le University ofilliamOh 4l1 Tiidden Agendanv to Help theruly Disadvantagedhe NationsTHEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOLIBRARYLETTERSLIKE BEING ATA "REVIVAL"Editor:Was it Hutchins who said: "Too few people have the courage of my convictions"?(Si non e vero, e molto ben trovato.) Thanks forthe Bloom essay; I felt like I was at a revivalmeeting— revived. I am sure that many ancient "Hutchies" feel the same way. It was arare treat to hear something my cohort hasknown all along expressed forcefully, elegantly—and out loud. After wallowing incomputers and acronyms for two decades, Ican really dig "literacy literacy." I plan to goright out and borrow a copy of Bloom's book.Ronald Blum, AB'54,SB'55, SM'56Baltimore, MD"WHOSE MIND ISREALLY CLOSED?"Editor:I cannot resist a comment on the excerptfrom Allan Bloom's book, The Closing of theAmerican Mind ["Today's University— WhereDemocracy Is Anarchy," SUMMER/87]. Icould hardly believe in this day and age thatan educated person could still be so obtuseas to use the masculine pronoun exclusivelyin talking about college students. Clearly forBloom only one kind of student is worth considering—a white, upper-class male, who isalso fresh out of high school. That studentwill find everything he reads in the "greatbooks" reinforcing his privilege. Unfortunately the "great books" do not deal with—or even "see"— the rest of us, yet collegedemographics tell us that only a small percentage of present-day students fit Bloom'simplicit definition.I was over 50 before I learned anythingabout women's history, women's psychology, the sociology of women and genderroles, women's creative accomplishments,the gender assumptions in the so-called"objective" fields like the sciences, to saynothing of the gender bias in our uses of language itself. In other words, the "best" university education had not helped me toknow myself. Even more shocking is the vastignorance of women's lives on the part of thevery people in America who have power tomake the policies that affect the lives of all ofus. The "great books" come out of an educational tradition that was designed by and fora specialized group of men, who then defined themselves, illogically, as the "norm."If we are going to begin with that faultypremise, all the rest of us are of course"abnormal." Far from being a fringe area of inquiry,women's studies asks the really big question: "What kind of theory. ..can emergefrom an effort of thought that omits half thehuman race and does not consider that a problem?" . . .Whose mind is really closed?Virginia W. Beauchamp, PhD '55Greenbelt, MDBLOOM IS "KICKING ADEAD HORSE"Editor:Allan Bloom is kicking a dead horse, trying to start an intellectual stampede ofghosts. His thesis in The Closing of the American Mind [SUMMER/87] is simple: eachuncivilized student needs the broad liberaleducation which guides one into understanding the unified first principles of thethree sciences— physical, biological, social—and the humanities so as to create transcended self and warless Earth. That plainpoint was reasoned, formalized, and settledduring the Hutchins College era....If only philosophy professor Bloomhad walked across campus to inquire of thescientists about the next survival leap, already discovered and galloping. He thenwould have been able to climb out of his sadmineshaft apology (which is crushingAmerican idealism): "There is no vision ofwhat an educated human being is. . . I don'tprovide prescriptions. . .of what is to bedone."Precisely: that is why retrogressive philosophers are not leaders. Neurologists arethe new leaders. Especially in the SovietUnion.An educated human is one who primarily understands and controls his/her ninety-percent dormant brain so as to compute allsecondary knowledges (the sciences, humanities) into progressively self-releasingone-hundred-percent brain power. Fromthis joyous progression, all personal and societal problems are solved creatively, comprehensively, and automatically.T.D.A. Lingo, PhB'48, AM'51Black Hawk, COBLOOM'S EDUCATION:"EXCLUSIVELY MALE"Editor:. . . [Dr. Allan Bloom] refers to liberal education students as exclusively male tentimes in his opening paragraph . (In delightful contrast, Dr. Martin Marty used totallynonsexist language in his article . . . )Dr. Bloom confounds his sexually biasedwriting with a misstatement. On page ten he states that women's studies are simply "attempts to fill the vacuum painlessly withvarious kinds of fancy packaging [i.e. Women's or Gender Studies] of what is alreadythere." The study of women did not exist inmy liberal education at the University ofChicago.In my years at the University the onlyacknowledged female contributors to civilization were a smattering of-painters, poets,authors, and queens. The vacuum, I am verysad to say, in retrospect, was in the readingselections of the male professors. . .who selected what they defined as "liberal." Thesereadings were written for and about men inthe traditional liberal arts pattern; they excluded the female place in history. ThankGod for women's studies which today. . .fillthis once limitless void in traditional liberaleducation.Traditional sexist writing styles are inexcusable in a university magazine editedby a woman at a University headed by awoman...Whether today's university is a democracy or an anarchy, I am eternally optimisticthat women will continue to be included inthese academic communities in ever increasing numbers and with true equality.Despite my above reaction, it is always adelight to find the University of Chicago Magazine in my mailbox! Thank you!Sue B. Reamer, SB '63Chestnut Hill, MA"A PERVASIVE TONEOF CONSERVATISM"Editor:There is a pervasive tone of conservatism that is associated nowadays with theUniversity of Chicago and this Magazine. Theideology of leading economists and thebusiness school seems to have spread to other disciplines; individual enrichment is anoble pursuit, social causes are suspect, and"government" is never less than bureaucratic, invasive and unwise. This contemporary distinction between good and evil wascriticized in More Die of Heartbreak, the latestnovel of Saul Bellow [X'39]. He attributes toMilton Friedman [AM'33] the telling distinction: "No matter how crazy people are, theystill remain sane about money. . . All he seems to sayis that between humankind and full chaos therestands only the free market." (p. 144) I was reminded of this Tory bias recently by the coincidence of two events. I happened to watchthe televised testimony of George Shultz(former Dean of the Graduate School ofBusiness) before the Iran-contra hearings ofContinued on inside back coverEditorFelicia Antonelli Holton, AB'50Staff WriterMark Ray Hollmann, AB'85DesignerTom GreensfelderThe University of Chicago Office ofAlumni RelationsRobie House5757 South Woodlawn AvenueChicago, IL 60637Telephone: (312) 753-2175President, The University of ChicagoAlumni AssociationEdward L. Anderson, PhB'46, SM'49National Program DirectorRoberta SherwoodChicago Area Program DirectorCrista Cabe, AM'83Director, Alumni Schools CommitteeJ. Robert Ball, X'70The University of ChicagoAlumni Executive CouncilEdward L. Anderson, PhB'46, SM'49Herbert B. Fried, JD'32Mary Lou Gorno, MBA'76William B. Graham, SB'32, JD'36William Hammett, AM'71Danette G. Kauffman, AM'69Kenneth C. Levin, AB'68, MBA'74)ohn David Lyon, AB'55William C. Naumann, MBA'75Daniel B.Ritter, AB '57Edward W. Rosenheim, AB'39, AM'46, PhD'53Jerry G. Seidel, MD'54Thomas H. Sheehan, MBA'63Judy Ullmann Siggins, AB'66, AM'68, PhD'76Dirk van Ausdall, AB'80Susan Loth Wolkerstorfer, AB'72Faculty/ Alumni Advisory Committeeto The University of Chicago MagazineEdward W. Rosenheim, AB'39AM'46, PhD'53, ChairmanDavid B . and Clara E . SternProfessor, Department of Englishand the CollegeAbe Blinder, PhB'31Philip C. Hoffmann, SB'57, PhD'62Professor, Department ofPharmacological and PhysiologicalSciences and the College;Master, the Biological SciencesCollegiate DivisionMarjorie Lange Lucchetti, AM '70,PhD'74John MacAloon, AM'74, PhD'80Associate Professor,Social Sciences Collegiate DivisionLinda Thoren Neal, AB'64, JD'67Katherine Schipper, MBA'73, AM'75, PhD'77Professor, Graduate School of BusinesSherlu Rardin Walpole, AB'45The University of Chicago Magazine(ISSN-9508) is published quarterly (fall,winter, spring, summer) by theUniversity of Chicago in cooperationwith the Alumni Association, RobieHouse, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue,Chicago, IL 60637. Publishedcontinuously since 1907. Second-classpostage paid at Chicago, IL, and atadditional entry offices.POSTMASTER: Send address changesto Alumni Records, Robie House, 5757South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL60637. Copyright ©1987 by theUniversity of Chicago.Editorial office: The University of ChicagoMagazine, Robie House, 5757 SouthWoodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637.Telephone (312) 753-2323. The Magazineis sent to all University of Chicagoalumni.Typesetting by Skripps & Associates,Chicago. The University ofCHICAGOMagazine/Fall 1987Volume 80, Number 1Page 2Page 12Page 18 IN THIS ISSUEThe Hidden AgendaBy William Julius WilsonA noted sociologist sets forth hisrecommendations on how to help the trulydisadvantaged.Page 2On Educating the Nation'sFuture Business LeadersJohn P. Gould, Jr., dean of the GraduateSchool of Business, discusses curricula andresearch that are tailored for the 1980s.Page 12"A Curious Adventure foran Historian"By Barry KarlNotes on planning the celebration of theUniversity's centennial in 1991-92.Page 18"A Veritable Treasure" RetiresFriends and colleagues salute RuthHalloranPage 23"Collectively We Make a VeryBright Light"The annual Alumni Association AwardsPage 28Reunion— 1987Page 32DEPARTMENTSChicago JournalClass NewsDeathsBooks 26344647Cover: William Julius Wilson, the LucyFlower Distinguished Service Professor inthe Department of Sociology and in theCollege. (Photo by Michael P. Weinstein.)By William Julius Wilsonn the early 1960s there was nocomprehensive civil rightsbill and Jim Crow segregationwas still widespread in partsof the nation, particularly inthe Deep South. With thepassage of the 1964 Civil Rights Billthere was considerable optimism thatracial progress would ensue and thatthe principle of equality of individualrights (namely, that candidates for positions stratified in terms of prestige,power, or other social criteria ought tobe judged solely on individual meritand therefore should not be discriminated against on the basis of racial origin)would be upheld.Programs based solely on this principle are inadequate, however, to dealwith the complex problems of race in the rights of minority individuals byremoving artificial barriers to valuedpositions.Nevertheless, since 1970, government policy has tended to focus on formal programs designed and createdboth to prevent discrimination and toensure that minorities are sufficientlyrepresented in certain positions. Thishas resulted in a shift from the simpleformal investigation and adjudicationof complaints of racial discrimination togovernment-mandated affirmative action programs to increase minority representation in public programs, employment, and education.However, if minority membersfrom the most advantaged familiesprofit disproportionately from policiesbased on the principle of equality of individual opportunity, they also reapdisproportionate benefits from policiesof affirmative action based solely on enforced affirmative action and relatedprograms to enhance minority grouprights, many thoughtful American citizens, including supporters of civilrights, were puzzled by recent socialdevelopments in black communities.Despite the passage of civil rights legislation and the creation of affirmative action programs, they sensed that conditions were deteriorating instead ofimproving for a significant segment ofthe black American population. Thisperception had emerged because of thecontinuous flow of pessimistic reportsconcerning the sharp rise in black joblessness, the precipitous drop in theblack-white family income ratio, thesteady increase in the percentage ofblacks on the welfare rolls, and the extraordinary growth in the number offemale-headed families. This perception was strengthened by the almostuniform cry among black leaders thatTHE HIDDENAmerica because they are not designedto address the substantive inequalitythat exists at the time discrimination iseliminated. In other words, long periods of racial oppression can result in asystem of inequality that may persist forindefinite periods of time even after racial barriers are removed. This is because the most disadvantaged members of racial minority groups, whosuffer the cumulative effects of bothrace and class subjugation (includingthose effects passed on from generationto generation), are disproportionatelyrepresented among the segment of thegeneral population that has been denied the resources to compete effectively in a free and open market.On the other hand, the competitiveresources developed by the advantagedminority members— resources that flowdirectly from the family stability,schooling, income, and peer groupsthat their parents have been able to provide—result in their benefiting disproportionately from policies that promoteExcerpted from The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City,the Underclass, and Public Policy by William Julius Wilson,by arrangement with the University of Chicago Press. ©1987 theUniversity of Chicago Press. All rights reserved. their group membership. This is because advantaged minority membersare likely to be disproportionately represented among those of their racialgroup most qualified for valued positions, such as college admissions, higher paying jobs, and promotions. Thus,if policies of preferential treatment forsuch positions are developed in termsof racial group membership rather thanthe real disadvantages suffered by individuals, then these policies will furtherimprove the opportunities of the advantaged without necessarily addressing the problems of the truly disadvantaged such as the ghetto underclass.The problems of the truly disadvantaged may require nonracial solutionssuch as full employment, balanced economic growth, and manpower trainingand education (tied to— not isolatedfrom— these two economic conditions).By 1980 this argument was notwidely recognized or truly appreciated .Therefore, because the government notonly adopted and implemented anti-bias legislation to promote minority individual rights, but also mandated and not only had conditions worsened, butthat white Americans had forsaken thecause of blacks as well.Meanwhile, the liberal architects ofthe War on Poverty became puzzledwhen Great Society programs failed toreduce poverty in America and whenthey could find few satisfactory explanations for the sharp rise in inner-citysocial dislocations during the 1970s.However, just as advocates for minorityrights have been slow to comprehendthat many of the current problems ofrace, particularly those that plague theminority poor, derived from the broader processes of societal organizationand therefore may have no direct or indirect connection with race, so too havethe architects of the War on Povertyfailed to emphasize the relationship between poverty and the broader processes of American economic organization. Accordingly, given the most comprehensive civil rights and antipovertyprograms in America's history, the liberals of the civil rights movement andthe Great Society became demoralizedwhen inner-city poverty proved to be2 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987RobertTaylorHomes,Chicago.more intractable than they realized andwhen they could not satisfactorily explain such events as the unprecedentedrisein inner-city joblessness and the remarkable growth in the number offemale-headed households. This demoralization cleared the path for conservative analysts to fundamentallyshift the focus away from changing theenvironments of the minority poor tochanging their values and behavior.However, and to repeat, many ofthe problems of the ghetto underclassare related to the broader problems ofsocietal organization, including economic organization. For example, aspointed out earlier, regional differencesin changes in the "male marriageablepool index" signify the importance ofindustrial shifts in the Northeast andMidwest. Related research clearly demonstrated the declining labor-marketopportunities in the older central cities.Indeed, blacks tend to be concentratedin areas where the number and characteristics of jobs have been most significantly altered by shifts in the location ofproduction activity and from manufacturing to services. Since an overwhelming majority of inner-city blacks lackthe qualifications for the high-skilledsegment of the service sector such as information processing, finance, and realestate, they tend to be concentrated inthe low-skilled segment, which features unstable employment, restrictedopportunities, and low wages.It is not enough simply to recognizethe need to relate many of the woes oftruly disadvantaged blacks to the problems of societal organization; it is alsoimportant to describe the problems ofthe ghetto underclass candidly andopenly so that they can be fully explained and appropriate policy programs can be devised. It has beenproblematic, therefore, that liberal journalists, social scientists, policymakers,and civil-rights leaders were reluctantthroughout the decade of the 1970s todiscuss inner-city social pathologies.Often, analysts of such issues as violentcrime or teenage pregnancy deliberatelymake no references to race at all, unlessperhaps to emphasize the deleteriousconsequences of racial discrimination orthe institutionalized inequality of American society. Some scholars, in an effortto avoid the appearance of "blaming thevictim" or to protect their work fromcharges of racism, simply ignore patterns of behavior that might be con strued as stigmatizing to particular racialminorities.Such neglect is relatively recent.During the mid-1970s, social scientistssuch as Kenneth B. Clark [Life Trustee ofthe University], Daniel Patrick Moyni-han, and Lee Rainwater [AM'51,PhD'54, professor of sociology, HarvardUniversity] forthrightly examined thecumulative effects of racial isolation andclass subordination on inner-city blacks.They vividly described aspects of ghettolife that, as Rainwater observed, are usually not discussed in polite conversations. All of these studies attempted toshow the connection between the economic and social environment intowhich many blacks are born and the creation of patterns of behavior that, inClark's words, frequently amounted to"self-perpetuating pathology."Why have scholars tended to shyaway from this line of research? Onereason has to do with the vitriolic attackby many blacks and liberals againstMoynihan upon publication of his report in 1965— denunciations that generally focused on the author's unflattering depiction of the black family in theurban ghetto rather than on the proposed remedies or his historical analysis of the black family's social plight.The harsh reception accorded The NegroFamily undoubtedly dissuaded manysocial scientists from following in Moy-nihan's footsteps.The "black solidarity" movementwas also emerging during the latter halfof the 1960s. A new emphasis by youngblack scholars and intellectuals on thepositive aspect of the black experiencetended to crowd out older concerns. Indeed, certain forms of ghetto behaviorlabeled pathological in the studies ofClark and colleagues were redefined bysome during the early 1970s as "functional" because, it was argued, blackswere displaying the ability to surviveand in some cases flourish in an economically depressed environment.The ghetto family was described as resilient and capable of adapting creativelyto an oppressive, racist society. And thecandid, but liberal writings on the innercity in the 1960s were generally denounced. In the end, the promising efforts of the early 1960s— to distinguishthe socioeconomic characteristics ofdifferent groups within the black community, and to identify the structuralproblems of the United States economythat affected minorities— were cut short by calls for "reparations" or for "blackcontrol of institutions serving the blackcommunity."If this ideologically tinged criticismdiscouraged research by liberal scholars on the poor black family and theghetto community, conservative thinkers were not so inhibited. From the early 1970s through the first half of the1980s their writings on the culture ofpoverty and the deleterious effects ofGreat Society liberal welfare policies onghetto underclass behavior dominatedthe public policy debate on alleviatinginner-city social dislocations.The Great Society programs represented the country's most ambitious attempt to implement the principle ofequality of life chances. However, theextent to which these programs helpedthe truly disadvantaged is difficult toassess when one considers the simultaneous impact of the economic downturn from 1968 to the early 1980s. Indeed, it has been argued that manypeople slipped into poverty because ofthe economic downturn and were liftedout by the broadening of welfare benefits. Moreover, the increase in unemployment that accompanied the economic downturn and the lack of growthof real wages in the 1970s, althoughthey had risen steadily from 1960 toabout 1970, have had a pronounced effect on low-income groups (especiallyblack males).The above analysis has certain distinct public policy implications for attacking the problems of inner-city joblessness and the related problems ofpoor female-headed families, welfaredependency, crime, and so forth. Comprehensive economic policies aimed atthe general population but that wouldalso enhance employment opportunities among the truly disadvantaged—both men and women— are needed.The research presented in this studysuggests that improving the job prospects of men will strengthen low-income black families. Moreover,underclass absent fathers with morestable employment are in a better position to contribute financial support fortheir families. Furthermore, since themajority of female householders are inthe labor force, improved job prospectswould very likely draw in others.I have in mind the creation of a mac-roeconomic policy designed to promoteboth economic growth and a tight labormarket. The latter affects the supply-4 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987A CHALLENGE TOEarly on a recent summer morning,when we met with William JuliusWilson to photograph him for this issue, he was catching up on his mail aftera week in Mpntana at a conference.Suddenly he exploded in surprise."I've just been invited to give theGodkin Lectures!" He looked enormously pleased. The Godkin Lectures,sponsored by the John F. KennedySchool of Government at Harvard University, were named for Edwin L.Godkin, the first editor of The Nation.Speakers, who have included SenatorDaniel Patrick Moynihan of New York,are invited to talk on "the essentials oftree government and the duties of thecitizen." The annual three-lectureGodkin series is the primary public-affairs-and-government lectureship atHarvard.Wilson is the Lucy Flower Distinguished Service Professor of sociologyand public policy, and professor of sociology in the College. The invitationfrom Harvard is just one of several honors that have come Wilson's way recently. In June Wilson was awarded a fellowship by the John D. and Catherine TMac Arthur Foundation. Over the nextfive years, Wilson will receive $310,000from the foundation to be used as hechooses to support his work.The first thing he's going to do withthe award, he confided, is to buy a newcomputer, "the best Macintosh there is.""The MacArthur Fellowship willfree me to do more writing. I can reducemy teaching load and go away in thesummer to isolate myself. I am most creative at writing when I can have a blockof time in which to work, " he said.Wilson will also use the fellowshipmoney to buy some new office furniturefor his home study, and to hire an administrative assistant "to keep up withall the demands on my time." This year Wilson will spend a gooddeal of his writing time in Wilder House,5811 South Kenwood Avenue, which isheadquarters for a massive three-yearstudy on poverty, joblessness, and family structure in the inner city. Scholarsfrom a number of disciplines are working together on the project. Wilson's co-investigators include Raymond Smith,professor of anthropology and an experton kinship and class; Richard Taub, professor of social science and an expert onChicago neighborhoods; Dolores Norton, associate professor in the Schoolof Social Service Administration (SSA)and an expert on parent-child interactions in inner-city housing projects;Donna Franklin, assistant professor inSSA and an expert on black adolescentpregnancy; and Mark Testa, AM'80,PhD'83, assistant professor in SSAand an expert on welfare and teenagemothers.The researchers, supported by $2.5million in foundation grants, will examine the breakdown of families in low-income areas of Chicago by looking atfundamental economic, social, and cultural issues that affect family formation, including employment, teenagepregnancy, school achievement, andwelfare.Researchers will talk directly tothose involved, and will compare theattitudes and experiences of inner-cityblacks to those of inner-city whites,Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans.Wilson said previous studies mainlydescribed the problems of the urbanpoor through census and other demographic figures.The accompanying article is takenfrom the closing chapter of Wilson'sbook, The Truly Disadvantaged: The InnerCity, the Underclass, and Public Policy, recently published by The University ofChicago Press. Even before publica tion, the book had begun to generatecontroversy. In the book Wilson arguesthat there are two major reasons for thesocial pathologies evident in the nation's inner cities, neither of which is directly attributable to race. One factor,he says, is the change in the nationaleconomy, which caused a decline in thenumber of industrial jobs, and the increase in service jobs that require eitherwhite-collar skills or offer no opportunities for advancement. In addition, heargues that there is a widening class division between blacks who have managed to move out of the ghetto and theunderclass who remain behind. Whenblacks with jobs move out of the innercity, institutions such as churches,small businesses, schools, and recreational facilities suffer because the individuals and families who remain lackthe economic and educational resources to sustain them, especially during periods of increased joblessness.Wilson challenges conservative social theorists who insist that welfarepolicies are responsible for the burgeoning underclass; civil rights leaderswho say the underclass is the result primarily of racism; and liberal social scientists who say that there is an entrenched "culture of poverty."An earlier book by Wilson also provoked controversy over his views. In1978 he published The Declining Significance of Race (University of ChicagoPress), in which he argued that economic class had surpassed race as a dividing force in society.The criticisms that may come hisway with publication of The Truly Disadvantaged won't bother Wilson. He's toobusy outfitting his home office andplanning his next book, to which he willnow, thanks to the MacArthur Fellowship, be able to devote undisturbed"blocks of time."and-demand ratio and wages tend torise. It would be necessary, however, tocombine this policy with fiscal andmonetary policies to stimulate nonin-flationary growth and thereby move away from the policy of controlling inflation by allowing unemployment torise. Furthermore, it would be important to develop policy to increase thecompetitiveness of American goods on the international market by, among other things, reducing the budget deficitto enhance the value of the Americandollar.In addition, measures such as on-the-job training and apprenticeships toelevate the skill levels of the truly disadvantaged are needed. I will soon discuss in another context why such problems have to be part of a more universalpackage of reform. For now, let me simply say that improved manpower policies are needed in the short run to helplift the truly disadvantaged from thelowest rungs of the job market. In otherwords, it would be necessary to devise anational labor market strategy to increase "the adaptability of the laborforce to changing employment opportunities." In this connection, instead offocusing on remedial programs in thepublic sector for the poor and the unemployed, emphasis would be placedon relating these programs more closely to opportunities in the private sectorto facilitate the movement of recipients(including relocation assistance) intomore secure jobs. Of course therewould be a need to create public transitional programs for those who have difficulty finding immediate employmentin the private sector, but such programswould aim toward eventually gettingindividuals into the private sector economy. Although public employmentprograms continue to draw popularsupport, as Margaret Weir, Ann SholaOrloff, and Theda Skocpol point out,"they must be designed and administered in close conjunction with a nationally oriented labor market strategy"to. avoid both becoming "enmeshed incongressionally reinforced local political patronage" and being attacked ascostly, inefficient, or "corrupt." [Politicsof Social Policy in the United States]Since national opinion polls consistently reveal strong public supportfor efforts to enhance work in America,political support for a program of economic reform (macroeconomic employment policies and labor-market strategies including training efforts) could beconsiderably stronger than many people presently assume. However, in order to draw sustained public supportfor such a program, it is necessary thattraining or retraining, transitional employment benefits, and relocationassistance be available to all members ofsociety who choose to use them, notjust for poor minorities.It would be ideal if problems of theghetto underclass could be adequatelyaddressed by the combination of macroeconomic policy, labor-market strategies, and manpower training pro- 1 he populationexplosion amongminority youths occurredat a time when changes inthe economy posedserious problems forunskilled individuals,both in and out of thelaborforce.0.CG-£ grams. However, in the foreseeablefuture, employment alone will not necessarily lift a family out of poverty.Many families would still require income support and/or social servicessuch as child care. A program of welfarereform is needed, therefore, to addressthe current problems of public assistance, including lack of provisions forpoor two-parent families, inadequatelevels of support in inequities betweendifferent states, and work disincentives. A national Aid to Families withDependent Children (AFDC) benefitstandard adjusted yearly for inflation isthe most minimal required change. Wemight also give serious consideration toprograms such as the Child SupportAssurance Program developed by IrwinGarfinkel [AM'67, director, School ofSocial Work, University of Wisconsin]and colleagues at the Institute for Research of Poverty at the University ofWisconsin, Madison. This program,currently in operation as a demonstration project in the state of Wisconsin,provides a guaranteed minimum benefit per child to single-parent families regardless of the income of the custodialparent. The state collects from the absent parent through wage withholdinga sum of money at a fixed rate and thenmakes regular payments to the custodial parent. If the absent parent is joblessor if his or her payment from withholdings is less than the minimum, the statemakes up the difference. Since all absent parents regardless of income arerequired to participate in this program,it is far less stigmatizing than, say, public assistance. Moreover, preliminaryevidence from Wisconsin suggests thatthis program carries little or no additional cost to the state.Many western European countrieshave programs of family or child allowances to support families. These programs provide families with an annualbenefit per child regardless of the family's income, and regardless of whetherthe parents are living together orwhether either or both are employed.Unlike public assistance, therefore, afamily allowance program carries no social stigma and has no built-in work disincentives. In this connection, DanielPatrick Moynihan has recently observed that a form of family allowance isalready available to American familieswith the standard deduction and theEarned Income Tax Credit, althoughthe latter can only be obtained by low-6 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987income families. Even though bothhave been significantly eroded by inflation, they could represent the basis for amore comprehensive family allowanceprogram that approximates the European model.Neither the Child Support Assurance Program under demonstration inWisconsin nor the European family allowances program is means tested; thatis, they are not targeted at a particularincome group and therefore do not suffer the degree of stigmatization thatplagues public assistance programssuch as AFDC. More important, suchuniversal programs would tend to drawmore political support from the generalpublic because the programs would beavailable not only to the poor but to theworking- and middle-class segments aswell. And such programs would not bereadily associated with specific minoritygroups. Nonetheless, truly disadvantaged groups would reap disproportionate benefits from such programs becauseof the groups' limited alternative economic resources. For example, low-income single mothers could combinework with adequate guaranteed childsupport and/or child allowance benefitand therefore escape poverty and avoidpublic assistance.Finally, the question of child carehas to be addressed in any program designed to improve the employmentprospects of women and men. Becauseof the growing participation of womenin the labor market, adequate child carehas been a topic receiving increasing attention in public policy discussions. Forthe overwhelmingly female-headedghetto underclass families, access toquality child care becomes a critical issue if steps are taken to move singlemothers into education and trainingprograms and/or full- or part-time employment. However, I am not recommending government-operated childcare centers. Rather it would be better toavoid additional federal bureaucracy byseeking alternative and decentralizedforms of child care such as expandingthe child care tax credit, includingthree- and four-year olds in preschoolenrollment, and providing child caresubsidies to the working-poor parents.If the truly disadvantaged reapeddisproportionate benefits from a childsupport enforcement program, child allowance program, and child care strategy, they would also benefit disproportionately from a program of balanced economic growth and tight-labor-market policies because of their greatervulnerability to swings in the businesscycle of changes in economic organization, including the relocation of plantsand the use of labor-saving technology.It would be shortsighted to conclude,therefore, that universal programs (i.e.,programs not targeted at any particulargroup) are not designed to help addressin a fundamental way some of the problems of the truly disadvantaged, suchas the ghetto underclass.By emphasizing universal programs as an effective way to addressproblems in the inner city created byhistoric racial subjugation, I am recommending a fundamental shift from thetraditional race-specific approach ofaddressing such problems. It is truethat problems of joblessness and related woes such as poverty, teenage pregnancies, out-of-wedlock births, female-headed families, and welfare dependency are, for reasons of historic racialoppression, disproportionately concentrated in the black community. Andit is important to recognize the racialdifferences in rates of social dislocationso as not to obscure problems currentlygripping the ghetto underclass. However, as discussed above, race-specificpolicies are often not designed to address fundamentally problems of thetruly disadvantaged. Moreover, as alsodiscussed above, both race-specific andtargeted programs based on the principle of equality of life chances (oftenidentified with a minority constituency) have difficulty sustaining widespread public support.Does this mean that targeted programs of any kind would necessarily beexcluded from a package highlightinguniversal programs of reform? On thecontrary, as long as a racial division of labor exists and racial minorities are disproportionately concentrated in low-paying positions, antidiscriminationand affirmative action programs will beneeded even though they tend to benefitthe more advantaged minority members. Moreover, as long as certain groupslack the training, skills, and educationfor jobs, manpower training and education programs targeted at these groupswill also be needed, even under a tight-labor-market situation. For example, aprogram of adult education and trainingmay be necessary for some ghettounderclass males before they can eitherbecome oriented to or move into an ex panded labor market. Finally, as long assome poor families are unable to workbecause of physical or other disabilities,public assistance would be needed evenif the government adopted a program ofwelfare reform that included child support enforcement and family allowanceprovisions.For all these reasons, a comprehensive program of economic and social reform (highlighting macroeconomic policies to promote balanced economicgrowth and create a tight-labor-marketsituation, a nationally oriented labor-market strategy, a child support assurance program, a child care strategy, anda family allowances program) wouldhave to include targeted programs, bothmeans-tested and race-specific. However, the latter would be considered anoffshoot of and indeed secondary to theuniversal programs. The importantgoal is to construct an economic-socialreform program in such a way that theuniversal programs are seen as thedominant and most visible aspects bythe general public. As the universalprograms draw support from a widerpopulation, the targeted programs included in the comprehensive reformpackage would be indirectly supportedand protected. Accordingly, the hiddenagenda for liberal policymakers is to improvethe life chances of truly disadvantaged groupssuch as the ghetto underclass by emphasizingprograms to which the more advantagedgroups of all races and class backgrounds canpositively relate.I am reminded of Bayard Rustin'splea during the early 1960s that blacksought to recognize the importance offundamental economic reform (including a system of national economic planning along with new education, manpower, and public works programs tohelp reach full employment) and theneed for a broad-based political coalition to achieve it. And since an effectivecoalition will in part depend upon howthe issues are defined, it is imperativethat the political message underline theneed for economic and social reformsthat benefit all groups in the UnitedStates, not just poor minorities. Politicians and civil rights organizations, astwo important examples, ought to shiftor expand their definition of America'sracial problems and broaden the scopeof suggested policy programs to address them. They should, of course,continue to fight for an end to racial discrimination. But they must also recog-nize that poor minorities are profoundly affected by problems in America thatgo beyond racial considerations. Furthermore, civil rights groups shouldalso recognize that the problems of societal organization in America oftencreate situations that enhance racial antagonisms between the different racialgroups in central cities that are struggling to maintain their quality of life,and that these groups, although theyappear to be fundamental adversaries,are potential allies in a reform coalitionbecause of their problematic economicsituations.The difficulties that a progressivereform coalition would confront shouldnot be underestimated. It is much easier to produce major economic andsocial reform in countries such as Sweden, Norway, Austria, the Netherlands, and West Germany than in theUnited States. What characterizes thisgroup of countries, as demonstrated inthe important research of Harold Wi-lensky [AM'49, PhD'55, research sociologist and professor of political science, University of California atBerkeley], is the interaction of solidlyorganized, generally centralized, interest groups— particularly professional,labor, and employer associations with acentralized or quasi-centralized government either compelled by law orobliged by informal agreement to takethe recommendations of the interestgroup into account or to rely on theircounsel. This arrangement produces aconsensus-making organization working generally within a public framework to bargain and produce policieson present-day political-economy issues such as full employment, economic growth, unemployment, wages,prices, taxes, balance of payments, andsocial policy (including various formsof welfare, education, health, andhousing policies).In all of these countries, called "cor-poratist democracies" by Wilensky, social policy is integrated with economicpolicy. This produces a situationwhereby, in periods of rising aspirations and slow economic growth, labor—concerned with wages, working conditions, and social security— is compelled to be attentive to the rate of productivity, the level of inflation, and therequirements of investments, and employers—concerned with profits, productivity, and investments— are compelled to be attentive to issues of social policy.The corporatist democracies, whichare in a position to develop a new consensus on social and economic policiesin the face of declining economies because channels for bargaining and influence are firmly in place, stand in sharpcontrast to the decentralized andfragmented political economies of theUnited States, Canada, and the UnitedKingdom. In these latter countries—none of which is a highly progressivewelfare state— the proliferation of interest groups is not restrained by the requisites of national trade-offs and bargaining, which therefore allows parochialsingle issues to move to the forefront andthereby exacerbates the advanced condition of political immobilism. Reflectingthe rise of single-issue groups has beenthe steady deterioration of political organizations and the decline of traditional allegiance to parties among voters.Moreover, there has been a sharp increase in the influence of the mass media, particularly the electronic media, inpolitics and culture. These trends, typical of all Western democracies, are muchmore salient in countries such as theUnited States, Canada, and the UnitedKingdom because their decentralizedand fragmented political economiesmagnify the void created by the declineof political parties— a void that mediaand strident, single-issue groups rushheadlong to fill.I raise these issues to underlinesome of the problems that a political coalition dedicated to developing and implementing a progressive policy agenda will have to confront. It seemsimperative that, in addition to outlininga universal program of reform including policies that could effectivelyaddress inner-city social dislocations,attention be given to the matter of erecting a national bargaining structure toachieve a sufficient consensus on theprogram of reform.It is also important to recognize thatjust as we can learn from knowledgeabout the efficacy of alternative bargaining structures, we can also benefitfrom knowledge of alternative approaches to welfare and employmentpolicies. Here we fortunately have theresearch of Alfred J. Kahn and SheilaKamerman, which has convincinglydemonstrated that countries that relythe least on public assistance, such asSweden, West Germany, and France,provide alternative income transfers (family allowances, housing allowances, child support, unemploymentassistance), stress the use of transfers toaugment both earnings and transfer income, provide both child care servicesand day-care programs, and emphasizelabor-market policies to enhance highemployment. These countries, therefore, "provide incentives to work, supplement the use of social assistancegenerally because, even when used, itis increasingly only one component, atmost, of a more elaborate benefit package." By contrast, the United States relies more heavily than all the othercountries (Sweden, West Germany,France, Canada, Austria, the UnitedKingdom, and Israel) on public assistance to aid poor families. "The resultis that these families are much worseoff than they are in any of the othercountries."In other words, problems such aspoverty, joblessness, and long-termwelfare dependency in the UnitedStates have not been addressed withthe kinds of innovative approachesfound in many western European democracies. 'The European experience," argue Kamerman and Kahn,"suggests the need for a strategy thatincludes income transfers, child careservices, and employment policies ascentral elements." The cornerstone ofsocial policy in these countries is employment and labor-market policies."Unless it is possible for adults to manage their work and family lives withoutundue strain on themselves and theirchildren, " argue Kamerman and Kahn,"society will suffer a significant loss inproductivity, and an even more significant loss in the quantity and quality offuture generations."The social policy that I have recommended above also would have employment and labor-market policies asits fundamental foundation. For in thefinal analysis neither family allowanceand child support assurance programs,nor means-tested public assistance andmanpower training and education programs, can be sustained at adequatelevels if the country is plagued withprolonged periods of economic stagnation and joblessness.The program of economic and social reform outlined above will helpaddress the problems of social dislocation plaguing the ghetto underclass. Imake no claims that such programs willlead to a revitalization of neighbor-8 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987hoods in the inner city, reduce the social isolation, and thereby recapture thedegree of social organization thatcharacterized these neighborhoods inearlier years. However, in the long runthese programs will lift the ghetto underclass from the throes of long-termpoverty and welfare dependency andprovide them with the economic andeducational resources that would expand the limited choices they now havewith respect to living arrangements. Atthe present time many residents of isolated inner-city neighborhoods have noother option but to remain in thoseneighborhoods. As their economic andeducational resources improve theywill very likely follow the path worn bymany other former ghetto residentsand move to safer or more desirableneighborhoods.It seems to me that the most realisticapproach to the problems of concentrated inner-city poverty is to provideghetto underclass families and individuals with the resources that promotesocial mobility. Social mobility leads togeographical mobility. This raises aquestion about the ultimate effectiveness of the so-called self-help programsto revitalize the inner city, programspushed by conservative and even someliberal black spokespersons. In many.inner-city neighborhoods problemssuch as joblessness are so overwhelming and require such a massive effort torestabilize institutions and create a social and economic milieu necessary tosustain such institutions (e.g., the reintegration of the neighborhood withworking- and middle-class blacks andblack professionals) that it is surprisingthat advocates of black self-help havereceived so much serious attentionfrom the media and policymakers.Of course some advocates of self-help subscribe to the thesis that problems in the inner city are ultimately theproduct of ghetto-specific culture andthat it is the cultural values and normsin the inner city that must be addressedas part of a comprehensive self-helpprogram. However, cultural valuesemerge from specific circumstancesand life chances and reflect an individual's position in the class structure. Theytherefore do not ultimately determinebehavior. If ghetto underclass minorities have limited aspirations, a hedonistic orientation toward life, or lackof plans for the future, such outlooksultimately are the result of restricted opportunities and feelings of resignation originating from bitter personal experiences and a bleak future. Thus theinner-city social dislocations emphasized in this study (joblessness, crime,teenage pregnancies, out-of-wedlockbirths, female-headed families, andwelfare dependency) should be analyzed not as cultural aberrations but assymptoms of racial-class inequality. Itfollows, therefore, that changes in theeconomic and social situations of theghetto underclass will lead to changesin cultural norms and behavior patterns. The social policy program outlined above is based on this idea.Before I take a final look, by way ofsummary and conclusion, at the important features of this program, I oughtbriefly to discuss an alternative publicagenda that could, if not challenged,dominate the public policy discussionof underclass poverty in the next several years.In a recent book, Lawrence Mead[Beyond Entitlement: The Social Obligationsof Citizenship] contends that "the challenge to welfare statesmanship is not somuch to change the extent of benefits asto couple them with serious work andother obligations that would encouragefunctioning and thus promote the integration of recipients." He argues thatthe programs of the Great Society failedto overcome poverty and, in effect, increased dependency because the "behavioral problems of the poor" were ignored. Welfare clients received newservices and benefits but were not told"with any authority that they ought tobehave differently." Mead attributes agood deal of the welfare dependency toa sociological logic ascribing the responsibilities for the difficulties experienced by the disadvantaged entirely tothe social environment, a logic that still"blocks government from expecting orobligating the poor to behave differently than they do."Mead believes that there is a disinclination among the underclass to either accept or retain many availablelow-wage jobs. The problem of non-white unemployment, he contends, isnot a lack of jobs, but a high turnoverrate. Mead contends that because thiskind of joblessness is not affected bychanges in the overall economy, itwould be difficult to blame the environment. While not dismissing the rolediscrimination may play in the low-wage sector, Mead argues that it is morelikely that the poor are impatient withthe working conditions and pay of menial jobs and repeatedly quit in hopes offinding better employment. At thepresent time, "for most job seekers inmost areas, jobs of at least a rudimentary kind are generally available." ForMead it is not that the poor do not wantto work, but rather that they will workonly under the condition that others remove the barriers that make the worldof work difficult. "Since much of theburden consists precisely in acquiringskills, finding jobs, arranging childcare, and so forth," states Mead, "theeffect is to drain work obligation ofmuch of its meaning."In sum, Mead believes that the programs of the Great Society have exacerbated the situation of the underclass bynot obligating the recipients of socialwelfare programs to behave accordingto mainstream norms— completingschool, working, obeying the law, andso forth. Since virtually nothing wasdemanded in return for benefits, theunderclass remained socially isolatedand could not be accepted as equals.If any of the social policies recommended by conservative analysts are tobecome serious candidates for adoption as national public policy, they willmore likely be based on the kind of argument advanced by Mead in favor ofmandatory workfare. The laissez-fairesocial philosophy represented byCharles Murray is not only too extremeto be seriously considered by most policymakers, but the premise upon whichit is based is vulnerable to the kind ofcriticism raised by Sheldon Danzigerand Peter Gottschalk [in "Social Programs—A Partial Solution to, But Not aCause of Poverty: An Alternative toCharles Murray's View, " Challenge Magazine, May /June 1985] namely, that thegreatest rise in black joblessness andfemale-headed families occurred during the very period (1972-1980) whenthe real value of AFDC plus foodstamps plummeted because states didnot peg benefit levels to inflation.Mead's arguments, on the otherhand, are much more subtle and persuasive. If his and similar arguments insupport of mandatory workfare are notadopted wholesale as national policy,aspects of his theoretical rationale onthe social obligations of citizenshipcould, as we shall see, help shape a policy agenda involving obligational stateprograms. Nonetheless, whereas Mead speculates that jobs are generally available inmost areas and therefore one must turnto behavioral explanations for the highjobless rate among the underclass, datapresented [earlier in this book] reveal(1) that substantial job losses have occurred in the very industries in whichurban minorities are heavily concentrated and substantial employmentgains have occurred in the higher-education-requisite industries thathave relatively few minority workers;(2) that this mismatch is most severe inthe Northeast and Midwest (regionsthat also have had the sharpest increases in black joblessness andfemale-headed families); and (3) thatthe current growth in entry-level jobs,particularly in the service establishments, is occurring almost exclusivelyoutside the central cities where poorminorities are concentrated. It is obvious that these findings raise seriousquestions not only about Mead's assumptions regarding poor minorities,work experience, and jobs, but alsoabout the appropriateness of his policyrecommendations. Nonetheless, thereare clear signs that a number of policymakers are now moving in this direction, even liberal policymakers who,while considering the problems of poorminorities from the narrow visions ofrace relations and the War on Poverty,have become disillusioned with GreatSociety-type programs. The emphasisis not necessarily on mandatoryworkfare, however. Rather the emphasis is on what Richard Nathan hascalled "new- style workfare," whichrepresents a synthesis of liberal andconservative approaches to obligational state programs. Let me brieflyelaborate.In the 1970s the term workfare wasnarrowly used to capture the idea thatwelfare recipients should be required towork, even to do make-work if necessary, in exchange for receiving benefits.This idea was generally rejected by liberals and those in the welfare establishment. And no workfare program, noteven Governor Ronald Reagan's 1971program, really got off the ground.However, by 1981 President RonaldReagan was able to get congressionalapproval to include a provision in the1981 budget allowing states to experiment with new employment approaches to welfare reform. These approachesrepresent the "new-style workfare." More specifically, whereas workfare inthe 1970s was narrowly construed as"working off" one's welfare grant, thenew-style workfare "takes the form ofobligational state programs that involvean array of employment and trainingservices and activities— job search, jobtraining, education programs, and alsocommunity work experience."According to Nathan, "we makeour greatest progress on social reformin the United States when liberals andconservatives find common ground.New-style workfare embodies both thecaring commitment of liberals and thethemes identified with conservativewriters like Charles Murray, GeorgeGider, and Lawrence Mead." On theone hand, liberals can relate to new-style workfare because it creates short-term entry-level positions very similarto the "CETA public service jobs wethought we had abolished in 1981"; itprovides a convenient "political rationale and support for increased fundingfor education and training programs";and it targets these programs at themost disadvantaged, thereby correcting the problem of "creaming" that isassociated with other employment andtraining programs. On the other hand,conservatives can relate to new-styleworkfare because "it involves a strongcommitment to reducing welfare dependency on the premise that dependency is bad for people, that it undermines their motivation to self-supportand isolates and stigmatizes welfare recipients in a way that over a long periodfeeds into and accentuates the underclass mind set and condition."The combining of liberal and conservative approaches does not, of course,change the fact that the new-styleworkfare programs hardly represent afundamental shift from the traditionalapproaches to poverty in America. Onceagain the focus is exclusively on individual characteristics— whether they areconstrued in terms of lack of training,skills, or education, or whether they areseen in terms of lack of motivation orother subjective traits. And once againthe consequences of certain economicarrangements on disadvantaged populations in the United States are not considered in the formulation and implementation of social policy. "As long asthe unemployment rate remains high inmany regions of the country, membersof the underclass are going to have a verydifficult time competing successfully for10 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987the jobs that are available, " states RobertD. Reischauer. "No amount of remedialeducation, training, wage subsidy, orother embellishment will make themmore attractive to prospective employers than experienced unemployedworkers." As Reischauer appropriatelyemphasizes, with a weak economy"even if the workfare program seems tobe placing its clients successfully, theseparticipants may simply be taking jobsaway from others who are nearly as disadvantaged. A game of musical underclass will ensue as one group is temporarily helped, while another is pusheddown into the underclass."If new-style workfare will indeedrepresent a major policy thrust in theimmediate future, I see little prospectfor substantially alleviating inequalityamong poor minorities if such aworkfare program is not part of a morecomprehensive program of economicand social reform that recognizes thedynamic interplay between societal organization and the behavior and lifechances of individuals and groups— aprogram, in other words, that is designed to both enhance human capitaltraits of poor minorities and open upthe opportunity structure in the broader society and economy to facilitate social mobility. The combination of economic and social welfare policiesdiscussed in the previous section represents, from my point of view, such aprogram.I have argued that the problems ofthe ghetto underclass can be mostmeaningfully addressed by a comprehensive program that combines employment policies with social welfarepolicies and that features universal asopposed to race- or group-specificstrategies. On the one hand, this program highlights macroeconomic policyto generate a tight labor market and economic growth; fiscal and monetary policy not only to stimulate noninfla-tionary growth, but also increase thecompetitiveness of American goods onboth the domestic and internationalmarkets; and a national labor-marketstrategy to make the labor force moreadaptable to changing economic opportunities. On the other hand, this program highlights a child support assurance program, a family allowanceprogram, and a child care strategy.I emphasized that although thisprogram also would include targetedstrategies— both means-tested and race-specific— they would be considered secondary to the universal programs so that the latter are seen as themost visible and dominant aspects inthe eyes of the general public . To the extent that the universal programs drawsupport from a wider population, theless visible targeted programs would beindirectly supported and protected. Torepeat, the hidden agenda for liberalpolicymakers is to enhance the chancesin life for the ghetto underclass by emphasizing programs to which the moreadvantaged groups of all class and racial backgrounds can positively relate.Before such programs can be seriously considered, however, cost has tobe addressed. The cost of programs toexpand social and economic opportunity will be great, but it must be weighedagainst the economic and social costs ofa do-nothing policy. As S. A. Levitanand C. M. Johnson [in Beyond the SafetyNet: Reviving the Promising of Opportunityin America] have pointed out, "the mostrecent recession cost the nation an estimated $300 billion in lost income andproduction, and direct outlays for unemployment compensation totaled $30billion in a single year. A policy that ignores the losses associated with slacklabor markets and forced idleness inevitably will underinvest in the nation'slabor force and future economicgrowth." Furthermore, the problem ofan annual budget deficit of over 200billion dollars (driven mainly by thepeacetime military buildup and theReagan administration's tax cuts) andthe need for restoring the federal taxbase and adopting a more balanced setof budget priorities have to be tackled ifwe are to achieve significant progresson expanding opportunities as soon aspossible.In the final analysis, the pursuit ofeconomic and social reform ultimatelyinvolves the question of political strategy. As the history of social provision soclearly demonstrates, universalistic political alliances, cemented by policiesthat provide benefits directly to widesegments of the population, are neededto work successfully for major reform.The recognition among minority leaders and liberal policymakers of the needto expand the War on Poverty and racerelations visions to confront the growing problems of inner-city social dislocations will provide, I believe, an important first step toward creating suchan alliance. «On EducatingThe Nation'sFuture BusinessLeadersJohn P. Gould, Jr., MBA'63, PhD'66,has been dean of the Graduate Schoolof Business (GSB) since 1983. He hasbeen a Distinguished Service Professorof Economics since 1984. Gould beganteaching at the GSB in 1965, specializing in microeconomics, industrial organization, capital information, andthe economics of information. In 1969when Secretary of State George P.Shultz [then dean of the GSB] becameSecretary of Labor, Gould joined him inWashington as special assistant for economic affairs. When Shultz movedfrom the Department of Labor to become director of the Office of Management and Budget, Gould went along asconsultant for economic affairs. Gouldreturned to the GSB in 1970. He is theauthor of four books and numerous articles. In a recent interview with FeliciaAntonelli Holton, editor of The University of Chicago Magazine, Gould talkedabout the GSB's philosophy of education, its students, and research beingdone at GSB.Q: If you were addressing alumniwho received their degrees ten, fifteen,or twenty-five years ago, what couldyou tell them about how education forthe M.B.A. has changed since their stu dent days? Has there been a shift in emphasis on what is taught and how it istaught?A: In some sense it hasn't changedvery much. Over the years, there hasbeen a consistent point of view at Chicago, which was held by only a minority[of business school educators] twenty-five years ago. Now many businessschools are adopting that point of view.The idea is to start with a series of concepts that are fairly broad and durablein terms of their applications and relevance. That means bringing ideas fromfields like economics, psychology, law,statistics, and mathematics, not somuch with an emphasis on their immediate application in business, but ratherto be sure that everybody in the M.B.A.program has a common body of knowledge. Today, these broad issues arelooked at within the context of what werefer to as the concepts and methodscore. Then as the curriculum proceedsinto more advanced courses the focusshifts to specific business issues andthe application of principles derivedfrom the core.The concepts and methods core hasworked well partly because it is so similar to the way the [rest of the] University12 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987of Chicago approaches problems. Wefeel that it's very important to havethe GSB keep close ties, intellectuallyand otherwise, to other parts of theUniversity.There are, of course, areas wherethere are some big differences betweentwenty-five years ago and today. For example, the area of finance has literallygone through a revolution, largely because of the kind of work that is goingon in research and teaching at Chicago.A number of the leaders in this area,people like Merton Miller [the LeonCarroll Marshall Distinguished ServiceProfessor] and Eugene Fama [MBA'63,PhD'64, the Theodore O. Yntema Distinguished Service Professor] andmany of our younger faculty have had alot to do with causing that revolution, inan intellectual sense.There is another change: twenty-five years ago we had not yet built thedata bases which have turned out to beso important to the empirical traditionof research the GSB exemplifies. With computers we can analyze things empirically with much greater sophistication and success.In the finance area, for instance, ourCenter for Research in Security Pricesdeveloped a data base consisting ofAmerican and New York Stock Exchange transactions. Basically, researchers went back and recordedchanges in common stock prices, withthe earliest information dating fromabout 1926. These data had not beenpulled together systematically before.James Lorie [PhD'47, the Eli B. and Harriet B. Williams Professor in the GSB]and Larry Fisher [AM'55, PhD'56, former professor of finance in the GSB]did it twenty-five years ago with thehelp of Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner,and Smith.People had made conjectures abouthow markets behaved, but had neveractually gone out and looked at one.Chicago sometimes gets the reputationof being a theoretical school, but actually there is an enormous amount of work being done in examining businessbehavior.There has been a lot of growth in theGSB in the last thirty years. When W.Allen Wallis [X'35] became dean in1956, there were twenty-two people onthe faculty. We now have 115 full-timecore faculty members, and about 160people doing some teaching. Like everyindustry we too have been caught up inthe knowledge explosion and as a result, several new areas of study havesprung up.For example, consider the researchthat [the late] Hillel Einhorn [professorin the GSB and the Department of Behavioral Sciences] did with Robin Hogarth [PhD'72, professor in the GSBand director, Center for Decision Research] and others, in examining thepsychology of decision making. Theyasked questions about systematic decision patterns that seem to have a psychological basis. Their work has givenus insight into the way people makedecisions.An interview with John E Gould, Jr.iIIC..John P. Gould, jr.13We hear a lot these days in the media about the relationship between lawand economics and how it has alteredthe way individuals think about lawand antitrust law in particular. A number of people who have been at the University of Chicago are sitting on Appellate Court benches, Richard Posner andFrank Easterbrook [JD'73], and ofcourse, now a new U.S. Supreme CourtJustice, Antonin Scalia. Coming fromChicago, they come from an intellectualmilieu in which there is a lot of interchange between people in economics,business, and law, and that results intaking a look at some old questions in anew way. That, again, has had an ultimate practical impact on the way people think about policy and the way theyframe the questions that they reallywant to look at. That wouldn't have occurred twenty-five years ago.Q: Would you describe the currentGSB curriculum?A: We require twenty courses for anM.B.A. We think the curriculum isunique in the amount of flexibility thatit offers an individual. We do establishsome constraints in the concepts andmethods core, which is a collection ofseven courses that we expect all students to take. The areas covered includeeconomics, accounting, psychology,business policy, statistics and quantitative methods. Even here, there's someflexibility.Once students have completed thecore courses they basically have a set oftools they can apply to specific areas ofstudy that they find interesting. Insome ways this reflects the [RobertMaynard] Hutchins view of how a college should operate; his ideas have affected large parts of the curriculumaround the University. We take what Idescribe as a liberal arts approach towhat a business education ought to be.We've been doing it for a long time andwe think the formula works well. Otherschools with a history of using the casemethod— studying actual businessproblems and outcomes— are finallycoming around to the Chicagoapproach.We do give people a lot of flexibilityin their remaining courses. Of the twenty courses required for the M.B.A., sixcourses can be taken without any constraints whatsoever, and that meansanywhere in the University. So, if somebody is interested in a course on Russianliterature, for example, and feels as ifthat might be pertinent, we won't argue. Most students will take courses that maybe a bit more directly related to their fieldof study: courses in the economics department, courses in the Law School, orin sociology or political science.Q: Could you describe some of theresearch being done at the GSB?A: Actually, we have achieved suchwidespread recognition for our research in economics and finance thatpeople sometimes think that that's allwe do. In fact, while that's a big part ofit, there's a lot more.George Stigler [PhD'38, the CharlesR. Walgreen Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus and 1982 Nobel Prizerecipient] has been a source and inspiration for a great deal of innovative research. One component is George'srevitalization of the whole area of industrial organization. This was his earliest interest and he recognized the importance of having the GSB, the LawSchool, and the Department of Economics spend time together, so hebrought faculty and students fromthese areas together in an Industrial Organization Workshop. Today, thatworkshop has been renamed the Economic and Legal Organization Workshop and it focuses on even broaderconsiderations.One direct result of that endeavorhas been the growth of research concerning law and economics. This hasbecome identified with the Universityof Chicago, and is sometimes referredto as the Chicago School of thinkingabout these problems in law.There has certainly been a major renaissance in economics in the way people think about industrial organization;many of them are exploring ways to examine the economic consequence of organizational choices. One example isGary Becker, [AM'53, PhD'55, University Professor in the Departments of Economics and Sociology] who is widelyrecognized as a leading economist.Becker has pushed economics researchinto areas of human behavior suchas discrimination, crime and punishment, marriage, and the family. Theseare topics not usually thought of as economic, but Becker and others haveshown that perceived costs and benefitsaffect the decisions people make. Infact, a broad set of social issues emergesas a natural consequence to the sorts ofthings that Stigler was doing. Beckerhas acknowledged the role that Stiglerplayed in motivating that kind of interest when he was a student at the Uni versity of Chicago.Another of Stigler's important contributions was his article on the economics of information, which single-handedly launched a new area ofeconomics— indeed, you might say, anentire industry in economics. Whereeconomists previously employed models that assumed perfect distribution ofinformation in the marketplace, Stiglerargued that the gathering of information should be assigned a cost and thatmeasurable risk was associated withdecisions made on the basis of imperfect information. Today, there are majorconcentrations of economists workingin information economics.Two other research developmentsfrom Stigler's initial article on the economics of information are in the areas offinance and marketing. The latter isperhaps not as fully developed as theapplication to the study of finance, butwe have, for example, had two conferences at the University of Chicago looking at the interface between economicsand marketing.Q: Can you talk about some ofStigler's research concerning government regulation of industry?A: Research into regulatory matterscertainly has been an important area atthe GSB. In his presidential address tothe American Economic AssociationStigler pointed out that while economists had worried about the economicsof government regulation for manyyears, it was taken largely as a theoretical topic and little attention was given toactual measurement in an empiricalsense of what difference regulationmade. Stigler began doing research onregulation and some very surprisingresults emerged. Often the applicationof a regulatory concept turned out, infact, to have an impact one-hundred-and-eighty degrees away from its original goal.Early on, Stigler looked at thingslike electric power regulation. He compared states that had regulatory practices to states without them. His evidence indicated that states whereregulation was present ended up withhigher electrical utility rates than stateswhere regulation was absent.Other people, including Sam Peltz-man [Sears Roebuck Professor of Economics and Financial Services in theGSB] have followed that line of inquiry.Sam has been interested in regulationof banking and financial services. Hehas also done research in regulation of14 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987Once students have completedthe core courses they basicallyhave a set of tools they can applyto specific areas of study that theyfind interesting. In some ways thisreflects the Hutchins view of howa college should operate . . .[he pharmaceutical industry. He foundout that while some of the actions of theFDA have prevented medication thatmight be harmful from coming to themarket, simultaneously they have excluded others that might have beenvery helpful.Most recently, the study of regulation has been broadened to take a lookat the whole political process. We nowhave the Center for the Study of theEconomy and the State, which Stiglerheads. He asks questions such as,"How can one understand the politicalprocess better from the paradigm ofeconomics?"It's interesting to observe howStigler's ideas have spread to a wholerange of topics within the GSB and alsohelped to establish important interdisciplinary links with other parts of theUniversity. One of the reasons thatStigler was awarded the Nobel Prize in1982 was because his contributionshave affected the whole academicprofession.Much of the research in finance atthe GSB has been done by Merton Miller and Eugene Fama. Their work has literally transformed the way peoplethink about teaching and practicing finance throughout the nation. It's hardto imagine a curriculum now in anybusiness school that doesn't use theprinciples they developed. This is vastly different from the situation twenty-five years ago. First of all, their study offinance is empirical. Instead of conjecturing and being anecdotal about theway a firm or an industry will make decisions about capital assets or capitalbudgets, their approach has been towork from the evidence, from sourceslike the New York Stock ExchangeTransaction Data Base.Miller's work has challenged long-held views on dividend policy. Foryears people believed that a firm's policy on paying dividends affected boththe value of shareholders' stock and thefirm's ability to raise funds in capitalmarkets. Miller and his co-author, Franco Modigliani of the Massachussetts Institute of Technology, challenged thatview; they showed that the dividenddoes not have these kinds of impactsand may not have any impact at all, given certain reasonable assumptionsabout the way capital markets behave.They literally reformulated the waypeople thought about the payment ornonpayment of dividends.The same is true of the work that Miller and Modigliani did on the capitalstructure of firms. The prevailing beliefwas that there probably were optimaldebt/equity ratios for firms. They askedif it really made a difference whether afirm's capital came from selling stock orfrom issuing debt in the form of bonds,loans, and the like. Again, they arrivedat the challenging conclusion that itprobably doesn't make much differenceat all and may not even make any difference. Economists and financiers alikewere forced to defend why they believed dividend policy had an effect.Q: Can you talk about research inmarketing at the GSB?A: Again, there has been the beliefin the GSB that marketing should notbe isolated as a separate topic, butshould be seen as part of a whole rangeof fields. One can go to the work ofFrank Evans [PhD'59, former assistantprofessor of marketing at the GSB, nowretired from Northwestern University] .While he was at the GSB Evans foundthat people's perception of productsdidn't always turn out to be the perception that advertising people thoughtthat they were creating. That was a veryinteresting challenge to the orthodox inmarketing and has been a part of thefield ever since. Kristian Palda [MBA'58,PhD'63] studied the effect of advertising over longer periods of time; hemaintains that advertising is somethinglike a capital asset. He argues that it isan investment and has a continuing impact on the product's position in themarketplace. Palda's work started a research tradition that many other peoplehave continued.Q: Would you describe the NewProducts Laboratory?A: There have been some interest ing innovations in the work of HarryDavis [professor of marketing and deputy dean at the GSB] and David Echols[lecturer in marketing at the GSB] in theNew Products Laboratory. In the NPLstudents have an opportunity to be directly involved with the developmentof a new product or new business line.Outside firms sponsor the research, sothat students are working with a firmthat is interested in using the results in abusiness context.The range of industry sponsors hasbeen considerable. Students have doneresearch for newspapers, banks, foodproducts companies, and high-techproducts firms. Most recently, a grouphas been working on issues for theQuaker Oats Company. Another grouphas been working on a series of questions for Northwest Airlines. One result is that over a ten-year period wehave gained a lot of knowledge aboutcreating and producing new products,one of the major challenges facing bothstart-up and established businesses. Bythe time students finish a project, theynot only have identified the market, butthey have developed a marketing strategy and typically a prototype product.They have proposed an advertisingcampaign that will go along with theproduct if that's appropriate, and a series of financial projections about howwell this will work out. There is no other university in the country that has thisvery practical application of businessideas to a real problem.Most recently we have been lookingat a variety of topics in economics andmarketing that will tie together areaslike product-line pricing and brand positioning. We have access now to majordata bases that will allow us to look at15actual consumer decisions underchanging market conditions. One ofthose comes from scanner data that weare compiling in conjunction with JewelFood stores. We also have entered intoan agreement with the A. C. NielsenCompany to get some very detailed andsophisticated market data on retail promotions, television viewing, and consumer purchases. Through analysisand research we will be looking for correlations between marketing activityand sales.Another area that is gaining attention from researchers is general management strategy and policy. For example, how do you understand thefunction of a board of directors? Whatdo boards of directors actually do? TomWhisler [MBA'47, PhD'53, professorand director of research in the GSB] andPaul Hirsch [professor in the GSB andDepartment of Sociology] have interviewed many directors and corporateleaders. They have discovered that fromfirm to firm boards have widely differing concepts of their role and responsibilities.Paul Hirsch is an interesting example of the kind of person that's here.Paul's background is in sociology. He isa senior member of the GSB facultylooking at areas of corporate behaviorfrom the perspective of the sociologist.He has been investigating what the effects of mergers and acquisitions maybe on the way employees think abouttheir role in a firm and how that strategic decision may have consequences onother dimensions that people are notpaying attention to.Q: The GSB's workshops are famous. Can you tell me something aboutthem?A: Workshops are rampant here.We have a large number of workshopswithin the school itself, as well as jointworkshops with other professionalschools and departments on campus.They are related very closely to the research that really drives the Universityof Chicago. Our workshops are seminars which usually focus on a singlepiece of scholarly research each week.During each quarter there may be asmany as eight to ten such presentationsranging over a large number of topicsbut organized around a particulartheme. The general topic may be marketing, finance, or law and economics.We bring in many visitors from otheruniversities to participate, too. Sothere's a constant flow of new ideas on a whole range of pertinent research topics. The workshops keep us at the forefront of research wherever it is goingon, and provide a forum for an interchange of ideas among researchers.Q: I have heard that the placementof GSB graduates is so successful that itcauses problems for you. Why?A: Practitioners realize that whatour people teach and the subjects theyinvestigate have real-world significance. Unfortunately, there is a negative aspect of this. We are seeing a severe brain drain. Some of the bestpeople, who might have entered ourPh.D. program and who would havechosen careers in teaching and research, are in such great demand aspractitioners that we are being outbidby the outside world. In five or ten yearsgraduate programs across the countrywill be hurt if we can't persuade moreyoung people to pursue academic careers in these critical areas of businessand economics. We spend a considerable effort each year looking for the bestdoctoral students and making sure thatthey choose the University of Chicagoas the place to do their graduate work.Q: Can you tell us something aboutyour programs for undergraduates?A: Actually, the GSB, or rather itspredecessor, the College of Commerceand Administration, was initially a program for undergraduates. The collegecame into existence about six years afterthe university itself got started. In thelate 1920s we started our Ph.D. program, which was the first Ph.D. program to be associated with a businessschool. The school began awarding theM.B.A. in 1925 and in the 1940s decidedto abandon the undergraduate optionand become exclusively a graduateschool. We did not change our name tothe Graduate School of Business until1959.As a result of our early history, anumber of people have a bachelor's degree in business from the University ofChicago. Currently, we have an arrangement with the College called theprofessional option, whereby studentsin the College take courses in the GSBduring their fourth year. Then they takean additional year in the GSB so thatthey earn an M.B.A. after one year, instead of two.We also have a three-year-old program that brings undergraduates in theliberal arts to sample the University ofChicago GSB during the summer between their junior and senior years. It's called the Chicago Business FellowsProgram. We believe that more peoplewith a liberal arts background shouldbe thinking about business educationgenerally, and should be thinkingabout Chicago specifically. We have anagreement with twenty-four outstanding undergraduate colleges. Each college picks two people to enter our regular M.B.A. program. When they havefinished their undergraduate degrees,they have the option, exercisable forthree years, to let us know if they'd liketo come back and finish the M.B.A.They need not reapply; they are automatically admitted.Q: Can you describe the 190 M.B.A.Program and the Weekend M.B.A.Program?A: The 190 M.B.A. program, whichderives its name from its location at 190East Delaware Street in downtown Chicago, is the same as our campus program. Indeed, all of our M.B.A. programs use the same faculty and havebasically the same curriculum. 190M.B.A. students are individuals whoare not able, because of their workingcommitments, to take advantage of thecampus programs. They attend eveningclasses at 190 East Delaware.Incidentally, we're seeing anotherchange— more than eighty percent ofour campus students now have hadwork experience before coming for theM.B.A., the average being about threeyears.We also have an Executive Program,started in 1943, which meets during theday on alternate Fridays and Saturdays.We were the first to begin such a program. Executive Program students havetypically had ten to fifteen years of business experience and have begun tomove into general management positions. Usually their companies identifythem as fast-track individuals who aregoing on to important assignments.Their experience differs from that ofstudents in our other M.B.A. programsbecause we keep each Executive Program group together as a cohort for theentire curriculum.We just started another weekendM.B.A. program, on Saturdays only.Our students are people who travelduring the week so they can't use theevening program, or live too far away toattend an evening class.The first weekend group matriculated in the fall of 1986. We aimed for fiftypeople— we got sixty-two. We knewth at they would be coming from a larger16 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987Another area that is gainingattention from researchers isgeneral management strategy andpolicy. For example, how do youunderstand the function of aboard of directors? What doboards of directors actually do?geographic territory than those in ourevening program, but we were surprised when the first person to sign upcame from Knoxville, TN. We have people flying in from Milwaukee, St. Paul,Minneapolis, and Detroit. A majorbank is contemplating sending peoplefrom New York next year for this program. The Weekend Program may actually turn out to be a market of nationalappeal and we're pleased with that.Q: Entering students at GSB are required to purchase a personal computer.Has the advent of the personal computerhad any effect on the way courses aretaught? What kinds of challenges doyou see to business schools because ofhow changing technology is affectingthe marketplace?A: For us, the use of the computerhas been evolutionary. We were, Ithink, the first business school to put inour own mainframe computer, in theearly 1970s. As a result, the faculty began to use the computer as a tool fortheir own work, as well as in a pedagogical context. Since then, a number ofpieces of software have been developedwhich have altered the way courses aretaught. A good example is the interactive data analysis program (IDA) thatHarry Roberts [AB'43, MBA'47, PhD'55,professor in the GSB, lecturer in the Department of Statistics] and Bob Ling[former assistant professor in the GSB]developed, which gave students a morehands-on approach to statistics in theirclasses.All of this has changed the way people are thinking about courses. More ofour courses, particularly in the conceptand methods core, have exercises thatstudents are expected to do on their personal computers. The great advantageof a personal computer is that students may take along all the softwareand applications that they developed atthe GSB.We know that firms that recruit hereare very excited about our commitmentto personal computers. They see it as agreat advantage because so many people use computers as a day-to-day toolin business practice. -One thing we hope to do is to makelarger data bases readily available to individual users. We now ask students todeal with far more realistic problemsthan before and give them a deeperunderstanding of the subtleties andissues involved in a complex businessproblem.As an example, our faculty has de signed a commercial optimization program called "What's Best" that works inconjunction with the leading standardspread sheet, Lotus 1-2-3. The softwareallows a user to calculate the ideal solution to a problem involving multiplevariables.We ask students to outfit their computers with telephone links to themainframe and other microcomputers.Students, faculty, and staff all belong toa network. They can call up a bulletinboard listing events at the GSB, exchange memos and messages, and gainaccess to a common reference library.Q: Can you talk about joint-degreeprograms that you have establishedwith other University entities such asthe Center for Far Eastern Studies?A: There are nine joint-degree programs. Four involve area studies: a student can get a joint-degree from theGSB and, say, from the Center for FarEastern Studies, or in Latin Americanstudies, Middle Eastern studies orSouth Asian studies. We also havejoint-degree programs with the LawSchool, the Committee on International Relations, the Graduate LibrarySchool, the School of Social Service Administration, and the Pritzker School ofMedicine.In a joint-degree program a studentcan study Japanese culture, history,and language, and get an M. A. in a particular area studies program and anM.B.A. at the same time. We think thatthat is a powerful combination. In aglobal environment the best managerswill be those who know and can appreciate regional customs and cultures.The GSB benefits, since joint-degreeprograms attract individuals whomight not otherwise have considered an M.B.A.This fall we will be launching a newM.B.A. /M.S. program together withthe Division of the Physical Sciences.This is a result of our work with ARCH[the Argonne Chicago DevelopmentCorporation] that has involved students in projects investigating commercial applications of new technology andideas coming out of Argonne and thephysical sciences.Q: Can you talk about foreign students who enroll at the GSB? How manyare enrolled now, and from what countries? Do they return to enter business intheir home countries? Do you have exchange programs for your students withother countries?A: Approximately eighteen percentof our students come from foreigncountries. About half of those are fromAsia; the majority of the Asians arefrom Japan. The rest come primarilyfrom Europe, but we're seeing studentsfrom South American countries, too.In a number of cases foreign students have been sent by firms that continue to employ them and expect themto return. But in a number of other casesour foreign graduates will go to workfor U.S. firms with large internationaloperations.We have exchange programs withnine other universities, primarily in Europe. Between twenty and thirty students take advantage of these opportunities each year.We had at least two students fromthe People's Republic of China in theM.B.A. program last year; that numbermay be up. We also have a student fromChina in the Ph.D. program. That tellsyou a lot about the changes that havebeen occurring there. S17"A CURIOUSADVENTUREFOR ANHISTORIAN"By Barry Karl18 THE UNIVERSITY ANDits Phoenix were not bornat the same time. TheUniversity will celebrateits hundredth birthdayduring the academic year1991-92. The birthdate of the Phoenix isproperly 1910, when the trustees of theUniversity sought advice from a specialist in the making of seals and symbols, a Bostonian with the unBostonianname of Pierre de Chaignon la Rose.Nor was the bird their first thought, if itwas theirs at all. The trustees acceptedla Rose's bird, even though they had tobear with the rejection of their firstidea : that a tower be the central symbol,thereby memorializing Mitchell Toweras the University's central theme. Thetrustees then proceeded apace to acceptthe University's chief classicists' recommendation of a motto. Consequently,there we were, properly set up with thesort of thing Victorian Americans oftheir generation found necessary as adevice for building around the presentrushing by them some of the trappings,however artificial they might be, of themedieval past.Several points, initially, are important. First, we have only the most rudimentary information about what theydid and why they did it. A small, cohesive group, the first trustees relied onthe simplest communication with oneanother, like all good businessmen oftheir generation. They left us little archival evidence. Second, in the longrun the bird itself did not enter institutional mythology. The seal is everywhere among us, but the bird has littleindependent distinction. The gargoylehas a more identifiable University personality and a wider range of popularuse than does the phoenix; indeed, thephoenix is easily forgotten, rationale orno. Third, as one begins the process offinding ways to celebrate the centennialand one searches for celebratory artifacts, the phoenix seems obvious, ifanything in such a process is obvious.But without a personality that can beapproached with affection or a sense ofcomedy, the phoenix is something of ananomaly.Planning the celebration of a centu-Barry Karl, AM'51, the Norman andEdna Freehling Professor of History and special adviser to the president, is chairman of theCentennial Planning Committee.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987m^M-mmawymMw '¦mmmmmmry is an adventure, but a curious one foran historian, even an American historian. The years since 1976 have beenmarked by celebrations of two centuriesof American history, but even that callsfor a sense of time span that historiansof other cultures find astonishinglybrief. European universities and theircities look back to the Middle Ages anddraw on associations with leaderswhose names point us to the line between history and folklore. Our effortsto do the same with William RaineyHarper and Robert Maynard Hutchinsput us on the line between critical reality and modern hero worship, and thedifference is significant. Does a centuryreally give us the sense of distance thatcelebration requires? The answer isyes, in part because we really have nochoice in the matter nor, if the truth betold, should we. For a centennial ismany things to many people, all ofwhom have their own relation to theUniversity.What, then, is a centennial? In human terms it is a triumph over nature,an extension of the biblical measure ofthree score and ten, and the standardsof expectation that make it the end ofone process and in institutional terms acelebration of continuity. It must also beboth a beginning and an ending. For theUniversity such a celebration takes onthe air of an enterprise devoted not onlyto celebrating the past but looking anewat the present and entertaining the possibility of an exciting future, one thatwill meet the standards established atthe beginning and fulfill the promise.For a century is at once a view from thepresent, a sense of the completion of anessential phase in historical development, and the beginning of a new era inthe history of the institution.What is it that we celebrate as continuity, what was the promise, and whathas come of it?The Emergence of the American University, Lawrence Veysey's title for the bookthat has become the standard accountof the development of American highereducation, unintentionally misdirectsattention from the characteristics thatgive the University of Chicago its distinction among American universities.Veysey's key word is "emergence," aterm that accurately describes the process by which American learning wasessentially modernized in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. The con ception of emergence, however, wasone that the founders of the Universityof Chicago deliberately eschewed in theestablishment of their institution fromscratch, as it were, an instant colossus,built like the city itself on the rubble of apredecessor that even that first generation did not think worth recalling.J ~~LNotesONplanningthecelebrationOTACENTENNIALh rCareful historians of the institutionmight see the claim of full-blown greatness as exaggeration, but in the contextof the history of American educationand at the heart of the ethos to whichthe University committed itself was thebelief that it had not emerged, but hadbeen created. That creation was perceived as a conscious human act by aspecific historical community, not asthe product of a gradual historicaltransformation. A quick look at thatcontext might help us to see the consequences of that belief and its effect onthe institution's special perception of itself and its history.The development of late nineteenth-century American institutions of higher education was based largely on a process of transformation in which traditional collegiate institutions, some ofthem dating back to the colonial era, accepted with varying degrees of uneasiness and caution the responsibility ofbecoming modern universities to trainthe citizenry of a rapidly changing technological society. The role played by research was especially significant, giventhe general belief that research markeda new step in modern intellectual development, replacing guesswork,irrelevant theoretical musings, andold-fashioned, untested beliefs. Theresearch university became the newmodel of education and the home baseof the laboratory as the new center ofteaching and research.No single model dominated theprocess of adaptation, but several canbe described. Schools like Harvard,Yale, Princeton, and Columbia appended graduate research education to thetraditional and increasingly encapsulated collegiate bodies. The latter wereforced to recognize and articulate theirspecialized functions as reflections ofsocial and religious ideologies that hadat times a puzzling and even embattledrelation to the new educational order.Scientific schools and professionalschools (a distinction that in itself wasin some instances explicitly rejected)were separated from the colleges, notonly intellectually but often physicallyas well, as though proximity wouldlead to contamination. Faculty, alumni,and supporters who would ultimatelybe classed as "benefactors" and "donors" in the search for expanded resources would debate the character ofthe transformation.Many of the great midwestern stateinstitutions were complexly related tothe network of sectarian academies thatstate legislators now saw as the base forthe development of the practical andtechnologically useful state university.The secularization of post-secondaryeducation on the former territorial frontiers of the expanding nation precededthe consciousness of "public", responsibility for such training, giving thestate institutions a community of localsupporters that helped establish thepeculiar American sense of higher education as local, even semiprivate, ratherthan part of a European-style "state"system of national education. The modern American state systems that nowexist in many states are an interestingand very recent integration of the private network and the state institutionsof the founding era. The fact that the remarkable federal intervention of thepast two decades has still not produceda national system of higher educationremains one of the distinctive characteristics of American education in themodern world.Only a few universities werecreated from scratch and even some of19mMiMm^m2^mfm^t^m^£ai£€f^ $zmj/bA,„those held odd relationships with earlier educational bodies. The Universityof Chicago, like Washington Universityin St. Louis, actually had a small preexisting institution to which it initiallytraced its origins; but, unlike Washington, which continued to claim an identification with the institution whosename it adopted, Chicago dropped theconnection early on, taking as its birthdate 1891, the year of its modern establishment. That earlier institution,founded in 1856, had closed its doors inbankruptcy in 1886. Its revival was initially the aim of those who worked withJohn D. Rockefeller to provide the city ofChicago with an institution of quality.Even the 1891 date suffers from acomplex indecision, being the date notof the opening of the University, whichis 1892, or the granting of the state charter, which is 1890, but the accession ofWilliam Rainey Harper to the presidency. 1891 meant the coming of the Plan,the conception of the Idea, and it clearlyantedated the opening of classes in1892. As a self-created entity, the University went about the business of picking its own birthday. Our selection ofthe year 1991-92 as the centennial yearis thus an effort to celebrate a series ofacts, all of which give the University itsspecial character.The consequences of the decision toforget its earlier beginnings have giventhe University its ethos throughout itshistory, an ethos that can be characterized with deceptive simplicity as thecommitment to the "creation" of a university rather than an "emergence" ofone. The University of Chicago was notperceived as the product of an evolution. The myths of its origins were destined to insist that it had sprung into being full-blown, like Athena from thehead of Zeus.The origins of the University havethus had some of the qualities of anEden, the result of an act of creation designed to reflect an ideal. That ideal wasunderstood from the early years of theUniversity as one articulated by theUniversity's leaders and reflected in itsfaculty and student body, not as theoutgrowth of some unconscious dialectical debate. Embodied in the person ofthe University's first president, WilliamRainey Harper, that assertion of an ideaas the basis of the University's plan wasa remarkable event in American highereducation. Even in that era of remarkably energetic and powerful university presidents, no other institution has a figureas Olympian as William Rainey Harper,whose personal control became legendary even in his own day, overshadowingthat of his benefactor, John D. Rockefeller. One associates with Harper not only the idea of the University but theprinciple that a university could evenbe built on ideas as such. With Harperas creator and with the responsibility toconceptualize and realize an ideal university as the motive power behind itscreation, the University of Chicagochallenged itself to become not onlymore perfect than other universities,but a perfect place in itself. A challengeeven Harper would not claim to havemet became a legacy no one could deny.The problem was put most succinctly, perhaps, by Robert Hutchins—whose role in Harper's Eden has perhaps drawn the most conflicting evaluations—when he said that the University of Chicago is not a great university,only the best there is. It is a statementthat expresses most clearly, perhaps,the distinctive ambivalence that makescelebration so difficult for this University. An institution specifically createdto fulfill a new ideal rather than to perpetuate old ones may be subject to aspecial kind of recurrent disillusion.The pressures to succeed where all others are perceived to have failed cannotbe alleviated by questioning the validityof the ideal, only by measuring the intellectual energy of the attempt.It is important to understand themyth of instant creation because itshares with all great myths a complex oftruth and fantasy which makes suchmyths useful. The University of Chicago has always had very conscious contacts with the history of higher education in western thought. Its Gothicbuildings are familiar echoes of the device by which so many American universities identified themselves withtheir European predecessors. The library's famous Berlin Collection of rarebooks is one of the outstanding examples of the degree to which the earlytrustees of the University were willingto extend themselves to establish instant contact with traditions of university book collection.The College, with its history of debates over the character of general education, has always included as funda mental a responsibility for defininghuman civilization and its commoncore of relevant materials, whatever disagreements there may have been aboutthe current list of essentials. The senseof an initial commitment in the first twoyears to a classical curriculum rigorously defined, followed in the second twoyears by a professional research training, was part of Harper's plan long before the era of Great Books and the effort to define a core curriculum.Intellectually, the University'sidentification with developments in international scholarship has been clearfrom the beginning. Harper and his early successors sought scholars fromabroad to staff their new institution andencouraged international communication in both directions. The degree towhich that international image tookprecedence over the traditional transitions in other institutions from localcollege to regional university andthence to national and internationalstanding may help define some of thosecharacteristics that lend reality to themythical aspects of Chicago's instantcreation.To ask what is unique about this history is to ask other questions as wellabout the relation between the University of Chicago and the revolutions inhigher education that marked "theemergence of the American university," as Veysey put it. One answer, quitepossibly, involves not only that commitment to instant creation, rather thantransformation, but the relation of thatcommitment to the conceptions ofpragmatism as an American philosophy that were represented at the University from its beginnings. While anexplanation of that relationship wouldobviously involve a great deal moreanalysis than is appropriate here, itseems safe to assert that from the earliest writings of American pragmatistCharles Saunders Pierce to the educational theories of John Dewey, the socialtheories of George Herbert Mead, andthe empirical conceptions of Chicagophilosophers in the relatively recentpast, one of the major themes has beena suspicion of the past, a critical questioning of theory not subjected to rigorous inquiry, and a penchant for debateabout the meaning of reality and the relevance of experience.More perhaps than any other institution of its era, Chicago was commit-20 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987-~ -V ::k;^\:*p^^^ted to the pragmatic movement in waysthat were supported not only by thephilosophical backgrounds of its faculty but by its position as the University ina city that shared its ambitions and itspragmatism in its own special way.For the University of Chicago, then,celebration of the past may risk becoming a contradiction in terms. The pasthas never measured up to the ideal, except possibly for brief moments thatdimmer most brightly in the eyes ofthose who feel themselves defenders ofa cause under critical attack. The so-called "Hutchins College" may be thebest example of such a moment, butthere are also past eras of departmentsor schools that still echo with the footsteps of giants who walked the earth ofHyde Park.Nor is the problem some simplePlatonism dignified by its classical references or the three generations ofscholars and administrators committedto living with it. It is a practical problemembodied in the history of an institution whose financial resources havenever been equal to those of institutionswith similar ambitions and greatersenses of accomplishment. No trulycommitted Chicagoan compares it withthose institutions, not because it hasfailed to meet their standards but because it may have failed to meet its own,admittedly higher ones.It is as difficult to explain an institution that holds itself to so high a standard as it is to live in it— perhaps moredifficult, for living in it requires nothingmore than the capacity for self-punishment that self-doubt imposes onall of us. This is not to claim that thestandard is higher than that to whichcomparable institutions hold themselves, although there are those whomight disagree with even that relativelyhumble assertion. The truth of the matter is that at Chicago the palliative cushions that other institutions use as partof the social tradition of academia sonecessary to defining academic life as aculture are not only rejected at Chicagobut denigrated as irrelevant to the truemission of a great university.Students do not come to Chicago toexperience the fun of college life, although many of them do. They do notseem to come here to mature, to traversepathways to adulthood protected by asystem of tribal social indoctrinationgoverned by elders dedicated to so cializing them, although most of themseem to get there anyway. The various"Chicago schools" that have drawn attention to the institution are based onbodies of ideas in specific disciplines,not on conceptions agreed to by members of the University as a whole. Thefaculties of departments and professional schools do not pride themselvesin constituting a social set, althoughthey manage to get along reasonablywell with one another. Indeed, theyseem to engage in a full enough range ofthe customs of social intercourse tohave provided several generations ofexcellent novelists with plots recognized as fiction only in the sense that literary scholars define it. The Universityhas never gone out of its way to associate itself with that system of elite familynetworks that have given the nation somany of its leaders over the past twocenturies, despite the fact that in thenumber of Who's Who entrants who listtheir connections to a university, Chicago is second only to Harvard.What is it, then, that the Universityof Chicago celebrates as it commemorates the hundredth anniversary of itsfounding? Oddly enough, though itmay not seem so to those who are familiar with the history of the place, Chicago continues to celebrate the idealwhose achievement seems so perpetually precarious. And what makes thatprofound uneasiness bearable, onemust also ask? The answer, as Hutchins' statement so admirably put it, isthat while no one else has achieved thatideal either, no other institution has soconsistently attempted to define it or soconsistently to rebuke itself for its failure to achieve it.One might also ask why one shouldcelebrate what some might perceive as afailure to achieve an ideal that is articulated not only by the University's faculty but by generations of students caughtup in that articulation? That, perhaps,is the most enduring and essential characteristic of all, and the answer is noteasy. Some might say that it rests on theconviction that the ideal lives; thathowever impossible its realization mayseem, it is nonetheless perpetual.There is an understood certainty thatsomewhere in some future generationit might still be achieved, that the hoperemains as long as the energy to sustainit remains, and that we sustain it byteaching each generation that the exist ence of the possibility depends uponthe commitment to the idea of a university and our articulation of it.That articulation is, perhaps, theessential preoccupation of the University of Chicago as an institution. It iswritten into a motto that is not translated well from its original Latin as "letknowledge grow from more to moreand thus be human life enriched." Onlythis university would have adopted amotto whose translation would have tobe debated. "The expansion of knowledge is essential to the enrichment oflife" might be a better way of expressinga relationship between knowledge andlife that is at the same time progressive,pragmatic, and fundamental. It is astatement that seeks to obliterate thedistinction between pure research andpractical application by placing both inthe same context: knowledge. The assertion of "knowledge" rather than anyone of the traditional triumvirate oftruth, goodness, and beauty, suggests,too, the complexity of the research enterprise as a pragmatic process ratherthan an enunciation of certitudes. Harper's often-repeated distinction between "spirit" and "opinion" expressesthe same commitment.That emphasis upon process ratherthan end, on engagement rather thanproduct, may be what makes celebration most difficult of all. The listing ofNobel laureates, of Who's Who entrants,and of past and current distinguishedfaculty fixes in past accomplishment ajudgment that the institution was notset up to respect for very long. For it isessentially the future that Chicago wascreated to preserve, not the past for itsown sake, the expansion of knowledgeand the enrichment of life, not theircelebration.The preservation of the future requires a process of critical inquiry thatmust continue to be generated withinthe institution itself if it is to accomplishits special purposes. It requires a commitment to progress that makes celebration of the past the celebration ofthat commitment. It is the next hundred years that will determine the valueof the last hundred years; and if theChicago tradition still stands, our successors will be critical of what we haveaccomplished and determined to improve upon it.In many respects, the phoenix is themost appropriate symbol to look to for21inspiration. It is scarcely the kind ofmascot one can bring to a football field.The phoenix, like the gargoyles weseem more easily to celebrate, is puresymbol, a mythical creature designed torepresent something real. Ours hasfour more centennial birthdays to celebrate and a rousing finale to plan. Onlythen will it produce another phoenixready to carry on the tradition. How canwe be sure of that? Because the phoenixis ours, a bird whose peculiar immortality appeals to us because it must beearned at what must ultimately be greatsacrifice. What better celebration canthere be?The lifespan of a phoenix, the symbol that our heraldic specialist chose forthe University early in its history, is fivehundred years. A century is only onefifth of its life, chicken feed, one mightsay. The phoenix celebrates its five hundredth birthday by incinerating itself,thereby producing a successor, anotherphoenix with a life span of another halfmillennium. That is not a life cycle thathuman beings easily identify with.Perhaps the bird is there to remindus that celebrating anything less thanfive centuries old is a human limitation,designed to keep us humble. Yet we feelmoved to mark our centennial with anoccasion that will celebrate our sense ofwhat we are, our uniqueness on the onehand, and our commitment to education that has given us our place amongthe universities of the world. Let ourPhoenix wait for its moment of triumphant immolation. It has four centuriesahead of it. And let us proceed.The basic structure of our centennial acknowledgement is simple. A special convocation in October 1991 willprovide us with an opening moment,complete with processions, honorarydegrees, and all of the celebratory entertainment that we can manage. TheJune convocation of 1992 will includesome similar occasions, but be focussedon alumni, current students, and former students and faculty who havemade significant contributions to theacademic traditions the University hassought to preserve. A special convocation in October 1992 will be a smaller,family affair that will recognize onceagain that this University is not only ofChicago, but in Chicago. That convocation will serve the function of endingthe celebration of the centennial, evenas it heralds the beginning of our second century.The celebration of a hundredth birthday stands so close to the reality oflife that human analogies seem moreappropriate than those one would associate with an ancient bird just finishingits first hundred years. There are livingmemories of the University that goback two thirds of the way to the beginning. Our oral history project hashelped bring to light a good many ofthose memories. Yet the "memories" ofthe institution itself consist of thedocuments in the University's archivesand the buildings that form thequadrangles.All archival collections are fascinating to historians. That kind of history isconcerned with the evidence for whathappened in those hundred years. It isa memory that, like all human memory,is not always happy and not always celebratory. The University of Chicagowent through two world wars and a depression that still stands as modern history's worst. The decision to reestablishthe University's neighborhood was aproduct of the 1950s and 1960s, a dramatic event that also had its costs.Nonetheless, phoenix-like the University arose from the years of decay, presenting to the world a face both old andnew but in keeping with the same fundamentals of learning and knowingthat the University was established tosupport.Whatever one wants to say aboutany of those dramatic events, the University survived them, maintaining itself and its tradition along the way. Ifthe portrait has warts it is because it is aportrait of human events containedwithin the growth of a complex institution. Any such portrait marks the century by saying "here I am" and "take meas I was and as I want to be." Perhapsphoenixes are like that as they commenton their first century. Since none ofus has ever seen one, we can onlyspeculate.There are portraits that decorate thewalls of some of the University's buildings, faces one now has to identify forcurious students, interested visitors,and new faculty. People have made theUniversity what it has been, and peoplequite obviously have faces. But it hasbeen characteristic of this universitythat, while we celebrate both faces andpersonalities, we primarily celebratetheir minds and their generosity ofspirit toward the University. There is anobjectivity in the printed word and asense that what is remembered by students and colleagues, passed on from generation to generation, is the capacity to speak across generations. Whatone speaks about is the intellectual lifeof each generation. That is our hardestevidence.A stone in the Classics archway memorializes the first University of Chicago, but no one memorializes the stone.It isn't rubbed for luck by today's generation, which doesn't believe in luckanyway. There is also the large brassseal on the stone floor of HutchinsonCommons. It no longer seems to be under the protection of upperclassmenwho taught generations of freshmennot to walk across it.Yet the quadrangles are living landscapes for each season of the year.A centennial celebration thus meansan acknowledgment of the cycles thathave made the University of Chicagowhat it is. There is both continuity and aresentment of continuity. Continuityexists in the parts of the University andtheir relation to one another, and in aclaim of uniqueness that is as much apart of the University's history as thecycles that give us three quarters ofteaching and learning during the normal year. Discontinuity exists in theform of persistent reexamination of every aspect of University life. Few collegecurricula in American higher educationcould endure the amount of self-analysis that marks the College of theUniversity of Chicago, not just recentlybut in a drive for perfection that goesback to the beginning.The phoenix is thus an appropriatesymbol for the University of Chicago. Itmakes clear the fact that celebration ofthe first University of Chicago wouldhave been inappropriate. Harper's decision not to continue that connectionwas itself important. His decision toconstruct a great university, independent of its past, was a fundamental stepthat each of his successors has had tomake one way or another. For nothingso marks academic discussion at theUniversity as the need to get down tofundamentals, no matter what the cost.The idea of the University is thus a commitment embodied in the daily operation of the University, a commitment tofulfilling the ideals of education and research, to planning for a future inwhich we celebrate our approximationof the idea and lament our limitations,truthfully perceived. Our Phoenix isyoung, looking toward a great deal ofexcitement yet to come and with that excitement, more celebrations. S22 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987"A Veritable Treasure ffRetiresFriends and ColleaguesSaluteRuth Halloran At the seventy-seventh annual In-terfraternity Sing in June, for some reason there were no lights. The fraternities marched onto the wooden platformerected for the occasion in the middle ofHutchinson Court and performed inthe dark.As the audience waited for thelights to go on, a voice called out, "Theyannounced Ruth Halloran's retirementan hour-and-a-half ago, and alreadythings don't work."The audience applauded andcheered . Many of them knew from firsthand experience that there was a measure of truth in the statement. For morethan forty years, Halloran did indeed"make things work"— for hundreds ofalumni around the world.Halloran, associate director of University alumni relations, retired onJune 30.Charles D. O'Connell, AM'47, special assistant to President Hanna H.Gray and former vice-president anddean of students in the University, expressed the feelings of many of Halloran's colleagues, as well as alumni, inthese words from a farewell letter toher: ". . . over almost four decades I havelearned to 'call Ruth' whenever I desperately needed help and had to be surethat the answer I got was on the mark."Before her retirement, Hallorantalked about her long tenure at the University. She worked for alumni. relations for most of her forty-plus years atthe University, although that was nother first job on campus."When I was in high school, to earnmoney a lot of us would help duringregistration at the University. I think wewere paid thirty-five cents an hour."I was born in Kenwood, and grewup in Kenwood and Hyde Park, so I'vealways felt a part of the University. But Ireally count the interesting part of myUniversity experience as my years withthe Alumni Association, or as it is nowcalled, the Office of Alumni Relations."Halloran worked part-time for theAlumni Association at first, becauseshe was taking courses both at the University and at Northwestern University."I had known [the late] Howard23Mort, [X'32, then executive secretary ofthe Alumni Association] and admiredhim. He offered me a job as office manager, and I accepted . Boy, I got a baptismfast; it meant learning everything in ahurry."When I first entered alumni workin 1949, there were 50,000 alumni. Today there are 99,544. [Robert Maynard]Hutchins was in his twentieth year ashead of the University. The Alumni Association was charged with attemptingto interpret the University to its alumni.It provided them with specific services,offering both Midyear and June Reunions. It also offered special alumnicourses and reading lists; maintainedalumni records and mailing lists; supervised the organization, care, andfeeding of close to one hundred alumniclubs; staged annual alumni conferences; maintained regional offices; andprovided alumni with concrete opportunities for giving service and dollars toAlma Mater."My love affair with this great institution started long before anyonecoined the terms 'preppies,' or 'yuppies.' I've found great satisfaction inworking for the University and value itsstrength and diversity. The years havebeen pleasurable and privileged. Thechief privilege has been the supportand friendship of so many wonderfulpeople— alumni, students, faculty, administrators, and colleagues."Serving as secretary to the national cabinet and executive committee [ofthe Alumni Association], with a changeof cast every few years, was a real education. Working with the communicators [a small group of alumni in communications fields] was always the greatestjoy. As a word junkie, I found most welcome of all the opportunities for a greatdeal of writing in my job."One aspect of the job that Halloranenjoyed enormously was what she refers to as her "Ann Landers" role. "Wenever knew what a day would bring inthe way of unexpected (but welcome)visits, letters, and phone calls."Questions? I must have answeredmillions over the years," she recalled."Most of them were sensible, somewere absurd. Historical data of everyconceivable kind have been providedon demand, and the demand has beengreat."Among other things, I've expedited arrangements for wedding and memorial services at University chapels;served as broker for sales and/or dis posal of University of Chicago memorabilia of a wide range; arranged to replace a variety of lost articles ofsentimental value, among them diplomas, fraternity pins, class rings, Orderof the C blankets, and such exotic itemsas the Class of '97 flag. I've describedthe variety of tulips and other floraplanted ofi campus for a surprisingnumber of alumni of botanical bent. Occasionally I've found some alumnus anapartment, or a job, or reunited himwith lost friends and relatives."Because of her never-failing patience and goodwill many alumniwould call Halloran for help even on minor problems, or just to chat.Halloran admitted that she hasn'talways been able to meet the demandsalumni have made of her.For instance, she could not providefunds to an alumnus who walked in anddemanded travel funds so he could jointhe Dalai Lama as a Buddhist monk. "Heargued that the University had all thosefunds from fund-raising and shouldshare some with him," said Halloran.Another time, an alumnus calledand asked if Halloran could locate themuch-loved Stetson hat he had lost at aUniversity function. Upon further discussion, it turned out that the functionat which he lost the hat had taken placesome twenty years earlier.Nor was Halloran able to find a publisher for a song an alumna had written,which to her recollection went something like "Ye all astronauts, hail theUniversity of Chicago." Halloran did,however, listen to it several times, whenthe alumna dropped in and sang it forher. "Some days she'd call me on thephone and sing it," recalled Halloran.Over the years, Halloran has alsobeen called on by alumni with requestsfor help of a more serious nature, suchas dealing with medical problems.Halloran reminisced about reunions at the time she first joined thealumni relations staff. In the late 1940s,she said, the University invited alumniback for both a Midyear Reunion and aJune Reunion. The Midyear Reunionusually was held on a Sunday late inFebruary or early in March."At the time, the University of Chicago Round Table was a big thing oncampus; it was a live discussion broadcast on the radio from Mandel Hall . Faculty would take part; it was very popular. Reunion would start with breakfaston a Sunday, and then alumni would at tend the live broadcast in Mandel Hall,which would always be filled for that.Then there would be a series of toursand a midday meal, for the first severalyears in Hutchinson Commons, but later at the Quadrangle Club. After lunchthere would be lectures and symposia."A June Reunion in my day startedwith a week-long program, " she continued. "Before I came to work for the alumni office there was a dean of alumni affairs, Gordon Laing, and he workedyear-round on Alumni College. For JuneReunion, alumni would attend AlumniCollege for the first part of the week,then on Thursday, Friday, and Saturdaythere would be social events and class reunions. The rest of the year Dean Laingtook Alumni College on the road."In those days the InterfraternitySing was very popular. Neighborhoodpeople and other Chicago residentscame, as well as alumni. We used to putchairs on the roofs overlooking Hutchinson Court, to accommodate thecrowds."Reunions were immensely popular then; we had big crowds. Lots morepeople came back, which is understandable. The pre-World War II classeswere strongly cohesive, through fraternities, women's clubs, and the athletic programs, especially football. Wealso did what we are now trying to doagain— we had affinity group events.Every department in the Universityheld a departmental open house. Weeven had an affinity group of the waiters from Hutchinson Commons. Wayback, there were student waiters in theCommons; that was before it became acafeteria. That was a large, strong alumni group at one time."The amount of work churned out bythe alumni staff was really remarkable."In gratitude for the "amount ofwork" churned out by Halloran, and forher constant willingness to respondgraciously to alumni who sought information, help, or just plain company,colleagues gathered a set of letters fromthe many people who had interactedwith her in her tenure at the University.Halloran was presented with thebook of letters, together with a silverplatter with her name engraved on it, atthe Candlelight Dinner during Reunionin June. Here are some of the commentsfrom the letter- writers:"What a tough act to follow! I find ithard to believe that anybody else willmatch your record for reliability. If youagree to do something, you've always24 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987remembered to do it. I also find it hardto believe that there have not been dayswhen you were out of sorts and wantedto snap at people. You must have hadtimes like that, but I never knew of one.How cheerfully welcoming your voicehas always sounded on the phone, as ifmine were the very call you were long ing for. A veritable treasure, that Halloran girl. Hasn't the University beenlucky?" wrote Muriel (Mrs. George W.)Beadle."Only you can flash a smile that willwarm the coldest alumni heart. No wonder the first words of so many visitorsto Robie House are simply, 'Where's Ruth?'" wrote Mark Reinecke, AM'81.(Note: If you would like to write a letter toRuth Halloran to be added to her book of tributes, address it to her and send it do Editor,The University of Chicago Magazine,Robie House, 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue,Chicago, IL 60637.) a"The Crazy Eight" (1. tor.): Catherine Pittman Watkins, AB'37; Elizabeth Ellis Reed, AB'37; MarieWolfe Yocum, AB'37; Hannah Fisk Spaeth, AB'40; Louise Hoyt Smith, AB'37; Genevieve FishLewis, AB'37; Margaret Thompson Kinnaird, SB'37; Caroline Zimmerly Acree, AB'37, AM'40.II The Crazy Eight //At the June Reunion this year, alongside the main events, a very special celebration took place. A group of women whocall themselves "The Crazy Eight" were attending the fiftieth reunion of the Class of1937. Simultaneously, they were holdingtheir own reunion as members of Nu PiSigma, the women's honor society.Members of "The Crazy Eight" are:Caroline Zimmerly (Zimmy) Acree, AB'37,AM'40; Margaret (Peggy) ThompsonKinnaird, SB'37; Genevieve Fish Lewis,AB'37; Elizabeth (Betty) Ellis Reed, AB'37;Louise Hoyt Smith, AB'37; Hannah FiskFlack Spaeth, AB'40; Catherine (Cay)Pittman Watkins, AB'37; and Cecil MarieWolfe Yocum, AB'37.For the past fifty years, "The CrazyEight" have kept in touch with each otherwith a round robin letter. (A round robinletter is one which is initiated by one member of a group; as it arrives, each recipientadds his/her news and sends it on to thenext person.) Over the years, "The CrazyEight" dutifully sent along the news; theyreported on joyous events and disasters-marriages, divorces, children, grandchildren, travels, and wars.Since their twenty-fifth class reunionin 1962, members of the group have meteach five years to hold their own reunions,in conjunction with the Class of 1937 reunions. Five years ago, for their forty-fifthreunion, because Genevieve Lewis wasnot well, the other seven members of "TheCrazy Eight" went to Boulder, CO, whereshe lives, and held their reunion there. The friendship among the eight grewout of their membership in Nu Pi Sigma,which was the senior women's honor society, the sister group to Owl and Serpent,the senior men's honor society. At the timeboth organizations were the oldest at theUniversity, having been founded in 1896.(Both organizations became inactive during World War II, and have not been activated since.)"The object of both organizationswas to recognize seniors whose activitiescontributed to undergraduate life," saidKinnaird. "Actually, members of these twosocieties were primarily responsible forwhat cohesiveness there was to undergraduate life."Membership in Nu Pi Sigma was by invitation only."We were informed secretly late atnight in our own homes or dormitoriesthat we were candidates for Nu Pi Sigma, "recalled Spaeth. The current membersof Nu Pi Sigma chose the next year'smembers."We were to wear white. We were tomeet at Ida Noyes after closing hours. Noone was to know anything about this at all.And we were properly initiated in a darkened Ida Noyes Hall. We went up the mainstaircase with people from previous yearsholding candles, no one speaking a word.We were all trembling by the time we got tothe top floor, where we were initiated,"said Spaeth.After the initiation, as members of NuPi Sigma they met each Thursday night on the top floor of Ida Noyes Hall. "Two of uscooked supper and the rest of us madecomments about it. The comments werepretty critical in the fall, but by spring wehad all learned to cook spaghetti and opena can of sauce," said Kinnaird. "The purpose of the organization was to promotethe activities of students at the University.We were supposed to be among the mostactive women on campus. Each of us represented a women's organization on campus. We met, of course, other times besidesjust once a week. The fun times were manyand varied, including finding the Owl andSerpent's secret meeting room and annoying the men so much that they threw Genevieve into Botany Pond."All of "The Crazy Eight" were marriedafter graduation, some to classmates.Peggy Kinnaird is married to RichardKinnaird, SM'36; Louise Smith is marriedto Daniel C. Smith, AB'38, JD'40; and CayWatkins is the wife of George H. Watkins,X'36, trustee of the University. There havebeen three divorces among the friends;one is widowed; there have been two remarriages. Among them, members of"The Crazy Eight" have twenty-three children and forty-two grandchildren.Most of "The Crazy Eight" devotedthemselves to their roles as wives andmothers. But several also found time foroutside careers. After her children weregrown, Louise Hoyt Smith earned a lawdegree and became a member of the Illinois Bar. Likewise, as her children movedon, Hannah Fisk Spaeth earned a master'sdegree in social work at the University ofPittsburgh, and was a social worker for thestate of California for seventeen years.Betty Ellis Reed, now retired from Northwestern University, was first a secretaryand later a writer/editor at the NationalSafety Council. Cay Watkins was a fundraiser for George Williams College and theCommunity Fund of Chicago. CarolineZimmerly Acree earned two master's degrees, taught Latin, and was for nine yearshead of the Latin department at GreenvilleHigh School, Greenville, MS. Right aftergraduation, Kinnaird recalled, she was amissionary for the Episcopal Church, assigned to Northwestern University andlater, the University of Wisconsin.At the end of Reunion, HannahSpaeth summed it up for all of "The CrazyEight.""We have our infirmities," she said,"but you know your friends in Nu Pi willhelp you out. For example, I can no longeruse the telephone, so people telephone forme. I can talk but I can't hear. I'd like to saywhat a wonderful addition to all our livesbelonging to Nu Pi has been." S25CHICAGO JOURNALFOUR NAMEDAS TRUSTEESFour corporate executives havebeen named to the University's Boardof Trustees.Richard J. Franke is president andchief executive officer of John Nuveenand Company, Chicago, the country'slargest municipal bond firm. He servesas a member of the Visiting Committeeto the School of Social Service Administration (SSA) and on the SSA Development Council, of which he becamechairman in 1985 .Steven G. Rothmeier, MBA 72, ischairman of the board and chief executive officer of Northwest Airlines,based in St. Paul, MN. At the Graduate School of Business, he has servedas a member of the Annual FundSteering Committee, the Dean's FundCommittee, the Alumni AssociationBoard, and the Council on the Graduate School of Business.Richard P. Strudel is president andchief executive officer of Microdot,Inc., a manufacturer of electrical connectors, automotive and aircraft fasteners, sealing devices, and steel-making molds. Strudel is a member ofthe President's Fund and has been amember of the Visiting Committee tothe Divinity School since 1982.Ormand J. Wade, president ofAmeritech Bell Group, Chicago, formerly served as president and chiefexecutive officer of Illinois Bell. He is adirector of Ameritech, the Institute ofIllinois, the Chicago Central AreaCommittee, the Harris Bankcorp, Inc.and the Harris Trust and SavingsBank, and Illinois Toolworks, Inc., andis a trustee of Northwestern MemorialHospital.ECONOMIST RECEIVESMEDAL OF SCIENCEGeorge J. Stigler, PhD'38, theCharles R. Walgreen Professor Emeritus in the Department of Economicsand the Graduate School of Business,received the National Medal of Sciencefrom President Ronald Reagan at the White House in June.The award cited Stigler "for hisefforts to advance the understandingof industry, its internal organizationand relation to government, and forinitiating the study of information andmarkets." This year there were twentywinners of the honor, established in1959 to recognize outstanding work inphysical and biological sciences, mathematics, engineering, and behavioraland social sciences.Stigler, a leading authority onmicroeconomic theory, industrialorganization, and the economics ofregulation, has published more than adozen books. His research, for whichhe won a Nobel Prize in 1982, involvesmeasuring the effects of governmentalintervention in the economy. Some ofhis other research interests include thehistory of economic thought and pricetheory. In studying price theory, hewas an innovator in understanding theeconomics of information.ROCKEFELLER ENDOWSDIVINITY CHAIRA $1.25 million gift from LauranceRockefeller to the Campaign for theArts and Sciences will endow a newDivinity School professorship namedfor his grandmother.The Laura Spelman RockefellerProfessorship in the Philosophy ofComparative Religions will help promote a deeper understanding of theworld's religions, said Franklin I.Gamwell, AM'70, PhD'73, dean of theDivinity School."We thank Laurance Rockefeller,not only for his generosity, but also forhis farsightedness in endowing theprofessorship in this field," Gamwellsaid. "This chair represents a newstep, a newT dimension beyond thestudy of the history of religions— towhich Chicago scholars have mademajor contributions. The Rockefellerprofessors will encourage the scholarly comparison of religions to includean assessment of their distinctivecontributions to the larger humanadventure."Said Rockefeller: "I share Dean Gamwell's conviction that, since thereligions of the East and West are coming into closer contact, it is essentialthat each understand the history andphilosophy of the other. It follows, ofcourse, that we in the West will findmuch to learn from the wisdom of theEast. The 'distinctive contributions tothe larger human adventure' that eachculture brings surely enhance thehuman spirit. It is that enhancementthat interests me and that the professorship will foster."John D. Rockefeller provided thebulk of the University's original endowment. He also endowed the construction of the University of ChicagoChapel and its seventy-two-bell carillon, which was named in memory ofLaura Spelman Rockefeller, his wife.Following the death of John D. Rockefeller, in 1937, the chapel was renamed Rockefeller Memorial Chapel."I am confident that my grandmother, Laura Spelman Rockefeller, avery spiritually-minded person, encouraged my grandfather in foundingthe University of Chicago, " Rockefellersaid. "Thus it would seem appropriateto have their names linked at the University in this named professorship."MacARTHUR AWARDSTO ALUMNI, FACULTYThree alumni and four faculty areamong thirty-two "outstandinglytalented and promising individuals"named in June as fellows by theJohn D. and Catherine T. MacArthurFoundation.The unconventional fellowships-dubbed "genius grants" in the newsmedia— provide five years of fundingto scholars, scientists, teachers, andartists without requirements, restrictions, or formal performance standards. The fellowships allow recipientsto pursue their interests unfettered byfinancial constraints.The new MacArthur Fellowsamong the alumni are Robert M. Axel-rod, AB'64, Arthur W. Bromage Professor of Political Science at the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor;Horace F. Judson, AB'48, the Henry R.26 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987Luce Professor, The Writing Seminarsand History of Science at JohnsHopkins University, Baltimore; andDeborah Willen Meier, AM'55, NewYork principal and schoolteacher, whoonce taught at the Shoesmith Schoolin Chicago.The faculty named fellows areDaniel H. Friedan, associate professorof physics; Arnaldo D. Momigliano,the Alexander White Visiting Professorin the Departments of Classical Languages and Literatures and of History;Stephen H. Shenker, associate professor of physics; and William JuliusWilson, Lucy Flower DistinguishedService Professor of sociology andpublic policy.Each fellow receives a five-yearstipend, the amount of which dependson his age. Momigliano, the oldest ofthe University's winners at seventy-eight, will receive a total of $375,000.Shenker, thirty-four, the youngest,will receive a total of $225,000.QUANTRELL AWARDSMARK FIFTIETH YEARFive outstanding teachers receivedthe 1987 Llewellyn John and HarrietManchester Quantrell Awards at theannual meeting of the College facultyin May.This was the fiftieth year that theawards have been given. The awards,which carry a cash prize of twenty-fivehundred dollars, were established in1938, making Chicago the first schoolin the country to offer a prize for outstanding college instruction. Today,about fifty colleges and universitiesoffer similar awards.The prize was established byErnest E. Quantrell, X'05, a successfulinvestment banker who served on theUniversity's board of trustees, and isnamed in honor of his parents.Counting this year's awards, therehave been 187 Quantrell recipients,including seven repeat winners.Frank S. Merritt, associate professor in the Department of Physics, theEnrico Fermi Institute, and the College, and Joseph M. Williams, professor of English and linguistics and inthe College, both received QuantrellAwards for the first time.Receiving their second Quantrellswere James M. Redfield, AB'54, PhD'61, professor in the Committeeon Social Thought and in the Department of Classical Languages and Literatures; Lorna P. Straus, SM'60,PhD'62, associate professor in theDepartment of Anatomy and the College; and Karl J. Weintraub, AB'49,AM'52, PhD'57, Thomas E. DonnelleyDistinguished Service Professor in theDepartment of History.NEH SUPPORTSPHILOSOPHY PROJECTThe University has received agrant of $103,000 from the NationalEndowment for the Humanities tosupport the editing of what DanielGarber, professor of philosophy,hopes will be "the definitive history ofseventeenth-century philosophy."With Michael Ayers of OxfordUniversity, Garber is co-editor of TheCambridge History of Seventeenth-CenturyPhilosophy, tentatively scheduled to bepublished in 1990 by Cambridge University Press.The 1,000- to 1,200-page work willcontain the contributions of aboutthirty scholars, Garber said, and willbe organized by topic, such as naturalphilosophy and the mind. The bookwill cover the writings of such authorsas Descartes, Bacon, Locke, Berkeleyand Leibniz.HARRIS GRANTSHELP MINORITIESA new scholarship fund has beenestablished at the School of SocialService Administration (SSA) to helpblacks and Hispanics pursue master'sdegrees in clinical social work or socialservice administration in a new part-time evening program.The scholarships, which will beawarded on the basis of need, merit,and academic achievement, will payfull tuition for all qualified minoritystudents for the three-year program.Established by Irving Harris andthe Harris Foundation, the scholarships are designed to help minorityadults with families or full-time jobs toconsider a return to school to enter oradvance in social work."We welcome the opportunityto encourage minority students to receive the high quality training that isavailable at SSA," said Harris, a Chicago businessman, University trustee,and member of the SSA VisitingCommittee.Under the new program, whichbegan in Autumn Quarter, studentswill be able to earn a master's degree inthree years by attending school onMonday and Wednesday evenings,studying with the same faculty members who teach during the day. SSAalso offers a support system to helpstudents balance work and familyobligations with academic demands.STUDENT APPLICATIONSSHOW BROAD INCREASEThe number of students applyingfor admission increased in eleven ofthe University's twelve academicunits, making this year one of the mostsuccessful admissions seasons for theUniversity as a whole."I checked back over the lasttwenty-five years, and I can't findanother instance of so many of ourareas being up simultaneously, " saidAllen R. Sanderson, AM'70, assistantprovost.The College experienced an increase of twenty-six percent in thenumber of completed applications,compared to last year. In the four graduate divisions, Sanderson's figuresshow that applications increased overall by eleven percent: twelve percent inbiological sciences, fourteen percent inhumanities, thirteen percent in physical sciences, and six percent in socialsciences.Also, applications to the GraduateSchool of Business increased by eighteen percent, as did those to the Graduate Library School; the Divinity Schoolsixteen percent; the Law School ninepercent; and the School of Social Service Administration two percent. TheCommittee on Public Policy Studies,benefiting from the announcementthat a new graduate school of publicpolicy studies will soon be establishedhere, received thirty percent moreapplications than last year.Only the Pritzker School of Medicine, in line with a national trend,experienced a slight decrease in thenumber of students applying foradmission. B27Maurice R. HillemanJames H. Thompson/ £ ^WT ndividually, we alumniI are each but a small flame¦ in the progress of time.I But, collectively, we do¦JL. make a very bright light."So said Maurice R. Hilleman,PhD'44, at the Reunion '87 CandlelightDinner on June 6 in Hutchinson Commons. There, along with eleven otheralumni and ten College seniors, he received an Alumni Association awardfor outstanding achievement.Hilleman's award, the Alumni Barbara Monser RumlMedal, recognized his extraordinaryprofessional distinction and service tosociety. An internationally known scientist, Hilleman is credited with developing more vaccines for human usethan any other scientist. They includevaccines against measles, mumps, rubella, adenovirus, pneumonia, influenza, and meningitis. Recently he directed the development of a hepatitis Bvaccine that has been heralded as one ofthe major medical breakthroughs of thecentury. John S. CoulsonAdelyn Russell BogertAfter a decade of work at the WalterReed Army Institute of Research, Hilleman served as director of virus and cellbiology research at the Merck Institutefor Therapeutic Research and as vice-president of the Merck Sharp & DohmeResearch Laboratories. He is also currently adjunct professor of virology inpediatrics at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.Hilleman is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellowof the American Academy of Arts andUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987Sciences. He has published more thanfour hundred papers and books andhas been granted eighteen patents.Among his previous awards are theAlbert Lasker Medical Research Awardand the University's Howard TaylorRicketts Award.At the Awards Ceremony, Hillemanreminisced about how he came tochoose the University of Chicago."If you were a Montanan in the1930s, you would have experienced a severely depressed economy. Your conversations would have centered on suchmatters as the weather, grasshopper infestations, the price of wheat, and themerits of a Ford versus a Chevy, " he said."But there was also an intellectualopportunity. For those of scientific inclination, there was a library thathoused a few Great Books, includingDarwin's Origin of Species. The romance of science could be enjoyed byreading Lloyd C. Douglas' Green Light.This was about a young pathologistwho went to the Bitterroot Valley inMontana, and there discovered thecause of the dread Rocky MountainSpotted Fever. That pathologist wasHoward Taylor Ricketts of the University of Chicago."But most importantly, there wasthe Sunday radio broadcast of the University of Chicago Round Table. Thatsingle program provided a great intellectual stimulus and a window into enlightened thinking. Most importantwas the realization that there was agreat university 'way back east' in Chicago. To attend that university was allbut an impossible dream."Hilleman talked about the challenges facing today's virologists: "Thegreatest challenge for virology hascome in the present decade with emergence of the virus of Acquired ImmuneDeficiency Syndrome, or AIDS. Thescientific community has been astonishingly quick to discover and to understand it. But the virus is uncanny in itsability to evade the now conventionalapproaches to immunologic intervention. It is a maverick agent, recently introduced into man from animals. It hasnot yet learned the niceties of advancedparasitism, which requires that it notdestroy its host. It could take decadesand millions of deaths before a vaccinesolution is reached. Chemotherapy canonly palliate clinically. Epidemiologicintervention through behavioralchange is the only tool for control at thistime, and is only of limited effective ness. But the disease must be conquered, and I'm sure it will be."k k kThe University Alumni ServiceMedal was awarded jointly to JaneRinder Coulson, AB'38, and John S.Coulson, AB'36. The Coulsons havebeen active in alumni affairs since theirparticipation in the University's FiftiethAnniversary Committee in 1941. Theyshare nearly a dozen alumni relatives,including three of their four daughters.John Coulson was a member of theCitizens' Board for sixteen years andhas been a member of the Visiting Committee to the College since 1980. He became a President's Fund volunteer in1972 and served as chairman of theFund in 1984-85.Jane Coulson has been an activefund-raiser for the Phonathon and thePresident's Fund for over a decade andis currently in charge of the Near NorthCommittee for the President's Fund. Amember of the Women's Board since1970, she served on its executive committee for five years. She served forfifteen years on the Women's Board ofthe Brain Research Foundation and iscurrently a member of the VisitingCommittee to the Division of the SocialSciences.•k k kCharlotte Adelman, AB'59, JD'62,received the Public Service Citation,given for exemplary leadership in community service. Adelman has workedfor the Women's Bar Association of Illinois for many years, becoming its president in 1984. She served for thirteen years as apro bono attorney at the Loop CenterYWCA, and she has handled divorcecases for indigents through the ChicagoBar Association.She drafted and lobbied for the passage of a 1982 law that remedied inequities in the cases of women whowere not receiving child support payments. She also drafted legislation,enacted in 1983, regarding the dismissal of divorce suits, and has been involved in a number of other historic sex-discrimination cases.Adelman served in 1978-79 as thefirst president of the Chicago chapter ofthe National Association of WomenBusiness Owners and for 1985-86 shewas named the first woman presidentof the North Suburban Bar Association.k k kProfessional Achievement Citations recognize alumni who havebrought distinction to themselves andcredit to the University through theirvocations. The winners were David F.Costello, SM'26, PhD'34; J. G. St. ClairDrake, PhD'54; Irving M. Klotz,PhD'40; Joseph L. Sax, JD'59; and RolfA. Weil, AB'42, AM'45, PhD'50.Costello, a botanist, range management specialist, and author, has pioneered in the development of a scientific basis for range management. Invarious capacities with the U.S. ForestService Costello helped improve practical management principles on farmsand ranches. He has lectured at severaluniversities and has published over onehundred manuscripts on ecology andrange management, many of which areAlumni Association Awards Go To 21COLLECTIVELYWE MAKE A VERYBRIGHT LIGHTPhotographs by Michael P. Weinstein29considered classics in the field. Sincehis retirement from the Forest Servicein 1965, he has written nine naturebooks, illustrated with his own wildlifephotographs.Drake, a social anthropologist, is apioneer in the field of urban anthropology. A fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Drake has worked to unifyAfrican and Afro-American Studies.He was a founder of both the AfricanStudies Association of the U.S.A. andthe American Society of African Culture. He has studied the subject of raceand society in the United States, theUnited Kingdom, and various west African societies.He served as head of the sociologydepartment at the University of Ghanaand from 1956 to 1968 was professor ofsociology and anthropology atRoosevelt University. He was also director of Roosevelt's Program of AfricanStudies. In 1969, he became director ofthe African and Afro-American StudiesProgram at Stanford University.Klotz is a pioneer in biochemistryand a well-known author and educator.Currently the Morrison Professor atNorthwestern University, Klotz was apioneer in the application of the tools ofphysical chemistry to the study of proteins and their interactions. He developed the first experimental method capable of determining the strength ofinterpeptide hydrogen bonds in water.He is also a founder of the field ofbioinorganic chemistry and he has recently been studying the blood compound hemoglobin S.He has trained over one hundredgraduate students and postdoctoral fellows and has written several books, including Chemical Thermodynamics, thedominant text in the field since 1950. Amember of the National Academy ofSciences and a fellow of the AmericanAcademy of Arts and Sciences, Klotzhas found time and energy to give manypublic lectures on the history and philosophy of science.Sax, an authority on environmentallaw, is a professor of law at the University of California-Berkeley and the former Philip A. Hart DistinguishedUniversity Professor of Law at the University of Michigan . His interest and expertise have made him a leading figurein the environmental conservationmovement. He has written four bookson the environment, and his essays onthe subject have appeared in The New Republic, Saturday Review, American Heritage, and Natural History magazines. Theinfluential Michigan EnvironmentalProtection Act, which he authored, isconsidered a model for other states.Weil, an economist, has been president of Roosevelt University for overtwenty years. He joined the facultythere in 1946 and held many positionson his way to the presidency, includingprofessor of economics and dean of thebusiness school. Roosevelt has expanded considerably, and without a deficitin twenty years, under Weil's direction.Weil is also president of the Self-help Home for the Aged and a memberof the board of directors of the EdwardA. Filene Good Will Fund. He is a member of the executive committee of theFederation of Independent Illinois Colleges and Universities and of the Nonpublic Advisory Committee to the Illinois Board of Higher Education.The recipient of several honorarydegrees, he has also been named Educator of the Year by the Jewish UnitedFund.k k kAlumni Service Citations, given forextraordinary service to the University,went to Adelyn Russell Bogert, AB'47;Barbara Monser Ruml, AB'44; andJames H. Thompson, PhB'47, MBA'50.Bogert chairs the Women's Board, ofwhich she has been a member since1973. A member since 1977 of the Visiting Committee to the Division of theSocial Sciences, she is also a chartermember of the board of directors of theUniversity of Chicago Club of Metropolitan Chicago. She has been vice-president of UC2MC since 1984 and wasfor three years chairman of its membership committee. Under her personaland almost sole direction, the club'sdues-paying membership grew to morethan one thousand.Ruml has been active in support ofthe University for two decades, first inChicago and then in Kansas City. Shechaired a committee for the 1976 Campaign for Chicago in Kansas City andorganized a phonathon there in 1979.She has been president and vice-president of the University of ChicagoClub of Kansas City and is currently active in the Campaign for the Arts andSciences. Her conscientiousness hasestablished her as a model for localleadership of alumni clubs. She hasbeen a member of the Women's Boardsince 1976. Thompson has for many years beenone of the most active and loyal alumniin the Denver area. Although active inmany areas of alumni activity, Thompson has made it his personal mission torecruit Colorado's brightest students.for a Chicago education. As chairmanof the Denver Alumni Schools Committee, he contacts college counselors inthe area to promote the University'sreputation, recruits young alumni tocontact prospective students, and regularly opens his home and office forinformational parties and events. He isalso active in fund-raising and hasworked several times as a volunteer forthe President's Fund. He has servedtwice on the Alumni AssociationCabinet.k k kThe Howell Murray— Alumni Association Awards, named for the late Howell Murray, PhB'14, recognize thosegraduating seniors in the College whohave made outstanding contributions tothe extra curriculum of the University.ArzouD. Ahsan, from Oak Park, IL,was an All-Conference selection in soft-ball and field hockey and helped solidify the newly created varsity soccer program. She also served as president ofthe Women's Athletic Association, as amember of the President's Student Advisory Committee, and as a sports writer for The Chicago Maroon.Timothy C. Cantrell, from Helena,AR, was an active member in both theGerman Club and the German LiteraryReview, fenced for the varsity team, andworked with both the Documentaryand the Law School film groups. A veteran of many student theater productions, he helped lead the movementamong theater groups to consolidate into the new University Theater.Madelyn M. Detloff, from Bensen-ville, IL, lettered all four years in soft-ball and basketball, and one year eachin field hockey and soccer. She alsoserved as a student marshal and assports editor of The Chicago Maroon.Michael R. Gorman, from Rock-ford, IL, was active in the StudentSchools Committee, the Wind Ensemble, WHPK (the student radio station),the Gilbert and Sullivan Opera Company, and the Model United Nationsgroup. He led discussions for the Gayand Lesbian Alliance coming-outgroup, and organized an in-serviceworkshop for the University housingstaff on homophobia. He also served as30 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987a student marshal and received aMarshall Scholarship for study at Oxford University.Timothy G. Hansen, from Hillsdale, NJ, was an influential memberof the College Student Assembly,strengthening the group and therebyproviding College activities with a reliable source of funding. In his senioryear he chaired the University-wideStudent Government Finance Committee. He also participated in the governing councils of his dormitory, Burton-Judson Courts.Christopher R. Hill, from Darien,IL, followed one-year terms as StudentGovernment secretary, and then president, with a tenure as managing editorof The Chicago Maroon. He also served as student marshal and received a LincolnAward from the Illinois state government in recognition of his academic accomplishments.As vice-president of Student Government, Alison L. Inafuku, from Sunnyvale, CA, supervised Student Volunteer Week in the fall of 1986, and helpedconvince President Hanna H. Gray tocreate the President's Awards for Student Volunteer Service for students whoshow dedication to the community andcommitment to the welfare of others.Amy L. Moss, from Norfolk, VA,served for three years on the StudentGovernment cabinet: for two years assecretary and in her senior year as president. Among other projects during heradministration, Moss organized a warm clothing charity drive in the winter of 1986.John M. Wallace, Jr., from Pittsburgh, PA, participated in the Organization of Black Students, served in Student Government, and earned twoletters from the varsity football team.As co-chair of Student Government'sMinority Affairs Committee, he helpedbring to campus speakers such as thesociologist Walter R. Allen, AM'73,PhD'75.Suzanne M. Wrobel, from Bensen-ville, IL, oversaw the organization ofseveral College social events: theSpring Formal, the "Ida Royale" casinonight, the "Summer Breeze" spring festival, and the winter 1987 Bartlett Gymnasium "Beach Bash." HArzou D. Ahsan Timothy C. Cantrell Madelyn M. Detloff Michael R. GormanHOWELLMURRAYAWARD WINNERS ITimothy G. Hansen Christopher R. HillAlison L. Inafuku Amy L. Moss John M. Wallace, Jr. Suzanne M. Wrobel31Photographs by Michael P. WeinsteinKenneth S. Tollett, AB'52, JD'55, AM' 58; Solomon I. Hirsh, AB'52, JD'55;Max I. Stucker, AB'52, AB'54, MBA'55; and Hanna H. Gray, president ofthe University, at the cocktail hour preceding the Class of 2952 dinner party. John M. Bracken, AB'37, AM'46; and Stephen S. Kane, SB'37, PhD'ti,at the Class of 1937 dinner party in the Quadrangle Club.Margaret Hiett Whiteside, AB'37; John H. Whiteside; Susan L. Ohm; and Stephen A. Gillenwater, AB'77, AM'85; Jacqueline D. Woods, AB'77;Louis t. Ohm, AB'37, at the Quadrangle Club for the fiftieth reunion of the and Luis P. M. Nieto, Jr., AB'77, at the Class of 1977 cocktail party in IdaClass of 1937. Noyes Hall.The Class of 1937 Reunion dinner at the Quadrangle Club.Jim Gunther, X'85, watchesRobert L. Kass, AB'62, at the Classof 1962 hootenanny on theMain Quadrangles.32At the Order of the "C" reception, Kevin F. Fober, Physical Education;Jonathan Q. Fritter, AB'87; Chuck Sadowski, sports information director; andDavid B. Goldenberg, AB'87, toast Goldenberg's induction into Phi Beta Kappa.PHtJfr*- *wfJfH3>PW /Jffl^^^^B ^L.^ ~* jJNMn^m J^^r* "* • cmJm ^^K' ' f iBI'A 1 Jim iSura Aim 7uie Dam's, /IB '52; Diane Marscin Martin, AB '52; SheaZellweger, AB'52; and Barbara B. Anderson, AB'52, AM'60, at theQuadrangle Club for the Class of 1952 dinner party. /S*kRem The Class of 1962Reunion dinnerin GoodspeedRecital Hall.Irma Armstrong Jefferson, AB '37;Ronald Jefferson; Deborah JosephRaines, SB'32; andLoraineRichardson Green, PhB'18,AM'19, at the Saturday picnicon the Main Quadrangles.33CLASS NEWS Photos by Richard Younkerryf\ Lucia E. Tower, SB'20, MD'26, is retiredZm\J and lives in Chesterton, IN.<}Q Harry L. Trugman, PhB'23, a retired ac-j^LO countant, lives in Chicago. His daughters,Marjorie Trugman Van Der Veen, AB'58, andRuth Trugman Kaplan, AM'59, and his grandsonDouglas W. Kaplan, AB'84, are alumni.<~\ A Elizabeth Brewster Tempel, PhB'24, andjLmjt her husband live in a retirement home,Carlsbad by the Sea, in Carlsbad, CA.r\r Louise D'Andrea Butler, PhB'25, and her£m\J husband, Robert, are retired and live inRancho Bernardo, San Diego, CA.^Q Alice Lohrer, PhB'28, AM'44, professorZiO emerita of library science at the Universityof Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, received the1986 Oak Park-River Forest High School "Tradition of Excellence" award.r\Q Leslie J. Flora, PhB'29, of Oakville, Ontar-sLmZJ io, Canada, enjoys golf and is writing hermemoirs.Lillie L. Kunkle, AM'29, of Sioux Falls, SD,celebrated her ninety-first birthday in September1986.Elbert L. Little, Jr., SM'29, PhD'29, ofArlington, VA, received the Barrington Moore Memorial Award from the Society of American Foresters, of which he is a fellow. The award, with anhonorarium, was given for outstanding achievement in biological research contributing to the advancement of forestry.Of) Richard H. Eckhouse, PhB'30, wrote a\J\J book, How to Invest in Mutual Funds, which hepublished and donated to the Alzheimer Association of Palm Beach County (FL) for use as a premium. Eckhouse, a financial consultant, lives in BocaRaton, FL.O^ Nathaniel E. Reich, MD'32, of Brooklyn,O^L NY, put on a one-man art show in Nyack,NY. His article on his travels to the Sumatran Islands appeared in the Explorers Club Magazine.Leon Werch, PhB'32, is a member of the boardof education of Community High School District 99, DuPage, IL. He is also on the policyboard, School Association for Special Educationin DuPage and is on the governing board of theDuPage/West Cook Regional Special EducationAssociation.OO ElabethJohlerChadwick, PhB'33, and herJ\J husband moved to a retirement communityin Denton, TX.Adelle Matlocha Lampos, PhB'33, of SilverSpring, MD, visited Poland last September.Q A Dorothy Johnson Bergamo, PhB'34, ofvI/Tc Phoenix, exhibits paintings with theArizona Artists Guild and the Arizona WatercolorAssociation.Q/2 Last year, Estelle Markin Greenhill,OO AM'36, of Rye, NY, traveled to Brazil.OO Albert R. Ryan, SB'38, MD'40, ofvUO Cheshire, United Kingdom, retired afterthirty-two years as an anesthetist in the BritishNational Health Service.Semiretired, Jerome M. Sivesind, AB'38, ofLafayette, CA, works as a consultant to the transportation industry.Don F. Thomann, AB'38, AM'41, directs a student exchange program at Ripon College, Ripon,WI, where he is professor emeritus of education.QQ Philip Kramer, MD'39, professor emeritus\Dy at the Boston University School of Medicine, University Hospital, is a member of theadmissions committee of the B.U. School ofMedicine. Last year, he was honored by the establishment of an annual lectureship, the KramerLectureship in Gastroenterology. AT\ Elise Byfield Gilden, AB'40, of Tucson,jL\J AZ, retired from consulting in learning disabilities and does modeling and sculpting.Edward W. Hazleton, AM'40, retired as principal of Bogan High School, Chicago.A^t Lawrence S. Myers, Jr., SB'41, PhD'49, isTlX scientific director of the Armed Forces Ra-diobiology Research Institute in Bethesda, MD.His wife, Janet Vanderwalker Myers, SB'48, anartist and printmaker, is a volunteer in the nationalheadquarters of the Nature Conservancy. Theylive in Potomac, MD.A r\ Bradley Patterson, AB'42, AM'43, of Be-TT^l thesda, MD, is writing a book on the role ofthe White House staff in American government. Asenior staff member at the Brookings Institution inWashington, DC, he spent fourteen years on theWhite House staff.The sociology department of Queens Collegeof the City University of New York honored ErichRosenthal, AM'42, PhD'48, professor emeritus ofsociology at Queens College, by establishing theErich Rosenthal Scholarship to be awarded annually to a student in the Queens College GraduateProgram in Sociology.M. Lois Roff Waller, SB '42, retired as executive director of St. Francis House in Little Rock,AR.A A Lawrence J. Bates, SB'44, of Huntington,-L JL NY, retired last year after working for theAmerican Bureau of Shipping for thirty-five years.In June 1986, Lloyd J. Blakeman, Jr., SB'44,a physician and surgeon in Worth, IL, receivedthe Physician-of-the-Year Award from the IllinoisAssociation of Osteopathic Physicians andSurgeons.Anna Shaefer Leopold, PhB'44, AM'62, andLouis E . Leopold, X'47, live in Altoona, PA. In February, their photographic print show, "Public Policy: Community/Industrial Decay and Development," was exhibited at Kings College,Wilkes-Barre, PA.A C Walter J. Levy, AM'45, was named 1986 So-*L\J cial Worker of the Year by the Texas chapterof the National Association of Social Workers.Alfred W. Painter, PhD '45, is professor emeritus of philosophy and comparative religions atOrange Coast College, Costa Mesa, CA. He andhis wife breed and train Thoroughbred horses ashunters and jumpers.ATJ Susan Hindle George, AB'47, lives in WestTV Palm Beach, FL, where she and her husband design and manufacture fine jewelry. She istreasurer for a citizens political action committeeand active in leadership for the Christian Church(Disciples) in Florida.The American Marketing Association namedthe Marguerite Kent Library/Information Centerin honor of Marguerite Kirtsinger Kent, PhB'47,who worked for the A. M. A. for thirty-two years.She lives in St. Petersburg, FL.Nelson Y. Kiang, PhB'47, SB'50, PhD'55, director of the Eaton-Peabody Laboratory at theMassachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary in Boston,received an appointment to the science educationsubcommittee of the Massachusetts Committeefor the National Institutes of Health Centennialfrom Governor Michael Dukakis.Zella Z. Larimer, AM'47, lives in a retirementcomplex in Philadelphia, PA.Earl J. Leland, PhB'47, AM'58, PhD'64, retired last year as professor at Luther College, De-corah, IA, after twenty-seven years of teaching.Louis E. Leopold, X'47. See 1944, AnnaShaefer Leopold.Ralph M. Lerner, AB'47, AM'49, PhD'53. See1974, James P. Beckwith, Jr. Robert S. Lichtenstein, PhB'47, maintains ageneral neurosurgical practice in Los Altos, CA.Joseph Minsky, PhB'47, JD'51. See 1966, TerryY Feiertag.Known as "Aunt Helen" at the Aunt Helen'sChildren's Farm in the Alberta (Canada) WildlifePark, Helen Nichols Ridgeway, MAT'47, is retiredfrom thirty-nine years of teaching.Rozella M. Schlotfeldt, SM'47, PhD'56, ofCleveland, OH, professor emerita at Case WesternReserve University, was visiting professor atRutgers University and the University of Pennsylvania in 1985-86. In June 1985, the University of Illinois at Chicago awarded her the D.Sc. degree,honoris causa.AlvinW.Skardon, Jr., AM'47, PhD'60, is writing the history of the College of Charleston,Charleston, SC, the oldest municipal college inthe United States (founded in 1785) and fromwhich he received his bachelor's degree.Elbert B. Smith, Jr., AM'47, PhD'49, and hiswife sailed on their sloop Different Drummer to NewYork for the Fourth of July Statue of Liberty celebration in 1986. A professor of history at the University of Maryland at College Park, and vice-president of the Fulbright Alumni Association, hewas visiting Fulbright Professor of American History at Moscow State University in 1976 and 1982.Elaine Mazlish Seaton Wyden, PhB'47, directs the Bryant Library in Roslyn, NY. In June1986, she remarried Peter Wyden, a New Yorkwriter.Joan Frye Yo ken, AB'47, is bookstore managerat Pace University-White Plains Campus, NewYork. She has three children and one grandchild.An Tobias Jacobson, SB'48, SM'51, of Moun-jtO tain Lakes, NJ, is vice-president of WilliamDouglas McAdams, Inc., a medical communications company. One of his children, Lisa Jacob-son, SB'83, lives in Chicago.Janet Vanderwalker Myers, SB'48. See 1941,Lawrence S. Myers, Jr.Last year James Sack, JD'48, retired as counsel for General Electric's Aircraft Engine Group.Nancy Levin Sack, AM'48, teaches at HarvardUniversity's Institute for Learning in Retirement,which, she writes, is "much more fun than teaching adolescents." They live in Marblehead, MA.Robert H. Stewart, X'48, is mayor of Columbus, IN.William Bruce Storm, AM'48, PhD'50, retiredafter thirty-seven years as professor in the Schoolof Public Administration at the University ofSouthern California, Los Angeles.Leslie W. Trowbridge, SM'48, returned toteach earth science at the University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, where he previouslytaught science education for twenty-one years. Heis past president of the National Science TeacherAssociation.Dorothy Baker Windhorst, AB'48, SB'54,MD'54, of Groton, CT, announces the birth of herfirst grandchild, Galen Windhorst Simmons, inJanuary 1986.AQ Herbert L. Baird, Jr., AM'49, PhD'55, re-xy tired after nineteen years as associate professor of Spanish at Western Washington University, Bellingham.Daniel Daniels, MBA 49, of Clarendon Hills,IL, retired from the Tuthill Corporation.Judith Binyon Farnell-Sears, PhB'49, AM'54,a clinical social worker, has a private practice infamily therapy in Avon-by-the-Sea, NJ, and livesin Hoboken with her husband.Dennis J. Fleming, AM'49, is chairman ofthe City of Long Beach (MS) Civil ServiceCommission.34 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987FAMILY ALBUM-'87Thomas J. Thomas, MBA'76; SaraL. Thomas, AB '87; and Rita J. Thomas.iff* LeslieA. Stulberg, JD'78; James E. Levin, PhD'87; and Regina A. Levin."'#&¦*%Patricia Jurkash; Mary C. Jurkash, AB '87; Michael Jurkash; and Michael J.Jurkash, AB'82. James B. Goldwasser; E. I. Schwartz; Lisa A. Goldwasser, AM'87; and JudithSchwartz Goldwasser, AM'64. (The late Jay Schwartz was JD' 57.)Alexander Coch; Elizabeth Coch; DorritCoch; LioraR. Coch, JD'87; UseFreund Scherzer, AM'54; and Pera Wirszup, lecturer in the Department ofSlavic Languages and Literatures. Sek-Yum Kwok; You-Sing Fou; Pui-Yan Kwok, AB'79, SM'81, PhD'85,MD'87; AbbyA. Li, AB'79, PhD'85; Mary Loh Li; Tsung Ming Li, AM' 51;and Dean Li, AB'83.In retirement from twenty-two years of teaching French at Pennsylvania State University-McKeesport Campus, Joseph G. Foster, AB'49,works at the Mifflinburg (PA) Buggy Museum.Alan P. Frederickson, AB'49, a retired architect, lives in Evergreen, CO.Francisco Garriga-Rodriguez, AM'49, professor emeritus at the University of Puerto Rico,announces the birth of his grandson, Francisco Garriga VII.E. Thomas Gumbert, AM'49, served as division governor of the Toastmasters Club, District22, for 1985-86, and is board member and past governor of the Nebraska Descendants of the Mayflower. He lives in St. Joseph, MO.Since his retirement from the federal government, John R. Hope, SM'49, has been tropicalweather coordinator and on-camera meteorolo gist for the Weather Channel, a nationwide cabletelevision service based in Atlanta.After thirty-eight years, James J. Scarlette, Jr.,MBA49, retired as chief fiscal officer at BennettCollege, Greensboro, NC.C%0 Pearl Scheibolk German, AM'50, isprofes-\D\J sor in the School of Hygiene and PublicHealth, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.Lewis P. Lipsitt, AB'50, is professor of psy-35FAMILY ALBUM-'87Philip True, SM'50; and David P. True, MBA 87. Ellen Kelly Reisman, ]D'84; and Edward S. Reisman, PhD'87.Emery J. Biro III; Maria E. Biro; Elizabeth L. Biro; Emery J. Biro, Jr., AM'62;and Sara A. Biro, JD'87. Sara Moss; Gary B. Moss, AB'86; Marcia Moss; Marc J. Moss, AB'83; AmyL. Moss, AB'87; Burton Moss; and Pam Moss.Ji-Hyon Kim, student in the College; Young-Mi Kim, MBA'84; Hyon-Joo Kim,AB '87; Mee-Hyon Kim, AB '84; Natasha Kim; and Young-Jo Kim. (Notshown: Do-Kyun Kim, AB'82.) Kevin Uliassi; Edward C. Uliassi, AB'50, AM' 57; Nedo Uliassi, AB'50;Raymond N. Uliassi, AB'87; Shirley Uliassi; Pio D. Uliassi, PhB'46;AM '53; and Daniel Uliassi.chology and medical science and director of theChild Study Center at Brown University, Providence, RI. During 1986-87 he spent a sabbaticalleave as visiting scientist at the National Instituteof Mental Health in Rockville-Bethesda, MD, andwas appointed to a government task force on risk-taking behavior and self-regulation in relation toadverse life outcomes.William McKillop, AB'50, MBA'75, is admin istrator of psychiatric services with Act Corp., aprivate human-services corporation in DaytonaBeach, FL. He lives with his wife/ Agnes, in Or-mond Beach, FL.Retired as an officer of the World Bank,Gregory B. Votaw, AM'50, of Bethesda, MD, doesconsulting work in development, most recentlyfor the International Fund for Agricultural Development in southern Africa. Bernard Wax, AB'50, AM'55, celebrated twenty years as director of the American Jewish Historical Society (at Brandeis University, Waltham,MA). He has four children and three grandchildren.C"1 Sara Innis Fenwick, AM'51, retired as pro-\J X. fessor emerita at the Graduate LibrarySchool. She lives in Suncoast Manor, St. Petersburg, FL, where she volunteers in the library.36 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987Charlotte Toll Thurschwell, AB'51, AM'54,and Hubert Thurschwell, AB'51, JD'54, live inWynnewood, PA. Charlotte practices law inHaverford, and Hubert is general labor attorneyfor Bell of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Charles Van Buskirk, AB'51, PhD'59, ofNorth Mankato, MN, chaired a symposium onthe Transformation of Mental Health Treatmentinto the Business of Managed Care at the annualmeeting of the Minnesota Psychologists in PrivatePractice.E. Isabel McCrie Webb, AM'51, president ofthe Lake County (IN) Retired Teachers Association, lives in Hammond, IN.£"Q Hilda A. Davis, PhD'53, received honorsC/\J from the Delaware Commission for Women, which inducted her into its hall of fame, andfrom the National Association for Women Deans,Administrators, and Counselors, which createdthe Hilda A. Davis Award for Educational Leadership. She lives in Newark, DE.Warren P. Eustis, JD'53, retired from the practice of law, is adjunct professor of law at the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis-St. Paul, andchairperson of Granville Centers, Inc., which provides chemical dependency care for adolescentsand young adults.Arthur C. Featherstonhaugh III, AM'53,PhD'83, chairs the Department of History andGovernment at Norwich University, Northfield,VT.In October 1986, Ross L. Federico, AM'53, retired as English department chairman at BellportSenior High School, Brookhaven, NY.Eunice A. Lenz, AM'53, lives in Bradenton,FL.John H. Martin, PhD'53, DB'54, and PhyllisGreife Martin, X'53, are both administrators ofmuseums in Corning, NY: John is deputy directorof the Corning Museum of Glass, and Phyllis is director of the Corning-Painted Post Historical Society Museums.Robert T. Scholes, X'53, retired from the U.S.Public Health Service (National Institutes ofHealth), is president of the Bioresearch Ranch,Inc., Rodeo, NM.Helen Golden Silverman, AM'53, of WestLafayette, IN, retired from the social servicedepartment of the Indiana Veterans Home.Eleanor Tomlinson, AM'53, teaches low-vision children in St. Laurent, Quebec, Canada.P" A Carole Reevman Dorris, AB'54, received a\J^T master's degree in American history fromClark University, Worcester, MA. She and her husband, Ronald, have four children, including BethS. Dorris, AB'80, AM'80, of Marina Delrey, CA.G. Cal Hoyt, AM'54, is dean of business administration at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. He also servesas president of the Vancouver Opera Companyand governor of the Business Council of BritishColumbia.Henry C. Maguire, Jr., MD'54, is senior research investigator in the pathology departmentof the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Christian Schock, X'54, of Elgin, IL, has established a political consulting firm.Loretta R. Sharp, AM'54, of Saratoga Springs,NY, retired as undergraduate program coordinator from the State University of New York atBinghamton School of Nursing in 1985.Carol Horning Stacey, AB'54, AM'57, and herhusband, Martin, sold their business of fourteenyears, the weekly newspaper The Nickel's Worth,but continue to manage the Coeur D'Alene, ID,publication.C C Stanton T. Friedman, SB'55, SM'56, of Fre-\J^J dericton, New Brunswick, Canada, is president of Science and Technology, a company whichfocuses on the problem of radioactive radon gas inresidential and commercial buildings. He belongsto the American Association of Radon Scientistsand Technologists. \Z£L William T. Salam, AB'56, AB'57, MBA'58, isC/U director of procurement and warehousingwith the Chicago Housing Authority.JTr7 Andrew Bro, DB'57, is vice-president of\D / Charles N. Bentz Associates, Westfield, NJ,a professional fund-management and development consulting firm for museums.Audreye E. Johnson, AM'57, of Durham, NC,received the 1986 Human Service Award from theNorth Carolina State Association of Black SocialWorkers, Inc.rg Gerald Herman, MD'58, of Mentor, OH, isDO medical director of CIGNA Health Plan ofOhio-Northeast Division, Seven Hills, OH.Stanley I. Mour, AM'58, PhD'69, professorand chairman of the Department of Early and Middle Childhood Education at the University ofLouisville (KY), completed his second term aschairman of the faculty senate and member of theuniversity board of trustees. He also received theOutstanding Administrator of 1986 award.Marjorie Trugman Van Der Veen, AB'58. See1923, Harry L. Trugman.CQ Ruth Trugman Kaplan, AM'59. See 1923,\Jy Harry L. Trugman.Harryetta Babb Matthews, AM'59, retiredfrom the Chicago Board of Education as schoolnurse coordinator and works for the ChicagoArchitecture Foundation.Josephine M. Sana, AM'59, of Ann Arbor, MI,became professor emerita after twenty-five yearsat the University of Michigan School of Nursing.She received a University of Michigan MedicalCenter alumni distinguished service award inSeptember 1986.Donald C. Weeks, MBA'59, of Kingston, NY, isa member of the Service Corps of Retired Executives, and is active with the Tax Counseling for theElderly program.£L{\ Semiretired from his practice in generalO VJ surgery, Francis D. Keenan, Jr., SB'60, livesin Leesburg, FL, where he pursues his interest inwriting.Gerald Mendenhall, MBA60, founded theMendenhall Corporation, a Pleasantville, NY,firm that specializes in profit planning and costcontrol for large corporations./^*1 Lenore F. Coral, AB'61, AM'65, is presidentO X of the Music Library Assn. in Ithaca, NY.Mary A. Hays, AB'61, AM'67, of Santa Fe,NM, is workihg on a novel.George J. Papagiannis, AB'61, is associatedean for graduate studies and research in theCollege of Education at Florida State University,Tallahassee.JohnB. Poster, AB'61, MAT' 63, PhD'71, chairsthe Department of Educational Administration atPace University-New York campus. He visitedTaiwan, where he explored the training needs ofTaiwan educators./TO Ian Burton, PhD'62, directs the Interna-\JAm tional Federation of Institutes for AdvancedStudy, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Donna Berg Gilboa, AB'62, and EliezerGilboa, AM'70, live in Kfar Saba, Israel, with theirtwo children. Donna teaches English in a highschool, and Eliezer is the head economist for In-uva, the central cooperative for the marketing ofagricultural produce.Gary J. Greenberg, AB'62, AM'63, presidentand chief executive officer of Vicky Tiel USA Ltd . ,the American distributor of the Vicky Tiel women's couture collection, and vice-president of Marion, Greenberg, Inc., a fashion consulting firm,also maintains a legal practice in New York. Hisdaughter, Rebekah, is a fourth-year student in theCollege.For forty-two years of teaching, Geraldine VanWie Kerkstra, AM'62, of Markham, IL, was honored by the city of Oak Forest, IL, where a streetwas named after her.Richard Ratner, AB'62, practices psychiatryand forensic psychiatry in Washington, DC. He is married and has two daughters. His brother, PeterRatner, AB'71, is vice-president of CorporateCap-ital Consultants, New York.Elizabeth Robson, AB'62, is family servicescoordinator for Boston (MA) Head Start.r O Gordon M. Burghardt, SB'63, PhD'66, pro-Ov_} fessor of psychology and zoology and director of the graduate program in ethology at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville, is president of theAnimal Behavior Society and is editor of Ethology,an international journal. He and his wife, SandraTwardosz, have twin daughters, Karin and Liana.Samuel M. Gray, SB'63, was president of theNew Jersey Gastroenterological. Society for1985-86. He has a private practice in gastroenterology in Westfield, NJ.Kenneth T. Jackson, AM'63, PhD'66, professor of history and of urban planning at ColumbiaUniversity, New York, received both the FrancisParkman Prize and the Bancroft Prize for his book,Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the UnitedStates (Oxford University Press).Last year, Eliot A. Landau, AB'63, of Wood-ridge, IL, explored nineteen archeological sites inthe Four Corners area. With the assistance of hiseight-year-old daughter, he turned up a completeskeleton of a phytosaurus, which he gave to a museum in Flagstaff, AZ.William Ormsbee, AB'63, is operations director of the Milwaukee (WI) County War MemorialPerforming Arts Center.Jerry Perlmutter, AM'63, PhD'66, professor ofmanagement and director of graduate organizational development curricula at Aurora University, Aurora, IL, maintains a private practice in organizational consulting and psychotherapy.Bela Petheo, MFA'63, professor of art at St.John's University, Collegeville, MN> was the subject of a monograph, Bela Petheo: Painter of the Centerin an Age of Extremes.Robert B. Radin, AB'63, of Brooklyn, NY, issenior counsel of Marubeni Corp., a Japanese-trading company. He completed a five-year service as secretary of the Japan Society and continues there as a member of the performing arts advisory committee. He has also chaired the board ofPan Asian Reporters Theatre, a professionalAsian-American theater company in the U.S.The International Sociological Associationhas elected David R. Segal, AM'63, PhD'67, professor of sociology at the University of Maryland atCollege Park, vice-president of its research committee on armed forces and conflict resolution.John C. Wellemeyer, MBA'63, has been transferred to London by Morgan Stanley to recruit andmanage an equity research department that will focus on British and continental European companies./I A Stephen J. Fortgang, AB'64, teaches socialO^ foundations of education at the Universityof Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, and spent an exchange semester at Glassboro (NJ) State College inthe spring.Michael E. Herman, MBA 64, executive vice-president and chief executive officer of MarionLaboratories in Kansas City, MO, was electedchairperson of the board of fanabe-Marion Laboratories, a joint venture between Tanabe Seiyaku,Oskasa, Japan; and Marion Laboratories.Charles R. Keen, AB'6'4, is manager of DigitalPacket Network New Product Introduction at BellNorthern Research, a subsidiary of Bell CanadaEnterprises and Northern Telcom. He lives withhis wife and two children in Nepean, Ontario,Canada.In March 1986, Michigan Governor James J.Blanchard appointed Allen J. Nelson, JD'64, ofFlushing, MI, as Genesee County Probate Courtjudge. In the following November, he won electionto that position.Frank P. Stafford, MBA 64, PhD'68, professorof economics at the University of Michigan-AnnArbor, studies labor-market adjustments to imports and technology change in the U.S. and West37FAMILY ALBUM-'87Siddharth Singh Bass, AB'84; Sheila Singh; Sapna Singh, AB'87; Raghu Raj James F. Ross; Mark I. Wallace, PhD'86; Ellen M. Ross, AM'82, PhD'87; andSingh; and Swati Singh, student in the College. Kathleen Fallon Ross.Janet Siegel; Libby E. Siegel; Marjorie Siegel, MBA'87; Richard N. Siegel,JD'50; and Eleanor Siegel. Christopher Hansen; Gerard F. Hansen; Timothy G. Hansen, AB'87;Margaret M. Hansen; William Hansen; and Nora M. Hansen, AB'84.Doug Klotnia; Jean Chase; Joseph P. Klotnia, MBA'69; Diane F. Klotnia,]D '87; Audrey L. Klotnia; Maureen L. Klotnia; and John E. Klotnia. Glen E. Bartz; Muriel E. Bartz; Elizabeth Bartz Steele, AM'77, DMN'87;David E. Steele, AB '72; Helen M. Steele; and Maurice E. Steele.Germany./" C Marion Klumpp Bullitt, SB'65, took a "do-v/w' mestic interlude" in her work at Boston College and at the geophysics laboratory of HanscomAir Force Base with the birth of a third child, Alexander, in February 1986.After five years as associate dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Vanderbilt University,Nashville, TN, J. Scott Colley, AM'65, PhD'69, now chairs that university's English departmentand is working on an edition of Richard III.KarlR. Flickinger, MFA'65, president of Flick-inger Realty, married Susan Ross last year. Theylive in Chicago.In August 1986, Leola Dyrud Furman, AM'65,received her Ph.D. in human development fromthe Fielding Institute, Santa Barbara, CA. She isassociate professor of social work at the University of North Dakota, Grand Forks.Gretchen Grant Garner, AB'65, of Duluth,MN, was curator for a survey of landscape photographs by American women entitled "ReclaimingParadise." The show, which includes twenty-seven photographs from 1900 to the present, is ona two-year tour that included an exhibition at theChicago Public Library Cultural Center in July.Eric R. Homberger, AM'65, lives with hisUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987i 5> i»nIfll life FAMILY ALBUM-'87ln-Lan-Wang Li; Lily E. Li, AB'84, MBA'87; Rose M. Li, AB'85, MBA86;and Tze-Chung Li. Thomas T. Daniels, MBA'87; Lori R. Daniels, AM'87; John R. Daniels; LornaT. Daniels; and Lisa L. Daniels.Patricia Andersen; Jack S. Beacher, PhD'66; Jon R. Beacher, AB'83, MD'87;Sandra Beacher; Bonnie O'Donnell, AB '84; and James E. Beacher, AB '84. Kathy Danheiser; Andy Darrow; Justin T. Darrow, SM'87; Joan SimpsonDarrow, PhB'45; and Lawrence H. Darrow.Grace E. Kim, AB'81, AM'83, MD'87; Ke Wha Cha; Holim Kim; Theodore I.Kim, AB'87; Tai Soon Kim; and Regina Kim, student in the College. Marcia J. Taub; Ethel Flecker Taub, MBA'74; Liba C. Taub, AM'78; Zisl H.Taub, JD'87, MBA'87; and Ronald H. Taub.wife, Judy Jones Homberger, AM'65, in Norwich,United Kingdom, where he lectures in Americanstudies at the University of East Anglia.Antigoni Lefteris Ladd, AB'65, is senior vice-president and director of education for the Consumer Bankers Association, Arlington, VA.Bernard M. McFall, MBA'65, visited Nicaragua in August 1986 as a guest of the Sandinistagovernment, offering advice and instruction to various government agencies. He is senior analystprogrammer for Seligman and Latz of New York,NY.r S~ Terry Y. Feiertag, JD'66, and Joseph00 Minsky, PhB'47, JD'51, merged theirs withanother small law firm to form Minsky, Feiertag,McCormick & Halligan, Chicago.JohnT. Fleckenstein, MBA'66, moved to Rochester, NY, to become the vice-president and gener al manager of instrumentation for Taylor Instruments division of Combustion Engineering, Inc.Linda Walvoord Girard, AM'66, of Bar-rington, IL, wrote her own version of the legend ofArchimedes, "Archimedes and the King's GoldCrown," for Cricket, the children's magazine.Naomi R. Goring, AB'66, married Jerry M.Porter of Silver Spring, MD, last year. She designsand develops data base management applications39for Evaluation Research Corp. , a government consulting firm in Vienna, VA.Karelisa Voelker Hartigan, AM'66, PhD'70,teaches classics and is director of the comparativedrama conference at the University of Florida,Gainesville, where she also co-directs the Centerof Greek Studies.William Ray Heitzmann, MAT'66, professorof education and human services at Villanova University, lives in Havertown, PA.Donald E. L'Amoureux, Jr., MBA'66, is manager of office automation for G. D. Searle & Co. ofSkokie, IL. He lives in Arlington Heights, IL, withhis wife, Judy, and their daughters, Drew andSuzanne.Faith G. Paul, MAT'66, of Northbrook, IL, is inthe Ph.D. program in educational administrationat the University.David H. Rosenbloom, AM'66, PhD'69, professor of public administration at the MaxwellSchool, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, waselected to membership in the National Academy ofPublic Administration.In November 1986 Carole Nelson Stodder,MFA66, exhibited five paintings at Illinois Center,Chicago, where Jim Richerson, MFA84, of Chicago, and Sheri L. Rush, MFA84, of Hurst, TX, alsoexhibited art work.rrj James A. Broderick, JD'67, MBA86, ofO/ Madison, WI, is vice-president and generalcounsel of Rayovac Corp.Karen Kondrad Cashen, AB'67, of PleasantRidge, MI, is vice-president and account supervisor at Brogan Kabot Advertising.Harry M. Davidow, AB'67, an antitrust attorney with AT&T in New Jersey, lives with his wife,Lucy Collins, in New York, NY.Mary Diederich Ott, SM'67, PhD'71, is seniorresearch analyst in the office of institutional studies at the University of Maryland at College Park./TO Louise J. Elving, AM'68, of Cambridge,DO MA, is director of housing development forthe Greater Boston Community Development, aprivate, nonprofit organization that develops affordable housing owned by local communities andneighborhood-based organizations.James K. Lahr, X'68, dean of the Institute forContinuing Education at St. Louis CommunityCollege, serves also as a trustee of Blackburn College, Carlinville, IL, and as an alderman in DesPeres, MO. He and his wife, Dorcas, have threechildren and three grandchildren.Donna V. Lamb, AB'68, married Richard J.Pfilf in May 1986. As district ranger of the Zig ZagRanger District, she manages 140,000 acres of theMount Hood National Forest, OR.James K. Lilly, AB'68, AM'69, MBA'80, of OakPark, IL, director of circulation for Standard Rateand Data Service, a Macmillan, Inc., company,taught a course in circulation/fulfillment throughthe University's extension publishing program inAutumn Quarter 1986.Margaret Berman Lurie, MAT'68, is presidentof the Family Software Catalog, a national mailorder computer software firm based in Evanston,IL.Elizabeth A. Oleson, AB'68, completedM.B.A./C.P.A. studies and enjoys horseback riding, farming, and hunting in Missoula, MT.Margaret Rose Olin, AB'68, AM'77, PhD'82,and her husband, Robert Nelson, had a son, Robert Benjamin, in November 1986. Olin is assistantprofessor of art history at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, and Nelson is associate professor of art history at the University of Chicago.William W. Sweet, AB'68, AM'69, is an editorand reporter for Physics Today magazine in NewYork, NY.Allen M. Young, PhD'68, curator and head ofinvertebrate zoology at the Milwaukee Public Museum, is project director of a new biology exhibitwing at the museum, "Meeting the Challenge:Life on the Third Planet," featuring a walk through Central American tropical rain forest./TQ A short story, "Betting on. Blue Grass," by\jy Abraham S. Aamidor, AB'69, of Champaign, IL, won a certificate of honorable mentionin the Polly Robinson Feature Writing Contest for1987. Aamidor is a feature writer with The Indianapolis News.John L. Draves, MFA'69, of Chicago, exhibitedtwo silver-point drawings in the Ars Graphis IV exhibition in Oak Park, IL. He received an award ofmerit.Leo I. Gordon, AB'69, is associate professorof medicine in the section of hematology/oncol-ogy at Northwestern University Medical School,Chicago.William P. MacLean III, PhD'69, is vice-president for academic affairs at the College of theVirgin Islands, St. Thomas, VI.Karen Wagschal Montaperto, AM'69, is a social worker for the city of Charlotte, NC, whereshelives with her husband, Robert, and their children, Kristin and Heather.Andras J. Riedlmayer, AB'69, and his wife,Carol Munroe, announce the December 1986 birthof a daughter, Anna Valeria Riedlmayer. They livein Cambridge, MA.Stephen F. Saine, MBA'69, of Annandale, VA,is vice-president for finance and administration ofthe American Trucking Association and is executive vice-president of ATA Services, its computingsubsidiary.JohnW. Schladweiler, MBA'69, works for Strategic Planning Associates, a Washington, DC, consulting firm.Norma Gordon Wenger, AB'69, is a nephrolo-gist in private practice in Merrick, NY.rrr\ Mary Aldwin Bisson, AB'70, is associate/ VJ professor in the Department of BiologicalSciences at the State University of New York atBuffalo.George C. Christy, MBA'70, a consultant specializing in bank loan portfolio management/information systems, lives in Pasadena, CA.Andrew H. Connor, AB'70, JD'79, and hiswife, Catherine, of Park Forest, IL, celebrated theirtenth wedding anniversary with their children,Sarah, Paul, and John Henry.Carol Klimick Cyganowski, AM'70, PhD'80,is assistant professor in the Department of English and Communication, De Paul University,Chicago.Laurence L. Edwards, AB'70, is universityJewish chaplain and director of B'nai B'rith Hillelat Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.As a consultant to the State of New Jersey Division on Women, Courtney N. Esposito, AB'70,conducts training for emergency health care personnel on the identification, treatment, and referral of domestic violence victims. She lives on afarm near Pennington, NJ.Eliezer Gilboa, AM'70. See 1962, Donna BergGilboa.Margaret Judiesch Harris, AB'70, of Philadelphia, PA, announces the arrival of an adopted son,Peter Harris Straus, in August 1986.The Reverend James R. Lackenmier, AM'70,president of King's College, Wilkes-Barre, PA, wasgeneral chairperson for that city's 1986 United Waycampaign.John W. Llewellyn, AM'70, PhD'80, is assistant professor in the Department of PreventiveMedicine at Rush College of Medicine, Rush University, Chicago.Alan G. Martin, AB'70, is a founding partnerof Greines, Martin, Stein & Richland, BeverlyHills, CA.Louis T. Masterson, MBA'70, president ofLouis Thomas Masterson & Company, a Cleveland corporate outplacement firm, lives inWestlake, OH.Francis L. Miksa, AM'70, PhD'74, professorof library and information science at the University of Texas at Austin, was Visiting Distinguished Scholar for 1986-87 at the Online ComputerLibrary Center, Dublin, OH.Alan Moriyama, AB'70, is associate professorof international relations at Yokohama NationalUniversity, Yokohama, Japan.Leonard P. Oliver, PhD'70, directs Oliver Associates, a public policy consulting firm in Washington, DC.Fredrick L. Silverman, MAT'70, associate professor of education at the University of NorthernColorado, Greeley, presented a paper in summer1986 at the World Congress on Reading in London.Marvin H. Solomon, SB'70, and his wife,Betsy, had a daughter. Marvin is associate professor of computer sciences at the University ofWisconsin-Madison.The Reverend Michael J. R. Tessman, AB'70,rector of the Trinity Episcopal Church in Trumball,CT, returned from his trip to Korea with a six-month-old adopted son, Aaron. In 1986 he celebrated twelve years of marriage and ten years as anEpiscopal priest.Wilbur A. Weder, AM'70, of Arlington, VA,works for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Family Support Administration.He is a program analyst for the Aid to Familieswith Dependent Children Program.ry^l In temporary retirement from the practice/ JL of law, George (Crossland) Big Eagle,JD'71, of Stillwater, OK, has written a three-actplay and a volume of poetry, and is working on anovel.Peter O. Kurz, AB'71, is agricultural trade officer for the U.S. Embassy in Singapore.Judith A. Lehr, MAT'71, is executive directorof the Riverside Arts Foundation, an arts serviceorganization in Riverside County, CA.Frederick L. Miller, JD'71, joined the legalstaff of the New York City Public DevelopmentCorp.Peter Ratner, AB'71. See 1962, Richard Ratner.Norman A. Wells, AM'71, is director of development for the Easter Seal Society of MetropolitanChicago.Leonard A. Zax, AB'71, partner in the law firmof Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver and Jacobson,Washington, DC, co-chairs the mayor's downtownhousing commission in Washington, DC.r7^ Zachary M. Baker, AB'72, head of technical/ jLm services at the Jewish Public Library, Montreal, has served as a library consultant to the United States Holocaust Memorial Council, Washington, DC. He has also had several works published:two bibliographies, Jewish Book Annual and The Reader's Advisor, and an anthology, From a Ruined Garden.Robert L. Blacksberg, AB'72, and Teresa R.Novick, AB'73, celebrated ten years of marriage,as well as the birth of Aaron David Blacksberg andthe third birthday of Daniel Hill Blacksberg. Theyboth practice law: Teresa part-time and Robert as apartner with Wolf, Black, Schorr and Solis-Cohen,Philadelphia, PA.Pamela Reichl Collebrusco, AB'72, AM'74,and her husband, Mark, announce the March 1986birth of a son, Anthony Reichl Collebrusco. TheCollebruscos live in Riverton, IL.After working in Sierra Leone, Canada, andNepal, Theresa Campicotto Dunn, AB'72,MST'74, and Terry A. Dunn, MBA'83, have settledin Rouses Point, NY, where Terry is village administrator. Theresa teaches in Vermont.Richard A. Kruk, JD'72, of Lake Forest, IL, ispresident and chief operating officer of Joslyn Corporation, Chicago.Donna R. Lenhoff, AB'72, is associate directorfor legal policy and programs at the Women's LegalDefense Fund in Washington, DC.Dennis F. Miller, AM'72, is executive directorof the Board on Army Sciences and Technology ofthe National Research Council as part of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering,Washington, DC. He also directs a study on the effects of emerging space technologies on the army.40 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987FAMILY ALBUM-'87Boris Auerbach, AB'51, JD'54; Steven G. Auerbach, AB'87; and SusanMathieu Auerbach, AB'54. Jacob L. Fox, Jr., AB'42, JD'47; Laura L. Fox, JD'87; and Mary L. Fox. (Thelate Jacob L. Fox, Sr., was PhB'll, JD'13.)Sheldon Dray, SB' 41; Nancy L. Dray, AM' 87; Margaret Dray; and FlorenceAbrams. Myung Mo Kim; Judy E. Kim, AB'85; Samuel W. Kim; Eunyung Grace Kim,AB'87; Jenny Min Kim; and Martin Kim.Virginia S. Carper; Karen Martin Priest, AB'63; Susan S. Priest, AB'87;Robert F. Priest, AB'59, PhD'64; and Sara Hopkins Priest, X'20. (Notshown: Mary Carper Martin, AM'35. The late Faybert Martin was X'35.) Lucille Seaton; the Reverend Donald W. Seaton, Jr., PhB'50, AM'53; JessicaW. Seaton, JD'87; Stasha Furlan Seaton, X'52; and Rick Wirthlin, student inthe JD/MBA program.Lawrence G. Newman, JD'72, and his familyattended the unveiling of the Heath Mosasaur atthe Dallas Museum of Natural History in March1986. The Newmans discovered the thirty-five-foot-long skeleton of the mosasaur, a long-extinctreptile, during a sailing outing in 1979. Newmanpractices law in Dallas, TX.Glenn G. Patterson, AB'72, of Columbia, SC,is assistant district chief, South Carolina District, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. Last year he became the father of a seconddaughter.Roger Pilon, AM'72, PhD'79, director of policy for the Bureau of Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, U.S. Department of State, lives inBethesda, MD.David M. Rieth, JD'72, is a partner in the lawfirm of Foley & Lardner, Tampa, FL. Susan Bosworth Sheridan, AB'72, MBA'78,and her husband, Charles, of Falls Church, VA,have adopted two children, Dawn and Robert.Stanley V. Smith, MBA'72, acquired a corporate investment business brokerage firm concentrating on marketing businesses in the metropolitan Chicago area.Deborah J. Solomon, AB'72, is associatemedia research director at J. Walter Thompson inFAMILY ALBUM-'87Richard C. Ericson, AM'61; David A. Ericson, MBA'87; and Carol J. Ericson. DukeT. Gray, X '64; and Arthur C. Gray, AB'87.Gary S. Sylvan, MBA'80; Lisa Sylvan; Ian L. Sylvan, MBA'87; Jamie Levin;and Debbie Sylvan. Sarah Feit; Clementine Novak; EugeneFeit, SM'64, PhD'68; David]. Feit,AB'87; Barbara Feit; Anne Feit; Rachel Feit; and George H. Novak.Jane Rosenbloom Gottschalk, AB'52; Amy Gottschalk, AB'87; AlexanderGottschalk, former professor in the Department of Radiology; and FrumaGottschalk, associate professor emerita in the Department of Slavic Languagesand Literatures. George Anastaplo, AB'48, JD'51, PhD'64, lecturerin the University Office ofContinuing Education; Theodora Anastaplo, student in the Divinity School;SaraM. Anastaplo, MD'87; Peter Scharbach, student in the LaboratorySchool; Helen Anastaplo Scharbach, JD'75; and Sara Prince Anastaplo, AM'49.Chicago.Karen F. Wishner, SB '72, is associate professorof oceanography at the University of Rhode Island, Narragansett.Robert M. Wolfe, AB'72, MD'76, of Chicago, isclinical director of the Emergency PhysiciansGroup's ambulatory care center in Round LakeBeach, IL. In September 1986, his fifth child, PerlAbigail, was born. ryO Roger T. Brice, JD'73, is a partner in the/ \D Chicago law firm Isham, Lincoln & Beale,which recently merged with his former firm,Reuben & Proctor.Harrison H. (Hank) Donnelly, AB'73, and hiswife, Kitty, of Takoma Park, MD, had their firstchild, Robert Nathaniel, in October 1986. Hank is astaff writer with Editorial Research Reports, anews service in Washington, DC. Margaret Kiyo Ikeda, AB'73, is a third-yearresident in pediatrics at Yale University, NewHaven, CT.Charles D. Jaco, AB'73, of Oakton, VA, anNBC news correspondent, won two Edward R.Murrow Awards from New York University fordocumentaries on Africa. He also has worked ondocumentaries on cocaine in Bolivia.Ronnie Pavony Meyerson, AM'73, opened aUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987New York art gallery, Lever/Meyerson, in whichshe is partner. She lives in Bay ville, NY.Teresa R. Novick, AB'73. See 1972, Robert L.Blacksberg.Martin Savitzky, SB'73, is a partner in thePhiladelphia law firm Synnestvedt and Lechner.In September 1986, he and his wife, Carolyn, had adaughter, Robyn Clare.Kazimiera Stypka, AM'73, is in the doctoralprogram in counseling psychology at the University of Victoria. She lives with her husband, JohnH. Esling, in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.Stuart Hayes Windt, MBA'73, of New York,was promoted from senior vice-president to managing director of the financial markets sector ofMarine Midland Bank, N. A.Alvin G. Wood, AB'73, is visiting research assistant professor in the Department of Microbiology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research involves the study ofextrachromosomal elements in methanogenicbacteria.After the October 1986 birth of her son, Matthew Craig Ziegler, Mary Gump Ziegler, AB'73,JD'76, returned to work as senior counsel at Bankof America, San Francisco, CA. She and her husband, Mark, took Matthew on a trip to the SierraMountains with Kay McCurdy Aevermann,JD'75, an attorney with Lord, Bissell & Brook inChicago.rj A James P. Beckwith, Jr., JD'74, attended the/ T! National Endowment for the Humanitiessummer 1986 seminar for law professors, held atthe University and led by Philip B. Kurland, theWilliam R. Kenan, Jr., Distinguished Service Professor in the College and the Law School, andRalph M. Lerner, AB'47, AM'49, PhD'53, professor in the Committee on Social Thought and in theCollege. Beckwith teaches law at North CarolinaCentral University, Durham.Bruce E. Bursten, SB'74, is associate professor of chemistry at Ohio State University atColumbus.C. Jan Carpenter, AM'74, is assistant professor of human development and family ecology atthe University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Alan A. Chill, AB'74, has his own Los Angeles consulting firm, Systems Ludic, which specializes in stress management and organizationaldevelopment.Steven E. Fisher, MBA'74, is a practice management consultant for ORCO, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of the American Academy ofOrthopedic Surgeons in Park Ridge, IL.Roger G. Ibbotson, PhD'74, and his wife, JodyL. Sindelar, of Branford, CT, announce the birth oftheir first child, Tyler Ibbotson-Sindelar. Sindelar,who taught at the University from 1978 to 1984, ison the faculty at Yale University, New Haven, CT,as is Ibbotson.Rosalind Newman Kaufman, AM'74,programmer/analyst for Pierre Frozen Foods, Inc . ,lives in Cincinnati, OH.Hie-Joon Kim, SM'74, PhD'77, and his wife,Young-Kyung Lee Kim, SM'74, both work at theU.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, MA: Hie-Joon as a seniorchemist and consultant, and Young-Kyung as a1research chemist.Leslie S. Kohn, AB'74, a New York lawyer,married Janice Goldfarb in February. He writesthat his reputation as restaurant editor for theChicago Maroon has followed him to New YorkCity, where "all of my friends consult, me on thebest places for business lunches and romanticdinners."Frederick J. Rayfield III, AB'74, AM'77,PhD'80, retired as associate professor of psychology at Roosevelt University, Chicago, and is proprietor of the Tempest Book Shop, Waitsfield, VT,where he lives with his wife, Roberta Tracy, a former Oriental Institute docent.Jeffrey D. Salberg, AB'74, was elected to the board of directors for the Keystone Mortgage Corporation in Indianapolis, IN. He has a private lawpractice and lives in Munster, IN.Neal L. Wolf, JD'74, of Lake Bluff, IL, joinedthe Chicago law firm Toss and Hardies.ryr Kay McCurdy Aevermann, JD'75. See 1973,/ \J Mary Gump Ziegler.Brad H. Neuman, MBA'75, of Northbrook, IL,is senior vice-president and chief financial officerof Homart Development Co., the commercial realestate arm of the Coldwell Banker Real EstateGroup. He serves also as chairman of the board oftrustees' finance committee for Saint Joseph Hospital in Chicago.Philip T. Newton, Jr., AM'75, was named the1986-87 Teacher of the Year at North Clayton Senior High School, College Park, GA. Last year hewas also named Outstanding Social Studies Educator by the Georgia Council for the Social Sciences, Macon Conference, and Outstanding Law-Related Teacher of the Year (third place) by theAmerican Lawyer's Auxiliary of the American BarAssociation, New York meeting.Aris A. Protopapadakis, MBA'75, PhD'79, isassociate professor of economics at the Claremont(CA) Graduate School.Michael Rusli, AB'75, MD'79, of Paoli, PA,practices emergency medicine at Chester CountyHospital."L. S. Vygotsky's Theory of Creative Imagination," a paper by Francine Ziemba Smolucha,AM'75, and Larry W. Smolucha, MFA'78, appeared in the January 1987 issue of SPIEL: TheSiegen Periodical of International Empirical Literature,published by Siegen University, West Germany.The Smoluchas live in Oakbrook Terrace, IL.7^> Jasmin E. Acuna, PhD'76, of Quezon City,/ O Philippines, is finishing his book, The Development of Thinking among Filipinos, based on twelveyears of research in the Philippines.R. Michael Beals, AB'76, SM'76, of HighlandPark, NJ, is associate professor of mathematics atRutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.Joel A. Berman, MD'76, of Wilbraham, MA, isclinical assistant professor at Tufts UniversityMedical College, Medford, MA, and vascular surgeon at Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA.John A. (Jack) Chicca, MBA76, of Chatsworth,C A, is chairman of University alumni fund-raisingfor the Fluor Corporation, of which he is managerof sales in the Fluor Venture Group, Inc.Lori Siegel Friedli, AB'76, is co-proprietor of aNew York textile company. She lives with her husband and their daughter, born in January 1986, inMamaroneck, NY.Steven M. Friedman, AB'76, MBA77, and hiswife, Cheryl, of New York, NY, announce the birthof a second son, Daniel Robert, in July 1986.Michael L. Goodman, AB'76, received a Ph . D.in physics from New York University in September1986.Having received a Ph.D. in population biologyand an M.S. in computer science from the University of Kansas at Lawrence, Ghislaine B.Griswold, AB'76, develops software at AT&T BellLaboratories in Holmdel, NJ.Jack Le Van, AB'76, MBA'80, and Cathy August Le Van, AB'78, AM'80, had their first childthis year. They live in Algonquin, IL.KentM. McLean, SM'76, completedaU.S. AirForce-sponsored Ph.D. program in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Washington, Seattle, in August 1986.Major McLean, chief of microbiology at the Clinical Research Laboratory, U.S. A.F. Medical Center,Kessler Air Force Base, MS, lives in Biloxi, MS.William H. O'Toole, AB'76, married LeslieAnn Green in May 1986. They live in Merrillville,IN, where O'Toole is partner in the law firm ofVegter, Fisher, Kelly & O'Toole.In May 1986, Carol C. Reiman, X'76, received abachelor's degree from the University ofMichigan-Flint, where she has worked as a library assistant since June 1985.Thomas A. Rowles, MBA'76, partner withPeat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. in Atlanta, GA, enjoys soccer and skiing and participates in marathons and triathlons.Randall R. Rowlett, AB'76, MD'80, is clinicalassistant professor in the University's Departmentof Psychiatry, where his wife, Linda R. Zetley, isassistant professor.As senior cultural resource manager at Gilbert/Commonwealth, Joseph Schuldenrein, AM'76,PhD'83, of Jackson, MI, directs major research projects in archeology and geomorphology.Barbara Grant Tambling, AM'76, married Robert Tambling last year. She is a consultant for theinformation services financial system of BaxterTravenol Labs, Inc., Deerfield, IL.Arlie G. Tucker, MBA'76, is president of WAB-CO, a division of Dresser Industries, Peoria, IL.Dale M. Willis, AB'76, lives in Minneapoliswith his wife, Alicia Kavka, and his son, Joseph.Willis, a resident in pediatrics at the University ofMinnesota, is completing his Ph.D.77 EliaserChaparro, AB'77, and Janice Sowell/ / Chaparro, AB'77, live in Trenton, NJ, withtheir son, Ramon. Eliaserisadeputy attorney general for the state of New Jersey. Janice is an administrator with the adolescent unit of Trenton Psychiatric Hospital.Thomas W. Davis, MBA'77, of Scarsdale, NY,is managing director of investment banking atMerrill Lynch Capital Markets.Stephen A. Gillenwater, AB'77, AM'85,budget analyst for the New York City Office ofManagement and Budget, lives in Brooklyn, NY.Karl Korsmo, MBA'77, manages the Washington, DC, office of Ernst and Whinney's Telecommunications Consulting Group.Louise A. Shimmel, MBA'77, is operationsmanager for a nonprofit food bank and presidentof a local wildlife rescue and rehabilitation groupin Eugene, OR.Weldon F. Wooden, AM'77, minister of FirstParish Church, Groton, MA, serves on the national commission to create a new hymnal for the Unitarian Universalist Association. He also writes afortnightly column for two local newspapers.Loretta A. Zolkowski, AB'77, MBA'78, is controller of United Technologies-Carrier Corporation's operation in Sao Paulo, Brazil.7Q T. Lawrence Doyle, MBA'78, national sales/ O manager at Feldman Securities, Chicago,married Nancy A. Wieboldt in January 1986.Laura Ellin Handlin, AB'78, an attorney withthe New York City law department, married Joseph J. Handlin in 1985 and lives in New York, NY.Don N. Kleinmuntz, AB'78, MBA'80, PhD'82,of Allston, MA, is assistant professor of behavioraland policy sciences in the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.Cathy August Le Van, AB'78, AM'80. See1976, Jack Le Van.Joseph R. McKee, MBA'78, is national salesand marketing manager for Mojave Scada Systems, Inc., in Van Nuys, CA.Theresa Kelly McPartlin, AM'78, is senior social worker at Merrick Community Services andsocial work instructor at the Colleges of St.Catherine and St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN.Janet B. Woodward May, MST'78, teachesChristian education at the Seminario Biblico Lati-noamericano, San Jose, Costa Rica.Michael F. Messersmith, MBA'78, is administrator of the Concord Clinic (a division of theHitchcock Clinic), Concord, MA.Andrew M. Rosenfield, JD'78, is an attorneyand economist in Chicago.Larry W. Smolucha, MFA'78. See 1975, Fran-cine Ziemba Smolucha.Last autumn Steven H. Vogelstein, AM'78,taught the course "An Evolutionary Study ofHolocaust Literature" through the Institute for43FAMILY ALBUM-'87AlvaroJ. Saieh-Bendeck, AM'76, PhD'80; and Gloria M. Saieh-Bendeck,MBA'87. Nicholas]. Vogelzang, assistant professor of medicine; and Jeanne M. Vo-gelzang, JD'87.Wr*rT %*3Daniel E. Loeb; Stephen G. Loeb; Sarane Starr Loeb, AB'53, AM'55; andRobert M. Loeb, JD'87. (Not shown: Rabbi Selig Starr, PhB'28, AM'30.) Michael W. Warton; Bonnie F. Warton, AM' 87; and Dorothy Cohen Warton,BSS'46, AM'50.Warren Jocz; Ann M. Francel; George Francel; Vlasta Francel; Paul C. Fran-eel, PhD'87; Leif Francel (in arms); Lisa C. Gigstad, MBA'85; Josef Francel;Mary Pat Francel Sares; Luke Sares (in arms); and Peter Francel. Howard S. Berg; Beth Shadur; Karen L. Shadur, AM'87; the HonorableMilton I. Shadur, SB'43, JD'49; and Eleanor Shadur. (Not shown: Robert H.Shadur, JD'72.)Psychoanalysis TEP Continuing Education Program in Chicago. He married Barbara A. Rachlinin March 1986 and lives in Evanston, IL.ryQ Richard A. Albright, AB'79, a political// y economic officer at the U.S. Embassy inVienna, Austria, writes that he enjoys "life milSchlag. "Erica J. Brown, AB'79, is writing her dissertation in Slavic literatures and languages at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.Anne Caldwell, AB'79, AM'80, completed aone-year program in respiratory therapy at Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago. Sheworks at Evanston (IL) Hospital.Jorge Duany, AM'79, is assistant director ofthe Department of Behavioral Sciences at the University of the Sacred Heart, Santurce, Puerto Rico.Vangelis Economou, AB'79, patent attorney for Lockheed-Georgia Co., lives in Marietta, GA.Richard M. Graf, AB'79, AM'80, is an associate with the Washington, DC, law firm Arnold &Porter.David B. Harrison, AB'79, MD'83, completedhis residency training at the University of Miamiand practices pediatrics in Coral Springs, FL.David E. Johnsen, AB'79, received his M.D.from the Medical College of Virgina in May. HeUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987FAMILY ALBUM-'87c. Melinda Rohland Meister, AM'62; Christopher H. Meister, MBA'87; and Sarah B. Kianovsky, AM'84; and Franklin D. Friedman, AB'83, SM'85,Karl H. Meister, MBA'62. MD'87.Barbara Kopulsky; Burton Kopulsky, MBA'87; and Marvin R. Kopulsky, Rosemary Kuzniewski; Francis J. Podbielski, AB'84, SM'86; Monica E.MBA 54. Podbielski, AB'87; and Wincelaus J. Podbielski.Helen Gabrys Strzalka, AB'38; Harry C. Gabrys; Charles M. Gabrys, SB' 87;Helen M. Gabrys; Eleanor S. Balamucki; and Camille Jedrasek Carrig. (Notshown: Therese E. Carrig, AB'84.) Brian Mullan; Joan Mullan, student in the Pritzker School of Medicine; JohnC. Mullan, MD'87; Vivian Mullan; and John F. Mullan, John Harper SeelyProfessor and chairman of neurosurgery in the Department of Surgery.and his wife, the former L. Robyn Fox, live in Richmond, VA.Stephen T. Kochis, MBA'79, is national director of personal financial planning at Deloitte,Haskins & Sells in San Francisco, CA.Thomas A. McCreery, Jr., MBA'79, is chief financial officer of RJB Interests, a Sacramento, CA,developer of commercial real estate.Wm. David Murdoch, AB'79, a U.S. Air Force captain and KC-135 pilot at Wurtsmith Air ForceBase, Oscoda, MI, plays with the University ofChicago alumni rugby football club, the RoadWarriors.Qrt Douglas Braun, AB'80, received his M.S. in0\J computer science from the University ofCalifornia-Berkeley. He is on the technical staff atAT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, NJ.Arnold W. Donald, MBA'80, of Chesterfield, MO, is specialty crops director, U.S., in the agricultural company of Monsanto Co., St. Louis,MO.Beth S. Dorris, AB'80, AM'80. See 1954,Carole Reevman Dorris.Richard Gallo, AB'80, is an intern at JohnsHopkins University, Baltimore, MD. He and hiswife, Kristin Leek Gallo, X'80, have one child,Lauren Grace.Lowell Garner, MD'80, of Ithaca, NY, has aprivate practice in anesthesiology.Harvey J. Kliman, PhD'80, MD'81, of Philadelphia, PA, received a three-year Clinical Investigator Award from the National Institutes ofHealth.RicardoJ. Roman, MD'80, practices gastroenterology in Miami, FL.Clayton S. Rose, AB'80, MBA'81, and JulianneHeffernan Rose, MBA'81, moved to London in August 1985, where their son, Garett Rose, was bornin September 1985.Q"1 Lindsey L. Johnson, AB'81, works as a leg-O J_ islative specialist in Washington, DC.Peter T. Karabas, AB'81, of Des Plaines, IL,practices law with the Chicago law firm Abramson&Fox.Formerly a professor at the Valparaiso University School of Law, Linda L. Long, LLM'81, joinedBert Early Associates as a consultant. She lives inPorter, IN.Selina A. Long, AB'81, is a fourth-year student at the University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington.Christopher Urrows Lund, AB'81, is an internin obstetrics and gvnecology at Boston City Hospital.Mary C. Phillips, AB'81, is branch manager atthe Crown Point office of the First National Bank ofEast Chicago, IN.Julianne Heffernan Rose, MBA'81. See 1980,Clayton S. Rose.Dave H. Shute, AB'81, is in the M.B.A. program at the Colgate Darden Graduate School ofBusiness Administration at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville.Janet M. Hebenstreit Tavakoli, MBA'81, isvice-president of fixed income strategies at Bear,Stearns and Co., New York, NY.Q^J Carlota C. Johnson, PhD'82, coordinatesO Z- the unit for the design and analysis of instruction, Department of Programs and Teaching,Faculty of Education, University of Puerto Rico,Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan.Demetrios N. Macris, AB'82, graduated fromthe medical school of Emory University, Atlanta,GA, in May 1986 and started his surgical trainingat the University of Tennessee Center for theHealth Sciences in Memphis.Randall G. Menna, AB'82, of San Jose, CA, received a master's degree in computer science fromthe University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,and works for Hewlett-Packard Co.Robert W. Tarun, MBA'82, is a partner in theChicago law firm Isham, Lincoln & Beale.Laura A. De Fratus Weisman, AB'82, receiveda master's degree in health administration fromWashington University, St. Louis, MO, in 1984and married Paul S. Weisman, an intern at MichaelReese Hospital, Chicago, in June 1986. She worksfor the Unity Health Plan in Park Ridge, IL.Robert A. Wert, MBA'82, investment executivewith Butcher & Singer, Inc., of Reading, PA, waselected development director of the PennsylvaniaYoung Republicans.O Q Terry A. Dunn, MBA83. See 1972, Theresa0\D CampicottoDunn.Steven C. Goldberg, MD'83, chief resident inobstetrics and gynecology at New York Hospital-Cornell University Medical Center, New York,married Susan Quentzel in September 1986.John Hilgart, AB'83, is in the doctoral program in physics at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland.Lisa Jacobson, SB'83. See 1948, TobiasJacobson.O A David H. Bernstein, AB'84, is a Ph.D. stu-OtI dent in physics at the University of Illinoisat Urbana-Champaign.After completing two years at the University ofMaryland School of Medicine, Jeffrey R. Kaiser,AB'84, has taken a leave of absence to pursue amaster's degree in the sociology of education atJohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. In 1985, he received a fellowship from the NationalSudden Infant Death Syndrome Foundation.Douglas W. Kaplan, AB'84. See 1923, HarryTrugman.Jim Richerson, MFA'84. See 1966, CaroleNelson Stodder.Sheri L. Rush, MFA'84. See 1966, CaroleNelson Stodder.Joel A. Thvedt, AB'84, and Patricia A. Libby,both students at the University of California-LosAngeles School of Law, married in August 1986.On John J. Clark, MBA'85, of Chicago, estab-0\D lished a marketing consulting firm, Intro ductions, which specializes in new products andservices.Michael R. Wing, AB'85, and KatherinePalches Wing, MBA'86, of San Diego, CA, weremarried in September 1986. Michael holds an Office of Naval Research graduate fellowship at theScripps Institution of Oceanography, Lajolla, CA.Katherine is an investment officer at SecurityPacific National Bank, San Diego, CA.O f Gretchen S. Gates, AB'86, attends HarvardOD Law School, Cambridge, MA.Katherine Palches Wing, MBA'86. See 1985,Michael R. Wing.DEATHSFACULTYKlaus Baer, PhD'58, professor at the OrientalInstitute and an expert in ancient Egyptian languages, died in May. He was fifty-six. He had nearly completed a grammar of the Coptic languageand an extensive chronology of Egyptian royalty,which fixes the dates of the reigns of the pharaohsby comparing references in a large number of ancient texts. He also studied taxation and landprices in Egypt.Constantine S. Spyropoulos, professor emeritus of molecular genetics and cell biology, died inApril. He was fifty-eight.STAFFDan Hall, dean of admissions and aid, died inJune at the age of forty-seven . He workecl in the admissions and financial aid offices at NorthwesternUniversity before coming to the University of Chicago in 1980. Hall served on the executive committee of the National Student Aid Coalition andchaired the College Scholarship Service of theCollege Board . His work at the College was also extensive. "He was interested in building up a student body that was diverse and lively," commented Donald N. Levine, AB'50, AM'54,PhD'57, former dean of the College. "His greatestsingle impact was seen in a very substantial improvement in the quality and quantity of studentscoming to the College."THE CLASSES1910-1919Fanny Butcher Bokum, AB'10, May.Lois A. Dalrymple Logan Harvey, AM'16, March.Thomas A. McCorkle, SM'16, May.Anna Marie Keene Hillman, PhB'19, January.1920-1929GaleBlocki, Jr., X'20, June.Sidney Frisch, PhB'20, JD'22, March.Avery Morton, X'20, March.Ruth Hamilton Reynolds, PhB'21, March.Elizabeth V Benyon, PhB'22, June.Warren D. Bowman, MAT'22, PhD'30, April.Carolyn S. Hoyt Carrel, PhB'22, March.Dudley J. Cowden, MBA'22, April.Kate Smith Kendall, PhB'22, May.Arthur W. Jackson, PhB'23, May.Ruth Brown Kahn, PhB'23, April.Rossita Byrne Sweeney, PhB'24.Wilbur D. Dunkel, PhD'25, June.George Dykhuizen, AM'25, PhD'34, March.Colston E. Warne, PhD'25, May. J. Fletcher Agnew, PhB'26, March.Katherine Allen, PhB'26, April.DionysiusH. Lickteig, AB'26.Elsie Markus Nasatir, PhB'26, June.Ruth Countermine Blunt, PhB'27, January.Charles I. Henry, MAT'27, March.Theodore J. Smith, MD'27, April.Herbert Blumer, PhD'28, April.Clarence R. Conklin, JD'28, June.Robert M. Engberg, SB'28, PhD'37, May.GerhardtE. Rast, PhB'28, AM'33, May.John Yesair, PhD'28, March.Sydney Crawford Bland, AM'29, April.M. Ray Doubles, JD'29, April.Ward E. Gamble, MAT'29, December.1930-1939Robert W. Boyle, PhB'30, April.Stanley Z. Dicker, PhB'30, April.Donald H. Steward, PhB'31, AM'33, April.Arthur M. Weimer, AM'31, PhD'34, April.Carolyn E. Wills, SB'31, SM'40, May.Theodore A. Ashford, SB'32, SM'34, PhD'36,April.Jeannette Smith "Jackie" Cahill, PhB'32, July.O. Dorothy Schulz Fletcher, PhB'32, February.Charles E. Weir, SB'32, April.Katherine Finchy, AM'34, May.Frances Bland Christiansen, PhB'35, June.Ethelyn Mitchell, PhB'35, May.Abraham H. Perman, MD'35, June.Robert H. Bethke, AB'37, April.Helen I. Brecht, SM'37, December.Oscar J. Graham, MD'37, May.Oscar Lanphar, Jr., AB'37, AM'40, December.Louise Trager Dunphy, SM'38, May.Dean E. Krueger, AB'38, AM'42, March.Prudence Tomlinson Lyle, X'38, May.Nina Detwiler Saar, PhB'38, March.James W. Brown, AM'39, PhD'47, April.Rosemary Nelson, MD'39, May.J. Lewis Yager, AB'39, PhD'44, April.1940-1949Ruth De Mond Brooks, AM'40, May.Stephen J. Kruzich, MD'40, May.Martha E. Walz Reichert, AB'40, June.Bliss Forbush, AB'41, AM'47, April.A. Leland Jamison, PhD'41, December.Helene Sensenich Lit, AM'41, April.Lucille Halperin Ollendorff, AB'41, AM'58,AM'70, May.William C. Hern, MBA'42, March.G. Donald Smith, AM'42, PhD'46, June.RobertO. Weedfall, SB'42, February.Grace E. Conn, AM'43, April.Pauline R. Goldstein Green, AB'44, May.AbbaH. Salzman, SB'44, PhD'56, April.Mimi Gantz Connorton, AB'45, February.Dorothy E. Sutton, AM'45, March.Lyman B. Burbank, AM'46, June.Leila L. Stuart Rowe, PhB'46, MAT'71, April.46 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987Robert L. Fleming, PhD'47, April.Ruth C. Kelly, AM'47, March.Winifred SchlosserMetzler, AM'48, May.Richard T. Renck, PhB'48, AM'53, PhD'65, May.Lawrence Kohlberg, AB'49, PhD'58.Algerd F. Zavist, SM'49, PhD'50, June.1950-1959John W. Dyckman, AM'51, PhD'57, June.Melvin Lurie, AM'51, PhD'58, May.Walter R. Schneemann, AM'51.Gordon Barkwell, PhD'53, February.James H. Goodfriend, AB'53, March.Christopher Moore, DB'53, June.Babette M. Becker, AM'54, PhD'57.Lucy Jen Huang Hickrod, PhD'54, April.Robert Horwitz, PhD'54, May.Carl N. Pehlke, MBA'54, May.Melanie Loewenthal Pflaum, PhB'29, A Walk-On Part (Pegasus Press). In her first nonfictionbook after publishing twelve novels, Pflaum tellsof her life as a writer and as the wife of a newspapercorrespondent and foreign editor.Laura Epstein, SB'34, AM'36, Helping People:The Task Centered Approach, second edition (MerrillPublishing). This revised edition describes thetask centered model in social service and examinesproblems, intervention tactics, step-contracting,achievement and monitoring of tasks that makesuch an approach useful and flexible in differentsettings and client groups. Epstein is professoremerita at the University's School of Social ServiceAdministration.James F. Doster, AM'36, PhD'48, and David C.Weaver, Tenn-Tom Country: The Upper Tombigbee Valley(The University of Alabama Press). This bookgives a history of the Upper Tombigbee Valley ofwestern Alabama and northeastern Mississippiand portrays the conflicts and problems created bythe construction of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, which opened in 1985. Doster is professoremeritus of history at the University of Alabama.Morris H. Goran, SB'36, SM'39, PhD'57, ATreasury of Science Jokes (Lincoln-Herndon Press). Acollection of nontechnical jokes, puns, and storiesinvolving twenty-four different sciences.Donna Dickey Guyer, AB'36, Three (Exposition Press). A romantic novel in which Chicagoand the University of Chicago figure prominently.Guyer is a free-lance writer with many poems,short stories, and nonfiction works to her credit.Rita Mayer Ransohoff, AM'41, Venus After Forty (New Horizon Press) . The author offers facts behind the myths about the sexuality of middle-agedwomen, discussing the effects of the myths onboth sexes: on men who compulsively seek outyounger and younger women, and on women whobelieve the myths and become obsessed with staying young. Ransohoff, a New York psychotherapist, gives lectures and workshops about sexualityin middle age.Morgan Gibson, X'46, and Hiroshi Murakami, translators and commentators, Tantric Poetryof Kukai (Kobo Daishi), Japan's Buddhist Saint (WhitePine Press). Gibson teaches English at ChukyoUniversity, Japan.Alvan R. Feinstein, SB'47, SM'48, MD'52,Clinimetrics (Yale University Press). In this book,Feinstein proposes more humanistic scientificprocedures in the diagnosis and treatment of disease that include the patients' subjective experience of their illness. Feinstein is professor of medicine and epidemiology at Yale University School ofMedicine, New Haven, CT.Peter H. Wolff, SB'48, MD'50, The Development David M. Freifelder, SB'57, PhD'59, March.Samuel Alessi, MBA'59, February.1960-1969Nancy Gordon Datan, AM'61, PhD'71, May.John H. Loose, AM'62, PhD'63, February.Norman S. Pattison, JD'62, May.Morton Goldstein, AM'65, PhD'70,November 1986.Christopher R. Hopps, MD'66, August 1986.Maynard Calnek, AM'69, February.1970-1979Colleen M. O'Connor, AB'75, August 1986.Eugene T. Michal, AB'78, November 1986.1980-Valerie Dunn, AB'80, March.Joel M. Schafer, MBA'86, May.Ik- of Behavioral States and the Expression of Emotions in Ear-on ly Infancy: New Proposals for Investigation (Universitylis of Chicago Press). In this book Wolff counters>er current attitudes in human development, and proposes a metaphor of the infant as an open, self->le: organizing system with partial, mutative mecha-•ill nisms of development. Wolff is professor ofhe psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and seniores associate in psychiatry at Children's Hospital,Lg, Boston.ke Robert E. Lynott, SB '49, The Weather Tomorrow:nt Why Can't They Get It Right? (Gadfly Press). Behind-or the-scenes analysis of a federal agency's strangle-ce hold on local public forecasting.Carmen Johnson, AM'52, Occupation Journal:C. Women at the Grassroots (Domes Publication). Thisley Japanese-language book relates the author's expe-ok riences from 1946 to 1951 as a civilian in Japan withof the U. S. occupation force.»pi Norbert T. Porile, AB'52, SM'54, PhD'57,by Modern University Chemistry (Harcourt Brace/a- Jovanovich) . This textbook is for high-level or hon-;or ors courses in general chemistry. Porile is profes-a. sor of chemistry at Purdue University, West Lafay-A ette, IN.A Virginia Walcott Beauchamp, PhD'55, editor,ies A Private War: Letters and Diaries of Madge Preston,1862-1867 (Rutgers University Press). Madgesi- Preston, the wife of William Preston, democrat,go criminal lawyer, slaveholder, politician, and sup-ly. porter of the Confederacy during the Civil War, re-is, veals in her private writings a dark undercurrentt. in the apparently ideal family life she led in Balti-br- more. Beauchamp is assistant professor of English>e- at the University of Maryland at College Park.ed Dickinson Weber, SM'58, A Fantasy Sketchbookon of Neo-Baroque Street Views in Madly Monumental Ma-•ut drid, Continental Capital of Imperial Iberia (Sandscapeho Press). Weber combines a graphic layout and colly- lection of sketches of downtown Madrid with a lit-ra- erary complement for each sketch in an attempt toity relay the atmosphere of this city. This is part of aseries of similar projects celebrating unique worldra- capitals.try Anne Maxwell Seiden, AB'59, MD'64, andite Marilyn Heins, Child Care/Parent Care (Doubleday &yo Co.). In addition to giving medical, scientific, andpsychological information on child care, the au-)2, thors stress the care of the parents, offering sug->k, gestions on how to minimize parental guilt.fie Seiden, associate professor of psychiatry and pubis- lie health at the University of Illinois at Chicago,ri- is chairperson of psychiatry at Cook County Hos-di- pital, Chicago. She has a private practice in psy-of chiatry and is on staff at Michael Reese Hospital,Chicago.ent Robert L. Beisner, AM'60, PhD'65, and Joan R. Challinor, editors, Arms at Rest: Peacemaking andPeacekeeping in American History (Greenwood Press).Beisner is professor and chair of the Department ofHistory at the American University, Washington,DC, which honored him in May for "outstandingservice to the university community."Alan Dowty, AM'60, PhD'63, Closed Borders:The Contemporary Assault on Freedom of Movement (YaleUniversity Press). This book traces how differentcountries throughout history have dealt withmovement in and out of their borders, exploreswhy governments resort to restrictive measures,and describes the effects these policies have had.Dowty is professor of political science at the University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN.Mary Braatz Gardner, AM'61, Keeping Warm( Atheneum). This is Gardner's first novel. She andher husband, Russell Gardner, Jr., MD'62, live inGalveston, TX. Mary writes and teaches at the marine branch of Texas A & M University, and Russellis professor of psychiatry at the University of TexasMedical Branch.William B. Provine, AB'62, AM'65, PhD'70,Sewall Wright and Evolutionary Biology (University ofChicago Press). Based on Wright's correspondence and interviews with Wright, this biographyprovides an introduction to Wright's work in physiological genetics and mathematical populationgenetics. Provine is professor of history and ofecology and systematics at Cornell University,Ithaca, NY.Bruce H. Schoumacher, MBA'63, JD'66, Engineers and the Law: An Overview (Van NostrandRheinhold Co.). Schoumacher is a contributingauthor of Construction Law, and has been writing articles on legal topics for The Specifying Engineer.Peter Cooley, AM '64, The Van Gogh Notebook(Carnegie Mellon). A book of poems that are responses to Van Gogh 's paintings. Canticles and Com-plaintes (Ford-Brown Publishers). A collection ofpoetry. Cooley is professor of English at TulaneUniversity, New Orleans.Paul E. Peterson, AM'64, PhD'67, Kenneth K.Wong, AB'77, AM'80, PhD'83, and Barry G. Rabe,AM'80, PhD'85, When Federalism Works (BrookingsInstitution). The authors consider the implementation and operation of federal programs for education, health care, and housing in four urban areas to learn which federal grant-in-aid programsworked, when they worked, and why. Peterson,director of the governmental studies program atBrookings Institution, edits The Nezv Urban Realityand co-edits The New Direction in American Politics.Wong is assistant professor of political science atthe University of Oregon, Eugene. Rabe is assistant professor of health politics at the School ofPublic Health at the University of Michigan-AnnArbor.Eric Homberger, AM'65, American Writers andRadical Politics, 1930-1939 (Macmillan) and John LeCarre (Methuen). As editor, The Troubled Face of Biography (Macmillan) . Homberger is lecturer in American studies at the University of East Anglia,Norwich, United Kingdom.Matt Cartmill, AM'66, PhD'70, with WilliamL. Hylander and James Shafland, Human Structures(Harvard University Press). For premedical andfirst-year medical students, this book offers an introduction to human gross anatomy with a twofold approach: to view the basics of anatomy froma broad scientific perspective, and to explain thefacts of form and function in elementary terms andconcepts. Cartmill is professor of anatomy at DukeUniversity Medical Center, Durham, NC.Charles Shireman, PhD'66, and Frederic G.Reamer, AM'75, PhD'78, Rehabilitating Juvenile Justice (Columbia University Press). Shireman is professor emeritus at the University's School of SocialService Administration and lives in Portland, OR.Reamer is associate professor at Rhode Island College, Providence.Michael J. Buckley, PhD'67, At the Origins ofModern Atheism (Yale University Press) . The authorBOOKS by Alumni47investigates the origins and development of modern atheism and argues that its impetus lies paradoxically in the very attempts to counter it. Buckley is professor of systematic theology at the JesuitSchool of Theology, Berkeley Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, CA.Dorcas Susan Butt, PhD'67, The Psychology ofSport: The Behavior, Motivation, Personality and Performance of Athletes, second edition (Van NostrandReinhold). The author puts forth a theoreticalframework in which sport is examined, and explains the classic areas of psychology that haveprovided the foundations for modern sport psychology. Butt is associate professor of psychologyat the University of British Columbia, Vancouver,Canada.Carrie E. Cowherd, AM'67, PhD'72, PersiusSaturae (Bryn Mawr Latin Commentary Series).Cowherd is assistant director of the Vergilian Society's study tours at the Villa Vergiliana, Cuma,Italy.Michael Goldfield, AM'67, AM'78, PhD'84,The Decline of Organized Labor in the United States (University of Chicago Press). The author arguesagainst standard explanations for the decline ofunions in the United States, and demonstratesthat the major causes of the decline lie in thechanging relations between classes. Goldfield isassistant professor of government at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.Nancy Foner, AM'68, PhD'71, New Immigrantsin New York (Columbia University Press). Foner isprofessor of anthropology at the State Universityof New York at Purchase.Danette Gentile Kauffman, AM'69, SurvivingCancer: A Practical Guide for Those Fighting to Win(Acropolis Books). This book provides practicalinformation to enable persons at any stage of cancer to deal effectively with the disease. Kauffmanmanages the corporate services communicationsand travel departments for MCI Telecommunications Corporation. She volunteers as chairpersonof the Metropolitan Washington (DC) Universityfund-raising activities and serves on the University of Chicago Alumni Executive Council.James Marshall Unger, AB'69, AM'71, TheFifth Generation Fallacy: Why Japan Is Betting Its Futureon Artificial Intelligence (Oxford University Press).Unger shows that Japanese researchers are actually less interested in economic coups from its development of high-level computers than in solving afundamental problem concerning their notoriously difficult written language and the challenges itposes for computer technology. Unger is associateprofessor of East Asian languages and literaturesat the University of Hawaii, Honolulu.Scott Bennett, AB'70, The Quantitative Approachin Political Science: An Introduction (Edwin MellenPress).Krin Gabbard, AB'70, and Glen O. Gabbard,Psychiatn/ and the Cinema (University of ChicagoPress). This book includes a cultural and historicalstudy of more than 270 American films from 1904to the present that involve psychotherapists. Theauthors also interpret several recent films according to a variety of psychoanalytic methodologies.Krin Gabbard is associate professor of comparative literature and classics at the State Universityof New York at Stony Brook.Thomas J. Biersteker, AB'72, Multinationals, theState, and Control of the Nigerian Economy (PrincetonUniversity Press). The author evaluates the sources of Third World economic nationalism and assesses the significance of the changes that havetaken place between North and South since theearly 1970s. Biersteker is associate professor in theSchool of International Relations and director ofthe Center for International Studies at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles.Constance Brittain Bouchard, AM'73, PhD'76,Sword, Miter, and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy, 980-1198 (Cornell University Press). Bouchardexplains the surprisingly close relationship be tween the nobility and reformed monasteries in aregion considered to be the heart of aristocratic andmonastic Europe during the High Middle Ages.Bouchard has taught at the University of California-San Diego, the University of California-Irvine, andSan Diego State University.Dianne M. Pinderhughes, AM'73, PhD'77,Race and Ethnicity in Chicago Politics: A Reexaminationof Pluralist Theory (University of Illinois Press). Theauthor describes the process by which threeimportant racial and ethnic groups in Chicago-blacks, Italians, and Poles— transformed themselves from migrants and immigrants into American citizens and residents of an urban politicalenvironment. Pinderhughes is a faculty memberin the political science department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Patricia A. Heller Adler, AM'74, and PeterAdler, AM'74, Membership Roles in Field Research(Sage). Patricia is assistant professor of sociologyat the University of Colorado, Boulder. Peter isassociate professor and chairperson of the Department of Sociology at the University of Denver. The Adlers co-edit the Journal of ContemporaryEthnography and Sociological Studies of ChildDevelopment.Jann Pasler, AM'74, PhD '81, editor, Confronting Stravinsky: Man, Musician, and Modernist (University of California Press). This collection of essays balances the biographical and theoreticalanalyses that have dominated Stravinsky scholarship with points of view from cultural history,aesthetics, performance practice, painting, anddance. Pasler teaches in the Department of Musicat the University of California-San Diego.Ellen Skerrett, AM'74, with Lawrence J. McCaffrey, Michael F. Funchion, and Charles Fanning, The Irish in Chicago (University of IllinoisPress). This book examines the history, religion,politics, and literature of one of Chicago's mostinfluential ethnic groups. Skerrett is a free-lancewriter and editor in Chicago.Kym Anderson, AM'75, with Yujiro Hayami,et al, The Political Economy of Agricultural Protection:East Asia in International Perspective (Allen and Un-win). With Ross Garnaut, Australian Protectionism:Extent, Causes, and Effects (Allen and Unwin).Kevin Krisciunas, AM'76, Astronomical Centersof the World (Cambridge University Press). Krisciunas works for the Hawaii Headquarters of theUnited Kingdom Infrared Telescope Unit.David Mayers, AM'76, PhD'79, and RichardA. Melanson, editors, Reevaluating Eisenhower:American Foreign Policy in the Fifties (University of Illinois Press). This book presents a wide range ofscholarly opinion about the foreign policy ofEisenhower and his controversial secretary ofstate, John Foster Dulles. Mayers is assistant professor of politics at the University of California-Santa Cruz.Donald R. Hettinga, AM'77, PhD'83, andJohn H. Timmerman, In the World: Reading and Writing as a Christian (Baker Book House). The authorspresent a Christian approach to teaching the process of writing, and provide a broad selection ofreadings arranged to stimulate students to thinkcritically from a Christian perspective. Hettinga isassistant professor of English at Calvin College,Grand Rapids, MI.Bonnie Birtwistle Honigsblum, AM'77,PhD'85, editor, with author Kate L. Turabian, AManual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, fifth edition (University of Chicago Press).Honigsblum revised and expanded Turabian'sManual for Writers, designed to help the author atany level and in any discipline take advantage ofcurrent methods, materials, and technologies.Honigsblum teaches English and is a writing consultant. Turabian was editor of official publications and dissertation secretary at the Universityfor over twenty-five years.Ward Keeler, AM'77, PhD '82, Javanese ShadowPlays, Javanese Selves (Princeton University Press). By a context-sensitive analysis of shadow-playperformances, Keeler shows that they fascinate somany people in Java because they dramatize consistent Javanese concerns about potency, status,and speech. Keeler is assistant professor of. anthropology at Barnard College, New York.Eugene Rochberg-Halton, PhD'79, Meaning andModernity: Social Theory in the Pragmatic Attitude (University of Chicago Press). Drawing on the works ofJohn Dewey, George Herbert Mead, and particularly C. S. Peirce, Rochberg-Halton attempts to reconstruct concepts from philosophical pragmatism forcontemporary social theory. Rochberg-Halton is assistant professor of sociology at the University ofNotre Dame, Notre Dame, IN.Norman Cutler, PhD'80, Songs of Experience: ThePoetics of Tamil Devotion (Indiana University Press).Cutler uses modern methods of contemporary rhetorical criticism to analyze the poems of six Tamilpoets whose work communicated their personalexperience of God and evoked that sameexperience in their audience. Cutler is assistantprofessor in the Department of South Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University.Martin P. Starr, AB'81, editor, Snowdrops from aCurate's Garden (Teitan Press). To this, edition ofAleister Crowley's caricature of erotic fiction,Starr has added an account of the period in whichSnowdrops was written and of the author's attitudes on sex in literature. Starr is supervisor of biographical data in the information services department of the University's development office.Scott S. Powell, AB'82, AM'83, Covert Cadre:Inside the Institute for Policy Studies (Jameson Books).Powell's article "Deterrence and the Political-Psychological Conflict" appeared in the winter1987 edition of Strategic Review Powell has alsopublished a monograph, Advancing Latin AmericanRevolution in Washington.J. Mark Thomas, PhD'83, Ethics and Technocul-ture (University Press of America). The authortraces the debate over the normative meaning oftechnological society to its philosophical and theological roots. Thomas teaches religion at RiponCollege, Ripon, WI.James P. Wind, PhD'83, The Bible and the University: The Messianic Vision of William Rainey Harper(Scholars Press). Wind examines the career ofWilliam Rainey Harper, first president of the University, and discusses the fact that Harper wasone of only a few university-builders who helpedgive American higher education its distinctivecharacter during the nineteenth century. Wind isdirector of research and publications at the ParkRidge Center, Park Ridge, IL, and is editor of Second Opinion.Werner G. Jeanrond, PhD'84, Text and Interpretation as Categories of Theological Thinking (J. C. B.Mohr: Paul Siebeck). This volume introduces athree-dimensional concept of text interpretation,investigates the textuality of texts and the processof reading, and assesses the hermeneutical character of theology and theology's particular contribution to human understanding. Jeanrond is lecturer at Trinity College, University of Dublin,Ireland.Augustus Richard Norton, PhD'84, Amal andthe Shi'a: Struggle for the Soul of Lebanon (Universityof Texas Press). Norton is associate professor ofsocial science at the U.S. Military Academy, WestPoint, NY.Kenneth L. Harris, JD'85, co-author, S Corporations (Illinois Institute for Continuing Legal Education). This professional practice handbook forlawyers analyzes the considerations in formingand operating an S corporation. Harris is an associate with the Chicago law firm Jenner & Block.Linda De Ane Lagerquist, PhD'86, From OurMother's Arms: A History of Women in the American Lutheran Church (Augsburg Publishing House). Aseditor, The Better Part: Devotions from the LutheranWomen's Caucus. Lagerquist is assistant professor atValparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN. S48 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE/FALL 1987LETTERSContinued from inside front coverthe Congress just after reading the extract inthe Magazine [SUMMER/87] from AllanBloom's best seller, The Closing of the American Mind....I agree [with Bloom] that we shouldbuild the university curricula around values. But how should we try to use his GreatBooks examination of values to judge the difficult choice between good and evil rendered by Secretary Shultz?Shultz described how he had to definehis moral and political position. His integrity had been compromised by the self-confessed liars in the White House, and hehad bitterly condemned the attempt to ransom American hostages with illicit armssales. Asked by Republican critics on theCongressional committee why he had notresigned, he replied: "You do not play thegame that way." If the President impetuously seizes an absurd (if not illicit) initiative,the Secretary of State does not desert him. Ifthe President's paper-shredding trustiesconsistently lie to the Congress and the Cab inet, there is no cause to make the matter apublic issue In examining this current morality play,what guidance should we seek from conservatives who knowingly distinguish betweengood and evil, and who now enjoy both popular esteem and political power? Can wedraw upon their objective values and civilizing missions to judge Shultz's decision—to protect his office and his President rather than the established principles of theConstitution?...Is there a practical substance to the newconservatism on the Midway at this time ofconstitutional scandal? Is there some guidance it can provide when we evaluate themoral dilema of George Shultz and the otherleaders caught in the Iranscam deception?Are we more true to the higher values to callfor the resignation of a politician who hasbetrayed the principles of the Constitution,or is there some conservative escape clausewhich excuses the poor guardian of the lawwho struggled with the hard realities ofgood and evil— and then settled for "plausible deniability"?Walter Goldstein, PhD'61Albany, NY Gift Quiz Answers1. The handkerchief was given by "an Egyptian" to Othello's mother, who gave it on herdeathbed to him, telling him to give it to hisfuture wife. Othello gives it to Desdemona,who accidentally lets it drop one day. Emiliapicks it up and and gives it to her husbandIago at his request, and Iago plants it inCassio's rooms. Cassio then gives it to hismistress, Bianca. Othello thinks that Desdemona has given the handkerchief to Cassio,and finds in it the "ocular proof" of herinfidelity.2. In O. Henry's story, "The Gift of the Magi, "Delia, the wife, cuts off her long hair andsells it to get money to buy her husband Jima Christmas gift, "a platinum watch chain,simple and chaste in design." At the sametime, Jim sells his watch to buy Delia "beautiful combs, pure tortoise shell, with jewelledrims, " just the shade to wear in her beautiful hair.3. In (A) Bulgaria, don't bring yellow flowers;it signifies hatred. In (B) East Germany, present your flowers unwrapped. In (C) Greece,make sure your flower arrangement or plantis wrapped. In(D) Yugoslavia bring an oddnumber of flowers, but never 13. Don't bringchrysanthemums in either (E) France or (F)Hungary; they signify mourning. And justfor good measure, remember that in (B) EastGermany, (as in many other places) red rosessignify romance.THE ORDER OF THE C PRESENTS THE EDWARD J. ROHNSCULPTURE OF AMOS ALONZO STAGGThe varsity lettermen's club of the University of Chicago is proud topresent to our fellow alumni this extraordinary bust of Amos AlonzoStagg. The bust is a bisque-fired porcelain limited edition run of thepiece pictured here mounted on a walnut-finished base to stand afull ten inches high. Orders must be received by November 15thwith delivery scheduled for January 31st.You can get a bust by contributing $250 to the Order of the C.thereby helping us support varsity athletics at the University of Chicago.In order not to deny anyone this unique opportunity, you may reserve abust for $75 with the balance paid within a year.Stagg's ideals of excellence and above all sportsmanship have inspiredChicago's athletes for nearly a century. It is a fitting tribute that the Orderof the C (founded in 1904 by Mr. Stagg) offers this remarkable likeness asChicago launches a new era in intercollegiate athletics. Our youngathletes will now compete with students from Case Western,Carnegie-Mellon, New York University, Johns Hopkins, and othermembers of our new conference. This represents a substantialupgrade in the level of competition in every sport.Please join with the Order of the C and help makeChicago's debut in the University Athletic Association a success.Your donation of $250 will get us off to a roaring start. Pleasesend check payable to:Order of the C - University of ChicagoBartlett Gymnasium5640 South UniversityChicago, Illinois 60637And on the way she dropped it. . .Just in case the neighbor's dog prevented the mailman from delivering our fund-raising letter; or thebaby spilled puree of beets on it; or you absent-mindedly tossed it, unopened, into the wastebasket, you canstill have a chance to try your hand at our quiz on gifts. After you've proven how smart you are, we trust youwill go one step further on that proposition and send a voluntary contribution of $ 15 to help defray the costsof producing and mailing The University of Chicago Magazine, along with an item about yourself for ClassNews or Books.More on our quiz on gifts:1 . In Shakespeare's Othello, who originallygave a handkerchief to whom? Can you,without referring to the text, name the nexttwo recipients of the same handkerchief?2. In O. Henry's famous story, "The Gift ofthe Magi, " what did the husband and wifegive to each other? On what occasion? Whywere the gifts unsuitable?3. It's customary around the world to take a giftof flowers to your host/hostess. In country A,Thank you in advance for your voluntary contribution. Please remember, The Magazine will stillcome to you, if you don't choose to contribute. If you do, please make your check payable to TheUniversity of Chicago Magazine and send it to:The University of Chicago Magazine, 5757 S. Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, IL 60637you should not bring yellow flowers. In country B, if you bring flowers, present them unwrapped. In country C, don't bring cut flowers;bring, instead, a flower arrangement or plant andmake sure it's wrapped. In country D you shouldbring an odd number of flowers, but shouldavoid bringing a certain number of them. Whatis the latter number? In countries E and F youshould not bring chrysanthemums. Can youname countries A, B, C, D, E, and F?Want to check your score? Turn to the insideback cover.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINERobie House, 5757 S. WoodlawnChicago, IL 60637ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED