SUMMER 1976pint of the ©Id JWaroons The 1898 MaroonsStudent interest in athletics and recreation may be highertoday than at any time in the University's history. Varsitysports, intramural sports, women's sports — all are thriving.As one student athlete said recently, "Sports are 'in'."So firmly are they "in" that The University of Chicagomay have the nation's highest level of student participationin college athletics. More than 50 per cent of the studentbody and more than 70 per cent of the undergraduates— both men and women — are involved to some extent inintercollegiate or intramural athletics, and the number isgrowing. In 1956-57. 78 undergraduates received major andminor C's in varsity sports; this year the total will be 214. In1956-57, 5.000 participations were logged in intramuralsports; in 1974-75 there were 26,000. A decade ago,women's varsity sports existed almost in name only. Thisyear the women's basketball team placed fourth in the statechampionship tournament.One reason commonly given for this athletic and recreation renaissance is the national trend to physical fitness. Butperhaps of greater importance to Chicago is theUniversity's tradition of participation in sports. In somecolleges, only recruited athletes need apply for varsityteams. At Chicago, coaches urge any student with a genuineinterest to try out. Even students with no previous athleticexperience are welcomed into athletic and recreation programs.The athletics and recreation boom has caused the Uni-versit\ one critical problem. Twenty years ago athleticsfacilities, old as they had become, were nonetheless adequate for the minimal demand put upon them. Today theyare not. Swimming pools are overcrowded for much of their sixteen-hour days. There are too many intramural basketball teams for the available number of courts. Squash courtreservations are normally impossible to get after 8:00 a.m.,and the twenty-two tennis courts do not meet the playerdemand. Locker facilities are inadequate. Varsity footballteams must shower and change at the Field House twoblocks away. Last year 500 student requests for lockerscould not be filled.To alleviate the problems caused by outdated and inadequate facilities, the University has made athletic and recreation facilities a top priority in its $280 million Campaign forChicago. Gifts from the Henry Crown family and ananonymous Trustee allowed a $2.5 million renovation of theField House to begin this spring. In this first phase, a second floor will be added over the present Field House floorand new handball and squash courts will be installed.The University seeks more than $10 million to fully complete the Field House; to renovate Bartlett Gymnasium,which has had no substantial remodelling since it was builtin 1905; to construct a dressing room facility at Stagg Field;and to build a new natatorium at the corner of 56th Streetand University. The natatorium will be connected to bothBartlett Gym and the Field House and will include theUniversity's first Olympic-size swimming pool.No subject is raised more frequently, nor discussed withmore feeling, in meetings of students with University administrators, than the improvement of campus facilities forathletics and physical recreation. Thus, while the renaissance in sports at the University is most welcome, it alsoposes a challenge — a challenge which the University is asking its alumni to help it meet.THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEThe University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312)753-2175Charles W. Boand, jd'33, mba'57, PresidentArthur Nayer, Director, Alumni AffairsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorKristen Nelson, Program DirectorRegional Offices1888 Century Pk. East, Suite 222Los Angeles, Ca. 90067(213) 277-7727825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030New York, New York 10022(212)935-19771000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415)928-0337735 Fairfax StreetAlexandria, Va. 22314(703) 549-3800Volume LXVIIISummer, 1976 Number 4The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published for alumniand the faculty of the University ofChicago, under the auspices of the Officeof the Vice President for Public Affairs.Letters and editorial contributions arewelcomed.Don Morris, ab'36EditorJennie LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois, and at additional mailing offices.Copyright 1976, The University ofChicago. Published quarterly, Spring,Summer, Fall and Winter. The maintenance of academic distinctionJohn T. Wilson 7The Midway and the PotomacDon Sider 10Festival of the arts 15The occult and the modern worldMircea Eliade 18Crew 22Hospital at night 24Problems with government regulationA regulatory agency's client isn't youSam PeltzmanMore government effort goes to jousting among agenciesEdmund W. KitchDespite adverse effects of regulation, protests find little supportJohn P. Gould, Jr. 262728How does one think about eight billion light years?An interview with Robert Geroch 30Deuterium and the universeIris Poliski 31Homage to zeroRobert Burleigh 32A crisis at the University!Tom Miller 37The only thing that matters: tribute to Hannah ArendtMelvin A. Hill 39The epic Psi U-DU cage tiltJames G. Kazanis 41A rainy night in London TownBette Howland 444 Quadrangle news 33 Letters 34 Alumni news 46 1975-'76 Indexcover; The University of Chicago Women's Crew Club practices at dusk (noteauto headlights) in a lagoon in Lincoln Park (story on Page 22).picture credits: Pages 1, 5, 6, 22-23, 48, D. Morris; Pages 4, 15-17, 24-25, MyronDavis; Pages 4, 9, Arthur Shay; Page 10, Dev O'Neill; Page 12, Fred Hublitz; Page 18,Peter Bruegel the Elder (detail); Page 41, Sidney Harris; Page 44, Gustave Dore.President Wilson and Sweden 's King Carl XVI Gustav head across the campus to the unveiling of the Linnaeus statue, attended by MayorDaley and other city officials, leaders of Chicago's Swedish community, and members of the University. Inset: the relocated sculpture islowered onto its pedestal.Linnaeus joins Masaryk and Time on the MidwayThe 150-ton monument to Carl von Linne,the great Swedish naturalist (known in theworld of science as Linnaeus), which hasstood in Lincoln Park since 1891, was movedthis spring to the Midway, immediately southof Harper Library. It was rededicated in itsnew location by His Majesty Carl XVIGustav, the king of Sweden, visiting Chicagoon a Bicentennial visit.The Swedish community of Chicago,which underwrote the entire project, hadwanted for decades to move the statue to asite where groups could gather for traditionalcelebrations. The suggestion that it be movedten miles south to the University was madeby former President George W. Beadle, andat a lunch for King Carl at the rededication,President Wilson praised the suggestion as"truly worthy of Mr. Beadle's imagination."On the Midway, Linnaeus, whose workestablished the basic system of scientificnomenclature for plants and animals, willjoin two other monumental pieces ofstatuary: the Fountain of Time by LoradoTaft, at the west end of the plaisance, and thestatue of the Blanik knight, honoring Thomas G. Masaryk, onetime Universityfaculty member and the first president ofCzechoslovakia, at the east end.Malott is named trusteeRobert H. Malott, president and chairman ofFMC Corporation, has been elected to theUniversity's board of trustees. A onetimedean of the Harvard Graduate School ofBusiness Administration, Mr. Malott hasbeen an FMC executive for a quarter of acentury and is active in many business andcivic organizations.First NHI fellows chosenThe first nineteen fellows to take part in theNational Humanities Institute program atthe University, sponsored by the NationalFoundation for the Humanities, have beenselected and, beginning in the fall, will workon interdisciplinary approaches to teachingthe humanities and on developing newcourses in the field. Two of the group are alumni: Edmund J.Dehnert (pho'63), professor of humanities atMayfair College in Chicago, and Horace M.Newcomb (am '65, pItd'69), associateprofessor of American studies at theUniversity of Maryland, Baltimore County.The others will come from institutions as faraway as the University of Hawaii, theUniversity of Maine and FloridaInternational University.In the three-year program, additionalgroups of fellows will follow in 1977-'78 and1978-'79.Fitch named to Lasker chairDr. Frank W. Fitch (sm '57, phr_>'60), professor of pathology and chairman of theCommittee on Immunology, has been namedthe first holder of the new Albert D. Laskerprofessorship in medical science. Mr.Lasker's widow, Mary, and other familymembers attended the announcement dinneron campus. Mr. Lasker, former owner of theold Lord and Thomas advertising agency,was a trustee of the University.4Medical Center managementreorganized; Tosteson namedDr. Daniel C. Tosteson, who joined theUniversity less than a year ago as the LowellT. Coggeshall professor of medical sciencesand dean of the Division of the BiologicalSciences and the Pritzker School of Medicine, has added another responsibility to hisalready large assignment. He has beenappointed vice-president for the MedicalCenter.The new move is part of an effort tosimplify the complicated management of theUniversity's biomedical complex.In addition to establishment of Dr.Tosteson's new post, the University hascreated four associate vice-presidencies ofthe Medical Center:Robert B. Uretz (sb'47, phD'54), deputydean of Biological Sciences and the PritzkerSchool and the Ralph W. Gerard professorof biophysics and theoretical biology and inthe College, becomes associate vice-president of the Medical Center.Dr. Henry P. Russe (md'57), vice-president for medicine of the Columbus-Cuneo-Cabrini Medical Center in Chicago,becomes associate vice-president (medicalservices) and chief of staff of the Universityof Chicago Hospitals and Clinics.David M. Bray, who has been an executiveof the federal Office of Management andBudget, joins the Medical Center as associatevice-president (business and finance).John J. Piva, Jr., director of developmentof the division and the Pritzker School ofMedicine, becomes associate vice-president(development) of the Medical Center.In addition, five assistant vice-presidentsare to be named for management of theHospitals and Clinics, regional medical services, finance, planning, and business.Industry cooperation unit setThe University has established an Office ofIndustrial Cooperation as a two-way communications vehicle aimed at helping tomake industry more familiar with researchresources which exist on the Midway and togive researchers at the University betterinformation on industrial problems to whichtheir work might be relevant. Albert V.Crewe, dean of the Division of the PhysicalSciences, is overseeing the operation, whichis quartered in Jones Lab and is funded, in itsfirst year of operation, by AbbottLaboratories.Bernard Abraham (sb'40, PhD '46; isdirector of the new unit. As an undergraduate he worked with the Manhattan Districtat the University. Later he was a UniversalOil Products postdoctoral fellow at Northwestern and a chemistry group leader atArgonne National Laboratory. He regardshis most significant work as that dealing withthe production of tritium and was theinventor of the lithium-aluminum alloywhich is used by the Energy Research and The popularity of the Regenstein Library created a hazard to life and limb of the hundreds ofstudents crossing 57th Street. As a condition of the city's painting a crosswalk and posting a20-mile speed zone in that block, the University has closed the imposing Cobb gate entranceto Hull Court to ordinary vehicular traffic. Some alumni will recall that foot traffic crossed57th Street in the days when the old Stagg Field was drawing big crowds, but at that time thepedestrians were more of a menace to the cars than vice-versa.Development Administration to producetritium for thermonuclear devices.ERRATATwo mechanical errors marred the springissue. The name of President Harry PrattJudson was misspelled on Page 5, and theheadline of the story about Board ChairmanDonnelley on Page 34 was inadvertently cutshort, omitting the word "chairmanship";the story was accurate. Prewitt is new NORC directorKenneth Prewitt, professor and chairman ofthe Department of Political Science andprofessor in the College, has been nameddirector of the National Opinion ResearchCenter at the University, succeeding JamesA. Davis.Mr. Davis is returning to DartmouthCollege as professor of sociology.A new chairman of the Department ofPolitical Science will be announced later.5Rick Wohlhuter takes the baton from UCTC's Dennis Roloff as he starts last lap of the milerelay in a triangular meet with Illinois and Notre Dame. The other anchor men wait for theirbaton carriers to arrive. For the race's finish see back cover.An eye on the OlympicsAbout the time this issue of the magazinegoes into the mails, a Notre Dame alumnusnamed Rick Wohlhuter will be decidingwhether to confine his efforts in the Olympictrials to the 800-meter run or to run in boththe 800 and the 1 ,500. Either way, Mr.Wohlhuter will be wearing the jersey of theUniversity of Chicago Track Club, which, inthe fieldhouse and on Stagg Field has beenhis home base as a runner since he came tothe city in 1971 and went to work, first as aclaims adjuster for Continental Assuranceand now as an agent for MassachusettsMutual Life.Mr. Wohlhuter, who holds the world'srecord in the 880, ran for UCTC in the 1972U.S. Olympics, but he had the misfortune totrip at the start of the semifinals in the 800.Since then (as before then), year in and yearout, summer and winter, he has run sevenmiles or so every day, also sharpening hisefforts by competing regularly in meets, at avariety of distances. At the University ofIllinois, where he ran the day the photos inthis issue were made, his times were not spectacular, because conditioning has been themain thing. His concern is the Olympic trials,and he has been working to peak for them.Mr. Wohlhuter is one of perhaps half adozen UCTC athletes who are potentialOlympic contenders (four made the '72squad), but he is the best known and may bethe one with the best chance of success.Others to watch:John Craft in the triple jump, middle distance men Ken Popejoy and Randy Velt- kamp; sprinters Mike McFarland and MikeGoodrich; hurdler Stan Druckery; distancemen Bruce Fisher, Mike Slack, Garry Bjork-lund, Dick Bowerman, Pat Mandera, DanCloeter, Gary Barrett, and Tom Hoffman;long jumpers Bill Rea, Steve Cobb, TheoHamilton, and Ron Humphrey; Bill Hancock in the decathlon; steeplechaser RandyLussenden; vaulter Jan Johnson; highjumper Dennis Adema; Rick Bilder in theshot put; and Bob Henderson in the20-kilometer walk.Coach of both the UCTC and the Maroonvarsity track team (which by the end of Aprilhad racked up 18 dual meet victories and 9defeats) is, as readers of this publication wellknow, Ted Haydon (ab'33, am'54), who inboth capacities does his best to implementtwo tenets: ( 1 ) sports are fun and (2) sportsare for everyone.Tuition to riseTuition will increase by varying amounts inthe College, the divisions and the graduateschools of the University for the 1976-'77academic year. The College's increase —6.5%, or $70 per quarter, to $3,420 a year— is typical. Charles D. O'Connell, vice-president and dean of students, pointed outthat most of the University's 8,050 studentsare now receiving financial assistancethrough the University, and that acomparably full-range of student aid will beavailable in '76-'77.Social Sciences master'sThe Division of the Social Sciences will offerin the autumn a divisional program leading to the master's degree. A total of eight coursesequences are available, covering such areasas the philosophy and history of the socialsciences, urban studies, the individual andsociety, industrial relations, the cultural andpolicy dimensions of social change,communication and social development, andarea and language studies. Salvatore R.Maddi, professor in the Department of theBehavioral Sciences and the College, ischairman of the program.KudosDr. Elwood V. Jensen (pho'44), professor ofbiophysics and theoretical biology anddirector of the Ben May Laboratory forCancer Research and of the BiomedicalCenter for Population Research, received thePapanicolaou Institute's '74 Pap award inFebruary.Charles D. O'Connell (am '47), vice-president and dean of students, was one offifteen educators honored with the CollegeEntrance Examination Board's Noyesaward.Easley Blackwood, professor in theDepartment of Music and the College,received the 1975 ASCAP award in recognition of the " unique prestige value of thecatalog" of his musical works.Ping-ti Ho, the James Westfall Thompsonprofessor in the Departments of History andFar Eastern Languages and Civilizations, lastfall received an honorary LL.D. from theChinese University of Hong Kong.Arthur Friedman (phr)'38), distinguishedservice professor emeritus of English, washonored by ^festschrift issue of ModernPhilology containing articles by nine formerstudents or colleagues and compiled by GwinJ. Kolb (ab'67) and Edward Rosenheim, Jr.(ab'39, am'46, phD'53), both professors ofEnglish and in the College and co-editors ofthe journal.Mircea Eliade, the Sewell L. Averydistinguished service professor in theDivinity School and the Committee on SocialThought, received two honorary doctoratesearlier this year, one, causa honoris, fromthe Sorbonne, the other from Britain'sLancaster University. (Mr. Eliade is theauthor of an article beginning on Page 1 8 ofthis issue.)Three faculty members were elected to theNational Academy of Sciences in April:Ugo Fano, professor and chairman of theDepartment of Physics and in the College.Philip M. Hauser (pub'29, am'33, pho'38),Lucy Flower professor in the Department ofSociology and director of the PopulationResearch Center.Richard G. Swan, professor in theDepartment of Mathematics.Mr. Fano also was awarded the AmericanPhysical Society's '76 Davisson-Germer prizefor his contributions to the theory of atomicstructure, collisions and transitions.The University's Pritzker School ofMedicine was rated No. 2 among the nation'smedical schools by Medical Economics(surpassed only by Harvard).6The maintenance of academic distinctionRemarks by John T. Wilson on the occasion ofhis installation as president of the University,in Rockefeller Memorial Chapel March 4, 1976John T. WilsonThe origin and purpose of these occasions in the life of theUniversity is not entirely clear. Mr. Goodspeed's history tellsus that, despite trustee opinion to the contrary, Mr. Harperdid not want an inaugural ceremony. Upon asking Mr.Rockefeller's advice he received confirming counsel. Thus achapel service was held on the University's opening day, butthere seem to have been no other formalities.Mr. Judson and Mr. Burton both came to the presidencyfollowing periods as acting president. Each requested of thetrustees that "no elaborate ceremony" mark their installation. Mr. Mason reportedly had an intense distaste forceremony and rebelled at the thought of any at all; anannouncement from the convocation platform was sufficientfor him. In a letter to Mr. Hutchins, shortly before he wasinstalled as fifth president of the University, Mr. HaroldSwift, then chairman of the board said, rather wistfully, thatalthough he had never seen one at the University, he knew of"... no better way to introduce you to the general public ofChicago than through a formal inauguration."With the variety of precedents to choose from, it seemed tome eminently sensible under present circumstances to followthe "within the family" pattern adopted by Mr. Judson andMr. Burton. The trustees have graciously acceded to my wish.It is a wholly unplanned coincident that today's occasionoccurs in the same month, some sixty years later, in whichMr. Judson became president.Each of the men who has stood in this place has spoken, inhis fashion, of the honor, of the responsibility, and of theapprehensions that he felt regarding the task which he wasabout to undertake. With perhaps more reason than any ofthem, I echo such feelings. The thoughts which Mr. Burtonexpressed at the time closely parallel my own. Indeed they areso close to mine that, upon reading them, I experienced astrong feeling of kinship. As he put it — following his remarkson honor and responsibility — ". . . the attainment of thepresidency . . . was not among my ambitions, still less amongmy expectations. Cherished ambitions I had . . . and for thefulfillment of these I had distinctly in mind that I should, atabout this time, retire . . . from . . . administration."I should also add that Mr. Burton had an enviable per spective of the magnitude of the president's task. Explainingwhy he had been persuaded in the end to accept the trustees'invitation, he stated simply that he ". . . had long ago decidedthat anything that could be finished in my lifetime was necessarily too small to engross my full interest."The Articles of Incorporation of the University state thatthe institution is to provide "... opportunities for alldepartments of higher education to persons of both sexes onequal terms ... to establish and maintain a University inwhich may be taught all branches of higher learning . . ."Although there was much divergence of thought among theprincipals during the period prior to the establishment of theUniversity, there was little doubt in Mr. Harper's mind as towhat he envisioned. Writing to his close friend Mr. H. L.Morehouse during the six-month period when he wasconsidering accepting the trustees' invitation to be the University's first president, Harper stated that he had a plan forthe University which would "... revolutionize College andUniversity work in this country." The plan was set forth inthe well-known "Official Bulletins" whose publication preceded the opening of the University.At Harper's death the plan was still more visionary thanreal. But, the subsequent transformation of the plan intoreality, starting with Harper and continuing throughout theadministrations of his successors, is a remarkable achievement, especially to one about to assume the responsibility forits continuance. It has been aptly described by Edward Levi as"disturbingly impressive." Fundamentally, and from thebeginning, Harper was determined that the University shouldbe composed of outstanding faculty in every department. Thestress was on the individual. The basic proposition was thatthe University should "... make the work of investigationprimary." As a corollary to this proposition, there was theadded assurance that the value of teaching would by nomeans be overlooked. Thus was established the dominantcharacteristic of the University — a devotion to inquiry andthe advancement of knowledge, through the efforts of outstanding individuals. To this commitment the University willcontinue to adhere.The proposition that serious higher learning involves7cultivation of the intellect as well as the search for truth wasto await the presidency of Mr. Burton before being systematically pursued within the University. After a period of somethirty years, the University, in Burton's view, had reached astage in its development when graduate and undergraduatework should each stand on its own merit, and receive theattention which each, in its own way, demanded. Neithershould be hindered or compromised by the other. This proposition seems to have provided the basis for the present conception of the College, primarily wrought by Mr. Levi. It isone with which I am in complete agreement.We hear much these days of the decreasing value ofhumanistic learning and the rising importance of vocationaltraining, even in higher education. Others tell us that learningproceeds through some mysterious existential process thatinvolves rubbing elbows with the real world, whatever on anygiven day the real world may be thought to be. We are pressedfor justification of liberal education. We need to do morethan merely recognize the fact that history is not only therecord of decisions and actions, but also the clash of ideasand values. The exposure to ideas of mankind since theirappearance in forms that might properly be called"civilized," the analysis and evaluation of these ideas in theprimary intellectual disciplines is central to the cultivation ofthe intellect. With whatever variations there have beenthrough time, this enterprise is the core of undergraduateeducation at Chicago.Modifications in undergraduate study, from the beginningto the present, have made the College perhaps the "yeastiest"academic unit in the University. At the same time, there hasbeen during this period no serious doubt of the high value ofgeneral education for undergraduate students. Nor has therebeen doubt in the assumption that such an education can bepursued most advantageously within the context of ". . .great graduate schools where freedom of the mind isencouraged, and where fine libraries and good laboratoriesfurnish the best means for independent study." In pursuingthis course, the University has always been fortunate inattracting students who revel in such an opportunity. And itwill continue to do so.Since I have reviewed recently, in the budget message oflast September and in the State of the University message ofNovember, the most pressing problems of the University, Iwill not encroach upon the ambience of today's occasion byrepeating this litany. But having made reference to Mr. Judson, and there being some similarity between this period andthat covered by his administration, I cannot resist sharingwith you a letter, now somewhat amusing, written by then-President Judson to Mr. H. C. Morrison of the School ofEducation. Mr. Morrison had inquired about the "financialhistory and policy of the University." Mr. Judson, afterpointing out that Mr. Harper had consistently run a deficit ineach of the early years of the University, stated that when hesucceeded as head of the institution it seemed clear that theUniversity could and should be administered on "safebusiness principles." He somewhat proudly pointed out thathe had announced his policy at the outset "... with the hearty and unanimous consent of the Board of Trustees. . . " to be as follows:1 ) That the University should be administered on the same basisas any safe business, that is, that expenditures should neverexceed income unless, of course, some extraordinary contingency should occur.2) That the president should never recommend to the board oftrustees any expenditure unless he at the same time could pointout the means of meeting it . . .These two policies have been strictly followed to the present dayand are thoroughly established in the institution. No one coulddepart from them if he would, and no one would if he could.... It is extremely unlikely that the reverse will ever occur again.I don't know whether Mr. Judson would have approved,but it is my judgment that we all should be grateful for thewisdom of the present board of trustees in adopting a policyof prudent deficits, and in putting a higher value on the conservation of the real resource of the University, namely thefaculty and the student body, than on a balanced budget. As Ihave often said, I believe the budgetary practices of Mr.Harper, which seemingly always pressed the outer limits ofavailable resources, will probably continue to characterizethis University. The real issue, and the proper criterionagainst which one should be measured, is the maintenance ofacademic distinction.I should like to close these remarks on a personal note. In avery real sense, it reflects in essence the influential factor inpersuading me to reverse the initial decision against performing my present role in this afternoon's ceremony.I have spent considerable time in the archives of theUniversity during the last year and I am struck by the extraordinary power that this place has exhibited in generating abody of folklore and mythology, second only to itsintellectual power. The summer of 1892, although a time ofgreat expectation prior to the opening of the University, alsowas, like the present, a time of apprehension. There werethen, as now, intensive efforts to attract to the neophyteinstitution scholars of distinction, against all of the conditions, real and imagined, with which we are quite familiar.Among the correspondence of that summer there is a letterwhich struck such a poignant note with reference to our ownexperience that I would share it with you. It is a letter fromW. G. Hale, one of the first faculty members recruited, toMarion Talbot, who along with Alice Freeman Palmer, waslater to join the faculty which opened the University. The textis as follows:My dear Miss Talbot:I hope you will turn a kind ear toward Mr. Harper's propositions. We are going in time— not instantly— to have a greatUniversity in Chicago, and it seems to me it might well be anattractive idea to you (to) help shape its policy, at the outset, insome important lines. And you mustn't think of "missionarywork," either. Chicago is not what the average reader of easternnewspapers imagines. I went out, on my first full visit, with fullSMr. Wilson is flanked by members of the University's faculty at his installation in Rockefeller Chapel.New England prejudice; but I have come to see how greatlylikable the place is, and am already strongly attached to anumber of people. There is life and happiness in Chicago.Sincerely yours,W. G. Hale will continue to be in the future. And in the future, as in thepast, the University of Chicago will be dedicated to quality —in its faculty, in its students, and in the conduct of all of itsresponsibilities, while pursuing life and happiness in the workto which it is dedicated. We are pleased and proud to be aAnd indeed there is life and happiness in Chicago, as there part of that future.9Representatives Patsy Mink (jd'51) of Hawaii and AbnerMikva (ro'51) of Illinois exchange greetings on the Capitolsteps.Everyone knows that when a magazine such as Timeruns a story, what actually appears in print is likely tobe a distillation of a vastly larger amount of information gathered by one (frequently more than one)reporter. When Time, in its February 2 issue thisyear, ran the story headed, "The Chicago Connection, " the account ran to ninety-two lines. With thecooperation of Time, which agreed to release theuncut report, and the Chicago Tribune Magazine,which acquired the original reproduction rights, themagazine herewith offers to its readers — very slightlyDon SiderFrom its first days as the capital of the Republic, in the termof John Adams (Harvard, 1755), Washington, D.C., hasbeen a branch campus of the Ivy League. There still are sonsand daughters of Harvard, Yale and Princeton beyondcounting in the government.Now an upstart university in the Midwest is challenging theeastern establishment. The University of Chicago is less thaneighty-five years old (Harvard is 340), with 8,050 students 'It's very non-old boy'The Midwayandthe Potomacedited — what Time's Don Sider put together. (Mr.Sider is a 1954 graduate of the University of Miami.)Being, by its nature, a contemporary account, thestory omits such University connections of earlierdays as Harold G. Moulton, Grace Abbott, CharlesE. Merriam, Beardsley Ruml, Leonard White, PaulH. Douglas, T. V. Smith, and, more recently, PeterG. Peterson, Ralph Nicholson, and others. Even inthe story as published here, the University people referred to are only the best known among hundredsplaying important roles along the Potomac.(Harvard has 20,830). Yet Chicago and Chicagoans now arerecognized as a major intellectual force in the centers ofpower. The University is alma mater to much of thecommand structure of the government and of the organizations that set the nation's course and tone. PennsylvaniaAvenue has become a byway of the Midway Plaisance.The Chicago shakers include a Supreme Court justice;three key Presidential advisers; four senators; three members10of the Congress; the parliamentarian of the House of Representatives; the Attorney-General, Solicitor General, andAssistant Attorney-General; the Secretary of Agriculture, thesecond and third ranking officers of the State Departmentand more than a dozen senior officials of State, includingeight ambassadors; the librarian of Congress, the director ofthe National Collection of Fine Arts, the publisher and thetop political reporter of the Washington Post; the editor-in-chief of The Washingtonian; the publisher of the NewRepublic and sundry other journalists; three labor leaders;and the co-director of the radical thinktank, the Institute forPolicy Studies.Impressive? To everyone but Edward H. Levi, who left alifetime at Chicago a year ago to become Attorney-General."I'm always amazed that we have so few," says Mr. Levi."You're talking about an institution that's described as oneof the most important universities in the world. My own guessis that the University is under-represented."If Levi is right, that is Chicago's doing, not the government's. The University is, he explains, at best ambivalentabout giving of itself: "It has this contradictory business of assuming that service is very important, but itnever talks about itself in terms of service. It also has thisnotion that if you're really a scholar, you've got to do it yourself, and you'd better do it free of the pressures of themoment. So you get a lot of people at Chicago who are in andout of government."I think Chicago's image of itself is not the Harvard imageof itself. Generally speaking, I don't think the Chicagofaculty is impressed because someone is used as a consultantin government. If someone is consulting too much, I thinktheir impression is, there must be something wrong withhim — that he's not doing any really significant work."So there is no "old boy network" among the Chicagoans inWashington, and hardly a trace of academic incest.The only thing close to that is the complex relationship ofSen. Charles Percy (ab'41, and also a trustee), White Houseresident intellectual Robert Goldwin (am'54, pIvd'63; faculty'60-'66), Attorney-General Levi (Lab School, pIib'32, jd'35;law professor '36-'50, Law School dean '50-'62, provost'62-'68, president '68-'75), and Supreme Court Justice JohnPaul Stevens (ab'41). Goldwin was Percy's political-philosophical mentor, the man Percy credits with "weaningme away from business, into government." Percy, in turn,was central to setting up Goldwin's Public Affairs Conference Center at the University, through which Goldwin metDonald Rumsfeld, who eventually brought him into theWhite House. Percy once nominated his old friend, Ed Levi,to the U.S. Court of Appeals, but Levi turned down the offer.Percy claims some credit for endorsing Levi as Attorney-General. A few months ago, Percy phoned President Ford tourge that Levi be named to the Douglas seat on the SupremeCourt; then he indorsed his old friend and classmate JohnPaul Stevens when Ford decided he could not move Levi outof the over-shuffled Cabinet. Percy previously had nominated Stevens for the seat Stevens held on the Court ofAppeals. There had been a short-lived effort in the early '60s torecruit UC graduates for the government, as the easternschools had been doing. Bradley Patterson (ab'42, am'43),who is assistant director of the Presidential personnel office,ran this Chicago in Government program until the CivilService Commission ruled that sort of thing inappropriate,and all schools quit it. That ended what Patterson calls "ouryoung boy network." He says now: "If the most brilliantalumnus came to my door and asked for a job, I'd have toturn him around.""I can't claim I feel an old boy network out of Chicago,"says Robert Bork (ab'48, jd'53), the solicitor general. "Whena young man or woman comes out of Chicago, I admit that Ilight up and ask about it. But I don't necessarily hire him.""The only school tie that carries over is conversation atcocktail parties," says Sen. Gale McGee (pIid'47; historyprofessor '45-'47). "Everybody's been too busy scratching onhis own," says Joseph Sisco (am'47, p1id'50), UnderSecretary of State for political affairs — the No. 3 man at theState Department.'When they are not busy scratching, some of the Chicagoalums see each other, sure. Daniel Boorstin (professor ofhistory '44-'69), now Librarian of Congress, is friendly withLevi, who is friendly with Percy, who is friendly with Stevens.Percy and his fellow trustees, Washington Post publisherKatharine Graham (ab'38) and Robert S. Ingersoll2 (who didnot attend the University), Deputy Secretary of State, the No.2 man, have that in common.Some of Professor Hans Morgenthau's old students, JoeSisco, the Washington Post's David Broder (ab'47, am'51)and the New Republic's publisher, Robert J. Myers (am'48,phD'59), get together of an evening. Myers and Washingtonian magazine's editor-in-chief, Laughlin Phillips (am'49),his college roommate, cut old touches. Still, "there's no realaffinity," says Gale McGee.That is a mark of the University of Chicago, and theChicagoans are proud of it: "Unlike eastern universities, it'svery non-old boy, very unconnected," says one prominentalumna. "It's not as self-conscious a thing as Princeton orYale," says Laughlin Phillips.That theme — be-your-own-person — runs through the self-image of UC alumni. It is natural to the Midwest, with itspioneer-immigrant traditions of hacking it out for yourself. Itis at the heart of the University of Chicago attitude. " It's a lotof doing what you're doing on your own, instead of throughyour family," says publisher Bob Myers."The people from the University literally don't know eachother here," says Marcus Raskin (ab'54, jd'57), co-directorof Washington's Institute for Policy Studies. "Chicago'sposition was always as an outsider from the ruling elite of1. After this article was written it was announced that Mr. Siscowould leave State to become president of American University inJuly— Ed.2. Mr. Ingersoll, after this article was written, resigned his post atState, expected to return to Borg- Warner Corp.— Ed.11American schools. The school is a child of a certain form ofcorporate industrialism. The people there are highly individualistic — even eccentric. And they see themselves makingit on their own."So it is in the State Department, once an alumni club of theeastern colleges. In the postwar years, a certain democratization began to set in at State, about the time Chicago wasproducing a cadre of bright, internationally minded younggraduates. State and the CIA moved inland to augment theirtraditional recruiting from the seaboard, and they foundgood people."They are a remarkable class in the field of foreign affairsfrom 1946 to '50," says Joe Sisco. "These were ex-GIs, forthe most part." Sisco joined State in 1951: "At that time, theplace had an eastern impact. Many of us from the Midwesthad to make our own way." Says one State Departmentofficial, who entered at that time and had worked his way tothe highest levels: "When I came in, it [the eastern clique] wasthick as hell. It was part of the old mystique of the FSO.There's no question that it was the old school tie." TheChicagoans gradually changed that, and the list of alumni insenior slots at State reflects it.One thing that sets the Chicagoans apart from their easterncolleagues is a sort of populist chauvinism. "You had none ofthe snobbery you sometimes find in ancient institutions,"says C. William Kontos (ab'47, am'48), special representativeof the President and director of the peacekeeping SinaiSupport Mission.But, says Marcus Raskin, "There's a sense of great arrogance about the people from the University of Chicago. Someof them see it as the bastion of western civilization."There is an arrogance about the University of Chicago andits children. It is the confidence that they are all-Americaintellectual athletes. When Robert M. Hutchins took Chicagoout of Big Ten football, he substituted mental agility andexercise of the mind. Free thought, the play of ideas, becamethe game.3One alumnus who went on to teach at a great eastern university says, "There is a definite ideological slant at Harvardand Yale. You can find all kinds of liberals at Chicago, butthere's a bell curve instead of a curve at one end. Diversity ofopinion is more tolerated there. It has a tradition of intellectfor its own sake — not the eastern sloppiness of intellect. Thatwas the most intellectual atmosphere I've ever seen. Anythingwas open to question. That was not true at Yale, which has aset of beliefs all good men believe in."Daniel Boorstin says, "Great teachers shouldn't producedisciples, and a great university shouldn't produce a school ofthought. The greatness of the place is that you can't characterize the attitudes of the people. It's radical in the bestsense of the word."If not disciples, the great professors sent out students(including their own colleagues) who had learned their lessonswell, and have influenced public policy. Milton Friedman's3 . Actually it had been, since before the University first opened itsdoors in 1892— Ed. Robert Goldwin, special consultant to the President and adviser to the Secretary of Defense, chats with Joseph Sisco(right), Under Secretary of State for political affairs.monetarist theory and economic conservatism influencedGeorge Shultz (professor of industrial relations '57-'62, thendean of the Business School), who was Secretary of Labor in'69 and '70, the first director of the Office of Managementand Budget from '70 to '72 and Treasury secretary from '72to '74. That influence continues in the Ford Administration.Chicago political philosopher Leo Strauss impressedgenerations of students, including the White House's RobertGoldwin, with his plain-spoken examinations of the moraland historical defects of Marxism and the general leftwardtrend of politics in the world. Bettelheim, Szilard, Fermi,Leonard White, sitting around the lunch table at the facultyclub, influenced Dan Boorstin, whose writings have influenced countless others.Intellectual arrogance. Hear how some other Chicagoansdescribe it:• Bob Goldwin: "The significant thing about the Universityin my time was the wonderful diversity of it, not a certainsameness that said the University of Chicago believes acertain thing. Nothing but a sense of striving for excellenceand the right and duty to be contentious— that anybody couldchallenge anybody if he could stand up in the argument. I canhardly remember a time when it was dangerous or impolitic tostand up to a professor if I thought I was right."Goldwin used to debate with Dan Boorstin at daily teas,around a samovar in the Social Sciences Building: "He was afull professor and I was a graduate student, and it wouldn'thave occurred to me to hold back. It was common for aprofessor to start a course by assigning the work of a col-12league and then beginning with a scathing critique of it. Thenthe student would go to his colleague. Students would bounceamong those incredible arguers."• Pulitzer prize winner Boorstin dedicated The Image, hismost translated book, to the University — "a place of light, ofliberty and of learning ... It gave me a chance to begin to getan education, the opportunity for the faculty to be educated.The students never showed excessive regard for the faculty.The students were extremely bright and brash."• Bob Bork: "It's where Marxist professors taught Catholicphilosophy to Jewish students."4• Joshua Taylor (professor of art '49-'74), director of theNational Collection of Fine Arts: "Independence ofjudgment — it's a fiercely independent place."• David Broder, the nation's premier political writer: "It's ahighly political campus. That's a tradition there. At the time Iwas there it was a hell of a good political training ground."• Agriculture Secretary Earl Butz (who worked toward hisphD at Chicago in the summer of '36) describes theatmosphere as "freedom of the mind."• Rep. Patsy Mink (jd'51) has a more inhibited memory.Though one of her classmates, who included SolicitorGeneral Bork and Rep. Abner Mikva (jd'51, law professor'74), recalls her doing the hula atop a piano, she says, "I wasquite intimidated when I went. There were two women in the[law] class of 125. I just sat there and tried to keep out oftrouble."A heady atmosphere in which to grow up. Bob Bork says,"Hutchins attracted an intensely intellectual and somewhatneurotic student body. It is literally true that in the dormitories, with bull sessions all the time, I can't remember asingle bull session about girls or sex or sports. There was a lotof girl-chasing and drinking, of course, but the talk wasserious. In the student body, people were terribly seriousabout ideas. That may make some difference in later life,when you're dealing with policy — how quickly you sell outyour ideas. Exposure to that life tends to make you moreresistant to other people when you think their ideas aren't asgood as yours."It gave direction. "An undue proportion went into government and teaching," says Anton dePorte (ab'48, am'51,phD'56), a member of the State Department policy planningstaff. "It seemed to draw people who thought governmentwas an interesting career. There's a very large number in thecivil service, because they felt that was where the power lay.There was a good, strong cadre at the working level — andnow at the upper levels."For people already active in government and public affairs,the University began in January, 1961, and ran until 1966, aseries of three-day seminars on public issues and policy. They4. The original of this ancient quip also referred to the Universityas "a Baptist institution where . . . "— Ed. were founded by Bob Goldwin and were an outgrowth ofprivate tutoring sessions he had conducted on Saturdays withCharles Percy, then an outstanding Chicago graduate, atrustee, and boy wonder business executive, and a man with ayearning to go public.Percy used his muscle at the University — and $100,000 ofhis own cash — to help Goldwin launch the Public AffairsConference Center of the University of Chicago. The conferences were not for casual observers. Participants had tostudy before coming and stay alert and active during thesessions. Two of the conferences illustrate what Goldwin andthe University were about:In September, 1961, a conference on military policy discussed papers written for it by Robert E. Osgood, WalterMillis, Herman Kahn, Joseph Cropsey [now professor ofpolitical science], David R. Inglis and Mulford Q. Sibley.Participants included Gerald Ford, Henry Jackson, BourkeHickenlooper, Melvin Laird, Charles Percy, Thomas J.Watson, Jr., Adam Yarmolinsky, Roger Hilsman and Kahn.In February, 1963, a conference on 100 years of emancipation discussed papers by Roy Wilkins, Herbert Storing(am'51, phD'56), Louis Pollak, Harry Jaffa, James Baldwinand Abram Harris. Participants were Harry Ashmore, MiltonEisenhower, John Rhodes, Robert Novak, Charles McC.Mathias, David Broder, Thomas Littlewood, ClarkMacGregor, Robert Kastenmeier, James Conant, GeorgeRomney, Max Frankel, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., RichardRovere, James J. Kilpatrick and Adlai Stevenson III.Thus, scores of people high in government who did notspend their undergraduate or graduate years at Chicago stillgot a taste of the Chicago style and exposure to Chicago ideasthrough these high-protein seminars.The Conference Center reflects something about Chicagothat may not be unique, but surely is characteristic. "TheUniversity stressed interdisciplinary work," says BradleyPatterson. "It crossed those horrible boundaries between thedepartments. I find myself intellectually very much at homeat the White House, looking across the boundaries. That'swhat the White House has to do, to ask what's good for manand go across the boundaries of the departments to do it."Edward Levi explains Chicago's interdisciplinary approach: "It's this strange combination of intellectualism andseeing the world as a whole — the feeling that these matters arevery important and must affect the world of being, too . . .It's always assumed that the purpose of the research is to dosomething original, and originality means that you are likelyto enter into somebody else's area or borrow from anotherdiscipline. So the economists at Chicago are busily trying tosolve all the social problems through economic theory."On a more practical level, Dave Broder finds it easy to talkwith others who have shared the Chicago education: "Therewas a kind of common intellectual and political experiencefor those who were there. It's more a matter of language andstyle than of having known someone."Bob Bork says, "People out of the University of Chicagoand out of the Midwest, we're talking about the same thingsfaster. When I deal with Levi, we start from the same13premises and arrive at the same conclusion faster."Levi replies, "That's because of the commonality of intellectual talk at the University. There is a belief in intellectualstructures. Once you know the structures, you have the key tothe talk."Jack Conway (ab'40), who was the first director of theOEO's community action program in '64 and '65, was forfour years president of Common Cause and now is executivedirector of the American Federation of State, County andMunicipal Employees, puts it more plainly: "There's far lessbullshit and pomp. Everybody I know from the University ofForty-eight of the headlinersMany University of Chicago alumni do not belong to [theUniversity of Chicago Club of Washington]. Many do notknow that many of the others in the capital are fellowalumni, so casual are their postgraduate connections. Hereare some of the best-known former students, teachers andpresent trustees in the nation's capital:White House: Robert Goldwin (am'54, p1id'63; politicalscience teacher and director of the Public Affairs Conference Center, '60 to '69), special consultant to thePresident; Bradley Patterson (ab'42, am'43), assistantdirector of the Presidential personnel office; MyronKuropas (phD'74), special assistant to the President forethnic affairs.Supreme Court: John Paul Stevens (ab'41), associatejustice; Sharon Baldwin (jd'75), clerk to Justice Stevens.Senate: Charles Percy (ab'41; trustee), senator; GaleMcGee (phD'47; history teacher, '45-'47), senator;Abraham Ribicoff (jd'33), senator; Roman Hruska(attended Law School, '28), senator.House of Representatives: Abner Mikva (jd'51; taughtlaw, '74), congressman; Patsy Mink (jd'51), congress-woman; Sidney Yates (p1ib'31, jd'33), congressman;William Brown (jd'54), parliamentarian.Cabinet: Edward H. Levi (Lab School from kindergartenthrough high school, phB'32, jd'35; law professor '36-'50,Law School dean '50-'62, provost '62-'68, president'68-'75), attorney-general; Earl L. Butz (attended as partof PhD, summer of '36), secretary of agriculture.Justice Department: Robert H. Bork (ab'48, jd'53),solicitor general; Rex E. Lee (jd'63), assistant attorney-general.State Department: Robert S. Ingersoll (trustee), DeputySecretary of State, No. 2 in the department; Joseph J.Sisco* (am'47, phD'50), Under Secretary of State forpolitical affairs, No. 3 in the department; Pierre Graham(am'49), ambassador to Upper Volta; Robert Dean(am'52), ambassador to Peru; William Macomber, Jr.* As noted elsewhere, Mr. Ingersoll has left the Department andMr. Sisco is about to do so— Ed. Chicago thinks clearly. You can get discussions concludedquickly."The University of Chicago is on the rise in Washington,says Sen. Chuck Percy, perhaps its most ardent booster here:"It's growing. The trend line is up. I think the impact of theUniversity will continue to grow. In the complexities of theDepression, Roosevelt turned to Harvard and the BrainTrust. With the complexity of the world and its problems andthe complexity of politics, they'll turn to Chicago."If I'd run for President this year and won, I'd havedrained the University."(am'51), ambassador to Turkey; J. McMurtrie Godley(attended, '39-'40), ambassador to Lebanon: James B.Engle (ab'40), ambassador to Dahomey; James W. Spain(am'49), ambassador to Tanzania; Arthur Hummel(am'49), ambassador to Ethiopia; Deane R. Hinton(ab'43), recently nominated to be U.S. representative tothe U.S. Mission to the European Economic Communityin Brussels, with the rank of ambassador; C. WilliamKontos (ab'47, am'48), special representative of the President and director of the Sinai Support Mission; ArthurDay (am'49), Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for NearEastern and South Asian affairs; Shirley D. Patterson(sb'43), special assistant to the assistant administrator,Bureau of Population and Humanitarian Assistance, AID;Marvin Hoffenberg (am'50), member of the Bureau ofCultural Affairs, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs;Anton dePorte (ab'48, am'51, p1id'56), member of thePolicy Planning Staff; Robert Slutz, Jr. (am'48), detailedto the Department of Justice; Herbert Spielman (pIvd'49),chairman, Development Assistance Committee, OECD inParis and ex-deputy administrator, AID; Charles LesterStermer (ab'51), officer in charge, United Nations publicaffairs office, Bureau of International Organizations;Philip J. Wolfson (am'47, p1id'51), member, Bureau ofIntelligence and Research.Arts and letters: Daniel Boorstin (professor of history,'44-'69), Librarian of Congress; Joshua Taylor (professorof art, '49-'74), director of the National Collection of FineArts.Journalism and public affairs: Katharine Graham (ab'38;trustee), publisher of the Washington Post; David Broder(ab'47, am'51), lead political writer for the Post; DeanFischer (am'59), staff correspondent for Time magazine;Laughlin Phillips (am'49), editor-in-chief, The Washing-tonian; Robert J. Myers (am'48, p1tx>'59), publisher of theNew Republic; Seymour Hersh (ab'58), investigativereporter, the New York Times; Ray Scherer (am'47),former NBC News correspondent, now RCA's Washington representative; Marcus Raskin (ab'54, jd'57), writerand political theoretician, co-director of the Institute forPolicy Studies.Labor: Alexander Barkan (attended College, '32), directorof COPE, the political arm of the AFL-CIO; Jack Conway(ab'40), executive director, American Federation of State,County and Muncipal Employees.14A parade from the Botany Pond preceded the maypole Morris dance on the quadrangles.Festival of the artsSpringtime, as any husbandman or husbandwoman (hus-bandwoman?) well knows, is a time of growth; the oak treeson the main quadrangle, for example, are imperceptiblylarger this year than they were last. By no means imper ceptible, however, has been the year-to-year growth of theUniversity's annual Festival of the Arts.FOTA was first held more than two decades ago as afive-day blossoming of culture and youthful exuberance. ItJoel Shapiro, professor of piano at the University of Illinois, plays works of Copland, Binkerd.q g?^|"^ * ¦" 'SEE «- .:»*¦"-7«i.# ^ «*¦ "' ¦** %Mandel Hall is the scene of many FOTA events. Above (fromleft): Revolutionary Ensemble, a modern music group; ayoung composers concert (works of Darken Cowles and ScottEggert, both students); and a blues and boogie piano concertcelebrated the arts (the term to be loosely construed) in sixforms: literature, music, drama, sculpture, crafts, and aBeaux Arts Ball.By 1970 FOTA had expanded its time scale to more than amonth, beginning May 1, and its scope to some sixty events.To the original artistic categories the festival had added thearts of the lecture and of photography, and a maypole dancehad become an important event.This year's festivities, which will still be in progress as thesepages are read, include some seventy-five events, many ofthem repeated several times, and they began in mid-April.(Some of these, of course, were not arranged by the studentFOTA organization, headed by Scott King and LauraPeterson, and would have been held anyhow.) Now included featuring Little Brother Montgomery, Floyd Dixon, WillieMabon and Sam Price. At right is the 1976 edition ofBlackfriars, "Publish or Perish," by Mark Johnson andSteve Kemp.among the FOTA arts— in addition to traditional music,literature, drama, sculpture and crafts — are film; plantgrowing; boogie, blues, rock and folk music; chess; assortedvolunteer quizzes; and miscellaneous competitions in thefields of Yo-Yo spinning, Frisbee tossing, kite flying, andpaper boat sailing. Gone are photography and the BeauxArts Ball. Literature has expanded greatly in the direction ofverse reading. International House has chimed in with a seriesof dinners in the manner of various nations to promote lesarts gastronomiques.Once again the Festival of the Arts is demonstrating that,as Hippocrates observed long ago (also Chaucer, alsoGoethe) and, as the accompanying partial listing indicates,although life may be short, art can be impressively long.A SAMPLING OF THE FOTA EVENTSRevolutionary EnsembleChicago Symphony OrchestraMusic of the Baroque*Vermeer QuartetYoung Composers ConcertChicago Monteverdi SingersTumbleweed Dance GroupBlues and Boogie Woogie ConcertStrindberg's "Miss Julie"*Joel Shapiro, Gerald Rizzer — piano recitalsElvie Moore's Music and DanceMaypole DanceOpen Poetry ReadingPoetry and Prose FestivalBlues Concert DanceBlackfriars: "Publish or Perish"*Brass Society Concert Edward Mondello, Tom Weisflog, organ recitalsChicago Saxophone QuartetJoseph Ceravolo, poetry readingRidiculous Theatre Company, "Stage Blood"*Chicago Hysterical Society"The Horn," Louis StoutCollegium Musicum*Eddie Jefferson and the Von Freeman Quartet"The Chester Noah," mystery play*Music SocietyUniversity of Chicago ChorusJames Cunningham, Lauren Persichetti, modern dance"The Elizabethan Enterprise"Boston Symphony Chamber PlayersContemporary Chamber PlayersJoe Orton's "Entertaining Mister Sloane"** Event presented more than once.16I%tpKX* >/tl»*' .^The occult and the mMircea EliadeContemporary scholarship has disclosed the consistentreligious meaning and the cultural function of a great numberof occult practices, beliefs, and theories, recorded in manycivilizations, European and non-European alike, and at alllevels of culture, from folk rituals — such as magic and witchcraft — to the most learned and elaborate secret techniquesand esoteric speculations: alchemy, Yoga, Tantrism, Gnosticism, Renaissance Hermeticism, and secret societies andMasonic lodges of the Enlightenment period.It is difficult to determine the relation between the resultsof such recent scholarship and the "occult explosion" of the1970s. There seems to be no relation between scientificresearch carried out on the history of astrology — of rathermodest proportions, to be sure — and the amazing popularityof this most ancient occult discipline. Even if we had moretime at our disposal, we could not present a complete pictureof the contemporary craze for astrology in both the UnitedStates and Europe. Suffice it to say that at least 5,000,000Americans plan their lives according to astrologicalpredictions, and some 1,200 of the 1,750 daily newspapers inthis country publish horoscopes.There is enough business to keep 10,000 full-time and175,000 part-time astrologers at work. An estimated40,000,000 Americans have turned the zodiac business into a$200,000,000-a-year enterprise. Currently there are severalcomputers engaged in the casting and interpretation of horoscopes. One of these prints out a 10,000-word horoscope inminutes for twenty dollars. Another provides twenty- four-a-day horoscopes to about 2,000 campuses across the country.A third computer is located in Grand Central Station, puttingout about 500 horoscopes a day.Of course, astrology, the hope that one can know thefuture, has always been popular, with the rich andpowerful — with kings, princes, popes, etc., particularly fromthe Renaissance on. One may add that the belief in thedetermination of destiny by the position of the planetsillustrates, in the last analysis, another defeat of Christianity.Indeed, the Christian fathers fiercely attacked the astrologicalfatalism dominant during the last centuries of the RomanEmpire. "We are above Fate," wrote Tatian; "the Sun andthe Moon are made for us!"Mr. Eliade is the Sewell L. Avery distinguished serviceprofessor in the Divinity School and professor in theCommittee on Social Thought. The article is excerpted andadapted from Occultism, Witchcraft and Cultural Fashions(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976). Mr. Eliade'smost recent appearance in these pages was with "The Cult ofthe Mandragora in Romania, " January/February, 1973. In spite of this theology of human freedom, astrology hasnever been extirpated in the Christian world. But never in thepast did it reach the proportions and prestige it enjoys in ourtimes. What a fantastic progress from the first monthlyperiodical, which appeared in London in August, 1791, to themany thousands of astrological magazines published today allover the Western world. The history of the vertiginous fameand prestige of astrology in modern societies makesfascinating reading. The glory of Evangeline Adams, whoarrived in New York in 1899 and soon became "America'sfemale Nostradamus," is only a modest example. MaryPickford and Enrico Caruso brought all the cinema and operastars to her, and it was rumored that the financier J. PierpontMorgan "never made an important move on Wall Street"without consulting Evangeline Adams.Other astrologers became famous in the '30s, for instance,Thomas Menes, who was said to have "an unbroken recordfor making predictions that came true." Though most of hispredictions proved erroneous, his prestige did not suffer.It is needless to remind you of Hitler's interest in astrology.You may read in H. R. Trevor-Roper's book, The Last Daysof Hitler, how, in the middle of April, 1945, Hitler andGoebbels again consulted the horoscope which predicted amajor victory for late April and peace in August. However,Hitler took his life on April 30, and the German army surrendered on May 7. Finally, we may recall the innumerableastrological programs that have appeared on television (inspite of the interdiction voted by the National Association ofBroadcasters in March, 1952) and such best-sellers as A Giftof Prophesy by Ruth Montgomery, which sold more than260,000 copies as a hard-cover and 2,800,000 as a paperback.What can be the explanation of such fantastic success?Recently, a number of French sociologists and psychologistspublished a book, Le Retour des astrologues (1971), in whichthey present and analyze the results of an investigation basedon data gathered by the French Institute of Public Opinion. Iwill not summarize the social characteristics of believers inastrology, classified by sex, occupation, age, and the size ofthe localities where the data were gathered. I will quote onlysome of the conclusions: Edgar Morin, for instance, interprets the appeal of astrology among youth today "asstemming from the cultural crisis of bourgeois society." Hethinks that, in the youth culture, "astrology is also part of anew gnosis which has a revolutionary conception of a newage, the Age of Aquarius." What is highly relevant is the factthat the greatest interest in astrology "is not to be found inthe countryside, among farmers or among the lower ranges ofthe occupational structure, but rather in the most denselypopulated urban centers and among white-collar workers."The French authors did not insist on the parareligious18function of astrology, yet the discovery that your life isrelated to astral phenomena does confer a new meaning onyour existence. You are no longer merely the anonymousindividual described by Heidegger and Sartre, a strangerthrown into an absurd and meaningless world, condemned tobe free, as Sartre used to say, with a freedom confined to yoursituation and conditioned by your historical moment. Rather,the horoscope reveals to you a new dignity: it shows how intimately you are related to the entire universe. It is true thatyour life is determined by the movements of the stars, but atleast this determinant has an incomparable grandeur.Although, in the last analysis, a puppet pulled by invisibleropes and strings, you are nevertheless a part of the heavenlyworld.Besides, this cosmic predetermination of your existenceconstitutes a mystery: it means that the universe moves onaccording to a preestablished plan; that human life andhistory itself follow a pattern and advance progressivelytoward a goal. This ultimate goal is secret or beyond humanunderstanding; but at least it gives meaning to a cosmosregarded by most scientists as the result of blind hazard, andit gives sense to the human existence declared by Sartre to bede trop.This parareligious dimension of astrology is even considered superior to the existing religions, because it does notimply any of the difficult theological problems: the existenceof a personal or transpersonal God, the enigma of Creation,the origin of evil, and so on. Following the instructions ofyour horoscope, you feel in harmony with the universe and donot have to bother with hard, tragic, or insoluble problems.At the same time, you admit, consciously or unconsciously,that a grand, though incomprehensible, cosmic dramadisplays itself and that you are a part of it; accordingly, youare not de trop.Such self-promotions to a respectable status are achievedwith a greater intensity in most of the contemporary so-calledmagic and occult movements. I will not discuss some of thewidely publicized Satanist lodges, such as that of AntonLaVey, high priest and founder of the Church of Satan in SanFrancisco. Readers interested in this type of aggressive revoltagainst the theistic interpretation of the world may readLaVey's own book, The Satanic Bible. Also, although fordifferent reasons, I will not examine certain occult schools,like the one founded by Gurdjiev and interpreted byOuspensky, Rene Daumal, and Louis Pauwels. Moreover,there are a few recent Californian groups reputed to practiceceremonial magic and witchcraft, but the informationavailable is scarce and suspect.However, what has been called the "occult explosion" hasattained such proportions that it is easy to select examples toillustrate the general orientation of these new secret, magico-religious cults. Thus, in Robert Ellwood's book, Religiousand Spiritual Groups in Modern America, one can find dataabout such cults as the Builders of the Adytum, the Church ofLight, the Church of All World, or the Feraferia. We learnthat the Builders of the Adytum, founded by Paul FosterCase (1884-1954), focus their spiritual life upon the Hermetic and Kabbalistic traditions. "The temple is brilliant- withbeautiful luminous paintings of the Tarot cards around thewalls, and the altar is rich with the black and white pillars ofSolomon and the Kabbalistic Tree."The Church of Light was founded in 1932 by ElbertBenjamine (1882-1951), who claimed that in 1909 he "undertook a mysterious journey during which he was inducted as amember of a council of three" who manage the affairs of anarcane order in their world. The Church of Light has fiftydegrees of initiation, "culminating in the Soul Degree, inwhich one must demonstrate there has been specificrealization of higher states of consciousness."A rather unusual sect, even judged by the standards of thecontemporary understanding of the occult, is the Church ofAll Worlds, founded in 1961 by two students at WestminsterCollege in Missouri after reading Stranger in a Strange Land,by the noted science-fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein. Themembers greet each other with the phrase "Thou art God."In fact, each human being is God and therefore has God'sresponsibility: "whether the world ravages itself to death, orthe lovely goddess [i.e., the whole biosphere of earth] comesto consciousness on this planet, is up to us."Finally, I will cite the neopagan movement Feraferia,centered in Pasadena, California. It is probably among themost recent, having been incorporated by its founder,Frederick M. Adams, on 2 August 1967. It has only twenty-two initiates and about one hundred members. The groupcelebrates seasonal festivals and practices nudism. "Feraferiaholds that religious life should be a part of sensitive interaction with nature and one's own erotic awareness." Theircentral symbol is the Greek goddess Kore, Demeter'sdaughter. The initiation ritual achieves an identification withnature and with Kore, the divine Maiden, and the initiatesstrive to recover a primeval horticultural paradise. "Feraferiasees itself as a precursor of a future culture in which thefeminine archetype will again be restored — in Magic Maidenform — to religious centrality, and in which mankind willrecover a sense of reverence in his dealings with nature andlife."Many of these cults and sects will undergo radical transformations or will decline or disappear, probably to bereplaced by other groups. In any event, they are representative of the contemporary youth culture and express the crazefor the occult with more vigor and clarity than do older organizations, like the Theosophical Society or Anthroposophy.They all exhibit a number of specific traits. First and foremost, all of these secret and initiatory groups proclaim theirdissatisfaction with the Christian church, whether RomanCatholic or Protestant. In more general terms, one can speakof a revolt against any traditional Western religious establishment. This rebellion does not imply a theological or philosophical critique of specific dogmas and ecclesiasticalinstitutions but rather a more sweeping dissatisfaction. As amatter of fact, most members of the new cults are almostcompletely ignorant of their own religious heritage. But whatthey have seen, heard, or read about Christianity hasdisappointed them. There are segments of the young19generation that expected other spiritual instruction from theirchurches besides social ethics. Many of those who tried topartake actively in the life of the church were looking forsacramental experiences and especially for instruction in whatthey call, vaguely, "gnosis" and "mysticism."Of course, they were disappointed. In the past fifty years,all the Christian denominations have decided that the mosturgent task of the church is to be vigorously relevant on thesocial plane. The only Western Christian tradition whichconserved a powerful sacramental liturgy, the RomanCatholic Church, is now trying drastically to simplify it.Moreover, "gnosis" and gnostic speculations were, from thevery beginning, persecuted and condemned by ecclesiasticalauthorities. As for the mystics and mystical experiences, theWestern churches barely tolerated them. One can say thatonly Eastern Orthodox Christianity has elaborated and conserved a rich liturgical tradition and has encouraged bothgnostic speculation and mystical experience.I hasten to add that such dissatisfaction with the Christiantradition does not explain the growing interest in the occultwhich started in the '60s and paved the way for the occultexplosion of the '70s. It is true that in some cases the provocative promotion of witchcraft and gnosticism had also an anticlerical intention: one can decipher in such boastful proclamations a sort of revenge taken by the victims of ecclesiasticpersecution. But such cases are sporadic. What is moregeneral is a rejection of Christian tradition in the name of aRejecting history; searcThe real or imaginary orgiastic practices of Europeanwitches disclose a certain religious pattern. First and foremost, the sexual orgies reveal a radical protest againstcontemporary religious and social situations — a revoltincited and nourished by the hope of recovering a lostbeatific perfection, namely, that of the fabulous "beginnings," a beatitude that haunts the imagination, particularly during catastrophic crises. Second, the so-calledsatanic elements of the witch orgies may have been practically nonexistent but forcibly imposed by the trials;ultimately, the satanist cliches became the principal indictment in the denunciations made during the witch crazes.But it is also possible that practices described as satanicwere really consummated; in such cases, they expressed arebellion against Christian institutions that failed to"save" man, and especially against the decadence of theChurch and the corruption of the ecclesiastical hierarchy.Moreover, we must also keep in mind the irresistibleattraction toward evil among certain types of personality.Third, whatever may have been the causes, the importantfact is that the orgiastic practices witness to a religiousnostalgia, a strong desire to return to an archaic phase ofculture — the dreamlike time of the fabulous "beginnings."Something similar is happening in our day, mainly in theyouth culture. To begin with, there is a total dissatisfactionwith existing institutions — religious, ethical, social,political. Such a rupture with the past is existentially supposedly broader and more efficient method for achievingan individual and, by the same stroke, a collective renovatio.Even when these ideas are naively or even ludicrously expressed, there is always the tacit conviction that a way out ofthe chaos and meaninglessness of modern life exists and thatthis way out implies an initiation into, and consequently therevelation of, old and venerable secrets. It is primarily theattraction of a personal initiation that explains the craze forthe occult.As is well known, Christianity rejected the mystery-religion type of secret initiation. The Christian "mystery"was open to all; it was "proclaimed upon the housetops,"and Gnostics were persecuted because of their secret rituals ofinitiation. In the contemporary occult explosion, the"initiation" — however the participant may understand thisterm — has a capital function: it confers a new status on theadept; he feels that he is somehow "elected," singled outfrom the anonymous and lonely crowd. Moreover, in most ofthe occult circles, initiation also has a superpersonal function,for every new adept is supposed to contribute to therenovatio of the world.Such a hope is evident in the effort to rediscover thesacrality of nature. The importance of ceremonial nudity andritual intercourse must not be interpreted as merely lustfulinclinations. The recent sexual revolution has made obsoletesuch types of pretense and masquerade. Rather, the purposeof ritual nudity and orgiastic practices is to recapture thehing for 'beginnings'ambivalent: on the one hand, it expresses itself throughaggressiveness and rebellion against all kinds of rules anddogmas and the so-called establishment, all of which areunconsciously likened to the persecution and tyranny ofsome modern kind of Inquisition; on the other hand, therejection of modern social structures and moral values,which implies a rejection of civilization and, in the lastanalysis, of history, has a religious meaning, although thisreligious dimension is seldom recognized as such. Indeed,one notices among some sections of the youth culture therediscovery of "cosmic religion" and the sacramentaldimension of human existence; elements pointing in thisdirection are, for instance, communion with nature, ritualnudity, uninhibited sexual spontaneity, the will to liveexclusively in the present, and so on. Moreover, theinterest in the occult, so characteristic of the youth culture,also indicates the desire to reanimate the old beliefs andreligious ideas that are persecuted, or are at least frownedupon, by the Christian churches (astrology, magic, gnosis,alchemy, orgiastic practices) and to discover and cultivatenon-Christian methods of salvation (Yoga, Tantra, Zen,etc.).All these have to do with the same fundamental drive: togo beyond one's parents' and grandparents' world ofmeanings and to recover the lost significance and beatitudeof the "beginnings" and thereby the hope of discovering anew and creative mode of existing in the world.20sacramental value of sexuality. One can speak of the unconscious nostalgia for a fabulous, paradisiacal existence,free from inhibitions and taboos. It is significant to note thatin most occult circles the notion of freedom is part of asystem, involving the ideas of cosmic renovatio, religiousuniversalism (meaning, especially, the rediscovery of theOriental traditions), and spiritual growth through initiation, aspiritual growth that continues, of course, in the afterlife. Insum, all the recent occult groups imply, consciously or unconsciously, what I would call an optimistic evaluation of thehuman mode of being.This naive optimism can be — and, in fact, has been —criticized from many perspectives. However, more significantthan the rationalistic views, like, for instance, the one thatsees in the occult revival a form of "pop" religion, is theradical rejection by the foremost representative of modernesotericism, Rene Guenon. Guenon, born in 1886 in aCatholic family, became interested in the occult as a youngman; but, after being initiated into many Parisian secretsocieties, he abandoned them and decided to follow theOriental tradition. He became a Muslim in 1912 and in 1930went to Egypt, where he spent the rest of his life, dying in1951.Now, if he could witness the contemporary occultexplosion, Rene Guenon would have written a considerablymore devastating book than his Le Theosophisme: Histoired'une pseudo-religion (1921). In this learned and brilliantlywritten book, Guenon debunked all the so-called occult oresoteric groups, from Mme. Blavatsky's TheosophicalSociety and Papus to the many neospiritualist or pseudo-Rosicrucian lodges. Considering himself a real initiate andspeaking in the name of the veritable esoteric tradition,Guenon denied not only the authenticity of modern Westernso-called occultism but also the ability of any Western individual to contact a valid esoteric organization. For Guenon,only one branch of Freemasonry had conserved some parts ofa traditional system; but he added that the majority of theLodge's members were unaware of this heritage. Consequently, Guenon never ceased to contend in his many booksand articles that only in the East are true esoteric traditionsstill alive. Moreover, he pointed out that any endeavor topractice any of the occult arts represents, for contemporaryman, a serious mental and even physical risk.It is obviously impossible here to summarize Guenon's owndoctrine. For our purposes, it suffices to say that he definitelyrejects the general optimism and hope in a personal andcosmic renovatio which seem to characterize the occultrevival. Already in his books Orient et Occident and La Crisedu monde moderne, published in 1924 and 1927, Guenonproclaimed the irremediable decadence of the Western worldand announced its end. Using the terms of the Indiantradition, he stated that we are rapidly approaching the finalphase of the Kali-yuga, the end of a cosmic cycle. ForGuenon, nothing can be done to change or even to retard thisprocess. Consequently, there is no hope for a cosmic or social renovatio. A new cycle will begin only after the total destruction of the present one. As for the individual, Guenonbelieved that the possibility of contacting one of the initiatorycenters surviving in the East exists in principle but that thechances of doing so are very limited.What is even more important — and in radical contradictionwith the ideas implicit in recent occult movements — Guenondenied the privileged status of the human personality. Heliterally states that manrepresents only a transitory and contingent manifestation oftrue being. . . . Human individuality . . . ought not to have aprivileged place "out of series" in the indefinite hierarchy ofstates of total being; there it occupies a rank no more importantthan that of other states.During his life, Rene Guenon was a rather unpopularauthor. He had fanatical admirers, but their number waslimited. Only after his death, and especially in the past ten totwelve years, have his books been reprinted and translated,making his ideas more widely known. This phenomenon israther curious, because, as I have said, Guenon presents apessimistic view of the world and announces its imminentcatastrophic end. It is true that some of his disciples do notinsist too much on the inevitable end of the actual historicalcycle but try to develop his insights concerning the function ofthe esoteric tradition in specific cultures. I may also add thatmost of his disciples are converts to Islam or students of theIndo-Tibetan tradition.Thus we witness a rather paradoxical situation: on the onehand, an occult explosion, a sort of "pop" religion,characteristic especially of the American youth culture, whichproclaims the great renewal of the post-Aquarian age; and,on the other hand, a more modest but progressively growingdiscovery and acceptance of traditional esotericism, as reformulated, for example, by Rene Guenon, which rejects theoptimistic hope of cosmic and historic renewal without thepreliminary catastrophic dissolution of the modern world.These two tendencies are radically opposed. There are somesigns of an effort to soften the pessimistic outlook ofGuenonian doctrines, but it is too early to judge its results.A historian of religions must resist the temptation topredict what will happen in the near future — in our case, topredict how these two opposite understandings of the occulttradition will develop. We might at least try to compare thecontemporary situation with that of the nineteenth and thebeginning of the twentieth centuries, when, as we have seen,writers and artists also displayed a great interest in theoccult.But today the artistic and literary imagination is toocomplex to permit such a sweeping generalization. Theliterature of fantasy and the fantastic, especially in sciencefiction, is much in demand, but we still do not know itsintimate relationship with the different occult traditions. Theunderground vogue of Hesse's Journey to the East (1951) inthe '50s anticipated the occult revival of the late '60s. But whowill interpret for us the amazing success of Rosemary's Babyand 2001? I am merely asking the question.21wCREWt~% * .**» <.0^^ -¦,W|^.^ **^c. -i>¦¦«>..¦* •a»s«»^S^^«>UNIVERSITY WOMEN LAUNCH SPORT NEW TO THE MIDWAYThe University's dauntless women students pioneered a newathletic endeavor this year: rowing. They established the U ofC Women's Crew Club. In April they had their first meet ofthe spring, defeating the Milwaukee Women's Rowing Club.Last month they entered the Midwest Sprints at Madison.The four-oar crew sparkled in its trial heat but collided withanother boat in the finals. The eight-oar team trailed in itsevent.By the time this issue of the magazine appears the crew willhave taken part in three more regattas; win, lose or draw, thehigh-spirited group hopes it has established in perpetuity anew sport on the Midway.The club was established last fall by Barbara Hornung, anundergraduate biology student, who serves as the club'spresident, and Laurie Moses, a teacher in the Lab School.Their enthusiasm was sufficient to enable them to recruitfourteen undergraduates and half a dozen graduate students,an alumna, Susan Robertson (ab'74), and a few other rowingaficionadas. Their coaches are Mark Maxson (head coach), arower in his college days, who now works for the Chicagooperation of Lloyds of London; Chuck Hewitt, also a collegiate oarsman, now with the Continental Bank; and JamesHepner (ab'74), who is in the computer end of Fortex DataCorp.The organization took shape so late in the season that itcould arrange only two competitive events. It bested theMilwaukee Women's Crew, then went east for the three-mileHead of the Charles Regatta, in which, despite its lack ofexperience, the four-woman crew finished twenty-seventh in afield of thirty-seven.Members of the club lead a strenuous life. They get up at 5a.m. in the outdoor season and are on the water, ten milesaway, by 6:15. When the lagoon freezes over, they are inBartlett Gym by 7:15 for land conditioning — flat running,stairs running, weight lifting. By 8:15 they are ready to jointheir less energetic fellow students in normal campusexistence.Not only is the crew member's life strenuous; it is also rather hard on the pocketbook. The women pay all their ownexpenses — transportation, boat club dues, and travel forwinter practice sessions in the University of Wisconsin'sindoor rowing tank, and to and from meets.Early this year the club embarked on a campaign to raise$6,000 to buy an eight-oar shell and blades, plus another$4,000 to defray travel costs and purchase a more adequatefour-oar boat. Among the means they have used us the sale of"Support the Women's Crew" T-shirts. Steering this andother ways-and-means efforts is Susan Urbas, a politicalscience graduate student and the club's treasurer.Eventually the club hopes to graduate to the status of aUniversity-supported sport. Until that day arrives the oars-folk are developing rowers' calluses, and are "catchingcrabs" (dunking the blade on the recovery) as seldom aspossible.The oarsfolk: (front row) Laurie Moses, Cathie Hannun,Sallie White, Kathie Kaplan, Barb Hornung, Nina Cohen,Linda Gould, Sally O'Neil; (back row) Charlotte Mehrtens,Debby Sorondo, Susan Urbas, Pam Johnson, Kathie Hughes,Coach Maxson; (kneeling) Elaine Chin, coxswain.23m tm m¦ 111I lift 5 —', : -'¦¦> .. ./ IB till. i iHOSPITAL AT NIGHTThe University, as alumni know full well, teaches, and theUniversity learns. The University of Chicago Hospitals andClinics teach and learn and heal.The UCHC complex is, of course, headquarters formedical students — 450 of them working for MDs, and otherscandidates for PhDs or working in postgraduate and postdoctoral programs in one or another of the biologicalsciences. And in UCHC's labs is carried out research in thescores of widely varied specializations which today representmedical science.The eleven hospitals which at present comprise UCHC (thenewest unit — the Surgery-Brain Research Pavilion — is to becompleted next year) care for 20,000 in-patients per year. Inaddition, the clinics record 220,000 outpatient visits annually,and these do not include another 130,000 visits in thechildren's and adult emergency rooms (which are not rooms,but extensive suites).Although some of UCHC's activities stop and others slowperceptibly in the long hours of the night, the complex itselfremains essentially alive. The television viewer tends to thinkof the emergency room as a hospital's primary nocturnalentitv, because it customarily is shown as the locale of much frenzied activity (however accurately or inaccurately portrayed in the script). And it is true that because of presenttrends in medical practice, the emergency room has, to aconsiderable extent, taken the place of the family doctor.(The emergency room has also spawned its own specializedbranch of practice: emergency medicine, which has alreadyproved its value and is attracting its own future practitioners.)But the emergency room actually represents only one ofmany hospital functions which must continue to beperformed in the hours of darkness. Babies must be deliveredand their fragile first hours attended to. Some surgery mustbe performed. Intensive care must be provided. The inpatient experiencing a crisis in the wee, small hours must betaken care of.And for all of these functions, basic backup services mustbe available— radiology, pathology, and others. And ofcourse there must be backup for the backups— the housekeeping services which keep the machinery operating.A commitment to medical education and research involvesmuch more, and it must go on twenty-four hours a day—however unheralded and unsung. Some fraction of all this isshown in these pages.24Above: the high risk nursery in Chicago Lying-in Hospital.Below: the UCHC adult emergency room. Some nights itfairly seethes with activity; on others it is a rather quiet place.The night this picture was taken, it was somewhere betweenthese extremes.Sophisticated equipment for computer tomography-using an x-ray which measures variations in brain tissuedensity— is available through the night.^ Problems with government regulationA regulatory agency's client isn't youThe year 1976 is remarkable not only as the occasion ofthe American bicentennial; it is also the bicentennial ofAdam Smith 's Wealth of Nations. Earlier this year twoprofessors in the Graduate School of Business, SamPeltzman (phv'65), who is also editor of the Journal ofPolitical Economy, and John P. Gould, Jr. (pto '66); and Edmund W. Kitch (m'64), professor in the LawSchool, held a discussion, under GSB auspices, of "TheEconomic Effects of Government Intervention."Melvin W. Reder, GSB's Isidore and Gladys W. Brownprofessor, presided. The accompanying articles areexcerpted and adapted from that discussion.Sam PeltzmanThis is a political year, as we all know, and government regulation of the economy has emerged as a more or lessimportant political issue. Political figures as diverse asPresident Ford and Senator Kennedy have argued forcefullyfor reduced regulation of various forms of economic activityand Congress has before it now legislation to decrease, forexample, the regulation of air transportation.All of this might just be the backwash of what has becomean increasingly fashionable skepticism about the efficacy ofbig government. But the skepticism about the efficacy ofregulation, specifically, has by now a fairly substantialgrounding in the results of economic research. The last ten orfifteen years have seen a proliferation of academic researchwhich is really surprising for the unanimity of its conclusions— that regulation has had substantial economic costs vastlyovershadowing any benefits. It's really hard for me to thinkof any exception to that general conclusion.We've heard already some examples of the items thatwould fit into this category. I won't recite them in any detail;we've heard Professor Kitch tell us about the effect of CivilAeronautics Board regulation, which essentially has been tomake airline fares half again as high as they otherwise wouldbe; FPC regulation, leading to shortages of gas and the squandering our dwindling reserves of gas in inefficient uses. Onecould add to this a much longer list — Interstate CommerceCommission regulation of surface freight transportationappears to have led to rates 10%-30% higher than they wouldbe in an unregulated market. Food and Drug Administrationregulation of drug quality has, on balance, reduced thequality of drugs, essentially by retarding the development ofnew drugs.There's a relatively new literature now on the regulation ofenvironmental quality, and it's hinting that this regulation iscosting on the order of twice what some less cumbersomeapproaches would entail for the same effect. We've had regu lation of auto safety which appears to have saved no lives, ata cost of $1,000,000,000 or $2,000,000,000 a year; we've hadstudies of Securities and Exchange Commission regulationwhich indicate that the SEC has saved no investors anymoney, at a cost yet to be calculated. The list could beextended.Now let me compare what's been happening to the wellbeing of the regulators.The contrast is stark indeed.• No important regulatory agency has been put out ofbusiness. That, I take it, is a truism that you don't have to bereminded of.• All of the older agencies have participated fully in thegrowth of the federal budget, and that means they've grownfaster than GNP. Again, a truism I don't have to remind youof.• The newer ones have done even better than that. TheEnvironmental Protection Agency and the National HighwaySafety Administration are both less than ten years old.They're already bigger than all of the regulatory agencies thatcame before combined— by which I mean that familiar alphabet soup litany: FDA, ICC, CAB, SEC, NLRB, FTC. Youcan make even a longer list.• In more recent years we've seen the creation of still moreagencies; that activity continues unabated. I'm thinking ofthe Consumer Product Safety Commission and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, for example.Now this appears to be a somewhat strange state of affairs.Many of you here are in business to sell one type of good oranother, and if the goods that you sold were as bad as thegoods turned out by the regulatory agencies, you'd beout of business in a week. Yet the regulatory agencies seem tothrive and grow on these products.26The paradox, if indeed there is a paradox, has an obviousresolution, but one no less important for its being obvious.(Maybe I shouldn't say that. You ought to be suspicious everytime somebody says he's got an obvious answer.) Anyway,both businessmen and economists naturally tend to defineand measure performance in terms of efficiency in the sort ofmarketplace setting with which they're most familiar —produce a better product for your customer, at a lower cost,and both you and he will be better off.We find, however, the ostensible customers of the regulatory agencies — the consumers, the broad public —consistently short-changed. Therefore we tend to judge theperformance rather harshly.But this is the point. The ostensible customers of theregulatory agencies are not the real customers. Certainlythey're not the ones with whom the regulatory agency is mostMore and more government effortEdmund W. KitchIt may turn out, when we look back on this period, that thecritical proof for the proposition that the federal government passed some level of optimum size during the 1960swill be the fact that there emerged during this period thephenomenon of government agencies becoming increasingly obsessed with other government agencies. One of theproblems I worried about in the course of my work asexecutive director of the CAB Advisory Committee onProcedural Reform — and one for which I didn't come upwith any politically acceptable answers — was the phenomenon of participation by federal government parties inCAB proceedings. Back in the old days, when the CAB hadto decide the question of the amount of money the carrierswere to get as subsidy, it created an office of publiccounsel to question the carriers' need for the subsidydollars. The public counsel represented an adversary,questioning the airlines' arguments for a given level ofsubsidy. That made good sense because if there was no oneto argue against the carriers, they would just ask for moreand more.Well, things have much changed these days. In any proceeding of importance at the CAB, a representative of theCAB office directly concerned with the problem willappear. It is not clear on whose behalf he is to function.Because the CAB will ultimately decide the case in whichhe is participating, it is considered improper for the boardto direct the office as to what its position should be. Theoffice, and not infrequently only the person appearing inthe case, determines what its view will be, based on its ownview of the public interest.In this age of consumerism, that was not consideredsufficient, so the CAB created an office of consumeradvocacy to appear and represent the consumer interest. immediately concerned.The regulatory agency is, first and foremost, the servantof political actors, whether they be in the Congress or in theexecutive branch. And it's success or failure in the politicalmarketplace that counts — much more than economicefficiency.Indeed, that success or failure depends on the time-honoredtrick of obtaining the gratitude of a thousand voters forgiving them $1,000 each at a cost of alienating the one voterwhom you have taxed $1,000,000.Better yet, it depends on alienating no one, by spreadingthe tax so thinly that no one even knows he's being taxed.That's the sort of result that makes for political success.The regulatory agencies, whatever their ostensible charter,are no more immune to the demands of this sort of coalitionbuilding and wealth redistribution process than you are fromgoes to jousting among agenciesThen there will appear not infrequently a lawyer fromthe Department of Transportation, another federal agencywhich fancies itself as an enlightened and forward-looking agency. The department's view is that the CAB is abackwash agency which needs to be educated to themainstream thought of the executive branch. So theDepartment of Transportation man comes in in order tomake sure that executive branch concerns with transportation are taken into account.Then there will be a lawyer from the antitrust division ofthe Department of Justice. (Mind you all these people areappearing on behalf of the taxpayer, and are being paid attaxpayer's expense to represent the public interest.) Therepresentative of the antitrust division, Department ofJustice, knows that the Department of Transportation andthe CAB really like cartels too well and don't appreciatethe values of competition, which can only be properlyspoken for by a true representative of the antitrustdivision.Then, more recently, we have had representatives fromcongressional offices who have taken part in various CABproceedings because they understand that the agenciesreally aren't responsive to the people, but they are.And there may be a few private parties trailing alongbehind. But the whole first part of the operation isgovernment. It is government litigating against government. The agencies are beginning to fragment. They arebecoming separate competitive firms, each with its own setof incentives, and they are spending significant resourcescompeting with each other. The private parties who have tostand by and wait for that process to resolve itself often gethurt very badly.27the demands of your customers. If they sacrificed thesedemands to those of economic efficiency, they would fail,just as surely as you would if you, for example, paid yourleast productive workers the highest salaries.It's precisely in this political arena that I think theregulatory agencies have been, by and large, successful.Let me give you one example — the regulation of the marketing of new drugs. One can distinguish here three broadgroups with some more or less important interests in theoutcome of this regulation— That is, in the number, thequality and the price of new drugs that are marketed.First of all we have consumers, broadly conceived — youand me and everybody else who buys prescription drugs.Their main interest would be in getting the best quality at thelowest price. But they're too numerous and unorganized forDespite adverse effects of regulatJohn P. Gould, Jr.The Interstate Commerce Commission legislation waspassed in 1887 with the ostensible purpose of protecting theconsumer from the natural monopoly inherent in therailroads. But as technology improved and competitionfrom the trucking industry and competitive pressure fromthe inland waterways came into existence, the argumentthat we need to protect the economy from the "naturalmonopoly" that, perhaps earlier, was inherent in the railroads was substantially weakened, if not eliminated. Onewould think that the natural response would be that sincethe natural monopoly problem no longer exists, thensomething should be done to eliminate the regulation.Instead, the regulation is extended, to make sure that thetrucking companies do not provide too much of a threat tothe railroads, or that the inland waterways competitiondoes not provide too much of a threat to the railroads. Soinstead of the initial motivation of protecting the economyin the case of a "natural monopoly," the regulationswitches to protection of the industry against competition — at the cost, of course, of the economic welfare of theeconomy in general.In this same spirit there are a large number of situationsin which exit from industry is prevented by the regulatoryagency. In unregulated industry it is not uncommon to seethings like bankruptcies or liquidations, which occurbecause the firm is not producing in an efficient manner.The regulatory agencies are very reluctant to let regulatedfirms fail. And as a consequence they do things to keepinefficient firms in the industry or keep the industry a sizethat it shouldn't be.Similar kinds of regulation occur in the banking industry— the Federal Reserve Board, the Federal DepositInsurance Corporation and the Federal Home Loan BankBoard all regulate things like the maximum interest rate that interest to be politically important. When was the lasttime you testified at a congressional hearing bearing on theregulation of drugs? It's totally inconceivable. But that's onegroup — the largest, numerically and in terms of dollars —with perhaps the largest stake in this process.Another group one can distinguish consists of the con-sumerists. Highly organized, politically important, even ifmuch less numerous than the consumers whom they purportto speak for, they represent a view deeply mistrustful ofinnovation in general and of its accompanying promotionalhoopla — especially if all of that is done by big business.A third broad group one can distinguish is the industrythat's producing drugs, old and new. Also numerically asmall group, but also politically important, because its largeper-firm interest makes the representation of its financialon, protests find little supportthat can be paid or the kinds of services that the bank canprovide, all really eliminating certain kinds of competitionthat would arise in an unregulated market.Another problem here is that the cost of the activity thatthe firm engages in tends to rise to the regulated price. Forexample since airlines cannot compete by reducing price,they compete by increasing capacity to inefficient levels.In view of all this, how has it happened that we at theUniversity of Chicago can point all these things out, andthat, somehow, people in Washington don't understandwhat's going on? The sad truth is, I think, the people inWashington do understand what's going on. They understand it very well. Much of what I've had to say is, indeed,based on things that come out of the government. I directyour attention in particular to the Economic Report of thePresident in 1975, in which an extremely strong case aboutthe cost of regulation is made.Yet this subject is not mentioned at all in the January,'76, Economic Report of the President, which leads me tobelieve that in fact there was not any strong politicalsupport for deregulation from the business community, orthe community in general, or Ralph Nader, or anybody.These days we often hear the assertion that what AdamSmith said about economics applied in the 18th century butdoesn't apply in the 20th. (Of course this is much likesaying that the Pythagorean theorem applied only inancient Greece.) Those who reject Smith are often theones who argue that government regulation must nowreplace the invisible hand of unfettered competition. Thegreat irony in this position is that the evidence that hasaccumulated over the last hundred years shows overwhelmingly that regulation has generally been used toeliminate the efficiency of competition not enhance it.28interest an urgent matter that you can be very sure is attendedto in Washington.Now think about the pressures on, not the particular regulatory agency itself, but on Congress and the whole regulatoryand political process. The politically prudent course in a caselike this is to somehow satisfy the apparently conflictingdemands of the last two groups. It's a neat trick if you canpull it off — to satisfy the politically-organized consumeristsand the industry.Yet this neat trick has been pulled off, by and large. Thedrug research and development process has been encumberedby a pervasive regulation, which has increased substantiallythe research and development cost per new drug marketed —on the order of having doubled it. The number of new drugs,as a result, has declined precipitously, which satisfies onegroup, the organized consumerists.It also works out to the net advantage of the industry.Research and development costs have increased. That's not intheir interest. But the market position of established drugshas been made more secure. Their prices, as a result, haveincreased: The risks of product obsolescence have been reduced. And this lower risk has been rewarded in the financialmarkets.The cost of all this has been borne by the inarticulate massof consumers, who get to have fewer good, new drugs —many fewer good new ones than bad new ones — and who paymore for all drugs.Let me give one more example of this sort of log rollingprocess, more mundane, but on the other hand more pervasive: it permeates the regulation of things like public utilities, transportation and insurance. If you were in an unregulated industry, you usually would find it prudent to price yourproduct in some relation to its cost. If you charge everyonethe same price, regardless of how much it costs you to sell tothem, you're not serving — usually — your own firm's interests very well — nor the interests of economic efficiency.Consider the position of a regulatory agency which issetting rates for something like electricity. Some of thecustomers live in sparsely populated areas where, simply, thebasic capital investment in stringing transmission line to get tothem can be many times that required for the customers indensely populated areas.If the regulatory commission single-mindedly looked atcosts and set rates that were somehow related to these costs,those in the outlying area might very well face a price manytimes higher than customers in more densely populated areas.The electric bill in rural areas would then be so large, and thestake therefore so high, that mobilizing political opposition to the high rates might become worth while.The regulatory agency can head off this opposition precisely by setting a uniform rate for everybody, regardless ofthe disparity in costs.There are many more customers in the city than in thecountry. Therefore each one of them need pay only a littlebit more to subsidize each of their country cousins a greatdeal — at least in the total. Little enough more so thatorganizing the city dwellers to petition for lower electricityrates is absolutely unthinkable. In fact the tax that's beingpaid by the city dweller can be perceived only by experts in thecost structure of utilities.These are just a couple of examples of the sort of thing thatregulatory agencies have learned to do, and have learned todo well. I venture to say that as long as they continue to dothem, there is very little prospect — short of some generalpolitical reaction against big government, broadly conceived— that the growth of regulation will diminish. The currentpolitical backlash against regulation, I think, will largelypeter out and regulation will continue to be an economicfailure and a political success.^agern - lt>5eluetia3 NIGHTS IN4 NIGHTS INMunich Optional side trips to Salzburg, Berchtesgaden; Lake Tagernsee; Oberammergau andCastle Neuschwanstein; Gruyere; Chillon and Chamonix.departure from Chicago: August 21, returning August 29.A'^ -v g% Per person based on double occupancy, including taxes and service.N / ^U Deposit $10°. Full payment due 35 days before departure.To sign up for the Munich-Geneva trip or for more information, call or write RuthHalloran, Alumni House, 5733 University Ave., Chicago, II. 60637 (312)753-2178.29How does one think about eight billion light years?A brief interview with Robert GerochHuman beings on earth can never see the heavenly bodies asthey are at a given instant. They can see only light that has leftthem some time ago, from seconds to minutes to billions ofyears. The object that is "seen" now may no longer exist.Objects that exist now may not be "seen" for thousands orbillions of years in the future. Does this visual lag have anyeffect upon scientists? Upon their work or upon theirphilosophy of life or philosophy of science?The object is to find out how scientists think about theirobservations of things which, in fact, may no longer be there— which may have disappeared.Here's an article from the New York Times that says themost distant galaxy has been sighted — eight billion light yearsaway. It could have only lasted for one billion years and havebeen dead for seven billion years; so we study only its image.A nd that seems to worry people.geroch: The idea that the thing isn't here any more —somehow that doesn't really impinge on one's conscious verymuch. It's a little like this: you read a newspaper story in themorning about all the strikes in New York City and it's certainly possible when you're reading the article that NewYork's not here any more . . . because you're sitting in yourkitchen and you don't know. But somehow you don't thinkabout that. You think, first of all, it's not very likely. Second,you regard New York City on a time lag of about an houranyway. You don't think, "An hour ago in New YorkCity ..."One just stops thinking about "now-ness" with regard todistant objects — one thinks about "before-ness" — one justsort of automatically does it.Do all our astrophysicists go about thinking, "beforeness,beforeness, beforeness"?geroch: I'll tell you how to do an experimental test. ShowDavid Schramm [associate professor in the Department ofAstronomy and Astrophysics, the Fermi Institute and theCollege] that New York Times article. And say to him, "Doyou really believe this galaxy is emitting all these radiowaves?" He'll say one of two things: he'll either say yes, orhe'll say, "No, you mean was emitting." And I'll bet thathe'll say yes.Perhaps, instead of wondering how one thinks about theenormous time, we could consider how one thinks about theenormous distance?geroch: Let's see. You can ask the question, how does onethink about eight billion light years ago, or eight billion lightyears away, and I think one just gives up.One doesn't have to directly conceptualize everything onethinks about. I think perhaps one tends to think of such largedistances as a different kind of quantity, from, say, thedistance to the Loop. It's true of course that they both havethe word "distance" associated with them. But it's as thoughthey're two different things— like mass and time.For instance, you know electrons and protons are essentially the same kind of stuff as bricks are— but you don't tendto think of them in that way. You know water is littlemolecules that are sliding across each other, but you don'tthink of that when you look at a lake.But such distances to a faraway object are made to becomparable because the distance is ultimately reduced by anumber of steps to something like the distance between hereand the Loop. One studies the solar system, and one canfigure out the distance between here and the sun, which islarge, but not all that impossible to work out.The earth goes around the sun; and so you see certain stars30from a slightly different vantage point at different seasons.You can tell, by how the image of the star appears to wiggle,how far away it is. Some stars seem to have an oscillatingbrightness, and it turns out you can correlate the period ofthe oscillation with how bright the star is. So, for moredistant stars that are so far away you can't see the wiggle asthe earth goes around the sun, you can nonetheless see thebrightness oscillate and can infer what the real brightnessesare. You can compare that with the brightness you observe,and from that you can determine the distance. And from thatyou can get the distance to the nearby galaxy and work yourway out.In this way such enormous distances are reduced,Deuterium and the universeIris PoliskiWhether the universe is finite or infinite has intriguedtheologians, philosophers, and scientists since ancienttimes. The theories are essentially these: either the universeis "open" and is flinging itself into forever (the infiniteuniverse theory), or it is closed and is slowing down, andthe gravity of its parts will eventually cause it all to fallback together again.This latter theory of a "closed" universe sees themovement of the universe behaving like a cosmic yo-yo:reaching a finite distance, rushing back to recombine into aprimordial mass, and then — perhaps — exploding to beginthe cycle all over again.Arguments for both sides of the question arise from anumber of theories: One involves the amount of mass inthe universe. If there is "enough," the universe wouldexpand to a certain point, slow down, stop, and thencollapse.Schramm and his colleagues believe there is not enoughmass. However, in opting for an infinite universe theory,they feel that perhaps a better test than observed mass isthe measured abundance of deuterium.Schramm and his colleagues reason thus: The universe'sbeginning explosion — that of the vast fireball called the"big bang" — formed a certain amount of deuterium, a"heavy" hydrogen that carries a neutron as well as aproton in its nucleus. It is twice the weight of ordinaryhydrogen, which has only one proton in its nucleus. Heavyhydrogen could be a survivor of the big bang. Thesemassive forces were responsible for forcing the neutronsand protons together in the first place.The astrophysicists say that, were the universe finite, thedeuterium could have collided with still more protons andneutrons to form helium-4, which has two neutrons andtwo protons in its nucleus. Schramm explains: "The denserthe universe, the more likely for the deuterium to bedestroyed, forming helium-4. Since a large amount ofdeuterium is observable, this implies a low-density, or ultimately, to ordinary everyday distances.The New York Times article says that eight billion light yearsis halfway across the universe; does that mean that sixteenbillion light years is the very edge?geroch: Not the edge, the beginning. Think of the universe asa balloon — and there are little black spots all over the balloonand they represent the galaxies. Now let the balloon be blownup. Eight billion light years ago, the balloon was only half asbig.Half way back through time?geroch: Right. The balloon is analogous to the universe,infinite, universe."He says that the deuterium is probably a big bang remnant material and is not synthesized in other places such assupernova shocks. Supernova shocks produce boron andberyllium, and in order to produce the appropriate amountof deuterium from helium, the boron and beryllium wouldbe over-produced. This seems not to be happening. Theremay be a large amount of unseen matter in low mass stars.For example, extreme red dwarfs, with masses near or evenbelow the limit for hydrogen burning, would perhaps bevery difficult to detect by any means other than gravitational. "Possibly most of the mass in the universe residesin this silent majority of small stars," Schramm says.However, all such matter would have been included in thedeuterium synthesis at the time of the big bang and thus itsinfluence on the density of the universe would be known.Schramm and his fellow researchers believe that thedeuterium argument for a low-density universe is valid"unless matter is hidden in a completely collapsed form."One possible explanation of hidden matter which mightnot be involved in the deuterium synthesis is black holes,superdense collapsed stars with gravitational fields sostrong that not even light escapes. The scientists concludethat these objects would have to be scattered too evenlythroughout space: Few black holes where the galaxydensity is high; many black holes where the galaxy densityis low— a state which is cosmologically unlikely. "Thedynamical and optical effects of such monster objects,"say Schramm and his colleagues, "can almost certainly nothave gone overlooked." The amounts of intercluster gasare insufficient, when one is hunting up mass, and thereare not enough galaxies. Given these arguments and thedeuterium, the vote for an infinite universe is yes.David N. Schramm is an associate professor in theDepartment of Astronomy and Astrophysics and theEnrico Fermi Institute. Collaborators were J. RichardGott, III, now at Princeton, James E. Gunn, now theGeorge Ellery Hale visiting professor of astronomy atChicago, and Beatrice M. Tinsley, now at Yale. Robert V.Wagoner is associate professor of physics at StanfordUniversity. Ms. Poliski is a University science writer.31where the three spatial dimensions of our universe arereduced to two on the balloon. Now on the surface of theballoon you can imagine a little ant which represents a lightray. The ants only travel at a certain speed.But that means, doesn 't it, that if one had strong enoughtelescopes, one could see to the very beginning?geroch: Yes, but only in a certain sense. It's always the samesort of story — there's always some extreme, and the closeryou get to the extreme, the more difficult and expensive it is.You never get to the extreme; it is always a question of "howclose."It's like absolute zero — wouldn't it be nice if one could getto absolute zero and see all those very cold things? The fact is,it costs you $1,000 to get half way and $10,000 to get three-quarters of the way and so on. At any given state of thetechnology, it's only feasible to be so many degrees fromabsolute zero. And each little bit of a degree costs so much, interms of either money or effort. And one always has thatfeeling; one just never thinks of reaching such extremes.Seekers after perfection may as well relax.geroch: It's the same way with everything — it's not justphysics. One goes shopping and tries to get the very best buyon soft drinks. But one cannot because in order to get thebest buy, you have to check out all the stores in Cook county,and that won't do it, because you didn't check all the stores inDuPage county, and that's not enough because you didn'tconsider the possibility of reselling the bottle caps. You cango on and on. You never get the best buy; it's all a question ofhow much time you have and how much gas you have to drivearound and how interested you are.Physics is like life; there's no perfection. It's never allsewed up. It's all a question of better, better yet, and howmuch time and interest you have in it. Is the universe reallycurved? Is Pepsi Cola really the best buy in soft drinks?I don't know if the universe is really curved. It's not thatcut and dried. Theories come and go. A theory isn't right orwrong. A theory has a sort of sociological position whichchanges as new information comes in.Is Einstein's theory correct? You can take a poll and have alook. Einstein is rather "in" right now.I think there is a view that physics has a sort of pristine-ness, and a kind of Tightness, a sort of trueness that I don'tsee in physics at all. To me, physics is the activity you dobetween breakfast and supper. Nobody said anything abouttruth. Perhaps truth is "out." One thinks, "Well, this idealooks bad for or looks good for general relativity."Physics is confusing; it would be so easy were it otherwise.It's a human activity and you have to make human judgments. Most of physics is making judgments — it's 97%judgments.A common misconception among students is that physics isnot like that . . . that physics is sharp, clear, cut and dried. Itprobably comes from the way students are trained: you haveto do Problem 17 and Problem 17 has an answer. That's not Robert Geroch is Professor in the Departments of Physicsand Mathematics, in the Enrico Fermi Institute, and in theCollege. He was interviewed by Iris Poliski, a Universityscience writer.the way physics is — not to me.Students ask questions as if you're going to answer them.And you don't normally answer questions — you try to sayhow one normally thinks about such matters. Physics, so thisview goes, is expounded upon, but not thought about.I don't think I would urge anyone to go into science. I thinkit's nice if you like it. Then you ought to do it. But I don'tthink it's necessarily better than baseball or something else.Say that God came down and told me how to teach physicsbetter. I'm not sure I would want to have it done for thepurpose of getting people to be scientists. I would want itdone, but only so people, including me, could have a goodtime in the classroom.Homage to zeroBesieged as I feel these days by so many prophets,I'm made calmer thinking that zeroIs not really nothing, but rather the place between one and itsOpposite, negative-one. It's perfectly true,A man can climb high and from self-made minarets,Stand tall and sometimes hail us home;And yet I think he's more likely(If I read the times right) to fall back under and comeUp with minus-this or that: to plant a tree,Then say silly things about nature; or fashion a minor poem,Only to botch it by jumping on, off of a bridge —Which is why, in my confident moods,I return to this no-place that will not easily budge:This something still empty yet solid on all sidesThat the much-mocked Whitman labeled the "divineaverage,"And that I, finding no peace in the vagueries of so-called artOr in any man's godlings, likewise salute;My business being (henceforth) to praise that partOf anything which, if not quite arrived somewhere yet,Is at least in position to start.ROBERT BURLEIGHMr. Burleigh (am '59) is co-editor of Xenia, a magazine ofpoetry and comment. He was the I960 winner of the Fiskepoetry prize.32JittersJudson misspelledA liberal education may teachLittle history,Poor Harry Pratt will testify —His name a mystery.'Twas Judson in the good old days —Quite good enough for me,But they don't learn dropping haitchesAt the good old U. of C.ELEANOR FRANK WHITE, PnB'32ChicagoThe magazine regrets the typographical errorin the spring, '75, issue (Page 5) whichresulted in the misspelling of PresidentJudson 's name. Other alumni pointed outthe error, but none so fetchingly.Apple maligned, says Kasperto the editor: Much as I enjoy ourmagazine, for which the New Yorker,Sunday New York Times, and New Republicget shoved aside, I must write to deplore abaseless canard that is perpetuated in WarnerWick's article in the spring, '76, issue: "SourApples from the Tree of Knowledge . ' 'At least three times Professor Wick refersto the forbidden fruit as being an apple. Yet,nowhere in Genesis or anywhere else in theBible is the apple mentioned. Adam and Eveare forbidden to eat the "fruit" of the specialtree.Considering the climate (weather, notintellectual) of the probable location ofEden, the tree was very likely a pomegranatetree. As for the much maligned apple, Ibelieve that anyone who has bitten into acrisp, tree-ripened Winesap, Black Twig,Russet, or Golden Delicious would have toagree that if the Lord had created anythingbetter he would have kept it for himself."Bitter fruit" indeed!SYDNEY H. KASPER, PhB'33Silver Spring, Md.Applesauce, replies WickMr. Kasper 's parochialism, reinforced bysentiment, resembles that of BertonRoueche 's Profile of the Apple, ' '100, 000Varieties, " in the New Yorker of August 11,1975: "... the apple— the apple I know-would be out of character in so sinister arole. "But see the Oxford English Dictionaryunder 'Apple':"2. Any fruit, or similar vegetable production; . . . but, from the earliest period,used with the greatest latitude. ..." This issupported by, among other citations, thefollowing of 1555: "Venemous apples wherwith they poyson theyr arrowes. ""3. Hence forming part of the name of alarge number of fruits; as Apple Punic, of the pomegranate. "Among thefamiliar examples cited are Crab A . , May A . ,Pine A . , Rose A., and Thorn A."4. 'The fruit of that forbidden tree,whose mortal taste brought death into theworld, and all our woe' (Milton). ""5. Apple of discord: the golden appleinscribed 'for the fairest, 'fabled to havebeen thrown by Eris, the personification ofdiscord, into the assembly of the gods, andcontended for by Juno, Minerva, andVenus" [which led to the judgment of Parisand thence to the Trojan War].Bitter fruit, indeed!WARNER WICKDepartment of PhilosophyLeft leg or right?An Egyptian tomb paintingLeaves readers nonplussed;Nebamun's daughterQuite misses the thrustOf her father's brave stanceAnd her mother's high styleAnd the flight of the birdsAnd the fish in the Nile,For she faces the wrong wayAs they all advance.When she reaches to touchHer dear father, by chance,She touches his right,Not his left leg, you see,And the caption unbalancesBoth him and me.WILBUR DWIGHT DUNKEL, PhD'25Rochester, N.Y.Presumably her action (spring, '75, issue,Page 41) was dextrous but not sinister.William Sweet recalledto the editor: When the University ofChicago Magazine comes I read it from coverto cover: retirement provides plenty of time.In the winter, 1975, issue I especially enjoyedthe personal reminiscences of Charles R.Feldstein under the caption of "When theUniversity Was My New World." It broughtback to me my own recollections of DeanGilkey, for whom I had the greatest respect.It also brought back to me an experiencewhich furnishes the raison d'etre of thefollowing account.Mr. Feldstein recalls his awkwardnesswhen serving as a waiter, the result of hismishap being the deposit of "mashedpumpkin and whipped cream" on the coat ofone of the diners. Feldstein's helper inmopping up the mess was Professor WilliamWarren Sweet (misspelled in the magazine asSteet). Upon reading about this episode, mymemory took me back to a morning chapelceremony at Baker University, my undergraduate alma mater. On that occasionProfessor Sweet spoke when an oil paintingof his father was unveiled. His father, William Henry Sweet, was professor ofmathematics at Baker from 1872 to 1877 andthe school's president from 1879 to 1886.Little did I imagine at the time of Professor Sweet's presence at that ceremony that Iwould later come to know him as a fellowfaculty member at Chicago, he in the Schoolof Theology and I in the Division of theSocial Sciences. My first view of ProfessorSweet, probably in 1916 as my memory hasit, still stands in my mind as an eventful date.I also remember him as an eminent churchhistorian.EARL S. IOHNSON, AM'32, phX)'41Baldwin City, Ks.Many readers will recall the teaching years ofMr. Johnson, now professor emeritus of thesocial sciences.Corny beef offeredto the editor: I have a beef! The article byMadansky and Shubik [university ofChicago magazine, spring, 1976] should notbe taken seriously. They did not perform anyblindfold tests, nor any double blind tests.Samples of sannawitches should have beenbrought in by utter strangers because secretaries can affect various appetites. Furthermore the statistical mathematics is tooprimitive to cut any mustard with theiranalyses.I am sure the paper was written withtongue in cheek.LOUIS SATTLER, PhD'25Professor Emeritus Organic ChemistryCUNYMillett was favorite teacherto the editor: I wonder how many formerstudents of Fred B. Millett, formerly professor of English at Chicago, noticed hispassing in your spring, 1976, issue.When I received the alumni directory,which you sent me a few years ago, I noticedFred Millett's name and address there andimmediately wrote him a letter to his home inMassachusetts. He answered, and we carriedon a correspondence, during which hegenerously sent me many of the books he hadwritten.Of the six professors of English I had atChicago (and they were all excellent), Ibelieve that Fred Millett was easily myfavorite; I had his course in English literaturesince 1900 in 1936. He was a superlativelecturer, covering vast amounts of materialwith an almost ridiculous ease. He possesseda quiet but pungent sense of humor and apleasant, modest smile. His lectures onJoseph Conrad, D. H. Lawrence and ArnoldBennett were characterized by depth, insightand originality. They had such an appeal forme that I still use parts of them in myhumanities course.JACK DAVID HESS, AB'37Professor of Foreign Languages andHumanitiesLos Angeles Pierce College33^Alumni 5\(ewsClass notesfyi in memoriam: Edward W. Allen,x'07, Seattle attorney who served as aninternational fisheries commissioner undersix Presidents, died in March. Mr. Allen,often called the elder statesman of international fisheries, spent many of his 92 yearsnegotiating for the American fisherman andcontributing to the framing of internationalfishing convention. A severe critic of recklessfishing practices, he wrote a book in the '30s,North Pacific, which so vigorously criticizedthe lack of fish conservation by Japan that itwas banned in Tokyo.1 A in memoriam: Mary Shafer Downey,A*-' ab'10, Overland, Mo., died December31, 1975; Charles R. Holton, jd' 10, seniorpartner in the Chicago law firm of Holton,Tews & Abbey, died January 1 in Chicago;Allen Sayles, ab'10, El Paso, retired University of Texas, El Paso, mathematics andeconomics professor, died January 18.1 1 in memoriam: Hilmar R. Baukhage,phB' 1 1 , noted radio commentator ofthe '30s and '40s and a veteran Washingtonnewsman, died February 1 in Washington.One of Baukhage's most famous broadcastswas made from the White House newsroomon December 7, 1941, the day of theJapanese attack on Pearl Harbor. A radiocommentator for NBC, Baukhage arrived atthe White House at the same time as StephenEarly, President Roosevelt's press secretary.Early agreed to install a microphone in theWhite House newsroom for the first timeever, and Baukhage broadcast news of theattack as it was received. His openingsignature on radio, "Baukhage talking," waswell known to listeners across the nation.Dr. George Braunlich, pIib'1 1, retiredcardiologist who served three terms as healthcommissioner of Davenport, la., diedFebruary 12. In addition to his medicalcareer, Dr. Braunlich was former treasurerof the Brammer Manufacturing Companyand president of the Davenport Machine andFoundry Company.Eleanor Freund Klauber, x' 1 1 , HighlandPark, II., a founding member of the NurserySchool of the UC Lab Schools, died October25, 1975. Mrs. Klauber, an outstandingbasketball player and member of the swimteam as a student at UC, later enjoyed takingguests to see her picture hanging in Ida NoyesHall. She was a devoted alumna.1 ^ in memoriam: John W. Merrill,•*¦ am' 12, of Hamburg, la.; LouiseCornell Robinson, phB'12, am'38, formerdean of Chicago Teachers College and a RedCross volunteer for over forty years, died January 15 in Chicago.1 1 in memoriam: Edith Bradley Wells,*¦ "^ sb' 13, am'33, Chicago, died December18, 1975. She was the widow of Morris MillerWells, sb'12, former instructor in the UCzoology department. After her husband'sdeath in 1930, Mrs. Wells was determinedthat her four young daughters would have afine education and she saw each one throughcollege, one at the University of Illinois andthree at Chicago (Corabeth Wells Fuller,sb'41; Lois Wells Reed, sb'45, sm'51; and thelate Dorothy Wells Plagge, sb'38).1 A in memoriam: Evelyn Cole Duclos,¦*¦" phB' 14, Winter Park, Fl., a leader intheater, education and civic activities, diedJanuary 27. Mrs. Duclos, who spent nearlythree decades teaching the young toappreciate the dramatic arts, was presidentemeritus of the Central Florida CivilTheater. At the time of her death she wasdrama chairman of the Florida Federation ofWomen's Clubs and in charge of its annualplaywriting competition. She was the guidinglight behind the formation of the $600,000Central Florida Civic Theater complex inOrlando, which opened in October, 1973.Rabbi Samual Schwartz, ab'14, spiritualleader of the Washington Blvd. temple of theReform Congregation B'nai Abraham Zionfrom 1920 until 1945, when the congregationmoved from Chicago to Oak Park, diedMarch 13 in Oak Park.Samuel A. Zook, am'14, Van Nuys, Ca.,died November 19, 1975.1 ^ in memoriam: Raymond D. Berry,•*¦ -^ x'15, River Forest, II., president ofGallaher & Speck, Chicago, and president ofthe Building Construction EmployersAssociation since 1946, died March 23.Wendell Mitchell Levi, phB'15, jd'15,senior partner in the Sumter (S.C.) law firmof Levi, Wittenberg & Abrams, and amember of the Commercial Law League ofAmerica for fifty-four years, died February1 1 in Sumter.Besides being a practicing attorney,advocate and commercial law specialist, Mr.Levi was probably the world's foremostauthority on the pigeon. He was the authorof many publications on the subject, bestknown for his definitive work, The Pigeon.A past president of the National PigeonAssociation, he was editor of the questionand answer department of the AmericanPigeon Journal from 1927 to 1975.Richard I. Torpin, sb'15, md'17, formerprofessor of obstetrics and gynecology at theMedical College of Georgia, died February 6 in Augusta.Francis T. Ward, sb'15, an advisorydirector of Morgan Stanley & Company,investment bankers, and a former generalpartner, died February 29 in Locust Valley,Long Island. In World War II Mr. Ward wasco-chairman of the first U.S. war bond drivein the financial division. In 1947 he wasassociated with the International Bank forReconstruction and Development, to assist inmarketing the bank's initial bond issue. AtUC he lettered in track and gymnastics •1 f. in memoriam: Dorothy Edwards1 U Whitford, phB' 16, Orchard Park,N.Y., died March 7.1 H in memoriam: Vinton Arthur Bacon,sb' 19 (who considered himself amember of the class of '17), md'22, diedDecember 11,1 975 , in Detroit; James B.Fleugel, sb'17, Fort Lauderdale, FL, diedFebruary 10; John C. Weigel, x'17, Joliet, II.1 O in memoriam: Mary E. Dennis, phB' 18,A ® Monroe, Ct., a retired social worker,died February 26; John R. Merriman, md'18,Evanston (II.) physician and surgeon formore than fifty years, died February 1 1 ;Samuel Pitlik, am' 18, West Roxbury, Ma.,professor emeritus of Hebrew language andliterature at Gratz College, died December 9,1975; Alta L. Smith, pIib'18, Frankfort, In.,died January 18.1 Q in memoriam: Ethel Somers Day,¦*¦ ^ phB'19, Escondido, Ca., died March 5;Sylvia M. Griswold, sb'19, phD'32, GrandRapids, Mi., died January 7; Walter R.Hepner, x'19, president emeritus of SanDiego State College, where a new building —Hepner Hall — was recently dedicated in hishonor, died earlier this year; George W.Jennings, sb'19, Austin, Tx., died January30; Miriam Fox Withrow, p!ibT9, professoremeritus of music at Fresno State Universityin California, died in January, 1976.*} f\ in memoriam: Mary Bolton Wirth,¦"^ phB'20, a former member of theadvisory board of the Cook County Department of Public Aid and employee of theChicago Housing Authority, died February 7in Berkeley, Ca. Mrs. Wirth, the recipient ofan alumni citation for public service in 1966,was the widow of sociologist, civic leader andwriter Louis Wirth, pfiB'19, am'25, pho'26.Mr. Wirth, who died in 1952, was a UCfaculty member, a consultant to the city ofChicago on problems ranging from traffic torace relations and the author of The Ghetto,The City, and other books. Survivors of Mrs.Wirth include two daughters, ElizabethWirth Marvick, p1lb'44, am'46, of Bordeaux,and Alice Wirth Gray, x'56, of Berkeley, aswell as a brother-in-law, Otto Wirth, am'36,phD'37.Myron E. Jolidon, phB'20, Wauwatosa,Wi., died January 30 after a long illness.34J 1 william r. smythe, pho'21 , professor¦" A emeritus of physics at CaliforniaInstitute of Technology, was profiled earlierthis year in a Los Angeles Times article byDave Smith (copyright, 1976, the LosAngeles Times). Smythe, who counts sixNobel Prize winners among his formerstudents, "still drives down every day fromhis Sierra Madre home to his Caltech office[in Pasadena] , where he works on mathematical problems that may have applicationsin industry." An avid tennis player andswimmer, he was the 1974 national AAUswim champion in the 100-yard freestyle formen over 80. "Of course," he added, "Iapparently was the only contestant, too."Not that he mightn't have won anyway,comments Smith. His time was 2:40.5.Smythe began his academic career at UCunder Albert A. memoriam: Claire Lippman Bernhard,phB'21 , a former teacher in the Winnetka,II. , school system, died March 1 inMilwaukee; Ruth O'Brien, x'21, a specialistin textiles and pioneer in the consumer movement who retired in 1956 as assistant chief ofthe bureau of human nutrition and homeeconomics of the Agriculture Department,died March 6 in Takoma Park, Md.; DavidR. Watson, p1ib'21, jd'23, Houston, Tx.,died January 14.'yy in memoriam: Charles E. McGuire,^"^ phB'22, Pebble Beach, Ca., diedFebruary 28; Frances Cunningham Sands,x'22, Richmond, Va., died January 1.iy± in memoriam: C. Y. Chang, sb '23,"^ phD'26, head of the biologydepartment at Peking University for morethan thirty years, died April 21, 1975;Herman K. Regester, pIvb'23, retired GrandRapids (Mi.) certified public accountant,died February 18; Howard W. Schendorf,phB'23, president of For-Gan Sales Agencyin Evanston, died December 31, 1975; LillianVon Bremer, phB'23, former Chicago schoolteacher, died February 20 in FortLauderdale, Fl.O A MARTIN O. WEISBROD, P?1B'24, JT)'26,who has been battling mandatoryretirement in the courts since 1972, may havelost his battle, but he's still working. His casewas the subject of a Chicago Sun-Timesarticle by Jane Gregory last fall. Weisbrod'slegal battle began at the age of 69, she wrote,"when he still was one of the 2,700,000federal civil service employees who arerequired by law to retire when they reach theage of 70. On that birthday he complied withthe mandatory rules and left his job asassociate regional legal counsel for theChicago office of Housing and UrbanDevelopment."But the next morning," wrote Gregory,"Weisbrod was back at his desk, rehired forthe same position under an obscure [andrarely invoked] regulation that givessupervisors discretion to allow the over-aged to retain their jobs as temporaryemployees." Despite his personal victory over retirement, Weisbrod continued his court fightagainst the principle of forced retirement.In his suit against HUD, which, he told thismagazine, went "up and down like a yo-yo"through the federal court system, he soughtto have the federal retirement law declaredunconstitutional as an abridgement of hisconstitutional right to property and thepursuit of happiness. After meeting defeat inthe lower courts, he sought to take his case tothe Supreme Court early in 1975, but thecourt declined to hear the case. At the time ofthe Sun-Times article Weisbrod was"determined to try again" when the courtconvened for its fall session. But a check withWeisbrod as this publication was going topress revealed that the high court againdeclined, and he may have reached the end ofthe line. The Supreme Court has agreed toreview a case which has similarities to his,said Weisbrod who is in his third year as atemporary employee at HUD. But the impactof that case, involving the state of Massachusetts vs. a policeman forced to undergomandatory retirement at age 50 — as requiredby Massachusetts law — remains to be memoriam: Henry Backus, am'24;Robert E. Dorland, sb'24; John W. Kaye,jd'24; M. Louise Syp, am'24.*J C Federal district court judge Joseph•^ sam perry, am'25, jd'27, is presidingat the trial, still in progress in Chicago as thispublication went to press, in which survivorsof the 1969 Black Panthers raid haveinstituted a $47,700,000 civil rights damagesuit against those responsible for the raid.Plaintiffs in the case are the parents ofPanther leader Fred Hampton and Panthermember Mark Clark, both of whom wereslain by police bullets in the pre-dawn raid,and seven survivors of the raid. FBI agentRoy M. Mitchell, former state's attorneyEdward V. Hanrahan and the police raidersare among the defendants in the civil rightssuit, which charges that they conspired tomurder Hampton and Clark and cover up thecrime. Perry has been a justice in the U.S.district court for northern Illinois since memoriam: Esther Cooley, sm'25;Thomas S. Edmonds, jd'25; Ruth LeonardMeier, sm'25; Cord Orvey Wells, am'25,phD'42.TZT JOHN FRANCIS LATIMER, AM'26,¦"^ professor emeritus of classics at GeorgeWashington University, has published a new,special bicentennial edition of Francis Glass'A Life of George Washington in Latin Prose(Washington: George WashingtonUniversity, 1976). First published in 1835,Glass' work, the first and only biography ofGeorge Washington ever written in Latin,went through three editions and a reprint andserved as a text for generations of memoriam: John Kennedy Barton,phB'26; Bindley C. Cyrus, p1ib'26, jd'29;Nell Galvin, p1ib'26; Margaret JosephHirsch, PhB'26; Curtis R. Singleterry, sm'26,phD'40. fymj ralph w. tyler, phD'27, director ofthe academic program in Chicago ofthe Center for the Study of DemocraticInstitutions and a consultant to ScienceResearch Associates of Chicago, has beenre-elected to the board of trustees of theAmerican College Testing Program. Amember of the ACT board since 1961 andchairman since 1970, Tyler is directoremeritus of the center for advanced study inthe behavioral sciences at StanfordUniversity and a former professor andchairman of UC Department of memoriam: Lois Myerhoff Hinson,phB'27, San Diego, Ca., died earlier thisyear; C. Marjorie Hoffman, p1ib'27, St.Petersburg, Fl. , died January 4; HarryHoijer, sb'27, am'29, phD'31, professoremeritus of anthropology at the University ofCalifornia, Los Angeles, former instructor atthe University of Chicago (1931 -'40), andpast president of the American Anthropological Association and the Linguistic Societyof America, died March 4 in Santa Monica,Ca.; John L. Hundley, pIid'27, GrandForks, N.D., retired professor and chairmanof the physics department, University ofNorth Dakota, died December 10, 1975;Mattie King Royer, am'27, of Ord, Ne.;Elizabeth Anne Weber, PhD'27, associateprofessor of political science at HunterCollege in New York until her retirement in1953, died January 21.TO ludvigbrowman, sb'28, phD'35,° retired professor of zoology at theUniversity of Montana at Missoula, iscurrently commissioner of Missoula County,an elected office he has held for over threeyears. His term expires at the end of memoriam: Hazel E. Hagland, phB'28,am'34, San Diego, Ca., died August 5, 1975;Herbert Lissner, pItb'28, jd'30, a partner inthe Chicago law firm of Lissner,Rothenberg, Reif and Barth, an officer anddirector of the Lissner Corporation,Chicago, a metals smelting, refining andrecycling firm, and of Lissner Minerals &Metals, Inc. , New York, and president of LaSalle Trading Company, a Chicago metalbrokerage, died March 23 in Chicago.OQ ROBERT I. WHITE, phB'29, AM'36,¦^ phD'45, has retired from his position asdistinguished service professor of educational administration after serving Kent StateUniversity, Oh., in a variety of roles formore than twenty-nine years. A formervisiting lecturer at UC, White began hiscareer at KSU in 1946 as dean of the collegeof education. In 1958 he became vice-president for academic affairs and in 1963was inaugurated as KSU's sixth president.White had planned to retire from the presidency in February, 1971, but the tragicevents of May 4, 1970, delayed his retirementuntil September, 1 97 1 . He will continueworking with his doctoral students andteaching memoriam: Edna F. Kratsch,SM'29,retired high school biology teacher, diedFebruary 20 in Oshkosh, WL; Lillian35Schlesna, p1ib'29, former Chicago publicschool teacher, died February 15 in Orlando,FL; Marjorie P. Stewart, phB'29, of Biloxi,Ms.; Morris S. Telechansky, phB'29, jd'31,Chicago attorney, died February 18.1A emma beekman gavras, am'30, has~*" been honored by Los Angeles Trade-Technical College, where she was chairperson of the general studies departmentfrom 1950 to 1969, by the establishment ofan annual lecture bearing her name. Theseries was inaugurated on March 31 by keithBerwick, am'57, phD'59, who spoke on"How to Celebrate a Revolution."Robert s. shane, sb'30, pho'33, hasretired again (the first time was from GeneralElectric), this time from the NationalResearch Council, where he was staffscientist for the National Materials AdvisoryBoard. Shane, who continues as a consultantto the NM AB, is currently chairman of thenational capital section, American Instituteof Chemical Engineers, and chairman,consumer product safety standardscommittee, American Society for Testingand Materials. To learn how to participate inthe latter activity, interested consumers maywrite Shane directly at 7821 Carrleigh Parkway, Springfield, Va. memoriam: Abraham R. Goldfarb,sm'30, Detroit, died January 27; LutherLivingston Mays, am'30, died February 13 athis home in Arlington, Va.; Sue Perry Ray,x'30, Arlington, died May 29, 1975; Mark H.Watkins, am'30, phD'33, Washington, diedFebruary 24."2 1 i. merle rife, phD'31, Amelia, Oh.,-^ -*¦ reports the publication of his latestbook, The Nature and Origin of the NewTestament (Philosophical Library, 1975).fannie krevitsky, phB'31, am'51, hasretired as school social worker, Maine WestHigh School, Des Plaines, II.donald h. dalton, sb'31, Washingtonattorney and president of the Lincoln Groupof the District of Columbia, received theorganization's Lincoln award of the year inFebruary. He and his wife, irene martindalton, phB'30, live in Chevy memoriam: Charles H. Davis, jd'31,Illinois supreme court justice until his retirement last September 30, died February 22 inRockford, II.; Phyllis Wittman Huffman,am'31 , pIid'36, Sun City, Az., former statechief of psychological services for the Illinoismental health service, died February 8;Alfred H. Kelly, phB'31, am'34, phD'38,Grosse Pointe Park, Mi., retired historyprofessor at Wayne State University,Detroit, who had been serving a post-retirement stint as the school's acting deanfor graduate studies since last June, diedFebruary 14; Katherine McDonnell, phB'31,died February 15; Lee Ray Foster, ph.B'31,Huntington, In., died November 20, 1975.¦"> *> NATHANIEL E. REICH, MD'32, a COn-•^ ^" sultant in cardiology at KingsbrookJewish Medical Center (Brooklyn, N.Y.),added another vista to his worldwide travelsearlier this year when he spent several weeks in Ceylon as a visiting professor of medicine.Dr. Reich, who has also held visiting professorships at universities in Peru, Afghanistan and Indonesia, has lectured in morethan twenty countries and was the firstAmerican physician to do so at the University of Moscow — twenty years ago. Also anaccomplished artist, he has had ten one-manshows, including one at the Museum ofModern Art in Paris. His paintings are in thepermanent collections of four memoriam: Galen Hunt, jd'32, ofPrescott, Az.; Paul H. Willis, phB'32, SantaBarbara, Ca., who retired last year as vice-president of advertising for the CarnationCompany, died January 17.<3 3 Frederick tilton, sb'33, writes that•^ he recently retired from teaching, oilproduction and nuclear construction and iscomfortably settled on sixty acres in Hutson-ville, II., "with the same lovely wife(Alberta), a collection of trap and skeet shotguns, four cars, tractor, 29,000 loblolly pinetrees and two bird dogs."ANNIE walker wilkerson, am'33,was presented with a book about her life lastyear, written by students at the BeekmanMiddle School (Gary, In.), from which shewas retiring as an English teacher. Twocopies of the huge, bound manuscript, aproject of another English class, were givento Wilkerson at a school assembly at whichshe was also crowned "lady of the year" intribute to her forty-two years of teaching,thirteen of them at the Beekman school.HERMAN s. bloch, sb'33, p1id'36,Skokie, II. , associate director of UniversalOil Products, was made a member of theNational Academy of Sciences last year.Bloch has been chairman of the board ofdirectors of the American Chemical Societyfor several memoriam: Milton H. Janus, p1lb'33,jd'35, an administrative law judge with theNational Labor Relations Board, diedJanuary 31 in Kensington, Md.; Mary LouiseCotton Laing, p1lb'33, died January 9 inGalesburg, II. ; August Henry Pritzlaff,pIib'33, Evanston, who served the ChicagoBoard of Education for forty years asdirector of the division of health and physicaleducation and as director of the bureau ofhealth, physical education and recreationalservices, died September 24, 1975; AdeleCollins Walden, pha'33, am'41 , a retiredChicago elementary school teacher, diedMarch 4.*1A in memoriam: Ivy Olenick Barnett,"^ pIib'34, died January 26 in BocaRaton, FL; Laura Dawson, phB'34, diedDecember 29, 1975, in Fort Lauderdale, FL;Leona E. Massoth, am'34, Oberlin, Oh.,died December, 21, 1975.TC NATALIE PANNES ALLEN, AB'35, waspromoted last summer to regionaldirector of the National Labor RelationsBoard in San Francisco, an exceptionallyhigh functional post for a woman ingovernment. ALVIN M. WEINBERG, SB'35, SM'36, PriD'39,of the Oak Ridge Institute for EnergyAnalysis, was elected last year to theNational Academy of Engineering, anaffiliate of the National Academy ofSciences, Washington. Weinberg wasdirector of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 1955 to 1973, when he left toestablish the Institute for Energy Analysis.He was then drafted by the government tothe post of director of the Office of EnergyResearch and Development in Washington.fred fortess, sb'35, is currently directorof the school of textiles at the PhiladelphiaCollege of Textiles and Science. Fortess tookearly retirement from the Celanese Corporation in 1972 after a thirty-year affiliationwith the company in order to join the facultyof PCT&S. He is the 1976 recipient of thebronze medal award of the AmericanAssociation for Textile Technologists for hisscientific contributions to fiber and memoriam: A. D. Miessner, md'35,Catawba, Oh., died December 19, 1975.3 fZ a. william haarlow, x'36, has been~^ promoted by the Quaker Oats Company, Chicago, to director-strategic andfinancial planning in the chemicals division.Haarlow, a basketball great during his collegiate years, lives in Hinsdale and currentlyis an active participant in Campaign forChicago, Phase memoriam: Dorothy Davis Turner,x'36, died January 23 in Evanston.Antigoni Lefteris (ab'65), president of theWashington, D.C. alumni club, congratulates Dr. Frances Oldham Kelsey (phD'38,md'50) on her selection for the club's distinguished alumna award. Dr. Kelsey (right),director of scientific investigation of theFood and Drug Administration 's bureau ofdrugs, is probably best known for blowingthe whistle on the drug thalidomide.'in john albert vieg, phD'37, retiredJ ' chairman of the department of government at Pomona College, Claremont, Ca.,was awarded an honorary doctorate of laws36A crisis at the University!The document below was presented at an Alpha Delta Phismoker in 1932 by Thomas Scott Miller (phB'09), who diedMay 17, 1975, at the age of 90. (Elizabeth Louise Miller, hiswife, was graduated in the same year. )Mr. Miller's talk was discovered posthumously, in a trunk-ful of memorabilia, by his son, Martin (ab'39, mba'47).(Another son, the late Alexis T. Miller [ab'47, mba'49] alsowas an alumnus.)Tom MillerThe field of matrimony brings up a number of subjects, not theleast interesting of which is the matter of sex. For far too manyyears we have prudishly declined to discuss this subject with theresult that eager young couples marry, not knowing what it is allabout, but willing to look into it.This lack of knowledge has caused a serious situation todevelop and it should now be discussed frankly. According to thevital statistics published in the university of Chicago magazine,at least seven out of ten offspring born to alumni are girl babies.Of course, they are darlings, but they won't do the Fraternity anygood.Now here we have a University, known through the world as aresearch institution, craving new fields in which to work off thisresearch itch; raising guinea pigs by the thousands to investigatethe causes of relations between moles, both bald and hairy; aUniversity which for years has been digging holes in Canaan andMesopotamia looking for fragments of culinary instruments usedby the Chaldeans; spending millions excavating each hillockalong the River Nile, seeking a porcelain chip here and a fragmentthere which, when pieced together, will show the modern worldthe exact depth, contour and design of the earliest Egyptian bedpan; a University which for twenty years has been researchingwith great success to find the most effective methods of divertingfootball players from educational institutions to State Universities.The University has recently entered into the field ofHumanities, a great subject which embraces nobody knows justwhat. But it would be both human and humane for this department to foster extensive research into this matter of predetermination of sex, for the benefit of the younger alumni to whom welook for our future delegations and classes.But, lest you older alumni hasten back to attempt postgraduatework in this most interesting department, I wish to state emphatically that I do not for a moment suggest that research in thisfield of sex shall consist of experiments and tests among thefaculty and students, either on the campus or in the adjacentparks. On the contrary, I feel that much progress may be made ifthousands of questionnaires are sent to married alumni, askingcertain questions requiring frank answers, not only relative to hisor her boudoir technique but also regarding habits, diet, dates,and changes in modes of living compared to twenty years ago,and finally the gender of results obtained. Replies would bereturned unsigned, as in Literary Digest votes, the resultscompared, weighed and codified. Some startling experimentsmight come to light.It has been demonstrated time and again that apparently insignificant factors make for a wide difference in results. The goiterhabit has been largely eliminated by a little iodine in the familysalt. In order to obtain the happy result of at least 50% malechildren, we may only have to compare the mode of living of thepresent generation with those of the past. Each of us here had a Mr. Miller's talk is reprinted here not only for its historicalinterest, but also as a light-hearted commentary expressedforty-four years ago and reflecting attitudes formed by agraduate of twenty-three years earlier. It may indicate totoday's liberated alumnae (whose predecessors, of course, didnot attend the smoker) that, however slowly their movementseems to be advancing, progress appears indeed — at least on acomparative basis — to have been made.father who begat at least one male, and we must discover what hehad which the present generation has not. Who knows but thatthe solution may be found in the total abstinence which the 18thAmendment has foisted upon us. Or it may be in the presenttendency to eat less meat and more constituents of bovineensilage such as spinach, broccoli and lettuce salad. Perhaps thealleged high standards of scholarship at the University have sosapped the vitality of the male students that they can only infrequently and accidentally endow their progeny with the implements of their own gender. Or there may be something upsettingto the law of averages in the present modes of dress, as comparedto those of a generation ago, especially when it is considered howuniversally the old, ever ready nightgown has been discarded infavor of these baffling pajamas which housewives now wear bothin bed and out. Or it may simply be lack of poise or inability topenetrate the subject properly.Gentlemen, we are faced with a crisis. Millions are spent eachyear in investigations of animal husbandry, but not a cent for inquiry about husbands' animals. Our educational institutionsshould— indeed they must— engage in research on this subjectbefore college graduates have forever lost the interesting andessential art of siring males.last year by Claremont (Ca.) memoriam: Ruth Gibson Higgins,am'37; Rose Stuart Jones, p1ib'37, am'38;Marjorie Krauel McCarty, ab'37; Irma H.Nordsiek, phB'37; Herman B. Schulz, x'37.'JO GLADYS ERENBERG ZWEIBACK, AB'38,J ° was appointed city librarian of BeverlyHills, Ca., late last year. The appointment ofZweiback, who had held the post in an actingcapacity since last summer, was the firstrecent case of a major city vacancy beingfilled by a member of the existing BeverlyHills staff rather than by an outsider. One ofsome sixty candidates considered for the job,she served as principal librarian for the cityprior to last memoriam: Rosemary Cooney Dube,ab'38; Mary Martha Murphy Lund, am'38,phD'52.OQ benjamin draper, x'39, officiallyJ -^ presented his ninety-volume "Colorado Theatre Calendar," a documentaryhistory of theatre in Colorado from 1 859 to1 940 — the product of some forty years ofresearch and twelve years of compilation —to the western history division of the DenverPublic Library last fall as part of apermanent collection. Draper, professor ofbroadcasting at San Francisco State Collegefor over fifteen years, spends his summers inGeorgetown, memoriam: Kate Gilpin Henderson,am'39, died February 24 in Richmond, Va.AjT\ william h. easton, p1id'40, professorof geological sciences at the Universityof Southern California, executed a cross-disciplinary leap this past academic year asacting chairman of the USC French andItalian department. A self-styled Francophilewho speaks the language fluently, Easton hasmaintained a great interest in the culture andcustoms of France over the years. For a yearhe lived in Paris, where he was a Guggenheimfellow at the Museum of Natural History.Al Harriet bachman, am'41, retiring"copy desk chief, received the followingtribute, written by Ralph P. Davidson,publisher of Time, in the January 26 issue ofthe magazine: "In many ways, the nervecenter of Time's editorial operations is anoblong counter stretching along the east sideof the Time & Life Building's 25th floor. Wecall it the copy desk. Day and night, its staffoversees the movement of Time stories fromwriters to senior editors to the managingeditor to researchers, logging, typing,reading and routing stories. At week's end aTime story may have been retyped as manyas eight times. Copy and proofreaders checkfor errors in spelling, punctuation andsyntax."For the past twenty-nine years, thedisciplinarian of the complex process ofmoving copy and the autocrat of Time stylehas been the quiet, tough- minded chief of thecopy desk, Harriet Bachman. This month shedecided to retire from policing abbreviations, hyphens, capitals, captions, etc., to tend toher antique collection and to the study ofRussian. In announcing Bachman's retirement, Managing Editor Henry Grunwaldwrote: 'We will miss her as the supremearbiter of grammar and defender of Time'sEnglish prose against many enemies. . . . ' "Bachman authored the 180-page style handbook used by Time "to protect our usageagainst what she labeled 'substandard wordfusions (someplace, noplace), folksy expressions (likely used for probably) and bureau-cratese (implement used as a verb). ' "in memoriam: Ernst Fraenkel, id '41, ofBerlin, Germany.A'J The Humanities Through the Arts, atextbook co-authored by f. davidmartin, ab'42, phD'49, John Howard Harrisprofessor of philosophy at BucknellUniversity (Lewisburg, Pa.), has beenpublished by memoriam: Dr. David Bronsky, sb'42,former head of the endocrinology department at Cook County Hospital, diedMarch 2.A'l kinereth dushkin gensler, ab'43,J Belmont, Ma. , has had a collection ofpoems, "Someone Is Human," published inThreesome Poems, a volume of poetry justreleased by alicejames books, 138 Mt.Auburn St., Cambridge, Ma. 02138.Alicejames is a cooperative with anemphasis on publishing poetry by women.werner a. baum, sb'43, sm'44, pIid'48,chancellor of the University of Wisconsin,Milwaukee, has been named president-electof the American Meteorological Society, themagazine is advised by shirley bowmanbaum, ab'44, am'47. Recipient of the organization's Charles Franklin Brooks award forservice to meteorology and education lastyear, he will take office in memoriam: Sidney E. Rolfe, ab'43,phD'52, an internationally known economist,died March 10 in East Hampton, LongIsland, N. Y. Mr. Rolfe had been a professorof finance at Long Island University since1967 and a research associate in the center ofinternational studies at MIT since 1972. Hisbooks included Gold and World Power: TheDollar, the Pound and the Plans to Reform( 1 966), written with the assistance of RobertG. Hawkins, in which he became one of thefirst economists to advocate the floatingforeign-exchange rates later adopted by theworld monetary powers.A A maurice r. hilleman, pItd'44, a^"^ virologist, received the 1975 achievement award of the Industrial ResearchInstitute, Inc., for his leadership in researchon the infectious diseases of man. Hillemanis vice-president and director of virus and cellbiology research of the Merck Sharp &Dohme Research Laboratories, West Point,Pa.AC george h. brown, pho'45, secretary~* and counsel to the president of the Conference Board, a New York-basedbusiness advisory group, is serving as chairman of the 1976 community appeal of theAmerican Red Cross in Greater New York.Brown, a former marketing research directorof the Ford Motor Company, served asdirector of the U.S. Bureau of the Censusfrom 1969 to ' memoriam: Dorothy Blank Hagerman,bls'45, Galesburg, II. , died January 1.Af. jean head sisco, mba'46, a consultanton government and public affairs forthe American Retail Federation of Washington, D.C., has been elected a director ofSanta Fe Industries, Inc., and of its principalsubsidiary, the Atchison, Topeka & SantaFe Railway Company. She is married tojoseph J. sisco (see Class of '47 and articlebeginning on Page 10).AH joseph J. sisco, am'47, p1td'50, Under' Secretary of State for political affairsand a career diplomat, will leave the government in July to become president ofAmerican University in Washington, D.C.(see story beginning on Page 10). Sisco haslong been Henry Kissinger's principal adviseron delicate negotiations, particularly in theMiddle East. In November, 1973, Sisco wasreported planning to leave the State Department to become president of HamiltonCollege in Clinton, N.Y., but he was prevailed upon by Kissinger to remain duringcritical Middle East negotiations and waspromoted from Assistant Secretary to thethird-ranking post at State. He is married tojean head sisco (see Class of '46).ray scherer, am'47, for twenty-eightyears a correspondent for NBC News inWashington and London, has taken over theexecutive vice-presidency, Washington, forNBC's parent, the RCA Corporation. In hisnew role Sherer is RCA's principal representative in all public affairs matters in thecapital. Scherer's career with NBC spannedthe administrations of six Presidents. Helogged some 250,000 miles on various assignments, including Richard M. Nixon's visit asVice-President to the Soviet Union in 1959;President John F. Kennedy's 1963 tour ofEurope; President Lyndon B. Johnson'sfive-day worldwide tour in 1968, andPremier Nikita S. Khrushchev's visit to thiscountry. He did a documentary with Mr.Johnson, the highly acclaimed The HillCountry, Lyndon Johnson's Texas.Johnson, who trusted few reporters, wasdubious about the project. He referred to itat first as NBC's program, then as RayScherer's program and then, after thePresident heard the praise for the show, as"my program." It's now a part of theJohnson archives. Scherer is narrator of thelatest University of Chicago produced film,A Special Kind of Person, which is currentlybeing shown at various alumni gatheringsaround the memoriam: Edith Lentz Hamilton,ab'47, am'50; Donald James McNassor,PhD '47.38'The only thing that matters is whether you can think'Melvin A. HillNow that Hannah Arendt is dead, herworks and the public debate about themcontinue to live among us as her legacy. Init we must find consolation for the loss ofher voice in public affairs. But grateful aswe may be for inheriting her thinking inwritten form, those of us who knew her as ateacher and friend must look elsewhere forreconciliation to her loss in the privatesphere, for she was an exceptional teacherand friend.I met her and began to study with her in1963 before I was aware of who she was inthe public eye. At that time I had justarrived from Cape Town, having desertedfrom the South African army in which Ihad been drafted. I came to Chicago freshfrom the heated political debates of myundergraduate years and found it difficultto accept the virtual absence of politicalconcern among my fellow students, and therarefied atmosphere of learning that prevailed. Those who were involved withSNCC had not converted large numbers topolitics, and the political education of thewar in Vietnam still remained in the offing.In applying to the Committee on SocialThought, I was sent to various members offaculty for interviews. And I found myselfknocking at Hannah's door, not knowingwhat to expect. She evidently took aboutfive minutes to make up her mind aboutme — having read some of my essaysMr. Hill (phi) '68) is associate professor inthe Division of Social Science at YorkUniversity, in Downsview, Ont. before — and she announced her decisionwith the words: "Now let's talk aboutmoney. How are you going to live?" I hadno idea of how I was going to live, exceptthat I had thought it a question one did notbroach with professors. She soon had thealternatives mapped out.I can still feel my response to herquestion. I suddenly realized that she was adifferent kind of professor since she wasinterested in me — and as I later understood,in all of her students— not as a student in aformal sense, but as a person. And as ourdiscussion soon showed, I had to qualifythat recognition: she was interested in me assomebody who was trying to learn how andwhat to think. When they were no longerstudents, they had already become herfriends.What did we talk about? The very thingthat I had been careful to conceal: that Ihad deserted and cut my ties to SouthAfrica. To me it seemed that this was astigma I bore as a white South African. Ithad simply been the only thing I couldthink of doing under the circumstances.Hannah led me to speak about what I hadgone through and what I thought about it.She showed me that the very experiencethat I regarded as nothing more than anobstacle in my path, and that had set meapart from my own generation and even myfamily, was in fact a gateway to reality.She literally opened up the world for me.Our half-hour appointment lasted allafternoon. And I can still hear her saying inher deep voice, throaty with talk andsmoke, "Now you see, as long as you don'tforget this experience it will be enough. Oneexperience like this is enough." Then she broke into a warm smile, nodded her headto affirm what she had said, and concluding with a "So," she rose from her chair.We called Hannah "the Tante" amongourselves — I don't recall who first gave herthe name — because in her generosity shehad become a kind of intellectual mother tous. Perhaps, in retrospect, she was the kindof mother whom we would each have likedto have had. As young intellectuals weexperienced the drift and rootlessness ofexistence sharply, while she offered us away of facing our times honestly.Learning from Hannah was not simply aquestion of mastering a body of knowledge—that went without saying. Nor was it aquestion of learning what she had writtenor what she said in class — she never taughtor used her own works. It was part andparcel of relating to her, of sharing experiences with her — and of her sharingexperiences with you — about which the twoof you, or the group of you, then arguedback and forth, led by the reassurance ofher openness and her sheer intelligence anderudition, as well as by her loving disposition. She would often be challenging, andwhen necessary she would emphasize herown position, as if to say, "When you havethought about this enough you will understand why I think this way." But she neverinsisted that we agree with her conclusions.She was not at all interested in havingdisciples.She would admire our good fortune as agroup: "This is a truly great University,"she would say, "truly great. Over here theonly thing that matters is whether you canthink, and not who your father is. You areall so lucky to be here, and I am sure youwill remember it." But as we got older andbecame reluctant to leave, she wouldbecome provoked and say, "Look, HydePark is not the world."^O JANET BENSON KAYE, AB'48, AM'67,® Denver, has been awarded a scholarship for continuing work on her doctorate bythe Colorado Federation of the Council forExceptional Children. Kaye, who has amaster's degree in special education from theUniversity of Denver ( 1 973), teaches thelearning disabled in suburban Denver. Herson Michael is an undergraduate at Chicago.jean f. emmons, mba'48, has resignedfrom his position at Evanston (II.) TownshipHigh School as assistant superintendent incharge of personnel to become superintendent of the Trenton, N.J., public schools.Emmons joined the ETHS staff in 1968 asdirector of personnel and in 1970 was namedassistant superintendent. He was the school'sfirst black administrator.Selling Grapes, a collection of poetry by marsha London poirier, phB'48, has beenpublished by Loom Press, Chapel Hill, N.C.($2.25). Ms. Poirier, who works as a researchscientist for a pharmaceutical company, andher husband, Duke University chemistryprofessor jacques c. poirier, sm'51, live inDurham, N.C. Her poem "To Darwin"appeared in the spring issue of the magazine .henry j. goldfield, ab'48, am'61 ,Reseda, Ca. , recently accepted a position asan administrative analyst in the Office of theChief Administrative Officer of the LosAngeles County government.kelvin m. parker, am'48, pItd'53, has hadan edition of a 14th century Galician-Castilian manuscript, the Historia troyana,dealing with the Trojan Wars, published inSpain. A specialist in the medieval dialect ofnorthwestern Spain, Parker has been working with three related 14th-centurymanuscripts — one Castilian, two Galician-The memorial notice for "Stanislaus E.Basinski, sb'47," carried in the spring,'76, issue of the magazine, was quitepremature. In the first place, Mr.Basinski, sb'47, reports he is very muchalive. In the second place, his name isStanley, not Stanislaus. The publishedobituary notice which was the basis ofthe magazine's incorrect listing actuallyreferred to Mr. Basinski's father,Stanislaus, who died December 31,1975. The elder Mr. Basinski was not analumnus of UC. The magazine regretsthe error.that deal with the same subject and hasedited them for publication as well as prepared extensive classified vocabularies of thetwo Galician texts.4.Q Fra"klin D. Roosevelt: The Contri-' button of the New Deal to AmericanPolitical Thought and Practice, by mortonj. frisch, am'49, has been published as partof Twayne Publishers' World Leaders series.Frisch taught at the College of William andMary in Virginia in 1953-'64, was Fulbrightprofessor of political science at the University of Stockholm in Sweden in 1 963-'64, andhas since 1964 been at Northern IllinoisUniversity (DeKalb), where he is professor ofpolitical science.JOYCE DANNEN MILLER, PhB'49, AM'51,director of social services and executiveassistant to the general officers of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union, has beenelected a trustee of the Community ServiceSociety, New York. Miller, of New York, isvice-president of the East Coast Coalition ofLabor Union Women and an instructor inthe women's study program of CornellUniversity.iohn i. goodlad, phD'49, has beenawarded the first Phi Delta Kappa award formeritorious contributions to educationthrough research, evaluation, anddevelopment. As part of the celebration ofthe award, Goodlad delivered the Paul M.Cook memorial lecture to the Phi DeltaKappa biennial council. His address, entitled"The Uses of Three Models of EducationalChange," will be published in monographform by PDK's center on evaluation,development and memoriam: George R. Canning, Jr.,am'49; Wilber W. Hoare, Jr., am'49; Karl E.Irvin, Jr., mba'49.Cf\ Robert lesser, ab'50, am'53, owner-^ of one of the world's largest and mostcomprehensive collections of comics art andmemorabilia and an authority on the subject,is the author of A Celebration of Comic Artand Memorabilia (Hawthorn, $17.95), a newbook which carries such juicy bits of information as a full Marvel Mystery Comics No.1 in mint condition is now worth up to$4,000; Orphan Annie figures made in Japanand Germany have eyeballs, because theforeign manufacturers, unfamiliar with thecomic character, assumed they were missingand put them in as a correction; and the mostsought-after comic character toy today is theHi-Way Henry, a tin car made in the late '20sor early '30s and created by cartoonist OscarHitt. In the book, which includes forty-fivecolor plates. Lesser is not content merely tocatalog prices and list rare items. He defendsand upholds what he calls proletarian orcomics industrial art by insisting that muchof this dime-store and premium material istrue art. On the art of Chester Gould, creatorof Dick Tracy, he has this to say: "The artwas representational, but the characters werepure surreal. No way, nowhere on any street,will vou ever see characters like these. . . . And these departures from reality will beaccepted by its vast unschooled public[which] is otherwise hostile to all abstractart."CI ethel m. bonn, md'51, director of¦^ A Fort Logan Mental Health Center inDenver, has been elected president of theAmerican Association of Psychiatric Administrators. The organization, which iscomprised of over 400 psychiatrists and otherphysicians who are the chief executivesand/or chief medical officers of psychiatrictreatment facilities, counts only four womenamong its memoriam: S. Robert Browar, mba'51,director of the laboratory for Inland SteelContainer Corporation, died December 3 1 ,1975, in Chicago; Lowell E. Folsom, mba'51,St. Petersburg Beach, FL, died December 28,1975; Marguerite C. Rand, p1id'51, professoremerita of Spanish literature at the University of Maryland, died January 10 inWashington; Frederick R. Weedon, Jr.,ab'5 1 , president of Benplan Administrators,Inc., Jamestown, N.Y., died March 1.C'} marjorie dedrick palmer, am'52,~^ has been named assistant director,administration, of the Hoff-BarthelsonMusic School in Scarsdale, N.Y.james a. newman, mba'52, vice chairmanof the management consulting firm of Booz,Allen & Hamilton, has been elected to theboard of directors of Industrial NationalCorporation.O edward allworth, am'53, director•^ ^ of Columbia University's program onSoviet nationality problems, served as theprincipal scholarly consultant to the NationalGeographic Society in connection withpreparation of the society's first new wallmap of the USSR since 1960. Entitled"Peoples of the Soviet Union," the map wasissued in February.dumont kenny, phD'53, president ofColorado Women's College (Denver) since1970, has announced he will resign at the endof the current academic year for healthreasons.phillip h. lewis, am'53, phn'66, formerlyacting chairman, has been named chairmanof the department of anthropology at theField Museum of Natural History, Chicago.Lewis conducted ethnological fieldwork inthe tropical island of New Ireland in theBismarck Archipelago in 1953-'54 and againin 1970. In 1957 he was appointed the FieldMuseum's first curator of primitive art and isresponsible for the Hall of Primitive Artexhibit. He also serves as the museum'scurator of Melanesian ethnology.CA BERT Z. GOODWIN, AB'54, JD'57,-^ former deputy general counsel for theDepartment of the Air Force, has beennamed chief counsel of the Federal AviationAdministration. Goodwin received the AirForce exceptional civilian service medal in1969 for his work in such fields as aircraft procurement, pilot training and flight safety.In 1 969-'70 he was a Sloan fellow in theschool of management at MIT.james g. harlow, pnD'54, president ofWest Virginia University, has been namedWest Virginian of the year for 1975 by thestate's largest newspaper, the SundayGazette-Mail (Charleston). Harlow was deanof the college of education at the Universityof Oklahoma before becoming president ofWVU in 1967. Before that he was associateprofessor of education at Chicago.C C Raymond J. corsini, pIid'55, a clinical"^ ~^ psychologist in Honolulu, is the coauthor of The Practical Parent (New York:Harper and Row, 1975), a down-to-earthguide to bringing up children. His collaborator is Genevieve Painter.C(L john a. schoneman, mba'56, executive-^ vice-president, marketing, of theAtlantic Companies, New York, has beenelected to the boards of that insurance group.Schoneman, who joined Atlantic in 1955, is arecent graduate of the advanced managementprogram of the Harvard graduate school memoriam: D. Garron Brian, phD'56;I. Leon Maizlish, pho'56.CH evalyn bates, am'57, has been•* ' promoted to the position of dean ofspecial programs at Hartwick College,Oneonta, N.Y. In 1959 Bates was selected asa Fulbright lecturer in adult education andcommunity development at the University ofNew England in New South Wales,Australia. From 1959 to 1969 she wasassistant to the president of GoddardCollege, Plainfield, Vt.CO STEPHEN L. MICHEL, SB'58, MD'62,-^ ^ part-time assistant to the director ofsurgery at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center inLos Angeles, has been named a county commissioner to serve on the County of LosAngeles Commission for Emergency MedicalCare. He was nominated for this appointment by the prestigious Los Angeles SurgicalSociety.Harriet manelis klein, ab'58, a visitingprofessor at Scarsborough college, University of Toronto, during the 1974-'75academic year, returned to Montclair StateCollege (Upper Montclair, N.J.) last fall asassistant professor of anthropology. She wasa member of the Montclair faculty for twoyears before going to Canada. In 1971-'72she did field work in Argentina under aFulbright-Hays dissertation research abroadfellowship. She has also worked in Argentinaunder a National Science Foundation grantand a Montclair State College developmentfund grant. She and her husband, Herbertklein, phD'63, live in Leonia, memoriam: Alice Brooks McGuire,pho'58, of Austin, Tx.59 HAROLD D. KOODEN, AB'59, AM'64,pIid'67, director of Cumberland Psy-40A therapeutic (at last!) analysisof the epic PsiU-DU cage tilt of WJames G. KazanisAmong the things I enjoy reading in themagazine are reminiscences about experiences of alumni at the University. Now I,too, have an effable memory, and, thanksto the diligent work of my psychiatrist, it isalso a happy one.Only now can I relate the story, havingundergone years of intense and searchinganalysis. My psychiatrist now feels I amready to tell the story without suffering theusual relapses.Looking back, I don't know why itshould have affected me so. It was only abasketball game between two fraternities,the PsiU house and ours, the DU house.Nowadays it is certainly not unusual tohave games where the score reaches over100, but this one was different.As I recall (and as my psychiatrist hasdaily reminded me— I don't know why Ikeep forgetting) the score was PsiU 103(one hundred and three) and DU 1 (one).Slowly I have come to realize that theday will never come when the PsiU brethrenwill forget about the game, and I have cometo live with this. It was, moreover, anespecially triumphant game for me, for Iwas the high scorer on our team. This pointmay have been, my therapist has pointedout, the underlying basis for my manyproblems. (Don't ask me why.) At the timeI felt pride, but he has helped me see thatthis was based on a misevaluation. Admittedly, though I was the high scorer onour team, I had, in fact, scored my onlytwo points for the other team. I had notonly not scored our team's solitary point,but had helped push the PsiU score over100.To help me better understand the gameand all its implications, my psychiatrist hashad me write out some questions, which hefelt might help me get a better grasp on theentire game situation. Here are the questions; all represent multiple choices:1 . The glory of the winning PsiU team wasgreatly diminished later because:(a) The players could not in all honestyclaim that they had scored all theirMr. Kazanis (ab'61) is in his fifteenth yearas a teacher in the Chicago public schools.He is an aficionado of the University LabSchool's Gilbert and Sullivan company,with which he formerly was an activeworker. Or was it '59?points themselves, alone, and withouthelp.(b) It was later learned that they hadbribed the referees.(c) No one would ever believe them because they would always be laughingtoo hard while relating the story of thegame and its score.(d) They had inadvertently strained thequality of mercy, which, as we allknow, "is not strained, it droppethas the gentle rain from heaven."(e) All of the above.(f) None of the above.2. Though they had lost, the moral fiber ofthose on the losing DU team was greatlyenhanced because:(a) They learned that it's not whetheryou win or lose, but only by howmuch.(b) They learned that winning isn'teverything.(c) They learned how to become goodlosers.(d) They learned how to become, notjust good losers, but really great ones.(e) All of the above.(f) None of the above.3. The reason the DU team lost was:(a) The PsiU team was better.(b) The PsiU team was a lot better.(c) The DU team was worse.(d) The DU team was a lot worse.(e) The DU team members forgot toemploy their game plan.(f) The reason is still shrouded inmystery.4. It was later revealed that the PsiU teamhad an unfair advantage going into thegame because:(a) Many on the PsiU team already knewwhat a basketball looked like.(b) The gym was poorly lit, and thePsiU players had better night vision.(c) PsiU figured out, early in the game,what the baskets at the ends of thecourt were for.(d) The officials forgot to tell the DUplayers that the game had started.(e) All of the above.(f) Some of the above.5. Impartial observers of the game laterstated that DU had lost because:(a) The DU basketball hoop was too ^/u^r n<>small for the ball to go through.(b) The referees were actually Russiansand were here in training forofficiating at the Olympic Games.(c) Some of the PsiU players had unfairly refused to take the sex qualifying exam and were probably women indisguise, playing illegally.(d) Some of the DU team members'playing abilities may have been reduced because they were pregnant.(e) Many on the DU team had gonehome early because they had been(wrongly) led to believe that the gamehad been called because of rain.(0 All but one of the above.(g) Almost none of the above.6. The PsiU team, though victorious,suffered greatly in later times because:(a) Try though they did, they had notbeen able to keep the DU team scoreless. They were never able to live thisdown completely.(b) For weeks, months — even years —afterward they would talk aboutnothing else at parties they attendedexcept this game. Hence they becamebores and were not invited to partiesany more.(c) They were not awarded the game ballbecause they had worn it out.(d) They were never to know "howsublime a thing it is to suffer andbe strong."(e) They were to realize only later thatthe DU players had let them win. Theythen felt very badly about theirbragging.(f) Almost all of the above.(g) All of the above and even morebesides.7. In view of your answer to the previousquestion, which of the following would bestsupport its implicit stoic implications?(a) Crescat scientia vita excolatur.(b) Let knowledge grow from more tomore and so be human life enriched.(c) Make checks payable to the Bursar.(d) Blessed are the forgetful.(e) Only the two that aren't the University's motto.(f) Only the two that are the University'smotto.41chiatric Day Hospital, Brooklyn, N.Y.,reports he is actively involved with theAssociation of Gay Psychologists and isclinical director of Identity House, a walk-inservice for gays and bi-sexuals. He alsoserves on the American PsychologicalAssociation task force on the status oflesbian and gay psychologists. "I would loveto keep in contact with some of the oldclassmates," he writes, "as I am alive andwell, living in New York City."MARY ANN GLENDON, AB'59, JD'61, MCL'63,law professor at Boston College, has receiveda grant from the Ford Foundation and hasbeen made a fellow of the Radcliffe Institute.The grant will enable her to finish writing abook on changes in family law in the U.S.and Western Europe in recent years.Formerly associated with the Chicago lawfirm of Mayer, Brown & Piatt, Glendon wasthe first woman appointed to the law facultyof Boston College in 1968 where she has beenteaching comparative international law. In1974-'75 she served as visiting professor atthe Harvard law memoriam: William C. Cook, am'59, ofWellington, New Zealand.fjT\ MORTON W. MILLER, SM'60, PhD'62,^^ associate professor of radiationbiology and biophysics at the University ofRochester, has been appointed to membership on the Committee on Biosphere Effectsof Extremely Low Frequency Radiation,established recently by the National ResearchCouncil, the principal operating agency ofthe National Academy of Sciences. Anauthority on the biological effects of radiation, Miller is the recent recipient of NASAAmerican Institute of Biological Sciencescommendations for his contributions to theViking Mars Mission.ZT1 ZELDACALLNEROPPENHEIMER, AM'61," has developed for publication Careersfor Bilinguals, Volume One, a curriculumpackage intended to fill the needs ofminorities who have come fromnon-standard English or foreign languageenvironments, and/or who are in need ofperfecting their English language skills. Formore information write to Oppenheimer atRelatina Publications, P.O. BoxA3841,Chicago 60690.ben barkow, ab'61 , received his doctoratein psychology last year from York Universityin Toronto and has opened a company whichdoes transportation psychology — "the only,only one there is!" Barkow lives in Toronto.LINDA FEIST WALLACE, AB'61 , AM'68,became director of Minnesota's LegislativeReference Library on February 1 . Herprevious work experience includes positionsin Chicago's Municipal Reference Library,the government publications divisions ofboth the Minneapolis public and Universityof Minnesota Libraries, and as specialassistant to the head of the University ofMinnesota's St. Paul campus libraries.david novak, ab'61, rabbi of the BethTfiloh Congregation, Baltimore, has published his second book, Suicide and Making things hum at HoodTwo alumnae have been making thingshum at Hood College, in Frederick, Md.,famed as the scene of BarbaraFrietsche's heroic stand. Patricia edge-worth cunnea, ab'50, am'55, p1td'63,came to Hood in 1972 as dean ofacademic affairs, and in 1975 she wasjoined by martha e. church, pIld'60,who was named president of Hood atthat time. Under the unusual leadershipteam of two women, both Chicagoalumnae, the rationale and curriculumat Hood underwent a major restructuring, which resulted in its beginning toswim upstream two years ago, in a worldin which most colleges were sufferingfrom declining enrolments. (Much ofthe restructuring had been begun underMs. Church's predecessor, Ross J.Pritchard.) And SAT scores rose significantly.To the college's traditional liberal artscurriculum was added a goodly measure of career preparation: for examplecourses preparing women for work inhealth-science occupations were incorporated into what before had been abiology major program. Internship andwork-study programs were establishedin cooperation with nearby governmentresearch and health institutions, both inBaltimore and the Washington area. Amaster's program in the biomedicalsciences has been instituted.Hood is primarily a women's institution, although it admits a few malestudents. Its feminist stress is demonstrated in its new logotype, which incorporates the female sex symbol.Ms. Cunnea credits the Universitywith playing a background role in thedevelopments at Hood because "theUniversity was many years ahead of itstime in helping women develop theirleadership potential."Morality: The Theories of Plato, Aquinasand Kant and Their Relevance for Sui-cidologv (New York: Scholars Studies Press,1975). 'thomas f. andreoli, sb'61 , East Hartford,Ct., has completed his doctoral program ineducation at the University of Connecticutwith a specialty in supervision and curriculum development. The title of hisdissertation: "The Effects of a ProgrammedCourse in Computer Programming withDifferent Feedback Procedures on Mathematical Reasoning Ability."fyj GARY J. greenberg, ab'62, am'63,^ became a partner in the New York lawfirm of Stroock & Stroock & Lavan onJanuary 1 , 1976. Greenberg was elected tothe national cabinet of the Alumni Association last summer.SALLY SWANK HACKER, AB'62, AM'65,phD'69, assistant professor of sociology atDrake University (Des Moines, la.), has beenat MIT this past academic year on a $12,000postdoctoral fellowship to study the relationships of humanities and engineering. Hacker,who has studied aspects of technologicalchange in industry for the past several years,received a $12,400 Ford Foundation grant in1973 for a one-year study on the effects oftechnological change on women in industry.She studied the phenomenon in four Iowaindustries: telecommunications, insurance,printing and agriculture. Before joining theDrake faculty in 1 97 1 , she was staff sociologist for the Texas Research Institute ofMental Sciences and clinical instructor inpsychiatry and sociology at BaylorUniversity.dan b. "skip" landt, am'62, resignedfrom his position at UC as assistant dean of students and student activities director lastfall to accept an appointment as administrative director for the Chicago-based Centerfor Psycho-Social Studies. The center sharesfacilities and cooperates in some projectswith the Center for the Study of memoriam: Stephen Ullmann, x'62,president of S. G. Ullmann and Company,Chicago investment advisory service, diedMarch 13 while playing basketball at theYMCA. Mr. Ullmann, who lettered in basketball and baseball while at UC, was anofficer and board member of the Order ofthe"C".C/l DAVID R. SEGAL, am'63, phD'67, has^ -^ joined the faculty at the University ofMaryland as professor of sociology and ofgovernment and politics. For the past twoand one-half years Segal had been on leavefrom the University of Michigan and wasserving as chief of the social processes technical area, U.S. Army Research Institute forthe Behavioral and Social Sciences. Inmoving to Maryland, he joins his wife madywechsler segal, am'67, p1td'73, a memberof the sociology faculty at Maryland for thepast couple of years.richard j. mckinlay, am'63, has beennamed to the board of directors of theIllinois Association for Mental Health, acitizens' organization dedicated to lifting thestigma of mental illness, improving the careand treatment of the mentally ill, and promoting good mental memoriam: George E. "Nick" Fee, Jr.,jd'63, of Chicago and Gays Mills, Wi., diedFebruary 25 of cancer. Mr. Fee joined theLaw School staff in 1965 as assistant deanand director of placement. In 1967 he42became dean of students and assistant dean.He left the Law School in 1969 to go intoprivate practice. At the time of his death hewas a partner of George Fee Associates, aChicago law firm specializing in the placement of attorneys. He is survived by his wife,Joan Hill Fee, ab'66, one son and threedaughters.Albert Feldman, p!id'63, professor ofsocial work and deputy director of the EthelPercy Andrus gerontology center at theUniversity of Southern California, diedDecember 27, 1975.CA elsa l. stone, sb'64, is now practicing*-'" medicine with the Wallingford (Ct.)Pediatric Group. Dr. Stone completed herinternship and residency training at the YaleUniversity school of medicine in 1973. Shehas been a postdoctoral fellow in behavioralpediatrics at the Yale child study center.bruce J. berne, phD'64, professor ofchemistry at Columbia University, is coauthor (with Robert Pecora) of a new bookentitled Dynamic Light Scattering withApplications to Chemistry, Biology, andPhysics (New York: John Wiley & Sons,1976, $24.95). A former Guggenheim fellowand Alfred P. Sloan Foundation fellow,Berne was visiting professor of chemistry atthe University of Tel Aviv in 1972."Our way of being in the world, aspersons, is the expression of the inner storywe spend our whole life telling ourselves.Faithful attention to the inward fantasyrealm and conscious understanding of thestory we are telling is reflected in outwardbehavior. ..." So writes john c. cooper,am'64, pIid'66, in his new book, Fantasy andthe Human Spirit (New York: Seabury Press,1975).flC MARY MURPHY SCHROEDER, JD'65, Was*J*^ sworn in last fall as Arizona's firstwoman judge on the state court of appeals.She was named to the post, vacated by aretiring justice, by Arizona's governor, RaulCastro. A trial attorney with the Departmentof Justice in Washington for four years,Schroeder has been a partner in a Phoenixlaw firm for the past several years. She wasthe first Arizona woman to argue a casebefore the Supreme Court.donald a. deppe, p1id'65, director ofeducation and vocational training for theFederal Bureau of Prisons in Washingtonsince 1973, has been appointed warden of theFederal Correction Institute at Butner, N.C.joel l. shatzky, am'65, associateprofessor of English at State UniversityCollege at Cortland (N.Y.), was named awinner in the second State University of NewYork playwriting competition last year forhis play, The Emperor of the West End.Shatzky's play, one of three to share tophonors, is about people in an old age home inNew York City. "The plot centers aboutevents that take place when the elderly residents of the home actually take over theoperation," he told the Cortland Standard."It depicts what aged people can accomplish if given the opportunity."/C/C Singer/songwriter joel zoss, ab'66,^^ was the subject of a New York Timesarticle by Stephen Davis late last year. Hewas featured as one of "three new voices onnew albums [who] speak for their generationat mid-decade." Zoss, who "has enjoyed acult following as a master songwriter sinceBonnie Raitt recorded his 'Too Long at theFair' a few years ago," has recently had hisfirst album released. Entitled "Joel Zoss"(Arista 4056), the record "reveals him as amystic with a lusty spirituality and a strongvoice distinctive for its phrasing andvibrato." In concert, the Times observes ofZoss who had just finished an engagement atthe New York night spot the Other End, he"occasionally produces his gimbri, a three-stringed Moroccan lute, and performs one ofhis transliterations of North African folksongs." The album is especially praised forits production, which "has an unassumingelegance that seems to focus more on thesong than on the singer." Zoss is the son ofbette jane hurwich zoss, ab'39.john f. culp, ab'66, mba'68, has beenappointed corporate director of internationalmarketing at Emerson Electric Company.Culp formerly was with Gould, Inc., ofChicago. He returned recently from twoyears in Europe with the Gould Contardogroup and has relocated in St. Louis.From the beginning of its involvement inVietnam up through the last days, thepolicies of the United States were the causeof the war and the major stumbling blockpreventing a negotiated settlement, arguesgareth porter, am'66, in his new book, APeace Denied: The United States, Vietnam,and the Paris Agreement (Bloomington, In.:Indiana University Press, 1976, $15.00).Porter, currently co-director of the Indochina Resource Center in Washington, is theauthor of numerous articles on Vietnam. Heformerly served as Saigon correspondent forDispatch News Service International. In1972-'74 he was a research associate, International Relations of East Asia Project,Cornell University.CH BEVERLY SPLANE, AB'67, MBA'69,*-' 'has left the Commodity FuturesTrading Commission, where she was actingexecutive director, to accept the executivevice-presidency of the Chicago MercantileExchange. In her previous post, Splane wasresponsible for staffing the new agency,which replaced the Commodity ExchangeAuthority in April, 1975. She previously hadserved as a staff assistant for President Fordand associate director of the presidential personnel office, with primary responsibility forrecruiting candidates to fill Cabinet andother positions in the administration.douglas s. fletcher, mba'67, was nameddirector of corporate development at 20thCentury-Fox, Los Angeles, last fall. Fletcherpreviously was with DeLuxe General, Inc., a20th-Fox subsidiary, and from 1972 to 1974he was president of Dynamic Visuals,Newport Beach, Ca. Patrick j. henry, am'67, a former Jesuitpriest, has resigned as community development director for the city of Cleveland toaccept a post with the Cleveland Foundation.Henry left the priesthood in 1967 and servedas an urban development specialist for NewYork City for two years. He then joined theU.S. Department of Housing and UrbanDevelopment where one of his duties was toinvestigate Cleveland's Model Citiesprogram in 1 973 . He joined the city administration in 1974 and played a major role inpreparing the city's application for$16,000,000 in community developmentfunds./CO judith lynn sebesta, ab'68, assistant^ professor of classics at the Universityof South Dakota, and Dr. Charles R. Estee,professor and chairman of the chemistrydepartment at USD, were married November29, 1975, in Chicago.PAUL ANTHONY NAUSIEDA, SB'68, MD'72,recently represented the division of neurology, Michael Reese Medical Center(Chicago), at the International Symposiumof Psychosomatic Medicine in Rome, Italy,and presented his paper entitled "The Effectsof Chronic Dopamine Agonism." Dr.Nausieda will join the neurology staff ofMichael Reese in July, 1976, as a clinicalinstructor with a joint appointment at theUniversity of Chicago, continuing hisresearch work in neuropharmacology.rita jeruchimowicz, ab'68, advises usthat she has legally changed her name to ritaj. jeremy. Holder of a doctorate in childdevelopment from the University ofMinnesota (1974), she is currently a facultymember at the Merrill-Palmer Institute inDetroit, engaged in research on fathers.CLAIRE cone Robertson, am'68, has beenteaching at Bucknell University (Lewisburg,Pa.) this past academic year as visitingassistant professor of history. Robertson'sfield of special interest is African women andtheir history.thomas sowell, phD'68, has beennominated by President Ford to be acommissioner of the Federal TradeCommission. Mr. Sowell, contributor of twowell-received articles in this magazine, isprofessor of economics at the University ofCalifornia./CO penny gold, ab'69, taught medieval"^ history and the history of westerncivilization this past year at the University ofCincinnati. Next fall she will be moving toKnox College (Galesburg, II.), where she hasaccepted a position as assistant professor ofhistory.kathleen e. sullivan, am'69, has joinedthe professional staff of the Bath-Brunswick (Me.) Mental Health Center asa social worker. Sullivan, a psychiatric socialworker with outpatients at the UC Hospitalsand Clinics for five years, was responsiblefor organizing the program to help thesurvivors of the Illinois Central train crash in1972 deal with the psychological effects ofthe accident.43A rainy night in London TownorThe play at the Globe was a washoutBette HowlandStanding in line at the open-air box office, Isneaked a look at the sky. It was black;clouds had been wobbling like dirigiblesover London all day. The Thames wassquirming. We were on a wharf in theSouth Bank, the site — give or take a fewfeet — of the historic Globe Theater, whichburned to the ground June 29, 1613, duringa performance of spurious Shakespeare —Henry VIII. The new Globe was a tentoperation; guy ropes, boarded sidewalks, acouple of mobile toilet units. Under astriped tarp, tables with plastic beach umbrellas, the crowd was drinking up beforethe performance. No one else lookedworried about the rain.We'd had a hell of a time finding theplace. How many streets called Liberty ofthe Clink can there be? The Liberties on theoutskirts of London were properties of theCrown. A lucky thing, because the cityfathers frowned on theatrical performances. That's how come all thosetheaters were built here — the Globe, theBear Garden, the Rose. You had to take aboat; it cost a penny. Just across the bank,where the spires of the old City wereglimmering grimly over the face of thewater, ferrymen used to jockey up, like taxidrivers at Victoria. I wished the boats werestill running: it was a long walk from thetube, nothing for miles around but warehouses, and the sky billowing like a pitchedtent."Oh, Ma," Jacob said. He wanted to seeVanessa Redgrave. He didn't know herfrom Adam, but knew she was a star. Myyounger son is mad for fame; hangs aroundthe Cubs and White Sox dugouts, hoping tocollect autographs. The players yell "Beatit, kid." And once at Midway Airport wesaw Joe Frazier being interviewed on TV —his little beard tapered to a point, themicrophone thrust to his chin. Jacob's response: "Gee, a real live celebrity. Iwonder who it is."The auditorium was unexpectedly large,like a big wooden dish, and the set was already up: a tent, tassels and flaps, on thebare boards of the stage. Antony and Cleopatra. A couple of girls roamed up anddown the plank stairs, selling programs.They had a sort of drowned urchin look;the one on our side very thin, in a skimpyknitted tube which left her arms andshoulders bare, and bangs that camestraight down to the fringe of her false eyelashes. They were yelling to each otheracross the aisles:" 'Ey, Daphne." " 'Ey, Pam."A row of boys in front of us took up theiraccents:" 'Ey, Pam. Pam. Thank you, ma'am.Look wot we got 'ere. A bloody bleedin'Pam."They were dressed in the tough style ofthe fifties — the style of the poor is alwaystough — leather jackets, what we used tocall "d.a.'s" (in my tough youth) —"duck's-asses." They looked like a stringof bleached and shrunken Elvis Presleys.The girl was deaf, a wooden Indian."Ten bob," she said, holding out her handand sticking out her hip.My older son Frank was studying theprogram. "It's in modern dress."Now he tells me. I hate Shakespeare inmodern dress.It was chilly; you could see your breath.The theater was getting impressivelycrowded, but the performance was late andit had already started to Tain. You couldhear tap, tap on the tent top.At last the lights went out, the stagerustled. Two men in khaki shorts strolledup and down with hands in their pockets,complaining about Antony. The audiencelaughed loudly when two spit-curled flappers — Iras and Charmian — talked incockney about the lengths of noses. In factit was very noisy, restless, uneasy, as ifreacting to the threatening sounds hammering above us. The actors shouted.The great moment came: the tasseledtent-flaps lifted. There sat Vanessa Redgrave, with bright red hair, a clinging whitesatin night gown, her long long legsstraddling Antony.If it be love indeed, tell me how much . . .Jacob leaned over. "Isn't she a dish?"Vanessa bounced petulantly up anddown. She was rouged to the eyeballs. Hervoice was raised in a loud stage shout.Antony, a well-known TV performer withdazzling teeth, snapped his riding cropagainst his jodhpurs. They were shouting ateach other shamelessly; there was a continuing spattering static of rain. Vanessaseemed awkward, ill-at-ease; she slammedabout the stage on high-heeled mules, herlong hem flapping. She bit her lip, dug thesharp red splinters of her fingernails intoher palms. I couldn't tell if all this was partof her performance, her interpretation ofCleopatra — after all, a woman who isslipping — or her own nervousness. And ofcourse I'll never know now.By the time the scene shifted to Pompeyand cohorts on a balcony (the war lordswore striped cutaways, fat plugs of cigars intheir mouths) you couldn't hear a thing.The actors were shrugging and scratchingtheir heads. Over in the cheaper seats(which I'd regretted not buying) peoplewere getting wet. They were turning uptheir coat collars. Through the lifted tentflap you could see the rain sizzling white inthe arc lamps.An unfamiliar player came slinking outto center stage. He was thin, pale, in shirtand necktie, steamy glasses, and his shoulders were hunched as if it was raining onmichael retsky, sm'69, p1id'74, Chicago,a scientist with Zenith Radio Corporation'sdisplay device research and developmentlaboratory, was awarded "first prize forscientific importance" last year in a micro-graphic competition sponsored by the RoyalMicroscopical Society of Oxford, England.Retsky's winning entry, an electron microscope picture showing single atoms of silver on a thin carbon film, was part of his thesisproject at UC to build a field emissionscanning transmission electron microscopethat could resolve single atoms and use themicroscope to measure the elastic crosssections of individual atoms.Barbara s. nadel, am'69, am'73, joinedthe faculty of Williams College last fall asassistant professor of religion. Hf\ alice foster moss, am'70, a psy-^ chiatric social worker for the ArlingtonCounty (Va.) Department of HumanResources, published an article in the Marchissue of Social Work, the journal of theNational Association of Social Workers.Entitled "Consultation in the Inner CitySchool," the article is, in part, a discussionof her work as a consultant to the Chicago44them. His hands hung large and useless. Hefaced us and flapped them. It dawned onme that this was not yet another actor inmodern dress, but a harried stage managerwho had come wandering out to claim ourattention.He announced a twenty-minute breakwhile we waited to see if the rain let up. Bythis time it was absolutely assaulting thecanvas; sloshing like washbuckets over thestairs. No one moved from the seats. Wherewas there to go?We didn't have long to wait.The loudspeaker hissed and crackled. Athroat cleared; embarrassed; it sounded likebackfiring. "Ladeez and gentlemen . . .pleez . . . ladeez and gentlemen . . . Leavethe theater quietly and seek shelter outsideOutside. That was a laugh. Nothing formiles around but two mobile toilets."Oh, no," Frank said. "Not anotherbomb threat."That's the first thing you think of inLondon.It was the usual orderly exodus; theboards barely rumbled. Maybe it was justthat no one was in a hurry to get outside.The rain was rattling like sheets of tin. Inthe dim light of the street lamps it shookand gleamed. The improvised sidewalkswere flowing with mud; at the bottom ofthe ramps you could see it spurting. As ifsomeone were shooting — like a Wild Westmovie — bullets spattering ahead, biting thedust. People were dashing out with jackets,handbags, newspapers, held over theirheads. Where were they going? Where wasall the rain going? Why was it in such a rushto get there?Just then we heard — very distinctly too,in spite of the gushing flood — a sharp littlecrack. Like a limb tearing from a tree.Jacob stuck his neck out. "The theater justcollapsed.""Ladeez and gentlemen . . . Get off thestairs ... off the stairs . . . They will be thenext to go ... "The entire crowd seemed to be packedunder the striped tarp of the refreshmentbooth. A couple of light bulbs strung underthe roof were still lit, and you could see thesteam rising from the stamping andbreathing forms.The Antony of the play joined the crowd.Still swashbuckling, in jodhpurs, a leatheraviation jacket tossed over his shoulders,his arms bent as if in slings. Everyonepublic school system while on the staff ofUnited Charities, Chicago.david m. garber, jd'70, has been appointed first deputy assistant corporationcounsel for the city of Syracuse, N.Y.BERNARD WINOGRAD, AB'70, is nOWexecutive assistant to the chief executiveofficer of the Bendix Corporation, South-field, Mi. applauded the trouper. His smile wasbright: teeth for clenching daggers in."Where's your Vanessa?" I asked Jakerather bitterly."Ho ho. You don't think she'd hangaround here, do you? A big star like that? Ibet somebody picked her up in a limousine.She's probably in her hotel right now,drinking champagne. Or her penthouse."There were cars of course, pulling upwith windows streaked and windshieldwipers frantically flapping. The youngcouple who had been standing with us disappeared into one.A length of paint tarp came marchingpast on two rows of legs. It had a longbumpy irregular shape and you could seeten pairs of hands clutching it on top. Atitter of laughter went up from the crowd.From time to time it came scrambling andscuttling. Where were these people comingfrom? Where were they going? Whybother? How long would the rain last?It wasn't letting up.The manager kept circulating amongstus, soaked to the skin. You could see thecolor of flesh through his clinging shirt; hishair was plastered to his forehead, hisglasses glittered. He was trying very hardnot to look wet. Casual, hands in hispockets (were they full of live fish?). Thecaptain going down with his ship.The tarp of the refreshment booth waspyramid-shape — the rain was sluicing offit. But the canvas of the tent had been flat-topped. Strong enough to ride a motorbikeacross, he said. I wondered if someone hadridden a motorbike across it. The suddenweight of water collecting in the middle hadcollapsed it. The season was due to close ina few days anyway. We'd have to come byagain to get our money back; we couldn'tqueue up now, and in any case the boxoffice had been washed away with thetheater.It was funny to be carrying on conversations with rain smattering noisily on ourheads like people standing in a shower.Smacking us like cream pies in the face.We were miles from transportation, notaxis on a night like this — no ferrymen —and the rain curling like smoke in the streetlamps.After about half an hour more of this, itwas announced that London Transportbuses were on their way to carry the crowdto public transportation. We watchedhopefully. The buses came lumbering overH 1 daniel a. d'ippolito, ab'71, received' A a doctorate in physics from theUniversity of Maryland in 1 975 . He iscurrently engaged in research in theoreticalplasma physics at the FOM Institute forPlasma Physics in Jutphaas, Holland.nachikoi. holzhauer, am'71, is at theStanford (Ca.) Research Institute this year as the rugged cobblestone streets, headlampsblinded in the blistering downpour — andstopped a block away. You could see thelights within. Our refuge.These were not the familiar red doubledeckers, but ordinary ugly green capsules,with advertisements all over the sides.Maybe the drivers were afraid, if theypulled up too close, of being overturned bythe mad rush of the crowd. But there wasno crush. People were stepping out timidly.Was it raining a little less furiously now?It was slacking off. It was no longerslanting from the heavens like a great stiffbroom sweeping the earth clean. Now itwas just an ordinary rainy night — unfit forman nor beast. The lines formed, thecrowds queued up with accustomedpatience. The buses were collecting fares!I opened up the little folding umbrella."Can we get under it too?" a tall girlasked, creeping closer. She was with a shortstout man whose chin could have proppedon her bosom — which was very decollete."For God's sake, this is no time to stand onceremony," I said. So the boys and I andshe and her companion and two Americangirls who were babbling about bombthreats stood squashed together under theumbrella. Inside the buses the windows hadsteamed up in an instant. People swayedfrom the straphangers. And the passengershad already struck up a song:"It's a long way — to Tip-uh-ror-y . . ."The next day we found that the collapseof the Globe (for the second time — destroyed once by fire, now by flood) seemedno novelty to our London friends. We hadbeen upstaged by events at the venerableMermaid. It seems a play was in progressbefore a benefit crowd on the night of thestorm, when a great wave suddenly washedover the footlights and swept actors andall into the audience. The theater had to beevacuated — surrounded by three feet ofwater. Ladies wading in long gowns andlittle fur capes. What would Sir WalterRaleigh have done about that?Bette Sotonoff How/and (ab'55) is workingtoward a doctorate in the Committee onSocial Thought. Her first book, W-3, waspublished last year (Viking) and wellreviewed. She is now at work on hersecond, Blue in Chicago, a collection ofessays which have appeared in Commentary and elsewhere.a guest engineer.margo Patricia jones, ab'71 , has beendoing graduate work at MIT this year on a1 975-'76 American Association of UniversityWomen fellowship to earn a professionaldegree in architecture.CHARLES V. LaFONTAINE, AM'71, is CO-author of Prophet of Reunion, the Life ofPaul of Graymoor (New York: SeaburyPress, 1975), a biography of Paul J. F.Wattson, founder of the Society of Atonement, in whose Graymoor EcumenicalInstitute LaFontaine and his collaborator,Father Charles Angell, are associated. "At atime when it seemed impossible [in the earlyyears of the 20th century]," the authorsstate, "he maintained both the validity ofAnglican orders and the primacy of thepope."H*} JEANETTE M. STANHAUS, AM'72,started her own public relationsbusiness last year in Evanston, II. The nameof the firm: J. M. Stanhaus PublicRelations/Editorial v. hillyer, pho'72, has beenpromoted to associate professor ofimmunology and parasitology at the University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras Campus. Heand his wife, josefina gomez hillyer,am'69, live in Rio Piedras.jane mahoney, am'72, was married lastyear to David S. Crider, a doctoral candidatein political science at UC. Jane is employedas a social worker at the Englewood MentalHealth Center, Chicago.thomas pillari, jd'72, a captain in the AirForce, has been named outstanding staffjudge advocate for the Strategic AirCommand. Pillari, assistant staff judgeadvocate at Andersen AFB, Guam, wasselected for his "leadership, devotion to dutyand professional performance."Living with Your Colitis and Hemorrhoidsand Related Disorders, the ninth book byTheodore berland, am'72 (written in collaboration with Drs. Leslie Sandlow and Richard Shapiro), has been published by St.Martin's Press, N.Y. ($7.95). Berland, ofChicago, is also the newly-elected presidentof the Society of Midland Authors.11 gretchen burr donart, ab'73,"^ was married to Jack Kevin Clark,September 6, 1975, in Staten Island, N.Y.The newlyweds are living in Brooklyn.rosy resch, ab'73, who, as a UC undergraduate, earned twelve varsity letters —four each in badminton, volleyball andSoftball — returned to the Midway last fall asinstructor in the Department of PhysicalEducation and assistant volleyball and soft-ball coach. As president of the UC Women'sAthletic Association in 1972 and 1973, Reschwas the driving force in moving the WAAfrom a loosely structured group involvedsomewhat with varsity and intramuralathletics, into a strong organization whosemajor purpose was to promote and furtherwomen's varsity athletics at Chicago. Recognizing the long history of UC women'sathletics, she initiated a WAA newsletter tokeep alumni informed of current developments in the program. With some of herfriends, she spent long hours poring overAlumni Association records compiling a listof past WAA members, an effort culminating in the recently formed WAAAlumni Board. While earning her master'sdegree at Smith College, Resch coached theSmith varsity softball team for two years andthe University of Massachusetts varsityvolleyball team for one memoriam: Not previously reported wasthe death in November, 1973, of David Glenn Meter, am'73, of Minneapolis.HA Andrew t. kopan, pItd'74, director of' "the division of educational foundationsin the school of education at DePaul University, Chicago, has won the ArchbishopIakovos prize for studies of the GreekOrthodox community in America. Theaward, which carries a monetary prize of$ 1 ,000 and is named in honor of the primateof the Greek Orthodox Church in America,is given by the center for neo-Hellenic studiesat the University of Texas. Kopan wasawarded the prize for his doctoral dissertation, "Education and Greek Immigrants inChicago, 1890-1970: A Study in EthnicSurvival," written at UC.nancy shonkwiler malitz, am'74, hasbecome music critic of the CincinnatiEnquirer. A doctoral candidate inmusicology at UC, she was a contributingmusic critic for the Chicago Sun-Times for ayear.beth lebowitz bronner, mba'74, hasjoined Planters/Curtiss Confectionery inChicago as assistant product manager forBaby Ruth, Butterfinger and Wayne Candyproducts.HC Sidney lehky, ab'75, reports he is' ^ currently working in the section onneural systems, laboratory of biophysics,national institute of neurological diseasesand stroke, National Institute of Health,located at the Marine Biological Laboratoryin Woods Hole, Ma.nicola m. spirtos, ab'75, is completing hisfirst year of medical school at NorthwesternUniversity.The University of Chicago Magazine. Volume LXVIIIAdams, Robert McC, Iraq: from sites to patterns. Winter, '75.Anastaplo, George, Lewis Carroll, C. L. Dodgson, and their Alices.Winter, '75.Bernstein named communicator of the year. Autumn, '75.Boand heads Association, succeeding Jackson. Spring, '76.Brent, Stuart, Starting to read. Winter, '75.Browder, Felix, Youthful enjoyment of rigorous thinking. Winter,'75.Burleigh, Robert, Homage to zero. Summer, '76.Crew: women add a sport to Maroon lineup. Summer, '76.Dormitories today. Spring, '76.Dragstedt, Walling are Alumni Medal winners. Autumn, '75.Eliade, Mircea, The occult and the modern world. Summer, '76.Feldstein, Charles, When the University was my new world. Winter,'75.Festival of the arts. Summer, '76.Fowling in the marshes. Spring, '76.Geroch, Robert, an interview with. Summer, '76.Gruen, Robert, Music and mathematics in Mitchell Tower. Autumn,'75.Hill, Melvin, 'The only thing that matters': Hannah Arendt.Summer, '76.Hospital at night. Summer, '76.Howland, Bette, A rainy night in London Town. Summer, '76.Jimmy's. Autumn, '75.Kazanis, James, The epic Psi-U-DU cage tilt of '60. Summer, '76.Lavine, Anne C, Origin of the Alma Mater. Winter, '75.Maclean, Norman, Exile on Grave Peak. Spring, '76. Madansky, Albert and Martin Shubik, The deli is the sannawitch.Spring, '76.Maddi, Salvatore, Courage, creativity and the enhancement of life.Spring, '76.Marty, Martin,/! world capital of theology. Autumn, '75.Miller, Tom, A crisis at the University! Summer, '76.Morrison, Karl, Erosion of history's base. Autumn, '75.Neugarten, Bernice, The young old. Autumn, '75.Olson, Elder , Directions for building a house of cards. Autumn, '75.Poirier, Marsha London, To Darwin. Spring, '76.Poliski, Iris, Deuterium and the universe. Summer, '76.Regenstein: a great library struggles to maintain its greatness.Autumn, '75.Sider, Don, The Midway and the Potomac. Summer, '76.Smullyan, Raymond, Simplicus and the tree. Autumn, '75.Sunlight and dark stars. Winter, '75.Trilobites: troubles and triumphs. Autumn, '75.Van Buitenen, J. A. B., The fish — a story from the Mahabharata.Winter, '75.Walling, Dragstedt are Alumni Medal winners. Autumn, '75.WHPK at 30. Spring, '76.Wick, Warner, Sour apples from the tree of knowledge. Spring, '76.Wilder, memories of, Joan W. Saltzstein and David Levine. Spring,'76.Wilson elected University's ninth president. Spring, '76.Wilson, John T., The maintenance of academic distinction.Summer, '76.Zonis, Marvin, Petroleum, politics in the Persian Gulf. Winter, '75.463bscnt thcc from ncccssito atohilc.ALUMNI COLLEGE 76TAKE TIME OUT FOR A WEEK --JULY 26-31-- TO CONSIDERTechnology and American LifeLAW POLITICS HEALTH SCIENCE LEISUREMUSIC ETHICS ART TRANSPORTATIONpresented bg the Center for Continuing Educationtoith the cooperation of the Alumni AssociationFACULTY:ROBERT L. ASHENHURST, Professor, Graduate Schoolof Business; Director, Institute for Computer ResearchEASLEY BLACKWOOD, Professor, Department of MusicPASTORA CAFFERTY, Assistant Professor, School ofSocial Service AdministrationJOHN G. CAWELTI, Professor, Department of EnglishSAMUEL H. DAY, JR., Editor, Bulletin of the AtomicScientistsJ. DAVID GREENSTONE, Professor, Department ofPolitical ScienceHARRY HAROOTUNIAN, Max Palevsky Professor ofHistory and CivilizationsYour mornings will be devoted to a non-credit program oflectures and discussions at the Center. Afternoons you will befree to pursue your own interests— on campus or in the city —or you can join other participants in a variety of activities,such as a creative arts workshop,an architectural tour of Chicago,or a tour of the campus. Eveningsyou will have the opportunity tomeet informally with Universitypersonages, attend the UniversityTheatre or a concert at Ravinia. Information regarding theafternoon and evening activities will be provided separately.The University's athletic facilities will be available to theparticipants. STANLEY N. KATZ, Professor, Law SchoolARNOLD W. RAVIN, Professor, Departments of Biologyand MicrobiologyRICHARD A. SHIFF, Assistant Professor, Department ofArtReservation FormAlumni College '76Enrollment is open to University of Chicago alumni/alumnae andtheir spouses. Space is limited.? Please send more information? Here is my reservation for Alumni College '76Students residing in the Center: $210. Includes tuition, readingmaterials, room (double occupancy), six continental breakfasts, sixlunches, two dinners and a reception. For single occupancy add $42.Day students: $150. Includes tuition, reading materials, six lunches,two dinners and a reception.Optional activities, such as tours, concerts, theater performances,etc. are being planned. Further information will be included in yourconfirmation.Fees are payable by July 1.NAME(S) „CLASS(ES)_ADDRESSMail to: Alumni College, Center for Continuing Education,University of Chicago, 1307 E. 60th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637Or phone Gail Pine or Claude Weil, (312) 288-2500.Rick Wohlhuter flying(see page 6)ml pUN I VERS i Y OF CHICAGOSERIAL RECORD OEPTLIBRARY1116 EAST 5 9 T H STRFFTCHICAGO lL 6 063 7