IHE/UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE//VOLUME LXXNUMBER 3SPRING 1978THE UNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEVolume LXX, Number 3Spring 1978Alumni Association5733 South University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312) 753-2175President: Charles W. Boand (LLB'33,MBA'57)Director: David R. Leonetti (AB'58)Assistant Director: Ruth HalloranProgram Director: Gwen WitsamanAlumni Schools CommitteeCoordinator: J. Robert Ball, Jr.Regional Offices1888 Century Park East, Suite 222Los Angeles, California 90067(213)277-7727825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030New York, New York 10022(212)935-19771000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415)928-03372737 Devonshire Place, NWWashington, D.C. 20008(202) 332-3950Second-class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois, and at additional mailing offices.Copyright 1978 by The University ofChicago. Published quarterly Spring, Summer,Fall, and Winter by the Vice Presidentfor Public Affairs. CONTENTSOn the Midway 2People and Things:Reflections on MaterialismMihaly Czikszentmihalyi andEugene Rochberg-HaltonNostalgia 1 6Postcard from Olympus 1Alumni News 20Class Notes 22Letters to the Editor 28Credits 28Cover Note 29Editor: Iris M. PoliskiEditorial Assistant: Paula S. AusickON THE MIDWAYJ^^r^Q^^lA Secret LifeAt the time of her death last summer,Ursula Wolff Schneider was best remembered for being the staff photographer at the Oriental InstituteMuseum at the University for more thanthirty years. In the subsequent months,public attention focused, for the firsttime, on her private life and early work.In March and April, an exhibit of herphotographs, called "A Photographer's World," was mounted in the OrientalInstitute Museum. Museum CuratorJohn Carswell said, "What started out asa gesture of recognition of service by aformer employee has turned out to besomething quite different. When weexamined her photographs, we discovered that she had a highly professional and successful career as a photographer in Europe before she came toIn the country: Germany in the 30s. the United States. She left a remarkabledocumentation of life in Germany andother European countries in the 30s. Wehoped that the exhibit might draw attention to the mass of material that is available for study."Schneider worked in Germany at thetime of the development of the photoessay in journalism. She was involved inthe expansion of photography's subjectmatter taking place at that time. Herwork reflects an emphasis on weather,night scenes, unusual lighting effects,and points of view.She was born in Berlin in 1906 andstudied photography there, in Hamburg,and in Vienna. She opened a studio inHamburg in 1929 where she specializedin photographing architecture, paintings, and sculpture. She was a featurephotographer for major newspapers inBerlin and Hamburg.In 1932, she accepted a commissionto document major sculptural and architectural remains in Greece. The resulting photos are in the collections ofseveral museums. She came to Chicagoin 1937 and married Karl Schneider,one of the pioneers of modern Germanarchitecture. She knew many Bauhausnotables, in addition to writers, musicians, and artists.Her work at the Oriental Institutebegan in 1942 for archeologist ErichSchmidt, the excavator of the Persiancapital of Persepolis, and she preparedprints for the lavish volumes describingthis excavation. After his death, she continued as Institute staff photographer,turning out photo orders and makingrecord shots of artifacts until her retirement in 1973. She continued to workalmost full-time as a volunteer, selectingprints and writing text for a microficheedition of the Persepolis material whichwas published in her name.Ursula Schneider is remembered byher Chicago colleagues as critical of thequality of her own work and that ofothers. She took an eager interest in everything going on around her; shealmost never spoke of herself or herphotography.Her friends were carefully chosenand, when they gathered after her death,they discovered that none of them knewone another, or even about one another.Ms. Schneider had kept each friend separate and to herself. Each was expert andinterested in a special area. She hadcompartmentalized her life, in a way,like her negatives which the Institutefound, shortly after her death — some6,000 personal negatives, all neatlycatalogued and filed.— -Judith Franke2EVERY GIRL PULLINGFOR VICTORYVICTORY GIRLS The poster is 8V2 x 11 inches and ismatted on a maroon frame(11 X 14 inches).Pull for VictoryA World War I "Victory Girls" posterhas been adapted to celebrate the organizational success of the University'sWomen's Crew (UCWC).Mrs. Danette Kauffman, AM'69, analumna from the Washington, D.C. area,redesigned and printed the rowingfigure on heavy silvertone paper withmaroon ink. Bearing the name and thelogo of the Women's Crew, the posterwill be sold for twenty-five dollars eachto help expand the activities of one of thehardest-working student groups oncampus.Since its beginnings in October 1975,Women's Crew has come a long way. AllUCWC oars now carry the varsity "C" inwhite against a maroon background joining the ranks of the Yale "Y", the Harvard "H", and the Wisconsin "W" —three teams which UCWC would like todominate in rowing competition. Theteam has gained national coverage from the sports media and respect from othercrews for its fierce determination. TheBoston Globe and Oarsman Magazine attest to the team's salience. "EyewitnessChicago" (ABC) television news has described the team's crack-of-dawn rowingwork-outs on the Lincoln Park Lagoons.UCWC plans to establish a formalsupport arm of the team called Friendsof the Women's Crew. Financial supportfrom the University community andinterested individuals has enabled theteam to purchase necessary equipmentto enter competitions. A new Pocockfour-man racing shell and a team vanpurchased this year (in addition to theeight-man racing shell purchased in1975) will help to consolidate the sporton campus.For information about the poster andthe Friends of the Women's Crew, writeto The University of Chicago Women'sCrew, 1649 East 50th Street, 3F,Chicago, Illinois 60615. ScoreboardBASKETBALL(Men) 7 wins 12 lossesChicago 68 Coe College 65Chicago 83Chicago 63Chicago 54Chicago 56Chicago 50Chicago 66Chicago 35Chicago 72Chicago 74Chicago 56Chicago 67Chicago 72Chicago 82Chicago 43Chicago 74Chicago 54 Grinnell 62Duke U. 99Drexel U. 78Haverford 60Westminster 52Knox 84Lake Forest 45Roosevelt U. 64Lawrence 69Lake Forest 57Beloit 65Northwestern 49(Wisconsin)Ripon 86Lawrence 63Roosevelt U. 105Loyola U. 85(Benefit game for Evansville)(Women)Chicago 49Chicago 5 1Chicago 58Chicago 68Chicago 73Chicago 60 12 wins 8 lossesValparaiso 52Trinity 45North Park 44Lewis 58St. Xavier 18Penn 56(Massachusetts Invitational)Chicago 61 Brown 66(Massachusetts Invitational)Chicago 45 Concordia 42Chicago 63 Lake Forest 45Chicago 55 Greenville 66Chicago 55 George Williams 60Chicago 62 Chicago State 63Chicago 63 Knox 45Chicago 77 Mundelein 46Chicago 46 U. of Illinois 76Chicago 64 Eastern Illinois 61State TournamentChicago 75 St. Francis 62Chicago 52 Quincy 47Chicago 46 George Williams 61Chicago 68 Milliken 88FENCING7 wins 7 lossesWRESTLINGDual Meets 0—4 — 0Lawrence Invitational 7thElmhurst 10thKnox Invitational 10thMidwest Collegiate 9th3Above: Sketch for St. Cecilia at Music withAngels by Paul Troger. This is a 1747preparatory sketch for the ceiling fresco overthe organ loft of the Church of St. Ignatiusin Gyor, Hungary. Right: Pastel Drawing,1977 by Vera Klement. Art at the Smart GalleryGerman and Austrian Painting of theEighteenth Century is on view throughJune 11 at the David and Alfred SmartGallery. Gallery Director Edward A.Maser organized the exhibition showingforty examples of mythological, religious, historical, and genre subjects ofsome of the major artists who dominated German and Austrian art duringthis period. Maser, a professor in theDepartments of Art and of GermanicLanguages and Literature, is teaching agraduate course in "Eighteenth CenturyGerman and Austrian Art" to coincidewith the exhibition, thereby fulfillingone aim of the Smart Gallery — to be ateaching museum.From March 9 through April 9, sevenartists, members of the faculty of theUniversity's Committee on Art and Design, exhibited their works at the Gallery. Exhibiting their works were: Ka-nani Bell, photoconstructions, drawing,and an installation of pedestals andstones; Thomas Mapp, pencil drawingsbased on the first picture transmittedfrom Mars in July 1976; Robert Peters,charcoal drawings dealing with questionsof semantics applied to visual problems;Vera Klement, large, colorful pasteldrawings inspired by the forms of ancient pottery; Richard Shiff, paintingsbased on the resolutions of the contradictions he sees between the creationof art and the study of art history; JoelSnyder, photographs which explore texture and nuance of photographic surfaces; and Laura Volkerding, photographs dealing with a two-point perspective achieved by using a special camera.The David and Alfred Smart Galleryis located on the campus at 5550Greenwood Avenue and is open to thepublic, free of charge, Tuesday throughSaturday from 10 AM to 4 PM and Sunday from noon to 4pm.Rousing, RousingOn a gloomy day late in January, personspassing the door to the north ReynoldsClub Lounge were electrified to hearstirring and tumultous song. "Songs ofMass Emotion," said the poster on thedoor, and they certainly were: civil warsongs, national anthems, alma maters,and college fight songs came roiling outof the lounge to attract passers-by.The performers were Professor NeilHarris at the piano, and Elsa Charlston,Mignon Hickman, Darrell Rowader, andJim Tucker: soprano, contralto, tenorand bass, respectively. Billing themselves as "The Company," the group hadabout it the kind of competence that oneseeks when executing a successful revolution.Their performance was one of winterquarter's Noontimers, musical eventsduring Wednesday lunch hours designedto delight and dispel midweek doldrums. Sponsored by the Office of Student Activities, the Noontimers includeall manner of music, sometimes withcurious juxtapositions. For instance,during the March 8 celebration of International Women's Day on the Quadrangle, folk singers David Frantz andDavid Pace provided pleasing counterpoint to the spirited soprano cheeringoutdoors, with the mournful refrain,"California lady, take my blues away."Photography Exhibit at RegensteinPhotographs of some of the world's leading contemporary poets were exhibitedin the Joseph Regenstein Library's firstfloor gallery during March. The photographs were by Layle Silbert, PhB'33,AM'38, who is also a writer and a poet.She is a founding member of the NewYork Poets' Cooperative, and many ofher subjects are associated with thatgroup.A lecture and reading were held inconjunction with Silbert's exhibit; theproject was sponsored by the LibrarySociety of the Joseph Regenstein Library. Poet Stanley Kunitz photographed by Layle Silbert.COUTCTTheATKe Court Theatre Summer ScheduleMACBETH by William Shakespeare, directed by PatrickO'Gara. Opens July 6.SHE STOOPS TO CONQUER by Oliver Goldsmith, directed by D. Nicholas Rudall. Opens July 13.the WINTER'S tale by William Shakespeare, directedby Michael Maggio. Opens July 20.Court Theatre plays Thursday through Sunday eveningsat 8:30 PM. Beginning July 30 there will be Sundaymatinees at 3:00 PM. The season closes September 3.After each play runs for one weekend as scheduled, thethree plays will continue in repertory all summer long.Interested persons should call (312) 753-3581 or writeCourt Theatre, 5706 University, Chicago, 60637, for abrochure.People and ThingsREFLECTIONSONMATERIALISMBy Mihaly Csikszentmihalyiand Eugene Rochberg-HaltonIf there is one opinion about the United Statesthat most people around the world seem to agreeon, it is that American culture is distinguished byunprecedented materialism. Yet some astuteobservers from other lands who are wellacquainted with our style of life have claimedexactly the opposite, namely that Americans arethe least materialistic people who have ever lived.The second is decidedly a minority opinion, butits very existence raises the question: what doesmaterialism mean?7TJL here are two contemporary usages of the term,materialism, and it is important to distinguish betweenthem. On the one hand we can talk about instrumentalmaterialism, or the use of material objects to make lifelonger, safer, more enjoyable. By instrumental, wemean that objects act as essential means for discoveringand furthering personal values and goals of life, so thatthe objects are instruments used to realize and furtherthose goals. There is little negative connotation attachedto this meaning of the word, since one would think thatit is perfectly sensible to use things for such purposes.While it is true that the United States is the epitome ofmaterialism in this sense, it is also true that most peoplein every society aspire to reach our level of instrumentalmaterialism.On the other hand the term has a more negative connotation, which might be conveyed by the phrase terminal materialism. This is the sense critics use when theyapply the term to Americans. What they mean is that wenot only use our material resources as instruments tomake life more manageable, but that we reduce ourultimate goals to the possession of things. They believethat we don't just use our cars to get from place to place,but that we consider the ownership of expensive carsone of the central values in life. Terminal materialismmeans that the object is valued only because it indicatesan end in itself, a possession. In instrumental materialism there is a sense of directionality, in which a person's goals may be furthered through the interactionswith the object. A book, for example, can reveal newpossibilities or widen a person's view of the world, or anold photograph can be cherished because it embodies arelationship. But in terminal materialism, there is nosense of reciprocal interaction in the relation betweenthe object and the end. The end is valued as final, not asitself a means to further ends. And quite often it is onlythe status label or image associated with the object thatis valued, rather than the actual object. In this sense ofmaterialism "the end justifies the means", because whenone values something only as an end in itself, otherpossible ends or outcomes can be ignored. When a person defines his or her goals primarily in terms of owningthings — a large home, a number of appliances, a diversified portfolio, and so on — one might speak of terminal materialism. And this, critics say, is a decadent setof goals for a culture to have.The distinction is essential from an ecological point ofview. Instrumental materialism has certain built-in limits: human needs for a good life are not all that exorbitant. But terminal materialism might paradoxically leadto an endless escalation of demands on the environment. If we rely on expensive, energy-intensive objectsto give meaning to life, then we are likely to ask for more and more things, more and more energy, until theresources of the planet are exhausted, or the seams ofthe social fabric are torn.Therefore it is essential for survival to answer thequestion: "Is it true that terminal materialism is rampantin our society?" Intuitively most persons, or at leastmost intellectuals, would give a resounding positive answer. For all we know, they might be right. But the factis that very little is known about how people formulategoals in their lives, what weight they give to materialthings, and for what reasons, in their hierarchy of values.Certainly there is no way at this stage to compare withany accuracy the materialistic values of contemporaryAmericans with those, of say, medieval Germans or ancient Romans.s^?everal years ago we began to explore some of theissues involved in this question. We wanted to find outwhat values a cross-section of Americans find in theobjects they own, and what place such objects have intheir overall life goals. Two years ago we were given agrant from the National Institute on Aging, a branch ofthe Public Health Service, to continue our research inearnest. Although much work still needs to be done,some interesting trends have begun to appear.We received permission from a number offamilies in the Chicago Metropolitan Area to visit theirhomes. We interviewed about 300 representativepeople — grandparents, children and grandchildren —about the people they admired most, the things theymost enjoyed doing, the most significant events in theirlives, and so on. In particular, we asked what objects intheir homes were most special, and for what reason;what objects they would save in case of a fire, and why;what objects they felt they should leave to their childrenor would like to get from their parents.We expected that talking about the most significantthings they owned would reveal something importantabout the goals of American people. We hoped to get astart in making clear the outlines of materialism in oursociety. But before we report some of our findings, itmight be useful to review briefly the question as to whatis involved in creating meaning in one's life.Meaning is a process of interpretation through the useof signs and symbols. When something "means something" to us, we are interpreting it in the context of ourpast experiences, either consciously or unconsciously asa habit. Even the feeling that the thing evokes in us is aninterpretation, a sign or symbol of our attitude towardit. A symbol is any sign — sound, object or gesture — thatHas a result of convention becomes associated with images, feelings, or thoughts which are not immediatelygiven in that sign. A leaf, for instance, is inherentlynothing but a leaf. But for Canadians a maple leaf maycause stirrings of patriotism, and fans of the Torontohockey team respond to it with feelings of strong loyalty. The cannabis leaf emblazoned on so many artifactsof the counter-culture might produce rage in a traditional adult, or a sensation of freedom in a teenager. Theacanthus leaf brought thoughts of immortality to theGreeks, while a frond of olive spoke of peace.As humanity began to develop this procedure of making certain things stand for others, the symbols themselves were creating a human being which could reflecton its surroundings and change its own conduct to adegree not even remotely approximated in otherspecies. For if a leaf could produce a sense of peace, anda tooth or bone could induce terror, then things hadqualities which were not immediately apparent or givenin their physical constitution. Thus symbols were able tocarry feelings and attitudes that had an objective existence outside immediate situations, and this development of consciousness is generally considered thegreatest accomplishment of mankind. By freeing sensations from their immediate environment we have become able to deal with them in the abstract, and thus tosome extent have achieved greater self-control and control over the environment. With the help of symbolssuch experiences as fear, love or awe could now becommunicated in words, pictures or ritual acts. The development of symbols in a cultural tradition meant thatman could compare his actions with those of his ancestors to anticipate new experiences. Man's possibilitieswere enlarged because he could learn the accumulatedexperience of his people. This had the two-sided effectof increasing the range of solutions and the range ofproblems. When our goals become short-sighted, wecan actually create more problems than we solve.Of all the symbolic systems language is by far themost prevalent and effective. Every time we say "What anice day," or "This coffee sure tastes good," we reaffirma hierarchy of values by assigning positive characteristicslike "nice" and "good" to certain features of weather andbeverage. When we say "It's time to get up," or "Children should be in bed by now," we implicitly state thedesirability of certain patterns of behavior which, inturn, invoke a whole set of life goals. It is no exaggeration to say, as the sociologists Berger and Luckmannhave said, that it is through conversation that we createand maintain the structure of the world in which we live.If language has a privileged position among symbolsystems, the everyday objects that we surround ourselves with in the home also have an important role toplay. In every culture, household objects have helped tomediate the network of values that give meaning to people's lives. In preliterate societies the carvings andpaintings of the beams, the weavings on the mats, thedecorations on tools and utensils depicted what the inhabitants of the house thought they were and what theywere about. In Rome and China, India and Japan, ancestral shrines expressed the continuity between living anddeparted members of a family. In medieval homes, iconsand crucifixes stood for the relationship betweenpeople's lives and a divine order that was presumed torule the universe.Thus the objects one chooses for oneself constitute asymbolic ecology that integrates in concrete form the elusive strands of meaning which give value to one's life. Asthe anthropologist Clifford Geertz has observed, symbols are both "models of and "models for" living. Onthe one hand they represent the kind of feelings, attitudes and relationships we think exist and matter inthe world. On the other hand they point towards feelings or values that we have not yet reached, but wishedwe had. When things are "models for" values of thiskind, they transcend their material substance and become vehicles for the expansion of the social self.There is nothing mystical about such transcendentpower of symbolic objects. George Herbert Mead, oneof our own intellectual "ancestors" here at the University, and as pragmatic a thinker as anyone could wish,expressed the idea as follows:It is possible for inanimate objects, no less thanfor other human organisms, to form pans of thegeneralized and organized — the completelysocialized — other for any human individual. . . .Any thing — any objects or set of objects ... towards which he acts ... is an element in what forhim is the generalized other; by taking the attitudes of which towards himself he becomes conscious of himself as an object or individual andthus develops a self or personality.JL JL aving outlined some of the concepts that guidedour inquiry, let us now turn to what the urban Americans we studied say about their relationship to materialthings. Our respondents, who were all living in Chicagoor Evanston, mentioned twelve categories of objects ashaving special significance in their lives, in descendingorder of frequency: furniture, painting or other graphicart, musical instruments, books, TV sets, stereo equipment, photographs, plants, plateware, appliances, petsand sports equipment. Each of these categories wasmentioned at least once by at least ten percent of thesample.9The kinds of objects mentioned differed markedly interms of the respondents' age. Table 1 shows the frequencies ranked in terms of the three generations constituting the families interviewed. Perhaps the mostdramatic difference between generations is that childrenare attached to objects with which they can activelyinteract: stereos, musical instruments, pets, sportsequipment, tools, and the refrigerator from which theycan obtain food. The grandparents, on the other hand,prefer objects that allow for passive contemplation:photos, books, paintings, plateware, statues, silverware,and so on. Not one of the objects mentioned frequentlyby grandparents is one that can be actively used.The parental generation combines both trends. Theyfrequently mention interactive objects such as musicalinstruments, plants, stereo and appliances. But they alsomention the kind of objects that grandparents prefer:paintings, books, photos, statues and glassware.It seems clear that with age the meaning generatedfrom objects shifts from doing to reflection. A childplaying with a pet or a teenager fiddling with a stereowill experience feelings that are important to his or herself-definition. The objects become signs for states ofbeing that are central to the person's conception of self.For the young, meaning arises predominantly out of active manipulation of things. For their grandparents, meaning appears to be storedin objects. Pictures, books, silver and china are signs offormer states of being that were once central — and stillare — to the self. They do not need to be interacted withto release their meaning. But what is lacking are thingsthat could produce new meanings through interaction.The repertoire of objects chosen by the older generation is reminiscent of a museum; those preferred bytheir grandchildren embody the liveliness of youth.Nothing illustrates this trend better than the fifth mostfrequently mentioned object in the three groups. Forchildren it was a pet (let us for the moment refrain fromquibbling whether a pet qualifies as an "object"). Fortheir parents it was one or more plants. For their parentsit was some set of plates. The progression from the liveand mobile to the inanimate is quite telling.There is, of course, nothing surprising in the fact thatfor children meanings point to the present or the future,while for their elders they recall the past. What we areexploring is how the environment of things that peoplesurround themselves with helps to produce meaningsappropriate to different stages of the life cycle.The generational differences are particularly clear inthe case of some types of objects. Figure 1 contrasts thefrequency with which five different categories werementioned as being special by the three generations.5040302010Qgeneration 123 123 123 123 123STEREO TV BOOKS PHOTOGRAPHS PLANTSFigure 1. Percent of respondents from three different generations (1 = children, 2 = parents, 3= grandparents) mentioning five different objects as special.10TABLE 1Ten most specia objects mentioned by respor dents of th ree different generationsGENERATIONS1 2 3(62 children) (106 parents) (56 grandparents)Percent Percent Percentmentioned mentioned mentionedtioned tioned tioned1. Furniture 52 Furniture 44 Photographs 382. Stereo 44 Paintings 38 Books 303. TV set 37 Books 24 Paintings4. Musical Musicalinstruments 34 instruments 23 Furniture 205. Pets 26 Plants 19 Plateware 206. Sport equipment 19 Stereo 17 TV set 197. Radio 16 Photographs 16 Statues 148. Refrigerators 13 Statues 14 Silver 139. Tools 11 Appliances 13 China 1310. (Five objects tied) 10 Glassware 13 Textiles, qu Its 13TABLE 2Ten most special objects ment ioned by the pare ntal generation60 MOTHERS 46 FATHERSPercent Percentmentionec mentioned1 . Furniture 50 Furniture 412. Paintings 43 Paintings 303. Musicalinstruments 28 TV 244. Plants 27 Books 225. Books 22 Stereo 256. Photographs 22 Musicalinstruments 157. Plates 22 Cameras 118. Statues 20 Tools 119. Glassware 20 Trophies 1110. Appliances 17 Lamps 11The importance of stereos declines steadily with age.Television sets decline in importance from children toparents, but then increase again for grandparents. Withage books, and especially photographs, become increasingly special as repositories of meaning. Plants arementioned almost twice as often by the middle generation than by either the young or the old.Another way of looking at the effect of objects ascarriers of meaning is to contrast their use by males asopposed to females. When the middle generation isbroken down by sex (Table 2), several differences appear. Both groups agree in listing furniture and paintings as most special. But mothers are more likely to findmeaning in traditional symbols like photographs, plate-ware, statues and glassware. Their active involvementcenters on musical instruments, plants, and applicancessuch as sewing-machines or microwave ovens. Thefathers are involved with stereos, musical instruments,cameras and tools. These choices reflect the differentconceptions of self stereotyped by the culture alongsexual roles. The meaning system men build is differentfrom that of women partly because they learn to usedifferent things to objectify experience. The feelingsand thoughts one has in caring for a plant are bound tobe different from the ones a person has when using acamera. As the cluster of objects one pays attention toor interacts with solidifies, so do the meanings one derives from experience with them. As a result, differenttypes of selves emerge around goals embedded in themeanings derived from interactions with different objects.So far, we have inferred meaning from the characteristics of the objects themselves. We are assuming thata plant produces in its caretaker feelings of nurturance,while a trophy is more likely to invoke a feeling of pridein one's past accomplishment. But what do the respondents say about what their objects mean to them? Itis still too early in the study to present definitive conclusions. It is already clear, however, that far and awaythe greatest number of feelings and images produced bythe adult respondents' special objects refer to their immediate families. The objects of the home are specialbecause they embody the memory of persons or occasions involving close relatives.Again, this finding is not one that will raise eyebrowsin surprise. After all, home is home precisely becausethe things in it objectify the experience of being relatedto people one loves and is loved by. Yet it is perhapscomforting to know that despite exposure to moderntechnology, sophisticated urban Americans still find intheir kinship ties the most extensive sources of meaning. Objects are not so much cherished for their material value, for the status image they provide (althoughthis aspect is certainly underestimated by our interviews), but rather because they produce feelings that keep fresh in one's memory experiences shared withone's parent, spouse or child.It is true that preliminary analysis of the data hints attrends that counter this pattern. The more highly educated a person is, for instance, the less likely he or she isto find associations between special objects and thememory of events or relationships involving close relations; instead, the better educated respondents moreoften stress meanings that refer to their own accomplishments, or to places they had visited. Educationthus furthers individuation, a breaking away from kinship ties — although it does not necessarily follow that itemphasizes terminal materialism.TJLhe trends reported thus far begin to illustrate howthe things that surround us help to define who we are.To get a better idea of this process, it might be useful toreview a few case histories that show real people in thecontext of the objects of their household. Throughthese short sketches from our interviews, it will becomeclearer how objects form part of the network of meanings by which a person is defined and in turn defines hisor her self.F.D. is a tool-and-die maker whose main hobby is tobuild and fly model airplanes. His favorite place at homeis the basement, where his tools are located and wherehe says he has the most "control over the environment."His objects are special because through them he can dothose acts that best express what is most uniquely individual in his life. His lathe, for example, enables him tobuild and modify his planes which he flies in competitions.He mentions the astronaut John Glenn as one of thefive persons he most admires. One of F.D.'s own mostcrucial memories involves the time he first soloed as apilot in the Navy. His objects, memories, and heroesthen, all refer to the same meaning; they indicate hispast achievements and serve as models for what hemight accomplish. He has made the flight of John Glenninto outer space somehow his flight, and his exploit in theNavy is described in very similar terms. And now hismodel airplanes link his experiences of flight with theexperiences he derives from the skillful use of tools.His favorite objects, though material, are not valuedprimarily for extrinsic reasons like their monetary orprestige value; they are instrumental as means towardsa goal of self-definition. He describes all of his specialobjects in these terms:But it's your familiar surroundings, your anchorto reality, your anchor to the world you identifyor associate with.12Like the Greek craftsman Daedalus, this man seems tohave harnessed his creative and technical potentialitiesin one activity which is playful, yet related to his occupation, his most outstanding achievements, and deepestlife goals.The significance of objects is quite different for B.L.,a young doctor with three separate "households": onethat includes his former wife and children, one his loverand child, the third where he lives occasionally withanother lover. This man has moved up in the world froma poor ethnic family to a lucrative profession. This ishow B.L. describes the objects that have a special significance to him:Well, it's unfortunate, I have to admit, I alwayslike to have something different, somethingwhich appears to be "better" than somebody elseor something "different" than somebody else, so 1spend a lot of money on that. And I like prettythings. Pretty women, pretty cars, pretty clothes,pretty houses. . . .Possession seems to have become an end in itself ratherthan a means to furthering life goals, as can also be seenin this description of what all of his objects mean:No more than an ego trip. Nothing that I wouldgo down fighting for. (Interviewer: An ego trip?)It makes me feel good while I'm enjoying thosethings to know that 1 have them and equally as important, that other people know I have them.When asked to describe his most personal or privateobjects B.L. mentioned his BMW car, because it ismeant to be seen and admired by others as a statussymbol:My car — probably because of the images itcreates, to be very frank. Being different thanmost people. Most people don't have a BMW. It'smore different than having a Mercedes at thistime. . . . It's an ego trip which I admit. I don'tthink it's so wrong. I hope a lot of people let medo my thing.Moving up the social ladder appears to have caused asplit in this man's life, which is embodied in his loverelationships, personal objects, and even in the geographical perception of "home." He sometimes liveswith a woman who has his child in a north Chicago suburb, sometimes with a younger woman on the west side.His north side residence, relationships, and objects embody his rise on the social ladder, and the resultingbourgeois respectability, while his west side attachmentsconnect him with his own ethnic roots.The two previous cases have begun to show how objects can embody different kinds of meanings for individuals. Now we would like to explore how a wholefamily can use objects to express shared values. The O. family may serve as a suitable example. Mrs. O., themother, mentioned Christmas tree ornaments andphotos of her children as her most special objects.Christmas is the most special occasion of the year for thewhole family, a time for family reunion and a way ofcelebrating the customs of the mother's ethnic origins.All the other members of the O. family also mentionedChristmas as the most special holiday, and gave detaileddescriptions of how they ritually celebrate this occasion.Describing the ornaments Mrs. O. said:All the ornaments we have I've made over aperiod of years, and the ones I've bought I'vepicked out especially for the children, for eachone of them, thinking that they'll take them withthem when they're older. And so the ornamentsare a sort of review of my married life, when eachone was made, under what conditions.When we asked what it would mean not to have theornaments she replied:I would be very, very upset. Decorating the houseat Christmas is a massive effort, and if I didn'thave them, I'd have a hard time trying to convincemyself that I was going to enjoy it as much. Iwould be really crushed.Likewise, if she no longer possessed the photos of herchildren:I would be very crushed. . . . Nothing would belost other than just a piece of paper, but it's a trailof the past, sort of a sentimental thing.The importance of family tradition and continuity described here is celebrated and renewed in the annualritual Christmas dinner:Everyone in my family looks forward to Christmas all year. We celebrate a traditional EuropeanChristmas, with all the traditions surrounding it.My parents make it special, my mother makes itspecial I should say because it's really her thing.She goes to the trouble of cooking a traditionalmeal which means three or four days of preparation for a twelve course meal. We always havesomeone else not from the family come to sharein the meal, somebody that doesn't have any otherplace to go. It's also all the traditions that go withthat meal that make it special. We put straw underthe table cloth, and at the end of the meal everybody pulls out a piece and depending on how thestraw is bent, my mother will tell your fortune.The straw is also reminiscent of the manger. It's areal communion, a very special spirit, and all thefood is traditional, food that we don't have anyother time throughout the whole year. It just is sospecial, I hope it never leaves.Mr. O. also emphasizes the importance of theChristmas feast for the whole family:13On Christmas Eve, we have a traditional European meal, which I was introduced to when I metmy wife. I only hope that my mother-in-law canpass this along and my wife to her daughters sothat we can perpetuate this. This is a time forgetting together. My in-laws have always beenthankful for what they had at Christmas. We'vealways had peripheral type relatives or friends ofthe family — never hesitated to ask a friend.Mr. O. is an avid collector, who names old records,tapes of radio shows, and coins as his special objects. Healso described a family tree that he is creating, whichalso expresses this family's interest in continuity:My family tree. With Roots being on the TV lastyear, my eldest daughter got an interest in history.I have a family history. I have it all the way back towhen the first O.'s came over from England in1630. My daughter had some questions put to herin school, but they just went back two generations, so I think we're going to put together afamily tree this spring and summer. ... I have itwritten out. A lot of it is typing. My family hadfamily reunions and they'd come from all over thecountry, some of them, and they put this thingtogether in bits and pieces. They'd write lettersasking, "Am I related to you?" So I have all this.When we asked what all of the objects he named meantto him, Mr. O. replied:I don't know if I could really describe it. It's a lotof sentiment. In some ways I'm a sentimentalist.To me, they're links with parents, links with thepast. I can relate all these things with people,times, and maybe events. It's not like going to anantique store and buying a watch. Most of thethings have been given to me and have a meaning.The theme of family continuity is just as important forboth maternal grandparents, but they have a very different perspective on the permanence of symbolic objects.Three of the four objects mentioned by the grandmother remind her of the old country. One of these is aportrait of her daughters, done when she and her husband were penniless after the war:This was a very hard time in our life. It was thewar, we lost everything. And we left our country,we didn't have nothing. We been on the road, andto me that's very dear. It's sentimental picture. Iwould be very, very sad if I didn't have.Having symbolic representations of her children isessential for this woman, just as it is for her daughter. The portraits communicate a visual image of the children, and a "trail of the past," to use the mother's words,through which memories of particular experiences oremotions can be recalled. The grandmother's feelingsare embodied in a more traditional form, an oil painting,while the more recent technological form of photographs embodies the mother's meanings; but each ofthese objects enables the women to express relationships and experiences, and to compare currentsituations with past ones.The grandparents had to flee their native countrywhen their two daughters were infants, and as thegrandmother said:You know what, in my life I lost twice, everything. And I mean everything. When my daughterwas four, when we left our country, and the second time when we come from Austria up toBavaria. I left everything. And they just have onedress, one pair of underwear. And that's all whatwe have. And that's why I didn't give much valueto things. I like, I enjoy, but . . .When we compare the grandmother's attitude towards the loss of cherished possessions with her ten-year-old grandaughter's description of her most important objects — "Arfie," her stuffed dog, and "Shari," herstuffed teddy bear — We see a clear example of the contrast between experience and innocence:Arfie. He's in my room and I've had him since Iwas born. He's all worn out and I sleep with himat night. Shari. She's in my room. I've had both ofthem since I was born. (Without) Arfie, I'd bevery, very sad; I'd probably cry too, I'd miss her alot. She's really small. And I can put her in asuitcase and carry her anywhere. Arfie is biggerand he has a voice box so he makes a lot of noise.But Shari is small, compact and she's real cute.For F.D., the tool-maker, objects serve as instrumentsthat help him to define who he is in terms of achievement. B.L., the doctor, also uses the things he owns forthe same purpose, but in his case objects mediateachievement rather than embody it: the things he isproud of are bought, and their meaning is revealed onlyindirectly, through the admiration of an anonymouspublic. For the O. family things acquire meaning because they are signposts of family history, because theyhelp re-experience crucial events and relationshipsshared by family members.In each case, things are used to objectify the identityof their owners. But in each of these three examples, theidentity that emerges will be different because of thethings chosen and the meanings derived from them.14? ? hat have we learned from this study concerning the initial question, namely, the terminal materialism of urban Americans? At this point what we havelearned is mainly that the question is more difficult toanswer than we originally thought. In the first place, werealized what perhaps should have been obvious: that itis practically impossible to have purely material values.No one would say: I prize this object because it is wortha lot of money, or because it is valuable in and of itself.At the most, the terminal value of the object would beexpressed in terms of the envy and admiration its valueproduces in other people. But more often than not, thevalue of the object consists in its ability to reveal previously undeveloped possibilities of the self, or in itsexpressing significant social relationships. Thus the maininstrumental value of the objects consists in their abilityto develop and preserve the self in a socially meaningfulcontext.Thus, even in our so-called materialistic society, weare still basically social beings who need to define ourselves in terms of our connections with other people.Perhaps the original question should be re-phrased asfollows: To what extent do people in a technologicalsociety need expensive, energy-intensive things to symbolize their identity? In other words, perhaps it is notthe basic values that have changed, but only their formsof expression. But even this does not seem true. Thesignificance of objects is not directly related to theirextrinsic value. Old photographs, books, plants, oldchina and glassware are still among the favorite conveyors of meaning for the people we interviewed. Manyof the paintings mentioned were made by children orfriends.In one respect the patterns differ markedly from whatone might have found in a sample of a different cultureor a different age. The significant objects peoplementioned were rarely ready-made cultural symbols:icons, crucifixes, flags, coats of arms, ancestral shrines,were conspicuous by their absence. Yet there wereplenty of objects that performed the same function; butthese objects were invested with meaning because ofthe personal experiences of the respondent, and notonly because they were programmed by the culture.Thus the meanings people create in their lives nowadaysare probably more idiosyncratic and fragile, as well asbeing more original and spontaneous, than they everwere before.It would seem that the central values in our lives canbe expressed by objects that are important because oftheir personal meaning, not just because of their exchange value. In fact, many people remarked that the object they were naming was actually "junk", with littlefinancial value, like an old couch. Yet the average American owns enough items of financial value that he or shewould be considered very wealthy in most countries.We seem to have an idea that we need to consume anenormous number of objects to have the basics of life.When we reflect on what our most cherished possessions are, however, it turns out that the bulk of consumer items is excluded.There could be a liberating message in these results.The exponential rate of consumption is a habit thatcould be broken without affecting the central meaningsin people's lives. We still feel that life makes sense if wecan show to ourselves and others what we can do, and ifwe know that there are people who care for us and forwhom we care. Things that express this are dear to us,the rest are expendable.Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi is associate professor in the Department of Behavioral Sciences, Human Development, andin the College. Eugene Rochberg-Halton is a doctoral studentin Human Development.NOSTALGIAid StartsFitsLife of the BodyLargely as a result of student agitation,the faculty approved a plan last monthfor reducing the number of quarters ofrequired gym from ten to six, withexemption during the last two yearsbased on a health examination. The newsystem needs only the approval of theUniversity Senate before going into effect next fall.The University of Chicago Magazine,1921.Spring FeverAn explanation has been found for theprevailing sleepiness in Cobb Hall lecture rooms. The lights are so arrangedthat they hypnotize the students. TheUndergraduate Council complained tothe faculty and steps are being taken toremove the hypnotic effect.The University of Chicago Magazine,1921."Such Honors Weren't for Women"The New York Times of February 5thhad, under the above caption, the following editorial on the subject ofwomen class presidents at the University: "Recent protests against what wascalled the failure of co-educational colleges to co-educate — to put the boys andgirls, that is, on a real equality for allcollege activities — seem to be justifiedby a sad tale that comes from The University of Chicago."There it has come to be the invariable custom for all the class presidents tobe men and all the vice presidents to bewomen. That, in itself, is one of the discriminations against which complaintwas made, but still worse is it that when at The University of Chicago this yearthree class presidents, sophomore,junior, and senior, were compelled tostep out of their proud positions, a trulydreadful thing happened. Were the vicepresidents allowed to take the places ofthe departed, which is what vice presidents are supposed to do automaticallyand to be what they are for? Not at all!The thought that commencement withall its joys and glories is approachingcame instantly to the minds of the masculine students, and immediately it was decided that it never would do to letfeminine officials lead the class at such atime."The remedy promptly was found inthe calling of special elections, a thing ofwhich apparently, there would havebeen no thought had the class vice presidents been boys instead of girls. To thelatter an honor was accorded while it wasexpected to be empty, but when itceased to be empty it was taken away."The University of Chicago Magazine,1923.A Manual of StyleNearly three decades ago the first proofreader at the University Press jotteddown at odd moments a single sheet ofrules for his own guidance. This was thebeginning of the Manual of Style. Eachyear additional usages have crystallizeduntil today the Manual is the most comprehensive, harmonious, and practicaltreatment of typographical form to behad. Seven editions, each runningthrough several impressions have attested to its value and popularity. It hasheld a place of authority in the offices ofthousands of printers, editors, publishers, and advertising men. Countless writers, laboring over the preparation ofmanuscript for the printer, have turnedto it for help.With reason. For the Manual is a codification of the typographical principleswhich have molded the making of booksat the University Press — books whichtake a very high rank as examples of thetypographer's craft.To most of us the making of books is amystery. Proofreaders' marks are as occult as Chinese; and we stand amazedbefore people who know how halftonesare made. We wonder how it is thatwriters always turn out just the rightamount of copy to fill a given space. If weare young writers, the task of preparingcorrect manuscript — manuscript that thepublisher will not immediately cast fromhim in rage — seems more formidablethan writing the great American novel orworking out a great contribution towhatever field it is that occupies us.Correctness — what a bugbear!One remembers the manuals of rulesone has struggled with — rules so complicated with exceptions and alternativesthat they leave one more puzzled thanbefore. Not so, however, with/4 Manualof Style. It is a model of cleanness and de-finitiveness. Alternatives are left out;questions are decided; for a guide thatleaves many loopholes is not a guide atall. In condensed form it tells all oneneeds to know about the preparation ofmanuscript. It is a simple, practical keyto the whole mystery of typographicalform.The University of Chicago Magazine,1925.PhD Holders BelievedNot To Be ScholarsA questionnaire attempting to ascertainwhy the holders of higher degrees fromuniversities fail to become scholars hasbeen sent to all holding the degree ofDoctor of Philosophy throughout thecountry by a committee under ProfessorMarcus W. Jernegan of the University.The work of investigation is being carried on through the American HistoricalAssociation, of which Professor Jernegan is an active member. The survey willembrace schools, colleges, and universities all over the country. It gainedits initial impetus when the question ofwhy graduate work in history led to solittle productive research on the part ofthe holders of the PhD degree wasbrought up at one of the associationmeetings.The University of Chicago Magazine,192616Quarantine: March 1916Scarlet fever broke out among the residents of a Universitywomen's dormitory, Nancy Foster Hall, in March 1916.Although only a tew cases were reported, the entire buildingwas placed under quarantine. Photographs taken by a student, Miss A. Margaret Bowers, record the episode. Startingwith the top photograph: Meals were brought in and served indining rooms on each Moor of the dormitory. The studentswere examined daily by a doctor. Each day the students wereallowed to walk through the Quadrangles for exercise. Thequarantine lasted for several weeks preventing the girls fromattending the spring prom, but a special "quarantine prom"was held.POSTCARDFROMOLYMPUSLeadersRobert B. Uretz was appointed Dean ofthe Division of Biological Sciences andThe Pritzker School of Medicine. Hewas also elected Vice President for theMedical Center of the University.His research has dealt with theradiobiology and photobiology of viruses and cells in tissue culture. He isinterested in the use of refined opticaltechniques in the analysis of chromosome structure.With Raymond E. Zirkle and the lateWilliam Bloom, he demonstrated conclusively the localized damaging geneticeffect of radiation on living organisms.Uretz is the Ralph W. Gerard Professorin the Department of Biophysics andTheoretical Biology and in the College.Historian William H. McNeill hasbeen named Director of the MorrisFishbein Center for the Study of theHistory of Science and Medicine at theUniversity. The Center offers a comprehensive program of studies forgraduate students ranging from ancientastronomy to twentieth century American anthropology.McNeill is the Robert A. MillikanDistinguished Service Professor in theDepartment of History. One of hisbooks, Plagues and Peoples (1976), anexamination of the impact of infectiousdiseases on the rise and fall of civilizations, has received critical praise and attracted a wide popular audience. He hasbeen editor of the Journal of Modern History since 1971.John Carswell was appointed Curatorof the Oriental Institute Museum of theUniversity. He will be responsible forthe Institute's extensive collection of artand artifacts from the Near and Middle East. He is the first curator with a finearts background to head the InstituteMuseum.Carswell has studied Islamic architecture and ceramics and the importance ofChinese porcelain to the ancient Islamicworld. From 1956 until 1976 he taughtat the American University of Beirut inLebanon; he was professor and chairmanin the Department of Fine Arts. He hasworked as an archaeological draftsmanon expeditions throughout the MiddleEast.Shameleons, ShmacrobatsSam Savage, an assistant professor in theGraduate School of Business has some what off-handedly created a clutch ofbrightly-colored puzzles, for fun— andultimately— profit. These, calledShmuzzles, are tesselation toys. It helpsto know that tesselate means to adornwith mosaic or tiling, as in certain Arabicinterlocking tile designs. Like the design, the Shmuzzles are interlockingpuzzle pieces. Unlike regular puzzlepieces, which are of many shapes and fittogether one way, Savage's versions aremany pieces of the same shape that fittogether in a variety of ways.The tesselation puzzles are based, asone might suspect, on the drawings andshapes of M. C. Escher, whose shapes-into-birds-into-fish drawings tease theeye. "In fact," says Savage, "we tried cutting out one of the Escher designs, butthey don't work. He drew themfreehand, you see, and they don't fitwell."After adapting the Escher-like lizardshapes into flat, interlocking "Shameleons," Savage developed a three-dimensional version called Shmacrobats. . . printed foam rubber clowns thatstand up. Intended for children, Savagehas them constructed from fireproof,nontoxic, and FDA-approved foamrubber, in case of inadvertant ingestion."We have considered going a stepfurther by making them vitamin-enriched," he says.Savage, a personable sort whose officeresembles a just-under-control shippingdepot, seems peculiarly suited to thecreation and promotion of Shmuzzles.His office walls are adorned with photosof the campus squirrels, placed at appropriate squirrel-in-tree height. ASam Savage demonstrating a clutch of Shmacrobats.18built-in bunk is available for periods ofhorizontal contemplation. And a groupof Shmacrobats cavort on the window-sill.Savage, an assistant professor of management science, came to the BusinessSchool after working in the GeneralMotors research lab for a year and a half."My degree was in computer science,but my PhD thesis was on an operations research topic: the traveling salesmanproblem. It seems rather appropriatenow that I have become a travelingsalesman."The Shmuzzles are selling. Savage,however, is not sanguine about his success. "I kept thinking that once we gotinto production, I would no longerworry about disasters. But at every stagein business, a disaster can occur. These kinds of considerations can make business a little less satisfying than proving agood theorem. For instance, oncePythagoras had his theorem down, hedidn't have to worry about peoplefinding a better one, or producing acheaper one, or some kid swallowing atriangle and gagging on thehypotenuse."THE ALUMNI FUND IS THE PLACE foreveryone who wants to do something financially forthe University. Alumni Fund monies go wherethey're needed most; they do what most needsdoing. The Fund has been used to providescholarships, pay faculty salaries, make specialprojects possible, and do many other things too.THE ALUMNI FUND HAS A PLACE foreveryone. Gifts of all sizes are appreciated. Themedian size gift is $25. All gifts are put to workimmediately to help the University.TAKE YOUR PLACE among the University'ssupporters. Join the thousands of alumni who aregiving this year. The current Fund year ends onJune 30, and any amount will be most welcome.THE ALUMNI FUND5757 Woodlawn AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637TAKE YOURPLACE . . .IN THEALUMNI FUND19Alumni College Focuseson Rights, EqualityFrom Sunday, July 23 to Saturday, July29, a group of alumni, faculty, andfriends of the University will participatein Alumni College '78. "The Rights ofIndividuals and the Concept of Equality" is the more formal working themefor the week; however, panel discussions and smaller talks are certain torange into unexpected byways withinthe topic.Ten faculty members will participate.The keynote session on rights ofindividuals will be presented by PhilipB. Kurland, the William R. Kenan,Jr., Distinguished Service Professor inthe College and professor in the LawSchool.Emmett Dedmon, University trusteeand former editorial director of theChicago Sun-Times will lead a discussionon freedom of the press; Franklin E.Zimring, professor in and director of theCenter for Studies in Criminal Justicein the Law School, will direct a sessionon criminal justice. A panel discussionon women's rights is scheduled, as aresessions on individual rights in a pluralistic mass society. Other sessions willexamine ways of dealing with authoritarian governments and philosophies,the Supreme Court and its approachtoward promoting equality, and waysto maintain individual rights.Most sessions are scheduled in themornings; social activities in the afternoons and evenings include an Art Institute of Chicago garden tour, a play atCourt Theatre, and an evening atRavinia.Luncheons and sherry hours arescheduled; several informal dinnerscomplete the agenda.Alumni College '78 is sponsored by the Center for Continuing Educationand the Alumni Association. Personsinterested in conference and room ratesand in a more detailed schedule ofevents should call or write Gail Pine orClaude Weil, Alumni College, Centerfor Continuing Education, University ofChicago, 1307 East 60th Street, Chicago60637. The phone number is (312)753-2231.Alumni EventsBOSTON: The Luncheon Round Tableconvened in February in the HarvardRoom at Purcells offering discussions ofideas from the work of area alumni andformer faculty. Speakers and topics forthis season: February 15, Edwin Diamond, phB'47, Am'49, senior lecturer inpolitical science at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, commentator for theWashington Post-Newsweek Radio andTelevision, contributing editor forPolitiks, "Is the media a higher low? Apress critic looks at the press."; March14, Theresa S. Carterett, AB'47, professor of psychology, Simmons College,"Impact of technology on human behavior"; April 19, Richard L. Neumeier,AB'68, AM'68, attorney, Parker, Coulter,Daley & White, "Law and ethics"; May17, Federick M. Ehrlich, AB'49, associate clinical professor, Tufts University, member of the BostonPsychoanalytic Society, "The development and pathology of the family."Drew Leff, AB'69, MBA'70, and HarryGreenwald, AB'70, were the alumnicoordinators.BOULDER: On March 23, alumni andfriends gathered at the University Club,University of Colorado, Boulder, tohear Mayor Ruth Correll speak on the new city council and the populationgrowth issue facing the city. David W.Satterley, MBA'59, was the alumnicoordinator for the event.CHICAGO: Alumni and friends gatheredat the Lakeshore Racquet Club on February 18 for an evening of tennis, rac-quetball, and a buffet supper. Universitytennis coach Chris Scott was on hand togive some game pointers.On February 23 the College Admissions Office sponsored an informationnight for students in the Northbrookarea. Alumni were invited to participatewith faculty, students, and staff of theCollege to meet prospective studentsand to describe the College and its programs.The sounds of the Glenn Miller Orchestra accompanied the fleeting dancesteps of students, faculty, staff, areaalumni, and friends of the University inan evening of dancing and music at IdaNoyes Hall on April 28.DENVER: Edward W. Rosenheim, professor in the Department of English andthe College and director of the NationalHumanities Institute, spoke on thecharacter of humanistic study and the relationship between the humanities andscience and technology at the DenisonAuditorium, University of ColoradoMedical Center, on March 9. BarbaraWagonfeld, AB'58, coordinated theevent.HONG KONG: On February 20, SidneyDavidson, the Arthur Young Professorin the Business School, spoke to alumniand friends.LOS ANGELES: Alumni and friendsgathered at the Penthouse on April 17to hear Jonathan Z. Smith, dean of theCollege and the William Benton Professor of Religion and Human Sciencesin the College, speak on "No Need toTravel to the Indies," a look at generaleducation and the College.NEW YORK: On March 29, alumni andfriends met at the Salmagundi Club, thecountry's oldest artists' club, for an informal cocktail reception and to viewthe current exhibition.PHILADELPHIA-WILMINGTON: OnMarch 2 President John Wilson met andspoke to area alumni and friends at theHall of Aviation in the BenjaminFranklin Institute. The host committeefor the reception: Frances M. Gill,SB'6l, MD'65; Jack B. Jacobs, AB'64;Jerry B. Jacobsen, MBA'72; Nancy20Jacobsen AB'70; Harold S. Laden,PhB'27; Richard L. Mandel, AB'64; AliceMandel, AB'64; Ralph S. Saul, AB'47;Mrs. H. B. Stallings,PhB'28, AM'38;Martin Wald, MBA'57; JD'64; and Barbara Wald, AB'57.PITTSBURGH: Robert S. Ingersoll, deputy chairman (first vice chairman) of theBoard of Trustees of The University ofChicago and former deputy secretary ofstate, spoke to alumni and friends at theDowntown Club in the U.S. Steel Building on April 4. The host committee fotthe event included: Gladys Benedek,PhB'45, SB'47; Thomas G. Benedek,PhB'47, SB'49, MD'52; Joan H. Daley,MBA'75; Albert W. Demmler, Jr.,PhB'47; Carl B. Frankel, AB'54, JD'57;Rudolph S. Houck, III, JD'72; AlonzoB. Knight, MBA'54; M. Thomas Murray,AB'47, JD'51; Dorothea P. Simon,AM'4l; and Herbert A. Simon, AB'36,PhD'43.PORTLAND: After a dinner at the AeroClub, alumni and friends heard EdwardW. Rosenheim, professor in the Department of English and the College,speak on "The Humanities, 1978."Edgar Waehrer, AB'55, was the alumnicoordinator for the evening.ROCHESTER: Milton Friedman, the PaulSnowden Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Economicsand the 1976 recipient of the NobelPrize for Economics, gave a lecture atthe Strong Auditorium, University ofRochester, on February 23.SANTA BARBARA: C. Herman Pritchett,professor emeritus of political science atThe University of Chicago, spoke on"The Difference Between the WarrenCourt and the Present Court" at theCommunity Room in the Santa BarbaraSavings and Loan on February 26.SAN DIEGO: Robert W. Reneker, chairman of the Board of Trustees, met andspoke to area alumni at the Kona KaiClub on February 15. Host committeemembers were: Donald B. Dodd,PhB'29, JD'30; Louise Forsyth, PhB'30;Keith E. Hatter, AB'35; Robert R.Jorgensen, PhB'32; John J. Malkind,mba'48; James A. Malkus, ab'59, JD'6l;Federic J. Mullins, x'39; Jane Mullins,X'39; Emilyn Roberts, PhB'24; andHelen H. Shell, PhB'23.SAN FRANCISCO: On April 14 alumniand friends dined in A. Sabella's TheRoyal Room on Fisherman's Wharf andheard Jonathan Z. Smith, dean of the Awards: Help from Our FriendsEach year during Reunion Weekend, the Alumni Association honorsalumni who have made notable contributions in their professional fieldsor in community service. We ask that you assist us in this program bynominating candidates who you think might be deserving of one of thealumni awards to be given in 1979-There are three categories of awards: THE PROFESSIONAL ACHIEVEMENT AWARD, which recognizes those alumni whose attainments in theirvocational fields have brought distinction to themselves, credit to theUniversity, and real benefit to their fellow citizens;THE ALUMNI CITATION, which honors those who have fulfilled theobligations of their education through creative citizenship and exemplaryleadership in community service which has benefited society and reflectedcredit upon the University;THE ALUMNI MEDAL, the highest honor, which is awarded for extraordinary distinction in one's field of specialization and extraordinary service to society.Your nominations should reach us not later than September 1, 1978.They will be kept confidential by the Awards Committee, twelve formerawardees who, working anonymously, review and evaluate the information on each nominee. The final candidates are selected by vote in theSpring. The committee requests that you not inform your candidates thattheir names are to be considered. Nominations should be sent to theAwards Committee, Alumni House, 5733 University Avenue Chicago,Illinois 60637.College, give a report on the problemsand prospects facing general educationand the College.Donors to the President's Fund andthe Century Fund were invited to a dinner held in honor of Edward H. Levi, theGlen A. Lloyd Distinguished ServiceProfessor in the College, Law School,and Committee on Social Thought, andpresident emeritus, on May 12. The hostcommittee for the dinner: BrunoBettelheim, professor emeritus; RolandE. Brandel, JD'66; Dwight M. Cochran,PhB'27; Lucy Ann Geiselman, PhD'65;Robert M. Halperin, PhB'47; Lee M.Hecht, sm'65, mba'69; Mrs. CharlesMartin, SB'27; Frank R. Mayo, SB'29,PhD'31; Mrs. Frank Mayo; John F. Mer-riam, PhB'24; John G. Neukom, PhB'34;Erza Solomon, PhD'50; Mrs. Erza Solomon, AB'4l; Ralph W. Tyler, PhD'27;and Dr. Charles W. Vogl, SB'4l.Edward H. Levi spoke to area alumniand friends at another reception held on May 12 at the Sheraton-Palace Hotel.The host committee for the reception:Roland E. Brandel, JD'66; Harold M.Brez, sb'38; Lucy Ann Geiselman,PhD'65; Gardiner Hempel, ab'49,mba'52; Irene S. Holmes, JD'73; AllisonD. Murdach, AM'66; J. Alfred Rider,SB'42, md'44, phD'51; and Thomas H.Tebben, mba'62.TOKYO: On February 14, alumni andfriends gathered to hear a speech bySidney Davidson, the Arthur YoungProfessor in the Graduate School ofBusiness at the University.WASHINGTON,D.C: Alumni and friendsattended the Annual Dinner on April 28at the L'Enfant Plaza Hotel. Jonathan ZSmith, dean of the College and theWilliam Benton Professor of Religionand Human Sciences in the College, wasthe featured speaker.211906FREDERICK R. BAIRD, PhB'06, JD'08 andGEORGE T. CROSSLAND, JD'll, may bethe oldest law school alumni, accordingto Dean Norval Morris's records. Bothplayed on Amos Alonzo Stagg's footballand baseball teams at the University, andin January, they spent an afternoon remembering these adventures with othermembers of the Palm Beach, Floridaalumni organization.1922FRANCIS PARKER SHEPARD, PhD'22, received an honorary doctor of sciencedegree from the University of SouthernCalifornia. Shepard is the author of thefirst textbook on marine geology and isthe founder of sea-going marine geological exploration. After more than fiftyyears in research on the sea, he is continuing to develop new programs atScripps Institute of Oceanography wherehe is professor emeritus.1923NORMAN WOOD BECK, AB'23, PhD'4l,professor emeritus at Jersey State CityCollege (JSCC) was awarded the NewJersey Political Science Association's1977 Distinguished Service Award. Beck was appointed to the JSCC TaskForce on Directions and Goals for the'80s.1924MAUREEN COBB MABBOTT, PhB'24,AM'27, has helped edit the work of herlate husband, Thomas O. Mabbott. Thepublication of volumes II and III of hisCollected Works of Edgar Allan Poe hasbeen announced by Harvard UniversityPress for this spring.1926At the centennial celebration of theAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science in 1948, M. KING HUB-BERT, SB'26, SM'28, PhD'37, astonishedcolleagues with his report that Americawould face a serious fossil fuel crisis bythe 1970s. Despite unsympathetic andoften hostile reactions, Hubbert persisted in his efforts to gain public understanding of the limits to oil and gas reserves. For his scientific achievementsand civic concern, Hubbert received the1977 Rockefeller Public Service Award.Hubbert retired in 1976 from the U.S.Geological Survey, Department of theInterior where he was a researchgeophysicist.1927During winter commencement ceremonies, ALLEN WELLER, PhB'27,PhD'42, dean emeritus of fine andapplied arts at the University of Illinoisat Urbana-Champaign, received the firsthonorary doctor of fine arts degree everconferred by the University of Florida.1928STANLEY A. ROUSE, PhB'28, contributedhis efforts to writing the history of theVeterans Home in Yountville, California.1929NBC has scheduled a six-hour mini-series based on the "Studs Lonigan"trilogy by JAMES T. FARRELL, X'29.1930CHARLES H. GOOD, PhB'30, AM'37,wrote a one-man play based on the newand complete diaries of Samuel Pepys. Itwas produced for the Newberry LibraryAssociates in Chicago this past February.Other alumni helped with the production: WILLIAM G. KARLBLOM, AM'74,acted the part of Pepys; HERBERT ZIMMERMAN, AB'37, contributed a redsmoking jacket as the basis for Pepys'srestoration costume; and ELIZABETHSIMPSON GOOD, PhB'30, lent a blousewith appropriate frills at the wrist. Charles and Betty Good are retiredChicago public school teachers. Zimmerman was the principal of CalumetHigh School when Charles Good taughtthere and when Karlblom was a student.MAYNARD C. KRUEGER, X'30, professor emeritus of economics in the College, was elected executive director ofthe International House by its board ofgovernors.1931The movie, "Close Encounters of theThird Kind," has aroused new interest inresearch on UFOs by J. ALLEN HYNEK,SB'31, PhD' 3 5, professor of astronomy atNorthwestern University. Hynekserved as technical advisor to "Close Encounters" and is the founder-director ofthe Center for UFO Studies inEvanston, Illinois. He has been involvedin UFO research for over twenty yearsand was an astronomical consultant tothe U.S. Air Force in its Projects Signand Blue Book, which processed andstudied UFO sightings reported to AirForce bases.1932EDWARD H. LEVI, PhB'32, JD'35, received the Yale Law School's Citation ofMerit Award for 1977-78 in a presentation at the annual meeting of the YaleLaw School Alumni Association last October. Levi attended Yale in 1935 as aSterling Fellow.Described by critics as a workingman's Chorus Line, the musical play,Working, based on the 1974 best-sellerby STUDS TERKEL, PfiB'32, JD'34,opened in January at the GoodmanTheatre in Chicago.1935WALTER EDWIN MOCHEL, SM'35,PhD'37, after forty years of service, retired last December from E.I. Du Pontde Nemours where he was the head ofthe Central Research and DevelopmentDepartment's Spectroscopy Division atthe Experimental Station in Wilmington,Delaware.1936ELLIS fields, SB'36, PhD'38, was nameda research consultant in recognition ofhis individual technical excellence atAmoco Chemicals Corporation. Fields isa member of the exploratory researchstaff.1937HERBERT ZIMMERMAN, AB'37, retiredearly from his job as a Chicago highschool principal and is now a tour consultant for Middlebrook Enterprises.221938LANDRUM R. BOLLING, AB'38, presidentof Lilly Endowment, Inc., has beenelected chairman and chief executiveofficer of the Council on Foundations.1939ROBERT O. ANDERSON, AB'39, receivedthe International Executive of the Yearaward from the Brigham Young University College of Business and GraduateSchool of Management. Anderson ischairman of the board and chief executive officer of Atlantic Richfield Company and a trustee of The University ofChicago.ALFRED T. DE GROOT, PhD'39, is serving as interim academic dean at Northwest Christian College in Eugene, Oregon. His sermon, "A New Protestant-Catholic Reformation," was recently issued as a monograph.1941GEORGE RUDOLPH GORDH, PhD'41, retired from Hollins College in Virginiaafter twenty-six years as a professor ofreligion.1942FRED KUNKEL, SB'42, publications chieffor the U.S. Geological Survey's westernregion, received the Department of Interior's Meritorious Service Award inDecember.1943CARL F. Christ, sb'43, PhD'50, professor of political science at Johns Hopkins University, has been appointed tothe Abram G. Hutzler Professorship.Christ's research has been in the fields ofmacroeconomics and econometrics — thestudy of mathematical models of economic behavior and the use of statisticalmethods for testing economic theories.MARTHA SIEFKIN GORDON, AB'43, isin the first year of a two-year graduatecourse in social administration at Fluid-ers University in South Australia.ROBERT K. ZUCK, PhD'43, a DrewUniversity botanist, was elected tomembership in the Explorers Club, aninternational society of some 1,800members noted for their achievementsin science, education, and exploration.Zuck's most notable field project was afive-year study aimed at improving natural cover for wildlife along pipelinerights of way.1944REBECCA E. CARROLL, AM'44, deputysuperintendent of the Baltimore PublicSchools, was elected to the LoyolaCollege board of trustees in Maryland. 1945CECIL R. CAMPBELL, MBA'45, retired asvice president of finance of the Walgreen Company. Campbell was amember of the first Executive Programclass of the Graduate School of Businessat the University.ROBERT W. CHANOCK, SB'45, MD'47,was awarded an honorary doctor of sciences degree at a special convocationceremony last November held in honorof the fiftieth anniversary of The University of Chicago Medical Center.Chanock is chief of the Laboratory ofInfectious Diseases, National Instituteof Allergy and Infectious Diseases andNational Institutes of Health.1946MARIE J. GROZAN ADAMS, AB'46,AM'58, holds a joint appointment as associate professor in the fine arts and theanthropology departments at HarvardUniversity. She is also associate curatorat the Peabody Museum of Archaeologyand Ethnology.B. EVERARD BLANCHARD, AM'46, wasguest speaker at two conferences: theNational Conference on High BloodPressure Control and the InternationalScientific Conference. Blanchard is thepresident of Villa Educational ResearchAssociates, a consulting firm.1947JOSEPH A. HASSON, MBA'47, AM'50,PhD'5 1, was chairman of the ConferencePlanning Committee of the EasternEconomic Association. Hasson chaired apanel of congressional experts discussing aspects of national and internationaleconomic problems at the Association'sannual meeting in April.HARRIS MAYER, PhD'47, and his colleagues received the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's GroupAchievement Award. Mayer is principalstaff scientist for the Advanced Programs Division of the Aerospace Corporation in El Segundo, California.1949GEORGE P. CRESSMAN, PhD'49, directorof the National Weather Service, hasbeen awarded the 1977 InternationalMeteorological Organization Prize foroutstanding work in meteorology andinternational collaboration in improvement of weather forecasting.peter selz, am'49, PhD'54, professor of an history at the University ofCalifornia at Berkeley, was the guestcurator for the exhibition, /4r/ in a Turbulent Era: German and Austrian Expressionism, at Chicago's Museum of Contemporary Art. Selz's first book, German Expressionist Painting, was based on hisUniversity of Chicago PhD dissertation.MORRIS SPRINGER, AM'49, PhD'6l, isrevising his libretto based on Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter. The operawas commissioned by the FlorentineOpera of Milwaukee and will premierethere in October, 1980.1950RICHARD D. CRUMLEY, SM'50, PhD'56,associate professor of mathematics at Illinois State University, has beenselected by Eastern Michigan Universityto spend two years in Swaziland, Africa,as a primary curriculum specialist.Rev. JEAN P. JORDON, AB'50, had anarticle, "Women Merchants in ColonialNew York," published in the October,1977 issue oiNeiv York History. Jordonis a member of the Institute for Research in History, New York City.1951SEYMOUR HOWARD, AM'51, PhD'58,professor of art history at the Universityof California at Davis, received theMagnar Ronning Award for TeachingExcellence in the Humanities. It is theonly teaching award administered exclusively by students on a University ofCalifornia campus. Howard has also lectured on "Jefferson's Proposed Art Gallery at Monticello" at the National Gallery of Art in Washington during the Jefferson bicentennial.WILLIAM M. CROSS, AM'51, professorand chairman of the sociology department at Illinois College, was a participant in the American Sociological Association curriculum development group'sfall meeting.BARBARA K. LEWALSKI, AM'51,PhD'56, was named "Honored Scholar"by the Milton Society of America. She isprofessor of English at Brown University and is considered a leading authorityon the poetry of John Milton.JOHNC. MEYER, JR., AB'5 1, MBA'54, isfinance director for Union CarbideDeutschland GmbH. He is responsiblefor the financial administration of thecompany's four manufacturing operations in Germany.In January, the Chicago Tribune Magazine featured a story about attorneyLOWELL MYERS, MBA'51, who has beendeaf since childhood. Myers has devotedhimself to helping deaf people obtainfull legal rights and protection. Hefought against a pending state law thatwould deprive deaf people of the right todrive cars. The law was defeated whenMyers pointed out that among thosecommittee members deciding that deafness was "too disabling," four were2 3alcoholics, three myopic, one severelyarthritic, yet all were licensed drivers.He wrote a statute requiring a state-paidinterpreter for any deaf person involvedeither as a plaintiff or defendant in a civilcase. In response to several cases inwhich deaf mutes were beaten or killedfor failing to answer police questions orwarnings, Myers sued the ChicagoPolice Department and succeeded in requiring the entire force to be educatedin the legal rights of the deaf.WILLIAM H. WARREN, AM'51, has recently formed a consulting service to assist small private colleges in anticipatingand preparing for the uncertainties ofthe 1980s, called the Center for CollegeFutures Planning at Yellow Springs,Ohio. Warren is the author of "TheProblem of Planning Small" published inthe January-February AGB Reports bythe Association of Governing Boards ofColleges and Universities. Prior to becoming a full-time consultant, he servedtwenty-five years as an administrator inindependent higher education, includingfour years as an admissions counselor forthe College and most recently as seniorvice president of Antioch College.1952JERRY G. CHUTKOW, AB'52, SB'55,MD'58, was recently appointed professorof neurology and chairman of the Department of Neurology at New YorkState University at Buffalo.1953RICHARD L. LUTZ, AB'53, received amasters degree in public administrationfrom the University of Northern Colorado in 1977 and is now the superintendent of Eastern Oregon Hospital andTraining Center.1954HARON J. BATTLE, PhD'54, has beennamed Citizen of the Year, 1977, by theAlpha Chi Chapter of Gary, Indiana. Heis assistant superintendent of the GaryCommunity School Corporation of theGary Public School System. He plans toretire this June after forty-four years ofservice.ARNIE MATANKY, x'54, director ofpublic information for the Chicago ParkDistrict, was installed in his second termas president of the National AmericanVeterans Press Association lastNovember.IONE VARGUS, am'54, has beennamed acting dean of Temple University's School of Social Administrationwhere she is a full professor. 1955GERALD M. SASS, A m'5 5, has been appointed director of education for theFrank E. Gannett Newspaper Foundation, Inc. He was formerly the director ofpersonnel for the Gannett Company,Inc., since 1971.JAMES W. STOCKHAM, AM'55, wasnamed general manager of the Dayton,Ohio coil processing plant of Joseph TRyerson & Sons, Inc.1956CLIFTON R. WHARTON, JR., AM'56,PhD'58, resigned his position as president of Michigan State University tobecome chancellor of the State University of New York, the nation's largestuniversity system.1958WILLARD J. BALL, MBA'58, retired asvice president for the Peoples GasCompany after forty-two years of service. Ball lives in Hinsdale, Illinois.Boston College law school professorSTANFORD N. KATZ, JD'58, was appointed to the Governor's JudicialNominating Commission of Massachusetts. Katz represents the legal-academic point of view on the Commission.1959WALTER H. DAVIES, JR., MBA'59, waselected chairman of the board ofGamble-Skogmo, Inc., a Minneapolis-based merchandising company.LEONARD G. ritt, ab'59, am'63, associate professor of political science atNorthern Arizona University, is spending his sabbatical year as a legislative assistant to Senator Dennis Deconcini ofArizona.1964LAURA HOROWITZ, AB'64, companypresident of Editorial Experts, Inc., hasopened a new office in Alexandria, Virginia.P. JEFFREY LUCIER, AM'64, is president and chief operating officer ofBanks-Baldwin Law Publishing Company in Cleveland.1965ALBERT HOWARD CARTER, III, AB'65,was a research fellow at the EcumenicalInstitute, St. Johns University, Col-legeville, Minnesota last fall while onsabbatical leave from Eckerd College,St. Petersburg, Florida where he teachesliterature.LUCY ANN GEISELMAN, PhD'65, wasappointed dean of Continuing Educationand acting assistant chancellor of theUniversity of Californiaat San Francisco. W. JAMES KIRCHHOFF, AM'65, wasawarded his education doctorate in curriculum and supervision from NorthernIllinois University. Kirchhoff is the principal of Bethany Lutheran School.1966JUDY COHEN ULLMANN, AB'66, AM'68,PhD'76, married JACK A. SIGGINS,am'69, in January. She had been, fornearly two years, assistant director of theCenter for Policy Study at the University, and in April became assistant director of Dunbarton Oaks in Washington,D.C. He is associate director of librariesat the University of Maryland in CollegePark.1967ROBERT S. ANDERSON, AM'67, PhD'71,was appointed associate professor ofinternational development in the Department of Communication Studies atSimon Fraser University in British Columbia. He was also awarded a NationalScience Foundation grant to study thelong-term implications of internationalagricultural research and developmentpolicies.PETER J. HENRIOT, PhD'67, has beenappointed director of the Center forConcern, a social justice institution inWashington, D.C.1969PETER KOUNTZ, AM'69, was appointedexecutive assistant to the Vice President for Public Affairs and assistantdirector of the Center for Policy Study atthe University. He was previously anassistant dean at Roosevelt Universityin Chicago.MARK C. STEINHOFF, AB'69, MD'73,instructor in pediatrics at the Universityof Rochester Medical Center, has beennamed William L. Bradford Scholar inPediatrics for 1977-78.1970GEORGE BARAL, AM'70, has earned anMBA from Stanford University School ofBusiness. He writes us that he will"strike blows for free enterprise wherever possible."JANE ELIZABETH BECKETT, MST'70, isa union representative for nurses atCook County Hospital.PATRICK COOPER, AB'70, is the assistant publisher of a new journal, IndexedArchives of Science.JOHN A. GUEGUEN, phD'70, has beenpromoted to associate professor withtenure in the Department of PoliticalScience at Illinois State University.1971DONALD V. COSCINA, PhD' 71, directs24the new section of biopsychology research at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry in Toronto. He will be designing andperforming experiments with animals topromote further understanding of behavioral and biological factors in humanmental illnesses.Since graduating with a masters degree in psychiatric social work from theUniversity of Illinois at Circle Campus,ALBERT M. ENG, AB'71, has worked asan outpatient psychotherapist at the ElkGrove-Schaumburg Townships MentalHealth Center in Schaumburg, Illinoiswhere he recently became coordinatorof group therapy training. His otherwork activities include a private practicein Chicago and teaching adult educationcourses dealing with stress.DAVID C. GARDNER, MST'7 1, has beenappointed associate principal of CorlissHigh School, Chicago Public SchoolSystem.ALFRED A. MARCUS, AB'71, AM'73,has received his PhD from Harvard University in political science and has beenappointed assistant professor of businessadministration at the University ofPittsburgh.LINDA KELLER RUNDEN, AM'71, isteaching the psychosocial aspects ofmedicine in the Family Practice Res idency at the University of LouisvilleMedical School. She also teaches sociology at the Vincennes University extension in Corydon, Indiana, where shelives with her teacher-husband. TheRundens have three-year-old twin girlsand are expecting another child.VICTOR K. PASNICK, MBA'71, hasbeen elected president and chief executive officer of the California Rural JobCreation Corporation, a non-profitcharitable institution for small businesses and farms.LEONARD A. ZAX, AB'71, has left hisposition as special assistant to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to begin work at the Fried, Frank,Harris, Shriver & Kampelman law firmin Washington, D.C. Zax also holds afaculty appointment at Harvard wherehe teaches a seminar on housing andurban development.1972KATHIE LYNN GAUS- WOOLLEN, AM'72,writes to say that she is a "tree lancesinger and a part-time teacher of adulteducation" in Washington, D.C.NORMAN LEHRER, AB'72, writes thathe has recently finished law school andwill be practicing either in Illinois orCalifornia. JOHN MANNING, x'72, writes us thathe is now "a video maniac attempting tocreate an alternative universe out of materials stolen from this one." He is employed as a microcomputer engineer.MYRON S. MEISEL, AB'72, is a seniorassociate with the law firm of Long &Levit, Los Angeles and San Francisco.He has written and co-produced the feature film, "I'm a Stranger Here Myself,"and has written essays for several filmperiodicals. Meisel's essays have beenincluded in such anthologies as "Kingsof the Bs" and "Encyclopedia of American Filmmakers."ARUNA SREENIVASAN, SM'72,mba'75, has been elected a trust investment officer of the American NationalBank and Trust Company of Chicago.1973CAROLE M. BORIN STEIN, AM'73, is assistant personnel manager for the NewYork office of Coopers & Lybrand.DAVID GOLDSTON, AB'73, receivedhis law degree from George WashingtonUniversity and is an attorney with theWashington, D.C. law htm of Arent,Fox, Kintner, Plotkin & Kahn.BELINDA G. MICHELSON, MST'73, ison the editorial staff of Rand McNally &REUNION '78MAY 19 &> 20Company, Skokie, Illinois. She is assisting with revising the junior high levelreading program. Michelson was formerly a reading specialist and Englishteacher in the Barrington, Illinois,Community School District.ELMER NEUFELD, PhD'73, has beennamed president of Bluffton College inOhio. He was previously the academicdean there.STEVEN M. ROSEN, JD'73, is Staffcounsel for the House TransportationCommittee of the Washington StateLegislature.1974DOUGLAS L. CARDEN, AB'74, marriedCynthia A. Ison last October. Cardengraduated from the University of SantaClara Law School last spring and is a lawclerk to the Honorable Francis C. Whe-lan, United States District Judge in LosAngeles.After dropping out of law school,PAMELA MAE KURZKA, AB'74, is currently at the University of Illinois studying veterinary medicine.CHERYL MORGAN, AB'74, received amasters degree in public administrationfrom California State University at LongBeach. She is currently the assistant tothe city manager of Compton, California.ROBERT P. WELLS, AM'74, is workingtowards a doctorate in medieval Scottishliterature at the University of Edinburgh. Wells is also working on twobooks of poetry and has contributed reviews and poetry to several Scottishliterary journals.1975MICHAEL KRAUSS, AB'75, MBA'76, hasbeen promoted to account supervisor atFoote Cone & Belding in Chicago. Hewas previously account executive there.MATTHEW NIEDER, AB'75, is currently doing graduate work in thebiochemistry department at The University of Chicago. He writes that he hasbecome "heavily involved with fat greenworms" in the course of his research.RICHARD A. STERN, AB'75, informs USthat by day he is an unassuming computer programmer and by night he turnsinto a "former Hyde Parker."Some Recent Books by AlumniHELEN M. CAVANAGH, AM'31, PhD'38,Carl Schurz Vrooman, Self-styled "Constructive Conservative," Lakeside Press.DAVID C. SCHILKE, PfiB'34, Merrilland the Wisconsin Northwoods, Tech-Data Publications.GARRETT HARDIN, SB'36, An Ecologist's View of Survival, Indiana University Press, $10.00.THOMAS A. SEBEOK, AB'4l, HowAnimals Communicate, $57.50, and AProfusion of Signs. Indiana UniversityPress, $15.00.HOWARD L. PARSONS, AB'42, PhD'46,Marx and Engels on Ecology, GreenwoodPress, $16.95.ROBERT R. HENTZ, SB'43, Potpourri ofThirty-Odd Years.IRA G. CORN, JR., ab'47, mba'48, TheStory of the Declaration of Independence,Corwin Books, $8.95.SEYMOUR HALLECK, PhB'48, SB'50,MD'52, The Treatment of Emotional Disorders, Aronson Press.KELVIN M. PARKER, AM'48, PhD'53,Vocabulario clasificado de los folios gallegosde la Historia Troyana (July 1977) andLa Version de Alfonso XI del Roman DeTroie (November 1977).CLARE (SOLBERG) GAULT, AM'49, andFrank Gault, Super Fullback for the SuperBowl, Scholastic Book Services.E. S. SAVAS, AB'51, The Organizationand Efficiency of Solid Waste Collection, D.C. Heath and Company, $15.00, andAlternatives for Delivering Public Services,Westview Press, $12.25.SUSAN SONTAG, AB'51, On Photography. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $7.95.LYNN MANASTER ALPERIN, AB'54,Custodians of the Coast, Galveston District, US Army Corps of Engineers.ROBERT H. HORWITZ, PhD'54, TheMoral Foundations of the American Republic, University Press of Virginia,cloth: $15.00, paper: $2.95.BETTE HOWLAND, AB'55, Blue inChicago, Harper & Row, Inc., $8.95.PHILIP ROTH, AM'55, The Professor ofDesire, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, $8.95.MICHAEL HUDSON, AB'59, GlobalFracture, Harper & Row, Inc., $12.50.ROBERT L. ROTHSTEIN, AM'59, TheWeak in the World of the Strong, Columbia University Press.ALICE SCHLEGEL, AM '59, Sexual Stratification, Columbia University Press.AGNES G. REZLER, PhD'60, and BARBARA J. STEVENS, PhD'76, The NurseEvaluator in Education and Service,McGraw-Hill.MARJORIE (WIKLER) SENECHAL,SB'60, and George Fleck, Patterns ofSymmetry, University of MassachusettsPress, $12.00.ROBERT G. KEMPER, DB'6l, AnElephant's Ballet, The Seabury Press,$6.95.RICHARD S. SLOMA, MBA'62, HoiV to bea No-Nonsense Manager, MacMillan.THOMAS J. COTTLE, AM'63, PhD'68,Private Lives and Public Accounts, University of Massachusetts Press. BARBARA A. BABCOCK, AM'67,PhD'75, The Reversible World: SymbolicInversion in Art & Society. Cornell University Press, $15.00.RICHARD KREBS, PhD'67, AloneAgain, Augsburg Publishing House.KEN ALBERT, MBA'70, How to Pick theRight Small Business Opportunity,McGraw-Hill, $10.95.JON WAGNER, am'70, PfiD'71, Misfitsand Missionaries: A School for Black Dropouts, Sage.J. T. DILLON, AM'71, and Didier J.Piveteau, Resurgence of Religious Instruction: Conception and Practice in a World ofChange, Religious Education Press.FRANK TIRRO, PhD' 74, Jazz, A History, W. W. Norton & Company,$16.95.DAVID S. KEMNITZER, AM'75, Janet L.Dolgin, and David M. Schneider, Symbolic Anthropology, Columbia UniversityPress.In Memoriam1900-1919Vernon C. Beebe, PhB'05, formerChicago advertising executive, died February 3; Agnes Campbell Darrow,PhB'07; Gladys Thompson Foster, x'08;John W. Green, MD'08; Albrecht Kipp,JD'08; Frederick Snite, x'09.Florence J. Lucasse, AB'll; MarionPierce Siler, SB' 1 1 , MD' 15; Elsie WinklerBlackmore, PhB'12; Ernestine BarbaraEvans, PhB'12; William A. Warriner,SB'12.Elizabeth Dickey Copmann, PhB'13;Gilbert E. Brereton, MD'l4; Anne B.Grimmes, PhB'14; Margaret K. Roberts,x'14; Evelyn E. Graham, AB'15; Ella M.Shaw, PhB'15; Mary L. Deland, PhB'l6;NatM. Kahn, x'16.Benjamin Clawson, Jr., MD'17,PhD'19; Arthur Holtzman, Sr., x'17;Edwin R. Hunter, AM' 17, PhD'25, was aretired professor of English at MaryvilleCollege in Tennessee; Frederick Kuh,PhB'17, former Sun-Times diplomaticcorrespondent, died in Rockville, Maryland, this past February; Margaret C.Shields, PhD' 17.Leo Brandes, SB' 18, MD'21; AdelheidSteiner Gieske, PhB'18, William S.Hedges, x'18; Edward F. Studer, SB' 18,MD'19.Elsa M. Clausen, phB'19; WilsonStegeman, SB'19, MD'25; HelenWatkins, AB'19.1920-1929Frank L. Endriz, SB'20; May M. Smith,X'20; Ruth Strahan Maine, SB'20;Emeline Storm Whitcomb, x'20.Leonard J. Bezerk, PhB'21; Mary F.26Patchell, PhB'21; Charles S. Bacon,SB'22, SM'23, was a retired professor ofmineralogy and petrology at WesternReserve University in Cleveland; Benjamin B. Davis, PhB'22, JD'23, whopracticed law in Chicago for more thanfifty years, died recently; Arthur E. Fath,PhD'22; Irving F. Hummon, SB'22;Manuel E. Lichtenstein, SB'22, MD'25, aChicago surgeon whose medical careerspanned thirty-eight years, died last December; F. David Meacham, Jr., x'22.Martha F. Christ, AM'23, an Englishteacher at Wright Junior College inChicago for many years until her retirement in 1954, died in Park Ridge, Illinois, December 24; Arthur Fathauer,PhB'23; Esther F. Queberg MacDonald,PhB'23; Susan Elrich Posanski, PhB'23;Sidney A. Rowland, x'23; William E.Scott, X'23, was with the University ofChicago from 1922 until his retirementin 1957. He held many posts, amongthem assistant dean of students in 1930,registrar in 1952, and director of admissions in 1956. Scott died in Santa Rosa,California where he had made his homefor several years.Raymond C. Eyer, X'24; James I. Far-rell, SB'24, SM'25, MD'29, retired chiefof the urology department at EvanstonHospital and retired professor of urology at Northwestern University MedicalSchool, died last October; Paul E. Keller, JD'24; G. Alden Salser, AM'24; RoyL. Wilson, PhB'24.Cecil C. Blair, AM'25, PhD'47, taughtin the Chicago public school system formore than twenty-three years and taughtat Oklahoma Baptist University for fiveyears where he served as chairman of thehistory department; Ralph H. Oakes,PhB'25, MBA'38, PhD'57; Glen B.Ramsey, PhD'25; Lewis A. Woodworth,AB'25, a retired foreign service employee in the US State Department,died in November.William R. Cunningham, PhB'26;John P. Redgwick, SB'26, MD'30; JesusM. Rolon, PhB'26, am'48; Clifton Utley,PhB'26, one of the first newscasters andcommentators on Chicago television,died in Hawaii in January.Thomas H. Anderson, x'28; MarshallP. Berman, x'28; Amy Hedrick Carver,PhB'28; Fanny Fairchild, x'28; WilfredH. Heitmann, PhB'28; Rob Roy Mac-Gregor, PhB'28; Guy E. Sawyer, am'28;Mary M. Sullivan, PhB'28, AM'35.Marie E. Armengaud, PhB'29; HomerP. Gamboe, AM'29, Frank M. Hurdle,PhB'29; Olive M. Stone, AM'29; Peter J.Tatooles, PhB'29-1930-1939Ethel Repass Ambach, x'30; Eleanor Friedmann Feuer, PhB'30; Laurence F.Graber, PhD'30; Edward Haenisch,SB'30; PhD'35; Daniel B. Hattis, PhB'30,JD'31; Maurice F. Holahan, SB'30; JohnC. Mayne, AM'30; Catharine CusackPear, PhB'30; Richard N. Washburn,SB'30, MD'35.Manuel Fink, x'31; G. Eleanor Kimble, PhD'31; Josephine Neubauer,PhB'32, AM'37.Mary Baer Bowyer, X'33; Marion L.Castle, PhB'33; Ella E. Preston, PhB'33;Clayton H. Stowe, x'33; Eileen RyanSullivan, PhB'33; Harold Witz, sb'33.Edward B. Beeks, AB'34; Helen D.Haseltine, am'34; Hyman Star, x'34;Harvey Manske, AM'35; Dannie BurkeRosenfield, x'35; Florence D. Schwartz,PhB'35; Howard W. Benson, AM'36;Charles F. Kraft, DB'36, PhD'37; TheronB. Steele, Jr., x'36; Charles A. Collins,AB'37.Elizabeth Own Boswell, AM' 38; DavidB. Gordon, AB'38; Mary E. Kovac, x'38;Richard W. Mattoon, SM'38.Daniel J. Davitt, MBA' 39; Margaret E.Martin, am'39; Owen G. McDonald,MD'39; Bernice Shafer Sanderson,ab'39.1940-1949Roger E. Ach, AB'40; Dorothy ShowhanCragg, AB'40, AM'41; Paul R. Moore,AM'40; William B. Smith, MD'40.Margaret A. Adams, AB'4l; HazelCargill Arnold, AB'42; Paul W. Meade,AM'42; Margaret E. Best, am'43;Dorothy Stack Russell, am'43; J.D.Mosteller, x'44.Frances Bowen Durrett, AM'47; JohnE. Beeks, SB'47; Nell Young Searle,x'47; Ralph Shaw, AM'47.Clem Brooke, MD'48; Sister AileenSt. Margaret Kelly, AM'48; Hans W.Mattick, ab'48, am'56, notedcriminologist and professor of criminaljustice and director of the Center forResearch in Criminal Justice at the University of Illinois, Circle Campus, diedin January; William G. Yule, Jr., SB'48,Sm'49.1950-1959Frank A. Clancy, JD'50; Robert Randall,JD'50; J. M. Weinraub, AB'51; SuzanneJ. Savage, AM'55.F. Rayan Melbourne, x'56; MarvinWaldman, PhD'56; Joseph V. Sheehan,ab'59.1960-1971Margaret Lawrence Olchovik, ab'65;Sarah Conway Hendrix, AM'66; EdwardL. Buote, PhD'68; W. Stuart Ludlow,MBA'70; Richard T. Sandberg, MBA'71. A Fund For BooksWhen you have the occasion to honorsomeone you love, you want your gift tobe both thoughtful and enduring.A gift of books to the University ofChicago Library will associate both youand the one you honor with the ongoingwork of the University and will serve toenhance the collections of the Library.Each twenty-five dollar gift allows theLibrary to add a book to its collections.For each gift of that amount, the Libraryplaces an inscribed book plate in the bookand sends copies of the plate to the personhonored and to the donor.It is also possible to establish an endowed fund for purchasing books and tomake gifts in one's own name or that of arelative or friend. Details on these opportunities for giving are available from theLibrary's Development Office.Make checks payable to:The University of Chicago LibraryMail to: The Director of DevelopmentThe Joseph Regenstein Library1100 East 57 StreetChicago, Illinois 60637I enclose $ for books.Gift in honor of Address City State Zip Donor Address C ity State; Z ip 27LETTERS TO THE EDITORSearching QuestionsRegarding "Un-naming the Void" (Winter 1978), I can think of some searchingquestions that could account for theheating of interstellar gas:1. What happens when two particlestraveling near the speed of light but inopposing directions collide? Could fusion occur resulting in energy release?Certainly this occurs on a grand scalewhen a star is born within the moredense clouds.2. The velocity imparted to some particles appears to have come from supernova explosions. What velocities may beimparted by the tremendous gravitational forces of "black holes"? Is it possible that such a gravitational force maybe near the center of some or many ofthe vast, turbulent gas clouds?William H. Hoffman. MBA '63Beloit, WisconsinAuthor Lewis M. Hobbs replies: 1. Nuclear reactions between high-speed particles can release large amounts of energy.Deep in the dense interiors of stars, suchreactions do provide the fundamentalsource of energy which causes the starsto shine at high luminosities for billionsof years. However, the number of particles in a small volume of the interstellargas in typical absorbing clouds is smallerthan that in the gas at the center of thesun by a factor of about 1024. Very closeapproaches between two atoms or nuclei, which are necessary for nuclear reactions, therefore, occur so infrequentlyin the interstellar gas that they provideno effective heating there. 2. The large energies available in thevery hot shells of gas ejected in supernova explosions may dominate the heating and the energy balance of the interstellar gas. A new detailed exposition ofthis idea has been published inNovember 1977. Significant uncertainties in the Galactic rate of supernova events and of the energy typicallyavailable from each event unfortunatelydo not allow a firm conclusion to bedrawn yet. Similarly, since no blackholes actually have been identified yet,the question of how common they — andtheir effects — are in the Galaxy awaitsfurther discoveries.Master of the InnThe article by Fanny Butcher was excellent in the Winter 1978 issue.Would you please tell me who nowpublishes Robert Herrick's Masters of theInn?Norman V. Williams, DB'40,Argenta, IllinoisThe Editor replies: Master of the Inn (not"Masters" as was erroneously titled inthe Winter issue) has recently been reprinted. It is listed as available from Irv-ington Publishers, 551 Fifth Avenue,New York, New York 10017.Little Bobby HaleThrough all of our University literaturethere is the recurrent theme of the littleboy saying his prayers the night beforeleaving an eastern city to follow his father who won an appointment as a faculty member in Harper's new school inthe west. The little boy is supposed tohave said "Goodbye God, we are goingto Chicago." This is a canard. Theperspicacious youth really said in hisprayers, "Good! By God we are going toChicago." Just to set the record straight.Donald Ridge, AB'40, LLB42Waukegan, IllinoisThe Editor replies: Mr. Ridge refers tolittle Bobby Hale, whose father, aLatinist, was induced to leave Cornellfor a professorship at The University ofChicago. We applaud his interpretation.CreditsUrsula W. Schneider 2Courtesy of Women's Crew 3Courtesy of the Smart Gallery 4Layle Silbert 5Courtesy of Court Theatre 5Courtesy of Special Collections,The Joseph Regenstein Library 17David Lee 1 8Mike Shields 6-7Cover photograph: Eric FutranProduction and layout: Paula S. Ausick28On the cover. Et in Arcadia ego. Theemotional translation of that stirringphrase is so easy, but any precise meaning is hard to find, even to imagine. Arcadia, the land of Pan the god. Actually,he appears late in mythology in Greece;the Homeric references are peculiarlyshallow, without the echoes of the reallyancient gods, but a bit obscene.So, there was a snigger at the beginning. Pan was partly or mostly (at thebottom) goat, but a singularly successfulone in romantic ways. In various texts hetricked all kinds of nymphs and morehuman ladies, even the chaste Dianaherself by various ruses or fawnings.That pun is deliberate; he was, of course,confused regularly with the god Faunusby the time the Romans had lost anysense of the complex origins of wordsthey borrowed. Some of the later commentators even try to derive him fromthe great ram god of the Egyptians. Ajust analogy would be to say that StarWars laser light shows reveal a tribalmemory of the burning of Valhalla. Asthe little old west side lady used to sayon WLS radio ten years ago, amid therock music: "It don't sound right to me."The Homerics had fun with Pan.There are different accounts of his origins, some saying he was the son ofZeus, some the son of Hermes. He wasborn in full shape, with short horns, agoat's legs, feet and tail, and he evenscared his own mother off when she firstsaw him. The gods loved him because helooked so strange. His worship was wellestablished in Arcadia before the time ofPindar who claims in an improbable odethat the god came down and rescued himfrom death one day. The Athenians gavehim a sacred cave after the battle ofMarathon. It was one of the manyshrines to many gods they set up then.They seem to have been so astonished attheir victory that they undermined andoverwhelmed themselves with sacredaltars, caves, and precincts in confusedgratitude.In Greece to this day, in some of thefarming districts, you can find peoplewho will refer to this god at noon. He isthe reason for their noonday rest. If youmake a noise and disturb him, he cancreate a panic among your cattle.In Arcadia, and later in many otherplaces, he was responsible for fecundityof animals, plants, insects and evenfishes. There is about him a curious combination of irreverence and fear,then. If the harvest was bad, or, as happened more frequently, if a hunt wentbadly, the boys of the neighborhoodwould beat his statue with squills, thoseluxurious Mediterranean leeks whichdevelop bulbs up to fifteen pounds thatare useful for making (these days) eithera wonderful liqueur or rat poison.Lascivious Pan. By the time literacywas fairly common in the ancient world,so were perversions and Pan became thescapegoat for all kinds of excesses.Alexandrian and Roman scholars oftenpretended to derive his name from averb indicating "all" or "everything."Late statues put a star on his breast as thefather of the universe. One exceptionally dry and disgusting scholar says hewas the son of Penelope the wife ofUlysses and all her suitors. There is nota lot of humor about him. There is thenice story of his capturing Diana thehuntress by turning himself into a particularly nice white goat. One of thenymphs he loved turned into a fir tree,so he was always associated with firs.One of his loves was Syrinx, who turnedinto the seven-piped flute he plays. (Ifthe illustration used on the cover ismeant to be Pan, as the editor thinks itis, the sculptor who made it was ignorant; this one is surrounded by oak leavesand his flute has eight pipes. Alas.)In this age of tired artifice there maybe again a special sympathy with poorold leek-beaten Pan. The god had a terrific voice and he loved music; his outbursts ranged from music to noise, noiseenough to panic whole armies. And anaffinity with goats and goatishness is notunknown in our day.There is one Pan story which may tellus more about his association with rebellion of the spirit than all others. During the reign of Tiberius, says Plutarch,sailors in the Ionian heard a tremendousvoice from shore crying out that "greatPan is dead." The report terrified theemperor. Later Christian apologists usedthe story to great effect, of course. It is apeculiarly haunting story. Et in Arcadiaego . . . Many have been there. But theecho of that cry haunts all the Arcadiasnow.4.C909 Ti1331 S H16Q 1SV3 gmAavyani|3a QM03 3a TVIb3SQ9VD|HD JO AlISM3AINnOn the cover. Et in Arcadia ego. Theemotional translation of that stirringphrase is so easy, but any precise meaning is hard to find, even to imagine. Arcadia, the land of Pan the god. Actually,he appears late in mythology in Greece;the Homeric references are peculiarlyshallow, without the echoes of the reallyancient gods, but a bit obscene.So, there was a snigger at the beginning. Pan was partly or mostly (at thebottom) goat, but a singularly successfulone in romantic ways. In various texts hetricked all kinds of nymphs and morehuman ladies, even the chaste Dianaherself by various ruses or fawnings.That pun is deliberate; he was, of course,confused regularly with the god Faun usby the time the Romans had lost anysense of the complex origins of wordsthey borrowed. Some of the later commentators even try to derive him fromthe great ram god of the Egyptians. Ajust analogy would be to say that StarWars laser light shows reveal a tribalmemory of the burning of Valhalla. Asthe little old west side lady used to sayon WLS radio ten years ago, amid therock music: "It don't sound right to me."The Homerics had fun with Pan.There are different accounts of his origins, some saying he was the son ofZeus, some the son of Hermes. He wasborn in full shape, with short horns, agoat's legs, feet and tail, and he evenscared his own mother off when she firstsaw him. The gods loved him because helooked so strange. His worship was wellestablished in Arcadia before the time ofPindar who claims in an improbable odethat the god came down and rescued himfrom death one day. The Athenians gavehim a sacred cave after the battle ofMarathon. It was one of the manyshrines to many gods they set up then.They seem to have been so astonished attheir victory that they undermined andoverwhelmed themselves with sacredaltars, caves, and precincts in confusedgratitude.In Greece to this day, in some of thefarming districts, you can find peoplewho will refer to this god at noon. He isthe reason for their noonday rest. If youmake a noise and disturb him, he cancreate a panic among your cattle.In Arcadia, and later in many otherplaces, he was responsible for fecundityof animals, plants, insects and evenfishes. There is about him a curious combination of irreverence and fear,then. If the harvest was bad, or, as happened more frequently, if a hunt wentbadly, the boys of the neighborhoodwould beat his statue with squills, thoseluxurious Mediterranean leeks whichdevelop bulbs up to fifteen pounds thatare useful for making (these days) eithera wonderful liqueur or rat poison.Lascivious Pan. By the time literacywas fairly common in the ancient world,so were perversions and Pan became thescapegoat for all kinds of excesses.Alexandrian and Roman scholars oftenpretended to derive his name from averb indicating "all" or "everything."Late statues put a star on his breast as thefather of the universe. One exceptionally dry and disgusting scholar says hewas the son of Penelope the wife ofUlysses and all her suitors. There is nota lot of humor about him. There is thenice story of his capturing Diana thehuntress by turning himself into a particularly nice white goat. One of thenymphs he loved turned into a fir tree,so he was always associated with firs.One of his loves was Syrinx, who turnedinto the seven-piped flute he plays. (Ifthe illustration used on the cover ismeant to be Pan, as the editor thinks itis, the sculptor who made it was ignorant; this one is surrounded by oak leavesand his flute has eight pipes. Alas.)In this age of tired artifice there maybe again a special sympathy with poorold leek-beaten Pan. The god had a terrific voice and he loved music; his outbursts ranged from music to noise, noiseenough to panic whole armies. And anaffinity with goats and goatishness is notunknown in our day.There is one Pan story which may tellus more about his association with rebellion of the spirit than all others. During the reign of Tiberius, says Plutarch,sailors in the Ionian heard a tremendousvoice from shore crying out that "greatPan is dead." The report terrified theemperor. Later Christian apologists usedthe story to great effect, of course. It is apeculiarly haunting story. Et in Arcadiaego . . . Many have been there. But theecho of that cry haunts all the Arcadiasnow.