kk*tTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEVOLUME LXX NUMBER 2 WINTER 1978TKS UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO LIBRARYSTUDENTS, FACULTY, ALUMNI,AND FRIENDS OF THE UNIVERSITY:This letter is an expression of appreciation from the Board of Trustees forthe help, cooperation, and enthusiastic encouragement received in connection with the selection of a successor to President John Wilson.Last February when the Trustee Selection Committee was appointed, Iasked all of you for your help and your suggestions.The Trustees and the Faculty Advisory Committee received severalhundred suggestions, and almost three hundred individuals were named.They included among others statesmen, educators, scientists, and businessmen. Many of the suggestions included names already being reviewedby the joint committees, but it was very useful to know the direction all ofyou would have us take.Selecting a new President is probably the single most important responsibility of the Trustees. To secure a person who has the appreciationfor quality scholarship, who is possessed of leadership and administrativeabilities, who is sensitive to student, faculty, alumni, trustee, and community needs, and, preferably, who understands the special character of theUniversity, demands a very special individual.The Board of Trustees believes that our choice of Hanna'Holborn Gray., meets fully the requirements of the job, and that with the support andencouragement all of us can provide her, the University will continue to beone of the great private educational institutions.Hanna Gray received her AB degree from Bryn Mawr College 1950, wasa Fulbright Scholar at Oxford University from 1950 to 1952, and receivedher PhD from Harvard in 1957. From 1961 to 1972 she was 'on the historydepartment faculty at The University of Chicago; she was Dean of Arts andSciences at Northwestern from 1972 to 1974; in 1974 she was namedProvost at Yale and early in 1977 she was named acting President.Hanna and Charles Gray have a great enthusiasm for the City of Chicagoas well as for the University. When you have the chance to meet them, I amsure you will agree that the Trustees' and their decision is a happy one.Meantime, please accept again the thanks of the Trustees for your suggestions, advice, and confidence.Sincerely,Roberty W. RenekerChairman, Board of TrusteesTHE UNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEVolume LXX, Number 2Winter 1978Alumni Association5733 South University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312) 753-2175President: Charles W. Boand (LLB'33,MBA'57)Director: David R. Leonetti (AB'58)Assistant Director: Ruth HalloranProgram Director: Gwen WitsamanAlumni Schools CommitteeCoordinator: J. Robert Ball, Jr.Regional Offices1888 Century Park East, Suite 222Los Angeles, California 90067(213) 277-7727825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030New York, New York 10022(212)935-19771000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415)928-03372737 Devonshire Place, NWWashington, D.C. 20008(202) 332-3950Second-class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois, and at additional mailing offices.Copyright 1977 by The University ofChicago. CONTENTSPublished quarterly Spring, Summer,Fall, and Winter by the Vice-Presidentfor Public Affairs. On the Midway 2Hanna Holborn Gray:The Tenth President 5Robert Herrick RememberedFanny Butcher 7Lawrence A. Kimpton:1910-1977 9The Home GalaxyPaulWiita 12Un-naming the Void 20Nostalgia 26Postcard from Olympus 27Alumni News 28Class Notes 30Letters to the Editor 35Cover Note 37Credits 37Editor: Iris M. PoliskiEditorial Assistant: Paula S. AusickRefurbishing HitchcockWhen Hitchcock Hall was named to theNational Register of Historic Placesthree years ago, Resident Masters Peterand Yolande Dembowski assembledsome of the hall's original furniture forthe event.- The furniture is of the stylereferred to as "Craftsman" — superior tothe similar but poorer quality "Mission"style which widely imitated it.Yolande Dembowski, with her husband Professor Peter Dembowski, areaware of the quality of the original furnishings. The dispersal of the originals isboth exasperating and intriguing to Mrs. Dembowski, and she has begun togather pieces that are true to the hall'soriginal design.Hitchcock Hall, which became alandmark on December 30, 1975, is thedesign of architect Dwight Perkins. Inthe 1890s, Perkins was associated with agroup of gifted young architects whosework provided the nucleus of what laterbecame the "Prairie School" of architecture. Perkins designed the building inharmony with the rest of the Neo-Gothic campus, yet incorporated imaginative "Prairie" touches: Hitchcock'sornament, adapted from native Illinois flowers and plants, the shape of thestructure, and the interior, are all associated with the style.The Craftsman furniture originallypurchased for Hitchcock was designedby Gustav Stickley, whose Craftsmanmagazine influenced much of Americantaste for the sixteen years precedingWorld War I. It seems certain that manyPrairie architects approved of Stickley'swork and used it in their buildings.Stickley's career was still in its formativestages when furniture for Hitchcock wasunder consideration in the spring of1902. The use of Craftsman furniturefor the Hall's Memorial Library may beone of the earliest examples of its use bya Prairie architect.The Memorial Library, on completion, expressed the taste of three men.The impressive sculptured frieze wasexecuted by the noted Chicago sculptor,Richard Bock, who worked with manyof the Prairie School architects. In thecenter of the room was a large librarytable, designed by the architect, whichcarried out a diamond patterned motifon the built-in bookcases. The motif alsoappears on the exterior of the building.The bookcases were distinguished bythe abstract floral design of their leadedglass doors. The remaining furniture waspurchased. Of particular interest weretwo Morris chairs, several armchairs,and some circular, Stickley tables.June 15, 1901; the cornerstone for theCharles Hit chock Hall dormitory for youngmen is laid by Mrs. Annie Hitchock. Theman with a beard opposite her is DwightPerkins, the architect.Top: The Memorial Library room as it wasfurnished in 1902.Left: Ornamental detail from the exterior ofHitchock Hall.The original furniture is gone. This isnot uncommon at the University. Asstudent populations grow or shrink, furniture is moved to other buildings. Andseventy-five years of male undergraduate life will take its toll. In 1903,Frances Wheeler, who had assisted Perkins in furnishing Hitchcock, was responsible for furnishing the University'snew Reynolds Clubhouse. One room —the south clubroom on the secondfloor — was furnished with Stickleypieces including chairs which are identical to those appearing in photographs ofHitchcock.Mrs. Dembowski hopes to refurnishone entire room in the master's apartment with the original oak furniture. Inthe 1920s, Marshall Field & Companyproduced duplicates for the University,and many of these pieces remain in thebuilding. Mrs. Dembowski, however,believes in gathering from the materialsat hand. It is an undertaking that requires an eye for style and an ability torummage. "There's an original mirror," she says, "in one of the employee washrooms. There are some pieces in building basements, and they will all have tobe stripped." The characteristic oak andblack leather furnishings may lurk indiminished numbers in various cornersof the University. "The best specimensof the furniture," says Mrs. Dembowski,"are now in the Smart Gallery."Mrs'. Dembowski's recreation of a1902 Hitchcock Hall room is not a caseof nostalgia. It is an attempt to protectand preserve an aspect of a Universitybuilding which is not only architecturallyimportant but continues to exhibit thethought, craftsmanship, and consideration for quality with which it was constructed.Architectural information from The University of Chicago Library Society Bulletin, Vol. 1. No. 1 (Fall). 1975. Additionalinformation supplied by Albert M. Tan-nler, member of the staff of Special Collections, Joseph Regensiein Library.3A Quest for FilmAlmost twenty years ago, some irreplaceable motion picture film about theUniversity was destroyed by improperstorage and overzealousness by thejanitorial staff.Newsreels and a three-reel opus titled"Life on the Quadrangles" (1931), werelost. If any alumnus or friend of theUniversity has copies of motion picturestaken in the early days of the University,please let us know. This kind of filmdocumentation is not represented in theUniversity archives. Such film historycould become part of the permamentrecord of The University of Chicago.The University has no facilities to copymotion picture film, thus we can onlyrequest film that need not be returned.Trustees Elect Two New MembersElmer W. Johnson and Charles Marshallwere elected to the University's Boardof Trustees in November. Johnson, agraduate of Yale University and TheUniversity of Chicago Law School hasspecialized in banking, corporation, andsecurities law for most of his twenty-year career. He was a lecturer in TheUniversity of Chicago Law School inthese fields from 1970 to 1973. He is asenior partner of Kirkland & Ellis, aChicago law firm.Charles Marshall, a graduate of theUniversity of Illinois, has been associated with Illinois Bell TelephoneCompany since 1953, beginning as aservice engineer and holding various positions with Illinois Bell and AT&T. In1975, he became vice president forTexas Operations of Southwestern Bell.He was named president and chiefexecutive officer of Illinois Bell Telephone Company last April after servingas vice president and treasurer of American Telephone & Telegraph Company.Fans of the FieldhouseCelebrate Gala OpeningStudents, trustees, faculty, and staff participated in opening ceremonies at thenewly-renovated Fieldhouse inNovember. After short remarks byCharles D. O'Connell, dean of students;Robert W. Reneker, chairman of theBoard of Trustees; and John T. Wilson,president of the University; Col. HenryCrown cut a ribbon draped from opposing basketball hoops, officially openingthe new top floor of the Fieldhouse. Thecrowd applauded, balloons were re leased from the rafters, and everyonetrooped downstairs for refreshments.Guests tended to wander off into theirsports areas, where small maroon signsannounced the particular facility stillunder construction. One alumnus strodeoff the see if the locker rooms weregoing to be large enough; a Greco-Roman wrestler peered into the expansemarked "Wrestling;" and whole squadrons of people wandered thoughtfullyaround the depressions marked "Handball" and "Squash."Lines to the popcorn and soft pretzelvending stands grew long, and severalstudents dressed as clowns distributedhelium-filled ballons. "Isn't this nice?"spectators commented: "Isn't this amazing?" "Not so amazing," said onealumnus clutching two small daughters,"as my actually being a cheerleader herein 1958."Cheek to CheekRemember "Moonlight Serenade" and"Chattanooga Choo Choo" as youdanced with your arms around yourpartner? The picture below taken at IdaNoyes Hall in 1949 might just becomeIda Noyes Hall in 1978 when "JimmyHenderson and the Glenn Miller Orchestra" brings swing back to campus onFriday evening, April 28. Students, faculty, alumni, and friends will dance tothe smooth, sweet sounds of the Millermood at Ida Noyes. The affair will besponsored by the Alumni Association,the Development Office, the 1978 Fes tival of the Arts Committee, and theOffice of Student Activities.Ticket information can be obtainedfrom the Office of Student Activities,Room 209, Ida Noyes Hall, 1212 East59th Street, Chicago 60637. Phone:(312) 753-3591.Fall Sports Wrap-upFOOTBALLChicago 55 Loras 22Chicago 10 St. Ambrose 13Chicago 21 Beloit 14Chicago 6 Lake Forest 41Chicago 6 Lawrence 62Chicago 15 Ripon 35Chicago 14 Milton 35Chicago 13 Grinnell 362 wins 6 losses4th in Division8th in ConferenceCROSS COUNTRY12 & 125th in Conference1st in Central AU 5000 meterchampionshipVOLLEYBALL (WOMEN)17 wins 7 losses 1 tie4th in State2nd in DistrictFIELD HOCKEY (WOMEN)0 wins 12 losses 1 tieNo ConferenceMembers of the North Central CollegeField Hockey AssociationA dinner dance at Ida Noyes Hall in the 1940s.Hanna Holborn GrayThe Tenth PresidentON DECEMBER 10, 1977, HANNA HOLBORN GRAY was elected to become president of The University of Chicago. She willtake office on July 1, 1978. She will be the tenth chiefexecutive of the University. Robert Reneker, chairmanof the Board of Trustees, said: "When the Trustees beganto look for a new president for the University, we wereaware that our choice would be crucial not only for thisUniversity, but for learning in this country. We lookedfor the best. We believe we have found her."Mrs. Gray has been provost and professor of historyat Yale University since 1974, and acting president ofYale since May, 1977. Chicago alumni will rememberher as an assistant professor of history here from 1961to 1964, and associate professor from 1964 to 1972. Sheis a scholar in Renaissance and Reformation history.In his announcement, Reneker said, "It is a joy toknow that Hanna Gray will be returning to the University . . . ; it is a source of tremendous encouragement and excitement to know she will return as its president. Shehas a splendid reputation as a scholar; she knows thisUniversity and enjoys the confidence of its faculty."Hanna Gray was born October 25, 1930, in Heidelberg, Germany. Her father, Hajo Holborn, was professor of European history in Berlin and later at Yale.Her mother, Annemarie Bettmann, received a doctoratein classical philology at the Friedrich Wilhelm Universityin Berlin. The family left Germany in 1934, a year afterthe Nazis came to power.Hanna Gray entered Bryn Mawr College at 15; shereceived her AB degree (summa cum laude) in 1950 andwas a Fulbright Scholar at St. Anne's College, OxfordUniversity, from 1950 to 1952. She received her PhDfrom Harvard University in 1957. In June, 1954, shemarried Charles Montgomery Gray; they had met inEngland where both were studying.She was an instructor at Bryn Mawr in 1953-54, ateaching fellow at Harvard from 1957 to 1959, and assis-5Hanna Holborn Gray, former faculty member at the University andcurrently provost and acting president of Yale University, will takeoffice on July 1.tent professor in 1959-60. Before joining the Chicagofaculty, she was a fellow at the Newberry Library inChicago.She was dean of arts and sciences and professor ofhistory at Northwestern University from 1972 to 1974,In 1966-67, she was a Fellow of the Center for AdvancedStudy in the Behavioral Sciences, and a visiting scholarthere in 1970-71. She was a Phi Beta Kappa VisitingScholar in 1970-1972.Mrs. Gray describes herself as an "old-fashioned BrynMawr feminist." A story in the December 19 issue ofNewsweek about Mrs. Gray as first woman dean atNorthwestern may be illuminating: Seated in her newoffice, she said, "I was waiting for something to happen,when there was a knock at the door." It was her firstvisitor — a young man in ROTC uniform."Are you the new Dean?" he asked."I am," she replied. "Can I help you?" The answercame back smartly."Yes, Sir\""That young man had been trained to recognize au thority," she chuckled, "and when he met it, he knewhow to address it."The Grays plan to live in the President's house atUniversity Avenue and 59th Street on the campus. Whilepreviously at Chicago, Charles M. and Hanna Gray wereco-editors of T 'be Journal of Modern History. Mr. Gray toldthe New York Times, "We've been very fortunate in coordinating our careers. I had an offer for a better job inChicago, so we went, and then I followed her (to Yale)."Mrs. Gray is a fellow the American Academy ofArts and Sciences, a member of the American HistoricalAssociation, and the Renaissance Society of America,and a member of the Senate of Phi Beta Kappa.She is a member of the boards of the Yale-New HavenHospital and the Yale-New Haven Medical Center. Sheis also a director of the Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. and J.P. Morgan and Company of New York.She is a trustee of Bryn Mawr College, the CarnegieInstitution of Washington, the Center for AdvancedStudy in the Behavioral Sciences, the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton and the Mayo Foundation.6FANNY BUTCHERRobert HerrickRememberedALL OF US AS ALUMNI are still basking inthe afterglow of the international sunshine ofthe 1976 Nobel awards presented to notone but two distinguished faculty members, Saul Bellowand Milton Friedman. It was almost a sunstroke of recognition, having two in one year, though our University has been no stranger to furors over faculty achievements. Sixty years and more ago, when I was in theCollege, the campus was in an afterglow of a national ifnot an international blaze of literary glory over a bestseller written by one of its professors, Robert Herrick.Masters of the Inn was reprinted five times before theyear was out and even now is in print in a new edition byanother publisher. It was what is called in the bookbusiness a "runaway best-seller," and it obviously is stilljogging along. Its author, Robert Herrick, had a name well known tostudents of English poetry, but it was a name not wornas kin to the seventeenth century Anglican priest whose"Hesperides" contained some of the most durablehymns in the English language and whose love lyrics arestill quoted. Some of them were discovered by studentsto be, if not outspokenly carnal, at least gracefully erotic. The Devonshireman's parishioners were so devotedthat they sometimes got the hymns and the lyrics a lit-tled confused and considered them both holy writ. Oneof the imperishable stories about their religious fervor isthat of one old lady who recited as part of her eveningprayers the still famous lines "Bid me to life/ And I willlive/Thy Protestant to be" thinking it an imprecationagainst the rival Catholic Church.Our Robert Herrick had no such blind devotion fromhis readers though Masters of the Inn had a sacred auraabout it for hordes of them. It was the JonathanLivingston Seagull of its day, a short story which afterproposing one idea said so little, so simply, that readerscould and did read into it all sorts of psychological,philosophical, and even spiritual messages. The Mastersof the Inn in eighty- five pages told of a retreat in whichmen found peace and mental and physical rejuvenationthrough communing with nature and with each other atmeals. The little book was so popular, and there were somany requests to the author for the address of the Innthat he put a note in later editions stating that "in answerto many inquiries the book has no foundation in fact."(George Barr McCutcheon had been faced with thepublic's curiosity a few years before and had had a similar need to satisfy the readers when they demanded toknow how they could buy travel tickets to Graustark'sallurements.)Robert Herrick was a professor in the English department offering graduate courses in creative writingwhen I was a senior. To get into one of these coursesoffered to me a key to the secrets of a future in writingbooks which (according to family tradition) I was determined to do from the age of seven. I registered forhis course. To this day I can remember the ecstasy ofbeing accepted. It seemed a miracle to me when I foundmyself at the first session, the youngest member of aclass of seven, the other six of whom had long beengraduated from college.How I got there was, to digress a moment, the realmiracle of my education. For two of my college years Ihad had the beneficence of studying with a born teacher,Dr. Edwin Herbert Lewis. He had been in the Englishdepartment of The University of Chicago before he wasdrafted to head the literature department of a new experimental junior college, Lewis Institute (not named7for him although his students all felt it should havebeen). He looked like the customary (though imaginary)picture of Mr. William Shakespeare with its perky littlebeard and its bright eyes, a resemblance which many feltwas not merely physical. He managed to fire his students with the righteousness and the power of the written word and with the necessity of integrity in using it.What we learned in his classroom was the duty to communicate with words, simply and intelligibly.Dr. Lewis once said as he looked back over his teaching days that he was proud of having taught three goodnewspaper people to communicate: Arthur Krock, whofor years headed the New York Times Washingtonbureau; Dorothy Thompson who not only told thewhole world what had happened but also what everyoneought to be thinking about it. I knew that he was justbeing kind when he labeled me number three.James Weber Linn, who was always called "Teddy"because he resembled Teddy Roosevelt and who wasthe most popular of the campus VlPs with the undergraduates by way of being a born teacher himself, gaveme a year's credit in English without my having to take itafter it was plain that I had had the fundamental trainingwith Dr. Lewis. He also gave me his blessing in mydetermination to be a writer some day but with theadmonition not to try working on a newspaper because Iwas too sensitive to bear the strain. (I lasted all but sixmonths of fifty years of newspaper sturm und drang onthe Chicago Tribune and was almost indecently happy inmy work, quitting only because of the bugaboo of forcedretirement.) He, too, put in a good word for my eagerness to study with Robert Herrick.After the imperishable memory of the first few moments of class, I have literally no memory of what I hadlooked forward to as one of the great events of mylearning life. What happened there is as evanescent aswet footprints on a shore as the tide comes in. What Iproduced on paper must have been adequate in quantityif not in quality or the seven would have shriveled to six.When the class was over, everything I had written wasfiled in a wastebasket. My memory is usually so vividthat I can actually "see and smell" little bouquets offlowers that were pinned on the banners that lined thestreets of Chartres when I just happened upon a daythere when the children were being dedicated to theVirgin. However, it fails me completely about that class.Whether I made a stab at writing the Great AmericanNovel, at short stories, or at some Testament of Youthin autobiography is a blank. All I remember is that whenthe course was over, Dr. Herrick assured me thatalthough I could write clearly and readably, I certainlyhad nothing to say because, as he put it, "You have not lived" — something which I innocently thought I hadbeen doing for twenty-one years.I do remember that Teacher's pet was an olderwoman, about his age — which then seemed hoary but Inow know was only a crumbling forty-two. I rememberthat her project for a novel shocked me, but pleasedTeacher who pointed out that she had lived.Except for that one hot line, there was no communication between Dr. Herrick and us seven little literarydwarfs, because the first morning the class convened hehad made the relationship clear by declaring "the factthat we meet in this room does not mean we know oneanother. I do not expect you to speak to me if we meetoutside it, nor you to be recognized by me." Once Idisobeyed that edict. I was tripping along a gravel pathin Jackson Park (lightheaded because friendly winds hadblown away the usual fragrance from the stock yards)and was probably thinking that the leaves were fluttering in unison with the University carillon when suddenly I actually bumped into Teacher and instinctivelysaid "Oh, I'm so sorry, Dr. Herrick." If he recognizedme as one of the seven little literary-minded sheep thathe had been shepherding for some time, he gave no hintof it. Nor did he take any notice of the fact that I hadcalled him "Dr. Herrick." He simply nodded andwalked on.If I can't remember what — if anything — I learned inhis class, I did learn a few things. One thing was thatnobody can be made into a creative writer or kept frombeing one by discouragement. Another is that it takes aborn teacher to help blow into creative flame thatdetermination — a flame that can illumine one's own life,perhaps even a few others' lives.One can and needs to be taught the mechanics ofgrammar, rhetoric, sentence structure, and editing (especially one's own effusions as well as others'). One caneven be taught a few tricks of catching a reader's interest. But no one can ever be taught how to write forimmortality, which is a simple enough definition of theword literature.Fanny Butcher (Mrs. Richard Bokum) received her AB degree in 1910. She joined the Chicago Tribune in 1913 asan assistant to the ivoman's editor. In little more than adecade, she served as music critic, society editor, politicalreporter, and book reviewer. Her book reviews later grew to bethe Tribune's book section. Her own book, Many Lives —One Love, describes Chicago's literary life in the 1920s and1930s, and recalls writers, editors, and, of course, ProfessorHerrick. Mrs. Bokum is an officer of the Acad'emie de France.She lives in Chicago.8Down From The PeakLawrence A. Kimpton1910-1977Chancellor 1951-1960 I first saw these gray towers a quarter of a century agoduring the frantic days of the War, and I knew at thatmoment that this was the only real university I wouldever know and love.When the war was over, Bob Hutchins asked me if Ithought the Great Books were great, and when I forth-rightly answered "yes," he made me a dean. I desertedfor a time to bask in Stanford's sunshine, but after threeyears I begged to come back. I was crowned sixth headof this University in this awesome chapel, and it was thehighest honor that that ever will or could come to me.The activities of my administration were marked by exigency; there were some dirty jobs to do involvingmoney, neighborhoods, and the College, and I did themand somehow held the place together in the process. L. A. Kimpton at Convocation, 16 December 1966.A philosopher on a slow boat, burly Lawrence AlpheusKimpton, 49, had three months last spring to savor thebeauties of the Tennessee River, and, as he put it, to"cruise and muse." Something of what he mused aboutaboard his 27-foot cabin cruiser was finally disclosed lastweek. Kimpton told a stunned faculty meeting he willresign as chancellor of The University of Chicago as soonas a successor is named. His reason: "The universityevery so often requires a change in leaders who canapply fresh and sharply objective appraisals."By any appraisal, Kimpton has done a crack job during his nine-year chancellorship. He put finances in theblack ($29 million was added to the endowment);helped halt the slum blight threatening the campus;eased some of the academic excesses left by predecessorRobert Hutchins (e.g., he replaced the two-year B.A.program with a four-year course). What of the future?Kimpton appeared undecided but insisted he wouldn'ttake another college post. "When you've been chancellor here," he said, "you don't leave for something else.You've reached the peak." Newsweek, 11 April I960, p. 116.His Own General EducationI suppose I have been generally educated, too, aroundThe University of Chicago. I have certainly been exposed to a wide variety of experience in somewhat thesame way as yourselves. The problems of a university of9this kind — and in a sense I have been involved in themall — range from the impact on archaeology of the risingwaters of the Nile caused by the Aswan Dam to thevalue, cost, and operation of a 121/2-billion-volt accelerator. I doubt that I now understand all these thingsas thoroughly as you have come to understand the materials in the general courses; a chancellor, by the verynature of his job, must pose as an authority on all sortsof matters that when you come right down to it, hedoesn't know much about. A general is a generalist bydefinition, but what I have lost in depth I have perhapscompensated for in this matter of methodology. I amproud of what I have learned at The University ofChicago about methodology in recognizing problemsand finding solutions to them. Over the last nine yearswe have actually repaired neighborhoods, regained theprofessional schools. The big accelerator is in goodhands, fairly well financed and on schedule, and we areeven pondering a crash archaeological program in thedisappearing valley of the Nile.I am not sure that I have changed as much in mattersof taste as I hope you have. Perhaps these things are forthe young, and one becomes increasingly inflexible ashis arteries harden. I have tried to like beatnik poetryand prose and have even worked at understanding thisstrange cacophony of sounds called modern jazz, butwithout success. As for folks songs, I sadly agree with theman who remarked that the only trouble with them isthat they are written by the people. I still like Shakespeare and Dickens and Beethoven and Brahms, so I'llhave to write this part of my general education off, butlet's wait a hundred years before making a final aestheticjudgment on who is right.I do believe, however, that in having to do somethings one doesn't want to do, I am way ahead of you.You may have had to learn some mathematics eventhough you deplored the stuff or had to analyze a modern poem which you found incomprehensible; but Ihave had to repair neighborhoods, say pleasant things tounpleasant people, and enter into all manner of activities for which I had not talent or initial concern. I amsure the discipline was good for us both and constitutesan essential part of our general education. L. A. Kimpton at Convocation, 10, 11 June 1960.Thoughtful AdviceHow can The University of Chicago remain a great university and indeed increase its stature in the time to come? The question is an obvious one, and the generalized answer is equally obvious: We have to do what wedecide to do superlatively well. But, as we break thisgeneral answer down, its components are not so obviousor so easy to implement.We need first to recognize that The University ofChicago is now and will have to remain a small institution. The very fact that we are a private university, accountable to the law and our own conscience, gives us areal advantage over our public sisters. We are not obligated to establish a school of engineering because thereis a local need for it, or a course in harbor managementbecause of the St. Lawrence Seaway. And there is agoodreason why we should take a long look at some of thethings we are now doing to see if they are worth doingor if we are doing them well. Mediocrity is the singleintolerable thing; when we find it, we must eliminate it ifwe are to survive as a great university.As a kind of footnote to this observation, let me giveyou some dangerous thoughts my musings led me toward. I, and a lot of other well-intentioned people, havelong thought of the great private university as thepioneering, the innovating university. I still think so,but I also think it timely to inject a note of caution.Research is a patient, plodding, cumulative process, occasionally lighted by a flame of genius. Even the brilliantwork of Darwin which we commemorate this year wasbuilt upon observations and thinking which long preceded him. And there is no substitute in great teachingfor the learning and contagious enthusiasm of theteacher, though these fundamental virtues may be assisted by curricular and methodological innovation.Solid excellence must accompany innovation if it is to besignificant, and that breathless breakthrough often turnsout to be a gimmick or a gadget that briefly dazzles thosewho are determined quickly to save the world.It became increasingly clear to me that the future ofthe great private university primarily dedicated to pureresearch was touch and go. The excellence of our peopleis the only thing that matters, and the Harris Committeereminds us that 66 per cent of our staff has been appointed in the last ten years. It is a terrifying thought,but, almost literally speaking, a university can be madeor broken in a decade. As a result of these ruminations,I began to sum up our assets and liabilities in our pursuitof excellence.One of our chief difficulties, of course, is the neighborhood, but I am less worried about it than I was eightyears ago. An obvious reason is that much of it is beingtorn down and rebuilt. But there are other reasons too.The deterioration of our surroundings has brought ourfaculty community closer together, both literally and10figuratively. The vast majority lives within a mile radiusof the University, and it is as pleasant and happy a community as you could find in the most bucolic of oursister instituions. More than that, most of the othermajor universities are in trouble too, and I discover thattheir troubles are even more acute than our own. Faculty who have actually lived in Hyde Park-Kenwoodlike it, and I seriously doubt that it now constitutes amajor factor in the decision of a faculty member to leavethe University. But bringing a new and distinguishedfaculty member to our campus is a different problem.Here I believe the difficulty is the city of Chicago itself.Broad shoulders, freight-handlers, and hog-butchers arenot everyone's dish of tea, if you will allow me to mix aneat metaphor. You will recall the story, probably apocryphal, of the child of one of Mr. Harper's early appointments drawn from Harvard. As the youngsterended his bedtime prayer that night before they leftCambridge, he said, "Goodbye, God, we're going toChicago." I happen to love the city myself, with its vitality, its culture, and its beauty, but the fact remainsthat Chicago — and even the Midwest — does not constitute a lure for some people.A second handicap is what might be called The University of Chicago's lack of glamor, though this createsfar more of a problem in money-raising and recruitingstudents than it does in keeping and obtaining a distinguished faculty. Chicago has no marching band, no winning football team, no handsome fraternity and sororityrow, and few of the things that alumni and the public ingeneral treasure about university life. Research has aglamor of its own for those who do it, and occasionallyits results awe and even terrify the public, but our pressrelations man is hard put to find material the newspapersare willing to print. This lack, if it really is one, does notworry me too much. Absolute quality in research andteaching wins in the long run, and, while I would notmind tolerating a little more real fun around the place,we can survive and even flourish without it.Our greatest handicap is our competition. WhenChicago was founded, it towered above all other institutions west of the New England Seaboard. One didnot associate Nobel Prize winners and Guggenheim Fellows with state universities, but this is a commonplacetoday. Here again, though, there is a ray of hope if wecan maintain our character as a small institution dedicated to pure research and high-level teaching. Thestates, whether out of pride or necessity, are continuallyincreasing their commitment to higher education withintheir borders. They are building new junior colleges andcreating or absorbing new four-year institutions; by1965 they will be swamped by students at all levels whom they are obligated to train. The single great university of the state runs a serious risk of being weakenedby the ambitions of the more specialized and localizedpublic institutions within the state, which have beenvery successful in their appeals to the legislature basedon local pride and service to the local constituency.From the over-all viewpoint of the strength of Americaneducation, this tendency worries me, but it reinforcesmy conviction that we at Chicago should go right onbeing what we truly are and doing what comes naturally.What are the virtues of our character? First and mostimportant, we are an institution dedicated to basic research, with all that that implies. This sets the tone andcreates the atmosphere that is Chicago. The teachingloads are light, the committee assignments are minimal,and the demands of the University that would distract aman from his primary responsibility are few. There is aneasy communication across departmental lines, makingfor interdisciplinary research and leading naturally toinstitutes and committees which draw together men ofdiverse backgrounds who share a common researchinterest. Our system of government, too, is a sensitiveinstrument which allows for the easy flow of intelligenceand counsel between faculty and administration andprovides privileged information for the entire faculty; Iuse "privileged" here advisedly to remind us that thefrank and open discussions which so mark this University can be ruined by those thoughtless or maliciousones who release such information to the public. Andwe are a rich university as private universities go. Wehave enough money through endowment income, gifts,and tuition receipts to do the things we need and wantto do so long as we have a care about the size of theinstitution and the peripheral activities we engage in.Our salary average is one of the best in the country, andwe are determined to make it the best. The Humanitiesand the Library are soft spots in our budget, and thesewe propose to remedy. But most important of all is theair of freedom, even of magnificence, that pervades theplace. These are wise and good men who surround us,dedicated to the search for truth and in easy and freecommunication with one another. These are our assets,and these we must preserve and indeed exploit in the future. L. A. Kimpton, State of the University, 3November 1959.Lawrence A. Kimpton, former Chancellor of The University of Chicago, died October 31, 1977 in his homein Melbourne Beach, Florida, following a long illness.He was sixty-seven. A memorial service was held inRockefeller Memorial Chapel on January 12.11PAUL WITT A¦5 ¦ ¦ ¦ "J* """ W m "F mJmmr "J"THE HOME GALAXYsila<}nttudinuSte llM-umprmuz 0secundtf .|)(terhm ftquarto' ifqu'trthj 'VI'igura obfervat Comet, a R ,T».P. ^Egidio TVa.ic . de Grimes S.I- in '-",!"?'lollom ' Ma* . Pfof. nions. Ian. ff '12ir iu\ CommumcatR ."0.1'. AV"> Curly SJ.perh'n . The ancient Greeks saw it as a bright band runningacross the entire night sky. For them, this spectacularsight was mythical milk spilled across the heavens. Because of ever-growing pollution and bright city lightmany of us rarely see this Milky Way. But on a darksummer night, far from cities' glare, the strip of lightthat extends from Cassiopeia in the north, through Cyg-nus overhead, to Sagittarius in the south, is an inspiringsight.The Greeks' homely descriptive has remained thename of the dense concentration of stars that denote theplane of our Galaxy — with a capital G. Other neighboring galaxies are somewhat chauvinistically referred to inthe lower case.Galileo was the first to identify it. He turned hisnewly-invented telescope upon the Milky Way, and herealized that its appearance is due to the light from hugenumbers of dim stars. Many other astronomers haveturned their telescopes and their minds to describingthe structure of this giant stellar system, and today webelieve that we have a fairly good description of theMilky Way, the home Galaxy in which our solar systemresides.Persistent investigation of certain faint patches oflight in the sky have revealed to the astronomer's eyeother galaxies, situated many hundreds of thousands oflight-years away. Descriptions have been compiled to anextent that the general properties of these "external''galaxies are known and can be classified. And we knowour Galaxy fits into the scheme — this huge, spinningspiral system with a diameter of over 97,800 light-years,or 30,000 parsecs, in more manageable numbers. (Oneparsec equals 3.26 light-years.) Note that observers seeonly the stars in the Galaxy; small planets, such as ourown, are too dim to be visible across the vast reaches ofspace. It is the stars that shine in the night sky, as doesour star, the Sun.The primary tools used to investigate our immediateneighborhood in space are star counts. Astronomerscount the numbers and velocities of different types ofstars in different directions and make individual corrections for light absorption and reddening due to interstellar dust.Illustration from Stanislav Lubieniski's Theatrum Com-eticum. Published in Amsterdam in 1667 , this book is thefirst instance of international cooperation on a scientific investigation. Lubieniski, a socinian theologian and a scholar,corresponded with, and printed both sides of the correspondence of, more than forty European astronomers on asurvey and investigation of the 1664-1665 comet.13This is scarcely a modern procedure. In the lateeighteenth century, William Herschel made the firstsuch systematic analysis. He knew nothing of absorptionand could not assign actual distances, but he concludedthat our sun was near the center of an ellipsoidal starsystem that is five times wider than it is thick.Herschel' s picture of the Galaxy was essentially unchanged until this century. Around 1900, Jacobus Kap-teyn constructed a careful statistical analysis of stellarmotions, but he too produced an ellipsoidal model similar to Herschel' s. However, he could assign actual distances from our planet to many of the stars, and thus hedevised an estimate for the size of our Galaxy. Kapteynthought it was about 7,000 parsecs in diameter andsome 1,300 parsecs thick. We now know that he wasonly seeing a portion of the Galaxy, and certainly not itscenter, but his numbers are closer to the size estimatethat is accepted today.Harlow Shapley was responsible for a giant step toward the present conception of the Galaxy; he approached the project by carefully examining clusters ofstars — in particular, globular clusters. Globular clustersare dense conglomerations which rather resemble clusters of frog eggs one sometimes sees floating on aspringtime pond. Globulars contain between onehundred thousand and one million stars on the average.Thus, they can be seen at great distances. The mutualgravitational attraction of the component stars bindsthem into a cohesive unit, usually quite spherical, typically between 10 and 100 parsecs in diameter. Most ofthe light in globular clusters come from their heaviestand most luminous members, but the greater number ofdimmer stars comprise the bulk of the mass. It is important to note that globulars contain very little materialheavier than helium (lithium, barillium, and anythingheavier are "metals" in astronomical parlance) which indicate that they are very old stars . . . between 7 and 12billion years old is typical.Shapley realized that the one hundred fifty or soglobular clusters in our Galaxy were distributed almostspherically, but that their population was not concentrated near our sun. Rather, the center of their distribution was some 10,000 parsecs from our Sun, on apoint towards the constellation Sagittarius. If we look atthe globular clusters, we see that they are often at largeangles out of the plane, but we see most of them in onehalf of the sky. This was the first good evidence identifying both the location of the Galaxy's center and its totalextent. Because of their great mass, gravitational forceswould tend to concentrate the globular clusters towardsthe Galaxy's center.Shapley, Hubble, Oort, and other great astronomers of the early part of this century realized that the concentration of interstellar gas and dust in the plane of theGalaxy absolutely precluded seeing dim stars for morethan 1,000 parsecs in that direction. Because most ofthe globulars are located outside the plane, in sort ofhalos on either side of the galactic center, our view ofthem is much clearer. And because they are such brightobjects, they can be used both to measure distances inour Galaxy, and the distances to other external galaxies,where other central sets of globular clusters are alsovisible.Our knowledge of the Galaxy is improving all thetime, but astronomers and astrophysicists still face manyuncertainties. Only during the past twenty or thirtyyears with the advent of radio astronomy, have we penetrated the gas and dust haze and seen into the center ofour Galaxy and through to the far side. Nevertheless,our viewing location generates problems. When onelooks from inside something, one has a distinctly different perspective than from the outside of the same object. So though we can gather more information aboutvarious parts of our Milky Way, it is, in some sense,harder to put all the observations together than if wewere observing some far-off external galaxy.However, there are certain things we know positively. For instance: somewhere between 90 and 95 percent of the mass of our Galaxy is in stars. The remaining5 to 10 percent is interstellar material, and over 90 percent of this interstellar material is gas. Most of the gas inthe universe is hydrogen, and so most of this interstellatmedium is also expected to be hydrogen. Coupled withthe gas is dust. Some of the dust is spread out, and someis clumped together in clouds. The gas and dust are ofgreat importance in our own Galaxy and in manygalaxies of the same type. This gas and dust mix is one ofthe distinguishing features between spiral and ellipticalgalaxies. More on that, later.Two other components of the interstellar mediummust be included to make this picture complete. Cosmicrays — elementary particles accelerated to very highenergies — presumably fill our Galaxy. We also assumethat they are produced predominantly within ourGalaxy and slowly leak out into intergalactic space.Aside from cosmic rays the Galaxy contains a magneticfield. The magnetic field, which is spread throughoutour Galaxy, is very weak: it is probably five millionths ofa gauss — one hundred thousandth of the averagegeomagnetic field — the force that causes compass needles to point north. On the other hand, this weak fielddoes permeate the entire Galaxy (as far as we can tell),and it is quite necessary and quite adequate to containthe cosmic rays. In turn, the cosmic rays provide a goodudeal of the pressure that helps support the interstellargas in its particuar configuration. These three aspects ofnon-stellar galactic structure — interstellar media, cosmicrays, and the magnetic field — all function together, andone could not exist without the other two.Because gravitational forces are by far the dominantforce in the Galaxy and because 90 percent or more ofthe mass of the Galaxy is in the stars, the stars themselves, by the gravitational force of their mutual attraction, determine their own positions and motions. Theyalso predominantly determine the position and motionsof the gas. This gravitational force has far-reaching consequences. As far as we can tell, gravitation is in the onlyeffect in the interaction between galaxies. For the universe is filled with a network of galaxies which, likeinterstices in a spider's web, stand apart from, yet areaffected by each other.There are tens of millions to hundreds of thousandsof billions of stars within a galaxy. We do not have computers big enough to handle the history and evolution ofeach, so we must approximate. To provide a brief picture of what we think our Galaxy looks like, imagine anedge-on view of a disc. In the disc all the gas and dust isconcentrated, as are most of the stars. There is a thickening in the center of the disc called the nucleus. Aroundthis galactic nucleus is a large halo of stars, substantiallyspread out. The thickness of this halo is almost as largeas the width of the disc itself. Dominant members of thehalo are globular clusters.In the top-down view of the Milky Way, the Sun —our star — is roughly two-thirds of the way out, towardsone side of the Galaxy. That distance is about 10,000parsecs, or a little over 30,000-light years out from thecenter of the Galaxy. Another 5,000 parsecs beyond ourSun is the Galaxy's edge. As mentioned, the Galaxy as awhole is perhaps 30,000 parsecs across. However, thethickness of the disc is only a few hundred parsecs ... itis quite a thin, spread-out object. It does not appearexactly symmetrical to us, as we are not in the centralplane. Our solar system is perhaps 12 parsecs above theplane.In our particular neighborhood, the average star density is quite low — approximately one five-hundredth of astar per cubic parsec, and our nearest neighboring star isover a parsec away: four light years. Our neighborhoodis rather a backwater. The star population is greaterelsewhere. For instance, the average number of stars atthe center of the galactic plane is rather dense. As onemoves out from this central plane by 100 parsecs, thenumber has fallen off a little; by the time one reaches200 parsecs from the center, there are only half as manystars . . . and that 200 parsecs is roughly half the thick ness of the disc of the Galaxy. By the time one reaches1,000 or 2,000 parsecs from the center, only smallnumbers of stars remain. Some of them are the coolerredder stars; the hotter blue and white stars began todisappear back in the 200-parsecs-from-the-centerzone. Not only certain types, but the total number ofstars also tends to decrease as one moves from the center to the edge of the Galaxy. Yet, there are roughly thesame number of stars above and below the plane of theGalaxy. To a large extent, it is quite a symmetrical object.The clue which told us about the shape of our Galaxyand our position in it came, as we have said, from theglobular clusters. We know they form an almost spherical distribution, the center of which is concentrated at apoint roughly 10,000 parsecs from where we are. Butthere is another method for measuring the size andshape of the Galaxy. It involves a radio astronomy measurement of the spectral line of hydrogen.Radio astronomy can detect the emissions from hydrogen, that is, from neutral hydrogen gas. This is accomplished via something called the hyperfine transition, related to the flipping of the spin of the electronwithin the hydrogen atom. This very small charge ofenergy corresponds to quite a long wave length. Thewave lengths of visible light are around a hundred millionth of a meter in length, but the line that correspondsto the hyperfine transition in neutral hydrogen gas is 21centimeters long, within the radio band. Thus, radiotelescopes were able to detect this important line, andprovide considerable information about the locations ofneutral hydrogen gas concentrations.And because this hydrogen gas is associated with thegalactic plane but more particularly because it resides inthe Galaxy's arms, it gives us a good way of figuringwhere the distant portions of the spiral arms of ourGalaxy lie ... those bright curving structures whichemanate from the central region.Another signal from the spiral arms is provided by theconcentrations of stars in what astronomers call "H II"regions. These H II regions are portions of interstellargas that have been ionized by hot stars. Light emitted byhot stars can separate the hydrogen gas into electronsand protons and when these electrons and protons combine, they give off significant amounts of radiation. TheH II regions are only found with these hot stars, alsoresidents of spiral arms, so they too give a good indication of where the spiral arms are. The difference in totaldensity between the spiral arms in our Galaxy and theregions between the arms may be only 4 to 10 percent.But the arms make a great impression on the viewer ifone takes a picture of them, because they're bright, as15the most luminous stars are concentrated in these arms.H II regions are also very bright.By way of introducing several specific spiral arms, theSun, and thus our solar system, resides in the Orionarm. The Orion arm is 5,000 parsecs in length, and 700parsecs wide and extends through a substantial fractionof our sky. The next nearest arm, moving outward fromthe center of the Galaxy, is the Perseus arm. It is aboutthe same size and thickness as the Orion arm, but it isabout 2,000 parsecs further away from the center. Sagittarius, which is the closest arm moving inward, is about2,000 parsecs shorter in size. These are the only armswe can get good information about from specific starcounts, or from the H II regions. However, we haveenough information to prove that these hot stars areassociated with the 21 centimeter line. Therefore, wecan use the large emissions of neutral hydrogen that wereceive by radio telescopes to map those areas which wecannot see any other way.The very existence of spiral arms indicates that something must be generating them. The whirling pattern inwhich they appear implies that something is rotatingthem. The rotation is not even throughout, and eacharm's outer portion moves so as to lag behind the innerportion. They tend to "wrap up." And one of the mostimportant features of our Galaxy is this rotation indicated by the wrapping of the spiral arms. How fast isthe Galaxy rotation? And how does the rotation vary indifferent sections of the Galaxy?If we measure the velocity at which a star is moving ina circular orbit around the Galaxy, and if we know howfar it travels, we can figure how long it takes to makeone orbit. Condensed into a mathematical formula, thiswould read: period times velocity equalscircumference — the distance the star has to travelaround the Galaxy. Of course, the orbit of a star is notexactly circular, nor is it totally within the plane of theGalaxy. Also, some stars are moving faster or slowerthan the average at that specific distance. But the bulk ofthe stars are moving in a predominantly circular fashion,approximately within the plane. The circular velocity ofthe Sun, for example, is about 215 kilometers per second. We can use the fact that it is about 10,000 parsecsfrom the center of the Galaxy. Putting it into an equation, one can figure out that the period — the time ittakes for the sun to make one orbit around the center ofthe Galaxy — is around two hundred million years ... along time for a galactic year. But it's a small fraction ofthe total lifetime of the Galaxy and the total lifetime ofthe Sun, which will make several tens of orbits aroundthe Galaxy during its lifetime.The key work in analyzing rotation was done by Jan Oort in the 1920s. He realized that, at least in the region near the Sun, most of the nearby stars did not rotatelike members of a solid disc. When a solid disc rotates,the outer portions seem to move faster than the innerportions. But Oort recognized that if the disc issufficiently spread out, most of the stars would be rotating as planets do around a sun. And the further out, theslower the velocity. This is proven by considering thealternating red and blue Doppler shifts of stars . . . theidea being that the stars moving toward us, our Sun —are Doppler shifted to the blue. The stars escaping at alarge velocity from us, moving away, are reddish; we saythat their light is Doppler shifted to the red. A starbehind the Sun, moving fast and catching up to us,shows a blueshift.By looking in different directions in the sky, by observing large numbers of stars in each direction, and byaveraging out their orbital velocities, one can calculatethe average velocity of each and can figure out howdistant they are. That familiar 21 centimeter line tells usmore about rotation: the 21 centimeter line would alsobe redshifted toward a longer wavelength for a cloud ofgas that was moving away from us. With a radio telescope, the problem is that all the information from aparticular direction comes at once. It's very difficult tofigure out how far away the gas actually is, and howmuch of it is there. We are assisted in this research bythe gas itself: the hotter and denser gas will radiate morestrongly.But we still want to know what the center of ourGalaxy is like. There is a mystery involved. In our ownGalaxy, there are strange emissions from the centralregion. These emissions relate to high energy electronswhich spiral around strong magnetic fields — it is a kindof synchrotron radiation that is also seen in supernovaremnants. There is also a considerable quantity of infrared radiation presumably reflected from dust particles, which is also coming from the nucleus.In the center of the Galaxy, there is a small core,perhaps only 100 parsecs across; this very small region isthe source of most of the radio emission and infraredradiation. There is also something that looks like a soliddisc. It is roughly 300 parsecs in radius, and a few parsecs thick. It is rotating at a constant rate. Still at thecenter of the Galaxy, one observes another phenomenon: roughly 3,500 parsecs from the center is an expanding spiral arm which seems to be moving outwardat a fairly brisk pace. It is not only rotating in a circularmotion, but it is definitely being pushed outward. Astronomers have associated the expanding arm with thepossibility that the central portion of the Galaxy hasbeen the site of an explosion in the not too distant past.16In that respect, we may not be too different from themore active, excited galaxies.In order to tie all this information together, we canuse our knowledge of the Galaxy's rotational velocityand size to provide us with one of its most importantproperties: its mass. How big is the Milky Way, really?An answer can be found by plotting a rotation curve.We measure what the circular velocities are, as a function of distance, and at the position of the Sun (about10,000 parsecs out) that velocity is about 215 kilometers per second. And in the region near the Sun, we dohave that slowdown — the Keplerian falloff — where thevelocity decreases with an increase of distance. But inthe central region of the Galaxy, where rotation is moreuniform, there is the opposite effect. To figure out whatthe mass of the Galaxy is, one uses Kepler's third law,which essentially relates the period — the time it takes tomove around the Galaxy — with the distance and withthe total mass involved. It makes the assumption thatmost of the mass is near the center of the Galaxy so, forthe sake of calculation, it may be approximated by apoint in the center. This is not strictly true, because theGalaxy is flat and not spherical. But by making an approximation, one can multiply the orbital period(around 20 million years), by the distance in parsecs togive us an approximate value of two times 10 to theeleventh (2 x 10u), or 200 billion solar masses as themass of the Galaxy.To summarize, we have an idea of the Galaxy'ssize — around 30,000 parsecs across, a couple hundredparsecs of thickness over most of its diameter — and anidea of its mass — roughly 200 billion times that of theSun. Since most of this mass is contained in stars, it isimportant to determine the kind of stars that populatethe Galaxy. In this as in so many other areas, the studyof external galaxies gives us answers that can be appliedto our own.There are several kinds of stellar populations. Thebasic division is between Population I stars and Population II stars. Population I stars are quite young. They areenriched (or polluted) with heavier elements; in otherwords, they have substantial quantities of material that isnot hydrogen or helium. This means that they aresecond-generation stars that have incorporated materialproduced by nucleosynthesis in earlier stars. A subtypeis characterized by dense surrounding gas; it includesthe very bright young O and B stars, T Tauri stars,variable cepheid-type stars, and open galactic clusterswhich are less dense and contain fewer stars than globular clusters. The most massive, and hottest stars arecalled type O; they weigh at least ten times as much asthe Sun, and their surfaces are typically four times as hot Astronomical gauge taken from the frontispiece ofAstronomicum Caesareum by Petrus Apianus, 1540.as the Sun's. Just slightly less massive, and slightlycooler than the O stars, are the B stars. T Tauri starshave strong stellar winds; they send large amounts of gasout from their surfaces and are believed to represent astage in star formation. It is significant that we see thesekinds of star together in our own and in externalgalaxies. They are mostly found in spiral arms. OlderPopulation I stars seem to be more spread out, andinclude the A stars, somewhat hotter than our Sun, andthe dwarf M stars, which are somewhat cooler.The Galaxy's disc population, which are stars betweenPopulations I and II, includes stars found near the galactic nucleus, and also planetary nebulae and novae, whichseem to be associated with the plane of the Galaxy. Onthe other hand, Population II stars are older than Population I stars. Physically, they are more spread out andnot so concentrated in the plane. Chemically, they aremuch more pristine and almost totally hydrogen andhelium. They are first generation stars which have notincorporated much of the enriched material from theinterstellar medium. So they have been around a longtime — essentially since the formation of the Galaxy.Intermediate type Us are long period variable stars andstars whose high velocity takes them out of the plane ofthe Galaxy. They spread out but do not extend to thehalo population, the most extreme part of Population II.The key members of the halo population are globularclusters. There are other members — the dwarf Cepheidsand RR Lyrae stars which can be found near or sometimes in globular clusters.All these kinds of stars make up our Galaxy, and the17same types of stars form the external galaxies. Up untilthe 1920s and 30s, it was not well-established that therewere external galaxies. Until then, other galaxies appeared in telescopes and on pictures that were takenthrough them as patches of light — as the Milky Waywould have appeared to us before we had telescopes atall. So these patches or nebulae were thought to beperhaps planetary nebulae or supernova remnants —bright blobs of gas and few stars. It was not until morepowerful telescopes were made that it was determinedthat in some cases there were individual stars withinthese nebulae. The question then became: Were thesegroups of stars inside or outside our Galaxy? EdwinHubble was able to measure their redshift — and howfast they were moving away — which was enough to convince most people that most of these groups were individual "island universes," that there were galaxies external to our own and that they were at great distancesfrom our Galaxy.Thinking about these galaxies, one must rememberthat, just as most stars are low mass dim stars, mostgalaxies are dwarf dim galaxies. There is a large numberof galaxies whose mass ranges around 108 solar masses. . . 100 million stars. They are much smaller than ourown Galaxy which is several times as massive. Most ofthese dwarfs are probably elliptical galaxies, but they areso small and so faint and so far away that it is hard todetect what their shapes are.The major distinction is made between spiral and elliptical galaxies. One difference is this: spiral galaxiescontain both Population I and Population II material.Ellipticals do not have much Population I material. Thepresence of gas and dust is the simplest way to identifyPopulation I material. Very often, dust in a spiral galaxywill block out the light from the center of the plane; oneoften sees a picture of a galaxy that looks as if it has beenchopped in half by a dust band running through it. Thisis a sure giveaway of a galaxy viewed on edge, not faceon. We know it is a spiral galaxy because it has dust andgas. And again, a spiral galaxy has the brightest stars.Astrophysicists have placed stringent limits on howmuch Population I material can be in elliptical galaxies.The only morphological distinction is that their innerregions are brighter than their outer regions. One doesnot see arms and one does not see the clumps of starsassociated with H II regions. Elliptical galaxies vary inappearance. Some look circular in cross section; we assume that they probably are spherical. Others of thegroup seem quite flat. The most spherical ellipticalgalaxies are called EO's, the flattest are E7's. There aresix intermediate types — El through E6.If one observes a rotating elliptical galaxy face on, it is difficult to determine whether it is actually flat otwhether it is spherical. The first guess is that ellipticalsmight all be pretty flat and that their appearance depends only on the viewing angle. Statistical analysisshows that guess is wrong. If they were all flat, then theones that looked circular would only be a small fractionof the total number. But the round ones are found muchmore frequently, implying that there actually aredifferently-shaped elliptical galaxies.The spiral galaxies are more interesting. A distinctionis made between normal spirals and barred spirals. Theflattest Normals are called SO galaxies. To some extent,they look like the elliptical E7's. The basic point aboutthe SO's is that one cannot detect the arms if they areviewed on edge, but gas and dust can be detected. As aviewer moves out among the spirals, they are distinguished by how tightly the spiral arms are wound andhow contrated the nucleus of the galaxy is, in respect tothe rest of the galaxy. Sa galaxies, for example, have afairly dominent nucleus and tightly wound spiral arms.Sb galaxies may even have a somewhat larger nucleus,but it is less important relative to the rest of the galaxy,and the arms are somewhat more open. Sc galaxies havevery small nuclei and very wide open arms, indeed thearms appear to be breaking up. In the barred spiralgalaxies, there is a nucleus, but jutting out of that nucleus is a pronounced bar of stars extending in two opposite directions. That portion of the galaxy seems to berotating rigidly, and the spiral arms merge with the endof the bar. Sometimes the spiral arms come out in a ringformation, which also seems to rotate rigidly with thenucleus and a bar. If you look at some of the brighestgalaxies, only 17 percent of them are elliptical, and themost common types are Sc or SBc galaxies. But whenwe obtain a more complete count, there are more elliptical than spiral galaxies, overall.The average size? Ellipticals are rather small, on theaverage, between 3,000 and 5,000 parsecs across. Some,but not an appreciable number, are bigger. Of the spiralgalaxies, the Sa's are small, the Sb's are biggest, and theSc's are somewhat in between. At this point, we can tryand classify our own Galaxy, the Milky Way.First, it is over 30,000 parsecs across: it is big, biggetthan some of the typical Sb's. If we analyze the shapes ofthe spiral arms, they fit the description of an Sb galaxy.Our Galaxy has fairly well-connected spiral arms, butthere are some minor gaps in them. The arms are notwrapped very tightly. The Milky Way is an intermediateSb.Along with these types that are easily classified are allkinds of strange galaxies — irregular galaxies with notmuch in the way of spiral arms or any clear structure.18They are often close to a massive galaxy. For instance,the large and small Magellanic Clouds are such satellitesof our own Galaxy. They are quite irregular in shape,which is explained by the gravitational influence of thebig galaxy, the Milky Way, on its small neighbors. Suchtidal influence is probably the explanation for many irregular galaxies. But some of them could be due toenergetic reactions going on in the center of the smallgalaxy itself.Just to get an idea of the gaps between galaxies, veryoften the closest galaxy is several hundred thousand parsecs from its nearest neighbor. Our satellites, the Magel-lenic Clouds, are less than 50,000 parsecs from our ownGalaxy. In other words, they are not very many galacticradii away. On the other hand, we can detect galaxiesout to hundreds of millions of parsecs. How to esimatetheir distances? First, by detecting novae and super-novae and variable stars and by noting roughly howbright these things are in our own Galaxy. Comparingthe brightness of these objects between our Galaxy anddistant ones helps us to estimate the distance. This kindof calculation can be extended to fairly large distances,but to observe even further, we also use globular clusters. Because such clusters have roughly uniformluminosity, and we see globular clusters in many different galaxies — they provide a good clue as to how farthey and their galaxies are from us.There are several more rungs on the cosmic distanceladder, but we will only mention the method used tofind the distance to the galaxies furthest away from us.Edwin Hubble noticed that the average redshift of agalaxy was correlated with its apparent size. The smallerthey appeared (and, therefore, presumably the furtheraway they were), the larger was the shift towards the redof these spectral lines. Hence, Hubble concluded thatalmost all galaxies are moving away from us and thefurther away they are, the faster they are receding. Webelieve that this observation would appear to be the casefrom any point in the universe. But for this to be true,the entire universe must be expanding uniformly. Itseems to be. So we are now able to determine the distance to a newly-discovered galaxy by measuring its red-shift, and converting that figure to a velocity, and —using Hubble's method — finally, to a distance.The final feature left to discover is the masses of theexternal galaxies. To estimate the masses of thesegalaxies, one must determine how far away they are andhow big they are — that is, how heavy they are. Rotation,as in our own Galaxy, is the important clue. In spirals,there is obvious rotation, and, one can figure out whatthe rotation curve of the external galaxy is by looking atthe redshift at various positions along the plane of the galaxy. The side of the galaxy rotating toward the viewerwill have a relative blueshift: the side rotating away willhave a relative redshift. For elliptical galaxies, the red-and blueshift measurements can be made with spectrallines from the stars. For spiral galaxies, the same measurement can be used, but the 21 centimeter line ismuch nicer. Again, it's only applicable to spiralgalaxies — they are the only ones with significant quantities of neutral hydrogen gas. Ellipticals are trickier,since they are, on the whole, rotating slower, have lessgas and dust, and are also smaller.Using Kepler's law, as we did for our own Galaxy,spiral galaxies can be determined to have between 10billion and 300 billion solar masses. Our own, remember, is about 200 billion solar masses. Ours is toward the "heavy end" of the spirals. Our nearest bigneighbor, the Andromeda galaxy, is also a giant spiralgalaxy.The masses of elliptical galaxies are usually estimatedby using their total luminosities. These techniques yieldvalues from thirty billion to several thousand billionsolar masses. The heaviest are heavier than even thebiggest spirals. On the other hand, ellipticals are smallerin size, and thus denser than spiral galaxies. Anothermethod of determining mass is possible if the galaxiesare in clusters. In such cases, one tries to measure thesquare of the dispersion between the velocities of thesegalaxies. Dividing by the number of galaxies in the cluster yields the average galactic mass. But the clusters maybe expanding, so this technique is somewhat uncertainas well and usually leads to higher values for the mass.Perhaps much mass is well hidden in dim stars and inplanets that do not burn at all. Black holes, the super-dense collapsed remnants of stars, could also provide away for nature to hide a large amounts of matter fromour view.There is a vast amount of information that we do nothave about general galactic properties, for example,their dynamical and chemical evolution processes. Butwe do have a good picture of our Galaxy. The SolarSystem is an insignificant dot within our own Galaxy.The Milky Way, as big as it is, as massive as it is, is just asmall fraction of our own local group. It is only one ofthe billions and billions of galaxies that comprise theentire known universe.Paul Wiita, an astrophysicist, is a research associate in theEnrico Fermi Institute at the University. This article wasadapted from the seventh of his ten Arthur Holly Comptonlectures last Spring, entitled "Explodittg Stars and ExplodingGalaxies: Rapid Evolutions in Astrophysics."Un-naming the VoidFrom the roof ot Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay,Wisconsin, the view of the lake and countryside gleamsbefore the viewer's delighted eye. In the adjacent dome,the eye of the 4()-inch refracting telescope penetrates afar more mysterious skyscape, and it is this veiw whichconcerns Lewis Hobbs. He is an astronomer whostudies the clouds of dust and gas between the stars.This deceptively simple description includes some classically elegant astronomy, a brilliantly-conceived machine, and the fact that this University of Chicago astronomer has lifted a specialized study from a twenty-year sleep and returned it to the bright light of scientificobservation. Lewis Hobbs has been peering into what isromantically referred to as the "void" and is able toassure us that the void is anything but. There is a largeamount of interstellar matter out there. Its compositionis only partly known, its temperatures and densities areextreme, and its life cycle is still something of a mystery.Astronomers and physicists have been puzzling overthese dust and gas clouds for a long time. In 1904, theGerman astronomer and spectroscopist JohannesHartmann suggested that there was a gas everywherebetween the stars. Few astronomers accepted his conclusions and the entire matter nearly disappeared, despite Hartmann's masterful job. His paper was a modelol bold conjecture, based on very careful observationand even more careful thought about what those observations meant. He was ahead of his time; even twentyyears later, an authority wrote that Hartmann'sphenomena were only associated with a star nearby.It was not until the 1930s that Hartmann's theorygained general acceptance. At the University, OttoStruve, a Yerkes astronomer, contributed his observations to the newly re-emerging theory: there was a gaseverywhere between the stars. Energetic exploration continued through World War II, culminating in superband comprehensive work in 1948 by Walter Adams, aMt. Wilson astronomer. These numerous and imaginative studies established many of the fundamental properties of interstellar matter.This kind of astronomy relies upon observations ofgenerally inconspicuous absorption lines in a few isolated regions of the spectrum of a star's light. Fairly largetelescopes with relatively powerful spectroscopic instruments attached to them usually are required for thesearch. By 1948, the limits of the available equipmenthad largely been reached. In addition, the infant field ofradio astronomy was only just emerging in a formideally suited for study of the interstellar gas in an entirely new and fundamental way. So except for two laterextensions in 1952 and 1957, the older spectroscopicmethod for the exploration of the stuff between thestars went largely dormant after Adams' work.Interstellar matter makes up an important part of ourGalaxy. Perhaps 90 percent of the mass of our Galaxy isconfined within roughly two hundred billion stars. Theremaining 10 percent is dispersed unevenly throughoutthe vast distances of interstellar space, at an averagedensity lower than that achieved in the best laboratoryvacuum. It is very tenuous, pervasive material, whichexists in the form of a gas made up of atoms and fairlysimple molecules, as well as some rare, small, solid particles. But astronomers assure us that, taken together,the mix, by comparison with our earthbound experience, represents essentially empty space. This diffusematter is the object of the search. At the very least,The Orion Nebula, a great mass of gas, illuminated by thestar it surrounds, is in turbulent motion. It is visible to thenaked eye as a bright patch at the tip of Orion's "sword."20¦. > "> B &• ji£.* •.&*'-Vv'". r «'' . -astronomers want to know the motions and the spatialdistribution of this material within the Galaxy, its chemical composition, and its physical state.Astronomers can study the absorption of starlight bythis gas when it appears between us and a fairly brightstar. The star, Hobbs explains, "is only a backgroundlight source. The laboratory analog is the absorptiontube measurement, in which a light bulb is put at theend of a long tube. The tube has mirrors in it to makethe light go back and forth many times, to enhance theefiect of the absorption path. Then unknown gasses canbe introduced into the tube, and the unique pattern oilight absorption by that gas is studied to identity the gas.In the cosmic case, the star plays the role of the lightbulb, and multiple reflections are not needed to increasethe very long interstellar light paths." Hartmann,Adams, and the other astronomers found the gas' additional absorption lines superimposed on the normalspectra of the light reaching us from many of the nearer,brighter stars. The absorption lines were very narrowand often weak, but they were there, and a large amountof knowledge was assembled.Normally, astronomers used a diffraction grating toseparate the light into various colors or wave lengths. Agrating is extremely versatile and effective, except inexamining the very finest details ot a spectrum. Its limitations can be understood by anyone who has attempted to focus a camera. In order to photograph thedetail of the narrow and weak absorption lines caused bythe interstellar gas, one must narrow the spectrograph'sentrance aperture in order to achieve the necessary highresolution. But with a conventional spectrograph,achieving that high resolution essentially blocks out allthe starlight; an aperture small enough to give the required resolution is too small to let more than a few percent of the stellar image (and light) into the spectrograph in the first place.The solution to the problem was underway when LewHobbs was a student at the University of Wisconsin. Hewas part of the research group there that was responsible lor building and using a new instrument calledPEPSIOS. The acronym expands to Polyeton PressureScanned Interferometnc Optical Spectrometer. University astronomers now use two; they are modified versions of the Wisconsin prototype.The key word in the name is interierometric, sinceinterferometers have big entrance apertures instead ofsmall ones. The heart of PEPSIOS is a seties of threeFabry-Perot interferometers; light passes sequentiallythrough all three. One of the interferometers selects anumber of wave length intervals along the spectrum instead of just one, but each interval is selected out at a very high resolution. In combination, the three interferometers successfully isolate a single region of thespectrum with a clarity previously unkown, while preserving an entrance aperture appreciably larger than thestellar image to be analyzed. This means that 100 percent of the starlight is captured, and the viewer'sresolution has improved ten-fold. Until Hobbs' workwith PEPSIOS, no one had been able to exploit the verylarge amount of information buried in the fine detail ofthe absorption lines from the clouds of cosmic gas anddust. It is as if a five by seven inch aerial photographwere blown up to the size of a large desk top, and thefaint lines previously marking rivers and mountains revealed a vastly populated landscape, heretofore unseen,of houses, roadways, parks, and trees.In Lew Hobbs' Yerkes Observatory office, papers,charts, and spectra are neatly stacked. There is no chaos.Hobbs holds a graph showing some of the interstellarabsorption lines in the spectrum of a star named ZetaOrionis. The Babylonians called it Alnitak. It is about1500 light-years away and so is considered to be relatively nearby. "Even in that relatively short distance, wehave a complex structure of absorbing gas," says Hobbsof the spectrum scan in his hand. The scan shows fivedifferent components of absorption. That means thereare five different clouds of absorbing gas between us andAlnitak, each moving at a different velocity. "From asimple observation like this one, I can tell approximately how much gas is in each of these five clouds andhow fast each one is moving. This," he explains, pointing to a thin line, "happens to be an absorption linecaused by sodium atoms; we now study the corresponding absorption lines caused by other gaseous elementsalong the line of sight. I've scanned the calcium lines andthe potassium lines to compare with the absorption dueto the sodium gas. The relative strengths of the variousabsorption lines reveal the relative amounts of theseelements, among other things."Questions about the detailed motions and structure ofthis celestial clutter yielded to the superior analyses ofPEPSIOS. Other questions, however, have not. Thetemperatures involved, for instance, are a mystery andone which grows increasingly complex. These clouds arevery cold by terrestrial standards — about minus 200 degrees centigrade, or 70 degrees on the Kelvin scale. Butby cosmic measurements, the stuff is considerably hotter than it should be. Such information was provided byradio astronomers, who, after World War II, turnedtheir equipment to the heavens and measured the coldtemperatures of the gas clouds. By 1969, the interstellarmaterial seemed to observers to be made up of twocomponents, and this two-component picture had been22dubbed the Raisin-Pudding model. The proponents ofthis theory suggested that collections of denser andcooler clouds (raisins) were immersed in a pervasive,hotter, and thinner substrate (pudding). The observations of the "raisins" stand, but the simpler view of the"pudding" has required important revisions.The perception depended in part on the astronomers'view of the clouds' heating mechanisms. Somethingwas — and is — dumping energy in the form of heat intothe gas clouds; astronomers began looking around forthe source. And there is none apparent."Nobody," says Hobbs, "yet understands satisfactorily where the energy is coming from." One difficulty, heexplains, is that about 100 times more energy seems tobe required than there is a known source to provide.The standard energy pump — the one that everybodythinks of first — is starlight. Energy could be supplied bythe ultraviolet starlight impinging on the clouds of gasand dust. Pondering this possibility, astronomers hadcalculated how much starlight would be necessary toheat up those clouds. Ultraviolet observations of starsmade from the satellite observatories OAO-2 andOAO-3 launched in 1969 and 1973 showed insufficientstarlight, about 100 times too little. The only possiblecatch seems to be the possibility that the rare small solidparticles might be much more effective than the morenumerous gaseous atoms in transforming the energy inthe starlight into the form of heated gas. Unfortunately,the necessary surface properties of the interstellar particles are not yet known nearly well enough either to ruleout or to confirm this loophole.Low energy cosmic rays were next considered. Cosmic rays are high-speed atomic nuclei, probablyoriginating in supernovae explosions, which constantlybombard the planets and interstellar space. From anearthbound perspective, no one could prove or disprovethe cosmic-ray theory, because the solar wind blows thedecisive low-energy cosmic rays out of the solar systemand beyond range of our measuring instruments. "Weand our space vehicles are well within theheliosphere — the solar cavity," explains Hobbs."There's little hope in the immediate future of measuring out beyond the boundary where measurementcounts. We don't know whether the low-energycosmic-rays are there or not, so they could be invokedto solve the problem."There was a rub. If the low energy cosmic rays arethere in sufficient numbers to be responsible for theheating, then they must be doing other things as well.For instance, the cosmic rays traveling through the gaswould be ionizing it — tearing electrons off atoms. If theionization was caused principally by cosmic rays, the gas would behave differently than if it were ionized by starlight."Hobbs' work teased an answer out of the possibilities.By studying the absorption lines of several differentelements in the gas clouds, he was able to show that itwas unlikely that cosmic rays are principally responsiblefor heating the interstellar clouds. Hobbs says, in mildunderstatement, that as is so often the case in astronomy, "We're really talking about a highly coupledsystem, and you can't change one part of it without affecting the other parts."Nearly simultaneously, observations made by Princeton astronomers from OAO-3 led to the same resultsfound by Hobbs, albeit by a slightly different route. Theydiscovered from its interstellar absorption lines in theultraviolet spectra of stars, an interstellar moleculecomposed of a hydrogen atoms and a deuterium atom,linked. The abundance of this hydrogen deuteride in theclouds could be directly tied to the number of cosmicrays present, which are responsible for hydrogen deuteride formation. By studying the abundance of hydrogen deuteride, Illinois and Harvard astrophysicists concluded, with Hobbs, that cosmic rays do not heat theclouds significantly.So the exploration continues. The gas consists ofsingle atoms as well as an occasional simple molecule —lust a few atoms strung together. The fact that themolecules are there at all at first surprised astronomers.Says Hobbs, "The molecules are extremely interesting.How is it that molecules can form and survive out there,in the glare of all that unattenuated ultraviolet starlightfalling onto them and tearing them apart?"The more diffuse cosmic clouds provide one naturaltesting ground for astronomers' ideas about the formation of molecules. The clouds are different from theirdenser brethren, which are composed almost completely of molecules that are studied by radio-astronomers. The diffuse clouds represent simple systems where, as Hobbs says, "We have some fairly dependable ideas about the prevailing physical conditions.Yet, only in the past several years have we begun tounderstand the abundances of three simple moleculesthat were discovered in the 30s to inhabit the gas clouds.One of them is CH + ; only two atoms hooked together;a diatomic molecule. It's a sobering thing to realize weare only now beginning to understand these interstellardiatomic molecules that have been known for fortyyears."If one had asked astronomers in 1965 if there weremolecules more complicated than CH+ in the interstellar clouds, they would all have said 'No'. Starlight,they would have explained, destroys them. Since that23n 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r""'*..F r -.;..;;¦ ]f — |i |r fr ;-1.0enzLU^0.6<3 0.4QooUJ^0.20.0 C,0ri AB(D2)-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30HELIOCENTRIC VELOCITY (KM/SEC)1.0 -±0.8us50.6<0.4 -"0.2 -0.0 1• • • •••• ••• •• •• -- •• •• -- £0n AB^)I • •••1 1 1 1 1 I ••"-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30HELIOCENTRIC VELOCITY (KM /SEC)lnterferometric scans of two narrow intervals, each about one angstrom wide, in the spectrum of Beta Orionis, one of the three bright stars marking the "belt" of Orion. If nointerstellar gas were present in this direction, the starlight would show a uniform intensityof 1.0 units, at all velocities or wavelengths shown. The reduced intensities arise fromabsorption by interstellar sodium atoms moving with the corresponding radial componentsof velocity.24time, this answer has been proved incorrect. Radio astronomers, in particular Patrick Palmer of the University, have demonstrated that complex molecules — by astronomers', if not chemists' standards — are abundantlypresent in denser, darker clouds. "Dust," says Hobbs."The reason is that the dust shields out the starlight. Itcan't get through the dust to break down the molecules,and furthermore, it actually enhances their formation."It works like this: separate atoms hit the dust grains,stick to them, wander around on the grain surface, findeach other, and hook up. Eventually they jump off andfloat around by themselves to stimulate astronomers,who are trying to puzzle out this activity. "When you sitdown and try to get the numbers right, the simplestmolecule . . ." Hobbs trails off thoughtfully.It remains to identify more fully one player in thisscientific puzzle — the dust grains. That story probablystarts with the formation of stars from this interstellargas. (Astronomers know what young stars are made of,from the absorption lines of various elements found inthe spectra of the stars.) Since the stars are made frominterstellar matter, it seems reasonable that they wouldshare its elements, and in the same relative proportions.On first inspection, it seems not so. Says Hobbs,"Essentially all the calcium and titanium, for example,are gone from the gas. Yet we know it's out theresomewhere, because when stars form from the gas, thecalcium and titanium are present."They are almost certainly there in the dust. As LarryGrossman, at the University, and others have shown,these solids are probably condensates, actually madefrom the gas itself. The missing elements are just notpresent in the gas, studied by means of its absorptionlines." Current work concerns the question of condensation: what turns the calcium and titanium into solids? One theory suggests that the condensation is partof cosmic processing in pre-stellar nebulae. "As a gascloud collapses into a star, there is hot material which isleft behind as the main part of the gas cloud collapses.Then it cools. It's in that cooling process that the grainsare formed, so it's a natural consequence of star birth."The composition and number of dust grains is tellingus something about the life cycle of interstellar matter.It is used up in the births of new stars, and replenishedin deaths of old stars, where it is thrown back into interstellar space."That is one idea, which is fairly widely accepted. Theother idea ("It is only fair to say that either could beright," says Hobbs), is that creation of the dust has littleto do directly with star birth. It occurs in situ, rightthere, in interstellar space. Countervailing evidencecould prove the in situ theory correct. Interstellar space, while not exactly homey, begins toseem knowable at least, no mean achievement, if oneconsiders that a fair share of our knowledge about it issomething like ten years old. Hobbs' work concentrateson observations within our Galaxy. But what about thespace between the galaxies ... is there anything there?"That is an interesting — and unsolved — question,"replies Hobbs. "It is central to such questions as theopen-ness or the closed-ness of the universe." He refersto the puzzle astrophysicists face: is there enough material in the expanding universe to bring it all back together through gravitational attraction? Or will it continue to expand forever? "Suppose there is a large quantity of undetected material between the galaxies. Thatcould 'close' the universe. Recent conventional wisdomis that there is not a large quantity, and the loopholes arefewer and fewer. More information continues to comefrom space astronomy. In particular; there might bevery different forms of matter there that radiate energyin the many previously inaccessible parts of the spectrum, so that the matter might be concealed. It might bevery hot material that radiates all of its energy in theX-ray spectrum, for example. But with X-ray observatories in space, we can see. X-ray astronomers areprogressively tightening such limits."So the void is not a void at all. It begins to seemalmost crowded, and Hobbs puts the problems in practical terms. "With each new set of observing instrumentsused in the search, we see entirely new features of afascinating physical system."As is often the case in astronomy, we must be able tounderstand the principal process that is operating, oftenin the obscuring presence of more minor ones. Whensomeone identifies the main ingredient, things fall intoplace. One tries to disentangle the different effects thatoccur together. And then, unlike the case in laboratorysciences, we can't do experiments in astronomy. We canonly observe what nature is doing. But, by way of compensation, nature provides magnificent experiments, ona scale which can't be achieved in our laboratories."Lewis M. Hobbs is professor in the Department of Astronomyand in the College, and is director of Yerkes Observatory inWilliams Bay, Wisconsin. Headquarters for this work isYerkes Observatory. Patrick Palmer is a professor in the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics; part of the workon the open universe theory is David Schramm's. He is associate professor in the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Enrico Fermi Institute, and in the College.Larry Grossman is associate professor in the Department ofGeophysical Sciences, the Enrico Fermi Institute, and in theCollege.NOSTALGIAAffairs of theOh I met you there by the crowded stairUnderneath the clock in Cobb,And there it was that I first called you BabAnd 'twas there that you first calld meBob.Oh I pressed your hand so tenderlyIt gave my heart a throbOh I can't forget the place we metUnder the Clock in Cobb."Under the Clock in Cobb" from BarbaraBehave. 1920, Blackfriars.A Very Serious Matter IndeedOur attention has been called to the factthat a co-ed was seen necking with whatlooked like a man on a bench beautifullysecluded under an overhanging tree.The matter was immediately referred tothe Dean's office, and later turned overto the President's office, where it willprobably be turned over to the Committee on Student Behavior.We are fully in sympathy with theUniversity. These two people had noright necking on a bench owned by theUniversity. They have committed a serious offense knowingly. Such laxity, ifallowed to spread, will inevitably demoralize our students, particularlyco-eds who live in dormitories, and arenot yet fully acquainted with Life.How long students will continue toneck no one in this country is able tosay. It is one of those serious problemsin Life that all of us must face courageously. These two students are not facing the problem courageously. They donot even know it is a problem. It wouldnot be right to punish them too severelysince after all they were college studentsand didn't know better.1930 Cap and GownI know I ought to be contented,I'm sure that we should all be happy now,When ev'rything inventable's invented, art, 1920-1930And ev'ry girl has learned to Well! andhow!But ev'ry now and then I get to thinking(A very silly habit as you see!)Of olden days of dreaming and of drinking,Of golden days, the Days of Used-to-be!The days of used-to-be!The days of used-to-be!We rode to school in a rattling Ford,We paid four dollars a week for board,We drank our beer with no fret or fuss,We never knew it was poisonous!We cheered for Stagg and the football team,In the days of Used-to-be!"The Days of Used-to-be" from The Housethat Jack Built. 1928, Blackfriars.PotpourriWe noticed a couple the other eveningsitting on a bench in the Circle. Whydon't more of the co-eds patronize thebenches. It doesn't cost anything and it'sreally an adventure.We were sitting around drinking coffee, Fiji, Oscar, the Old Bird, and ourselves. Oscar said he was fed up aboutthe whole thing. Fiji agreed with him. Ofcourse we all realized that the old schoolwasn't what it used to be, particularly thekind of girls they had living now at thedormitories. Oscar said that the womenover at the Greenwood Hall were afairish lot although he did confess thatthey smoked cheap cigarettes. Fiji said aman couldn't have a few nips withoutbeing preached at by a nice girl. Matterswere going from bad to worse. Wedrank our coffee without getting morereminiscent. The luckiest fellow is Fiji.He graduates in June. The rest of ushave to hang around. We're sure goingto miss Fiji.1930 Cap and GownThrow out all the wimmen,Show out all the wimmen; We don't get a damn thing done.Wimmen all around us.Wimmen all surround us.Mother come and save your son.Romance must be buried;Don't chance getting married;No one says it's fun.Throw out all the wimmen.No doubt, when the wimmenGo out, we'll get things done."Throw Out All the Wimmen" from TheHouse That Jack Built. 1928, Blackfriars.Those Who PetI was disgusted with the whole rottensocial order. Why should Babe alwaysget her choice of beaus and I have towork so hard to keep the few whostrayed my way? I am as pretty as she,and loads more intelligent. But thenBabe has always been known as a realsport, the kind that can't pass up a dare.Well, I am rather conservative. But really one tires of being just good, ofnever doing anything that the most sedate can condemn. Perhaps that is why Iconsented to go out with Hal. In mysaner moments I am sure I would neverhave dared to be seen with a man of hisreputation, much less to out alone withhim. As a man he is heavenly.A speeding roadster, a fast man, a mellow moon were either with me, oragainst me. I should have been afraid, atleast nervous, but strangely I wasn't. Myhand was carelessly dropped on the seatby my side. I had long ago taken off mygloves. Oft his hand strayed towardmine, placed so temptingly beside him. Ifelt strange. I, a girl of conservativehabit, was playing a man.1930 Cap and GownLet us just get back some wayTo spend another happy dayWhere Campus shadows fall.Our hearts would find their happiness,And for the rest, why you can guess,This Paris life is not for us.Let's sail away without a fuss,And skim the clouds and stars above,To reach that place that we love best.Back to the Midway,And joys of college daysBack to the campus,With students' carefree ways.That's where I met you.And I let you steal my heart;I can't forget you,College dreams without you would be blue."Back to the Midway" from Plastered in Pans.1927, Blackfriars.26POSTCARDFROMOLYMPUSASCAP Honors UniversityComposers Blackwood, RanEasley R. Blackwood, Jr. and ShulamitRan are recipients of 1977-1978ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers) awards.The awards are granted by an independent panel and are based, according to ASCAP, "on the unique prestigevalue of each writer's catalog and theperformances of his compositions whichare not reflected in the survey of performances."Easley Blackwood is professor in theDepartment of Music and in the College. He studied composition with Bernard Heiden and with Olivier Messiaen.His Mus. M. degree is from Yale University; he studied with Paul Hindemiththere, and later with Nadia Boulanger inPans. Blackwood, an acclaimed concertpianist, has written more than twenty-five compositions. He is the son of thebridge expert after whom the biddingconvention for disclosing aces and kingsto one's partner is named.Shulamit Ran is assistant professor inthe Department of Music and in the College. She is a composer and pianist whogave her debut recital at age twelve inTel Aviv and heard her first orchestralwork performed at fourteen. A graduateof the Mannes College of Music in NewYork City, she has performed in theUnited States, Europe, Argentina,Canada, and Israel. She joined the University faculty after Ralph Shapey, director of the Contemporary ChamberPlayers, unexpectedly heard her compo sition "O the Chimneys" which impressed him.Doctoring the Chicago SymphonyOrchestraWhen the Chicago Symphony Orchestra(CSO) toured Japan last spring, thetroupe consisted of one hundred fiftymusicians, stage management and supporting staff, ninety-six family members,and one doctor, Bernard Levin. He isassistant professor in the Department ofMedicine and director of the Gastrointestinal Oncology Clinic at the University. Dr. Levin was house physician forthe Orchestra, treating a variety of ills.This was nothing new for Dr. Levin; helooked after the CSO during their tourof Europe in 1974.While on the Japan tour, however, heencountered hand injuries, a slippeddisc, a splinter from chop sticks, and amiscellaneous collection of colds, flu,sniffles, and gastro-enteritis.For the musician who caught his footin an automatic taxicab door, he locateda Japanese orthopedic surgeon from alist of Japansese physicians he hadthoughtfully compiled for suchemergencies.The three-week tour included eightJapanese cities: Tokyo, Sapporo,Nagoya, Hiroshima, Fukuoka, Niigata,Kanazawa, and Osaka. Several monthsbefore departure, Dr. Levin sent a medical history questionnaire to each orchestra member, checking for such con ditions as diabetes or allergies, in orderto determine what medicines to pack. "Ibrought along a wide range," he says; "Itis sometimes difficult to get equivalentagents in another country, in addition tothe problems translating the language."He also included a variety of first-aidequipment and an electrocardiogrammachine. The predominance to certainills might seem obvious. For instance,the brass have breathing problems, violinists have neck pains. "And there is alarger number of people who playstringed instruments, so naturally I sawmore members of the string section thanother parts of the orchestra."A classical music enthusiast, Dr. Levinattended all fourteen of the concerts."Obviously, that was no hardship," hesmiles. "And the response from theJapanese audiences was wonderful."Leaving the concert hall after the performance, he was sometimes asked tosign autographs for Japanese fans whomistook him for a member of the Orchestra.A three-week, fourteen-concert touris a strenuous schedule, and Dr. Levinarranged his hours according to the Orchestra's routine. All members werehoused in the same hotel in each concertcity, and Dr. Levin posted office hours inhis room each morning from 7:30 to9:30. "Because I had only one room,with one bed for examinations, I tendedto make housecalls," he says.With Dr. Levin was his wife, Dr. Ronnie DuBrow (MD '76), a first-year resident in radiology at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center. A typical dayfor the Levins, after morning officehours, included some fast sightseeingnearby, returning in time for the bus tothe concert hall, consulting before andduring the concert and returning withthe musicians after the performance,hopefully in time for a quick supper.Most of the medical problems wereminor ailments. "They were generallyrelated to changes in the diet or the air,problems with pollution and fatigue," hesays. It was rather a rainy season, whichmay have accounted for minor respiratory infections and flu. Supplies ofnasal decongestants and antibioticsdwindled quickly.Dr. Levin says that the orchestramembers' great professionalism keptthem generally healthy during the tour,leaving much time for the Levins to enjoy the music. As Mrs. Levin explains,"We love music, although neither of uscan play an instrument or sing."27Alumni Association Cabinet Meets:Minutes of Nov. 4 Business MeetingThe Eleventh Annual Meeting of theAlumni Association's Cabinet was heldin Chicago on November 3-5, 1977, atthe University's Center for ContinuingEducation. Charles W. Boand, presidentof the Alumni Association, presided atthe business meeting held at the Centeron November 4.Mr. Boand welcomed the Cabinetmembers and guests and introducedDavid R. Leonetti, AB'58, director ofAlumni Affairs effective August 15. Hereviewed Leonetti's association with theUniversity (he has served the AlumniAssociation at three times in the past).And, in appreciation for her work as acting director of the Alumni Association,Ruth Halloran was presented with acrystal vase by the Cabinet's ExecutiveCommittee.After a reading of the minutes of theprevious meeting, Mr. Boand askedRuth Halloran for a report on the adoption on June 4, 1977, of an amendmentto the Constitution (Article IV, Section1, MEMBERSHIP). All former facultymembers no longer in residence as suchwill be considered'alumni and automatically be members of the Association.The names of one hundred and eighty-four former non-alumni faculty havebeen received to date. There are alsoone hundred and twenty-one emeritifaculty listed in the current University ofChicago Directory. Budget requirements for adding these names tothe files and mailing lists will be assessedand each person will be asked if he wishesto be considered an alumnus. Mr. Boand reported on the StephanSondheim Follies production in June,1977, which the Alumni Associationunderwrote; he noted that the venturewas moderately successful.The first item of new business was theelection of the Association's officers fortwo-year terms beginning at the conclusion of the business meeting. EloiseLushbough, a member of the OfficerNominating Committee, presented theproposed slate of officers:President: Charles W. Boand,llb'33, mba'57, ChicagoVice President: Catherine LindsayDobson, mc'32, ChicagoVice President: Barbara GilfillanCrowley (Mrs. John C), AB'44,PasadenaVice President: Daniel C. Smith,SB'37, JD'40, ChicagoSecretary/Treasurer: David R.Leonetti, AB'58, director ofAlumni Affairs.There being no additional nomination,the officer candidate slate as proposedwas unanimously approved and carried.Mr. Boand reported that thirty-fivenew members of the Cabinet had beenselected by the Executive Committeefrom a proposed slate of candidates presented by the Cabinet NominatingCommittee. Letters of invitation toserve three-years terms effective January 1, 1978, were mailed.Mr. Boand announced that Re-union'78 is scheduled for May 19-20,and that the Cabinet meeting for 1978will be scheduled for November 2-4. Asuggestion was made that the dates forthe next Cabinet meeting be changed to November 3-5, which would cover Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. The suggestion will be investigated by the staff.David Leonetti was called upon to introduce the staff of the Alumni Association. He first noted that the presence ofstudents at the business meeting was anew concept and apparently, a successfulone. He introduced Kenneth Northcott,professor of Germanic Languages andLiterature, and William Swenson andJudy Ebrahim of the Admissions Office.He then concluded with an introductionof all the staff members of the AlumniAssociation. The meeting was adjournedat 2 PM.Members present:Harvey H. Ancel AB'39Charles D. Andersen PhB'34 AM'35Edward L. Anderson PhB'46 SM'49Gladys R. Benedek PhB'45 SB'47Elizabeth H. Bjerklie AB'50 mba'57Charles Boand LLB'33 MBA'57Barbara Crowley AB'44Bernard J. Del Giorno AB'54 ab'55mba'55Leon Despres PhB'29 JD'29Catherine L. Dobsen MD'32Nina R. Edwards PhB'2 3Belle K. Goldstnch PhB'34Frank Greenberg JD'32Gary J. Greenberg AB'62 AM'63Thelma Y. Gruenbaum AB'52 AM'56V. Emil Gudmundson DB'52Betty H. Hartwell x'40Mary Beth Jorgensen AB'69Ruth B. Kahn PhB'23Antigoni Lefteris AB'65Melvin Lurie AM'51 PhD'58Eloise T. Lushbough PhB'48 AM'50Joseph J. Marciano SB'47 SM'48Charlotte S. Mason AB'66Joyce K. Newman PhD'55Warren E. Olson AB'72Samuel C. Pearson DB'53 AM'60 PhD'64Laurence Reich AB'51 JD'53Marion B. Salmon AB'44Betty R. Scott AB'48Reuben A. Swenson SB'29Allen S. Weller PhB'27 PhD'42Leonard A. Zax AB'71Beyond the Cabinet Meeting:Thinking About the UniversityDuring the three-day Alumni Association Cabinet meeting in November,several aspects of the University wereexamined somewhat less formally thanin the business meeting reported onthese pages.28Fred Brooks, director of Admissionsand assistant dean of students in the College, discussed admissions and recruitment activities. Clyde Watkins, directorof Development, reported on thecampaign and the special Alumni Fundyear. Four members of the StudentSchools Committee described aspects ofundergraduate student life. David Jaffe,Barry Friedman, Francine Osman, andDavid Wierz, talked about Chicago education, student activities, housing, andways to finance an undergraduate education, respectively. These undergraduatesand others were on hand during thethree-day meeting to talk to participantsand guests.The schools committee bus tour tookcabinet members and guests through thecampus, Hyde Park, and ended at theShoreland Hotel, now the ShorelandStudent Residence. There, Edward Tur-kington, director of Student Housingand assistant dean of students, discussedthe University decision to acquire thehotel and described the renovation process.Visits to class sessions and tours ofcampus facilities began the meetings. Aluncheon in the Trophy Room concluded the weekend. The luncheon wasgiven by the Dean of the College forparents of members of the football team;Cabinet members were guests.Club NewsALBANY: After dinner on November 27,alumni and friends listened to James M.Redfield, professor in the Departmentof Classics and the College, Committeeon Social Thought, and director of theEarly Greek Studies Project, speak onthe concept and creation of the newprogram in early Greek studies. Areaco-ordinators for the Alumni Association were Sara Harris, AB'41, and BerylDrobeck, SB'44.BALTIMORE: On December 8, Harold R.Metcalf, director of Athletics and assistant dean of students, spoke on "Bucking the Crimson Tide." The meeting washeld at the Cross Keys Inn. Area coordinator was Ruth Mednick, PhB'47,AM'55.BOSTON: Area alumni have sponsored amonthly Luncheon Round Table foralumni and former faculty. Theluncheons were held at Purcells, nearthe Old City Hall, from noon to 1:30.Autumn speakers and topics were: Oc tober 19, James Q. Wilson, the HenryLee Shattuck Professor of Government,Harvard University, on "Why the dramatic decline in crime rates in Boston?";November 16, Alan A. Alshuler, chairman of the Department of Political Science, Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology and former secretary ofTransporation of Massachusetts, on"Transportation Problems in theGreater Boston area;" December 14,David Riesman, professor of Social Relations, Harvard University, on "StudentCareer Choices and the Anti-organizational Syndrome."Jonathan Z. Smith, dean of the College, professor in the Department ofNew Testament and Early Christian Literature, the William Benton Professorof Religion and Human Sciences in theCollege, and Lorna Straus, dean of students in the College, dean of CollegeAdmissions, and associate professor inthe Department of Anatomy and in theCollege, joined alumni for wine, cheese,and fruit at the Hyatt Regency onNovember 17 to discuss the problemsand prospects facing the College. DavidLeonetti, director of the Alumni Association, accompanied Smith and Straus toBoston to meet alumni.On February 3 alumni gathered tocheer the UC women's basketball team atthe Massachusetts Institute of Technology Invitational. A reception followedthe game.HARTFORD: James M. Redfield, professor in the Department of Classics andthe College, spoke on "A New Arena:The Early Greek Studies Project" onNovember 28 for the meeting held atthe Sheraton Hartford Hotel. Mrs.Ralph R. Sundquist, Jr., AM'47, was thealumni co-ordinator.HONG KONG: Officers of the newlyformed club are: John L. Soong, MBA'42,president; Lincoln C. K Yung, MBA' 70,vice president; Grance K. Y. Wu,MBA'72, secretary; George C.K. Ma,MBA'74, treasurer.On November 7, Charles Oxnard,professor in the Departments ofAnatomy and Anthropology and in theCollege, addressed alumni.LOS ANGELES: Fawn McKay BrodieAM'36, a professor of history at the University of California at Los Angeles, received the club's DistinguishedAlumnus Award for 1977 at the Jet Propulsion Lab dinner-meeting on October 31. Two hundred and ninty-five alumniand friends attended this meeting whichincluded dinner, a slide show on outerspace, a tour of the Lab's Deep SpaceProgram Control Center, and an addressby Dr. Albert R. Hibbs, SM'47, managerof Strategic Planning at the Lab.To prepare for the King Tutankha-mun Exhibition which opens February15, area alumni attended a lecture andfilm about ancient Egyptian culture andthe treasures of Tutankhamun on January 25 at the Union Oil Company Auditorium.MILWAUKEE: Lewis M. Hobbs, directorof Yerkes Observatory and professor inthe Department of Astronomy and As-trophics and the College, conducted atour of the Yerkes facilities for alumniand families on October 29.In January, alumni and friends heard alecture on King Tutankhamun and ancient Egyptian culture by Universitygraduate student, James Allen, whohelped organize the Chicago exhibition.NEW YORK: On October 23, alumni andfriends went on a walking tour of lowerManhattan. Marjorie Pearson, AB'70,AM'72, architectural historian and deputy director of the research departmentof the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, conducted thetour which began at St. Paul's Chapel,the oldest surviving church in NewYork, south to Wall Street for examplesof commercial architecture. It endedwith a dutch treat lunch in the SouthStreet Seaport area on the waterfront.Jonathan Smith, dean of the College,addressed the club on November 16.David Leonetti, director of the AlumniAssociation, was also at the meeting tointroduce himself to area alumni.PALM BEACH COUNTY: Alumni gatheredon December 19 for refreshments at theHighland Beach Holiday Inn to hearSalvatore Maddi, professor in the Department of Behavioral Sciences and inthe College, speak on the effects thatstress can cause to one's health.RALEIGH/DURHAM: Alumni gathered atDuke University for a pre-game reception and to cheer the University ofChicago men's basketball team as theyplayed their first game with Duke University on December 17. Athletic director, Harold Metcalf, introduced thecoaches to the alumni.SAN DIEGO: Harold A. Richman, professor in and dean of the school of Social29Service Administration and chairman ofthe Committee on Public Policy Studies,spoke on "Public Policy and MentalHealth Issues" at the Hanalei Hotelwhere alumni and friends enjoyed aPolynesian dinner on November 21.SANTA BARBARA: Elizabeth Tehan,AM'44, was elected to the presidency ofthe alumni club.Johnathan Smith, dean of the College,met with the club on October 23. Hespoke on various issues concerning theCollege and exchanged ideas on education with alumni.SAN FRANCISCO: After a dinner ofFrench food at the Holiday Inn on October 21, alumni heard Karl J. Wein-traub, the Thomas E. Donnelley Professor of History and the College anddean of the Division of the Humanities,speak on "The Trivia of Relevance — Orthe Use of Useless Things."The alumni attended the openingnight of the American ConservatoryTheatre production, All the Way Home.in January. They joined the cast whichincluded University graduate, Joy Car-lin, AB'51, for a theater party followingthe performance.WASHINGTON, D.C.: Alumni and friendsgathered at the Fairfax Racquet Club onNovember f9 for an evening of tennis,racquet ball, handball, and a buffet supper.On December 7 alumni and friendsgathered at the George WashingtonUniversity Club for a buffet dinner andto hear Harold R. Metcalf, director ofAthletics, speak on the impact of theathletic renaissance on the quality ofUniversity life. David Leonetti, directorof the Alumni Association, was there tomeet alumni and to answer questionsabout the University.Alumni went to the Arena Stage tosee Trevor Griffiths' The Comedianson Janaury 22.TOYKO: Alumni and friends gathered atthe Tokyo American Club on December7 for a year-end get-together buffet andto hear Chiaki Nishiyama, ma'52,PhD'60, professor of economics at Rik-kyo University.Committee members for 1978: I.Shino, MBA'55, chairman; J. C.Abegglen, Ph&48, PhD'56, vice chairman; K. Murata, AM'47, vice chairman;R. R. Hilton, MBA47; N. Horie,MBA'62; J. Kasai, M. Katoh, C. Nishiyama, and I. Watanabe, honorarymembers. 1924CLARA ENGEL RANK, PhB'24, is busy,useful, and active in her retirement atDrexel Home on Chicago's southside.She is the chairwoman of the Residents'Committee representing about 230 residents at meetings with the staff, and shealso manages the Home's gift shop.1928EVERETT C. HUGHES, PhD'28, receivedan honorary doctorate of social sciencesfrom Laval University in Quebec.HAROLD T. PARKER, PflB'28, PhD'34,recently retired from the history department at Duke University where hereceived three distinguished teachingawards during thirty-four years on thefaculty.1931ALICE edel, am'31, the first womanelected to the county governing board ofMcLean County, Illinois, has retired andwill take up residence in Clearwater,Florida.FRED MCKINNEY, PhD'31, received the 1977 Distinguished Teaching Awardin Psychology from the American Psychological Foundation. McKinney is aprofessor in the psychology departmentat the University of Missouri-Columbia.1933BURKE SMITH JR., SB'33, SM'39, retiredfrom the Illinois Bell Telephone Company after completing thirty-three yearsof service.1934MARY ELLISON CLIVER, PhB'34, AM'75,is an instructor of English at DaytonaBeach Community College, in Florida,and is head of the Personalized Systemsof Instruction section of the English department there. In October she addressed the annual meeting of theFlorida College English Association on"Two Approaches to IndividualizedComposition."PAUL M. CLIVER, SB'34, writes forDaytona Beach area magazine andnewspapers on education and community problems. He is editor of "TheMarquee," published by the communitytheater.EDWIN M. DUERBECK, AB'34, AM'35,was elected first vice president of theLaguna Hills (California) PetroleumClub and second vice president of theLaguna Hills Lions Club. He was electedto the Board of Governors of the UnitedLaguna Hills Mutual in October, and inhis spare time, took first place in twomajor golf matches.1936DAVID B. EISENDRATH, JR., AB'36, wasselected as the recipient of the firstNikon "Industrial Photographer of theYear" award. Eisendrath is currently acontributing editor for Modern Photography and serves as a consultant to Timemagazine.ELLIS K. FIELDS, SB'36, PhD'38, hasbeen named the recipient of the American Chemical Society's 1978 Award inPetroleum Chemistry. Fields is a seniorresearch associate for Amoco ChemicalsCorporation.Following nineteen years as presidentof Florida Southern College, CHARLEST. THRIFT, PhD'36, was recently electedchancellor there.1938Since retiring from the University ofIowa in 1972, SIDNEY E. MEAD, AM'38,PhD'40, has taught as a visiting pro-30fessor, sometimes in six different universities scattered between Santa Barbara, California, and Chapel Hill, NorthCarolina. He will be teaching at theUniversity of Arizona during the springsemester.BENJAMIN DRAPER, X'39, retiredfrom San Francisco State Universitywhere an award in creative arts wasestablished to honor his years of distinguished teaching.1939DAVID KRITCHEVSKY, SB'39, SM'42, received the 1977 American Chemical Society award for his research in the fieldsof lipid biochemistry, nutrition,atherosclerosis, and aging. He is the associate director of the Wistar Institute ofAnatomy and Biology in Philadelphia.FRED MESSERSCHMIDT, AB'39, JD'41,president of Elmhurst Federal Savingsand Loan, has been elected a director ofthe Illinois Savings and Loan League.1940NATHAN COOPER, AM'40, received hisPhD last June in psychology from theCalifornia Graduate Institute. He presented an abstract on his thesis, "Criteriafor Selection of Individuals for GroupTherapy," at the International Congressof Group Therapy this past summer.CLARENCE V. HODGES, MD'40, headof the division of urology at the University of Oregon Health Sciences CenterSchool of Medicine, is the first recipientof the American Urological Association's Eugene Fuller Prostate Award.BETTY GLIXON LEVINSTEIN, AB'40, areference librarian in Syracuse, NewYork, was named by The (Syracuse)Standard Post as a volunteer Woman ofAchievement in Community Service,primarily for her work with PlannedParenthood.1941CARL Q. CHRISTOL, PhD'41, received theUniversity of Southern California's Associates Award for Excellence in Teaching. He was recently elected chairman ofthe international law section of theInternational Studies Association and acorresponding member of the International Academy of Astronautics. He iscurrently the chairman of the Department of Political Science at USC.1942OLIN NEILL EMMONS, AB'42, MBA'46,was elected to a term on the governing Council of the American Institute ofCertified Public Accountants. Emmonsis a vice president for corporate financeof the investment firm of Bache HalseyStuart Shields Inc. in Chicago.1944NANCY E. WARNER, SB'44, MD'49, wasappointed an associate dean of the University of Southern California's medicalschool.1945This past September marks the thirdyear of teaching in the Japanese Language and Literature Program at thePennsylvania State University forHISAKO TANAKA, AB'45. The programwas initiated with the support of theJapan Foundation in Washington, D.C.1946HAROLD N. GRAHAM, PhD'46, wasnamed vice president of research andproduct development at Thomas J. Lip-ton, Inc. in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.1947CHRISTINE E. HAYCOCK, PhB'47, SB'48,received a special silver medal presentedby the American Medical Women's Association for her outstanding career inmedicine, and the medical AmateurRadio Council also named her the Outstanding Woman Physician in theUnited States.JOHN H. KORNBLITH, SB'47, MBA'48,received the American Jewish Committee's Institute of Human RelationsAward for 1977 for his philanthropicand civic endeavors. Kornblith is president of Twenty-First Century Restaurants of America, Inc. and the operatorof the largest chain of McDonald's restaurants in New York.PETER MCGRATH, PhB'47, AM'49, wasthe guest editor of the premiere issue ofthe Washington Journalism Review.McGrath is a freelance writer and a regular contributor to The Economist and acolumnist for New Society magazine,both of London, England.MARGARETTA REYNOLDS NEUMANN,PhB'47, AM'49, has been appointed Associate Professor Emerita of SocialWork by the board of Virginia Commonwealth University.1948FRANK D. DUNKEL, PhB'48, was promoted to vice president of purchasing for Lyon's Restaurants, headquarters inBurlingame, California. Dunkel was alsoelected to the board of directors of theAmerican Purchasing Society.SEYMOUR Z. MANN, AM'48, PhD'51,has assumed the position of deputy tothe executives of the District Council 37of the American Federation State,County and Municipal Employees.Mann recently retired from the CityUniversity of New York where he was aprofessor of urban affairs.MARTIN PALTZER, PhB'48, was madeexecutive vice president and managingofficer of the Joliet Home Savings andLoan Association in Illinois.HERBERT H. PAPER, AM'48, PhD'51,has taken a new position as Dean ofGraduate Studies at Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati.CLYDE WALTON, AM'49, left his directorship of university libraries at Northern Illinois University to be the new director of the library system at the University of Colorado at Boulder where hehopes to fish for trout in westernstreams.1949EDWARD H. TUTTLE, AM'49, has retiredfrom Wichita State University, Kansas,where he was Associate Professor of Social Work. Tuttle established the undergraduate program in social work at WSUin 1967.1950WILLIAM R. BRANDT, JD'50, was electedto a term on Illinois Wesleyan University's board of trustees. Brandt is a partner in the law firm of Livingston, Barger,Brandt, Slater, and Schroeder.HARRY FISHER, AB'50, JD'53, was theSt. Louis Poetry Center's "critic in residence" for the center's Novembermeeting. Fisher, who is the author oftwo volumes of poetry, Advice to Diversand North Slope, is also the president ofthe Stemmler, Fisher, Waltke & Hagen,advertising and public relations firm.ANDREW KENDE, AB'50, ischairman-elect of the Division of Organic Chemistry of the American Chemical Society for 1977-78. He will become chairman during the autumn of1978. He is a professor of chemistry atthe University of Rochester, New York,and his major research is in the synthesisof natural products, including antitumor agents.LOUIS E. WHITWORTH, AM'50, received a PhD degree from Northern II-31linois University in August. He is an assistant professor of music at ChicagoState University.1951MATTHEW DILLON, AB'51, has beenpromoted from Assistant to the Chairman of the Board of Trustees at IllinoisInstitute of Technology to Director ofDevelopment. He is in charge of the Institute's public relations programs aswell as its fund-raising activities.SEYMOUR M. KAPLAN, MBA'51, aformer marketing executive withChicago Blue Cross and Blue Shield andthe national Blue Cross Association, hasjoined Kansas City Blue Cross and BlueShield as assistant vice president of marketing services.WILLIAM E. MCMAHAN, AM'51,PhD'62, professor of English at WesternKentucky University, is the recipient ofthat institution's Award for Distinguished Contribution to the Universityin productive teaching.MATTHEW MESELSON, PhB'51, theThomas Dudley Cabot Professor of theNatural Sciences at Harvard University,has been appointed a Phi Beta KappaVisiting Scholar for 1977—78. Meselsonwill travel to eight institutions where hewill meet with students and faculty in avariety of seminars, public lectures, andclassroom discussion. He won international recognition for his demonstration of how DNA duplicates itself in dividing cells.1953WILLIAM T. KEETON, AB'53, SB'54, aprofessor in the Division of BiologicalSciences at New York State College ofAgriculture and Life Sciences, has beenelected Liberty Hyde Bailey Professorby the Cornell University Board ofTrustees. The honor is to provide recognition to those faculty who have national and international reptuations inagriculture and related sciences.ROBERT MANN, MBA'53, JD'56, announced that he would not seek reelection to the Illinois legislature wherehe has been a representative from the24th District-the district which includesthe University and Hyde Park.J. WARD WRIGHT, AB'53, JD'56, wasnamed director of Center for Governmental Research and Services at theState University of New York atAlbany. Wright was formerly special assistant with the National Science Foundation. 1954GEORGE L. MORROW, MBA'54, waselected president of Natural GasPipeline Company of America. Morrowis currently president of Peoples GasLight and Coke Company in Chicago.NICHOLAS T. ZERVAS, MD'54, hasbeen appointed professor of surgery atHarvard Medical School, and Chief ofNeurosurgery at the MassachusettsGeneral Hospital.1955ROBERT M. HERNDON, AB'55, associateprofessor of neurology at the JohnsHopkins University School of Medicineand director of its neurology clinics, hasbeen named director of the Universityof Rochester Center for Brain Researchin New York. 19561956MELVIN E. MCMICHAEL, MBA'56, hasbecome head of the Management Department of the School of Business atCalifornia Polytechnic State University,San Luis Obispo. He was previouslyhead of the school of business and publicadministration at New South Wales Institute of Technology in Sydney, Australia.1957DONALD C. DAHL, MBA'57, joined ExideSafety Systems Division of ESB, Inc. asgeneral manager at the Randolph, Massachusetts company.NORMAN lewak, SB'57, was elected atrustee of the National Sudden InfantDeath Syndrome Foundation. Lewakpractices in Alamada, California.1961The Meritorious Service Medal hasbeen awarded to Col. ALAN J. GRILL,MBA'6l, at Sheppard Air Force Base inTexas. He was cited for outstandingduty performance as professor of aerospace studies and commander of the AirForce Reserve Officers Training CorpsDetachment 720 at Pennsylvania StateUniversity.1962ROBERT J. SAVARD, MBA'62, was appointed director of the executive development program at Tatham-Laird &Kudner Advertising in Chicago. He is amanagement supervisor and partner.1963MASAO IGASAKI, JR., MBA'63, was elected vice president and controller ofPeoples Gas Light and Coke Company,Chicago, and North Shore Gas Company, which serves northeastern Illinois.In his new position, Igasaki will be responsible for the information systemsand control division.1964JAMES H. JOHNSON, MBA'64, is president and chief operating officer ofZenetron, Inc., in Chicago. He was president of the Zenith Radio Corporation's hearing aid division from 1971 to1976. That division has been acquiredby Zenetron. Johnson was one of theorganizers of the new corporation.JOEL A. SHUFRO, AB'64, MAT67,AM'68, is a visiting lecturer in history atLafayette College, Pennsylvania.1965JOHN S. REIST, JR., AM'65, PhD'76, hasjoined the staff of Dickinson College aschaplain. He is the author of numerousarticles dealing with the relation between religion and liberal arts.1966ROBERTJ. GOWEN, PhD'66, received theEast Carolina University Alumni Association award for teaching excellence.Gowen is a member of the history department.RICHARD L. WILSON, AB'66, was appointed a registrar- at- large of the Hamilton County Election Commission inChattanooga, Tennessee. He is an associate professor of political science atthe University of Tennessee at Chattanooga.1967PERI E. ARNOLD, AM'67, PhD'72, wasappointed as chairman of the Department of Government and InternationalStudies at the University of NotreDame.GEORGE F. STECKLEY, AM'67, PhD'72,was awarded the Philip Green-Wright-Lombard College Prize for Distinguished Teaching. He is an assistant professor of history at Knox College, Illinois.Named a "distinguished teacher" for1976-77 was GRANT D. VENERABLE II,SM'67, PhD'70. He is a professor atCalifornia Polytechnic State Universityat San Luis Obispo, in the chemistry department. Venerable joined the facultythere in 1972.321968ROBERT J. BAKER, mba'68, has becomedirector of the University of NebraskaHospital and Clinic in Omaha. He waspreviously senior associate director ofthe University of Minnesota Hospitals.PETER SCHOOL, AM'68, PhD'72, wasappointed as an assistant professor ofEnglish at Luther College in Iowa.MARVIN L. SCHURKE, AB'65, JD'68, isthe first executive director of Washington State Public employment RelationsCommission. Mr. Schurke was formerlya trial examiner with the Wisconsin Employment Relations Commission. Heand his wife, TERESA PETERSON, AB'68,and their children live in Olympia.SALLY KAPLAN SPECTOR, AB'68, hasbeen pursuing a career as a professionalartist. She recently had her third soloexhibition in Montreal where she lives.1969LAWRENCE AVRIL, MBA'69, was electeda director of the Illinois Savings andLoan League. He is the president ofHinsdale Federal Savings and Loan Association.PAUL DUNCAN, MBA'69, was namedgeneral counsel to McDonald's International. He joined the firm in 1970 ascorporate attorney.Armco Steel Corporation has announced the appointment of GILBERT E.GILDEA, JR., JD'69, as associate counsel.BETHE HAGENS, AM'69, PhD'72, aprofessor of anthropology at GovernorsState University in Illinois, is also editing Acorn, a newsletter of the MidwestEnergy Alternatives network.GREGORY SKALA, AB'69, was recentlyordained as a minister in the Church ofthe Truth, based in Portland, Oregon.KARL S. TAYLOR, X'69, and his wife,Lois, have purchased the Sugar Hill Innresort in Franconia, New Hampshire.EUGENE WESTPHAL, AM'69, receiveda doctorate of education degree fromNorthern Illinois University.PHILLIP E. WILSON, AM'69, PhD'72,was named as assistant dean of the faculty at Princeton University. He will beresponsible for personnel matters relating to professional research, librarystaffs, and visiting fellows.1970DOUGLAS M. GEUDER, MBA' 70, was appointed director of strategic planning forindividual insurance operation at Connecticut General Life Insurance Company. He joined the firm in 1970. 1971WARREN R. COPELAND, AM'71, PhD'77,was appointed assistant professor ofreligion at Wittenberg University inSpringfield, Ohio.JAMES J. CULLEN, MBA'71, was appointed assistant advertising and salespromotion manager for Bacardi ImportsInc., in Miami, Florida.RON E. HICKS, MBA'71, was namedsenior business analyst for Ashland Petroleum Company, in Ashland, Kentucky. He is responsible for analysisfunctions relating to marketing activities.DEBORAH KAPLAN, AB'71, AM'72,PhD'76, was appointed assistant professor of English at Earlham College inIndiana.SARAH BEEBE STAFFORD, AB'71, wasappointed associate director of estateplanning at Grinnell College, Iowa. Shewas formerly on the staff at The University of Chicago Office of Development.1972CHARLES P. CONNOLLY, JR, MBA'72, waspromoted to vice president of thePhiladelphia National Bank.JIM JUBAK, AB'72, has received hisPhD in English from the University ofVirginia. He teaches mass communications at Emory and Henry College insouthwest Virginia, and informs us thathe encourages correspondence.MICHAEL P. WARD, AM'72, and William Butz, authors of a Rand Corporation study, report that the decline in thenation's birth rate can be historicallylinked to the rising proportion ofwomen of childbearing age entering thework force. The report is the first to bepublished under a three-year grant fromthe National Institutes of Health.1973JEROME Y. BIGGS, JR., MAT'73, is aclaims attorney on the staff of the AlliedMutual Insurance Company of DesMoines, Iowa.After four-years in a large, business-oriented law firm, CAROLYN J. HAYEK,JD'73, has opened her own law office inFederal Way, Washington. '1974CHUN-CHAN KUNG, SM'74, PhD'77,joined the staff of the American Chemical Society's Chemical Abstracts Servicein Columbus, Ohio, as an associateeditor in the publications division. A Fund For BooksWhen you have the occasion to honorsomeone you love, you want your gift tobe both thoughtful and enduring.A gift of books to the University ofChicago Library will associate both youand the one you honor with the ongoingwork of the University and will serve toenhance the collections of the Library.Each twenty-five dollar gift allows theLibrary to add a book to its collections.For each gift of that amount, the Libraryplaces an inscribed book plate in the bookand sends copies of the plate to the personhonored and to the donor.It is also possible to establish an endowed fund for purchasing books and tomake gifts in one's own name or that of arelative or friend. Details on these opportunities for giving are available from theLibrary's Development Office.Make checks payable to:The University of Chicago LibraryMail to: The Director of DevelopmentThe Joseph Regenstein Library1100 East 57 StreetChicago, Illinois 60637I enclose $ for books.Gift in honor of Address; City State Zip Donor Address - —City State Zip 331975CALVIN D. JOHNSON, MBa'75, was promoted to marketing manager at the FirstNational Bank of Atlanta. He alsoserves as manager of electronic bankingresearch and development.ANTHONY JULIANELLE, AB'75, enlisted in the Peace Corps and is teachingmathematics at Moeng College in Botswana.FLINT D. SCHIER, AB'75, was awardedthe coveted John Locke Prize in MentalPhilosophy by the University of Oxfordin November. He was elected a RhodesScholar in 1974, completed his Bachelorof Philosophy work at Oxford last Springand is working on a Doctor of Philosophydegree there.emil m. skodon, ab'75, mba'76, wasappointed vice consul and third secretary at the U.S. Embassy in Bridgetown,Barbados in the West Indies.1976LUCINDA LOVELESS HERSHENHORN,AM'76, was appointed a member of theeconomics department at Barat Collegein Illinois.PRESTON JOHNSON, MBA' 76, a corporate officer at the Harris Bank inChicago, won The University ofChicago's 1977 Wall Street Journal Student Achievement Award for Excellencein Finance.In MemoriamCORRECTION: The Magazine regrets thatW. V. Morgenstern, phD'll, was reported in the last issue as deceased.There is no W. V. Morgenstern, PhD'll;there is, however, William V. Morgenstern PhB'20, who is very much alive. Heis former public relations director andsecretary of the University, and wewould not dispose of him for the world.We tender humble apologies, and wishto state that we are among Mr. Morgen-stern's legions of admirers.1910-1919Curtis E. Mason, SB'09, MD'l 1, died lastSeptember; Florence Ruth OldhamWitt, SB'09.John E. Anderson, PhB'10, JD'12, acenter on the UC football team from1906-07, died in Orinda, California.Matilda Fenberg, AB'fl, a retiredChicago attorney, an active supporter ofthe Equal Rights Admendment, and the first woman to complete the three-yearprogram at Yale Law School, died inFindlay, Ohio, where she had been living since 1975; Alice Lee Loweth,PhB'll, died in September.Claude W. Carr, MD'12;CarlB. Stiger,JD'12; Troy L. Parker, XT 2.Virginia Folkes Lewis, PhB'l4;Thomas Hollingsworth, SB'15; Max C.Zapler, sb'15, MD'29; Joseph Fisher,PhB'16, JD'18.Pauline Levi Lehrburger, phB'17, anactive volunteer in civic affairs in Boston, died last September; Leslie MonroeParker, PhB'17, JD'17, a patent lawyer inChicago, died last August; PhilipSchweickhard, SB'17.Jacob A. Bargen, SB'18, MD'21; RuthWilson Badenoch, phB'18; ElizabethHughes Simonton, PhB'18; Mary I.Winget, SB'18; Helen L. Koch, PhB'21,professor emeritus in the behavioralsciences at the Universiry, died in July.She was much cited for her book, Twinsand Twin Relations.Katherine Hagerty Harrison, phB'19;Frederick C. Kulieke, x'19; Esther Gil-Ian McCarthy, x'19, a retired Chicagoschool teacher, died last September;Dorothy E. Perham, PhB'19, AM'26;Edward B. Wilson, SB'19.1920-1929Irene Marsh Scofield, PhB'20; ClintonV. Conley, SM'20; Rodney L. McQuary,x'20; Earl A. Miller, PhB'20; Harry A.Oberhelman, Sr., md'20, former head ofsurgery at the Stritch School ofMedicine in Chicago, died last September; Wayne Guthrie, x'20, a veterannewspaper reporter who was elected tothe Indiana Journalism Hall of Fame in1973, died in November.Mary Rebecca Bell, AB'21, phD'37;Verlin W. Cubbage, X'21; PaulenaSchweizer Kleitman, PhB'21, wife ofNathaniel Kleitman, professor emeritusin the physiology department at theUniversity, died September 14; TownerBowditzh Root, SB'21, SM'22, phD'35;Cleveland J. White, MD'21, was a professor emeritus at the Loyola School ofMedicine in Chicago.David Larson, LLB'22, a longtimeChicago attorney, died in October; OlaElizabeth Winslow, phD'22, author ofthe Pulitzer Prize biography JonathanEdwards, and professor emeritus of English at Wellesley College, died after abrief illness.Melvin B. Dahlin, sb'23; Jack W. Dil-gren, PhB'23, JD'23; Rollo Othwell Earl, SM'23„ PhD'26; May Herlihy Ernst,PhB'23; Sigmund W. Kunstadter, x'23;Irwin W. Sander, SM'23; Manda Selli-ken, PhB'23; Charles C. Snow, x'23.Wilber A. Gorman, X'24; Trinidad J.Jaramillo, SB'24, SM'25, PhD'29; Dena F.Lange, AM'24; John W. Thomas, PhB'24,former star fullback for the UC footballteam in the 1920s, died last August.Abel J. DeHaan, PhB'25, JD'26;Theodore H. Goldman, SB'25, MD'29;Fannie Malone, AM'25.Ann Aim Enright, PhB'26, a formerteacher at Ray Elementary School inHyde Park, died in October; William H.Sheldon, PhD'26, MD'34, a psychologistand researcher who correlated humanbiology and physique with social behavior, died in September; Sidney Sperry,AM'26, PhD'31, a former professor atBrigham Young University, died in September; Isabell Arwell Zoll, PhB'26.Ernest L. Hoge, PhB'27; Thomas J.Lancaster, AM'27; Edith Hess Schiff,PhB'27.Edgar E. Atherton, PhB'28, AM'37,who was active in the ministry of theUnited Methodist Church for fifty-nineyears, died in Urbana, Illinois last August; Theodore Nicholas Constant,X'28; James L. Guion, PhB'27; MarjorieTaylor Swan, PhB'28.Marion E. Blade, PhB'29; EstherBlade Clark, phB'29; Dorthea DismeuteLanghorne, PhB'29 Herbert G. May,AM'29, PhD'32, biblical scholar and aprofessor emeritus of religion at OberlinCollege, died in October; MarionMcDonald, PhB'29; Russell Wiles, Jr.,x'29, was the coach of the University'svarsity rifle team for many years until1946. He trained 16,000 men in rifleand pistol marksmanship at the University's Institute of Military Studies duringWorld War II.1930-1939William J. Arner, PhD' 30; Ballard C.Harrison, PhB'30,JD'32; Herbert Janson,SB'30, MD'35; Irene Kirke, am'30;Rabbi Chaim David Regensberg, am'30,renowned Talmud scholar and deanemeritus of the Hebrew TheologicalCollege in Skokie, Illinois, died in Israelwhere he lectured at the JerusalemSeminary; Kenneth A. Small, SB'30;Ralph E. Webb, JD'30.George W. Ayers, PhD'31; Richard D.Fletcher, Jr., phB'31; Hannah M. Lin-dahl, PhB'31; Walter B. Besley, AM'32;Robert I. Dove, JD'32; David W. Goodrich, SB'32.34LETTERS TO THE EDITORMinnie S. Buckingham, AM'33; RuthMcHart Clement, PhB'33; Estelle HaleGibson, PhB'33; MaryEllen WoodfieldGustafson, phB'33; Edith Ruth Landis,x'33; Henry T. Lilly, x'33; Elsie C. Logan, PhB'33; Clayton H. Stowe, x'33;Emil C. Bennett, x'34.Irving G. Lang, AB'35, JD'36, aChicago lawyer and former prosecutor,was killed in an auto accident in October; Gladys Rabold Nye, PhB'35.Ira O. Fash, PhB'38; Stuart A. Gal-lacher, PhD'38; Vivian S. Greenhoe,SM'39; Marie Kan, AB'39, am'42; OliveU. Tjossem, am'39-1 940-1 949Martha E. Fleter, x'40, a longtime Milwaukee area social worker died ofcancer in September; Ellen Snell Sherwood, AM'40, a retired social workerand an avid bridge player, died in Arlington, Virginia.John E. Willard, AB'4l, JD'42; GeorgeJ. Verbeck, SM'4l; James Billings,MD'42; Clara Edwards Randall, x'42;Paul Strueh, SB'42, MD'45.John W. Findley, MD'43; RichardGodfrey, SB'43; Barbara Weiss Merrill,AB'43, chairwoman of the human servicedepartment at Monroe Community College in Rochester, New York, died inOctober; Rae Hatcher Theimer, SB'45.William B. Schlefer, PhB'46, MBA'49;Sylvia Allen Stites, PhB'46; Richard W.Naylor, mba'48; Sara E. Pollack, sm'48.Mildred Korth Britton, am'49;Harold C. Deering, MD'49; Robert E.Lee, am'49, professor of English at theUniversity of Colorado, died in September.1950-1959Stanley W. Merrill, mba'51; John E.Baker, PhD'52; Estella Mae ChesterfieldKawaky, AM'52; Elizabeth B. Linton,AM'53; James Haywood Harrison, AM'54; Mark P. Hale, PhD'56; C. EugeneHamilton, Jr., JD'59.1 960-1 975James O. Howe, MBA'62; Louis Molnar,X'63; John Nyhan, MBA'63.Eugene S. Kalina, MBA'67; Joseph W.Novak, mba'67.Patricia Lou Green, AB'68; Maria Ar-visu, phD'69, Elizabeth H. Morton,AM'69-Wesley H. Swartz, SM'75, died frominjuries received in an automobile accident last September. Hutchins RememberedEveryone who was at the University during the years 1929-1951 will have special memories of Robert Hutchins. Ihave a vivid recollection of two incidents.In the spring of 1945 I was the editorof the Maroon, and I was designated by astudent committee to ask Mr. Hutchinsto speak at services in RockefellerChapel on VE day. Hutchins agreed totalk. He made a remarkable speech. Onthe morning of the announcement ofGermany's surrender he eloquentlyurged a policy of compassion and understanding toward the defeated enemy.His speech angered and shocked manypeople, but it was a typically courageousand far-seeing statement.I was also present at the Illinois StateCapitol in 1948 when Hutchins wascalled as a witness by the Broyles Commission which was investigating allegedcommunism in educational institutionsin Illinois. I have been a lawyer for morethan rwenty-five years but I do not recallany performance by a witness whichequalled that of Hutchins on that occasion. There were a number of timeswhen the lawyer who was attempting tocross-examine Hutchins suddenly foundhimself the parry responding to questions. It was an extraordinary performance.Mortimer Adler's recently publishedautobiography makes clear that Hutchins offended the sensibilities of somemembers of the faculty. But to the stu dents he was an inspiring figure. He wassurely be remembered as one of thehandful of great educators in this country during this century.Abe Krash, AB'46,JD'49Washington, D.C.Plucked ChickenCheryl Newman's letter in the Summer1977 issue about the Chicago sweaterwhich she spotted in an Amsterdamstore window reminds me of my ownexperience in the summer of 1976.I was on a hiking trip through Iran'sElburz mountains, north of Teheran,and had noticed that college sweatshirtswere the rage, lagging by a year or twothe fad which was beginning to die out inEurope. Even in the most remote villages, all the teenagers were wearing theshirts. By far the most popular was thatfor Drake University, followed by — tomy great surprise and pleasure —Chicago and Princeton, a distant thirdplace.In one village I was having troublegetting on a bus which was overloadedwith Iranians and their livestock, when ahandsome young man with a Chicagosweatshirt came to my aid and got a seatfor me. The fact that the phoenix on theshirt looked more like a plucked chickendidn't diminish my enjoyment of thehappy coincidence.Peter Goodsell, AB'71New York City35MAY 19 AND 20St ¦¦ is ' a .are important dates to mark on your calendar. Onthese two spring days you may talk to members ofthe faculty, meet students, and enjoy thecamaraderie of your former classmates in a veryspecial place. BalSjfB*You may also enjoy stimulating classes, informativetours, the traditional Interfraternity Sing, and theAlma Mater ringing from Mitchell Tower.mmThese dates are • ;;.'' imREUNION 1978In the spring, you will receive a Reunion'78brochure with detailed information and reservationforms.If you have immediate questions, comments, orsuggestions about Reunion, please write or call:Gwen Witsaman, Program DirectorThe University of Chicago Alumni Association5733 South University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637312/753-2180ON THE COVER: The phases of themoon from the building decoration onYerkes Observatory, Williams Bay,Wisconsin. Henry Ives Cobb was the architect. The Romanesque structure,which houses the University's 40-inchrefracting telescope, is adorned withsculptures of stars, celestial creatures,and (for nearby Lake Geneva) shellshapes and aquatic animals.CreditsCourtesy of the Special Collections, TheUniversity of Chicago Library: 2, 3(top), 7, 12-13, 17Office of Public Information: 4, 6, 9Courtesy of Yerkes Observatory: 21, 24Eric Futran: 2 (bottom)Luis Medina: Cover PhotoProduction and Layout: Paula S. AusickSTUDENTS, FACULTY, ALUMNI,AND FRIENDS OF THE UNIVERSITY:This letter is an expression of appreciation from the Board of Trustees forthe help, cooperation, and enthusiastic encouragement received in connection with the selection of a successor to President John Wilson.Last February when the Trustee Selection Committee was appointed, Iasked all of you tor your help and your suggestions.The Trustees and the Faculty Advisory Committee received severalhundred suggestions, and almost three hundred individuals were named.They included among others statesmen, educators, scientists, and businessmen. Many of the suggestions included names already being reviewedby the joint committees, but it was very useful to know the direction all ofyou would have us take.Selecting a new President is probably the single most important responsibility of the Trustees. To secure a person who has the appreciationfor quality scholarship, who is possessed of leadership and administrativeabilities, who is sensitive to student, faculty, alumni, trustee, and community needs, and, preferably, who understands the special character of theUniversity, demands a very special individual.The Board of Trustees believes that our choice of Hanna Holborn Graymeets fully the requirements of the job, and that with the support andencouragement all of us can provide her, the University will continue to beone of the great private educational institutions.Hanna Gray received her AB degree from Bryn Mawr College 1950, wasa Fulbright Scholar at Oxford University from 1950 to 1952, and receivedher PhD from Harvard in 1957. From 1961 to 19"72 she was on the historydepartment faculty at The University of Chicago; she was Dean of Arts andSciences at Northwestern from 1972 to 1974; in 1974 she was namedProvost at Yale and early in 1977 she was named acting President.Hanna and Charles Gray have a great enthusiasm for the City of Chicagoas well as for the University. When you have the chance to meet them, I amsure you will agree that the Trustees' and their decision is a happy one.Meantime, please accept again the thanks of the Trustees for your suggestions, advice, and confidence.Sincerely,Roberty W. RenekerChairman, Board of TrusteesMAY 19 AND 20are important dates to mark on your calendar. Onthese two spring days you may talk to members ofthe faculty, meet students, and enjoy thecamaraderie of your former classmates in a veryspecial place.You may also enjoy stimulating classes, informativetours, the traditional Interfraternity Sing, and theAlma Mater ringing from Mitchell Tower.These dates areREUNION 1978In the spring, you will receive a Reunion'78brochure with detailed information and reservationforms.If you have immediate questions, comments, orsuggestions about Reunion, please write or call:Gwen Witsaman, Program DirectorThe University of Chicago Alumni Association5733 South University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637312/753-2180