Tln^>university otCHICMagazine^W int<GrimWiththeFlwMaking MedicalHistoryThe Grey CityUnder Coveri 0 " 19S ¦ iMI IEditorMary Ruth YoeStaff WriterTim ObermillerDesignerTom GreensfelderClass News EditorLisel Virkler, '90SecretaryJulie Schmid, '90Editorial office: The University of ChicagoMagazine, Robie House, 5757 SouthWoodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637.Telephone (312) 753-2323. The Magazineis sent to all University of Chicagoalumni.The University of Chicago Office ofAlumni RelationsRobie House5757 South Woodlawn AvenueChicago, IL 60637Telephone: (312) 753-2175President, The University of ChicagoAlumni AssociationEdward L. Anderson, PhB'46, SM'49Executive Director of theAlumni AssociationJeanne Buiter, MBA'86Director, Alumni Schools CommitteeJ. Robert Ball,"X'70The University of ChicagoAlumni Executive CouncilEdward L. Anderson, PhB'46, SM'49Bette Leash Birnbaum, AB'79, MST'80David Birnbaum, AB'79Mark Brickell, AB'74John Gaubatz, JD'67Barbra Goering, AB'74, JD'77Mary Lou Gorno, MBA'76William B. Graham, SB'32, JD'36William H. Hammett, AM'71Kenneth C. Levin, AB'68, MBA'74JohnD. Lyon, AB'55William CNaumann, MBA'75Linda Thoren Neal, AB'64, JD'67Jerry G. Seidel, MD'54Judy Ullmann Siggins, AB'66, AM'68, PhD'76Stephanie Abeshouse Wallis, AB'67Susan Loth Wolkerstorfer, AB'72The University of Chicago Magazine(ISSN-0041-9508) is published quarterly(fall, winter, spring, summer) by theUniversity of Chicago in cooperationwith the Alumni Association, RobieHouse, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue,Chicago, IL 60637. Publishedcontinuously since 1907. Second-classpostage paid at Chicago, IL.POSTMASTER: Send address changesto The University of Chicago Magazine,Alumni Records, Robie House, 5757South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL60637. Copyright © 1990 by theUniversity of Chicago.Typesetting by Skripps & Associates,Chicago. The University ofCHICAGOMagazine/Winter 1990Volume 82, Number 2Page 36Cover: Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, AB'60,PhD'65, professor of psychology andeducation, has charted a state of mind hecalls "flow" (page 28). Photo by MichaelR Weinstein. Opposite: At the UniversityMedical Center this November, 21-month-old Alyssa Smith became the nation's firstrecipient of a liver lobe taken from a livingdonor— her mother (see "Chicago Journal, ' 'page 13) . Photo by James L . Ballard . IN THIS ISSUEAnd the Dissertation Makes ThreeMany modern couples— married or not—expect their relationship to be basedon companionship, reciprocity, andequality. For some, when graduate schoolenters the picture, those expectationsno longer get met.By Tim ObermillerPage 23The Pursuit of HappinessPsychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyihas taken a road less traveled: he studiesnot human depression or angst, butintrinsically satisfying experiences.All such moments, he argues, havekey elements in common.By Debra Shore.Page 28Remember Winter at Chicago?In case you've forgotten, The Magazineprovides some black-and-white coverageof the season students love to hate.Page 36DEPARTMENTSEditor's NotesLettersCourse WorkInvestigationsChicago JournalAlumni ChronicleClass NewsDeathsBooksFirst Things Last 2368134244505356lEDITOR'S NOTESThe University of Chicago, throughthe living donor liver transplant performed at the Medical Center (see page13), was in the news this past November. Another November headline alsostruck close.For some on campus, the stark media image of one of the six slain El Salva-doran priests was, first and foremost,"Nacho." Father Ignacio Martin-Baro,S.J. — "Nacho" to his friends — earned adoctorate in social psychology here in1979. His dissertation was entitled"Housing Density and CrowdingAmong Lower Class Salvadorans, " andupon graduation he returned to ElSalvador.There he taught at Jose SimeonCartas University of Central America,developed the country's only independent public-opinion polling organization, and wrote scholarly articles. Hisfriends at Chicago worried about him,but Martin-Baro accepted the fact that,as a scholar in a country torn by civilwar, his life was in danger.Two weeks after his death, a serviceof "remembrance and thanksgiving"was held in Rockefeller Chapel. Deanof the Chapel Bernard O. Brown reada message from President HannaHolborn Gray, extending the University's sympathy and support to theCentral American University.Six of Martin-Baro 's friends, teachers, and colleagues spoke, recalling aman who made friends easily, loved theopera, and preferred heavily garlickedbouillabaisse. They also remembered aformidable intellect, enlisted in the service of the poor of El Salvador.The last speaker was SuzanneOuelette Kobasa, PhD'77, who nowteaches at the Graduate Center of theCity College of New York. At Chicago inthe 1970s, Martin-Baro was her firstPh.D. student, and the two had an ongoing philosophical battle concerningthe place of the individual in society.Kobasa would argue that "whatwas important was the single person-how individuals shape society, how individuals change society." Shaking hishead, Martin-Baro would disagree:"You've read too much German andFrench existentialism," he'd say. "You need to read the Spaniards."Yet, Kobasa concluded, in the wayhe lived his life Martin-Baro had himself given her "so much empirical support" for her side of the argument:"You're a person who does changesociety."The Right Person in the Right Job at theRight Time: George Wells Beadle, president of the University from 1961 to1968, died this past June. In a memorialtribute published in The University ofChicago Record this fall, the Eliakim Hastings Moore Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus D. Gale Johnson recalled the University community's"exhilaration" when the distinguishedscientist accepted the presidency:"His coming at that particular time—after a decade in which many outstanding faculty were lost to other universities, especially to those on theWest Coast, and when many were stilluncertain about what the future heldfor the University neighborhood — wasa great morale booster. These feelingswere generated before most of us hadthe opportunity to know him. Thesense that the future of the Universitywas a bright one was strengthened upon meeting this gentle, self-effacing,modest, open, and friendly man whoimmediately impressed you with hiscompetence as an academic leader andscholar."Soon after arriving, Beadle "wasasked by an undergraduate student,'What is the most important innovationyou want to add to the system of American education?' His response was, Thave no magic formula. A university isgreat because it attracts great scholarsand great students. How it goes aboutencouraging this, I do not know now.'"Either he knew it then," Johnsonconcluded, "or very quickly learned-he quickly showed that he knew howto attract both great scholars andstudents."A Scholar and a Gentleman: A serviceto remember John Ulric Nef, X'17, professor emeritus of social thought, economics, and history, and a founder ofthe Committee on Social Thought, was held in Bond Chapel in October. Nef,who died on Christmas Day, 1988,helped found the committee in 1942 "tocontribute to the unification of all recentdiscoveries in the arts and sciences."David Grene, professor in the committee, remembered Nef as someonewith "the capacity to convince youngUniversity teachers that they could—and should— do far more with theirbrains and gifts than anyone else hadsuggested." Nef's own lifestyle— hisfriendships with the day's great painters and writers, his appreciation of finemusic, food, and wine— transformed" a young man's vision of what academiclife could be, " said Grene. "We were under a very strong enchantment. Everything John did had panache."John Nef's eye for art was matchedby his ability to gauge potential scholarsand teachers, said James M. Redfield,AB'54, PhD'61, professor in the committee and in classical languages andliteratures: "He built the Committee onSocial Thought as a sort of Salon desRefuses. He had a remarkable eye forpeople, especially people who for badreasons had been rejected somewhereelse."Nef, whose book on the British coalindustry remains a classic, never finished what was to be his magnum opus, awork entitled The Rise of Industrial Civilization. That work, said Edward Shils,distinguished service professor in thecommittee and in sociology, "had themakings of a great book. It is possiblethat he did not finish it because he hadgiven his heart to the Committee onSocial Thought."The Language of Flowers: On a grayFriday afternoon, a small crowd huddled in the Harper Memorial LibraryQuadrangle. Friends and family of DanHall, dean of College Admissions andAid from 1980 until his death in 1987,had gathered to dedicate a spring garden in his memory.J. Robert Ball, Jr., X'70, director ofthe Alumni Schools Program, notedthat Hall, a man who laughed often,would have laughed long and loud atthe sight of friends and co-workers assembled amid the winter's first snow-2 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ WINTER 1990flakes and "a few dead mums."But Ball looked ahead: "Surely theflowers in these beds will give way tothe transcendence of spring and later insummer, I would hope, to that annualblossom we know as impatiens, and notjust because Dan Hall was among themost impatient humans to walk thisearth."For who among us," Ball continued, "could forget Dan, like some GreatPlains conflation of Johnny Appleseedand Willa Cather, trying to convince everyone from the Chicago Park District tothe U. of C. Women's Board, with plainspeaking and rhetorical contrivances ofevery sort, on the merits of the Midwayas the front yard of the University—to be planted with bed upon bed ofimpatiens?"Speak, Memory: Four lives, four different ways of contributing to the University and the large world beyond. As theUniversity approaches its Centennialcelebration, The Magazine and the Alumni Centennial Committee want to collect as many stories as possible of thethousands of individuals whose liveshave helped to shape the institution.The Centennial celebration beginsin October, 1991, but now is the time tosort through your memories, records,and artifacts. Do you have a story fromthe quads that is too good— or too telling—to be forgotten? Please send it toThe Magazine. We're also interested inphotographs and other souvenirs fromyears past— either as a Centennial loanor as a possible addition to the University Archives. You might want to writeand describe the items (or send photocopies) first, to make sure they don'treplicate those already in the archives.We'll share your memories with theCentennial office, with the UniversityArchives, and with our readers duringthe Centennial year.— M.R.Y.LETTERSA grave situationIt is a very grave situation when theUniversity of Chicago does not appreciate the difference between a and a. Thefirst time I read vis a vis on page eight of the fall number, I was startled. The second occurrence was truly deja vu.Louis E. Janus, AB'70Minneapolis, MNSpeaking the truthDespite overall satisfaction at the usualprofessional presentation of our alumnimagazine, I am very disappointed in apiece in your FALL/89 issue. Titled"University Defends Handling of 1987Harassment Incident," the piece discusses student reaction and administration response to the commencementof a student involved in the 1987 harassment by phone and letter of the University community.All to the good, provided oneknows the background of the 1987 incidents. I am amazed that you could notbring yourself to use the words "gay,""lesbian," or even "homosexual." Asan alumnus in Boston, I read about theincidents in the national gay and lesbian newsweekly, Gay Community News.To my knowledge, your piece is the firstacknowledgement in a University administration publication of the problem. As you reported, several membersof the University community werethreatened. What you neglected to saywas that these people were threatenedwith exposure of their homosexuality toparents, professors, and employers. Ifmemory serves me correctly, at leastone student's parents were called andtold that their son was gay.I "came out" on campus in 1981, after a decade of fear that my family andfriends would find out about my gayidentity through someone else. Was Iashamed of being gay? No. Was I concerned about their reaction to information about me coming from an outsideparty? You bet your life. As it happened, I was very fortunate. Chicagoprovided an environment where I wasable to integrate my gayness with therest of my life, helped by the support offriends and professors. A year later Iwas able to discuss the issue with myfamily. Due to the support and confidence built in me by the University, Iwas able to open up the truth withoutantagonizing those I loved and wholoved me back.I wonder what happened to the student whose life was rocked by the harassment your article tries so hard not to RRR RE E E EUUUUNNNNI I I IooooNNNN1990JUNE 1-3The University ofChicago's classes of1990, 1985, 1980, 1975,1970, 1965, 1960, 1955,1950, 1945, 1940, 1935,1930, and beyond inviteALL ALUMNIto join them incelebration. Foradditional information,write or call:Office of Alumni Relations5757 S. Woodlawn Ave.Chicago, IL 60637(312)753-21753mention. I hope to God he was able toget the support he needed despite thecircumstances of his coming out.The same issue which gave this harassment a single column did a majorpiece on Mr. Hutchins's appointment tothe presidency, turning on the idea of"speaking the truth unseasonably." Itis ironic that you can espouse that sentiment, yet fail to spotlight the harassment of gay men and lesbians whichhas occurred and may still be occurringat the U of C.I cannot in all consciousness support a publication which so obviouslyveils the truth. I hope you can onceagain win my loyalty with future coverage. I expect to see more timely and accurate reportage of news of the community, particularly the gay community, inyour pages than I do in the nationalpress.Daniel Emberley, AB'82Cambridge, MAAn earlier version of the report, edited forspace, contained a detailed summary of the1987 incidents, including the fact that gaysand lesbians were victims of harassment. Thatsummary relied heavily upon a SUMMER/87Magazine account: "The harassment beganduring the autumn quarter interim when anumber of faculty, students, and administrators received hate letters through the U.S.Mail. Later, in January, posters bearing abogus Student Activities Office stamp targeted to the Gay and Lesbian Alliance, as well asto individual students, appeared on campus"(page 14). That account detailed counselingprovided the victims. When the FALL/89 report was edited, it should have retained all information necessary to an understanding ofthe story. The editor regrets the error.Attorney, heal thyselfAnn Dudley Goldblatt, in her article"Warning Symptoms" [FALL/89], astounded me by her total disregard forthe role that plaintiffs' attorneys haveplayed in creating many of the problems in the medical profession todaythat she describes.She blames the incredible increasein litigation on decreased trust and increased anger of patients but ignoresthe judges who felt that they could engineer social changes without the needfor legislation and the attorneys whowere, seeking new legal theories and markets to increase their income. Shedecries the advertising for elective andcosmetic surgery but ignores the advertising by plaintiffs' attorneys, which isjust as offensive and just as responsiblefor the problems. She condemns physicians' "innovative entrepreneurialschemes which increase income butwhich also reduce trust and respect,"without admitting that she could just aseasily be talking about the contingencyfee system of the trial bar.Philip L. Engel, SB'61, MBA80Chicago, ILPhysician, heal thyselfGoldblatt's numb, popcorn prose inyour last issue [FALL/89] obscures thecentral fact of medical reality— the physician is a small businessman in an economically absurd cottage industry. He/she has a highly lucrative, unsupervisedmonopoly. This lack of supervision hascreated a more and more openly predatory stratum of fee-for-service gun-slingers who enrich themselves on human gullibility and misery. . .With characteristic obtuseness, thiswealthy profession has fought for generations against the welfare of the average person— against Social Security,against Medicare, against HMO's, etc.With improved communications,the public sought relief from the host ofphysicians who should be drummedout of the business. Physicians themselves show a conservative estimateof 5 percent incompetents— drunk,drugged, senile, mentally ill and so on.That's 20,000!In the hullabaloo about malpracticethe focus was given a spur by physicians' groups to make the patient thevillain and, even more, his/her agent,the lawyer. The profession made no attempt to heal itself, to curb the excess ofirresponsibility and worse. Thank Godthese people are about to be turnedinto civil servants as they should be— asin fact they are in every civilizedcountry. . .Gerald C. Allen, X'51Milwaukee, WIA professional diseaseMs. Goldblatt's well-warranted comments regarding the medical profession miss the mark. As the title of her articleindicates, she is dealing with symptoms, and she never really gets to thedisease. The essence of the problem is,however, noted. "Instead of a beneficent, learned but fallible knower, thephysician is viewed as a technologicalguarantor." This is not an erroneousconclusion on the part of the patient buta highly perceptive one.For many years, law schools andmedical schools have overemphasizedtechnical proficiency and test-takingability when selecting admittees fromthe undergraduate pool. As a result ofthis approach both professions have anunfortunately high percentage of well-trained Philistines. Until admissionspolicies are dramatically changed to require a broadly based liberal arts education, all the remedial courses in medicaland legal ethics will be of no avail. Ifsensitivity and humanity are lackingwhen one enters law school, or medicalschool, the battle is already lost.Gerald A. Cohn, JD'62Orinda, CAExpanded mentionsOwen Young and Dwight Morrow weregiants in their part of our century andthey deserve more from us than "corporate attorney" in the Hutchins piece[FALL/89] . Young was a world figure inhis attempts to solve in the '20s the German reparations fester that led to WorldWar II.Morrow, now best known perhapsas father of the Anne who marriedCharles Lindbergh and wrote much-loved books, was a Hellenist who, asambassador to Mexico, soothed us andkept us out of war with our neighborwhen she nationalized all the Americanoil properties south of the Rio Grande.And in fact, a friend of mine saw himunobtrusively reading poetry in theGreek he loved while waiting for theelection returns that made him a U.S.Senator from New Jersey.Similarly with Katharine Kuh, soimportant to art in Chicago for so manyyears, she deserves more from our university than "K. Kuh." You should supply the other eye to these monocularspecialists.But it is encouraging that the alumni magazine at least occasionally thinksabout Mr. Hutchins and the nobilityJ UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990and accuracy of his standards and goals.Maurice F. X. Donohue, X'52Kirby, WVEnd of conversationSince I was a graduate student and instructor of the University of Chicagofrom 1934 to 1941, 1 was present duringthe interesting reign of Robert Hutchins. There were many amusing storiesthat have become folklore. As BenjaminMcArthur pointed out in his fine article"Taking a Chance on Youth" [FALL/89],many older faculty and deans did notapprove of such a young president.As one story goes, at a receptionsoon after President Hutchins arrivedone of the deans was expressing himself in no uncertain terms. A young ladyin the group said, "Pardon me, sir, doyou know who I am?" He said, "No."She said, "I am the president's wife."Then he asked, "Do you know who Iam?" When she said, "No," he repliedemphatically, "Thank God!" andwalked off.Volney Wilson, PhD'38Sister Bay, WIHis hero was humanI recall the convocation when Hutchinsconcealed the last diploma in the pile.Then, when the final graduate crossedthe platform to receive his diploma,Hutchins threw up his hands to indicate "Sorry— all gone."A student friend of mine who wasin the Great Books course with Hutchins and Adler believed Hutchins wasquite capable of walking on water. Thatis, until one day he encountered Hutchins in a restroom, and for the first timerealized that his hero was mortal.Robert M. Boltwood, AB'39, AM'40Southfield, MIMiserable social lives?Twice this last spring I came to Chicagoto see Les Miserables. These trips gave mean opportunity to be back in the University neighborhood. (I especially wantedto see the restored Rockefeller Chapel.)My visits were on a Wednesday anda Saturday evening. It was surprising tosee no students on the street in all of the THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONInvites you to join distinguished faculty and alumni friendson our 1990 travel/study programsVoyage to Antarctica Europe's Middle Kingdoms:January 30-February 12 Vienna, Budapest, and MunichFaculty: Barbara Block, Depart July 10-July21ment of Organismal Biology and With Pennsylvania State University.Anatomy. Faculty: Kenneth Northcott, Professor Emeritus, Germanic LanguageSailing the Leeward Islands: An and Literature, the Committee onEcology Seminar at Sea Comparative Studies in Literature,February 2 5 -March 4 and the Committee on GeneralWith Dartmouth College and Studies in the Humanities.Columbia University.Faculty: Michelle Wood, Depart- Voyage to Scandinavia and; ment of Ecology and Evolution and the British IslesBigalow Laboratory for Ocean August 8-20Sciences. With Yale University and theEnglish Speaking Union.The Island World of Indonesia Faculty: David Bevington, HumaniMarch 3-19 SOLD OUT ties, English Language and LiteraFebruary 27-March 5 SOLD OUT ture, and the Committee onWith Harvard University and Comparative Studies in Literature.McGill University.Rossini and the Italian HillsEgypt and the Nile August 3-17March 14-26 SOLD OUT University of Chicago exclusive.With Dartmouth College. Faculty: Philip Gossett, Dean ofFaculty: Lanny Bell, Oriental Humanities and Professor in the; Institute. Department of Music.Legendary Shores: A Voyage to Exploring the Galapagos IslandsTurkey and the Greek Islands August 27-September 8April 26-May 7 Faculty: James Hopson, OrganismalWith the Field Museum, National Biology and Anatomy and theAudubon Society and Columbia Committee on Evolutionary Biology.University.Faculty: Michael Murrin, English East African Safari to KenyaLanguage and Literature, the September 15-30Divinity School, and the Commit University of Chicago exclusive.tee on Comparative Studies in Faculty: Stuart Altmann, EcologyLiterature. and Evolution, the Committee onEvolutionary Biology and theAlaska and the Yukon by Ship, Committee on Human NutritionRail, and Air and Nutritional Biology.June 22-July 5University of Chicago exclusive. Splendors of Antiquity: Greece,Faculty: Peter Crain, Geophysical Egypt, Jordan, the Suez Canal,Sciences and the Committee on and the Red SeaEvolutionary Biology. October 28-November 12.old "hang-out" areas. Both before theplay and especially afterwards whenwe returned to Hyde Park to get a pizza,students were noticeably absent.Is there of necessity a "fortress"mentality? The campus life I saw wasfar different than that portrayed in University publications.Could you please tell me what campus life is really like at present? I interview prospective students here in southTexas and want to give an honestappraisal.J. Curtis Kovacs, AB'63, MD'67Rockport, TXDean of Admissions Theodore O'Neill,AM'70, replies: My suspicion is that studentswere off doing things that took them out of theold hang-out areas. These days parties seem tostart at about the time we used to think the evening was ready to end. The late shoivatthe newand beautiful Max Palevsky Cinema seems to bethe one that is always most crowded. Anotherplace to check for social life is the 3 a.m. run ofthe Student Government shuttle as it returnsfrom the Loop and the near-Northside.Recently my wife and I had dinner inChinatown (ten minutes from campus whenthere is no traffic and no snow), then returnedto campus to see a University Theatre play,Torch Song Trilogy, directed by a recentgraduate of the College. Once upon a time youcould waltz into a UT production one-halfhour before showtime. No more.We had coffee in the C-Shop to re-thinkthe evening. We noticed, swirling around us,the students and others who were packingMandel for the Youssou N 'Dou r concert sponsored by the Major Activities Board. It was toolate for Court Theatre, we were too old for fraternity parties; we were out of the circuit (andtoo old, I'm afraid) for the apartment and dormitory parties, but there was always DOCFilms, which had 7:30, 9:30, and midnightshows, and, luckily for us, Off-Off Campus,doing its latest review, Honey, I Faxed theKids.It was a busy week, still in the mid-termsperiod, so with high hopes we walked over tothe Blue Gargoyle, bought tickets for the 9o'clock show and just made it, an hour beforeshowtime, before tickets sold out. Off-Off Campus was funnier than Second City has been mylast few visits, and much appreciated by thehundreds of students in the audience. Then, wewent to jimmy's, which doesn't fill up untilmidnight, then home. We missed the Tiki thistime, for the fifth or sixth year in a row.Social life in the College has always beenelusive — no "big games, " no "student union," a changing array of "hang-outs."Hoivever, as always, our students have a wonderfully varied campus social life; they increasingly have a city-wide social life; andthey have— a rare commodity— an intellectuallife. The place doesn't feel like a fortress, butlike the University you remember.Stock talesIn your SUMMER/89 issue, under theheading, "UC-CSO Nexus Goes BackHalf a Century, " you quote from a letterby Siegmund Levarie, who stated thathe was a faculty member of the musicdepartment of the University of Chicago from 1938 to 1952 Since Levarieemphasized his association with Dr.Frederick Stock, it is perhaps appropriate that I also mention my associationwith Stock.Our discussions ranged widely. Helent the CSO Dvorak Symphony No. 4to the University Orchestra (I was toldthat this was unprecedented) . I was unhappy with the totally unnecessarynumber of transpositions in the brassparts and the use of unfamiliar clefs; hehad me rewrite all the brass parts. I alsowas very dissatisfied with the bowings."Ach, these are from the old Thomas orchestra," he said. (Thomas was Stock'spredecessor with the CSO.) "They wereprobably put in by a drummer."Charles R. Buckley, AM'41Highland, INBioSci 232. Mammalian Biology startsat 1:30 p.m. A few minutes after 1:00,five students are already lounging inErman Biology Center 106, a refurbished lecture room in what used tobe known as the Botany Building. Therows of orange-upholstered seatingslope gently up toward the back of theroom, where a small wall clock makesit easy for the lecturer, hard for theaudience, to keep track of time.Within five minutes, the classroompopulation has more than doubled. Going in the right directionI enjoyed your comments about RobieHouse in the FALL/89 "Editor's Notes."I grew up in Hyde Park and have wonderful memories of the neighborhoodand the house. A little "editorial house-painting" on The University of ChicagoMagazine may be fine, but I hope youwon't decide upon a major remodelingproject. I always enjoy the magazine.I was interested to see the articleheadlined "Movie Violations" beneaththe editorial comments. I noted anotherinconsistency in the film [When HarryMet Sally}: right after Meg Ryan andBilly Crystal leave the campus to driveto New York, there is a scene showingthem driving along North Lake ShoreDrive near the Hancock Building. Thedirector probably just needed a shotwhich would be recognized as Chicago,but it certainly isn't the most directroute to New York!Alan Wiener, MBA 65Los Angeles, CAThe University of Chicago Magazine invites letters from readers on the contents of themagazine or on topics related to the University. Letters for publication must be signed,and the magazine reserves the right to edit,for length and/or clarity. Letters should beaddressed to: Editor, The University ofChicago Magazine, Robie House, 5757South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637."How's your pig?" one woman asksanother. "I'm more comfortable withhim now," comes the wry response."He's going to be my companion."(Each of BioSci 232's twice-weeklylectures is immediately followed by atwo-hour lab; dissection is part of theroutine.)Ten minutes before class is to begin, a tall woman in a cream blouseand print skirt comes into the sunnyroom, arranges the day's four handouts—photocopied diagrams andCOURSE WORKBreathing Lessons6 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990Making points: Lorna Straus, SM'60, PhD'62micrographs of the respiratory apparatus—on a small table, and methodically erases the double-deckerblackboard.At 1:30, the 60-plus students (menoutnumber women, three to two) arein place. Lorna Straus— professor inthe Biological Sciences CollegiateDivision and the Department of Anatomy—moves stage right to a smallpodium. "Is everybody breathingwell?"Her tone is direct yet conversational. "That's the subject for today."Straus, SM'60, PhD'62, and a two-time winner of the University's Quan-trell Award for undergraduate teaching, is about to begin a race againsttime. She has one class period (officially 50 minutes, but she can borrowfrom the lab which follows) to takeher students— mostly third- or fourth-year biology majors, with a fair shareof pre-meds— on a structure-and-function tour of the respiratorysystem.She starts with the "obvious"structure, the nose, and travels quicklydown through the warming, moistening, filtering levels of the airway tothe lung. "One does not fill, in everybreath, every part of the lung, " shereminds her class. "Right now— earlyafternoon, just after lunch, sittinghere— you're ventilating about 25 to30 percent of your lung in everyinspiration."Almost involuntarily the note-taking students breathe in more deeply. "With a single deep breath, " Strauscontinues, "you ventilate about 55percent of the lung." The considerablerespiratory reserve of humans in aresting state has proven an evolutionary advantage, handy when "you needto run after your dinner— or to runaway from those who want you fortheir dinner."Straus punctuates her explanations with questions. "You're all familiar with the Heimlich maneuver?" shequeries. She's just reminded the classthat the larynx is part of both the respiratory system and the gastrointestinaltract. It's a functional plus, giving thebody a second means of access to air,but it can be a minus— when a bite offood misses the esophagus and takesa wrong turn down the larynx. "Whydoes the Heimlich work?" She seessomeone with an answer. "Mr. Lyon?" "It forces air up the larynx.""It abruptly forces air up the larynx," Straus amends. "So, if there'san obstruction, it comes barreling up,too."On the blackboard she sketches across-section of the main trunk of theairway, the trachea, emphasizing itscolumnar girding of cartilage rings,each with a posterior, or dorsal, gap:"I ask you to think about the rings-why did evolution favor the development of rings rather than a completesleeve of cartilage?"There's a slight tension in theroom, the common classroom hesitancy of people who think they know butdon't want to speak out. Others, lesssure, wait for someone else to go first."So you can move your neckaround?" a male voice suggests."The flexibility of the neck gaveearly mammals, as predators, an advantage, " Straus agrees, but soontakes the question a step farther. "Whyincomplete rings? ""So muscles can retract and expand?" a student hazards, whileanother man adds, "So the size of thetrachea is variable?""That's a utility, " Straus pointsout, looking for the reason behind theproffered reasons. " Why would thatbe useful? What's right behind thetrachea?" This time, the response is confident. "The esophagus.""Right. If you're a lion and you'vejust swallowed a big hunk of something"— a light ripple of laughtergreets her supposition, but Straus isalready bringing the situation closer tohome: "We've all had the experiencewhere you realize, a second too late,that you really should have chewedthat piece of hot dog or whatever a fewmore times." As the esophagus bulgesto swallow the too-big bite, she explains, it presses against the back ofthe trachea— pushing into the malleable space provided by the gaps in thecartilage rings.From trachea to bronchus to bronchi to bronchioles, Straus paces herselfby the rough notes resting on the podium, by the clock on the back wall, andby the looks of comprehension on herstudents' faces. At 2:20 p.m., theclass's official end point, she headsinto the final curve, how the bodycontrols this elaborate system for conducting oxygen molecules in and carbon dioxide molecules out.Her explanation— which incorporates references to both the Heimlichmaneuver and the tracheal rings-brings the lecture full circle. It's 2:40,and dusting chalk from her fingers,Lorna Straus grins a final apology forrunning late.— M.R.Y.INVESTIGATIONSIllinois JonesLate October: paleontologist PaulSereno receives a $500,000 researchgrant, the largest ever of its kind. EarlyNovember: he again makes history,revealing the first accurate reconstruction of the oldest known dinosaur. Aweek later, Sereno sips orange juicefrom a coffee mug, enjoying a quietmoment between classes, bull sessions with colleagues, and telephonechats with reporters. He glances withamusement at a newspaper headline:"Dr. Dinosaur Makes Big Tracks."Although 31, the accompanying articlestates, Sereno could pass for 25."Actually, I just turned 32," he says.Sereno is aware of his public image:the heartland-born wunderkind, ayouthful Indiana Jones "going intoforeign lands with a gun at his hip anddragging back those dinosaurs, " hecompletes the description, rolling hiseyes.Still, it's hard not to let one's WalterMitty fantasies run wild at accounts ofSereno, as a 26-year-old ColumbiaUniversity graduate student, settingout alone to find dinosaur remains inChina and the fossil-rich Gobi Desertof Outer Mongolia— areas that hadbeen inaccessible to the West for morethan 60 years. Eight months and manyadventures later, he returned to NewYork with 386 rolls of film and severalhundred pages of notes documentingthe great, but poorly known, fossilcollections of Asia and eastern Europe."That trip was just incredible, "says Sereno. "It required every sinewof endurance I had; it required beingtotally immersed in a foreign culturealone for months; it required intellectual stamina to see new patterns inthese fossils— and it all worked out.It was pretty much like a dream."¦ The same dreamy quality pervaded Sereno's 1988 expedition throughthe desert foothills of the ArgentineAndes. A few fragments of what wasdetermined to be the earliest knowndinosaur had been found in that region in the 1950s. After four futileweeks in search of a complete Paul Sereno likes to pick up a fossil's details— "the bumps and grooves.'skeleton of this dinosaur, the group-including Argentine scientists and twoUniversity graduate students— hadnearly given up. Then, "on a hunch,"Sereno wandered off to explore a gulchand "literally broke down in tears" tosee, embedded in the sandstone, thetop of a dinosaur skull. His discovery yielded a skull andtwo nearly complete skeletons of themost primitive dinosaur ever discovered. The 230-million-year-old fossilsof the dinosaur, named Herrerasaurus,show a creature of "modest size": 300pounds and from six to eight feet long.Large claws and forelimbs indicate itUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990A Grammar of GesturesHerrerasaurus, the most primitivedinosaur ever discovered, is a creature of"modest size." (Illustration by ClaireVanderslice)into these distant lands like big-gamehunters. I did discover the dinosaur inArgentina, but I couldn't have done itwithout the cooperation and work ofthe people down there."Still, he admits, "there's almostnothing as exciting as going out in thefield— but after about six weeks ofpulling the dust out of your eyesevery morning, and freezing, andbeing beaten down by the sun, you'reusually ready to come back."— TO.^stureswalked on two legs, while its delicatelyserrated teeth and double-hinged jawsuggest it was, an "active flesh-eater."Sereno searched the rock formation immediately below the skeletonsin hopes of locating remains of thelong-sought common ancestor of alldinosaurs, which appeared five to tenmillion years before Herrerasaurus. Sofar, climatic and geologic conditionsappear to have conspired to preventthe preservation of fossils in the layer,but a major grant awarded last fall bythe David and Lucille Packard Foundation will allow Sereno to return toArgentina this spring for anotherlook.This same five-year, $500,000 grant—the largest ever awarded for fossilstudy— will also foot the bill in 1991when Sereno and selected students(including two undergraduates recruited from his Evolution and Paleobiology course) travel through China,Europe, the Soviet Union, and thewestern United States to study thousands of fossils still buried— or storedaway on obscure museum shelves. Theinformation will be compiled on computer until Sereno is ready to tackle hismaster project: a massive family treecharting the evolution of dinosaursduring their 200-million-year history.He will also use the grant to fine-tune a theory linking birds to dinosaurs. Sometime this year, Sereno willreveal a rare find: "the first full skeleton of a primitive fauna." That revelation, he predicts, may have the sameimpact on bird evolution that the 1978discovery of Lucy (the first certainancestor of modern man) had in thestudy of human origins.Sereno believes the Packard grantreflects a general resurgence in paleontology—a field that in the pasthas been "underfunded and difficultto find jobs in." The University, hesays, deserves credit "as one of the keyplaces that has kept this disciplinealive. We have a lot of people hereinterested in the fossil record and whatit has to say about evolution, perhapsthe critical mass, and they've attracteda lot of attention."He bristles when asked if currentpublic infatuation with dinosaurs hasanything to do with the grant. "Dinosaurs provide a model system forunderstanding the whole Mesozoicperiod. They're big and therefore fossilized; they're on every continent;they lived at a unique period duringthe breakup of a massive superconti-nent— yet their history isn't knownin detail. That's why the grant wasfunded, not because some companiesare making millions on stuffeddinosaurs."Sereno's own fascination withdinosaurs was late blooming. He entered Northern Illinois University tostudy art, but a class on fossils and avisit to the American Museum of Natural History in New York changed hismind. Sereno, who often sketches thefossils he uncovers, says it's no coincidence that many paleontologists drawsuperbly. "You have to pick up thesubtle details of an object, its bumpsand grooves, and then translate thosecharacteristics into two-dimensions.It's a very visual field."Sereno's colleagues have nicknamed him "Illinois Jones, " and headmits the image is flattering, "but I'mnot sure it does justice to the fact thatwe're serious scientists using seriousmethods to bring information to bearon fundamental issues of how animalsevolved. Secondly, we don't just waltz"This is David, " says SusanGoldin-Meadow, pressing the buttonon her video recorder. David was borndeaf, she explains. Almost three yearsold when the video was made, Davidhad received no training in formal signlanguage, growing up in a kind oflinguistic vacuum.David is one of ten children, agedfrom 17 months to four years, whomGoldin-Meadow studied to "see underwhat conditions language can belearned, and how much of that learning is dependent on a linguisticenvironment."As the tape progresses, David isshown a picture of a shovel. He nodsand points downstairs to a storage area("where a shovel is kept," Goldin-Meadow says), makes a digging motion with his small fists, and thenpoints downstairs again."In this one phrase, David hascommented on the use of the shoveland its location, " says Goldin-Meadow. As an associate professor in the University's departments of education and psychology, she has spentmore than a decade analyzing thousands of such moments, as deaf children like David apparently communicate in a "language" they create.The hearing parents of the children in the study had decided not toexpose them to standard sign language—a strategy recommended by somelanguage specialists so that the children will concentrate all their effortstowards oral communication. At theages the children were studied, theyhad learned at best only a few spokenwords of standard English.Goldin-Meadow and her assistantsvideotaped hour-long sessions in eachchild's home at six- to eight-week intervals. "We'd bring the same toys eachtime so there would be some consistency in what the children talkedabout."The youngest children usuallystarted with simple pointing gesturesto form a vocabulary of "nouns." Later,9their signs grew more sophisticated.Some children modified gestures intomore abstract symbols: for example,miming paddling feet, then the turn ofa key, to symbolize a clockwork duck.Some of the children created complicated sentences. "They described aMickey Mouse toy that walks and alsojumps or sways. Or they would gesturethings like, T hit the tower and then itfell, '"says Goldin-Meadow. "Theycould conjoin and contrast in sentences, such as T want this one to roll,not that one.'"Reviewing videotapes of the sessions, Goldin-Meadow observed thatthe children were not merely imitatingtheir mothers' gestures. "The mothersinvented fewer signs and made fewercombinations of signs, while only about25 percent of the signs used were common to both mother and child." Herconclusion: these ten deaf children"could fashion the rudiments of sentence and word structure in their gesture systems, even without the benefitof conventional linguistic input."Some psychologists interpret thestudy as favoring American linguistNoam Chomsky's argument againstthe standard notion that languageacquisition is not an innate quality.Chomsky cited the remarkably similarstructures of different languages— andthe fact that young children can learnGerman, Swahili, or Eskimo withequal ease— as proof of certain innateuniversals that provide the basicunderpinnings of language-structure.While Goldin-Meadow findsChomsky's idea of innate languageability "intriguing," she shies awayfrom presenting her research as specifically supporting a Chomskian position. "I'm not in the business of sayingthat language-learning is geneticallyprogrammed. I'm not a geneticist. ButI think this research demonstrates thatcertain aspects of language are quiteresilient, in that they will developunder very unusual circumstances."Now, Goldin-Meadow is conducting a comparative study of languagegestures among deaf children of hearing parents in Taiwan. "We're lookingto see whether some kind of culturalinput may be influencing this gesturecreation. If culture fails to be a factor,it may be further indication thatcertain aspects of language developnaturally."— TO. The World asMusical BazaarA few years ago, Philip Bohlmanwas sent an especially odd musicalmongrel by a colleague doing field-work among German- American communities in Wisconsin. A rendition ofa traditional folk tune called "ZumLauterbach" that is popular with theGerman- Americans who live in thatregion, it sounds like a standard treatment until halfway through the song."At that point, the singer breaksinto a blues-yodel styled after JimmieRodgers, " Bohlman says. "Then hedoes a chorus of 'Where, Oh Where,Did My Little Dog Go' before returning to the traditional German lyrics."As an ethnomusicologist whospecializes in folk music, Bohlmanadmits "that's just the kind of crazy,mixed-up stuff I love to study."Bohlman, who joined the University's music faculty in 1987, dabbled inEnglish literature and genetics as anundergraduate at the University ofWisconsin-Madison, settling on pianoas a major. It wasn't until his first graduate semester at the University ofIllinois at Urbana-Champaign that hebecame excited by folk music "assomething I could study in the worldaround me not music that was informed by a European courtly society200 years ago, but music that was apart of my life."In The Study of Folk Music in the Modern World (Indiana University Press)—selected by the American LibraryAssociation as one of the best academic books of 1988— Bohlman argues thatmany of the field's scholars are stuckin the past, pining for a golden age offolk music that probably never was.Cultural biases riddle modern folkmusic scholarship, he says, fostered bythose who believe that "if it's not European, North American, rural, old, orwasn't circulated solely through oraltransmission, it's not worth listeningto. That essentially excludes all musicthat's a product of non- Western cultures or modern society."Bohlman believes that folk musichas always been a blend of traditionand change. Although old communities wear down and new ones arise, L T":",~",'^s:*z""'~i":: " J oA 1642 version of "Der Teutsche Michel"(the German equivalent of Uncle Sam),from the University's Wieboldt-RosenwaldCollection of German folk music, theworld's second-largest collection. Aninternational conference on "The MusicalCulture of German-Americans" will be heldduring the University's Centennial."folk music does not diminish its symbolic role of representing a community's social base. Rather, it responds bychanging itself."Far from being the anonymoustradition-bearers portrayed by mostscholars, folk musicians are oftenagents of this change. "Tradition andcreativity need not be mutually exclusive, " Bohlman argues. In many cases,a successful musician will need to useboth in order to become a popularperformer in the community for whichhe or she plays. In addition to composing new songs, musicians often bringin musical styles from outside thecommunity, combining them withtraditional traits in such a way thattheir foreignness subsides.The force of change may be morepronounced in modern society.Bohlman offers as an example thetypical Middle Eastern bazaar, wheresummons to prayer are broadcast fromminarets while radios blare and shopowners hawk cassettes of popularsingers based in Cairo, Paris, or LosAngeles."The musical bricolage of the bazaar is a suggestive metaphor for folkmusic in the modern world," saysBohlman. "The marketplace providesthe moment where all these diversemusical subcultures can coexist." In10 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAG AZINE/ WINTER 1990the bazaar, as in the modern city, diverse genres of music are abundant,"but almost never in such isolationthat the stylistic boundaries remainunblurred."It becomes the ethnomusicologist'sjob to sort out the influences that forgea new folk "tradition" which symbolizes a particular community— be itethnic, tribal, national, occupational,religious, or familial. "You learn toexpect the unexpected, " says Bohlman, recalling an "amazing" broadcast of a Polish Solidarity meeting twosummers ago when workers rose totheir feet to sing a song that came outof the American civil rights movement,"We Shall Overcome." The workerschose to sing in English rather thanPolish, he adds, lending the song"another aura, another form ofresistance."Bohlman's own musical tastes arealso a bricolage. He listens to Indian,Arabic, and Persian classical music. Afourth-generation German- American,he remains fond of German folk musicand tunes, "and I love country music, "he says, because it effectively combines traditional, religious, and popular elements. And rock music? "Certainly," he answers. "The Beatles, theRolling Stones . . . that was all folk music from the Vietnam era."Bohlman's newest book, The LandWhere Two Streams Cross (1989, University of Illinois Press) examines how theGerman-Jewish immigrants who cameto Israel during the 1930s laid the foundations for modern Israeli music. He'snow at work on a study of the music ofJewish community life in Central Europe, from the Enlightenment to WorldWar II.The most massive of the projectsBohlman wants to complete is an entire intellectual history of the field ofethnomusicology. While he definesethnomusicology as "the study ofmusic in culture and music as culture, " he thinks an even better term-coined by fellow ethnomusicologistAnthony Seeger, AM'70, PhD'74-mightbe "musical anthropology.""The field of folk music study isexpanding tremendously, " Bohlmansays. "You have to know languages,music, culture, folklore I always feelabout ten steps behind what I need toknow, if not a hundred." But, he adds,"no matter what, I want to keep in touch with the living aspects of musical culture. There's something thrillingabout going up to farmers, bakers,school teachers, pastors, asking whatThe Beauty of theOne minute, Betsy Hearne, anassistant professor in the GraduateLibrary School and editor of The Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, isconsidering the myth of Cupid andPsyche. The next minute she is discussing a CBS television series in which adeformed creature living under thecity of New York fell in love with abeautiful woman lawyer.In both cases, Hearne is talkingabout a story "I've never grown tiredof, " a story she has spent much of thepast decade studying. It's a story thatfolklorists know as Aarne-Thompsontale type 425C: "Beauty and the Beast.Father stays overnight in mysteriouspalace and takes a rose. Must promisedaughter to animal (or she goes voluntarily). Tabu: overstaying at home.She finds the husband almost dead.Disenchants him by embrace. (Nosearch, no tasks). Analysis lb, c, d, II,III c3, Vb9."That's the shorthand for a tale thatHearne, AM'68, PhD'85, unequivocally calls "one of the great metaphorsof western civilization." In writingBeauty and the Beast: Visions and Revisionsof an Old Tale (University of ChicagoPress, 1989), Hearne pursued the well-known fairy tale "through thicketsof reading in various disciplines"—folklore, literature, art, history,psychology, and education. Yet,her "fundamental appreciation of thetale is that of a storyteller."Hearne, who has published several stories for children, sought out elements that "coalesced to give the storya unique, survivable shape." One suchelement is the loving relationshipbetween a merchant father and hisyoung daughter, Beauty. Another isBeauty's modest request for a rose.That request brings on the wrath of apowerful beast, who demands Beautyin exchange for her father's life.The Beast, Hearne points out, "isthe center of the story." The initiallyforbidding master of a magical kingdom, he is soon revealed as patient songs do they sing, and what do thosesongs mean in their lives? The essential questions in this field are veryhuman questions."— TO.Beastand gentle— even vulnerable— in hiscourtship of Beauty. "It is the Beast, "Hearne writes, "on whom storytellers,writers, and illustrators focus theirimaginations. The climax of the storyis Beauty's love of the Beast himself,not the transformation and marriage,which is anticlimactic if pleasant."Once the Beast turns into a seeminglyperfect prince, he becomes less interesting—and less human.Hearne's book concentrates onFrench, English, and American variants of the tale from the eighteenththrough the twentieth century. Beginning with a 1740 story by MadameGabrielle de Villeneuve, she analyzesplays, poems, picture books, illustrated stories, and cinema (Jean Cocteau's1946 classic, Beauty and the Beast).She has no favorite variant ("It'slike asking if you have a favoritechild"), and she has no desire to findthe definitive meaning of the tale. "Aproblem arises when critics try toohard and too dogmatically to pin oneparticular meaning to the metaphor, "she says. "Fairy tales bear many meanings." In the hands of an individualstoryteller, she admits, Beauty andthe Beast "can be adapted to be melodramatic, sentimental, didactic—the worst of story. But it can also betranslated into the sublime."A true believer in the power of thebest stories, Hearne is now writing abook on children's literature and cultural literacy. "The very educatorswho are decrying the lack of culturalliteracy, " she says, "seem not to realize what's available in terms of myth,lore, legend, and history in children'sliterature."To Betsy Hearne, good stories— nottextbooks or dictionaries— are whatcultural literacy is all about: "It's in thebest tradition of storytelling— not as aprescription of cultural medicine, butas entertainment, as aesthetic power,as irresistible story— that we want topass on our cultural touchstones."-M.R.YnCHICAGO JOURNALThe Story Behind Chicago'sLiving Donor Liver Transplant"The operation your child willhave. . .has never been performed."That laconic warning appeared on thesurgery consent form signed by Teresaand John Smith, for their 21-month-old daughter, Alyssa. Equally daunting, Teresa Smith would also undergosurgery as part of the operation.But when the Smiths decided to goahead with the pioneering procedure—in which a surgical team at the University Medical Center transplanted asection of Teresa Smith's liver into herailing infant daughter— the Texas family's decision was deliberate, not desperate. It reflected years of researchand planning by Medical Center surgeons and pediatricians, as well asconsultation with psychiatrists andmedical ethicists.In a 14-hour operation on November 27, a surgical team headed byChristoph Broelsch, professor of surgery and chief of hepatobiliary surgeryand the University's liver transplantservice, worked in adjoining operatingrooms to remove the left lobe of TeresaSmith's healthy liver and implant it inher daughter. Alyssa was born withbiliary atresia, a congenital underdevelopment of the bile ducts that is themost common cause of liver failurein infants.During the eight-hour operation toprepare Teresa Smith's liver tissue fortransplantation, a retractor nicked herspleen, and the organ was removed tocontrol bleeding. Her doctors do notexpect her to suffer any long-termhealth effects as a result. After theinitial operation, Alyssa had to bereturned to the operating room earlythe following day for a four-hour operation to control minor bleeding (acondition which occurs in 30 percentof liver transplant patients).By mid-December, Teresa Smithhad been released from the Hospitals,while Alyssa, who had undergone twoChristoph Broelsch (center) works toremove part of Teresa Smith 's liver. more operations to control bleeding,continued to progress. On December7, the Medical Center performed thesame procedure on 15-month-oldSarina Jones of Memphis, Tennessee,whose 20-year-old father, RobertJones, donated the needed liver tissue.Sarina entered the Medical Centerseverely malnourished, but doctorstermed it "the best graft ever in thehistory of our program." The MedicalCenter plans to perform 20 such operations over the next year.The surgery marked the first timein the United States that a living donorprovided liver tissue for a transplantoperation, and it captured the attention of the national media. If successful, the dramatic new procedure promises to save many lives, since half ofthe 700 infants who need liver transplants each year die while awaitingdonor organs from infant cadavers.But the human-interest story of abrave mother again giving the gift oflife to her child also suggested serious,underlying questions. Is it ethical tojeopardize the well-being of a healthyadult to try to save a gravely ill infant?Can parents intelligently weigh theiroptions in such an emotional crisis?Before starting the living donorprogram, the transplant team of surgeons and pediatricians asked for athorough deliberation of the ethicalissues by the Medical Center staff andthe University community. The teamheld public meetings with ethicists toanalyze the risks and benefits to donors and recipients. In August 1989 theteam published its findings in the NewEngland Journal of Medicine, along withplans for identifying candidates, explaining the new procedure to them—and making them go home for amonth to think over their decision.Most importantly: the familieshad to have all available information,so that they could make the free andeducated decision known as informedconsent. "The doctors here in thishospital sat down with my wife andme and discussed all of the risks involved and all of the ethical questions.We felt very comfortable with the whole procedure, " John Smith toldTed Koppel during an interview onABC's Nightline. Before entering surgery, Teresa Smith told reporters,"From the beginning, we were convinced that this was our best option.Everything made sense."As it does for other cases of biliaryatresia, the Smiths' insurance company, Humana, agreed to cover the costsof the operation. Indeed, the operation itself was not so much a giant leapas it was the next logical step in medical technology.In Germany, Broelsch had developed the surgical technique for transplanting only a fraction of a donatedcadaver liver, and he performed thefirst successful segmental transplant inthe U S. at the Medical Center in 1986.Two years later, he was the first in theU.S. to transplant parts of one liverinto two recipients, a more complicated procedure requiring the surgeon tofashion the major connecting bloodvessels and a bile duct for the secondsegment.Because the implanted organ orsegment can be no more than 20 percent larger than the size of the recipient's original liver, both proceduresimmediately increased the number ofdonor organs available for small children by making adult livers suitable."There does not appear to be anygreater risk involved in the transplantation of liver lobes compared with awhole organ," Broelsch says. Thesurvival rate for segmental transplantsurgery is about 80 percent. Since1988, Broelsch 's team has done 15 setsof "split-liver" transplants, experiencethat led to the living donor technique.Recipients of the new procedurehave several advantages not shared bytraditional transplant patients. Theyreceive tissue that has been spared anydamage caused by the donor's death orby storage and transport. Because thetissue comes from a close blood relative, rejection may be less likely. Andrecipients themselves are generallyhealthier when they undergo surgerythan are liver patients who must waitfor cadaver donors."Patients can be operated on sooner, before they become critically ill andthe complications of liver failure beginto damage other organ systems," saysPeter Whitington, associate professorof pediatrics and director of pediatric-transplant services. Before the Chicagooperation, four living donor transplantoperations had been performed (inAustralia, Brazil, and Japan), underemergency conditions on critically illchildren. One of the children has sincedied.Transplanting patients earlier alsoavoids the pressure on the family tomake a decision under emergencycircumstances, while allowing athorough physical and psychiatricexamination of the donor.The donor does face some risk,although the surgery does not affectthe donor's liver function, and thetissue regenerates in a month to restore the liver to full size. Still, theliver is the human body's largest internal organ, performing many complexbiochemical functions.Some published reports describea death rate as high as 11 percent forremoval of a portion of the liver, whichis usually done in cases of localizedliver cancer. But no deaths have beenreported at centers where surgeonshave considerable experience with theprocedure; the University MedicalCenter has performed 35 such operations without any deaths or seriouscomplications.In the Journal article, the Chicagophysicians noted psychological benefits for the donor: "If transplantationsucceeds, the donor has the extremesatisfaction of having saved the life ofthe child. Even if transplantation fails,the donor may take comfort in theknowledge of having done everythingpossible to save the child."For the doctors, the main concernis that the donor's consent be trulyinformed and relatively free of pressure. But, they noted, "Such pressureis unavoidable, and it is not unique toliver transplantation." In fact, theywrote, "the need to balance selfishness and altruism is a universal featureof family relationships."Teresa Smith agrees. "Once you'vegiven someone a big piece of yourheart," she told reporters, "it's easyto throw in a little bit of liver."—Bill Burton Ranney Elected University'sNewest TrusteeGeorge Ranney, Jr., JD'66, hasbeen elected a member of the University's Board of Trustees. A partner atMayer, Brown & Piatt in Chicago, Ranney was previously a vice president ofthe Inland Steel Coal Co., leaving thatposition in 1986 to campaign for theU.S. Senate.In 1969, Ranney was appointedassistant director of finance for theState of Illinois, later serving as deputydirector of budget and as assistant tothe governor. In 1986, he was namedhead of a crisis management teamcreated to reform the Chicago HousingAuthority.The author of Landlord and Tenant(Houghton-Mifflin, 1974) and numerous magazine and newspaper articles,Ranney has been a member of visitingcommittees to the Law School, theGraduate School of Public PolicyStudies, the Divinity School, andthe School of Social ServiceAdministration.The University and theJustice Department InquiryIn late summer, the Universitylearned that it was one of a number ofprivate universities and colleges (bylate fall, approximately 55) under investigation by the U.S. Department ofJustice. The apparent object of the civilinvestigation is to determine whetherthe schools are in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act."The inquiry to the Universityrelated to tuition only, " says JonathanKleinbard, vice president for PublicInformation and Community Affairs.According to a University statement onthe inquiry, in August the Universityreceived a request "for informationconcerning the process by which itestablished its tuition. Specifically, theJustice Department is interested inwhether institutions of higher education have entered into any arrangements or understandings as to prospective tuition rates which mayviolate federal anti-trust laws."At no time, " the statement continued, "has the University participatedin any agreement or understandingwith another institution in the setting of its tuition." Notes Kleinbard, "TheUniversity has cooperated fully withthe Department of Justice inquiry."A portion of the public attentiongiven the inquiry this fall focused onthe issue of financial aid. Among theinstitutions included in the inquiry arethe 23 colleges and universities, mostly in the Northeast, that form the Financial Aid Overlap Group. Chicago isnot one of the group, which has traditionally compared financial-aid information on its applicants, althoughmany of the institutions with which itcompetes for students are.Chicago's undergraduate term bill(tuition, room and board, and required fees) is determined each February by the board of trustees, actingupon the recommendations arrived atby the President, the provost, and thedean of the college, in consultation •with many campus offices and committees, including the Student Planning Committee. That committee'smembership includes Provost GerhardCasper, Dean of the College RalphNicholas, Dean of AdmissionsTheodore O'Neill, Director of Financial Aid Alicia Reyes, Director of theBudget Office Geoffrey Cox, andKleinbard.That committee's discussions begin in early fall. "We can't simply sitdown and say, 'There's the cost ofdoing business, ' add on X percent,and that's our tuition," says GeoffreyCox. The committee looks at the previous year's expenditures and revenues, calculates the expendituresnecessary to maintain and improve theCollege's offerings, and estimatesexpected revenues."The fact is that tuition representsonly about half of what it really costs torun the College," says Cox. In 1989-90,undergraduate tuition (the term bill of$19,195 includes a fee of $13,815 fortuition) will provide approximately$43 million, while the cost of runningthe College will total approximately$70 million.This year, the University hasbudgeted $15.4 million of its own resources for undergraduate financialaid, awarded on the basis of demonstrated need. Approximately 60 percent of the undergraduates receivedirect grants from the College. Mostsupplement the scholarship aid withloans and part-time campus jobs.14 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ WINTER 1990Writer Eudora Welty returned to the University, ten years after her last visit, to give theWilliam Vaughn Moody Lecture October 19 in Mandel Hall. In a demure Southern voice,Welty read before a rapt audience of nearly a thousand from her 1985 autobiography, OneWriter's Beginnings. Accompanying her on the trip was fellow Jackson, Mississippi resident Jane Reid-Petty, who presented a one-woman version of Welty's novella "Edna Earle'the following evening in University Theater:Honors and AwardsSaunders Mac Lane and EugeneParker were presented the NationalMedal of Science— the nation's highestaward for scientific achievement— byPresident Bush in a White House ceremony in October. Mac Lane, SM'31,the Max Mason Distinguished ServiceProfessor Emeritus in Mathematics, was cited for his work in the creationand development of the fields of ho-mological algebra and category theory.Parker, the S. Chandrasekhar Distinguished Service Professor in Physics,received the medal for his studies ofcosmic magnetic fields and for hisformulation of the concept of solarand stellar winds. He joined the University as a research associate in 1955. Irving Kaplansky and AlbertoCalderon were awarded Steele prizesfor significant achievements by theAmerican Mathematical Society. Kaplansky, the George Herbert MeadDistinguished Service ProfessorEmeritus, and Calderon, PhD'50, whorecently returned to the University ona post-retirement appointment, werehonored at the society's summer meeting in Boulder, Colorado.Morton Kaplan, professor in the Department of Political Science, wasnamed a Distinguished Service Professor this fall. Kaplan, who joined thefaculty in 1956, has written extensivelyon philosophy, political theory, international relations, military strategy,and jurisprudence.Edward H. Levi, PhB'32, JD'35, a 1928graduate from the Laboratory Schoolswho went on to become President ofthe University and U.S. attorney general, has been named the first recipientof the U-High/Laboratory SchoolsAlumni Association's DistinguishedAlumnus award. He will receive therecognition at a dinner February 24 inHutchinson Commons. PresidentHanna Gray is honorary chairman ofthe event.Walter Massey, vice president forresearch and for Argonne NationalLaboratory, was elected by the American Physical Society to a four-yearposition in which he will serve consecutively as vice president, presidentelect, president and past-president ofthe 41,000-member society.A conference in honor of Joseph Crop-sey, who is retiring as distinguishedservice professor in political science,was held in October. Former studentsand colleagues from across the country presented papers that reflectedCropsey's scholarly interests. Hejoined the faculty in 1958.In October, Trygve Haavelmo, 77, wasawarded the Nobel Prize in EconomicSciences. Haavelmo— who was on theUniversity's faculty in the 1940s andreturned as a visiting professor in thelate 1950s— was cited by the Nobelcommittee for his pioneering work inmethods for testing economic theories,which helped pave the way for mod-isem economic forecasting. Professoremeritus at the University of Oslo,Haavelmo is the 58th Nobel recipientto be associated with the University.Court Theatre at the University wonthree 1989 Joseph Jefferson Awardshonoring excellence in Chicago's professional theaters: best actress (LindaEmond), best scenic design (JeffBauer) and best costume design (Andrew Marlay), all for last season's production of Pygmalion.This fall, Anne Robertson, assistantprofessor in the music depatment, wasawarded the 1989 American Musicolo-gical Society's Alfred Einstein Awardfor her article on medieval plainchant(single-voiced sacred music) published in the Journal of the AmericanMusicological Society. Robertson hasbeen at the University since 1984.Real Science for NonscientistsThe human eye is a complex organ withremarkable visual abilities. Some creationistsargue that the eye is so complex that evolution could not possibly have produced it.How can natural selection yield such intricate structures?Forget your (evident and impressive)sophistication and ask the questions that achild would ask. "Why does it do that?""How does it do that?"The above examples — taken from afinal exam and a laboratory workbook,respectively — are part of an innovativecourse sequence for undergraduatescalled Evolution of the Natural World.Created and designed by University faculty, the course has been laudedas "a national model for teaching science to non-science majors" by thescientific research honor society,Sigma Xi."The content, approach . . . and thecaliber of the material presentedcaught everyone's attention, " said M.Patricia Morse, biology professor atNortheastern University in Boston andpresident of Sigma Xi.Michael LaBarbera, associate professor in organismal biology andanatomy, described the sequence toscientists and educators attending theSigma Xi's annual meeting in Denverthis fall— and has since been bom-16 barded with requests for help fromuniversities and colleges interested inlaunching like courses at theirinstitutions.The impetus for creating the two-year sequence began in the early 1980swith a general acknowledgementamong the faculty that the sequencesin the biological and physical sciencescollegiate divisions "were often poorlyreceived by students majoring in subjects outside the natural sciences,"says LaBarbera. Formal discussions onhow to improve the situation beganin 1983."The participants soon came to theconclusion that the separation of thephysical and biological sciences in ourcurriculum was artificial and potentially misleading to students whose soleexposure to the natural sciences wasthese core courses," says LaBarbera."The sciences are, in reality, highlyinterdependent."Interested faculty met throughout1985 and 1986 to plan a two-yearcourse sequence that integrated thephysical and biological sciences, fulfilling requirements for nonsciencemajors in both areas. They decided tobase the sequence on a central themeand chose evolution, from the formation of the universe and solar system tothe origin of organisms and communities. They also determined that eachcourse in the sequence should have asubstantial, hands-on laboratory component. LaBarbera believes these labswere a major key to the success of thesequence when it was launched in thefall of 1986.Labs for nonmajors have traditionally stressed technique over thought,says LaBarbera, and are seen by students as "cookbook" operationswhose intellectual motivation is riotmade clear. In contrast, instructions inthe Evolution sequence place moreemphasis on open-ended lab work. Inone class, students design their ownexperimental projects: studies haveranged from an examination of theheat and fat contents of nuts to aninvestigation of the excess energyconsumed by turning a light bulb onand off.Although LaBarbera believes mostnonscience students are either indifferent or hostile to scientific studyprior to taking the Evolution sequence,evaluations written by students upon its completion show they havegained "an appreciation of the relevance of the natural sciences to theirpersonal lives and to public policyissues." Despite the rigors of the offerings—as one student evaluation put it,"Not an easy grade or a blow-off science class, but definitely worth it"—enrollment for the sequence has risensteadily each year, from 42 students in1987 to 93 this fall.LaBarbera believes that other colleges and universities can use theEvolution sequence as a model, "but Iwould by no means encourage itstransplantation— the strengths of thefaculty at each institution should betaken into account in any attempt todesign an analogous sequence."He adds, however, that "no suchsequence is likely to be successfulwithout a strong laboratory component, a major commitment on the partof the faculty involved to maintaincommunication among themselves,and the active support and encouragement of the institution'sadministration . "The APS: How Argonne's"Brilliant" X-ray Concept WillBecome RealityArgonne National Laboratory-operated by the University of Chicagofor the U.S. Department of Energy— isscheduled to begin construction thisspring of its $456 million AdvancedPhoton Source (APS), which Argonnedirector Alan Schriesheim calls "thelargest project ever undertaken by thislaboratory."In September, Congress approved$40 million to begin initial construction of the APS at Argonne's 1,700-acresite southwest of Chicago in DuPagecounty. Federal funding will continueincrementally over the next six yearsuntil the project is completed in thespring of 1996.The project has been endorsed byboth the National Academy of Scienceand the Energy Research AdvisoryBoard. When completed in the mid-1990s, the APS will produce high-brilliance x-ray beams that can be usedfor detailed study of atomic and molecular structure in such diverse areas asmaterials science, condensed-matterphysics, chemistry, biology, medicine,UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990X-ray racetrack: an artist's rendition of Argonne's Advanced Photon Source (APS).and the geosciences.APS research should expandAmerica's high-technology competitiveness in areas such as semiconductors, polymers, pharmaceuticals,and catalysts, according to RussellHuebner, MBA'83, who is responsiblefor policy and planning for the APS inthe office of David Moncton, associatelaboratory director. Although the concept and design of the photon sourcecame from U.S. scientists, researchersutilizing the idea are currently building like machines in France andJapan.The APS will accelerate positrons(particles like electrons but with positive charges) to energies greater thanseven billion electron-volts. The positrons are then injected into the storagering — a vacuum pipe more than a halfmile in circumference— where theywill circulate, emitting beams of energetic synchrotron radiation, orphotons.Positioned at certain points alongthe circular path, groups of powerfulmagnets called "wigglers" and "undu-lators" will oscillate the beams-moving at nearly the speed of light.These wigglers and undulators willproduce tightly-focused x-ray beamsthat emerge along tangent lines fromthe ring, ready for use in an array ofscientific experiments. When the APSbecomes operational, more than 300scientists will be able to collect datasimultaneously from as many as 100different experiments.The research applications of theAPS depend on a simple principle: thebrighter the source, the better one can see what is taking place. Unlike standard x-ray machines— which work likea camera flash, producing light thatspreads out in all directions— the x-raybeams produced by the photon sourceare more like laser beams: they arehighly focused and extremely bright."These beams will be a million-million times (or 10 to the 12th times)brighter than an ordinary x-ray machine, " says Huebner— and will depictstructures in far greater detail thanpreviously possible, also giving researchers the ability to freeze motionin a nanosecond-timeframe to document fast-moving molecular and atomic changes with ease. For example, in1988 a prototype undulator at CornellUniversity was used to make a flash x-ray photograph of protein crystals inone-ten-billionth of a second. Withoutthe prototype, the same experimentwould have taken days.Argonne scientists believe thatapplication of the APS will create major developments in science and technology. For example, it will "open thedoor to rapid analysis of bimolecularstructures, such as viruses and proteins, and examination of physiological structures and functions, " saysHuebner. And because it extends current capabilities to study matter invery small scale, the APS could greatlyimprove the development of high-density circuits and computermicrochips.Once in operation, the APS isexpected to attract more than a thousand users every year from industry,universities, and other national laboratories around the country. How to Teach TeachingProvost Gerhard Casper announced the creation this fall of a faculty Council on Teaching that willadvise the University administrationon policies that affect teaching.The council is chaired by WayneBooth, AM'47, PhD'50, the GeorgeM. Pullman Distinguished ServiceProfessor in English and the College,and includes nine other facultymembers appointed by the provost.Booth believes the council's creation is timely in that "there has beenmore discussion [nationally] aboutteaching and its relationship to research than at any time in decades, "adding, "I'm convinced that the bestresearch often contributes to orsprings from the best teaching, andthis is a good time to think furtherabout that connection."Booth believes it is the council'sfirst duty to determine the status ofteaching at Chicago, something notattempted in detail at the Universitysince 1972. Booth's second goal isdetermine the ways in which teachingcan best be evaluated. He adds onepersonal goal: "I think I would like tomake available to young teachers—those who want it— a system thatallows them to consult easily withexperienced teachers."The council complements theCouncil on Research, established in1980 to advise on research policies.A Chilling ConclusionNew evidence from Universitygeophysicists indicates that the advance and retreat of massive glaciersduring the last ice age was caused bychanges in the amount of carbondioxide in the atmosphere.The researchers say this work mayalso help scientists understand howthe earth's climate is being alteredby manmade carbon dioxide (the so-called Greenhouse Effect)."What we show here is that carbondioxide really can change climate, "says Douglas MacAyeal, professor ofgeophysical sciences. "We aren't justspeculating about how changes incarbon dioxide might alter our climatein the years to come, we're showingthat it already has."17MacAyeal and his former studentDean Lindstrom, SM'86, PhD'89, nowan assistant professor at the Universityof Illinois, Chicago, took their cue fromscientific studies of the Volstok IceCore. A 2,083-meter-long chunk of icedrilled from the Antarctic ice cap, itcan be read as a record of global climate going back 160,000 years.Studies of the ice core show thatcarbon dioxide concentrations wereabout 190 parts per million when glaciers covered larger parts of the Northern Hemisphere and 290 parts permillion during warm periods whenBerwanger BlitzedA senior aptly named Brian Blitzmade history in an otherwise gloomyfootball season by setting an all-timerecord for career carries, breaking therecord held by Maroon legend John JayBerwanger, AB'36, the nation's firstHeisman trophy winner in 1935.Blitz completed 524 career rushingattempts— compared to Berwanger's439 carries— and finished 100 yardsshort of the career rushing record of2,306 yards set by Dale Friar, X'78.Blitz, who was named Most Valuable Player by the team, made All-Conference for the Maroons. (OtherAll-Conference players were seniorsTim Rafanello, Darren Heil and Cary they retreated. Since carbon dioxidewarms the earth by trapping solarradiation, MacAyeal and Lindstromwondered if the changes in carbondioxide directly caused the ice age, orwere related only coincidentally.Using computers, they designed amodel which simulated ice and atmosphere over the past 30,000 years.They found that the increase in carbondioxide from 190 parts per million upto 290 parts per million at the end ofthe ice age was enough to heat theearth and shrink the planet's glacialice. The similarity between the modelStarnal; junior Matt Ficenec; andsophomore StanPenkala.)Berwanger had a chance to seeBlitz and his team in action as a specialguest during the Maroons' October 14homecoming loss to Beloit, 27-12.Spectators totaled 1,700— the largestnumber to attend a homecoming gamein at least five years.The Maroons finished their season2-7. New head coach Greg Quick believes the losses reflect "the fact ourplayers were learning a new system,"as Quick initiated a "Chicago wing"offense that placed greater emphasison the team's passing game.Other Fall Sports Results: Thewomen's volleyball team finished13-12 (a 10-win improvement over last and what is known about the actualposition of glaciers at that time confirmed the scientists' results.At present, largely because ofhuman activity, the atmospheric carbon dioxide level is about 350 parts permillion and rising. Since their studiesshow that past shifts in carbon dioxidelevels on the same order as the currentmanmade effects were sufficient tomove the world into and out of iceages, MacAyeal wonders "what willhappen if the carbon dioxide doublesfrom man's activities over the next fewdecades?"Brian Blitz (No. 20, at left) broke a schoolrecord for career carries; women'svolleyball (above) went 13-12.season), taking third place in thisyear's UAA Round-Robin Tournamenthosted by Chicago. Senior Susan Flinkand freshman Jennifer Wright werenamed second team All-Conference.Senior Annette Faller took secondplace in the University Athletic Association Cross Country Championships, with junior Christine Dolanfinishing 13th. The women's teamfinished fifth overall in the UAA, whilethe men's team took seventh place.The women's soccer team wontheir last three games, finishing with a5-12-1 record. Sophomores JenniferAst and Bronwen Scott made All-Conference, second team, as didsenior Sarah Geenen. Men's soccerfinished 2-12-2.18 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990Will Poor, SM'88 (third from left), with members of UCRecyle — and recyclables.Thirty Tons a Month...and GrowingAs a former operations supervisorfor a Boulder recycling company, WillToor, SM'88, instinctively sought outthe "recycle" bins when he arrived oncampus in 1986, only to find thereweren't any.When Toor decided to get involvedin the campus ecology group, he madethe same disturbing discovery— therewas none. Today, the physics graduatestudent says both deficiencies havebeen corrected. Not only is ECO (Environmental Concerns Organization)— .formed in the fall of 1987— one of themost popular student groups on campus, its proposals to launch a campus-wide recycling program have met withimmediate University support."To be honest, I was surprised athow receptive they [the Universityadministration] were to the idea, " saysToor, who is a founding member ofECO. "I've talked to ecology groups atother campuses who say the biggestroadblock to starting recycling on theircampus is convincing administrators.Here, we had cooperation from thebeginning."Based on a proposal by ECO,UCRecycle was formally launched inDecember of 1988. Directed by theOffice of Business and Finance underAlexander Sharp, it began as a pilotprogram in which office paper wascollected at seven buildings and soldto an outside, for-profit firm calledRecycling Services, Inc."At that point, " Toor says, "it waspretty much experimental, the ideabeing to learn from experience so thatwe could be as efficient as possible,instead of bombarding the campuswith collection containers right away.We added about two buildings amonth, and we started to get a lot ofphone calls from other offices whowanted to participate."We've found that a major key tomaking this work is having just oneor two people in a building who areenthusiastic about recycling, andwho talk about it with others in thebuilding," says Toor. "Then theother important thing is to make itvery easy for people, as convenient asthrowing away their garbage."By May of 1989, office paper forrecycling was being collected in 40 buildings, and early fall figuresshowed that 135 tons of paper— theequivalent of 2,300 trees— have beenrecycled through the program. "Judging from purchasing records, it lookslike we're collecting from 50 to 60 percent of the office paper on campus."(In addition, the University Hospitalsis starting up a similar office paperrecycling system.)Last spring, ECO proposed thatUCRecycle be expanded to includeother recyclable materials. To confirmthe need for this expansion, representatives from ECO and the Universityadministration completed a wastegeneration study, "which meant we'dgo around campus before the garbagetrucks got there, pull out bags andthen sort through them and weighthe separated materials," says Toor."Doing this, we found that at least70 percent of the total campus wastewas potentially recyclable."So, the program was expanded thisfall to include aluminum, glass, newspapers, cardboard, and cans. "Westarted in the same incremental fashion, building by building, " says Toor,who was hired to coordinate the newlyexpanded program under the directionof the Office of Business and Finance. By late fall, UCReycle was collectingover 30 tons of recyclable materials amonth and hoped to increase thatamount to 50 tons monthly by the endof this school year. Except for officepaper, which is still handled by Recycling Services, Inc., the recyclablematerials are delivered and sold to theResource Center, a nonprofit groupstarted in Hyde Park in 1968 by KenDunn, AM '70.UCRecycle currently operates witha monthly cost of about $2,000, whichcovers salaries for five part-time student employees, insurance costs on a1972 Chevrolet van that picks up materials around campus, and the purchaseof new recycling containers. Approximately 60 percent of these costs arepaid by revenues from sale of materials. The remaining 40 percent is covered in the University's unrestrictedbudget, says Toor, adding that thecosts are minor when compared tomounting landfill charges. By 1993,Chicago is expected to run out of landfill space, at which time, he predicts,waste disposal costs will skyrocket.Although ECO representatives callthe program a success, they believe thejob is only half finished. ECO proposals for future campus efforts include19composting of all tree, bush and grasstrimmings, as well as all organic food-service waste; the implementation of awaste production plan; encouragingdouble-sided copying; the use of electronic mail instead of memos; and thereplacement of styrofoam cups withdegradable or reusable ones.However, Toor believes that neither ECO nor the University administration will ultimately determine theprogram's success. Rather, "it comesdown to that moment someone isholding a piece of recyclable waste intheir hand and decides to throw it inthe recycle bin instead of the garbage.When that becomes habit for most ofthe people around here, that's thepoint we will have grown beyond asymbolic program to one that canactually make a difference."Language as DataThis fall, the University established an experimental Information &Languages Center to develop and usenew techniques to study increasinglylarge and diverse computer collectionsof language data. The center's workshould have important implicationsfor researchers in the many fields whodeal with large, natural-language databases, predicts Provost GerhardCasper.Recent changes in informationtechnology include the developmentof such text databases as NEXIS andLEXIS, the availability of laser-readoptical disks of works ranging from theBible to the complete works of classicalGreece, and an enormous increase incomputing power. These data basesare increasingly connected by computer networks and are manipulated byscholars with personal computers.Robert Morrissey, PhD'82, associate professor in romance languagesand literatures, notes that because somany disciplines are beginning to usemachine-readable data, the centershould draw people from many backgrounds. For example, linguists areusing computer-based texts to studytheories of language. Psychologists areusing complex language-based representations to study the acquisition oflanguage, and computer scientists arerelying on computer-based languageto contribute to the development of artificial intelligence."Groups of researchers here havebeen interested in these questions for along time, but they've largely workedindependently," says Morrissey. "Nowwe have a place for reflection on theseissues by all these groups."CompendiaChildren at Risk: The University'sChapin Hall Center for Children willundertake a comprehensive study ofthe state's child-welfare system in a$1.2 million project, at the request ofthe Illinois Department of Childrenand Family Services (DCFS).Recent lawsuits against the DCFShave sparked public charges that thedepartment fails to provide vital services to children and their families inIllinois. Through foster care, familycounseling, residential treatment andcommunity-youth programs, theDCFS offers services for abused, neglected, or abandoned children; pregnant teens and teen mothers; andtroubled or delinquent youths.Chapin Hall researchers will analyze DCFS operations through empirical data and interviews with policymakers, service providers, systemparticipants, and local and nationalexperts. The two-year program will befunded by the state and several privatefoundations. Affiliated with the University since 1985, the Chapin Centeris a policy research and developmentcenter for the promotion of well-beingof children."The Honest Politician's Guide toDrug Control" was the title of thisyear's Katz Lecture at the Law School."Let's declare the war on drugs overand done— and see if we can get aheadwith a few battles, " urged the speaker,Norval Morris, who is the JuliusKreeger Professor in the Law School,where he was dean from 1975 to 1978.Advocating a "self-interest,bottom-line drug policy, " Morrisurged that fewer resources be spent onarresting adult users. Instead, he argued, the goal should be "to use government and community resources tominimize the damage drugs do inthose areas where they most forciblyintrude."For example, noting the strong correlation between high levels of druguse and predatory crimes, Morrissuggested that "anyone convicted of apredatory crime who also uses drugsat more than an occasional rate berequired to become drug free in thecommunity." Enforcement of such arule, he said, would mean regular,random testing for drug use— thosewho tested positive would find themselves imprisoned, "to be released onprecisely the same terms."Team Approach: Promoting a morecoordinated effort towards the earlydetection and treatment of breast cancer, the University Hospitals haslaunched two programs this fall: aweekly Multidisciplinary Breast Conference and a mobile mammographyunit.Each week, members of the multi-disciplinary conference— includingsurgeons, oncologists, pathologists,radiologists and nurses— discuss specific cases and broader topics related tobreast cancer. Program director Dr.Monica Morrow, associate professor ofsurgery, says these meetings are "educational on all levels— for medicalstudents and treating attending physicians alike."Also this fall, a not-for-profit mobile mammography unit began visits tocorporate offices in the Chicago area.Women employees can "sign up, taketen minutes, and get their mammograms essentially at cost, " says Morrow. The mobile unit is funded in partby proceeds from the Hospitals' annual September fund-raising gala.Open Classrooms: More than 600people attended the tenth annualHumanities Open House in October,as professors offered the campus visitors 45 lectures on topics from"Searching for German Bible Translations Prior to Martin Luther" to "Everything You Always Wanted to Knowabout Irish Fairies but Were Afraid toAsk." The day's keynote address wasgiven by James Redfield, AB'54,PhD'61, professor in the Departmentof Classical Languages & Literaturesand the Committee on Social Thought,who spoke on "The Philosophers andthe Many."The 12 students who signed up for"The Temporal Aspects of Video," anOpen House workshop taught by Scott20 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990When proposing a facade for the Medici restaurant's new location at 1237 E. 57th Street,which opened in mid-December, master stone carver Walter Arnold told owner HansMorsbach, MBA '61, "This is right by the University. It needs a gargoyle. " In fact, Arnoldfashioned three stone figures: one eating pizza (above), one drinking coffee, and one ofMorsbach himself. ("It was a Renaissance tradition to include the patron of the work, "explains Arnold.) The new Medici, which moved two blocks west from its old 57th Streetlocation, has kept the graffiti-covered tables and booths that date from its original mid-1950s opening, but new seating has been added.Rankin, an assistant professor in theCommittee on Art & Design, foundthemselves being recorded on video asthey entered the classroom. In discussing the differences between real timeand TV time, Rankin pointed out thattelevision viewers lose track of howlong time lasts. To illustrate, he handed out five video cameras and an assignment: to shoot one minute of video on the subject of what one minutefeels like. One team filmed a watchatop a notebook; the soundtrackcaught their frustration: "Should westop it? The watch is too slow."Vital Equipment: The University'scomputer science department hasbeen awarded a five-year, $2 milliongrant from the National ScienceFoundation to purchase and operatecomputer equipment for researchin computer vision and graphics,programming language design,computational hydrodynamics, andartificial intelligence. Chicago wasone of five universities receivingsuch grants.Fast Food Dollars: For the sixth year ina row, University students participatedin Oxfam America's Fast for WorldHarvest. According to John V. Andrews, director of residential diningservices, 859 students signed up toforgo dinner on November 14; in return, the dining services donated$1.75 (the meal's food cost) per student, or just over $1,500, to Oxfam.The problem of world hunger wasthe topic of a series of "Food forThought" readings and discussionsthroughout the day, culminating in adinner-hour address in RockefellerChapel by John Hammock, executivedirector of Oxfam America. Hammock's listeners contributed another$1,200 to the cause.Dividing Lines: Caribbean Hispanicswho immigrate to the United Statestend to divide much more sharplyalong racial lines than is the norm inmany Caribbean nations, accordingto a study by Nancy Denton, researchassociate at NORC, and Douglas Mas-sey sociology professor and director ofthe University's Population ResearchCenter.The study— which looked at1970-1980 residential segregation patterns in ten U.S. urban areas withlarge numbers of people from Caribbean nations — found that "blackHispanics are far more segregatedfrom whites than are white Hispanics,and that black and white Hispanics arehighly segregated from one another."Moreover, "Hispanics of a mixedracial background are distancingthemselves from blacks, whether Hispanic or non-Hispanic." Denton andMassey say that in the Caribbean,blacks, whites, and those of mixedracial origin often live in the samearea. However, in moving to the mainland, Caribbean Hispanics "inevitablyrecognize that within the UnitedStates being black carries a significantsocial stigma and there are advantagesto being accepted as white."Concluded the researchers:"These findings provide further evidence that race remains a dimensionof cleavage within the United States,and that it is more important thanethnicity in explaining patterns ofsegregation."Hailing Weigh The music departmentpresented a two-day series of concert,lectures and discussions in early December, marking the 40th anniversary of the death of Romantic composerKarl Weigl (1881-1949). Highlightsincluded a Mandel Hall performanceby the Chester String Quartet fromWiegl's Quartet No. 3 and 5, joined bysoprano Kati Guerra singing "FiveSongs for Soprano and String Quartet," and a panel discussion moderated by Dean of Humanities PhilipGossett, the Robert W. Reneker Distinguished Service Professor in Music.Panelists included Maria Piers, founder of the Erikson Institute and Weigl'sdaughter, and Charles Rosen, professor in the Committee on SocialThought and the Departmentof Music, who studied under theViennese composer.Saving South Asia's Rareand Brittle BooksThe University has received a$240,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Education to support themicrofilming of 3,500 rare SouthAsian books.Part of the grant will fund microfilming of 2,500 books not currentlyavailable in any U.S. research library.Master negatives of these books will beGo FishThe fish in Botany Pond and MaryHaynes have a special relationship.Haynes, an administrative assistant inthe Department of Molecular Geneticsand Cell Biology, runs a seasonal orphanage for 200 or so goldfish andguppies whose lives are endangeredby the pond's drainage each fall.Haynes says it all started in 1959,when the late H. Burr Steinbach, thenchairman of botany/zoology, observed"a couple of fish flopping around in apuddle left after the water had beendrained. He strolled into the officewith a pair of hip boots and told me togo out and angle them out. I hadn'tbeen there very long. For all I knew, itwas part of my job."The pond is drained for safetyreasons, explains Haynes. "Manyyears ago a child was playing on themicrofilmed at the British Library andthe National Library of India. According to James Nye, bibliographer for thelibrary's South Asian collection, theUniversity will make available copiesof the microfilm to interested librariesin Europe and Southeast Asia, as wellas the United States. The remaininggrant will fund the University's purchase and microfilming of about 1,000rare volumes which will be bought frozen ice and fell through. Fortunately, a professor was walking by andrescued him." She speculates that thefish originated from goldfish bowls ofgraduating students— although she'sat a loss to explain the recent appearance of a small bass. "First I wouldgive them away to neighbor kids, butas the population expanded, so didour adoption program."Now every year students andHyde Park residents are invited to thepond, located just west of the ErmanBiology Center, to bring their nets ormayonnaise jars and fish for a free pet.The leftovers are relegated to four largetanks in the biology building and returned to the pond in the spring. "Allexcept for the really big ones. I takethose over to the lagoon behind theMuseum [of Science and Industry], "admits Haynes with a shrug. "Whynot?— I pay taxes."from book dealers in India andBritain."Almost all the books were printedon inferior paper and have not withstood the destructive action of acid inthe paper," says Nye. "The conditionof many volumes has also suffered inIndia's climate."Earlier this fall, the University andHarvard received a collaborative grantof $262,650 from the National Endow ment for the Humanities for microfilming a total of 4,000 books. Nyeexplained that each university holdspossession of about 2,000 brittle volumes that will be microfilmed andthen exchanged with the other library."Essentially, with these twogrants, " says Nye, "we will be able toadd 5,500 new titles to our collection, "strengthening the University's internationally recognized South Asian collection, which now numbers over330,000 volumes.Checking InMany notable guests visited campus during fall quarter. Here are a few:On Oct. 24, Harvard Universitypaleontologist Stephen Jay Gouldspoke on "The Burgess Shale and theNature of History." The Major Activities Board sponsored concerts byYoussou N'Dour on Oct. 25 and 27.Paul Carrington, Duke University LawSchool, gave the keynote address ofthe University of Chicago Legal Forum's annual symposium Oct. 27-28.The Organization of Black Students,and others, sponsored a concert byThomas Mapfumo and the BlacksUnlimited Oct. 29.Max Kampelman, former ChiefUS. Arms Control Negotiator on Nuclear and Space Arms, participated inan Oct. 30 conference, sponsored byInternational House, on U.S.-US.S.R.relations. Former Florida senator theHon. Lawton Chiles gave the LawSchool's Clifton R. Musser LectureNov. 1. E. D. Hirsch discussed hisnew book, A First Dictionary of CulturalLiteracy Nov. 2.Actress Claire Bloom's solo pro-trayal of Jane Eyre was presented Nov.12 by the William Vaughn MoodyLecture Series. The Taneyev StringQuartet, one of the Soviet Union'sleading chamber ensembles, madeits only U.S. appearance of the seasonNov. 17 in Mandel Hall. Chicago mayor Richard Daley's "Our City's Heroes" was fourth in a series on heroesand heroism sponsored by the John M.Olin Center for Inquiry into the Theory and Practice of Democracy. TheMorton Dauwen Zabel Committee ofthe Department of English presented apoetry reading by African- Americanpoet Jay Wright Nov. 30.22 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990A full day after passingher orals, Martha feels she's only starting to come downfrom the countless days of stressful preparation. Herhusband, Steve, has suggested they go out, and now shestands before the bath room mirror, carefully using makeup to conceal the circles of exhaustion under her eyes."We'll talk about the trip over dinner, " she calls toSteve, who is in the bedroom dressing. She means the vacation they'd planned for months as a get-away from hergraduate studies and his job.Buttoning the collar of his shirt with trembling fingers, he answers weakly, "That's right. . . we'll talk. . . ""You 've been staring at that lobster for the last fiveminutes, " Martha tells Steve. The white linen tablecloth feels like anocean between them— her words barely penetrate his sullen thoughts."I thought we were going out to celebrate, " she says. "Just what is itthat's the matter? Will you tell me now?"Steve looks up from the plate and meets Martha's eyes. "I'm leaving you. I'm having an affair. I'll be out of the apartment bytomorrow.' <&*$l>!®\"It sometimes happens that way," muses MicheleScheinkman, a couple and family therapist who has counseled "Steve" and "Martha," as well as dozens of other troubled couples at the University's student mental-health clinicand, more recently, in her Hyde Park private practice.The timeworn academic folklore which holds that thejubilant day of graduation is often accompanied by aspouse's request for a divorce has a kernel of truth, saysScheinkman, AM'75. "At the clinic, many graduate studentscame to us when their marriages were falling apart, oftenaround a transition point like orals, preliminary exams, orgraduation."The stresses in their relationship stay buried until these Yes, it's tough to be a graduatestudent at a high-prestige,high-pressure research universitylike Chicago. It may be eventougher to be a married gradstudent. Or a grad student'sspouse. By Tim ObermillerReconcilableDifferences ?23milestones come along that bring thecouple to a crisis."There are no actual statistics onwhether— or to what degree— graduatestudies can negatively affect a relationship. "That would be hard to measure, "says Morton Silverman, an associateprofessor in the psychiatry departmentwho heads the University's studentcounseling and resource service, "butthere's no question in my mind that being a graduate student may providestresses and strains to a marriage, atthis or any other high-pressure research university."In a recent article for Family Process, ajournal for mental health care professionals, Scheinkman goes even further:"In my work ... I observed that graduatestudent marriages are especially vulnerable and that there is a high risk ofdivorce among this population."If she is right, there is a very largegroup whose relationships are potentially at risk. Enrollment figures overthe last ten years show that the numberof University graduates who are married has hovered around 25 percent.The percentage is even higher nationally—according to Department of Education statistics, nearly half of the country's 1.4 million graduate students aremarried. (That number fails to take intoaccount those graduate students eitherliving together or in gay relationships.)Common stresses experienced bythese couples, says Scheinkman, caninclude financial burden (sometimeseven poverty); relocation to a new cityor community; major changes in schedules, recreation, and social life; and alack of time for anything but schoolwork.If the student is older, as marriedstudent's often are, "it can also mean aloss in social and economic status andthe strain of readjusting to the studentrole," says Scheinkman. "Suchchanges involve a major disruption inthe lives of individuals and couples."Morton Silverman believes the University is doing what it can to respondto these pressures. Mental health services are available free of charge to mostgraduate students and their spouses,although only a small percentage ofmarried graduate students take advantage of this service (15 couples and ninenon-student spouses last year).More general concerns such aschild care, employment, and housingare being addressed by a two-year-oldGraduate Student Issues Committee composed of campus deans, students,and key administrators, says Silverman, while the individual graduateschools and divisions are also responding to the needs of married studentsenrolled in their programs.At the Law School, a yearly orientation seminar is held for first-yearstudents and their spouses, and thisfall the Graduate School of Businesslaunched a new support group forspouses of their students. (Spouses ofmedical students were among those invited to attend a symposium, sponsored by the Division of Biological Sciences this January, examining personaland career issues.)At the gathering of spouses attending the first fall meeting of the GSB support group, the mood was definitelyupbeat. The laughter and voices ofabout 30 women filled the east hall ofIda Noyes as a warm autumn breezeblew through an open window. According to Carolyn Douglas, president ofthe group, most of the 25 to 30 spouseswho regularly attend these meetingsare women, although student-husbands accompany their wives togroup-sponsored social events held ona regular basis.As the meeting starts, everyone isasked to stand and introduce herself inturn. "I'm a second-year spouse," saysa woman in her twenties, pony-tailedand wearing a sweatshirt and bluejeans. She pauses and frowns. "I hatethat. Actually, I'm myself.""I just moved here from South Dakota with my boyfriend because hemade me," laughs a slightly nervousfirst-year spouse. Another remarks,"My husband and I were wed a daybefore we flew here from Chile." Shesays she'd like to work but doesn't havea visa.Many of the first-year spouses express frustration at failing to find a "decent" job at the University (those seeking employment off campus seem tohave better luck). An invited speaker,Beth Bader of the GSB personnel office,explains that the influx of people seeking work on campus in the fall makes itdifficult at first, "especially at the management level." She suggests to thosewanting work on campus, "to considergetting any job you can . . . the promotion situation is usually good here."Before the meeting closes, a voice inthe third row implores, "Does anyonehave a line on a good babysitter?"Earlier that same autumn week, this time in a Law School seminarroom, Richard Badger raises anotherimportant question."What about the dirty dishes?"Badger isn't bothered when a dozenor so blank faces stare back at him. Asdean of students at the Law School,Badger, JD'68, has run similar orientation sessions for the last decade.He came up with the idea "after acouple of spouses had confided to methat they were worried about their marriages, " says Badger. "It dawned on methat a lot of the problems they mentioned were the direct result of tensionsbrought on by the Law School experience. I thought this would be a way tomake couples aware of these tensionsso they can discuss and prepare beforethey crop up."All first-year students and theirspouses are invited to the session. (Students in their first year are usually married to non-law student spouses, saysBadger.) Two or three second-year students and their spouses also attend toshare their experiences on topics suchas the rhythms of the academic calender, the "agony" of being called on almost daily in class, and, yes, dirtydishes."Domestic chores, those kind ofmundane topics, sometimes people arereluctant to talk about them but theyclearly wind up being important issues, " says Badger.Caked with hardened spa-ghetti sauce and sprinkled with cigarette ash,the dish had been sitting in the sink for twodays. Has Douglas forgotten his promise to do"most" of the housework, Mary wonders? After all, she is working nine to five in a dingydowntown office to pay all the bills, andDoug's tuition. Yet there he sits, pulling hisbeard, absorbed in some text on "Andalusianlyrical poetry and old Spanish love songs" andignoring the dish.She paces back and forth across the kitchen floor she'd washed on Thursday, andfinallygives in. "He's like a ch ild 1 have to clean up after, " she fumes. Clutching the dish rag withwhite knuckles, she turns to see if her distressis noticed. A backpack on his shoulders,Douglas is running towards the door. "Latefor my study group! Bye, hon!" Mary lets go ofthe dish in her hands and begins to cry.Most modern couples expect their marriage to involve "a sense of companion-24 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990Can This Marriage Be Saved? By Barry Crainship, reciprocity, and equality," saysMichele Scheinkman, "but the inequality that graduate school imposes ontheir relationships makes it difficult forthem to sustain their egalitarianideals." This is especially true of couples like Douglas and Mary, where onegoes to school while the other works."When both are going to school,they are usually more synchronizedand it's easier to negotiate issues, "saysScheinkman, "so that one can say,'Look, I'm carrying my cross, you'recarrying your cross— so how come I'mdoing all the housework?' It forces them to deal with each other in a symmetrical way."More often, economic necessitydictates that a couple take turns pursuing their advanced degrees. They form"an asymmetrical relationship," saysScheinkman, with each partner playing a different role, so that it's muchharder to strike a balance of what's fairand equitable in their relationship.Such couples often begin to seeeach other, rather than their situation,as the cause of their problems. This isespecially true "if the couple gets married and comes to graduate school right away," says Scheinkman. "The spousemay see that the student is anxious, orspacey, and not have the perspective ofa past history to know those traits aren'tpredominant in the student's personality—that's just what a high-pressuregraduate program does to you."This also happens when the student's training period is longer," saysScheinkman. "Graduate school maylast up to ten years. With a two-yearprofessional school, it's easier for couples to keep perspective, but when it'sbeen five or six or seven years, they begin to think, 'Well, that's just the way he25Can This Marriage Be Saved?or she is. He's always obsessed withwork. She's always nagging about thehousework. He's always understress.'"One couple counseled by Scheinkman— Jill and Peter— exemplifies howsuch relationships go haywire. Jill, 31,in her fourth year of a demanding Ph.D.program, was working frantically toprepare for her dissertation and its defense. She felt estranged and resentfulof Peter, 32, a lawyer, who had financially supported her through school.Peter also felt distant from Jill and especially resented that she didn't seem to appreciate his supportive efforts.In therapy, the pattern of eventsthat led to this estrangement becameclear. Jill tended to get anxious arounddeadlines. When Peter saw her so anxious he tried to "help" by lecturing onhow she needed to be more organizedand efficient. Jill, who felt uncomfortable being financially dependent,thought of Peter as a "patronizing daddy, telling me what to do." After his lectures, she became visibly more insecure, frantic, and disorganized. Thissupported Peter's fears that Jill had "aserious personality problem." "Over the years, their relationshiphad developed a strong parent-childflavor," says Scheinkman. "It's common for this hierarchical confusion totake place, with the supporting spousetaking the role of the martyred or angryparent and the dependent studentassuming the role of the ungratefuland irresponsible adolescent."Another source of stress in these relationships can come from gender roleexpectations, says Scheinkman. Jill,like other female students, felt her financial dependency had forced her intoa traditional feminine role in which she26 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990had no right to assert her needs or opinions. In contrast, a financially dependent male student is more likely to "deny or minimize the importance of hiswife's financial contributions."Froma Walsh, PhD'77, an associateprofessor in the School of Social ServiceAdministration who has written extensively on gender roles in marriage, observes that "men have a less difficulttime throwing all their energies intotheir graduate work, just as their fathers and other men in society havetraditionally thrown themselves intotheir jobs."Women, on the other hand, aremore torn in feeling that devoting timeto graduate studies— instead of to theirhusbands and families— is "selfish,"says Walsh. A female graduate studentmay end up carrying the bulk or all ofthe home and child-rearing tasks, and"even if the male is willing to take onthose tasks, she may have trouble turning them over because she feels it's herturf."Adding to these tensions, the couple may begin to feel intellectually incompatible, says Scheinkman. "Thestudent is immersed in intellectual, academic work and he or she begins tofeel that their partner is not up to thesame level, even if they're a very brightpartner.""Students carry their graduate studies in their heads all the time," saysWalsh, "so that the studies become likethe third piece in the triangle, almostlike an extramarital affair in that thepartner feeis jealous or rivalrous towards the student's graduate work."Not coincidentally, says Scheinkman, "affairs are fairly common"among these troubled couples. "Usually, it's the student having an affair witha fellow student." In describing his affair with another student, one spousetold Scheinkman it served as "a refugeaway from the increasing confinementof his marriage." These affairs can precipitate a marital crisis, and separation.More often, the couple will stay together until a milestone, typically graduation, occurs."It's not uncommon for the spouseto hang in there to the end and say,'Now that it's finished, I'm gone.' " Theeconomic vulnerability of the student,as well as the sense of commitment andresponsibility of the spouse, keeps thecouple locked into an unhappy relationship, "and that's why these mile stones often become the quantum leap,the sudden illumination that bringsabout a final crisis."At such junctures in their relationship, the couple may conclude that the"graduate school situation has changedthem forever," or that their problemsstem from other issues beyond graduate school and are irreconcilable. Still,Scheinkman is impressed by the number of couples she has counseled whorespond to the idea "that their discomfort is at least partly due to an inherently stressful situation that can beimproved with understanding andnegotiation."In counseling Jill and Peter, for example, Scheinkman encouraged Jill totake a summer job and to apply forteaching assistantships. This shiftalleviated Peter's sense of being overburdened as a provider. Subsequently,Peter began auditing classes at the University. As Jill started to work, she became more appreciative of Peter's financial contribution to her studies— aswell as gaining a keener sense of herown independence— while Peter's University classes gave him a better understanding of Jill's academic pressures.Scheduling time with each other— -¦dinners, bedtime, vacations, an evening free each week to go out— is essential, says Scheinkman. "Students tendto feel that every moment is preciousand should be dedicated to studying.What I've found in talking to students isthat if you take a few hours here andthere it really doesn't make that muchdifference overall in your studies, but itcan make a huge difference for therelationship."Scheinkman was invited to aspouse support group where some ofthe women shared successful strategiesin negotiating with their studentspouse. "One woman told how she hadan arrangement where, before deadlines, she would be supportive of herhusband and make no demands on histime. Meanwhile, she would make awish list of things she wanted to do ... assoon as he was finished she'd let himcrash for a couple of days and then she'dtake out the list and it was his turn topay complete attention to her for afew days."By anticipating problems, RichardBadger believes that many couples canavoid tension and even begin to see advantages in their relationship. "I wouldeven go out on a limb and say that, as a student, you might be better off beingmarried or having a significant other.You can live a much more balanced life—socially, emotionally, sexually— andjust avoid some of the hysteria thatcomes with being wrapped up completely in your studies.""Graduate students may havevague and fuzzy ideas about wanting tocombine school and family or aboutmaintaining an equitable, balanced relationship, but they don't explore wellenough how they're going to pull thatoff," warns Froma Walsh. "So thesepatterns or traditional gender roles areset in motion, because they haven't satdown to really try to develop their ownsystem of dealing with the stresses thatinevitably occur.""Rather than trying to communicate and negotiate, I think many couples just postpone dealing with theirproblems," says Michele Scheinkman."In order to be a good graduate student,sometimes you have to put blinders on.But to ignore a relationship very long,you run a great risk ..."Last night's quarrel sticksin Susan's mind like a bad Top Forty melody.She had teased Stan just a little for readingsome bestselling potboiler and he blew up, calling her an "intellectual snob " who 'd forgottenhow to relax and have a good time."Is that all I am to you— some machinethat studies and writes papers?" she hadasked. Stan apologized, said he had an earlymeeting at the office, and went to bed early.Possessed by a sudden urge to talk withhim, Susan throws down her pen and pushesthe chair away from her desk. She walks quietly into the den where Stan is lying on the sofa,head tilted towards the TV."Hi, " she says. Stan sits up, surprised tosee her. "What's on?" she asks. "The Bulls-Jordan scored 33 in the first half. " "Oh, " sheanswers, struggling to remember who "Jordan" is. Stan notices her puzzlement andlaughs. "Never mind, you have more important things to worry about. " They exchange abrief glance filled with some nameless anxietythat feels new and strange to them. Then Stanflashes his wide, reassuring grin. She returnshis smile. Back at her desk, Susan recallswanting to talk to Stan about something, butthen Jordan scored three points, and she hadseven chapters left to read, and it probablywasn't that important, anyway.27By Debra ShoreICTURE A ROCK CLIMBER CLINGINGby the friction of fingers and toes to a cliffface hundreds of feet off the ground. Hisgoal is not to reach the top but to scramblesuccessfully up a difficult pitch using onlyhis strength, judgment, and skill. Hewon't earn any money from this act, won'treceive any recognition from others. Theclimbing itself is physically arduous,sometimes dangerous, and he is alone.Yet he is totally absorbed in the task athand. The rest of the world has fallen awayand the opportunity to match his skills tothe challenge of the rock face providessuch deep and abiding satisfaction thatthis rock climber wants to do it over and over again. Why?For several decades now, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi,AB'60, PhD'65, a burly man with a graying beard and thehint of a Hungarian accent, has been working to answer thatquestion, engaged in the study of what he calls "flow," oroptimal experience.To Csikszentmihalyi, flow describes the state of being inwhich you become so involved in an activity that nothingelse seems to matter— an activity or endeavor so compelling,so gripping and absorbing, so satisfying, that you do it forthe sheer pleasure of it.This spring, the impact of Csikszentmihalyi 's research isexpected to broaden. His first book for a general audience—Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience— will be publishedby Harper & Row this March. (The book is expected to sellwell: the Book of the Month Club, the Quality PaperbackDebra Shore is a freelance writer and an investigator with the BetterGovernment Association in Chicago. A youthfulCsikszentmihalyienjoyed scalingrocks for its perfectbalance of skilland challenge.28 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990Happiness may be an elusive goal, but psychologistMihaly Csikszentmihalyi has spent more than aquarter of a century charting the next-best thing,a state of mind he calls "optimal experience."In words of one syllable, that's "flow."29Csikszentmihalyi(pronouncedChick-SENT-me-hi), in his HydePark home, cameto Chicago tostudy psychology.Csikszentmihalyi didn't write a "how-to" book onflow:"The only advice is to pay attention to what producesthis kind of experience in your life and explore howto increase that."Book Club, and the Psychology BookClub have all added it to their lists ofselections.)A professor of psychology and education at the University, Csikszentmihalyi became interested in the phenomenon of flow when he observed thenear-fanatic devotion to their workamong a group of artists in the 1960s.Most had no prospects of recognition orfinancial gain. Once they finished apainting or sculpture they oftenseemed to lose all interest in it. Butwhile making their works they felt totally absorbed by— even addicted to—this experience of making art.Perhaps the researcher felt a kinship with the artists. "I look at my worklike a sculptor who has to liberate something from a block of marble," he saystoday. "Scientists are like artists using experimental tools to get at regularities, to express what reality is like. Youattempt to find a story, some kind ofunifying regularity in what you areexamining or playing with."Over the past 25 years, Csikszentmihalyi and his colleagues have studied thousands of people to learn moreabout flow. He began with "experts"such as rock climbers, artists, chessplayers, and surgeons, all "people whoseemed to spend time doing what theyreally wanted to do." But the researchsoon broadened, as did the potentialapplications."The concept of flow," Csikszentmihalyi writes in the introduction to hisnew book, "has been found useful bypsychologists who study happiness,life satisfaction, and intrinsic motivation; by sociologists who see in it the opposite of anomie and alienation; byanthropologists who are interested inthe phenomena of collective effervescence and rituals."His desk and his airline bookingsbear testimony to the interest in flowand to Csikszentmihalyi's internationalprofile— letters from Brazil and Berlin,trips to Washington, D.C. and Milan.Colleagues in Japan and Italy have replicated some of his studies and practicalapplications are beginning to emerge.At Indianapolis' Key School, eachchild spends at least two hours a weekin the flow center, learning about activities that encourage flow. There, givenaccess to games, encyclopedias, microscopes and other science tools, andmore, the children can play and exploretheir own interests— thereby naturallydiscovering those activities that pro-30 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990vide intrinsic rewards. Oklahoma StateUniversity has developed a trainingprogram for teachers of handicappedchildren using Csikszentmihalyi's flowmodel. Its basic point is that teachersshould pay attention to each student'sskills and identify activities that wouldbe appropriate— and yet challenging—for him or her.The Denver Art Museum has reworked some of its exhibits to makethem more interactive for visitors."Many people involved in art education recognize that relatively few visitors have a deep or intense experiencewhen they view works of art," Csikszentmihalyi says. "They walk by andhave a generalized feeling of awe butdon't really get engaged with the workof art."In the Denver museum, for instance, the directors have devised several exhibits that attempt to engage people more directly: exhibit labels askquestions about the works of art, andvisitors are asked to compare their impressions of a work with the assessments of critics. Now visitors queue upbefore these "interactive" exhibits andseem to enjoy them more.Some clinical psychologists are beginning to incorporate an understanding of flow into their therapy. They askpeople to identify which activities havegiven them the most pleasure in termsof intrinsic rewards and then work tomake such activities a larger part of theindividual's life.£ J AH r H Y RESEARCHif I^H mmm 1S always led by|H MH'< tne phenome-I MHB 1 ; na 1 encoun-I W I ter," MihalyJ $9f ' H Csikszentmi-WB h halyi says. "It'sn V wBBm always in response to what seems to be happeningout there. I really don't do things because I think they're fashionable butbecause I think there's a story thatneeds to be told "In the case of flow, Csikszentmihalyi began with a question: What was itabout the artists' experiences that gavethem such pleasure? "It seems simple, "he says, "but it didn't fit any psychological theory at the time."Most theories of human behaviorsuggest that people act to satisfy certainbasic needs. Because humans can never fully meet those needs, discontent is inescapable. In fact, psychology has generally focused on the study of humanmisery— not the intense enjoyment thatCsikszentmihalyi has studied.But Csikszentmihalyi recognizedthat the activity most akin to what hesaw in the rock climbers and artists wasplay. "People play because it's fun,"Csikszentmihalyi says, "because theactivity is enjoyable and not because ofany outcome later on."So he began to read the literature ofplay; in 1972, he received a grant fromthe National Institutes of Health tostudy playfulness. After several yearsof teaching at Lake Forest College, hehad returned to the University as amember of its faculty, and he enlistedhis graduate students in his project."We interviewed about 300 peopleengaged in behavior that seemed to berewarding in and of itself— rock climbers, chess players, composers, dancers,basketball players, surgeons, longdistance swimmers." Csikszentmihalyicalled these "autotelic" activities (fromthe Greek auto = se\( and telos= goal,purpose), namely any self-containedactivity, one done not in the expectationof some future good but because thedoing itself is good.Based on these interviews, the psychologist developed the concept of"flow" to explain such intrinsically satisfying, or optimal, experiences. Hisstudies revealed certain characteristicsof flow experiences.The key is to have a clear goal— andto receive clear feedback. "Some activities have clear goals structured intothem," Csikszentmihalyi says, "suchas tennis or chess. If one is not there,you have to provide it yourself. If you'reironing a shirt, your goal could be doingit more quickly or in a new way."Another key element is to match thelevel of challenge with the level of one'sown skills and abilities. If a climbertackles a rock face presenting difficulties far beyond her experience and abilities, she will only be frustrated. But ifshe tries a pitch closely geared to herskills, she can focus entirely on the taskat hand. In the process, she concentrates so fully— another flow characteristic that follows from the proper matchof challenge and skills— then she losesboth the sense of time and of self-consciousness."Lack of self-consciousness generally occurs because you don't have enough attention left over to think ofwhat others think of you, " Csikszentmihalyi says. "Intrinsic rewards aresimply an outcome of all these. Thequality of the experience is so enjoyablethat people will seek out the same conditions even though they are not gettinganything else for it."Csikszentmihalyi subsequentlypublished his findings in a 1975 bookbearing the provocative title, BeyondBoredom and Anxiety. One of those observations about flow — an understated yetdramatic one— concerned the deeplyentrenched dichotomy between workand play.Most of us are culturally conditioned to whine about work and to desire leisure time. Yet by focusing onwhat happens during work and duringplay and by asking how those experiences are similar, Csikszentmihalyifound that many people experiencedflow at work, yet felt anxious or boredin their leisure time. Free time, byitself, brought no improvement in thequality of experience. Instead, peopleappeared to need to structure theirexperience.The research that went into BeyondBoredom and Anxiety had its frustratingside. Csikszentmihalyi chafed at thelimitations of interviews and questionnaires as research tools. They providedinformation certainly, but they werenecessarily retrospective. People'sopinions and memories obviously shiftover time. How could he obtain amore immediate', spontaneous indication of what people were doing andhow they felt about their activities andthemselves?Emerging technology provided aningenious answer: the electronic pageror beeper. By randomly beeping research subjects several times a day andrequiring them to respond to severalquestions on a report form each timethey were beeped, Csikszentmihalyicould get a nearly instantaneous account of someone's inner life. He andhis colleagues called this use of beepersthe Experience Sampling Method.Since 1976, beepers have helped toprovide a wealth of data revealing, inastonishing complexity and detail,what people do all day. When thebeeper signals them, research subjectsreport where they are, what they're doing, whom they're with, how they feel,how much they are concentrating, howchallenged they feel by what they're do-31ing, and how much skill they bring tothe activity.For ten years, the researchers gathered data with the Experience Sampling Method, attempting to find outhow and when ordinary people— not just rock climbers and chess players-experience flow.By 1988, in a collection of articles,Optimal Experiences: Psychological Studiesof Flow in Consciousness (Cambridge University Press), Csikszentmihalyi had additional evidence showing the lack ofpleasure many people derive from theirfree time. "The relative poverty of experience in free time, the emptiness ofmost leisure, seems to say that peoplein our society— or perhaps in all so-The Images Flow,but Not the ViewersIn the mid-1970s, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and two of his graduatestudents, Suzanne Prescott, PhD'74,and Reed Larson, PhD'79, began using electronic beepers to follow people's moods through their daily activities. When the beeper signaled them,the subjects often reported that theywere watching television.For fellow graduate studentRobert Kubey, AM'78, PhD'84, thatnot-so-startling observation becamethe basis of a long-term study. For thepast 13 years, Kubey has been collecting and analyzing beeper data relatedto television viewing and viewers'moods.Now Kubey, an assistant professorin Rutger University's communication department, and Csikszentmihalyi have gathered their findings intoa book (to be published in March)called Television and the Quality of Life:Hoio Viewing Shapes Everyday Experience(Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J.).In sober academic terms, complete with a full panoply of footnotes,graphs, and tables, the book documents some quotidian findings —including what Kubey and Csikszentmihalyi call "the passive spillovereffect.""People report feeling more passive and less able to concentrate afterthey view television," Kubey says."The passivity spills over into howthey feel after viewing. A kind of inertia develops, and it becomes more andmore difficult to get up and do something active. In other words, viewingleads to more viewing."Typically, people turn on the TV torelax. Yet Kubey found that people feel worse and derive less satisfactionfrom viewing the longer they view."People who view a lot reported lowermoods during unstructured time,"Kubey says, "like waiting in line orlooking out the window. They feel significantly worse then than light viewers." And, he wonders, "Does it meanthat the longer people watch the morereadily they can be persuaded because they are somewhat desensitized and less alert?""Television is the cheapest way tostructure our attention except throughsleeping or daydreaming. To what degree is it plausible or possible thatpeople are becoming increasingly incapable of structuring their own attention—and managing their own experiences—without the aid of massstimuli?"Kubey and Csikszentmihalyi alsofound that heavier viewers do notseem to enjoy TV as much as lightviewers. "We make some comparisonsto drug use, " Kubey says. "It's an easy,cheap way of changing the way youfeel— you become more relaxed — withvirtually no effort, but the more youuse it, the less you get out of it."TV-watching isn't limited to theUnited States, of course, and viewinghabits and reports also cross international boundaries. Researchers fromItaly, Germany, and Canada haveused the same beeper technique, andtheir findings have virtually replicated Csikszentmihalyi and Kubey'sobservations.His television research, Kubeysays, "has strengthened my own resolve that we must formally educatechildren in the critical analysis of massmedia products. We take children in junior high and high school andspend hours teaching them how toread poetry and novels, when the vastmajority will read very little poetryand very few novels when they leave,especially with respect to the numberof hours that they will spend watchingtelevision. That we don't do more inthis area is unfortunate and shortsighted. We owe it to ourselves as aculture and to our children. The sadthing about television viewing is thatpeople very rapidly develop a verystrong habit."With Reed Larson, Kubey is nowanalyzing beeper data gathered from505 American adolescents. The questions focus on how — and how often —the teenagers use some of the new video technology, such as VCRs. Kubey isalso studying how dominant ideologies are perpetuated through TV anddictate the performance and practicesof people in the industry— the writers,producers, agents, studio and network executives. As he puts it, "It isn'tsome accident people experience television the way they do.""Obviously, if they possiblycould, television producers wouldregularly broadcast programs thatwould make people feel significantlyhappier than they do normally," thenew book argues. "They would do sobecause of the obvious commercialgains that would accrue. That television viewing helps us feel more relaxed than usual but generally doesnot help us feel substantially happiersays something about human natureand what makes for happiness."As the passage continues, it couldbe Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi talkingabout the state of flow: "Happiness isa more complex state than relaxation.It requires a more elusive set of conditions, and is therefore more difficult toobtain . Others can successfully attractand hold our attention and help us relax, but perhaps only we can providefor ourselves the psychological rewards and meaning that make forhappiness."— D.S.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990cieties— are unprepared to confrontfree time," he writes. "When left aloneto their own devices most peoplepanic."Unstructured time, those portionsof the day when there are no clear demands on psychic energy, are evenworse than the time we spend doingalienating labor. We all want to havemore free time: But when we get it wedon't know what to do with it. Most dimensions of experience deteriorate:People report being more passive, irritable, sad, weak, and so forth. To fill thevoid in consciousness, people turn onthe TV or find some other way of structuring experience vicariously. Thesepassive leisure activities take the worstedge off the threat of chaos, but leavethe individual feeling weak andenervated."IN STUDYING FLOW, CSIKS-zentmihalyi's goals were loftyones. He reasoned that if hecould determine when ordinary people experienced flowin their everyday lives, and ifhe could isolate the conditionsthat make flow possible, thenpeople would be able to improve thequality of their lives. They could extendand apply this knowledge. They couldlearn how to enjoy themselves more.They could learn to be happy.Csikszentmihalyi avoids providinga recipe for achieving flow; he doesn'twant to seem to be a guru or a preacher.When pressed, he responds, "The onlyadvice is to pay attention to what provides this kind of experience in your lifeand explore how to increase that. Expose yourself to a large number of opportunities for action and monitor yourown experience, and find out whereyour skills are most likely to providethis kind of experience."You can't copy a recipe. Unless youdevelop it for yourself, it won't providethe experiences you're expecting."The universe was not created to fitour needs, Csikszentmihalyi contends,and whenever some of our needs aretemporarily met, we immediately startwishing for more. We are chronicallydissatisfied. "Only direct control of experience, the ability to derive momentby moment enjoyment from everythingwe do, can overcome the obstacles tohappiness, " he writes. "One way or another, if human evolution is to go on, we Happy and not-so-happy daysMihaly posed with hismother (right); during WorldWar II, he traveled undera Hungarian passport.shall have to learn to enjoy life morethoroughly."IHALY CSIKSZENT-mihalyi's interest inpsychology beganfrom the perspectiveof a survivor. Had hisrelatives prevailedwith their arguments in 1944 thatVenice was not at all fashionable in October—too many mosquitoes, theysaid, and the theatres would all beclosed— ten-year-old Mihaly mighthave taken a later train with his motherand sister from Budapest.But his mother disregarded theirprotests and left. That same day, the advancing Russian army bombed thebridges, placed the city under siege,and within three months more thanhalf of Mihaly's relatives— the very oneswho had tried to dissuade them fromleaving— were dead. He had taken thelast train out.After a 12-day journey through Vienna to Venice, Csikszentmihalyi'sfamily rejoined his father in LakeComo, where the foreign diplomaticcorps had gathered. His father had begun a diplomatic career in the Hungarian foreign office as consul in Fiume,Italy, where Mihaly was born in 1934,and then as Consul General in Venice.As a child, Mihaly spoke Germanwith his nanny, Hungarian with hisparents, and Italian with his friends.During summers in the late 1930s he returned to Hungary and stayed in themountains with his mother's family.Then the war came."My father got caught up in tryingto help many people who were trying toescape from the Fascist regime, " Csikszentmihalyi recalls. "On occasion, people have embraced me when they hearmy name because of what my fatherdid. He was giving passports to somepeople who had trouble getting them."Fiume, a major port positioned onan Allied air route, was heavilybombed. In 1943, Mihaly returned toHungary with his mother and sister; hisfather remained in Fiume. By 1944,33Mihaly took the last train out. Yet the vision of deadrelatives who had chosen to stay behind in Budapesthaunted him. He wondered, "How can peoplebe so mistaken?"however, the Russians had advancedon Budapest. Mihaly could hear theshelling. Years later he recounted hisdeparture from Budapest in a storypublished in The New Yorker. He called it"The Wings of Defeat."At the end of the war, Mihaly andhis family were placed in an internmentcamp for a few months, and then released "with apologies," he says. Hisfather resumed his career in the foreignoffice, stationed in Rome as minister incharge until 1948, when the Soviets installed a Communist government inHungary. His father resigned, refusingto return to his homeland. Instead, heinvested his savings in a restaurant nextto the Trevi Fountain— Piccolo Budapest—that became one of Rome's mostfashionable spots. Mihaly helped out.He had attended a classical gymnasium, learned Latin and Greek, thenquit school to work at a variety of jobs.He painted posters for American movies showing in Rome, Worked as a travelagent, served as manager of a hotel, ledgroup tours around Europe, coveredthe Vatican and Cinecitta for Le Monde.Yet questions about the war— the vision of his relatives at the train stationimploring them to stay in Budapest-continued to plague him. "I wonderedat the time, 'How can people be so mistaken about things?'" Csikszentmihalyi says. "This was an example of massdelusion or a denial of reality thatseemed extremely important for me tofigure out. I was stunned by how out oftouch people were and their lack of sensitivity to their own emotions or theirown well-being, in a sense. I was concerned with figuring out what peoplereally knew or knew but didn't admit."In the winter of 1952, the 18-year-old Csikszentmihalyi was in Switzerland. The snow was poor, his pocketswere empty, and the would-be skiercast about Zurich for an activity that would keep him warm and not cost anything. He saw a notice about a free lecture; a psychologist was to speak at a local culture club. Csikszentmihalyi wentand heard a talk about the mass delusion Europe had suffered in the war.The speaker was Carl Jung.Inspired by the lecture, Csikszentmihalyi read Jung's books, then theworks of Freud, then anything he couldfind on psychology. At the time, however, European universities did not offer a major or degree in psychology.Csikszentmihalyi resolved to come tothe United States. After several years,his application for a visa was granted.Thus, in 1956 at the age of 22, Csikszentmihalyi arrived at Chicago's Dearborn Street Station with $1.25 in hispocket. He knew no one and only a littleEnglish picked up from the Pogo cartoons in the Daily American in Rome.Five months after his arrival, hepassed the high school equivalencyexam and enrolled at the University ofIllinois at Navy Pier. Intending to studypsychology, he discovered the curriculum at the University of Illinois bore little resemblance to his reading of Freudand Jung. "It was very pragmatic andbehavioristic," he says. So for a whilehe pursued an interest in art that hadbegun as a child. Two years later hetransferred to the University of Chicagoand found a broader psychology curriculum, earning his A.B. in 1960 and aPh.D. from the Committee on HumanDevelopment in 1965.While a student, Csikszentmihalyiworked as a night auditor at the Sherman Hotel in the Loop, a site now occupied by the State of Illinois Building.From 11 p.m. to 8 a.m. each day he reconciled the hotel's accounts. Then hewould attend class, and sleep in theafternoon.Though an overriding concern remained the blindness people have to their own self-interests, Csikszentmihalyi felt that much of psychology wastoo consumed with the pathological aspects of life. "One way to help peoplesee what was good for them was to lookinto positive dimensions of existence, "he says. So he began to merge his interests in art and psychology by examiningcreativity.For his dissertation, Csikszentmihalyi studied a group of students at theArt Institute of Chicago; these studentsset him on the path toward investigating flow. "I was puzzled about why theywere so taken with what they were doing without any extrinsic rewards andI realized jjeople seek activities fortheir own sake— and this was generallywhat people in the past have calledhappiness."His studies finished, a former colleague offered Csikszentmihalyi a jobteaching sociology at Lake Forest College. He spent five years teaching atLake Forest, became chairman of theDepartment of Sociology and Anthropology there, then returned to the University's Committee on Human Development, where he has remained eversince. He and his wife, Isabella SelegaCsikszentmihalyi, who has collaborated on several of his articles and books,have two grown sons.THESE DAYS, CSIKSZENT-mihalyi experiences flowmostly while writing,though at times in his pasthe has played chess andbeen a rock climber. "Likemost people I know, getting ready to write is reallyvery difficult," he says. "The anticipation can be very painful. It's not easy toget involved in and most flow activitiesrequire some of that. They're not thingsyou can turn on like you turn on a TVset, but once you get going you can goon forever and you hate to leave it. Going through tables and statistics untilone jumps out at you is like sculpting orpainting to me. A lot of the work isshaping the data and that's very necessary and very enjoyable."Despite his difficulty in first sittingdown to write, Csikszentmihalyi is prolific. In addition to Flow, he will alsopublish two more scholarly works thisspring: The Art of Seeing, a study of theaesthetic response from the perspectiveof the flow model, written with Rick Ro-34 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990The Body in Flow"A man possesses nothing certain, save a brief loan of his ownbody," wrote J.B. Cabell, "yet thebody of man is capable of much curious pleasure." When we are unhappy,depressed, or bored, we have an easyremedy athand: to use the body for allit is worth. Most people nowadays areaware of the importance of health andphysical fitness. But the almost unlimited potential for enjoyment that thebody offers, often remains unex-ploited. Few learn to move with thegrace of an acrobat, see with the fresheye of an artist, feel the joy of an athlete who breaks his own record, tastewith the subtlety of a connoisseur, orlove with a skill that lifts sex into aform of art. Because these opportunities are easily within reach, the easieststep toward improving the quality oflife consists in simply learning to control the body and its senses.Scientists occasionally amusethemselves by trying to figure out howmuch a human body might be worth.Chemists have painstakingly addedup the market value of skin, flesh,bone, hair, and the various mineralsand trace elements contained in it,and have come up with the paltry sumof a few dollars. Other scientists havetaken into account the sophisticatedinformation processing and learningcapacity of the mind-body system andhave come to a very different conclusion: They calculate that to build sucha sensitive machine would require anenormous sum, on the order of hundreds of millions of dollars. Neither of these methods ofassessing the body makes muchsense. Its worth does not derive fromchemical ingredients, or from the neural wiring that makes informationprocessing possible. What gives it apreciousness beyond reckoning is thefact that without it there would be noexperiences, and therefore no recordof life as we know it. Trying to attach amarket value to the body and its processes is the same as attempting to puta price tag on life : By what scale can weestablish its worth?Everything the body can do is potentially enjoyable. Yet many peopleignore this capacity, and use theirphysical equipment as little as possible, leaving its ability to provide flowunexploited. When left undeveloped,the senses give us chaotic information: an untrained body moves in random and clumsy ways, an insensitiveeye presents ugly or uninterestingsights, the unmusical ear mainlyhears jarring noises, the coarse palateknows only insipid tastes. If the functions of the body are left to atrophy,the quality of life becomes merelyadequate, and for some even dismal.But if one takes control of what thebody can do, and learns to imposeorder on physical sensations, entropyyields to a sense of enjoyable harmony in consciousness.The human body is capable ofhundreds of separate functions-seeing, hearing, touching, running,swimming, throwing, catching,climbing up mountains and climbing down caves, to name only a few— andto each of these there correspond flowexperiences. In every culture, enjoyable activities have been invented tosuit the potentialities of the body.When a normal physical function, likerunning, is performed in a socially designed, goal-directed setting withrules that offer challenges and requireskills, it turns into a flow activity.Whether jogging alone, racing theclock, running against competition,or— like the Tarahumara Indians ofMexico, who race hundreds of miles inthe mountains during certain festivals—adding an elaborate ritual dimension to the activity, the simple act ofmoving the body across space becomes a source of complex feedbackthat provides optimal experience andadds strength to the self. Each sensoryorgan, each motor function can beharnessed to the production of flow.Before exploring further howphysical activity contributes to optimal experience, it should be stressedthat the body does not produce flowmerely by its movements. The mind isalways involved as well. To get enjoyment from swimming, for instance,one needs to cultivate a set of appropriate skills, which requires the concentration of attention. Without therelevant thoughts, motives, and feelings it would be impossible to achievethe discipline necessary to learn toswim well enough to enjoy it. Moreover, because enjoyment takes placein the mind of the swimmer, flow cannot be a purely physical process;muscles and brain must be equallyinvolved.From Flow: The Psychology ofOptimal Experience, by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (to be published by Harper &Roiv in March, 1990).binson AM'86, PhD'88, and Televisionand the Quality of Life, written withRobert Kubey, AM'78, PhD'84 (seepage 32).Both of his co-authors were once hisgraduate students. "He's as much apainter as a scholar," says former student Robert Kubey. "He paints withword pictures. He tries to incorporatewhat he knows about flow in how hementors a student."Csikszentmihalyi's red hair hasfaded somewhat to gray, and he now prefers mountain walks during summers in Colorado to the more daring ascents of his youth. Over the years, theprofessor's path has diverged from hisoriginal question— how had Europeansso deluded themselves about the warand acted in ways so contrary to theirown self-interests? Does he feel dissatisfied? He responds with a fable."An old farmer was dying and hecalled to his bed his three sons whodidn't like to work too much . The fathersays he has buried some gold over the years but he is too sick to tell themwhere it is. His sons beseech him to tellthem where he buried it but he says heis too sick and he dies. So the sons tookout their tillers and dug up all the landto look for the gold. They found nogold, but the land was so beautifullytilled that they planted it and grew goodcrops and they became farmers."Maybe I never find the gold,"Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi says, "butmaybe I dig enough and find somethingelse." H33;%£UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990The rigors of Chicago academicsare, some say, matched only bythe rigors of Chicago winters.For those of you who may haveforgotten, here's a look at thegrey city in black and white.The February, 1918, issue ofThe University of Chicago Magazine was full of the weatherof January, 1918: "Sunday,January 6th, and the dayfollowing brought to Chicago a blizzard which, theysay, was the worst affair of its kind in fifty years."When the snow ended, the cold continued fourweeks without a thaw. To save on coal, the University closed the Lab Schools for a week andshut back the heat on weekends— "as one resultof which the editor's ink is freezing as hewrites."After the January 6th storm, the city suppliedthe University with 250 shovels, and studentswere asked to help dig the city out. "One regretsto report that the invitation was not very heartilyaccepted," noted The Magazine. "On one day, it istrue, every one of the shovels was in use, but agreat part of the time a hundred or so remainedmournfully stacked in Mandel Hall lobby, listening, if shovels have ears, to the click of the billiardballs in the Reynolds Club."The most stalwart of the diggers? The faculty,the company officers of the R.O.T.C, and thewomen of Drexel House. " The great snow of i%7" dumped23 inches on the quads, givingnew meaning to the word"snowfall" (left). a lighter, butunexpected, snow dusted a 1980sbicycle (TOP). The Gothic arches(ABOVE) HAVE ALWAYS PROVIDEDREADY-MADE FRAMES FORSNOWSCENES.37IllINTERNATIONAL HOUSE (TOP) STOODHIGH ABOVE THE MIDWAY SNOWS. ATRIO OF WOMEN (ABOVE) MADE THEIRWAY THROUGH THE SNOWBANKSTHAT WERE A LEGACY OF THE STORMOF 1918. SNOW ASBY-PRODUCT "For several years, one ofour major research thrusts atthe Cloud Physics Lab, " saysRogcoe R. Braham, Jr., professor in the Department ofGeophysical Sciences andI the laboratory's director,"has been a study of lake-effect snows over LakeMichigan."Although the lake effect "markedly increases" the amount of snow over the Michiganshoreline, Braham and his colleagues study snownot to predict its fall, but rather "as the byproduct of convection motions, " watching andrecording as cold air traverses the relativelywarmer water of the lake. Using Doppler radarmeasurements, combined with data on cloudmotion and parameters collected by airborneinstruments, their goal is to learn more abouthow convection occurs in the boundary layerbetween the lower levels of the atmosphere andthe earth's surface.Each winter, Braham, as the area's residentsnow expert, gets several dozen calls fromlocal media asking how deep a coming snowstorm is expected to be. Most calls, he notes,come from Michigan where the lake-effect is thestrongest and where "snow is much more of adisruptive influence."To Joe Beezhold, who supervises the University's snowremoval, the ideal snowfallis a dry one, a storm thatbegins "late in the afternoon, early in the evening,and snows through thenight. Then we can come in at 3:00 and by thetime everybody gets here to work in the morning,everything is usually dug out and ready.""Everything" is 15 miles of campus sidewalks—plus the University's parking lots and loadingdocks. To do the job, Beezhold has three pick-uptrucks, one jeep, and one dump truck— plus fivegrass-cutters that "we can change into snowbrooms." Other weapons in his arsenal includean annual supply of "about 300 to 350 tons ofroad salt and about 250 to 350 one-pound bags ofchemical ice melt."When it snows, Beezhold's ten-man crew(plus "a pool of about eight or nine guys in ourtrucking department that I can use in emergencies") starts with the main campus walks on 57th,UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990Among the stalwart souls whobraved the january cold to helpthe city of Chicago dig out afterthe storm of 1918 were the womenof Drexel House (above and left),who spent most of january 13clearing snow along universityavenue with shovels provided bythe city. in 1911 (right), cobb gatestood out against a snowybackdrop.39GATHERING BY LAKE MICHIGAN ATSUNRISE, STUDENTS OFFER A RITUALYOGA SALUTE TO THE SUN (ABOVEAND LEFT). THE CEREMONY IS PARTOF KUVIASUNGNERK-AS IS ABROOMBALL GAME (RIGHT) ON THEMIDWAY ICE.40 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 199059th, and 60th streets and the hospitals' emergency room entrance (the majority of the hospitals' snow removal is contracted out). "Each guyhas a starting point, and three of the guys just doparking lots— they go in order of size."Beezhold, who has been on the job for threerelatively snow-less years, says that an "average"snowfall of two to four inches takes about two tofour hours to clear out. "We've done a ten- inchsnow in seven hours, which isn't bad, " he adds,estimating that a 23-inch snowstorm "wouldprobably take a day and a half." Beezholdwould hope, of course, that the snow wasn'twet: "The wetter snow is harder— it bogs theequipment down. The wetter snow also freezesquicker if it gets cold— and once it freezes,that's it."SNOW ASHAPPINESS "You can't change the weather, but you can change yourperception of it, " Donald N.Levine, Peter B. Ritzma Professor in sociology and theCollege, told The University ofChicago Chronicle last winter.Changing students' perceptions of Chicago winters is what Kuviasungnerk is all about.Kuviasungnerk (from, roughly, an Eskimoword for "happiness") began in 1983 whenLevine, AB'50, AM'54, PhD'57, was dean of theundergraduate College. Designed by the Office ofStudent Activities to replace the then-traditionalfreshman trip to Green Lake, Wisconsin, Kuviasungnerk was viewed as a break in a quarterwith no holidays.The tongue-in-cheek celebration of winter'srigors has included faculty fireside lectures onsuch topics as "Arctic Food, " "Glaciers in theChicago Area," and "Narnia in Winter." Intramural competitions have been waged in broomballon ice, tug-of-war on ice, cross-country skiing,essay writing, snow and ice sculpting, and scarfknitting (yarn and needles provided, with thefinished products going to needy children).Although some events fall in and out of favor,Levine's Kangeiko exercises— a Samurai programof intensive wintertime physical-fitness training— have flourished. Several hundred students takepart in a midweek ritual salute to the sun as itrises over Lake Michigan, and those hardiersouls who attend all of the week's early- morningsessions receive a Kangeiko T-shirt. In 1983, 11T-shirts were awarded; in 1989, 191. S IT TAKES THE UNIVERSITY'S SNOWCREW (TOP) NO MORE THAN FOURHOURS TO SHOVEL ITS WAY ALONG15 MILES OF CAMPUS SIDEWALKSTO CLEAR AWAY AN "AVERAGE, "FOUR-INCH SNOWFALL. FORSTUDENTS (ABOVE), IT'S ALSOBUSINESS AS USUAL.ALUMNI CHRONICLEMeet the PresidentIn the weeks ahead, President Hanna Holborn Gray is scheduled to visitalumni groups in six cities. At each reception, President Gray will talk informallyabout the University today. Local alumni, parents, and other friends in each areawill receive invitations a month before the event. If you plan to be in one of thesecities during President Gray's visit and would like to attend the reception, pleasecall Danny Frohman, associate director for alumni relations, at 312/753-2175.• The University of Chicago Alumni Club of San Francisco: Saturday,January 27.• The University of Chicago Alumni Club of Seattle: Sunday, January 28.• The University of Chicago Alumni Club of Denver: Friday, February 9.• The University of Chicago Alumni Club of Phoenix: Saturday, February 10.• The University of Chicago Alumni Club of San Diego: Wednesday,February 28.• The University of Chicago Alumni Club of Washington, D.C.: Tuesday,May 1.Reunion '90: You're InvitedThere are several new wrinkles tothe Alumni Reunion being planned forthe first weekend in June. First, twomore classes have decided to celebratethis year: the Class of 1960 will markits 30th reunion, while the Class of1975 will gather for its 15th reunion.In all, 12 classes will hold full-scalegatherings.The classes of 1930 and 1935 plan acombined luncheon on Friday, June 1,at which they will act as hosts to anymembers of the 60-plus reunion classes. Anyone who was graduated in 1929or earlier is invited to return for thelunch— and to take part in other reunion events.This year, alumni award winnerswill be recognized at a Saturday morning ceremony in Rockefeller Chapel.The ceremony will be proceeded by a"calvacade of classes, " as alumni walk(or ride) from the Main Quad to theChapel, led by the award winners and a band. President Hanna Gray willpreside at the ceremony, which willalso include songs by the Motet Choir.Saturday evening, alumni are invitedto the All Alumni dinner in Hutchinson Commons.All alumni are invited to return tocampus for reunion. If you are not amember of a class that ends in 0 or 5,but would like a reunion brochure,please write to the Alumni RelationsOffice, Robie House, 5757 S. Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, or call312/753-2175.Updates from the AlumniExecutive CouncilWhen the University of ChicagoAlumni Executive Council met overHomecoming weekend in October,President Edward Anderson, PhB'46,SM'49, paused only a moment for"acclamation" of the fact that theAlumni Relations office was now fully staffed, then plunged into a series ofreports from campus and alumni committee sessions. A brief summary ofsome of those reports follows.Centennial Planning: KineretJaffe, AM'74, PhD'82, director of theCentennial office; told the Council thatOctober 3, 1991 will mark the academicopening of the Centennial year with aRockefeller Chapel ceremony to beattended by a number of distinguishedguests, including the chancellor ofOxford University. A week of conferences and art events will follow. InJune 1992, all who have ever attendedthe University will be invited to aUniversity-wide reunion, With alumnihelp, Jaffe also expects Centennialevents to extend to cities around theworld.Annual Giving: Mark Brickell,AB'74, a member of the Alumni FundBoard, reported that the 1989-90 Annual Fund goal is $4.3 million. Thisyear the Annual Fund, which consistsof the College Fund, the GraduatesFund, the Parents Fund, and theFriends Fund, is continuing its regional phonathons while working to .establish a network of volunteers whoserve as class representatives for thefund.Campus Programs: As ExecutiveCouncil member John Lyon, AB'55,pointed out, campus programs activityis divided into two parts: Reunionplanning and student relations. Thealumni relations staff generally schedules 8-10 events for students each year(from receptions to career conferences); student volunteers play anactive role in the planning of theseevents, which are designed tostrengthen ties between studentsand alumni.Alumni Clubs: StephanieAbeshouse Wallis, AB'67, chair of theAlumni Relations Board, reported thatthe clubs committee will be reviewingchartered clubs to establish more consistency in their organizational year.Staff and alumni will also explorealternative club structures as a wayof establishing less formal, satellitegroups. And, the council voted tomove the clubs' annual celebration ofInternational University of Chicago42 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990Big bench on campus— from the Class of 1988.Class Acts"Something visible, somethingsolid" was what Christopher Straus,AB'88, now a second-year student atthe medical school, and other members of the Class of 1988 had in mindwhen they decided to revive the tradition of class gifts. Enough members ofthe class agreed to raise $4,500, andthis October, the "Class of 1988" benchwas installed on the southwest side ofBotany Pond. University plannerRichard Bumstead designed thelimestone bench and footstools in astyle "reminiscent of the C-Bench"—which was, of course, a gift of theClass of 1903.The Class of 1989 kept the traditiongoing, raising over $5,000 for an endowed book fund in memory of formerAdmissions dean Dan Hall, qualifyingfor a matching gift from an anonymousdonor.Day from its current July date to aweekend in early September.The council also discussed waysthat alumni might help in studentrecruitment (see below), as well asplans for the educational servicesprogram and the alumni magazine,and the goals and responsibilities ofthe council itself.Volunteers at Work: TheAlumni Schools CommitteeEach year, between 5,500 and 5,800secondary-school students apply foradmission to the College. And, says J. Robert Ball, Jr., X'70, director of theAlumni Schools Committee, "alumniinterview approximately 2,100 to 2,200of those applicants."The Alumni Schools Committee isactually about 1,000 alumni who form50 committees across the country, plusanother 150 volunteers "scattered inless-populated communities who dothe same type of work." That workincludes representing the Universityat local college nights, as well as hosting information sessions for studentsand their parents.The most important task, Ball says,is interviewing and reporting back tothe admissions staff on students intheir areas who can't travel to campus.Ball has both hard data and anecdotalevidence showing that the alumniinterview is one of the most highlyrated of the College's recruitment activities, and he says that the College'sincreased success in areas hard hit bydemographic drops in the number of18-year-olds can be traced in part toincreased alumni efforts.Volunteers also follow-up if thestudents they interview are offeredadmission to the College, encouragingthem to visit campus. In recent yearsthe Committee, founded in 1968, hasespecially encouraged younger alumni—those who are closest to the campusexperience— to participate, althoughcommittees like to maintain a balancebetween alumni who are firmly established in a community and those whoare just starting out."New York has such a transitorypopulation, " notes David Birnbaum,AB'79, who chairs the midtown andlower Manhattan committee, "thatwithin two years, your interviewersare no longer here." That doesn't bother Birnbaum, who with his wife, BetteLeash Birnbaum, AB'79, MAT' 80,has been interviewing students since1981: "We do it because we love theUniversity."Judy Ullman Siggins, AB'66,AM'68, PhD'76, agrees. Siggins, wholives in Binghamton, New York, andchairs the national Alumni SchoolsCommittee board, calls "getting involved in this process a very worthwhile way for people who valued theirtime at the University to get rein-volved, or to stay involved. It's a way toappreciate even more the experiencethey had— and of passing that on." FAMILY ALBUM '89Debra Blair Alexander, PhD'88; Daniel S. Alexander,]D '89; and Marianne Alexander.Lorenz Fish; Joan Stern; Roger Stern, jD'89; HenryStern, PhB'47, JD'50; Geoffrey Stern; and ElizabethStern.Doris Chung; Susan Chung, AB'85, MBA '89; ShirleyChung, AB '89; Frank Chung; and Sonia Chung.Henry], Binder, former assistant professor of medicine atthe University; Stephen E. Binder, MBA'89; andjoanWilen Binder, AM'75.43CLASS NEWS Photos by Richard Younker"No news is good news," is one cliche to whichwe do not ascribe at The Magazine. Please sendsome of your news— whatever it might be — to theClass News Editor, The University of ChicagoMagazine, 5757 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL60637. No engagements, please. Items may beedited for space.1 Q Speculating that a U of C education leads toLy long life, Dorothy Dorsett Fisher, PhB'19,writes that she still keeps in touch with classmates and Pi Delta Phi sisters Dorothy CrowderChessman, PhB'19, and Ethel (tetty) RichardsO'Connor, SB'19, MAT'37.O f~ Felix Caruso, SB '25, a football and trackjL.\D star while at the U of C, lives in Hinsdale, IL.ryrj Walter (Wally) Marks, PhB'27, who at one£ml time was head football, basketball, baseball, and golf coach at Indiana State University, isstill closely associated with the school that dubbedhim the "Man for All Seasons." Former dean of theSchool of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, he is a professor emeritus. While at the U ofC, Marks captained the 1926 Big Ten football teamunder A. A. Stagg.REUNION 90J U N E 1 «2«3 /I 9 9 0Ofj Paul Offenhiser, X'30, of Freeport, IL, is 88JU years old and enjoys ballroom dancing.Q O, Stud's Place, a television show starring StudsOZ. Terkel, PhB'32, ID'34, celebrated the 40thanniversary of its first broadcast. The show wasalso honored in conjunction with Chicago's Museum of Broadcast Communication's "This is NBCChicago" exhibition.OO Dorothy Carnine Scott, AM'33, a litho-\jC} grapher in Estes Park, CO, opened a schoolof stone lithography. Her work is currently on exhibit at the Estes Park Art Center— and her studiois open to visitors.REUNION 90J UN J 2»3 Iff 9 9 0OCC. Arthur Berndtson, AB'35, PhD'40, ofJ\J Columbia, MO, continues to advise graduate students and spends summers in the mountains of Colorado.After 30 years as a hospital administrator,Franklin D. Carr, SB '35, is enjoying his retirementin Pinehurst, NC.Arthur I. Grossman, AB'35, JD'37, of SunCity, AZ, is an amateur actor in the Sun City Players troupe.O /" Evelyn Garbe, SB'36, SM'37, retired andJ\J living in Odenton, MD, travelled to eightcities in Asia last spring.William H. Safranek, SB'36, received the 1989Frederick A. Lowenheim Award for his work inthe technology of metallic and inorganic finishes.Safranek is technical editor for the American Elec-troplaters and Surface Finishers Society inOrlando, FL.On NormAbrams, AB'37, of Glenview, IL, wasJ/ honored by National Expositions Company for lifetime achievement and outstandingservice to the converting industry. Abrams is aconsultant, an editorial adviser to Converting magazine, and has taught courses at the University.Carl F. Smucker, AM'37, received the 1989 Alumni Distinguished Service Award from Bluff-ton College, Bluffton, OH, where he is professoremeritus of social work.OQ Eleanor Shapera Guthman, AB'38, and\DO Rabbi Sidney Guthman, of Long Beach,CA, celebrated their 50th anniversary in August.lean Saurwein Simmons, PhD'38, received a50-year pen and certificate from the AmericanChemical Society. She also received the HonoraryAward in Scientific Education from Sigma DeltaEpsilon/Graduate Women in Science for her "dis-tingished career as an educator and as an administrator and consultant."REUNION 90JUNE 1'2«3/1990A f~\ Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant,TIV/ gave a retrospective exhibit of the work ofEsther Howard Kraus, AM'40. Kraus, a retired artprofessor of CMU, paints, sculpts, and works withceramics.Robert S. Miner, Ir., SB '40, and his wife,Mary, returned from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whereMiner was a volunteer with the International Executive Service Corps, helping to develop andproduce organic chemicals for pharmaceuticals.The Miners live in Westf ield, NJ.A O, Jeanette Shames Fields, AB'42, received±.Z- the Carl Winters Community ServiceAward from the Rotary Club of Oak Park/RiverForest, IL. She was a founder of the ErnestHemingway Foundation of Oak Park, executive director of the Chicago Architecture Foundation,and has served on the boards of the Frank LloydWright Home and Studio Foundation and theUnity Temple Foundation. She has receivedawards from the Chicago chapter of the AmericanInstitute of Architects and from the University'sAlumni Association.A A Maurice R. Hilleman, PhD'44, receivedX. X. the San Marino Prize for his role in developing vaccines, especially the combination vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella that savesmore than $1 . 3 billion per year in health costs. Hilleman is director of the Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research in West Point, Wehlen Morrison, AB'44, attended an"In Performance at the White House" program,which included excerpts from her book AmericanMosaic read by actors Lynn Redgrave and F. MurrayAbraham. The book, an oral history of the American immigrant experience, was a New York TimesNotable Book of the Year and won the AmbassadorAward from the English-Speaking Union. Joanand Robert T. Morrison, PhD'44, live in Morris-town, NJ. They have three children and twograndchildren.REUNION 90JUNE 1 • 2*3 - / 1 990AC Eugene Fisher, PhB'45, MBA48, is chair-Tt\_/ man of the western marketing researchcouncil of Brunswick Corp., Skokie, IL.A/' Donatta M. Yates, PhB'46, AM'48, of OakTlO Lawn, IL, retired as principal of Eisenhower High School.A 1~7 Robert T. Hennemeyer,PhB'47, AM'50, re-Tc/ ceived an honorary doctorate of public administration from St. Mary's College, Winona,MN, in recognition of his contributions to thecause of international human rights. Hennemey- er, former U.S. ambassador to the Gambia, wasalso honored by that nation with a decoration asCommander of the Order of the Republic of theGambia. Hennemeyer directs the Office of International Justice and Peace of the United StatesCatholic Conference, Washington, DC.Donald S. Smith, PhB'47, SB'48, president ofAmerican Portrait Films, Anaheim, CA, has released a documentary on euthanasia featuringWilliam F. Buckley, Jr., as the host/narrator.yjO T. D. A. Lingo, PhB'48, AM'51, held a wil-TlO derness seminar for neural cyberneticists athis Dormant Brain Research and DevelopmentLaboratory on Colorado's Laughing CoyoteMountain.The Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, NJ, named Donald E. Osterbrock, PhB'48,SB'48, SM'49, its Otto Neuegebauer Fellow in thehistory of science. Osterbrock, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of California, Santa Cruz, is spending a sabbatical at theInstitute, doing research and writing a book on thehistory of astronomy.REUNION 90J U N 1 1 • 2 • 3 / 1J,.9|r~ f\ Delmar Walker, MBA'50, of Bloomington,\J\J IL, was named treasurer of the foundationboards of BroMenn Healthcare.f™ "1 Esther Millman Sparks Sprague, AB'51, is\J -L director of the W. Graham Arder HI Galleryin Chicago.C O Since retirement, Harold E. Wade, MBA'53,\J\J of Port Hueneme, CA, has served as a citycouncilman, mayor pro tempore, and presidentand charter member of his local Kiwanis club.CA George Romoser, AM'54, PhD'58, has re-\-/TI turned from his position as visiting professor at Kobe University, Japan, to that of professorof political science at the University of NewHampshire, Durham. In the spring he will be visiting professor of government at Bowdoin College.REUNION 90J u JCEJ$ * 2 • 3 ' 1 9 >nPC C Raymond G. Ammar, SM'55, PhD'59, of\J<J Lawrence, KS, is chairman of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Universityof Kansas.Darrell H. Reneker, SM'55, PhD'59, is director of the University of Akron's Institute of Polymer Science, Akron, OH.Don Walker, PhD'55, received a distinguished service award at the 11th InternationalJoint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Walker's research at Bellcore in Morristown, NJ, is directed toward developing an electronic library capable of holding all the world's knowledge andcreating tools for accessing this library's contents.C /I Frederick A. Karst, AB'56, SB'58, and his\J O wife, Judith, have purchased the Culver Citizen, the weekly newspaper of Culver, IN, of whichhe is publisher. Karst has taken an early retirementfrom the South Bend Tribune, where he was an editorial writer, member of the editorial board, andtravel editor.In recognition of her contributions to cavearchaeology, Patty Jo Andersen Watson, AM'56,PhD'59, was named an honorary life member ofthe National Speleological Society. Professor ofanthropology at Washington University, St.44 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAG AZINE/ WINTER 1990Louis, MO, she is director of the Cave ResearchFoundation's archaeological project in the Mammoth Cave System of Kentucky.CQ Robert L. Bergman, SB'58, MD'62. SeeDO I960, Edna E.Heatherington.Pat and Ernie Fitz-Hugh, AM'58, "embarkedon the adventure of being the owner-builder-contractors" of their new passive-solar-super-insulated home in Hawthorne Woods, IL.[™Q The Archdiocese of Washington, DC, ac-\jy cepted Frederick H. Maclntyre, AM'59, asa candidate for the priesthood. An ordained permanent deacon, Maclntyre is studying for thepriesthood in Weston, MA.REUNION 90/~r\ Hiram Caton, AB'60, AM'62, is the first ac-\J\J ademic at Griffith University, Brisbane,Australia, to receive a Doctor of Letters from Griffith. Caton, professor of politics and history atGriffith, was honored for his volume The Politics ofProgress: The Origins and Development of the CommercialRepublic 1600-1835.Martha E. Church, PhD'60, was appointed tothe National Association of Independent Collegesand Universities' task force on increasing minorityparticipation in higher education. Church, who ispresident of Hood College in Frederick, MD, isdeveloping public policy recommendations designed to strengthen minority participation incampus life.Edna E. Heatherington, SB'60, is a construction specifier for James Posey Associates, consulting mechanical and electrical engineers in Baltimore, MD. Eric W. Bergman, son of Heatheringtonand Robert L. Bergman, SB'58, MD'62, works forAmerican Airlines in Chicago. Their daughter,Helen R. Bergman, graduated from Bryn MawrCollege and is a law student at Boston University./TO William A. Longacre, AM'62, PhD'63, is\J£- head of the Department of Anthropology atthe University of Arizona, Tucson .George V. Pixley, AM'62, PhD'68, teachesbiblical studies at the Baptist Seminary of Managua, Nicaragua.David A. Turner, AB'62, MD'65, was namedthe first Colonel Robert R. McCormick ResearchProfessor in Diagnostic Imaging at Rush MedicalCollege, Chicago./IO Maureen Byers, AB'63, received her J.D.\jO from the University of Colorado, Boulder,and is working in public law.Robert W. Kenny, PhD'63, is dean of GeorgeWashington University's Columbian College, theuniversity's undergraduate arts and sciences department in Washington, DC.Jonathan Knight, AB'63. See 1973, LaurenceJ. Hyman.David R. Segal, AM'63, PhD'67. See 1967,Mady Wechsler Segal.Philip S. Stern, SB '63, has semi-retired fromthe Boulder (CO) city council, where he wasknown as "the great dissenter." He and his wife,Mary, live in the Rocky Mountains, where Philip isdoing occasional engineering consulting and"putting up wood for the next winter of peace,tranquility, and warmth."/LA Carolyn O. Frost, AM'64, PhD'77, is pro-«i fessor and associate dean of the School ofInformation and Library Studies at the Universityof Michigan. She writes that she and her husband,Robin Downes, are enjoying the eighth year oftheir "commuting" marriage, and are frequentfliers between Ann Arbor and Houston.Michael B. Watson, SB'64, is associate directorfor the University's Office of Alumni Relations,managing the Chicago-area alumni programs andactivities. He and his wife, Elizabeth Buckner,have a daughter, Hannah, and live in Chicago. REUNION 90S" C Robert F. Gran, MBA' 65, writes that he nowOC/ takes life easy at his Tuxedo, NY, home afterretiring as manager of finance and administrationfor Electronic Data System.Suellen Fisher Newman, AM'65, received theState University of New York at Brockport's fourthbiennial Arts for Children Award. Newman isfounder and director of the Hudson School.(1/1 Sarah Wallace Cogan, AB'66, is instructorOU of learning resources and technologies atEastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti.South Florida alumni and friends, includingRichard H. Freer, SB'66, his wife, and their twosons, enjoyed an evening cruise on Biscayne Bay.The excursion was organized by lohn Gaubatz,JD'67, and Kathryn Ball Gaubatz, AM'68.Charlie Gellert, AB'66, and his wife, Susan,spend most of their time with their new son, JesseReuben, at their home in Washington, DC. Charlieheads the applications research unit at the FederalNational Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae),where Susan is senior project manager.Elaine L. Kleiner, AM'66, PhD'71, professorof English at Indiana State University, TerreHaute, received a Fulbright senior professorshipfor the 1989-90 academic year to the Republic ofRomania. She also received a grant from the Council for International Exchange of Scholars to studythe Romanian language at the University ofPittsburgh's East European Summer LanguageInstitute.Leonard Charles Schwartz, AB'66, wrote anarticle for the Dickinson Law Review, a publication ofthe Dickinson School of Law. He is associate professor of business law at the College of Businessand Economics of Memphis State University.f 17 John Gaubatz, JD'67. See 1966, Richard H.\J J Freer.Andrew Harris, AB'67, is associate professorand chairman of the Department of Theatre atTexas Christian University, Fort Worth.Marc A. Kastner, SB'67, SM'69, PhD'73, wasnamed the Donner Professor of Science in the Department of Physics at the Massachusetts Instituteof Technology, where he researches the propertiesof semiconductor devices and high-temperaturesuperconductivity. He was also appointed to thedirectorate of the Consortium for Superconducting Electronics, a joint effort of MIT, AT&T, andIBM. Marcia Paul Kastner, SB'69, joined the staffof MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, applying researchtechniques to air-traffic control. They live in Newton, MA, with their two daughters.Through his development of an educationalplan, Frank Larkin, MBA' 67, earned a fellowshiprecertification in the American College ofHealthcare Executives. Larkin is a vice-presidentof Health One Corp., Minneapolis, MN.Lawrence Okamura, AM'67, assistant professor of history at the University of Missouri, Columbia, spent June 1989 surveying and collectingsondages at late Roman military sites in southernJordan.Mady Wechsler Segal, AM'67, PhD'73, andDavid R. Segal, AM'63, PhD'67, received the U S.Army's Outstanding Civilian Service Medal fortheir contributions as distinguished visiting professors of sociology at the U.S. Military Academyduring the 1988-89 academic year. The Segals arefaculty members at the University of Maryland,College Park.Anthony F. Starace, SM'67, PhD'71, is vice-chairman of the Division of Atomic, Molecular,and Optical Physics of the American Physical Society. Starace is professor of physics and chairman ofthe physics and astronomy department at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, where he researches Janice Coen, SM'88; Isabel Palda; Filip Palda, PhD'89;Kristian S. Palda, MBA' 58, PhD'63; and Valerie Palda.George Drewry, MBA'89; Kimberly Drewry, AB'89; andTanya Drewry, student in the Laboratory Schools.C. Curtis Everett, JD'57; Ellen Everett, AM'89; andfoanEverett. (Not shown: Jennifer Everett, JD'88.)Front: Phyllis Friedman; Sarah Friedman; ShawnYusim; Andrea Yusim-Meltzer, MBA89; Jeffrey Meltzer;Vicki Yusim Hass, AM'83; and Nadine Yusim. Back:Martin E. Friedman, AM'76; Joseph Friedman; SheldonYusim; and Jeffrey Hass.45Frank]. Harrison, AB'il, JD'47; MarkHarrison,AB'89; and Shirley Summerhays Harrison, AM'49.Katherine Knecht; Judith Franzetti Knecht, SB'61,PhD'66; Mary Elaine Knecht, AB'89; James W. Knecht,SB'60, MD'63; and Violet Knecht Schmidt, SM'47.Hae-Min Lee, student in the College; Jung-Sook Lee;Hae-Kyung Lee, AB '89; Joo-Yong Lee; and Hae-KyoonLee, AB '85, graduate student in economics.Teisha Smedstad; Lois Smedstad; Victor Smedstad,AB'50, JD'53; Adam Smedstad, AB'89; and GusSmedstad. theoretical atomic physics.Judith Testa, AM'67, PhD'83, received a National Endowment for the Humanities Travel to Collections grant, as well as grants from Northern Illinois University and the Lucius N. LittauerFoundation. She is associate professor of art atNorthern Illinois University's School of Art,DeKalb.Clyde Watkins, AB'67, received the 1989 Benjamin Franklin Award from the Chicago chapter ofthe National Society of Fund Raising Executives.Watkins is vice-president for external affairs at theIllinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.Fred Weiss, MBA'67, vice-president of planning, investment, and development for theWarner-Lambert Co., Morris Plains, NJ, is vice-chairman of Warner-Lambert's 1989 United Way ofMorris County (NJ) campaign.(L O Dale F. Eickelman, AM'68, PhD'71, wasOO appointed the Ralph and Richard KleemanLazarus Professor of Anthropology and HumanRelations at Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH.Bruce L. Gardner, PhD'68, was named andconfirmed as President Bush's assistant secretaryof agriculture for economics. Gardner is professorof agricultural resource economics at the University of Maryland, College Park.Kathryn Ball Gaubatz, AM'68. See 1966,Richard H. Freer.Arthur L. Harshman, AM'68, PhD'77, was appointed academic coordinator of the HumanitiesMaster of Arts External Degree Program at California State University, Dominguez Hills, where he isprofessor of art history and humanities.Thomas H.Kieren, MBA' 68, was named president of the Greater New York area chapter of theProduct Development Management Association.He is founder, president, and managing directorof the Manhattan Consulting Group, Inc., NewYork City."Joining ASEAN: Presidential Politics in thePhilippines," by Vincent K. Pollard, AM'68, waspublished in Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Asian Studies. Pollard lives in Chicago.Tom Schweder, AB'68. See 1986, Sharon LynnMartin./" Q Abe Aamidor, AB'69, won second place inO y the 1989 Indiana Associated Press Managing Editors Newswriting Contest. Aamidor is afeature writer at The Indianapolis News.J. Harley Chapman, AM'69, AM'70, PhD'84,is professor of philosophy and humanities andchairman of the humanities department at William Rainey Harper College, Palatine, IL.Marcia Paul Kastner, SB'69. See 1967, MarcA. Kastner.Wayne Lyon, MBA'69, was named the 1989 Distinguished Alumni honoree by the CranbrookKingswood Schools, MI. Lyon, president and chiefoperating officer of Masco Corp., was honored forhis career achievements and public service.Edward A. Reidinger, AM'69, PhD'78, ofBerkeley, CA, published articles in the Septemberissue of College and Research Libraries News and in theOctober issue of Scholarly Publishing.REUNION 90J If w E Jgf2-» Jfl ¥_ 9 0ry/"\ Charles Almo, AM'70, was named interim/ \J school superintendent of the ¦ Chicagoschool system, the third largest in the nation.Robert Brawer, PhD'70, was named presidentof Maidenform, Inc., New York City.David Luban, AB'70, received a GuggenheimFellowship to study the changing roles of the judiciary. He is research scholar at the Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy of the University ofMaryland, College Park, and professor of law atthe University of Maryland School of Law, Baltimore. He and his wife, Judith Lichtenberg, who is also a member of the Institute, have two children,Daniel and Rachel.Leonard P. Oliver, PhD'70, an authority onstudy circles, gave discussions on the topic and itsapplication in the struggle against illiteracy, atEastern Kentucky University, Richmond. Oliver,former special assistant to the chairman of theNational Endowment for the Humanities, lives inWashington, DC.f7-1 Richard J. Mouw, PhD'71, is provost of/ J. Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena,CA.Gary L. Nakarado, AB'71, is a Coloradopublic-utilities commissioner in Denver.ryO James C. Bullis, MBA'72, is vice-president/ A. of material management at Morton International's Specialty Chemicals Group, Chicago.James Hinchliff, JD'72, is senior vice-president and general counsel at Peoples EnergyCorp., Chicago.Joyce Ridick, PhD'72, left her position as anexecutive director and professor at the Institute ofPsychology of the Pontifical Gregorian Universityin Rome, Italy, to join the faculty of the SacredHeart Major Seminary in Detroit, MI. Sister Joycehas written books on religion and psychology.H. Alfred Ryan, AB'72, of Yardley, FA, isnortheast regional environmental counsel forWaste Management of North America.Teresa Sullivan, AM'72, PhD'75, was appointed associate dean of graduate studies at theUniversity of Texas at Austin, where she is professor of sociology and law.Robert Dennis Walsh, AM'72, received hisdoctorate in philosophy from Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI.ryO Tom Campbell, AB'73, AM'73, PhD'80;/ \J Bernard Kramer, MBA'81, JD'81; and Raymond Reott, JD'80, were named "outstandingyoung lawyers whose work makes a difference inthe world," by the American Bar AssociationYoung Lawyers Division. Campbell, on leave ofabsence from Stanford University, is a RepublicanCongressman from California and serves on theCongressional Caucus for Women's Issues. Kramer is an attorney for the Soviet Jewry Legal Advocacy Center, which helps Jews who have been refused permission to emigrate from the U.S.S.R.Reott is with the Chicago law firm Jenner & Block,where he directs a program that provides pro bonolegal services for coal miners seeking black lungdisease benefits.Edna Selan Epstein, JD'73, a visiting lecturerat the University who also has her own law firm,was nominated to the Chicago Police Board.Laurence J. Hyman, AB'73, and JonathanKnight, AB'63, are copresidents of the Universityof Chicago Club of Washington, DC . Larry is a trialattorney with the U. S. Department of Energy and apart-time candidate for an M.S. in biology atGeorgetown University. He welcomes hearingfrom classmates and fellow "Shoreyites" at: 518Tennessee Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22305.GordonP. Katz, AB'73, spoke on federal-courtmotion practice at a seminar sponsored by theMassachusetts Bar Association. Gordy is a litigation partner at the Boston firm of Widett, Slater &Goldman, P.C.Thomas M. Patrick, JD'73, is vice-presidentand deputy general counsel for Peoples Gas andNorth Shore Gas, Chicago.RuthZ. Sweetser, AM'73, is associate directorof the Illinois Institute of Technology's Glen Ellyncampus.Brantly Womack, AM'73, PhD'77, was appointed reader in politics with reference to Chinaat the School of Oriental and African Studies of theUniversity of London, England. Womack, whohas been professor of political science at NorthernIllinois University, DeKalb, is replacing ProfessorStuart Schram, who is retiring.HA Walter (B. J.) Jost, AM'74, AM'79, PhD'85,/ TI is associate professor in the Department of46 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990Rhetoric and Communication Studies at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville. He and hiswife have two children.Edward M. Kelly, X'74, received his J.D. fromthe University of New Mexico School of Law,where he received the Wall Street Journal Awardfor excellence in business law. He is a member ofthe legal staff of the U.S. Securities and ExchangeCommission in Washington, DC.Ted Lerud, AM'74, PhD'82, and Bryn Wal-strom Lerud, AM'81, live in Elmhurst, IL, withtheir two sons, Karl and Andrew. Bryn coordinates the organization and expansion of tradingfloors for Continental Bank, Chicago. Ted wasgranted tenure as associate professor of English atElmhurst College, Elmhurst, IL, and is coordinator of Elmhurst's Writing Across the CurriculumProgram.Bruce A. Seaman, AM'74, PhD'78, chairs theeconomics department at Georgia State University, Atlanta.REUNION 90HrJZ Bruce Gluckman, AB'75. See 1977, Esther/ C/ Topouk Finder.Mike Klingensmith, AB'75, MBA'76, of NewYork City, is publisher of a new Time Inc. Magazine Company publication, Entertainment Weekly.Carlos G. Rizowy, AM'75, PhD'81, a partnerin the law firm Ray, Rizowy & Fleischer, Chicago,was honored in a tribute dinner for Israel Bonds.He was named to the board of directors of JewishEducation and reappointed to the governingcouncil of the American Jewish Congress and theexecutive committee of Chicago Action for SovietJewry.7^% k" ^- Barnthouse, PhD'76, was appointed/ O to the board of environmental studies andtoxicology of the National Research Council'sCommission on Life Sciences. Barnthouse is research staff member and group leader in the environmental sciences division of the Oak Ridge (TN)National Laboratory.Si-hoi Lam, AB'76, MD'80, is chief of internalmedicine at the Hill Health Center and clinical instructor at Yale University School of Medicine inNew Haven, CT. Since leaving Chicago, he has devoted himself to indigent, urban health care. He isthe principal investigator of an NIH-funded community program on clinical research on AIDS—aimed at making clinical trials accessible to intravenous drug users, blacks, Hispanics, and women. He recently testified before the National Commission on AIDS about the medical care of HIVand AIDS patients in community health centers.His wife, Catherine Lin, who was a graduate student in philosophy when they met at the U of C,has graduated from Yale Law School and practiceslaw in Hartford, CT.Daniel C. Olson, Jr., MBA'76, has retired fromhis position with Caterpillar in Geneva, Switzerland, and lives in his mountain home nearCharlottesville, VA.77 Esther Topouk Finder, AM'77, reports that/ / her stepbrother Robert Gluckman, MD'82,was recently married, while her stepbrother BruceGluckman, AB'75, and his wife have had a secondchild, Jonathan. After taking time off to care forher children, Esther is teaching psychology atMontgomery College, MD, and in her spare timeserves as president of her local homeowners association. She and her husband, Charles, have twodaughters and live in Rockville, MD.John C. Holt, PhD'77, was awarded a Ful-bright grant to teach graduate studies in comparative religion at the University of Peradeniya in SriLanka. Holt, associate professor of religion atBowdoin College, established the IntercollegiateSri Lanka Educational Program, an academic ex change program.Paul Mayf ield, MBA'77, is a partner in the firmErnst & Young in Chicago.Anne Montague, AB'77, and her husband,Mark Pattullo, have a daughter, Lucia Margaret.They live in Cincinnati, OH.Robert E. Ross, MBA'77, is president of Northern Trust Bank, Winnetka, IL.Patricia Smiley, AM'77, PhD'87, is assistantprofessor of psychology at Pomona College,Claremont, CA.7Q Brian Fluck, MBA'78, is division manager/ O of international finance at AT&T's corporate headquarters in Berkely Heights, NJ.Gerald Kominski, AB'78, is assistant professor of health care policy and finance at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of PublicHealth, and is a consultant for the RAND Corp. inSanta Monica. He and his wife, Laurie, have adaughter, Julie.Forrest W. Parkay, PhD'78, is professor of education at the University of Florida, Gainesville. Heand his wife, Arlene, have three daughters : Anna,Catherine, and Rebecca.7Q Lee Hillman, MBA'79, is a partner in the/ y firm Ernst & Young in Chicago.REUNION 90Qf\ John I. Delgado, AB'80, is completing ad-OU vanced training in internal medicine andplans to finish his fellowship in gastroenterologyat the University of Florida, Gainesville, in June.William L. Greene, AB'80, and his wife live inSt. Paul, MN.Mercedes Ebbert, AB'80, successfully defended her Ph.D. dissertation on the coevolutionof hosts and their parasites to Yale University's Department of Biology. She is now a university postdoctoral fellow in the entomology department atOhio State University, studying a disease that affects corn in Latin America . She and her husband,Tom Kruglinski, live in Columbus.Lawrence E. Harris, AM'80, PhD'82, is thefirst visiting scholar of the New York Stock Exchange, where he is studying the structure of equity markets. Harris is associate professor of financeand business economics at the University ofSouthern California School of Business Administration, Santa Monica.John S. Pope, MBA'80, is benefit consultant atthe Chicago office of Buck Consultants, Inc.Raymond Reott, JD'80. See 1973, TomCampbell.Clayton Rose, AB'80, MBA'81. See 1981, Ju-lianne Heffernan Rose.Thomas H. Ryan, AB'80, is director of publicaffairs at Lake Forest College, Lake Forest, IL,where he is responsible for the college's news media relations and supervises the publicationseditor.VictorS. Sloan, AB'80, received his M.D. fromNew York Medical College and is a resident in internal medicine at Montefiore Medical Center,New York City. He and his wife, Sandra Gong, livein Riverdale, NY.Natalie Hormaz Vania, AB'80, a Ph.D. candidate in philosophy at the University of Maryland,received a Charlotte W. Newcombe Fellowship.O-l David A. Blaine, SB'81, and his wife, Su-O -L san, have two children, Jennifer and Ezra,and live in Mt. Laurel, NJ. David is a researchchemist for Mobil Oil.James Graff, AB'81, is bureau chief for Time inOttawa, Ontario, Canada.Sara L. Johnson, JD'81, is special assistant tothe chancellor at Washington University, St.Louis, MO.Bernard Kramer, MBA'81, JD'81. See 1973,Tom Campbell. Joyce Gjertsen, MBA'89, and Edward Gjertsen, MBA'73../¦v 'Sp *fs* \ "*v "* S«Ira Charak, MBA'76, and David Charak, AB '89.John Fomook, AB'85, and Michael Fomook, MBA'89.Front: Rodger Aidman, Amy Aidman, Carlo Conaway,Katharyn Brown, Rosanne Rees, and Beth Steele. Middle:Addie Aidman; Bruce Shuman, AB'63, AM'65; SandraConaway, AB'89; Frances Aidman Conaway, AB'64;Charles Conaway; Jeanne W. Aidman; Annabelle Siegel.Back: Frank Conaway, AM'76; Ted Aidman, AM'47,PhD'51; Evan Aidman; Ken Siegel; Carolyn Aidman.(Not shown: the late Abel M. Brown, PhB'24.)47John Giura; Mark Giura, MBA'89; Sylvia Giura; MarisnGiura; and John Giura. AM'6l.Robert Mayer, AB' 50; Jennifer Mayer, AB'86, MBA'89;Carol Mayer, and lames MayerPhilip S. Kwait, MD '89, and Heidi Lynn Handler Kwait,AB'88.Manuel Bretscher; Miriam Bretscher; John Bretscher,AB'81; Tammy Ravitts Bretscher, AB'83, AM'89; GailRavitts; and Richard Ravitts. (Not shown: MarjorieGriggs Ravitts, X'56, and Paul Bretscher, AM'28,PhD'36.) Bryn Walstrom Lerud, AM'81. See 1974, TedLerud.Julianne Heffernan Rose, MBA'81, and Clayton Rose, AB'80, MBA'81, have returned to theNew York City area with their sons, Garett andJordan. Clayton works at J. P. Morgan & Co. andJulianne is on "an extended sabbatical from thecorporate world."George W. Shields, PhD'81, was National Endowment for the Humanities lecturer at the University of Arkansas. He is associate professor ofphilosophy and head of the philosophy programat Kentucky State University, Frankfort. He livesin Floyds Knobs, IN, with his wife, Marsha, andtheir daughter, Kirsten Lorraine.After two years in Mannheim, West Germany, with the U.S. Army, Edward CorneliousThompson, MBA'81, has returned to Chicago towork in advertising and media.Policy Sciences accepted an article by BarbaraYarnold, AB'81, on federal court decisions onasylum-related appeals. She has presented herresearch at many conferences, including the 1989annual convention of the American Political Science Association, and is listed in the 1989 editionof Who's Who Among American Women. She is assistant professor of political science at Saginaw ValleyState University, University Center, MI.QO Robert Barnes, AB'82, JD'85, and Lisa\D£. Schultz Barnes, AB'85, are happy to announce the birth of their son, Geoffrey Robert.Lisa takes care of the baby and Bob is an associatewith the law firm Gray, Cary, Ames & Frye in SanDiego, CA.Jeffrey C. Boulden, AB'82, is an attorney withthe Legal Assistance Foundation of Chicago andlives in Hyde Park. His wife, Lisa, is a sociologystudent at the University.Marienne Caryl Coleman, AB'82, graduatedfrom the John Marshall Law School and is on thelegal staff of the Illinois Department of Childrenand Family Services. She and her husband, AllanBranch, live in Chicago with their daughter,Rebecca.Donald C. Dowling, Jr., AB'82, has joined theCincinnati, OH, general practice law firm ofGraydon, Head & Ritchey and is researching anarticle on the labor law issues of the 1992 EuropeanEconomic Community single-market program.Nancy Hill Dowling, AB'84, practices law forProcter & Gamble in Cincinnati.Robert Gluckman, MD'82. See 1977, EstherTopouk Finder.Karen Kapner Hyman, AB'82, AM'88. See1986, Sharon Lynn Martin.David Menefee-Libey, AM'82, a doctoral candidate at the University, is instructor of government at Pomona College, Claremont, CA.James A. Rauen, AB'82, received his J. D. fromthe Marshall Wythe School of Law at the College ofWilliam and Mary. He is managing editor of thepublication Administrative Law for Pike & Fischer,Inc., Bethesda, MD.David E. Ray, SB'82, and his wife, Lisa, have ason, Nicholas, and live in Cheverly, MD.The National Endowment for the Humanitiesnamed Douglas G. Rogers, PhD'82, NewHampshire's NEH/Reader's Digest Teacher-Scholar for 1989. The award allows Rogers to undertake a year of independent study, researchingsignificant works in American literature bywomen, blacks, and Native Americans. He is ateacher of English at Phillips Exeter Academy,Exeter, NH.OO Dan Gilman, AM'83, PhD'88. See 1986,Ov_J Janelle Montgomery.Liz Hutar, AB'83. See 1986, JanelleMontgomery.David Hyman, AB'83, JD'89. See 1986,Sharon Lynn Martin.Stephen B. Jeffries, AB'83, and Rogina LouisaHaase were married in September. Stephen is secretary and a trustee of the Theodore Roosevelt As sociation, treasurer and a trustee of the YoungsMemorial Cemetery Corp., and a private investor.Rogina is a member of the technical staff of theMassachusetts Institute of Technology's LincolnLaboratory. The couple, who live in Boston, MA,honeymooned in Europe.Martin Lazor, AB'83, MBA'84. See 1986,Sharon Lynn Martin.David Lofsvold, SM'83, PhD'86, is visiting assistant professor of biology at Franklin andMarshall College, Lancaster, PA.Jeremy D. Preddy, MBA'83, is senior vice-president for Shearson Lehman Hutton, Asia,Inc., in Tokyo, Japan. He and his wife, Donna,have a daughter, Jessica Claire.Q A In October, Anne Goerwitz Ball, AB'84,Ot: and Stephen D. Ball, AB'84, of LandoverHills, MD, celebrated the birth of their first child,Alexander. Stephen is legislative director for Congressman Glen Poshard (D., IL).Cynthia Cobb Benedict, AB'84. See 1985,Richard Benedict.Kurt Broroson, AB'84, received a Ph.D. in molecular biology from the California Institute ofTechnology and has begun a postdoctoral fellowship at the laboratory of cellular and molecularimmunology of the National Institutes of Health,Bethesda, MD.Bill Browder, AB'84. See 1986, JanelleMontgomery.Alex Cobitz, AB'84. See 1986, Sharon LynnMartin.H. Mark Delman, AB'84. See 1986, SharonLynn Martin.Nancy Hill Dowling, AB'84. See 1982, DonaldC. Dowling, Jr.Matthew Craig Halperin, AB'84, MBA'87,lives in Chicago.Louis Renter, MBA'84, and Leslie Grahamwere married in July. Louis is an associate withMarquette Venture Partners, Deerfield, IL, andLeslie is the founder and president of GrahamMarketing Communications, Chicago.Patrick Waresk, AB'84, a 1st lieutenant in theU.S. Navy, participated in the clean-up of theValdez oil spill off the coast of Alaska.REUNION 902*3/ .1- 9„ 9OC Lisa Schultz Barnes, AB'85. See 1982,0\J Robert Barnes.Richard Benedict, AB'85, received his M.B.A.and works in business development for AmocoTechnology Co., Naperville, IL. He and hiswife, Cynthia Cobb Benedict, AB'84, live inWheaton, IL.Susan K.Bonar, AB'85, received her M.D. degree from the Yale University School of Medicineand is an orthopedic surgery resident at the University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics, Iowa City.Bill Browder, AB'85. See 1986, JanelleMontgomery.Curt Long, AB'85, and Robin Henke, AB'85,were married in August. Both are graduate students at the University of California, Berkeley,where Robin is in her second year of a doctoral program in education and Curt is a first-year M.B.A.student.Jennifer Magnabosco, AB'85, AM'85. See1986, Sharon Lynn Martin.Christopher McNickle, AM'85, PhD'89, is anassociate in investment management atGreenwich Associates, Greenwich, CT.Gregory M. Miller, MBA'85, is assistant vice-president in the investment services division ofthe Connecticut National Bank, Hartford.Andrea Ray, AB'85. See 1986, Sharon LynnMartin.John Scaife, AB'85. See 1986, JanelleMontgomery.48 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990Steven B. Wheeler, MBA'85, is principal ofBooz, Allen & Hamilton, a Cleveland, OH, international management and technology consultingfirm.Q/2 John Culbertson, AB'86, attends HarvardOO Business School, Boston, MA.Lisa Moody Engeriser, AB'86, and PaulEngeriser, AB'86, live in Des Plaines, IL. Lisa issenior market research coordinator at the Northern Trust Co., Chicago, and is working on herM.A. in English at Northwestern University. Paulworks at All State Insurance Co., Northbrook, IL,and is pursuing his fellowship in the Society ofActuaries.Matthew Allen King, AB'86. See 1988, Monica J. Casper.Sharon Lynn Martin, AB'86, and H. MarkDelman, AB'84, were married in the University'sBond Chapel in September. Bridesmaids includedJennifer Magnabosco, AB'85, AM'85; AndreaRay, AB'85; Amelia Schmertz, AB'88; and Alexandra Stern, AB'86. Groomsmen included MartinLazor, AB'83, MBA'84, and John (Chip) Grace,MBA'89. Guests included Elizabeth Macken,AB'86; Leonard Elmer, AB'86; David Hyman,AB'83, JD'89; Karen Kapner Hyman, AB'82,AM'88; Alex Cobitz, AB'84; and Tom Schweder,AB '68 . The Delmans are both first-year students atthe University's Graduate School of Business.Janelle Montgomery, AB'86, MBA'89, andKenn Bloom, AB'86, bumped into each other inNew York City, where Janelle is "working ungodlyhours" as an associate in mergers and acquisitionsat Morgan Stanley & Co . Kenn, after receiving hisM. S. in operations research from Stanford University, is a business analyst with Stolt-Nielsen inGreenwich, CT. Kenn was in New York City visiting Naomi Fein, AB'87, who was taking a breakfrom her work in media research in Jerusalem,Israel. On a safari in Kenya, Naomi saw BillBrowder, AB'84, who was traveling after receiving his M.B.A. from Stanford and before beginn-ning work with the Boston Consulting Group inLondon, England. Kenn also recently saw MollyTamarkin, AB'86, and her husband, Dan Gilman,AM'83, PhD'88, of St. Louis, MO, at the home ofAnne and John Scaife, AB'85. John and Anne arenow on an expedition to Thailand. Janelle has alsoseen Julie Burros, AB'86, an M.S. student in urban planning at Columbia University; Liz Hutar,AB'83, an English student at Columbia; andMargaret Chu, AB '86, who works at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in the Department of European Sculpture and Decorative Art. Janelle and Kennhope that more of their classmates will write in to"Class News" to keep in touch.Stathis Nazos, AM'86, a student in the NewYork University School of Business, New YorkCity, represented the school in the Chase Collegiate Challenge, a contest that re-creates stockmarket conditions.Carl L. Oros, AB'86, graduated from the U.S.Marine's Basic School and was assigned to theFleet Marine Force.Andy Steinfeld, AB'86, is studying Chinese inTaipei, Taiwan.Yvonne E. Weidmann, AB'86, is commercialloan officer in Connecticut National Bank'sBridgeport Commercial Division. She and her;husband, Frederick, live in New Haven, CT.O7 Tess R- Azicate, MBA'87, works in the re-O / gional office for the Americas at the Bureauof Export Trade Promotion of the Department ofTrade and Industry, Manila, Philippines.Brian Britt, AM'87. See 1988, JessicaMeltsner.Daniel C. Chuman, AM'87, is an associate/Japanese market strategist at Bear, Stearns & Co.,New York City.Naomi Fein, AB'87. See 1986, JanelleMontgomery.Regan Fulton, AB'87, is enrolled in a combined M.D./Ph.D. program at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Linda Henderson, AB'87, in her second yearin the Peace Corps, teaches math and chemistry ina government school in Limbe, Cameroon.Christopher R. Hill, AB'87, attends the NewYork University Law School, New York City.Joseph Mills, AB'87, and his fiancee, AmandaVesey, AB'89, live in Albuquerque with theirdaughter, Amnesty. Joseph manages a chain ofstores and Amanda is a National Guard recruitingofficer.Teresa Noverr, AB'87, is on a Rotary Foundation graduate scholarship in Chiang Mai, Thailand, researching Thailand's economic development and urbanization as well as traveling inSoutheast Asia. She writes that any visitors toChiang Mai are welcome to stop by for a chat.Paul Patten, AB'87, and Marianne Laird,AB'89, of Cambridge, MA, were married inAugust.Sarah C. Young Smith, AB'87, attends theKennedy School of Government at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.Ellen S. Podgor, MBA'87, is associate professor of law at the St. Thomas University School ofLaw, Miami, FL.Maurice A. Sone, AB'87, received his M.A. inpolitical science from Northwestern Universityand now works in Chicago as the midwest censusdirector for the Mexican American Legal Defenseand Educational Fund in Chicago.QQ Monica J. Casper, AB'88, and MatthewOO AllenKing, AB'86, were married in Augustin the British Virgin Islands. Monica is a development associate for the University and plans to return to school for graduate studies in sociology,and Matthew works for a management consultingfirm in Evanston, IL.In May, Heidi Lynn Handler, AB'88, marriedPhilip S. Kwait, MD'89. Heidi, who attended Tu-lane University Law School for the past year, hastransferred to Cardozo Law School.Bryan Hillis, PhD'88, has a two-year appointment at Luther College of the University of Re-gina, Saskatchewan, Canada.Jessica Meltsner, AM'88, and Brian Britt,AM'87, were married in August. Jessica is a psychiatric social worker at the University of ChicagoHospitals and Brian is a Ph.D. candidate at theUniversity, as well as an instructor in the University's Basic Program in Liberal Education forAdults.Sarah Aldis Rotch, AB'88, received the Director's Award as the best overall student at the National Park Service law enforcement training program. This past summer, she was a seasonalranger with the National Park Service in BryceCanyon, UT.Laura M. Sangree, MBA'88, is lecturer in business administration at the University of Malawi,where she and her husband, David, are on assignment with the Peace Corps. She writes that if anyone has recent, unwanted textbooks and is willingto ship them to Africa, they would be greatly appreciated. Her address is P.O. Box 208, Ilongwe,Malawi.Amelia Schmertz, AB'88. See 1986, SharonLynn Martin.QQ John (Chip) Grace, MBA'89. See 1986,Oy Sharon Lynn Martin.Philip S. Kwait, MD'89. See 1988, Heidi LynnHandler.Marianne Laird, AB'89. See 1987, Paul Patten.Amanda Vesey, AB'89. See 1987, Joseph Mills.Martin Runkle, AM'73, director of the University Library, would like to thank the membersof the Class of 1989 for establishing an endowedbook fund as their senior class gift. Over $5,000was raised, qualifying for a matching amountfrom an anonymous donor. The fund, given inmemory of former Admissions Dean Dan Hall,will be used for the unrestricted acquisition andpreservation of books. Maritza Diaz-Silveira, MBA'89, and Winton Gibbons, MBACatherine Taylor, AB'89, and David Taylor, MAT 63.Sandra Goldberg; Robert Lembersky, MD'89; DianeFaust, AM'86; and Barry Lembersky.Sharon Petti; Bernadette Petti; Norman Petti;Christopher Petti; Mary Petti, AB'84, MD'89; MichaelRuddat, AB'85, MD'89; Helene Ruddat; ManfredRuddat, associate professor in the Departments ofMolecular Genetics and Cell Biology and Biology, theCommittee on Developmental Biology, and the College;Helga Ruddat; Monica Ruddat, AB '88; and Jim Sutton.49Anne Puotinen, AB'89, and Arthur Puotinen, AM'69,PhD'73.Ashraf Eldifrawi, SB'88; Tarek Elmasry, AB'89; andHassan Elmasry, AB'84, MBA'87.Adele Kamp; Ronald Golden, PhD '69; Barbara Golden,SB'89; and Peggy Golden.Heather Leek Rule; Alex Rule; Richard C. Leek, AB'52,SB '55, MD'59; Derek C. Leek, X'84, MBA'89; EstherMcCandtess Leek, X'60; Richard L. Gallo, AB'80(holding Lauren G. Gallo); and Kristin Leek Gallo, X'80(holding R. Maxwell Gallo). DEATHSFACULTYFrederick L. Marriott, died October 9 at theage of 87. From 1928 to 1952 he was the organist atRockefeller Chapel and a member of the University faculty. Two of his compositions won prizesfrom the Ecole de Carillon in Mechelen, Belgium,which awarded him the honorary degree of Meritorious Laureate. He played in European andAmerican symphonies and taught at several universities. In the 1960s he became the organist andcarilloneur of the world's largest carillon at Kirk inthe Hills Church, MI, a post he held until hisdeath. Survivors include his wife, Verdeane; fourchildren; four grandchildren; and two greatgrandchildren.STAFFAlba Mazzitelli Muhlenberg, AM'58,PhD'65, who served the University's StudentHealth Clinic for many years, died August 6 . Afterleaving the University, she had a private practiceand was a member of the psychology departmentof Northwestern University's School of Medicine.Survivors include her husband, John.THE CLASSESNorma E. Pfeiffer, SB'09, PhD'13, a botanistwho was an expert on lilies, died August 23. Following her discovery of a new plant, Thismia ameri-cana, she received her Ph.D., the University'syoungest doctorate recipient at the time. She was amember of the faculties of the University of NorthDakota and of the Boyce Thompson Institute forPlant Research (now part of Cornell University).Survivors include a sister, Marcella PfeifferWood, SB'23, and a nephew, Ralph Wood, AB'48.Phyllis Greenacre, SB'13, MD'16, died October 24 at the age of 95 . A psychoanalyst and author,she was a former director of the Payne-WhitneyPsychiatric Clinic, in New York City, where shethen had her own practice until her retirement fiveyears ago. She wrote several books on child development, was a president of the American Psychoanalytic Association, and professor emeritus ofclinical psychiatry at Cornell University MedicalCollege. Survivors include two children, eightgrandchildren, and six great-grandchildren.Olga Jane Laxman Sweetin, AA'16, of Newport Beach, CA, died in July.D. Katharine Rogers, PhB'16, AM'38, ofUrbana, IL, died in July.Dorothy Brainerd Power, PhB'18, of RanchoPalos Verdes, CA, died July 8 at the age of 92.Survivors include a daughter.Earl M. Weiner, SB'19, died August 3 at theage of 91. He was a Chicago public school teacherfor 42 years, serving at Lane Technical High Schooland as head of the chemistry department atTilden Technical High School. Survivors includetwo children, five grandchildren, seven greatgrandchildren, and a brother.Dan Huntington Fenn, AM '20, of Cambridge,MA, died July 27.Bethany Uphaus, PhB '20, died August 1 at theage of 89. Survivors include a great-nephew.Samuel J. Hachtman, X'21, died September8 at the age of 89. He practiced law until 1963,when he founded the Sugarless Candy Corp. inChicago. Survivors include his wife, Rose; adaughter; two grandchildren; and two greatgrandchildren.Virginia Hibben Becker, PhB '22, a member ofPhi Beta Kappa, died October 3. Survivors includea daughter. Elizabeth Bowen Brandstadt, PhB'22, ofChicago, died September 3. Survivors include herhusband, Wayne.Harry Leichenger, SB'22, MD'23, died October 6 at the age of 89. For over 50 years he wason the staff of the Michael Reese Hospital andMedical Center and had a private pediatricpractice. Survivors include two children and fivegrandchildren.Marion Muncaster Waterman, PhB'25, ofOak Brook, IL, died July 2. She was 86 years old.Survivors include a daughter.John I. Wright, PhB'25, AM'34, died October13 at the age of 94. He joined the faculty of Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, in 1931, wherehe served as associate professor of history, student council adviser, Socratic Literary Societysponsor, and faculty adviser. He was also mayorof Carbondale from 1947 to 1959, as well as cityfinance commissioner and police commissioner.Survivors include two children, a sister, and twograndchildren.EdnaE. E. Crowley, PhB'26, AM'31, of Chicago, died March 9.Jeanette Tamon Kann, PhB '27, died September 3 at the age of 81 . An artist and teacher, she waspresident of the North Shore Art League. Herwork was shown at the Art Institute of Chicago, aswell as many Chicago-area galleries. At the timeof her death, she was still painting and exhibiting oils and watercolors. Survivors include twochildren.Thomas R. Mulroy, PhB'27, JD'28, died September 25 at the age of 84. A leader in the fields oflaw, crime control, and health care, he headed theChicago Crime Commission, the Citizens Committee to Study Police and Community Relations,and the Evanston Hospital Corp. He was also anauthor and a generous funder of various symposia, fellowships, and awards. Survivors includehis wife, Dorothy Reiner Mulroy, X'30; threechildren; eleven grandchildren; and a greatgrandchild.Myrtle M. Olson Ostberg, PhB'27, of LaGrange Park, IL, died September 2.Effie Mauger Hall, PhB'28, of Oak Park, IL,died February 9 1989. Survivors include adaughter.JohnC. Kennan, PhB'28, of Phoenix, AZ, diedApril 28. He was president of Singer-Sve, Inc.William H. Perkins, PhB'28, of Largo, FL,died August 11.Fount G. Warren, MAT'28, of Kentwood, MI,died May 5. In 1913, he organized the laboratoryhigh school at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, serving as a teacher and principal. Afterearning his University degree, he joined SIUC'seducation department, which he chaired for 20years. Survivors include two children, sevengrandchildren, twelve great-grandchildren, andthree great-great-grandchildren.Margaret Boiler, PhB '29, died September 19 atthe age of 85. For many years, she was director ofpupil personnel and assistant to the superintendent for the Chicago Board of Education. Survivorsinclude a brother.William Brumlik, PhB'29, died September 19at the age of 83. He served as Cook County assistant state's attorney for 20 years and was a partnerin several law firms. He was a member and pastpresident of both the Skokie Youth Commissionand B'nai Jehoshua. Survivors include his wife,Stella; a son; three grandchildren; a brother; anda sister.Margaret Adkinson Chapman, PhB'29, ofCarmi,IL, died September9at the age of 82. Survivors include a daughter.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990lone Hosman, AM'29, of Hemet, CA, diedSeptember 30.Chester C. Schroeder, PhB'29, of Evansville,IN, died April 6. He was a chartered life underwriter for Northwestern Mutual Life InsuranceCompany. Survivors include a daughter.Theodate Haines Soule, AM'29, died July 24at the age of 93. She was director of social servicesat the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Centerand a past president of the medical social worksection of the National Association of Social Workers. After her retirement in 1962, she served as aconsultant to the United Hospital Fund of NewYork.Mary Buckley, PhB'30, died October 1 at theage of 83. She was a teacher in the Chicago publicschool system for 45 years. Survivors include twochildren, ten grandchildren, a brother, and asister.Marguerite Adrienne Taylor, PhB'30, of Jacksonville, FL, died September 22. Survivors include her husband, Robert.Hugh F. Hall, JD'31, died February 9, 1989, atthe age of 91. A long-time legal adviser to theAmerican Farm Bureau and a practicing lawyerinto his 80s, he was also a manager for H&R Blockin Hillside, Wheaton, and Oak Park, IL. He is survived by a son, a daughter, a sister, and threegrandchildren.Erma Janssen Cell, AM'32, of Evanston, IL.Survivors include a son.Jack L. Hough, SB'32, SM'34, PhD'40, of EastJordan, MI, died July 10 . He was a professor at theUniversity of Michigan.Theodore G. Phillips, SB'33, SM'36, AM'49,PhD'52, president emeritus of Harry S TrumanCollege, Chicago, died September 12 at the age of78. Although he never served as president of thecollege, he was president of its immediate predecessor, Mayfair College, in which capacity hesupervised the physical construction and the development of curriculum of Truman. He was associated with the City Colleges of Chicago for almost40 years, and was also a veteran of WW II. Survivors include his wife, Anne, and a sister.Robert D. Bulkley, PhB'33, a minister in Portland, OR, died March 28. Survivors include hiswife, Loretta.Anna L. Keaton, PhD'33, dean of womenemerita at Illinois State University, died July 17.Daniel Rhodes, PhB'33, of Swanton, CA, diedJuly 23. He began his career as a painter, but wasbest known for his figurative pieces in ceramicsand pottery. His works are on permanent displayat Washington's Smithsonian Institution and Japan's Museum of Modern Art, among other museums and galleries. He also taught at Alfred University, NY, at the University of California, SantaCruz, and at Stanford University. Survivors include his second wife, Mary Beth Coulter Rhodes;a son Aaron Rhodes, AM'76, PhD'80; a daughter;two stepchildren; and three grandchildren.Maurice S. Weigle, PhB'33, JD'35, diedAugust 27. Survivors include his wife, HelenRosenberg Weigle, AB'35; two children; fourgrandchildren; and a sister.Esther Weber Handsfield, PhB '34, of La Jolla,CA, died July 14. Survivors include her husband,Hugh; two sons; and a granddaughter.Forrest E. LaViolette, AM'34, PhD'46, diedSeptember 28 at the age of 85 . He was on the staffsof the University of Washington and McGill University before moving to Tulane University, NewOrleans, LA, where he was head of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology. His research at Heart Mountain Relocation Center during WW II formed the basis for his later works onthe problems arising from the wartime internmentof Japanese Americans. He also studied the sociology of Colombia and the relationship of the Canadian government to Native American organizations. Survivors include his wife, Vera, and adaughter. Dorothy Beineke, X'35, of Chicago, diedJanuary 9.Dexter Fairbank, X'35, died August 21 at theage of 78. An account executive for Merrill LynchPierce Fenner & Smith for over 30 years, he servedas treasurer of the Democratic Party of Oregon,and was a member of the American Civil LibertiesUnion and the World Affairs Council of Oregon.Survivors include three children and fivegrandchildren.Grace Newman Lanning, PhB'35, of Seattle,WA, died May 13. She was active for many years innursing education, serving the American HeartAssociation, the Florida Heart Association,and Virginia Mason Hospital. She also foundeda support group for people with Parkinson'sdisease. Survivors include two children and sixgrandchildren.Robert F. Baldaste, SB'36, died July 26. Retired, he was formerly director of organizationalplanning for Amoco Oil, Chicago, and was a member of the board of trustees of the University'sBrain Research Foundation. Survivors include hiswife, Agnes, and a sister.Sidney W. Finkel, X'36, died August 11 at theage of 74. A veteran of WW II, he was an officer atthe First National Bank, Hollywood, FL, andchairman of the board of Hollywood MemorialHospital. Survivors include his wife, Grace; threechildren; and five grandchildren.Joseph Pessin, MD'36, of Burbank, CA, diedin September.Joseph S. Angell, MD'37, died May 19.Verdelle Taylor Guess, PhB '37, of Sedona,AZ, died June 12.Mary Louise Hoagland, X'37, of Chicago, diedJuly 17. Former director of social services at GrantHospital, she also worked for the Illinois Department of Handicapped Children. Survivors include a sister.Thomas L. Karsten, AB'37, JD'39, died July31. He served as an assistant to the Under-Secretary of the Interior, a naval aide to the governor of Puerto Rico during WW II, and associateU.S. prosecutor of the Nuremberg Tribunal. Hewas also an author, a member of the New York andChicago bar associations, and the founder andchairman of Karsten Realty Advisors, LosAngeles. Survivors include his wife, MarilynHerst Karsten, PhB '44; four children; a brother;and a grandson.Marguerite Bradford Rosenfelder, SB'37, ofHo-Ho-Kus, NJ, died in June.Floyd O. Reeves, AB'38, died September 25 atthe age of 73. He was a U.S. Treasury Departmenteconomist for 33 years and had served in WW II.Survivors include his wife, Helen Telford Reeves,PhB'32; a daughter; a brother; a sister; and twograndchildren.Seymour S. Rosenhouse, AB'38, an attorneywith Seymour & Rosenhouse, Highland Park, IL,died August 24. Survivors include his wife,Jeanne, and a son, Michael Rosenhouse, JD'74.Harold M. Bainbridge, MBA'39, died August26 at the age of 72. Before his retirement he wastreasurer and administrative assistant to the vice-president of finance at FS Services, Bloomington,IN. Survivors include three children, four brothers, and three grandchildren.Donald R. Fryxell, AM'39, of Sioux Falls, SD,died November 9, 1988.Henry G. Grossman, AB'39, died October 30at the age of 71. A lieutenant in the Navy duringWW II, he started his own business in 1952, retiring last year. He was a member of the UniversityAlumni 50th Reunion Committee. Survivors include his wife, Jeannien; three children; and abrother, Arthur Grossman, AB'35, JD'37.Willard N. Hogan, PhD'39, died March 16. Hewas a professor in the political science departmentof the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Survivorsinclude his wife, Hildur.Thatcher M. Jordan, AM'39, a minister in Michael Corrado, jD'84; Crispin Corrado, AB'89;Martin Goulet, SB '87; and Gail Corrado, MBA'87.Jessica Carol Kissinger, AB'89, and C. Clark Kissinger,SB'60, SM'62. (Not shown: Judy Jo Miller Kissinger,AB'63, and Willard Miller, Jr., SB'58.)Ann Messerschmidt; Fred Messerschmidt, AB'39,JD'4l; Eric Messerschmidt, MBA'89; and RebeccaMesserschmidt.Alfreda Eddings; Mrs. Alfreda Eddings; George H.Eddings, Jr., MBA'89; Angela Faye Threlkeld, MBA'88;andGeorgeH. Eddings, Sr., MST'71.Claremont, CA, died June 9. Survivors include hiswife, Vivian.Ruth E. Parker, SM'39, of Warsaw, MO.David Scheffer, AB'39, JD'41, of Portland,OR, died July 12 at the age of 71. After his service inWW II, he worked for the Internal Revenue Service, was a partner in a Boston law firm, andtaught at Western State University's College ofLaw. Survivors include a sister, a nephew, and aniece.Lea Mallison Seale, X'39, of LaFayette, LA,died last year.Charlotte A. Russell Pellini, AB'42, AM'43,died October 21 at the age of 81. She was chief ofsocial services at the Institute of Mental Health inProvidence, RI, until her retirement in 1973, whenshe became a volunteer tutor. She was a member ofthe Academy of Certified Social Workers, theAmerican Group Psychotherapy Association, andspoke about alcoholism to many organizations.Survivors include her husband, Italo.Elizabeth Hilts Simpson, MAT'44, died September 21 at the age of 68. A reading expert andteacher, she authored books on the subject andhelped to develop a machine to help those withreading disabilities. She was an assistant professor at Stephens College, an associate professor atthe Illinois Institute of Technology, and a memberof Science Research Associates. Survivors includetwo children and two grandchildren.Louise Ecklund Blakeman, X'45, died October 1 at the age of 65. She was active in many charitable and service organizations in the Chicagoarea. Survivors include her husband, LloydBlakeman, Jr., SB'44; twochildren; a brother; andtwo grandchildren.RobertC. Dwyer, AB'46, died August 20 at theage of 70. He began his military service as a privatein the U.S. Army in 1942 and retired from activeduty in 1972 as a regular army lieutenant colonel.He served in Europe during WW II, in Korea, andin Vietnam. He was a lifetime member of the Retired Officers Association and a member of the PhiGamma Delta fraternity. Survivors include hiswife, Yvette.Howard S. Levin, SB'46, died July 24 at hishome in New York City. He was the founder of theLevin-Townsend Computer Corporation andLevin International. He was also an author and aparticipant in the Manhattan Project during WWII. Survivors include his companion, Sydell R.Kraft; two daughters; and two granddaughters.Nicholas G. Mavromatis, MBA'47, died April28. He served the University of Akron as assistantfood service director.Lauri Elizabeth Hodges-Olsen, AM'48, ofSalt Lake City, UT, died two years ago. Survivorsinclude a son.Donald Coppy, SB'48, of Chicago, died February 28 1989.Robert Schultz, AB'48, who helped to shapethe Chicago Daily Netvs in its last years, died September 15 at the age of 66. A reporter and city editor, he worked for the newspaper for 27 years,capping off his career there as a political columnist. After the paperceased publication in 1978, hebecame president of the Illinois Insurance Information Service, a public relations and service organization. Survivors include his wife, Vernette;three children; and two grandchildren.Robert L. Turton, AB'48, SB'50, a teacher inChicago, died September 15. Survivors includehis wife, Vera Corona Turton, AB'49, AB'56; sixchildren; and three grandchildren.Bert Hindmarch, MBA 49, professor emeritusof Purdue University-Calumet and a Hammond,IN, civic leader, died July 13. Hindmarch was apart-time lecturer at Purdue Calumet from 1947until 1969, when he left his position with AmstedIndustries, Inc., Chicago, to become a full-timeprofessor. Dedicated to historic preservation andeconomic improvement, he served on several historical societies and received the Hammond Chamber of Commerce's Outstanding BusinessAward. Survivors include his wife, Margery, andtwo children.Michael Harrington, AM'49, political leader,lecturer, teacher and author, died July 31 at the ageof 61. He was cochairman of the DemocraticSocialists of America, Distinguished Professor ofPolitical Science at Queens College, NY, and author of The Other America, the book that stimulatedthe federal government's War on Poverty in the1960s. Harrington was one of the most visiblespokesmen for the DSA, which he represented atinternational democratic socialist meetings. TheOther America, winner of the George Polk and theSidney Hillman awards, was a stark analysis of thevast poverty in America amidst its apparent prosperity. Survivors include his wife, Stephanie, andtwo sons.C. V. Neal Kaveny, AM'49, died October 31,1988. The Reverend Kaveny was an associate professor at Quincy College, Quincy, IL.Robert Edward Cleveland, DB'51, one of theyoungest students ever to enter the University'sDivinity School, died May 28. An ordained minister of the United Church of Christ, he retired fromthe ministry in 1972. Survivors include his wife,June.George W. Hohl, PhD'51, professor emeritusof Iowa State University, Ames.Donald Lueck, AM '51, was managing directorof Intex Executives, Ltd., London, England.Arturs Baumanis, AM'52, died July 17 at theage of 84. Born in Latvia, he served the DetroitPublic Library from 1954 until his retirement in1970. He was also a writer, a teacher, a journalist,and director of the Latvian Museum of Literatureand the Theatre Arts. Survivors include his wife,Irene; four children; and five grandchildren.E. Kenneth Kimpton, AM'52, of Asheboro,NC, died September 9.James R. Allison, JD'55, an attorney in EastPalestine, OH, died September 11. Survivorsinclude his wife, Eleanor, and a son.Robert De Witt Reid,MBA'57, died October 23.He was owner of Robert Reid Associates, an executive search firm in Kenil worth, IL, and a past boardmember of the Heart Association of MetropolitanChicago. Survivors include his wife, Clare-Ru,and a daughter.Robert E. Phelps, X'60, died August 2 at theage of 66. As an editor and translator, he was instrumental in introducing the author Colette toAmericans, whose autobiography he later edited.He also edited the works of Jean Cocteau andJames Agee. He was a founder of Grove Press andan author himself, writing both works of fictionand literary criticism. Survivors include his wife,Rosemarie; a son; and a granddaughter.Frank Kapple, MBA'62, a manager at the El Paso County Bank in Monument, CO, died last year.Mary Delue Romano Tschudy, AB'63, diedJuly 31 at the age of 46. She had been director of social work at the National Rehabilitation Hospital inWashington, DC, since its opening in 1986. Shewas a member of the National Association of Social Workers and was a recipient of NRH'sGoldschmidt award for excellence in rehabilitation. Survivors include her parents, Mr. and Mrs.Ross Delue.Lemm Allen, AM'67, of Mitchellville, MD,died July 19. Survivors include his wife, Yvonne.Harold E. Marx, AB'67, died July 14 at the ageof 44. He was a probation officer for the juvenile division of the Cook County (IL) Circuit Court,where for the past six years he chaired the probation officer-supervisor committee meetings. Survivors include his parents, Martin and Ilsa Marx.William Gochee, PhD'70, of Joliet, IL, diedAugust 6. Professor of religious studies at LewisUniversity, he helped to found that department in1965. He was the author of several biblical publications and was adjunct professor at DePaul University and the College of St . Francis, Joliet. SurvivorsUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/ WINTER 1990include his wife, Rosemary Gochee; four children; his mother; and a brother.Mary-Helen Mautner, JD'70, died August 24at the age of 44. She was a lawyer at the U.S. Department of Labor, which she joined as part of thelegal staff of the old Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Active in many feminist organizations, she was a past editor of Quest: A FeministQuarterly, and a founder of the Women's Legal Defense Fund. Survivors include her long-time companion, Susan Hester; their daughter; a sister;and her father.Louis L. Scavarda, AM'74, of San Mateo, CA,died August 17 1988.Ignacio Martin-Baro, AM'77, PhD'79, diedNovember 16 at the age of 47. Father Martin-Barowas a native of Spain who had spent more thanhalf his life in El Salvador, immigrating there before attending the University, where he earned hisdoctorate in behavioral science and social and organizational psychology. He returned to El Salvador to teach at Jose Simon Canas University, the Catholic University of El Salvador, eventually becoming head of the psychology department andvice-rector, the post he held until his death. Hewas also the editor of the scholarly journal EstudiosCentroamericanos. As a practitioner of LiberationTheology, a branch of Catholic thought that callsfor the social empowerment of the masses, he wasinvolved in aiding negotiations between the warring factions of his country.Ernst Gruenewald, PhD'80, died August 12,just before his 85th birthday. An article derivedfrom his dissertation topic is being publishedposthumously in the Yearbook of the Leo BaeckInstitute.Laura Joan Hadad, MD'83, died August 31 atthe age of 33 . A Fulbright student before attendingthe University, she specialized in internal medicine with the practice of Perry, Moore, Lawrenz,Schubert & Battle in Washington, DC. Survivors include her husband, Robert Seyffert; herparents; two brothers; three sisters; and agrandmother.BOOKS by AlumniARTS & LETTERSDonE. Fehrenbacher, AM'48, PhD'51, editor,Abraham Lincoln: Speeches and Writings (Library ofAmerica). This two-volume collection is the mostcomprehensive selection of the writings of Lincoln ever published. Volume one covers Lincoln'syears as an Illinois lawyer and politician, showinghis development as a speech-giver and party loyalist. Volume two covers the years of presidency,including speeches, Civil War proclamations,personal meditations, and letters.Roberta Klemm, X'03 (now deceased), andEdward G. Klemm, Jr., PhB'32, What's the Difference? (International University Press). Over 200pairs of words, whose meanings are often confused, are compared and contrasted.Philip Kolb, PhB'31, AM'32, Marcel Proust,Correspondance Texle etabli, pr'esente et annate par PhilipKolb Tome XVII, 1918 (Plon). Letters written byProust and his correspondents during the last yearof WW II.Ted Lerud, AM'74, PhD'82, Social and PoliticalDimensions of the English Corpus Christi Drama (Garland Press).Leo Rosten, PhB'30, PhD'37, The Joys ofYinglish(McGraw-Hill).Esther Millman Sparks, AB'51, Universal Limited Art Editions: A History and Catalogue (Harry N.Abrams, Inc.).BIOGRAPHYSusan Pearlman Kagan, X'49, Archduke Rudolph, Beethoven's Patron, Pupil, and Friend: His Life andMusic (Pendragon Press). The first book-lengthstudy of this Habsburg prince of the Austrian empire surveys his life and his major compositions,then focuses on Beethoven's role as his teacher.Ernest Samuels, PhB'23, JD'26, AM'31, HenryAdams (Harvard University Press). Samuels hascondensed his three-volume, Pulitzer Prize-winning biography into one volume, coveringAdams's life as a student, journalist, historian,and cosmopolite.Hans A. Schmitt, AM'43, PhD'53, Lucky Victim: An OrdinaryLife in Extraordinary Times, 1933-1946(Louisiana State University Press).Bud Freeman, Crazeology: The Autobiography of aChicago Jazzman, as told to Robert Wolf, AM'77 (University of Illinois Press). Freeman, whoplayed with the Austin High Gang, Benny Goodman, and Tommy Dorsey, still draws standing-room-only crowds in Chicago. This is the story ofone of the foremost tenor saxophone players in thejazz world, highlighting the contributions ofFreeman and his peers to Chicago's black musicscene, where jazz developed into a true musicalgenre.BUSINESS & ECONOMICSYoram Barzel, PhD'61, Economic Analysis ofProperty Rights (Cambridge University Press). Thisstudy considers how the maximization of thevalue of the rights to property affects allocation ofresources and forms of organization.Teresa Sullivan, AM'72, PhD'75, JayWestbrook, and Elizabeth Warren, As We ForgiveOur Debtors: Bankruptcy and Consumer Credit in America (Oxford University Press). Comparing bankruptcy in three states, the authors attempt to shedlight on a bankruptcy system that is largely unknown to the public . In an analysis of the consumer credit industry, they focus on non-businessconsumer debtors, a group that is a cross-sectionof American class and economic levels.CRITICISMDena Goodman, AM'78, PhD'82, Criticism inAction: Enlightenment Experiments in Political Writing(Cornell University Press). Interpretations ofthree Enlightenment texts show how critical theory rejected the earlier traditions of discourse andshaped its own agenda.Laura Harris Hapke, AM'69, Girts Who WentWrong: Prostitutes in American Fiction, 1885-1917(Bowling Green University Popular Press). Ananalysis of the dilemma of representative American writers caught between sympathy for and condemnation of the prostitute places their fiction inits cultural context. In a literature known for itspuritanism about female sexuality, these novelistscould only defend the prostitute by using the conventions of denial to sanitize or romanticize her.Jack J. Himelblau, AB'58, AM'59, QuicheWorlds in Creation: The Povol Vuh as a Narrative Work ofArt (Labyrinthos). The Popol Vuh, widely considered the finest indigenous American work of PaulHolbo, AM'55, PhD'61; John Holbo, AB'89; KayHolbo; and Dagny Holbo.Clayton Cafiero, X'86; Deborah Satinsky, AB'89;Andrew Satinsky, AB '85, MD '89; Carta Satinsky; andDavid Satinsky.Willard J. Blix; Ursula S. Blix; Ursula C. Gruber, studentin the Laboratory Schools; Petra M. Blix, PhD' 89; andBenjamin Gruber, PhD'80, MD'82.Manuel Tarragona; Margarita Tarragona; MargaritaTarragona-Oliveres, PhD'89; Jose Oliveres, MBA'78;Margarita Saez; and Pedro Saez.53literature written during the colonial period, isstudied from several points of view— historical, literary, and structural.George Steiner, AB'48, Real Presences (University of Chicago Press) . In this criticism of criticism,art, which cannot be reduced to concepts, becomes an important source of spiritual consolation in a skeptical age dominated by science.Through the ideological and psychological historyof the Western communicative tradition, Steinerillustrates the primacy of art over commentary,focusing on the themes of language, nihilism, andmodernity.Brian Stonehill, AM'74, PhD'78, The Self-Conscious Novel: Artifice in Fiction from Joyce to Pynchon(University of Pennsylvania Press). Stonehill 's examination of the literary and philosophical issuesof fiction writing is now available in paperback.EDUCATIONForrest W. Parkay, PhD'78, and Beverly Hard-castle, Becoming a Teacher: Accepting the Challenge of aProfession (Allyn and Bacon). The authors discussteaching as a profession and examine the historical, philosophical, political, and legal foundations of American education.Forrest W. Parkay, PhD'78, and GordonGreenwood, Case Studies for Teacher Decision Making(RandomHouse). This book presents 30 case studies based on actual problem situations encountered by beginning and experienced teachers.Peter Smagorinsky, MAT'77, PhD'89, andSteven Gevinson, AM'75, MAT'78, Ph.D. candidate, Fostering the Reader's Response: Rethinking the Literature Curriculum, Grades 7-12 (Dale SeymourPublications). The authors' model structure for ameaning-centered, literature-based English curriculum recognizes reading not only as an intellectual activity, but also as a personal experiencethat can open the doors to self-knowledge andgrowth.April Wilson, AM'74, German Quickly: A Grammar for Reading German (Peter Lang Publishing).This grammar teaches the fundamentals for reading German texts of all types and levels of difficulty. Vocabulary and glossary lists are included.FICTION & POETRYSaul Bellow, X'39, The Bellarosa Connection(Penguin) . Through a story about a man's attemptsto thank his benefactor, Bellow's novella examinesthe price that one pays as an American Jew and a"child of the New World."Glenna Lang, AB'72, illustrator, My Shadow,by Robert Louis Stevenson (David R. Godine).Lang's illustrations of Stevenson's popular poemcreate a visual narrative of a young girl's travelthrough a dream with her shadow companion.The pictures' strong, simple shapes and colorsshould appeal to even the youngest children.Helena Parente Cunha, translated by Fred P.Ellison and Naomi Lindstrom, AB'71, Woman between Mirrors (University of Texas Press) . This is anEnglish translation of Cunha's Brazilian feministnovel.Vejas Liulevicius, AB'88, Sudden Awareness: MyLife as a Swedenborgian (Weston House Press). A collection of stories depicts the coming-of-age of agroup of Swedish-Americans as they try to reconcile their spiritual aims with their excursions intoNew York City counterculture.Nancy Huddleston Packer, AM'47, The WomenWho Walk (Louisiana State University Press). Thisis a collection of short stories.HISTORY & CURRENT AFFAIRSDaniel J. Elazar, AM'57, PhD'59, contributor,Minnesota in a Century of Change: The State and Its PeopleSince 1900 (Minnesota Historical Society Press) . Essays by historians, geographers, educators, and scholars explore Minnesota in the 20th century,from labor movements to religious and culturalchanges.Alston Fitts, PhD'74, Selma: Queen City of theBlack Belt (Clairmont Press). A small Alabamatown's history is traced from antebellum days tothe present. The author emphasizes its two moments of fame: in 1865, when it was sacked byUnion troops, and in 1965, when it witnessed theclimax of the Civil Rights Movement.Robert A. Hurwitch, AB'49, Columbus and Isabel(Don Bosco Multimedia). In connection with theupcoming quincentenary of Columbus's discovery of the Americas, Hurwitch's book has beenpublished in English, Spanish, and Italian.John F. Melby, AM'36, PhD'41, and W. W.Straka, editors, Constantine Nabokov: Letters of a Russian Diplomat to an American Friend, 1906-1922 (EdwinMellen Press). The letters of Nabokov and DonaldNesbit offer insight into Russian diplomacy andforeign policy in the early 20th century, especiallyin light of the 1905 Revolution . The editors includehistorical background and an introduction.Joan Wehlen Morrison, AB'44, From Camelot toKent State (Times Books). This is an oral history ofthe 1960s in America, containing several firsthandaccounts of the student movement at the University of Chicago.Thomas Parrish, AB'49, AM'79, Roosevelt andMarshall: Partners in Politics and War (William Morrow & Co.). Following the two men from childhood onward, Parrish portrays Marshall as a foilfor FDR, a leader whom even those who hated thePresident could respect. Looking beyond theirlifespans, he argues that by shifting the balanceaway from civilian control of the military, FDR andMarshall set a dangerous precedent that wouldlater be abused by soldiers such as Oliver North.Steven Riess, AM'69, PhD'74, City Games: TheEvolution of American Urban Society and the Rise of Sports(University of Illinois Press). Riess argues thatAmerica's sports institutions are not simply aproduct of urbanization but have exercised a dee'pinfluence on urban areas. He demonstrates howthe American sports creed challenged traditionalsporting culture, encouraging athletic activitiesthat provided respectable social contacts, integrated immigrants, and countered a stressful urbanenvironment.Howard B. Schonberger, AB'62, Aftermath ofWar: Americans and the Remaking of Japan, 1945-1952(Kent State University Press). From a defeated enemy to the principal U.S. ally in the Far East, thisanalysis of the reconstruction of occupied Japanprovides insights into the recent conflicts betweenJapan and the U.S., suggesting that the countriesreconsider the reform agenda rejected by officialAmerican policy after 1947.David Segal, AM'63, PhD'67, Recruiting for Uncle Sam: Citizenship and Military Manpower Policy (University Press of Kansas) . In a society that no longerviews military service as an obligation of citizenship, complications arise in the peopling of themilitary. Along with an analysis of this problem,the author also explores the evolution of relationsbet ween U S. military and civilian matters, including such social programs as the welfare system.Jeff Smith, AM'81, Unthinking the Unthinkable:Nuclear Weapons and Western C«/fwre(Indiana University Press). Although nuclear weapons are relatively new, the attitudes toward them are centuriesold. In a study that ranges from St. Augustine toDr. Strangelove, the author describes how suchviews might be "unthought" in the creation of anantinuclear politic.Steven C. Wheatley, AM'75, PhD'82, The Politics ofPhilanthropy: Abraham Flexnerand Medical Education (University of Wisconsin Press). The contentious figure of Flexner, head of the RockefellerGeneral Education Board's medical programs, isstudied as a model of the evolution of philanthropic organizations. Wheatley argues that Flexner'spower was self-limiting, and that his ultimate f ail-UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990ure resulted from the rigidity of his program for astandardized national network of competentphysicians.The great American gameJoelZoss, AB'66, and John Bowman, Diamondsin the Rough: The Untold History of Baseball (MacmillanPublishing Co.). Part social history, part baseballlover's dream, this compendium of the sport givesa fresh overview of baseball as a metaphor ofAmerican life. Entertaining facts and anecdotes,rare photographs, and the investigation of issuessuch as racism and drug use, attack much of theaccepted lore of baseball and bring the game intoits historical and social context.MEDICINE & HEALTHMichael D. Franzen, AB'75, Reliability and Validity in Neuropsychological Assessment (Plenum) . Examining the underpinnings of clinical assessment inneuropsychology, the author explores the applicability of modern methodologies and evaluatestheir current instruments.MichaelD. Franzen, AB'75, and Richard Berg,Screening for Brain Impairment in Children (Springer).This companion to an earlier book aimed at adultpopulations reviews the instruments that can beused to investigate children's neuropsychologicalfunctional areas in relation to developmentalnorms.Eliot Freidson, PhB'47, AM'50, PhD'52, Medical Work in America: Essays on Health Care (Yale University Press) . In a discussion of the forces that arereshaping medical work, the author offers proposals to reduce costs and to counter the dehumaniza-tion that plagues the health care system of theUnited States.POLITICAL SCIENCE & LAWFrancis A. Boyle, AB'71, The Future of International Law and American Foreign Policy (TransnationalPublishers, Inc.). The author analyzes problemsthat have confronted American policy from an international law perspective. Boyle's alternativeapproach repudiates the traditional realpolitikmethods of recent politicians and takes into account the diversity of viewpoints held by differentsections of the world community.Robert Crummey, AM'59, PhD'64, editor, Reform in Russia and the U. S.S.R. (University of IllinoisPress). Political scientists and historians examinepast attempts at reform and relate them to prospects for the future. Gorbachev's campaign ofperestroika, for example, is examined in terms ofits attempt to make the Soviet government moreeffective and responsive to popular needs andeconomics. Francis D. Wormuth and Edwin Firmage,JD'63, LLM'64, JSD'64, To Chain the Dog of War: TheWar Power of CongressinHistoryandLaw(Umversity ofIllinois Press). In opposition to the secrecy in war-making that some politicians believe is necessaryin the age of nuclear weaponry, the authors arguethat nuclear technology demands more restraintin the way America enters war. Material on recentevents, such as the Iran-Contra affair, examine thecovert war techniques that have been practicedsince the end of WW II, especially during the presidency of Ronald Reagan.Susan G. Hadden, AM'68, PhD'72, A Citizen'sRight to Know: Risk Communication and Public Policy(Westview Press). Communities and individualswho need to deal with threats such as pollutantsand toxic wastes often have trouble getting information to evaluate their risk and act upon it. Theauthor raises questions to inform a more effectivepublic policy and clarify the ambiguities that confront people caught in such situations.Roger D. Masters, AM'58, PhD'61, The Natureof Politics (Yale University Press). Returning to thetraditional emphasis on human nature as thefoundation of politics, the author links major issues in Western political philosophy with contemporary research in the life sciences, providinga scientific foundation for the study of politicalbehavior.RELIGION & PHILOSOPHYDon Asselin, AM'78, Human Nature andEudaimonia in Aristotle (Peter Lang Publishing).The author argues that Aristotle's connectionbetween human nature and eudaimonia (happiness) illuminates both human nature and the supreme moral good, providing a source for theorizing about humanity, morality, and the best life forman.J. Harley Chapman, AM'69, AM'70, PhD'84,Jung's Three Theories of Religious Experience (EdwinMellen Press). The author argues that there arethree interwoven theories of religious experiencein Jung's writings.Philip E. Devenish and George L. Goodwin,AM'73, PhD'76, editors, Witness and Existence: Essays in Honor of Schubert M. Ogden (University of Chicago Press). These essays honor Ogden by engaging the fundamental issues of his theology— thattheological claims can be judged by their appropriateness to the normative Christian witness andby their credibility in terms of human existence.William P. Harman, AM'72, The Sacred Marriageof a Hindu Goddess (Indiana University Press). TheIndian festival celebrating the marriage of Minaksito Siva can be seen as a devotional metaphor forunderstanding how Indian deities act toward oneanother and toward those who worship them.Harman's examination of the ritual ends in a newunderstanding of the category of "sacred marriage, " one that explores the relationship betweenthe human and the divine in Hindu life.Raymond J. Nelson, PhD'49, The Logic of Mind(D. Reidel Publishing Co.). The author investigates philosophical problems in perception, mental attitudes, and the semantics of language in thisstudy of logical computability theory.David Novak, AB'61, Jewish-Christian Dialogue:A Jewish Justification (Oxford University Press).Novak argues for a new relationship between Judaism and Christianity that is based upon neithertriumphalist nor relativistic premises.Joyce Ridick, PhD'72, Anthropology of ChristianVocation, Volume II: Existential Confirmations (Gregorian University and Loyola University Press).Robert Pelton, AM'70, PhD'74, The Trickster inWest Africa: A Study of Mythic Irony and Sacred Delight(University of California Press) . In order to informsecularized, Western imaginations, the author explores the meaning that the trickster, a charactertype that appears in the myths of nearly every traditional society, has for West African cultures. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGYCarrol Lane Fenton and Mildred Adams Fen-ton, SB'22, revised by Mildred Adams Fenton,Patricia Vickers Rich, and Thomas Hewitt Rich,The Fossil Book (Doubleday) . In the revised and expanded version of this book, amateur collectorsand armchair enthusiasts learn about the properties of fossils and the environments in which theyonce lived, while professionals receive the latestinformation about new trends in paleontology.Elbert L. Little, Jr., SM'29, PhD'29, andRogerG . Skolmen, Common Forest Trees of Hawaii (Native andNaturalized) (U.S. Government Printing Office).Over 100 species of trees, as well as Hawaiian forests in general, are described and illustrated.UldisRoze, SB'59, The North American Porcupine(Smithsonian Institution Press). Roze providesthe first comprehensive natural history of this animal, describing its social and territorial relationships and including little-known facts such as thenatural antibiotic found in porcupine quills.SOCIAL & BEHAVIORAL SCIENCEMel Faber, AB'59, The Withdraw! of Human Projection: A Study of Culture and Internalized Objects (Library of Social Science). Object-relations theory,especially the concept of transitional space, isused to construct a psychoanalytic theory ofculture.Nancy Newman, AM'87, contributor, MusicalSavants: Exceptional Skill in the Mentally Retarded, byLeon K. Miller (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates).Newman's chapter is a chronicle of her work with amusical savant over a period of several EarlyNew EnglandThe diary of an abused housewifeWOMEN'S STUDIESAnnTaves, AM'79,PhD'83, editor, Religion andDomestic Violence in Early New England: The Memoirs ofAbigail Abbot Bailey (Indiana University Press) . Thisdiary tells the story of a devout 18th-century Con-gregationalist woman whose husband abused her,committed adultery with their servants, and incest with their daughter. As well as a source for theexamination of father-daughter incest, the diarydepicts the ways in which a woman of the timelived out the church's teachings in the midst of thetrials of her everyday life.For inclusion in "Books by Alumni," pleasesend the name of the book, its author, its publisher, and a short synopsis to the Books Editor,The University of Chicago Magazine, 5757Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637.55FIRST THINGS LASTFrom Small Beginnings, a Chicago SchoolIn 1889 the president of Colby C ol-lege in Maine had |ust returned tohis alma mater with a Vb D in history(welfare economics) from JohnsHopkins University That year, AlbionWoodbury Small (1854 1926) deridedto break with college tradition hereplaced the president's senior coursein moral philosophy with a new coursein sociologyThree years later, Small |oined thefledgling University of Chicago ashead of its equally new Department ofSociology and Anthropology It wasnot the nation's first academic department with sociology in its title; in1889, the University of Kansas hadestablished a Department of Historyand Sociology, and by 189?, at least 16U.S. universities and colleges offeredsome form of sociology courses.Chicago was, however, the world'sfirst university to offer undergraduateand graduate degrees in sociology, andunder Small the new department wassoon recognized as the nation's largest— and most influential programIn Small's day, sociology was anacademic frontier higher education'sresponse to the sweeping socialchanges wrought by the new urbanindustrial order. Small shared thispioneering spirit, aiming to "have ahand in inventing a new way of looking human facts straight in the faceA Baptist minister who studied thesocial sciences at the German universities of Berlin and Leipzig, Small believed that sociology held the promiseof scientific social reform. "Science"was a key word in gaining legitimacyfor the new field, although he neverdid any empirical studies himself,Small emphasized first-hand investigations: personal documentation,observations, and interviews. Albion WoodburySmall, who broughtthe study ofsociology to theUniversity. Duringthe 1991-92Centennial year,the Department ofSociology willcelebrate with asymposium on"Chicago Sociologyin the SecondCentury."The University of Chicago ArchiveThe growth of the Chicago department owed much to Small's ubiquit-ousness in the field. With George E.Vincent, PhD'96, he wrote the firstsociology text, Introduction to the Study ofSociety (1894). In 1895, he founded theAmerican Journal of Sociology, which heedited at Chicago for 30 years, and in1905, he cofounded the discipline'sfirst professional organization, theAmerican Sociological Society, laterserving two terms as its president.All of this industry eventually leftAlbion Small — whose academic dutiesincluded 20 years as dean of the graduate school and a stint as faculty representative to the Big Ten athletic association—a somewhat weary man, and hislater students noted that his courseslacked excitement.Yet Small's earlier industry andenthusiasm laid the groundwork forwhat came to be known as the "Chicago School" of sociology. Rather thanany one doctrine, the Chicago School emphasized collaborative studies,bringing together theory and empiricaldata— and often focusing on the nearby laboratory provided by the city ofChicago.During the 1920s and 1930s (thedepartment separated into two separate programs in sociology and anthropology in 1929), the productivity anddedication of Chicago's network ofresearchers and teachers becamealmost legendary. As the story went,when two University of Chicagosociology graduates met, they didn'task, "How are you?" The questionwas, "What are you working on?"UNIVERSITY Ol C H1CAGO MAGAZINE/WINTER 1990Graduation is just around the cornerIf you're looking for a special giftfor a soon-to-be Chicago graduate,here's the answer. The Chicagochair fits any decor-from classic tomodern to just-starting-out.Sturdily built of northern yellowbirch and finished in black lacquerwith antique-gold trim, the captain'schair carries the University crest ingold. This heirloom chair is madeby S. Bent & Bros., a century-oldfirm in Gardner, Massachusetts.To order, simply use the form onthe right. For fastest service call312/753-2175 or 753-2171.PLEASE ALLOW 6 TO 8 WEEKS FOR DELIVERY. __ Captain's Chair (Cherry Arm)Qty. at $225 each Captain's Chair (Black Arm)Qty. at $225 each Shipping and handling charges,$25 per chairEnclosed is my check for $ ,payable to the University of Chicago AlumniAssociation, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue,Chicago, IL 60637.Ordered by:NameAddressCityZipDaytime telephone StateShip to:NameAddressCityZipDaytime telephone StateThe Best Years of Your Lifecan be in Santa BarbaraCasa DorindaSuperb Retirement LivingWith Comprehensive Medical Care CjASA DORINDA is situated on an historic48-acre Montecito estate nestled beneath theoaks between the mountains and Pacific Ocean.Assure your future health care, free ofhousehold obligations. Casa Dorinda has 246garden apartments ranging from studios tolarge two-bedroom accommodations, a splendid dining room, licensed health facilities, anda well-trained, experienced staff. Studio andalcove units are especially appealing to menwishing to reduce their responsibilities without curtailing customary amenities. For moreinformation regarding this premier life-carecommunity, call or write Casa Dorinda.Name:Address:.City: State/Zip:300-C Hot Springs RoadSanta Barbara, California 93108(805)969-8011LITTLETHINGSADD UPYour voluntary contribution of $15would greatly help defray the costs ofproducing and mailing The University ofChicago Magazine.Please remember, The Magazine will stillcome to you — sans envelope — even ifyou don't choose to contribute. If youdo, please make your check payable toThe University of Chicago Magazine andsend it, along with your news for TheMagazine's "Class News" section, to theaddress below.P.S. Go ahead, use an envelope. Wewon't tell. 7>Jw/'% i ¦ JTHE UNIVERSITY' OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobie House, 5757 S. Woodlawn Ave.Chicago, IL 60637ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED • -'. <¦¦ ¦. • '-' r. - I