calumnus, she is married to one: husband Ro­ger, MBA'70, was until recently a vice presi­dent with Eastern Airlines. The couple hastwo children.The move from large (14,000 students),urban Miami to small (1,300), rural Grin­nell has surprised some. But to Ferguson,the transition seems only natural. Her back­ground- Ferguson's undergraduate degreeis from Wellesley-combined with her ad­ministrative experience at Miami, includinga stint as director of the honors program, hasinstilled in the mathematician a strong beliefin the liberal arts. "If you think that a liberalarts education is the best education, as I do,it makes sense to move to a place that doesthat well," Ferguson explains.Ferguson views the college president'Srole as thatofa "facilitator." "I think that it'snot to be a micromanager, but to set the tonefor the institution, to articulate the mission;to remind people what it is we stand for." AtGrinnell, she expands, that means "respect­ing individuals" and "honoring the commit­ment to a strong liberal arts education." Thepresident should be the one to keep asking,"How can we do this?" she declares.One goal Ferguson hopes to achieve is thegreater diversification of both Grinnell'sstudent body and its faculty and administra­tion. This project will be a continuation ofan ongoing effort at Grinnell; out of the last14 appointments at the college, nine havebeen women and three, minorities. "I amencouraged by that," Ferguson says. "Thereis a need for employing everybody'stalents." She realizes, however, that Grinnell is at adisadvantage in its quest for variety: its loca­tion amid the Iowa cornfields makes attract­ing different cultures a challenge. "Grinnellhas, as a part of its mission, a wish to preparepeople for their duty to society, and in orderto do that you need to see things in context,"Ferguson acknowledges. Increasing minor­ity representation on the faculty, she be­lieves, is one way of creating that context.Another priority for Ferguson is improv­ing Grinnell's name recognition. "I thinkthat Grinnell is a wonderful institution, but Iknow, at least in the South, a lot of peoplehave never heard of it, " she points out. Shehopes that greater recognition will in itselfmake it easier to recruit a variety ofstudents.Ferguson's emphasis on providing a heter­ogeneous environment stems partially fromher own experiences as both a student and aprofessor in a predominantly male field. Itwas not until she entered Wellesley that shegained the confidence to pursue her interestin mathematics. "Clearly, attending an a11-women's college was critical in making mebelieve in myself," she asserts. She alsocites the small size of Wellesley-it'S onlyslightly larger than Grinnell-as crucial: "asmaller place," she observes, "allows youto be the center of attention. "U sed to tackling challenges, Ferguson isthrilled at the prospect of a new one. AndGrinnell fits in well with her personal senseof mission: "The best thing about Grinnell isthat there seems to be a sense of community,an ethos of real respect." -J. CUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE! APRIL 1991 43ty Art Gallery. Dan Jerabek, MBA'87, is a director inthe corporate finance group at GATX Capital in SanFrancisco. He and his wife, Barbara, have a one-year­old son, Nicholas. Keith Karoly, SM'87, see 1989,Ingrid Booth. Kathleen Lively, AB' 87, AM' 87, mar­riedJonathanE.O. Nussbaum, AB'87, in July 1990.They planned to move overseas when Jonathan re­ceived a foreign service assignment.Patrick McNeil, SB'87, is in his second year atStanford Law School. He worked last summer at theChicago law firm of Sidley & Austin; he plans to worknext summer at Debevoise & Plimpton in New YorkCity. Nancy Sonnenfeld, AB'87, see 1989, IngridBooth.88 Kenneth Barnes, MBA'88, has been namedmanager of the appraisal division ofCushman & Wakefield's Seattle office. RolandoBranly, AB'88, see 1989, Roxanne Yamashita. Vir­ginia Cram, MBA'88, is secretary general for the In­ternational Data Exchange Association in Brussels,Belgium, where she and her husband, Walter Martos,live. William Flevares, AB'88, see 1989, Ann Cote.Anizia Karmazyn, AM'88, is a decorative-arts col­lections manager at the Henry Francis DuPont Win­terthur Museum near Wilmington, DE. Her ownworks were exhibited in a solo show during Octoberand November 1990. Takuya Kamata, MBA'88, leftthe Bank of Tokyo to join the World Bank last Septem­ber. He and his wife, Erika, live in Washington, DC.Chris Koomey, AB'88, AM'88, see 1989, IngridBooth. Brian Penoyer, AB'88, married Hilda Bak­er, AB'89, MST'90, on June 2, 1990 in Bond Chapel.They live on Governor's Island in New York City,where Brian is a Coast Guard officer and Hilda is ateacher. Seth Pinsky, AB'88, works for Furthco inSan Francisco. Minwoon Yang, AB'88, lives with hiswife and daughter near Boston, where he is an invest­ment banker.89 Hilda Baker, AB'89, see 1988, Brian Pe­noyer. Ingrid Booth, AB'89, married GuyParker, AB'85, SM'89, in July 1990. In attendancewere U of C professors Leon Kass, SB'58, MD'62, Amy Kass, AB'62, and James Redfield, AB'54,PhD'61; Kathy Atlass Redfield, AB'70, AM'73;Helen Serebin, AB'89; Doug Geogerian, AB'90;Chris Koomey, AB'88, AM'88; ScottVelin, AB'89;Jonathan Spear, AB'90; Nancy Sonnenfeld,AB'87; David Kaufman, AB'85; Keith Karoly,SM'87; and Dawn Bunting, AB'86. IngridisaPh.D.student in botany at the University of Washington, andGuy is working on his dissertation for the U of C'sCommittee on Social Thought.Wedding bells also rang last year for Ann Cote,AB'89, and Scott Hoffman, AB'86, who were mar­ried in November in Annapolis, MD. Attendants in­cluded Kristine Novak, AB'89, William Flevares,AB'88, and William Werhane, AB'90. Doug Jack­man, AB'89, Mary Beth Novy, AB'89, and FredSchmucker, AB'90, were guests.Jim McCambridge, AB' 89, is a graduate student inapplied physics at Yale. He says, believe it or not, it'sjust not as much fun as the U of C. Liam Stacey,AB'89, is a botany graduate student at the Universityof Oregon. Robert Travis, PhD'89, is a post doc inStanford's sociology department. Roxanne Yamashi­ta, AB'89, married Rolando Branly, AB'88, in Au­gust 1990. They are graduate students at Stephen Aus­tin State University, he in the astronomy departmentand she in biology.90 Judith Beto, PhD'90, is editor of the Jour­nat ofRenat Nutrition, the new official publi­cation of the Council on Renal Nutrition, a part of theNational Kidney Foundation. Daniel Crane, AB'90,see 1962, Garry Crane. Doug Geogerian, AB'90,and Jonathan Spear, AB'90, see 1989, Ingrid Booth.Maria Sbrocco, MBA'90, married Michael Abramsin June. They live near Columbus, OH, where Mariais a business development specialist for General Elec­tric. Kirsten Sutherland, AB'90, teaches at the Lab­oratory Schools and will have a show of her photogra­phy at the Smart Museum on campus in the spring of1991. William Werhane, AB'90, and Fred Sch­mucker, AB'90, see 1989, Ann Cote. John Yung,AB'90, see 1970, Lincoln Yung.DEATHSFACULTYRobert Woodman Wadsworth, PhB'34, AM'43,a former lecturer in the Library School, died Septem­ber 22, 1990. He was a longtime resident of Hyde Parkand active in the Unitarian Church.STAFFFrancis ("Fotini") Karapas, a research technicianin the biological sciences division for 38 years, diedDecember 16. She was 61. A lifetime resident of theSouth Side, she belonged to Philoptochos, a philan­thropic group associated with the Greek OrthodoxChurch.19105Mildred Allen, X' 16, died November 4. She taughtat Mount Holyoke College from 1933 until her 1958retirement as professor and chair of the physics depart­ment. Survivors include a sister, Margaret AllenAnderson.Margaret MacDonald Doorty, PhB'17, diedOctober 26. In the early 1930s she wrote a cookingcolumn for the Paris edition of the Chicago Tribune.Later, she and her husband, John, operated a guestranch in Montana. After World War II she wroteanother column for New York papers, and becamethe first editor of the Al-Anon Monthly Forum. Survi-44 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE! APRIL 1991 vors include a daughter, a brother, and three grand­children.19205William Paley, X'20, died October 26. As a 26-year-old, Paley bought a small conglomerate of radiostations and turned it into the CBS network empire.With the advent of television, he brought correspon­dent Edward R. Murrow to the screen and later scoredhits with shows such as "The Mary Tyler MooreShow," "All in the family," "M*A*S*H," and "Dal­las." Survivors include four children, two step­children, a sister, and eight grandchildren.William J. Ryan, JD'22, died September 24 inArlington Heights, IL. He was a retired attorney.Nicholas B. Clinch, PhB'22, died January 11,1989, in Dallas, TX. He was buried with full militaryhonors in Arlington National Cemetery. Survivorsinclude his son, Nicholas.Ethel Bisno Reibel, PhB'23, died January 9. Shewas a retired social worker for the City of Chicago.Survivors include her husband, Bertram; a son;a daughter; six grandchildren; and five great­grandchildren.Joseph Lyons, PhB'24, died at the age of 88. Hehad been an executive of the Empire Box Companyand the Ohio Box Board Company; in retirement hevolunteered for the Bay Harbor Elementary School.Survivors include his wife, Gerrie; a son; a daughter; and five grandchildren.Gladys M. Johnson, PhB'24, died January 25. Sheworked for the American Association of UniversityWomen, the Illinois Commerce Commission, and theIllinois Department of Public Aid. Survivors includefour cousins.Harriet Benson Sizer, SB'24, died August 8 inLaguna Beach, CA. Before retirement, she was chiefmicrobiologist for the Orange County Health Depart­ment. Survivors include two sisters, Miriam Rigotti,SB'37, and Helen Nichols, PhB'27.Lewis Workman, SM'25, died November 2 at theage of91. He was a water and oil geologist for the Stateof Illinois and later with the Canadian StratographicService in Alberta, Canada. After his 1965 retirementhe founded a geological consulting business.Clara Havill, X'26, died November 14. She ownedand operated Havill's Radio and Television in HydePark until 1975. She also served as assistant to the di­rector of the Oriental Institute. Among her survivorsare three daughters, including Mildred Juskevice,AB'63; a sister; 11 grandchildren; and six great­grandchildren.Ole I. Jacobsen, MAT'26, died March 2, 1990.Survivors include a daughter, Joan Jacobsen Bourcier.John A. Gardner, PhB'27, died August 24. An or­dained Presbyterian minister, he was executive associ­ate of the Church Federation of Greater Chicago from1957 to 1968. During his tenure he organized the Illi­nois Rally for Civil Rights, at which 75,000 peoplegathered in Soldier Field to hear Martin Luther King,Jr., urge passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Heretired to North Carolina in 1971. Survivors includehis wife, Dorothy; a son; a daughter; and two grand­children.Alice Hahn Rausch, SB'27, died November 22 inBloomington, IL. She was a high school teacher, so­cial worker, and church volunteer. Survivors include adaughter; three sisters, including Pauline Kegerreis,SB'30; and two grandchildren.Vivian Wagner, PhB'28, JD'30, died November 9in Chicago. She served as a consultant to the federalHead Start program and also worked at the U of C'scounseling center. Survivors include a brother.19305Sam Banks, SB'30, MD'35, died November 16.He served in the Army as an orthopaedic surgeon dur­ing World War II. He later became an associate profes­sor at Northwestern University, while serving on thestaffs of several Chicago area hospitals. In the 1960she chaired the American College of Surgeons, duringwhich time he helped organize training classes for po­lice, firefighters, and ambulance personnel. Survivorsinclude his wife, Ruth.LaVerne Larson Carlson, PhB'31, SM'36, diedJanuary 2, 1989. Survivors include her husband,Leland H. Carlson, PhD'39, CLA'39, and a son.William B. Crawford, PhB'31, 10'31, died Janu­ary 7. In 1931 he became the youngest federal pro­secutor in the nation, working on the team whichsuccessfully prosecuted Al Capone for income taxevasion. In 1949 he opened a private law firm in Chica­go which he ran for nearly 20 years. Survivors includehis wife, Jane Murray; a daughter; two sons; and sevengrandchildren.Arthur C. O'Meara, PhB'31, JD'33, died March26, 1990. Survivors include his wife, Janet Good­man O'Meara, SB'33, and a son, Arthur O'MearaIII,1O'60.Arthur E. Green, SB'31, SM'32, died December2. He was a teacher at Triton College and garden editorfor the Chicago Sun- Times for 20 years. Survivors in­clude his son, Arthur Green, AB'69, MBA'76.Louella Empey Turpin, AM'31, died March 18,1990, in Paducah, KY. Survivors include her husband,Harold.Alexander Barkan, X'32, died October 18 at age81. He had been director of the AFL-CIO's Committeeon Political Education; as such he was organized la­bor's chief political fund raiser and campaign organiz­er. Survivors include his wife, Helen; two daughters; abrother; two sisters; and four grandchildren.Lloyd Johnstone Davidson, PhB'32, AM'34,PhD'42, died September 17. He served in the Armyfor four years during World War II and became an Eng­lish professor at Virginia Military Institute, teachingthere for 21 years. He was dean of the faculty from1955 to 1965. Survivors include his wife, Susan; twostepdaughters; and four step-grandchildren.RalfMasure, SB'32, died early in 1990 in Miami,FL. Survivors include a brother, M.P. Masure,SB'29, SM'30.JohnW. Brooks, PhB'33, died October 9. While atthe U of C he set records in the long jump and won twoBig Ten titles. He was a member of the 1936 Olympictrack team with Jesse Owens. Brooks later becamea Chicago Park District supervisor, serving in thatposition for 35 years. Survivors include his wife,Wannetta; three daughters; and two grandchildren.Max Davidson, AB'36, JD'37, died December 24.He was executive director of Chicago's East BankClub, a position he assumed after acting as director forthe Lincoln Park Tennis Club and the McClurg CourtSports Center.Hendy Lee Hamilton, AM'35, died July 26. She.was a retired teacher for the Jefferson County (KY)School Board of Education and a member of the Colo­nial Dames of America.Owen Heninger, MD'35, died November 28 inProvo, UT. He was superintendent of Utah State Hos­pital from 1940 to 1964, and a wing of the hospital isnamed in his honor. Survivors include four children.Frederick Fowkes, SB'36, PhD'38, died October18. At the time of his death he was still teaching chem­istry at Lehigh University, having retired as chairmanof the department in 1981. Survivors include his wife,Royce; three daughters, including Beth Fowkes To­bin, AM'74, PhD'85; a son; six grandsons; and agreat -granddaughter.Frederic Greene, AB'36, died October 20 in Sara­sota, FL. A Navy veteran, he owned Modern DataManagement in Buffalo, NY. Survivors include hiswife, Ruth; a daughter; a son; two stepchildren; andfour grandchildren.Arthur Lidov, AB '36, a painter, illustrator, and in­ventor, died December 30 at the age of 73. His paint­ings hang in the Art Institute of Chicago, the Museumof Modern Art in New York, and the National Galleryin Washington. Survivors include his wife, a daughter,and a son.Walter Kozak, AB'37, died December 22, 1989.Survivors include his wife, Edith Vesely Kozak,AB'38; a son, David Kozak, AM'73; and a daughter,Rita Kozak, AM'8l.Edwin W. Berg, AB'38, MBA'46, died December8. He was a professor at the University of Illinois andworked for several Chicago advertising firms. He alsotaught part time at the U of C. Survivors include hiswife, Evelyn; two daughters; a son; and four grand­children.Louis D. Barron, AB'39, died August 13. Survi­vors include his wife, Muriel, and a brother, HarryBarron, PhB'30.John F. Richardson, AM'39, died August 24. Hewas an administrator for many governmental agen­cies, state and federal, throughout his career. He wasalso involved with volunteer and special interestgroups. Survivors include his wife, Jean; two sons;and a sister.19405Louis Fuchs, SB'40, died January 7. He was a re­tired geochemist at Argonne National Laboratories and a retired lieutenant commander in the U.S. Navy.Survivors include his wife, Viola; two daughters,Jannon Fuchs, AB'68, and Elaine Fuchs, professorof molecular genetics and cell biology and biochemis­try at the U of C; and a sister, Joan Fuchs Markley,SB'40.Herta Prager, JD'40, died January 8. She was aformer chief librarian of the United States Court ofAppeals for the Second Circuit in New York City. Sur­vivors include her daughter, Katharine P. Darrow,AB'65, a trustee ofthe University.Otto Bach, AM'41, director of the Denver Art Mu­seum for 30 years, died in November. He was also apainter and sculptor. Survivors include his wife, Cile,and his son, Dirk.Sidney Stenerodden, MD' 41 , died October 22. Hepracticed medicine in Salem, OR, for 35 years. Hewas a member of the American Medical Associationand the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Survi­vors include his wife, Marion; a daughter; two sons;and two grandchildren.Donald A.K. Brown, X' 42, died August 21. Sur­vivors include his wife, Mary Ryerson Brown, X' 43.William De Huszar, AB' 42, died October 31. Sur­vivors include two daughters, Marguerite De HuszarAllen, AM'70, PhD'82, and Madelaine De HuszarBullwinkel, AM'68.Robert Lee Graves, AB'43, died October 26 inTryon, NC. He served three years with the U.S. Navyin World War II. Survivors include his wife, Virginia;a son; a daughter; and two grandsons.Clifford Sawyer, MBA'43, died October 8, 1990.Survivors include his wife, Vivian Klemme Sawyer,AB'36, MBA'37.William Charles Matousek, PhB'46, died Janu­ary 17, 1989. He had been an associate professor of in­ternal medicine at the Medical College of Wisconsinas well as chief of staff at Clement Zablocki VeteransAdministration Hospital in Milwaukee. He wrote sev­eral books and was awarded a Distinguished ServiceAward from the Medical College.David Reed, PhB'46, died November 23 inGloucester, VA. He was a senior editor for Reader'sDigest and a former reporter for the Chicago DailyNews. Survivors include his wife, Irene; three daugh­ters; two stepdaughters; and a stepson.Shirley Ann Nienhuis De Witt, BLS'48, died May19, 1990. Survivors include her husband, Robert DeWitt, BLS'48.19505John Ashton, PhD'51, died October 4. Survivorsinclude his wife, Patricia.Thomas Hanna, DB'55, PhD'59, died July 29 inan automobile accident. He was director of the NovatoInstitute for Somatic Research and Training in Novato,CA. Survivors include his wife, Eleanor Criswell; twodaughters; and a son.Charles Frederick Gruenert, PhD'57, died No­vember 11. He was an instructor at the University ofTennessee from 1946 to 1948 and a professor at East­ern Mountain College from 1951 to 1973. Survivorsinclude his wife, Patricia; two sons; a daughter; andthree grandchildren.Antonio Pastor, SM'58, died April 1 ,1990. Survi­vors include his brother, Ricardo Pastor, PhD'53.19605James Day, PhD' 60, died December 18. A profes­sor of classics at Vassar College for 32 years, he wasnamed the Matthew Vassar Professor of Classics in1974, and retired in June 1990. Survivors include twosons and a daughter.Donald Megill, MD'62, was killed in a privateplane crash in Arizona on October 3. Survivors in­clude his wife, Pat. Raymond Weisler, AB'63, MBA'65, died Novem­ber26. He operated his own accounting firm in Chica­go from 1951 to 1971, closing its doors to teach ac­counting at Purdue University. He later joined thefaculty of California State College in DominguezHills. Survivors include his wife, Celia SherowWeisler, AA'35; a son; a daughter; and four grand­children.Fred F. Lang, MBA'66, professor emeritus of ac­counting at DePaul University College of Commerce,died November 12. He was also a boardmemberofSt.Anne's and St. Elizabeth's hospitals, the Evanston ArtCenter, Seniors Action Service, and Bank of the NorthShore, among others. Survivors include his wife,Leonore; two sons; three daughters; a stepdaughter;and ten grandchildren..Carole Berg Makowsky, AM' 67, died January 1 ofcancer. She worked for 20 years at VA hospitals, car­ried a part-time private practice, and was active in theArizona Group Psychotherapy Association. Survi­vors include her husband, two children, her mother,and three sisters, including Donna Berg Giboa,AB'62, and Eunice Berg Rosen, SB'54.Katharyn Miller Keller, PhD' 68, died September20. After earning her doctorate in microbiology, shetaught at the University of Wash in gil on School ofMed­icine and the National Marine Fisheries of the Nation­al Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.She later returned to Chicago and taught at the Chica­go Medical School in North Chicago. Survivors in­clude her husband, John; her mother; a sister; and abrother.Robert Martin, MBA'68, died in February 1990.He had been mayor of Wheaton, IL, since 1983. Survi­vors include his wife, Marcia.Nelson Thayer, AM'69, PhD'73, died July 19 ofkidney cancer. An ordained Episcopalian minister, hetaught psychology and religion at Drew University for20 years. He was the author of Spirituality and Pasto­ral Care. Survivors include his wife, Mai Leung; adaughter; and a son.19705Henry Cade, MBA' 73 , died January 10 at the age of64. He was director ofpubJic affairs and professionalrelations for Walgreens Drug Stores and was the Illi­nois Pharmacist of the Year in 1987. He also receivedthe Harold W. Pratt award from the National Associa­tion of Chain Drug Stores in 1990. Survivors includehis wife, Bess; two sons; a daughter; and three grand­children.Basilis Xanthopoulos, SM'76, PhD'78, was one oftwo professors assassinated on November 27 whileteaching a physics class at the University of Crete.Robert J. Kramer, MAT'78, died of cancer onOctober 4. He was the head of the Middle School atNorth Shore Country Day School in Winnetka, IL.Survivors include his parents and three brothers.NOTICE OF DEATHRECEIVED:Lin D. Cartwright, AM'15, February 1989.Harry Friedman, SB'22, MD'24, October.Eugene Ganson, PhB'22, October 1989.Gracye Rexroat Braner, PhB'25, July 1989.Albert L. Daugherty, SB'26, September.Powis Lee Heitmeyer, MD'28, March 1990.Ross H. Moore, AM'28, December 1989.Erna Schroeder Hallock, PhB'29, April 1990.Bernice Schlentz Kindsvater, X'31, March 1990.Miriam Sawyer Carlstedt, PhB'32.Louis Cinabro, PhB'32, October.Effie Sutton, X'32.Henry E. Patrick, PhB'34, AM'38, February 1990.Lemen 1. Wells, PhD'34, January 1990.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 45Leo Kotin, PhB'35, June.Selma Edith Cooper Russell, PhB'36, 1986.George W. Holmes, MD'37, 1981.Louis Berman, X'38, June 1987.Elizabeth Green, AB'38, 1989.Samuel W. Jensen, AB'38, February 1987.Katherine F. Shields, PhB'38, December.David Wilcox, AB'38, August.Ernest Baughman, AM'39, May 1990.Martin Baumgaertner, X'40, April 1990.Carroll D. Goodhope, MD'40, December 1989.Dorothy Ann Rapoport Lipson, AM'47, July 1987.Dean Shephard, AM'47, June.Gloria Sandalis Morgan, PhB'48, October.Ruth M. Ersted, AM'51, October. Philip Lambros, AM'51, October 1989.Arthur F. James, MD'53, July.Edmund Baetzel, MBA' 55, January 1990.Edgar Anderson, PhD'56, July 1989.Ido deGroot, AB'56, June.Edna Harris, AM'57, September.David Wilcox, DB'57, August.Lewis Waldron Williams, PhD'58, August.Marian Backlond Williams, AM'60, July 1978.Nobuya Bamba, AM'61, October 1989.Paul 1. Nicholas, MAT67, September.Carl Dettman, AM'71, October.Joseph Chase, MBA'73, July.Martin Drury, AB'74, AM'75, September.Barbara Chapman Banks, PhD'89, October.BOOKS by AlumniARTS a LETTERSDaniel Campion, AB'70, contributor, Lives inTranslation: An Anthology of Contemporary Franco­American Writings (Soleil Press). Campion and otherFrench-Canadian writers discuss their roots and theircurrent concerns with work, relationships, and theenvironment.Frederick Danker, PhD' 63, A Century of Greco­Roman Philology (Scholars Press).Patricia Erens, AM'63, Issues in Feminist FilmCriticism (Indiana University Press). This collectionof essays includes discussions of screen representa­tions of women, film realism, counter-cinema, andfemale spectatorship.Judith Seeger, AM'70, PhD'82, Count Claros:Study ofa Ballad Tradition (Garland). This analysis ofthe Hispanic ballad of Count Claros traces the workfrom 16th-century texts to 20th-century oral rendi­tions collected throughout the Hispanic world, exam­ining it from perspectives of text, structure, music,and performance.Arvid Sponberg, AM'67, Broadway Talks: WhatProfessionals Think About Commercial Theater inAmerica (Greenwood Press). This collection of inter­views with prominent people in theater attempts toprovide a comprehensive view of American commer­cial theater. The 20 persons interviewed talk on pro­ducing, designing, labor and management, and writ­ing; the playwrights interviewed include A. R.Gurney, Jr., and David Henry Hwang.Merideth Wright, JD'74, Put On Thy BeautifulGarments: Rural New England Clothing, 1783-1800(The Clothes Press). This text describes colonialclothing and the techniques for making them. Pat­terns, instructions, and lists of resources are alsoincluded.Louis Zabkar, PhD'58, Hymns to Isis in Her Tem­pleat Philae (University Press of New England). Thisstudy of hymns to Isis-inscribed on the walls of a tem­ple-contains photographs and hand copies, translit­eration and translation with documentation, and a de­scription of the hymns' relationship to Egyptian,Greek, and Latin texts.BIOGRAPHYSidney Harcave, PhD'43, translator and editor,The Memoirs of Count Witte (M.E. Sharpe). Thememoirs of Witte, a minister who served under the lasttwo tsars of Russia, provide a look at the waning yearsof the Russian empire.Eric Hornberger, AM' 65, John Reed (ManchesterUniversity Press). Before his death in 1920, the radi­cal Reed helped found the Communist Party in theUnited States; he was also the author of Ten Days That46 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ APRlL 1991 Shook the World, an account of the 1917 RussianRevolution.BUSINESS a ECONOMICSRobert S. Anderson, AM'67, PhD'71, EdwinLevy, and Barrie Morrison, PhD'65, Rice Scienceand Development Politics: Research Strategies andIRRI's Technologies Confront Asian Diversity (Ox­ford University Press).Timothy Devinney, AM'79, MBA' 81, PhD' 84, andWilliam Hightower, European Markets after 1992: Im­plications for Business Strategy (Lexington Books). Fo­cusing on the Single Europe program as it will affectbusinesses trading in Europe, the authors describe eco­nomic developments and examine the political and fi­nancial forces working toward unification.Gary Hoover, AB '73, Alta Campbell, and PatrickSpain, AB'74, Hoover's Handbook: Profiles of Over500 Major Corporations (The Reference Press). Thisbusiness reference guide contains one-page profiles of542 major corporations.Ruth Bernstein Jacobson, PhB'23, lOur OwnShop (Liberty House). A guide to opening and ope rat -ing a successful retail business.William Lazer, MBA' 50, et al. , Marketing 2000 andBeyond (Dow Jones/Irwin and the American MarketingAssociation). This report on likely future marketing de­velopments is based on CEO interviews, the futures re­search literature, and contributions from 18 marketingacademicians and practitioners.George Macesich, PhD'58, Money and Democra­cy (Praeger and Greenwood).CRITICISMGeorge W. Bahlke, AB'53, AM'56, contributingeditor, Critical Essays on Modern British Literature(G.K. Hall).Laura Claridge and Elizabeth Langland, AM'71,PhD'75, Out of Bounds: Male Writers and Gender(ed)Criticism (University of Massachusetts Press). Thislook at the concept of "masculinity" and its impact onliterary production and reception explores how cer­tain male writers respond to that code's confines.Thomas Meade Harwell, AM'47, The EnglishGothic Novel: A Miscellany (Universitat Salzburg).Thomas Meade Harwell, AM'47, Ranges of Ro­manticism: Studies in Nature, Keats, the RomanticHero, Gothicism, and Folklore (Longwood's).Patrick Colm Hogan, AM'80, The Politics of In­terpretation: Ideology, Professionalism, and theStudy of Literature (Oxford University Press). The au­thor criticizes some prevailing views in political criti­cism, including those of Jacques Derrida and Luce Iri­garay, and attempts to construct a different theory of ideology and institutional structure.Martin Kreiswirth, AM'n, and Mark Cheetham,editors, Theory Between the Disciplines: Authority,Vision, Politics (University of Michigan Press). Thiscollection of essays discusses theory's place in con­temporary intellectual debates.DavidS. Shields, AM'75, PhD'82, Oracles of Em­pire: Poetry, Politics, and Commerce in BritishAmerica, 1690-1750 (University of Chicago Press). Astudy of the political poetry of British America.EDUCATIONJ.H. Block, AB'67, AM'68, PhD'70, and N.R.King, editors, School Play: A Source Book (TeachersCollege Press). This interdisciplinary volume ex­plores the course, causes, and consequences of stu­dents' play at school from historical, anthropological,and psychological perspectives.J.H. Block, AB'67, AM'68, PhD'70, H.E. Ef­thim, and R.B Burns, Building Effective MasteryLearning Schools (Longman). This summary of20 years of mastery learning theory, research, andpractice traces the evolution of the mastery learningconcept.David Plank, AM'79, PhD'83, and Rick Gins­berg, PhD'83, Southern Cities/Southern Schools:Public Education in the Urban South (GreenwoodPress). This collection of historical essays examinespublic school reform in the urban South in the 19th and20th centuries, focusing on the issues of curriculumand administration, independence of school systems,city politics, and black education.William Ray Heitzman, MAT66, Careers forSports Nuts (NTC Publishing). A career guidancebook for those interested in sports and athletics.FICTION a POETRYPaul Carroll, AM' 52, Poems and Psalms (Big Ta­ble Books). This book of poetry takes the form of 15dramatic monologues spoken by Shams of Tabriz, awandering ecstatic of the 13th century.William Harmon, AB' 58, AM' 68, editor, ConciseColumbia Book of Poetry (Columbia UniversityPress).Edward G. Klemm, Jr., PhB'32, Letters fromChickpea (Fithian Press). This humor book containsthe letters of "Hank," who lives in smalltown Chick­pea, written to his cousin "Elrod" in Chicago.GEOGRAPHY a TRAVELRon McAdow, AB '71, The Concord, Sudbury, andAssabet Rivers (Bliss Publishing). This book de­scribes the plants and animals found in and along thesethree Massachusetts rivers; summarizes the historyof the Concord River; and provides a guide forcanoeists.HISTORY ICURRENT EVENTSJohn K. Alexander, AM'65, PhD'73, The Sellingof the Constitutional Convention: A History of NewsCoverage (Madison House Publishers). An analysisof the newspaper coverage of the Constitutional Con­vention, this book argues that publishers used their pa­pers as tools for propaganda supporting the results ofthe Convention and encouraging their readers to ac­cept the new political system.Edward Allworth, AM'53, The Modern Uzbeks:From the Fourteenth Century to the Present (HooverInstitution Press). This is a cultural history of the peo­ple of the Uzbekistan region of the Soviet Union.Gerald Schwab, AB'49, The Day the HolocaustBegan: The Odyssey of Herschel Grynszpan (PraegerPublishers). Seventeen-year-old Grynszpan's assassi­nation of a German diplomat in Paris in 1938 touchedoff "the Night of Broken Glass." The author examinesGrynszpan's role as catalyst, arguing that he was ableto thwart German attempts to use him as justificationfor the Holocaust.PerezZagorin, AB'44, Ways of Lying: Dissimula­tion, Persecution, and Conformity in Early ModernEurope (Harvard University Press). A study of the de­ception and lying practiced by dissident religious mi­norities of the 16th and 17th centuries and their ration­alizations for this practice.MEDICINE a HEALTHPeter Amenta, PhD'58, Histology (Elsevier Sci­ence Publishing Co.). Presented in outline form asan accompaniment to larger texts and atlases, thistextbook provides teaching diagrams and reviewquestions.Levan Capan, Sanford Miller, AB'53, and Her­man Turndorf, editors, Trauma: Anesthesia and In­tensive Care (lB. Lippincott Company). This bookcovers the spectrum of trauma care from the emergen­cy room through the intensive care unit, from the per­spective of the anesthesiologist.Susan C. Jenkins, MD' 81, Timothy P. Gibbs, andSally Szymanski, A Pocket Reference for Psychia­trists (American Psychiatric Press, Inc.). This refer­ence is a compendium of tables and lists designed toprovide clinicians with concise, useful information.Kenneth Kaufman, MBA' 76, and Mark Hall,MBA'77, The Capital Management of Health Care Or­ganizations (Health Administration Press). One of amanagement series of the American College ofHealthcare Executives.Mark Nagler, AM'63, editor, Perspectives on Dis­ability: Text and Readings (Health Markets Research).The author, who has had cerebral palsy since birth,gathers 75 articles by scholars on the problems andperspectives of the disabled.Harold Simmons, X'54, Cancer and AIDS: A Psy­chogenic Theory and Case Report (Haag & Herchen,Frankfurt).POLITICAL SCIENCE a LAWMartha Albertson Fineman, JD'75, and NancySweet Thomadsen, editors, At the Boundaries of Law:Feminism and Legal Theory (Routledge). This collec­tion of essays focuses on the legal injustices faced bywomen, arguing for changes in the system to reflectdifferences in gender, class, race, and sexual orienta­tion among people.Martha Albertson Fineman, JD'75, The Illusionof Equality: The Rhetoric and Reality of Divorce Re­form (University of Chicago Press). The author ar­gues that a dismissal of women's inherent disadvan­tages-the socioeconomic factors which both placewomen at a disadvantage in the marketplace and favortheir assuming primary domestic responsibilities­has resulted in divorce reform actually hurting thewomen it was designed to help.Betty Glad, PhD'62, editor and contributor, Psy­chological Dimensions of War (Sage Publications).This collection of essays analyzes how psychologicalfactors influence the origins, processes, and conse­quences of war.Anne O. Finkelstein Kandel, AB'51, and LouisM. Brown, The Legal Audit: Corporate Internal In­vestigation (Clark Boardman). This legal guidebookoffers advice on the implementation, procedures, andnecessary safeguards for a business legal audit.Jennifer Nedelsky, AM'74, PhD' 77, PrivateProperty and the Limits of American Constitutional­ism: The Madisonian Framework and its Legacy (U ni­versity of Chicago Press).Mimi Zeiger, AB'64, Essentials of Writing Bio­medical Research Papers (McGraw-Hill). This guideto the basics of writing biomedical research papers in- Defining the masculine (see "Social Sciences")eludes specific guidelines, examples, and exercises.RELIGION a PHILOSOPHYJeffrey Barash, AM'73, PhD'82, Histoire et Po­litique: Martin Heidegger dans la Perspective duVingtienne Siecie (Aldines, Paris).Frederick Danker, PhD'63, Augsburg Commentaryon the New Testament: II Corinthians (Augsburg).Barbara Diamond Goldin, AB'68, The World'sBirthday: A Rosh Hashanah Story (Harcourt BraceJovanovich).Edward G. Klemm, Jr., PhB'32, Observations(International University Press). A collection of epi­grammatical observations on the world.Rosalind Silberman, MST'65, The Whole Megil­lah (Kar- Ben). This children's book contains a transla­tion of the Book of Esther, commentaries and activi­ties, and a play with production notes.Daniel Jeremy Silver, PhD' 63, The Story of Scrip­ture (Basic Books). This analysis of the emergence ofscripture uses archaeology and the history of culture toexamine the differences between the Bible and the Tal­mud, noting also the similar development of Christianand Islamic scripture.SCIENCE a TECHNOLOGYIthiel deSola Pool, AB'38, PhD'52, TechnologiesWithout Boundaries (Harvard University Press). Acompanion volume to Pool's Technologies of Free­dom, this work was unfinished when Pool died in1984. Edited into book form by Eli Noam, it analyzesthe impact of communication technology on society.Francis Duncan, AM'47, PhD'54, Rickover andthe Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology(United States Naval Institute Press). This study ofAdmiral H. G. Rickover's management techniques de­scribes his high technical and personnel standards andhis record of safety in nuclear technology.Gerald Jacob, AB'74, Site Unseen: The Politics ofSiting a Nuclear Waste Repository (University of Pitts­burgh Press). Jacob, who served as a policy analyst forUtah, monitoring the U.S. Department of Energy's nu­clear waste program, describes the history of publicpolicy-making regarding nuclear waste, arguing thatfederal strong-arm tactics have locked America into asingle, flawed waste disposal solution.Donald E. Osterbrock, PhB'48, SB'48, SM'49, PhD'52, editor, Stars and Galaxies: Citizens of theUniverse (W. H. Freeman & Co.). This collection ofreadings from Scientific American describes galaxies,luminous stars, and supernovae.Bernard Wolnak, SB'39, and Marvin Scher, edi­tors, Industrial Use of Enzymes: Technical and Eco­nomic Barriers (Bernard Wolnak & Associates). Therecorded proceedings of a conference of the same titleheld in Chicago in May 1990.SOCIAL SCIENCESRobert Boyd, AM'53, PhD'62, Personal Trans­formations in Small Groups: A Jungian Perspective(Tavistock/Routledge). This collection of researchstudies examines the functioning of small groups fromair empirical perspective.Paul Fleischman, AB '67, The Healing Zone (Para­gon House).Francis B. Harrold, AM'74, PhD'78, and Ray­mond Eve, The Creationist Movement in ModernAmerica (Twayne Publishers). An examination of thehistory, ideology, and social organization of the crea­tionist school of thought.John Kendrick, X'40, Personal Productivity:How to Increase Your Satisfaction in Living (M.E.Sharpe).Eric Klinger, PhD'60, Daydreaming: Using Wak­ing Fantasy and Imagery for Self-Knowledge and Cre­ativity (Jeremy Tarcher, Inc.) This collection of scien­tific research on daydreaming explores its sources,its meanings, and its significance, as well as provid­ing suggestions on interpretation and uses ofdaydreaming.Peter Li, PhD'n, and Marjorie Li, AM'68, Un­derstanding Asian-Americans: A Curriculum Re­source Guide (Neal-Schuman Publishers). This re­source guide emphasizes the fostering of respectfor different cultures and sensitivity to culturaldifferences.Matthew Melko, AM'52, Peace in Our Time (Par­agon). Arguing that Western civilization is experienc­ing its most peaceful time in the last five centuries, theauthor suggests that this international peace may lastthrough the middle of the 21 st century.Robert Moore, AM'70, PhD '75, and Douglas Gil­lette, King, Uilrrior, Magician, Lover: Rediscoveringthe Archetypes of the Mature Masculine (Harper SanFrancisco). Basing their arguments on the philosophyof Carl Jung, the authors organize and examine themale psyche.Laurel Richardson, AB'55, AB'56, Writing Stra­tegies: Reaching Diverse Audiences (Sage Publica­tions). This guidebook offers suggestions for resolv­ing the issues of rhetoric, authorship, authority, andethics in science writing.Joan Vincent, AM'65, Anthropology and Politics:Visions, Traditions, and Trends (University of Arizo­na Press). A critical review of the anthropologicalstudy of politics from 1879, this book also studies thepolitics of anthropology, examining trends in theoriesand influential individuals.WOMEN'S STUDIESCharlene J. Allison, AB'68, Sue-Ellen Jacobs,and Mary A. Porter, Winds of Change: Women inNorthwest Commercial Fishing (University of Wash­ington Press). This collection often women's life his­tories documents the range of career options availableto women in commercial fishing as well as presentingan overview of the industry as a whole.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," pleasesend the name of the book, its author, its pub­lisher, and a short synopsis to the Books Editor,University of Chicago Magazine, 5757 WoodlawnAve., Chicago, IL 60637.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 47irst Things LastRadio days THE "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGORound Table" was designed to giveradio listeners a chance to eaves­drop on the kinds of lively lunch­time conversations that took place at theround oak tables of the faculty club-to hearwhat academic experts had to say about theraging issues of the day.The show premiered in February 1931.Broadcast by Chicago radio station WMAQ,the first program featured three U of C profes­sors talking about the week's biggest story,the Wickersham Commission report onprohibition.Within two years, the NBC network hadpicked up the Round Table as a regular weeklyfeature. Popular with audiences-attractingmillions of listeners each week-it was thefirst discussion program to win the Pea­body Award for excellence in educationalbroadcasting.It was also the first regular network programto be produced entirely without scripts. TheAt its peak in the early1950s, the "University ofChicago Round Table"ranked among the nation'sten most popular radioshows. Millions tuned into hear experts discuss Iheissues of the day.48 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ApRIL 1991 University, not the network, chose the topics,working with a faculty Board of Radio; facul­ty also suggested qualified participants. (In its24 years on the air, the program was host tosuch non-academic figures as John F. Kenne­dy, Ralph Bunche, Dean Rusk, JawaharlalNehru, and Adlai Stevenson.)While the first shows were simply im­promptu conversations in front of a micro­phone, the Round Table gradually becamemore formatted. Two experts on the week'stopic were matched with an "educated lay­man, " whose job was to keep the experts fromascending into specialist jargon. All three gottogether a day or so before the Sunday after­noon broadcast to go over an outline of theway the discussion might take shape.Several hours before airtime, the partici­pants met in the studio for a rehearsal of thehalf-hour show. That conversation was tapedand played back so they could judge theirtechnical delivery-and look for weak spots inthe debate. The goal was to keep things lively.After a particularly animated show, as manyas 16,000 letters would come in, and when, inthe late 1930s, a foundation grant allowed theshow to offer a transcription series, 21,000listeners subscribed.The first Round Table was a card table, butby the late 1930s the Mitchell Tower studiohad a new table: a triangular pyramid on legs.Each side had ledges for speakers to rest theirnotes-and their elbows. By positioning theirelbows on the table, they ensured that theirvoices could be picked up by the NBC micro­phone which hung above the apex of thepyramid.The Round Table-carried as a public ser­vice by NBC and later underwritten by theSloan Foundation-had its critics. In Novem­ber 1948, a lengthy Chicago Tribune article,headlined "Round Table of the Air: PurePropaganda," charged, "An analysis of abouthalf a hundred scripts of the broadcast overthe last few years shows it is used mostly asa podium for the personal political ideas ofRobert M. Hutchins, chancellor of the uni­versity, and those in sympathy. "In the end, the program fell victim not to itsmessages, but to its medium. By the mid-1950s, television had radically altered thebroadcasting scene. The Round Table's lastradio program aired on June 12, 1955-anddiscussed how academe could use mass com­munications to clarify societal issues for thegeneral public.There's a postscript. In December 1967,Chicago public-television station WTTW re­vived the Round Table as a series of weeknightspecials, which ran through the early 1970s.The guests-still distinguished voices fromacademe, government, and public affairs­gathered on a living-room set. Its coffee tablewas round.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOOFFICE OF CONTINUING EDUCATIONSUMMER 1991Since its founding, the University of Chicago has sought avenues to offer its educational programs to bothtraditional and nontraditional students. A central part of William Rainey Harper's vision of andcommitment to excellence was his belief that a major university should provide opportunities forcontinuing study to individuals at all stages oflife and career. Come join us for one or more of the followingprograms this summer:SUMMER SESSIONSummer Session offers a full range of courses for credit, from anthropology to economics, from history topsychology. Our open enrollment policy and reduced tuition rates make it easy for you to join us. Choosefrom a wide array of <;ourse offerings, including many which are offered in the evening, such as:Twentieth-Century Chinese Society, Literature, and Politics reassesses the complex of relations betweenliterary and cultural production, politics, political forces, and social movements. Celebrity & Science inPaleoanthropology explores the balance between research, media exposure, and politics in the careers ofthe Leakeys, Goodall, Fossey, and others. Introduction to Egyptian Civilization considers the structuralprinciples that underlie the Egyptians' responses to their own culture. In addition, study Spanish or Italian,or enter the dark woods of Dante's Divine Comedy.For a complete course list, call Summer Session at 312/702-6033.THE COMPLEAT GARGOYLEHave you met the Gargoyle? As a graduate of the University of Chicago you will undoubtedly recall thegargoyles which look down on the university campus from roof edges and building corners, but have youmet The Compleat Gargoyle?When you look through your copy of The Compleat Gargoyle, the University of Chicago's quarterly catalogof non-credit programs, you'll find the depth and scope of educational offerings is truly distinctive. Ourcourses provide university-level learning opportunities for post-collegiate adults. Instructors teach in theirareas of scholarly or professional expertise, sharing with adult students the insights they have developedduring years of research and writing in their chosen fields. The courses also put you in conversation withother adults whose diverse professional backgrounds and life experiences shed rich and varied light onsubjects of shared interest.Recent offerings have included:Academic and Professional Writing. Foundations of Modern Opera. Anglo-American Gothic Fiction• Improvisational Theater. The Philosophy of History • Film Study with Roger Ebert • The Civilizationof the Jews in Spain in the Middle Ages • Myth, Ritual, and the Idea of the Primitive • Ethics inBusiness • Religion and Gender. Drawing Workshop • Elizabethan Popular Theatre • Death and OtherEndings • Dream Interpretation • Foreign Policy in the "American Century" • Issues in Philosophy: OnFriendship • Figure Painting • Designing Socially Sensitive Questionnaires • Introduction to MusicalComposition. Fiction Writing Workshop • The Writings of Gustave Flaubert » Medieval Italy from theLombards to the Communes • and much, much more.Why not join us during an upcoming quarter? To receive your complimentary copy offhe Compleat Gargoyle,call 312/702-1722.5835 S. Kimbark Ave., Chicago,IL 60637 Telephone: 312/702-0539 Telefax: 312-702-6814