HE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEVOLUME LXIXNUMBER 4SUMMER 1977THE UNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEVolume LXIX, Number 4Summer 1977Alumni Association5733 South University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312) 753.2175Président: Charles W. Boand (LLB'33,MBA'57)Acting Director; Ruth HalloranProgram Director: Gwen WitsamanRégional Offices1888 Century Park East, Suite 222Los Angeles, Calitbrnia 90067(213) 277-7727825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030New York, New York 10022(212) 935-19771000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 91109(415) 928-0337735 Fairfax StreetAlexandria, Virginia 22314(709) 549-3800Second-class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois, and at additional mailing offices.Copyright 1977 by The University ofChicago. Published quarterly Spring, Summer,Fall, and Winter by the Vice-Présidenttor Public Affairs. CONTENTSOn the Midway 2Jaipur Notes 8Susanne Rudolph andLloyd RudolphThe Legacy of Robert M.Hutchins 23Edward H. LeviNostalgia 26Alumni News 28Postcard from OlympusClass Notes 38For the Record 44Letters to the Editor 46Crédits 47Index for Volume LXIXConvocation 1977 48Charles W. Boand 3347Cover Note 49Editor: Iris M. PoliskiAssistant to the Editor: Bill MurphyEditorial Assistant: Paula S. AusickON THE MIDWAYSomething for the LibraryThe bibliographer for history of theAmericas at the Regenstein Library has arequest. If the loyal reader possessesprinted materials describing local historyof Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, or Kentucky,the library would be most grateful to re-ceive same . . . assuming the loyal readerhas finished with the material.That it be local history is stressed.This kind of information is diffkult forlibraries to collect because of small printruns and limited distribution.However, much information on coun-ties, towns, or townships has beenprinted or reprinted in conjunction withthe bicentennial year. If it can begathered at the grass roots level, muchcan be preserved.Donors will be credited by appropri-ate bookplates and silently thanked bygrateful histonans.Contributors may include ephemeralmaterial such a pamphlets from local his-torical societies, privately published historiés, and the like. The materials maybe sent to Frank Conaway, Joseph Regenstein Library, 110 East 57th Street,Chicago, Illinois 60637.Historical materials from other areasin the West and Midwest also will begratefully accepted.University Woman NamedRhodes ScholarDaryl Koehn, a senior in the New Col-legiate Division in the Collège, is one ofthirty-two students in the United Stateselected Rhodes Scholars to the University of Oxford for 197^- Ms. Koehn isone of thirteen women to receive theaward this year, the first year in whichi women are eligible. She will begin atOxford this fall where she plans to studyat the School of Philosophy, Politics,and Economies.Ms. Koehn, who entered the Collègethrough the Small School Talent Search,graduated as valedictorian from Con-cordia Junior/Senior High School inConcordia, Kansas in 1973 where shewon prizes for debate and public speak-ing. She was also chosen as a NationalMerit Commended Scholar. In the Collège, Ms. Koehn's awards hâve includedPhi Beta Kappa, Maroon Key, Dean'sList, and Student Aide. She was desig-nated a University Scholar and wasawarded the Class of 1914 Scholarship.Rosenheim Directs NationalHumanities InstituteEdward W. Rosenheim, AB '36, AM'46, PhD '53, became Director of theNational Humanities Institute at theUniversity on July 1. He is a professor inthe Department of English and the Collège.The Institute is a four-year program toenrich the teaching of humanities inAmerican collèges and universities,funded by a grant from the National En-dowment for the Humanities. The firstprogram year began September, 1976,with the arrivai of the first of threegroups of NEH fellows from institutionsnationwide. The first-year fellows hâvecompleted a year's délibération and re-search on the Institute's gênerai thème,"Technology and the Humanities."In the second program year, fellowswill explore "Technology and Society."Subjects of study include: the organiza-tion of knowledge in various societies, the relationship between authoritycodes and technological change; theways in which protests againsttechnological change achieve artisticform; and the etfects of bureaucracy andprofessionalization upon humanisticvalues.Edward Rosenheim is a prolific andversatile writer whose by-line appears inboth professional and popular publications. He is the author or editor of threebooks, co-editor of Modem Pbi/o/ogy, ascholarly journal devoted to médiévaland modem literature, and a récipient ofthe University's Quantrell Prize for excellence in undergraduate teaching.He succeeds Neil Harris as Directorof the National Humanities Institute.Harris has returned to teaching after histwo-year directorship.Lloyd, Ranney Appointedto Search CommitteeMrs. Glen A. Lloyd and Mr. George A.Ranney hâve been appointed to theCommittee of the Board of Trustées ofThe University of Chicago to recom-mend a nominee for élection as président of the University in 1978.Robert W. Reneker, chairman of theBoard of Trustées, had previously an-nounced the other members of theCommittee; Gaylord Donnelley,Kingman Douglass, Jr., StanfordGoldblatt, Margaret Bell Cameron,Robert S. Ingersoll, and William B.Graham. Hermon Dunlap Smith is thecommittee's senior advisor.Mrs. Lloyd, the former Marion Mus-ser, is a member of the Women's Boardand the Visiting Committee to the Division of the Humanities. George A. Ranney is Vice-Chairman of Inland Steel.Mrs. William W. DarrowNamed Women's Board ChairwomanMrs. William W. Darrow (AnitaWieboldt Straub), has been appointedChairwoman of the University's Women's Board by John T. Wilson, président.Mrs. Darrow has been a Boardmember since 1964, a member of theSteering Committee since 1972, andChairwoman of the Women's BoardProject Committee this past year.The University's Women's Board,founded in i960, consists of women active in civic and cultural affairs. It in-cludes women trustées, wives andwidows of trustées, académie deans, andwomen officers of the University.Sport as Education"Walk down the street in any inner-cityneighborhood," says Larry Hawkins, director of Spécial Programs for the Collège, "and you can always start a conversation, provided you talk about onesubject — sports."During the summer around the University, troops of youngsters, wearingmaroon t-shirts, trek from Cobb Hallclasses to Bartlett Gymnasium for orga-nized sports. On their t-shirts, embossedin white, is a simple phrase, THE PROGRAM, which stands for The Pilot En-richment Program.THE PROGRAM and the young menand women who travel the campus wearing the t-shirts are the children of oneman, Larry Hawkins. Of course they arenot Hawkins' children, in the literalsensé, but, judging by the efforts Hawkins makes on their behalf, sometimes itis hard to tell.Larry Hawkins is a social worker. Heis also a coach. And, most would con-sider him an excellent teacher. Hawkinsbelieves that sports and games can beenormously helpful in improving thequality of the educational expérience —particularly if the student is black, and ifhe or she cornes from a ghetto school.Hawkins does not talk about the rah-rah aspects of sports, nor does he em-phasize the virtue of winning, though heis obviously a man who plays to win.When Larry Hawkins talks about sports,words come out which sound strange tothe unindoctrinated observer. He mightsay that sports can improve classroomattendence, or that the librarian of theschool should come out to the playingfîeld, or even that a coach should bemore than a field gênerai of his sport; heshould be a teacher.Larry Hawkins feels that sports ininner-city schools mean something veryspécial to the students. There, the performance of individuals and teams générâtes strong interest and a great pride.Often, an inner-city youth's first expérience of success is in sports, perhaps inhis high school gymnasium.Hawkins and his co-workers believethat this discovery of success, confirmedby coaches and friends, instills a newimage of self. More important, it mayhelp a student to create a more positivePersonal outlook.Hawkins does not expect every youthto become a six-million dollar superstar.He goes to great lengths to explode themyth that professional athletics are an Larry Hawkins, director of Spécial Programs.effective path out of the ghetto. For thevast majority of young men and womenthere, sports obviously are not. How-ever, Hawkins believes that éducationlinked with sports may be the way to thepath and he looks to the fully integratedathletic/educational program as one possible solution.To Hawkins this means that highschool coaches and teachers must worktogether to motivate students and keepthem in the classroom, not on thestreets. It means that the school librarianshould take as much of an interest in theschools program as in the schoolsbooks.Most important, it means that the highschool coach, the individual admired andrespected by most high school youths,must be more than a leader of the team;he must hâve far greater skills than onlya knowledge of the fundamentals of hissport. He ought to be trained in theareas of guidance, counseling, commu-nity organization, and group work. Thecoach, in short, should be a sort of hy-brid social worker, both teacher andathlète.This idéal, or what might be called the"scholar-coach", may not be a new concept; to Hawkins, it is clearly a workableone. He has expérience to back up his claims. Larry Hawkins has lived ail of hislife on Chicago's South Side. His ownathletic career began on the city's play-grounds. In 1948 he was a prep star atPhillips High School. He received hisdegree in social work from George Williams Collège in 1956.In the late 1950s and early 1960s, hecoached at Carver High School, whichdraws students from the Altgeld Gardenapartments, a housing project, onChicago's far South Side. During theearly part of his career, Hawkins wasone of two black coaches in the Chicagopublic school System. He began as whathe calls a "gym teacher" conductingclasses and coaching a few team sports.After a few years, Larry Hawkinsstarted to experiment with some spécialprograms, programs designed to get hisplayers to think not only of sports but ofclasses as well. He decided to bringclasswork into basketball practice. Heworked not only to motivate students,but teachers too, bringing them intoteam practices for the first time.Success for Larry Hawkins was mea-sured in two ways while he coached atCarver High School. He will always re-member the teams he took to the IllinoisState Basketball Championship Tour-naments. The first, in 1962, lost in the3title game by one point. The second, in1963, won by the same margin — onepoint.More important than his basketballteams, though, were the players, theprograms, and the philosophy he devel-oped while at Carver High School —programs which aided the students longafter their playing careers were through."Sports are still considered enter-tainment for people to watch, just asthey were when we took our teams tothe state championships," says Hawkins."Everyone except the youngster playingis entertained." Now, more than everbefore, what Hawkins is concernedabout is the youngster. What happens tohim^ Where does he go if he does notmake the so-called big time?It was the désire to do more thanmerely win state championships whichled Larry Hawkins to The University ofChicago. He joined the University in1968, leaving behind a career as anathlète and a teacher of athlètes. Hawkins is a modest man, but, if coaxed, hewill tell what it was like to leap for arebound against Wilt Chamberlain, orhow he coached Cazzie Russell at CarverHigh School.Today, Hawkins is concerned notonly with seeing that students graduatefrom high school, but from collège aswell. As he sees it, the first problem forinner-city school students is achieving alevel of académie excellence which willwin them admission to first-rate collègesand universities.This is not always easy, as studentsfrom ghetto schools do not perform wellon standardized exams like the ACT andSAT tests (American Collège Test,Scholastic Aptitude Test), which mostAmerican collèges use as part of theiradmissions criteria, Hawkins admits."Inner-city kids perform poorly oncollège entrance exams not because theylack académie ability," claims Hawkins,"but because they are not thinking alongthe lines of the test."That proposition forms the basis forthe new release-time program Hawkinshas organized. By attending The University of Chicago two days of the schoolweek, one hundred and ninty, ninth- andtenth-graders from the Carver and HydePark High Schools are being given spécial préparation in reading, writing, andarithmetic.The nrne-release program is an example ot the creativity ot the Collèges Director of Spécial Programs. Larry Haw kins is an individual who has the talentto shape ideas into workable programs.When he says, "The high school sportsprogram could be used as a profoundeducational tool, if only educators wouldaccept it as such," perhaps the time forsuch acceptance is not far off.— Micbael Krauss. AB'75, MBA'76In Search of Chicago SoftballOne thing the athletic department keepstrying to tell the rest of the University isthat the learning expérience can oftenoccur just as easily on the field as in theclassroom. Flabby monastics, of course,would be the last to agrée, but, then,wasn't it the late Mr. Hutchins whocalled this a community of scoffers?On any moderate-sized field on a nicespring day, one can learn of the existence and uniqueness of the 16-inchsoftball. For those who grew up inChicago, its existence is no surprise.One can always enjoy the expérience ofwatching some poor benighted easternerpick up a 16-inch softball for the firsttime and wonder if his hand has shrunk.Of course this is even before he tries tohit it, putting ail his weight into a mightyswing and watching the bail defy ailphysics and common sensé and sail lazilyout to only second base.The aberration is really Chicago's, andit would seem that we owe the rest of the world an explanation for the originsof this thing. Since 12-inch softball is theprévalent game, or at least the gameplayed by most référence writers, the re-searcher is faced with a philologicalproblem: deciding which softball theréférence books describe. The originscorrespond to the 16-inch game, but therules and régulations only apply to the12-inch variety. Thus one turns to thepurveyors of Chicago's oral history todiscover the roots of 16-inch softball.Fortunately, Don DeBat of theChicago Daily News made a similarsearch about a year ago, and was kindenough to provide us with the fruits ofhis work. Apparently, 16-inch softballstarted in an athletic club on Chicago'sNorth Side in the 1880's. Since basketball had yet to be invented, the men ofthis club needed something to fill thelong winter months. One enterprisingchap found a boxing glove and taped ittogether. He then dug up a broom and,in the simplicity of genius, a new gamewas born.The game was at first played indoors,which accounts for the screens on theinside of ail those old school gymnasiumwindows. Sooner or later, indoorsoftball moved to the playgrounds andonce it moved outdoors, it began to beorganized. By the 1930s there werecity-wide leagues and cross-town rival-ries."The whole reason the game caughton," argues Débat, "was that it was agame that could be played with a minimal amount of expenditure. You don'thâve to hâve gloves to play, so abouttwenty guys can hâve a hell of a game forabout three dollars. It's a working class,Back-of-the- Yards kind of game."He was unsure why the game is stillonly played in Chicago. "You'd probablyhâve to ask a sociologist," he said.Although not a sociologist, at least notby training, Bill Vendl, assistant directorof athletics in charge of intramuralsports, suggested several reasons whythe game is played at the University.Since many of the students attending theUniversity in its earlier days came fromChicago, it was only natural that theywould bring their game with them.Vendl pointed out that 16-inch softballhad always been hère along with theconsternation of those just introducedto it.Besides this tradition, Vendl had amuch more pragmatic and graphie ex-planation for the sport. With somedrama he pointed out to the Midwaythrough the leaded Windows of his IdaNoyés Hall office and asked, rhetori-cally enough, "Now, where do we hâvespace to play 12-inch softball?"But then, who would want to anyway?—David Rieser, AB 77FOTAThe Festival of the Arts (FOTA) is a riteut spring at the University. The month-long séries of events include a Maypoledance, a circus, a paper boat race onBotany Pond, a pie-throwing contest,and a week of quizzes.However, the real spirit of the eventmay réside in an impromptu entertain-ment on the opening Sunday afternoon,on the main quadrangle. In the mannerof the old "happenings" of the 1960s, agroup of appréciative watchers, students, and families, gathered to enjoymusicians from the Old Town School,country dancers, and a mime. The mime,wandering from group to group, sud-denly was leading a procession of smallchildren. Their numbers were sufficientfor an imaginary game of softball.With the children entering into thespirit of the invisible game, bats and a bail were created, and a small pitcherpitched, batters batted, and catcherscaught the softball, while a young observer leaned on an imaginary post,watching.Softball rapidly turned into touchfootball, ail done silently, the mime leading, and then it was time to order icecream.One little girl importantly held outfive fingers for five scoops. The icecream-mime elaborately tossed andcaught five invisible scoops on an invisible cône and handed it to her. Shetook it, lowered it to the ground, andjumped up and down to lick this unseenmonument to conesmanship. She ges-tured to the mime. He hurried over andgave her a hoist up, so she could start atthe top.The watchers were transfixed. AndFOTA had begun.Susanne RudolphLloyd RudolphJaipur NotesThe Rudolphs ivitb their collaborator. Mohan Sitigb Icenter).Prologue 8 October 1975Jaipur, IndiaWe hâve written "notes" during each of our researchyears in India, starting in 1956 when we drove overlandfrom London in a landrover. Notes help, we fînd, tounderstand what is happening to us and to clarify ourthoughts in what has now become a second home. Wehâve lived five years off and on in India, with a familythat has grown from one child to three children sinceour second visit in 1962-63. Each expérience builds onthe previous ones even while the change and the com-plexity of the country throw up new puzzles.It was in the grip of the "notes" habit and in the faceof a remarkable change in India's political landscape andmood that we turned again in 1975 to disciplining impressions and conversations by reducing them to thewritten word.The first note was written in a faintly défiant spirit lessthan three months after the emergency was imposed andsoon after our arrivai in India. The atmosphère was un-friendly to the free inquiry and expression we hadcome to expect. At best, dissent (and there was, in thecircles in which we moved in Jaipur, Delhi, and Calcutta, considérable dissent) was expressed in metaphorsand analogies, circumlocutions and euphemisms, exceptwhen we spoke to old friends in private. The notes bearwitness to the changed atmosphère and new médium.Their tone of voice and language took account, almostdespite ourselves, of the fact that they might be dis-covered, even though we used circuitous methods forspiriting them out of India. We wrote for a dull censorand a bright colleague. We did miss getting any responsefrom those on our mailing list. Our friends in Englandand America prudently kept their reactions to them-selves, with the occasional exception of those who sig-naled us that they were reading the notes by comment-ing on our account of banana cake.When we began writing "Jaipur Notes," neither wenor those who were designing the emergency were veryclear about what it was to mean, or where it was to go.Both we and "they" assumed a surer tone of voice as theyear progressed. The dénouement in March 1977, whenan élection swept Mrs. Gandhi and the Congress Partyfrom office, could not hâve been intended or anticipatedby her or her party. While our "Jaipur Notes" do notexplicitly suggest such an outcome, they do anticipate anélection in March 1977 and point to a dangerous érosion of support and legitimacy. What they do notforesee is the scale and intensity of the vote for free-dom. Our somewhat circuitous approach to this year's Indialed via London and Delhi to Jaipur, in the northwestIndian state of Rajasthan. The level of outrage with whatis happening in India has diminished along the way. InLondon we met with W. H. Morris-Jones and with aphilosophically inclined set around Amartya Sen, who isa Professor of Economies at the London School of Economies. Sen and Morris-Jones had signed an Englishpress advertisement in the London Times, which hadbeen viewed with much chagrin hère, deploring the newpolitical arrangements. Amartya had heard that twohundred and fifty Delhi faculty had been arrested andtheir pensions and benefits and salaries affected. (Onehundred and twenty-five were arrested, for four days orso, which considerably shook the Delhi académie com-munity; their friends hère say the story about benefits isnot true.) Both Sen and Morris-Jones were sharply criti-cal; Morris-Jones remarked on the deafening silencefrom the direction of India scholars. We discussed atsome length how one would go about taking some positions that would help without having a back-lash effect.Both hère and in London there is considérable feelingthat Delhi cares very much about how its actions areviewed.At Amartya's house we had a brisk discussion withEric Hobsbawn and W. G. Runciman from Cambridgeand a philosopher named Richard Jeffrey from Princeton. We took the position that India was likely to be aLouis Napoléon state, with middle class notions of ef-ficiency and effectiveness, and a happy civil service ableto accomplish what had been much harder to accomplishunder the populist conditions of the last few years.Whether the state would also succeed in its more dis-tributional intentions had yet to be seen. Sen confirmedthis image, saying that it was his impression that thebusiness community, at least the large bourgeoisie, wasnot discontented, red tape having been reduced.Hobsbawn took the position that Louis Napoléon statesare rather useful; on the other hand liberalism had itsgood sides, since without public access to informationclosed states are likely not to work very well.In Delhi, the London Times letter was causing a certainamount of consternation ail around. The informationminister, Mr. V. C. Shukla, put his people on the téléphone to the influential intellectuals, asking them tosign a letter in response to the Times letter. The request9was awkward if one didn't wish to sign.Among our académie friends in Delhi, the politics ofJawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) was the liveliesttopic; we didn't get over to Delhi University and didn'thâve much of a feel lor the situation there. Teacher'sunions and other torms of legitimate influence andobstreperousness from faculties hâve been visiblyaffected and hâve exhibited an uncommon meekness.This has much to do with the fact that one can neitherorganize agitational public meetings nor take matters tocourt. Hère at Rajasthan, the philosopher-vice-chancellor, Professor G. C. Pande, who has himselfbeen under some shadow as an alleged former AnandMargi (a Hindu fundamentalist society banned under theemergency) was able to eut out some one hundredtemporary teachers. This move, which would hâvebrought the university down around his ears a year ago,is indicative of his new capacity to act. However, mattershâve not utterly changed — he eventually took seventy-five teachers back, with six-month contracts.The JNU faculty, which considers itself an élitegroups whose leftist propensities hâve given it a strongstanding with the government, doesn't like strong vic-chancellors any better than other faculties do. Whenwe arrived, there was a lively rhubarb about admissions. The vice-chancellor had taken admissions inhis own hands, reviewing ail departmental décisions; thesame has happened at Rajasthan. At Delhi University,this review took the form of cutting out some knownstudent leaders on the grounds that they were not "seri-ous." As far as we could make out, trouble-making ingênerai rather than its particular political forms was thetarget.The JNU situation is interesting. At Jaipur, manypeople expected that JNU would be very happy with theemergency, because of its left proclivities. But JNU hasa considérable Communist Party of India-Marxist com-ponent (one of India' s two principal communist parties,it is independent of both Moscow and Peking), espe-cially among the students, and unlike the CommunistParty of India (Moscow-onented and allied to Mrs.Gandhi's Congress), it is not supporting the emergency. Some JNU students (we heard sixty-four)were arrested, although most were quickly released.Even though faculty hâve not been arrested, a numberhâve expenenced unusual interest in their old tax returnson the part of the tax commissioner; requiring muchtrouble, many papers, and plenty of anxiety.Finally, there is something in the teaching vocation atJNU, which has a very able faculty, that makes most ofthem natural libérais despite themselves. Some of thefigures with whom Arthur Schlesinger Jr., on a visit dur-1 11 ing the late Nehru era, quarreled violently because oftheir failure to appreciate the communist menace, are atthe fore of those advocating liberty for universities.Conversation has become less active, at least in Delhi,which this year as in ail other years is more hystericaland up-tight than any other part of the country. Politicalconversations take place in private locations and aremostly dyadic. General conversation covers safer topics.Sanjay Gandhi continues to surface. The papers report that he has traveled to Bihar, which two weeks agoexpenenced devasting floods, to inspect the affectedarea together with the chief minister; upon returning toPatna he convened a meeting of officiais to discuss withthem the measures that should be taken. He is plainlyon the scène. About August 28, Mrs. Vasudhevan, biog-rapher of the prime minister, interviewed him, and pub-lished the results in the India Express. He was quoted assaying that the public sector was a flop, and that re-covery and development depended on the private sectorindustrialists. He also conveyed the impression thatmost congressmen were a bunch of old hens and that theCommunist Party of India (CPI) leadership and cadrewere a sorry lot. The next day déniais were issued, butMrs. Vasudhevan is sure that she did clear the text withSanjay Gandhi. The interview adds another dimensionto the Louis Napoléon state theory.The view from Jaipur has its own wrinkles. Susanne,pretending to be a good wife, goes out in search of filterpaper so that Lloyd can hâve filtered coffee. She is fol-lowing up his détective work; he has discovered thatfilter paper can be found with scientific instrumentssuppliers and has located one supplier. Entering theoffice, she is instantly swept into a highly political conversation. The speaker, who has two brothers in j ail, is aJan Sanghi ( Jan Sangh is the major party regarded byMrs. Gandhi as Hindu-communalist), observes that theparty, which has been called fascist, is now the onlymajor defender of freedom in India. Some minor illicitpublications are produced, respected Président Ford'sviews are applauded, and offers are made to tell more.The incident suggests that there may be more such opinions to be found among the petty merchants and minormiddle classes who hâve always made up the main support of Jan Sangh. Jaipur is a strong Jan Sangh city.The petty merchants hâve also been on the painfulreceiving end of some dramatic improvement efforts inJaipur which look, from the higher reaches of the taste-ful middle classes, very attractive. For years, Jaipur ad-ministrators hâve tried to clean up the city by removingthe hundreds of sidewalk stalls that hâve, since partition,disfigured Jaipur's beautiful broad sidewalks and grace-ful arcades. They hâve also tried to enforce uniformpink washing, to keep the city's réputation as a lovelyold architectural monument. But the Jaipur municipalitywas as much the créature of the petty merchantswho owned the disfiguring stalls as of the people whowanted to clean up. Now the situation is largely in thehands of the state government. Under the aegis of anactive Jaipur city collector, merchants hâve been giventhe choice of painting their own shops with the régulation wash or having the city do it for them and assessingthem Rs. 80 an hour. The stalls hâve been removed;there is grumbling, of course, because the new locationsdesignated for the stalls do not yet hâve any markedtraffic pattern for économie activity, and the owners willsurely lose in the short run. The shop signs above thearcades hâve been redone in a uniform height and style;one conséquence is that ail the English signs hâve comedown because they are irregular, and the new régulationdoes not leave room for two Unes. Only Hindi speakerswill find the Jaipur Caicle Shop.We look around to see how Jaipur is reacting to thearrest of what used to be its first and second citizens, theMaja-sahiba of Jaipur and her son, Maharaja BhawaniSingh, who lost their titles and privy purses as a resuit ofa constitutional amendment introduced by Mrs. Gandhi.We hâve heard numerous accounts of the Maja-sahiba'ssituation. In a prison System that préserves the Britishdistinctions between political prisoners and others, andbetween, first, second, and third class conditions of im-prisonment, she receives the privilèges of neither political prisoners nor an ordinary bachelor of arts (who,under a spécial category of prison rules, would be enti-tled to hâve his own food brought in and hâve separatetoilet and bath facilities). The treatment is perceivedgenerally as exceptionally punitive. The charges againsther are criminal, not political, but there is some feelingthat the treatment is political.But while one hears thèse stories, there is relativelylittle outrage. Ten years ago, every Rajput we inter-viewed would hâve vowed to guard his sacred honor bydefending that of the Maja-sahiba. We hâve heard nosuch vows; the spirit has gone out of the old order. NavaRatri (Nine Days), which is observed with fasting by themartial castes in préparation for the holiday Dusserah,the great Rajput festival in thèse parts, has begun. Butthere won't be much of Dusserah, the Rajputs say, because who will celebrate it? The maharaja, even afterlosing his title and privy purse, continued to lead theDusserah cérémonies, including the sacrifice of the goatat the Durga temple at Amber, and the worshipping ofarms which follows in large assemblage. He is in ja.il,and no one has the heart to go ahead without him.Our house looks over a back compound wall toward Kanota House, which the diarist, Amar Singh, built,toward the little temple in which he worshipped, andwhere the cattle are kept to meet the need of KanotaHouse for milk. Our collaborator, Mohan Singh, inediting Amar Singh's eighty-seven volume diary, walksover often, as do small parties of his seven children, tomake sure ail is well with us. Trays are brought over onfeast days at lunch time, so we can share Kanota food.We send back banana cake. Tomorrow we will get afridge that will make ice. The peacocks, cows, andRudolphs are so far remarkably untouched by what ishappening.26 October 1975Jaipur, IndiaWe continue to try to understand the meaning of what ishappening around us. Among other things, there are theuniversities. The vice-chancellors hâve considerablymore power since the emergency, and the effect on theuniversity hère seems on the whole benign, although certain récent changes for the better can not be traced onlyto the new politics. The political science department hasa better batch of students than in many previousyears — curious, since there seem to be no long runtrends that make it a more promising path to payingcareers (by comparison, for example, with any of thesciences); free swinging political science analysis doesnot hâve as hospitable an environment as before. Thereis a gênerai feeling of contentment about the languagesituation, in sharp contrast to the déjection of five yearsago. Our colleagues then complained that post-graduateteaching was seriously constrained by the incapacity ofstudents to understand anything but Hindi. Now theysay they can expect to be understood when they use English. The reason: a rearrangement of the patterns bywhich scheduled castes and other disadvantaged catégories are admitted to collèges and universities. In 1970—71, Rajasthan University's post-graduate departmentswere approaching something similar to open admissionfor the disadvantaged, and some relate both the level ofuniversity student discontent and the low intellectuallevel to that development. Now persons entitled to spécial advantages are admitted to the post-graduate departments at Jaipur, where the university sits, only if theymeet certain minimum marks. Those below the line areassigned to government collèges with M. A. programs indistrict towns. The effect has been to reduce the rural11component on the Jaipur campus. Our studies of student unrest in 1970 and earlier showed that rural students in urban collèges correlated very highly with unrest, and this insight seems now to hâve dawned onpeople hère.Ail this is preliminary to saying something about theeffect of the emergency on the campus, because it re-minds us that other forces besides the emergency account for the current condition. That condition is anunwonted degree of peace. Some professorial friendswho feel much hemmed in by the civil liberty con-straints of the emergency, nevertheless, express satisfaction about the effects on attendance, punctuality, andwork patterns of students. Rajasthan experienced a lowpoint just the year before the emergency when the student union superseded the administration, performed apuja with shoes (cérémonial profanation) of the re-gistrar, and ordered that ail communications musthenceforth go via the student union président —university communications and ordinances, that is. Theuniversity administration found it difficult even underthèse rather extraordinary circumstances to call in thepolice.Now, by contrast, no one is allowed into the administration building who is not working there unless hehas a formai, written admission slip. The régulation isenforced.The work patterns of the university offices hâve comeunder severe scrutiny. Everyone is obliged to keep adiary — ail the lower division staff, that is — of their ac-tivities of the day; so many trips to the railway station tobook tickets; so many letters written, etc. etc. Some ofthe secretarial staff whom we know suggest that thelower participants hâve learned to manipulate this or-ganizational device as well as previous ones — who willgo to the railway station to check how long the allegedqueue was at the booking office? Who will know if theletter was two Unes or two pages? But there is a certainatmosphère attending the ritual of the diary that hasintroduced some useful anxiety. People come on time;lunch hours may not be stretched out. Tardiness willlead to docking of leave time.While the newspapers are exceptionally obscure thèsedays on the working of the political process, there is arich gossip network at work which provides news, thevalidity of which is hard to verify.What is easy to get from the paper is the well adver-tised ordinances and officiai pronouncements. We hâvepreviously spoken of Mrs. Gandhi's enthusiasm forGunnar Myrdal's analysis of India as a "soft state," andher turning around Kenneth Galbraith's quip, "India is afunctioning anarchy," to "anarchy is dysfunctional for India." Among the areas in which the new toughness isbeing applied is labor discipline. In a séries of récentspeeches Mrs. Gandhi holds up as a model an Englishlabor leader who said he was doing his union members,not the Labour Party leadership, a favor by insisting thewage line be held steady; otherwise inflation will runaway with the consumer's pocketbook.A new policy has been enunciated tying the future ofwage bonuses to productivity. In a System where dear-ness allowances and bonus demands by government andindustrial workers hâve been a prime object of publicagitations, this is serious talk. While dearness allowancesand bonuses seem to hâve increased slowly in the lastten years, it is by no means clear that they hâve kept upwith the price spiral; real wages for organized industrialworkers hâve declined over the past years. Hence sever-ity on bonus and dearness allowances will be hard on theurban clérical and labor classes. It is, of course, a policythat will affect the rural classes less. Insofar as there arepolitical calculations in this, they must be that the stead-iness in priées that may be achieved will compensate forthe toughness on incomes.It is also pretty apparent that the décline in priées,such as it is — and we hâve not seen any objectiveanalysis of price indices since we came — is beingachieved at the expense of a minor industrial recession.Everybody, from textile to steel mills, is crying aboutoverstock. The government says the slack in domesticdemand should be made up with exports; but thatdoesn't seem to cover the need, particularly in the wagegoods area.Among the more ominous récent ordinances was onetightening up the Maintenance of Internai Security Act(MISA), the law and régulations that provide the opera-tive framework for much of the emergency. This récentamendment provided that persons arrested under theMISA régulations need not be informed of the chargesagainst them and that courts can no longer ask the government to provide such information. Sobering. Theannual session of the Indian National Congress is inthe offing, and the All-India Congress Committee sub-committees are meeting to décide on the resolutions tobe offered. There is much interest in constitutionalchanges. Congressmen believe that the writ pétitionsissued by the courts, which are the means by whichcitizens can enforce their rights under the fundamentalrights provisions of the constitution, hâve been misused,notably to foil implementation of land ceiling and otherredistributional measures. As with many other aspectsof current opinion, there is much in what they say, onthe one hand. . . . Writ pétitions are used for ail sorts ofcurious purposes, such as preventing a professor from12being appointed because the appointaient infringesupon somebody else's seniority rights. In our éducationbook we argued that the courts had gotten themselvesinto ail sorts of areas in which they had no business andhad to make administrative judgments far beyond theircompetency. On the other hand, when, to use the sameexample, the university becomes hopelessly politicized,the courts hâve sometimes been the only force of re-straint. The writ pétition, surely often misused, includesthe demands for habeas corpus and other devices whichare the main tools the citizen has to make his rightsmeaningful. It will be interesting to see what the con-gressional session produces; it will probably suggest theoutlines of the "new" constitutional thinking, which isthought to be more in Une with Indian traditions andrequirements.Finally, we hâve listened about to find out what thecomponents of the great Jaipur gold scandai might be.With her highness, the Maja-sahiba, and his highness, themaharaja, both in ja.il, what is the drift of local opinionon whether they knew where the gold was hidden thatthey are accused of not having disclosed to the wealth-tax authorities? The story is long and complex, and whoknows how accurate. But it is told by sympathetic per-sons.The story begins with five boxes left by Maharaja ManSingh for his heirs — one for Bubbles (Bhawani Singh,the maharaja's successor); one for Joey; one for Pat(Prithvi); one for Jagat, the youngest and the only son bythe third her highness, Gayatri Devi. The fifth box wasundesignated.There is a presumption that it was a gênerai documents box meant for Bhawani Singh. Gayatri Devi, thestory goes on, had the boxes unsealed in order to examine them. When she reached the fifth box, shefound in it papers which indicated the location of thefamous Jaipur treasure, always fabled but never found.Local theory has it that Man Singh was so rich thathe didn't need to touch it early in his reign, and inrécent times before his death, transfer had become asticky matter.The fate of the treasure is believed to be the follow-ing: The treasure was kept in one of the palaces atAmber, the royal capital until Jaipur was founded in1727, and the présence of many traditional guards atthat palace seem to confirm this story. But Man Singh infact had the treasure transferred to the little used,charming, modernized palace on Moti Dungri, whichhad only two guards and hence, seemed a most unlikelyhiding place. A swimming pool was built at Moti Dungrito explain ail the digging and tunneling, and the treasurewas installed. Enter Jagat. He is alleged, upon hearing the news from his mother, to hâve taken up the floor tilein Moti Dungri, taken out some of the gold, and sold itin Delhi — implication: to support his expensive tastesand other minor or major pleasures (Jagat's pressis not good). The sale of the gold became known; thetiles were found loose; one version even has sparemohurs (ancient gold pièces) lying around the court-yard. This is a version of the discovery. Whether thattreasure should be counted as hidden wealth, fraudu-lently concealed for purposes of the wealth tax, is yetanother question.We vouch for none of this. At minimum, it reflects alocal state of mind about the standing of the arrests. Weourselves assume that the Maja-sahiba's vigorous attackson Mrs. Gandhi in récent years are by no means irrelevant.The weather has suddenly and dramatically turnedchilly and sharp. Last night, only sheets on the bed.Tonight, warm razais.7 January 1976Jaipur, IndiaIt is not often the case that political scientists can wit-ness régime change. In our case, it is creeping ratherthan revolutionary régime change, but in the end theresuit will be a fundamental transformation. Change isoccurring at so deliberate a pace that it may be anothertwo or three years before the new pattern is fullyestablished. While the Congress party's executive believes the emergency must be continued because "theforces of destabilization are still actively at work withinthe country and outside," long range plans for in-stitutionalizing certain features of the emergency arebeing laid.What seems to be emerging is what can best becharacterized as executive democracy with strong cor-poratist features. Parliament will advise and supportgovernment more than it will criticize and oppose it.Voluntary associations — trade unions, student associations, business councils — will convey and enforce government policies more than represent interests. Thecourts will serve the interests of the state more thanprotect the rights of citizens. The civil service will hâve alarger and more décisive voice in making policy and afreer hand in implementing it. The future character ofthe party System is less clear. Mrs. Gandins doctrine ofresponsible opposition and its corollary, that some opposition parties and movements hâve endangered or13subverted democracy, suggests that opposition partieswill hâve to ally with or support the Congress if they areto retain their legitimacy and légal existence.There has also been a rash of anti-fascist meetings,designed to purify the political atmosphère. The coun-try is warned against the prevalence of anti-democraticéléments, encouraged to protect democracy, work forthe twenty point program, and oppose imperialism, fas-cism, and the CIA. Anti-fascist meetings held aroundthe country expressed fraternal coopération betweenthe Congress and the CPI. They were often addressedby the Congress président, Mr. K D. Barooah. Theyculminated in a "mammoth" international meeting atPatna in Bihar, the city, according to Patriot (the CPI'snational voice), where "the fascists launched their agitation last year in the name of pompous 'total révolution'with the sole object of undermining democracy and in-stalling an out and out reactionary régime." Patna wasJaya Prakash Narayan's stronghold and the jumping offpoint for opposition to Mrs. Gandhi's government.Patna, it seems, needed a spécial reminder about thetrue meaning of democracy.Since our last note from Jaipur, Mrs. Gandhi has suc-cessfully appealed her élection case. The suprême courtheld that she had not been in violation of the électorallaw as retroactively amended by parliament after herconviction. The décision was no surprise, since thecourt's leadership is in the hands of men who to anextent share Mrs. Gandhi's views or are beholden toher. However, the court justices hâve shown some pro-pensity to differentiate themselves from their patrons inthe executive, and Mrs. Gandhi's case was an instance.With a délicate Hobbesian sensé for their professionalself-preservation, the judges expressed doubts aboutthe validity of that part of a constitutional amendment,passed after Mrs. Gandhi's conviction, that withdrewthe élection of the prime minister (and the président,vice-président and speaker) from the judicial review towhich other cases of électoral irregularities are subject.Mrs. Gandhi's élection might be valid, but the judgeswished to préserve the right to say so. "Free and fairélections (are) an essential postulate of democracy," Justice Khanna said, "and part of the basic structure of theconstitution."A document, alleged to be a draft circulating in "thehighest circles," outlining a new constitution, featureswhat is thought to be an American style presidency anda civil law style judiciary. A président, who is the chiefexecutive, will be directly elected from a national con-stituency. His/her cabinet need not be drawn from parliament; half might come from elsewhere. The con-stitutionality ot laws would be reviewed by a j udicial council.headed by the président and consisting of four-teen other persons, some of whom would be judges.The draft had little to say about parliament or funda-mental rights, except that it reduced parliament's voiceand membership in the cabinet. (The draft eventuallylost favor and was replaced by a substantively lesssweeping amendment.)The friends, from whom we got the draft, are clearlyand vocally opposed to the current drift of politics hère.But our discussion of the draft produced some curiousanomalies suggestive of the ambivalence we findaround us. It is an interesting question, our friends said,whether India is in fact capable of democracy. Ail of usagrée, they added, that in the last few years there wasindeed a breakdown of discipline, a misuse of democracy, a willingness to exploit the right of association inuniversities and factories. Their remarks reminded us ofthose of a young bank executive, equally opposed to theemergency, who regaled us with stories of his long,tedious, and eventually successful struggle against thebank union. It had virtually brought bank business to ahait while union affairs were conducted during workhours, and had almost succeeded, by numerous imagina-tive forms of intimidation in transferring bank authorityfrom the manager to the union président — to the détriment of whatever good this nationalized bank was do-ing.There is, then, among opponents of Mrs. Gandhi'sactions, a strong feeling that democracy in India hasbecome excessive, ail input and no output, with de-mands, mobilizations, and agitations over-running civicobligations and the capacity to pursue and realize com-mon purposes and the collective good. In such a con-text, Mrs. Gandhi's speeches in favor of discipline andproductivity and against license and laziness strike asympathetic cord even among her opponents, some ofwhose programs and language she has appropriated.The Delhi sign boards sum up her appeal: "The OnlyMagic to Remove Poverty is Hard Work, Iron Will, andDiscipline;" "Let Us Get On With the Task of Nation-building;" "You Too Hâve a Rôle in the Emergency;""Government Service is Service of the People;" "Produce More for Prosperity."The other night we went to a party, attended by someof the more élégant, cosmopolitan types in Jaipur, givento recognize us as historians of the state of Rajasthan —our standing as political scientists is minor at the moment. At about 9:30 P. M., Bhawani Singh, the maharajaof Jaipur, appeared. He is on parole, and had beenallowed to leave Delhi to make a condolence visit atJodhpur, where the raj-dadi, the grandmother of theprésent maharaja and Bhawani Singh's aunt, had died.1-iThere was a vast silence when he arrived, intermittentwarm greetings, more warm greetings, more silence,and then a resumption of the ordinary affairs. Jaipurdoesn't quite know yet what to do with a highness freshfrom jail, but the royal family still has a certain automa-tic charisma that is quickly felt at a social occasion. Bhawani Singh attends to others in a gentle, diffident, andcharming way. There was much discussion after he leftabout whether he did or did not look "pulled down,"and of what he was doing with himself. Unlike his step-mother, Gayatri Devi, a vigorously political woman whois playing Mary Queen of Scots to Mrs. Gandhi'sElizabeth, Bhawani Singh is not turned on by politicalcombat; he prefers an apolitical style. Like his father,who took the position that he did not want to go intoopposition because Jaipur had a tradition of cooperatingwith the rulers as Delhi (Moghuls, British), BhawaniSingh has resisted joining the opposition. There is astrong feeling that but for his stepmother, who is stillin jail but no longer kept with the common criminals,he would hâve pulled on with Indira well enough andwould hâve been given an ambassadorship.There is a mound of Christmas cookies, one stôllen,two fruitcakes, and a plastic Christmas tree from Sears(Woodstock, Vermont branch), in the back room wait-ing for the great Wassail that we are preparing for ourJaipur friends tomorrow. The cookies will be served onthe Staffordshire onion pattern plates the diarist AmarSingh collected, and which Mohan Singh brought over,and the Wassail will appear in silver mugs engraved withA. S. Colonel Kesri Singh has sent a box of folding chairsthat he used to take along when he led his highness'hunting expéditions. The Rambagh palace has informedus they do not hâve silver punch bowls any more, so webought and borrowed Jaipur work bowls from our favorite shopkeeper, Allah Baksh. Merry Christmas andHappy New Year.9 April 1976Mussoorie, U.P., IndiaThe great gap in the notes is due to the fact that ail ourcontemporary writing énergies for some time went intotwo papers for the 1980's project of the Council onForeign Relations. We traveled to Calcutta — for the firsttime, after twenty years of India visits; and we movedourselves to the hills for the hot weather. The books,the files, the kitchen equipment, the sheets, andthe towels came in a small truck, a Matador; the rest ofus drove up over two days. Hence we are now situated 6,500 feet higher than we were in the last Jaipur note.Our stone house with a large bay window lies abovethe Woodstock School, where ail three children go toschool; they drop down two hundred feet after a 7:15breakfast, ascend for a half hour lunch, and returnat 6:30 for dinner and the night. Numerous wallahscome by and save Inam Khan, our Jaipur cook, who hasa comfortable stomach, the trouble of going every dayto the bazaar — five hundred feet and two miles downand up. A bread wallah brings Swedish rolls and cinna-mon cakes, unheard of in Jaipur; a cookie wallah bringspeanut brittle and peanut cookies and vanilla wafers (ailin a large métal box carried on his head); and a fruit andvegetable wallah brings green mangoes when in seasonfor compote. There is a man for coal — it has been terriblycold by comparison with Jaipur — and one for wood; andthe morning représentative of the gênerai merchantwho has everything, from Golden Syrup to Hayward'sOld Tavern Whiskey. Oh yes, the shoe wallah; he justcame by and persuaded Lloyd that he needed to hâve apair of boots made.What is missing, and will need to be supplemented byan import policy, are middle class Indian friends. Thisside of the mountain is distinctly American Christian;every pièce of property in sight belongs either to thePresbyterians or the Methodists or the Médical Mis-sionaries. In conséquence, the Landaur section of Mussoorie is untouched by the horrid commercialism ofMussoorie proper, which was once a very elegent hilltown but now appears as the old U.S. Route 1 to Maineused to look.The atmosphère is both more white and more uprightthan we can survive for the three months that we shallbe hère. We hâve issued various invitations to Jaipur,and expect to populate the downstairs bedroom withcongenial guests who want to read books in the day andtalk at night. The matter is even more critical for An-nette, our German friend, who remembers the polo bailand the pleasures of the young sporting set in Jaipur.There will be polo at Dehra Dun, however, one andone-half hours down the mountain.We left Jaipur in a blaze of awkward notoriety. It ailbegan on Holi, the spring holiday on which neat andsober Indians mess each other up with colored powder,drink a good bit — if they drink at ail — and soak eachother with hoses. Our neighborhood was visited by alarge party — first maie, then female neighbors, whorubbed us with powder and embraced us — and then byseveral parties of friends from other places in Jaipur,who drank béer and messed us up more; and by onepoliceman, who encountered Mohan Singh (our col-laborator, whose large old mansion lies behind our gar-15den), on his way to our house feeling little pain afterconsuming large quantifies of his own and variousfriends' Asha ("court" liquor). The policeman said he'dlike to interview the American professor, about whomsome questions might be asked in the législative assem-bly. Mohan Singh told him to push off; was Holi aproper time to ask such questions? Come back tomor-row.Some hours later, in a more thoughtful mood, MohanSingh reviewed his remarks, called the police, and saidthey should by ail means feel free to send a man tomor-row. This was the seventeenth.Tomorrow was the eighteenth, the day scheduled forour departure to Calcutta, where we were due to giveseminars at Shantiniketan (Vashvabharati University);the American University Centre in Collège Street; andPresidency Collège. Before our departure, Lloyd wasscheduled to participate in a seminar on a new book byRajni Kothari, Footsteps Into the Future, at the Universityof Ra]asthan, with S. P. Varma, former chairman of thedepartment and an excellent political scientist (wise,prudent, and surpnsingly courageous — a quality thetimes allow one to discover), Daya Krishna, chairman ofthe philosophy department to whom the same adjec-tives are applicable; and Kothari himself. Kothari is anexcellent political scientist, who has participated innumerous international research efforts with bothAmerican and other international collaborators.Kothari has taken some very forthright and courageous positions in récent months. The January issue ofSeminar carried an article by him, among other criticalofferings, which led to talk in Delhi of the end of Seminar and led Kothari's friends to worry about his future.(Seminar was closed down in the autumn and Kotharileft the country. )The seminar on Rajni's book was vigorous to say theleast, with ail three commentators offering sufficientlysharp remarks that Kothari, when he rose to respond,opened his speech with the sentence: "I hâve been se-verely attacked; I shall try to hold my temper."The content of the debate between him and Lloyd isof some interest, in view of the headline that appearedthe next day, after we had left for Calcutta, in the Rajasthan Patrika: "American Professor Makes Anti-IndianPropaganda," and of the resolution passed by a quickly-created Student Council of the University of Rajasthan(there is none; it was dissolved), to the effect that American forces, in the forms of films and of an anti-Indianlecture by Professor Lloyd Rudolph, were penetratingthe university, and furthermore nineteen professors atthe university (almost every respectable intellectualfigure was on the list, including Varma and Daya Krishna) were CIA agents and ought to be fired.Lloyd said that Rajni's book was rather too Man-khaean, placing ail virtue in the third world, ail vice inthe major powers, and that a less dichotomized viewseemed more appropriate. The point on which thesharpest différence arose concerned Kothari's notionthat the bureaucracy of the world constitutes a class, ofwhich the Indian bureaucracy is a sub-sector, a class thatshares the lifestyles, outlook, and values of technocrats,administrators, and their allied business interests and is,more or less, co-opted by them. His counterclass are theintellectuals. Lloyd said that he thought intellectualswere not notably less self-interested than bureaucrats;that they differed widely among themselves, wouldhardly make a united vanguard, and could not becounted on a press for the sort of more equal India thatKothari had in mind.In none of the seminar did the emergency come upexcept when the two other participants spoke of thedécline of freedom and dissent in a new nation. Thenewspaper article did not cite Lloyd at any point; pre-sumably the author was not there, or if he was there, hemerely noted heat between Lloyd and Kothari and in-vented reasons for it. The report of the discussion thatcame back to us from other observers was that LloydRudolph had defended the government.In any case, we left for Calcutta, oblivious of theevents behind us, and spent three excellent days atShantiniketan, the school founded by India's first NobelPrize winner in literature, Rabindranath Tagore. At Presidency Collège, there was spirited discussion with alarge number of faculty, including two CPI facultymembers who were sorry to observe that we thoughtthere was any improvement in the Indian economy andmobility in its social structure, when they could seenothing but décline.We returned to Jaipur, to find that Annette had sus-tained two visits of government and police, a bronchialbout infecting our son Matthew, and a severe case ofdysentry. Supportive noises and helpful gestures by various friends had helped. She and Mohan Singh looked asthough they had had an adventurous week. A civiliangovernment officer had come by on Wednesday eve-ning; he put to her the questions that were to be askedin the assembly. She answered them as best as she could.The questions raised by Ramanand Agarwal, the sameCPI assembly member who, in 1972, set both the Rajasthan government and the university on end by accusingRichard Blue, an assistant professor from the Universityof Minnesota, of being a CIA agent.The questions were the following:(We suppose we should cheer that the assemblyjequestion hour has been restored; it wasn't functioningwhen we came.)1. In ail of Rajasthan, how many American re-search scholars are there, how many times hâve theybeen hère, and what is their subject?2. Is it true that there is an assistant professor L. I.Rudolph hère from The University of Chicago doingresearch on history? If so, how long has he been doingresearch and what is his subject?(Authors' note: Our sharpest complaints are thatMr. Agarwal had demoted Lloyd and that he is a maiechauvinist. Susanne never figures.)3. Is it true that said Professor L. I. Rudolph had aparty at the Rambagh Palace Hôtel on January 2, 1976for retired army officers? If it is true, who was invited tothis party and what was its purpose?(We've been at the Rambaugh twice for lunch thisyear, when somebody took us. No army officers. For awhile we thought he was after our Wassail, beforeChristmas. He evidently wasn't.)4. It is true that Professor Rudolph has a very closeassociation with a high officer of one of the Birla enter-prises, National Engineering Industries?(We hâve a friend who fits that description; so haseverybody else in Jaipur, as he is one of the most gre-garious men in town. Its very much a CPI question atthis point. While Congress and Mrs. Gandhi hâve man-aged to win the support of the Birlas [who are India' ssecond largest industrial fortune], the CPI, despite itsfriendship with Congress, is still under the impressionthat Birlas are a symbol of ail that is oppressive in thecapitalist order.)5. Is the government keeping a sharp eye on thèsedevelopments?The civil officer who visited Annette on Wednesdaywas followed by an uncivil one on Sunday. That day, aleather-faced hombre whom we hâve seen before keeping order at the polo matches, and who is probably Gov-ind Narain, the head of the Jaipur police flying squad,appeared with a large truck and two constables. An-nette, who had heard us discussing the condition of civilrights under the emergency, including the possibilitiesof arrest without explanation, viewed him dimly. OfficerNarain asked the first question and second question in afairly straightforward fashion. When he came to thethird, he said, "I saw you at Rambaugh with theRudolphs on January 2. You were there, weren't you.And they were giving a party, weren't they?" Annetteallowed that she didn't think she'd been at the Rambaghwith the Rudolphs ever for any party, and not for one onthe second. He tried it several times, insisting he hadseen her. He asked her three times when we would return; she answered three times.The visit shook Annette, who called friends, who, inturn, called officiai friends and asked them to see to itthat Annette was not further harrassed so long as theRudolphs were out of town. The officiais did so.On the 22nd, the chief minister said that there werethree Americans doing research: two Peace Corpsmenworking on animal husbandry and one L. I. Rudolphworking on the diary of Amar Singh, the third Thakur ofKanota. (That sounds like an answer from Mohan Singh.Did we say that the police and the Criminal Investigation Division [CID] also visited Mohan Singh and got afull set of answers from him? We think the CID manwas a free-lancer without authorization, who was takingadvantage of his acquaintance with Mohan Singh to get afew brownie points.) To go back to the Rambagh party(his first response was that government had no information about such a party), the chief minister said thatgovernment had at first not wished to respond to thequestion at ail. But he thought he ought to clarify that ailforeign scholars were cleared by the minstry of externalaffairs and by the ministry of éducation, that as this was acentral subject the state government did not consider itproper to interfère with their work. To judge fromChief Minister Har Deo Joshi's answers on this occasion, it seems that he did not think it proper to respondto personal queries. And as far as keeping an eye onthings was concerned, how could the opposition imagine anything else! Of course they kept an eye on activâtes.Meanwhile, back in the university, the police alsopaid some visits to find out more about the interestingmeeting with Kothari and were told by a political science colleague, who wasn't at the meeting, that LloydRudolph had made some remarks against Indira Gandhiin his discussion with Kothari. (He didn't. We've beenlambs.) Efforts were made to find out if Lloyd was as-sociated with the Department of Political Science (he isnot), which could hâve been used against ex-chairmanIqbal Narain, whose inferiors and non-friends hâve triedfor a good many years to discrédit both him and S. P.Varma. Both men hâve national réputations, do research and writing, and are widely respected. The snip-ing by locals in search of readerships and control of thedepartment is of very long standing.Did we mention that the paper also said that Rudolphabsconded to Calcutta after that terrible speech?After ail that, Mussoorie seems remarkably un-political and eventless. None of this, by the way, hasmuch to do with the emergency. Americans hâve beenfair game, after ail, in législative assemblies ever sincethe Utter Pradesh assembly temporarily disinvited17American social scientists in 1955. We suppose it hasto be accepted as part of the occupational hazards ofbeing an India scholar. So far, our nerves are less rawthan those of some of our Jaipur académie colleagues.After ail, we can go home and recuperate. They can't.15 June 1976Mussoorie, U.P., IndiaAs our year in India cornes to a close, we find our viewsabout the post-emergency régime fundamentally un-changed. Compétitive politics and a free press promoteliberty and we find both much diminished. The natureof the régime and its future are more difficult to discern.It is neither Ayub Khan's Pakistan (pace Ved Mehta inthe March 22, 1976 New Yorker), nor Mussolini's Italy,nor Hitler's Germany, although there are interestingcomparisons to be made with each.What has emerged is a curious blend: a concern tomaintain the letter of procédural correetness; cor-poratist efforts to create and use officially certified or-ganizations in ail fields of public life; little terror butmuch fear; no visible résistance but uncertain support;party rhetoric and government programs to help thepoor, but little willingness to let them represent them-selves. Included are appeals to discipline, unity and national strength coupled with disparagement of partial("selfish") interests and their conflictual bargaining poli-tics; célébration of a leader, Mrs. Gandhi (Indira is India;India is Indira) who modestly claims that she is merelyrepresenting the people's will and speaks for their interest; guarded support for the "private sector" combinedwith the imposition of discipline and a wage freeze onorganized labor and the célébration of the high produc-tivity public sector; and a paranoid style of politicalrhetoric that justifies the emergency measures.It is not correct to picture the previous democracy inIndia as superficial, a plaything of the tiny middle classwhose members were the only ones to hâve benefitedfrom liberty and access to power. This is what Mrs.Gandhi would like the country and the world to believe.The excesses of democracy about which Mrs. Gandhicomplains, and which she used to justify the impositionof the emergency, were real enough but they were notmerely the product of a tiny élites machinations. Indiahad become a highly mobilized and mobilizable nation,not of masses, but of communities, interests, and, to alesser extent, of classes. Its ordinary citizens had learnedhow to make their demands felt by national, state, andlocal governments, usually through "parliamentary" means, sometimes through agitational. What wasneeded was not repression but leadership, a leadershipwhich Mrs. Gandhi had it in her power to give after hergreat victories in the 1971 and 1972 élections, butwhich she conspicuously failed to provide.Mrs. Gandhi has been careful to observe con-stitutional requirements and the appearance of the ruleof law. If her corporatist inclinations and practice resemble Mussolini's Italy, her concern for procédurallegitimacy resembles the early phases of Hitler's Germany.The emergency will probably end in time to allow thesixth gênerai élections to be held a year after they wererequired by law to be held if the emergency had notintervened, in February or March 1977. In the mean-time, Mrs. Gandhi's government is using procedurallylegitimate means to equip the Indian state with powersto intimidate the opposition and tame the press. TheMaintenance of Internai Security Act, which empow-ered the government to detain a person for one yearwithout supplying him or a court with the grounds of hisdétention, was amended by presidential ordinance onJune 16, 1976, so that a person can be held for two yearsunder the same conditions. A day later, the Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prévention of SmugglingAct was similarly amended, i.e., extending from one totwo years the period for which government can keepunder détention a person suspected of various économiecrimes. Both ordinances will, no doubt, meet with theapproval of parliament when it reconvenes in a fewmonths. (Mrs. Gandhi's majority is large and automatic;the example of a few dissident members of her ownparty, as well as leading members of the opposition,having been locked up has stilled the voice of any whomight be tempted to step out of line.) Before adjourn-ment, the parliament passed into law and the présidentsigned, a bill dealing with the publication of objectionalmatter. Its most gênerai provision barred publication ofmatter tending to produce disaffection with governmentand removed press immunity for publication of state-ments made in parliament.Finally, the Swaran Singh committee, set up by theCongress party to report on suitable changes in the constitution to reflect the "new India" (now part of theofficiai vocabulary of the party), has recommended thatthe emergency articles be amended. The amendmentswould allow the président (on the prime minister's ad-vice), to place particular states or régions underemergency powers (pending parliamentary approval),and to remove unequivocally any possibility of the suprême court reviewing acts of parliament that amendthe constitution.isThe latter amendment was Mrs. Gandhi's response tothe Suprême Court's 1973 judgment that parliamentcould not amend the constitution in ways that affectedits "basic structure."The judges did not agrée on what éléments con-stituted the constitution's basic structure, but suchthings as free and démocratie élections, secularism, arepublican form of government and fundamental rights(excluding fair compensation for property taken bythe government) were among those offered. The court'sexercise of judicial review, like the rôle of the opposition parties and the press, is pictured by Mrs.Gandhi and her lieutenants as standing in the way ofdésirable goals, such as économie and social justice,and, by accident or design, protecting vested interests and reactionary forces. She is not willing to surren-der her claim to procédural legitimacy but at the sametime she and her party colleagues regularly attack con-straints on the arbitrary exercise of power as standing inthe way of their just and virtuous objectives.Indians may be losing their freedom but they may begaining prosperity, power, and greatnesses. Agriculturehas had its best year since Independence in 1947; onehundred eighteen million tons of food grain, ten millionmore tons than the next best year, were grown in1975-76 and fifteen million are in reserve. If présenttrends continue, industrial production for calendar 1976will hâve increased ten percent. Already a rich poornation, over the next décade, India may move frombeing a hâve not to a hâve nation whose interests in theworld struggle over the relative priées of commoditiesand industrial goods may increasingly be located on theside of the industrial powers. With improved relationsin the offing with China and Pakistan, the Soviet Unionhappy and the U.S. not unhappy, India seems secure. AsChina approaches the dangerous passage between Maoand some future form of leadership, a stable, prosper-ous, and powerful India is likely to appear in the eyes ofdeveloping and industrial states as not only the dominant power in South Asia but also as a great power onthe world stage.Mrs. Gandhi's next ten years may prove once againthat prosperity, power, and greatness do not requirefreedom. If this proves to be the case, it will not makeMrs. Gandhi happy. She would like to be loved or atleast respected and honored abroad as well as at home.Despite many disclaimers phrased in terms of the irrele-vance of foreign norms and practices for India, shewould like to préserve the image of India as the world'slargest democracy.She has allowed that as a girl she admired and iden-tified with Joan of Arc. Much can be read into this (by now) cliché entry into Mrs. Gandhi's character. Her iso-lated childhood, an isolation she shared with hermother, Kamala, and the fact that she did not do any onething long enough to establish credentials or public récognition of her worth, may help to explain why shefound attractive the image of an unknown. unsung, andby simple maid who was able, by steadfast belief in herown vision of the right course and the courage and thevalor to lead others, to win a place in the hearts of hercountrymen and in history.Playing Joan of Arc for contemporary India meansfollowing your own spécial vision of the nature of thecrisis and its cure and playing by your own rules. Con-stitutional democracy and représentative governmentrequire constraints on the arbitrary exercise of power,délibération in the widest sensé, and legitimizing thestruggle for power by observing rules that apply equallyand impartially to ail. Mrs. Gandhi finds this difficult,not only because Joans of Arc did not do it that way, butalso because she finds it difficult to crédit virtue andgood will in others. She would like to play by rules ofher own making that suit her purposes and convenience.But she cannot escape independent India's political in-heritance and traditions which survive in the politicalculture around her and, to an extent, in her own outlookand vocabulary. Willy nilly she remains the heir of Gandhi (his photo looms over most party and many publicoccasions), who believed and practiced that means aremore important than ends because wrong means destroygood ends. Mrs. Gandhi, like some who believe in thevirtue of their own motives and objectives, seems tohâve convinced herself that good ends entail rightmeans. She falls heir too to the traditions of her father,Jawaharlal Nehru, the father who was too occupied withmaking history to give much time or attention to hisonly child. He feared his own will to power; to curb itand to be true to his commitment to parliamentary democracy, he recognized and followed the rules of thegame it laid down. Mrs. Gandhi can not easily abandonthe ideas and practices of thèse two fathers of the Indiannation and state. They dominate independent India'spolitical legacy; no amount of assertions will wash theirlegacy away.Some of our colleagues, who saw the rich spate ofreporting on Sanjay Gandhi in an issue of Newsweek thatdid not circulate in India, hâve been speculating abouthis future. It is a tantalizing question, but indicators ofhis standing are mostly indirect: the Delhi gossip circuitand routine news handling. Sanjay clearly has supporters in the cabinet. Several state chief ministers hâvethought it prudent to pay him court in a most extravagant manner. They occasionally compare him to the19sun, the moon, and other rising orbs. He is a force to bereckoned with, but how much of one?As students of Moghul history, we are reminded ofthe fact that Moghul princes prepared for the démise ofthe emperor, their father, by building up political support among dépendent rajas and the court bureaucracy.It was a recognizable political process, and Sanjay isengaged in a similar one. He has the advantage that hehas no murderously inclined competing brothers, andthe disadvantage that there is no recognized rule ofdynastie succession — only a two, perhaps three-generation précèdent of Indira, Jawaharlal, and Motilal(who was président of the Indian National Congress).There are, presumably, a number of cabinet ministersand other politicians who think they might also be candidates in a succession struggle. In the absence of anopen political process, it is difficult to assess anyone'ssupport. In any case, the question is hypothetical; Mrs.Gandhi is fifty-eight years old and, by her own admission, more than usually hardworking and energetic sincelosing quite a few pounds some months ago.Delhi opinion is under the impression that there arein fact two cabinets, an officiai one under the motherand a shadow one under the son, and that the two do notalways pull along amicably. The shadow one consists ofthe son, his friends in the cabinet, and influential layadvisers and party officiais outside it: it is "pragmatic,"i.e., less enthusiastic about socialism and happier thanthe officiai cabinet with private enterprise when prac-ticed by the right people. Among Sanjay Gandhi'scabinet associâtes is the energetic and innovative ex-chief minister of Haryana state, Bansi Lai, who has nowbecome défense minister of India. The relationship is oflong standing. Bansi Lai is known for his free-swingingentrepreneurial spirit which helped make Haryana oneof the most prosperous industrial and agricultural statesin India. When Sanjay was still intent on being a manufacturer of automobiles, Bansi Lai helped him acquire anenormous tract of valuable agricultural and défense services land not far from Delhi. On it Sanjay raised thegigantic Maruti complex, now a ghost factory. It is notclear that the Maruti would hâve been technically oreconomically feasible, but in any case, its producer hasnow turned to politics.The relationship to Bansi Lai may bear on Sanjay'srelationship to the armed forces, a factor that is neverwithout interest in a succession, and more so wherecourt politics supercede compétitive politics. There issome indication that Sanjay has been interested in making himself known in the military forces, but that theyhâve insisted on "correct" responses in the face of hisadvances. Among the stories circulating in Delhi, one pictures him arriving with Bansi Lai at the inaugurationceremony of the naval chief of staff. Bansi Lai is said tohâve signalled Sanjay to leave his seat among the hon-ored guests in the audience and join him in the spécialseats arranged for senior officers and for the défenseminister. An armed forces spokesman is said to hâveintervened to suggest that this would be an improperarrangement in a formai and cérémonial occasion inwhich Sanjay had no officiai standing. A second storypictures Bansi Lai bringing him along to an emergencymeeting of the chiefs of staff, at which they were aboutto confer on the appropriate response to a threat by theBangladesh stormy pétrel, Maulana Bashani, to marchinto India to get to the Farrakka barrage, a source ofdispute between the two countries. In this case, objection was made to opening such a meeting to someonenot officially designated to participate in défense planning of a highly sensitive and confidential nature.Sanjay, early on in his post-emergency politicalcareer, encountered similar résistance from civilian officiais and ministers, who tried to take the view thatonly officiai persons were in a position to issue orders.Such obstreperousness led to speedy transfers and earlyretirement. The Delhi circuit pictures Sanjay as capableof great fury at both the résistance to his orders and theeffort to invoke rules and procédures against them. Thisimpatience and willfulness is at once his great strengthand a serious flaw. It strikes a sympathetic cord withthose who share his innovative and entrepreneurialspirit and his désire for speedy realization of policiesand programs unfettered by a too fastidious concern formeans, particularly his criticism of bureaucratie procédure and légal restraints. Others recognize that meansmatter, that "correct" procédure and observation oflégal requirements afford protection against arbitrari-ness and too much discrétion in the use of public author-ity. Most senior civilian and military officers, imbued asthey are with professional and service norms, prefer totake orders from officiai superiors than from a flamboyant figure with no governmental standing. As is thecase with presidential assistants in the U.S., the matter iscomplicated by the fact that no one ever quite knowswhen Sanjay is speaking as his mother's delegate andwhen he is acting on his own.There is some indication that Sanjay's impatient andhighly conspicuous campaign to make himself a majorpolitical figure in India has yielded in 1976 to somewhatmore cautious, long-range strategy of building durablebases of support. Sanjay's earlier tours and politicalinterventions were associated with front page photographie and news coverage in the national press, and byfull page ads greeting and celebrating him, placed by20commercial and industrial firms and agencies of stategovernments. Recently, however, he has assumed amore modest profile; there hâve been fewer picturesand front page stories, in part, perhaps, because hispolitical activities hâve become more routinized. It isinteresting to speculate on the reasons for the shift instyle and strategy.It is évident that some of his efforts to become aninstant national leader incurred high risks. His politicalforays in the central territory of Delhi, which includesthe nation's capital and the third largest city, led to am-biguous results. He is not a very sensitive politician, andin Delhi his unabashed upper middle class suburbanview of urban slums, reminiscent of misguided American middle class planning and urban programs of the1950's and 1960s, landed him in some very squishyground. The bazaars and neighborhoods around Delhi'smost important mosque, the Jama Misjid, were the firsttargets of his beautification efforts. They were mainlyoccupied by Muslims. So were the "slums" nearTurkman gâte. Clearing them was like clearing Boston' sNorth End of Italians or Dorchester of the Irish. TheTurkman gâte clearance led to riots and police firing inwhich an estimated sixty died. The trouble was fannedby orthodox Muslim leaders and organizations whosought to interpret the government's efforts as part ofan anti-Muslim offensive. The Turkman gâte clearancecoincided with the promulgation of the new policy onfamily planning, which some states are pursuing via incentives, disincentives, and quotas to be filled by government employées bringing in a certain number of eli-gibles. The program has become very nearly compul-sory, particularly for those who are employed by government or hâve anything to do with the organized sector of the economy. Muslim spokesmen in Delhi tiedthe two issues together; not only were Muslims to becleared out, they said, but the family planning camp inthe area had been set up to sterilize them as well, anddark reports of dire conséquences were circulated. Newhouse sites were allocated to those being displaced, butat far distant places, well beyond their previous économie activities. The means to construct houses, government loans, were made available only to those who,if they had three children, also had had vasectomies ortubectomies.There is irony in this situation. Mrs. Gandhi's creden-tials in the area of justice to minority communities arevery strong. There is no reason to believe her son has aspécial animus against Muslims; but he does not hâvemuch political expérience, or the patience to look intothe complexities and conséquences of a middle classcity-beautiful campaign. Sanjay's incaution could do his mother considérabledamage with her Muslim constituency. She has takenpains to disassociate herself from the term "compulsorysterilization," even while strongly supporting the newpopulation policy by advocating incentives and disincentives. She has also remained aloof from the récentfeelers toward reforming Muslim personal law, whichremains untouched by the secularization and codification that has transformed the personal law of ail otherIndian citizens. (Thus, in India, Muslim maies can stillmarry four wives and divorce them at will, while Hindumaies must be monogamous and follow légal procéduresand requirements to obtain a divorce.) Muslim disaffection over being the victims of urban beautification andfamily planning thus became a cause of considérableconcern. One of the more poignant efforts to regain lostground was an "officiai press release" carried by ail thenational press. The release argued that there was "nocorrélation between family planning and religion," butthen went on to argue that "the prophet himself mademarriage conditional upon the availability of means."Where Sanjay appears to be strongest is among thelarge industrial and commercial interests and amongyoung, ambitious, small scale entrepreneurs who dislikered tape, see socialism as a slow-moving engine thatgénérâtes it (and Sanjay's support as a way of cutting it),and who would like to get rich while building a modemeconomy. Sanjay's appeal as a leader of the Youth Congress, and his four point program, hâve been more attractive to sections of India's small but influential middleclass than to the poor agriculturist to whom his motherdirected her slogan, gharibi hatao — eradicate poverty.EpilogueTwo weeks before the Indian élection in March 1977,we received a letter from Mohan Singh, our Jaipur col-laborator. "Not a single person in the villages," hewrote, "will raise his voice for Congress. The oppositionwill win twenty-one of twenty-five seats in Rajasthan."Poor Mohan Singh, we said to each other, he has beenswept away by wishful thinking. Our Jaipur secretary, ataciturn and prudent man, went to his home village inthe neighboring state of Haryana to marry off his daugh-ter ten days before the élection. There he wrote us:Congress, he said, had no supporters and Bansi Lai, whofigures in the "Notes," was particularly disliked and dis-trusted. Ail of Haryana's seats went to the Janata partyand Bansi Lai lost by a crushing margin.21The élection of 1977 will surely go down as one of themost extraordinary in modem history. Where else hasthe ruler of an authoritarian régime called an élection,allowed it to be conducted freely and fairly, and ac-cepted the verdict by observing the conventions of theloyal opposition? How is it that illiterate and im-poverished villagers, confidently described as too concerned about immédiate wants to worry about freedom,gave a massive no to repression?Some of the answers are anticipated in the "Notes."Sanjay was a major factor. His évident claim to the succession betrayed his mother's efforts to nourish her toconstitutional legitimacy. He stood behind the "excesses" connected with the mass vasectomy campaign(seven million were done in one year) and slum clearance; the extortion of funds (from petty merchants aswell as rich industrialists); interférence from top to bot-tom in the work of administration; and the replacementof elected parliamentary représentatives sensitive totheir constituents with sycophants and courtiers sensitive to mother, son, and their political spirit.The Imam of the Jama Masjid, whose ancestors fromMoghul times spoke for this, Delhi's largest mosque,campaigned across north India on the issue of vasec-tomies and the uprooting of the Muslim communities.He was received and celebrated not only by Muslimsbut also by orthodox and revivalist Hindus whose leaders had been jailed for their opposition to secularismand their support of communalism, code words forbeing anti-Muslim. When early in the campaign JagjivanRam, India's most prominent untouchable and for thirtyyears a minister in Congress governments, quit to jointhe opposition, he added a massive following to itscause. Equally important, he broke the spell of in-fallibility that surrounded Mrs. Gandhi's every move. Aremarkable and unprecedented coalition of forces nowstood against Mrs. Gandhi's Congress in north India —committed Muslims, Hindus, and untouchables, ail ofwhom had come to fear and distrust her and her party.The Muslims and the untouchables, eleven and fifteenpercent of India's population, had been the core of Mrs.Gandhi's support. They had been the poor, who, re-sponding to her pledge to eradicate poverty, created the"Indira wave" of 1971 that swept her back to power andgave her illusions of omnipotence.The new administration's response to the misdeeds ofthe emergency has been moderate but décisive. Someweeks ago, Sanjay Gandhi's and Bansi Lal's passportswere picked up and judicial inquiries launched into theiraffairs and deeds. The bank assers of Maruti, Sanjay'snon-functioning automobile firm, hâve been frozen.Questions are being raised about what happened to the enormous loans made to it by two of the nationalizedbanks and to the millions of rupees collected from prospective dealers.Bansi Lai, défense minister and Sanjay's friend, hasbeen expelled from the Congress Party. Sanjay has beenallowed to resign. But two of the "gang of four" continue in the party. Mrs. Gandhi herself, with a few wellplaced tears and a good deal of activity behind thescènes, had her proxy, the former home minister,Brahmananda Reddy, elected président of the Congress. With her usual capacity for clever and bold action,she has succeeded, at least for the présent, not only inavoiding the fate of Richard Nixon but in maintainingher leadership of the party in opposition.We wonder what will happen in Jaipur to the orderlysign boards, the uniform pink wash and the sidewalkstands that were removed? Will the city go back to thestatus quo ante? Will clerks and peons return to theirmore leisurely habits? Demands hâve been pent up fortwo years and are likely to surface soon and forcefully.The Janata government will no doubt try to keep someof the "gains of the emergency," especially those thathelp it to increase the levels of saving and productivity.It is likely to be less rhetorically committed to the poorthan Mrs. Gandhi was, and also less to those who wouldlike to become rich than Sanjay. It will continue herforeign policy, except that it will make it a littleeasier to be an American in Jaipur. "Balanced" non-alignment may mean being friendlier to the U.S. andless accommodating to the Russians. The "compul-sory" vasectomy program is gone, abolished when theMinistry of Health and Family Planning became theMinistry of Health and Family Welfare. But the cabinetis eager to assure the country and the world that familyplanning based on strictly voluntary methods will remain an important part of national policy.Much will remain the same not only in the Janatagovernment's policies but also in the routines of lifethroughout the country. American scholars will, nodoubt, again be castigated in the Rajasthan state assembly and the University of Rajasthan. A certain sporadic,ad hoc, anti-Americanism is a useful local political ploythat will persist so long as American power remains con-spicuous. We expect to return to Jaipur because our life,our friends, our research there, hâve become an intégraland compelling part of our lives.Susanne Hoeber Rudolph is Chairman of and Professor in theDepartment of Political Science and in the Collège. Lloyd LRudolph is Professor in the Department of Political Scienceand in the Collège.nI speak of the legacy of Robert Hutchins to The University of Chicago. He assumed the leadership of the University in his thirtieth year. The University was thenthirty seven years old. It was, he then said, one of the"notable institutions of the earth," and no man couldcome to its presidency "without being awed by the University and its past." The University had "held itscourse, striving to attain the ideals established at its be-ginning and coming closer toward its goal each year."He then proclaimed his faith that whatever changes inorganization might come to the University, the spirit ofthe institution would remain the same. That spirit, as hethen saw it, was characterized by an emphasis on productive scholarship, by an emphasis on the individualscholar before anything else, on work with and forChicago, and on an expérimental attitude. From the be-ginning, he had a strong sensé of his place in the con-tinuity of the institution and an overwhelming commit-ment to it. As the poem from Walt Whitman, to whichhe frequently referred, portrays:One génération playing its part and passing on,Another génération playing its part and passing onits turn,With faces turn'd sideways or backward towards meto listen, With eyes rétrospective towards me.The inaugural address of the new président of theUniversity — a strikingly young and charismaticprésident — who the next day in greeting the studentsexpressed his "infinité satisfaction and pleasure that I amolder than you and shall continue to be" was given onNovember 19th, 1929- The great économie dépressionwas already upon us, although its full impact was notknown. Robert Hutchins was later to write, in a familiarmood of self-deprecating candor and exaggeration, "theonly idea I had of The University of Chicago when Iwent there was that it was great. It was my business tomake it greater. The Dépression seemed to postponeany immédiate hope of making it greater in ways that Iunderstood; I could not expect to make it richer; it wasmore likely that I would take it into bankruptcy. Whatwas a great university, anyway?" This was the questionhe asked repeatedly during his stewardship of twenty-two years.He was a learning président, and many of his ideaschanged as a resuit of his expérience or his own intensive continuing éducation. He was steadfast in the valueshe was for, and firm in the iniquities he opposed. Theinfluence of what he termed the "parsonage" or his mis-sionary past was "ineradicable." This included most im-23portantly a faith in the independent mind. The préoccupation of the University should be with the in-tellectual virtues. The University ought to be devoted tothe intellectual love of God which is the pursuit of truthfor its own sake. The free and independent exercise ofthe intellect was the means by which society would beimproved. The enemies were ignorance, préjudice, injustice, brutality, mediocrity, self-satisfaction andstupidity.To speak out was his nature. Sometimes with prudence or patience he controlled this tendency. In 1936,after a state sénatorial investigation into subversion atthe University, he told the faculty and trustées: "Wemay hope for a happy new year because we hâve routed,or at least repulsed, the forces of darkness. Repulsed isprobably the proper word, for we cannot be sure thatthe ignorant and misguided will not return to thecharge. If eternal vigilance is not the price of académieliberty, certainly eternal patience is. Although I was oc-casionally in favor of more violent methods, I amsatisfied now that the course we pursued in the sénatorial investigation was as successful as it was dignified."This was a gracious référence to his acceptance of theadvice of a faithful trustée and lawyer that the Hutchins'tongue, which could be the sharpest and the wittiest inthe world, be moderated in its responses at the hearing.Robert Hutchins' concern was with the intellectualleadership of The University of Chicago, the differentia-tion of universities from other institutions, the récognition of the spécial attributes of this place. In an effort torestate the aims of the University and the means to thatend, he critieized the confusion of science with information, ideas with facts, and knowledge with miscellaneousdata. In a University dedicated to research, he thought itparticularly important to question the collection of un-related insignificant information, even though this wassometimes called independent investigation. His wasthe first strong voice to criticize the inordinate length ofthe formai course of instruction through higher éducation, and to insist upon a greater commonality, amongstudents and faculty alike, required for libéral éducationand impossible under the élective System. He thought auniversity seriously committed to éducation ought to doa good teaching job for its own students. He did notthink this was the case when a large number of graduatestudents were giving instruction in the Freshman andSophomore years. He acted upon his conclusions. "LordActon," Hutchins wrote, "has familiarized us with thenotion that power corrupts. He might hâve added aword or two on the corruption wrought by the failure toexercise authohty when it is your duty to exercise it."The educational changes were far reaching. He believedand enforced a standard of excellence — "every course,every project, and above ail, every appointment". Hedid more than pass upon appointments. He attractedscholars to the University. But for him, they would nothâve come. He made it possible for them to be hère,judging their merits or promise on intellectual standardsalone. His objective was to make of the University as awhole a center of independent thought and criticism, tocombine discovery and discussion, to create an intellectual community in which specialists, discoverersand experimenters, in addition to their obligation totheir specialties, recognized an obligation to talk andunderstand one another. Characteristically, in hisfarewell address to the faculty, he placed upon himselfthe moral responsibility that agréât distance toward theachievement of this dedicated community had not beentraveled.The goals which Robert Hutchins set often were un-realistic if they meant more than a determined direction.But they were intended to be this way. He believed inthe importance of the normative. In 1956 he wrote,"This of course is not the way things are, but the waythings ought to be. I hâve assumed the duty of the edu-cator is to try to change things from the way they are tothe way they ought to be. I do not assume that ail ormany of them can be changed. I would remind you ofthe words variously attributed to William the Silent andCharles the Bold: I hâve quoted them over and over. 'Itis not necessary to hope in order to undertake. Nor tosucceed in order to persévère." In his Message to theYoung Génération — the farewell talk to the students atChicago, he said, "The whole doctrine that we mustadjust to our environment, which I take to be the pre-vailing doctrine of American éducation, seems to meradically erroneous. ... If we hâve to choose betweenSancho Panza and Don Quixote, let us by ail meanschoose Don Quixote."The fact was that he acted upon thèse goals. "In prac-tical matters the end is the first principle." He made ofhimself the example. In spite of the burdens of administration, or perhaps because of them, he continuedto teach and to learn from teaching. If a community ofdiscussion was required, he would create it. If peoplewere timid to défend the worthy but unpopular in éducation or affecting the good of the republic, he would doso. If there was almost universal acquiescence in the sillyin éducation, then he would resist it. If it was importantbut impossible to hâve intelligence brought to greatspéculative and practical issues, he would arrange it. Soon the freedom of the press, the control of atomic en- ergy, a constitution of world government.The conséquence was that he could evoke a responsedenied to others. The students knew what he meantwhen he reminded them that the end of life is happi-ness. But that this did not mean contentment, cheerful-ness and self-satisfaction. It meant in the old phrase,activity in accordance with virtue, or the fullestdevelopment of one's highest powers.He believed in the individual, but he also believed ininstitutions. A great portion of his life was given tocreating, recreating and defending institutions. Heknew their aims and methods often required re-consideration. He attributed the greatness of The University of Chicago to this continuous self-scrutiny. Inthis spirit, in 1955, he looked back upon his own proposais, and in 1964 contributed to the idea of the col-legiate divisions. The end was to facilitate communication among the disciplines throughout the whole educational process, including the graduate levels. The Committee on Social Thought represents that kind of direction. The goal is still far away but no one who knowsThe University of Chicago and other educational institutions could fail to see the distinctive mark of thecollectivity, spécial wholeness and intellectual excite-ment of this place. It was through institutions he hopedto achieve that continuity of discussion, communion ofminds and reconsideration of values essential to thegood republic.In 1968 at this University, at an occasion of considérable sentiment to me and I believe to him, he said "theUne that keeps running through my head is 'Reclothe usin our rightful mind'." He said, "I think it is not blas-phemous to direct it now to the University. A child ofthe parsonage may perhaps be permitted to say that theUniversity is the terrestrial instrument which the authorof our being has placed at our disposai for the purposeof getting us clothed, and when necessary, reclothed inour rightful mind."It was not intended as such — or perhaps it was, but inany event it was a reminder of what had been and wouldbe the guiding admonition, the standard of reconsideration for ail time, to the University which forever carneswithin itself the image and the influence of his brilliantmind and noble spirit.This address was delivered at the Robert Maynard HutchinsMémorial Service, June 8, 1977 at Rockefeller MémorialChapel. Edward H. Levi is the Glen A. Lloyd Distin-guished Service Professor and a président emeritus at TheUniversity of Chicago.25Robert Maynard Hutchins, 1899—1977"Let it never be forgotten that a university is not acollection of buildings, nor a collection of books, noreven a collection of students. It is a community ofscholars.1' — June 11, 1929 "What is it that makes the University ofChicago a great institution? It is the intense, strenuous, and constant intellectualactivity of the place. It is this activitywhich makes the life of the student an educational expérience. Presented with manypoints of view which are the results of thecandid and courageous thinking of his différent instructors, he is compelled to thinkfor himself. We like to think that the air iselectric, and that from it the student dérivesan intellectual stimulation that lasts therest of his life. This is éducation."— HutchinsUniversity of Chicago CitizensBoard Dinner, September 26,1941."The Daring Young Man"A university président is supposed to godowntown and get the money. He is notsupposed to hâve ideas on public affairs;that is what the trustées are for. He isnot supposed to hâve ideas on éducation; that is what the faculty is for. He issupposed to go downtown and get themoney.The trustées may use the money tobuy résidence halls, stadiums, andchapels. The faculty may use the money,if there is any left over, to buy brains.The président, in the pursuit of his lowoccupation, must belong to the bestclubs in town and agrée with ail themembers. He must stick to those foggyplatitudes which hâve been tested andfound good. And he must not rock theboat.There hâve been — and there are —university présidents who defied thetrasition and rocked the boat. They hâvenot been numerous. They hâve not beenpopular. William Rainey Harper wasknown, according to his own testimony,as a despot; and the officiai historian ofHarvard says of Eliot that at any timeduring the first fifteen years of his tenureboth the faculty and the overseers wouldhâve voted against his continuance by alarge majority. But it is men like Harperand Eliot who hâve advanced Americanéducation.In the office of the Président of theUniversity of Chicago there sits — withhis feet on the desk — a man who gets themoney and rocks the boat and has ideascontinuously. In appearance he compares favorably with a Greek god. Hisclassic profile — which he didn't get byreading the classics — melts into a dark"I still think, as I hâve thought lor many years, thatthe motto of the University should be that line fromWalt Whitman,cSolitary, singing in the West, I strike up for a newworld.'" — February 2, 1951smile as readily as it hardens in stonydisdain. His well-proportioned six-feet-three adapts itself just as easily to thetrue Yale swagger as it does to the terrible stature of a Moses. And though hegets no exercise — or perhaps because ofit — he grows no less handsome with theyears. If he had been only a nice boy hemight hâve become the most glitteringreprésentative of a calling whose chiefcharacteristic is the stuffed shirt. Hemight hâve whirled away a few years atChicago — he was thirty when he tookoffice — and then gone on to higherthings, say, the chairmanship ot the policy committee of a great national party.But Robert Maynard Hutchins is not anice boy. He is a natural-born stem-winder hell-raiser. What Henry Adamspredicted of Wilson may be predicted ofHutchins at any stage of his career — that"he will quarrel with everybody at once,and especially with his friends, if he hasany."Milton Mayer, former Tutor on theCommittee for Social Thought, excerp-ted from Harper's /Magazine, March1939."On the principle laid down by Gilbert andSullivan that when everybody is somebody,nobody is anybody: if everybody is abnormal,we dont need to worry about anybody. Norshould I be prepared to admit that a serionsinterest in being educated, the characteristicthat distinguishes the students of The University of Chicago from ail others, is neces-sarily neurotic. It may be in thèse times inthis country somewhat eccentric, but it seemsto me an amiable eccentricity, and one thatshould be encouraged. The whole doctrinethat we must adjust ourselves to our envi-ronment, which I take to be the prevailingdoctrine of American éducation, seems to meradically erroneous. Our mission hère onearth is to change our environment, not toadjust ourselves to it. If we become malad-justed in the process, so much the worse forthe environment." — HutchinsFarewell address to the students,February 2, 1951.A Réminiscence"Originally, he was a great maverick. Myfirst recollection of him (other than inthe newspapers) was, curiously enough,when I was a boy in Winnetka, Illinois. Winnetka was, at that time, a sort of sa-cred citadel of so-called progressiveéducation, under the leadership ofCarlton Washburn, a great proponent ofindividual progress and various forms ofself-expression — very John Deweyish."At any rate, this young universityprésident, billed as a progressive educa-tor, cornes out to Winnetka and lays outthe audience; it was the PTA or somegroup. I can still remember the collective wrath and incredulity of the natives,because in the midst of this 'go your ownway' movement, he preached gênerai,uniform, largely traditional éducation,ancient philosophy, like Aristotle, Plato,Thomas Acquinas, and others nobodyhad ever heard of in Winnetka, althoughthey had read John Dewey. That is myfirst memory of Hutchins."The second one was coming hère as afreshman in the fall of 1935. Manypeople said you only saw Hutchins theday you got hère and the day he handedyou your diploma four years later. Therewas, I suppose, some truth in it. He wasnot a familiar, immédiate présence theway John Wilson is. But there he wasthat first day. He was very tall and verystraight and very handsome and verywry in manner and in what he had to say."Most of us were startled. We hadheard a talk from the jolly dean of students and from the ROTC instructor,and out cornes this guy and he says,something like, 'Young ladies and gentlemen, The University of Chicago is nota country club, although I am told thosewho seek récréation do so with some little success. The University of Chicago isnot a YMCA, although I understandspiritual solace is available for those inneed of it. The University of Chicago isnot a gladiatorial arena, although I amtold on Saturday afternoons those who wish to do so, engage in football in StaggField. The University of Chicago is acommunity of scholars to which I wel-come you.' So there he was."Roughly speaking, you could dividehis career into two chunks: from 1929 tothe War (about 1939), and from the Warto 1951 when he resigned. In the firsthalf, he was sensational, in every senséof that word; in the second half, a greatmany people increasingly felt that hehad outstayed his time. The War was agreat kind of watershed . . . When it wasover, Hutchins never quite regained thecontrol he had had over people's imaginations."The de-emphasis of footballalienated a lot of people, and so did hisisolationist stand on the war — a com-pletely honorable pacifist stand — but hewas in some very bad company . . . Thentoo, the Collège was a brilliant educational idea but, as an actuality, not uni-versally applauded."I was out of town when I had heardthat he had resigned, and also I heardthat there had been some rejoicing. AndI, frankly, felt it was certainly time heleft."Well, seventeen years later whenEdward Levi got to be président of theUniversity, at the inaugural dinner, theprincipal speaker was Hutchins. And hegot up and spoke with such wit and suchwisdom and such orginality and suchgrâce that I realized I was completelyenchanted by him as I had been thatSeptember day in 1935. And I felt againthe force of the Hutchins' paradox. Hewas such an austère, oddly inaccessibleperson . . . but what magie the manhad!"Edward Rosenheim, Professor, Department of English and in the Collège.2^—^1ALUMNI NEWSSir Alexander OppenheimReceives Alumni MedalTan Siri Sir Alexander Oppenheim,PhD' 30, chairman of the Department ofMathematics at the University of Béninin Nigeria and an internationally re-spected mathematician, is the récipientof the 1977 Alumni Medal. He is one ofthe principal architects of the Malaysianuniversity System and has continued todisplay his administrative acumen whileserving West African institutions ofhigher éducation.The Alumni Medal is awarded forextraordinary distinction in one's field ofspecialization and extraordinary serviceto society.Thirteen Alumni Cited for PublicService, Professional AchievementThe University's Alumni Associationhas honored six alumni for "créative citi-zenship and exemplary leadership incommunity service which has benefitedsociety and reflected crédit upon theUniversity." The following six receivedthe Public Service Citation:Dean C. Burns, SBT9, MD'21, isfounder and Director Emeritus of BurnsClinic Médical Center and Chairman ofthe Board of Trustées of North CentralMichigan Collège. His work led to theestablishment of the Petoskey, Michigan Burns Clinic in the 1930's and NorthCentral Michigan Collège in the 1950's.Janet Gray Hayes, AM'50, Mayor ofSan José, California, is a dedicated pro-ponent of managed growth for San Joséand California's other sprawling citiesand for the protection of California'snatural resources.Helen Deuss Hill, SBT6, is retiredAssociate Professor of Genetics, PennState University. Besides her great service to the Red Cross and individuals inState Collège, Pennsylvania, she has forthe past décade been instrumental in de-veloping an extensive aquatic programfor the region's handicapped childrenand adults.M. Cari Holman, AM'44, is Présidentof the National Urban Coalition andfunctions as a political counselor, a talent scout for the civil rights movement,and a quiet strategist for progress for ailminorities in the United States today.Ruby Stutts Lyells, AM'44, is aworker for educational, social, and political advancement in Mississippi, herproject for some 40 years. She hasserved as a stabilizing force while devel-oping methods of political communication.Dorothy K. Powers, SM'52, is Président of the League of Women Votersof New Jersey. She is a leader in NewJersey civic affairs, and promûtes publicdebate on pressing civic issues. Seven alumni were cited for professional achievement. This alumniaward recognizes those whose attain-ments in their vocational fields hâvebrought distinction to themselves, créditto the University, and benefit to fellowcitizens.Marie Boroff, PhB'43, AM'46, is theWilliam Lampson Professor of English atYale University. Her work as amedievalist places her in the first rank ofscholars in that field. She is acclaimedfor her critical studies of Robert Frost,Wallace Stevens, Marianne Moore, andother modem poets.Harriet E. Gillette, SB'37, MD'40, isretired Director of Pédiatrie Rehabilitation at the Rehabilitation Institute ofChicago. She is a pioneer and major con-tributor in the field, especially relative tothe care of the cérébral palsied.Robert A. Goldwin, AM'56, PhD'63,is résident scholar and Director ofSeminar Programs for the American Enterprise Institute, Washington, D.C. Hehas assisted in bringing the worlds ofscholarship and public affairs into dialogue, most recently as PrésidentFord's Spécial Consultant.F. Sherwood Rowland, SM'51,PhD'52, is Professor of Chemistry at theUniversity of California at Irvine. Hiscollaboration (with Mario Malina) hasmade possible a better understanding ofthe photochemistry of the earth'sstratosphère. His work has focussedconcern on destruction by aérosols ofthe ozone layer in the stratosphère.Jesse H. Shera, PhD'44, is DeanEmeritus of the School of Library Science at Case Western Reserve University. As a scholar, philsopher, andpioneer in documentation and information science, he has been a leader in thelibrary science profession.Stuart M. Struever, PhD'68, is Director of the Northwestern ArchaeologicalProgram and Chairman of the department. He has been able to communicatethe relevance of anthropological ar-cheology to the public, partly throughhis work with the Southern IllinoisKoster site, one of the archeologicalfinds in the U.S. in this décade.Ernest F. Witte, PhD'32, is retiredDean of both the Collège of Social Professions at the University of Kentuckyand the School of Social Work at SanDiego State University. His particularvision of the place and future of socialwork has made him a leader in socialwork and social work éducation.28Top left: M. Cari Holman, AM'44, accepts the AlumniCitations. He and five others received citations. Center left:Charles Boand, président of the Alumni Association,présents F. Sherwood Rowland, SM'51 , PhD'52, with theAssociation' s Professional Achievement Award. Rowlandthen gave the acceptance speech. Bottom left: Helen DeussHill, SB' 16, accepts her Alumni Citation from CharlesBoand. Top right: On behalf of Tan Si ri Sir AlexanderOppenheim, PhD' 30, Miss Allegra Nesbitt accepts theAlumni Medal from Charles Boand. Miss Nesbitt isProfessor Oppenheim's sister-in-law. Above: AnthonyTurkevich engages Stuart Struever, PhD'68, in discussion.Turkevich is the James Franck Distinguished ServiceProfessor in the Department of Chemistry, the EnricoFermi Institute, and in the Collège. Struever, récipient of aProfessional Achievement Award, is Chairman of theDepartment of Anthropology at Northwestern University.29Honor Thy Fellow AlumniAt reunion time each year, theAlumni Association honors some of theUniversity's outstanding alumni andalumnae. Despite the care that is takenin identifying the best candidates forthèse awards, there is always the possi-bility that we hâve overlooked someoneeminently deserving of considération.For this reason we are asking readers tohelp us identify worthy potential awardrécipients.There are three kinds of awards: Professional achievement awards whichhonor persons who hâve made distinct-ive contributions in their professionalfields of endeavor, public service citations which recognize individuals whohâve practiced créative citizenship andleadership in community service. Thealumni medal is awarded for extraordinary distinction in the recipient'sfield of specialization and in service tosociety.Persons who wish to nominate analumna or alumnus for one of thèseawards (the actual sélection is made by acommittee of alumni), should write tothe awards coordinator at the AlumniAssociation. Specify the achievementsof the persons you suggest. Nominations received by October 15, 1977, willbe considered for the 1978 awards.Please send us your suggestions soon.Reunion '77The annual Alumni ReunionWeekend, June 3 through June 5,brought nearly a thousand alumni andmembers of their families to the University. During the weekend, the classes of1927, 1932, 1942, 1947, 1952, 1962and 1967 met, as did members of Nu PiSigma, the women's honorary society,and members of Phi Gamma Delta forthe fraternity's 75th anniversary célébration.Eleven students and fourteen alumniwere honored at the June 4 reunionluncheon and awards assembly. DarylKoehn received the Class of 1914Scholar Award. This was the 63rd yearthe award was presented, and the secondyear that Daryl Koehn received it.Although the sum varies, this year theaward was $3,000. Ms. Koehn is aRhodes Scholar, one of the first womenelected to a Rhodes.Ten students were winners of theHowell Murray Awards. The awardswere established in honor of a distin- guished alumnus and trustée to recognize the outstanding achievement bygraduating students. The récipients wereEvelyn D. Asch, Vadis E. Cothran,Aaron G. Filler, Eugène P. Forrester II,Sylvia M. Hohri, Scott R. King, DaphneL. Macklin, David H. Ostwald, David L.Rieser, and Laura A. Silvieus.Cari Holman, AM '44, spoke on be-half of the six récipients of the AlumniCitation for Public Service. F. SherwoodRowland, SM '51, PhD '52, accepted onbehalf of the seven récipients of the Professional Achievement Awards. AllegraNesbit, sister-in-law to Tan Siri SirAlexander Oppenheim, PhD '30, accepted the Alumni Medal on his behalf,relating Sir Alexander's cabled instructions to her: "Five minute talk.Enjoy occasion."The considérable dining that accom-panies a reunion weekend included anOrder of the C dinner. There, guestspeaker Willie Davis, MBA '68, de-scribed playing and winning with theGreen Bay Packers.George Watkins, X '36, was master ofcérémonies at Phi Gamma Deltas anniversary dinner, and the class of 1937heard two emeritus members of the faculty: James Cate, PhD '35, on the subject of tabasco, and Norman Maclean,who read from his book, A River RunsThrough It and Other Stories. Interior designer and author Richard Himmel, X'42, was the featured speaker for theClass of 1942. A small group of Nu PiSigma members reunited more quietlyat the Quadrangle Club; there is nolonger an active chapter of the women'shonorary society on the campus.After the 67th Annual InterfraternitySing, and a séries of tours and other fes-tivities, a gala fireworks display next toRockefeller Mémorial Chapel ended theweekend.Top left: Members of the Emeritus Clubrelax before dinner in the QuadrangleClub's Solarium. Lower left: Phi GammaDelta Fraternity célébrâtes its DiamondJubilee. Master of Cérémonies, George Watkins, X'33, is third from the left, secondrow: Emeritus Professor James Cate,PbD'35, is the seated figure, far left. Atright, top to bottom: Candid photos ofAlumni from the Classes of 1967 , 1927,and 1933- Sharp eyes will recognize Ken-neth W. Scott (center photo, right) andCharles Boand and George Watkins (bottom).3031Robert Ingersoll AddressesTokyo Alumni GroupEighty University alumni and guestsfrom ail over Japan heard Robert S. Ingersoll describe The University ofChicago's Japan Study Program.The gathering, late in May, markedthe first meeting of the newly-formedAlumni Club in Tokyo. Ingersoll, pres-ently deputy and first vice-chairman ofthe Board of Trustées of the University,was ambassador to Japan from 1972 to1973 when he became Assistant Secre-tary for Asian Affairs, then Deputy Sec-retary in 1974.Chairman of the club is Iawo Shino,MBA '55. His committee members areS. Kojima, MBA, '75; K. Murata,AM'47; Professor C. Nishiyama, AM'52, AM'56, PhD'60; I. Watanabe, AM'57; J. Mailing, MBA '55; and JamesAbegglen, PhB'48, PhD'56.The Japan Study Program, part of theFar Eastern Studies Program, concentrâtes on Japan's cultural history andits development as a modem society.Milwaukee Alumni Form ClubThe University of Chicago Club in Milwaukee met May 12, accepted by-laws,and elected officers and committeechairmen.Until a formai élection, Jim Breuss,MBA'67 is président; GertrudeEichstaedt, AB'4l, treasurer; RogerMorse, AB'51, secretary; Joan Feitler,AM'55, secretary-treasurer; Ed Wiley,AB'49, campaign chairman; Mel Lurie,AM'51, PhD'58 program chairman;Chris Berry, JD'76, publications chairman; Bob Feerick, MBA'72, finance(alumni fund) chairman; Eric Erickson,AB'43, MBA'53, public relations chairman; and Janet Ervin, PhB'46, schoolschairman.The executive committee meets oncea month to discuss plans and programs.The group will ask each alumnus in theMilwaukee area to contnbute five dollars in annual dues to the club."Fm connng back to Chicago because theUniversity endures with grâce and highcommitments to its standards of excellence.And, as Jimmy Wilson recently said ofJimmy's Woodlawn Tap, 7 like it hère. Theplace keeps me young.' "— David Leonetti Leonetti Named AlumniAssociation DirectorDavid R. Leonetti, BA'58, is the newdirector of the Alumni Association. Hisappointment was announced by D. J. R.Bruckner, vice-président for Public Affairs. Leonetti, who assumed his dutieson August 15, cornes to the Universityfrom the University of California,Berkeley. He was the assistant directorof the University's Art Muséum there.He has served The University ofChicago in the past. In 1963, he wasprogram director for the Alumni Association; from 1963 to 1968 he was director of the University's Eastern RégionalOffice in New York City, then régionalreprésentative of the University in SanFrancisco, California. During thèse as-signments, he managed programs foralumni, student recruitment, annual giv-ing, development, and public relations.At the University of Californiamuséum, he dealt with the developmentof exhibitions, collections, publications,films, and éducation programs. In addition to managing the administrative andfinancial opérations of the organization,he supervised campus and communityrelations programs. He had been assistant gifts and endowments officer atBerkeley, before his assignment at theMuséum.David and Margaret Leonetti andtheir two daughters will live in the HydePark community.POSTCARDFROMOLYMPUSCalculating Math —Will It Rot Their Minds?At six-month intervais, and sometimesmore often, concerned éducation writ-ers from major magazines and newspap-ers call the University to ask how manystudents use small, shirt-pocket size cal-culators, and whether using them is agood thing?We took thèse queries to Max Bell,associate professor in the Department ofEducation, who has been thinking aboutthis subject in Judd Hall. Were the fearsreasonable? What fears? he inquired.Well, fears that students using hand-held calculators will eventually becomedépendent on them and be unable toadd a column of figures without a me-chanical aid. Bell thought a moment."There's a strong 'back to basics' reaction in our schools right now," he said."People notice that what are beingtaught as basic skills are essentially un-important and out of touch with currentmathematics research and applications.So, school books are changed andteachers are urged to deal with kids inmore open ways, giving them conceptsand ideas and so on. Hence the so-called'new mathematics' of the 1960s. Butthen there are complaints that the stresson concepts and problem-solving andother such 'frills' leads to neglect of cal-culation skills. So, there is a 'back to basics' counter-reaction. That is where weare right now, and it is in this contextthat the calculator problem appears."But in elementary schools, where the'basics' are lodged, things change very slowly if at ail, even during thèseperiodic cycles of reform. In elementaryschool mathematics, although some détails change, the focus is on calculation,and the focus has always been on calculation. The discussion about whether thenew math was 'good' or 'bad' for students was not significant because, whilethe math books changed somewhat, theteaching and what the students did,scarcely changed at ail."In any case, now everybody believesthat it is terribly important that schoolsteach calculation. Furthermore, schoolscannot teach anything else in mathmaticsclasses until they do teach calculation.So, in an effort to make everyone goodat calculation, we spend eight yearsteaching that, to the exclusion of almosteverything else."Currently, much of the material thatis proposed as 'basic' — adding, subtract-ing, multiplying and dividing — is doneby most people (outside of schools) withcalculators. So, there are adults whorarely do long calculations except withcalculators who hâve become worriedthat those same calculators will keepkids from learning multiplication, longdivision, and so on."Elementary schools are ill-equippedto deal with conflicts caused by the prolifération of calculators on one hand, andfear that they may damage basic éducation on the other. Elementary schoolschange very slowly; prolifération ofcheap calculators happens very rapidly.Four years ago there were none; todaythere are a hundred million. For people who did not like math and avoidedarithmetic, they are a very powerful toolfor adult éducation. Thèse people aredoing things with numbers that theyhâve not done for years, and they hâvediscovered that it isn't so bad."But in the elementary schools, thereis the fear that the calculators will de-stroy the capacity to work without them.Well, we distributed calculators to localschools when they were still expensiveand expérimental. The kids had greatfun and never stopped calculating 'byhand,' partly, perhaps, because theirteachers would not let them. But thekids did not stop their mental calculations either, because they soon foundout that it was much more convenient toknow that 7 times 8 was 56, than punch7-times-8-equals-56."I think that there are no grounds forthe fear that kids will come to rely oncalculators to find answers to 2 plus 2 or23 plus 10. Kids know better. Also,essentially ail educators agrée that theability to do easy mental calculationsquickly and efficiently is very importantin problem solving, making quickestimâtes in everyday situations, estimat-ing whether a given resuit (however ob-tained) is reasonable, detecting patternsand generalizations in working withnumbers and so on. I am sure the learning of the multiplication tables is notthreatened."The major barriers to calculatorshâve been knocked aside; calculators arecheap, portable, available. The remain-ing fears hâve to do with calculators asdamaging to mathematics éducation.One fear (which I find as a strong thèmein editorials), involves a standard horrorstory: a collège professor allows calculators to be used on his test and onestudent's battery runs out, leaving himhelpless, even though the test problemis fairly simple. Such stories miss theimportant issues in too many ways todiscuss hère. The reply a colleaguemakes is, 'May be once, but nottwice — he will learn to bring extra batteries.'"Though I tend to discount worriesabout calculators as mind-rotters, I doworry about the lack of research. That is,I would be more comportable if goodexperiments were going on in settingswhere, if necessary, we could see andcorrect our mistakes. We must considerboth the direct effects and the side ef-fects, and thèse hâve not been carefullyinvestigated in situations where cal-33culators hâve been used for a year or forseveral years."Bell says that the low cost of hand-held calculators is important for theiruse in schools. Indeed, high or low unitcost is often the primary considérationas to whether or not an object will beused at ail.As reinforcement for his unit costcomment, Bell invites doubters toexamine school storerooms —repositories ot teaching machines, films,and language labs gathering dust ... ailtoo expensive to program or use andthus discontinued."And the electronics industry says, 'AS5-calculator? We can make them dis-posable.' " But, even disposable, there isanother barrier to the uses of calculatorsin schools — the lack of good teachingmaterials. Beyond many look-alikeworkbooks and some créative teachers'personally-devised problem sets, thereare few curriculum materials, thatexploit calculators. After playing cal-culator games and doing simple prob-lems, kids run out of things to do withthem."Then," says Bell, "we turn to thetextbook publishers and ask them howthey plan to react. And they say, 'Why, Idon't know. Our plans are made for thenext five years.'"Not only five years but millions ofdollars are involved, for development ofschool textbooks is very expensive andanything that makes a textbook sériesobsolète jeopardizes an enormous in-vestment. Unplanned obsolesence — thatis terrible! With thèse barriers, change islikely to be slow, whatever happens inthe world outside ot the elementaryschools."It seems that, whatever the criticisms,the calculator will continue to grow inpopularity both in and out ot schools,and at ail grade levels. If students areforbidden to use them in the classroom,they will use them outside. Where theslide rule once reposed, the calculatornow résides: moreover, where thescratchpad rested, the calculator nowblinks, its little cathode display ever-ready. "I hâve a hard time putting thephenomenon in simple terms," Bellsays. "It happened too fast."Teaching Excellence HonoredNorman Nachtrieb, Ralph Nicholas.and Hewson Swift are the récipients ofthe 19"~ Quantrell Awards, presented for excellence in undergraduate teaching.Norman Nachtneb is a professor inthe Department of Chemistry, the JamesFranck Institute, and in the Collège.Much of his scientific work has centeredon atomie transport properties in crystal-line solids and liquid metals, and the effect ot high pressures on various properties of molten salts. Nachtrieb received the Quantrell Award in 1962; heis the third récipient to hâve been sohonored a second time.Ralph Nicholas joined the Universityfaculty in 1971. He is a professor in theDepartment of Anthropology and in theCollège, and is editor of the Journal ofAsian Studies. His work includes exten-sive anthropological field research inrural areas of West Bengal in India andin Bangladesh.Hewson H. Swift is Chairman of theDepartment of Biology, and Distin-guished Service Professor in the De-partments of Biology and Pathology, inthe Collège, and on the Committee onGenetics. His research focuses on therôle and arrangement of DNA (de-oxyribonucleic acid), in cells. He is alsostudying evolutionary changes in theDNAs of cell nuclei and small cell com-ponents known as organelles.The teaching awards were establishedin 1938, anonymously, by Ernest E.Quantrell, X '05, alumnus, trustée, andlife-long advocate of excellence in teaching. His endowment fund provided annual SI, 000 pnzes. In 1952, he added tothe fund and later consented to the for-mal naming of the awards. Formally,they are the Llewellyn John and HarrietManchester Quantrell Awards, in honorot Quantrell's parents. In récent years,the prize has been increased to $2,500.During his time at the University, Ernest Quantrell was a member of theOrder of the C, of Owl & Serpent, Président of Reynolds Club, class treasurer,and a member of Phi Delta Thêta frater-nity. He died in 1962.Endowment Fund PromotesInnovative TeachingAn endowment fund to promote innovation in undergraduate teaching has beenestablished at the University, through a5 300,000 grant from the William R.Kenan, Jr. Charitable Trust of NewYork City.The fund will free a faculty member,penodically, from other responsibilities to concentrate on revamping currentcourses, devising new curricula, or de-veloping new course materials. Thefoundation designated no particular areaof undergraduate study to receive themoney.The Dean of the Collège and a spécialfaculty committee will administer thefund. The William R. Kenan, Jr. Charitable trust previously endowed a pro-fessorship at the University. It is held byPhilip B. Kurland, a constitutional lawexpert who directs the undergraduatePEARL program, an interdisciplinaryapproach to the study of politics, économies, rhetoric, and law.Harry G. Johnson, 1923-1977Harry G. Johnson died in Geneva, Swit-zerland on May 9. He was the Charles F.Grey Distinguished Service professor inEconomies, an editor of the Journal ofPolitical Economy, and a member of theCommittee on Public Policy studies.In a statement to the press, his col-league and department chairman, Arnold C. Harberger, said: "HarryJohnson . . . contributed in importantways to every major innovation in thetheory of international économies thatoccurred during his professional life. Hewas also one of that rarest of breedsamong economists who not only knewthat économies was a science of thisworld and for this world but alsobrought its insights forcefully to bear onproblems of current policy. . . ."Intellectual honesty and couragepervade his work. He was impatient tothe point of harshness with pomposityand self-deception. And what he refusedto tolerate in others he scrupulouslyavoided in himself. He never blunted hismessages in déférence to currentlypopular views, whether those viewswere help by the establishment' of theéconomies profession or by a larger laypublic.". . . he received thousands of lettersfrom ail over the world, asking advice,assistance, or comment. Few men whoselives were half as busy as Harry's wouldfind time for even a small fraction ofsuch requests. It is a mark of the manthat Harry was, that somehow, and in-credibly, he found time for ail."Mr. Johnson had published about fourhundred and ninety-five scientific papers, was the the author of nineteenbooks, and the editor of twenty-fourmore.3-4AppointmentsIn March, ten members ot the seniorfaculty were appointed to endowedchairs, and in April, three DistinguishedService protessors were appointed tochairs honoring three past présidents ofthe University.The endowed chairs are DistinguishedService Professorships, awarded to faculty in récognition of their scholarshipand service to the University, andNamed Professorships, awarded for distinguished scholarship in a chosen field.Herbert L. Anderson, named Distinguished Service Professor, worked withEnrico Fermi on ail the original experi-ments on neutron reproduction inuranium that led directly to the development of the first sustained atomicchain reaction. Director of the Fermi Institute from 1957 to 1963, he is a professor there, and in the Department ofPhysics and in the Collège.Norman M. Bradburn, named the Tif-fany and Margaret Blake DistinguishedService Professor, is a member of theCommittee on Public Policy Studies,and is a Senior Study Director in theNational Opinion Research Center(NORC). A researcher in a wide varietyof sociological and psychological sub-jects, he has a particular interest in sur-vey and public opinion research meth-odology. He has been Chairman of theDepartment of Behavioral Sciencessince 1973.Edward C. Dimock, Jr., named a Distinguished Service Professor, has written or edited eight books and more thana score of scholarly articles on the history, religion, literature, and linguisticsof India, particularly of Bengal. A professor of South Asian Languages andCivilization, since 1965 he has been Director the University's South Asia Lan-guage and Area Center.Arnold C. Harberger, named theGustavus F. and Ann M. Swift Distinguished Service Professor, is a fréquentconsultant to many public and privateorganizations in this country and abroad.Professor in the Chairman of the Department of Economies, he has been Director of the Center for Latin AmericanEconomie Studies in the departmentsince 1965.Philip B. Kurland, named the WilliamR. Kenan, Jr. Distinguished Service Professor, founded The Suprême Court Re-vieiv, an annual volume reviewing thework of the U.S. Suprême Court. Hehas written eight books on the high court and is an authority on con-stitutional law. He teaches both in theLaw School and in the Collège.Edward H. Levi, named the Glen A.Lloyd Distinguished Service Professor,was Président of the University from1968 to 1975, and Attorney General ofthe United States until January 1977.He was Dean of the Law School from1950 to 1962, when he became Provostof the University. He is the author oreditor of five books on jurisprudenceand éducation.Stuart A. Rice, named the Frank P.Hixon Distinguished Service Professor,was the Director of the James FranckInstitute from 1962 to 1968 and Chairman of the Department of Chemistryfrom 1971 to 1976. (He was named theLouis Block Professor in 1969)Joseph V. Smith, named the LouisBlock Professor in the Division of thePhysical Sciences, is a specialist inmineralogy and crystallography. He hasbeen a principal investigator for theApollo Projects since 1963, and is a Professor in the Department of Geophysicalsciences,Edward Wasiolek, named the AvalonDistinguished Service Professor, is Professor and Chairman of the Departmentof Slavic Languages and Literature. He isthe author oiDostoievsky: the Major Fiction and the editor of five of Dostoievs-ky's working notebooks. In 1961, hewon the Quantrell Award for excellencein undergraduate teaching.Dr. Robert W. Wissler, is a specialistin atherosclerosis and cancer pathology.His monkey studies on the effect of dieton expérimental atherosclerosis areinternationally known. He is Director ofthe University's Specialized Center ofResearch on Atherosclerosis and wasChairman of the Department of Pathology from 1957 to 1972 and Director ofthe University's interdisciplinary Clini-cal Cancer Training Program from 1962to 1974.Appointed to chairs honoring threepast University Présidents were MorrisJanowitz, Yoichiro Nambu, and Hewson H. Swift.Janowitz, named the Lawrence A.Kimpton Distinguished Service Professor, is an authority on political andurban sociology. He writes extensivelyon the sociological aspects of militarismand civil-military relations, and most re-cently on the volunteer U.S. Army.Nambu, named the Harry Pratt Jud-son Distinguished Service Professor, is a high energy physicist specializing instudies of "strange" particles — short-lived subatomic particles with unusualcharacteristics. In 1970, he was the récipient of the Dannie Heineman Prizefor Mathematical Physics.Swift, named the George Wells Be-adle Distinguished Service Professor, isa cell biologist who pioneered in the useof the électron microscope to studygènes and tissue growth. Professor inand Chairman of the Department ofBiology, his interest centers on the func-tions of nucleic acids in the cell and inthe structural aspects of the geneticmechanism.George Beadle, for whom Swift'schair is named, continues his research atthe University. He was président from1961 to 1968. Lawrence A. Kimpton,now living in Florida, was présidentfrom 1951 to 1960. Harry Pratt Judsonwas the University's second président,serving from 1907 to 1923.Paperback Books byMembers of the FacultyNorval Morris and Gordon Hawkins,Letter to the Président on Crime Contrat,University of Chicago Press, 104 pp,$1.95.John A. Wilson, William A. Irwin, etal, The Intellectual Adventure of AncientMan: An Essay on Spéculative Though inthe Ancient Near East, UCP, 401 pp,$4.95.Marshall G. S. Hodgson, The Ventureof Islam, UCP, 3 vols; 544, 618 and 476pp, $7.95 each.Riccardo Levi-Setti, Trilobites: APhotographie Atlas, UCP, 224 pp, 158plates, $9.95.Donald N. Levine, Greater Ethiopia:The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society,UCP, 248 pp, $3.95.Herrlee G. Creel, What Is Taoism?And Other Studies in Chinese CulturalHistory, UCP, 192 pp, $3.95.George J. Stigler, The Citizen and theState: Essays on Régulation, UCP, 224 pp,$4.25.Léonard S. Cottrell, Jr., AlbertHunter, and James F. Short, Jr., ErnestW. Burgess on Community, Family, andDeltnquency, UCP, 338 pp, $4.45.J. David Greenstone, Labor in American Politics, UCP, 458 pp, S5.95.Morris Janowitz, Military Institutionsand Coercion in the DevelopingNat ions (anexpanded édition oiThe Military in theDevelopment of New Nations), UCP,$3.95.35The Campaign for Chicago, announced onNovember 13, 1974, has raised over $150 million todate. This remarkable accomplishment has beenmade possible by the hard work and generosity ofthe University's alumni and friends.The Campaign has already strengthened theUniversity substantially. Twenty newly endowedprofessorships hâve helped the University attractrenowned scholars and teachers to the Midway,and honor some of its most gifted faculty membersof long standing. Outstanding faculty hâve createdambitious new académie programs. The Campaignhas secured over $12 million to fund thèse important course offerings. The University's studentshâve benefitted from thèse curricular changes, andfrom the $9 million in new student aid which hasenabled many of them to take advantage of the University's ever-increasing educational opportunities.The Campaign has already done much to assure the University a future as distinguished as itspast. More can and must be done, however, and weare inviting ail alumni to participate in the Campaign now.Beginning this fall, each alumnus and alumnawill be asked to make a spécial gift to the Campaignfor Chicago, something over and above an annualcontribution to the Alumni Fund. We hope ailalumni will respond with a gift of greater magnitudethan anything they hâve given before.There are many examples in the history of thisUniversity of extraordinary giving on the part ofalumni. Thus, we make this request with confidence that alumni will understand our reasons forasking and again respond generously.To those alumni and friends who hâve alreadymade their gifts to the Campaign, the University expresses its deep appréciation. You hâve brought usto that impressive total of $150 million. To thosewho will support the Campaign for Chicago in themonths ahead, the University extends its heartfeltthanks in advance. The tradition of loyalty and thespirit of which you are a part is The University ofChicago's greatest endowment. The Campaign at Work:New Programs— Top left, foreground:Arnold W. Ravin, Addie Clark HardingProfessor, co-ordinator of the ASHUM(Arts and Sciences Basic to HumanBiology and Medicine) program; Bottomright: Charles W. Wegener, Howard L.Willett Professor, program co-ordinatorof PERL (Politics, Economies, Rhetoric,and Law).Newly Endowed Professorships— Topright: Saul Bellow, Raymond W. andMartha Hilpert Gruner Distinguished Service Professor; Bottom left: Edward H.Levi, Glen A. Lloyd Distinguished Service Professor.371910EDMUND JACOBSON, PhD '10, MD '15,last year celebrated the fifth édition ofYou Must Relax. The book, first pub-lished in 1929, was written for the laypublic. Jacobson was a pioneer exponentof electromyography, the use of elec-tronic equipment to detect muscularmovements by tiny electncal charges inmuscles. He is Director of the Labora-tory for Clinical Physiology, in Chicago.1919Emory University recently dedicated theKemp Malone Library in honor ot thelate kemp malone, PhD' 19. The librarycontains the bulk of his collection ofbooks on médiéval studies. Among the20,000-volume donation made by hiswife are books and correspondencedated slightly after Chaucer's time. Professor Malone was a noted linguist andmedievalist.1924Former National Executive Director ofthe Girl Scouts of America, and nation-ally known educator DOROTHY G.STRATTON, AM'24, received the "Mar-îon Mill Preminger- Women's Committee Award" at the opening banquet otthe annual meeting of the PrésidentsCommittee on the Employment ot theHandicapped. 1926The American Bar Foundation con-ferred honorary membership on wal-TER V. SCHAEFER, PhB'26, JD'28.1927GLADYS E. vail, SM'27, was awarded anhonorary degree in science by PurdueUniversity where she is Dean Emeritusof the School of Consumer and FamilySciences.1931HUGH A. EDMONDSON, MD'31, received an honorary Doctor of Law degree from the University of SouthernCalifornia. He is an internationallyknown researcher and ProfessorEmeritus of Pathology.julian JACKSON, PhB'31 and Mrs.Jackson (ELEANOR STACK, x'47), werehonored by the Jamaican Tourist Boardon their 25th anniversary visit to the is-land. Mr. Jackson is immédiate past président of the University's Alumni Association.1932BRUNSWICK A. BAGDON, PhB'32, retired as régional commissioner for theBureau of Labor Statistics. Mr. Bagdondirected opérations of the Bureau'ssoutheastern région since 1948.1937MARY ALICE DUDDY, AB'37, SM'39, hasbeen living in Brazil since 1953. In thattime she has revalidated her nurses di-ploma, taught university students, andworked in wards and clinics in that country. She is now a member of a ruralmobile health team and teaches localwomen simple health care.Chairwoman of the Board of Direc-tors of the First Wisconsin Trust Company in Milwaukee, Catherine b.CLEARY, AB'37, was elected to a fouryear term on the Board of Trustées ofMayo Foundation.PAUL HUME, X'37, received an honorary degree from Rosary Collège inRiver Forest, Illinois. Mr. Hume is amusic critic for the Washington Post.1938pal:l p. pickering, sb'38, sm'39,MD'4l, former président of the American Society of Plastic and Reconstruct-ive Surgeons Inc. and clinical professorot surgery University ot California atSan Diego, was re-appointed as the plastic surgery delegate to the Inter- speciality Advisory Board of the American Médical Association.1939CHARLES BANFE, AB'39, is a seniorcheck captain on Boeing 747 aircraft incharge of the mid-Pacific routes for PanAmerican Airways. Captain Banfe willretire from Pam American later thismonth. He is also on the faculty at Stanford University teaching airline management in the Graduate School of Business.FRANCES MECCA GRAY, AM39, received an honorary Doctor ofHumanities degree from SouthwesternUniversity at Memphis. She has been active in the United Presbyterian Churchhère and abroad since 1946.THOMAS S. GREEN, AM'39, waselected to a two-year term on the Boardof Directors of Blue Cross of Massachusetts. Mr. Green is Vice-Présidentof Administration for Norton Company.1941EDWARD M. BERSHTEIN, AB'41, JD'49,AM'53, PhD'55, professor of politicalscience at the University of Hartford,received a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities to fund hisparticipation this summer in a researchseminar at the University of Wisconsin.GENE RICKEY CLEVELAND, X'4l, isincluded in the Tenth Edition of Who'sWho' s of American Women 1977/1978.She is currently employed at the University of Kentucky.JOHN C. GERBER, PhD'41, retired asCarpenter Professor of English, Chairman of the Department of English, andDirector of the School of Letters at theUniversity of Iowa. Professor Gerber iscurrently Chairman of the Departmentof English at the State University ofNew York at Albany, and Chairman ofthe Editorial Board of the Iowa-California édition of the Works of MarkTwain.ANITAJ. MACKEY, AM'41, was namedSanta Barbara Woman of the Year for1976.1942Président Carter nominated DONALD C.BERGUS, ab'42, to be AmbassadorExtraordinary and Plenipotentiary to theDémocratie Republic of Sudan. Mr. Ber-gus is Deputy Chief of Mission in Ankara, Turkey.BRADLEY H. PATTERSON, JR. AB'42,3 HAM'43, is a staff member at the Brook-ings Institution in Washington, D.C. Mr.Patterson, a fédéral career executive for32 years, served on the staff of threeprésidents: Eisenhower, Nixon, andFord. At Brookings he is a senior staffmember in the Advanced Study Program which conducts educational programs for senior executives in business,government, and the professions.Current treasurer of the New YorkState Dormitory Authority, ALBERT C.STEWART, SB'42, sm'48, was elected toserve a five-year term on the board oftrustées of The American Muséum ofNatural History. Mr. Stewart is aninternational businessman for UnionCarbide Corporation. He also receivedan Alumni Citation from The Universityof Chicago.JOHN R. TOBIN, MD'42, was appointed the John W. Clarke Professor ofMedicine at the Stritch School ofMedicine at Loyola University. He wasaccepted into the Alpha Oméga Alphahonorary médical society at Chicago andwon the Benjamin Rush Award inMedicine.1943SONIA WEINER KATZ, AB'43, AM46,presented her steel sculpture at an AprilNational Academy of Sciences show inWashington, D.C. She exhibits her workthroughout the Midwest.ROBERT W. WISSLER, SM'43, PhD'46,MD'48, received the DistinguishedAchievement Award from ModemMedicine Magazine. He was one of ele-ven physicians and biomédical re-searchers honored for important contributions to research, clinical medicine,surgery, and médical éducation. Dr.Wissler is the Donald N. Pritzker Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Pathology and Director o_fthe Specialized Center of Research inAtherosclerosis at the University.1944M. CARL HOLMAN, AM'41, président ofthe National Urban Coalition, waselected to the Board of Directors of theNational Center for Health Education.Mr. Holman has been author, news-paper editor, collège professor, community leader, and civil rights advocate before assuming his présent post.1945EUGENE P. BERG, mba'45, was awardedan honorary degree in engineering by Purdue University. Mr. Berg is Président and Chairman of the Board forBucyrus-Erie Company, Milwaukee,Wisconsin.GRACE GREDYS HARRIS, PtiB'45,Am'49, associate professor of anthropol-ogy and religious studies at the University of Rochester, was appointed Chairwoman of the Department of An-thropology. A specialist in the social an-thropological study of religious Systems,she has written a book, CasttngOut Anger, which describes the religionof the Wataita tribe of Kenya. The bookwill be published next year by Cambridge University Press.1946FRANK L. ALLEN, SB'46, PhB'46, PhD'53,was elected Chairman of the Board ofArthur D. Little Systems Inc., Burlington, Massachusetts. He continues asvice-président in charge of the parentcompany's information Systems activitiesat corporate headquarters in Cambridge.In récognition of research concerningelementary, secondary, and higher éducation on a national basis, B. EVERARDBLANCHARD, am'46, was granted a Ken-tucky Colonel's Commission by theGovernor ot Kentucky. The spring issueof the Journal for Improving Collège andUniversity Teaching published Mr. Blan-chard's project results, based on a four-year survey of the Graduate School ofEducation at De Paul University,Chicago.JAROSLAV PELIKAN, PhD'46, wasawarded an honorary degree of Doctorof Humane Letters by the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C.Dr. Pelikan is a widely recognized Lu-theran scholar and historian. Affiliatedwith Yale since 1962, he has servedthere since 1972 as the Sterling Professor of History and Religious Studies.WALLACE D. RILEY, PhB'46, wasnominated for a three-year term on theAmerican Bar Association's Board ofGovernors. If elected, Riley will repre-sent Michigan, Ohio, and West Virginia.He is a member of the Détroit law ftrmof Riley and Roumell, P.C., former président of the Détroit Bar Association,and member of the Fédéral Bar Association, and American Judicature Society.1947JOSEPH J. SISCO, AM'47, PhD'50, président of American University, has beenappointed a member of the Board of Directors of the National Bank of Wash ington. A former under-secretary forpolitical affairs, Sisco has also served theState Department as principal advisorand deputy negotiator on Middle Eastern issues, and as an assistant secretaryfor Near Eastern and South Asian affairs.BERNARD STEIN/.OR, PtlD'47, accepted an appointment as a teacher withthe Institute for Psychoanalytic Therapyat the University of Goteborg, Sweden,for a year beginning this September.1948RICHARD C. ATKINSON, PhB'48, wasnominated by Président Carter as Director of the National Science Foundation.An expérimental psychologist andapplied mathematician whose researchdeals with the analysis of memory andcognition, Mr. Atkinson's early work —transforming intuitive ideas about thenature of memory into a theory based onmathematical terms — has been the basisfor much of the current research onhuman memory and the learning process.Internationally recognized physicistRICHARD L. GARWIN, SM'48, PhD'49,was appointed a Fellow of the LosAlamos Scientific Laboratory. A studentof Enrico Fermi, Mr. Garwin became aninstructor and assistant professor at TheUniversity of Chicago for three yearsupon his graduation.MAX L. HUNT, mba'48, retired as ad-ministrator of Yakima Valley MémorialHospital on the day of his 26th anniver-sary in that position. Under his administration, the hospital and serviceshâve doubled in size, while its assetshâve increased from two to ten milliondollars.T. D. LINGO (PAUL T. LEZ-CHUK),PhB'48, AM'51, is Director of Ad ventureTrails Research and Development Laboratories in Blackhawk, Colorado. Hisrécent seminar on the "Frontier of Con-sciousness" at the University of Colorado contended that the human race iscapable of transcendent consciousnessthrough "brain self-control" of the frontal lobe tissue.Président Carter nominated DAVID E.mann, sm'48, phD'48, to be AssistantSecretary of the Navy. Mr. Mann wasthe Spécial Assistant to the Chief ofNaval Opérations for Navy AdvancedSystems Projects since 1973.For twelve and a half years until itsclosure, ARTHUR J. SORENSEN JR.,AB'48, AM'52, was Réhabilitation Coor-39dinator for Chicago's Municipal Tuber-culosis Sanitarium. After completing astudy on sheltered workshops byGreenleigh Associates as a field superviser, Mr. Sorensen was appointed Vocation Services Coordinator for theHandicapped Development Center inDavenport, lowa.1949Named "Citizen ot the Year" inWoodstock, Illinois, DAN E. ANDREW,MBA'-)9, was elected to the Board of Di-rectors of the Des Plaines NationalBank. Member of numerous civic andprofessional organizations, Mr. Andrewis presently the Executive Vice-Président for the bank.MARY Davis, SM'49, was elected to asix-member législative board as a trustéeof the Village ot River Forest, Illinois.JAMES R. KING, MBA'49, was namedVice-Président ot Marketing, ChemicalsDivision for the Quaker Oats Company.Mr. King joined the Company in 1949.His most récent position was Vice-Président of Administration and Planning, Chemicals Division.Président of the Social Science Research Council, ELEANOR BERNERTSHELDON, PhD'49, was among thosehonored at a banquet held in honor ofwomen directors of corporations.Catalyst, a national non-profit educational organization to help womenchoose, launch, and advance theircarecrs, sponsored the dinner in whichfive distinguished women who serve onthe boards of directors of leading corporations were recognized for their outstanding achievements in the businesscommunity.1950BERTRAND N. BAUER, AB'50, MBA'56, isco-author of a torthcoming textbook onelementary statistics for collège businessand économies students. Mr. Bauer isthe owner of and chief consultant for Pa-rameter Investigation, a firm specializingin statistical Consulting and randomsampling. It is his first book and is ex-pected to appear in 19T8. Dr. Ya-lunChuu of St. John's University, Jamaica,New York, is the senior author, andHolt, Rinehart & Winston is the pub-lisher1951Professor ot political science at the University of Chicago, HERBERT J. STOR-IN'G, AM'51, PhD'56, was elected to the faculty ot the University of Virginia andappointed Project Director for the studyof the American presidency. Mr. Storingrecently finished a six volume analysis ofthe anti-federalist political position enti-tled The Complète Anti-Federa/ist.1952NORMAN T. PORILE, AB'52, PhD'57,professor of chemistry at Purdue University, won the F. D. Martin Award forExcellence in Undergraduate Teaching.He is married to the former MIRIAMEISEN, AB'53.1954RUTH SACKS CHUSID, AM'54, has beenexperimenting for the past several yearswith methods of pain and tension réduction. As Director of the Pathways Institute in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, sheteaches relaxation techniques in-corporating numerous schools of bodythérapies, méditation, body movementand massage.Former vice-président of administrative services for Public Service of Indi-ana, REMI C. PATTYN, MBA'54, waselected Senior Vice-Président for Opérations. In his new post, he will beresponsible for electric opérations andrelated services.1955DEAN H. FRANCIS, AM'55, was appointed Assistant to the Régional Director at the National Labor RelationsBoard in Oakland, California.1956THOMAS L. HARRIS, AM'56, was namedPrésident of Foote, Cône & BeldingPublic l; dations. Mr. Harris joined theorganization in 1973 as Vice-Présidentfor Public Relations.ROBERT P. PERRY, PhD'56, waselected to the National Academy of Sciences. Mr. Perry is Professor ofBiophysics at the University of Penn-sylvania.JOHN C. RENSENBRINK, PhD'56, wasappointed Chairman of the Departmentof Government and Légal Studies forthe 1977-78 and 1978-79 académieyears at Bowdoin Collège.1958Mrs. Lillian Fryden has donated 52,000to the Learning Resources Center ofTruman Collège in San Francisco to pur-chase books in memory ot her son,FLOYD FRYDEN, AB'58, AM'60. Fryden was killed in 1972 at the âge of thirty-five in the Illinois Central-Gulf Commuter train crash.1959JOHN V. GILHOOLY, JD'59, was pro-moted to Assistant Vice-Président ofTexas Instruments Inc. He continues inhis présent rôle as corporate légal coun-sel to this multi-national company.The former Minister of Education inUganda, the Rev. luimbazi zake,mcl'59, is now the Professor of Cul-tural Anthropology at Governors StateUniversity in Park Forest, Illinois.1960SAUL D. BINDER, SB'60, was recentlyelected Président and Chief ExecutiveOfficer of the Jefferson State Bank inChicago.Président of Hood Collège in Mary-land, MARTHA E. CHURCH, PhD'60, wasnamed to the Philadelphia RégionalPanel of the President's Commission ofWhite House Fellowships. Along withnine others, she will help sélect candidates for the 1977-78 White House Fellowships.1961R. PHILIP EATON, MD'6l, is the As-sociate Director of the Clinical ResearchCenter in Albuquerque, New Mexico.Affiliated with the University of NewMexico, the center is a combined gênerai and clinical cancer research area de-signed to bridge the gap between teaching and delivery of médical care.Formerly working as a commerical art-ist, designer, and art director, STEVEHORAN, AB'6l, returned full-time to hisown printmaking and painting. Hisprints are in a style influenced by PaulCézanne and the illuminators ofmédiéval manuscripts. Horan's worksare in collections across the country.ÎHADDEUS J. O'BRIEN, AM'6l,phD'72, joined the staff of Rohrer, Hi-bler and Replogle, Inc. RH&R is aninternational firm of management consultants. Mr. O'Brien is in the Clevelandoffice. He was formerly the Assistant tothe Président/Executive Director of theEducational Research Council ofAmerica in Cleveland.HAROLD RICHMAN, AM'61, PhD'69,was appointed to the President's Commission on Mental Health by PrésidentCarter. The Commission will analyze thecurrent condition of services for thementally ill, emotionally disturbed, anditmentally retarded and will also détermine the form and fiscal accountabil-ity of the government and private sec-tors for services.1962DONALD E. BALDOVIN, MBA'62, was appointed the Division Administration andEconomies Manager for Amoco Production Company. He will be chief financialand économies advisor to the vice-président and division manager in Den-ver.1963MICHAEL L. BATES, AB'63, PhD'75,spoke at the First International Symposium on Studies in the History ofArabia. As Associate Curator of IslamicCoins at the American Numismatic Society, Mr. Bâtes was one of a sélectgroup of Islamic scholars from through-out the world invited to participate atthe conférence in Riyad, Saudi Arabia.Président Carter nominated DONALDELISBURG, JD'63, as Assistant Secretaryof Labor for Employment Standards.Under the Employment Standards Administration, he will be responsible forenforcing a wide variety of fédéral laborlaws, including those setting minimumwage, overtime pay, and child laborstandards.GENE GODLEY, JD'63, was nominatedby Président Carter to be an assistantsecretary of the treasury. Last August hewas director of the Mondale advanceopération for the Carter-Mondale campaign.Scholar of religion and literatureGILES B. GUNN, AM'63, PhD'67, joinedthe faculty of Carleton Collège as theHelen Andrus Benedict DistinguishedVisiting Professor. He is currently Professor of Religion and American Studiesat the University of North Carolina.JOHN R. MALONE, PtiD'63, associatedean of the Collège of Business Administration at Notre Dame and found-ing director of its MBA program, left hisadministrative positions to return toteaching as a professor of marketing.RAYMOND B. WILLIAM, AM'63,PhD'66, was promoted to Professor ofReligion at Wabash Collège in Indiana.The author of numerous articles on thestudy of religions, he has also received afellowship in Asian religions for collègeteachers at the University of Madras inIndia, and a post-doctoral fellowship forcross-disciplinary study at CambridgeUniversity in England. ERIC L. ZORNBERG, SM'63, PhD'69,recently opened an appliance repair business in Jérusalem. Mr. Zxirnberg alsoteaches a course in physics at theJérusalem Collège of Technology. Priorto his exodus to Israël, he was an assistant professor at Wellesley Collège. Mr.Zornberg and his wife, Anna Gottlieb,hâve a one year old daughter, Bracha.1964Président Carter nominated DOUGLASM. COSTLE, JD'64, for Administrator ofthe Environmental Protection Agency.RAYMOND E. DEASY, MBA'64, has become Président of Modernfold, anAmerican-Standard Company, locatedin New Castle, Indiana.Président Carter nominated CHESTERC. McGUIRE JR., MBA'64, PtlD'74, to beAssistant Secretary of Housing andUrban Development. Mr. McGuire isVice-Président and Secretary of Berkeley Planning Associates, Président ofMcGuire Associates, and an assistantprofessor in the Department of City andRégional Planning of the University ofCalifornia at Berkeley.WILLIAM VAN BOGAERT ROBERTSON,AB'64, joined the June entering class ofthe American Graduate School of International Management in Arizona. Hiscourses emphasize work with the Middle East.1965DAVID BACKUS, BD'65, is the author ofan article on French language in Québec,which appeared in the February issue ofFrench Review, a journal of the AmericanAssociation of Teachers of French, andof a book of stories and essays to be re-leased late this year. A freelance writerand translator living in Land O' Lakes,Wisconsin, Mr. Backus is researching asecond book on France and Italy. He isalso preparing English translations ofsome little-known texts of Stendhal.RICHARD V. HARDIN, MBA'65, wasnamed Director of Foundary Marketing,Chemicals Division for the Quaker OatsCompany. Mr. Hardin joined Quaker in1967 as Commerical Development Associate.ERIC HIRSCHBORN, AB'65, joinedPrésident Carter's Reorganization Project, where he is working in the field ofnational security and foreign policy. Hewas formerly Chief Counsel to the Government Information and IndividualRights Subcommittee in the House ofReprésentatives. DANIEL G. ILLERICH, MBA'65, received the Meritorious Service Medal atKelly Air Force Base, Texas. Major II-lerich was cited for oustanding duty performance as Chief of the Civil Engineering Division, 2578th Air Base Group,Ellington AFB. The major now serves atKelly with a unit of the Tactical AirCommand.An exhibition of ROBERT LIPGAR'S,PhD'65, photography entitled 'TheFamiliar Moment' was shown at theAmerican Bar Foundation in Chicago inMarch.ANDREW L. RUFF, AM'65, was namedto the newly created post of Manager ofEmployée Benefits for Borg-WarnerCorporation and continues as Managerof Pensions.1966RICHARD W. MERCER, am'66, received a$15,000-fellowship from the NationalEndowment for the Humanities. Themoney provides for a year's study in aprogram designed to stimulate researchthat will contribute to teaching expérience and the possibility of publication.For a year Mr. Mercer will attend aseminar on comedy at Hofstra University. He is currently teaching English atVirginia Commonwealth University.1967Associate professor at Notre Dame,PERI E. ARNOLD, AM'67, PhD'72, wasappointed Chairman of the Departmentof Government and InternationalStudies there. Mr. Arnold is a specialistin American politics and public administration.WILLIAMJ. DOUGHERTY, MBA'67, wasappointed Assistant Corporate Comp-troller for International Harvester'sCorporate Accounting Department. Mr.Dougherty's duties encompass the administrative direction of gênerai accounting and corporate reports.JAMES FISHER, AMÔ7, PhD'72, waspromoted from an assistant to an associate professor of sociology and an-thropology at Carleton Collège. Mr.Fisher is the author of a number of articles on Népal.Zale Corporation in Dallas appointedROBERT L. HECHLER, MBA'67, Vice-President and Controller, a new post forthe company. Prior to his associationwith Zale, Hechler was Senior Vice-Président and Chief Financial Officer ofWaddell & Reed, Inc., of Kansas City.Elected Vice-Président and Treasurer41of Time Insurance Company in Milwaukee, JAMES B. KEATING, MBA'67, directs the activities in the investment department. Prior to his involvement withTime Insurance, he spent over eightyears in the investments business as-sociated with major securities firms.After "nine years of freedom", JEANMILNER, SB'67, is in her first year ofmédical school at the University of NewMexico.MICHAEL R. A. WADE, AB'67, openedhis own business in New York, offeringU.S. industry forecasts and investmentsurveys to foreign companies.MICHAEL ZUCKERT, AM'67, PhD'74,was promoted from an assistant to an associate professor of political science atCarleton Collège. A récipient of the A.D. White Award for American Studies,Mr. Zuckert was designated a Falk Fel-low in American Politics and an EarhartFellow for Carleton.1968RUTH CALDWELL, AM'68, PhD'73, aFrench professor at Luther Collège inDecorah, Iowa, was granted tenure. Sheearned a Fullbright student grant, aFullbright teaching fellowship and theUniversity of Chicago Paris Exchangefellowship. Ms. Caldwell has been onLuther's modem language faculty since1971.ARTHUR FINKELSTEIN, ab'68, received his MD in May from the MédicalCollège in Pennsylvania.JURIS G. ODINS, AB'68, received hismaster's degree in librarianship from theUniversity of Denver last December.Since April of this year he has beenworking as librarian for the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers InternationalUnion in Denver.JUDITH L. SEBESTA, AB'68, assistantprofessor of classics at the University ofSouth Dakota, will be attending the1977 National Endowment for theHumanities summer seminar in Rome.The program centers on "Problems inthe Topography of Ancient Rome" andis directed by Professor LawrenceRichardson, Jr., of Duke University.1969Président Carter announced his intention to nominate ROGER C. ALTMAN,MBA'69, to be Assistant Secretary of theTreasury for Capital Markets and DebtManagement. Altman is a gênerai partner with Lehman Brothers, Inc., a NewYork investment banking firm, and also worked on the Carter-Mondale transition staff, concentrating on the treasurydepartment.GRANT E. GORMLEY, AB'69, has as-sumed the duties of Attorney for theSouth Dakota State Législative Audit.JOSIAH MEYER, SB'69, was appointedto the faculty of Eisenhower Collège inSeneca Falls, N.Y. Dr. Meyer, formerlya visiting professor at the University ofIowa, also taught at Washington University. He recently had an article appear inthe Journal of Différent lai Geometry.JAMES H. RIAL, AB'69, was appointedAssistant Professor of History atAllegheny Collège in Meadville, Pennsylvania.1970MICHAEL L. CHERNOFF, AM'70, is nolonger at the University of Massachusetts. He is now Assistant Professor of Sociology at Georgia StateUniversity.PAUL W. FITZNER, MBA'70, was appointed Midwest Régional Sales Manager of Metromation, Inc., a supplier ofcomputer Systems for process-controlapplications in the chemical and petro-leum industries.Président Carter appointed as his associate counsel, DOUGLAS B. HURON,JD'70. For six years after his graduation,Mr. Huron worked in the Civil RightsDivision of the Justice Department,where he prosecuted cases of employment discrimination. Resigning to serveas counsel to the Carter-Mondale campaign, he was responsible for ensuringcompliance with Fédéral élection laws.CLYDE W. ostler, MBA'70, was appointed Manager of the ManagementSciences Department for the WellsFargo Bank in San Francisco. Mr. Ostlerwas elected a vice-président of that bankin 1975.ERNEST PANKERT, MBA'70, waselected a Principal of Towers, Perrin,Forster, & Crosby, international consultants to management.1971GREGORY A. HANCOCK, AM'71, PhD'71,is the Fédéral Schools Commissioner forAustralia. His wife, GLENICE HANCOCK, PhD'71, is a teacher éducation in-structor there as well.PHILIP R. McLOUGHLIN, JD'71, waselected Secretary and Counsel ofPhoenix Equity Planning Corporation, asubsidiary of Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Company, Hartford, Con- necticut. Mr. McLoughlin is a past président of the Connecticut Spécial Olym-pics, the Jaycees Courant BaseballLeague, and a former secretary of theHartford Midget Football League.Travenol Laboratories appointedGARY M. MELBERG, MBA'71, manager oftheir good manufacturing practices train-ing program. Mr. Melberg was pre-viously Supervisor of Management Development.JEAN-PIERRE PINATTON, MBA'71,was elected a vice-président of theinternational investment banking andbrokerage firm of Smith Barney, HarrisUpham & Co. Inc., in Paris. Formerly alieutenant in the French Air Force, hehad been with the company since 1971in corporate finance.RICHARD E. WAYMAN, MBA'71, isManager-Budgets and OpérationsAnalysis at Amway Corporation in Ada,Michigan.1972JOHN D. BEAM, mba'72, was elected apartner of Tatham-Laird & Kudner Ad-vertising Agency. Beam is an accountexecutive for TLK and has been with theagency since 1972.Last March, the THEODORE BER-LAND, am'72, column on dieting wasretitled "The Thin Man" and moved tothe Chicago Daily News. It previouslyappeared as "Dieting Today" in theChicago Tribune.ROY BLEIWEISS, JD'72, opened a rarebooks and manuscripts store in LosAngeles. The shop specializes in firstéditions, private presses, Americana,law, and medicine. Mr. Bleiweiss reportsthat the shop has been described by LosAngeles Magazine.THOMAS M. GANNON, PhD'72, received the Faculty of the Year awardfrom the Blue Key National HonorFraternity of Loyola University. Rev.Gannon was also elected Président ofthe Association for the Sociology ofReligion for 1977-78.WILLIAM C. GILPIN, AM'72, PhD'74,was installed as Assistant Professor ofChurch History at Phillips University inEnid, Oklahoma. An ordained ministerof the Disciples of Christ, he had lec-tured on the history of Christianity atThe University of Chicago and was administrative assistant to the dean of theDisciples Divinity House.PETER JUST, AB'72, writes from Washington, D.C. that he has lost his government research job, but it's just fine,¦42since he is moving to Philadelphia wherehe will attend graduate school at theUniversity of Pennsylvania.After twelve months of travel and atwo year stint in the Army, EDWIN T.LEE, AB'72, is in the University of TexasSchool of Law. This spring he was amember of the team which won theRutger's Award for the Best UnitedStates Mémorial in the 1977 Philip C.Jessup International Law Moot CourtCompétition. He will be working forTexas Rural Légal Aid in Brownsvillethis summer, after which he will returnto Austin for his final year in law school.After completing a year as a lecturerin personality theory at California StateUniversity in Fullerton, ARNOLD M.LUND, AB'72, will begin studying towards a PhD in expérimental psychologythis fall. He will be working as Dr. Be-nton J. Underwood's research assistantat Northwestern University.PATRICK L. REMY, MBA'72, waselected a partner of Tatham-Laird &Kudner Advertising Agency. Remy is anaccount executive and has been with theagency since 1972.1973Leaving the vice-presidency ofBaitimer Electric Company in Houston,DENNIS J. FOLEY, MBA'73, rejoinedCelanese Chemical Company as an Assistant Product Sales Manager for acetyland methyl chemicals.1974GAIL ANN McGARY DREHER, MBA'74,has become a certified public account-ant.CHERYL MORGAN, AB'74, was appointed Assistant to the City Manager ofthe city of Compton, California.Born to ANTHONY SEEGER, PflD'74,and JUDITH SEEGER, AM'70,-on the firstday of the Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, adaughter named Elizabeth MapaluSeeger.LOUISE W. STANEK, PhD'74, was appointed Manager-Training and Development for Philip Morris Incorporated.She is responsible for developing andrecommending Philip Morris trainingand development policies.RONALD D. SANFIELD, AM'74, is thePrimary Policy Analyst for Long-TermCare Régulation in the Rate SettingCommission of the Commonwealth ofMassachusetts. He was appointed a lecturer at Boston University. Mr. Sanfieldis a professional (part-time) jazz pianist. BRIAN B. STRANGE, MBA'74, waselected an international banking officerby the American National Bank & TrustCompany. Mr. Strange joined the bankin 1974 as a crédit analyst.1975PETER KARDON, AM'75, was one of ninewinners of a "Young Scholars" compétition sponsored by the MédiévalAcademy of America. He delivered hiswinning paper to the Academy's annualmeeting in May, held in Toronto.MIKE KLINGENSMITH, AB'75,MBA'76, is Assistant Business Managerfor Sports Illustrated in New York City.He is responsible for controlling production costs, monitoring the circulation, and other magazine opérations. Atthe University, he was a business manager of the Manon. He has finished aseason as coach of the Time Inc. basketball team.SIGRID M. SCHMIDT, MBA'75, waselected an opérations officer by theAmerican National Bank & Trust Company. Ms. Schmidt joined the bank in1972 as a project coordinator in the opérations department.STUART J. SWEET, AB'75, MBA'76, isDirector of the Economies Task Force ofthe Republican Policy Committee in theHouse of Représentatives. In March,Sweet married SUE TYSKLIND, AB'75, inBond Chapel.1976E. THOMAS BAILEY, MBA'76, joined theNew Jersey branch of AmericanHoechst Corporations's Film Division astechnical manager. He accepted this position after spending eight years withContinental Can Company as Managerof Polymer Research.MARGARET BEALE, PhD'76, was appointed Assistant Professor of Psychology at Emory University in Atlanta,Georgia. She previously had been a research consultant and project director ofa study on the éducation of mother andchild at The University of Chicago.JOSEPH H. DELEHANT, JD'76, wasadmitted to the Bar of the District ofColumbia. He is associated with theWashington law firm of Kominers, Fort,Schlefer, and Boyer.THOMAS C. HEAGY, AB'76, MBA'76,was elected Chairman of the Board andChief Executive Officer of the SouthShore National Bank of Chicago. Mr.Heagy, 32, is the youngest chairman inthe bank's 38-year history. PLEASE SENDTHECHICAGOMAROONTONAMEADDRESSCITY STATE ZIPmake checks payable tochicago maroono renewalQnewsubscription$9 for one year(order received by 9-15)$6 for two quarters(order received by 12-15)$3foronequarter(order received by 3-15)*OUR ACADEMIC YEAR PUBLICATION SCHEDULERESUMES ON FRIDAY. SEPTEMBER 23 AND CONTINUES EACH TUESDAY AND FRIDAY UNTIL JUNE.43FOR THE RECORD w»%CIn Memoriam1900-1919HERBERT EARLE BUCHANAN, AM'03,PhD'09; JENNIE ELIZABETH HALLBARNES, PhD'03, an active leader in theParent-Teacher Associations of Texasand Michigan, died last fall; HAYWARDD. WARNER, SB'03, a miler on the UC1902 track team died March 1, in Denver.LILLIAN STEICHEN SANDBURG,PhD'04, widow of poet and writer CariSandburg, died.LILIA BERTHA GARMS, PhB'07, died.MORGIA STOUGH GOODELL, PhB'08;MARY R. MORTON, PtlB'08; ELIZABETHPARKER CRILEY, PhB'08.ERNEST G. FISCHER, PhB'10, died inApril.JOHN R. BUCKLEY, X'H; THOMAS C.GALLOWAY, SM'll, MD'12, developer ofthe treatment for bulbar poliomyelitis,died in Evanston: HARRIET EVELYNPENFIELD, X'H; CHARLES V. STANSELL,am'11, former associate editor of TheKamai City Star, died in December.GERTRUDE LOUISE ANTHONY, SB'12,AM'32, a retired mathematics teacherdied on February 8; GILLIE ALDAHLAREW, AM'12, PhD'16, dean emeritusof Randolph-Macon Woman's Collège,died in Lynchburg, Virginia; JOHNROBERT N'EWMAN, MD'12.GLADYS SWAIM, AB'14; MARGUERITEMILLER VISHER, PhB'14.MANIA HOLLAND FOGEL, PhB'15; LOIS GIBERT SUTHERLAND SPEAR,AB'15.LYNDON E. HOFFMAN, PhB'16; MAR-ION COLE-SCHROEDER, SB' 16, MD'18.JOSEPHINE H. ROGERS HARRIS, X'17;ROY W. KNIPSCHILD, PhB'17, a startingquarterback in the glory days of theUniversity's football team, died inMarch; HERBERT WACHTER, PhB'17.ANNE MARSHALL ORR, AM'18; HERBERT C. SCHOSSER, SB'18, MD'20; MAN-DEL SHERMAN, SB'18, MD'20, PhD'27.DAVID M. levy, MD'19, a prominentpsychiatrist, died in February.1920-1929EDGAR BERNHARD, Ph.B'20, JD'21, diedFebruary 2; ARTHUR B. CUMMINS,SB'20, died March 10; MARGARET LUCYPARK REDFIELD, PhB'20, Wldow of emi-nent University of Chicago an-thropologist, James Redfield, died February 6; CHARLES SCHARF, SB'20, pastorof Immaculate Conception R. C. Churchin Norwood, New Jersey, died February23; MELVINA E. WALKER, PhB'20, diedMarch 14; SIMON H. TULCHIN, PhB'20.HOWARD GOODMAN, X'21, a life trustée of The University of Chicago whowas responsible for rebuilding the pipeorgan in Rockefeller Chapel, died February 2; FRANK B. LEFFERT, MD'21, diedin September. LOIS OLSON, SB'21,SM'27, retired geographer and editor,died January 13.AARON COLE, PhB'22, CHARLES B.COURSEN, PhB'22, died in April;SHULAMITE BEN-HAREL LIEBERMAN, SM'22, died January 29; FRANCESLANGWORTH MURRAY, AB'22, a founderof Horizon House, a headstart programin Chicago, and former dean of Winnetka Graduate Teachers Collège, diedFebruary 28; ELIZABETH JUDD NOYES,PhB'22, died January 4; ROLFEMONTGOMERY RANKIN, AM'22, diedJune 2; FORREST G. TUCKER, PhD'22, aretired physics teacher, died December29; BERNARD MORTIMER, SB'22,phD'26, MD'40, died December 10.HENRY L. D. MOORE, AM'23;WINIFRED RIDGLEY REW, Ph.B'23;JAMES M. WELLER, SB'23, PhD'27.JOSEPH H. FOTH, phD'24, formerhead of the Department of Economiesand Business Administration atWashburn University, died January 26;HARRY J. HUNT, PhB'24; FLORENCE B.WICKERSHAM, PhB'24.WALTER HOLLENSTEINER, PhB'25;THEODORE KOESTER, Ph.B'25, vice-president of Rauscher Pierce SecuritiesCorp. in San Antonio, died suddenlyOctober 21; JOSEPHINE M. LANE,AM'25; GEORGE B. LOY, X'25.RICHARD B. AUSTIN, JD'26, seniorjudge of the U.S. District Court inChicago, died in February; WILLIAM R.HAHN, PhB'26; KENNETH L. HERTEL,PhD'26, the inventor of the fibrograph, acotton gauge, died last November;LOUISE HARRIETTE HOWE SOULEN,PhB'26; JAMES L. HAMIRE, JD'26; NILABANTON SMITH, PhB'26, world re-nowned reading educator, died December 13; ELSA MAY SMITHIES, AM'26,a retired teacher and former assistantprincipal at The University of ChicagoLaboratory High School, died January11; RICHARD H. THORNTON, PhD'26, awriter and past président of Henry Holtand Company Publishers, died April 3.CHARLES J. GALLAGHER, AM'27;PEARL HOGREFE, PhD'27; WILLIAM F.LITTLE, LLB'27; GEORGE B. STERICKER,MD'27 died last July.RUFFIN JOHNSTON, PflB'28; BAIRD V.KEISTER, AM'28; HERMAN F. MEYER,MD'28; JAMES B. MITCHELLJR., PhD'28.CLAUDE L. BRIGNALL, SB'29; DANIELA. MACPHERSON, PhD'29; STANLEY H.PRENTISS, PhB'29, JD'30; MABEL F.RICE, PhB'29; WILEY B. SANDERS,PhD'29.1930-1939SAMUEL BUBLICK, PhB'30, JD'32; JAMESC. CHAPEL, AM'30; JOHN GEDGOUD,SB'30, MD'35, died in January.EDWARD C. BOLMEIER, AM'31,PhD'36, nationally recognized authority on school law and school administration, died January 14; DOROTHY HAGE-MEYER DOEDE, AB'31, chemist and co-founder of Quantum Inc., died December 6; LUTHER CALVIN GILBERT, PtlD'3 1 ;GEORGE N. HIBBEN, PhB'31, JD'33;WILLIAM JANCIUS, PhB'31; HARRIETMOORE, AB'31.VERNON R. DE YOUNG, MD'32;THOMAS L. DODD, PhB'32; JEANETTEVANDERWERP HAGER, X'32; JAMES A.HAMILTON, SM'32, actuary, died February 27; MARGUERITT HARMON BRO,X'32; RUTH LYMAN HILL, SB'32; JAMESF. INFELT, AM'32; RICHARD M. PAGE,SM'32.HELLEN GRAVES ALLAN, PhB'33,AM'39; LAURENCE A. ANDERSON,AM'33; IRVING M. COBIN, MD'33;SAMUEL GARRICK, SB'33, MD'37; AGNESC. HAZEL, X'33; CHARLES F. NESBITT,AM'33, PhD'39; ARCHIE SMITH, jd'33;MARIAN SMITH, PhB'33; DOROTHY V.THOMAS, X'33.GWYNETHE WINTER BUBLICK,PhB'34, died March 8; MARTIN E. CARL-SON, a retired navy captain and chiefdéfense at ail the Japanese war crimetrials held in Guam, died in January;LUCILLE BAULE GATES, PhB'34; EDITHHENDRIE, AM'34; CARL STECKLER,MD'34.RICHARD EAGLETON, PhB'35, JD'36;ALMA C. NESPITAL, PhB'35, AM'40;GEORGE F. NICHOLS, AM'35, JD'36;IRWIN E. PERLIN, PhD'35.CHESTER F. GRAU, AB'36, MBA'4l;WILLIAM HAMMER, AM'36, PhD'37;CLAUDIA NEWTON JACKSON, AB'36.TORRENCE H. DODD, X'37; A. T.HAEREM, MD'37; WESLEY P. LLOYD,PhD'37; VERA MACNAIR, PhD'37; JOHNF. MAGER, AM'37; ABRAHAM PRO-STKOFF, SM'37; HELEN VICTORIASEYMOUR, AB'37; MALCOLM B. STIN-SON, AM'37.ANTHONY STEFFENSEN CANNON,PhD'38; GLADYS L. DEWEY, Ph.B'38;RICHARD D. LEONARD, PhD'38; YEL-LENA SEEVERS, SB'38, MD'40; WILLIAMSICHER, SB'38, MD'40; EDITH KEELEYSTOVER, AB'38, AM'47; MODDIE D.TAYLOR, SM'38, PhD'43.VERA ELLMAN BUSCH, AB'39, SM'50;JAMES A. DUNKIN, AB'39, JD'41; ORVILM. KLOSE, SM'39; THEODORE R. LAW-son, x'39-1940-1949LEOLA E. GLADSTONE, SB'40, SM'42,PhD'48. MARY O'FLYNN PAULUS, AM'4l;ROSALTHA HAGAN SANDERS, PhD'4l.DONALD H. EDWARDS, DB'42, aforeign service officer specializing in Af-rican affairs, died January 24;ALEXANDER LICHTOR, MD'42, diedFebruary 17; ROSALIND ROWAN, AM'42;MILTON SHUFRO, x'42, civic leader andpublic relations executive, died March 7;GEORGE L. ZEVNICK, AB'42.CATHERINE MABRY KIGH, X'43, diedJanuary 11; MARTIN v. McGlLL, am'43.ERWIN J. BULS, SM'44, died lastNovember.JACQUELINE LUCE KLEIN, AB'47, diedJanuary 12.WESLEY L. FISHEL, PhD'48; HYMAN J.KRAUSS, JD'48; NORMAN PATINKIN,SB'48, mba'64, died April 21.JOHN G. HAWTHORNE, PhD'49, an associate professor in the Department ofClassical Languages and Literatures andthe Collège at the University.1950-1959LEONARD Z. BREEN, AM'50, PhD'56,died April 16; CHARLES W. CULLEN,x'50; JOSEPH H. ROE, am'50, formerstate director for social services in Illinois, died in February.ROBERT L. AUSTIN, AB'52, JD'56,long-time foe of violence on télévision;BESSIE FANCHER, AB'52.ERNEST W. STEVENS, X'53, died lastOctober.CHRISTOPHER C. SMITH, DB'55, a lec-turer in religion and psychologicalstudies at The University of Chicago Di-vinity School, died in April.DOROTHEA LANE, AM'57.THOMAS J. BRUDIE, AB'58, died February 2.1 960-1 973FRANK FRIGAN, SM'60; MARTIN R.RO-SENTHAL, MBA'60THERESA ONEIL TOTHILL, AM'6l;CHARLES W. URSCHEL, MD'6l.LEE PRAVATINER, AM'62, co-ordinator of urban affairs for MichaelReese Hospital in Chicago, died inApril.PATRICK THOMPSON KWAMI AIDAM,MBA'66, a senior lecturer in accountancyat the University of Ghana.LOURDES L. ARVISU, PhD'69, professor of English at the University of thePhilippines, died in December; CLIF-FORD DONALD VOJTA, MBA'69.RONALD PERRY MARKS, MBA'73, director of market research at the Mag-naflux Corporation, died in February. A Fund For BooksWhen you hâve the occasion to honorsomeone you love, you want your gift tohe both thoughtful and enduring.A gift of books to the University ofChicago Library will associate both youand the one you honor with the ongoingwork of the University and will serve toenhance the collections of the Library.Each twenty-five dollar gift allows theLibrary to add a book to its collections.For each gift of that amount, the Libraryplaces an inscribed book plate in the bookand sends copies of the plate to the personhonored and to the donor.It is also possible to establish an endowed fund for purchasing books and tomake gifts in one's own name or that of arelative or friend. Détails on thèse oppor-tunities for giving are available from theLibrary's Development Office.Make checks payable to:The University of Chicago LibraryMail to: The Director of DevelopmentThe Joseph Regenstein Library'1100 East 57 StreetChicago, Illinois 60637I enclose $ for books.Gift in honor of Address City States Zip Donor Address City States Zip 45The Cover, The CoverReceived the Spring 1977 issue. Goodheavens, who selected that dark bluepaper?I would like to read the inside backcover about the picture on the frontcover, but my eyes are too valuable touse them in such a way.In the few words I hâve deciphered, Inote an error. Wierd, first Une, secondparagraph from the bottom. I wish Icould read the rest.Anyhow, thanks for the Tutankhamunarticle.Claudia Fallert, SB '37Hinsdale, IllinoisWhoever is responsible for the ink-jobon the cover of the current Spring, 1977issue of the Magazine might do well totake a course in how not to match colors:black on dark green which makes thelettering and the gargoyle in the lowerright hand corner so indistinct as toalmost insure that it would not be recognized. When one receives as muchjunk mail as I do — much of it as badlycolor-planned — I came within an ace oftossing the whole thing in the waste-basket. The address label was socarelessly placed as to ail but block outthe magazines identity. It was due onlyto a stroke of luck that I folded the issueand placed it in my pocket, to look againwhen I reached my house. Its contentswere, as usual, high grade and such as toinsure that I read it throughout, espe-cially the article on Architect Henry IvesCobb. I was also much pleased at the brief commentary on the DivisionalMaster' s Program in the Social Sciences,whose chairman I had the honor to befor 14 years.Earl S. Johnson, MA '32, PhD '41Baldwin City, KansasYes. We know about the cover. Thesamples of the paper later purchasedwere a tone lighter, so we were as sur-prised as some of our readers are testy atthe resuit. But, Mr. Johnson, it isblue. — Ed.Comments and queriesPlease, never use such dark paper againfor the cover. The frontispiece is badenough, but the inside back cover iscompletely illegible, at least to old eyes,and maybe also to younger ones. WereHenry Ives Cobb and Silas B. Cobb re-lated? One gave Cobb Hall and theother designed it.Re your response to the letter fromHerman Wolfson on page 47. I am sur-prised that some alumni apparently donot know much about the Universityseal and its inscription. And you felt ob-liged to give a translation to boot. Itought to be imprinted on every matricu-lation card, and in both languages. . . .Paul Shorey conceived it, as I recall. AmI right?Re the complaint of GwendolynRoddy Ferguson; I am surprised at hercontentions of percentages of this andthat. Is our whole System to be based onpercents, like Mayor Daley's political concepts? When are we going to beAmericans, and not hyphenated ones?Israël Zangwill wrote the "Melting Pot"seventy years ago and it was widely readand dramatized. Now we seem to be get-ting into a freezing pot. As a student between 1909 and 1913, and also being aJew, I was never invited into a fraternity.There were no Jewish ones then, thankgoodness. It did not bother me an iota. Iwas there to get an éducation. Now Ms.Ferguson should be somewhat satisfiedby the huge success of Alex Haley'sRoots. It has touched us ail. It has out-distanced Gone with the Wind, which wasthe other side of the issue. And bothtook 12 years to write.In the logograph on page 46, are theletters Greek, or Russian or what? Iknow a bit of Greek and I cannot figureit out.Alan D. Whitney, PhB '13Winnetka, IllinoisFrom the top: sorry about the cover.No, Henry Ives and Silas B. were un-related Cobbs. You are right about Professor Paul Shorey, who was inspired byseveral lines from Tennyson's "InMemoriam." As to the "Letters" logo,we suspect that the architect's masonswere ad-libbing and mixed analphabet. — Ed.The Road to EleusisIn the Spring, 1977 issue of the Magazine, inner back cover, there is mentionof "Eleusis" which I had tried to locatesince learning that my name, Conradi,means "son of Conrad, bold, counselor,soldier of Eleusis, 1397." A road fromAthens to Eleusis is given as the site of ashrine to Zephyros, known to the Romans as Favonius and honored by them.A coat of arms which I now hâve ismounted on a plaque of wood from San-dringham, an estate of the Queen of En-gland, so this vouches for my grand-father having been in England (and agénération before in Germany).British cousins-once-removed havinga genealogist-relative are responsible forthis late interest in researching myname. My relatives are faculty membersat Birmingham University where it iscustomary for people in their positionsto provide a record of ancestry.Catharine M. Conradi, AM '48Winter Harbor, Maine-t<<From the Hammond Atlas of the AncientWorld, Eleusis was due north of the is-land then (and now) called Salamis. Itssite is marked by the modem town ofElevsis, on the Saronic Gulf, northwestof Athens. — Ed.The Peripatetic SweaterVacationing in Europe last summer withmy family, we were ail interested andamused to see that the single most popu-lar item of clothing for teenagersseemed to be the collège t-shirt. Thèseshirts are obviously European-manufactured with a glorious disregardfor accuracy. Among others, we saw theUniversity of Texas in baby blue withwhite letters, Princeton in navy with ared university seal, and one whose colorI forget, but whose legend Iremember — it read Southern CaliforniaUniversity (Sic)! We were strollingalong one of the mails in Amsterdam,when I spotted in a clothing store win-dow what was indubitably a Universityof Chicago varsity sweater. Although ithad been cleaned and immaculatelypressed, it was apparent from it's appear-ance and style that it dated from the1930s. It was shown with a matchingmaroon turtleneck shirt, and priced atapproximately thirty-five U.S. dollars. Iwould hâve rescued it, but we left beforethe shops opened the following day. Theend of the story will forever be a mys-teryr I wonder how it got there.Cheryl Newman, PhB '45, BLS '48, AM'52, Red Bank, New Jersey Index Volume LXIXNumber 1 Autumn 1976The Private I: Philip B. KurlandEquadorian Roots: Donald CollierWanted: New Hypothèses in High Energy Physics: Bruce WinsteinSong of the Cicada: James IorioRéminiscences of Mathematics at Chicago: Marshall H. StoneThe Stone Age of Mathematics on the Midway: Félix BrowderThe Old Ones: Eda HouwinkImportance of the Graduate Alum: Albert ReesThe Longest and Most Successful Baseball Trip of Ail Time: Robert BairdNumber 2 Winter1976Scholarship as a Vocation: James RedfieldNot Big Times, But Better Times: An Interview With Harold MetcalfFear of Failing: Mark R. HorowitzThe Quest for PrehistoryThe Tuti-Nama: Daniel J. EhnbomWhatever Has Become of the "Chicago School?": Cesare SegreNumber 3 Spring 1977Henry Ives Cobb: The Grand Design: Julius LewisGetting ThroughTreasures of TutankhamunAn Interview with Peter J. Wyllie: Teaching in the CollègeAn Interview with Dale Terbeek: Expérimental PhoneticsNumber 4 Summer 1977An Interview with Larry Hawkins: Spécial ProgramsJaipur Notes: Susanne and Lloyd RudolphThe Legacy of Robert Maynard Hutchins: Edward H. LeviAn Interview with Max Bell: Calculating MathCréditsPhotographyGwendolyn Cate: page 6 (right).Michael Shields: pages 29, 31.The World of Art: pages 3, 4, 5, 6(left), 7.Jaipur photograph courtesy of Susanneand Lloyd Rudolph.Robert Maynard Hutchins photographcourtesy of the Office of PublicInformation.Spécial thanks to Skye Fackre for herassistance in editorial and productionwork for this issue.Design: Paula S. Ausick47Convocation 19771 congratulate each of you on the significantachievement of earning a degree from one of theextremely few, truly great universities of the world. Youwill find that the University is respected wherever yougo. The respect increases with each passing year.On behalf of the Alumni Association I welcome youinto an organization of over 86,000 alumni, whichincludes among its members numerous Nobel Prizewinners, university présidents, former cabinetmembers, governors, senators, congressmen, judges,and leaders in business, the professions, and the arts.You hâve been privileged on this campus to study inan atmosphère which the late Robert Maynard Hutchinsdescribed as "the freest air on this continent."Your appréciation of the University and what youobtained hère will not be fully realized by you for manyyears. Yours has been a rare opportunity; and I hopethat your love for the University will continue to grow,and that you will support it not only with your praise butwith your treasure so that in the future others may hâvethe opportunity made available to you — to study at thisgreat institution.I wish you every success in whatever future activityyou may choose.Charles W. Boand, LLB'33, MBA'57Président of the Alumni AssociationRemarks to the graduâtes at réceptions given by theAlumni Association before the Friday, June 10,Convocations at Rockefeller Mémorial Chapel.ON THE COVER. The bottle in the armsof Notos, the south wind, is no friendlyvessel. If there ever was such a thing as atruly ill wind, this one is it, or its parent.In the Middle West in the summer, thesouth wind generally only carries mois-ture up from the Gulf, occasionallyspawning a tornado. But the intensehumidity of the season may remind oneof how enervating and heavy the southwind can be on the north coast of theMediterranean. The name Notos seemsto spring from the Greek word nous,humidity, dampness. Vergil, calling thiswind Auster, says it is pernicious to thehealth of people and rots the roots ofplants; Ovid calls it "aquaticus Auster"in the Métamorphoses, and, in the Tristiahe suggests it is no friend of sailors.The south and the east winds in gênerai had a bad réputation among the an-cients. The poets gave them little of theromance of the Winter and Springwinds; ail accounts and référencessuggest much more ancient, superstiti-ous and grim associations. Pausanius sawcitizens in the Troezen eut up a roosterand run around a monument trailing itsbloody parts to appease one of thèsesoutherly winds and he gives a famousaccount of a priest performing secretprayers over four pits at night in Titane,to appease the fury of the winds, chant-ing over them the charms of Medea. Tothe south wind one offered the sacrificeof a black animal (Vergil says to offer awhite one, on the contrary, to the kindlywest wind of Spring).Storm winds, heavy with rain, brin-gers of the monsoon. Iphigeneia wassacrificed to still such a wind, says Aes-chylus. If the north and west winds, aswe hâve noted, bred horses on Harpiesand Gorgons, the south wind had Gor-gons and Harpies as their messengersand instruments. Pénélope in despairprays to be carried off by just such stormwinds and calls them Harpies.It is the summer and the autumnwinds that reminded the Greeks thatwinds were ghosts or soûls in one sensé,linked with the power of death as well as of life. An Athenian preparing to bemarried sacrificed to the "guardians andgatekeepers of the winds," as he wasabout to become an instrument of life, aservant of the soûls in the earth, whatthe Greeks called "a rearer of soûls" —which is what they also called the winds.Ail that in what Shakespeare would latercall the deep dark and abysm of time.Hère and now it is still a hot wind anda wet one — aquaticus Auster, at timesaquatic enough to flood the basementsof the buildings around the Tower of theWinds on which our wind sits with herbottle.Ax **>en mn >in r m C»-< m zrr r »•r ?-. <> > mT) r »-< m33 mm -tr> <D73 oo T\01 Dvu *JH DTDin mH 13» HmmHr