rhe University ofCHICAGOMagazine/Spring 1989r \mmx '¦ . - » „ Secrets of theMound-Builders**-\ SPSS***Knee -Deep in PopcornStudying theGreenhouse Effect^^^^/z . .oaxes Elizain the LJPygmali°n'TEMPT ME NOTCOURTTHEATRE...With Theatrical ArtistrySince Court's heyday as a summertheater outside Hutch Commons,we have grown dramatically.Court is recognized regionally forproductions of innovative andrarely performed classics, such asthe Greek trilogy Oresteia andBuchner's haunting masterworkWoyzeck.To bring our ambitious repertoryto life, we've collaborated withactors, designers, and directorsfrom across North America,Europe, and the Caribbean. Courtwas one of only two theaters thisyear to receive a generous JoyceFoundation grant for continuedartistic development. THE BEGGAR'S OPERABy John GayThe lusty, licentious passions ofhighwaymen and harlots take thestage in this legendary storywhich took London by storm in1728.A CHORUS OF DISAPPROVALBy Alan AyckbournTimid widower Guy Jonesauditions for a walk-on role in anamateur production of The Beggar's Opera and walks off withthe lead by opening night in thisgleeful, contemporary mixup ofart and life.THE PARADISE HOTELBy Georges FeydeauSituation after hilarious situationendanger the precarious reputations of Monsieur Pinglet and hisbest friend's wife when theyrendezvous at a libertine hotel.GHOSTSBy Henrik IbsenMrs. Alving keeps secret herfamily's ties and dissolutions untilher son's homecoming forces herto reveal the dark inheritances ofthe past.A fifth play will be chosen thissummer. Nor With An IntimateNew PlayhouseOur 250 seat Abelson Auditoriumis so intimate that you will seeevery gesture and hear everyword. The seating is comfortableand modern, while the stagegives designers the space tocreate marvelous illusions. If youhaven't come to the Court since1981, you will be amazed at themagic that plays across thefootlights.We tempt you, yes, with a varietyof delights, classic and eye-opening, to pleasantly exert yourimagination in the wonderful artof theater.COURT THEATREThe Professional Theatre atthe University of Chicago5535 South Ellis AvenueChicago, IL 60637(312) 753-4472-KsKSMSK^-Alumni in the Chicago area willreceive a Court Theatre subscription brochure in the mail shortly.If you plan to travel to Chicagoand would like a productionschedule, please call the box office at (312) 753-4472. Court willbe presenting Shakespeare'sknowing comedy All's Well ThatEnds Well as part of Reunion '89on June 2 and 3.EditorFelicia Antonelli Holton, AB'50Staff WriterTim ObermillerDesignerTom GreensfelderThe University of Chicago Office ofAlumni RelationsRobie House5757 South Woodlawn AvenueChicago, IL 60637Telephone: (312) 753-2175President, The University of ChicagoAlumni AssociationEdward L. Anderson, PhB'46, SM'49National Program DirectorJeanne Buiter, MBA'86Chicago Area Program DirectorRoberta SherwoodDirector, Alumni Schools CommitteeJ. Robert Ball, X'70The University of ChicagoAlumni Executive CouncilEdward L. Anderson, PhB'46, SM'49Bette Leash Birnbaum, AB'79, MST'80David Birnbaum, AB'79MarkBrickell, AB'74John Gaubatz, JD'67Mary Lou Gorno, MBA'76William B. Graham, SB'32, JD'36William H. Hammett, AM'71Kenneth C. Levin, AB'68, MBA'74John D. Lyon, AB'55William C. Naumann, MBA'75Linda Thoren Neal, AB'64, JD'67Jerry G. Seidel, MD'54Judy Ullmann Siggins, AB'66, AM'68, PhD'76Stephanie Abeshouse Wallis, AB'67Susan Loth Wolkerstorfer, AB'72Faculty/ Alumni Advisory Committeeto The University of Chicago MagazineLinda Thoren Neal, AB'64,JD'67, ChairmanAbe Blinder, PhB'31Philip C. Hoffmann, SB'57, PhD'62Professor, Department ofPharmacological and PhysiologicalSciences and the College;Master, the Biological SciencesCollegiate DivisionMarjorie Lange Lucchetti, AM'70, PhD'74John MacAloon, AM'74, PhD'80Associate Professor,Social Sciences Collegiate DivisionKatherine Schipper, MBA'73, AM'75, PhD'77Professor, Graduate School of BusinessSherlu Rardin Walpole, AB'45The University of Chicago Magazine(ISSN-0041-9508) is published quarterly(fall, winter, spring, summer) by theUniversity of Chicago in cooperationwith the Alumni Association, RobieHouse, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue,Chicago, IL 60637. Publishedcontinuously since 1907. Second-classpostage paid at Chicago, IL, and atadditional entry offices.POSTMASTER: Send address changesto Alumni Records, Robie House, 5757South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL60637. Copyright © 1989 by theUniversity of Chicago.Editorial office: The University of ChicagoMagazine, Robie House, 5757 SouthWoodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637.Telephone (312) 753-2323. The Magazineis sent to all University of Chicagoalumni.Typesetting by Skripps & Associates,Chicago. The University ofCHICAGOMagazine/ Spring 1989Volume 81, Number 3Page 24Cover: A crew from the Center for AmericanArcheology is shown excavating the Bulls-eye site, a cemetery created by MiddleArchaic people (6000 B.C. -2500 B.C.) in thef loodplains of the Illinois River, north ofEldred, IL. The Center was invited to exca- IN THIS ISSUESecrets of the Mound-BuildersBy Felicia Antonelli HoltonBiological anthropologist Jane Buikstraexcavates mortuary sites and analyzeshuman skeletal remains to learn about thecultures of prehistoric people.Page 6A Delicate BalanceBy Tim ObermillerScientists turn to the skies for answers tothe question of whether a greenhouseeffect may be knocking Earth's delicateclimate system dangerously off-balance.Page 14The Fourth CommandmentAnd the First AmendmentBy Jamie KalvenA son relates how it felt to take his deceased father's unfinished manuscriptand shape it into a book.Page 20Knee-Deep in PopcornAt Chicago, the student prank is aliveand thriving.Page 24DEPARTMENTSUC PeopleForumChicago JournalLettersClass NewsDeathsBooks 2293439404747vate the site by the Wear family, owners ofthe land, who turned up artifacts whiledoing some deep plowing and becameconcerned that they might be destroyingimportant prehistoric evidence.(Photo by Keith Swinden.)UCPEOPLEStudent findslost Liszt pieceMore than a few graduate studentsstruggling to complete their dissertations have probably dreamed thatsomehow, in the course of their research, they will find one really important discovery.Those students may find inspiration in the story of Jay Rosenblatt, adoctoral student in the University's Department of Music, who recentlydiscovered an unheard, unpublishedpiano concerto by the 19th-centuryHungarian composer Franz Liszt.Rosenblatt found the concerto, tentatively dated from 1839, while workingon his dissertation, piecing together the15-minute score from pages of unpublished manuscript found in libraries inEurope and the Soviet Union. The newwork will be premiered by the ChicagoSymphony Orchestra in May of nextyear, with date and soloist to beannounced.With a B.A. and an M.A. in pianoperformance from the University ofCalifornia at Los Angeles (UCLA),Rosenblatt enrolled in the University's musicology program in 1981.Rosenblatt served as a research assistant to Philip Gossett, the Robert W.Reneker Distinguished Service Professor and acting chairman of the musicdepartment, who is a noted scholar in19th-century music. Rosenblatt said histraining under Gossett provided himwith some invaluable "hands-on experience" needed to recognize the unknown Liszt concerto.For his dissertation, Rosenblatt researched the compositional process ofLiszt's works, with analysis of drafts,sketches and other clues left by thecomposer.Liszt was long believed to have Jay Rosenblatt discovered a lost concerto by Hungarian pianist and composer Franz Lisztwhile researching his dissertation in East Germany.written only two piano concertos. Foran unknown reason, he set aside a thirdconcerto, never revising the orchestralparts as he had done with the first twoworks. Rosenblatt found his first clueto the concerto's possible existence inWeimar, East Germany, where thepiece was listed in the catalogue simplyas "unpublished in this form." The archivists in Weimar had assumed thatthe manuscript of the third concertowas an early version of the Liszt PianoConcerto No. 1, since both were writtenin E-flat major."I dealt with the internal evidenceof the music which had nothing in common with the first piano concerto, " saidRosenblatt . "I then looked at the manuscript itself and saw that there was noway it fit together physically."Rosenblatt later heard of the existence in Leningrad of a microfilm-copyof an E-flat concerto not known in theWest. Within the pages of this copy,Rosenblatt found a more complete version of an unknown concerto, writtenin Liszt's own hand. By piecing together pages of the score from a variety ofother sources, Rosenblatt was able toput together what he believes is thecomplete concerto. He now plans tomake a critical edition of the score,scheduled for publication by EditioMusica Budapest in 1989 or 1990. Although Liszt has long been recognized as one of the finest pianists ofhis day, his originality as a Romanticcomposer has only begun to be appreciated, and Rosenblatt hopes his discovery—which gaine'd worldwide mediaattention— will also increase people'sawareness of Liszt's other works.Rosenblatt also hopes that his discovery will impress the public with theimportance of work by musicologists,and make people realize that "we're notworking in ivory towers, but what wedo can have direct relevance to whatpeople hear in the concert hall and intheir living room on recordings."In the footstepsof great teachersWhen Arlene Gordon, AM'46,heard that she had been chosen by theSchool of Social Service Administration(SSA) to receive the Edith AbbottAward, she reread Common HumanNeeds, by Charlotte Towle.The Edith Abbott Award, givenevery two years by SSA, recognizesalumni whose service to society andcontributions to social work embody2 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989the spirit of Abbott, the social welfareactivist who served as dean of SSA from1924 to 1942.Gordon, associate executive director for national program developmentfor the Lighthouse of New York City, received the honor for her innovation, advocacy and professional leadership onbehalf of blind and visually impairedpeople and their families. Gordon herself has been blind for several years; shehad suffered from severe myopia sincechildhood.While at SSA, Gordon had studiedunder Charlotte Towle, who was one ofthe profession's first psychiatric socialworkers. Towle's first book, Common Human Needs, was originally publishedand distributed under the aegis of theFederal Security Agency for use intraining and education of public assistance and child welfare workers. Thebook was withdrawn by the government in 1951 as a result of the stronganti-communist feelings being expressed at the time by some groups.Common Human Needs is a treatise on social conscience that remains a cornerstone of basic social work thought andtheory. Gordon admired Towle's abilityto share what she calls a "real and practical" approach to problem solving."Once we were reviewing a socialwork case in one of her classes," saysGordon. "She started at the side of theclassroom closest to the door—fortunately I was closest to the windows—asking us why the social worker inthis case always contacted the client'ssister. All the students were giving psychoanalytic answers. She asked us if ithad ever occurred to any of us that itwas the sister who had a telephone."Gordon, a New York City native,followed the advice of a teacher atHunter College— her alma mater— andenrolled at SSA for graduate work. Shesays SSA, whose founders and firstleaders were activists in the Chicagosettlement house movement, "embodied what I was interested in: social work as a change agent on a societal levelrather than an individual level."At SSA, Gordon took Edith Abbott's course on legislation and advocacy. Abbott, who had been a resident ofJane Addams' Hull House, is remembered today as a strong proponent of auniversity education for social workersand as an advocate for social welfare research."The class was filled with the spiritof where she had been and where shewas still going," says Gordon.After graduating from SSA in 1946,Gordon accepted a position as a socialworker at the Sheltering Arms Children's Service, a foster care agency inNew York City. After two years there,she stopped working outside the hometo raise her son, Andrew. During thenext 15 years, Gordon used her socialwork skills as a volunteer communityorganizer. She created a coalition of social service agencies and volunteer organizations in order to, among otherthings, develop public programs for retarded children in New Jersey. That volunteer work eventually led to a positionas a medical social worker at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, workingwith hearing impaired children, andthen to a position as a senior socialworker in children and adolescent services at the Lighthouse.Gordon's career at the New York Association for the Blind closely mirrorsthe growth of the Lighthouse, which isnow the largest multiservice agencyserving the blind and visually impaired. Among the programs shehelped found at the Lighthouse are theChild Development Center, one of thefirst of the modern preschool programsfor blind children, and the NationalCenter for Vision and Aging, whichprovides education and training programs in age-related vision disorders.As associate executive director fornational program development, she iscurrently responsible for shaping andcommunicating nationally the Light house's message of support and empowerment for blind and visuallyimpaired people.Gordon says people often assumethat her own severe myopia led to herinterest in the Lighthouse and in socialservices for the blind and visuallyimpaired."It was actually out of my volunteerexperiences with retarded children andArlene Rodbell Gordonwith hearing impaired persons that Ibecame interested in rehabilitation,"she says. "I was looking for somethingthat would enable me to work withhandicapped children and adolescents.In 1965, the Lighthouse was beginningto professionalize, and I was the firsttrained social worker to carry a caseloadthere. I was always interested in administration and management, and theLighthouse presented a tremendousopportunity."In fact, Gordon's blindness, the onset of which occurred after she joinedthe Lighthouse, is less of an obstacle forher than it is for those she meets, manyof whom accept as truth incorrect stereotypes about the limitations of the blindor visually impaired. For instance, shetravels extensively and has visited,among other places, China, India, Eu-3UCPEOPLErope and the Middle East. She recentlytreated her grandson to a five-day visitto Disney World."The way a person copes with visual loss depends on how well they copein general," she says. She credits herapproach to her own vision problems toher family's support and encouragement and to teachers, including those atSSA, who, while acknowledging herspecial needs, treated her like otherstudents."People often ascribe achievementsto me that I think of as the performanceof ordinary tasks," she says. "I knowpeople with disabilities that are equallyor far more devastating. But many people often react to the loss of sight withfear. I think that is the hardest thing Ihave to deal with— their reaction toblindness."I think sometimes that people aresurprised when my lipstick is onstraight," she adds. "Through all mylife, appearance has been very important to me. Blindness hasn't changedthe things that are important to me. I amwho I am whether I am blind or whetherI am sighted."That message, Gordon believes, isenunciated best in Towle's Common Human Needs."Her central message was that aperson with a disability, a chronic illness, or whatever, may have a specialproblem or a special need, but that theyare still a person like everyone else,"she said."The social worker needs to understand how that disability was incurredand at what age, the individual's perception of what disability means, theattitude of the family and his or her ownattitude. And I think Towle's centralmessage is still relevant today. You needto look at people's abilities, not theirdisabilities."That is essentially the message ofthe Lighthouse, and I feel that is themessage I learned at SSA."— Kate Chesley Playing footballwith the "Gipper"When John P. ("Jack") Long,PHB '24, talks about his life, it is as if factsfrom two or three separate biographieswere somehow combined into one.There's the young football playerwho kept company with some of thegreat legends of the game; the astutebusinessman, surviving a depression;the Marine captain awarded for heroism in World War II; and the connoisseur of literature who, at age 50,published his first scholarly paper revealing important new biographical information on a great English poet.Now 85, Long reminisces aboutthese strikingly diverse experiences inan evenly-paced voice, firm yet gentle—the voice of a man who has managed tolive his life within that "golden mean"between action and observation. Mostof that observation now takes placefrom a quiet, heavily-wooded sectionoverlooking Mirror Lake north of Bara-boo in the Wisconsin Dells, in a cottagewhich Long and his wife, Ceil, purchased in the 1930s.Long entered the University ofNotre Dame in 1920. He played end onthe freshman football squad whichscrimmaged twice weekly against thevarsity team coached by Knute Rockne.The team was led by legendary halfback George Gipp (of "Win one for theGipper" fame), played by RonaldReagan in the 1950 film Knute Rockne—All American.Long described Gipp as "a carelessplayer— not careless in what he did, butindifferent in trying to be better, because he couldn't be any better." OfRockne, Long said he had "an electricpresence. . .he would go over the playslike lightning on the chalkboard."In 1922, Long transferred to Chica- John Long (right) played end on the Maroons' Big 10 Conference championshipteam in 1924, pictured above. He is seatedin the second from the top row, second fromthe left. Coach Amos Alonzo Stagg isstanding at the right of the top row.go, where he played football for AmosAlonzo Stagg. In his 41-year career atChicago, Stagg coached the team to sixBig Ten championships and achieved arecord 229 wins, 108 loses and 27 ties.Long recalls a different image ofStagg than the cold, puritanical manwho is sometimes portrayed in historybooks. "It's true, he was a very seriousman, but he was deeply religious andextremely inspirational. You couldweep if you didn't watch out during hispre-game talk."His harshest criticism was to callyou a jackass," said Long, "but eventhat, in a sense, became an accolade because at least you felt he noticed you."Long's senior year— 1924— onStagg's varsity squad was especiallymemorable, with a list of opponentsthat included Harold "Red" Grange ofIllinois, the Four Horsemen of NotreDame (Don Miller, Elmer Layden, JimCrowley and Harry Stuhldreher), and4 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989Stanford fullback Ernie Nevers. In thehighlight of that season, the Maroonsplayed Illinois for the Big Ten Championship at Stagg Field. Long said theroar of the crowd never let up, from thefirst play to the final pistol shot whichended the game in a 21-21 tie.Upon graduation, Long entered thereal estate business in Chicago. Hemanaged rental property throughoutthe 1920s. After the stock market crashand the Great Depression of the 1930s,Long said he was fortunate to find another job in sales management that paid$25 a week, avoiding the fate of the rowsof men he saw sleeping on the lowerlevel of the Michigan Avenue Bridge.Long married in 1935, and settled into a stable, prosperous life. He feltcompelled to give up this comfortablelifestyle when the U.S. entered the waragainst Japan in 1941. He volunteered,at age 39, as an aviation specialist for theU.S. Marines, serving as a supply officer for the Marines' "Scout" aerialbomber squadron in the South Pacific.In this capacity, Long received the presidential Soldier's Medal for heroism inan incident that happened on October1, 1943.That night, a boat carrying threesoldiers capsized off a coral reef in theVanuatu (formerly New Hebrides) islands where Long was stationed in theSouth Pacific. One man immediatelydrowned in the strong current, and another managed to swim to shore. Long,who was serving as duty officer thatnight, quickly made the decision tojump in after the third soldier. When hefinally got to the man "he was weak andwhite as a sheet ... he went under and Ihad to go after him." Finding himselfunable to make any headway towardthe beach while towing the man, Longremoved his life jacket, put it aroundthe soldier, and inflated it.Long told the soldier to start hollering for help and attempted to swim forthe shore "when my legs began tocramp." He managed to stay afloatwhen, out of the darkness, a rescueboat appeared manned by two officersfrom Long's unit who had alreadypicked up the third soldier. If the boathad arrived minutes — or even seconds—later, Long said he probably wouldhave drowned.Long returned from the South Pacific in 1944, but he continued his service in the Marine reserve for another30 years, achieving the rank of lieutenant colonel. Long used the G.I. Bill tostudy nights at Northwestern University, where he received his M.A. in English literature in 1953.For one of his classes at Northwestern, Long was given the assignment "tofind and write something memorable about the English poet and critic Matthew Arnold."Long recalled reading about an 1884trip to America in which the poetstopped in both Michigan and Iowa,"and then all I had to do as a native Chi-cagoan was know one thing— betweenthose two points, he had to go throughChicago."Long searched through old newspapers to confirm his suspicion:Arnold had visited Chicago. Based onLong's research, it appeared the poetand the city were mutually disdainfulof each other. However, Arnold was notguilty of making the harsh statementslater quoted in The Chicago Tribune inwhich the poet reportedly lambastedthe city for its lack of culture. (The statement turned out to be a hoax perpetrated by the Chicago Literary Club.) Longwas pleased to see that a recent Arnoldbiography by Park Honan mentionedthis incident, and also praised Long'sscholarship in uncovering it.During the 1960s, Long managedthe famous Carbide & Carbon Buildingin downtown Chicago, and lectured inEnglish literature at the night school ofLoyola University. Long also developedthree new literature courses for Loyola's correspondence division.Long continues to pursues his interests in literature through the Fortnightly Club, a century-old literary society founded in the Baraboo area— but,more than anything, he enjoys a quietafternoon with his wife, Ceil, whilereading from one of the hundreds ofbooks that fill every available space oftheir home.Fortunately, Long said, their cottage is in the middle of a state park; thisprotects the area from most development and permits them to preserve apeaceful lifestyle."We like to be just a bit off the beatentrack, " admitted Long. "There are plenty of books to read and wildlife to enjoy-. . . that's poetic enough for me."—Tim Obermiller5Secrets of theBiological anthropologist JaneBuikstra excavates mortuary sites,and analyzes human skeletalremains to learn about diet, disease,and culture in prehistoric peoples.By Felicia Antonelli HoltonIT WAS LATE MORNING OF A HOT, MUGGY SUMMERday in west central Illinois. I was panting, having juststruggled up the steep slopes of "Cardiac" hill. As Iemerged from the trees, I came upon a group of people whowere excavating a mound.I looked down and found that I was on the edge of agrave in which there lay a skeleton."How old is it?" I was so curious I didn'teven wait to introduce myself.At my approach, a woman stood up togreet me. She wore cutoff blue jeans and a T-shirt, with a red dime-store bandanna holdingback her brown hair. She shifted the trowel she had beenworking with to her left hand, wiped her right hand onher jeans, and held it out in greeting."Hi, I'm Jane Buikstra." She smiled, then waved hertrowel at the skeleton."The site dates to 100 B.C.""It's male, isn't it?" I asked, "Or did the women growthat tall, too?""You're right, " she said. "But there are other ways wecan tell. Look at his brow ridges and jaw— they're larger and morerugged than in most women. More importantly, the shape of the pel-Felicia Antonelli Holton, AB'50, is editor of The University of ChicagoMagazine. She is the coauthor, with Stuart Struever, PhD'68, o/KOSTER:Americans In Search of Their Prehistoric Past (NY: Doubleday, 1979;New American Library [paper] , 1979, 1985.) Buikstra's crew digsa Middle Woodlandburial mound southof Eldred, IL. (Left)Detail, descriptionon Page 9.7All of the adultmales who had beenburied in the mosthonored places weretaller than the rest ofthe population, andhad been buried withthe most elaborategrave goods. Whowere these tall men?Were they invaderswho conquered thelocal people? vis differs significantly between menand women; the female pelvic outlet expands during the adolescent growthspurt to facilitate childbirth. That's ourbest means of estimating sex."Then she took me on a tour of thesite, which was a burial mound built byMiddle Woodland people, circa 100B.C.— A.D. 250. As we moved fromgrave to grave, Buikstra talked abouther work."We try to learn as much as we canabout the group that built the moundfrom the way the dead were interred.As every society has different procedures for burying its dead, it is possibleto develop theories about social customfrom observing these procedures. Thisman, (pointing to the skeleton I'd firstobserved), was buried in an extendedposition (lying flat on his back) in thecenter of this mound; he's the tallestperson by far in the mound. We findthis pattern repeated in many of theMiddle Woodland bluffcrest moundswe've excavated. A tall male will beplaced in the center of the crypt, withseveral people around him. There aresometimes bundle burials at the periphery of the mound."A bundle burial, she explained, iswhen the body is kept in a special place,sometimes on a specially built platform, until the flesh has deteriorated.The bones are then "bundled" together and buried at the very edge of themound. Or the person may have beeninterred, and later, the bones removedand reinterred as a bundle burial, tomake room for the interment of newbodies in an extended position."Does it mean he was someone special, maybe a chief?""We won't know until we completeour studies. We take into account whereeach of the bodies in the mound wasplaced, and at what stage in the building of the mound; the way the body wasinterred; the kinds of grave goodsplaced in the mound . We'll also do various analyses of the bones, when we remove them to the lab, to learn what wecan about the diet of these people, theirgenetic structure, what diseases theywere subject to, and about the cause ofdeath."The time was the late 1970s. Thatwas my introduction to Jane Buikstraand her work, and to the extraordinarysecrets she finds hidden in the ground.BUIKSTRA, (IT'S PRO-nouncedbike-stra) AM '69,PhD'72, is the Harold H.Swift Distinguished Service Professor in Anthropology. She is presidentelect of the AmericanAnthropological Association, and president of theCenter for American Archeology, which has headquarters inKampsville, IL.Buikstra is a biological anthropologist and an archeologist (in NorthAmerica, archeology is a subdivision ofanthropology). She is one of the few biological anthropologists in the countrywho excavate their own sites. She primarily excavates mortuary sites, dividing her time between fieldwork andanalyzing human skeletal remains inthe laboratory.Buikstra talked about how she cameto have a dual career in biological anthropology and archeology. As an undergraduate at DePauw University, she wasinterested in studying medicine."My father was a medical doctor, soI came by my interest naturally. In college I created an interdisciplinary majorwith an emphasis on zoology. I also became increasingly interested in anthro-« UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989pology, especially archeology."I never thought I could aspire tothe University of Chicago. In fact, I never applied here. I was giving my seniorseminar in zoology, on Zinjanthropus,and my professor was ill. The man sitting in apparently talked about me toDr. Albert Dahlberg, who headed adental anthropology program at Chicago. [Dr. Dahlberg is Professor Emeritus of the Zoller Dental Clinic andthe Department of Anthropology] Dr.Dahlberg called to ask if I wanted to joinhis program. Ultimately, I ended upgetting a National Science Foundationfellowship, but I didn't enter the dentalprogram."I felt very lucky, because at theUniversity of Chicago I was able tocombine biological anthropology and archeology in an interdisciplinaryfashion, which is one of our greatstrengths. You could not do that atmany universities."Buikstra is considered by many ofher colleagues to be one of the world'sforemost authorities on prehistoric human remains. In recognition of herachievements she was elected to theNational Academy of Sciences in 1987.She is one of only 52 women in a totalmembership of 1,533.She's also a forensic anthropologist, and has been called to testify as anexpert witness in murder trials.For the past 20 years Buikstra hasbeen engaged in a systematic study ofburial mounds in west central Illinois.Recently she has been excavating sitesin Argentina, Peru and Spain. One of Karen Aldenderfer'sfield notes show adrawing of a MiddleWoodland burial mound(above). The centralfeature is a log-linedcrypt. (Left) The head ofa mummy, nearly 1,000years old, found in aChirabaya site in Peru.Note the preservation ofthe feathered headdress.Jane Buikstra (left),instructs Danielle Parksin the uses of brush andpick at the Bullseye site,a Middle Archaic(6000 B.C-2500 B.C.)floodplain cemeterynorth of Eldred, IL. her projects focuses on the period ofEuropean colonization of the Americasand the exchange of diseases during theera of exploration.SINCE THE FIRST EUROPE-ans stepped ashore on theEast coast of the New World,people 'have speculatedabout the many earthworksthey found lining the majorriver systems of easternNorth America.Over the years, Euro-Americans conjured upmany myths about the mounds. Partlybecause of the size of some of themounds, (such as Monks Mound at Ca-hokia, IL, near present-day St. Louis,which is 100-feet high and originallycovered 16 acres), and because of thesheer quantity of earthworks, whichnumbered in the thousands, newly arrived European settlers concluded thatit was beyond the ability of contemporary Indians and their immediate ancestors to marshal the labor necessaryfor mound construction. Some peoplespeculated that the mounds had beenbuilt by Israelites or Tartars, or even bypeople from the "lost" continent ofAtlantis. Others thought they had been built by Indians who had long sincetravelled south to found the highly visible civilizations of Mexico and SouthAmerica.In the late 1960s, Buikstra decidedto investigate the mounds that hadbeen built in the Lower Illinois RiverValley (affectionately dubbed Lowilvaby the anthropologists who haveworked there). Archeologists havefound evidence that people occupiedthe valley for at least 10,000 years. Thearea is rich in archeological sites; because it is largely rural, these sites havenot been destroyed by urban sprawl.Two major rivers— the Mississippiand the Illinois— meet at the base of thevalley. Archeologists have long knownthat major populations of prehistoricpeople lived in the great river valleys ofthe Midwest, because such a habitatprovided hunter-gatherers with anabundance of plant, animal, and aquatic resources.There are hundreds of burialmounds in Lowilva. Much of the soil isbasic (or nonacidic), which means thatsoil conditions favor the preservation ofhuman skeletal remains. Buikstra realized the potential for regional study, asopposed to excavation of separate, unrelated sites. Like many contemporaryNorth American archeologists, Buik-UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989stra studies settlement systems. Following this model, the archeologist digs aseries of sites over a broad area, toobserve how people adapted to theirenvironment and, in turn, to learn howthe environment affected prehistoricpopulations.When Buikstra began her work, archeologist Stuart Struever, PhD'68,then a professor of archeology at Northwestern University, was excavatinghabitation sites in Lowilva. This meantthat his data would complement thatfrom the mortuary sites.Archeologists who had focusedupon the excavation of village sites inLowilva had already documented apopulation increase during recentprehistory. During Late Woodlandtimes (A.D. 250— A. D. 1000), people inLowilva began to cultivate maize(corn). By Mississippian times (A.D.1000— A.D. 1300), they had becomedependent on maize. This marked thebeginning of a very important change,the shift from a hunter-gatherer wayof life to that of agriculturists."We were interested in investigating what these changes had meant, interms of diet, nutrition, and health, asexpressed in the human skeletal remains," explained Buikstra.Buikstra began to dig, with severalquestions in mind. Who had built themounds, and why had the mound-building tradition developed? How hadthe tradition changed over the years?Were there genetic affinities among different burial populations in Lowilva?How had population distribution andstructure changed? What kind of diethad these people had? What kinds ofhealth problems did they have? Howlong had these people lived? What wasa normal life span for them?Buikstra combines bioanthropolo-gical and archeological strategies forher research. In analyzing the data, sheworks with specialists from other disciplines, including chemists in the development of dietary models and medicalscientists in the assessment of healthstatus.Buikstra attempts to learn about aburial population by observing, in minute detail, how people interred theirdead. She and Russell Tuttle, professorin the Department of Anthropologywho is studying primatology and homi- noid evolution, advise their students totake courses in human osteology andgross anatomy. Their students dissecthuman cadavers so that they will become familiar with the relationships ofsoft tissues to bones in the body. Thisenhances their interpretive powers inthe field and enables them to recognizewhat the arrangement of the skeletalelements reflects about the way thebody was treated at death.Buikstra and her crew make observations on how the body was treated atdeath for clues to the person's role andstatus in the society. For example, theyrecord the position of the body. If a skeleton is "articulated" it means the bonesof a body are in the same position inwhich they occur in a living person.Articulation, or the lack of it, revealswhether or not the bones were movedafter flesh had decomposed or been removed. As Buikstra and her studentsremove the bones from the ground,they measure the degree of flexion atevery joint.Buikstra also examines grave goodsinterred with the bodies for information about a person's social role andrank. She looks for signs that therewere rituals used at the time of burial.Some prehistoric people, for example,would anoint a body with red ochrepowder, either at death or during ceremonies surrounding death.As Buikstra excavates, she is, ofcourse, removing skeletal remains andartifacts in reverse order from that inwhich they were initially interred. Shetries to date each phase she can deline- Buikstra makesobservations on howthe body was treatedat death for clues tothe person's role andstatus in the society.When a skeleton is"articulated" itmeans the bones of abody are in the sameposition in whichthey occur in aliving person.CHRONOLOGY OF PREHISTORIC OCCUPATIONIN THE LOWER ILLINOIS RIVER VALLEYPaleo-Indian: 10,000-8000 B.C.Early Archaic: 8000-6000 B.C.Middle Archaic: 6000-2500 B.C.Late Archaic: 2500-500 B.C.Terminal Archaic: 500-600 B.C.Early Woodland: 600-150 B.C.Middle Woodland: 150 B.C.-A.D. 250Late Woodland: A.D. 250-1000Mississippian: A.D. 1000-1300n(Right) At the Estequinasite in Peru (A.D. 1000-A.D. 1300) a stone cryptwith a subsurface tombin the foreground.(Inset) Late prehistoricPeruvian peoplewrapped their deadbefore burying them.Note vessel beside body.ate to get an estimate of the time spancovered in creation of the burialmound. She digs in two-meter squareexcavation units; the walls of each unitare left standing, so she can read the"profile" in the soil. (As archeologistsdig down, they usually preserve at leastone wall of a site, on which they carefully examine the sequence of strata in thesoil. They look for signs of human activities in the soil record. This is called"reading" the profile.)A mound is "an accretional structure, so an accurate record of both vertical and horizontal sedimentary distinctions is critical," said Buikstra."In Lowilva, the mound-buildingtradition began approximately 6,000years ago," she explained. "That wasroughly 1,000 years after the earliestevidence we have for the developmentof settled communities. Actually, theonly burials we have found so far from Early Archaic times (8000 B.C-6000B.C.) were in village middens. (A midden is the layer of refuse found at aprehistoric residential site.) The firstformally structured areas reserved exclusively for disposal of the dead werebuilt during the Middle Archaic HeltonPhase (6000 B.C-2500 B.C.)"Based on ethnographic accounts,we think that these formally boundedcemeteries may have been created bypeople to define a territory. These firstcemeteries may have been established,along with burial rituals, as an expression of solidarity with the ancestors,"she said.Buikstra found that the Middle Archaic mounds on the bluffcrests wererelatively simple compared to thosebuilt by later cultures. Mostly they consisted of shallow pits covered by aboutthree inches of earth.In a Middle Archaic mound at the12 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989Elizabeth site (circa 5000 B.C-2500B.C.), which consisted of a series of 14mounds above a village site, there werefour young adult males, each with twoto three projectile points within thechest cavity, implying that they mayhave been killed in battle. The disarticulated remains of at least 12 other persons had been placed with the fill aboveand beside this tomb.FOR COMPARISON PUR-poses, Buikstra also investigated human skeletal remains from two Middle Archaic village sites. One setof remains was from theModoc Rock Shelter, located along the eastern edge ofthe Mississippi River Valley, at Prairie du Rocher,IL. People had lived at Modoc over athree-thousand-year period of prehistory during the Early and MiddleArchaic periods, but archeologistsfound the remains of only twenty-eightindividuals.Some time before Buikstra began towork in Illinois, bioanthropologistHolm Neumann had analyzed the Modoc skeletons. He was puzzled at thehigh incidence of bone disease and thenumerous cases of striking bone deformity. Nearly every one of the persons buried at Modoc Rock Shelter overthat long time span had suffered fromarthritis. Neumann assumed that theModoc Rock Shelter skeletons wererepresentative of the total resident population. He speculated that the highfrequency of bone disease was a necessary result of the "rugged, difficultmode of subsistence" practiced bythese hunter-gatherers.Yet when Buikstra examined thedata on the Modoc Rock Shelter skeletons, she found that more than half ofthem were the remains of people whohad died when they were past forty. Inmany people, bone degeneration generally begins during the forties due tonormal aging processes."It was perfectly normal for arthritis to exist in this age population," saidBuikstra.Among the young adults found atModoc Rock Shelter, all showed evidence of imperfectly healed fractures of limbs. The only skeleton not afflictedwas a youth under thirteen.Buikstra also analyzed Middle Archaic human remains from the villagemidden in Horizon 6 of the Koster site.(Horizon refers to the level of occupation found at a site.) The Koster site wasexcavated by Struever from 1969-1979.People had lived there, off and on, for aperiod of over 8,000 years, from 7000B.C- A.D. 1200."When we looked at the Kosterskeletons from Horizon 6 we found a remarkable similarity to the ones fromModoc," said Buikstra. "First of all, theage-sex distribution in the Koster burials roughly paralleled the Modocgroup. Again, in the Koster group, mostwere adults well over forty who had suffered fractures or injuries that had nothealed properly, or severe arthritis,either of which would have limitedtheir ability to perform many tasks. Therest were children under the age ofthirteen."In 1969, Buikstra, together with ar-cheologist Gregory Perino, excavatedthe Middle Archaic components of theGibson mounds in Lowilva. Buikstraexamined the Gibson site data andfound that most of the burial population consisted of young and middle-aged adults, from about eighteen to forty years old, of both sexes, none ofwhom showed signs of striking pathology or arthritis."Apparently, when you look at thedata from all three cemeteries, you cansee that Middle Archaic people had atleast two different strategies for burying the dead," explained Buikstra. "Inone place they buried those peoplewith severe infirmities or chronic diseases, individuals who were not capable of operating fully as hunter-gatherers. In another they buried thosewho had been healthy, active adults. Westill haven't found many remains ofinfants or children from the MiddleArchaic, so one can assume they hadyet another procedure for them."After digging mounds on bluff-crests for several years, Buikstra turnedher attention to those on the flood-plains. When she excavated theBullseye site, a Middle Archaic HeltonPhase site in the Illinois River flood-plain, she discovered that the gravewealth buried with the bodies was dif ferent from that which was interredwith bodies in the bluffcrest mounds.In both types of mounds there werechert bifaces (used as cutting tools) andgrooved axes. But the Bullseye gravegoods also include at least 29 banner-stone atlatl weights (attached to theshaft part of an atlatl— a spear thrower—to give greater projectile thrust) madeof imported banded slate.Middle Woodland mounds on thebluffcrests are conical; those on thefloodplains are loaf-shaped. WhenBuikstra investigated these burial sites,she found the bluffcrest and floodplainmounds had been constructed in similar fashion, with only slight variations.(Middle Woodland sites are frequentlyreferred to as Hopewell, after a famoussite in Ohio.)Hopewell people usually chose apromontory overlooking the junctureof the main valley and a secondary valley when they built a bluffcrest mound.Right at the crest of the bluff, just beforethe slope began to descend, they woulddig a shallow rectangular pit, abouteight-by-ten feet, to a depth of aboutone and a half to two feet. Along thesides of the pit they stacked logs to formwalls about four feet high, just like thewalls of a log cabin. They used specialclays as chinking between the logs, andthen covered the log faces with wovenmats. On the floor of the pit they mightspread a thin layer of yellow sand. Finally, they would place a roof of logsover the open pit. This was to be the final resting place for their most honoredmembers.Next, they would build a circularmound or ramp of earth around the rectangular tomb, reaching to the top ofthe wooden crypt.The loaf-shaped mounds in thefloodplains differed from the conicalones on the bluffcrest only by havinglarger central log crypts."One of the distinctive featuresabout the ramps surrounding the logcrypts was that they were made of soilsof different colors and textures," saidBuikstra. "At first we thought that thiswas random and had occurred becauseburials were placed in the mounds atdifferent times. But then we realizedthat the pattern was repetitive. It's possible that the use of different soils had aContinued on page 30A DELICATEBALANCEScientists turn to the skies on the questionof whether a greenhouse effect maybe knocking Earth's climatesystem dangerouslyoff-balance.BY TIM OBERMILLERMERICA'S GRAIN BELT BE-comes dry and desolate. . . the GulfStream shifts course, ceasing to warmEurope. . . sea levels rise as the oceansexpand, flooding America's EastCoast and Bangladesh . . .finally, the WesternAntarctic icecap melts, causing the seas to rise20 feet, inundating New York, New Orleans,London and Beijing. "Neither an ingenious plot for a sci-finovel nor the forecast of some beardedprophet of doom, the above scenario isactually from an article in a prominentAmerican newspaper describing whatcould happen in the coming century asa result of global warming caused by agreenhouse effect. Even five years ago, such a prediction would probably have been greetedby the public with incredulity, but lastsummer's drought and other freakishweather trends have lent credence to agrowing body of scientific evidencewhich suggests that human activitymay be knocking the Earth's delicateclimate system dangerously offbalance.Long before it became a topic ofworldwide debate, two University ofChicago scientists began research delving into the greenhouse effect and related phenomena linked to the presenceof man-made pollutants in the atmosphere. Veerabhadran Ramanathan,14 UNIVERSITYprofessor in the Department of Geophysical Sciences, analyzes complex atmospheric changes associated with thegreenhouse effect. His colleague, JohnFrederick, professor in the Departmentof Geophysical Sciences and the College, is investigating depletions of theEarth's protective ozone layer."The problem is unique," said Ra-manathan, "in the sense that it's a scientific debate right in the center ofa public policy question. For manyscientists, including me, our biggestdilemma is whether to emphasize theuncertainty surrounding our currentresearch, or the potential dangers involved if the problem develops and weignore it."It's a delicate path to straddle, " Ra-manathan conceded, "but one thing iscertain, and that is if the predictions of aglobal warming are correct, then we arerunning out of time, and what we decide to do in the next few decades maybe very critical to the future of theplanet."By itself, the greenhouse effect is anaturally-occurring phenomenon inwhich carbon dioxide (CO2) and watervapor in the atmosphere act like theglass in a greenhouse, permitting sunlight to pass freely to Earth, but inhibiting the escape of heat (in the form of infrared radiation) back into space.Without the creation of this heat-trapping "blanket" of C02 and watervapor, the Earth would very likely be afrozen planet, like Mars, which has little CO2 in the atmosphere and a surfacetemperature of -24 degrees Fahrenheit,at best.Human activities since the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century, including mass deforestation and theburning of coal and oil, have led to asteady increase of carbon dioxide in theatmosphere, causing scientists to speculate whether an abnormal planetarywarming will soon occur.A French physicist-mathematician,Jean Baptist Fourier, first suggested in1827 that humans might be affecting theearth's atmosphere and climate. The15idea gained widespread attention inthe 1930s when some commentatorsblamed the dust-bowl droughts on increases in atmospheric C02. With thereturn of rains, public interest dried up;but scientists carried on research onhow C02 increases might create a global warming— research that took an entirely new dimension in 1975 whena 31-year-old atmospheric scientistat NASA's Langley Research Centerpublished his first postdoctoral paperin Science magazine.In that paper, Veerabhadran Ra-manathan suggested that the presencein the atmosphere of gases calledchlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could havea significant impact on the greenhouseeffect. CFCs, or freons— first synthesized in the 1920s— are used as a coolantfor refrigerators; in the manufacture ofplastic foams for insulation and packing; and as a propellant for spray cans inmany countries, although this latteruse was banned in the U.S. in 1978.Ramanathan's study offered thefirst suggestion that a gas other thanC02 could be influencing the greenhouse effect— an idea that caused intense controversy at the time, both surprising and delighting the youngscientist.Ramanathan was very familiar withCFCs, having worked as an engineer ina refrigeration plant in India in 1966.His job there was to devise storage techniques to prevent CFC leakage— a problem that was causing tremendous financial losses in the industry at thattime.Ramanathan explained that he hadentered engineering "because it wasconsidered the most patriotic thing todo in India. . .but my heart was alwaysin basic physics/7After receiving a master's degree inmechanical engineering at the IndianInstitute of Science in 1970, Ramanathan came to the United States to studyphysics. He earned a Ph.D. in planetaryatmospheres at the State University ofNew York, Stony Brook, in 1973, whileworking with problems related to the greenhouse effect on Venus and Mars.He later began to explore Earth's atmosphere. Although Ramanathan washappy to leave his former occupation,he credits his experience in the refrigeration industry for arousing his curiosityabout CFCs and their possible relationto the greenhouse effect.As part of a team associated withthe National Center for AtmosphericResearch, Ramanathan later began amore conclusive study of CFCs and other trace gases (gases found only in minute quantities in the atmosphere), withthe results published in 1985.The group researched over 30 gasesreleased into the atmosphere as a resultof human activity— including methane,which comes from rice paddies andlivestock, as well as leakage from natural gas wells and pipelines; and nitrousoxide, from coal burning and nitrogenfertilizer in soil.Ramanathan explained how thesegases influence the greenhouse effect.Under normal conditions, the Earthemits most of its infrared radiation(heat) back into space through a narrowregion of the spectrum where theEarth's atmosphere is transparent, inthe same way that light passes througha window. However, the researchersfound that several trace gases couldtrap infrared radiation with remarkableefficiency— like curtains on a window.C02, combined with water vapor, alsoinhibits the passage of infrared radiation through the atmosphere, but at adifferent region of the spectrum that isless effective in blocking the radiation.Thus, a single molecule of CFC—although extremely rare in the atmosphere—is ten thousand times more efficient in trapping infrared radiationthan a molecule of carbon dioxide."This means that these trace gasescould be just as efficient in causing theirown greenhouse effect, " said Ramanathan. "We concluded that, althoughmost of these trace gases are newcomers to the atmosphere, if their presencecontinues to increase at the current rate,their sum total effect could double or triple the C02 effect on climate warming in the next 50 years."Currently, Ramanathan is researching clouds and their possible relationships to the greenhouse effect. "Thelargest uncertainty in understandingclimate change— from the drought lastsummer to an ice age lasting thousandsof years— is the way that clouds interactwith the sun's radiation," he said. Thiswork will help scientists improve theirpredictions of how greenhouse gasesand other atmospheric changes will alter the Earth's climate.Scientists have long debated aboutthe balance between the cooling andthe heating effects of clouds. Cloudswarm the Earth by trapping the infraredradiation emitted by the ground, preventing its loss into space. This is whycloudy nights are often warmer thanclear nights. Clouds also cool the Earthby reflecting sunlight back into spacebefore it can reach the ground, as can befelt when a cloud passes overhead on asunny day."The question has been, " said Ramanathan, "which of these effects,averaged over the Earth, is stronger?"To answer that question, Ramanathan and a group of researchers proposed the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) to NASA 14 years ago,in order to accurately measure theEarth's heat budget— that is, the balance between radiation it receives andradiation it loses to space.Ramanathan described ERBE as"the most sophisticated instrument ofits kind that has ever been sent to look atEarth, in terms of its calibration." Nearly identical versions of the instrumentwere sent into space via satellite, withtwo launched in the fall of 1984, and thethird in July, 1986."ERBE gave us a unique chance tolook at Earth from different angles atdifferent times of the day with orbitingsatellites," said Ramanathan, "so eachday we had six different views of thesame region.""It's like the federal budget," saidRamanathan. "We keep track of what's16 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989Veerab-hadran Ramanathan's latest studiesof clouds will help improvepredictions on how greenhousegases may alter the earth's climate.coming in and what's going out. What'scoming in is the sunlight from space.What's going out are two components-one being the portion of the sunlightthat is reflected back into space fromclouds, trees, vegetation, and so forth.The other is the infrared heat radiationcoming from the planet."So we measure all three and thedifferences among them. The trickypart is to separate out all the effects, andto pull out just the effects of clouds. Itwas a challenge but I believe we cameup with a very effective method ofanalysis."This method of analysis is so complex that it took the scientists four yearsin order to understand just one monthof ERBE's data— that received in April,1985.Ejaz Ahmad, SM'87, Ramanathan'sassistant on the project and a co-authorof the Science article, explained thatNASA's computers "send us huge volumes of data" which are plugged into a special computerized optical laser disksystem at the University of Chicago . After processing this mass of data,Ahmad said that a computer "movie" isgenerated which simulates by time sequence the net heating and cooling effects of cloud systems for the entireplanet.These computer analyses suggested that clouds have a net cooling effecton the Earth which dominates theirheating effect, and that the effect is surprisingly large. Roughly estimated, theplanet would be 20 to 40 degrees Fahrenheit warmer without them."The ERBE study gives us a goodplace to start," said Ramanathan, "bytelling us that the greenhouse effectwill either be much less severe if greenhouse gases cause an increase in theEarth's cloud cover, or much worse ifclouds decrease. Trying to answerwhich brings us to the next stage of ourresearch."The question of clouds is only one in a series of unknowns that scientistsmust grapple with before making concise predictions of how a greenhouseeffect will alter the Earth's climate, saidRamanathan. Current climate modelsproject that average global temperatures will rise from 3 to 8 degrees Fahrenheit by the middle of the next century, but many factors— or "feedbacks"—are missing from those models.One positive feedback might bethat an increase of atmospheric C02could stimulate plant growth; andgrowing plants, in turn, absorb carbondioxide from the air. However, a warming process would likely speed up thedecay of dead organic material, whichreleases C02 into air, creating a negative feedback.Ocean chemistry and circulationcould also be affected by a greenhousewarming, said Ramanathan, becausewarmer water absorbs less C02, andalso inhibits mixing of deep and surfacewaters, slowing the transfer of C02 tothe lower ocean depths. Such permutations could negatively affect phyto-plankton — tiny ocean plants which absorb C02— and this, in turn, could alterthe ocean's food chain. It might even affect clouds, since the plants release asulfur compound which converts intoacid sulfates around which cloudseventually form.Oceans may also provide an explanation as to why greenhouse gaseshaven't already significantly modifiedthe Earth's climate, because they maybe currently absorbing excess heat, delaying severe climate changes for thetime-being.Some scientists believe that currentclimate models, using few of these feedbacks, are too conservative in their predictions. A recent study prepared byDaniel A. Lashof, a scientist who worksfor the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), gave an "educated guess" thatwith the potential effects of feedbacksincluded, the global warming could befrom 6 to 11 degrees Fahrenheit in thenext century, and even a range as highas 14 to 18 degrees could not be com-17pletely ruled out.Beyond this hypothetical realm,John Frederick can provide one veryreal illustration of how man-made pollutants can affect the atmosphere in totally unanticipated ways.According to Frederick, the appearance of a "hole" in the atmosphere'sprotective ozone layer over Antarcticawas so unexpected that when scientists first detected its presence in themid-1970s, they didn't believe theirinstruments.At that time, a British Antarctic survey team that had been measuring theozone since the mid-1960s began to notice slight decreases in the ozone; andFrederick himself, as a space scientist inNASA's Laboratory for Atmospheres atthe Goddard Space Flight Center, wasdetecting the same pattern in satellite-based data."The computer that processed thedata was programmed so that if theozone came out smaller than some critical number, it was thrown out as baddata, and what we noticed is that everyOctober over Antarctica, all the datawere getting thrown out," said Frederick. "It was just assumed by everyonethat this couldn't be real ozone behavior— it had to be something fooling theinstrument."The first chemical theory of theozone layer, in 1930, demonstrated thatozone is a natural outcome of the sun'sultraviolet (UV) radiation interactingwith oxygen in the Earth's stratosphere, the region of the atmospherebetween six and 31 miles above theground.A decrease in the abundance of atmospheric ozone would be accompanied by an increase in biologically damaging UV radiation reaching theground. Overexposure to UV radiationhas been linked in humans to skin cancer, eye cataracts, and damage to thebody's immune system and is potentially harmful to the growth of plants andaquatic life, causing concern whetherdepletion of this protective ozone layermay be spreading beyond Antarctica. JohnFrederickstudies the harmfuleffects of ultraviolet raysassociated with depletions inthe Earth's protective ozone layer.Frederick began to study ozonewhile pursuing his Ph.D. at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in the Department of Astro-Geophysics founded by Sydney Chapman, who proposedthe first formal theory of ozone.Frederick originally intended topursue astrophysics after graduatingmagna cum laude from Hanover College in 1971. He was introduced to hiscurrent research interests at Coloradoby Julius London, "one of the grand oldmen of the ozone layer, " from whom helearned that "solar radiation, photo-biology (the effect of light on livingthings), and everything else that happens in the Earth's upper atmosphere isnothing but astrophysics getting applied closer to home."Eventually tiring of the "bureaucratic hassles" that go with a government job, Frederick left NASA aftereight years to join Chicago's faculty in1985. In 1987, he was selected to lead anassessment committee chosen among representatives of a 24-nation groupwhich met in Montreal to discuss theozone problem. The committee's job inthe coming year is to sort through thelatest scientific data to accurately assessozone depletion, from which it ishoped an international agreement canbe reached on what steps need to be taken to curtail the problem.The focus of such an agreementwould likely involve worldwide reductions in the use of CFCs. Even beforeCFCs were linked to the greenhouse effect, their connection to ozone damagewas suspected. In 1974, SherwoodRowland, SM'51, PhD'52, chemistryprofessor at the University of California, Irvine, first suggested that chlorineassociated with CFCs could also createan ozone depletion; and in 1987, scientists discovered strikingly high levelsof chlorine in the polar atmosphere.The question remained as to why theAntarctic ozone was particularlyvulnerable.18 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989One compelling explanation, saidFrederick, relates to clouds. Cloudstypically appear in the lower atmosphere, but can actually form in thestratosphere during Antarctica's extremely cold winters. A chemical reaction may be occurring on the surfaces offrozen cloud particles which tears chlorine atoms off CFC molecules and turnsthem loose as free atoms, allowing thechemistry to take place which destroysozone when sunlight returns in thespring, said Frederick.The colder the winter, the moreozone is apparently destroyed: theworst case being in October, 1987, whenthe Antarctic ozone layer was one-thirdof its normal value— allowing larger levels of UV radiation to reach the ground,equivalent to amounts experiencedduring a typical Chicago summer."The concern is for simple creatureslike plankton that have evolved in Antarctica over millions of years, " said Frederick. "Since organisms generally develop the minimum defenses needed tocope with the UV radiation they'veevolved in, an increase in this radiationcould damage such organisms, affecting the entire Antarctic food chain."There is concern that ozone depletions may be spreading to other areas ofthe planet, Frederick said. Recently, anArctic survey team looking for a northern hemisphere ozone hole reportedmeasuring large amounts of chlorine inthe stratosphere which might create anozone hole over the Arctic this spring-however, Frederick predicts it won't beas large a hole as Antarctica's "becauseit just doesn't stay cold enough, longenough, in the northern hemisphere."Perhaps an even greater worry isthe slight ozone drops being measuredin this hemisphere at mid-latitudes. InChicago, for example, UV radiation exposure has increased four or five percent during the summer. One tentativeexplanation is that sulfuric acid-waterdroplets in the atmosphere may be releasing chlorine in a manner similar tothe Antarctic cloud particles, althoughmuch less effectively. In addition to proposing a designfor a UV monitoring system for theChemical Manufacturers Association,Frederick recently served as a principalinvestigator for the National Ozone Expedition, sending graduate studentDan Lubin, SM'87, SM'88, to PalmerStation in Antarctica this past summerto operate an instrument used to measure the level of ultraviolet radiationreaching the Earth's surface. (Lubin returned to Chicago this January.)"I obviously feel this is somethingwe need to monitor very carefully, " saidFrederick, "but at this point I think wecan state with confidence that if we dorestrict the use of CFCs, this problemwill eventually go away. That's wherethis situation really differs from thegreenhouse effect, because there youare talking about restricting carbondioxide, which would require a restructuring of some fundamental energysources in our society."Faced with the economic complexities implied in preventing a greenhouse warming of the planet, mostpolitical leaders have hedged in proposing major policy changes, but defend the delay, stating that more scientific evidence should be compiledbefore any drastic changes are made.Given the reality of a global economy, policy makers would also naturallywish to achieve some kind of international consensus for action. For example, the U.S. has proposed an international protocol that would freezeproduction of harmful CFCs, graduallyphasing them out, yet France and Britain remain strongly opposed to suchcontrols. (The worldwide annual market for CFCs is some $2.2 billion.) Likewise, Europeans have criticized theU.S. for its wastefulness, complainingthat Americans consume a factor oftwice more in energy than do Europeans for the same standard of living.Reaching a consensus involving thirdworld and Communist Bloc nationsmay prove even more arduous.Further confusing the issue hasbeen the debate over whether the global warming has already started. In January, scientists from the National Centerfor Atmospheric Research declaredthey had found the "smoking gun" behind last summer's drought: a clash oftwo large Pacific currents, La Nina andEl Nino. The story received headlinesand caused some commentators to discount the greenhouse theory.Although Ramanathan agreed thatthe El Nino phenomenon should bestudied carefully, he does not believethe researchers had proved its directcause-and-effect relationship to thedrought, "not by a long shot.""In any case," said Ramanathan,"I'm not sure we want to wait for it(the greenhouse warming) to happen,if it hasn't already. If what I have suggested is correct, all of this warmingmay not be seen for decades because it'sstored in the ocean, which will ultimately release it."So every decade you're adding tothe warming, and if it takes us 20 or 25years to prove the theory to everyone'ssatisfaction, by that time we will increase the warming by another 30 or 40percent more than it is now— so itmeans that as we postpone taking action, our options get narrower andnarrower."Ramanathan vigorously supports apolicy for mandatory recycling and increased funding of solar energy research— "things that we would have toface up to, sooner or later, anyway, because our resources are limited.""I think where I differ from my other colleagues is that I support such regulations not because of what we know,but because of how little we know aboutthe planetary system and if we are tampering with it in a major way," saidRamanathan."My worry is that the effect could bepotentially larger. If it's potentiallysmaller, then fine— only the scientistsworking on the problem will be embarrassed. But if it's much larger, collectively we'd all be embarrassed that wedid this to this planet when there werewarning signals all along." a19A"1h.\\'mi*•¦THE FOURTHCOMMANDMENTAJNTD THE FIRSTAMENDMENTWHEN HARRY KALVEN, JR., AB'35, JD'38, THE HARRY A.Bigelow professor of Law at the University, died in 1974 at the age of sixty, he left behind a 1, 000page unfinished manuscript. Four years before his death he had started work on the manuscript,in which he intended to present a comprehensive review of the Supreme Court's rulings on theFirst Amendment.Kalven's son, Jamie Kalven, a free-lance writer, felt that his father's work was too important to go unpublished. Eventually, he took on the monumental task of completing it himself.With the assistance of Owen Fiss, Kalven's friend and a former colleague at the University of Chicago, now a professor of law at Yale, Jamie Kalven pulled the heavily annotated manuscripttogether and enlarged upon it. The result is A Worthy Tradition: Freedom of Speech inAmerica, by Harry Kalven, Jr., edited by Jamie Kalven (NY, 1987 Harper &Row).In The New York Times Book Review, Benno C. Schmidt, Jr., president of Yale,wrote: "It is a limited, obviously incomplete, gem of a book, indispensable for anyone who seeks tounderstand freedom of expression in American law And in one of the areas— the SupremeCourt's response to the plethora of constitution cases involving the specter of domestic Communism in the 40's, 50's and 60's—it is magnificent and ought to be read by everyone interested inthis painful and important part of our political and social history. "At a Law School Loop Luncheon last spring Jamie Kalven talked about his experiencein completing his father's work. His remarks follow.(Above)Jamie Kalvenand his son,Joshua, at aCubs game in1982.20 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989By Jamie KalvenI WANT TO BEGIN BYclearing up a potentialsource of confusion. It ishard to think of a text carrying more authority inour culture than the tabletsMoses brought down fromMount Sinai. Yet even here there are editorial puzzles and questions of interpretation. The wonderful title of thispiece (which I owe to the wit of HollyDavis) is subject to being misunderstood. The problem is that different religious traditions number the commandments differently. ForChristians, the FourthCommandment is indeed"Honor your father andyour mother." But for Jewsthat is the Fifth Commandment and the Fourthis "Remember the Sabbath day." So I must apologize to those of you whoare expecting an article on"The Sabbath and Freedom of Speech." An intriguing topic no doubt,but as one who has toooften worked seven daysa week in an effort to satisfy the other commandment, I am not qualified toaddress it.IEarly on in his career, my fatherconceived the ambition to write a bookon freedom of speech. The first references I have found to such a book dateback to the early 1950s. What he had inmind was an essay that would do for histime what Zechariah Chafee's FreeSpeech in the United States had done for anearlier era. Over the years he constantlyresponded— as lawyer, scholar, and citizen—to what he once described as "thecharisma" of the First Amendment. Finally, in the late 1960s, he sat down towrite the essay to which he would devote the last years of his life.For my father, freedom of speech inAmerica was something more than abody of law; he saw it as a tradition ofthe society. His book reflects that orientation. It is a work of evocation as well asanalysis. His aim was not simply to report and assess the Court's most recentanswers to various First Amendment is sues. He conceived of the American experience under the First Amendmentas an ongoing, open-ended dialoguebetween the society and the courts overthe meaning of freedom of speech. Hisaim was to give a rounded account ofthat dialogue over time— to evoke andmake immediate a large body of mixedexperience. To carry it forward, to preserve the debacles as well as the insights, to pass it all on.He did not quite make it. In the fall of1974, at the age of sixty, he died. Yearslater I chose as an epigraph for the afterword to the book lines from the Talmud: "It is not upon you to finish thework; neither are you free to desist fromit." I claimed those consoling, demanding words for myself, but as a reviewerhas suggested, they apply equally, andwith special poignancy to my father. Hedid not finish. He did not desist. Hedied at his desk, working on his essay.The manuscript he bequeathedposed a dilemma to which there couldbe no fully satisfactory solution. It wasnot clear what to do with it. Yet itseemed inconceivable to put it aside, tosurrender it to death. Working closelywith Professor Owen Fiss of Yale LawSchool, I undertook to prepare themanuscript for publication. A fewmonths ago— some fourteen years aftermy father's death— the book waspublished under the title A Worthy Tradition: Freedom of Speech in America.So I write now in the posture of onewho has just looked up after years ofsingle-minded effort and asked himself, "Now what was it at all about?" Tohave emerged from the condition of being inside my father's book is at once aloss of perspective and a recovery of perspective. Much that was vivid andimmediate has receded. At the sametime, certain questions that could notbe entertained, or even discerned, inthe midst of the effort are becomingaccessible.The most inviting lines of inquiryarise out of the intersections betweencontent and process, between thethemes of the book and the experienceof working on it. I have come to feel— inlarge part as a result of the way othersrespond to the project— that my experience has been less a rare, singular fatethan a boldly defined version of a common fate. A story that makes explicitthemes implicit in many lives.I do not want to present my experience assome sort of parable; Idon't see it that way. But itis perhaps a point of access to larger patterns: asource of hints and intimations. We are, after all,a nation that speaks of"founding fathers." Andthe perennial controversyover constitutional theoryis a debate about how toregard a text that is bothprecious and problematic.It is a debate over theproper relationship between the living and thedead, between thegenerations.The two principles joined togetherby our serendipitous title have very different "feels." The commandmentevokes filial piety and deference to authority; it evokes gratitude, withoutbounds, to those who have given us thegift of life. The amendment evokes tolerance of— and even appetite for—conflict; it evokes (in words my fatherfound stirring) "robust, uninhibited,and wide-open" debate; it evokes distrust of authority and the question ofeverything. How are we to harmonizethese two principles? For me, the common ground is found in a certain way ofthinking about tradition, about fidelity toa tradition, and about language as atonce the common holding of the generations and the domain of struggle between them.IIIn the beginning was the Word.Among my father's papers is an extended description, written on March 23,When law scholar HarryKalven, Jr., died, he left behindan unfinished manuscripton the First Amendment.Jamie Kalven describes his"dialogue" with a dead father,as he struggled to completehis father's work.211950, of my behavior at 17 months.Among other things, it contains a complete list of my vocabulary as of thatdate. Here it is:"milk""dirty (almost)""more (almost)""Bud" (As some of you know: myfather's nickname.)"ta-ta"He wrote down my first words.Twenty-four years later I inherited hislast words: a huge, partially completededifice of language, at once slapdashand grand, in which I lived for morethan a decade.(When my son Joshua's first wordproved to be "book," mywife and I were pleased tosee this as evidence ofwhat a civilized, literatehousehold he had beenborn into: book-linedwalls, parents who read.But then another explanation occurred to us: wethought of the countlesstimes he had heard peoplesay to his father: "Whenare you going to finish thatdamn book?")My first words. My father's last words. And, inbetween, the conversation that interlaced ourfates. I loved talking withhim. My most vivid memories are of him talking : onlong walks, on the stairsleading up to his study(where, for some reason, we would often become suspended in conversation), over the phone after I left home.As students, colleagues and friends,many of you knew the pleasures of conversation with him. Perhaps you sharemy feeling that he not only persuasivelyargued the case for freedom of speechbut that he also embodied it. With him,one felt that there was nothing thatcould not be talked about. At once boldand playful, his talk about even thegravest matters was animated by intellectual gaiety. The only real sin, he onceobserved, is boredom. That was something he never suffered nor inflicted. After he died, a number of the letters we received from friends and students strucka common theme: it was not just that hewas so interesting, they said, it was that Imyself never felt more interesting thanwhen I was with him.Conversation with him was a mat ter—in both senses of the word— of entertaining questions. In a memorial tribute Ramsey Clark [AM'50, JD'51]observed that Harry Kalven was "a freeman" because "he questioned most severely the things he loved best." I have aslight quibble with the word "severely."It does not quite convey the flavor of myfather's questioning— his warmth, hislight touch— but the statement gets atsomething essential. It suggests whatwas so exhilarating and liberating abouthis conversational style, suggests hiscapacity to open a subject up, to freshenit, to renew it. Conversation with himdid not necessarily move toward clarity,toward resolution, toward some fixedFather and son "share" a smoke.Harry Kalven, Jr., and his son, Jamie,in 1949.position. Rather, it was a matter of putting competing values in play, of exploring different perspectives; it was amatter of removing the husks from assertions and getting at the questions inside. The effect was to deepen one'ssense of the subject— to disclose itsmysterious depths.IllWith his death, that marvelousstream of language ran dry. We were leftwith his last words— a thousand pagesof them. The manuscript is literally afirst draft; I doubt he crumpled up morethan half a dozen sheets of paper in thecourse of producing it. Yet what a firstdraft. Every year or so he would readthrough what he had written and makenotes in the margins— suggesting revisions and additions, challenging thetext, flagging matters he wanted to think about further. Over time themarginalia accumulated. In the end,there were some six hundred notesscattered through the manuscript.They range from question marks to fullpages of critical commentary on thebackside of manuscript pages. They animate the manuscript, giving it the quality of a conversation between the authorand himself.My objective was to carry on: to advance the process of composition,while keeping it his book, while keeping faith with his intentions. In a sense,the story of the editorial process is thestory of my education, far from completed, in the strenuous demands andvaried forms of fidelity.How to characterizethis effort? The intensityof it. The vast disproportions. The weeks spent onquestions my fatherwould have resolved in anafternoon, the years devoted to blocks of materialit took him weeks to write.The searching conversations with Owen Fissabout the merits of various interventions. Thedoubts that persisted—and persist— about thepropriety of various editorial moves.I have sometimeswondered what my fatherwould have thought, hadhe listened in on some ofmy conversations withOwen. He would, I am quite sure, havebeen moved and gratified by the sight ofthe two of us sitting in some New Havendive bringing fierce attention to bear onhis manuscript and passionately discussing the intricacies of his thought.As he listened, however, his pleasuremight well have given way to other,more ambivalent reactions. For my filialdevotion— and Owen's heroic intellectual generosity to two generations ofKalvens— took the form of relentlesscriticism and questioning. That was ourfunction. That was the form our stewardship took. That was the way wesought to reach the depth at which thechoices that shaped the essay had beenmade.It was an endlessly perplexing andcompelling process. When it ran true, itbrought us close to the mind behind thebook. At such moments the problemspresented by the manuscript seemed22 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989less impediments to understandingthan vehicles. This could be immenselysatisfying, both intellectually and emotionally. But there were also times whenthe editorial process brought us close tohis mind but did not yield an appropriate way of acting on our perceptions.And this could be anguishing. One ofthe enduring mysteries of the project isthat my father's mind never seemedmore immediate, more present than itdid at those moments: in play, activelybaffled, a mind engaged in a conversation with itself— a conversation wecould not join.Looking back, I wondered: whatdoes it all add up to? What is the sum ofall the changes large andsmall, of all the changesconsidered but not made,of all the brooding overminutiae, of all the smallacts of attention? I am lesscertain about my impacton the text than I am aboutthe impact of sustainedengagement with the text—and the mind behind it—on me.I have emerged with adeepened commitment tothe values associated withboth the commandmentand the amendment. It isin such a combination offierce attachment to whathas been given and equally fierce attachment tocritical independence thatI see the noblest possibilities of the American tradition of freedom of speech— among them, the possibility of being a radical critic withinthe tradition.Such a twin commitment is strenuous and endlessly problematic. Thatmay, indeed, be one of its chief virtues:that it yields such worthy problems.There follows from this orientation aconception of fidelity as a matter of taking on the problematic— of gettingstuck, of staying on, of not cutting one'slosses; a matter, ultimately, of faith thatone will not, in the end, regret havingstayed with the problem.We have heard a lot in recent yearsabout fidelity to the Constitution. Wehave had urged upon us the proposition, in effect, that judges should enforce those parts of the Constitutionthat are clear and disregard the rest.The rationale is that the problematiccharacter of some of the broader consti tutional values makes error inevitableand provides cover for self-servinginterpretations.Such an approach sees fidelity inonly one dimension: our impact on thetext. But there is another necessary perspective: the impact of the text on us—the way it works upon us. Certain problems may not be possible to solve. Yetnot to engage them would be impoverishing. Our stewardship of that whichwe inherit will inevitably be marked byerror and, in all likelihood, by controversy. But we will fail those values farmore deeply, if we use the likelihood oferror as a rationale to forgo the effort togive them concrete expression in theFor scrap paper, Joshua andBetsy Fialven use a copy of Harrylsoriginal work.world. And we will foreclose the possibility that sustained engagement withfundamental problems may, with timeand grace, yield important benefits thatdo not take the form of solutions. Perhaps the problems will not yield, butwe will.Thus, a condition of fidelity, so conceived, is acceptance of the inevitabilityof error— not as license but as recognition of human limitations, of all we donot know, of the need to make judgments and to act, although we moveamong mysteries. In this respect, tradition looks in two directions: towardsthe elders we seek to honor but also towards the friends-in-the-future (as agreat scholar once called them) towhom we look to redeem our mistakes.The symbol of this dynamic in my life atthe moment is a big pile of scratch paperthat sits on my desk at home: a xeroxedcopy of an early draft of A Worthy Tradi tion. My children are welcome to helpthemselves, and they do. They writetheir stories and draw their pictures onthe backside of the manuscript. Alivewith the penstrokes of their grandfather's conversation with himself, bristling with the puzzles that occupiedtheir father, it is the compost out ofwhich their intellects and imaginationsare growing.For me, then, both the content ofthe book and the experience of workingon it converge on a common theme: onan understanding of tradition as an ongoing conversation. As my father, endearingly, once told his students: "Inconfusion, I see strength." Certainforms of clarity are the enemy of freedom, of tolerance, of humane values.Such clarity is the productnot of things seen but ofthings not seen. By contrast, ambiguity— such asplays through good conversation—can be a medium in which importanthuman possibilities andvalues are preserved.So, I have come to theend of this effort grateful,above all, for the languagewe share with one anotherand with the dead— grateful for its consolations, forits death-defying properties, and for the possibilities of reconciliation thatreside beneath the arguments it enables us to havewith one another.In closing, I want to return to theFourth (or is it the Fifth?) Commandment. The full text reads: "Honor yourfather and your mother, that you maylong endure on the land which the Lordour God is giving you ." This promise oflong life to those who honor their parents is, of course, heartening. It resonates to the unexpected and welcomesensation I have had since finishing thebook that the years I spent on it havesomehow been added to my life ratherthan subtracted. But I wonder if that isreally what the words mean . Do they refer to longevity for the individual? Ordo they perhaps refer to the ongoing lifeof the community that flows throughthe limited, mortal lives of individuals:to the living tradition of which we become part when we passionately enterinto the conversation through whichthat tradition lives. D23LATE ONE EVENING, AS JOHNSmith, a second-year student in theCollege, arrived back at BreckenridgeHall, he stepped into his room andfound himself knee-deep in popcorn.(That's not his real name; the namesof all— or most— of the persons in thisarticle have been changed, includingthose of the coauthors.)Two young women, classmates andneighbors of John Smith in the Breckenridge, confessed to having spentmany, many hours popping corn in order to produce enough to fill even a dormitory room knee-high. A measure oftheir dedication to the task at hand isthat they were popping corn in a pre-microwave popper, one of those smallelectrical appliances which are stillstandard equipment for most peopledeparting for college. While doing it,they later said, it felt as if it was takingforever. They were inspired, however,since it was an act of revenge.Popcorn figured in another prankaimed at first-year College student Albert Wood. He found his bathtub atBroadview Hall filled with popcorn-wet, soggy popcorn."After we filled the tub with popcorn, we turned on the shower. After all,we didn't want him to enjoy it," explained one of Albert's fellow residents.One night at Woodward Court,when Allison Ames switched on thelight in her dorm room she found itcompletely empty. A frantic search revealed that all of her furnishings— all ofthem: bed, dresser, bookcases, books,stereo, TV, computer— had been carted Knee-DeepIllustrations by CissieUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989away and carefully— nay, lovingly— setup in the exact relationship in whichthey ordinarily stood, except they werenow in the dormitory lounge.At Chicago, the student prank isalive and thriving.It has a venerable tradition. As longago as 1885, students at the first University of Chicago, (located at 35th andCottage Grove), found relief from thegrind of studying by dreaming up outrageous pranks— just as their successors do today.In those days, a professor kept acow. He argued that it was useful tohave the cow munch the grass. Unfortunately, the only available plot of grassthat wasn't occupied by oak trees wasthe athletic field; it was the only bit ofground large enough for the playing ofrugby. The students were irritated because each time they played rugby theyhad to move the cow. One morning, theprofessor arrived to find the cow on thethird floor roof of what was then theuniversity's chapel. They had to rig up ablock and tackle to rescue the cow.Owl & Serpent, the men's secrethonor society, had a long-standing traditional prank, revealed to us by analumnus who graduated in the late1930s. At the close of a meeting eachmember was expected to urinate on acertain tree in the Gates-Blake-Goodspeed-Classics quadrangle,while singing "Hail to the Orange," acherished University of Illinois song.A former administrator at the current University of Chicago, whom we'llcall Witherspoon, recounted a fewpranks which had been pulled off during his tenure.In the 1930s, during the glory daysof the University of Chicago footballteam, the Maroons' marching band included what was billed as the world'slargest bass drum, "Big Bertha." Afterintercollegiate football was dropped atChicago, "Big Bertha" was sold to theUniversity of Texas Longhorns. In thelate 1950s a group of students decidedto drive down to Texas, in a truck, and"kidnap" the drum for a pep rally atwhich they proposed to lobby to bringback intercollegiate football to StaggField.The late Robert M. Strozier,PhD'45, (his real name), then dean ofstudents in the University, found outabout their intentions after they haddriven off. Some nervous soul, havingheard about the intended "kidnap ping, " was concerned that the studentsinvolved might be committing a crime.Despite their sometimes maddeningbehavior, Strozier was fond of the students in his domain. Reportedly hecalled the University of Texas and quietly arranged for the Chicago group to beallowed to "steal" the huge drum."They had a terrible time getting itback to Chicago, because the drum wasso large in diameter that it wouldn'tfit under the overpasses," recalledWitherspoon. Their efforts were rewarded; when they arrived back on thequads with "Big Bertha" in tow, theywere joined by 2,000 cheering— well,mostly cheering— people eager to seeintercollegiate football restored toStagg Field. A few of the non-cheererswere uncouth enough to toss stinkbombs at "Big Bertha, " but the disgruntled were small in number and for themost part ignored. "Big Bertha" waseventually returned to the University ofTexas, the latter having become piquedbecause the drum was allowed to languish for more than a year in HenryCrown Field House.Witherspoon recalled anotherprank from the post- World War II era. Astudent from New York City drove hisroommates to distraction by quoting incessantly from his favorite newspaper,The New York Times. In fact, he admiredthat newspaper so much that hecouldn't bear to throw it away; stacks ofpapers were gradually filling his cornerof the room. One evening his exasperated roommates managed to get him to goto a movie. They then filled the entireroom, from floor to ceiling, with crumpled up pages of The New York Times.When the task was completed, they retreated out a window, so as not to disturb the effect.Among more recent pranks, there isthe butter pat one. "Dave was an expertat taking a napkin during meals, foldingit a certain way, and flipping it so that abutter pat would end up on the ceilingof the dining room at Pierce Hall. So wefelt it was appropriate that he be the target for this one," said one of Dave'sfriends. Dave went to bed in all innocence one night, unaware that hisroommates had plastered about 50 patsof butter to the ceiling directly above hispillow. Naturally, they chose a warmnight for their deed."On one really boring Saturdaynight, " recounted Ted Brown, a third-year student in the College, "we went to Walgreen's and bought a whole lot ofmasking tape. Then we taped it backand forth across the doorway of a guy'sroom, (he and a friend were inside,studying to music) so that when heopened the door he'd walk into an entirely taped up space."One group of College students whoshared their experiences with us saidtheir most frenzied prank period hadbeen during freshman year. Now mature third-year students, they have, tosome degree, put aside such activities."I think by the second year, everyone got just a tad more serious, so therewas less time for pulling off pranks,"said Alan Miller."Well, not completely, " contradicted Mark Adams, one of his coconspirators. "Now we pull stuff off in eachother's apartments.""The more people are involved, themore fun it is, " commented Adams. "Ifyou do it by yourself you may not seethe results, so you can't enjoy what youdid. Besides, it gives you someone elseto laugh with."Among the residence houses oncampus, there is great rivalry in intramural sports— and in executing pranks.Residents of Chamberlin House, in25Burton-Judson Courts, have traditionally been among the most aggressive onthe playing fields and most inventivein devising pranks. When Chamberlinwent co-ed two years ago, male students feared that their new femaleneighbors might be unenthusiasticabout pranks. They need not have worried. Word is that women residents ofChamberlin are just as fervent as themen in dreaming up jokes to play onother houses. One morning, many residents of Salisbury House were late forclasses. A group from Chamberlin hadmanaged to cut off all electric power toSalisbury during the previous night.More recently, when residents of Coulter House arrived at the top of the stairsto leave for morning classes, they wereconfronted with another Chamberlinprank. The entire stairwell, includinglandings, was covered with tiny papercups filled with water. "They were so arranged, that if you knocked over thefirst row, that would knock over the nextrow, and so on down the entire stairway," reported a Coulter resident.Regarded by many as the "GoldenAge" of the practical joke on campus,the 1960s and early 1970s were times ofinspired lunacy, much of it under the banner of the Students for Violent Non-Action (SVN A)."It was during the period of greatunrest, here and elsewhere, " explainedan alumnus we'll call Jack Cooper, "sothe SVNA appealed to a lot of studentsbecause it allowed them to release theiremotions in a way that might be annoying to a stodgy administration; at thesame time they were not endangeringtheir future at the University. Ofcourse, the fact was that the administration was not stodgy and probablyenjoyed SVNA's antics as much as thestudents themselves did."SVNA once crowned a refrigeratoras "Campus Appliance" at a homecoming football game. It also appealed tothe entire campus to "Flush for Freedom" at the exact moment that Nixonwas inaugurated as president.One happening dreamed up by agroup of students as a joke has becomean institutionalized event. According tothe Chicago Maroon, in 1970 a groupwhich called itself Students Projectingon Equal Rights for Men (SPERM)hosted a Lascivious Costume Ball as aspoof of the "Miss University of Chicago" contest (which used to be held atthe annual Washington Prom.) At the LCB they crowned a "Mr. University ofChicago." If one attended the LCB aunaturel, one got in free. Alumni who attended some of the LCBs recall thatimaginative costumes turned out to befar more interesting than viewing one'sclassmates clad only in their skins. Forexample a student, (now a successfulNew York banker), attended the LCBone year wearing only a jockstrap-bejewelled. As the fervor of the 1960shas receded, the ground rules at theLCB have become a bit less relaxed; noone is admitted these days unless he/sheis clothed.To celebrate the opening of Regen-stein Library in 1973, half-a-dozenmasked males, (members of the Class of1975, reports one of our informants)"streaked" through the new building.(For those not familiar with the term,"streaking" as thus used involves running rapidly, while naked, in some public place, preferably before enoughstrangers to fill Madison Square Garden. During the 1960s and 1970s, it became a national pastime.) The studentsinvolved had invested time and effort incarefully planning their route beforehand so that they were able to "streak"across several floors in Regenstein andout of the building without beingcaught. "They were known, but notcaught," said Witherspoon.One 1950s prank enraged a wholeresidence house in Burton-JudsonCourts. You must remember that Americans had not yet attained the degree ofaffluency they now strive to sustain;students did not have phones in theirindividual rooms then. When phoninghome for more money or to a prospective date, they had to use a communalphone booth. All of the students enrolled in one of the biological sciencescourses (one of the survey courses thentaken by all students in the College)were required to do genetic experiments with fruit flies. One geniussmeared the inside of the telephonebooth in his house with banana andthen released some fruit flies in it."They turned out to be incrediblebreeders," recalled Witherspoon, "andremember, this was in the days beforeaerosol pesticide sprays."About five years ago, the studentsand director of one residence hall werethe victims of a very successful hoax.Residents of the hall received, in theirmailboxes, a note informing them thatthere was concern about an outbreak of26 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989deadly food poisoning— botulism— inChicago. For their protection, it wasurged that each bring a stool sample tothe director's office; plastic bags wereprovided for the purpose. When the administrator arrived at his office the following morning, there awaiting himstood a line of dutiful residents, eachwith plastic bag in hand. Adding to hisoutrage and dismay was a modest pileof bags on his office doorstep, left behind by conscientious students whohad early classes. Students assigned tothat hall frequently included some enrolled in the Graduate School of Business. On this occasion, rumor suggested strongly that one among them haddreamed up this fiendish prank. Somewhere in corporate America (or Japanor Germany or Oman) there sits an executive with an M.B.A. after his/hername, who, on dull days, no doubtamuses him/herself, colleagues, andpossibly even clients, reminiscingabout that particular antic.—Aristotle Schwartz ChampionPrankstersMANY HAVE INDULGED IN Aprank or practical joke at least a fewtimes in their lives, but few can claim tohave scaled the heights of unrepresseddementia accomplished by several University of Chicago alumni under theauspices of the Natty Bumppo Society.To start with, one must grasp thedisorienting fact that the Natty Bump po Society doesn't actually exist."In about 1962, some students inWoodward Court wanted to visit theheadwaters of the Mississippi River, inMinnesota," Dan ("Skip") Landt,AM' 62, explained."Then they found out that womenliving in the dorms couldn't stay outovernight unless they were participating in activities of a student organization—so they made one up, the NattyBumppo Society, and made me thepresident."That same year, Landt decided toset up a table for the Natty Bumppo Society (named after a fictional charactercreated by James Fenimore Cooper), atthe annual Student Activities Night atIda Noyes Hall. At this event, studentorganizations set up booths and try torecruit new members from the crop ofentering students. He created a cardboard display for the table which consisted of "a cutout of a duck from somekind of kid's target game; a letter in Polish addressed to someone in Germany,miscellaneous quotations from JamesFenimore Cooper," and an official description of the society, which waspublished in the Student's Handbook for anumber of years:". . . The Natty Bumppo Society is asocial club, based on the literary principles of James Fenimore Cooper andHarriet Elizabeth Gross Dukes (anOhio woman "famous" for her sentin-mental poetry) ... through our organizations and programs we give ourstudents the opportunity to unitecreatively in a more than literaryendeavor. . . "To Landt's amazement, more than60 people signed up for the nonexistent club.Landt and others subsequently27devised a number of devilishly cleverpranks in the name of the Natty Bumppo Society, including a plan involvingLandt's friend, Donald S. Bradley,AM'63, PhD'69, in which Landt madeup handbills with Bradley's photo andthe caption, "Ladies— I'll buy your oldshoes," says Don Bradley of Chicago."Kookie? Sure— but listen to this deal!Heels to $4, flats to $2. . .You send meyour footwear, I'll send you a check forwhat they're worth ...""Even in the worst moments of theNatty Bumppo Society, we always had afeeling that we didn't want to hurt anybody, and I don't think we ever have,"said Landt, explaining why he never actually posted the bills in public, but instead enlisted the help of friends acrossthe country to send old shoes to Bradley. Both Bradley's wife and mother-in-law were present when the first of 40boxes arrived, containing a pair ofladies' high-heeled shoes.Landt joined the University administration as associate director ofStudent Activities in 1966, and laterbecame director. It was in the latter capacity that Landt received a request, in1968, "from one of those writer's digestsasking if our student yearbook accepted any professionally-written material. I put the form in the typewriter torespond no, but instead found myselftyping, under 'Name of Publication,'The Natty Bumppo Review"Landt wrote that, in addition to articles on James Fenimore Cooper andHarriet Elizabeth Gross Dukes, thepublication would consider submissions on Eastern American Indians andthe Westo Confederacy (an obscuregroup of 17th-century Indian tribes inVirginia who were the dissertation topic of Landt's friend, John Juricek,AB'59, AM'62, PhD'70). For pay, Landtwrote, "Varies— no more than $10."Landt had no expectations of a response, but six months later, "as I waswalking by the mailroom in Ida Noyes, Inoticed this stack of mail tumbling outof one box." All of the envelopes wereaddressed to The Natty Bumppo Review.Landt browsed in disbelief through thedozens of attempted prose, poetry, cartoons and jokes."The contributors mostly strayedfrom the topics I'd requested, althougha lot of them had a kind of western motif—a lot of poems using words like 'wampum' to give them authenticity," saidLandt. For a California writer's poetic homage to Illinois (including such lines as:"I can see my old home, lying low, inshaggy maple trees, /The gate is sagging open, hanging broken at theknees..."), Landt actually paid $10,asking that the writer credit The NattyBumppo Review as the first publicationwherever else the poem appeared.Landt sent back kindly rejection noticesto the rest.From just one mention in the writer's digest, Landt claims, The NattyBumppo Review also received severalscholarly papers (among them, "TheFirst of the Feminists and the Last of theMohicans" and "Wasteland Imageryin James Fenimore Cooper"), back-issue requests from libraries, and jobapplications from journalism schoolgraduates.It was in 1976, however, that theNatty Bumppo Society reached its peakin a lusciously flamboyant scheme involving Landt and two long-timefriends and fellow pranksters, RichardL. Smith, AB'65, MBA' 69, and Leroy B.Schwarz, AB'63, MBA'67, PhD'71.When Smith invited Schwarz andLandt to visit him in a small Ohio townsouthwest of Cleveland, for the July 4thBicentennial celebration, "we agreed,but only if we could come on ourterms," said Landt. From this humblebeginning, the Natty Bumppo Society'sBicentennial Founders Convocationwas born."I started by writing the mayor ofthe town, stating that we were considering holding our founder's convocation there, and to please send information on activities and lodging in thearea," said Landt, who had severalfriends around the country also writethe mayor with the same request. "Hefinally wrote back, saying he didn'tknow why we wanted to have our convocation in his town, because thereweren't any activities and not many motels, either." Landt assured the mayorthat the area's rural and immigrant traditions perfectly fit the themes of theirsociety.Anticipation of the event ran evenhigher when Landt told an area newspaper that the convocation would include a lumpenpol ceremony, which heexplained was "a kind of blessing-ofthe-fields tradition from Germany inwhich the farmers would stand on different sides of a field and shout old German adages back and forth to one another."As the fateful day approached, thesociety had received letters of congratulation from the offices of IllinoisSenator Charles Percy, AB'41, MayorRichard Daley and from PresidentGerald R. Ford, "which praised us onour high values and the celebration ofthe American spirit."As Landt and Smith drove into thelittle town, they were greeted by a 10-foot sign announcing the convocation,"which the mayor had dutifully put upover the expressway by the town's exitand at no charge to us, despite thedoubts I think he was having over thewhole thing.""Now, the only thing left was tohave the lumpenpol ceremony, whichwas our only scheduled public event, "said Landt, who drove up to the schoolgrounds where it would be held, his carfilled with one-pound bags of potatochips "to add to the credibility that wewere having a large event.""We had no idea what to expect, butas we pulled around the corner, there itwas— a crowd of about 40 people withcars and campers, kids and dogs. . .wegot out, acting friendly, but not toofriendly, and took out the lumpenpol."Thanking the townspeople for theirhospitality and announcing that theceremony would be held "for the firsttime ever in modern dress," Landt,Schwarz and a co-conspirator, SusanBorker, SB'65, AM'67, PhD'71, eachtook a pole and paced off. Unable tofind any old German adages, the threeshouted quotes to one another fromNietzsche's Beyond Good and Evil, "andthen we all sank to one knee and heldour poles up."At a prearranged signal, eachpulled a string attached to rubber bandsat the top of the pole, unfurling colorfulbands of crepe paper which blew in theOhio breeze— "and, honest to God,"said Landt, "at that moment, the crowdapplauded."Such are the moments that pranksters dream of and plot for. Landt leftthe University in 1975. He is assistant tothe chancellor of the City Colleges ofChicago. Although he constructed hislast Natty Bumppo Society table display for Student Activities Night in 1976(a story in itself), he is not out of theprank business yet."I still have some strings left topull," Landt promised.—Tim Obermiller28 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989FORUMWhat kind of advice wouldyou give President Bushabout the budget deficit?MICHAEL MUSSAThe William H. Abbott Professor in theGraduate School of Business. Mussa servedfor two years on former President RonaldReagan's Council of Economic Advisers.The budget deficit is a chronic problem. The objective should be to reducethe deficit by roughly $100 billion ormore over the coming four years. A policy of limiting spending growth to nomore than the inflation rate shouldproduce the desired reduction in thedeficit in the medium term. Year-to-year fluctuation in the deficit, however,will depend upon performance of theeconomy and the level of interest rates.Reaching a specific deficit target eachyear is less important than the mediumterm target for deficit reduction overfour or five years.GEORGE J. STIGLERThe Charles R. Walgreen DistinguishedService Professor Emeritus, Department ofEconomics and the Graduate School ofBusiness; Director of the Center for Study ofthe Economy and the State.The attitude toward federal deficitshas undergone interesting changes.Originally, deficits were deplored because they displayed fiscal extravagance, and the financing of large deficits would lead to inflation. TheKeynesians modified this view by adding that when there were importantquantities of unemployed resources, adeficit increased demand and hastenedrecovery of the economy. More recently, many people have restored the disciplinary role to deficits: they preventWashington from making extravagantexpansions of an already too large government sector— and clearly large deficits need not be strongly inflationary.This last attitude will dominate publicpolicy, I believe, in the next few years. WALTER D. FACKLERProfessor, Graduate School of Business.The problem of the federal deficit isprimarily political rather than economic. In an economic sense, all deficits arecovered one way or another. Politically,the deficit is a symbol of the failure ofthe system to exercise the self-discipline needed for survival as a liberal democracy. It is the essence of antidemocratic spirit for special interestgroups to demand that they should bethe first pig in the trough. It is impossible to set priorities if every constituencythinks they are "entitled" to spendsomeone else's money.Any person of good sense andgoodwill can find enormous waste inthe federal budget— money down ratholes. The problem is that there are ratsin those holes that squeal and bite. Thepresident's problem is how to stifle thesqueals and keep from getting bittentoo badly.President Bush should put heavypressures on the Congress to reduce expenditures. He should recommendvery large cuts in a lot of programs. Thesqueals will be loud and shrill; but if heasks for a little, he will get nothing. Heshould attack entitlements boldly; otherwise, the jig is up before he starts.Even defense expenditures can bepruned. He should delay tax increasesand revenue enhancements as long aspossible; otherwise, Congress will simply use the new resources for buyingpermanent seats in the Congressionalclub.To be sure, many government expenditures are needed, necessary, andimprove national productivity; but asubstantial fraction of the national expenditures crowd out more productiveprivate expenditures or are parasitic.The deficit is like bacon; you can't cut out the fat, you have to fry it out. So,President Bush should stop arguingabout freezing out the deficit or outgrowing it, and turn up the heat.ROBERT Z.ALIBERProfessor, Graduate School of Business,member of the Committee for PublicPolicy Studies.The advice about the budget deficitis to stay cool. The United States canoutgrow its budget deficit. A largecountry like the United States can continue to run small budget deficits equalto one-half percent of GNP or one percent of GNP or one-and-a-half percentof GNP from now until the end of time.The concern is that the budget deficitnot be so large that the rate of growth ofgovernment interest payments and federal debt exceed the rate of growth ofU. S. national income. We're well withinthat limit now. This year the budget deficit will be about two to two-and-a-halfpercent of the GNP. The economy willbe growing at a nominal rate of seven toeight percent.It's important to get the budget deficit down and in an orderly way, perhapsby $15 billion to $20 billion a year. Thereduction of the budget deficit canoccur as a result of the growth of taxrevenues in a growing economy. Wedon't need an increase in tax rates, andwe don't need cuts in expenditures. Indeed, we can have an increase in government expenditures slightly lessrapid than the growth of the GNP and atthe same time reduce the budget deficitas a share of GNP.The conventional wisdom is thatthe U. S. fiscal deficit has been the causeof the U S. trade deficit. Two stories aretold to support that view. One story isthat the United States has been on aconsumption binge. And the secondstory is that the U. S. fiscal policy, that isthe large fiscal deficit, has raised U.S.interest rates. Foreigners bought U.S.securities because interest rates wereattractive. So the dollar appreciatedsharply— as foreign currencies depreciated, American demand for foreigngoods surged.The problem with both of these ex-Continued on page 4829SecretsContinued from page 13special meaning, which we haven't yetdiscovered."Like the Middle Archaic people before them, the Hopewell people haddifferent burial programs for distinctsegments of their population, differenttypes of treatment of bodies at death,and rules about who was buried wherewithin the cemeteries.In the place of honor, the central,log-lined tomb (in mounds both on thebluff tops and in the floodplains), several bodies were placed, extendedfull-length on their backs. Other individuals were placed on or in the circularearthen ramps around the rectangulartomb . Still other remains were placed inpits dug in flat ground around theperiphery of the mound. Burials recovered from the ramp surfaces were usually bundle burials."It may be that originally these persons were buried extended, in thelog-lined tomb, then after their fleshhad decomposed, were disinterred andreburied as bundle burials to make wayfor later interments," said Buikstra.In the Hopewell mounds on thebluffcrests there were twice as manymales as females among the bundleburials in the surrounding ring-shapedmounds.Sometimes one adult male wouldbe buried alone in the central log tomb.Among the rest of the males buried inthe mound, age seems to have made nodifference in where they were placed.Buikstra is often asked: How canyou distinguish at what point in theburial sequence some of the peoplewere interred in the mound? In theHopewell mounds, were the womenand children ritually killed, so as toaccompany the tall males into theafterworld?"We can't answer the first questionyet, " she said. "We're still facing a morebasic issue: are these burials the initiating event, or the final event? We try todiscover if these are inclusive cemeteries; we compare the pattern ofdeaths, by age and sex distribution, with descriptions of patterns of deathsfrom ethnographic documented reports on modern groups. As for thepossibility of these being ritual deaths,the answer is no. Most forms of homicide would have left marks on thebones, and there are none."All the men buried in the centralcrypts had been honored with specialgrave goods. Their grave goods included beautifully designed artifacts andpieces of exotic, rare, raw materials.Among the items found with these menwere quartz crystal pendants, wolf jawbones, copper necklaces, earspools,platform pipes, cut mica fashioned intoeither animal figurines or mirrors, andmarine shells made into containers ofvarious sorts and decorated with handsome designs.BUIKSTRA'S DETAILEDstudies of human skeletons are trailblazing inAmerican archeology. Verylittle has been known biologically about early people in the New World,because there has been,until fairly recently, verylittle research on theirskeletal remains.Archeologists in the New Worldhave not found any extremely early human fossil bones. All the evidence so farsuggests that by the time peoplecrossed into the New World, sometimeearlier than 15,000 years ago, they already had evolved into Homo Sapiens.Earlier archeologists in NorthAmerica who came across a burial sitetended not to collect the skeletons,partly because they did not have the expertise to study human skeletons.Sometimes, an archeologist may havecollected a sample of skeletons from acemetery and sent them to a physicalanthropologist at a university or museum to be studied.It was customary for some archeologists to collect only adult male skullsfrom a burial site and, at that, only asample of skulls from each cemetery.Archeologists would then subject theskulls to formal analysis, as they did artifacts—by recording the shape and .measurements of each skull. This typological approach has more recently given way to population-based studies. Inher work, Buikstra is attempting to reconstruct both biological and social features of prehistoric populations. The first thing Buikstra does in herskeletal analysis is to determine the ageand sex of each skeleton. For differentage groups, she uses different criteria.Modern studies have revealed thatteeth in children develop at the samerate and in the same patterns. Therefore, when Buikstra tries to establishthe age of an individual who appears tobe twelve years of age or younger, sheexamines the teeth. For older specimens, from adolescents on up, she usesother criteria. While people are growing, their bones do not grow at the endsbut along the shafts between growthcenters. These centers fuse whengrowth ceases, at a predictable time,making the observation of long bonesone of the best strategies for estimatingage in an adolescent skeleton.After adolescence, it becomes moredifficult to tell the age of a skeleton. Themost reliable kind of changes in adultsmay be seen in the pubic symphysis(where the pelvic bones come togetherin front). The surfaces of this joint undergo regular, predictable changes asthe individual ages. The face of the pubic symphysis becomes smoother and arim forms around the joint at about45-50 years of age; later this rim breaksdown. Studies of these changes havebeen made among modern populations, where the age at death of each individual is known. Buikstra refers tothese modern standards to determinethe age of prehistoric skeletons.She also looks at the skull, althoughthis is not as accurate as the pubic symphysis. The skull in human beings isa series of interlocking bones, whichfuse at a known rate, up to about agefifty-five.Currently, Buikstra and her students are experimenting with a newtechnique which may allow them to bemore precise in making age estimates.This technique is based upon the regular, annual accretion of cemental ringson the surface of the tooth roots. Thenumber of rings reflects the age atwhich the tooth erupted, plus the number of years lived subsequent to tootheruption.Buikstra uses several standard indicators to determine the sex of an individual skeleton. Certain changes in thepelvis and skull become prominentduring adolescent growth, and thesecan be used to determine the person'ssex. In females, the pelvic outlet widens in order to facilitate childbirth. Inmales, the skull takes on certain more30 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989robust characteristics, at the brow andalong the jaw, among other places.Both Buikstra and Delia CollinsCook, AM'71, PhD'76, associate professor of anthropology at Indiana University, have examined skeletal remainsin Lowilva in an effort to determinehow people's health was affected whenthey shifted from a purely hunting-gathering way of life to one in whichmaize agriculture was practiced. In hermortality and health studies, Cookcompared skeletal remains fromgroups before and after the advent ofmaize agriculture.Using a device borrowed from contemporary demography, Cook evaluated childhood health by using a ratio ofinfant death rates during the weaningperiod to total childhood deaths. Shefound that more babies died during theweaning period among Late Woodlandpeople than among earlier groups. Thisincreased mortality, along with a lowered mean age of death among adults,suggests that the health status of LateWoodland mound builders was "somewhat disadvantaged" when comparedto that of earlier groups.When Cook compared the length ofthe long bones of each individual withthat person's dental age (which gave herclues as to the age of the person atdeath) and then compared the resultsfrom populations in both time periods,she found that Late Woodland peoplewere attaining adult stature much laterthan the people in Middle Woodlandtimes. They also had shorter life spansand showed evidence of having suffered from more diseases.One way to determine whether prehistoric people were getting sufficientfood is to examine the bones of childrenand adolescents to see whether therewere any interruptions in their growth.If children receive a nutritious diet,their bones grow at a steady rate. But ifthey suffer from poor nutrition, or fromhigh fever or severe emotional stress,the growth of their bones may be interrupted. When growth resumes, concentrations of calcium build up on thebone, which show up as radiopaque(white) lines on an X-ray film. These arecalled Harris lines. Buikstra examinesthe long bones, arm and leg, of prehistoric skeletons by X-ray.The bones of Archaic peopleshowed Harris lines at regular intervals, which suggests that they had suffered from dietary stress from time totime. "This may have occurred in the late spring each year, when food mighthave become scarce," said Buikstra.Suprisingly, the bones from theLate Woodland people showed relatively few Harris lines. Did this mean thatthey had a fully nutritrious diet, andnever suffered from shortages? Theywere cultivating corn; this may indicatethey were able to produce enough foodon an annual basis to feed everyone inthe village. But Buikstra also took intoconsideration the fact that Harris linesare an indication of the resumption ofgrowth. Harris lines occur in the boneas the result of episodes of distress; recovery from that stress is necessary forthe Harris lines to form. Therefore, if agroup suffers from chronic malnutrition, as do some people in areas of Central and South America and Indiatoday, then the lines may not form at allor they may resorb soon after formationin order to conserve calcium.Many Middle and Late Woodlandindividuals suffered from another common modern ailment— arthritis. Butthere were some fascinating differencesin arthritic patterns among the menburied in Middle Woodland times thatsuggests there may have been a divisionof labor between the elite and the lessprivileged. The high-ranking men buried in the central log tombs appear tohave suffered from different arthriticpatterns than those interred in theearthen circular mounds around the logtombs. This difference is especiallystriking at the elbow, suggesting thatthe tall men may have performed different day-to-day activities than theothers.All of the adult males who had beenburied in the most honored places weretaller than the rest of the population,and had been buried with the mostelaborate grave goods. Who were thesetall men? Were they perhaps invaderswho conquered the local people?Each of us has in our skull manyholes, called foramina (singular foramen,pronounced "foh-RAY-men"), throughwhich blood vessels and nerves pass.The pattern taken by such openings isdetermined genetically and variesamong different people. Some of ushave one hole above the right orbit (thebony socket of the eye) while othershave two or more.Buikstra uses these and other genetic traits in human skeletons to tracemigration patterns among prehistoricresidents of Lowilva.She also uses genetic traits to study social customs. Did people marry outside their community? Did they marrypeople from distant places? Was the Illinois River a geographical barrier to intermarriage between groups?As Buikstra investigated the geneticrelationships between contemporaneous Woodland communities and between temporally sequential Woodlandand Mississippian populations in Lowilva, she chose to focus primarily onminor or non-metric variants of theskull, including ossicles (bony structures) that occur in cranial sutures, andfacial foramina. These non-metric traitshave the advantage of being scorable infragmented, poorly preserved and deformed materials.When Buikstra analyzed the non-metric traits in these populations, shefound the region had been inhabited bygenetically related populations. Therehad been no invaders.One of Buikstra 's students, L. W.Konigsberg, used non-metric traits, including counts of foramina, to studyresidence patterns. Konigsberg assumed that, within a given cemetery,the sex which had been more stable asto location would show less variation ininherited features when compared toindividuals coming from other communities. For instance, in a matrilocalsociety (where the wife's family or people determine where the couple resides) males will show significantlymore variability than females. The expected pattern reverses in a patrilocalsociety.Konigsberg found that throughoutthe Middle and Late Woodland periods,males showed consistently less geneticvariability than females within sites,but more genetic variability from site tosite. The implication is that there wasgreater female mobility in the matingnetwork, which would be consistentwith a patrilocal residence pattern. Inother words, during those periods,where a couple lived was determinedby the male's family. The opposite pattern is found in skeletons from the Mississippian Schild series of sites, whichmay mean that as women took on moreof the important work of providingfood, i.e., cultivating maize, the societyshifted to a matrilocal one.Another of Buikstra 's students, Robert Pickering, who is now educator/curator of anthropology at the Children's Museum, Indianapolis, IN,studied patterns of degenerative jointdiseases in association with the devel-31opment of maize agriculture. He cameup with a startling discovery. When theLate Woodland groups began to investmore energy in cultivating maize, theincidence of arthritis in the upper backincreased among females.Buikstra set out to answer anotherquestion: Had the tall men buried in thecentral log tombs received special treatment in their diets as youngsters?If human beings are deprived ofproper nutrients, their teeth will carrythe evidence of it long after their death.As children develop their permanentteeth, the enamel on each tooth is laiddown in a series of bands, somewhatlike a tree ring. If a person is not receiving the proper foods, the band of enamel laid down during that period will beless well formed. This is called dentalhypoplasia. The bands will appear pitted; sometimes they can be seen withthe naked eye.Cook examined teeth from bothMiddle and Late Woodland burial populations for signs of dental hypoplasia.Cook's research showed that the peoplewho were interred in the Middle Woodland log crypts had fewer episodes of illhealth during childhood.Since this pattern was consistentfor all age groups, Buikstra concludedthat both juveniles and adults who received special burial treatment hadpossibly had better diets than the rest ofthe population.Not surprisingly, Buikstra foundthat both groups of aborigines woretheir teeth down much more rapidlythan we do ours. Most likely this wasbecause they consumed more grit andalso because frequently they used theirteeth as tools— for softening leather oras a third hand for holding and pulling.The teeth of Middle Woodland peopleshowed marked wear in early adulthood, no doubt because of their roughdiet. The Late Woodland peoples' teethshowed much less wear than the Middle Woodland peoples' had, but theyhad many more cavities. This couldhave resulted from their heavy carbohydrate diet, which included corn.The teeth of Late Woodland infantsalso showed a great many cavities. "Theincrease in cavities in infants' teethprobably occurred when the babieswere shifted from mothers' milk to aweaning diet possibly consisting of ahigh carbohydrate gruel," saidBuikstra.Although plant remains and animaland fish bones are the most accurate in dicators of the prehistoric menu, estimates of what people actually ate arebest derived from the physical remainsof the consumers.One of the most accurate ways todetect dietary differences is to study thechemical constituents of the bones. Thecomposition of both the mineral and organic phases of bone are to some degreeinfluenced by diet."There are two biochemical ways tolook at the bones to investigate diet, "Buikstra explained. "One of these isthrough the investigation of trace element compositions of the mineral fraction of the bone. The other is throughmeasuring stable isotope ratios, such ascarbon or nitrogen in the organic fraction of bone. Bone itself is an organicmatrix which mineralizes."The theory behind trace elementusage is that, for example, within a given ecosystem animals that are moreherbivorous will receive more of certainelements such as strontium from thesoil in their diet. The strontium is deposited primarily in their bones. Carnivores, on the other hand, consumemeat that has a relatively low amount ofstrontium. In an omnivore like homo sapiens, you can gain an estimate of therelative importance of plants in the diet ."Zinc, on the other hand, tends toconcentrate in flesh, and can thus be adietary marker for animal protein consumption. Environmental pollutantssuch as cadmium and lead can also bestudied."Buikstra and her colleagues usedzinc and strontium to investigate dietary differences between Middle andLate Woodland peoples. Again, theyfound status-related dietary markers.Although there were no differences apparent in the amount of zinc and strontium in the bones of either sex in MiddleWoodland people, bones from the LateWoodland males contained significantly more zinc and less strontium thanfemales. This may suggest that maleswere consuming more meat than females; on the other hand, Buikstrapoints out, it may indicate increasedmetabolic demands in Late Woodlandfemales because they were having children at closer intervals than previousgroups. The values for zinc, however,suggest that the proportion of animalprotein in the diet did not vary significantly across the different Woodland,groups."I hope to do more work with isotopes. It is important because in North America, for example, the use of isotopes allows us to identify the proportionate dependence on corn in diet. Thedevelopment of maize agriculture andthe relative importance of corn in thelives of the Mississippian peoples (A . D.1000— A.D. 1300) has been much debated. Many archeologists argue that theproduction of significant amounts ofsurplus corn was necessary for the development of large urban centers, suchas that of Cahokia. But it still remains anissue," said Buikstra.Until recently, archeologists had torely on interpretations derived fromstorage features and trash pits for indications of this important corn production and consumption. Now, however, by measuring the stable carbonisotope in human skeletal remains,archeologists can estimate the actualamounts of corn consumed by theseearly agriculturalists."We have discovered, for instance,that although corn was present, it wasnot nearly so important during the early phases in the development of theseurban centers as had formerly beenthought. It's also interesting that thereis some indication of very high corndependence among some of the lateprehistoric people who seemed susceptible to epidemic diseases, such asthose found at the Averbusch site inTennessee," she said.When the Mississippian society developed about A.D. 1000, people became heavily dependent on agriculture, particularly on corn. Eventuallythey built Cahokia, North America'slargest prehistoric site, which coveredmore than four thousand acres. Amongthe Mississippians' artifacts were several which exhibited clear stylistic parallels with prehistoric artifacts fromCentral America and Mexico.Again, archaeologists thought thatthe Mississippians had come into Lowilva, possibly from the south, and replaced local groups. But by comparingthe genetic characteristics of Mississippian skeletons with skeletons from theHopewell and Late Woodland burialpopulations, Buikstra found that theMississippians were of the same genetic stock as other Woodland peoples."With the Mississippians, themoundbuilding tradition changed,"explained Buikstra. "In fact, themounds themselves, long used as symbols of local power, ceased to serve ascommunity cemeteries. Only selectedancestors were buried within mounds,32 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989and these mounds were located exclusively at major regional centers such asCahokia, marking the emergence of thelarger Mississippian polity. Thus, atradition spanning 5,000 years wastransformed in a manner that underscores the symbolic importance of themounds to prehistoric North Americanpeoples."BUIKSTRA, JUST BACKfrom excavating in Peru,sits in my Robie House office and talks enthusiastically about her newestresearch.Buikstra will be working in Peru and Spain, aswell as in Lowilva, overthe next few years. A primary interest at the moment is the evidence of a tuberculosis-like pathogen inthese populations."What we see in North Americanprehistoric populations is a frequencyof bony [tubercular] involvement that ismuch higher than in most recent historic populations. We'd like to know why.We hope that by investigating SouthAmerican examples, where mummified soft tissues are available which alsoseem to show a high level of £>ony involvement, we can determine whetherthis relates to the nature of the pathogen and its coevolution with mankind," she said."It is the existence of a tuberculosislike pathology in skeletons in these Peruvian sites that has led me to workthere. In North America we have primary skeletal evidence alone. It is enlightening, but not as rich a data base as thatprovided by the mummies found on thearid western coast of South America. Ina mummified population, you can obtain much more secure diagnostics; ifthe person had the disease, thereshould be evidence of tuberculosisbacilli in the lungs or other tissues."Bodies in Peru are mummifiednaturally because of the aridity of theenvironment, and they were not prepared for interment by removing internal organs, as were remains in Egypt.The dead were placed in subterranean,stone-lined crypts. In addition to thegiven aridity that desiccates soft tissues, there is remarkable preservationof food offerings, " said Buikstra."Sometimes food offerings werewrapped and placed within the mummy bundle, or they were placed on the tomb or on surfaces outside the tomb.In addition to the preserved fabrics thatenclosed the mummies, there are alsofeather headdresses, vessels made ofgourds, and basketry. These types of artifacts would be lost to archeology inmost other world areas; they wouldhave deteriorated. In some mummies,you can see that the clothing is wornat the elbow. Some of the fabrics arewonderful. When they are cleaned,they look as if they had been wovenyesterday."Buikstra has joined a group of archeologists, medical doctors, and otherscientists in a cooperative venture, Pro-gramma Contisuyu, working in Peru.Among her colleagues in Peruvian research will be Carole Ober, associateprofessor and director of the moleculargenetics laboratory in the Departmentof Obstetrics and Gynecology. Oberhopes to investigate the genetic composition of the mummies and perhapseven pathogens in a search for new insights concerning the health and population history of these prehistoricgroups."We hope to investigate a series offour sites on the coast and in the middlealtitudes that date to the period between the two empires, when apparently a small coastal polity developed.The people are termed the Chiribaya,and the sites date from A . D. 1000 —A . D.1300." Chirabaya cemeteries were usuallyplaced adjacent to the habitationsites. The Chiribaya ceremonial centerhas five known cemeteries associatedwith it.Buikstra is also working in Spain,where she hopes to document the pre-Columbian health conditions in theMediterranean area."Our sense of the health status ofSpaniards in that period comes primarily from written documents. It would beuseful to have the same class of evidence from skeletal remains prior to thearrival of Europeans in the New Worldso that we can make comparisons withthe prehistoric skeletal populationshere."Eventually, Buikstra hopes to workwith Medieval European skeletal remains, as she pursues this line of research. She is currently working on asite from a much earlier time period.The project, cosponsored by the University of Barcelona and the Universityof Reading in England, is at a siteknown as Gatas, in southeasternSpain, near Turre. Gatas is a late Copper—Early Bronze age settlement, circa3800 B.C.Wherever she works, Buikstra willundoubtedly bring to her research thesame intense curiosity, infinite patience, and innovative and meticulousmethodology she has used to document so much of our own prehistory. HALUMNI COLLEGE/ARCHEOLOGICALFIELD SCHOOLThe Office of Alumni Relations, in cooperation with the Centerfor American Archeology, will offer an Alumni College inarcheology this summer in Kampsville, IL.There will be two options:1. A three-day weekend program for alumni and families,July 29-31.2. A week-long archeological field school, August 1-6. Instructors will include Jane Buikstra (see article). (Note: You neednot have previous archeological experience.)There will be a special celebration of International Universityof Chicago Day in Kampsville on July 30.For information, write or call:Laura Gruen, Robie House5757 S. Woodlawn, Chicago, IL 60637312-753-2178CHICAGO JOURNALTERM BILL RAISED;AID ALSO INCREASEDTuition for the College will increase by slightly more than six percent next fall— from $18,065 to $19,195—accompanied by a substantial increase in funds for student financialaid.The 1989-90 term bill will includetuition of $13,815, room and boardcharges of $5,170, and $210 in healthservices/student activities fees. Thetuition increase will be accompaniedby a boost in funds for student financial aid, and the College will continueits "need blind" admissions policy.The University will provide $15.4million from its own resources forfinancial aid to undergraduates in1989-90, increased from $14.2 millionthis year."We seek a broadly diverse studentbody, and we will continue to admitthe most qualified undergraduatestudents regardless of their ability topay, " said President Hanna Gray,noting that 62 percent of Chicago's.undergraduates receive direct grantsfrom the University.Tuition will increase from $13,200to $14,100 in the four graduate Divisions, with similar increases in eachof the professional schools. Graystressed that the University remainscommitted to providing financial support for outstanding graduate, as wellas undergraduate, students. A total of$18.3 million in financial aid for graduate students in the arts and scienceswill be available from the University'sown resources.NEW MARKETING CHAIRHONORS ROBERT GWINNEncyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. hasestablished a chair in marketing at theGraduate School of Business in honorof Robert P. Gwinn, PhB'29, its chairman and chief executive officer."We are deeply grateful to thedirectors of the Encyclopaedia, and weare proud of our association with BobGwinn's name, " said President Gray. "He has been an outstanding alumnusof our university and a dedicated andselfless trustee."Gwinn has been chairman andchief executive officer of Encyclopaedia Britannica since 1973. He has beena University Trustee since 1959 and atrustee of the University Cancer Research Foundation since 1956; he alsoserves as chairman of the WilliamBenton Foundation.Alberto P. CalderonMATHEMATICS PRIZEHONORS CALDERONThe $100,000 Wolf Prize in mathematics has been awarded to AlbertoCalderon, University Professor Emeritus in Mathematics, along with JohnMilnor of the Institute for AdvancedStudy.Calderon, PhD'50, is one of theworld's leading experts in mathematical analysis, the branch of mathematics that includes calculus, infiniteseries and the analysis of functions.He joined the faculty here in 1959, andretired in 1985, returning to Argentina,where he was born and educated. Heis still active in mathematics, and is afrequent visitor to the University. The Israel-based Wolf Foundationannually awards prizes in mathematics, chemistry, physics, medicine andagriculture."BASTILLE" SPECIALTO AIR NATIONALLYA six-hour radio special about theFrench Revolution produced by theWilliam Benton Broadcast Project willair nationally on commercial and public radio on July 14, 1989, in celebrationof the 200th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille and the start of theFrench Revolution."Bastille" will mark the premiereof The University of Chicago Theater of theMind, the umbrella title for the BentonProject's mass media programming.A dramatic narrative to be writtenand produced by Yuri Rasovsky, director of the Radio Unit, "Bastille" willcover the period that began in 1798with the first gathering in almost 200years of the Estates-General at Versailles and ended sixteen years laterwhen Napoleon crowned himselfemperor.Content for the the special will bebased on a colloquium of internationalscholars organized by Keith M. Bakerand Francois Furet, both professors inthe Department of History, which metin Chicago, Oxford and Paris over athree-year period.Throughout March, the BentonProject also broadcast a series of halfhour radio shows called The Chicago TestPilots on WFMT in Chicago. Radiostations in three other cities (WCLV inCleveland, OH; WUCF, Orlando, FL;and KSOR, Ashland, OR) will broadcast the pilot series in April or May,with times and dates to be announced.If successful, they will lead to a national series to be broadcast weekly nextwinter, said Lewis Freedman, directorof the Benton Broadcast Project.The series, based on work done byUniversity faculty, includes a dramatized short story by Norval Morris,the Julius Kreeger Professor in the LawSchool; a presentation of unknownoperatic arias by Rossini composedduring his prolonged "retirement,"34 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989discovered by Philip Gossett, theRobert W. Reneker DistinguishedService Professor in Music; andan exclusive interview with JohnHouseman, taped just before hisdeath, in a program that deals withpolitical theater and politics in theatersince Aristophanes.CROWN GIFT WILL FUNDHEART DISEASE RESEARCHThe Medical Center will receive $1million from Chicagoans Barry andBeverly Crown to fund a major expansion of research on heart disease thatfocuses on the early detection andtreatment of inherited cholesteroldisorders.The gift will be used to fund theBarry and Beverly Crown Center forCardiovascular Health, which willincorporate a comprehensive programof evaluation, education and treatmentfor people at risk of cardiovasculardisease with new laboratory space forresearch into the biochemical mechanisms of the disease.The Crowns have a long affiliationwith the University. Barry Crown is onthe Board of Trustees of the University's Cancer Research Foundation,where he has been involved for morethan 20 years. The Crowns also weremajor donors in the Hospitals' renewalcampaign in 1982.CLASS OF '89 GUESTSAT SENIOR DINNERJoined by President Hanna Gray,College Admissions Director TedO'Neill, AM'70, and English professorDavid Bevington, 401 members theUniversity of Chicago class of 1989attended the annual senior dinnerFebruary 10 at the Quadrangle Club.Organized by the University ofChicago Alumni Association and theAlumni Student Relations Committee,the senior dinner continued traditionsbegun in 1985. Two seniors, Abe Belland Laurie Wang, served as masters ofceremony. Matthew Sharpies, a seniorin sociology, and Barbara Flynn Cur-rie, AB'68, AM'73, the Illinois StateRepresentative for the 26th District,also spoke."Tomorrow, remember the good times," said Sharpies. "Yes, the University of Chicago was a difficult placeto be. But it has brought us together, ithas given us the opportunity for wonderful friendships, and it has madepossible our futures."Currie broached similar themes,stressing the value of a Chicago education to one's future life. "I trace myown successes to my education here, "she said. "And so I say to you now: dowith yourselves what is right whichwill gratify many people and astonishthe rest."Bell and Wang also spoke aboutthis year's class gift: an ongoing, endowed Library Book Fund. When thefund is established, they explained, allbooks acquired through it will bear adistinctive bookplate which will read:"Purchased through funds providedby the Senior Class Gift of 1989."LIBRARY MASTERS PROGRAMSUSPENDS NEW ADMISSIONSThe Graduate Library School faculty has recommended against continuing its professional educationprograms and will suspend all newadmissions to the current M. A.program.It was noted that the suspension ofadmissions will not affect full-timestudents currently registered.Appropriate changes in the name,organization, and structure of theschool can be expected within the nexteighteen months, University officialssaid, although at this time prospectivestudents cannot be assured that asufficiently strong program in librar-ianship can be offered during the coming 1989-1990 academic year.ESTABLISH G0ETZPROFESSORSHIPThe Roger L. and Rachel M. GoetzProfessorship in Creative Managementhas been established at the GraduateSchool of Business as a result of a $1.25million gift from Mrs. Goetz, thedaughter of one of the school's firstdeans."The Goetz Professorship willpromote research on the developmentof creative business leadership and onthe relation between business and the environment in which it operates, "said Dean John Gould.Rachel Goetz received a Ph.B.degree in 1925 and an M.B. A. degreein 1927 from the College of Commerceand Administration, forerunner of theGSB. Her late husband, who died in1948, was her classmate and son of afounder of the Plibrico Company, amanufacturer of plastic firebrick.Rachel Goetz' father, Leon Marshall,served as dean of the College of Commerce and Administration from 1909 to1924. Under his leadership, the schooldeveloped the first Ph.D. program inbusiness in the country.TEN FACULTY RECEIVECHAIR PROFESSORSHIPSPresident Hanna Gray announcedthe appointments of ten faculty members to distinguished service or namedprofessorships, considered to be thehighest honor the University can bestow on its faculty. The appointments,which became effective on February 1,are as follows:R. Stephen Berry, professor in theDepartment of Chemistry, the JamesFranck Institute, the College and theCommittee on Public Policy Studies,was appointed the James Franck Distinguished Service Professor; JaneBuikstra, AM'69, PhD'72, professor inthe Department of Anthropology andthe College, was named the Harold H.Swift Distinguished Service Professor;Peter Dembowski, professor in theDepartment of Romantic Languages &Literatures and the College, has beenappointed Distinguished ServiceProfessor.Jon Elster, professor in the Departments of Political Science, Philosophyand the College, was named theEdward L. Ryerson DistinguishedService Professor; Hellmut Fritzsche,professor in the Department of Physics, the James Franck Institute and theCollege, was named a Louis BlockProfessor; Tetsuya Fujita, professor inthe Department of Geophysical Sciences and the College, was appointedthe Charles E. Merriam DistinguishedService Professor.W. Ralph Johnson, professor inthe Department of Classical Languages & Literatures and the College,was named the John Matthews Manly35Distinguished Service Professor;David Malament, professor in theDepartment of Philosophy, the Collegeand the Committee on the ConceptualFoundations of Science, has beennamed the David B. and Clara E. SternProfessor; Robert Michael, professorin the Departments of Education,Public Policy Studies, and the College,was appointed the Eliakim HastingsMoore Distinguished Service Professor; and Takeshi Oka, professor in theDepartments of Chemistry, Astronomy & Astrophysics, and the College,was named the Robert A. MillikanDistinguished Service Professor.WOMEN FINISH RECORDSEASON TOPPING UAAReferred to by their coach as "theteam of the '80s, " the Maroon women'sbasketball team finished with a regularseason record of 18-7 and a three-waytie for first place in the UniversityAthletic Association (UAA).The Maroons won all of their 11home games and tied with rivalsWashington University (in St. Louis)and New York University with a 9-3record in the UAA.It was a 65-60 loss to WashingtonUniversity on February 25 that probably cost the Maroons a berth in theplayoffs, said Coach Susan Brower,"that, and the fact that we're a youngteam. . .but I think we'll be there nextseason."Brower had special praise for theteam's senior co-captains, ChristineBork and Charlean Cobbin. Cobbinwas outstanding from the free throwline and led the entire UAA in three-point field goal percentage. SaidBrower, "Charlean kept us in morethan one close game that we otherwisewould have lost."Bork, who scored well throughoutthe season, made remarkable saves intwo of the season's most importantgames. In a January 21 match-up withanother UAA team, Carnegie-MellonUniversity, Bork sank the winningbasket in the last few seconds of thegame.On January 6, with 31 seconds onthe clock, Bork— with an assist byCobbin— brought the Maroons to within one point of New York University;and seven seconds from the final buzz-36 er, sophomore Beth Woods scored thefinal basket for a 61-59 Maroon victory.In one of the season's most excitinggames against Washington Universityon January 28, Bork again played apivotal role with 17 rebounds and 13points, as did freshman Kim Burke,who scored a career-high 16 points.Sophomore Kristin Maschka, ahighly recruited Minnesota highschool champion who made FreshmanAll- American and First Team All-UAAlast season, was the leading scorer forthe Maroons again this year with 13.9game average. Brower called Maschka"a scoring machine— if you leave heropen, she'll score." Maschka led theteam in free throws and was consis tently high on rebounds as well,Brower said.Brower, finishing her fourth season as head coach for the Maroons,said a crucial factor in her teams' successes has been recruiting players whoare "driven, both academically andathletically."Brower added that alumni who areformer players "are very important to(Below) Freshman Kim Burke shoots one upto score during a January 28 victory at homeover UAA rival Washington University.(Right) Led by senior co-captain ChristineBork (center), the Maroons defeatedBrandeis University January 12 at home,52-46. The team went undefeated in all 11of their home games.our success. They continue to be excellent role models for our current players." Brower included in this year'sprinted program a section called"Where are they now?" It charted thepost-collegiate achievements of severalformer players, including GretchenGates, AB'86, who earned First TeamAll- American honors four times from of the nation's, indeed, the world'sgreat law firms. It has long been awarm friend and generous supporterof legal education in general, and ofthis law school in particular." He commended the firm for "its cooperative-ness, its forthrightness and its seriousness of purpose" in responding to theincident.1982 though 1986 and is Chicago's all-time leading scorer with 1,924 points.Gates will complete her studies atHarvard Law School this May."We welcome interest from allalums, not just former players,"Brower emphasized. Chicago's nexthome game will be November 18against UAA contender Johns HopkinsUniversity. (More information onChicago's athletic teams can be obtained by calling the Sports Information office, 312-702-7681.)LAW FIRM BANNED FROM0N-CAMPUS INTERVIEWSBaker & McKenzie, the world'slargest law firm, will not be invited tointerview at the Law School duringthe 1989-90 academic year as a resultof a decision made recently by DeanGeoffrey Stone.In making the decision, Stoneaccepted the recommendation of theLaw School's placement committee,which had investigated allegationsthat a partner of the firm had maderacist, sexist and anti-Semitic remarksto a third-year law student during ajob interview."We do not take this step lightly,"said Stone. "Baker & McKenzie is one The committee recommended thatthe firm be extended an invitation torecruit in subsequent years after submitting "a statement outlining the wayin which it plans to respond to thisepisode for inclusion in the materialsin the Placement Office. . . ""Just as Baker & McKenzie hasassured us that it will take strong stepsto condemn this behavior and to prevent its repetition," said Stone, "so toomust we take strong steps to protectour students. . . and to send a clearmessage to interviewers and employers that such behavior must not andwill not be tolerated."CONGREGATIONAL HISTORYPROJECT UNDERWAYThe local church, temple andmosque— these institutions have had aprofound influence on the Americanreligious experience, yet they havereceived scant scholarly attention,according to James Lewis, PhD '87,codirector of the Congregational History Project, part of the Institute forthe Advanced Study of Religion at theDivinity School."Local congregations have beenlooked at from a sociological and anthropological viewpoint, but fairly rarely are they examined from a historical viewpoint, " said Lewis, who is asenior lecturer and Dean of Studentsat the Divinity School.The purpose of the CongregationalHistory Project, Lewis said, is to drawresearchers to study these religiousinstitutions through a three-year program that includes support for students completing their dissertations, aseries of seminars and a publicationseries that will include three books.The project, supported by the LillyEndowment, Inc., provides $7, 000stipends for dissertation fellows andwill award up to 21 fellowships tostudents from Canada and the U.S.Launched in October, 1987, the projecthas held several seminars.BLACKS SEGREGATEDREGARDLESS OF INCOMEEven when blacks raise their education and income levels, they consistently are unable to find housing inintegrated neighborhoods, according to a study of housing patterns inthe nation's largest metropolitanareas conducted by two Universityresearchers.Hispanics and Asians, on the otherhand, who experience relatively lowerlevels of segregation to begin with,find little difficulty in moving intomore integrated neighborhoods astheir incomes and educational statusimprove, according to the report,which was published in the currentissue of Social Science Quarterly.Nancy Denton, a research associate and demographer at the University's Population Research Center, andDouglas Massey, professor of sociology and director of the Center,published their results in a paperentitled "Residential Segregation ofBlacks, Hispanics, and Asians by Socioeconomic Status and Generation."Theirs is the first national study tocompare residential segregation patterns for the three minority groups onthe basis of education, income, andoccupation.The researchers determined therates of housing integration with adissimilarity index. The index computes the percentage of the minoritygroup members at a particular incomeor education level in a metropolitan37area who would have to move in orderfor the minority group to be evenlydistributed across neighborhoods inthe metropolitan area.The scale considers high levelsof segregation to be represented byscores above .600, moderate levelsto be represented by scores between.300 and .600, and low levels by scoresbelow .300. They computed dissimilarity figures for the 20 metropolitanareas where each of the three minoritygroups have the largest populations.The figures were based on data gathered during the 1980 census.In the 20 metropolitan areas whereblacks are most numerous, the studyfound that blacks who earn more than$50,000 a year had a dissimilarity index score of .768, implying that nearly77 percent of them would have to movein order for them to be evenly distributed. This score was.only slightlylower than the score for the poorestblacks, .806.When the researchers looked ateducational level, they found blackswith post-graduate educations had ascore of .702. In contrast, blacks with afourth-grade educational level or lesshad a dissimilarity index level of .803."The implications of these findingsfor blacks are troublesome given thecivil rights legislation of recent decades. The American dream of 'working one's way up' is not a viable optionfor blacks in the United States, at leastin terms of residence; and other workwe have done suggests that separate isnot equal when it comes to living conditions, " said Denton, the principalauthor of the study."Middle-class blacks are forced tolive in neighborhoods of much poorerquality than whites with similar classbackgrounds," said Denton. "Nomatter what their educational or occupational achievements, and whatevertheir incomes, blacks are exposed tohigher crime rates, less effective educational systems, higher mortalityrisks, more dilapidated surroundings,and a poorer socioeconomic environment than whites, simply because ofthe persistence of strong barriers toresidential integration."The severe segregation of blacks,regardless of income or education,becomes more apparent in contrastwith figures for Hispanics andAsians. Among Hispanics in the 20 metropolitan areas in which their populations are largest, Hispanics withpostgraduate degrees had a meandissimilarity level of .386, a substantialdrop from the mean of .666 for Hispanics with four years or less of education.Hispanics with incomes of $50,000 hada score of .505, while lowest incomeHispanics had a score of .627.In the 20 metropolitan areas wherethey are most represented, peoplewith post-graduate educations had ascore of .513, while Asians with four orfewer years of schooling had a dissimilarity score of .737. Asians earning$50,000 or more had a dissimilarityscore of .684, while lowest-incomeAsians had a score of .761."The findings for Asians givegreater depth to the meaning of race inU.S. society. Prior research found clearevidence that socioeconomic advancement led to the spatial assimilation ofHispanics but not blacks, implyingthat whites make a basic distinctionbetween race and ethnicity in evaluating minority groups. Since Asiansare also a nonwhite racial group, itappears that race versus ethnicity isnot the proper distinction. The fundamental cleavage appears to be betweenblacks and non-blacks," Denton said.RESEARCHERS DISCOVERCYCLE OF SOLAR FLARESUsing data collected over fouryears by a satellite-borne detector,University physicists have confirmedthe existence of a 153-day cycle of solarflares, which could help explain theunderlying nature of the sun's violent radiance, particularly the forcesresponsible for solar flaresThe instrument— built in the laboratory of Peter Meyer, Professor in theDepartment of Physics— was carriedinto space in 1978 aboard the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)spacecraft. Over the instrument's longlifetime, Meyer and his students andcolleagues have used it to study electrons from the galaxy, neutrons fromthe sun and electrons from Jupiter. In1983, the ISEE was sent though the tailof a comet. Today, as it slowly circlesthe sun, the instrument continues tosend data back to Meyer's laboratory.Solar flares are sudden bursts of magnetic energy in the sun's atmosphere. Because so much energy canbe stored in the sun's magnetic fields,a large flare may release in minutes athousand times more energy than isstored in all the nuclear weapons onEarth. That energy is sent into spaceas high-energy radiation and, sometimes, energetic protons, neutrons andelectrons. The protons and electrons,because they are electrically charged,can cause magnetic storms and auroras and disrupt radio communicationson Earth.In 1988, Research AssociateWolfgang Droege observed in the ISEEinstrument's data a cycle of electronflux that looked much like the 153-dayradiation cycle. He showed the data toJohn Grunsfeld, SM'84, PhD'88, whois now a W.D. Grainger PostdoctoralFellow in Physics. Grunsfeld decidedto confirm the existence of the periodby carefully analyzing the electrondata.Grunsfeld has worked on severalhigh-energy experiments directed byMeyer, including high-altitude balloonexperiments launched from Hawaiiand Nebraska and the "Chicago Egg"cosmic ray detector, which was inspace for a week in 1985 aboard thespace shuttle Challenger.To be sure that he and his colleagues were on solid footing in claiming to see a regular variation in solarelectrons, Grunsfeld applied to thedata a statistical procedure called theRayleigh test to analyze the flight ofthe electrons.When their analysis was completed, Grunsfeld and his coworkers discovered "a very significant periodicityof 153 days," he said. "What's especially striking is that the period is coherent from one 11-year solar cycle to thenext."Grunsfeld said, "We don't haveany good explanation for this periodicity. We don't even know yet if this solarflare cycle correlates with any othersolar events. But this is a fundamentalproperty of the sun, and we should beable to use it to predict the rate of flaresduring the upcoming solar cycle."Grunsfeld said the finding mighthelp solar physicists who want tostudy flares as well as cosmic ray physicists who don't want particles fromthe flares interfering with their observations of particles from the galaxy. 938 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989LETTERSSEND AN ITEMTO CLASS NEWSEditor:I have some advice for other alumni.Don't be reluctant to write a line or two aboutyourself the next time your Alma Mater extends an invitation in an alumni communication. You may be pleasantly surprised atthe outcome. I know I was.When the The University of Chicago Magazine arrives, I always turn to the Class Newsfirst. I look in my year, and in the years before and after, for familiar names. It is enjoyable to read the happenings and successes ofthose who shared a time and place in historywith me. But I never, well almost never, considered sending in anything about myself.My endeavors seem insignificant when,among my fellow alums, I find a SupremeCourt judge, a former U.S. senator, a leadingnewspaper publisher, many professors andother luminaries. My middle-sized frog status in a small pond is hardly noteworthy.What finally moved me was a very pragmatic reason. For several years I have beenvery active on behalf of the mentally ill. Myforty-year-old adopted son has schizophrenia. Also, as a student one of my best friendsat the University suffered then, and still suffers, from manic depression. Since I am always looking for ways to reach out to gainsupport for adequate treatment, care and research for the mentally ill, when one issue ofthe Magazine featured the brain research atthe University, I wrote a note about what Ihave been doing.The resulting correspondence was wonderful. Whether or not my cause benefitted,I can't say, but the letters I got did make mefeel good. I even heard from a couple forwhom I had arranged a blind date. Theymarried and have lived happily ever after.I encourage you to give it a try. If youshare a little information about yourself,you may be rewarded, as I have been, byhearing for the first time from some of thoseyou knew a long time ago.Thelma Iselman Hayes, AB'40Carlsbad, CAHELP US TORECYCLE WASTEEditor:We are a group of students, faculty, andstaff at the University of Chicago dedicatedto promoting environmental causes in HydePark. One of our primary concerns is the tremendous amount of waste produced by theuniversity community, seemingly without thought to its final destination. The costs oflandfilling solid waste are rising astronomically as we come closer to simply runningout of space; in four or five years, Chicago'slandfills will be full. The ones we are nowfilling leach toxic wastes into our drinkingwater and agricultural land. Waste incineration plants, seen by many as an alternative tolandfills, expose communities to extremehealth risks, creating both toxic gases andash that must then be discarded. However,there is a sensible solution to this alarmingsituation: recycling.Why recycle? In addition to alleviatingthe landfill problem, recycling effectively reduces global energy use and conserves valuable national resources. Producing paper byrecycling reduces energy use by 70% overconventional methods. (Last year, the university generated an estimated 2,100 tons ofsolid waste, nearly 80% of which was paper. )Every ton recycled saves up to three tons ofvirgin materials. Extensive national recycling would free 20 million acres of forestland from paper production. Making aluminum from scrap instead of bauxite cuts energy use by 95%, not to mention the ecologicalbenefits of decreasing mining activity.Environmental Concerns Organizationis proposing a comprehensive, campus-wide recycling plan. We want alumni toknow about our project, because we needyour personal support. Our university, aninternationally respected institution, oughtto implement such a program; it would accord with our hard-earned reputation forethics, pride, and common sense. Pleasehelp convince our university administrationto implement a responsible recyclingprogram.We'd like to hear from alumni with environmental interests. Maybe we can create anetwork of ecologically-minded alumni.IngridM. BoothECO, Ida Noyes Hall1212 E 59th St.Chicago, IL 60637IN PRAISE OFLORETTA HAWKINSEditor:Thank you very much for the article,"Just because you cannot read— does notmean you are dumb." (WINTER/ 1989).Youth Intervention Program, in partnership with the Los Angeles Unified SchoolDistrict, runs a school for high risk youth inSouth Central Los Angeles.Our population is composed almost entirely of high school dropouts. All are minorities, and most are involved with gangs. Many of our students cannot read.Our reading lab is run by a dedicated andgifted young lady who, herself, was unableto read until she reached her thirties. She isable to convince our students that theyshouldn't be ashamed of not being able toread, but that they should do somethingabout it.Ms. Hawkins has stated the problemwith such eloquence that she managed tobring tears to the eyes of this conservative.Thank you again for the article. I assureyou that it will be quoted extensively as longas we continue to teach.PaulRadke,MBA'62Los Angeles, CAA VOTE FORDIVESTMENTEditor:I am responding to Mr. Mason's fund-raising letter of December 6, 1988. I havesome comments concerning the Universityof Chicago Alumni and Friends forDivestment.While I doubt whether divestment byU.C. (or even American corporations)would seriously affect the offensively self-proclaimed racism of the South African regime, I do believe that it is a symbolic standwhich should be taken. But it seems to methe DIVEST NOW! voices have been too strident, their urges too impractical.Yet a ten-year divestment deadline, asadvocated by the University of ChicagoAlumni and Friends for Divestment, seemsto me to be eminently practicable and veryattractive. Consequently, I regret to informyou that until this matter is resolved I willchannel all my contributions to this alternative group. Eventually U.C. or Amnesty International will receive the money, and bothorganizations are deserving.I realize that this will forfeit matchingfunds, as I realize that my measly $100 a yearwill never be missed. (From my own experiences at the University of Southern California, I am aware that the combined contributions of $100 or less are small compared tothe munificent gifts of a few large donors.)Nevertheless, this alternative seems somoderate, so practical, so moral, that I feelcompelled to make the change.I am enclosing a check for $35 as a specific contribution to The University of ChicagoMagazine. I will resume my usual alumni gifts.as soon as U.C. divests, and U.C. can collectmy interim gifts by divesting within tenyears.Ronald E. Bruck, SB'64, SM'65, PhD'69Culver City, CA39CLASS NEWS Photos by Richard Younker*\ /^ Patricia Parmdee, PhB'16, lives in LosJLO Angeles."I Q Harold J. Fishbein, PhB'18, lives in WalnutXO Creek, CA."1 Q Elsie Marie Plapp, SB '19, SM'20, lives in1-S Evanston, IL.0"1 Phyllis Taylor Christie, PhB'21, lives inZii. Southern Pines, NC.O^ In October, Dorothy Church Weick,Z.Z. PhB'22, and her husband, Fred, attendedtheir seventieth high school reunion. They live inVero Beach, FL.O O Harriette Turner, PhB'23, a retired teacher,Am\D lives in Pontiac, IL.O A Alchemist of the World, a poem by Marion^- jl Stone Kerwick, PhB'24, was published inFlorida's annual Poet's Anthology. Kerwick lives inDunedin, FL.Harriet Benson Sizer, SB '24, is retired andlives in San Juan Capistrano, CA.Newton E. Turney, PhB'24, and Marie TaylorTurney, PhB'25, live in Sun City, AZ.^C Ralph D. Bennett, PhD'25, lives in SanZJJ Francisco, CA.Mildred Friduss, PhB'25, retired, lives in Forest Hills, NY.Clarence A. Johnson, SB'25, SM'27, lives inOak Park, IL.Samuel M. Mitchell, PhB'25, JD'27, and hiswife, Caroline Garbe Mitchell, PhB'26, live inTampa, FL.Ernest H. Runyon, SB'25, PhD'34, a retiredbacteriologist, lives in Salt Lake City, UT.Marie Taylor Turney, PhB'25. See 1924, Newton E. Turney.Beatrice Gale Valentine, X'25, and KimballValentine, SB'25, live in Sarasota, FL.O/^ James M. Bradford, SM'26, and his wifeZ-\J serve as hosts for activities at the birthplaceof William Rainey Harper in New Concord, OH.Helen Liggett Hagey, PhB'26, lives in Clem-son, SC.John Francis Latimer, AM'26, prof essor emeritus of classics of George Washington University,Washington, DC, is president of the Society ofEmeriti of that university.Hans H. Lawrence, MD'26, of Cincinnati,OH, is ninety years old.Caroline Garbe Mitchell, PhB'26. See 1925,Samuel M. Mitchell.John A. Mourant, PhB'26, PhD'40, professoremeritus of Pennsylvania State University, iseighty-five years old and lives in State College,PA.Laura Chamberlin Walsh, PhB'26, of Anderson, IN, has thirteen grandchildren and elevengreat-grandchildren.O l"T Charlotte A. Crawley, AM'27, of Roanoke,Ami VA, recently celebrated her ninetiethbirthday.(Sylvia) Violet Pritzker Hecht, PhB'27, livesin Philadelphia, PA.Ruth Holton Sandstrom, SM'27, PhD'32, ofWinter Park, FL, spent a vacation near Lake Michigan and attended her family reunion.^O Kenneth N. Campbell, SB'28, PhD'32,AmO lives in Evansville, IN.William A. Castle, PhD'28, professor emeritus of biology of the University of Virginia, lives inFredericksburg, VA. His youngest grandchild is athird-year student in the College.Rose lie Moss Isenberg, PhB'28, lives in La Jol-la, CA.Ruth Fulrath Sellers, PhB'28, lives in a Men-nonite retirement community in Albany, OR.Willard E. Solenberger, X'28, founder andpast president of the western North Carolina chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union, isretired and lives in Fletcher, NC.REUNION 89OQ Gilmer Clyde Eidson, AM'29, lives in Fay-Z-S etteville, GA.Charlotte Greer Howard, SB '29, SM'31, andher husband, Leslie, live in Traverse City, MLRalph W. McComb, PhB'29, is librarian emeritus of Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, and is active in local affairs.Morris B. Storer, AM'29, former dean of instruction at Mount Vernon College, Washington,DC, lives in Melrose, FL.O C\ Helen Krull Dunn, PhB'30, is eighty-three>3 \J years old and lives in Denver, CO.Constance Trulli Konell, AM'30, lives inWheaton, IL.Manota Marohn Mudge, PhB'30. See 1936,Charity Harris Morse.Frederick Sass, Jr., PhB'30, JD'32, and hiswife, Miriam, live in Bethesda, MD.Frances Swineford, SB'30, AM'35, PhD'46, isconnected with Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.Bertha Heimerdinger Greenebaum Wodt,PhB'30, lives in Newton, PA. Her youngest granddaughter, Susan E. Greenebaum, is a first-yearstudent in the College.0*1 Florence Barber Caird, PhB'31, AM'38, of\DA- Deerfield, IL, has retired after forty-fiveyears in education and keeps busy as an accountant for a small corporation.Arthur C. Hornung, SB '31, SM'33, retired,lives in Billings, MT.Hugh C. Sebastian, AM'31, lives in Albion,MI.OO Thomas S. Elder, PhB'32, and his wife,\jZm Elaine, of Englewood, FL, celebrated theirfiftieth anniversary.Harold J. Kamm, PhB'32, retired, lives in BocaRaton, FL. He and his wife, Abigail, have beenmarried for more than fifty years.Stella B. Kern, PhB'32, is eighty-eight yearsold and lives in Deerfield Beach, FL.Q Q Gertrude Rolston Baldwin, PhB '33, has re-OO turned from Italy and lives in Wilmington,DE.George F. Dale, SB '33, of Redford, VA, is enjoying retirement and is a fifty-year member of theAmerican Chemical Society.Elizabeth Milchrist Hanlon, PhB'33, AM'37,lives in Charlottesville, VA.Adelle (Ida) Matlocha Lampos, PhB'33, of Silver Spring, MD, attended an Elderhostel course inGermany, Austria, and Hungary.Clarence W. Monroe, MD'33, retired, lives inWaverly, OH.Stanley Mosk, PhB'33, is a justice of the California Supreme Court, with the state's third longest record of service in that position. He lives inSan Francisco, CA.Yarmila Mutter Scholberg, SB'33. See 1938,Harold M. Scholberg.The University of Arizona, Tucson, gave an exhibition of the stone lithograph work of DorothyCarnine Scott, AM'33. Scott lives in Estes Park,CO.Esther Feuchtwanger Tamm, PhB'33, of FortSmith, AR, plays tennis and works on educationalprojects for the League of Women Voters.Joseph A. Teegarden, SB'33, MD'37, retired,divides his time between Hyde Park and Bridge- man, MI, and traveling.O A Mary Rockwell Dangremond, SB '34. See\3rt 1937, Gerrit Dangremond.Belle Korshak Goldstrich, PhB'34, of Miami,FL, is planning a trip to Portugal.Earnest K. Jordan, PhB'34, and Dorothy Fuhr-man Jordan, PhB'34, live in Hendersonville, NC.Martha Vaughn Smith, PhB'34. See 1936,Charity Harris Morse.Irving M. Strauch, X'34, of Memphis, TN, hastraveled around the world twice with the educational group Semester at Sea.QPJ" Roland F. Knox, MD'35, retired, lives inOD Wichita Falls, TXCharles Merrifield, AB'35, AM'35, professoremeritus of California State University, Hayward,is involved in travel, fishing, and working for theU.S. Institute of Peace. He and his wife, Phyllis J.Martin, live in Fremont, CA.O (1 Clinton L. Compere, SB'36, MD'37, re-vUO tired, is active in the Review Board of theVeterans Administration and is on the board of thenational Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington,DC. He lives in Tucson, AZ.Wilbur Hogevoll, AM'36, DB'37, lives in Ha-gerstown, MD.Charity Harris Morse, X'36, and her husband,A. Charles Morse, live in The Sequoias retirementhome in Portola Valley, CA. Martha VaughnSmith, PhB'34, and Manota Marohn Mudge,PhB'30, are also residents there.Maria Pintado Rahn, AM'36, of Santurce,Puerto Rico, is retired and involved in volunteerwork.Dorothy Ulrich Troubetzkoy, AB'36, and herhusband, Serge, of Richmond, VA, participated ina Friendship Force exchange to the Isle of Wight,England, and visited their daughter in theNetherlands.Oiy Gerrit Dangremond, SB'37, MD'38, worksJ / part-time in occupational health and MaryRockwell Dangremond, SB '34, enjoys golf andceramics. They live in Tucson, AZ.Gordon D. Gibson, AB'37, AM'50, PhD'52, ofEscondido, CA, is curator emeritus of Africanethnology at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.Donal K. Holway, SB'37, of Tulsa, OK, consults for hydro-electric developments.Bernard C. Mahan, AB'37, retired, lives inLake Geneva, WI.Felix H. Ocko, MD'37, of Piedmont, CA, talkswith prospective students of the University.Joseph Post, MD'37, of New York City, is a consultant to the New York State Department ofHealth.Virginia (Jeri) Schwartz Soffer, AB'37, of Fremont, CA, is active in local politics and is a member of the Fremont Library Commission.Riley Sunderland, AB'37, is trustee emeritusof the Robert Abbe Museum of Stone Age Antiquities, Bar Harbor, Maine.Peter J. Urkowitz, grandson of Louis H. Spec-tor, MD'37, and son of Steven Urkowitz, PhD'77,is a third-year student in the College. Spector is retired and lives in Pultneyville, NY.OO Peter L. Beal, SB'38, MD'42, practices der-C/O matology with the Astoria Clinic and withthe Department of Dermatology at the Universityof Oregon Medical Center. He and his wife,Cecelia, live in Warrenton, OR.Winston Bostick, SB'38, PhD'41, of Corrales,NM, is professor emeritus of physics of Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, and remainsprofessionally active. His son, Kent, was namedU.S. bicycle racer of the year by the U.S. CycleFederation.40 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989FAMILY ALBUM- '89AmirH. Wolfe, AB'87; Michelle D. Pinnas, AB'88; Ellen Reiff Pinnas,SB'62, MAT'64; Dr. Jacob L. Pinnas, SM'65, MD'65. David Durman; Rebecca Durman; Joan Vlaisavljevich Durtnan, AM'73,PhD'88; Eugene C. Durman, CLA'70, AM'78; Ann Vlaisavljevich.Patricia Murphy Pizzo, X'45; FioraPizzo, AB'88; Dr. Anthony Pizzo, SB'43,MD '45. (Not shown: Sarah Pizzo Press, AB '75; Julie Pier Pizzo, AB '77;Michael F. Press, PhD'75, MD'77; Christopher L. Frenzen, AB'76.) James W. Cronin, SM'53, PhD'55, professor in the Department of Physics;Annette Martin Cronin, AM'88; Linda Martin; John B. Martin, PhD'63.Gilbert T. Vanderaa 111; Audrey Counte Vanderaa; Laura Vanderaa Luce,MBA'88; Gilbert T. Vanderaa, MBA'63; Geoffrey W. Luce, student in the190/MBA Program. Anne McDonald; Dr. Martin F. GaynorJr., SB'61; Martin F. Gaynorlll,AB '88; Pamela Gaynor; Sara Gaynor, student in the College. (The late Dr.Martin F. Gay nor was MD' 30.)Margaret Pease Harper, AM'38, received theDistinguished Women's Award from the Texas division of the American Association of UniversityWomen in honor of her work as founder of a musical drama organization. She lives in Canyon, TX.Richard H. Loyer, AM'38, lives in Trenton,NJ.Cecil H. Patterson, AB'38, is adjunct distinguished professor at the University of North Caro lina, Greensboro.Harold M. Scholberg, PhD'38, and YarmilaMutter Scholberg, SB'33, attended their youngestgranddaughter's wedding. Yarmila is involvedin swimming and Harold is visiting scientist atStewart Radiance Laboratory, Bedford, MA, abranch of Utah State University. He recentlypublished a paper in the journal of MathematicalChemistry. Peter E. Siegle, AB'38, PhD'59, and MurielLevin Siegle, AB'38, are members of the American Civil Liberties Union and live in Boston, MA.Thomas W. Winternitz, SB'38. See 1940, Elizabeth Austin Winternitz.Anne's Joy, a poem about Anne Hutchinson, byMary Neville Walter Woodrich, AB'38, appearedin Worcester Review Magazine. Woodrich lives in Chagrin Falls, OH.41REUNION 89QQ Martin E. Kupperman, SB'39, lives in\)y Waukegan, IL.James A. Lytle, AB'39, of Naples, FL, is looking forward to his fiftieth reunion .Robert Warner, MD'39, received a 1988 Mayor's Award from the city of Buffalo, NY, for meetingthe needs of the disabled. He is a member of theMayor's Advisory Committee for People WithHandicapping Conditions and is active with Buffalo's Children's Hospital and its RehabilitationCenter, which was renamed in his honor.A C\ (Walter) James Atkins, AB'40, semi-TCvJ retired, is a fund-raising consultant. Helives in Chicago.Dayton F. Caple, AB'40, of Kaneohe, HI, isowner of the master franchise of Electronic RealtyAssociates (ERA), for Hawaii.Lulu O. Kellogg, AM'40, retired, is active inpolitics and bridge. She lives in Stephens Point,WI.George T. Peck, AM'40, PhD'42, of WestChester, PA, authored the pamphlet What isQuakerism? A Primer, which is now in its secondprinting.Ruth Hauser Petrie, AB'40, has anothergranddaughter, Virginia Rose. Petrie, of Sea Cliff,NY, works with Literacy Volunteers of America.Elmer B. Potter, AM'40, lives in Annapolis,MD.Janet L. Cameron Solomon, AB'40, is involved in genealogical research and Ezra Solomon, PhD'50, is the Dean Witter Professor of Finance at Stanford University, Stanford, CA.Florence Calkins Thompson, AA'40, wasnamed Woman of Achievement for 1988-89 by thePaw Paw, MI, Business and Professional Women'sClub.Travis Wilkerson, grandson of William M.Wilkerson, AB'40, is a first-year student in theCollege. Wilkerson lives in Florida City, FL.Elizabeth Austin Winternitz, SB '40, andThomas W. Winternitz, SB'38, participate in volunteer activities in Merry Point, VA.Hatten S. Yoder, Jr., AA'40, SB '41, retired asdirector of the Geophysical Laboratory, CarnegieInstitute of Washington, DC. He is involved in research in Bethesda, MD.A*i Helen Huus, AM'41, PhD'44, retired, isTlJ- treasurer of her county historical societyand is active in the International Reading Association. She lives in Northwood, IA.Librada del Castillo Luis, AM'41, retired fromsocial work, is involved in genealogical andFilipino-American research. She and her husband, Anastacio, live in Hilo, HI.Morton Lee Pearce, SB '41, MD'44, retiredfrom the School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, and moved to Lyngby,Denmark.A O Josephine Schoetz Bovill, AM'42, of SanTE^L Francisco, CA, has enjoyed painting "safaris" in Wales, France, and Mexico.Robert I. Jackson, SB'42, and Carol MillerJackson, SB'45, of Charlottesville, VA, traveledthrough India on the "Palace on Wheels," a trainmade up of cars formerly used by maharajas.Rollins E. Lambert, AB'42, of Homewood, IL,is dean of the south suburban deanery of the Archdiocese of Chicago.Shirley Buro Robeson, AB'42, AM'43, participated in a panel at Rockf ord College under the auspices of the Illinois Classical Conference. Sheteaches Latin and classical humanities at LaneTechnical High School, Chicago, and has elevengrandchildren.AO Martha Siefkin Gordon, AB'43, of OldT!\3 Mission, MI, is retired and travels to Aus tralia and Asia yearly to visit her family.Helen Elizabeth Berry Klotzbach, AB'43,lives in Vero Beach, FL.E. Everett Lef forge, MD'43, retired as associate director of San Jose State University, San Jose,CA.Katherine Adams Wenban, SB'43, lives inMerrimac, WI.(Mary) Frances Yarington, SM'43, retired,lives in Seattle, WA.A A Marsha Dzubay Tillson, SB'44, lives inTTTT Shortsville, NY.Laurence Finberg, SB'44, MD'46, is dean ofthe College of Medicine and chairman of pediatrics at the State University of New York Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY.Julius W. Friend, PhB'44, AM'49, PhD'60,teaches at the Foreign Service Institute and atGeorge Washington University, Washington,DC.Walter Grody, X'44, is owner and chief executive officer of Grody Sales Agency, Syracuse, NY.Walter Lawrence, Jr., PhB'44, SB '46, MD'48,of Richmond, VA, received the University Awardfor Excellence from Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond. The Medical College of thatuniversity also established a professorship in hisname, under a gift from the Massey Foundation.Anna Shaefer Leopold, PhB'44, AM'62, andher husband, Louis, have exhibited photographicprints and essays at art festivals, libraries, and universities. They work in the photo section of theOral and Visual History Project of the RailroadersMuseum, Altoona, PA.Beverly Glenn Long, AB'44, retired, lives inProvidence, RI.Elizabeth Headland Oostenbrug, AB'44, andWilliam Oostenbrug, SB '47, of Hinsdale, IL,joined Patricia Pickett McKnight, PhB'44, andGordon McKnight on the Oriental Institute's tripto Egypt.AJZ Carol Miller Jackson, SB'45. See 1942,T\J Robert I. Jackson.J. Wilmar Jensen, PhB'45, practices law withhis son, Mark, in Modesto, CA.Shirley Moore Sholtus, AB'45, of Anadin,CA, teaches English as a second language, American history, and citizenship in the Federal Amnesty Program at Pasadena City College.A f Robert S. Kincheloe, AB'46, retired, isjfcO chairman of the board of elders of FairfieldMountains Chapel and president of his localHomeowners Association. He and his wife live inLake Lure, NC.Clarice S. Lanterman, PhB'46, of Sun City,AZ, traveled to Alaska last summer.Oscar F. Schaaf, AM'46, is professor emeritusof education of the University of Oregon, Eugene.ATJ Norman Barker, Jr., AB'47, MBA'53, re-\I/ tired, is on the board of the First InterstateBank of California. He is involved in golf, skiing,and flying, and lives in Los Angeles.Ernest V. Clements, AM'47, of Glenview, IL,retired as president of Wright College of the CityColleges of Chicago .Edwin Diamond, PhB'47, AM'49, professor ofjournalism at New York University, New York City,covered the 1988 Democratic and Republican National Conventions for National Journal, and thepresidential race for New York Magazine.Marshall T. Nanniga, AB'47, MBA'47, of FortLauderdale, FL, traveled in England, Scotland,and Wales.William Oostenbrug, SB '47. See 1944, Elizabeth Headland Oostenbrug.Jacques C. Poirier, PhB'47, SB'48, SM'50,PhD'52, was named professor emeritus of DukeUniversity, Durham, NC.Marcia Rike Reardan, PhB'47, is vice-president of J. G.MulfordCo. She lives in Naples,FL, and is enjoying her first grandchild.A O Robert A. Adams, AB'48, AM'52, lives inTlO Chicago. W. Allen Austill, AB'48, AM'51, retired asdean of the New School for Social Research, NewYork City, where he was named chancellor anddoctor of humane letters. He works part-time, advising and chairing committees.David Brown, AB'48, AM'49, retired, returned from a trip to China. He. has remarried andlives Marietta, GA.JoanZabronsky Leibman, AB'48, AM'52. See1950, Jordan Leibman.Lawrence Levine, PhB'48, AM'51, of DrexelHill, PA, has retired as regional environmentalplanning officer of the Philadelphia, PA, office ofthe U.S. Department of Housing and UrbanDevelopment.Wilma F. Lux, AM'48, lives in Bement, IL.James F. Mulcahy, Jr., AB'48, retired as seniorvice-president of sales for the William Carter Co.,Needham, MA. He is active in Kids in DistressedSituations, a coalition to provide clothing for children in need.(Kenneth) C. Mulcahy, AB'48, MBA'50, livesin Oxon Hill, MD.Margaret Bunbury O'Farrell, X'48, lives inHythe, England.Mary Zinn Prasuhn, X'48, chairman of theChicago Commission on Animal Care and Control, operates the Lake Shore Foundation for Animals and consults for veterinary facilities.Robert H. Snyder, PhD'48, organized and ledan international symposium on tire technology inBeijing, China, sponsored by the ministry ofchemical industry. Snyder is retired and lives inGrosse Pointe Park, MI.Robert L. Weiss, JD'48, of Portland, OR, wrotethe article "Taking the Mystery out of PartnerCompensation" for an issue of American Lawyer.Jerome M. Ziegler, AM'48, resigned as deanof the College of Human Ecology of Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, where he is professor in theDepartment of Human Service Studies. He recently spent time in China studying nutrition anda rural health project.REUNDN89A Q John J. Carter, X '49, former mayor of LauralTELS Park, NC, lives in Hendersonville, NC.Francisco Garriga-Rodriguez, AM'49, of RioPiedras, Puerto Rico, has a grandson, FranciscoGarriga VI, a prospective member of the College'sclass of 2004.Mary M. Gleason, AB'49, received the Pinnacle Award from Successful Meetings Magazine on behalf of Frenchman's Reef Beach Resort, St. Thomas, VI, where she is director of sales. She wasrecently the subject of an article in Pridemagazine.Jack Joseph, AB'49, JD'52, is a partner atJoseph & Meyers, Chicago.David V. Kahn, AB'49, JD'52, of Chicago, ischairman of the Fund for Religious Liberty of theAmerican Jewish Congress.Guy Kelnhofer, Jr., PhB'49, AM'51, PhD'68,retired, lives with his wife, Maria, in Prior Lake,MN.Joseph Lash, PhB'49, practices medicine andlives with his wife and their four children in Sacramento, CA.Ramon Mendez-Perez, MBA 49, of Isla Verde,Puerto Rico, retired as president and chief executive officer of Mendez, Martinez & Co., Inc., SanJuan, Puerto Rico.James Karge Olsen, JD'49, retired, lives inScottsdale, AZ.Robert W. Parsons, PhB'49, is professor of surgery and pediatrics and vice-chairman of the Department of Surgery at the University of ChicagoPritzker School of Medicine. He recently completed a term as president of the American Cleft Palate42 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989FAMILY ALBUM-'89Peter John Witczak, MBA'88; Bernard John Witczak, MBA'66. Chris Farting; Alice Fading, MBA '88; David Hennage, MBA'81.Johanna Westley Lucas; Lee Burgess, AM'76; Robin D. Lucas Burgess,AM'76, PhD'88; Jo Desha Lucas, the Arnoldl. Shure Professor in the LawSchool. (Not shown: Ruth Grace Moerchen Burgess, SB'39; Judith CarterLucas, AM'48; William A. Westley, AB'47, AM'48, PhD'Sl.) John M. Schuessler, MBA'81; Nancy Thompson Schuessler, MBA'85;Maureen Harrington Schuessler; Joseph J. Schuessler, MBA'52; Mark G.Schuessler, MBA'88; Matthew Schuessler; Renee Schuessler; ThomasSchuessler (in arms); Joseph M. Schuessler. (Not shown: Terence J. Schuessler,MBA72; Jane Engel Schuessler, MST'72.)Association.Cfj Charles E. Burnett, MBA'50, retired, re-^J\J stores Victorian homes and antiques. Helives in San Francisco, CA.George Coutsoumaris, AM'50, PhD'53, isprofessor emeritus of political economy of theGraduate School of Economics and Business Sciences, Athens, Greece.Harry D. Eshleman, AB'50, is associate professor of English at Kutztown State College, Kutz-town, PA.Duke Frederick, AM'50, PhD'66, of Cape Coral, FL, retired as professor of history at Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago.David H. Green, AM'50, founded People ofthe Earth, Inc., a non-profit organization for thepromotion of peace.Richard V. Hennes, AM'50, of Geneva, Switzerland, is vice-chairman of the joint inspectionunit, a group appointed by the United Nationsgeneral assembly to inspect the U.N. and affiliatedagencies.Malcolm M. Lawler, MBA'50, retired, lives inDallas, TX.Jordan Leibman, AB'50, MBA'55, is professorof business law at the Indiana University Graduate School of Business, Indianapolis. His wife,Joan Zabronsky Leibman, AB'48, AM'52, recently participated in a Sierra Club backpacking trip inthe Navajo wildlands of Arizona. Their son,Theodore Leibman, AB'76, married Nora Jacksonin Los Angeles, and their daughter, H. Maya Leib man, AB'88, graduated Phi Beta Kappa from theCollege and was one of the commencementspeakers.Lionel J. Lerner, AB'50, AM'52, of Carmi-chael, CA, is a resource planner for the CaliforniaEnergy Commission.Anne Garvey Philips, AM'50, is professor ofEnglish at Santa Monica College, Santa Monica,CA.Ezra Solomon, PhD'50. See 1940, Janet L.Cameron Solomon.C"1 Robert P. Anderson, AM'51, PhD'54, pro-C/ -L fessor emeritus of Texas Tech University,Lubbock, TX, is chief executive officer of SouthPlains Dialysis Center, Lubbock, TX.Wright D. Jackson, AM'51, retired, spends histime writing in Long Beach, CA.Guy W. Puntch, AM'51, retired, lives in SilverSpring, MD.George S. Rosenberg, AB'51, is professor ofsociology and director of the Office of Interdisciplinary Programs at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.John L. Sever, AB'51, is chairman of pediatricsat George Washington University and senior vice-president for medical and academic affairs at Children's Hospital National Medical Center, Washington, DC.C O Jean Cardinet, PhD'52, of Neuchatel, Swit-\J Z. zerland, received an honorary degree fromthe University of Louvain, Belgium.Guy A. Franceschini, SM'52, is professor emeritus of Texas A & M University, College Station, TX, where he continues his researchactivities.Henry S. Ishizuka, MBA'52. See 1979, Paul S.Ishizuka.Paul R. Kuhn, AB'52, SB'54, MD'56, practicesinternal medicine in Newport Beach, C A, with hisson, Jeffrey P. Kuhn, MD'85. Paul and his wife,Jacquelyn Larks Kuhn, AB'52, a member of thepractice's office staff, live in Newport Beach.Virgil E. Matthews, SM'52, PhD'55, is chairman of the chemistry department at West VirginiaState College, Institute, WV.Marshall John Truax, AM'52, field historian atBlack Hills State College, Spearfish, SD, is chairman of the Hot Springs, SD, Housing and Redevelopment Commission.CO George W. Bahlke, AB'53, AM'56, isasso-\J\J ciate professor of English at Hamilton College, Clinton, NY.Marvin Bogdanoff, AM'53, AM'57, retiredfrom social work service for the U.S. Veterans Administration and is in private practice in Elmhurst,IL.Joseph M. Heikof f , AM'53, PhD'59, professoremeritus of public administration of the State University of New York at Albany, is adjunct lecturerof political science at the University of Georgia,Athens.C C James R. Allison, JD'55, is a member of the\D\D executive committee of the Ohio State BarAssociation, a member of the Ohio Republican43State Central Committee, and Columbiana County Ohio Republican chairman . He was a Bush delegate at the 1988 Republican Convention and livesin East Palestine, OH.Robert A. Carhart, .AB'55, president ofCarhart Lumber Co., Wayne, NE, is on the executive board of directors of Nebraska Synod ECCA,and is on the board of directors of Western RetailHardware Association and the First National Bankof Wayne, NE. He and his wife, Marilyn, havethree children.Stanton T. Friedman, SB'55, SM'56, ofFredericton, NB, Canada, participated in the television documentary UFO Coverup? . ..Live. He lectures on college campuses in the United States andCanada.Daniel Kunitz, AB'55, AB'56, AM'61, andJoan Molner Kunitz, X'56, of Newtonville, PA,have a seventh grandchild, Ya'in Cohen.William E. Mitchell, AB'55, practices generalsurgery in Atlanta, GA.E! j£ Ann Taylor Fathy, AB'56, graduated fromC? O the University of San Diego School of Law,San Diego, CA, and took the California bar exam.David T. Iida, MBA'56, of Rancho PalosVerdes, CA, established a consulting firm, DavidIida & Associates.Joan Molner Kunitz, X'56. See 1955, DanielKunitz.John J. Moscato, AB'56, is professor of publicpolicy at National Defense University, Washington, DC.Wilford F. WeeksAPhD'56, received the highest award of the International Glaciological Society, the Seligman Crystal, for his contributions tothe study of the geophysics of ice in the sea. Weeksis professor of geophysics at the University ofAlaska, Fairbanks, and chief scientist at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility.Robert I. Yufit, PhD'56, associate professor atNorthwestern University Medical School, Chicago, received a grant from the Burlington NorthernFoundation. He was elected president of theAmerican Association of Suicidology and is thefounder of the Illinois Association of Suicidology.He also has a private practice in clinicalpsychology.C Q Rose Helper, PhD'58, received a plaque inCJO honor of her many years of service andachievement from Alpha Kappa Delta, the international sociology honor society. She lives in Toledo, OH.Julia (Judy) Moon Jennings, AB'58, teachessecond grade at San Antonio Academy, SanAntonio, TX.Marilyn Quarantillo Starr, SB '58, of Minneapolis, MN, is starting her own business, a "Subway" sandwich and salad restaurant, to help puther four children through college.W. Robert Usellis, AM '58, is working with theJerusalem and Peace Service in Oxford, England.CQ Charlotte Adelman, AB'59, JD'62, an attor-\D y ney in Chicago, was invited by the University's Board of Trustees to serve as a member of thevisiting committee to the Law School.Frank G. Burke, AM'59, PhD'69, retired fromthe National Archives, where he was executive director of the National Historical Publications andRecords Commission. He is professor of libraryand information science at the University ofMaryland.John W. Lakin, MBA'59, retired, is a mediatorfor the Florida court system. He lives in FortWalton Beach, FL.Lenore Fink Borzak Rubin, AB'59, is internalorganizational development consultant for NynexMobile Communications. She and her husband,Jack, live in Englewood, NJ.Marguerite Turner, AM'59, of Dayton, OH,retired after nearly forty years as a teacher and administrator in the Dayton City School District.Robert D. Tuttle, MBA59, was named Michigan Industrialist of the Year by Lansing's Impres sion 5 Science Museum in honor of his civic activities as chairman and chief executive officer of SPXCorp., Muskegon, MI.(J[\ John T. Bycraft, MBA 60, is president andDU owner of Jack-Post Corp, Buchanan, MI. Heand his wife, Marjorie, have three children andlive in South Bend, IN.Ansel H. Edidin, AB'60, MBA'63, merged hispractice to form the firm Mailer, Edidin, PC,CPA's, Northbrook, IL.Sigmund Friedland, MD'60, practices cardiology and general medicine as a partner of theDiagnostic Clinic of Houston at Texas MedicalCenter, Houston.G. Richard Kern, AM'60, PhD'68, of Findlay,OH, was elected to a three-year term on the OhioHumanities Council.David P. Morris, AB'60, is an anesthesiologistat St. Joseph Health Center and Barnes-St. PetersHospital in St. Charles, MO.Carol Ruth Silver, AB'60, JD'64, has servedon the San Francisco, CA, board of supervisors foreleven years.Arthur Winoker, JD'60, is a vice-president ofChemical Bank, New York City, overseeing the attorneys in the bank's commercial real estate area.He and his wife, Joan, have two sons and live inNanuet, NY./^^I A. Frank Ackerman, SB'61, of New Provi-O J- dence, NJ, has created a software engineering training and consulting firm, the Institute forZero Defect Software.Barbara J. Hunter, AM'61, of New York City,received her Ph.D. from the Rutgers UniversityGraduate Program in Social Work, NewBrunswick, NJ. She practices social work privatelyand works for New York City's board of educationat the High School for the Humanities, Department of Special Education.Vidya Pesch Sendra, AM'61, runs her familybusiness of wholesale book distribution, Distri-buidora Orion, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico.Keith E. Tennis, DB'61, and his wife aremissionaries-in-residence at American BaptistSeminary of the West, Berkeley, CA, for the1988-89 academic year. In June, they will return totheir work in Hong Kong./O Richard E. Harrison, DB'62, is manager of\J £- Lake Quinault Lodge, Quinault, WA.Michael C. Kotzin, AB'62, is director of theJewish Community Relations Council of the Jewish United Fund of Metropolitan Chicago./TO Susan Wirth Baiter, AB'63, is an attorneyOvJ with the U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services (Medicare), Chicago.Phanindramohan Das, PhD'63, of CollegeStation, TX, participated in a symposium oh "Environmental Pollution: How to Combat it" at Calcutta University, India.Richard Grayson, AM '63, is professor of music at Occidental College, Los Angeles. The Yamaha Music Foundation invited him to Japan topresent concerts and seminars on keyboardimprovisation.Magne Helvig, PhD'63, of Tertnes, Norway, isprofessor of geography at the University ofBergen.Ernest W. Kent, AB'63, PhD '70, is head ofrobotics and autonomous systems research forPhilips Laboratories. He and his wife, Andrea,have a daughter, Victoria Valaria, and live inYorktown Heights, NY.David R. Segal, AM'63, PhD'67. See 1967,Mady Wechsler Segal .REUNION 89£A Edward A. Kaschins, AM'64, is head of theO jt Department of Economics and Business atLuther College, Decorah, IA. James R. Lancaster, MBA'64, of BarringtonHills, IL, is president of NBD Illinois, a bank withtwelve branches in the Chicago area.Town and Country Magazine named John J.Rauch, AM'64, one of the three hundred most respected psychotherapists in the U.S. Rauch has aprivate practice in Milwaukee, WI.David L. Szanton, AM'64, PhD'70, is an executive associate of the Social Science ResearchCouncil, New York City.Herbert J. Walberg, PhD'64, of Oak Park, IL,was appointed to the governing board of the National Assessment of Educational Progress. He ischairman of the Scientific Advisory Group for Educational Indicators of the Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development, Paris,France./IPT Robert R. Crawford, SB'65, finished aOC? three-year period as head of the computerscience department at Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, where he is an associateprofessor.Michael D. Klein, AB'65, is associate professor of surgery at Wayne State University, and associate chief of pediatric general surgery at the Children's Hospital of Michigan, both in Detroit. Heand his wife, Peggy, have three children.Louis Sherman, SB'65, PhD'70, is head ofbiological sciences at Purdue University, WestLafayette, IN.Suzanne Deitch Shure, BFA'65, had an articleaccepted for publication by School Arts Magazine.She teaches art in the Lorain, OH, city schools.Janet Evans Worthington, AB'65, is directorof the Fayette Education Center, Oak Hill, WV,a branch of the West Virginia Institute ofTechnology.(L(L Joseph S. Dickstein, SB'66, MD'70, hasDO opened a third medical office in Litchfield,IL. He and his wife, Phyllis, live with their twochildren in Hillsboro, IL.Peter R. Doran, MBA'66, associate professor ofaccounting at North Shore Community College inBeverly, MA, is controller of the Essex InstituteMuseum of Salem, MA.Daniel Kesden, AB'66, is director of the Rehabilitation Medicine Clinic, Lauderdale Lakes, FL.Molly Lau Larson, SM'66, of Worthington,OH, is associate director of admissions at OhioState University.Julian J. Rimpila, SM'66, MD'66, was promoted to lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Army Medical Corps Reserves and was presented the Founder's Award by Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity ofKnox College, Galesburg, IL. He practices medicine in Chicago.(^J Eric Brody, AB'67 is a staff pediatricianO/ with Northwest Permanente. He has adaughter, Sarah, and lives in Lake Oswego, OR.Donald H. Carlisle, MBA'67, married MarthaArgull Mactavish. He is an investment managerwith Connor Clark & Co., Ltd., Toronto, ON,Canada.Erroll B. Davis, Jr., MBA'67, is chief executiveofficer of Wisconsin Power & Light Co., Madison,WI.Toby K. Leavitt, daughter of Richard D.Leavitt, SB'67, is a second-year student in theCollege.Rudolf V. Perina, AB'67, director for European and Soviet affairs in the National SecurityCouncil, was a member of the delegation accompanying President Reagan to the May 1988 summitmeeting in Moscow.Arthur Raske, DB'67, AM '77, lives in Lewis-ton, MI.James C. Rooney, MBA'67, is a member of thetransportation consulting division of Booz, Allen& Hamilton, Inc., Bethesda, MD.Mady Wechsler Segal, AM'67, PhD'73, wasrecognized as Outstanding Woman Faculty Member for 1988 by the University of Maryland, College Park. She and her husband, David R. Segal,44 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989AM'63, PhD'67, are spending the year as distinguished visiting professors at the United StatesMilitary Academy, West Point./^ Q Morrie K. Blumberg, AM'68, of Albuquer-OO que, NM, consulted in Indonesia on anevaluation of U.S. and Indonesian government-assisted schools of public health.Paul Falick, JD'68, is vice-president and general counsel of ICC Industries, Inc., New YorkCity.Judie Canino Fujita, AB'68, teaches theFeldendrais method of "awareness through motion." She and her husband, Tetsuya, have threechildren and live in Montclair, NJ.Susan Loren Keiser, SB'68, partner in the lawfirm Keiser & Keiser, Livingston Manor, NY, is onthe Women's Bar Matrimonial Committee and theNew York State Bar Committee on Juvenile Justice.William H. Lynch, JD'68, was honored by theMetropolitan Milwaukee Fair Housing Counselfor his efforts to promote integrated schools andhousing in the Milwaukee, WI, area.Joan Tapper Siegel, AB'68, is editor and associate publisher of Islands Magazine, based in SantaBarbara, CA.Elliot Simon, AM'68, a freelance editor inGuernville, CA, is involved in theater productions.REUNION 89JUNE 19 8 9S Q John B. Bell HI, AM'69, PhD'78, is seniorU/ minister at Christ Church, Summitt, NJ.Christopher J. Eigel, MBA'69, is executivevice-president of Koenig & Strey, Inc., realtors,Glenview, IL. Walter A. Guyer, MBA'69, is vice-president offinance and chief financial officer of Wilton Corp. ,Palatine, IL.Karl S. Taylor, X'69, and his wife, Lois, operate The Old Mystic Inn, Old Mystic, CT.Cynthia Tobias, AM'69, PhD'77, of Tucson,AZ, is listed in Who's Who of American Women and International Directory of Professional and Business Women .She is director of the office of medical computingat the University of Arizona.James T. Warren, SB '69, obtained his Ph . D. intoxicology from North Carolina State Universityand is active in the field of insect endocrinology atthe University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.Laurens D. Young, MD'69, of Milwaukee, WI,is professor of psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine and director of the general hospitalpsychiatry division at the Medical College ofWisconsin.P7/~\ Florence Emery Cohen, AM'70, of Prince-/ \J ton Junction, NJ, earned her chartered financial consultant degree. She is vice-president ofenterprise planning at Prudential Insurance Company of America, Newark, NJ.Barbara Curcic Freeouf, AB'70, MAT'71, ofKatonah, NY, is president of the northeast regionof Pi Lambda Theta, the national honor and professional association in education.Elmer J. Moreschi, MBA'70, is vice-presidentof manufacturing at Briskin Manufacturing Co.,Chicago.Alan T. Moriyama, AB'70, is professor of international relations at Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan.Calixto A. Romero, Jr., MD'70, is in privatecardiology practice in Casper, WY.Dennis Joseph Whelan, PhD'70, is a visitingscholar at Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, and occasional lecturer at Karl Marx University of Economic Sciences, Budapest. He is married to HeideWolker Whelan.ryi Geoffrey A. Clark, PhD'71, professor of/ J. anthropology at Arizona State University,Tempe, took part in the excavation of the Aetek-remnos rockshelter, on the coast of Cyprus.James F. Grutsch, SB'71, PhD'77, of Wilmette,IL, passed the board of toxicology examination.A. Ravi Prakash Rau, PhD'71, was named Distinguished Research Master by Louisiana StateUniversity, Baton Rouge, where he is a professorin the physics and astronomy department.Daniel S. Schwartz, AB'71, an oceanographerwith the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution of Ft . Pierce, FL, is commander of the researchvessel Seward Johnson, the newest U.S. researchship. He and his wife, Susan Markley, live in Miami, FL.Alan R. Smith, SB'71, MD'75, chief of staff ofHCA Bayonet Point Hudson Medical Center, wasfirst in the Hudson, FL, area to pass the geriatricboard certification from the American Board of Internal Medicine.Carl Sunshine, AB'71, and his wife, Tove,have a son, Nathan Sariel Sunshine. They live inLos Angeles, CA.iyO Pamela Reichl Collebrusco, AB'72,/ Z— AM'74,andherhusband,Mark,haveasec-ond child, Gina Marie. They live in Riverton, IL.F. Timothy Fuller, MBA'72, has his own consulting firm in Palo Alto, CA.Daniel R. Grayson, SB'72, SM'72, is professorof mathematics at the University of Illinois atUrbana.Dennis F. Miller, AM'72, of Bethesda, MD, isdirector of systems for EG&G, Inc.James T. Peterson, AM'72, has a private prac-Mostly Elizabethan.- A Literary TourSPONSORED BY THEUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONLED BY DAVID AND PEGGY BEVINGTONAUGUST 9-23, 1989PRICE: $4599 per person, double occupancy$ 529 single supplement, additionalINCLUDED:• Roundtrip airfare from Chicago onBritish Airways• Roundtrip transfers• 13 nights luxurious and historicaccommodations• Full breakfast daily plus 3 specialdinners, 2 cocktail parties, a Publunch and a tea• Reserved tickets for the EdinburghFestival, Military Tattoo, RoyalShakespeare Theater, 2 Londonplays and world-famous Glynde-bourne Opera• All taxes, service charges and VAT• Academic Itineraries, Ltd. professional tour escortJoin noted author and editor, DavidBevington, for this enriching travelexperience. RESERVATION COUPONNameAddressPhone (home).(Business) J enclosed is my S500/person deposit? please send more informationUniversity of Chicago Alumni Office,Robie House, 5757 Woodlawn Ave.,Chicago, IL 60637Laura Gruen: 312-753-218045tice and manages real estate and Judith M endelsPeterson, AM'73, is finishing her doctorate. Theyhave two children, Dania and David, and live inChicago.David R. Sillars, AB'72, is a psychiatrist inMorrisville, NY.In September, Victoria Kennick Urubshurow,AB'72, AM'74, AM'81, PhD'84, and her husband,David, had a daughter, Kennick Delghir. Urubshurow is on leave from her position as assistantprofessor of history of religions at the CatholicUniversity of America, Washington, DC.Michael B. Walker, AB'72, MBA'80. See 1980,Erica E. Peresman.Karen Wishner, AB'72, associate professor ofoceanography at the University of Rhode Island,Narragansett, was chief scientist on researchcruises to study whales and the biology of a sea-mount near Mexico.r^Q Roger T.Brice,JD' 73, is a partner with Son-/ v-J nenschein, Carlin, Nath & Rosenthal,Chicago.Sylvia Helm, AB'73, is senior editor with thefinancial publishing firm Dealers' Digest and adjunct assistant professor of business publishing atNew York University, New York City.Miriam Kalichman, AB'73, is director of pediatric rehabilitation at Christ Hospital, Oak Land,IL.James S. Lewis, MBA'73, of Youngstown, OH,retired as president of the Valley Mould division ofMicrodot, Inc.Frank Lichtenberg, AB'73, is associate professor of economics at the Columbia UniversityGraduate School of Business, New York City. Heand his wife, Michelle, have two sons, Andrewand Alexander.Steven Mencher, AB'73, is the op-ed producerof National Public Radio's Performance Today, a national arts magazine. He and his wife, RosanneSinger, live in Takoma Park, MD.Judith Mendels-Peterson, AM'73. See 1972,James T. Peterson.John J. Tyson, PhD'73, professor of biology atVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, lectured on mathematical biology in Germany, Belgium, and Scotland.George W. Van Cleve, AB'73, and his wife,Barbara, celebrated their tenth anniversary. Theyand their children, William, Michael, and Elizabeth, live in McLean, VA.7A GeorSe p- Blakeslee, MBA'74, of Erie, PA, is/ ^ an independent business consultant.Robert Bucceri, MAT'74, is vice-president ofMonetary Management Corp., Broomall, PA. Heand his wife live in West Chester, PA.William Harrison, MBA'74, is associate deanfor evening programs at the Devry Institute ofTechnology, Atlanta, GA.Irene Capp Kerr, AM'74, MBA' 76, is generalmanager of the diagnostics division of Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL.fJJZ Charles M. Adelman, PhD'75, of Cedar/ \D Falls, IA, is ceramics analyst of the LeonLevy expedition's excavations in Ashkelon,Israel.Michele Bogart, AM'75, PhD'79, and her husband, Philip Pauly, have a son, Nicholas BogartPauly. They live in Brooklyn, NY.Douglas Brunner, AB'75, is a partner in themedical firm Delardo,- Hearn and Pazourek. Heand his family live in Baltimore, MD.Marc David Carter, AM'75, is a senior manager at Touche Ross & Co. He and his wife, Liane,have a son, Jonathan Roy.ry S Niso Abuaf , MBA'76, PhD'85, is a research-/ O er in the treasury group of Salomon Brothers, New York City. He and his wife, Perlette, havetwo children, David and Ariella.R. Michael Beals, AB'76, SM'76, and his wife,Phyllis, traveled to Shanghai, Beijing, and Nanjing, China, where he participated in a mathematical symposium at Nanjing University. David B. Knight, PhD'76, professor of geography at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, wasnamed a visiting fellow at Corpus Christi College,Cambridge, England. He is also chairman of theInternational Geographical Union commission onthe world political map.Theodore Leibman, AB'76. See 1950, JordanLeibman.77 Marc C. Bergschneider, MBA'77, founded/ / MAST Resources, Inc., New York City. Heand his wife, Theo, have two sons, Alex and Peter.William A. Priebe, MBA'77, is president ofGeneva Capital Management, Milwaukee, WI.David E. Scarborough, AB'77, is assistantprofessor of medicine at the Louisiana StateUniversity School of Medicine, Shreveport, andCatherine F. Vanderloos, AB'77, is in private practice in obstetrics/gynecology. They have threedaughters.Steven Urkowitz, PhD'77. See 1937, Louis H.Spector.Kathleen Weber, AB'77, MAT' 78, is a teacherat Lake Travis High School, Austin, TX.7Q Gary L. Asher, MBA'78, has purchased/ O M.F.A. Engineering, Inc., Rockford, IL.David B. Jaffe, AB'78, JD'81. See 1980, Erica E.Peresman.Lee S. Mann, AM '78, of Falls Church, VA, received his J.D. degree from George WashingtonUniversity, Washington, DC.Eduardo Vidal, AB'78, JD'81, and KatrinaLofgren Vidal, AB'78, have a daughter, IngridAmelia, and live in New York City.ryQ Stephen S. Cha, AB'79, and his brother,/ y Jason S. Cha, AB'81, have their own lawfirm, Cha & Cha in Los Angeles.Sara Elizabeth Davis, AB'79, and her husband, Stephen Bache, have a second daughter,Elizabeth Rose Bache. They live in Pasadena, CA.Nancy Scheer Dohnalek, AB'79, and DavidA. Dohnalek, MBA'88, have a son, Matthew. Theylive in Deerfield, IL.Dieter Drews, son of Jenny and Udo W. Drews,MBA'79, is a second-year student in the College.Landy Carien Johnson, AB'79, and her husband, David, have a second child, DouglasEdward. They live in Worcester, MA.Fusun Leventoglu, AB'79, and his wife, IsmailCerdet Noyan, have a son, M. AH. They live inPeekskill, NY.In September, David W. McKay, MBA'79, andhis wife, Kathy, had a daughter, Elizabeth, whojoins their son, Christopher. McKay, works for theBank of America, Orange County, CA.Robert E. Sullivan, AB'79, MBA'86, and hiswife, Susan, have a son, John Cameron, and live inArlington, VA.Qf| Joy Swanson Ernst, AB'80, and DanielOU R. Ernst, JD'83, have a daughter, AnnaRebecca. They live in Chevy Chase, MD.Erica E. Peresman, AB'80, and David B. Jaffe,AB'78, were married in May. Elizabeth StaehleVan Arsdale, AB'80, was the matron of honor andMichael B. Walker, AB'72, MBA'80, was the bestman. Peresman is with the law firm Pepper, Hamilton & Scheetz, and Jaffe is a partner atHonigman, Miller, Schwartz and Cohn, in Detroit, MI.In August, Thomas S. Reif, AB'80, marriedAnn Hamilton McDavid, daughter of the lateRaven I. McDavid, former professor of English atthe University. They live in Chicago.Debbie Steele Riley, AB'80, AM'82. See 1983,Clark T. Riley.Q^l Jason S. Cha, AB'81. See 1979, Stephen S.Ol Cha.Susan Campbell Doane, AB'81, is married to Frederick Thomas Doane, Jr. She is a naval intelligence officer assigned to a patrol squadron in Mof-fett Field, CA.In September, Alison Laird Sparks, AB'81,married Kevin Sparks. She is a research chemist atQuest Systems, Bedford, MA.OO Achilles Fokiades, AB'82, MBA' 84, is pri-(DjL* vate banking marketing officer at AmericanExpress Bank, Ltd., Athens, Greece. He and hiswife, Athena, have a son.Katherine (Kat) Birgit Griffith, AB'82, hashitchhiked through South America, managed aLebanese restaurant, and planted trees in Nicaragua. While living in a Costa Rican Quaker community, she consulted for the Inter- American Foundation and World Resources Institute and ran acommunity-based environmental education andconservation project. She is working on a master'sdegree in agricultural economics at the Universityof Wisconsin, Madison.David Hollowell, AB'82, of Urbana, IL, received his Ph.D. in astronomy from the Universityof Illinois.QO Richard Aelion-Moss, AM'83, is directorO O of Moscow operations for Chilewich Corp. ,New York City. He and his wife, Elizabeth, have adaughter, Claire.Daniel R. Ernst, JD'83. See 1980, Joy SwansonErnst.Brian J. Hieggelke, AB'83, MBA' 84, is editorand publisher of NewCity, a Chicago newspaperthat he co-founded with his wife, Jan Hieggelke,AB'85, and his brother, Brent Hieggelke, AB'88.Brian and Jan have a second child, Matthew.Clark T. Riley, PhD '83, and Debbie SteeleRiley, AB'80, AM'82, of Baltimore, MD, announcethe birth of their second son, Sean Christopher.Jonathan Shamis, AB'83, and Judith Zart-man, AB'84, are married and live in Chicago.Q A WendY Cole Ashlock, AB'84, of Pasadena,OTl CA, has a daughter, Charlotte RachelAshlock.Andrew Black, AB'84. See 1986, Diane Kava-naugh Black.Judith Zartman, AB'84. See 1983, JonathanShamis.REUNION 89QJZ In September, Bren L. Buckley, MBA'85,0\J and Douglas Duchek had a daughter,Kydlan Kathleen Duchek. They live in Birmingham, MI.Patrick M. Donovan, MBA'85. See 1986, MaryLynnFaunda.Jan Hieggelke, AB'85. See 1983, Brian J.Hieggelke.Jeffrey P. Kuhn, MD'85. See 1952, Paul R.Kuhn.Q/^ Diane Kavanaugh Black, AB'86, andOO Andrew Black, AB'84, of East Lansing, MI,have a son, Michael James. Andrew is a doctoralcandidate in the Michigan State University microbiology department.Mary Lynn Faunda, MBA'86, and Patrick M.Donovan, MBA'85, were married in October. Maryis an associate in the corporate finance group ofPrudential Investment Corp., Newark, NJ, andPatrick is manager of business development/strategic planning in the defense division of FMCCorp.QTJ MarkE. Braden, AM'87, of Pasadena, CA,O/ is assistant technical services librarian atOccidental College in Los Angeles.OO David A. Dohnalek, MBA'88. See 1979,OO Nancy Scheer Dohnalek.Brent Hieggelke, AB'88. See 1983, Brian J.Hieggelke.H. Maya Leibman, AB'88. See 1950, JordanLeibman.46 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989DEATHSFACULTYJohn U. Nef, X'17, founder and professoremeritus of the Committee on Social Thought andprofessor emeritus of economics, died December25 at the age of eighty-eight. A pioneering economic historian, he joined the University's facultyin 1929 and became professor in economic historyin 1936. Together with President Robert Hutchins,anthropologist Robert Redfield, and economistFrank Knight, Nef established the Committee onSocial Thought in 1942, of which he was chairmanfrom 1945 to 1964. Under his leadership, some ofthe world's leading artists and thinkers came tothe University as members of the interdisciplinarycommittee, including T. S. Eliot, Marc Chagall,Jean Piaget, and Hannah Arendt. Nef also wrotenumerous books, including the classic text, TheRise of the British Coal Industry. In 1980, the University recognized him with the University of ChicagoMedal, one of only three recipients of the award.In 1988, he and his wife, Evelyn, established theJohn U. Nef Distinguished Service Professorshipin the Committee on Social Thought.Charles F. Nims, PhD'37, professor emeritusof the Oriental Institute, died November 19 at theage of eighty-two. He was appointed instructor atthe Oriental Institute in 1948 and became professor in 1970. He spent thirty seasons at the Institute's research center in Luxor, Egypt, the site ofancient Thebes, and was the author of Thebes of thePharaohs: Pattern for Every City.Marshall Harvey Stone, the Andrew Mac-Leish Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus ofthe Department of Mathematics and professoremeritus of the Committee on Social Thought,died January 8 at the age of eighty-five. Stone waschairman of the mathematics department at theUniversity from 1945 to 1952. He strongly influenced mathematics in the United States and at theUniversity. One of the most important mathematicians of this century, he was known for his worksynthesizing diverse areas of abstract mathematics. He received numerous academic honors, including the National Medal of Science in 1983.THE CLASSES1910-1919Katharine Putnam, PhB'13, AM'27, October.Bernice Klausner Newman, PhB'17, January.Sterling Bushnell, X'19, December.1920-1929Grant H. Laing, MD'20, November.Harriet Rosenthal Mowrer, PhB'21, AM'22, May1988.Catherine Schultz Anderson, PhB'22, January1987.Myrtle Foster Black, PhB'22, November.Esther Crockett Quaintance, AM'25, June.Clyde R. Jensen, MD'26, December.Leona Ruth Auld, AM'27, July.Barclay E. Noble, SM'28, MD'29, September.Thomas Matthews Pearce, X'29, November 1986.1930-1939Brandon Grove, SB'30, PhD'34, December.Martha P. Fredenburg Koelling, PhB'30, October.Dexter W. Masters, PhB'30, January.IdaM. Didier, SM'31, January.Thomas F. Green, JSD'31, November.Andrew W. Lind, PhD'31, August.Evelyn Marie Belden Russell, X'31, December1987.Isadore A. Aarons, SB'33, January 1988. Charles D. Borst, X'33, October.Janet Levin Rappaport, PhB'33, December.Caroline J. Bartz, PhB'34, December 1986.Gerald William Crane, X'34, October.NoelB. Gerson, AB'34, November.John Moore Hills, PhD'34, November.Theodore K. Noss, AM'34, PhD'40.Pauline R. Ashcraft, X'35, October 1987.Grace Graver Riddle, X'35, October.Edmund J. Blau, SM'36, December.Joseph M. Selove, AB'36, AM'37, September.Lincoln H. Clark, AB'37, MBA'38, PhD'40,October.Anders M. Myhrman, PhD'37, March 1988.Carl Pfeiffer, MD'37, November.Seymour S. Guthman, PhB'39, JD'30, December.Edward E. Kane, AB'39, JD'41, September.1940-1949Bernice Lippman Poss, AB'40, June.Samuel J. Guy, AB'41.Corrado De Sylvester, AM'42, December 1987.Margaret Kerns, X'42, July.Lillie Cutlar Walker, MD'42, December.Rachel I. Fundingsland, AM'43, February 1988.Allen B. Kellogg, PhD'43, December.Bennett T. Sandefur, PhD'43, January.David V. L. Brown, X'44, October.Clara Polk Carey, X'44, November.Albert G. D. Levy, PhD '44, December.Virgil Scharrer, AM'44, January.Mary Margaret Schmitt, SM'44, August.Norma Topel Shabel, AB'45, February 1988.Patricia Monser Graves, PhB'46, September.Lorraine McFadden Sawitke, AB'46, December.Phillippa Daley Schnur, AM'46, December.Lynton K. Caldwell, PhB'34, PhD'43, The Administrative Theories of Hamilton and Jefferson: TheirContribution to Thought on Public Administration(Holmes and Meier). The second edition of thisbook, based on Caldwell's Ph.D. dissertation, recounts and analyzes the political and constitutional theories of the two major architects of federal government in the United States. Caldwell is theArthur F. Bentley Professor Emeritus of PoliticalScience and professor of public and environmental affairs at Indiana University, Bloomington.M. L. Rosenthal, AB'37, AM'38, general editor, Poetry in English: An Anthology and As for Love:Poems and Translations (Oxford University Press).Also, The Poet's Art (Norton) . Rosenthal, professoremeritus of English of New York University, holdsthe Moss Chair of Excellence at Memphis StateUniversity, Memphis, TN, and is vice-president ofthe board of governors of the Poetry Society ofAmerica.Robert S. Brumbaugh, AB'38, AM'38,PhD '42, Platonic Studies of Greek Philosophy: Form,Arts, Gadgets, and Hemlock (State University of NewYork Press). This work of contemporary philosophy links a revisionary interpretation of the social,scientific, and technological setting of ancientGreek philosophy with Platonic criticisms of contemporary conditions. Brumbaugh is professor ofphilosophy at Yale University, New Haven, CT.Mary Korellis Croft, AB'39, AM'40, and JoyceS. Steward, The Leisure Pen: A Book for Elderwriters(Scott, Foresman). Also with Joyce S. Steward, The Earl G. Grimsby, AM'47, December.Norma Cohen Pulverman, SB '47, December.John J. Millar, MBA'48, April 1988.Pierre R. Graham, AM'49, April 1988.1950-1959Archie R. Boe, MBA'50, January.AlanE. Miner, AM'50, December 1987.Stuart A. Goldman, MBA'51, November.AlanTritter, AB'52, August.Warren P. Eustis, JD'53, September.Gerald L. Kock, AB'55, AB'56, JD'58, December.Thomas R. Ewald, JD'57, February 1988.Stanley Gevirtz, PhD'59.1960-1969Virginia Bredendieck, MFA'60, June.Arthur C. Pike, SB'60, SM'61, November.Herbert Joseph Schwarcz, AM'66, May 1987.Carlton R. Lutterbie, Jr., AM'67, PhD'74,November.Albert A. Raby, X'69, November.1970-1979Michael Stuart Bernstein, JD'79, December.1980-1989Diana Trichel Shejnberg, AM'82, June.CORRECTIONThrough an error, Susan PearlmanKagan, X'49, was reporteddeceased in the WINTER'88 issue.She lives in New York City.Writing Laboratory: Organization, Management, and Materials (Scott, Foresman). Croft lives in Plover, WI.Mathilde J. Kland, SB '39, contributor, Teratogens: Chemicals which Cause Birth Defects, Studies inEnvironmental Science 31 (Elsevier Publishers).Bradley H. Patterson, Jr., AB'42, AM'43, TheRing of Power: The White House Staff and Its ExpandingRole in Government (Basic Books). In anecdotalform, the author gives a comprehensive account ofthe twenty offices that make up the modern WhiteHouse staff and argues for the need of a strong personal staff to support the modern presidency. Patterson, of Bethesda, MD, has served on the staffsof three U.S. presidents and is now executive director of the Dwight D. Eisenhower CentennialCommission.Leo Treitler, AB'50, AM'57, Music and the Historical Imagination (Harvard University Press). Theauthor argues for criticism and analysis of the music of the past in terms of how listeners assimilate itinto current interests and concerns, as well as interms of the music's own historical context.Treitler is Distinguished Professor of Music at theGraduate Center of City University of N. Y.Charles D. Garvin, AM'51, PhD'68, Contemporary Group Work, second edition (Prentice Hall).Garvin lives in Ann Arbor, MI.George Horwich, AM'51, PhD'54, and DavidLeo Weimer, editors and authors, Responding to International Oil Crises (American Enterprise Institute). Horwich is a collaborating scientist at theOak Ridge National Laboratory and a member ofBOOKS by Alumni47the economics department at Purdue University,West Lafayette, IN.Andrew MacLeish, AM'51, editor, The Medieval Monastery: Medieval Studies at Minnesota 2 (NorthStar Press). This collection of papers explores themonastery and its place in medieval European society, economy, arts, and letters. MacLeish is professor of English at the University of Minnesota,Minneapolis.Howard M. Ham, PhD '54, co-author, FavoriteBible Passages (Graded Press) . Ham and his wife livein Nashville, TN, and have been married for fiftyyears.PaulEidelberg, AM '57, PhD '66, Beyond the Secular Mind (Greenwood Press). This book respondsto Allan Bloom's The Closing of the American Mind, byshowing how to overcome the problems of moralrelativism by means of a Jewish theory of law andhistory. Eidelberg is professor of political scienceat Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.Victor H. Jones, AB'58, AM'59, contributor,Dictionary of Literary Biography (Gale Research Co.).Jones, of Terre Haute, IN, contributed "ArchibaldMacLeish" to the volume.Calvin Redekop, PhD'59, and Sam Steiner,editors, Mennonite Identity: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (University Press of America).Also, with Urie Bender, Who Am I? What Am I? AChristian View of Working (Zondervan). Redekoplives in Kitchener, ON, Canada.Hiram Caton, AB'60, AM'62, The Politics ofProgress: The Origins and Development of the CommercialRepublic, 1600-1835 (University of Florida Press).The author presents a study of the Western world'sprogram of progress, which called for a technological science to use nature's power for human ends,pushing back the limits of natural scarcity indefinitely. Caton is professor of politics and history atGriffith University, Brisbane, Australia.Herbert L. Kessler, AB'61, editor, The MosaicDecoration of San Marco, Venice, written by Otto De-mus (University of Chicago Press). This chronicleof the stages in the decoration of the church of SanMarco includes photographs of its mosaics and aguide to the church's interior styles and iconography. Kessler is the Charlotte Bloomberg Professor in the School of Arts and Sciences and chairman of the Department of the History of Art atJohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.Rabbi David Novak, AB'61, Jewish-ChristianDialogue: A Jewish Justification (Oxford UniversityPress). Tracing Jewish views of Christianity, thisbook presents a philosophical and theological argument for a close relationship between the tworeligions. Novak is the first Edgar M. BronfmanProfessor of Modern Jewish Thought in the Department of Religious Studies at the University ofVirginia, Charlottesville.David Suzuki, PhD'61, and Peter Knudtson,Genethics: The Clash between the New Genetics and Human Values (Harvard University Press). This booksearches for moral guidelines to aid individuals inmaking responsible decisions about genetic issues, on both personal and societal levels. The authors present case studies or parables to illustrateethical issues, covering such topics as geneticscreening and biological warfare. Suzuki is professor of biology at the University of British Columbia, Canada.David Greenberg, SB '62, SM'63, PhD '69, TheConstruction of Homosexuality (University of ChicagoPress) . This cross-cultural account of the social organization of homosexuality demonstrates thathomosexuality is not a uniform phenomenonacross time and that social beliefs about homosexuality are a product of the cultures in which theyare found. The author draws on information fromnonliterate peoples, archaic civilizations, feudalperiods, and modern Western sociolegal systems.Greenberg is professor of sociology at New YorkUniversity, New York City.Diana T. Slaughter, AB'62, AM'64, PhD'68,Visible Now: Blacks in Private Schools (Greenwood). Also, Black Children and Poverty: Developmental Perspectives (Jossey-Bass). Slaughter is associate professor at the School of Education, NorthwesternUniversity, Evanston, IL.Robert D. Benne, AM'63, PhD'70, OrdinarySaints: An Introduction to the Christian Life (FortressPress). Benne is the Jordan-Trexler Professor ofReligion and head of the religion and philosophydepartment at Roanoke College, Salem, Virginia.Harvey Wolinsky, MD'63, SM'63, PhD'67,The Heart Attack Recovery Handbook (Warner) .Hugh S. Moorhead, PhD'64, collector, TheMeaning of Life (Chicago Review Press) . This is a collection of over two hundred comments on life bysome of this century's greatest writers and thinkers, including Mortimer J. Adler, Pearl S. Buck, T.S. Eliot, and Margaret Mead. Moorhead is professor and chairman of the Department of Philosophy at Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago.Eric Homberger, AM'65, American Writers andRadical Politics 1900-1939 (St. Martin's Press). Also,The Troubled Face of Biography (St. Martin's Press).Homberger is reader in American literature at theUniversity of East Anglia, Norwich, England.William Ray Heitzmann, MAT'66, Opportunities in Marine and Maritime Careers, second edition(NTC Publishing). Heitzmann is professor of education and human services at Villanova University, Villanova, PA.Richard W. Momeyer, AM'67, ConfrontingDeath (Indiana University Press). The author examines issues central to life and to death in orderto clarify people's attitudes toward death as an inescapable harm, a lesser evil, and as a personalchoice. Momeyer is professor of philosophy atMiami University, Oxford, OH.William Sweet, AB'68, AM'69, The NuclearAge: Atomic Energy, Proliferation and the Arms Race(Congressional Quarterly, Inc.). The second edition of this college textbook contains new chaptersabout Chernobyl, nuclear terrorism, and StarWars. Sweet is an associate editor at Physics TodayFORUMContinued from page 29planations is that they are wrong interms of the timing and in terms of thefacts. The U.S. dollar began to appreciate in 1979 as a result of the very contractive monetary policies adopted by theFederal Reserve that October. Becauseof the rapid appreciation of the dollar,U.S. imports surged at a time whenthere was a very large excess productivecapacity in the U.S. The American consumer's demand for foreign goodsmeant that the resources that couldhave been used to produce comparabledomestic goods were unemployed. Asa result of this unemployment, U.S.production increased less rapidly. Andthe U.S. fiscal deficit surged. In thatsense, the U.S. trade deficit, which is aresponse to the monetary policy, was asignificant cause of the U.S. fiscal deficit. The other significant componentwas that the surge in interest rates led toincreased interest payments by the U. S. magazine, New York City.Nell Buller, AM'69, Libraries and Library Servicesin Portugal (Dalhousie University). This is a surveywithin the context of selected aspects of Portugal'spolitical history, with glimpses of the country's interests in education and libraries from medievaltimes to the present. Buller is information scienceslibrarian at Dalhousie University, Halifax, NovaScotia, Canada.Harriet Heyman, AM'72, Between Two Rains(Atheneum). Heyman lives in San Francisco, CA.Thomas L. Pangle, PhD '72, The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism (University of ChicagoPress). Pangle is professor in the Department ofPolitical Science at the University of Toronto, ON,Canada.Timothy Conlan, AB'74, New Federalism: Intergovernmental Reform from Nixon to Reagan (BroookingsInstitution). Conlan lives in Arlington, VA.Stephen J. Miller, PhD '76, co-editor, CriticalStudies on Gonzalo Torrente Ballester (Society of Spanish and Spanish-American Studies).Bart D. Zehren, MBA'78, contributor, Marketing Financial Products and Services (Probus Publishing). Zehren wrote the chapter "Marketing Research." He is vice-president of marketingresearch, information, and planning services forCiticorp Diners Club, Chicago.Melinda Corey, AB'79, AM'82, The OfficialCouch Potato Cookbook (Warner). Corey and GeorgeOchoa, AM'82, are freelance writers in Brooklyn,NY.Steven B. Smith, PhD'81, Hegel's Critique of Liberalism (University of Chicago Press). Smith is associate professor in the Department of PoliticalScience at Yale University, New Haven, CT.J. Mark Thomas, editor, PhD'83, The SpiritualSituation in Our Technical Society, by Paul Tillich(Mercer University Press). This collection of essays demonstrates Tillich's understanding ofmodernity in terms of science and technology.Thomas lives in Madison, WI. STreasury of $20 to $30 billion a year.I am not sanguine about the U.S.trade deficit. While U.S. exports havegrown at a rapid rate, it is unlikely thatthe United States can outgrow the tradedeficit. And the reason is that foreignproducers are going to be extremely reluctant to give up market share toAmerican producers. In that sense, thePresident has to begin to worry aboutwhat sorts of measures should beadopted so that the trade deficit declines in an orderly way.JEANNE C. MARSHDean and Professor, School of SocialService Administration .The deficit has developed with noincreases, indeed a net reduction, in resources devoted to the development ofour citizens in terms of education,health care and social services. Succeeding generations will bear the costsin terms of reduced productivity and innovation—unless Mr. Bush can identifystrategies for reducing the deficit whilesimultaneously reinvesting in humanresources. HUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/SPRING 1989ThankYou Uoritjoin too many gangs.Join few if any.Join the United Statesfor joining us in supporting TheUniversity of Chicago Magazine.Once again we are grateful foryour generosity. This year, 6,450of you sent in a record $103,000,which tops our previous record,set last year, of $87,000.Alumni from 32 countries sentin checks. Thank you. • • • • •And a thank-you to the non-alumni among our readers who graciously responded to our request for voluntary contributions.Thank you, also, for your continued moral supportfor the past eight-and-a-half years. You have been awonderful audience, a very vocal one, which is thebest kind an editor can have.Sometimes, in response to our fund-raisingappeals, we've received some critical letters. A fewof you have even sent in excessively brief commentaries, consisting entirely of the "f " word. But forthe most part, your notes have been a joy to receive.We've had as much fun writing these requests asyou apparently have in receiving them.As a student during Robert Maynard Hutchins'tenure, we were very pleased with these letters:"In my opinion you produce a first-rate alumnimagazine. It's always a real pleasure to read, trulya reliable symbol of the high standards and goals forwhich the University has always been distinguished.Were he alive today, Hutchins would undoubtedlybe proud of your achievement."—Robert M. Boltwood, AB'39, AM'40, Southfield, MI."To paraphrase a famous remark of Hutchins,This isn't a good magazine, it's simply the best.' Ithink you should pat yourself on the back."—Robert W. Bain, AB'47, PhD '59, West Lafayette, IN.Other comments included:"We look forward to every issue and are proud toput it on our magazine rack, where no one can resistpicking it up and taking a minute to look through it,or even stopping to read an article or two."—John W. Morris, PhB'48, Rolling Meadows, IL.and join the family—But not much in betweenunless a college. Build SoilRobert Frost"Congratulations. Your witty request has sufficiently piqued my (classically jaded U.C.) interestenough to cough up $15 but not to say any more thanthat I am, ipso facto, alive and, I think, well."— John M. Hawthorne, AB'70, Derby, NH."Here's $15 — not just because we love the University, but because you write so well. Your solicitationletter is a model of wit and soft persuasion. I'll useit in my business writing classes!"— Rella Lossy (Mrs. Frank T. Lossy), Berkeley, CA."Your 'campaign letter' ... is, as usual, an informative and whimsical one! The reader finds it difficultto say 'no'."— Demetra Argiris Bourbaki, AB'39, Chicago, IL."Your letter of solicitation is excellent — should begiven a Pulitzer Prize in its class!"— Robert D. Tuttle, MBA'59, North Muskegon, MI."One of the great joys of the Magazine is receivingyour creative fund raising letters. Your creativitysparkles far greater than most of the lectures Iendured. Keep writing."— Dena M. Weisbard, BFA'64, Indianapolis, IN.Dear Dena, we shall, but in another capacity.As this arrives, we will be cleaning out our desk atRobie House. After that, we'll be busy launchingHolton Communications, an editorial consultingfirm — and writing more books. We leave withanother quote, this one from Woody Guthrie:"So long, it's been good to know you — it's timeto be moving along."Felicia Antonelli HoltonEditorNo One Can Take Your Place!loss•TTTTTTTTITTTTHTmilT^TTTmIUUiuiiU!i'Ji|in I I I | I I I n II I ' I I III ' i i'ii 'iiiimiiiimhujCSNWWHWl llll » 1 1 1 UUMUHiiHiiiilN*N THE>* UNIUCR5JT.Y MEUffJON %June 2 & 3, 1989All alumni and guests are invitedTwo days of events for ALL alumni includingpresentations byCARL SAGAN, author and host of the televisionshow "Cosmos"VEERABHADRAN RAMANATHAN, expert onclimatology and the greenhouse effectSARA PARETSKY, well-known mystery novelistHANNA HOLBORN GRAY, President of theUniversity of Chicago, andANN DUDLEY GOLDBLATT, expert on ClinicalMedical Ethics Tours of fifteen campus attractionsAnniversary celebrations for the Collegeclasses of: 1929 1934 1939 1944 11 „1954 1964 1969 1979 1984and the campus Business School Class of 1964If you would Amy Goerwitz, Reunion Directorlike more Office of Alumni Relationsinformation, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenueplease contact Chicago, Illinois 60637(312) 753-2175THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobie House, 5757 S. WoodlawnChicago, IL 60637ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED