FEBRUARY 1991VOLUME 83, NUMBER 3162027 FEATURESShifting sands in the Middle EastThe Cold War was over in the Middle East well before theBerlin War crumbled. But the us. chose not to notice.RASHID KHALIDIIs it kitsch or masterpiece?Weather-beaten, unmentioned in the canon of 20th -centuryart, Lorado Taft'S Fountain of Time isn't easy to dismiss.TIM OBERMILLERCancer on trialTesting new drugs and treatments, physician researchers at theU of C Medical Center try. to help today's patients whilelearning what maysave tomorrow's.STEVEN 1. BENOWITZCover Detail from the south end of Lorado Taft'S Fountain of Time(see page 20). Opposite: Cancer researcher Mark Ratain (page27); both photographs by James L. Ballard. Inside back cover: ascene from the Court Theatre production of The Lion and theJewel (see "Chicago Journal"); photograph by Lisa Ebright.2 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 Editors NotesT' HANK YOU. OVER THE PAST THREEmonths, some 5,200 readers havewritten to the Magazine, enclosingcontributions totalling more than $87,000.We thank you for taking the time to write notonly checks but also notes-whether newsabout yourself, thoughts on the Universitythen and now, or advice for the Magazine'seditors. Our favorite note was Henry D.Ephron (AB'25)'s response to our "Less than5 cents a day" line: "My first year I paid tui­tion of less than 5 cents per credit per day! "Whal's in a Name?At a Department of Linguistics reception thiswinter, the jokes were-like the professor be­ing honored-both prolific and etymological.The party was thrown to salute Eric P. Hamp,the Robert Maynard Hutchins DistinguishedService Professor in Linguistics and Psychol­ogy, who retired at the end of fall quarter after40 years on the faculty, 25 of them as directorof the University's Center for Balkan andSlavic Studies.Faced with the formidable task of summa­rizing Hamp's linguistic accomplishments,his colleague Bill 1. Darden, PhD' 73, decidedto talk instead about "another" Eric, a "magi­cal figure" who is part of "a variety of Euro­pean folk traditions." The Eric of these stories"is a figure who appears suddenly in a villagefrom no apparent source. The man is clearlyof different ethnic origin ... yet he mysteri­ously can speak the language of the village."The folkloric Eric is usually described as "arelatively short, stocky man of indeterminateage ... with highly distinctive phonation prop­erties of his vowels." Some versions relatethat he "learned to speak very early, and it issaid that even his babbling sounded to a visit­ing scholar like ancient Greek."Such "word-master" stories, Darden said,have been found throughout Europe, leadingscholars to "discount the claim that all ofthese accounts could refer to the same individ­ual. It is simply physically impossible for anyone person to have done all the things and beenall the places that are attributed to this Eric. "Instead, Darden argued, "we should examinethe possibility that Eric was originally not aproper name, but a common noun. Accordingto Pokorny's etymological dictionary ofIndo- European, *eric is related to the root *reg­which means 'rule, correct, straighten.'... The proper meaning of *eric in this senseis 'corrector' of ancient speech."If we turn our attention back to the Eric thatwe are honoring today, " Darden concluded asHamp, devilishly dapper in a green tweedjacket and red tie, beamed in the center of thecrowded room, "we can see that he is a trueeric in the etymological sense."Whal Else is in a ,Name?Making its way through the voluminous listsoflectures and symposia that fill the Universi­ty's calendars, the Magazine has put togetheran imaginary symposium, a grouping of lec­tures joined by the fact that their somewhatunexpected titles caught our editorial eye.Our informal compilation began last year,when the Turkish Circle of the University'sCenter for Middle Eastern Studies presented''An Analysis of Toilet Graffiti." (The talk'ssubtitle made it plain that the writing on thewall was political in content: "The Case ofBosphorus University Campuses.") Thenthere was the presentation, from an Econom­ics of Uncertainty workshop at the GraduateSchool of Business, that linked "Game Showsand Economic Behavior." (The subtitle onthat one was, "Risk- Taking on 'CardSharks.' ")And this past December, a Noon Organis­mal Biology Seminar had as its guest an Ox­ford University biologist, who spoke on "Fif­ty Ways to Choose Your Lover." (That textwas subtitled, ''Assortive Mating in ZebraFinches.")Eye-catching names can also be found in theUniversity's telephone directory. Last year'sdirectory, for example, listed an employeeknown as "Candy Barr-Nunn, CentennialNutritionist." Barr-Nunn's office was said tobe located on the seventh floor of the (six­floor) Administration Building.The 1990-91 directory contains a number ofhusband-and-wife listings, from the Grays(Charles and Hanna) to the Titians (Paull.and Polly). Paull. Titian's job title is "Restor­er, Renaissance Paint Dept." Perhapsreflecting the concerns of an election year,the job title assigned Polly Titian is "GraftSpecialist, Botany Dept." -M. R. Y.LettersTeaching leachersThe Lederman Chicago teachers acad­emy ["The Importance of PreachingScience," DECEMBER/90] mayprove valuable. Many techniques and gim-micks, as well as better grounding, can help.For instance, years ago, after returning to theChicago City Colleges, I substituted in theChicago public schools to help pay for twoyears of graduate studies. One day, I went toan inner city vocational school.A clerk said I had a general-science class.She apologized for the "three dummies whocause trouble for everyone. "On the desk of my classroom hung a 10- inchslide rule. "Do you use this?" I asked. "No.""Would you like to learn?" "Yes," theyanswered, rather hesitantly.They had a lesson on levers, so I sketched amobile on the board. We started working theproblems using the slide rule.The clerk was right about the "dummies."They were "troublemakers." Had I not en­forced some rationing, they would haveanswered every question. Correctly!RICHARD HARRISON, AB' 49, MBA' 50CLARKSVILLE, TENNESSEEA mailer of principleThe brief account of Mrs. Gray's policyregarding discrimination in recruit­ment [DECEMBER/90] requirescomment.In invoking the late Harry Kalven's 1967 re­port as justification for her policy, Mrs. Grayis being either disingenuous or obtuse. Thepresent issue has nothing whatever to do with"the institution's public stance in matters ofsocial or political consequence" as you de­scribe the subject of the Kalven Report. TheUniversity of Chicago forbids discriminationin its own hiring, and it is perfectly proper forit to apply the same principles to organiza­tions which seek to use University facilitiesfor recruitment. If an organization openlyflouts those principles, the University has nolegal or ethical obligation to provide it withfacilities, whether that organization is theAmerican Nazi Party or the Department ofDefense. Thus it is incidental whether or notthe organization in question is influenced tochange its policies as a result of the Univer- sity's actions: the University does not act inorder to influence the organization, but inkeeping with its own principles. Adherence toprinciples, I must emphasize again, is notidentical to taking a "public stance"; it isproperly a matter of private choice.Again, with her rhetorical flourish about the"wide range of views for which the campus isregularly a forum, " Mrs. Gray pulls out a redherring. There is a distinction between pro­viding a forum for speech and providingrecruiting facilities: speech is not, as a rule,identical with action.Any reader of Harry Kalven's works willrecognize that he was a deeply humane indi­vidual, with a fine appreciation for subtlearguments and a profound commitment toprinciple. Since Mrs. Gray seems to sharenone of these traits, it is indeed unfortunatethat she should so defame his memory.If Mrs. Gray is unable to recognize that aUniversity, of all institutions, must demon­strate an adherence to principles, then she isclearly in the wrong line of work.ROBERT MICHAELSON, SB'66, AM'73EVANSTON, ILLINOISA maHer of influenceBy refusing to ban recruiters from theArmed Forces and other employerswho seek to discriminate on the basisof sexual orientation, President Gray and theUniversity administration have continuedtheir policy of liberalism with regard to FirstAmendment issues and fascism with regard toeverything else.Such discrimination is a criminal act for pri­vate employers in Chicago. Yet, as reported inthe October 11, 1990 Chronicle, Mrs. Grayjustifies continuing to welcome agents of theU.S. military's bigoted personnel policy, onthe grounds of protecting free speech in theacademy.To take such a position is to deny that theUniversity, as an institution, has any impactor influence on the wider society. This claimis false, for in truth, the University's social in­fluence is and has been great. Would therehave been urban renewal in Hyde Park, with­out the University of Chicago? Would therehave been an atomic bomb?The false claim that the University's activi- Distinctive Giftsfor DistinctiveAlumniIdeal additions to your home, office, orstudio, the Chicago Chairs/Rockersblend with classic and modernsettings. Sturdily built of northernyellow birch and finished in blacklacquer with antique gold trim, boththe Captain's chair and the rockercarry the University crest in gold.These heirloom chairs are made byS. Bent & Bros., a century-old firm inGardner, Mass.To order, simply use the formbelow. For fastest service, call3121702-2150 or 702-2152.Captain's Chair (Cherry arm)QTY at $225 eachCaptain's Chair (Black arm)QTY at $225 eachBoston Rocker (Black arm)QTY at $200 eachShipping and handlingcharges:$25 per Captain's Chair$30-60 per rocker,depending on destinationEnclosed is my check for $ _payable to the University of ChicagoAlumni Association, 5757 S. WoodlawnAve., Chicago, IL 60637.Ordered by: _Name __Address _City State __Zip __Daytime telephone __Shipto: _Name __Address _City State _Zip ___Daytime telephone __PLEASE ALLOW 6-8 WEEKSFOR DELIVERY.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 3ALL college, graduate division,and professional schoolFriday-Sunday, June 7-9Join your classmatesRevisit CampusSpecial celebrations are planned forCollege Classes of 1986,1981,1976,1971,1966,1961, 1956, 1951, 1946, 1941 and Emeritus Club(before 1941.)Graduate School of Business Classes of1986,1981,1976,1971,1966, and 1961.Law School Classes of 1936 and 1931.EnjoyThe Cavalcade of Classes, The Uncommon Corelecture/discussion classes, a Lake MichiganCruise, Alumni-Student Games, Court Theatrepresentation, lectures, a panel discussion on theMideast, tours, receptions, picnic on the Quads,and MORE.For additional information contactThe University of Chicago Alumni Association5757 Woodlawn AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312) 702-21504 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 ties are free of societal consequences is usedto justify a variety of repressive policies: theabsence of programs in African-American orGay and Lesbian studies, the lack of centersfor biomedical research on AIDS or treat­ment of persons living with AIDS, and ofcourse, the University's continuing connec­tions with businesses profiting in South Afri­ca. This claim will likely be the core of theUniversity's defense (when it gets around tomaking one) of its longtime sponsorship ofthe monster, Bruno Bettelheim: Bettelheimwasn't abusing defenseless children, he wasmerely engaged in the free exercise of intel­lectual inquiry. The same excuse has beenmade for Nazi camp doctors and the Tuskegeesyphilis researchers. In reality, ideas do haveconsequences.The University administration's defense ofits fascist policies and its denial of responsi­bility for their results must be exposed forwhat they are: pathetic attempts to silence po­tential critics of University actions designedto further the interests of the monied elite whofounded and still control the institution. Standup, speak out, and work and pray to changethis great university into a force for good, in­stead of a tool for bigots.HUBERT 1. THOMPSON, AM'SI, AM'S7CHICAGORinging memoriesYour OCTOBER/90 issue broughtfond memories when I read the articleon the installation of the 72-bell caril-lon in Rockefeller Chapel. I was born in theold Chicago Lying-In Hospital on 51st Street,a couple of years before the present buildingon 59th Street came into use. My father was astudent in the Divinity School during thattime. By the summer of 1932, when the bellscame to Rockefeller Chapel, I was more than atoddler and had begun to enquire from myparents about how bells worked. I was toldabout the concept of the clapper, so when mymother would take me for walks by the chap­el, I wanted to see the clappers under all thosebells sitting there on the lawn, near the base ofthe tower. Unfortunately, the rims of the bellswere too close to the ground for me to do this,except for one, and the clapper didn't seem tobe there yet.I remember being with my parents in atten­dance to hear the first carillon concert thereon Thanksgiving Day in 1932; very exciting,even at my young age. In subsequent years,my family would visit Chicago from time totime, staying near the University. We wouldenjoy carillon concerts as they came along,and I was always happy to hear the Parsifalmusic chiming every quarter hour.Later, while I was a student in the College, Ionce went over to Rockefeller Chapel on Sun-day morning, early enough to climb up those220 steps with Frederick Marriott, to the bellsand the clavier. It was interesting to watch hisperformance and to hear the carillon from thatperspective. Afterwards we did a hasty de­scent to ground level, since Mr. Marriott alsohad to play the Skinner Organ for Sundaymorning services.JAMES A. LESSLY, PHB'50FLORISSANT, MISSOURICold medicineO h bless you for summarizing Profes­sor Mearsheimer's views on the endof the Cold War [OClDBER/90]!Like a good and proper drug, his notion of abalance of power that kept things cold shouldserve well our common longing to anesthetizethe past. No more memories of the KoreanWar or the Vietnam War, to name just a fewsneezes due to the Cold War. The sniffles inLatin America and Africa certainly werearoused by local ailments and had nothing todo with superpower rivalry.I agree-after World War II, these were allpassing headaches. Please. keep sending usthese pills.BERNARD STEINZOR, PHD'47GOTHENBURG,SWEDENBeHelheim and complicityI was very disappointed by the publishedresponse to a letter to the editor in theOClDBER/90 issue of the University ofChicago Magazine. The writer had objectedto the apparent plan ofthe University to namea new research center after Bruno Bettelheim,notwithstanding the revelations concerninghis history of abuse of children committed tohis care. As I recall, the response of theOrthogenic School was to discount the magni­tude of Dr. Bettelheim's wrongdoing and toassert that the naming of the building wouldbe in recognition of his other or "good"work.Although the University has apparentlyadopted a policy of silence with respect to theBettelheim revelations, some facts appearclear: 1) Dr. Bettelheim did abuse a signifi­cant number of children entrusted to his care.2) Scholars and administrators associatedwith the University observed or were other­wise aware of Dr. Bettelheim's misconduct.3) These scholars and administrators, and theUniversity itself, knowingly concealed Dr.Bettelheim's misconduct for years and pro­moted him and the Orthogenic School as wor­thy guardians of the interests of children. 4)The Chicago Reader, and not the University,was responsible for the necessary public dis­closure of Dr. Bettelheim's record.The Bettelheim affair and the University'S THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONInvites you to join distinguished faculty and alumni friendsparticipating in the alumni travel/study programs scheduled for 1991Islands of the Indian OceanMarch 13-28Traveling the spice route fromZanzibar to the Seychelles, thevoyage will focus on the naturalbeauty of the islands and thediversity of their wildlife.Professor Stevan Arnold of theDepartment of Ecology andEvolution and the Committee onEvolutionary Biology will discussisland ecology and how distinctspecies have developed in isolatedanimal populations.Budapest:Crown Jewel of HungaryMarch 7-14This low-cost excursion to one ofthe most beautiful cities in Europewill include transportation,accommodation and breakfast ata four-star hotel, and the servicesof a tour director. A variety ofoptional tours and cultural eventswill be available, including afour-day excursion to Prague.Michael Camille, AssociateProfessor of Art History, will guideus to the art and architectureof this jewel of a city.In the Wake ofLewis and ClarkMay 19-26A spring cruise on the Columbiaand Snake Rivers from Portlandto Pasco will explore the history,geology, and nature of theremarkable river system thatplayed a vital part in the openingof the American West. Walking Tourin SwitzerlandJune 6-22.Participants will choose amongdaily guided hikes or strolls fromEngleberg, Zermatt, Celerina,and Appenzell. The trip will beled by Professor MihalyCsikszentmihalyi, author ofthe acclaimed Flow: ThePsychology of Optimal Experience.Scandinavian VoyageJuly 5-19Beginning with three days inreunited Berlin, the study trip willthen visit Sweden, Denmark, andNorway aboard the Illiria.Anna Lisa Crone, AssociateProfessor of Slavic Languages andLiteratures, will lecture along withher husband Vladimir Donchik,a noted architect.Alaskan Wilderness andNative CulturesJuly 26-August 6By ship, rail, and air we will visitsome of the most scenic areas ofAlaska's coastline and interior.Professor Jerrold Sadock, an experton the native languages andcultures of the region, will beour faculty lecturer.Also planned for 1991Study trips to the Rhine andMosel Rivers, Southern Spain,Southeast Asia, Greenlandand Iceland, andWashington, D. C.For further information and brochures or to be added to our travel! studymailing list, call or write to Laura Gruen, Associate Director, Un�versity ofChicago Alumni Association, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL3121702-2160.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 5long-term complicity in it are the only inci­dents which have ever caused me to beashamed of my association with the Universi­ty. My stomach turns as I now realize that Dr.Bettelheim was beating and humiliating chil­dren just blocks from my room in Burton­Judson Courts and that the University ofwhich I had been so proud to be a part wasaffording academic legitimacy to such be­havior. Now, rather than fostering publicdebate about what went wrong and why, theUniversity proposes to erect a monument toDr. Bettelheim. Shame on the University,and, to the extent that we are the University,shame on us.JOHN C. HENDRICKSON, AB'65CHICAGORemarkable educator ...It is time someone rebutted the recent"trash Bettelheim" writing that has ap­peared in the Magazine and in other pub­lications. Those of us who were students ofBruno Bettelheim and learned how to use ourbook learning in clinical situations, who wereexposed to his teaching of meaningful matter(often in a not gentle but always provocativeand memorable manner), wonder why onlyformer patients speak of his "abuse in thename of therapy." Where are the house par­ents of the Orthogenic School and others whoworked with him there?Much of the criticism has come from formerpatients. Patients are not always in the best po­sition to evaluate their therapy, even after along time has passed. We know that the Ortho­genic School took in patients that other thera­pists and other institutions would not touch orhad given up on. Maybe part of the reasonthese former patients are now sufficientlywell adjusted to make their way on the outsideis because of the therapy, not in spite of it.I did not work at the school. However I doknow that Dr. B. , both in lectures and in semi­nars, was a remarkable educator. In all myyears in schools there are fewer than tenteachers I remember that really made an im­pression and a difference in what I learned.Bettelheim in his classroom work and inhis remarkable writings was certainly oneof them.LEONORE LEVIT, PHD'63WILMETTE, ILLINOIS... Or arrogant madmanI am writing in response to your lettersregarding Bruno Bettelheim.I was incarcerated at the OrthogenicSchool for seven years and I find it impossibleto stomach opinions of the man from thosewho barely knew him.Bettelheim had his charming side and to6 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 many he seemed merely eccentric. But it issurely one thing to study with or work for amadman and quite another to be held by himagainst your will. For us it was much morethan dropping a class or finding another job.We were at the mercy of his bizarre moodswings and uncontrolled temper.As for telling our parents-I did from thefirst time I was allowed to see them, ninemonths after entering the school. He had beenso charming to them that they refused to be­lieve me. I told them exactly what he was likeand about his violence and unpredictablemood shifts. But he had set his stage well. Iwas, after all, "crazy" and therefore not to bebelieved.It was only after his death that we truly feltsafe enough to step forward with our stories.My aunt, who paved the way for my entry intothe school, is now horrified. She keeps sayingto me, "You kept telling us, and we didn't be­lieve you. " Exactly so. And now we all need tobe vindicated. Those who did not suffer atBettelheim's hands would do best to listen andlearn. The man was arrogant and sadistic.The truth will out in the end. Bettelheim'spower is gone now. We will be heard andrecognized.ROBERTA REDFORDAMELIA, OHIOBettelheim's resultsA bout 40 years ago we diagnosed twochildren as "autistic." One of themspent many years with "Doctor" Bet­telheim. The other remained at home and wasgiven opportunities for learning in smallgroups. In a recent follow-up inquiry, we findthat both are still unable to lead independentlives. They remain well physically, are lov­able, and cooperative.ESTHER SOMERFELD, SB'23, MD'25EUGENE ZISKIND, SB '21, MD '25Los ANGELES, CALIFORNIACall for informationFor a biography of Bruno Bettelheim, Iwould appreciate hearing from anyonewith personal letters or anecdotes thatshed light on his role as a teacher at the Uni­versity of Chicago and as director of the SoniaShankman Orthogenic School from 1944 to1973, and on any other aspects of his long ca­reer dealing with and writing about mentallydisturbed children. I am also particularly in­terested in information about his years inVienna before World War II and his incarcera­tion in Dachau and Buchenwald in 1938 and1939. Any information, no matter how minorit seems, is important to my search, and priva­cy will be strictly respected when requested.Please send any communications to: Richard Pollak, 404 Riverside Drive, New York, NewYork 10025.RICHARD POLLAKNEW YORK CITYCreative thinkingI was pleasantly surprised to read the arti­cle ["Course Work," SUMMER/90]distinguishing Robert Peters's work in theart/design department. Peters's courses in­spired my creativity during my undergraduateyears. The problem-solving projects im­proved my imaginative thought processesand brought balance to my course work. Iam happy to see his creative approachrecognized.CAROLINE CHRISTEN, AB' 86HINGHAM, MASSACHUSETTSMechanical music?I suppo.se it was an inevitable result of theelectronics-computer revolution thatscientists and pseudo-musicians wouldattempt to take over the composition ofmusic with their toys; but there were certainstatements in the article "Software Sym­phonies" [OC1DBER/90] that should not gounchallenged.It is a very easy generalization to say that acomputer is a machine like a violin or piano,but I believe it is an unexamined generaliza­tion. Yes, the violin, piano, and yes, the oboe,cello, et cetera are machines (in the most de­graded sense of the word), but they are alsoextensions of the human being. A computer isa machine, yes, in the ordinary sense of theword, but the human being becomes an exten­sion of it -at least in the composing of music.The machine- which- is-a -violin stands thereready and "empty" to be filled with music byhuman hands-it must be performed on; andwhen the hands are finished with their work,the violin returns to its "emptiness" -a will­ing slave to human aspiration. Not so with thecomputer-the end result of a program is atape, a closed end, immutable, inflexible­and dead. There is no performance (unlessone calls the twiddling of dials "perform­ing"). The violin feels infinitely flexible tothe performer, whereas the programmedtape, being always the same, has no flexibilityat all, despite the exuberant claims ofunlimit­ed variety by the computer-merchants.This putdown of traditional instruments forhaving a "limited palette of sounds" must alsobe examined. It is one of the glories of classi­cal music that given the severe limitations oftimbre, tonal range, and tonality itself, great­ness has occurred so many times. Can it bethat the greatness of conception was achievednot despite but because of limitations? Thehuman being is limited; his role, I think, is notto become unlimited, but to go inward, makeuse of the limitations, and become more con­scious. Adding to the range of sounds availa­ble is merely distracting-an exercise innovelty for its own sake.We are living in the age of the easy fix. If asynthesizer can create something close to asymphonic sound, then why go through theenormous intellectual process of writing sym­phonic music? If an electronic keyboard cangive off such novel effects, then why suffer theextraordinary demands of learning to play thepiano? (So far, the computer whizzes have notbeen able to duplicate the singing voice. Per­haps we are to be spared this indignity?) But inour rush for the quick fix, the overnight suc­cess, something cannot be gainsaid: the art ofmusical composition is still the art of addingnotes (tones ).to each other. And within that artthere are principles that cannot be denied.BARRY TAXMAN, AM'50BERKELEY, CALIFORNIASinging the praisesI have read with great interest Stephen Ap­pel's letter about the University of Chica­go's Alma Mater [DECEMBER/90].While learning several facts I had not known,I was delighted to read of another alumnuswho loves the Alma Mater as I do and wouldbe sad to see it replaced.As a child I recall my mother (MargaretFenton Headland, PhB' 15) singing while shewashed dishes after dinner: "Today we gladlysing the praise ... " I began then to learn thewords. "The city grey that ne' er shall die"with its "battlemented towers ... beneath thehope-filled Western skies" created for me apicture of the University which was con­firmed as an undergraduate from 1940 to1944. The words seemed to be-just right!Please don't discard those words-and themelody isn't all that bad if started low enough.I remember singing three whole verses duringmy Quadranglers pledge session and beingtold to "stop swinging it, sing it seriously."Apparently I just enjoyed that melody toomuch!So let's keep it -at least for the next one hun­dred years.BETTY HEADLAND OOSTENBRUG, AB'44HINSDALE, ILLINOISThe University of Chicago Magazine invitesletters from readers on the contents of themagazine or on topics related to the Univer­sity. Letters for publication, which must besigned, may be editedfor length and/or clari­ty. To ensure the widest range of voices, pre}erence will be given to letters of 500 wordsor less. Letters should be addressed to: Edi­tor, University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Wood(awn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637. Live Your Own Lifestyleat Casa DorindaCASA DORINDA is situated on an historic 48-acre Montecito estatenestled beneath graceful oak trees between the mountains and the PacificOcean. It offers active and gracious retirement living with comprehensivemedical care and freedom from household obligations.Casa Dorinda has 241 apartments ranging in size from studios to largetwo bedrooms, a splendid dining room, licensed health facilities and well­trained, experienced staff.For more information, call or write Casa Dorinda admissions,300-C Hot Springs Road, Santa Barbara, California 93108, (805) 969-8011.Name __Address __________________________ State Zip __C2/91�A Superb Retirement CommunityLocated in Picturesque Santa BarbaraLicense #421700160UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 7ourseWorkWhatTheyTalk aboutWhenTheyTalk aboutLoveFor Lauren Berlant's class,discussing a novel means ask­ing questions about knowledge,language, and power.8 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 nglish 451, ''American Women andWriting I," meets in an inner sanc­tum, a windowless seminar roomtucked away in the Special Collec­tions wing of the Joseph Regenstein Library.Students and professor are required to leavetheir backpacks, briefcases, and coats­everything but the books, papers, and notesthey'll need for the day'sdiscussion-in lock­ers at the Special Collections entrance.Even time, or at least its black-and-whitesignifier, a wall clock above the room's singleblackboard, follows separate rules. On thelast Tuesday in November, the graduate-levelcourse begins and ends (nearly two and one­half hours later) at precisely 11: 45.Whether the clock originally stopped a fewminutes shy of midnight or just before highnoon is immaterial. For a visitor to LaurenBerlant's class, either reading underscores thesense of having made an eleventh-hour en- trance at the end of the academic quarter."Do you want to meet on Friday for our reg­ular leakage session?" Berlant, associate pro­fessor in English language and literature, asksthe dozen graduate students-nine womenand three men, dressed in shades of denimand black, with dashes of vivid color-rangedaround an open square of seminar tables. (Somany students signed up for the course that, tokeep discussion manageable, Berlant dividedthe group into sections, teaching an extra classeach week.)Perhaps, she proposes, Friday could beused instead for extra, "graduate-studentonly office hours-like a secret sale in thestores." It would be "a chance for people tohave some last-minute time with me," to talkabout their end-of-quarter papers. "Thinkabout it," she suggests, before turning to thereading for the day, The Story of Avis.When The Story of Avis was published in 1877,the feminist novel by Elizabeth Stuart Phelpssaid things that made at least some of its read­ers uncomfortable. There was passionate im­age piled upon passionate image: raging sea,flaming sky, deeply clefted gorge. There wasa heroine who felt keenly the restrictions ofbeing a woman. Perhaps most shocking of allto the readers of its day, the book was a pains­taking chronicle of a failed marriage.The Story of Avis, one of almost a dozen nov­els that Phelps wrote between 1864 and 1910,is the story of a larger-than-life heroine. Avissees herself as set apart from other women byher artistic talent-and by her unwillingnessto limit her life to the traditional spheres ofmarriage and domesticity.Yet she allows herself to be persuaded by herlover, a young college professor named PhilipOstrander, to marry. Despite Ostrander's pre­nuptial assurances, however, there is nohappily-ever-after. Not only the marriage, butalso Avis's once-promising career as a paint­er, ends as less than it might have been.Harper's New Monthly Magazine reviewedPhelps's novel this way: "We can not think thatsuch a novel as The Story of Avis (1. R. Osgoodand Co.) is altogether a wholesome story ....it is at least open to question whether this is thekind of interior experience which it is desir­able that our young girls should have portray­ed before them as the ideal of true love." Incontrast, the novel was well received in thefeminist press. Writing in The Woman's Jour­nal, Lucy Stone predicted that The Story ofAvis would have "a permanent place in Eng­lish literature."At best, Stone's prediction remains prema­ture. Indeed, for much of this century, Aviswas out of print.In recent years, however, Phelps's novel hasbeen rediscovered by scholars like LaurenBerlant. Berlant, winner of a 1989 Quantrellaward for excellence in undergraduate teach­ing, is the author of The Anatomy of NationalFantasy: Hawthorne, Utopia, and EverydayLife (to be published in July by the Universityof Chicago Press). The course description of"American Women and Writing I" reflectsher perspective: "Even before Hawthornecowered at the spectacle of female cultural he­gemony in the America of the 1850s, publicscandal surrounding female literary author­ship was a distinguishing mark of Americancultural politics." This women's literaturewas itself" read as a kind of 'information' towomen about how to manage the pressuresthat 'the' sex apparently all experienced.... This course will aim to be as multi­generic, historical, and textual as eyes andpurses will bear. Authorial names: Warner,Fuller, Child, Stowe, Alcott, Gilman."And Phelps. Perched on a black-and-chromechair, Berlant-eyes deep brown and quick­sighted, nest of dark hair massed to one sideand balanced on the other by a slender metal­lic hoop of an earring-removes her black­banded digital watch, props her elbows on thetable, and takes flight.In . discussing Avis, Berlant tells the stu­dents, they may want to think about "the de­gree to which she experiences, as a contradic­tion, the contradictions of her position," toconsider "the question of whether the subjectis transparent to herself. ""There's a way in which this text," she con­tinues, "sees the technology of knowledgeand the technology of gender as inextricablyrelated." She ticks off a bibliography: read­ings on women and education, the study ofscience and art at the end of the 19th century.The book is also about being a gifted womanin difficult cultural circumstances. As "one ofthe earliest specimens of university novel," ittalks" about what kind of life you're commit­ting to when you commit to the academic life,what kind of body you're committing to whenyou commit to the academic life."Berlant's locution is as quick as her gaze."You're talking unusually fast today," onewoman grumbles good-naturedly. The teach­er obligingly slows down, but only briefly.After offering her suggestions for approach­ing the novel, she turns to the two studentswho 'lllead the day's discussion. They're to re­port on Avis and several secondary texts."Tell us the rules of your presentation," sheinstructs. "Do you want interruptions?Should we hold our questions?" The twowomen glance at each other, agree that theothers can pose their questions as they arise.Berlant: "So the interruptions won't really beinterruptions. "For the next hour or so, pages get turned, ci­tations found, and margin notes written. Firstthe discussion leaders introduce an essay by the French semiotician Roland Barthes. In"One Always Fails in Speaking of What OneLoves," Barthes describes his countrymanStendhal's passion for his" fantasy" ofItaly as"the passion for that other which is inhimself. "Berlant interrupts: "Would you be interest­ed in linking this 'other' up to the 'others'we've been discussing in other essays?""It's almost like a synecdochal relation­ship," the presenter replies, stumbling slight­ly over "synecdochal.""It's fetishistic in a way .... " The youngwoman continues to think aloud, pushingback a tendril of hair. "I don't think this otheris quantifiable. "This exchange-like much of the classroomdiscourse-reads like intellectual shorthand,As the teacher, saysLauren Berlant, "I'm theclass memory. Each day Icome in speaking about theway the day's text extendsthe questions we've asked."developed over weeks of conversation. Toa visitor, the semi-familiar words are taunt­ingly cryptic.The talk keeps moving. Barthes's 1980 essayis about the difficulty of expressing passionthrough language, about the problem ofdescribing the indescribable, the" spaces out­side oflanguage." It is a problem that, says thestudent presenter, "is also significant forAvis. Silence for her is as viable a force aslanguage sometimes seems."This reference to Avis gets little more thana nod as the group continues to scrutinize"One Always Fails in Speaking of What OneLoves" and another Barthes selection, A Lov­er's Discourse. Then they settle into an essayby Kaja Silverman, "Histoire d'O: The Con­struction of a Female Subject. "Berlant wants this type of discussion, shenotes a few days later, wants her students toread very different kinds of texts "againsteach other" and against what has gone before."Each day is a memory, and some kind of aprogression-or elaboration-of what hasbeen happening before." As professor, shesays, "I'm the class memory. Each day, Icome in speaking about the way the day's textextends the questions we've been asking."I don't necessarily want these materials tobe applied to the primary text," she adds."Ideally, you'd read the essays with as muchattention as you pay to the literary text. " A day's set of readings "will all be circulat­ing around a certain set of questions," in thiscase, "the constitution of subjectivity anddesire, and the way they circulate around agendered body. Avis might have things to sayabout that that these essays didn't."When talk turns to The Story of Avis, It ISmarked by the same careful citations of textthat punctuates more traditional literary anal­yses. Berlant's copy of the Phelps book isflagged with a score or more light-yellowPost-its, and she gives a small sigh of annoy­ance when she loses a fingerhold on a passageshe'd wanted to cite.But there is no easy-to-follow, line-by-lineinterpretation ofthe novel, no teacher leadingstudents through Socratic dialogue to an al­ready decided-upon locus. Berlant has pointsto make, but students have to catch them onthe fly.Rather, the class invents its discourse as itgoes along, starting with the readers' firstglimpse of Avis, newly returned from Europeto the small, New England college townwhere her father teaches, and sitting silently,with "a certain aloofness," against a flamingcarmine sweep of drapery at an evening meet­ing of the Poetry Club. There, a new tutor atthe university, Philip Ostrander, is readingSpenserian verse in his intensely "musicalvoice." Upon entering the room, Avis hadgone to that vivid drapery "as straight as abird to a lighthouse on a dark night. She wouldhave beaten herself against that color. ... "The first observations by the students arephrased as questions: "Is Avis actually stag­ing herself as art?" "Does she want to be thatbird, to fly toward that light, that color-herartistic talent?"Berlant picks up on Avis's silence: "You seeher silence as speaking very loudly for her, "she says, adding, "It's interesting that whenshe speaks, her voice is kind of yucky, reedy."The melodic Ostrander "in contrast is voiceitself. "Back and forth the discourse goes. Berlant,feet pulled up on her chair, knees poking overthe tabletop, listens as intently as the students,interjecting a clarifying phrase ("I'm good atrephrasing, " she notes later), jumping in witha fresh thought-or just as readily stopping inmid-sentence to let a student jump in with his.She's comfortable with the loose ends, the un­threading of complex ideas.Gradually, even an outsider gets more com­fortable, too. It's a different language, but it's afamiliar pursuit: finding life in a book.The clock still reads 11 :45 when LaurenBerlant calls it a day. "Thank you, guys," shesays to the presenters. "I hope this is what youwanted.""It was." The two smile at each other. "Wewanted a discussion. "- M. R. Y.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 9FOR THE RECORDRobert Darnall, MBA?3,was elected to the Board ofTrustees on Nov. 15. Afterreceiving his B. S. in chemi­cal engineeringfrom Co­lumbia, Darnall worked hisway up the ranks at InlandSteel Company in Chicago,from mill foreman to hiscurrent position as presi­dent and chief operatingofficer. Darnall is also atrustee of DePauw Uni­versity and the ChicagoTheological Seminary.The Center for HealthAdministration has movedfrom the GSB and will nowfall under the direction ofthe SSA. The move "reflectsthe changing character ofthe health care field, "saidSSA Dean Jeanne Marsh."With its focus on theorganization and financingof services, SSA is a naturalplace for the center to belocated. " SSA professorEdward Lawlor was ap­pointed the center'sdirector. Billions and billionsand billions of slarsmento Mountains of southern NewMexico-a location known forclear, dark skies. A site has beenchosen next to the 3.5-meter tele­scope being constructed by the As­trophysical Research Consortium(ARC), a group that includes boththe U of C and Princeton. Thisproximity allows the two telescopesto share facilities, scientists say,lowering costs for both projects.The telescope and its instrumentshave been specially designed by as­tronomer James Gunn of Princetonto map the universe quickly. Thetelescope's large field-of-view,combined with digital and robotictechnology, should allow astrono­mers to complete the mapping fiveto seven years after the instrumentsbecome operational in 1995. (The telescope's 2.5-meter mirror is ex­pected to be cast this winter.)Attached to the telescope will be awide-field electronic camera. Eachpart of the sky will be scannedthrough four different color filtersso that color maps can be made.These four-color maps will allownew information to be deducedabout the detected sources. For ex­ample, the color of a normal star de­pends on its temperature, but qua­sars, which have images that areindistinguishable from stars, showdiscordant colors, allowing them tobe recognized and selected for spe­cial spectroscopic study.To increase its sensitivity, thecamera will contain 30 digital lightsensors called "charge-coupled de­vices" (CCDs). With theCCDs, thecamera should be able to record 120million points of light simultane­ously. The scientists will also attachto the telescope a robot -controlledspectrograph, capable of recordingthe electromagnetic spectra of 900IN LATE NOVEMBER, ASTRONO­mers from the University ofChicago, the Institute for Ad­vanced Studies, and Princeton Uni­versity announced they will com­bine efforts in a new $14-million"digital sky survey." The surveywill map the universe 100 timesmore thoroughly than ever before,helping scientists solve some of thegreat cosmic puzzles.The survey, to he completed in10 years, will produce a three­dimensional map of one milliongalaxies, 300,000 quasars, andnumerous intergalactic gas clouds,as well as one million stars in theEarth's own galaxy. It will also gen­erate a two-dimensional color mapof another 100 million galaxies,many too faint to be included in the3-D atlas.A total of 20 senior scientists, 10engineers, and five computer pro­grammers from the three institu­tions will work on the survey, whichRichard Kron, professor of astrono­my and astrophysics at the U of C,described as "the cosmic equivalentof a U. S. Geological Survey map.It will show the details of galaxyand quasar distribution, as well asthe large-scale 'geography' of the �universe. " t]The survey will make use of a new .�2.5-meter telescope to be built at �Apache Point, high in the Sacra- Star search: Meeting astronomy's most pressing needs.10 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/Fj:BRUARY 1991galaxies, quasars, and stars simulta­neously. Measurements from thisspectrographic analysis should en­able astronomers, by determiningthe objects' distance, to create athree-dimensional map.In the course of the project, anestimated lO-million megabytes ofinformation (equivalent to a tele­phone directory listing 250 billionpeople) will need to be stored andanalyzed. The data processing rateand base-size required is 500 timeslarger than anything currently usedin astronomy-but is similar inscale to work now being done in par­ticle physics research at Fermilab.For that reason, Fermilab physicistswill assist the sky-survey team byproviding hardware and software al­ready in use at Fermi.Because the map will be in digitalformat, its information will be im­mediately accessible for many oth­er uses by astronomers from otherinstitutions. Project coordinatorsbelieve the survey will be especiallyhelpful in answering questionsabout the large-scale structure ofthe universe. For example: accord­ing to the simplest Big Bang theory,the universe should be uniform,with matter spread evenly every­where. Instead, stars are clumpedinto galaxies and are grouped intoclusters and superclusters. The sky­survey's map may show if still un­known subatomic forces or parti­cles formed the "seeds" of thesecosmic structures during the BigBang."One of the most pressing needsin astronomy today, " says Chicago'sKron, "is a detailed map that willserve as a foundation for further un­derstanding of our universe." Do­ing it "the old way, " piece by piece,says Kron, "would take a hundredyears," with the end result an"inhomogeneous map" -piecedtogether from many individualefforts.The winds of warcome 10 campusJEAN TWENGE, SENIOR NEWSeditor of the Maroon, reportedin the Jan. 18 edition of the stu­dent newspaper: "No matter whattheir opinion, students all acrosscampus gathered around their TV The end of the Cold Hizr is achance to study history inthe making, and the LawSchool has created a newcenter for researchers tomonitor and analyze politi­cal and legal changes inEastern Europe as theyoccur. The program willfocus on the developmentof democracies in Poland,Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia,Hungary, Romania, andYugoslavia.U of C students assembled on the quads before departing for a downtown antiwar rally.sets and radios Wednesday night tofollow the details of the unfoldingwar. AM radio floated out of win­dows; it seemed you could go no­where without being followed bynews reports. Discussion turnedto the war, with arguments com­plicated by Iraq's attack of IsraelThursday .... "University of Chicago studentsfaced war in the gulf with conflict­ing, sometimes clashing, emotions.Some marched against the war,others displayed banners express­ing their support of U. S. and alliedtroops. Still others prayed.As was true across the country,war was debated on campus longbefore it was declared. In late Nov­ember, faculty members SusanRudolph, John Coatsworth, RussellHardin, Rashid Khalidi, and JohnMearsheimer discussed "Shouldthe United States Go to War in theMiddle East?" in an event cospon­sored by CAUSE, Calvert House,the Center for Middle Eastern Stu­dies, and the Council for AdvancedStudies on Peace and InternationalCooperation.The following week, Khalidi andMearsheimer again appeared(along with history professor BruceCumings; Rabbi Arnold JacobWolf, AA'42, X'57, of the K.A.M.Isaiah Israel Congregation; BarryRomo, national coordinator of Viet -nam Vets Against the War, andNorthwestern political science pro­fessor Ibraham Abu-Lughod) in a "teach-in" on the gulf crisis,attended by about 500 students fromcampus antiwar factions aroundthe city.The "teach-in" was cosponsoredby the Emergency CommitteeAgainst Intervention in the MiddleEast, a student group founded lastSeptember on campus by NickDeGenova, AB'90, a first-yeargraduate student in anthropology.The committee, with several otherChicago campus antiwar groups,organized a downtown "MidwestRegional Demonstration" on Dec.8 involving an estimated 4,000protesters.Five U of C students and a campusminister were reportedly amongabout 150 antiwar protesters arrest­ed during aJan. 14 antiwar rally andmarch in downtown Chicago. Citedfor allegedly blocking entrances tothe Federal Building on DearbornStreet, several of these students toldthe Maroon they were held for eightor nine hours at the police stationbefore being released on bondawaiting Jan. 25 trial dates.During a second rally on Jan. 17,an estimated 100 students assem­bled in front of the University's Ad­ministration Building, marchedeast down 57th Street, then boardeda Metra train to join about 3,000antiwar protesters downtown. Al­though some shouting matcheswere observed between antiwarprotesters and a smaller contingentof prowar demonstrators, few ar- Billed as "the longestrunning academic symposi­um in the world, "the 44thannual Latke-HamentasliDebate, sponsored by HillelHouse, was held Nov. 20.Professors debating, tongue­in-cheek, on the merits ofthe two traditional Jewishfoods included Leon Leder­man, Barbara Kirschner,and Roger Weiss, AM '51 ,PhD '55, who conceded thatthe hamentash "doesn'trest" on scripture, "but atleast it tastes good. "Froma Hizlsh, PhD '77,professor in the School ofSocial Service Administra­tion, was elected presidentof the American FamilyTherapy Association fora two-year term startingin 1991.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 11On the occasion of its 15thanniversary, the David andAlfred Smart Museum of Arthas published A Guide tothe Collection (Hudson HillPress, New York). The bookfeatures color plates andindividual essays by Univer­sity faculty, students, andalumni on 86 of the Muse­um 'sfinest works. The bookwas coedited by Smartcurator Richard Born,AM'75, and associatecurator Sue Taylor, AM'81.Biochemistry professorMarvin Makinen serves onan international commis­sion investigating the fateof Raoul Wallenberg, theSwedish diplomat creditedwith saving thousands ofHungarian Jews from Nazideath camps. After years ofmaintaining that Wallenbergdied in prison, the Sovietsrecently reopenedfiles onthe case, and the commis­sion now suspects Wallen­berg may still be alive.On Nov. 30, New York City'sMetropolitan Opera pre­miered a performance ofRossini's 1832 opera,Semiramide, based on anew critical edition byPhilip Gossett, dean ofHumanities, and Italianconductor Alberto Zedda.With funding from theRossini Foundation in Italy,Gossett has supervisednew editions of almost 20Rossini operas.University President HannaH. Gray is the 1990-91 chairof the Association ofAmerican Universities. TheWashington-based advocacygroup is made up of 58 ofthe nation's top researchuniversities. Chicago wasone of the AA U 's foundingmembers when the groupwas formed in 1900. rests were reported-none involv­ing U ofC students. (DeGenova saidhis group was also rallying campusinvolvement in a national antiwardemonstration planned for Jan. 26in Washington, nc.)Just hours before the Jan. 15 UNdeadline, ''A Reasoned Debate onthe War in the Gulf" took place inKent 107. Before an audience ofmore than 300, student panelistsfrom the Federalist and EdmundBurke societies argued in support ofa war, while members of the Demo­cratic Socialists of America and theArab Cultural Club urged an anti­war stance.Several days into the war, on Jan.20, more than 90 members of thecampus community attended aprayer service sponsored by Stu­dents for Israel. Faculty membersand Jewish and Christian religiouscampus leaders spoke, with prayersoffered for the safety of Israel, theU. S., and the allied troops in thePersian Gulf.Explaining why a banner reading''Alpha Delta Phi Supports DesertStorm" was hung outside the frater­nity, fourth-year Alpha presidentDieter Drews said, "We havefriends and brothers in the military.We feel that it's important to let themand others serving over there knowthere are people over here who sup­port them and care about them.These people are putting their liveson the line, and it's a pretty unani­mous feeling, here at least, that weshould offer our support. "Apparently in reaction to the ban­ner, red paint was splattered againstthe house Jan. 22. A note was alsoleft at the house, said Drews, "say­ing something to the effect that'You made your point. Now wemake ours. There's blood on yourhands. ' " Drews added, "I'm disap­pointed that a person or personsapparently associated with theUniversity would commit such achildish act. We feel strongly thateveryone has the right to voice hisown opinion .... Whoever did this issaying that we should be denied thatsame right. "Red paint was also used to markWieboldt Hall with the slogan "NoBlood For Oil, " leading one fourth­year student against the war to com­ment in the Maroon that such be­havior was "at best useless, andusually counterproductive." In- John Watson and Celene Evans/rom Court's Lion.stead, the writer encouraged the useof less permanent materials-papersigns and chalk peace symbols-todisplay dissent on campus.While students debated the validi­ty of war, about 100 Armed Forcesreservists employed at the U niversi­ty Hospitals faced the prospect ofgoing to war. According to Hospi­tals spokesperson John Easton,three physicians, five nurses, and atechnician on staff had been calledinto active duty as of Jan. 23. to the beat of African drums asCourt staged the Chicago premiereof Nigerian playwright Wole Soy­inka's The Lion and the Jewel inNovember, and will continue thisspring when the theater opens Lopede Vega's Fuente Ovejuna, a 1614play considered a key work fromSpain's "golden age" of drama.The productions are just the firststeps in what Nicholas Rudall­Court's newly named executive di­rector-conceives as a five-yearplan "for artistic diversity," whichincludes the creation of a multi­ethnic resident company, the adop­tion of a multicultural, internationalrepertory, and the development of amore diverse audience.As executive director, Rudall,who has been artistic director ofCourt since its birth as a profession­al theater on campus in 1971, willassume both artistic and adminis­trative responsibilities for the newplan. To assist him, he has hired twocreative consultants: BernardSahlins, AB' 43, founder of SecondCity and cofounder of the Interna-A new day inCourt TheatreA BASTION FOR CLASSICALtheater since its inception20 years ago, the Universi­ty's Court Theatre is expanding itsrepertory beyond the boundaries ofShakespeare and Shaw this seasonwith authentic performances of in­ternational plays rarely seen in theUnited States.This new direction was heralded12 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/F_EBRUARY 1991tional Theatre Festival of Chicago,and Pam Marsden, associate direc­tor of the International TheatreFestival.The team will also investigate apossible change in Court's currentsystem of subscription program­ming, a system which Rudall hasfound locks the theater into a cycleof" strict, short" rehearsal periods,with no possibility to change or ex­tend productions.Rudall says the five-year plan"emphasizes the theater's goal totransform itself from an adminis­tratively driven theater to onewhich is truly artistically driven, fo­cusing on the art and craft of the ac­tor as the central impetus for greattheater."The Welsh-born Rudall's first ex­periences in classical theater cameat a private boys' school, where heplayed "everything from Goneriland Olivia to Romeo and RichardIII." When he enrolled as an under­graduate at Cambridge in 1959, herecalls, "there was a great theatricalrevival on campus," vitalized byclassmates Trevor Nunn, DerekJacobi, and others. Rudall came tothe U. S. in 1962 on a scholarship tostudy classical languages and litera­ture at Columbia, receiving hisPh.D. there in 1968, two years afterjoining Chicago's classical lan­guages and literature department.Rudall had already directed sever­al plays for Court when it was strict­ly an amateur, outdoor summer pro­gram, when he was approached"out of the blue" by then-PresidentEdward Levi, who asked if hewould like to try to create a profes­sional theater on campus. "Therewas a great deal of soul-searching inthe '60s about what the arts shouldbe on this campus, " Rudall recalls."The idea that this communityneeded professional arts-needed itfor its cultural life, even for its sur­vivallife-was very important."With the completion in 1980 of a$3.9 million, 250-seat theater at55th Street and Ellis Avenue, theCourt's reputation, and future,seemed secure. In fact, it grew toosecure for Rudall-at least after a1988 trip to the Soviet Union, wherehe experienced something of anepiphany as witness to plays which"astonished my sense of theatricalself. ""I'd never seen productions of Nicholas Rudall as Macbethsuch visual daring, political com­mitment, and audience responseand responsibility. There was asense of theater being a part of thecommunity which I could not imag­ine-or rather, I imagined it only inthe theater I teach, the theater ofAristophanes, where the city, thepolitics, and the passion were all inone on the stage. "Further exposure to non-domestictheater through Chicago's interna­tional festivals increased Rudall'sawareness at "how insular Ameri­can artistry is. When you are in Eu­rope, for example, French theateris different from German theater,Polish theater is different fromHungarian theater-yet they're allmassively subsidized as they try topreserve their specific culturalidentities through theater."Here, if you go to Denver, yousee the same production of PrivateLives as you'd see in Atlanta or Chi­cago, while any new play that suc­ceeds off-off Broadway just goesrapidly around the country becauseit's been so successful, so you seethat same play with the same kind ofactors, design, and direction."There's no infiltration," Rudallcomplains. "We don't even get in­vaded by Canada, which has a muchmore adventuresome theater thanthe U.S., or by Latin America,which has a much more politicaltheater than we do. "This fall's The Lion and the Jewelserved as the "critical test case" forwhether the adventurous theaterRudall admired abroad could beperformed in Chicago. He was fear­ful "that we wouldn't be able to find the resources in this city to do theplay authentically ... .In fact, wefound a choreographer who studieddance in Ghana and Nigeria, andNigerian drummers who lived inChicago. We were able to give avery real sense of an African vil­lage, African rituals, and an Afri­can sensibility."I now feel confident that if we de­cided to do a contemporary Koreanor Rumanian play, we could find away to do it. But our criteria forchoosing the piece would not be be­cause it was Korean or Rumanianbut because it had something uni­versal to say."A few subscribers have expressedworries that Court is abandoning itsclassical roots-probably, Rudallthinks, because The Lion and theJewel commanded media attentionin Chicago which overshadowed theseason's more traditional offerings:Candida, by Shaw, and Brecht's TheCaucasian Chalk Circle.For Rudall, however, the theater'snew direction is harmonious withwhat has always been Court's basicgoal: "to provide our audience witha sense of journey. Here, you cansee Greek tragedy, you get intoShakespeare's world, you get intoSpanish village life, or an Africancountry. We're broadening ourrange," he insists, "not losing ourbase."FallsporlsroundupF OOfBALL: THE TEAM LOSTnine straight, but won its lastgame in a 32-14 home victo­ry over Kentucky Wesleyan. Voted"Most Valuable Player," seniorMatt Ficenec led the team in rushes,with 715 yards and 175 carries. Theteam finished last in the UAA, butsenior linebacker Drew Syderearned first-team AlI-UAA honors.Women's Volleyball: With an18-10 season record, the team fin­ished second in the UAA champion­ships, defeated in the final round byWashington University (first lastyear and second this year in Divi­sion III National Championships).Sophomore Jennifer Hall wasnamed first-team All-UAA. Theteam has steadily improved its sea­son record from 13-12 last year and A new student exchangeprogram has been estab­lished between the Universi­ty and the Moscow StateHistorical-Archival Insti­tute. In the past, Sovietstudents have studied at theU of C only through govern­ment programs. "This isthe first time we have been­part of an institution-to­institution exchange, "saidhistory professor SheilaFitzpatrick, who cofoundedthe program. Two Moscowand three Chicago graduatestudents have entered theprogram so far this year.A team of LaboratorySchool teachers helpeddevelop supplementarylesson materials for a newPBS series designed toencourage youngsters toconsider a career in sci­ence. Science Explorers,hosted by Bill Kurtis,premiered Jan. 21. Themiddle- and high-schoolteachers prepared worksheets and lesson plans tohelp students learn morefrom the series.The Benton BroadcastProject received a 1990Major Armstrong Award forbest educational broadcastfor Bastille, Benton's origi­nal dramatic series on theFrench Revolution. The six­hour program first aired onChicago's WFMT on July14, 1989, the 200th anniver­sary of the storming of theBastille.Alyssa Smith, who turnsthree this month, visitedUYler Children's Hospitalfor a checkup in December.In November 1989, shebecame the nation's firstrecipient of a liver lobetaken from a living donor,her mother. The University'stransplant program contin­ues: of 16 recipients so far,two have died-one of aninfection unrelated to thesurgery.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 13The Fuji Bank of Tokyo hasgiven $1.5 million to fund anew GSB professorship infinance and accounting.The gift is one of the largestof its kind from a Japanesecorporation to a U. S.business school. "We havebeen consistently impressedwith the quality of GSBgraduates, "many of whomare employed by the bank,said Fuji chairman 'IaizoHashida.The National Institute ofAlcohol and Alcoholism hasawarded a $3-million grantto SSA professor MichaelSosin, AB'72, to researchhow better programs can beplanned to assist homelesspeople with alcohol prob­lems. Almost a third ofChicago s homeless havesuch problems, says Sosin,and a coordinated effort,dealing with both homeless­ness and alcoholism, isneeded.Afull-tuition scholarshiphas been established at theGraduate School of Busi­ness by the family of DanaFeitler, in her memory,through the Smart FamilyFoundation. Feitler wasmurdered during a robberyon Chicago s North Side in1989 on the day she was tobegin attending classes atthe GSB. The scholarship sfirst recipient will be pickedthis fall.Writer Richard Stern andpsychologist ThomasTrabasso have been ap­pointed to named professor­ships. Stern is now theHelen A. Regenstein Profes­sor in English and Trabassobecame the first Irving B.Harris professor inpsychology .' Volley bailers spiked their way to second in the UAA.3-23 two years ago.Cross Country: The women'steam placed second in the UAAchampionships, led by seventh­place finisher, freshman SaraWiehe, who made first-team All­UAA. In the men's UAA champion­ships, the Maroons finished in sev­enth place.Soccer: The women went 0-4 inthe UAA and 4-l3-1 overall; themen's team finished 1-13-1 for theseason and 0-6-1 in the UAA. Krapfhas averaged 19 points a gamethis season. The Maroons expecttough conference competition;: asthree UAA teams made the DivisionIII tournament finals last season.Wrestling: Hoping to win theirthird-straight UAA title, the Maroons were off to a good start­with junior Peter Wang winninghis weight class at a tough Wis­consin- Whitewater tournament inDecember.Swimming: At break, both men'sand women's teams were 1-1. Sen­ior Kris Alden, 1989 men's DivisionIII breaststroke champion, and jun­ior breaststroker Christy Florawere expected to lead their teams inscoring.Indoor track: Junior Neal Cawiset a school record in the shot put, a50'10 3/4" throw at the University'sTed Haydon Classic Dec. 16-breaking brother Mark Cawi's(AB'89) record by nine inches.Harmless darlingor just anotherstarling?LIKE BLANCHE DUBOIS, HYDEPark's monk parakeets areSouthern visitors whose sur­vival has largely depended on thekindness of strangers.Arriving in 1980 (legend has it acrate of the creatures was acciden-Winter sportsat breakWOMEN'S BASKETBALL:Coming off their best sea­son ever last year, theMaroons were picked to be confer­ence leaders in a pre-season polland were 6-2 before winter break.Senior Kristin Maschka=-Iastyear's UAA player of the year­leads the team in scoring again thisyear, averaging 15.2 points pergame, and moved into the second �spot on Chicago's all-time scoring :t:list with 1,121 total career points. �{jMen's basketball: Last year, the :is.�team went 6-15 overall, placing ieighth in the UAA. Going into win- .;ter break, the team was 2-4, led by . �junior guard Matt Krapf. A first- zteam All-UAA player last year, Bird watch: bureaucrats say they are "monitoring" the parrots.14 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZ1NE/FJ;BRUARY 1991tally released at O'Hare Airport),the bright-green birds have builttheir large, haystack-like nests ontree branches in a city park at 53rdStreet and South Shore Drive. To­day, the colony has grown from twopairs to between 60 and 100 para­keets. The birds, which are native toSouth America and a favored cagebird in the U.S., have survived sub­zero Midwestern winters-andthreats by USDA officials who re­portedly have wanted to remove thenests, calling the birds a potentialmenace to Illinois's fruit orchardsand crop lands.Hyde Parkers responded to theUSDA by forming the HaroldWashington Memorial Parrot De­fense Fund (the birds' original nestis directly across the street froth theformer residence of Chicago's latemayor Harold Washington, who issaid to have regarded the birds withparticular affection). Thousandssigned a petition demanding that thefederal government hold hearings todetermine the actual danger beforeany birds were removed.That was two years ago. Althoughthe USDA has not taken action toremove the birds, Bill Bonwell,USDA Animal Damage ControlState Director, says the Illinois De­partment of Conservation continues"monitoring" the parakeets, andcould call the USDA "if it wasdeemed necessary. "Bonwell and other government of­ficials fear the Hyde Park darlingscould parrot another introducedspecies: starlings. Starlings havecaused millions of dollars of cropdamage, and the acidic content oftheir droppings damages city struc­tures, says Bonwell, who adds thatthe monk parakeet is considered aterrible pest in South America,where each year it reportedly dam­ages from two to 45 percent of thecrops in its range. Because of theirhabit of clipping twigs to buildnests, Bonwell claims that the para­keets could also cause" quite a bit ofdamage" to Chicago's shrubbery.The parakeets' defenders cry foulat such accusations."Go over to that park and take alook at the shrubbery," saysDouglas Anderson, a Hyde Parkresident and president of the Chica­go chapter of the National AudubonSociety. "There are three or fournests in one tree, and I've seen no evidence of tree or shrubbery dam­age from pruning they've done­none whatsoever." Regarding thelarger threat to Illinois farmers, An­derson says he wants "solid evi­dence" from "someone neutral onthe issue, because you can't expectan unbiased judgment coming fromthe Illinois Department of Conser­vation. They're inevitably going totake the farmers' point of view."On the other hand, David Willard,manager of the Chicago Field Mu­seum's bird collection, thinks theUSDA may have legitimate con­cerns. "The argument that the birdswon't spread beyond the city is sub­stanceless ... there's no reason tothink they wouldn't survive in thecountry. It's true they subsist in thewinters on bird feeders, but peopledon't seem to recognize that a cornbin is the ultimate bird feeder."It could well be that people willlook back to when there only four orfive nests and ask the Department ofAgriculture why it didn't do its jobback then."Hyde Park bird-watchers say there are now at least a dozen nest­ing locations in Jackson Park andHyde Park. A few nests have evenbeen spotted in southwest Chicagosuburbs. Yet the parakeet popula­tion seems to have leveled off, andcould even drop if the recent succes­sion of mild winters abates.People who "talk about the crazyHyde Parkers who want to keepthose parakeets around as wildpets" are missing the point, Ander­son says. "The point is these birdsdon't compete with any native spe­cies, so I say leave them alone."Although David Willard remainssuspicious of the claim that the par­akeets pose no threat, he says thebirds' appeal is far from" crazy.""When you're trudging throughsome bleak Chicago storm and all ofa sudden see one of these brightlycolored parrots overhead, you feeltransported." As the wind blowsthrough the buttons of your over­coat, any hint of a tropical paradisecan seem welcome indeed.Compiled by Tim Obermiller Statistics professor PeterMcCullagh received theCommittee of Presidents ofStatistical Societies' 1990Presidents=Medal, given inrecognition of his work instatistical theory andapplication.Fourth-year College studentBradford Lander wasawarded a Marshall Schol­arship by the governmentof Great Britain-no morethan 30 such awards arepresented each year for twoyears of study in a Britishuniversity. Lander, a mem­ber of Phi Beta Kappa, isactive in the Maroon KeySociety and SNAp, theStudent NeighborhoodAction Project. He willstudy political anthropologyat University College,London.Ninth-week College enroll­ment figures showed anincrease in the number ofminority students from lastyear. Among 850 first-yearstudents, 43 are African­Americans, upfrom34inlast year's class of874, and29 are Hispanic students,compare to 26 last year.College Admissions Direc­tor Ted O'Neill attributesthe increase "to our long­term recruiting program. "As of Dec. 31, programscomprising the University'scentral Annual Funds­College, graduate, parents,and friends funds-havegenerated gifts totallingnearly $2.3 million towarda combined goal of $4.465million. According toAnnual Giving ProgramDirector Terrance Sykora,a record 10,883 alumni,parents, and other sup­porters had already madegifts as of Dec. 31. The1990-91 goalfor donorparticipation is 20, 750.15IN THE MIDDLE EASThile the current crisisin the Persian Gulfmayor may not be thefirst major internationalconfrontation of the post­Cold War era, its genesisand origins are deeply marked with the legacy of the Cold War. In­deed, the United States's current obsession with the Iraq of SaddamHussein has profound roots in an earlier and rather similar obses­sion with the Iran of Khomeini.This obsession, in turn, can only be understood as an overreactionto the 1979 overthrow of the Shah's absolutist regime, imposed onIran in 1953 by the United States mainly for Cold War motives. Un­der the Nixon Doctrine, for similar motives, the Shah's regime wasturned into a keystone of American policy as a regional proxy, withits military might inflated to grotesque proportions. Thus, the initialU.S. involvement in the Middle East, whether to control the oil re­sources which fueled European recovery after World War II, or toestablish a cordon sanitaire to the south of the U.S.S.R., was drivenlargely by Cold War preoccupations, and these same preoccupa­tions, or their bastard offspring, drove policy well into the 1980s.Several early Cold War crises erupted in. the Middle East, whichB Y RASHID KHALIDIThe Cold War was over in the Middle East well before the Berlin Wall crumbled, notes historianRashid Khalidi. But the u.s. chose not to notice-until a new justification developed foru.s. Middle East dominance in the post-Cold War era.16 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991Art by David S uterthereafter remained a primary arena in whichthe Cold War was waged. In explaining whatthe Cold War meant in the Middle East for theUnited States, it is worth quoting the remarkmade by a key shaper of U. S. policy in the re­gion in recent years, Graham Fuller, a seniorCIA analyst who became national intelli­gence officer for the Middle East and vicechairman of the National Intelligence Boardunder Reagan. Fuller's career ended abruptlyafter he issued a finding to the effect that it waspossible for the United States to achieve a rap­prochement with Iran. This was immediatelyused by the cowboys in the Reagan WhiteHouse basement as a basis for the arms-for­hostages policy which became the Contragatescandal.Speaking at a public symposium after hisdismissal, Fuller reflected regretfully thatgovernment analysts like himself rarelylooked at Middle Eastern countries forthemselves, but rather in terms of what theU.S.S.R. might be doing there. As a result,they missed much of what was actually hap­pening in the region, and tended to see the So­viets, or Soviet proxies, under every bed. Thiswas the ongoing impact of the Cold War onAmerican Middle East policy: as elsewhere,it engendered an obsessive preoccupationwith the Soviet Union and its possible activi­ties, often to the exclusion of all else.In time, this preoccupation became obviousto America's Middle Eastern "clients," wholearned how to play the tunes their Americanbig brothers wanted to hear. Thus WaldemarGallman, the U.S. ambassador in Baghdad atthe time of the 1958 revolution, recalled in hismemoirs how the last prime minister of themonarchy, the legendary Nuri Sa'id, cynical­ly obtained American military assistance bystressing fears of a Soviet threat to Iraq-fearswhich he himself did not take at all seriously,but which were music to the ears of his officialinterlocutors in Washington. Similarly, at theoutset of the Reagan presidency, Ariel Sharonand other Israeli leaders pandered to the anti­Soviet obsessions of American policymakers-obsessions which they themselves did notshare-in order to obtain military and strate­gic assistance for pursuit of their own obses­sions, which were much closer to home, justacross Israel's northern borders.On the other hand, it is not a coincidencethat over 70 percent of all Soviet military andeconomic aid to less developed countries,from 1945 until 1970, was spent in the MiddleEast: Egypt alone received almost 30 percentof Soviet military aid and nearly 20 percent ofSoviet economic aid. This was not part of anyspecial Soviet affection for the warm browneyes of the peoples of that region, anymorethan was the massive, matching commitmentby the United States, which since the late1970s has expended similar proportions of its18 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991economic and military assistance budgets inthe Middle East.Rather, this remarkably high level of Sovietaid had to do with the coincidence of theEgyptian revolutionary regime's search for 'agreat-power arms supplier, as a counter toBritain, France, and the United States, at thevery moment when Nikita Khrushchev wassearching for an arena in which to demon­strate the Soviet Union's new, more activeThird World policy. These searches came to­gether at the 1955 Bandung Non-Alignedofthere.Conference, and the rest was history.Egypt's crucial strategic position immedi­ately commended itself to the Soviets, forwhom the Middle East was and still is trulytheir backyard: northern Iraq is only 115 nau­tical miles, and northeastern Syria less than165 nautical miles, from the southern bordersof the Soviet Union-closer to Soviet Arme­nia than Chicago is to Detroit. This proximitywas a partial explanation for Moscow's will­ingness to take such a decisive stand in sup­port of Egypt during the Suez crisis of 1956.The Middle East became an even more sig­nificant arena for Soviet rivalry with the Unit­ed States under Khrushchev's successors, af­ter the U. S. became Israel's chief armssupplier and backer in the wake of the 1967war. In a heightened atmosphere of conflict,the stakes for the Soviet Union rapidly in­creased. Its involvement escalated steeply be­tween 1967 and 1970, going from little directbacking and no commitments of first-line,high-technology weaponry to the Arab states(who until the late 1960s received Soviet mili­tary equipment that was at least one genera­tion out of date), to the direct involvement in acombat theater of20, 000 Soviet troops duringthe 1969-70 War of Attrition along the Suez Canal, and the provision, starting in 1970, ofsophisticated, front-line military hardware toEgypt, Syria, and later Iraq.But things were already beginning to go sourfor the U.S.S.R.: Nasser's death in 1970 ush­ered in the regime of Anwar al-Sadat, whosoon ushered the Soviets out of Egypt. Sadat'smove provoked a Soviet tactical readjustmentin favor of closer relations with Syria, Iraq,and the PLO-and a strategic reconsiderationof the utility to the Soviet Union of ties withsuch fickle allies. This reconsideration in­volved not only a pragmatic consideration ofprofit and loss (although Premier Aleksei Ko­sygin sourly noted to then-Vice PresidentSaddam Hussein in 1977 that the U.S.S.R.was not "engaged in some sort of charitableactivity" in its economic relations with otherstates). It also involved a rethinking of theconceptual basis of the Soviet commitment toThird World countries, and of the whole pro­cess of development of such countries asEgypt, which at one moment was supposedlyon "a non-capitalist path to socialism," andthen almost overnight shifted back to a capi­talist orientation under Sadat.Factors such as these long ago led theU.S.S.R. to begin to retract from some ColdWar commitments in the Middle East, a pro­cess visible during the 1982 Israeli invasion ofLebanon, when the Soviets refused to engagein the same levels of involvement as in thepast. Although the United States may not haverealized it, as far as the Soviets were con­cerned, the Cold War was already waning inparts of the Middle East a decade ago, even asthe Afghanistan intervention kept it alive inothers. The U.S.S.R. was still concerned bythe hegemonic ambitions of the United States,but seemed increasingly to have found that ithad neither the capabilities to counter theseambitions, nor the presence of interests sovital as to justify such an effort.While little of this was apparent to Americanpolicymakers during the Reagan years, it wasincreasingly clear to Middle Eastern elites,notably those in the Arab world who hadcome to depend on the U.S.s.R. as a counter­weight to the awesome power of the UnitedStates. Even in states such as Egypt, whichstarted the trend away from an orientation to­wards the U. S. S. R. and towards alignmentwith the United States, policy makers still ap­preciated the benefits which Nasser hadtaught were to be gained from playing onesuperpower against another. Thus Egyptreestablished diplomatic and economic rela­tions with the U.S.S.R.-which responded bycancelling its enormous debt.It was in Syria and Iraq, however, that thepartial Soviet disengagement during the mid-1980s had the most painful effects. Since the1960s, Syria had come to depend almost total­lyon the Soviet Union for military and diplo-matic support. Syrian leaders thus reactedwith shock to Soviet pronouncements fromthe very outset of the Gorbachev regime thatthe Soviet Union did not accept Syria's visionof strategic parity with Israel, or at leastwould not provide the arms to make thatvision a reality.Iraq was more successful in diversifyingboth its diplomatic options and its arms sup­pliers, using its opposition to Iran's Islamic re­gime as its ticket into the good graces of theU.S. and other Western powers in the 1980s.This move was made simpler by the fact thatIraq was less involved in the confrontationwith Israel than Syria, and so faced less snip­ing from Israel's powerful American parti­sans in its attempts to woo the United States.However, while Iraq's ambassador in Wash­ington, Nizar Hamdun, was engaged in a suc­cessful charm offensive which contributed tothe now notorious American ·"tilt" towardsIraq (a tilt which continued until August 2,1990), Iraq maintained its important arms andother links with the Soviet Union. Thus, al­though distressed by the gradual waning ofSoviet involvement in the Middle East, Iraqdid not suffer from it as much as did Syria.The Iraqi example over. the past decadebrings us to something which may be charac­teristic of the post-Cold War era. This wasfirst seen during Iraq's war with Iran when,for the first time since the 1956 Suez crisis, theUnited States found itself on the same side of amajor Middle East conflict as the SovietUnion. In a sense, these two conflicts-Suezand Iran-Iraq-bracket the period of highconfrontation of the superpowers in the Mid­dle East in a classic Cold War system. BeforeSuez-for example, during the 1947-49 im­broglio over Palestine-the U.S. and theU.S.S.R. were on the same side, Israel's, buttacitly shared an interest in reducing the pre­ponderance of Middle East influence whichBritain had enjoyed since World War I. FromSuez onward, this ceased to be the case, and itwas only after the Iraqi attack on Iran in 1980that the superpower rivals, while deeply en­gaged against one another in nearby Afghani­stan, began to cooperate tacitly in supportingIraq.This marked the beginning of a set of pro­cesses which may prove to be enduring. Foralthough the two superpowers togetherswitched sides in early August 1990, jointlyopposing Iraq's invasion of Kuwait after yearsof jointly building up Iraqi power, the mostimportant characteristic of Middle Easternalignments has been the superpowers' ententewith one another. Of course, as time has goneon, and the U.S.S.R. has weakened domesti­cally and internationally, this partnership hasgrown less and less equal. Indeed, it often ap­pears now that the U.S.S.R. is obliged, by itsneed for U. S. support in other spheres, to go along with American Middle East initiativeswhose wisdom it might otherwise question.Nonetheless, the Cold War in theMiddle East can be said to haveended years ago, before theBerlin Wall crumbled, and in­deed before most Americanpoliticians were willing to admit the possibili-ty that it was over.There is an important corollary to the end­ing of the Cold War in the Middle East -onewhich has emerged in striking fashion in thecurrent gulf crisis, but which was already ap­parent as soon as the rigid polarizations whichhave long characterized the region began tosoften: the gradual decoupling of the UnitedStates from Israel as the Cold War mortarwhich cemented the alliance between the twostates for more than two decades crumbles.It is currently fashionable to point out thatthe present alliance in the gulf of the UnitedStates with Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and, moststrikingly, Syria, has put Israel in a potentiallyunfavorable position. But this possibility ex­isted before the gulf crisis, and was not afunction of what are alleged to be the MiddleEast's uniquely treacherous and suddenlyThe .lsraeIi­American strategicrelationship, basedon the perpetuationof the Cold Warsystem, was indanger thistosystemcome apart.shifting alliance patterns. This allegation in­deed is faintly racist, as if European andAmerican behavior were ever any different,as if the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, or the U.S.opening to China and abandonment of Tai­wan, were anomalies inan otherwise spotlessrecord of eternal Euro-American faithfulnessto alliances and commitments.In fact, the Israeli-American strategic rela­tionship which developed since 1967, basedon the perpetuation of the Cold War system inthe Middle East, was in danger from the mo- ment this system began to come apart duringthe Iran-Iraq war. Farsighted Israeli analystsbegan to perceive this danger as they dis­cerned the changes in Soviet-Syria relations,and the erosion of American public sympathyfor Israel after the Palestinian intifada brokeout in 1987. This promises to be an enduringproblem for Israel, particularly in view of thestratospheric levels of aid to which it hasgrown accustomed-well over $4 billion an­nually, most of it keyed to and justified by stra­tegic verities which are totally obsolete nowthat the Cold War is no longer with us.But as the U. S. response to the Iraqi invasionof Kuwait has shown, the United States doesnot need the pretext of the Cold War to hurl itsforces into massive interventions at the dropof a hat. And a gulf war may enable Israel tocontinue to market itself as a vital ally in ser­vice of American strategic interests, even ifthe bogeyman threatening them is no longerthe original Evil Empire, but rather the cur­rent, rather shabby, substitute in the form ofIraq. Thus Operation Desert Shield, whichis based on a contingency plan drawn up inthe days of Jimmy Carter to confront the RedArmy legions should they erupt southwardstowards the gulf, serves today as the frame­work to confront a very different enemy. Inthe interest of preserving the dominant Amer­ican position in the Middle East-and privi­leged access to its oil resources-apparentlyany enemy will serve the purpose.The Cold War in the Third World began inthe Middle East, and it has profoundly shapedthe region. The gulf crisis shows that althoughthe Cold War has ended, and much haschanged, much remains the same. We haveseen startling shifts in alignments in the re­gion, some remarkable new behaviors, andthe potential for a conflict more destructiveand widespread than any in this conflict­prone region since 1945. However, the newlyunfettered power of the U.S. is still the mostdynamic factor in the world's most strategi­cally vital region.Until something emerges to balance thispower, replacing the swiftly withdrawingpresence of the Soviet Union, the long­standing American drive for Middle East he­gemony will continue to determine much ofwhat happens there.Rashid Khalidi teaches modern Middle East­ern history at the University, where he is Asso­ciate Director of the Center for Middle East­ern Studies. Author of British Policy TowardsSyria and Palestine, and Under Siege, he isco-editor of Palestine and the Gulf and TheOrigins of Arab Nationalism. This article isadapted from a talk given at the University'sInternational House as part of a Decembersymposium on "The' Cold Uizr and the ThirdWorld: Past and Present. "UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 19VVeather-beaten byChicago winters,unmentioned in thecanon of 20th­century art, LoradoTaft's Fountain ofTime stands as afinal monument toa classical ideal ofsculpture in America. ON THE FIRST FRIDAY OF DECEMBER,about a dozen hardhats are poised to pull aplastic tarp over Lorado Taft's vision of hu­manity. It's the third year this ritual has takenplace-a stopgap measure to prevent furtherdamage to Taft's sculpture, The Fountain ofTime, located at the west end of the Midwayin Washington Park.The destructive force of Chicago's winters, along with pollution and possibly acid rain, have created thenumerous cracks, chips, and holes that run along the main bulk of the 78-year-old work, a 11 0- foot-long pro­cession of human figures rising from waves on the right, then descending once again as if pulled by an unseenforce. Opposite this group, across a shallow pool, Taft placed a gigantic, robed figure of Time, who watchesthe pageantry of people from his towering distance.After covering the main section of the fountain (the pool and the figure of Time will remain exposed), theworkers hastily begin securing the tarp to the ground with heavy rope and metal rods. Finally, a metal chain ispulled around the waist of the sculpture's gi­ant winter garment. By coincidence, thebright blue of this year's tarp echoes Taft'svisual theme of a human" wave, " cresting inthe center at the helmeted head of an eques­trian warrior, who looks as though he mightat any second burst through his taut plasticwrapping."TAFT'S FOUNTAIN OF TIME: KITSCH OR MASTERPIECE?"An elderly woman reads the question posed on a printed program, her voice soft and puzzled. She is amongabout a dozen people who have assembled at Midway Studios on a windy October Saturday to hear a lecturewhich ostensibly will answer this question. Given by Herbert George, associate professor in the Committeeon Art and Design, the lecture is part of the University's annual Humanities Open House."Why would anybody think that it's kitsch?" the white-haired woman asks. She looks to be in her late sev­enties, old enough to remember when Lorado Taft was the quintessential Chicago artist of his generation. By Tim ObermillerPhotography byJames L BallardTaft's most famoussculpture as it looked notlong after its 1922dedication (inset) andas it is today (below).A middle-aged man standing next to herclears his throat, adjusts his glasses. "Kitschis too harsh a word," he states. Yet, his toneimplies, it's somewhere in the ballpark.Herbert George arrives-a tall, handsomeman with penetrating brown eyes. "Let's goahead and walk over to the sculpture, " he in­vites the group. With long strides, he leads theway outside.Across the sunny Midway, a first glimpse ofTaft's sculpture is caught. A late-1920s Chica­go Tribune review of the piece, labeling itamong the city's "pet atrocities," notedscornfully that the curving row of white fig­ures looked like false teeth smiling across theend of the Midway. Those "teeth" have nowdarkened into a sooty beige. From its back,someone remarks, the figure of Time resem­bles a conductor at his podium, ready to leadthe cowering procession of humanity with awave of the baton.George hastily beats the green light west­bound across Cottage Grove Avenue, thenleaps upon the ledge of the sculpture's emptyconcrete pool, landing in Time's colossalshadow. Shouting to be heard above the chat­ter of kids chasing a dog in the grass behindthe statue, George begins, "The piece belongsto the City of Chicago-it was given to the cityand paid for by the Ferguson Fund, " a privatefund established around the turn of the cen­tury primarily to underwrite sculptural worksin Chicago.Taft saw the fountain as only one segment ofan ambitious scheme to make the entire Mid­way a background for artistic bridges, sculp­tural groups, and statues, all designed aspart of a whole. As a monument to death, itwas placed on the west end of the Midway.Another fountain, dedicated to life and birth,was planned for the eastern end but wasnever built.The Fountain of Time , George explains, wasinspired by a couplet from a poem by AustinDobson: "Time goes, you say? Ah, no ;/ Alas,time stays, we go.""Taft depicts this metaphorically with theflowing, liquid wave of humanity, which heplaces opposite the solid, rigid figure ofTime. We're passing, we're liquid. But time issolid. It stays. We go."What's the basic configuration of thispiece?" George asks. "You've seen it before.Here ... " He pulls a sheet of paper from hispocket and unfolds it. It is a drawing of a clas­sic Greek pediment, the figures ascendingand descending within a triangle, with thecentral figure-in this case, the goddessAthena-placed at the apex."Taft was in love with Greek sculpture,"George continues, "but he's also departingfrom that tradition to make a fascinatingpoint. He takes the central figure of the piece-which is Time-and removes it from the22 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991pediment, turning it around so that it's lookingback at humanity. And who is Time opposedby? Who is up there in his place?"The general on the horse. What was thedate when Taft completed this piece? 1922.The world has passed through the most horrif­ic war in recent memory, the war to end allwars, supposedly. So that figure dominates,and Taft places Time in opposition to it."Now, George says, it is time to see the otherside. The "back" side of the sculpture is a sec­ond, parallel parade of human figures, alsowalking north to south. The figure of Timecan no longer be seen, and the equestriangeneral-although still visible at the sculp­ture's apex-no longer seems to dominatethe procession.From this side, the piece loses some of itsmonumental impact, allowing the viewer toenter into a more intimate relation with thefigures: careless children laughing ... loverswhose stone lips meet in a kiss ... a crippledman supported by a cane, face creased with alifetime of pain."If you look closely-this is harder to seebecause some of the detail has been lost overtime, " says George, "-but you can see that as the figures advance in this direction, they getolder, " stooping under the weight of time.George has stopped before a self-portrait ofthe artist. Taft the creator is, in his own sculp­ture, only Taft the observer-clear-eyed,leaning forward slightly as though curious tosee what's ahead, although his view is blockedby the preceding figure.Ahead is the figure of a man who leans backagainst the wave that is pushing him forward,staring upwards, clutching his head in horror.Ahead of this figure in the procession is theoddest visual image of all: a flattened sectionof drapery spread over vague outlines of afigure, perhaps human. Up to this point, thefigures have been rendered in an "extremelytraditional way-that is, the tradition of the19th century," says George, pointing to theflattened section. "But look what happenshere."Here, I think Taft is showing that momentin life when you understand that in realitythere is a limit-a mid-life crisis, if you will­but here he interprets it as a vortex, as some­thing that is turning in on itself, somethingthat's twisted and knotted.""Wouldn't you say it's almost abstract, in a .An equestrian warrior(above left) and thecolossal figure of Time(right) dominate thesculpture's front side­graffiti mar the back. modern sense?" someone asks the lecturer."The other way to look at it, which I believeis more true to the man," George answers,"would be that Taft derived his inspirationhere not from modern but from classicalsculpture ... where drapery had always pre­sented to the sculptor the possibility of con­veying information in a much more abstractway-conveying a sense of movementthrough the drapery folds, even notions aboutthe conscious or the subconscious mind."Now you come to what to me is the mostdramatic moment of the piece, " says George,rounding the sculpture's southern corner. Thecolossal figure of Time, all but forgotten, sud­denly re-emerges. "Here is the end of life,"says George, pointing to the final two figuresin Taft's frieze of humanity. One figure­gaunt, tight-lipped-stares forlornly sky­ward, arms outstretched, as though pleading.The other clutches large, powerful hands overhis head, his aghast face contorted with thepower of some horrible realization.As far as George is concerned, "this figureis saying, 'Oh, my God! Why didn't I do thethings I thought I should do? Why was it soshort? How could I have been so stupid?' Andwhat he's staring down into-or would be, inthe proper context-is the water, the symbolof our own impermanence. He's not ready tolook at Time, but he's certainly ready to ap­proach the abyss of death, and the reality ofthe water."Tour complete, postures shift, backs arestretched. Whatever spell the piece has cast isbroken now. "Have we come any closer to re­solving the question of whether this is kitschor a masterpiece?" George asks. "Thosearen't Barbie dolls up there, are they?"LORADO TAFT WAS TOO MONUMENTAL IN HISambitions to turn his Fountain of Time into apersonal statement, but its message that whatrises must fall, what stands must crumble,was a true enough assessment of the fate thatbefell Taft's vision of sculpture not long afterhis Fountain was dedicated in 1922.Sometime during his childhood in the back­waters of central Illinois, Taft decided hewould be a sculptor-an ambition fortifiedwhen he enrolled at age 15 as an art major atthe newly established University of Illinois.Like so many other young American andEuropean artists of his era, Taft aspired to re­fine his art at the prestigious Ecole Nationaleet Speciale des Beaux -Arts in Paris. The acad­emy, founded in 1795, had "tremendous pow­er throughout the nineteenth century so far asthe official world of art was concerned,"writes Allen Weller, PhB'27, PhD'42, in hisbook Lorado in Paris (University of IllinoisPress, 1985).The Beaux-Arts approach, writes Weller,was a continuation of "the historic tradition of23an art education based on a reverent study ofclassical antiquity and on the study of thenude." This tradition "emphasized generali­ties rather than specifics, mental conceptionsrather than raw facts, beauty rather than utili­ty. While there was an intense and persistentpreoccupation with the sensuous experienceand appreciation of the human figure, this wasnot considered a legitimate end result, andconsequently an elaborate system of allegori­cal symbols was constantly employed in fi­gural compositions. Historical, mythologi­cal, religious, and patriotic themes were theacademic artist's stock in trade .... "After four years of study at the Ecole, Taftreturned to the U.S., launching his career as aprofessional sculptor in Chicago with severalblatantly commercial projects-modelingdecorative trim, firebacks, and grates. Grad­ually, he found opportunities in the morefinancially rewarding occupation of publicstatuary, sculpting busts of merchants andmonuments to civil war heroes and establish­ing a city-wide reputation.With the arrival of the World's ColumbianExposition in Chicago in 1893, Taft was final­ly allowed to pursue a project he found worthyof his ambitions. Although the fair's biggestsculptural works were commissioned to well­known East Coast artists such as Daniel Ches­ter French (who sculpted the figure of Lincolnfor the president's memorial in Washington,D. C.), Taft received the most important as­signment among Chicago artists, sculptinglarge allegorical groups of classical figures tograce the Horticultural Building's front andrear entrances. Those decorations, along withmost of exposition's sculpture, were madewith staff, a reinforced plaster meant to lastonly a short time. Some were demolishedwhen the exposition ended; a fire in 1894 con­sumed most of the rest.The sculptor described his general mood inthe years following the Columbian Exposi­tion as one of "depression and longing."While able to support his growing family (Taftand wife Ada Bartlett had three daughters)with commissions from portrait busts, hefound the work mundane-even degradingwhen, as was often the case, it required theartist to base his work on death masks. Sooften was he called to deathbeds, Taft latercomplained, he had begun to feel like "a Sibe­rian convict chained to a corpse. "Around this time, Taft decided that the" coyattitude" of Chicago artists, "like a girl wait­ing to be proposed to," must be abandoned­"that while our public needed sculpture, it didnot know it and never would guess it unlesssomeone showed it what it wanted!" A talent- 1ed speaker, Taft brought his message beforethe city's wealthy and elite, bidding them to"look beyond the dirt and disorder and see thecity to come-the city of destiny." Such words24 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 Afigure (right)from Taft'SuncompletedFountain ofCreation (modelleft). In his "claytalks" (below left),Taft shaped for hisaudience the headof a woman whochanges fromglamorous youthto haggard oldage. One year, thestatue's wintergarment (belowright) was red.were especially stirring in a city abashedlyaware of its East Coast image as an uncouth"Porkopolis. "So firmly had the sculptor established him­self as a spokesman for this "city of destiny"that when a million-dollar sculpture fund wascreated by the will of Chicago lumber mer­chant Benjamin Franklin Ferguson in 1905, itseemed almost inconceivable that anyone butTaft would be picked to receive the first com­mission. The resulting Fountain of the GreatLakes, dedicated in memory of Ferguson atthe south wing of the Art Institute of Chicagoin 1913, was an early testament to Taft's visionof sculpture.A rebellion against the "metal coats andtrousers" style of historical public statuary­manifested in the countless effigies of ethnicand civil war heroes Taft observed clutteringthe city's parkways-the five allegorical fe­male figures in his Great Lakes sculpturereveal the artist's "ideal" values: a classicalappreciation of the beauty of human form,and an aesthetic distancing from the modernworld, to provide a "hint of eternity."Spurred by the commission of his GreatLakes, and the almost unanimous acclaim ithad stirred, Taft felt free to pursue his grandervisions. As early as 1907, he began to lobbypublicly for his plans for Chicago's Midway.The Midway was then nationally famous be­cause it had housed the amusement section ofthe Columbian Exposition. After the fair, itwas converted by its original designer, Fre- derick Law Olmstead of Central Park fame,into its present form, a parkway with a sunkencenter cut by four avenues.Chicago's newspapers soon took up Taft'scause, printing explicit details of the spectac­ular plan. A monumental Fountain of Crea­tion would be built at the Midway's eastern­most end, facing west. Water would flowfrom this fountain into a canal, running east towest along the Midway and spanned by threebridges dedicated to the great ideals of hu­manity-science, art, and religion. Along thehigher strip of land on both sides of the canalwould stand a selection of statues of theworld's great idealists. On the far west endwould be The Fountain of Time .Taft saw this scheme for decoration of theMidway as his life's work, and beyond-avast, collaborative effort uniting generationsof artists. In 1912, the trustees of the FergusonFund allocated $50,OOO-a generous sum atthat time-for Taft to begin his first Midwayproject, a plaster-cast construction of TheFountain of Time. The plaster version was tobe erected on the actual site; if its receptionproved favorable, it would then be put intopermanent materials. After that, presumably,more of Taft's Midway projects would begin.Yet even during the initial planning stages,questions concerning the Midway schemeand the large sums it would cost were beingraised. In particular, critics objected to Taft'splan to line the Midway with statues of "greatidealists" such as Plato, Pindar, and Spinoza.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 25What, they asked, was wrong with Americanheroes? Had Taft, as one Chicago Examinercommentator suggested, fallen under "themalignly pedantic influences of the U niversi­ty of Chicago?"Taft was apparently too busy to pay much at­tention. Midway Studios had been expandedto provide work space for the Fountain ofTime's colossal groups, with new assistantshired to join the busy group already there. Be­cause of its size, the work had to be elaboratedand enlarged by sections, each carefullychecked against Taft's original eight-footworking model. The full-scale plaster versionwas virtually finished in April 1917, right onschedule, when war broke out and its erectionwas postponed. It was the summer of 1920before Taft and his assistants finally movedthe monstrous mountains of plaster acrossthe Midway to Washington Park.Opinions vary as to why Taft's original spec­ification that the final piece be made in fineGeorgia marble was not realized. In PublicSculptor: Lorado Taft and the Beautificationof Chicago (University of Illinois Press,1988), Timothy Garvey argues that by thetime it was reviewed by the Ferguson Fund'strustees, their enthusiasm had "greatlycooled and little more serious considerationwas given the notion of allocating the hun­dreds of thousands of dollars" needed tosculpt the structure in marble.As Taft himself recalled, "The monumenthad grown to be so long, so high, so compli­cated, that 1 couldn't even get a bid on thecarving of it. 1 did not care to put it in bronze;my thought had been stone or something simi­lar to stone." So he contacted John 1. Earley, aWashington, D.C., contractor with a reputa­tion for cast concrete architectural work."[Earley] said it could be done in concretebut I still was uncertain as to the appearanceof it .... 1 thought it would look like asidewalk."But Earley sent Taft samples, made withPotomac River gravel, which showed a mini­mum of concrete. "When I found I was goingto get that color, like a Pointillist painting, Iwas more than delighted," said Taft. "Thereis not a stone that America produces-not amaterial, even Tennessee marble-that Iwould prefer .... "Thus Taft's Fountain of Time would becomethe first colossal piece of sculpture to be hol­low cast in concrete-hollow because the totalthickness of the cast is only six inches. In abiography of her husband, Ada Bartlett Taftrecalled the casting as "an immense task,beginning with making anew a perfect mold,4,500 pieces of it. Mr. Early's engineeringfirm had charge of the actual assembling ofthe mold and the pouring of the concrete, butmy husband went over from the studio severaltimes a day to watch the progress. "26 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 By the time The Fountain of Time was offi­cially dedicated on Nov. 15, 1922-nearly 14years after its inception- Taft's career had al­ready peaked. The death knell for public ac­ceptance of his classical style began with thearrival in 1913 of the International Exhibitionof Modern Art at the Art Institute. Fresh fromits scandalous run at New York's Sixty-NinthInfantry Regimental Armory, the show intro­duced the aggressively modern styles ofFauvism and Cubism to Chicago.The Armory Show "was really the greatturning point which introduced avant-gardeEuropean art to this country, " says Allen Wel­ler, "and, of course, Taft hated it. He and mostartists of his generation were totally unsympa­thetic with these highly individualistic andnon-traditional forms."You see, " Weller continues, "to a man likeTaft, The Fountain of Time, and the whole de­velopment of the Midway Plaisance, was al­most a moralistic business. It was intended tomake people better, more sympathetic, moreunderstanding. This concept was simply nolonger accepted in the 1920s. Art had becomeso personal and so individualistic that suchgrand public schemes just seemed impossibleand out of date. So I don't think it was just a re­jection of Taft personally but a change in thewhole relation between art and the publicwhich had taken place. "Taft had to payout of his own pocket for la­bor and materials to continue his Fountain ofCreation, which was never commissioned.Nearly all of its individual parts were eventu­ally completed in plaster at full scale (four fig­ures cut in limestone are now displayed at theUniversity ofIllinois) but the entire work wasnever assembled. The Depression, and a lackof commissions, meanwhile placed a severefinancial burden on Taft-by 1933, MidwayStudios, once employing dozens of assistants,had a total staff of six.On the occasion of his 76th and last birthday,the sculptor said of his Midway plans: "Iguess that was a dream that went up in smoke... Chicago doesn't seem ready yet for such aproject. Nothing has been done about it and itremains a dream, perhaps an old-fashioneddream." On Oct. 26, 1936-while at work ona figure he called Aspiration-Taft had astroke and was discovered on the floor of hisstudio. He died eight days later.THAT THEY DON'T MAKE SCULPTURES LIKETaft used to is a realization mourned by BrucePrecourt, a doctoral student in classical lan­guages and literature at the University, and thenearest thing to a "Taft fan." Pulling from hissatchel some treasured mementos­photographs, copies of drawings, a weatheredcopy of Ada Bartlett Taft's biography­Precourt is unabashed in his admiration ofLorado Taft. Like playing cards, Precourt spreads outsnapshots of several sections of the Fountainof Time, linking them together until they be­come a whole. "I'mjust a sucker for this kindof stuff. Taft, Daniel French, Augustus Saint­Gaudens=-that whole group of turn-of-the­century sculptors. I have much more respectfor their style of work-the classical trainingthat comes through in them-than for some­one who just sort of plays with a welding torchand calls it sculpture. "Precourt is not the only art aficionado will­ing to give Taft a second look. Allen Wellercomments that Taft, like the Beaux-Arts stylehe represents, "has really become quite fash­ionable. " Two books on Taft have beenpublished in the last five years, Weller notes,and he has been approached by groups "veryinterested in getting statuary by or like Taft"for their cities. "I had to tell them, no onemakes these anymore. There's nobody aroundwho does this kind of thing."The current revival of interest coincideswith plans to repair what is commonly con­sidered to be Taft's masterpiece, the Midway'sFountain of Time. Cal Audrain, assistant vicepresident for operations at the Chicago Insti­tute of Art, reports repair work could beginthis summer on the sculpture, with fundingfrom both the Ferguson Fund and the ChicagoPark District.Tentative plans involve patching cracks nearthe top of the Fountain's main bulk to preventmoisture from seeping inside and eliminatingthe need to cover the sculpture in the winter.Because the work is hollow, patching and wa­terproofing can also be done from inside, andthere is talk of installing a ventilation systemto prevent interior condensation.Such plans are more accurately labeled"stabilization," says Audrain. Right now, theonly actual "restoration" of the Fountain be­ing considered is to rebuild the shallow pool,including the construction of a watertight damto keep water out of the sculpture's cavity."If we can stabilize it, 1 think we would haveachieved a lot, " says Audrain. "The piece stillreads very well as is; the intention now is tokeep it that way."AFTER A BRIEF APPEARANCE, THE DECEMBERsun disappears behind a bank of solemn, grayclouds. The job of covering Taft's monumen­tal fountain is nearly complete, but the fore­man in charge isn't satisfied with the pace.Crimson-faced, he stands in the middle oftheemptied pool, littered with yesterday'S papersand autumn leaves, directing his harried crew.Looming behind, the figure of Time looksdown upon the busy proceedings, inscrutableas ever."Come on, hurry up with that thing!" theforeman shouts. "We're behind schedulealready!"By Steven I. BenowitzPhotography byJames L. BaHardCANCERONTRIALTesting new drugs andtreatments, physicianresearchers at the U of CMedical Center try 10 helppatients with incurablecancers while learningwhat might savetomorrow's patients.It's a world of fitfulpromise, sometimesunfounded hopes, andpowerful medicine. !J monafide is a creature of thelaboratory, born in Spain in1985 and nurtured by a Germandrug company. Scie��ists therefound it was a potential cancerfighter, and it sailed through its initial U. S.Food and Drug Administration safety testingin animals. But just as quickly, its stockdropped. Though studies at the University ofChicago and other institutions indicatedamonafide might be effective against breastcancer, the first round of tests in women­Phase I trials-showed it was also a poisonthat could kill.In analyzing amonafide's effects, Universityof Chicago researchers led by Mark Ratain,assistant professor of medicine and director ofclinical pharmacology for the UniversityHospitals' hematology/oncology section,discovered that patients who quickly convert­ed amonafide to a substance called N-acetylamonafide were most vulnerable to the drug'slife-threatening side effects.The scientists knew that caffeine was brokendown in a similar manner, and in fact, provid­ed a way of gauging this "acetylation" pro­cess. "We thought we could predict a patient'sreaction ahead of time, " Ratain explains, "byusing caffeine to determine an acetylatorphenotype, or metabolic profile, of an indi­vidual. The same way eye color is inherited, Among the cancerresearchers conductingclinical trials at theU of C Hospitals are(clockwise from left)Mark Ratain, StephanieWilliams, Everett Vokes,and Jon Richards.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 27Getting as much of acancer-fighting agentto a patient as is safelypossible keys much ofBatain's research. some people are genetically slow acetylatorsand some are fast. "To test the theory, Ratain's team gave 21 can­cer patients several cups of coffee or cola,then measured its metabolism. Fast metaboli­zers of caffeine turned out to be fast metaboli­zers of amonafide-and suffered more of thedrug's toxic effects (damaged immunity, forexample) than did slow metabolizers.Today the researchers are continuing tostudy how the drug works, designing new28 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 Phase I trials to attempt to find proper dosesagainst breast cancer.!J monafide is an example of Chi­cago's sp. ecial approach to study­ing cancer drugs. It's this kindof work-along with nearly adecade's worth of experience intesting experimental cancer drugs in Phase Itrials and other sponsored research-thathelped the Medical Center last spring land afive-year, $2.1 million National Cancer Insti­tute grant to support Phase I clinical trials ofnew anticancer agents. For the first time, theU ofC-already ranked ninth in the nation incancer research funding-became one of onlysix u.s. medical centers to win such a grant.Ratain heads the project, which will pay allthe costs of research and patient care for atleast three new Phase I studies a year.In the hunt for new cancer drugs, a Phase Itrial is the first testing stage to involve humansubjects. Such trials, which typically involvesmall numbers of patients who have run out ofall other treatment options, test the safety andpotential effectiveness of investigationaldrugs already found active against cancer inlaboratory animals. Some Phase I trials exam­ine existing anticancer agents in conjunctionwith other drugs designed to increase theireffectiveness or dampen their side effects. AtChicago, the current array of Phase I trials in­cludes patients in clinical programs forbreast, gastrointestinal, kidney, and head andneck cancers; melanoma; leukemias; andlymphomas."You're basically trying to figure out how touse the drug," Ratain explains. "You'rehoping you '11 find the right cancer on which tousethe drug, but you're not necessarily look­ing for it. It's fortuitous if you find somethingthat works in a Phase I study because the pa­tients have failed every other therapeutic ef­fort and have very resistant tumors, and theyalso tend to be treated at too Iowa dose to beeffective." For that reason, the trials tend to bequicker-usually lasting several months,rather than years-and less focused than laterdrug testing stages.Phase II, the next stage of testing, examineswhether certain drugs, in certain amounts,will work against a specific cancer. The PhaseII participants normally haven't had a greatdeal of prior treatment. Frequently, doctorsdecide that a patient's best bet lies with anexperimental treatment, rather than with thestandard therapy. The final stage of drug test­ing, Phase III, is most often a "randomized"control clinical trial, used when physiciansalready have a standard therapy to treat a dis­ease, and wish to compare it to a new treat­ment-which is at least as good as the stand­ard and might offer an improvement. In suchtrials, researchers usually give half the pa­tients the standard therapy, half the experi­mental. When no standard exists, the experi­mental therapy is compared to a placebo.Recruitment for these early trials is slow,though not for lack of volunteers. The scien­tific requirement to match test subjects byage, sex, and severity of illness, as well as oth­er health factors-including previous treat­ments-often disqualifies many applicants.In Phase I trials, Ratain explains, patientshave to be "ambulatory, participate in their own self-care, and be out of bed 12 hours aday. They must have adequate bone marrow,liver and kidney function." Requirements canbe particularly exacting in the more narrowlydefined later testing stages. (In fact, some sci­entists argue, the patient population can be sonarrowly defined that a study outcome mayhave little application.)Finding the elusive magic treatment-incancer lingo, a "cure" is five years disease­free-isn't necessarily the researcher's goal.In most cases, experimental treatments are In Williams's trials,healthy bone marrowis removed beforepatients receivechemotherapy. Thenii's returned.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 29suggested when a patient has failed the stand­ard therapy, which is the best medicine has tooffer. At this point, most cancer patients havedisease that has spread elsewhere in the body,and are facing a death sentence. Researchphysicians like Ratain and terribly sick cancerpatients strike an unusual bargain. For thehopelessly ill patient, it might mean a fewmore months-in rare instances, years-oflife. Researchers take the long view, that anyinformation they garner from a study willhelp advance medical know-how. The bottomline is that in the world of experimental cancermedicine, scientific results come beforepatients.But, as Samuel Hellman, dean of thePritzker School of Medicine and the divisionof biological sciences, pointed out in an ad­dress that was part of a University medicalethics series last spring, this view carries aspecial set of problems. Experimental drugtesting, argued Hellman, a radiation oncol­ogist who before coming to Chicago was phy­sician-in-chief at Memorial Sloan-KetteringHospital, upsets the traditional doctor-patientrelationship. Noting the "conflicting respon­sibilities" of cancer physicians who are alsoresearchers, Hellman mused: "There are theVokes is part of a teamthat treats patientswith head and neckcancers in a new way:combining chemo­therapy and radiationsimultaneously.30 responsibilities to current patients, and the re­sponsibilities to new knowledge which willpotentially benefit future patients."The conflict arises, Hellman argued, be­tween the physician, traditionally chargedwith healing and alleviating pain, and the re­searcher, who knows his patients have littlechance of survival, and very likely will sufferunpredictable side effects from an experimen­tal therapy that could prove lethal before thecancer does.A symbol of this conflicting relationship isthe legalistic consent form that all Phase I trialparticipants must sign, acknowledging thatthey have been informed of possible side ef­fects, that the therapy is experimental, andthat it very likely may not even help-and infact may hasten death. Hellman argued thatthe ethical usefulness of the consent pro�ess islimited: desperately ill patients have littlechoice. Rather, such a consent form, he con­tended, is aimed at satisfying legal require­ments. He paraphrased a typical form: "Wehope this [therapy] might be of benefit to youor that it will help others. But we cannot saythat it will help you directly."Still, the patient's motivation is the hope of amiracle cure. While researchers may clearly state their intent is to answer a scientific ques­tion, Hellman said, "You can't do any trials inwhich the patient doesn't have some expecta­tion of therapeutic intent."[:) tephanie Williams's 75 metas­tatic breast cancer patients atleast have a so-called "stand­ard" treatment to try, albeit onethat works maybe 20 percent ofthe time. Metastatic disease, cancer uncagedand running amok throughout the body, gen­erally is considered incurable.Williams, AB'77, MD'81, an assistant pro­fessor of medicine and a former Hospitalsfellow, runs several Phase I and II trialsthat combine higher-than-normal doses ofchemotherapy with autologous bone marrowtransplantation. It's a new and potentially life­saving technique for women whose advancedbreast cancer has frustrated the conventionaltreatment of surgery, radiation, and chemo­therapy. In an autologous transplant, the pa­tient actually receives her own marrow. A li­ter of a woman's healthy bone marrow is firstextracted and saved. That allows physicians togive five to ten times the usual doses ofchemotherapy, aimed at wiping out the re-maining cancer cells presumed hidden in thebody, without worrying about damaging thebody's bone marrow. After about six days,when the drug therapy has ended, the harvest­ed marrow is reinjected.It's a hellish time. Most women lose theirhair, and suffer terrible bouts of nausea.What's worse, the high-dose chemotherapydestroys infection-fighting white blood cells,and the bone marrow cells that produce them.The transplanted marrow helps restore thewhite cells, but it takes several weeks to getthe immune system back up to snuff. In themeantime, the patient is particularly vulner­able to infections.Williams says that earlier successes at theUniversity and elsewhere in treating leuke­mia and lymphoma patients with high-dosedrugs and bone marrow transplants led herand Jacob Bitran, who heads the Hospitals'autologous transplantation program, to trythe same procedure on metastatic breast can­cer patients. "It's investigational, but showingpromise, " she says, adding that some 70 to 80percent of patients treated so far have beenhelped, meaning the disease has at least beenreduced in some places in the body. "But theprocedure has only been used this way for fouryears, so no one knows about the long run."A Phase III, 1,200-patient multicenterstudy, to include Chicago, Duke University,and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Bos­ton, hopes to find out. Planned to begin laterthis year, the study will attempt to decidewhich works better: chemotherapy and bonemarrow transplantation, or the standard sur­gery, radiation, and chemotherapy.Both the experimental and the standardtreatments are grueling and dangerous-butnecessary. Of the 100,000 women diagnosedeach year with breast cancer, Williams esti­mates that several thousand could be candi­dates for the new treatment. Right now,Williams says, "metastatic breast cancer is in­curable. To take palliative treatment whenyou're only 30-most women don't want todo that." To fighl metastaticmelanoma, Richardshas developed anexperimental regimenthat combines drugsthat kill cancer cellswith drugs thatstrengthen the immunesystem.any cancer sufferers feel thatway. When "Betty Greene," a44-year-old Chicago business­woman, opted for an experi­mental cancer therapy in 1989,she spent a year in a Phase II trial at the Hospi­tals, undergoing painful rounds of radiationUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 31and treatments with such common anticanoerdrugs as cisplatin, 5-FU, and interferon."The cisplatin was the worst," she says now,recalling the awful nausea. She couldn't keepfood down, and wore a wig for eight months."You have to focus on the notion that you'regoing to be cured, and face each visit one at atime. I've had to re-prioritize and learn to say,'There's still tomorrow.'" The difficult expe­rience was worthwhile, she says, because­for now, at least-the therapy has arrested herpotentially fatal nasopharyngeal cancer.Most patients aren't so lucky. While headand neck cancers comprise only three to fivepercent of all cancers, they are notoriouslydifficult both to detect early and to treat. Ev­erett Vokes, an assistant professor of medicinewho specializes in such cancers, works withRalph R. Weichselbaum, who chairs the radi­ation and cellular oncology department, totreat Greene and patients like her in a newway, combining chemotherapy and radiationsimultaneously, in week-on, week-offcycles.At first, Vokes tried to "intensify chemo­therapy" in combination with other therapies,including radiation and surgery, but saw littlelong-term success. "Chemotherapy givesgood responses," he says, "but within twoyears, the cancer still comes back." The newtherapy is controversial-radiation is usuallygiven on a: daily basis-but Vokes is heartenedby early favorable returns in Phase I and II tri­als. Greene, for example, has been cancer­free for several months. Says Vokes: "Rightnow we're encouraged."D n November, "Gloria Bennett"was willing to settle for a smallvictory: Christmas at home.Bennett, a small, moon-faced35-year-old mother of two, wasin the middle of her second eight-day round ofinterleukin-2, interferon, and chemotherapy,part of a Phase II trial designed by Jon Ri­chards. Richards, an assistant professor ofmedicine, is combining biologics such as in­terleukin and interferon-naturally madesubstances that boost the immune system­with cancer-fighting drugs to fight metastaticmelanoma, a deadly skin cancer.Metastatic melanoma strikes more than20,000 Americans a year, often the fair­skinned and those who have had a history ofsevere sunburns. The number of cases dou­bles every seven years, and the disease has re- .mained resistant to treatment. "Other PhaseII studies by us and at other medical centersshowed that some chemotherapy drugs wouldshrink tumors," Richards says, "but then thepatients would relapse a short time later." Bi­ologics alone didn't work either. An earliertrial in which he was involved triedinterleukin-2, with disappointing results; pa-32 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991tients rarely lived longer than six to eightweeks before succumbing to the disease.In designing a new treatment for metastaticmelanoma, Richards wanted to pair can­cer cell-damaging chemotherapy with astrengthened immune system. In 1989, he be­gan combining interleukin-2 and interferonwith four chemotherapy agents. Of some 40patients, roughly 75 percent have responded totreatment, meaning their tumors have eitherdisappeared or shrunk. The initial turnaroundappears amazing. "Until this new regimen,"Richards says, "I had never seen a completeeradication of metastatic melanoma."Richards watches Bennett's case with cau­tious optimism. Her melanoma has run un­checked to her lungs and brain, and when hercancer was first diagnosed, she was told shehad nine months to live. She's already enduredfour weeks of neutron radiation treatments toshrink a brain tumor, and now clings to anyhope her experimental therapy might offer.O �gglin� different treatment =s­imens IS now common practiceamong cancer researchers; theregimens they concoct oftenowe as much to scientific inge­nuity as they do to the quality of the medica­tions and treatments available. The combina­tion of biologics and drugs that Richards uses,for example, not only helps rev up the immunesystem, but might also help lessen the oftendangerous side effects of the chemotherapy,and in turn, might allow higher doses to begiven safely.It's this notion-getting as much of a cancer­fighting agent to a patient as is safely possible-that keys much of Mark Ratain's Phase Iresearch and that, indeed, makes Chicago'scancer fighters special. Ratain is particularlyinterested in studying how drugs affect thebody, and conversely, how the body reacts todrugs. While the amonafide work lets himjoke now about leaving a pot of hot coffee inthe University Hospitals' waiting rooms forcancer patients, it underscores his interest intailoring chemotherapy to the individual-topersonal body chemistry, for example.Such fine-tuning is a potentially revolution­ary step. Drug dosages in Phase I studies, forinstance, are normally based on body weightand surface areas extrapolated from animalresults or on earlier experience with a drug insimilar patients. These methods don't accountfor how fast drugs enter the bloodstreamor leave the body, or any toxic side effectsthey may cause, in different individuals.Ratain believes that the amonafide-caffeinestudy was the first time metabolic studieswere used prospectively to set personal dosesfor chemotherapy."Fine-tuning treatments can be applicable toother types of chemotherapy as well," he notes. Fine-tuning chemotherapy isn't a pana­cea, Ratain admits, but it's an improvementover the way chemotherapy dosing is donenow.A medical graduate of Yale, Ratain was aUniversity fellow before joining the Hospi­tals' staff in 1986. Since then, much of hisPhase I work has centered on combining bio­logics such as cellular growth factor andtumor-necrosis factor (he terms the latter"promising, but which hasn't yet lived up toits potential") with chemotherapy. Research­ers think that these factors will work in tan­dem with the chemotherapy drugs, in somecases by helping them kill cancer cells, and inother instances, by boosting the immune sys­tem. While "many of the current chemothera­py drugs have been around for 30 years or so,biologics have been on the scene for only afew years." Ratain believes they hold greatpromise.Though the harsh world of Phase I trialsrarely grants instant success, Ratain was partof a Chicago team, led by Harvey Golomb,AB' 64, section chief of hematology /oncology, that in the early 1980s pioneeredtrials of alpha-interferon for use against arare, previously fatal blood cancer, hairy-cellleukemia, which led to its initial approval bythe Food and Drug Administration. Today,some 90 percent of such patients are cured.Such tiny triumphs buoy hopes for an ever­elusive cancer cure, but the reality is that can­cer has surpassed heart disease as the nation'snumber one killer. While some less commoncancers- Hodgkin's disease, testicular can­cer, and several childhood leukemias andlymphomas-can now mostly be cured, themajor killers-lung, breast, colon, and pros­tate-account for one-half of all U.S. cancerdeaths.Nearly 80 percent of cancer patients areover age 55, and it's here that the war on can­cer has stalled. Year after year the same num­ber of people succumb to colon cancer. Lung,breast, and prostate deaths continue to rise.While these diseases are treatable, cures arerelatively short-lived. Barely one-fifth oflung cancer patients live five years aftersurgery, for example, and of the women whodevelop breast cancer each year, one in fourwill die of the disease.For thousands of anxious cancer patient­volunteers, clinical trials would seem the bestcompromise available, offering cutting-edgeresearch and patient care-and hope.Still, it is difficult to be a physician whowatches so many patients die. "Much of whatwe do is palliation of the psyche," Ratain ad­mits, "of the fear that nothing can be done."He pauses. "I'm disappointed that there aren'tbetter drugs, and that I can't do more for manyof my patients. It gets frustrating. You learn tolive with limitations."nvestigationsA Brewer, a Baker,a Pyramid-makerStarting with a bakery and abrewery, archaeologist MarkLehner hopes to learn what lifewas like for Egypt's pyramid­builders.THE GREEK HISTORIAN HERODOTUSwrote in the fifth century B. C. E. that awork force of 100,000 men built theGreat Pyramids of Giza. Yet, according toarchaeologist Mark Lehner, little is knownabout how or where they lived.For the past several years, Lehner, an assist­ant professor in the Oriental Institute and theDepartment of Near Eastern Languages andCivilizations, has been attempting to find out.When he and colleagues from Yale Universityare finished, they hope to have a more com­plete picture of the everyday life of theseancient workers."How were they housed? Where are the re­mains?" Lehner asks. "People have alwaysbeen interested in the pyramids, tombs, andtemples as historical monuments. But whatabout the effects of pyramid-building onEgyptian society-when they marshaled allthose resources and people over a relativelyshort period?"Lehner's interest in Egyptian society is alogical extension of his work as director of theGiza Plateau Mapping Project, which hasproduced the first topographical survey of theplateau, the site of the pyramids and theSphinx. Knowing the land's layout, Lehnersays, "has helped us see how both the land­scape and the work were organized when thepyramids were built." The maps gave Lehnerthe locations of a "substantial quarry, rampsto get stones up as high as 450 feet, and a har­bor." Only one thing was missing: the loca­tion of the workers' settlement.Previously, archaeologists had learned thatthe pyramids-erected between 2640 and Archaeologists are poking around the Great Pyramids to learn how their builders lived.2550 B.C.E.-were constructed by legionsof rotating laborers, not slaves; but actualevidence of these workers' village life wasscarce. The new maps gave his team clues onwhere to search. They first looked west.There, a century ago, a British archaeologisthad found the remains of mud-brick walls andscattered stone. He assumed these were tracesof workers' barracks, and archaeologistssince then never bothered to argue. But whenLehner's group dug there, they didn't find evi­dence of cooking fires or of anything else thatindicated people had lived there. The re­searchers did find figurines of royal statues,however, and baking ovens, indicating it mayhave been a workshop of some sort.Finally, the researchers turned southward,and hit paydirt. South of the Great Pyramidof Khufu, beyond a limestone quarry, theyuncovered the remains of an ancient bakeryand brewery, as evidenced by the discovery ofhundreds of clay pots and stone pedestalswhere grain was stored. Where there wasbread and beer, the researchers reasoned,there must have been a settlement.Lehner and his Yale associates are continu­ing to analyze bits of tools, bones, and anypersonal belongings they can dig up in thearea for clues to where the workers came from and how they lived. Finding workers' bar­racks would help, Lehner notes, but "it'sgoing to take a lot more excavation to see ifwe really have remains of the workers' com­munities, or if it's something else."Lehner is also at work on another ambitiousproject: putting an architectural profile of thepyramids and the Sphinx on computer chips.This project actually began more than a dec­ade ago. After earning an anthropology de­gree in 1975 from the American University inCairo, Lehner soon found work at a local ex­cavation site, and fell in love with archaeologyand field work. He also developed a talent formapping, and spent the next decade in Egyptworking on 15 different archaeological pro­jects, most of which involved the pyramidsand the Sphinx. In 1979, he went to the Amer­ican Research Center, a consortium of univer­sities and museums, and convinced officialsthere to sponsor an architectural documenta­tion of the 4, 600- year-old Sphinx, somethingno one had ever done before.Unlike the pyramids, which were assem­bled in blocks of stone, the Sphinx was sculpt­ed from limestone. "The workers made ahorseshoe-shaped ditch which left a core inthe middle, " Lehner says, "and from that theysculpted the lion's body and pharaoh's head."UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 33No one is sure why the Sphinx was built."It probably symbolizes a guardianship,"Lehner suggests, "and the king as a god. Thelion is a symbol of royalty, and has been asso­ciated with the sun and sun worship. TheSphinx and its temples were likely an integralpart of the religious culture. "After years of crawling around the Sphinxand its surrounding temples, recording theirexact dimensions with the help of a sophisti­cated photogrammetric system-a stereosco­pic camera used to map surfaces precisely­Lehner is now working with an architect inVenice to computerize his findings. The goalis to make a precise-and permanent­computerized reproduction of the weather­eroded Sphinx. Only a year into the comput­erization work, Lehner hopes eventually toextend these techniques to the pyramids, andshow how both they and the Sphinx wereconstructed.Gagging GangsHELP KIDS DO WELL IN SCHOOL.Teach them job skills. Get them jobs.That's Irving Spergel's simple,three-step recipe for keeping kids out ofgangs.But Spergel, a University sociologist andprofessor in the School of Social Service Ad­ministration, knows it's not that easy. He's hadnearly 40 years of experience working withand studying youth gangs. Last year, he com­pleted a two-year survey of officials at law en­forcement agencies, schools, and social ser­vice groups in 45 cities with two things incommon: significant gang problems and or­ganized anti-gang efforts. He also visited fiveof those cities. The survey is only the first partof a much larger, four-stage research project,backed by the U.S. Justice Department, togauge how effectively cities are combattinggang violence.In the survey, Spergel and his colleaguesquestioned some 250 "key people" -police,prosecutors, judges, school officials, and pa­role officers-about their cities' gang prob­lems, intervention programs, and proposedsolutions. The survey results will bepublished as a book later this year.In the project's second phase, the research­ers used the information from the survey,along with other materials, including inter­views with former gang members, to develop12 gang-intervention models. The models arevariations on five basic strategies: suppres­sion (arrest, jail, and other close supervi­sion); social intervention, such as counsel­ing; opportunities provision, such asremedial education, job training, and jobs;community mobilization; and organizationaldevelopment-special police units and meth-34 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991Irving Spergel and an SSA team study waysto stem the nation's gang problems.ods of case management, for example."We have to concentrate in the middleschools, and try to avoid the delinquencyproblems that start early," Spergel says. "Insome cases kids need special remedial helpand supervision to succeed. Then there arethe kids who get tired of the gang fighting,around 17 and 18, but stay in the gang and turnto economic kinds of activity-to crime anddrugs, for example. That older group needsthe more sophisticated programs-job place­ment and training."Spergel's team is in the middle of the pro­ject's third stage-developing materials andguidelines to carry out these models. In theproject's final stage, test programs will be runin cities around the country."We support a police suppression strategy­patrol, arrest, and prosecution," saysSpergel. "But we also think they have to com­municate with the gangs, We suggest thatcommunities and local agencies need to cometo much more of a consensus. You need to getthese organizations working together-acommunity mobilization effort."One of the research group's suggested mod­els calls for a job training and developmentprogram designed especially for gang mem­bers. Such programs, Spergel claims, aresorely lacking. "Most social programs dealwith other problems of low-income people,but fail to address the gangs. Schools oftenjust ignore them. Who needs the gang mem­. bers, the troublemakers?"In recent years, Spergel notes, "gangs havebecome much more of an older adolescentand a young. adult problem." He traces thesechanging demographics to other demograph­ic shifts: A decline in manufacturing and un­skilled labor jobs left many teens with no­where to turn. They stayed in the gangs, withcrime-especially illegal drugs-becoming their primary source of income. Most violentcrimes-homicides and assaults-are com­mitted by these older gang members.The violence, Spergel says, "tends to comein newer, immigrant communities with unsta­ble institutions-broken homes, unrespon­sive schools, little community programming-and sometimes comes in areas that aren'tnecessarily crime-ridden normally."The continued spread of the youth gangproblem, says Spergel, is the result of a grow­ing underclass and of population movementsthat spur "social disorganization." Familiesmove to a new community, where the oldergeneration has its own customs to provide so­cial stability. In contrast, the younger ones arecaught between cultures.This line of reasoning may help explain whyCalifornia and the West Coast "may have theworst gang problems in the nation," he says.In 1990, for example, Los Angeles-an areawith a long history of gang-related problems-recorded its highest number ever of gang­related homicides. "Many of these gangs,"Spergel points out, "are made up of Hispanicimmigrants, especially from Central Ameri­ca, and Asian immigrants, including Filipi­nos and Koreans. Asian gangs are a rapidlygrowing group."85andOuiE YEN IF MODERN MEDICINE COULDsomehow beat heart disease, cancer,and stroke, most Americans probablywon't live much past their 85th birthday.They'll simply wear out.That's the prediction of three University re­searchers. S. Jay Olshansky, PhD'84, a de­mographer at Argonne National Laboratoryand an assistant professor of medicine at theUniversity=along with Christine Cassel,AB' 67, professor of medicine and public poli­cy and a research associate at the U niversity­affiliated National Opinion Research Center,and Argonne biostatistician Bruce Carnes­wrote in the journal Science last Novemberthat "barring major advances in the develop­ment and use oflife-extending technologies orthe alteration of human aging at the molecularlevel, the period of rapid increases in life ex­pectancy in developed nations has come toan end."The American life span has risen spectacu­larly, from 47 years in 1900 to 75 years in1988. When the study began three years ago,Olshansky says, he anticipated the upper limitof average life expectancy would probably becloser to 100 years, based on a number of pri­mate studies on the aging process.But when the researchers analyzed U.S.mortality tables, they discovered that for ev­ery American to make it to age 85, death rateswould have to dive by 55 percent. "That's anenormous reduction, " Olshansky says, morethan would be accounted for by wiping outcancer and heart disease, which kill half thepopulation. And most folks can forget aboutreaching 100; the researchers found that deathrates would have to be cut by a whopping85 percent. "That's nearly impossible,"Olshansky says, "even if we lived a so-calledperfect life style."Currently, about 12 percent of the U.S. pop­ulation dies before reaching age 50. Even if noone died before that age, life expectancywould only rise by about three-and-a-halfyears. "It's really, then, reducing the deathrates of people over 65 that's going to increaselife expectancy in the future, " he says. "If wecontinue to get better treatments for cancerand heart disease-diseases that occur later inlife-then life expectancy probably can creepup to about 85. ".But one consequence of postponing deathfrom the major killer diseases is a rise in thenumber of people living past 85-the so­called" oldest -old." This segment of the pop­ulation is expected to jump from its current 3million to at least 16 million, as baby boomersgrow old towards the middle of the next centu­ry. "If you push people into their 80s and90s, " Olshansky says, "then, instead of dyingfrom heart disease or cancer at earlier ages,you in effect force them to experience any of anumber of debilitating, non-fatal diseases ofaging, such as Alzheimer's and osteoporosis.Right now there's nothing we can do to alterthe course of these illnesses." Thus, he fears,"We may be trading longer life for worseninghealth."Now may be the time, the researchers sug­gest, to shift the focus of medical researchaway from prolonging life and toward pre­serving and improving the quality of life byseeking treatments and cures for diseases likeAlzheimer's."If we fail to address this problem," theyconclude in Science, "the future effects on thenation's social security and health care sys­tems could be devastating."Classic ChemistryWHEN GEOCHEMIST JOSEPH SMITHconducts research, he simplyplops down and plays with thebrightly colored, plastic-tubed models ofmolecules that fill the desktops and shelvesof his laboratory. Smith, the Louis Block Pro­fessor in Geophysical Sciences, recently usedhis geometric Tinker Toys to help figure outthe structure of a new type of zeolite calledboggsite. Zeolites are minerals whose struc­tural properties-rings and three-dimen­sional channels, for example-make them Joseph Smith: Better chemistry through Platonic modeling.invaluable industrial catalysts in manufactur­ing gasoline.There are 40 or so natural and synthetictypes of the mineral, and scientists continual­ly seek upgraded versions for industrial pur­poses. But to be able to use a zeolite chemical­ly, scientists must understand its atomicstructure. That's where Smith and his modelscome in. The models represent the variousways atoms of aluminum, silicon and oxygen-the constituents of all zeolites-fit together.By twisting and turning, and disconnectingand reconnecting sections of the models,he can describe theoretical structures ofzeolites.Smith has been at this game for some 30years. At first, he says, his method was an "in­tellectual exercise" in fitting together variousgeometric constructions to form molecules.But, as it has turned out, "sometimes, I've al­ready invented a substance's [molecular]framework theoretically, even though I ha­ven't observed it in nature. " That was the casewith boggsite: he already had a list of theoreti­cal structures in hand, one of which actuallyturned out to be boggsite's.His models are based on concepts of geome­tric solids first discussed by Plato and Archi­medes. Smith creates possible zeolite struc­tures by viewing them as groups of geometricbuilding blocks-Platonic and Archimedeansolids. The tetrahedron, for example, is afour-faced Platonic solid, each face being thesame-an equilateral triangle. A cube is madefrom six squares, the octahedron from eightequilateral triangles, and so on. An Archime­dean solid is made from two regular shapes.A hexagonal prism, for example, consists ofrectangles and triangles.Smith essentially lays down rows upon rowsof atoms, often taking known zeolite struc- tures and rearranging them to produce newnetworks of atoms. His approach has provenamazingly successful, explaining about halfof all zeolite structures discovered so far.In each variety of zeolites, the atoms formcomplex, three-dimensional shapes that in­clude polyhedral cages and nets withlabyrinth-like channels. Chemists who studyzeolites and their possible applications needto know the size and direction of these chan­nels-they determine the zeolite's potentialusefulness. So when boggsite was discoveredby amateur rock miners in Washington Stateearly last year, the next step was to determinethe sizes of its channels-in reality, its crystalstructure-and thus its potential value.Usually, crystallographers can only obtaincrude estimations of the crystal structure­certainly nothing as detailed as atomic posi­tions or even channel size. Enter Smith andhis models. After he builds a model of a theo­retical zeolite network, he explains, he mea­sures the theoretical chemical bond lengthsand throws the information into a computerprogram, which gives theoretical locations ofatoms. "Then we measure the mineral or syn­thetic material, determine where the atomsare by using X-ray diffraction techniques, andlook at the connections," he says. "When wefind a match, we've solved the structure."Above all, Smith stresses the practical valueof his theoretical forays. ':,\,11 gasoline ulti­mately goes through these zeolite catalysts,"he notes. "What makes me so proud is thatwhen industrial scientists invented the pro­cess to use the zeolite in the 1960s, it resultedin a 30-percent increase in the conversion ofpetroleum to gasoline. That's a remarkableincrease in efficiency, and reduction in cost. "Compiled by Steven I. BenowitzUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 35lumni ChronicleWhat if ney Gave a Centennialand E¥eryhody COlDe?That's what the University hopes will happenthis coming October, when it begins a year­long celebration of its 100th birthday. InMarch, all alumni will receive a Centennialnewsletter, reporting on the round of confer­ences, lectures, parties, contests, exhibitions,and musical and theatrical performancesbeing planned.The Centennial year begins on Thursday,October 3, with an opening academic con­vocation in Rockefeller Chapel, attended byrepresentatives of universities from aroundthe world.It is hoped that especially large numbers of alumni will return to campus during the Cen­tennial Year. In addition to an expanded seriesof weekend, campus-based educational pro­grams, there will be special, Centennial-yeareditions of two traditional alumni events,Homecoming and Reunion.• HomecomingPlus, Oct. 18-20. The fallweekend includes a Friday evening perform­ance by Paul Badura-Skoda, one of the lead­ing interpreters of Mozart's piano music. OnSaturday, alumni can return to the classroomduring the annual Humanities Open House,attend exhibitions and theatrical perform­ances-and congregate at Stagg Field for anafternoon football game. On Sunday therewill be a special alumni service in RockefellerChapel.36 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 • University-wide Alumni Reunion, June4-7, 1992. The Thursday-Sunday schedulewill include events for alumni of the College,graduate divisions, and professional schools:class parties and dinners, lectures and "Un­common Core" seminars and discussions,and theatrical and musical performances. Anumber of the events will spotlight U of Calumni-including the Alumni Association'sCentennial Show.A light-hearted, musical look at the Univer­sity through the years, the Centennial Show isa volunteer effort. An organizational meetingwill beheld at 7:30 p.m. on Thursday, Febru­ary 28 in Goodspeed 402. For more informa­tion, contact the Alumni Association.One event of particular interest to Collegealumni is a College Forum, to be held Febru­ary 9-12, 1992. Generations of Chicago stu­dents have debated whether a canon of" GreatBooks" can be said to include the knowledgemost worth having. Alumni are invited to re­enter that debate-with today's students andfaculty-by participating in a three-and-a­half day forum sponsored by the College.The birthday-year celebrations won't belimited to Chicago. Alumni in cities and com­munities around the country and the world areplanning special gatherings to kick off theCentennial in their own communities.Alumni aren't just invited to the parties,they're also invited to contribute their ideasto the planning. If you're interested in helpingto get the celebration in your local communityunder way, contact Danny Frohmanof the Alumni Association's alumni clubsprogram (3121702-2150). If you'd like to helpmake the Centennial Reunion a once-in-a­century experience, Michelle Uhler, of theAlumni Association's campus programs(3121702-2150), would like to hear fromyou.Singing on Ihe RoadThe 40-voice student a capella Motet Choir,directed by Bruce Tammen, AM'74, takes itsmusic on the road this March in its annualspring break tour.This year's tour will focus on the south­central region of the U.S., with a kick-offconcert held in Chicago's western suburbs(La Grange) on Friday, March 22. The tourincludes performances in Tulsa on Saturday,March 23; Dallas on Sunday, March 24;Houston on Monday, March 25; Sequin (SanAntonio) on Tuesday, March 26; and New Or­leans on Wednesday, March 27. The choir'shomecoming concert will be Friday, April 25in Rockefeller Chapel.Alumni in tour cities who are interested involunteering to help as hosts for the choirshould contact Michael Watson of the AlumniAssociation at 3121702-2150.lass News"No news is good news," is one cliche to which wedo not subscribe at the Magazine. Please send someof your news to the Class News Editor, University ofChicago Magazine, 5757 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago,IL 60637. No engagements, please. Items may beedited for space.19 Dorothy Dorsett Fisher, PhB'19, lives inPhoenix, AZ, where she hears from HelenWood Hendricks, X' 19; Ethel Richards O'Connor,SB' 19, MAT' 37 ; and Dorothy Crowder Chessman,PhB'19. Elsie Linick Weisman, X'19, lives in thesame California house that she and her late husband,Sidney Weisman, SB'17, bought in 1923.20 Perry Herst, PhB'20, celebrated his 90thbirthday in August 1990 in Monterey, CA.Carl S. Lloyd, LLB'20, PhB'26, is 96 and has retiredbecause of illness. Esther Sabel, PhB'20, turned 98on January 1. A teacher at Bethel College in St. Paul,MN, for many years, she now resides in DownersGrove,IL.23 Irma Langford, PhB'23, who retired after. 25 years of teaching at North Park College inChicago, has cared for the elderly in their homes as aregistered dietician for the past 20 years.24 More voices from the class of '24: AgnesLouise Adams, PhB'24, writes that she wasfeatured in a 1989 issue of Childhood Education. Shelives "a quiet life" in Northbrook, IL. Glenna ModeBall, AB'24, and her husband, Herbert Ball, SB'25,live at Highland Farms near Black Mountain, NC.Charles Dwinell, PhB'24, reports that he is 89 andliving in Columbia, MO. Mabel L. Staudinger,PhB'24, AM'25, PhD'46, lives in Evanston, IL.Mildred Jensen Walser, PhB'24, is 93 and lives inWilmette, IL, where she is active in the Red Cross andthe local Women's Club.25 Katherine Barrett Allen, PhB'25, is stilldoing hospital volunteer work, church flow­er arranging, and taking part in two reading groups inRockport, ME. Herbert Ball, SB'25, see 1924, Glen­na Mode Ball. Ralph Bennett, PhD'25, has passedhis 90th birthday in good health, attending meetings ofthe board of Union College in Schenectady, NY,where he is trustee emeritus. He says his role is to keepthe board from making the same mistakes it made inthe first half of the century.Felix Caruso, SB'25, recalls meeting his late wife,Dorothy Rodick Willis, PhB'25, in his first class atthe U of C. He writes, "Our scrapbook is full of greatmemories." James W. Cooksey, PhB'25, lives inGreenwich, CT, where his wife is in a nursing home.Helen Battin McMahon, PhB '25, has moved to a re­tirement home, Judson Park, in Cleveland, OH.Ragnar Moline, PhB'25, lives in Rockford, IL, andwould like to have a reunion with fellow Rockfordalumni.26 John M. Dorsey, SB'26, MD'31, writesthat Ellmore Patterson, AB'35, JamesButton, AB'39, and he are all members of SeminoleGolf Club in Palm Beach, FL. Donald Sabath,SB'26, MD'31, reports that he and his wife are ingood health but discovering that "with retirement, thewife has twice as much time with the husband but onlyhalfas much money." Harry Ziegler, PhB'26, is stillan investment consultant; he divides his time between Jackson, MI, and Green Valley, AZ.27 Virginia Everett Leland, AM'27, PhD'40,professor emeritus at Bowling Green Uni­versity, recently delivered the last in a series of eightpapers on Chaucer's literary career. F. J. O'Brien,PhB '27, has retired from law practice but continues aspresident of the Minnesota Loan & Thrift Company.Grace Sproull, AM'27, PhD'37, lives in her familyhome in southern Ohio. She still remembers Rockefel­ler Chapel, President Hutchins, and "the almostsuperhuman patience of the director of my thesis."John Vavra, PhB '27, a retired member of the MidwestStock Exchange, lives in Cedar Rapids, IA.28 Frances Holt Brewster, PhB'28, and herhusband spent last July at their cottage inGeorgetown, ME, with their children and grandchil­dren. Alice Kastle Brown, PhB'28, lost her husbandof 61 years in 1989. A Skokie, IL, school bears thename of Oscar Z. Fasman, PhB'28, but he is proud­est of his 16 great-grandchildren. Estelle RochellsGreenberg, PhB'28, still lives in Fresno, CA, withher husband; they are celebrating 59 years of mar­riage. Estelle volunteers at St. Agnes Medical Center.Marietta Moss Long, PhB'28, has lived in Tusca­loosa, AL, for 25 years; she spends her time growingroses and studying local history.John Metzenberg, PhB'28, has retired from a lifeof sailing boats to settle in Tesuque, NM, still travelingwhen he can. Karl A. Mygdal, SB'28, and PegPringle Mygdal, SB'29, live in Burlington, NC.Karl, 84, was one of the oldest competitors at theNorth Carolina Senior Games in September, winningmedals in swimming and racewalking.Elvin E. Overton, PhB'28, JD'31, writes, "Stillproud of my law school training and my law school. Ihave been retired as a law teacher for 14 years; in farbetter health than I deserve." Harriet Dinier Par­tridge, PhB'28, and Charles O. Partridge, PhB'31,live in Boca Raton, FL, where she is an Alzheimer'spatient in a nursing home.29 Joe D. Thomas, PhB'29, AM'30, writesthat he has "great news: I survive!" He livesin Houston, TX. Morton Wadsworth, PhB'29,MD'35, has retired to Richmond, VA, after neariy 50years of practicing psychiatry in New York City. He isexpecting two great-grandchildren in the spring.30 William Hoffman, MD'30, now retired,was a professor of medicine for many yearsand an author and editor of numerous journals, books,and papers. He lives in Chicago. Victor Roterus,PhB'30, SM'31, and his wife and sister took acartripfrom Arizona to the East Coast, visiting family in NewJersey and the Adirondacks. Elise RosenwaldSchweich, PhB'30, asks, "Who says old age istough?" She's still involved in a hands-on cultural en­richment program in St. Louis, MO, schools, a pro­gram she started 25 years ago.31 Julia Mele Codilis, PhB'31, has retiredfrom her business career and is now keepingbusy with volunteer work, craft projects, and travel.Frederic Heineman, JD' 31, of Phoenix, AZ, says hishealth is good, but his memory ... is not! MarjorieMarcy Irvine, SB'31, SM'32, took up oil painting five years ago and is now selling her work. She writesthat while she may not be in a class with GrandmaMoses, she is a grandmother. Lee Loventhal,PhB'31, is "semi-retired" and works out of his home;he has taken on a partner with an office in downtownChicago to help him. Samuel Miller, MD'31, is ea­gerly anticipating the 60th reunion in June; mean­while, he's taking classes at a local university in SanFrancisco, CA. Charles Partridge, PhB'31, see1928, Harriet Partridge. Edward Steichen, MD' 31, afamily physician in Lenora, KS, is busy promotingeasy-to-do-at-home exercises that he devised. He alsoworks at a drug and alcohol treatment center,32 Helen Klaas Engdahl, SB'32, SM'33, andher husband, Richard, celebrated their 50thwedding anniversary in November with a receptionfor friends. Clifford Hughes, MD'32, of Pasadena,CA, maintains an interest in the latest advances inmedicine. D.C. Lowrie, SB'32, PhD'42, visited Chi­cago last June and hoped to return during the schoolyear.Everett Olson, SB'32, SM'33, PhD'35, writes thathis semiautobiographical book, The Other Side of theMedal, which came out in the summer of 1989,"seems to be doing well." John Post, SB'32, MD'37,is enjoying retirement life in the high desert country ofElko, NV. Gladys True, PhB'32, is traveling as muchas she can and enjoying retirement. R. M. Ziegle,PhB'32, writes that he's been retired in Florida since1976- "and you can't beat that."33 After living a year in Sardinia, Italy,Gertrude Rolston Baldwin, PhB'33, nowresides in Wilmington, DE. George Dale, SB'33,says he's busier than ever, still in fine health, and stillenjoying life, Carl Geppinger, PhB'33, is approach­ing his 80th birthday and plans on attending the class's60th Reunion in 1993; he says he is more grateful thanever for his U of C education. Natalie Merriam John­son, PhB'33, and her husband, Leslie, live in TinleyPark, IL, where she works at Orchard Hill FarmSchool. The Johnsons visit Hyde Park a few times ayear for U of C events. Herman Ries, SB'33,PhD'36, a research associate atthe U ofC, has writtenan article on lipids and polymers for the Encyclopediaof Physical Science and Technology.34 Charles Darwin Andersen, PhB'34,AM'35, has been leading Great Booksgroups in Montgomery County, MD, for 30 years andgiving opera lectures for nine. Mary Rockwell Dan­gremond, SB'34, and Gerrit Dangremond, SB'37,MD'38, live in Tucson, AZ, where Mary spends hertime playing golf, throwing pots, and babysitting hergrandchildren, while Gerrit continues to attend medi­cal meetings and works occasionally at the V. A. hos­pital. Sylvia Eckman, PhB'34, AM'35, of San Fran­cisco, remembers her College years fondly, writing,"It was the worst of times economically, but for mostof us in the class of '34, it will always be rememberedas the best of times. "David Eskind, PhB'34, is finding the "GoldenYears" to be a bit of a misnomer, but is getting by inWashington, DC. June Rose Gaertner, PhB'34,spends her time in Fort Meyers, FL, swimming, at­tending art classes, doing volunteer work, and enter­taining. Belle Korshak Goldstrich, PhB'34, boaststhree U of Cdescendants: son Bert Goodwin, AB'54,UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 3738 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991JD'57; granddaughter Jean Elizabeth Goodwin,AB'79, JD'84; and grandson Michael Goodwin,AB'81. All three are lawyers. Harry Maim, AM'34,was awarded the Order of Marco Polo by the Societyof American Travel Writers for a high degree of pro­fessionalism in the field of travel. Elaine ConnallyNaylor, PhB '34, of Sarasota, FL, is "doing well in ahappy life," but regrets not having kept up withclassmates.35 Charles A. Bane, AB'35, was elected na­tional vice president of the English-SpeakingUnion ofthe Central States and president of its PalmBeach, FL, branch. Durward G. Hall, MD'35, is re­tired and was elected to the Academy of Senior Profes­sionals in 1984. He lives on the Eckerd College cam­pus, where he is an adjunct professor. George Hall,PhD'35, has been an adjunct professor in the religiondepartment at DePaul University in Chicago since1970.Harold Hitchens, AB'35, AM'36, PhD'59, retiredfrom the University of Pittsburgh in 1986; since thenhe's been traveling and occasionally writing book re­views. Kirsten Robert Lindved, SB'35, is a volun­teer in the anthropology department at the SCienceMuseum of Minnesota. She asks old classmates tocontact her. Cliff Massoth, PhB'35, gives weeklytalks to schoolchildren at Chicago's Field Museum.Ellmore Patterson, AB'35, see 1926, John Dorsey.Robert Preston, AM'35, toured Turkey in May1990, and then led a group representing the Academyof Senior Professionals at Eckerd College on a study­tour through Greece in June. Isabelle Kennedy Rice,PhB'35, gratefully thanks all those who sent her sym­pathy cards upon the death of her husband, RobertLaurence Rice, PhB'35. Alvin Weinberg, SB'35,SM'36, PhD'39, retired director of the Institute forEnergy Analysis, is busy editing writings of Nobellaureate Eugene Wigner. He has also returned to thepiano, playing in public for the first time in 30 years.36 Clarence Bostwick, MBA'36, remembersworking for the U of C Buildings & GroundsDepartment after receiving his degree. He now enjoysthe warm climate of Phoenix, AZ. Betty Cooke Gas­ton, AB'36, married Benjamin Gaston in May 1989,and the two have traveled to New Zealand, France, andSpain. Joan Kain, AB'36, AM'38, is off on a two­month trip to visit relatives in New Zealand, stoppingin Phoenix City, Hawaii, and Bangkok along the way.Howard Doolittle, PhD'36, heard from LawrenceMorscher, PhD'36, a Gamma Alpha fraternity broth­er, last year. Bill Weaver, AB'36, and his wife, Lor­raine Matthews Weaver, SB'36, hope to see class­mates at the June reunion. Ralph J. Wehling, AB'36,JD'38, has retired as vice president of taxes for Grey­hound Corporation.37 John Beal, SB'37, MD'41, looks forward toattending the reunion of his medical schoolclass in June. Gerrit Dangremond, SB'37, MD'38,see 1934, Mary Dangremond. Mary VirginiaHarris, AM'37, reports that she visited the OrientalInstitute in October and that she is going strong despiteher years. Julian Kiser, AS'37, is vice president ofGoelzer and Co., an Indianapolis investment firm.Ruth Hillis Seay, AM'37, has moved toBloomington, IN, where she keeps finding U of Cgrads making contributions to the community. JamesL. Whittenberger, SB'37, MD'38, is still active inacademic affairs at the University of California atIrvine and is a government consultant in environmen­tal medicine. .38 Robert Anderson, AB'38, is working at histhird career, now with Century 21 after 10years at American Airlines and 29 years with SearsRoebuck. He still has time for golf, tennis, and his 11grandchildren. Robert Brumbaugh, AB'38, AM'38, PhD'42, and his wife, Ada Steele Brum­baugh, X' 40, marked their 50th wedding anniversaryin June 1990. Celebrating with them were their threechildren and seven grandchildren, as well as Ada's sis­ter, Sue Steele Arnould, AB'42, and her husband,Lahman Arnould, AB'39, SB'47. Julius Coon,PhD'38, marked his 80th birthday in October 1990; helives in Jenkintown, PA.Maurice Criz, AB'38, AM'41, and his wife, Gla­dys, traveled to Paris last summer; they enjoyed allsections of the city, but were "overwhelmed by graffi­ti." Jerry Jeremy, X'38, just celebrated 50 years ofmarriage, 38 of which he spent working for the U.S.Department of Commerce, International Trade Ad­ministration, as a state (NV) director. Florence GrabRyan, PhB'38, still does volunteer library work andkeeps up on her own reading.39 Lahman Arnould, AB'39, SB'47, see1938, Robert Brumbaugh. James Button,AB'39, see 1926, John Dorsey. Richard Guilford,AM'39, PhD'60, is president of the University ofMinnesota Retirees Association. DeWitt Kelley,AB'39, is in the 17th year of his second career as ad­junct professor of public administration at GoldenGate University in San Francisco. He was formerly apersonnel officer with the U.S. Geological Survey.Charles Earl Scott, AM'39, is treasurer of the St.Louis Council on the Environment, Health, andSafety.40 Miriam Schafmayer Baker, AB'40,thought the 50th reunion was" splendid" andshe thanks the reunion committee for working so hardto make it a success. K. Jane Morris Bruere, SB' 40,writes that she also enjoyed the 50th reunion. AdaSteele Brumbaugh, X'40, see 1938, Robert Brum­baugh. William Tucker Dean, JD'40, reports sadly,"On May 22, I lost my wife after 47 joyous years."English as a Second Language specialist MarjorieKub Morray, AB'40, has traveled to Romania andBulgaria as a teacher-training volunteer for the UnitedStates Information Agency. Chester Powell, SB'40,MD' 43, of Salt Lake City, UT, retired from neuro­surgery in 1987. He does some consulting now, as wellas enjoying boating on Lake Powell, golfing, travel,and skiing. C. Richey Sims, AB'40, has traveled toEngland, China, Canada, and Mexico with Elderhos­tels since his retirement.41 John Atlee, AB'41, has spent most of thepast six months studying the Middle East cri­sis. Robert Baum, SB'41, presiding judge of the314th Family District Court in Houston, TX, was re­elected to his bench in November 1990. CharlotteKrevitsky Hurwitz, SB'41, and her husband,Melvin Hurwitz, SM'42, are both retired after sec­ond careers in academe and are taking advantage ofopportunities to visit their granddaughter and her par­ents in the Chicago area. Jeanne Boger Jones,AB' 41, of Chicago, writes that her daughter is a pro­ducer for a Sunday morning television show.Walter Kurk, AB' 41, urges all classmates to attendthe 50th reunion in June, as a prelude to the Centennialcelebration of the University. Lawrence Myers,SB'41, PhD'49, and his wife, Janet VanderwalkerMyers, SB'48, recommend the Canadian Rockies forhiking and scenery. When not in the mountains, Jancreates prints and collages supporting environmentalprotection, and Larry continues his DNA and neuro­biology studies. David Pletcher, AM'41, PhD'46,has just retired as a history professor from IndianaUniversity. W. H. Roger Smith, AB'41, MBA'50, isworking as interim treasurer and business manager ofBethany College in Oak Brook, IL. Harriet AugustusSwanson, AB'41, has retired from her position asschool librarian and is looking forward to the 50threunion.42 Sue Steele Arnould, AB'42, see 1938,Robert Brumbaugh. Muriel MarkmanCohen, AB'42, and her husband, Emil, are retiredand living close to their children and six grandchil­dren. Eugene Folks, X'42, has retired after 43 yearsin the water pipe supply business, the last three spentin Saudi Arabia. John Gandy, AM'42, is professoremeritus of social work at the University of Toronto.Mary Cump Cox Hunter, SB'42, and her husbandare enjoying retirement life in La Jolla, CA, keepingbusy with hospital volunteer work, bridge, and clubwork. Melvin Hurwitz, SM'42, see 1941, CharlotteHurwitz.Daniel Levy, AB'42, works two days a week andtravels frequently to the Caribbean. Louise CumminsMatchett, AB' 42, has retired from the directorship ofthe Winnetka (lL) Community Nursery School after24 years. Shirley Buro Robeson, AB'42, AM'43,still a Latin teacher in Chicago public schools, citesthe late U of C alumna Ella C. Moynihan, AB' 12, asher inspiration. John Stephens, SB'42, retired fromthe U. S. Dept. of Agriculture after 29 years as aninspector in Florida.43 Robert Bell, AM'43, PhD'47, was honoredby the University of Oklahoma's archaeolog­ical survey for his many years of. work. John W.Fitzgerald, SB' 43, mayor ofBurbank, IL, for the past18 years, has bought a condo in Fort Lauderdale, FL,and plans to retire there shortly. Deane R. Hinton,AB'43, is serving as U.S. ambassador to Panama; heand his family are adjusting to yet another country.Marshall W. Wiley, PhB'43, JD'48, MBA' 49 ,plans to retire from international law and move fromBethesda, MD, to Jo Davies county in Illinois. An­niebeth Floyd Young, AB'43, has returned to teach­ing, this time leading courses in adult education andEnglish as a Second Language. "I love it all overagain!" she writes.44 Cornelia Warren Bennett, BLS'44,worked as an assistant librarian in the Chica­go public school system until her recent resignation.Sigrid Grande Deeds, AB' 44, is a professor of healtheducation at California State University at LongBeach and chair of the education section ofthe Ameri­can Public Health Association. Walter Lawrence,PhB'44, SB'46, MD'48, is vice president andpresident-elect of the American Cancer Society. Hecontinues as professor of surgery at the Medical Col­lege of Virginia. Morris Lewenstein, AB'44,AM'47, retired after 38 years on the faculty of SanFrancisco State University, is enjoying volunteerwork, bicycling, and studying foreign languages.Beverly Glenn Long, AB'44, writes, "I greatly en­joyed our 45th Reunion last year-looking forward toour 50th!"After 40 years of teaching at Knoxville College inKnoxville, TN, Lois Lawrance Russell, AB'44,AM' 47, is now a community relations specialist at theschool. She is also the faculty representative on itsboard of trustees. Arthur Schultz, AB'44' a life trust­ee of the University, has been appointed to the Presi­dent's Committee on the Arts and Humanities by Pres­ident Bush. Henry Wildberger, PhB'44 , SB'49,MD'51, is a private practitioner and associate profes­sor of clinical medicine at Northwestern and is lookingforward to his grandson's first birthday.45 Grace Young Mateo, SM'45, and her hus­band, Guillermo Mateo, SB'45, MD'48,were married in Thorndike Hilton Chapel in 1949.Grace taught in Minnesota for many years, whileGuillermo was an internist in St. Paul until his retire­ment in 1985.46 Marjorie Ladd Brown, AB'46, retiredfrom the University of Missouri after a medi­cal research career and is enjoying student life again, through both Elderhostels and a creative-retirementprogram at the University of North Carolina atAsheville. David Carson, X'46, has retired as a psy­chologist and lives on a Texas tree farm, He is pastpresident of the Audubon Council of Texas and presi­dent of the Lost Pines Timber Growers Association.Violet KralDe Wind, AB' 46, AM' 49, and her hus­band, Henry De Wind, AM' 48, PhD' 51, held a mini­reunion in Whitewater, WI, last September, for someof Vi 's classmates and spouses. Robert Hodnette, Jr.,LLM'46, retired as circuit judge for the state of Ala­bamain 1985. Harry Kroll, PhB'46, SB'47, MD'50,is retired from orthopaedic surgery and participates inElderhostels; he also continues on the editorial boardof the Kansas Medical Journal.Esther Langlois, X'46, has a marital and familycounseling practice in Lakewood, OH. Geraldine LeMay, AM'46, has retired after 40 years as a public li­brarian and is living near relatives in Macon, GA.Norma Grill Mayfield, AM'46, is serving a three­year term on the national board of Common Cause.John Richardson, AM'46, received an award fromthe Tennessee Art League honoring his contributionsto the arts.47 Douglas Barr, SB'47, was honored for hiswork in water resource management by theUniversity of Minnesota Society of Civil Engineers.Edwin Diamond, PhB' 47, AM' 49, continues to writea weekly column for New lbrk Magazine and has beenappointed a full professor at New York University. Herecently donated a new scoreboard to Stagg Field inmemory of his father. Christine Haycock, PhB'47,SB' 48, was named" distinguished surgeon" by the As­sociation of Women Surgeons in San Francisco, thefirst such honor bestowed by the six-year-old group.After retiring from the U.S. Civil Service in 1974,Joseph J. Marciano, SB'47, SM'48, earned his lawdegree and was admitted to the California bar in 1977.Though now semi-retired, he is still on the "activelist." Illinois circuit judge Richard Richman,PhB' 47, retired from office in September 1990. JerrySolomon, AB'47, MBA' 49 , former president of Hunt­er Douglas Metals, has retired to Longboat Key, FL.Martin J. Steindler, PhB'47, SB'48, SM'49,PhD'52, chemical technology director at ArgonneNational Laboratory, has been named the Robert E.Wilson award winner by the American Institute ofChemical Engineers. He was cited for his expertise inthe nuclear fuel cycle, among other skills. ArnoldTanis, PhB'47, SB'49, MD'51, is program directorfor Memorial Hospital in Hollywood, FL, and hasbeen a speaker at several recent pediatric seminars.David Temkin, AM'47, retired as professor emeri­tus of psychology from Northeastern Illinois Univer­sity in 1981 and recently became the grandfather of alittle girl. Paul Van Riper, PhD '47, was given the1990 Dwight Waldo award for lifetime contribution tothe literature of public administration. Bernard Weis­berger, AM'47, PhD'50, see 1950, Harris Dante.Joan Frye Yoken, AB' 4 7, is manager of the bookstoreat Pace University in White Plains, NY.48 Robert Adams, AB'48, AM'52, retired di­rector of volunteer programs for the UnitedWay, now volunteers himself, as a consultant for theChicago Executive Service Corps. Henry De Wind,AM'48, PhD'51, see 1946, Violet De Wind. DonFehrenbacher, AM'48, PhD'51, see 1950, HarrisDante. Henry Goldfield, AB'48, AM'61, retiredfrom county government in Los Angeles, CA, in 1987.Since then he and his wife, Jean, have traveledthroughout the world. He also volunteers formany L.A. civic groups. A foundation named forJosephine Gumbiner, AM' 48, was founded in Janu­ary to enrich lives of women and children living inLong Beach, CA.Stanley Heggen, MBA' 48, received a certificate foroutstanding volunteer service from McLean County,IL. Edward L. Henry, AM'48, MBA'48, PhD'55, retired in June 1990 from the interim presidency ofBelmont Abbey College in North Carolina. He previ­ously served as president for several other colleges, aswell as being mayor of St. Cloud, MN, from f964 to1970. Elmer F. Jones, PhB'48, SB'50, retired after32 years as a chemistry professor at NortheasternUniversity. James Mulcahy, AB'48, is using hisretirement to travel, visiting Sicily, Vienna, andHungary, and cruising around South America. JanetVanderwalker Myers, SB'48, see 1941, LawrenceMyers.49 Arthur Bragg, SM'49, retired in May fromDelaware State as professor emeritus andwas awarded an honorary doctorate of science.Sheldon Collen, JD'49, retired from practice in Oc­tober and now works part time as a curator at PrinceArt Galleries in Chicago. Bill Jordan, AB' 49, retiredfrom teaching, loves his new home in Sebastian, FL,where he spends time painting, writing, and contem­plating the good life. Thomas Gordon, PhD'49, ispresident of Effectiveness Training Inc., a companywhich sponsored a worldwide, one-day training pro­gram in conflict resolution in April 1990.Douglas Jones, SB'49, SM'49, retired after 40years as a meteorologist with the Illinois State WaterSurvey in Champaign. D. Bruce Merrifield, SM' 49,PhD'54, is the Walter Bledstrom Executive Professorof Management at Penn's Wharton School of Busi­ness. In October, Joyce Dannen Miller, PhB'49,AM' 51, received a Spotlight award from the Women'sBureau of the U.S. Department of Labor. Albert L.Weeks, AM'49, retired as professor emeritus fromNew York University, lives in Sarasota, FL, where hewrites on Soviet and international affairs. BarbaraZimmer, AB'49, see 1950, Karl Zimmer.50 Donald Baer, AB'50, PhD' 57, married El­sie M. Pinkston, professor in the SSA at theU of C, in September. They will maintain joint resi­dences in Chicago and in Lawrence, KS, where Baeris the Roy Roberts Distinguished Professor of HumanDevelopment at the University of Kansas. HarrisDante, PhD'50, has been retired from Kent State Uni­versity for eight years. He points out that two class­mates were consultants for the PBS documentary onthe Civil War: Don Fehrenbacher, AM'48, PhD'51,and Bernard Weisberger, AM'47, PhD'50.Mortimer Gross, MD' 50, works full time as a spe­cialist in children's learning and hyperkinetic disor­ders. He still enjoys traveling and sailing, most recent­ly in the Galapagos Islands. Michael Hoyt, PhB'50,AB'55, recently moved to Los Cruces, NM. John P.Hunt, PhD'50, is now professor emeritus of chemis­try at Washington State University. James H. Rule,MD' 50, retired from general surgery practice in 1989and lives in San Diego.Charles Wegel, SB' 50, is retired and living with hiswife, Joy, who 50 years ago worked atthe U of Cbook­store in order to pay his way through the College. KarlZimmer, AB'50, was awarded the Order of the Lionby the Finnish government, while his wife, BarbaraZimmer, AB' 49, received the Chancellor's Award forExcellence in Teaching from Indiana University­Purdue University at Indianapolis. The Zimmers werealso given a Spirit of Philanthropy Award in April'1990 by IUPUI.51 George Burton, DB'51, works part time asa pastor in Aurora, IL, and part time in pri­vate practice as a psychotherapist. Robert Daven­port, AB'51, will attend the 40th reunion in June andis "looking forward to a return to the Midway." B.Ross Guest, PhD' 51, retired as professor emeritusfrom Northern Illinois University, has led severaltours for the U of C Alumni Association, includingone to the Soviet Union. Courtney Taber, AM'51,retired from Blue Cross/Blue Shield in 1982 and cur-UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 39In TranslationAfter 40 years of teaching inChina, Lucy Chen came back toChicago-with her translation ofWalt Whitman's Leaves of GrassAs she sits down to lunch on a coldautumn day, Lucy Chen, AM'46,PhD'48, is asked what she wouldlike to drink. "Coca-cola," she says author­itatively, and then giggles. "I only drinkCoca-cola," she confides to her compan­ions. At78, the petite, youthful-looking pro­fessor-who has just completed the 12-yeartask of rendering Walt Whitman's Leaves ofGrass into Chinese-is obviously delightedto be visiting her American alma materagain.Chen came to Chicago in the 1940s withher late husband, who was then working atthe Oriental Institute. Her studies at the U ofC changed her way of looking at literature,she asserts. "In my graduate years, ourteachers usually put a lot of emphasis on in­tensive reading of the best-known works.They went through line by line and almostword by word. We didn't do that very muchin studying Chinese literature. So it did helpme improve my methods."In her ensuing 40-year career, Chengained national recognition not only for herteaching-a Marxist textbook of Europeanliterature which she co-edited won a govern­ment award-but also for her translations ofEnglish and American literature. Her firsttranslation was a well-received version ofT. S. Eliot's The Wasteland, published in1937. (Under the communists, Chen notes,Eliot was considered a reactionary, and40 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991when he personally asked her to translate his"Four Quartets" in 1946, she refused.) Shealso translated Henry James's stories DaisyMiller and "The Beast in the Jungle," aswell as Henry Longfellow's Song ofHiawatha.Chen was initially assigned the task oftranslating Leaves of Grass in 1962 by theChinese government. Various changes incultural perceptions-a movement to criti­cize humanism, followed by the CulturalRevolution-postponed the project, and itwas not until the late 1970s that a new politi­cal freedom allowed such efforts to be re­newed. At that point, "we were allowed toteach our own specialty and to arrange ourown time," Chen says, which gave profes­sors the opportunity to pursue outside inter­ests. In 1980, for example, Chen was able torevise her translation of The Wastelandwhen the government wished to reprint it. "Itold them, after so many years, I've learnedsomething!" she laughs.Chen started working on Leaves of Grassin 1978, visiting Chicago in 1981 to researchthe project. She found Whitman trickier totranslate than Eliot. "Eliot is so precise withwords and language, I have no difficulty un­derstanding him. But with Whitman, oneneeds to know him very well-his thoughts,his habits, his idiosyncrasies, before one cantranslate him more or less correctly. WithWhitman, sometimes I don't quite get it. "Not surprisingly, Chen feels that Whit­man's American spirit is the most difficultaspect to convey in Chinese. "I can't repro­duce the Americanism; I can only do thatthrough content, not style. But, I think �fWhitman were alive today, he would notmind my stressing content over form." Asshe considers Whitman's American individ­ualism to be "one of his greatest virtues," itis an element of his poetry she tries veryhard not to lose.Whitman is admired by Chen's students inChina. "They are not merely interested inhis progressive thought, but in him as a greatpoet, in his art," Chen says. She shares herpupils' feelings: "I must confess, the more Iread Whitman, and the more I translate, themore I think he is a really great poet."With her long project behind her, Chencan finally relax a little. In addition to visit­ing old friends in America during her three­month stay (as well as speaking on Whitmanwhile here), Chen is using her newfoundtime to read: Emily Dickinson and "what­ever I haven't read, should read, or whatgood friends suggest I read .... Aftertranslating Whitman, and putting so muchinto it, I want a rest. " -J. C. rently lives in Kansas City, MO.52 After 26 years in the Downers Grove, IL,school district, Norman Crandus, AB'52,AB'60, has been offered a one-year, interim positionas headmaster at the Bernard Zell Ansheemet JewishDay School in Chicago. Maurice Glicksman,SM'52, PhD'54, is now provost emeritus at BrownUniversity; after a year-long sabbatical, he will con­centrate on his engineering and physics teaching.Werner Grunbaum, AM'52, PhD'55, retired aspolitical science professor from the University ofMissouri at St. Louis, becoming professor emeritusafter a 34-year teaching career. Dorothy G. Maloney,AM'52, writes that she has retired.53 Charles Ahlgrimm, MBA' 53 , reports: "Iam almost 80. Shot four pars in nine holesyesterday. That's the news from me." R. A. Berdish,AB'53, lives in Sault Ste. Marie, MI. John Martinel­li, MBA'53, is an accounting professor at CaliforniaState at Long Beach; he was formerly dean of the busi­ness school there. WillisE. Sibley, AM'53, PhD'58,is professor emeritus of Cleveland State Universityand chair of the Ohio Coastal Resources AdvisoryCouncil. He also continues to serve as treasurer for theAmerican Anthropological Association.54 Barbara Scott Brodley, AB'54, AB'55,AM'62, PhD'75, taught therapy techniquesand worked to facilitate encounter groups in easternEurope last October, as part of a three-year series oftraining programs. Bert Goodwin, AB' 54, JD' 57, see1934, Belle Goldstrich. Clyde Curry Smith, DB'54,AM'61, PhD'68, retired from the University ofWis­consin last year. In the fall, he was a visiting professorat Culver-Stockton College in Canton, Missouri. Hiswife, Ellen Smith, X'56, was reelected to the PierceCounty (WI) board of supervisors.55 Joseph Rickard, PhD'55, retired in De­cember after a career in psychology, includ­ing federal service at a veterans' center in Temple, TX,and at Texas A&M University. George Roberts,AB'55, see 1965, Thorn Roberts. Walter Walker,AB'55, was recently promoted to vice chancellor foruniversity relations at the University of Tennessee atMemphis.56 Annette Cronin, X'56, AM'88, urges allclassmates-even those who didn't receive adegree-to attend the 35th reunion in June. After 30years as a land use planner, Ann Tyler Fathy, AB' 56,has embarked on a career as an attorney, specializingin land use law. She lives in San Diego. Jill McGillSchwab, AB'56, AB'58, who as a "late-bloomingfeminist" has returned to her maiden name, has a pri­vate clinical psychology practice in Lancaster, PA.Ellen Marie Smith, X'56, see 1954, Clyde Smith.57 Ann Nordstrom Bond, PhD'57, retired in1988 from Chicago State University. NedMitchell, MBA'57, has retired as president of the E.J.Brach corporation in Chicago, but is still a director ofthe company. He is also a director for DimensionalFood Group of Boston and chairman of the board of theEvangelical Health Foundation.58 EdmundF. Becker, SB'58, PhD'63, is vicepresident of Analogic Corporation in Peabo­dy, MA, and has gone to Montana the past two sum­mers "to dig dinosaur bones." Shirley LongClarkson, AB'58, has returned to the University ofMichigan as assistant to the president for planning andcommunications.59 Max O. Biltoft, MBA' 59 , retired from theAir Force, is. now distribution manager for amonthly publication for retired officers. He also vol­unteers for the Red Cross, Citizen's League, Libraryand Senior Center of Cocoa Beach, FL. NobleBrown, MBA'59, and his wife have moved into an AirForce retirement home in Riverside, CA, where theykeep busy with golf, swimming, church, and volun­teer work. William McClintock, MBA'59, is an ad­ministrator at a one-day surgery center and a diagnos­tic imaging center in Fort Worth, TX. NorvalStephens, MBA' 59, was elected first vice president ofDelta Tau Delta International Fraternity this pastAugust.60 Robert L. Beisner, AM'60, PhD'65, con­tributed an article, "History and Henry Kis­singer," to the fall 1990 issue of Diplomatic History.Edwin Hemzy, MBA' 60, who is retired, was the vol­unteer chairman of a research council committee onnuclear codes and standards. The three-year projectended in January. Arthur Winoker, JD'60, joinedNational Westminster Bank in July 1990 as counsel forits real estate division.61 Margaret Ammons, PhD'61, retired in1989 from the education department atAgnes Scott College in Decatur, GA. Arnold B. Cali­ca, SM'61, MD'75, has a private neurosurgery prac­tice in Phoenix, AZ. He and his wife, Diana Krako­wer Calica, PhD'80, have three children, David,Emily, and Ben. Donald Dowling, JD'61, a lawyer inDelray Beach, FL, specializes in litigation.Max Liberles, AB' 61, has been reelected to histenth consecutive term as president of Local 2000 ofthe American Federation of State, County, and Munic­ipal Employees. John B. Poster, AB'61, MAT'63,PhD'71, is dean of the School of Education at the Uni­versity of Michigan at Dearborn. Keith Tennis,DB'61, was named area secretary for Southeast Asia/China by the Board of International Ministries ofAmerican Baptist Churches, USA. He will live inHong Kong.62 Martin Johnson, MBA'62, retired fromFurnas Electric Co., is now director ofCampton Historic Agricultural Lands, an organiza­tion devoted to the preservation of wetlands and wild­life habitat near St. Charles, IL.Geraldine Kerkstra, AM'62, will retire in Juneafter 29 years as principal of Laramie School in OakForest, IL. The Oak Forest city council honored herfour years ago by naming a road after her and has nowannounced the naming of the G. Kerkstra MiddleSchool. Barbara Unger Williamson, AB'62,AM'65, is a courtroom deputy clerk in a federal dis­trict court in Indiana.63 Joseph Pichler, MBA' 63 , PhD '66, has beennamed chief executive and chairman for theKroger Company, a supermarket chain. MiroslavSynek, PhD' 63, is a physics professor at the U niversi­ty of Texas at San Antonio and recently presented twopapers to the Texas Academy of Science. PatrickWheatley, SM'63, is the chair of the computer sci­ence department at California Polytechnic StateUniversity.64 Philip Henderson, MBA' 64 , is presidentand CEO of Frank Lynn & Associates, Inc.,a consulting firm. Bill Peterman, AB'64, SM'66, re­ceived a "HOPE for the People" award from HOPE, afair housing agency in DuPage county, IL, for his re­search on discrimination in lending in Chicago. Hiswife, Jean Paulson Peterman, AB'64, was honoredby the local chapter of the National Organization forWomen.Richard Rada, MD'64, president and CEO of Col­lege Health Enterprises in southern California, hasbeen elected president of the American Academy ofPsychiatry and the Law. John Stanek, AB'64, ispresident of International Survey Corp., where 23percent of the firm's employees are U of C graduates.Herbert Walberg, PhD'64, has been appointed afounding member of the National Assessment govern­ing board, which reports on student achievement. Heis also chairman of the scientific advisory group of the Organization for Economic Coordination andDevelopment.65 Howard Carter, AB'65, a Dana Fellow atEmory University last year, has returned toEckerd College in St. Petersburg, FL, where he teach­es literature. Eric Hirschhorn, AB' 65, writes that hisWashington, DC, -law firm has merged with theChicago-based Winston & Strawn; he hopes "this newtie to the Second City will bring opportunities to seeold friends there."David Richter, AB'65, AM'66, PhD'71, has re­turned to New York after a year of teaching in Paris.See also Books. Thorn Roberts, AB'65, and hisbrother, George Roberts, AB'55, are still in the"small-time" oil and gas business in West Virginia.Keith Swigger, AB'65, AM'75, has been appointedinterim dean of the School of Library and InformationStudies at Texas Women's University.66 The sculpture of Norman Buktenica,PhD'66, was featured in an exhibit at Victo­ria's Gallery in Wolverton, MN, in November and De­cember. After 10 years in Hawaii, Raymond Hengel,MBA'66, has moved to San Antonio, TX, where he isbuilding a new home and embarking on a career inrural/luxury residential real estate. Edward Jones,AB'66, is co-founder of Medical Review Systems,Inc., an Atlanta, GA, firm which works to containcorporate health care premiums. John King, AM'66,PhD '73, directed a seminar sponsored by the NationalEndowment for the Humanities, called "The Protes­tant Imagination." Former airline executive HowardPutnam, MBA'66, is a professional speaker and au­thor on leadership and ethics.David H. Rosenbloom, AM'66, PhD'69, is a dis­tinguished professor of public administration atAmerican University in Washington, DC. He is alsoeditor-in-chief of Public Administration Review. Wes­ley Ulrich, MD'66, and his family have moved back toMafraq, Jordan, where he is the medical director forAnnoor Sanitorium, a tuberculosis facility.67 Deanna Dragunas Bennett, AB'67, isworking on her M.P.A. at Harvard's Kenne­dy School. She plans to return to her job at U. S. Spe­cial Operations Command in Tampa, FL, after earn­ing her degree. Michael Bourgo, AM'67, won the1989 poetry prize from Lyric magazine. PhilLankford, AB'67, AM'68, PhD'71, writes that heenjoyed his recent tour of England, Ireland, and Bel­gium so much he almost stayed. He was especially im­pressed by a tour of the roof of Salisbury Cathedral,with its gargoyles and bells. Chris Rooney, MBA'67,is president of the resurrected Wheeling and Lake ErieRailway, an independent regional freight railroad. Ro­bert Sabath, MBA'67, has been named president andCEO for The Emerson Consultants, a managementconsulting firm based in Chicago.Sister Mary Joyce Schladweiler, AM' 67, teaches acourse in the continuing education department at Car­dinal Stritch College and recently won an award forher poem "School Daze." Dorothy Jane Solinger,AB' 67, recently completed a year as visiting associateprofessor at Stanford University, where she earned herPh.D. in 1975. Rick Stone, AB'67, is the partner incharge of litigation practice for the Los Angeles officeof Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy. Jim Waits,AM'67, dean of the theology school at Emory Univer­sity, has announced his resignation as dean. He willcontinue as a professor at the school.68 DaleEickelman,AM'68,PhD'71,hasbeenelected president of the Middle East StudiesAssociation of North America. Janet Gross Wagner,AB'68, works as a school librarian at Oak Park andRiver Forest high schools in Illinois. Betsy Mandel­Carley, AM' 68,. has been appointed to the TennesseeState Board of Social Work Licensure. 69 Lester Brown, AB'69, AM'71, PhD'80, isin his second year of teaching at CaliforniaState at Long Beach. Lindley Darden, AM'69,SM'72, PhD'74, associate professor of history andphilosophy at the University of Maryland, has beenawarded a National Science Foundation grant to studyproblem-solving strategies, at Ohio State University.L. Patrick Gage, PhD'69, and his wife, Evelyn,have moved to Lexington, MA, with their two sons.Patrick is an executive vice president at Genetics Insti­tute, Inc., a biotechnology firm. Mark Holmes,PhD'69, is a professor of educational administrationat the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education inToronto. See also Books. Cynthia Tobias, AM'69,PhD'77, is director of administrative computing sup­port for the University of Arizona medical school.Dennis Waldon, AB'69, is now a partner withSaun­ders & Monroe, a Chicago law firm.70 James Daniels, JD '70, is a partner in a Cali­fornia law firm and lives with his wife andthree children in Orange County, where he coachessoccer and plays tennis. Harry Greenwald, AB'70,has moved from Boston to Brooklyn Heights, NY.Walter Hill, MAT'70, professor of plant and soil sci­ence at Thskegee University, has been named out­standing minority educator by the American Societyof Agronomy.Richard Kilberg, AB'70, AM'72, was nominatedfor a 1990 Academy Award for his documentary film,Adam Clayton Powell. The film was named best filmof the year by the Organization of American Histori­ans. Kilberg and his fam:ily live in New York City.Lawrence Kinet, MBA'70, is a consultant providingmanagement services to companies in the health carefield. Louis Masterson, MBA'70, president of LouisMasterson & Company, has developed an executive­level job listing report. E. J. Moreschi, MBA'70, re­cently joined S & C Electric Company in Chicago.Phil Rosenthal, AB'70, has released a recording ofchildren's songs called Chickens in the Garden, on theAmerican Melody Records label.71 Rick Hay, AB'71, PhD' 77, MD'78, see1988, Jennifer Souders. In September, AllanJ. Preckel, JD'71, was appointed a superior courtjudge for the county of San Diego. He lives in the citywith his wife and two daughters. Lawrence Straus,AB'71, AM'72, PhD'75, has been named theWentheim-Snead endowed lecturer at the Universityof New Mexico for the current academic year. John P.Wagner, AM'71, a partner in a Sacramento, CA, lawfirm, has joined the Maryknoll Lay Mission Program.He will work with the poor in Latin America.Jerry Webman, AB '71, is a vice president with thePrudential Insurance Company. Norman Wells,AM'71, has been appointed director of developmentat Valparaiso University. Michael Andrew Williams,AM'71, is the founder of the Black Phoenix Press, apublishing company in Washington, DC. LeonardZax, AB '71, a partner in a Washington, DC, law firm,recently published an article about the Supreme Courtand real estate in the Washington Post.7 2 Stan Becker, AB'72, AM'74, was named anassociate professor in the population dynam­ics department at Johns Hopkins University. PamelaReichl Collebrusco, AB'72, AM'74, and herhusband, Mark, had their third child, Laura Anne, inMarch 1990. The family lives in Riverton, IL.Michael Horwitz, AM'72, was appointed executivedirector of the Children's Home of Detroit in October1989. Joel Krichiver, MBA'72, is vice president andchief financial officer of American Ingredients Com­pany in Kansas City, MO. He is also on the board of di­rectors of the Jewish Community Center of greaterKansas City. George Meese, AM'72, PhD'79, re­ceived an award for teaching excellence and campusUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 41leadership from the Sears Roebuck Foundation atEckerd College in September. Dennis Miller,AM'72, works for EG&G Idaho, Inc., and is an advis­er to the D. O. E. 's office of technology development inenvironmental restoration and waste management.John Miller, AE'72, married Joan St. Ongi in June1990. A hematologist and oncologist, John is also di­rector of transplantation and immunology at FairfaxHospital and Georgetown University. Michael Prais,SB '72, is director of academy computing services andadjunct associate professor in chemistry at NorthernIllinois University.James Sack, AB'72, his wife, Susan, and their fourchildren live in Washington, DC, where he is generalcounsel for a homebuilder. Emily Sieger, AB'72,AM'76, is working towards her M.P.A. at MontanaState University and has just been elected president ofthe MT Wilderness Association. Peggy Sullivan,PhD'72, received a U.S. Army Commander's Awardfor services and support of the department of militaryscience at Northern Illinois University. RonaldTarrson, MBA'72, retired CEO of John Butler Com­pany, is actively pursuing a career in broadcasting.73 Ann Cory Bretz, PhD'73, traveled to Ire­land in August 1990 to study Irish history andcurrent events, meeting with church, government, andcivic leaders. Alicia Hetzner, AB '73, is executive as­sistant to the CEO of MET COR in Washington, DC.Arvind Korde, MBA'73, is president of a joint ven­ture between TRW and Koyo Seiko.74 Patricia Adler, AM'74, is an assistant pro­fessor of sociology at the University of Colo­rado, while her husband, Peter Adler, AM'74, is anassociate professor and chair of sociology at the Uni­versity of Denver. See also Books. Bruce Bursten,SB'74, is a professor of chemistry at Ohio State Uni­versity and received the OSU distinguished scholaraward in 1990.Mildred Culp, AM'74, PhD'76, was honored withan alumni achievement award from Knox College,where she was one of three speakers at homecoming inOctober. Alston Fitts, PhD'74, recently published anarticle in Commonweal on the racial and political ten­sions in his hometown of Selma, AL. Hal Francke,AB'74, and his wife celebrated the birth of their firstchild, Katherine ("Kallie"), in April 1990. Hal is apartner in the Chicago law firm of Rudnick & Wolfe.Barbara Glatt, MST'74, PhD' 87, is project managerand executive producer of the Honor of Humanity Pro­ject, an interdenominational project celebrating thelife of a young Polish girl who protected Jews duringWorld War II. Paul Schuster, AB'74, MBA'75, writesthat he is the "proud father of a five-month-old son andfour-year-old daughter, both of whom are super!"75 Charles Adelman, PhD'75, an associateprofessor of art history at the University ofNorthern Iowa, is continuing his work as a ceramicsanalyst at the Ashkelon excavations in Israel. JohnFidler, AM'75, is public information editor for Met­ropolitanEdisonCo. in Reading, PA. He has also beennamed to several civic boards and is a volunteer tutor.He says he "welcomes mail from classmates, at 159Victoria Lane, Wyomissing, PA, 19610." Perry Lew­is, AB'75, is sales manager for North Sails Midwestand lives in Wauwatosa, WI. David McNulty,MBA' 75 , president of First National Bank of DesMoines, has been named to the board of directors ofBoulevard Bank in Chicago.Warren G. Moon, PhD'75, is chairman of the arthistory department at the University of Wisconsin atMadison. James Orr, SM'75, PhD'82, is a staffpathologist at a hospital in Portland, OR, where he ishaving a hard time adjusting to the weather. See also1988, Jennifer Souders. Carlos G. Rizowy, AM'75,PhD'81, is the president of the Association of Chil­dren of Holocaust Survivors and is also a memberof the board of directors of the Board of JewishEducation.42 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 199176 Steve Friedman, AB'76, MBA'77, and hiswife, Cheri, had their first daughter, whojoins two brothers. Steve is a general partner with aninvestment firm in New York City. Michael Good­man, AB '76, is a research associate in the physics de­partment at Dartmouth College. Gregg Jarrell,MBA'76, PhD'78, married Lynne Davidson in Sep­tember 1989. Last year he became director of theBradley Policy Research Center at the University ofRochester's business school. Janet Marcus, AM'76,PhD'85, and her husband, Michael Sells, AM'77,PhD'82, had their second daughter, Maya, in June1990; she joins five-year-old Ariela. Janet is pursuingschool certification at Bryn Mawr and Michael is anassociate professor ofIslam and comparative religionsat Haverford College.Timothy Morris, AM'76, PhD'84, was a modera­tor for a conference on "Ethics and the Terminal Pa­tient" in February 1990; in October he attended a con­ference on defining basic levels of health care, PhillipNorth, MD'76, has left the military and has-in addi­tion to three kids) one mortgage, and a cat-a privatesurgical practice in Washington, DC.L. Fran Stella, MBA'76, is president ofWhiteGM CVolvo in Columbus, OH. Sandy Weissent, MBA'76,is chief operating officer of Tennis Corporation ofAmerica, which operates 30 health clubs around thecountry. Robin Roman Wright, AB'76, AM'77,works for Bank of Boston's partner school, John Me­Cormack Middle School, as project manager for athree-year technology plan. She and her husband,Richard, have a four-year-old son, Jared.77 Marilyn Bara, MST'77, teaches math atH.L. Richards High School in Oak Lawn,IL. Jeffrey Bergen, SM'77, PhD'81, associate pro­fessor at DePaul University, and his wife, Donna, re­cently celebrated their third anniversary as theirdaughter, Melisa, turned two. Robert Campbell,MBA'77, is president of his own management con­sulting firm. He and his wife, Linda, live in Hutch­inson, KS.Marta Peterson Faeth, MBA'77, and her husband,Frank Faeth, MBA'77, have a five-year-old daughter,Sarah. Frank oversees the operations and automationstaff that provides support for Chemical Bank'sbranch system. Richard D. Marcus, AM '77,PhD '83, has been named an associate professor in thebusiness school at the University of Wisconsin­Milwaukee. Michael Sells, AM'77, PhD'82, see1976, Janet Marcus.78 Doug Dobson, AB'78, MD'83, see 1988,Jennifer Souders. Ruth Ann Francis,AB '78, MBA' 83, and her husband are both vice presi­dents at Harris Bank. Eric Grossman, AB'78,MD'82, and his wife, Lisa, had a daughter, Nina To­bela, in October. He is a nephrologist in Boston. Jef­frey Hill, MD'78, PhD'78, lives in Phoenix, AZ,where he is the director of pediatric critical care atSt. Joseph's Hospital. Katherine Roscoe Levin,PhD'78, MD'82, an assistant professor of anesthesiaat Indiana University Medical Center, lives in India­napolis with her husband, Paul, and their daughter,Kelly.Steve Levy, JD '78, works for Pillsbury, Madison &Sutro, a Washington, DC, law firm. Vernon Martin,AB '78, is appraisal manager for major loans at HomeSavings of America in Los Angeles. Judith Mills­Cerny, AM'78, was married in December 1989 andteaches geography at Joliet Junior College. MichaelMinieka, MBA'78, is a neurologist at NorthwesternUniversity and also serves on the local school councilof Chicago's Edison Elementary School, DavidRodin, AB'78, is a co-manager of the merger and ac­quisitions department of Duff & Phelps, Inc. He livesin Ridgefield, CT, with his wife, Gail, and their three-year-old daughter, Emi.79 Stacie Stutz Aaron, MBA'79, AM'79, andher husband, John, had their second daugh­ter, Jennifer, in February 1990. Jennifer joined three­year-old sister Melissa. Ellen Forman Abramson,AB'79, and her husband also celebrated the birth of adaughter, Sarah Anna, in March 1990. Michael Dela­ney, AM '79, is second secretary for economic affairsat the U.S. embassy in Seoul, Korea. Helen Fedor,AB'79, is teaching Slovak language classes in north­ern Virginia for the Slovak Society of Washington . HalFisher, AB'79, works for the Kansas City, MO,school district as an art resource scholar at the Acade­my of Arts and Sciences. He and his wife had their sec­ond child in August 1990.Jean Goodwin, AB'79, JD'84, see 1934, BelleGoldstrich. Mark Handel, AB'79, "has joined theranks of the unemployed" after completing his doctor­ate at MIT. He has been studying both hurricane for­mation and the greenhouse effect. William Kuhn,AB'79, has a similar problem: he finished his doctor­ate in history at Johns Hopkins and offers to send a freecopy of his "fascinating" dissertation to anyone whoproposes to employ him. Patricia Michael, MBA' 79 ,has been named director of clinical systems research atRex Hospital in Raleigh, NC. David Murdy, AB '79,SM'81, MBA'82, see 1988, Jennifer Souders. LindaGlascock O'Bryant, MBA' 79, has joined the board ofTeen Living Programs, a non-profit agency providingsupport services for runaway youths.John Riordan, MBA'79, was promoted to directorof pension and profit-sharing plans for IMCERAGroup, Inc. Steven M. Strickland, AB'79, is vicepresident of commercial lending with AmerifirstBank in Fort Lauderdale, FL. Ted Stephen Strom,AB'79, SM'81, PhD'86, MD'88, see 1988, JenniferSouders. Robert E. Sullivan, AB'79, MBA'86, andhis wife, Susan, celebrated the birth of their secondchild, Mary Corinne, in April 1990; Mary joins broth­er Jake. Rob is a financial executive in Northfield, IL.80 Diana Krakower Calica, PhD'80, see1961, Arnold Calica. Robert Campbell,MBA' 80, recently became vice president and directorof credit research for T. Rowe Price Associates in Bal­timore. He and his wife, Rina, and their son, Scott,live in Parkton, MD. Craig Douglass, MBA'80, re­cently married Julie Verdeyen, a pediatrician.Douglass was also involved in a leveraged buyout ofthe Quintar division of Bell & Howell Company.Ann Heath, AB'80, and her husband, DavidTheisen, are pleased to announce the birth of their firstchild, Catherine Mary, in October. After a brief ma­ternity leave, Ann planned to return to the DrydenPress as senior acquisitions editor for finance.Mike Kundmann, AB' 80, received his Ph. D. fromBerkeley in 1988 and married Roseann Csencsits inJune 1990. They live in Worcester, MA, where heworks for an electron microscopy instrument designfirm. Keith Phillips, MBA' 80, is now director of mar­keting for the Franklin Mint in Philadelphia. CherylStoebe, MBA' 80, is enjoying retirement by playingtennis and bridge as well as chauffeuring her childrenand volunteering in Westport, CT.81 Benjamin Giese, AB'81, see 1982, RachelBramson. Charles Glynn, MBA'81, hasbeen promoted to president of the Genesis CreativeGroup; he lives in Chicago. Michael Goodwin,AB'81, see 1934, Belle Goldstrich. James L. Graff,AB'81, assumed a new post in January as Central Eu­rope correspondent for Time magazine. He lives inVienna.Tim Holtsford, AB'81, reports that he survived aprolonged stint in southern California, "though hishair did turn blond and he can occasionally be heard tosay 'dude'." After a postdoctoral year at MichiganState, he began teaching at the University of Missouriin January. Linda Lum, AM' 81, works for the Officeof Defense Trade Policy of the U.S. State Department.Thomas Martin, AB'81, has been appointed assist­ant professor of mathematics at Chatham College inPittsburgh, PA.Noel Moore, AB'81, and his wife, Michele, an­nounce the birth of a daughter, Rebecca Elizabeth,whom her brother, Noel, has greeted with "hugs andambivalence." Jack O'Malley, JD'81, is a partnerwith Winston & Strawn in Chicago and was electedCook County State's Attorney in the Novemberelections.Clara Orban, AB'81, PhD'90, is an assistant pro­fessor at DePaul University. David Pasulka, AB'81,and his wife, Barbara, recently had a daughter, Jac­queline Elizabeth. David is a partner with Barclay andDamisch, a Chicago law firm. Henry Putz, AB' 81, isa research scientist with Sterling Laboratories in Al­bany, NY. Linda Rader, MBA' 81, is marketing man­ager for American Cyanamid.David Silverman, AB'81, works at the ChicagoMercantile Exchange and was recently elected to itsboard of governors. He and his wife, Lauren, have twochildren. StevenB. Smith, PhD'81, is a full professorin the political science department at Yale University.Andrea Staskowski, AM' 81, has joined the faculty atCarleton College in Minnesota as a lecturer in mediastudies.82 Rachel Bramson, AB'82, is in her last yearof medical school at the University of Wash­ington. She and her husband, Ben Giese, AB'81, livein San Diego, CA. Donald Dowling, AB'82, prac­tices law with Graydon, Head & Ritchey in Cincin­nati, while his wife, Nancy Hill Dowling, AB'84, is alawyer for Procter & Gamble. They recently traveledto Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay.Howard Noel, AM'82, has opened an office inWilmette, IL, for his Chicago-based psychotherapy,couples counseling, and hypnosis practice. BillMonroe, PhD' 82, is the co-author of a play called Pri­mary Care which was performed as part of the annualmeeting of the Society for Health and Human Values.Laura DeFratus Weisman, AB'82, and her hus­band, Paul, had their first child, Eric Ronald, on June26, 1990. John Winkler, MBA' 82, earned his law de­gree in 1988 and passed the bar in both Kentucky andOhio. He is currently an assistant vice president of theDayton Trust Division of Central Trust N. A.83 Michael Brandt, AB'83, MBA'87, and hiswife, Carol Nalbantian-Brandt, AB'84,announce the birth of their son, Michael KrikorBrandt, onJune30, 1990. Eleanor Leyden, AB'83, isa legal assistant with the immigration law firm of Fra­gomen, Del Rey & Bernsen in New York City. DeniseSwanson-Ma, AB' 83, MBA' 86, is a product managerfor Fidelity Investments, and her husband, David Ma,PhD' 84, MD' 86, has completed his residency in pedi­atrics at the Children's Hospital in Boston and is in thefinal year of his fellowship program in neonatology atHarvard. Steven Vrablik, MBA'83, works for Toshi­ba America as a sales and marketing manager. He hasrecently traveled to Japan. Mark Williams, AB'83,was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in May 1989and now serves as assistant pastor at St. Thomas theApostle Church in Peoria Heights, IL.84 Andrew Anker, MBA'84, is president ofSoftware Advantage, a computer dealershipin the Washington, DC, area. Jeffrey Berman,AB' 84, married Elisabeth Gallant in December 1990.He is an account director at Ogilvy & Mather Adver­tising in New York City. Alex Cobitz, SB'84, see1988, Jennifer Souders. David Lin, AB'84, is a vicepresident for Lehman Brothers, international divi­sion, managing their West Coast office. David Ma,PhD'84, MD'86, see 1983, Denise Swanson-MaoJack Miller, MBA' 84, is vice president and fund man­ager for Chase Manhattan Bank's u.s. property unit COlllD10n SensesBiopsychologist Gary Beauchampdirects a center that focuses on twothings that most of us use everyday-our senses of taste and smellIt's hard to miss Gary Beauchamp's sci­entific playpen adjacent to the Univer­sity of Pennsylvania campus in WestPhiladelphia. It's the five-story building be­hind the huge, golden sculpture of a noseand slightly parted lips.Inside are more than 50 Ph.D.s who studythings like the effect of odors on shopping,food cravings and phobias, appetite pat­terns, and odor "blindness." Researcherschart biological connections among odorsand Alzheimer's disease, the immune sys­tem, mood, and creativity.In August, Beauchamp, PhD'71, becamedirector of Monell Chemical Senses Center,the world's only nonprofit research centerdevoted to studying taste and smell. He'sbeen a fixture there since 1971, when, afterearning a degree in biology in 1965 fromCarleton College and a Ph.D. in biopsycho­logy, he arrived as a postdoctoral fellowaiming to stay "only a year or two." TheMil waukee-born Beauchamp now resides inWest Philadelphia with wife Fay, AM'69,and their two teenage sons.Taste and smell are hardly trivial pursuits;food companies spend millions annuallysearching for the perfect salt substitute orthe tastiest fake fat. Last August, Monellreaped national headlines when one of itsscientists announced he had uncovered thechemical secrets of underarm odor.Monell gets the majority of its backingfrom the National Institutes of Health. andthe Department of Agriculture, with the restcoming from its founder, the New York­based Monell Foundation, and from food,fragrance, and flavor companies as no­strings-attached gifts.At a recent briefing for science reportersheld on Penn's campus, Beauchamp talkedabout some of the center's research. For ex­ample, one study discovered that birds atcattle feed lots refused to eat feed filled withmethyl anthranilate, the grape flavor inGrape Nehi. While he can't explain theeffect, he quips, it might come in handy atairports and orchards.A more serious project focuses on a set ofdisease resistance genes known as "majorhistocompatibility complex" genes-whichare thought to be immune system "markers of individuality." They also may affect howpeople detect and produce certain odors."Each gene may be involved in producing aunique odor, or 'odor-print, ", Beauchampexplains. Monell scientists have found thatmice produce different odors based on slightvariations in such genes, and that these dif­ferences affect mating and kin recognition.In people, he contends, such smells may benature's way of discouraging incest.Then there's the videotaping project in­volving nursing mothers and their babies. Inmoms given garlic two hours before feedingtime, the breast milk smells garlicky. Video­taped tests showed that newborns prefer thegarlic flavor-or at least the odor-to plainmilk, suckling longer and more often. Theidea is to see what effect early odor and fla­vor experiences might have on later behav­iors, such as food preferences. PsychologistJulie Mennella, SM'87, PhD'88, heads thework.Beauchamp came to the U of C because ofthe work and reputation of then-psychologychair Eckhard Hess, an animal behavioralistwho later became his doctoral adviser.When he thinks of Hess, he thinks of the1968 Democratic National Convention."Crowds were being tear-gassed, and Hess,who was a conservative politically, said,'Don't go.' He knew I was going to anyway,so he added, 'But if you do, I'll bail youout. ", Beauchamp managed to avoid arrest,but the event remains" a highlight of my col­lege life."He's convinced that the public has an appe­tite for Monell's particular brand of re­search. "There's something special abouttaste and smell," he says. "They're funda­mental senses available to all of us, and theycan evoke powerful memories and emo­tions. Studying them has all the mysteries ofbiology in one package. " -So B.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 43trust. Diana Poreda Rees, MBA' 84, and her hus­band, Eric, had their first baby, Julia Diana, in April1990.85 Susan Bonar, AB'85, received her M.D.from Yale University in 1989 and is now asecond-year resident in orthopaedic surgery at theUniversity of Iowa Hospital. Alex Jablonowski,MBA' 85, was reappointed medical adviser to theboard of directors of the Association of Air MedicalServices. After three years of options trading in NewYork, Kaarel Laev, AB' 85, is in the M.B. A. programat Duke's Fuqua School. Stuart McDermott, AB'85,writes, "I am happy to report I left my job as a lawyerand am now a trainer for the New York Knicks basket­ball team."Randall Mendoza, MBA' 85, recently married Lin­da Migliore. They live in Fresno, CA, where he is avice president at Security Pacific. William Reeves,MBA' 85, is a senior manager with Price Waterhousein St. Louis. Mitchell Rogatz, MBA'85, has foundeda publishing company called Triumph Books. Its firsttitle is The Book Buyer's Advisory. Frances Scovil,MBA'85, still lives in Boston and works for AnalogDevices; currently she is operations manager for thedigital-signal processing division.Joseph Valo, MBA'85, has been named director offinance for Morton International's specialty chemi­cals group, located in Chicago. Paul van den Broek,PhD'85, is now associate professor in the depart­ments of education and child development at the Uni­versity of Minnesota. Donald Wilson, MBA'85, is afinancial markets officer for the Federal Reserve Bankof Chicago.86 Gregory Brunson, AB' 86, works as a labo­ratory assistant for Pfizer, Inc., in Groton,CT. Gerald Caruso, MBA' 86, see 1987, BrooksMyhran. Mary Choldin, AB'86, is working on hermaster's degree in special education at NortheasternIllinois while employed at a therapeutic day school inDes Plaines. She and her sister, Kate Choldin,AB'86, are competitive triathletes.Grafton Harper, AB'86, was married in 1989 inLos Angeles. He and his wife are graduate students incinema/television at the University of Southern Cali­fornia; Grafton will begin producing his thesis film inApril. Alan Kanter, AB'86, is in his fourth year atNorthwestern's medical school. He plans a career as afamily practitioner. Sue Knerr-Cain, AM'86, is amother of two and volunteers on the United Way Boardof South Haven, MI.Karyn Corso Lusskin, AB'86, received her lawdegree from Rutgers University in 1989 and is practic­ing with Cuyler, Burk & Matthews in Horham Park,NJ. She was married in November 1989 to AndrewLusskin. Julie Mueller, AM'86, and her husband,Andreas, have a daughter, Miranda Rose. Dennis M.O'Rourke, MBA'86, was promoted to plant control­ler for Newark Electronics in Gaffnee, Sc.Wendy Osanka, AB'86, and Kenneth Jones,AB'86, were married September 1, 1990, in BondChapel. Attendants included: Christopher Ru­pright, AB'86; Timothy Swanson, AB'86; JamesGaughan, AB '87; Gayathri Sundaresan, AB'86; S.Janelle Montgomery, AB'86, MBA'89; and AnneGhislandi, AB'86. Elaine Peters, AM'86, was mar­ried in September to David Waxman. She is a manage­ment consultant with Blue Cross Blue Shield.87 Peter J. Bulandr, MBA' 87, and his wife,Lauralyn, had a son, Peter, Jr., last August.Daniel Chuman, AM'87, married Susan Mason inSeptember 1990in Santa Fe, NM. He is a vice presi­dent with Daiwa Securities America in New YorkCity. Robert Fox, MBA' 87, was married in June 1990and is a manager for Columbia House-CBS Records.James Gaughan, AB'87, see 1986, Wendy Osanka.44 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 Bruce Larson, MBA'87, is living in Tokyo, wherehe works for Goldman, Sachs & Co. Rowan Miran­da, AM' 87, is working on his Ph.D. at the U of C's Irv­ing B. Harris School of Public Policy. Upon comple­tion of his degree he will be an assistant professor ofpolitical science and public administration at the Uni­versity of Illinois at Chicago.Faye-Marie Morgan, AB'87, married AndrewBrownfield, AB'88, MBA'89, in July 1990. In atten­dance were Kristine McQuilliam, AB'87; AndrewHewett, AB'88; and David Adelman, AB'89,MBA' 90. The Brownfields live in New York, whereAndrew works for Merrill Lynch and Faye attendsNew York Law School. J. Cameron Moss, MBA'87,is in Cleveland after spending a year in Munich. Heand his wife welcomed their fourth child, Carissa, inOctober.Brooks D. Myhran, MBA'87, works with GeraldCaruso, MBA'86, for a Minneapolis-St. Paul invest­ment bank. Jean-Dldier Opsomer, MBA'87, is mar­ried to Carolyn Warne and works as a strategy consult­ant in Cambridge, MA. Matt Schaefer, AB'87, is inhis last year at University of Michigan Law Schooland spent the fall semester as an intern in the State De­partment in Washington, DC. Marcshall Smith,MBA' 87, writes that his degree is "proving very usefulin managing Cub Scout Popcorn Sale accounting,"and also in the course he's teaching at Lake ForestGraduate School of Management.88 M. Mark Albert, MBA'88, left DrexelBurnham Lambert last March and is workingfor Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette in Century City,CA. Andrew Brownfield, AB'88, MBA' 89 , see1987, Faye-Marie Morgan. Nicholas Hahn, MBA'88,is chair of the industry and forum group of the O'Harechapter of the Illinois CPA Society. Andrew Hewett, AB'88, see 1987, Faye-Marie Morgan.Lisa Fitzpatrick McGee, AB'88, began work onher Ph.D. in physics at the University of Alabama inJanuary. She and her husband, Terry, have a son, JacobRyan. Julie Pekarek, AB'88, is a consultant forBaxter Healthcare Corporation and is pursuing amaster's degree at Northwestern's Kellogg School ofManagement. Brian Penoyer, AB'88, was commis­sioned an ensign in the Coast Guard upon his gradua­tion from Officer Candidate School in Yorktown, VA.Michelle Pinnas, AB' 88, is an ensign in the Navy andrecently completed officer indoctrination school inNewport, RI.Jennifer Souders, MD'88, married Ted StephenStrom, AB'79, SM'81, PhD'86, MD'88, on October6, 1990. U of C alumni in attendance included DougDobson, AB'78, MD'83; David Murdy, AB'79,SM'81, MBA'82; Rick Hay, AB'71, PhD'77,MD'78; James Orr, SM'75, PhD'82; and AlexCobitz, SB'84.89 David Adelman, AB'89, MBA'90, see 1987,Faye-Marie Morgan. David Inman,MBA' 89, is deputy commissioner of environmentalprotection for the city of Chicago. Class corrections:Mary Gutting, AB' 89, is not a newlywed, as was re­ported to this office, but continues to enjoy the singlelife; and Tej Singh, AB' 89, is nota pharmacology stu­dent at the University of Illinois, but is in his secondyear at the Pritzker School of Medicine.90 Eric Iversen, AB'90, has been awarded a JohnDana Archbold Fellowship at the University ofOslo, where he is a graduate student in the department ofclassic languages and literature. Mario Moussa,PhD'90, is an assistant professor of philosophy atWorcester Polytechnic Institute. Nick DiCrescenzo,AB'90, is not married, contrary to earlier reports.DEATHSFACULTYArthur Kornhauser, PhD'26, a psychology pro­fessor, died December 11. He taught at the U of C from1921 to 1946 and then at Columbia and Wayne StateUniversities. He was the author of When Labor J-btes:A Study of Auto Workers and Mental Health of the In­dustrial »Vrker. Survivors include his wife, Mary; adaughter; a son, William Kornhauser, AB'48,AM'50, PhD'53; and three grandchildren.Leonard Krieger, professor emeritus of history,died October 12 at the age ofn. He came to the U of Cfrom Yale in 1962 and was the first to hold the rank of"University professor," which honors outstandingteachers who join the faculty from other schools. Anauthority on modem Germany, Krieger was the authorof six books, including Time's Reasons: Philosophiesof History, OldandNew, published in 1989. Survivorsinclude three sons and five grandchildren.Milton Tinsley, former professor and chair of theneurosurgery department of the medical school, diedOctober 12 at the age of 80. He also served as chief ofneurosurgery at Mount Sinaiand Michael Reese hos­pitals. Tinsley was the first neurosurgeon to serve inWorld War II, in which he received a Bronze Star and aPurple Heart for his service. Survivors include hiswife, Phyllis; two daughters; two sons; and fourgrandchildren.STAFFWalter Hebert, PhB'29, AM'42, former tenniscoach and director of intramurals at the U of C, diedNovember 5 at the age of 82 in Santa Fe, NM. Hebertwas a member of the 1929 Big Ten championship ten­nis team. From 1936 to 1942 he coached the squad, winning three Big Ten titles; his 1939 team swept allsingles and doubles matches to claim the unofficialnational collegiate championship. Hebert was also anexpert on Civil War history and lived and taught inHouston, TX, before moving to Santa Fe. Survivorsinclude his wife, Fran; a daughter; a son; a sister; and agrandchild.205Harry Friedman, SB'22, MD'24, died October 13in Chicago. An internist until his retirement in 1978,he was on the staffs of Weiss and Michael Reese hospi­tals. Survivors include a son, a daughter, a sister, andtwo brothers.Thelma Beeson Gee, LLB'22, died October 28.She was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1922. Her hus­band, Fred Gee, JD'23, died-in 1945. Survivorsin­elude a son, a daughter, two grandchildren, and fourgreat -grandchildren.Theodore Rosenak, X'22, died December 12 inEvanston, IL. After Prohibition ended in 1933, hepurchased the rights to Drewrys Ale, and began a longcareer in the brewing industry. He served as a vicepresident for Blatz Brewing Co. and for Pabst, and lat­er was president of Rhein gold Breweries in New York.He is survived by two sons, including TheodoreRosenak, JD'54; six grandchildren; and four great­grandchildren.StanleyE. Lawton, SB'23, MD'26, died June 28 atthe age of 93. He worked and taught in the surgery de­partments of Rush Medical School and the Presbyteri­an Hospital as well as Cook County and Children'sMemorial Hospitals. He was also an accomplishedviolinist.Louise Viehoff Molkup, AB'23, AM'35, diedOctober 1. She was a teacher in Chicago public andprivate schools as well as in schools abroad. Survivorsinclude her husband, Joseph Molkup, AB'41.Rose Goldsmith Rue, PhB'23, died May 15,1990.Survivors include her daughter, Patricia, and twograndsons.SamuelR. Wells, MAT'23, died June 12 at age 99.He taught math and was a principal at Roosevelt HighSchool in East Chicago, IN. Survivors include hiswife, Isabel, and a grandson, Dodge Wells, JD'72.Opal Hart Davis, SM'24, PhD'25, died Septem­ber 15,1990. Survivors include her husband, WardB.Davis, SM'22, PhD'24; two sons; and a daughter.Catherine Leonard Schnitzer, PhB'24, died Jan­uary 14, 1990. She was a public school teacher for 46years. Survivors include a daughter.Albert Meyer, SB'27, PhD'30, died October 13 inUpper Montclair, NJ. He was formerly research direc­tor at Stevens Institute of Technology and also servedas executive secretary of the Plastics Institute ofAmerica at the school. He volunteered for the U of CAlumni Association for many years. Survivors in­clude his wife, Leslie Hudson Meyer, SM'31; threechildren; two sisters, including Katharine Meyer,AM'46; and a brother, Leslie Meyer, SB'36.Burton McRoy, PhB'28, 10'30, died August 6in San Diego, CA. Formerly he was CEO of theWander Company, and a member of the Order of theC. Survivors include his wife, Jennie; a daughter; anda son.Ernestine Putman, PhB'28, AM'29, died at age87. A resident of Palo Alto, CA, she taught at LosAngeles College for 30 years. Survivors include adaughter, a son, a brother, and ten grandchildren.Helen Gillet Parsons, PhB'29, died January 26,1990, in Arizona.Ralph J. Helperin, PhB'25, 10'27, died Septem­ber 8. He was formerly director of Temple Sholom inChicago; he later joined his family'S tailoring businessand then worked in legal services for the Internal Rev­enue Service. Survivors include his daughter, JoanneHelperinSaunders, AM'58.30sLester Asher, PhB' 30, 10' 32, died October 2 of astroke. He was general counsel to the Illinois StateAFL-CIO and a senior partner and founder of the Chi­cago law firm, Asher, Gittler, Greenfield, Cohen &D' Alba, one of the nation's largest union-oriented lawfirms. Survivors include his wife, Corinne; a daugh­ter; and two sons.Sam Banks, SB'30, MD'35, died November 16.He served in the Army as an orthopaedic surgeonduring World War II. He later became an associateprofessor at Northwestern University, while serv­ing on the staffs of various Chicago area hospitals. Inthe 1960s he served as chair of the American Col­lege of Surgeons, during which time he helpedorganize training classes for police, firefighters, andambulance personnel. Survivors include his wife,Ruth.Jessamal Brophy Edwards, AM'34, died July 22of kidney cancer. She was a leader in church and com­munity organizations in Columbus, OH, for much ofher life. Survivors include two sons and five grand­children.Ameda Gibson, PhB '30, died October 23. For over40 years she was chief research director for the Mid­West Debate Bureau. She and her husband, HaroldGibson, co-wrote 84 debate handbooks used by highschools and colleges. Survivors include her husband,a son, a daughter, two grandchildren, and five great­grandchildren.Thomas Jeffrey, SB'34, PhD'57, died August 22,1989. Survivors include his wife, CharlotteDragstedt Jeffrey, SB' 44. .Edgar Martin, AM'34, PhD'42, died August 3. He was a principal budget examiner for New York statefor 27 years. Survivors include his wife, June.Esther Nierman Klein, AB'39, a veteran of WorldWar II and partner in her family's business, died June28. Survivors include a daughter and a son.Mary Landers, PhD'39, professor emeritus ofmathematics at Hunter College in New York, died No­vember 18. Survivors include two sons, a daughter,two sisters, and seven grandchildren.Robert Edward Lewis, Si8'39, died in January1990. Founder of the U of C's Documentary FilmGroup in 1940, he went on to work in interdisciplinaryapplications of high technology, particularly in thefields of optics and photography. He was a pioneer inmask-making technology for semiconductors andtaught at several colleges. Survivors include his wife,Mary Woolsey Lewis, AB'44.40sJohn Langstaff, X'40, died in December 1987. Agraduate of Loyola Medical School, he was a urologistin Melbourne, FL, for many years. Survivors includetwo daughters and a son.Carl Williams, SM'40, died April 21. Survivorsinclude his wife, Betty.Carl Zaander, SB'40, died July 14, 1989. He hadbeen an instructor at the College of DuPage in Illinois.Survivors include his wife, Marion, and a son, MarkZaander, JD'76.Richard Hollingsworth, X'41, died August 26. Hewas a geologist in Midland, TX. Survivors include hiswife, Clarice; two sons; and a daughter.James T. Patton, PhB'46, AM'52, retired associ­ate director of the American Civil Liberties Union inChicago, died October 9. He had been a fundraiser forvarious nonprofit organizations and was also an or­dained minister. Survivors include his wife, DorothyR. Patton, AM'43, and a son.Arthur W. Duning, AM'47, died August 9 in Mi­ami, FL. Survivors include a daughter and a son.Oscar Lund, X'47, died August 9. Survivors in­clude his wife and a nephew, Richard Lund,MBA'64.William R. Wilkinson, AM'49, died September15. A veteran of World War II, he became a socialworker for different agencies in the Chicago-Garyarea, including the Hyde Park Youth Project. Survi­vors include his wife, Jennie.50sLeonard Martin, AB'50, died June 24 in Aurora,Co. He was a pastor at Hope Lutheran Church. Survi­vors include his wife, Ruth, and five sons, includingChristian Martin, AB'89, and Joel Martin, JD'77.Morton S. Tenenberg, AB'51, AM'54, died Au­gust 3. After earning his Ph.D. from the University ofCalifornia at Berkeley, he was a professor at California State University for 20 years, during which time hewas frequently honored for his teaching. At the time of.his death he was chair of the department of teacher ed­ucation. Survivors include his wife, Thelma, andthree children.William T. Davies, AM' 53, died July 25. He was asocial-work administrator for various federal agen­cies. Survivors include his wife, Donna.Ernest Wohlgemuth, AM'53, PhD'57, diedMarch 30. Survivors include his wife, Evi E. Wohlge­muth, AM'52.Clayton Banzhaf, MBA'54, retired vice presidentand treasurer of Sears, Roebuck and Co., died Octo­ber 31 of a heart attack. He was a member of the U. S.Chamber of Commerce committee on banking andfiscal affairs from 1969 to 1975. He also served on theboards of many charitable organizations, includingthe United Way, the Boy Scouts, and the YMCA. Sur­vivors include his wife, Delores; two daughters; a son;and six grandchildren.70sRex Ervin Gerald, PhD '75, died May 13 of hepaticcancer. Survivors include a son, Rex Gerald, AB'84,and a daughter, Camille Gerald, AB'89.80sFrank Bourgin, PhD'88, died December 12 at theage of 80. Although his 1944 dissertation was rejectedby a political science faculty committee, the rejectionwas overturned in 1988 and received national mediaattention when historian Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., readthe work and urged the U of C to accept it. Bourginserved as a historian for the Army during World War IIand retired in 1983 as program officer for the Office ofEmergency Management in Washington, DC. Survi­vors include a brother, two daughters, and fivegrandchildren.NOTICE OF DEATaRECEIVED:Julia Goodsell Marcks, PhB '25.Louis J. Needels, MD'29, April.Ruth Watts, PhD'30, August.HamerC. Knepper, PhB'31, September.Frances Elizabeth Grassley Afanasiev, SM'32, June.LemenJ. Wells, PhD'34, January 1990.Paul Theorell, AB'36, November 1989.John E. Newby, AB'37, JD'39, July.Pearl Smith Rosell, AB'37.William Oney, X'38, 1989.Ernest W. Baughman, AM'39, May.Nicholas Katrana, SB'41, June.Edgar Anderson, PhD'56, July 1989.RobertJ. Kramer, MAT'78, October.BOOKS by AlumniARTS a LETTERSJohannes Fabian, AM'65, PhD'69, Power andPerformance: Ethnographic Explorations throughProverbial Wisdom and TheaterinShaba, Zaire (Uni­versity of Wisconsin Press).Lois Marie Fink, AM'55, PhD'70, American Artat the Nineteenth-Century Paris Salons (CambridgeUniversity Press). The author examines the impact ofAmerican art on the French and lists the approximate­ly 5,000 American works exhibited in salons through­out the 19th century.Gladys Engel Lang, PhD'54, and Kurt Lang, AB"49, AM'52, PhD'53, Etched in Memory: TheBuilding and Survival of Artistic Reputation (Univer­sity of North Carolina Press). This study ofBritish andAmerican etchers examines what factors make artistsmemorable.Milton Mayer, X'32, Biodegradable Man: Select­ed Essays by Milton Mayer, edited by Leone Stein(University of Georgia Press). This book gathers 32essays by the late educator and journalist Mayer, whowas also the author of lOung Man in a Hurry, a biogra­phy of William Rainey Harper.Dickinson Weber, SM'58, Cairo Calls: Sketch­book Street Views from the African Metropolis of Ara-UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 45by (Including an Alexandran Supplement) (SandscapePress). One of the" Downtown" series of travel booksby Sandscape Press.Don Yoder, DB'45, PhD'47, translator, The Pic­ture Bible of Ludwig Denig: A Pennsylvania DutchEmblem Book (Hudson Hills Press). This two-volumeset presents a facsimile reproduction of an 18th­century manuscript book by Pennsylvania Dutchshoemaker Ludwig Denig, accompanied by a modernEnglish translation and essay by Yoder.BIOGRAPHYErving E. Beauregard, AB'42, Reverend JohnWalker: Renaissance Man (Peter Lang Publishing).Walker, an Ohio frontiersman of the 19th century,combined conservative Calvinist theology with com­mitment to social reform.HerbertA. Simon, AB'36, PhD'43, Models of MyLife (Basic Books). Nobel laureate Simon discusseshis studies in the social sciences and their effect on hislife.BUSINESS a ECONOMICSJohn Malloy, MBA' 59, Winning Investment Strate­gies: Using Security Analysis to Build Wealth (TABBooks). This book demonstrates how to calculate ratesof return, maximum investments, and risk of loss.Clark Nardinelli, AM'76, PhD' 80, Child Laborand the Industrial Revolution (Indiana UniversityPress). The author argues that the use of children in thework force during the 19th century was not inhumanexploitation, but rather a sensible response by familiesand firms to contemporary economic conditions.James P. Womack, AB'70, Daniel T. Jones, andDaniel Roos, The Machine That Changed the World(Rawson Associates/Macmillan). Using the automo­bile industry as an example, the authors argue that theworld has entered a new age of "lean" productionbased on Japanese techniques.Leonard Zax, AB '71, editor, Real Estate and theRTC (Urban Land Institute). This book analyzes thereal-estate challenges facing the new federal corpora­tions created to respond to the savings and loan crisis,providing a practical guide for real estate profession­als seeking to purchase assets from the ResolutionTrust Corporation. .CRITICISMJudith Yaross Lee, AM'74, PhD'86, GarrisonKeillor: A Voice of America (University Press of Mis­sissippi). This book is a critical study of Keillor, not abiography as implied in the December issue of theMagazine.David H. Richter, AB'65, AM'66, PhD'71, TheCritical Tradition (Bedford Books of St. Martin'sPress).MarlonB. Ross, AM'79, PhD'83, The Contours ofMasculine Desire: Romanticism and the Rise ofWom­en's Poetry (Oxford University Press). The author ex­amines the role of gender in the Romantic movement,tracing the influence of women's poetry on the litera­ture and culture of the time.Melvin Seiden, AM'48, Measure for Measure:Casuistry and Artistry (Catholic University of Ameri­ca Press). This a study of Shakespeare's controversialplay Measurefor Measure.Austin Wright, AM'48, PhD'59, Recalcitrance,Faulkner, and the Professors: A Critical Fiction (Uni­versity of Iowa Press). This critical study takes theform of a narrative: a debate among characters whoexpress a variety of major contemporary critical view­points. The book focuses on but is not limited to a dis­cussion of Faulkner's As I Lay Dying.Sybil Wuletich-Brinberg, AM'55, Poe: The Ra­tionale of the Uncanny (Peter Lang Publishing).46 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991Through close readings of Edgar Allan Poe's majorworks, the author attempts to show that Poe under­stood his own pathology, described the structure of theunconscious, and provided the key to decoding hisworks.EDUCATIONPatricia Adler, AM'74, and Peter Adler, AM'74,Backboards and Blackboards: College Athletes andRole Engulfment (Columbia University Press). Anethnographic study of college athletes, this book looksfrom the gratification of the players' celebrity on thecourt to their social isolation and feelings of failure inthe classroom.Philip Altbach, AB'62, AM'63, PhD'66, editor,Higher Education: An Encyclopedia (Garland Pub­lishers). This two-volume set includes discussions ofacademic freedom and the financing of higher educa­tion, among others.Philip Altbach, AB'62, AM'63, PhD'66, co­editor, The Racial Crisis in American Higher Educa­tion (State University of New York Press). This collec­tion of essays on racial tensions contains case studiesand examinations of curricula.Mark Holmes, PhD'69, and Edward Wynne, Mak­ing the School an Effective Community: Belief, Prac­tice, and Theory in Educational Administration (Tay­lor and Francis).Kenneth K. Wong, AB'77, AM'80, PhD'83, CityChoices: Education and Housing (State University ofNew York Press). Wong, U ofC assistant professor ofeducation, examines how two cities have implementedredistributive and development programs in educationand housing, arguing that both economics and politicscan be synthesized in city policy-making.FICTION a POETRYNaomi Lindstrom, AB'71 , translator, Bonfires/Hogueras (Bilingual Review Press). This is an Englishtranslation of a book of poetry by the Chilean poetMarjorie Agosin.TemaNason, X'45, Ethel: The Fictional Autobiog­raphy (Delacorte Press). This novel is in the form of anautobiography of Ethel Rosenberg, convicted spy exe­cuted in 1953.Edith Skom, AB'48, The Mark Twain Murders(Dell Publishers). A professor of English at Midwest­ern University investigates a connection between aplagiarism scandal and the murder of a student in thelibrary.Leslie Waller, X'48, Mafia Uizrs (William Heine­man). This novel is the author's 50th published book.HISTORY ICURRENT EVENTSRichard Franklin Bensel, AB'71, Yankee Levia­than: The Origins of Central State Authority in Ameri­ca, 1859-1877 (Cambridge University Press). Thebook analyzes the impact of the Civil War and 19th­century Southern separatism upon the emergence ofcentral state authority in America.Eugene Borza, AM'62, PhD'66, In the Shadow ofOlympus: The Emergence of Macedon (PrincetonUniversity Press). The author draws from recent ar­chaeological discoveries and new understandings ofhistorical geography to trace the emergence of theMacedonian kingdom from its origins as a Balkanbackwater.Stanley Buder, AM'60, PhD'66, Visionaries andPlanners: The Garden City Movement and the ModernCommunity (Oxford University Press). This is a studyof the Garden City movement, an urban planningmovement beguri in the late 19th century.HannsGross, AM'63, PhD'66, Rome in the Age ofEnlightenment: The Post- Tridentine Syndrome andthe Ancien Regime (Cambridge University Press). An account of Rome between 1690 and 1796, this bookstudies the material and social foundations of the city,contending that a decline in counter-reformation fer­vor resulted in a marked dissonance in its political,social, and cultural life.DavidS. Shields, AM'75, PhD'82, Oracles of Em­pire: Poetry, Politics, and Commerce in BritishAmerica, 1690-1750 (University of Chicago Press).This literary history is a reconstruction of the dis­course of empire in British America, focusing on the. thematics of mercantilism, the colonial "paper wars, "and the rhetoric of British attacks on France andSpain.Michael D. Sublett, PhD'74, Paper Counties: TheIllinois Experience, 1825-1867 (Peter Lang Publish­ing). The author describes the origin and fate of 17 Illi­nois counties that, while authorized on paper by statelegislation, failed to complete their organization asgeographical entities.Antanas Van Reenan, PhD'86, Lithuania Dias­pora: Konigsberg to Chicago (University Press ofAmerica). Tracing the development of the Lithuaniansense of peoplehood, U ofC Continuing Education in­structor Van Reenan argues that they are a people ableto engage in a nonviolent confrontation with the prin­ciples of American nationality.SamuelM. Wilson, AM'81, PhD'86, Hispaniola:Caribbean Chiefdoms in the Age of Columbus (Uni­versity of Alabama Press). This book examines the ef­fect of Christopher Columbus and his crew on theaboriginal population and culture of the Caribbeanisland of Hispaniola.MEDICINE a HEALTHScott Atlas, MD'81, editor, Magnetic ResonanceImaging of the Brain and Spine (Raven Press). Forty­one authors contributed to this clinical-radiology ref­erence book.T. L. Brink, AM'74, PhD'78, Mental Health in theNursing Home (Haworth).Althea Horner, SB'52, Being and Loving (JasonAronson Publishers). This third edition discusses theconflict between intimacy and identity.Althea Horner, SB'52, Primacy of Structure:Treatment of Underlying Character Pathology (JasonAronson Publishers). Twenty-five of Horner's paperson pychoanalytic clinical theory are collected in thisvolume.Wilma J. Phipps, AM'56, PhD'77, contributor,Medical Surgical Nursing (c. V. Mosky Co.).Henry Tuckwell, SM'73, PhD'74, Introduction toTheoretical Neurobiology, Vals. I & II (CambridgeUniversity Press). The first volume, subtitled LinearCable Theory and Dendritic Structure, describesmathematical models of nerve cell behavior. The sec­ond volume, Nonlinear and Stochastic Theories, con­tains more theories on nerve cell activity. Tuckwell isalso the author of a monograph entitled StochasticProcesses in the Neurosciences, published by the So­ciety for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.Nancy T. Watts, AM'62, PhD'68, Handbook ofClinical Teaching (Churchill Livingstone, Inc.). Thistraining manual is designed for health care profession­als, and includes exercises and guidelines.POLITICAL SCIENCE a LAWMichael Brookshire and Stan Smith, MBA' 72 ,Economic/Hedonic Damages: The Practice BookforPlaintifJandDefense Attorneys (Anderson PublishingCo.). Strategies are offered for claiming and defend­ing against economic damages as well as hedonicdamages (which place a defined monetary value on thepleasure of being alive).Paul Edward Geller, AB'61, editor, InternationalCopyright Law and Practice (Matthew Bender). Thiscollective annual treatise, composed of chapters oncopyright laws of major jurisdictions, contains a chap­ter by Geller, general editor, on the international sys­tem within which such laws work.Kathleen Schwartzman, PhD'85, The Social Ori­gins of Democratic Collapse; The First PortugueseRepublic in the Global Economy (University Pressof Kansas). This study of Portugal demonstrates thesignificant ways in which a nation's social and politicalstructures are shaped by its position in the globaleconomy.James L. Swanson, AB'81, editor, 1990 FirstAmendment Law Handbook (Clark, Boardman Co.).This is the inaugural edition of what will be an annualguide to developments in First Amendment law. Con­tributors include Robert Bork, AB'48, JD'53, andRonald Cass, JD'73.RELIGION a PHILOSOPHYDavid Carrasco, ThM'70, AM'n, PhD'77, Reli­gions of Mesoamerica: Cosmovision and Ceremonial(Harper & Row). This history of Mesoamerican reli­gions places special emphasis on the Aztec and Mayatraditions; the author discusses sacred rhetoric andhuman sacrifice.David Carrasco, ThM'70, AM'n, PhD'77, ToChange Place: Aztec Ceremonial Landscape (Univer­sity Press of Colorado). This collection of essays dis­cusses human sacrifice, pilgrimage, astronomy,drinking cults, myth, and new discoveries in Aztecstudies.Dale Eickelman, AM'68, PhD'71, and James Pis­catori, editors, Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Mi­gration, and the Religious Imagination (University ofCalifornia Press). This investigation of the role of reli­gious doctrine in travel focuses on the Muslim faith.Thomas E. Helm, AM'72, PhD'77, The ChristianReligion: An Introduction (Prentice Hall). This textdescribes the beginnings of Christianity, its early tra­ditions, and formative events as well as the diverseforms of Christian worship, belief, and community. Italso discusses Christianity's role today in societiesthroughout the world.E. ThomasLawson,DB'58, AM'61,PhD'63,andRobert McCauley, AM'75, PhD'79, Rethinking Re­ligion: Connecting Cognition and Culture (Cam­bridge University Press). The authors draw upon theinsights of intellectual, symbolic, and structural the­ories of religion to form a cognitive approach to inter­preting religion.SCIENCE a TECHNOLOGYBruce Bursten, SB'74, Chemistry: The CentralScience (Prentice Hall).Arthur Coxford, Zalman Usiskin, and DanielHirschhorn, MAT'83, Geometry (Scott Foresman).This ninth-grade text is pari of a six-year mathematicscurriculum, designed by the U ofC School Mathemat­ics Project, for grades 7 through 12.Ronald Helms and Clay Belcher, MBA'82, Light­ing for Energy-Efficient Luminous Environments(Prentice Hall). A revised and expanded version ofHelms's original text, this book covers all aspects oflighting-perception, equipment, psychology, eco­nomics, calculations, etc.-from the perspective ofenergy-efficiency.Norman E. Hurt, PhD'66, Phase Retrieval andZero Crossings: Mathematical Methods in Image Re­construction (Kluwer Academic Publishers). Thismonograph deals with the mathematical methods insignal reconstruction from incomplete, noisy data,with applications to astronomical interferometry,tomography, holography, and microlithography.John McConnell, SB'64, MAT'66, Susan Brown,Susan Eddins, Margaret Hackworth, Leroy Sachs,Ernest Woodward, James Flanders, Daniel Hirsch­horn, MAT'S3, Cathy Hynes, MST'77, Lydia Po- Imagining a life (see Fiction & Poetry)lonsky, MST'84, and Zalman Usiskin, Algebra(Scott Foresman). This eighth-grade textbook is thesecond in a series produced by the U of C SchoolMathematics Project.David Oxtoby, Norman Nachtrieb, SB'36,PhD'41, and Wade A. Freeman, Chemistry, Scienceof Change (Saunders College Publishing). The au­thors of this introductory college text include Nach­trieb, U of C professor emeritus in the chemistry de­partment, and Oxtoby, the U of C Mellon professor ofchemistry.David Oxtoby and Norman Nachtrieb, SB'36,PhD' 41, Principles of Modem Chemistry. This is thesecond edition of a college textbook.Sharon Senk, PhD'S3, Denisse Thompson,Steven Viktora, SB'69, MAT'76, Rheta Rubenstein,Judy Halvorson, James Flanders, Natalie Jakucyn,Gerald Pillsbury, and Zalman Usiskin, Advanced Al­gebra (Scott Foresman). The fourth in a six-year se­ries of math curricula designed by the U of C SchoolMathematics Project.Henry Tuckwell, SM'73, PhD'74, Elementary Ap­plications of Probability Theory (Chapman and Hall).This is an intermediate-level text discussing applica­tions of probability theory, chiefly in biology.Zalman Usiskin, James Flanders, Cathy Hynes,MST'77, Lydia Polonsky, MST'84, Susan Porter,MAT'80, MBA'86, and Steven Viktora, SB'69,MAT'76, Transition Mathematics (Scott Foresman).This is the first textbook of a series of six produced bythe U of C School Mathematics Project. This text cov­ers applied arithmetic, pre-algebra, and pre-geometryand is intended for a 7th-grade level.Allen M. Young, PhD'68, Sarapiqui Chronicle: ANaturalist in Costa Rica (Smithsonian InstitutionPress). The author describes 20 years of field ecologyexperience in the Sarapiqui River valley.SOCIAL SCIENCESJohn Brewer, AB'58, AM'63, PhD'69, and Al­bert Hunter, AM'67, PhD'70, Multimethod Re­search: A Synthesis of Styles (Sage Publications). Thisbook offers an explanation of how a synthesis of re­search techniques can be used to improve social sci­ence knowledge.Richard K. Caputo, PhD'82, Welfare and Free- dom American Style: The Role of the Federal Govern­ment, 1900-1940 (University Press of America) . Thebook traces major changes in the scope of federal re­sponsibility for social welfare-particularly chil­dren's welfare-between 1900 and 1940.Richard Feinberg, AM'71, PhD'74, PolynesianSeafaring and Navigation: Ocean Travel in AnutanCulture and Society (Kent State University Press).James F. Fisher, AM'67, PhD'n, Sherpas: Re­flections on Change in Himalayan Nepal (Universityof California Press). Over several trips to HimalayanNepal from 1964 to the 1980s, the author observedrapid social change resulting from the building ofschools and an airstrip. This work documents thosechanges and assesses the Sherpas' own concerns fortheir future.John M. Gandy, AM'42, and Lome Tepperman,False Alarm: The Computerization of Eight SocialWelfare Organizations (Wilfrid Laurier UniversityPress). The authors argue that computerization ofsocial welfare organizations has not had a negativeimpact on the workload of staff or the delivery ofservices.Herbert Gans, PhB'47, AM'50, editor, Sociologyin America (Sage Publications). This is a collection ofessays on the effects of sociology on America, writtenfor the annual presidential series when the editor waspresident of the American Sociological Association.Jane Goodman, AB'63, and Elinor Waters,AM'55, Empowering Older Adults: Practical Strate­gies for Counselors (Jossey Bass). The authors com­bine information about issues affecting older adultswith suggestions for counselors working with this agegroup.Ritch Savin-Williams, AM'73, AM'75, PhD'77,GayandLesbian }buth: Expressions of Identity (Hemeisphere). This extended monograph explores growingup homosexual in the United States, focusing on the is­sues of coming out and of self-esteem for youths of 14to 23 years of age.Mel Silberman, AM'65, PhD '68, Active Training:A Handbook of Techniques , Case Examples, and Tips(University Associates). This resource book includesplans and case studies designed to help managers im­plement effective training programs.Ross B. Talbot, AM'49, PhD'S3, The Four WorldFood Organizations in Rome (Iowa State UniversityPress).John Welwood, AM'68, PhD'74, Journey of theHeart: Intimate Relationship and the Path of Love(Harper Collins). This look at intimate relationshipsas an ongoing process of personal and spiritual unfold­ing sees every difficulty that arises as an opportunityto grow.RobertJ. Wolfson, SB'47,AM'50, PhD'56,AFor­mal Lexiconfor the Social Sciences (Florida AtlanticUniversity Press). Using mathematical (formal)logic, this book develops a systematic set of definitionsof terms commonly used in theoretical discussions ineconomics, sociology, political science, andanthropology.Don Yoder, DB'45, PhD'47, Discovering Ameri­can Folklife: Studies in Ethnic, Religious, and Region­al Culture (University Microfilms International).This collection of Yoder's writings includes essays onthe Pennsylvania Dutch as well as on folk religion andmedicine as a whole.Don Yoder, DB'45, PhD'47, and Thomas Graves,Hex Signs (E.P. Dutton). The authors argue that hexsigns commonly painted on the barns ofthe Pennsyl­vania Dutch were not used to ward off witches, but tofoster ethnic identity.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," pleasesend the name of the book, its author, its pub­lisher, and a short synopsis to the Books Editor,University of Chicago Magazine, 5757 WoodlawnAve., Chicago, IL 60637.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 47irst Things LastYoungManin No .HurryOne hundred years ago thismonth, William RaineyHarper accepted thepresidency of the fledglingUniversity of Chicago.Convincing him to take thejob was the hard pari. HILE BAPTISTS ACROSS THEcountry plotted the creation of anew university on a grand scale,an inspiring young professor ofSemitic languages at Yale was shaking up theacademic establishment. That thirty-one­year-old instructor, a staunch but liberal­minded Baptist named William Rainey Har­per, was keenly interested in the church'splans and wanted the new institution to bebuilt in Chicago, where he had formerlytaught at the Union Theological Seminary.Leading the campaign, however, was Dr.Augustus Strong, president of the RochesterTheological Society in New York City, whohad the ear-though not the wallet-of Baptistmillionaire John D. Rockefeller. Strong's planwas for a church-run, strictly controlled Bap­tist school in New York. But, perhaps becausesuch strong orthodoxy made him uncomfort­able, Rockefeller held back. Finally, he wentto Yale's rising star for advice-and to find outmore about the teacher then stirring up theworlds of dead languages and vital religion.Rockefeller's first meeting with Harper in1888 did not convince him to build his univer­sity in Chicago, but it did persuade him thatHarper should be the new university'S presi­dent. Harper resisted the offer, explaining in aletter to Frederick Gates, one of the Chicagoexponents, "I am now doing the work which Iwant to do-it would be a mistake for me to48 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FEBRUARY 1991 leave my specialty and take up another workof so general a character." A salesman atheart, though, Harper did labor to changeRockefeller's mind about the school's loca­tion, and in late 1888 he was able to write ex­uberantly, "It is absolutely certain that thething is to be done": John D. Rockefellerwould establish his university in Chicago.Harper remained unconvinced that he him­self should be established in Chicago. Hewanted first to make sure that the universitywould be created as he envisioned it: a full­fledged university from the start, not a collegewith big dreams. Harper felt no compunctionabout using himself as leverage.As Harper bargained with one of the mostpowerful men in the country, rumors of his de­parture flew around Yale. In defense.. Presi­dent Timothy Dwight devised a fantastic dealto keep Harper in New Haven for good­including the directorship of the newly en­dowed Yale School of Languages. Confident,he wrote Harper: ''And now all intending andapproaching Baptists who from time to timeare disposed to assail the tabernacles of theblessed saints, and run off with their profes­sors, may have leave to withdraw. "Harper was torn. He hated to leave an insti­tution where he could do as he liked and betreated exceptionally well, but he also found itnearly impossible to resist the opportunity tolead a university of his own design. He stalledfor time: while finagling a deal with Dwightwhich committed him to only five years, hewrote to Gates that he could hardly bear to lis­ten to his entreaties or those of Chicago minis­ter Thomas Goodspeed. In return, Gates ad­monished, "You can easily escapeGoodspeed and me, but whether you will beable so easily to escape the voice of duty and ofGod-of that I am not so sure. "In August 1890 the Chicago clan gave Har­per its final offer: an eight -point list of conces­sions, including a million-dollar gift to theuniversity from Rockefeller, contingent onHarper's acceptance. Harper was swaying,but held out one more time. Shaken by accu­sations of heresy hurled at him by the defeatedDr. Strong, Harper was suddenly apprehen­sive about leaving the liberal atmosphere ofYale. By heading into the unknown, he feared,he might open himself to further criticism ofhis beliefs and teaching methods. To this anexasperated Dr. Henry Morehouse, the voiceOf Rockefeller, responded that Harper shouldstop being absurd and make up his mind forgood-and for Chicago.Finally, Harper had all the assurances heneeded. He handed in his resignation toDwight, who never forgave him, and on Feb­ruary 16, 1891, he wrote to the Trustees of theUniversity of Chicago, "I unreservedly placemyself at your service." Chicago had its presi­dent-and Harper had his University.-l. C.