9gq^-TV np rm164tfa* m *•">¦¦&iVPHWjm^**-^WINTER 1975 \ '••}*f§ ^* *^6*637•: IT9* ^J^nkI** «vTHEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEThe University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312)753-2175Julian J. Jackson, PhB'31, PresidentArthur Nayer, Director, Alumni AffairsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorKristen Nelson, Program DirectorRegional Offices1888 Century Pk. East, Suite 222Los Angeles, Ca. 90067(213) 277-7727825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030New York, New York 10022(212)935-19771000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415)928-0337735 Fairfax StreetAlexandria, Va. 22314(703) 549-3800Volume LXVIIIWinter, 1975 Number 2The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published for alumniand the faculty of the University ofChicago, under the auspices of the Officeof the Vice President for Public Affairs.Letters and editorial contributions arewelcomed. Sunlight and dark starsThe Fish — a story from the MahabharataManu, Ut-Napishtim, and NoahJ. A. B. van BuitenenThe mighty task of the translation itself 101113Petroleum and politics in the Persian GulfMarvin Zonis 14From sites to patternsRobert McC. Adams 19Youthful enjoyment of rigorous thinkingFelix E. Browder 21Lewis Carroll, C. L. Dodgson, and their AlicesGeorge Anastaplo 26Starting to readStuart Brent 37When the University was my new worldCharles R. Feldstein 39The origin of the Alma MaterAnne C. Lavine 473 Quadrangle news 33 Alumni news 46 LettersDon Morris, ab'36EditorJennie LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois, and at additional mailing offices.Copyright 1975, The University ofChicago. Published quarterly, Spring,Summer, Fall and Winter. cover: Trees are uprooted and fish are tossed into the air as the raging waters rise (andthe stronger fish swallows the weaker one) in this detail from a dramatic paintingrepresentative of the Mewari school of Rajasthan. This painting and the one on Page10, both dating to 1648, are from a manuscript at the Bhandarkar Institute at Poona,and were loaned to the magazine by Pramod Chandra, professor in the Departments ofArt and South Asian Languages and Civilizations, and in the College. The paintingsspeak of the Flood as recorded in the Sanskrit epic, the Mahabharata. The Flood story,with a discussion of it, taken from the second volume of J. A. B. van Buitenen 's newtranslation, begins on Page 10.picture credits: Pages 1, 10, courtesy Pramod Chandra; Pages 3, 4 (left), ArthurShay; Page 4 (right), Edward Koizumi; Pages 5, 7, 9, courtesy Joseph Tapscott, YerkesObservatory; Page 8, Argonne National Laboratory; Page 13, Nancy Hayes; Page 16,from The Changing Balance of Power in the Persian Gulf, courtesy American Universities Field Staff; Pages 21, 22, 24, Mike Shields; Pages 26-32, John Tenniel.Quadrangle ^(ews [;¦HUBBl1 IllfraP--Hlltti"'111 ^syTalking with students in the course of a visit to the quadrangles isLord Michael Ramsey, former archbishop of Canterbury andprimate of all England, and now baron of Canterbury. It was his first visit to the University in half a century; fifty years earlier, to theweek, he had come to the Chicago campus as a member of the Cambridge University debating team.Crown gift puts fieldhouse renovation on trackMuch of the Campaign for Chicago, Phase2, which so deeply preoccupies the University's trustees, administration, alumni andfriends these days, does not deeply affect theconsciousness of the student body, thoughultimately much of it will be of the greatestimportance to students. One event in thecampaign, however, which will affect campus life directly and immediately had thestudents cheering this fall. That event was theannouncement of two big gifts which willpermit the renovation of the fieldhouse tobegin.A pledge of a major gift came from theCrown family, already established in philanthropy in Chicago by such creations as theArie Crown theater at McCormick Place, theArie Crown Forest, and the Ida CrownJewish Academy.Colonel Henry Crown began his businesscareer as a shipping clerk for a sand andgravel company. His father, Arie Crown,had come to Chicago from St. Louis in 1875.In 1919 four Crown brothers, Sol R.,Henry, Herman and Irving, organizedMaterial Service Corporation with a $10,000investment. Henry became president uponthe death of his brother Sol in 1921. Thecompany grew to be the largest buildingsupplies operation in the world; in 1959 itmerged with General Dynamics.The gift toward the fieldhouse renovation is far from the first relationship betweenCrown family members and the University.Colonel Crown is a trustee of the University's Cancer Research Foundation. Hisnephew, Barry S. Crown, is a vice-presidentof the associate board of the same foundation. Colonel Crown's son, Lester, is amember of the University's visitingcommittee to the Department of Far EasternStudies.oThis rendering shows the doubledeckingwhich will effectively double the useful spaceof the fieldhouse, which has been the sceneof sports events since 1931. A second gift— of $ 1 ,000,000— toward theproject of doubledecking the fieldhouse (aproject with which readers of this publicationalready are familiar) came from a member ofthe University's board of trustees.In the first phase of the renovation, thesecond floor will be built fourteen feet abovethe present clay floor. On the new floor willbe a new Tartan track, a new varsity basketball court, and three recreational basketball courts. The basketball courts will beconvertible to tennis courts. Under newgrandstands to be built on two sides of thestructure there will be seven new squash andhandball courts, and in this phase of therenovation, new washroom facilities andsome necessary mechanical equipment alsowill be provided.Eventually the total renovation andendowment for this part of the sports complex will cost more than $5,000,000.A committee of some forty formerMaroon athletes has been hard at work in theeffort to fund the enlargement and modernization of the Midway athletic plant. Thecommittee is headed by Jay Berwanger(ab'36), and among others active in the effortare Bill Haarlow (x'36), director of the Campaign for Athletic Components, and MorrisRossin (ab'38), assistant regional director forselect gifts.Doubling the capacity of the overcrowded3King Olav V of Norway (second from left) visited the University thisfall and helped mark the establishment of the Andrew E. and G.Norman Wigeland professorship in Norwegian studies. Earlier thisyear G. Norman Wigeland (phB'20) gave the university $300,000 tocomplete funding of the chair, named for him and his late brother,who was also an alumnus. With Mr. Wigeland (left) and King Olavat a luncheon establishing the chair are Gaylord Donnelley, chairman of the University's board of trustees, and Acting PresidentJohn T. Wilson. Mr. Wigeland's gift was the culmination of atwenty-year effort by the Society for the Preservation of NorwegianCulture. King Olav 's visit commemorated 150 years of Norwegianimmigration into the U.S. Another royal visitor to the University this fall was Empress Nagakoof Japan, who visited the Sylvain and Arma Wyler Children's Hospital. The empress had asked to visit an area where staff memberswork with young children, and she observed a session in which agroup of presurgical patients participated in play therapy as a meansof becoming accustomed to the idea of their own future surgery. Atthe extreme left in the picture is A ndrea Friede, director of playroomactivities at the hospital. Immediately at left of the empress is Mrs.Daniel Walker, wife of Illinois' governor, who was a member of theofficial party for the Japanese imperial couple's visit. At right is Dr.Samuel Spector, professor and chairman of the Department ofPediatrics.fieldhouse is the big first step, and it is in theprocess of being taken.If winter comes...December marks the beginning of the end ofa busy autumn quarter. It also represents thegoal line drive to match the Andersons'Challenge gift.The quarter glittered in many ways:It saw visits to the Midway by the empressof Japan, the king of Norway, and the archbishop emeritus of Canterbury.The University's undergraduate enrolmentrose to 2,400— a 15% increase since 1972.The entering class of 658 represents in itself a10% increase over last year.The cornerstone was laid for the$4,200,000 Marjorie V. Kovler ViralOncology Laboratories, expected to becompleted in 1977.The Surgery-Brain Research Pavilionemerged from the status of an excavation tothat of a visible structure. It is scheduled forcompletion in the spring of 1977.Bruce Carroll, a senior from Custer, SouthDakota, was chosen to be the eighth studentombudsman, holding a position which, whenestablished by Edward H. Levi, was the firstof its kind on any U.S. campus. The Adlai E. Stevenson Center wasestablished; it is the successor to theAdlai Stevenson Institute for InternationalAffairs. Chairman of the center's advisorycouncil is James Hoge (am'61), editor of theChicago Sun-Times. The operation isattached to the University's Center for International Studies, headed by Chauncy D.Harris (pfiD'40), the Samuel N. Harper distinguished service professor of geographyand vice-president of the University foracademic resources.The University library received fromSwami Gangeshwaranandji, 95-year-oldIndian scholar, blind since childhood, hisSanskrit publication, Bhagwan-Veda, a compilation of the earliest Hindu sacred texts. A1,000-page volume (15"x20" pages), thework combines the four Vedas in a singlepublication.The swami was welcomed — in Sanskrit —by Professor J. A. B. van Buitenen (whosecontribution to this issue of the magazinebegins on Page 10).A collection of fifty magnificent gold,alabaster, an jeweled treasures from thetomb of King Tutankhamen will be shown insix American cities next year in accordancewith an agreement signed in Washington inOctober by Secretary of State HenryKissinger and Egypt's foreign minister,Ismail Fahmy. The appearance in Chicago will be jointly sponsored by the Universityand the Field Museum, both of which possessvalued Egyptian collections of their own.The exhibition is expected to be on displayat the Field Museum for approximately fourweeks, beginning, probably, in April, 1976.The Enrico Fermi Institute celebrated itsthirtieth anniversary with a homecoming teaattended by many of the scientists whosework was done in — or commemorated by —this building complex.A taped presentation of an operatic duetfrom Donizetti's hand written score of AnnaBolena was given on the quadrangles. Thepiece of lost music had been unearthed inMilan by Philip Gossett, associate professorin the Department of Music and the College.Two University legal scholars predictedthis fall that a fundamental change is aboutto take place in the law governing the $400billion trust investment industry. A "buy andhold" investment strategy is so superior formost trust and pension funds, said John H.Langbein and Richard A. Posner, bothprofessors in the Law School, that it seemslikely the courts will force administrators toadopt the method as more "prudent" thanthe widely practiced "beat the market"technique, which, less prudently, incursconsiderable market analysis andcommission costs.4Seventy-five years for journal"The 'whoopee' era in American schools andsocial life is rapidly drawing to a close. Theperiod of educational license, of flamingyouth and rabid individualism, is being terminated with a vengeance by the Americanmasses. They have tasted the fruits of thisphilosophy and have found them intolerablyunpalatable." So, prophetically or not,wrote Frederick S. Breed in the ElementarySchool Journal 'in 1938. His essay — and anumber of others — are reprinted in aseventy-fifth anniversary special issue published this fall.Seventy-five is a venerable age, but theJournal is not the oldest of the learned periodicals published by the University ofChicago Press. The oldest: Hebraica, firstpublished in 1892 and now the Journal ofNear Eastern Studies; the Journal ofPolitical Economy, also 1892; and theJournal of Geology (1893).Order of C to honor StampfA ceremony honoring Joseph M. Stampf(ab'41), associate professor of physicaleducation and basketball coach on theMidway since the late Nels Norgren retired in1957, will be held at half time of the Chicago-Illinois Tech game January 31 . The Order ofthe C is arranging the event, whose otheraspects, including a reception, were still inthe planning stage as this publication went topress.The tall, serious, bespectacled Stampf,playing on a winless team, won the Big Tenscoring championship in '40- '41 With 165points and set a conference record with 82free throws (averaging .689), as thispublication reported at the time.The scoreboardThe University's varsity cross country teamproduced the best competitive record in thefall quarter (up to this publication's deadline), with six wins and five losses for a .545record. Otherwise it was a rather dismal timefor the rooters. The volleyball team (female)was 4-13 for a .235, and the soccer team(male) was 1-12 for an .077. The field hockeyteam failed to win a match, but did tie two,while losing four. The football team, withtwo games to play, was again winless, thoughthere was some hope that the eleven mightpull out one of those games — against Lorasand Marquette.Psychiatry up to dateBeginning January 14, the final five of asix-lecture series by outstanding psychoanalysts will be presented by University Extension, in cooperation with the ChicagoInstitute for Psychoanalysis. (The openinglecture was given in November.)The January 14 lecture will be by Dr. JohnP. Spiegel of Brandeis University, who willdiscuss aggression. Succeeding lecturers will be Rudolf Eckstein, director of the childhood psychosis project at the Reiss-DavisChild Study Center, Los Angeles (February25); Dr. Therese Benedek, Chicago Institutefor Psychoanalysis (March 3); Dr. Roy R.Grinker, Sr., Institute for Psychosomaticand Psychiatric Research, Michael ReeseHospital (April 7); and Bruno Bettelheim,the Stella M. Rowley distinguished serviceprofessor emeritus at the University ofChicago (May 5).Each lecture is $5. Interested alumnishould address University of Chicago Extension, 1307 E. 60th St., Chicago, II. 60637.KudosSelected Papers of Robert S. Mulliken, an1 , 125-page compilation of the writings ofMr. Mulliken (phD'21), the Ernest DeWittBurton distinguished service professor in theDepartments of Physics and Chemistry, hasbeen published by the University of ChicagoPress.Dr. Gebhard F. B. Schumacher, professorin the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, was elected a member of the International Coordination Committee forImmunology of Reproduction at the committee's meeting this fall in Varna, Bulgaria.Philip B. Kurland, the William R. Kenan,Jr. , professor in the College and professor inthe Law School, has been named the Noraand Edward Ryerson lecturer for the currentacademic year.>x?r '*¦ ~ZM>i """' ¦ "- ^**nsx / Bernice L. Neugarten (ab'36, am'37,phrj'43), professor in the Department ofBehavioral Sciences and the College, hasbeen accorded an award for her contributions to the education of psychologistsby the American Psychological Association.The APA also presented its award for contributions to community psychology to JohnC. Glidewell (am'49, phD'53), professor inthe Departments of Education andBehavioral Sciences (Social Psychology).Paul B. Moore (sm'63, pIid'65), professorof geophysical sciences and professor in theCollege, has received the Senior U.S.Scientists award from the Alexander vonHumboldt Foundation in West Germany. Hewill carry on mineralogical research atGottingen for six months beginning nextMarch.Karl F. Freed, associate professor in theDepartment of Chemistry and the JamesFranck Institute, has been awarded theAmerican Chemical Society's Award in PureChemistry, an honor presented to anAmerican chemist under 36. The award issponsored by Alpha Chi Sigma, nationalhonorary society.Edward Shils (x'37), distinguished serviceprofessor in the Committee on SocialThought and in the Department of Sociology, has accepted the Cleveringa chairat the University of Leiden, where he will beuntil next March. The chair was created byQueen Juliana to honor "persons of worldrenown."A maze of scaffolding protects the 40-inch telescope at Yerkes Observatory, shown here in itshorizontal position, as the great dome is rebuilt and reskinned. The redoming, a task whoseurgency was chronicled in these pages a year ago, is now complete.5The ideal collector and the heat trapSUNLIGHT AND DARK STARSA seminal idea works around the clock to broadenastronomical knowledge and augment the energy supplyThe "ideal collector" invented by Roland Winston (andreported in these pages in the spring of 1974) appears torepresent an idea whose time has come. Mr. Winston (sb'56,sm'57, phD'63) is associate professor in the Department ofPhysics, the Enrico Fermi Institute and the College.Two ideas are represented, actually, for Mr. Winston's collector combines (1) the notion that it is possible to concentrateradiation without the necessity of forming an image and (2)the development of a structure (two parabolas) which accomplishes this concentration to the maximum degree theoretically possible. (This is why the collector is referred to as"ideal." Actually it has more recently come to be known asthe CPC [compound parabolic collector], which is a littlemore graphic.)The Winston collector these days is working literallynight and day. Daytimes it is being developed as a device forcollecting solar energy, and it appears to be one of the mostpromising devices among the many which are under study inthe national effort to adapt sunshine to the world's energyneeds.Nighttimes the Winston collector is studying the stars.The field of astronomy is in the midst of what is oftencalled its "golden age." A major reason for this is that thesky, which for thousands of years has been studied as a vastarray of visual objects, is now yielding to probing all alongthe electromagnetic scale. The skies are being "x-rayed" andtheir ultraviolet emissions are being examined. Radio astronomy has discovered hitherto unguessed-at phenomena. Andyet another area — the infrared — is likewise producingdramatic new findings.It is in this portion of the spectrum, between visible lightand radio emissions — and particularly in the longest portionof the infrared spectrum— that the Winston collector is beingput to work. Infrared studies already have revealed to astronomers a sky radically different from the one which canbe seen with the eyes — or with the most powerful conventional telescopes.Infrared astronomy is in its first decade, and it has alreadyproved itself a valuable tool for studying phenomena whichhave been impervious to research in visual light. In examiningits different sky, infrared astronomy has determined that themany blank areas in the heavens are not blank at all.Something like 70% of the 5,000 or so brightest visible starsdon't show up in the infrared, but, conversely, about 70% ofthe 5,000-6,000 celestial objects which "shine" most brightlyin the infrared cannot be seen at all with the unaided eye.Among the problems to whose solution infrared astronomyis contributing — and can be expected to contribute more — arethose involving the structure and composition of our owngalaxy, and those involving the birth and death of stars.Visual examination of the central portion of our galaxy hasbeen well nigh impossible because all but about one ten-billionth of the starlight is cut off by interstellar dust. Infrared radiation is a billion times more successful than light inpassing through this dust. It appears certain, for example,that the very hub of our galaxy is a strong invisible source ofinfrared radiation.Since the objects which appear only in the infrared are, ingeneral, much cooler than those which are visible,astronomers believe it likely that studies in the infrared mayreveal much about the formation of stars— assuming that, asprotostars congeal out of interstellar dust, their initial temperatures may not be much higher than the boiling point ofwater, or even lower than that.In addition to these problem areas, others in which observations in the infrared may be expected to yield importantnew information include (1) the puzzling quasi-stellar objects(QSOs), many of which radiate primarily in the infrared; (2)the source or sources of interstellar "synchrotron radiation";6and (3) a number of whole galaxies which emit their strongestradiation in the infrared wave lengths.The infrared studies with the Winston collector involveprimarily the work of four men, who, though they seldom gettogether, have managed to collaborate closely. In addition toMr. Winston, the group consists of Doyal A. Harper, Jr.,assistant professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University's Yerkes Observatory, at Williams Bay, Wisconsin;Roger H. Hildebrand, professor in the Department ofPhysics and the Enrico Fermi Institute; and Rae Stiening, ofthe Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, at Batavia,Illinois. Since Mr. Winston spends a lot of time at ArgonneNational Laboratory, where much of the engineering work isgoing on in connection with the light concentrating propensity of his collector, and since Messrs. Harper andStiening are located respectively eighty and forty miles fromthe Midway, Mr. Hildebrand has served informally as thegroup's coordinator.The existence of an ideal collector of radiation, which by itsdesign makes possible a signal-to-noise ratio four times aslarge as attainable with conventional field optics, was only thebeginning. For the purpose of infrared astronomy it wasnecessary to make the collector part of a "heat trap" whichwould further enhance the incoming infrared flux and convertit into a usable signal. The other constituents of the heat trap:a bolometer set in a reflecting cavity which could be placed atthe point where the collector brings together the incomingradiation. The liquid helium-cooled bolometer's purpose: todetect and record the radiation. The shape of the cavity andthe placing of the bolometer within it enhance the signal bypermitting most of the radiation which misses the bolometeron the first pass to bounce back and strike it on the rebound.The bolometer measures extremely slight variations in temperature and reflects them in relatively huge variations incurrent.But constructing a heat trap which would work proved tobe a long and arduous task. The elements had to be matchedto each other with a high degree of precision, and the matchof the trap to the telescope (several telescopes, as it turnedout) likewise had to be exact. After trials lasting manymonths, the heat trap was put into service earlier this year,though of course work on further refinements continues.To make use of this apparatus the standard technique ofmaking the secondary mirror of the telescope wobble wasused. With this wobble, rays from the source being studiedalternate with the general celestial background "noise." Thisalternation (at about twenty times per second) produces electrical signals corresponding to the difference in radiation between the object and the background— signals which can thenbe plotted and analyzed.Once all the equipment was developed and ready to go, itwas still necessary to locate it where it could measure incoming radiation. What made this difficult was that infraredradiation, while it is a good penetrator of interstellar dust, isblocked, except for "windows" at a few specific wavelengths, by the water vapor which makes up a goodly part ofthe earth's atmosphere. To solve this problem, the scientists Messrs. Harper, Stiening, Hildebrand, and Winston in a rareget-together, on the steps of Yerkes Observatory.have used telescopes at both Palomar Mountain, in California, and at Mount Lemmon, in Arizona, and plans areafoot to take the heat trap to Mauna Kea, where, at 13,000feet, it will be above most of the atmospheric moisture.To rise above even more of this water vapor, the equipmenthas also been operated aboard NASA's two astronomicalresearch planes, which take it as high as 45,000 feet, though,of course, the airborne telescopes are smaller. Both groundand air work have their own special advantages and disadvantages.The compound parabolas, when used with a telescope aspart of a heat trap, constitute a device which is round at bothends, and approximately conical. The CPC takes anotherform in the solar collector, in which it is the transverse profileof one or more troughs. The characteristic double parabola,in other words, has an axis of symmetry when used in collecting stellar radiation, but a plane of symmetry when it formsthe ends of the sunlight collector.The day and night duality in form has its counterpart in thediffering ways in which the CPC is put to work:In astronomy the scientists decide how to proceed, createtheir apparatus, and the show is on the road.When it comes to solar energy, however, the actualizationprocess becomes immensely more complicated. The peoplepotentially involved are not hundreds or thousands, buthundreds of millions. Engineering enters the field. So domaterials fabrication techniques, economics, social objectives, and ultimately, it seems probable, politics.Instead of talking in terms of a few thousand dollars, thecontext is many billions.This is the second process which has begun for RolandWinston's solar collector since its mention in these pages lastyear.Conversion of a basically simple (even though long overlooked) concept into a practical (i.e., mass producible)method of alleviating the problems caused by shrinking7Mr. Winston examines a test version of his CPC at ArgonneNational Lab.supplies of fossil fuels and related international developmentshas begun. It will, however, still be years (five? ten?) beforethe results begin to affect appreciable numbers of people.The solar collector is in the stage of feasibility studies inhome heating, air conditioning, industry, agriculture, powergeneration. The development effort is being handled by Argonne National Laboratory for which the University is theprime contractor with the Energy Research and DevelopmentAdministration (formerly AEC). The work is being doneunder contract by large companies such as ChamberlainManufacturing and American Science and Engineering Corporation, and by such specialized analysts as Arthur D. Little,Inc., Mobil-Tyco, Spectrolab, Bechtel Corporation, as well asby Argonne itself and by the National Science Foundation.They are engaged in research of their own as well as in theexamination of other solar attempts, past and present. (TheSoviet Union, it turns out, is also involved in work on a compound parabolic collector.)These organizations, in turn, have farmed out parts of theproblems — fabrication, engineering studies, cost calculations,and alternative design possibilities — to others. It is a seemingly cumbersome process, but the stakes are so great that thiskind of quasi-task force approach is necessary to avoidmistakes and waste.Thus far the CPC, as the basic core of the effort, looksgood.Its ability to concentrate by as much as ten times theamount of solar energy falling on a given area makes it a goodprospect for heat uses like home heating and cooling, requiring temperatures of 200°F and higher. (Flat plate collectorsoperate with marginal efficiency — or not at all — at such tem peratures.The CPC's non-imaging characteristic means that it can usethe sunlight which is present even on a hazy day — somethingwhich focusing collectors cannot. (On a cloudy day, obviously, any heat output dwindles greatly.) And this nonimaging quality also means that collection of the sunlight isaccomplished without forming hot spots, which are a difficultproblem for focusing collectors.The special trough shape of the CPC means that it is not required to track the sun across the sky during the day (thoughit may have to follow it, in a less complex way, from solsticeto equinox). This obviation of tracking means that its prospective cost will be considerably smaller than devices whichmust incorporate a relatively elaborate tracking mechanism.At present exhaustive testing is under way directed towardanswering such questions as:What is the best shape for the receiving device located inthe slit at the bottom of the trough? What is the bestmaterial?How much insulation is needed to avoid heat loss, and howmuch can be used without making the collector inordinatelyexpensive?Are there other members of the CPC family of nonimaging forms which would retain the heating propensities ofthe CPC but have engineering or design advantages?How can the CPC be fabricated in such a way as to beadaptable to mass production?Can the CPC be used efficiently to provide heat for aRankine engine (basically a turbine)?If a focusing collector were placed just above or just belowthe CPC, would this produce a further concentration greatenough to open up new areas of energy production?How perfect a mirror surface inside the trough is necessary? (Sometimes perfection becomes expensive.)Can photovoltaic devices be brought down in cost to makethe CPC a practical generator of electricity?At what level of cost will the steadily advancing prices ofHEAT TRAP SOLAR COLLECTORBOLOMETER 10 TIMES CONCENTRATOR8Superimposed here over the photographic image of the M-17nebula, 6,000 light years away in the constellation Scutum,are the infrared contours of the same nebula in the 100-micron band. Besides being larger than the visual image, theinfrared outline exhibits "hot spots" at great distances from the visible nebula. The strongest infrared contour is close tothe visible nebula but in an area which is completely black inthe photograph. The small circle at lower right indicates thediameter of the infrared beam. The over-all infrared luminosity recorded for M-17 is 5, 000, 000 times as great as the sun.fossil fuels make the CPC competitive?As the army of business and government researchers pickoff these questions, and others, it may well turn out that a setof equations, arrived at in the office of a physicist on theMidway, have provided a crucial element in the solution of one of the most troublesome problems of our time.And among those rooting for a successful outcome will bethe often frustrated anti-pollution forces, for whom, amongothers, the advent of solar energy will be a consummationdevoutly to be wished.9Manu and four seers occupy boat being pulled by the fish through the raging flood waters. Three other seers, seemingly, hoverabove the water at right. Note that the rope by which the boat is being pulled actually appears to be a snake. (For furtherinformation on the picture, see cover note on Page 2.)THE FISHThe Flood story as recorded in the new van Buitenen translationof that vast and complex Sanskrit epic, the MahabharataVaisampayana said:Thereupon the Pandava again said to Markandeya,"Relate to me the deeds of Manu Vaivasvata."Markandeya said:There was a son of Vivasvat, king, tiger among men, agreat seer of high puissance, who had the radiance of Praja-pati. In augustness, splendor, fortune, and especiallyausterity this Manu surpassed his own father and grandfather. This lord of men practiced severe and greatself-mortification at the jujube tree Visala, while he stood onone foot with his arms raised. With bent head and eyes unblinking, he performed awesome austerities for ten thousandyears.Once when he was thus engaged, wearing a wet bark shirtand matted hair, a fish came swimming to the bank of theRiver Virini, and spoke to him: "My lord, I am but a tiny fishand I am afraid of the big fish. Pray, sage of great vows, saveme from the fish. For the stronger fish always eat the weakerones, as our immemorial way has been ordained to be. Therefore, please save me from the tide of fear in which I am drowning. If you do so, I shall return the deed."On hearing the words of the fish Manu Vaivasvata wasfilled with compassion and took the fish in his hand. He tookit away from the river and threw the fish, which glistened likemoon beams, into a small water jar. There the fish, which wasvery well cared for, grew up, O king, and Manu loved it as ason.After a great while the fish grew so big that it no longerfitted in the water jar. When the fish saw Manu, it againspoke up: "Sir, please take me now to another place!" Theblessed hermit Manu pulled it from the jar, brought it to alarge pond, and threw it in, O victor of enemy cities.And the fish kept growing for many years; that pond hadthe length of two leagues and the girth of one, and when thefish no longer fitted in the pond, lotus-eyes lord of the people,and could not move, it said to Manu, "Please, sir, take me tothe Ganges, the chief queen of the rivers, and I shall livethere, father, if you think so too."At its words, Manu, who was a powerful man, took the fishto the River Ganges and, undaunted, threw it in himself.10There for a while the fish kept growing, enemy-tamer, andwhen it saw Manu, it said again, "I cannot move any more inthe Ganges because of my size, sir. Bring me quickly to theocean, take pity on me, my lord!" Manu pulled the fish outof the water of the Ganges, took it to the ocean, and set it freethere, Partha. Although the fish was huge, to Manu's mind itwas easy to carry and pleasant to touch and smell.When the fish had been thrown into the ocean by Manu, itsaid to him with a seeming smile, "My lord, you have givenme every protection. Now listen to what you should do whenthe time comes. Soon, my lord, everything on earth, standingor moving, will be destroyed, for the time is near for thecleansing of the world. Therefore learn now what shall be ofthe greatest profit to you. The horrors of doomsday are athand for all that moves and stands and stirs or does not stir.You must have an ark built, a sturdy one, with a cable tied toit. You will embark on it with the seven seers, great hermit.All the seeds of creatures I have enumerated before youshould place in the ark and then wait for me, O favorite of thehermits. I shall come and you shall know me by my horn,ascetic. Thus should you act; farewell. I shall go. Do notdoubt my words too much, my lord!" "I shall do so," hereplied to the fish, and after taking leave of each other, bothwent their way.Thereupon, great king, Manu, as he had been told by thefish, collected all the seeds, and floated in that beautiful shipon the billowing ocean, enemy-taming hero. And Manuthought of the fish, king, and knowing his thought the fishcame, victor of enemy cities, wearing a horn; and it soonarrived, bull of the Bharatas. When Manu saw that fish in theocean, Indra of kings, wearing a horn in the way it had said,and tall as a mountain, he made a loop in the cable and madefast to the horn on the fish's head. Held fast by the loop thefish began to pull the ark with great speed into the ocean,victor of enemy cities. It crossed the ocean with the ark,which danced in its billows and roared with its water, O king.J. A. B. van BuitenenThe earliest occurrence of the Indian version of the legend ofthe Flood is found in Satapatha Brahmana. It reads there:"In the morning they brought Manu water to wash up, just asnowadays they bring water for washing the hands."While he was washing thoroughly, a fish fell into hishands. It said to him: 'If you support me, I shall save you.'" 'From what will you save me?'" 'A Flood shall wash away all these creatures. I shall saveyou from that.'" 'How am I to support you?'"It said, 'As long as we are little, there is much that can The ship, battered by hurricanes, staggered on the ocean likea drunken whore, conqueror of enemy cities. There was nomore earth to be made out, no points of space at all, everything was covered with water, space, and firmament, bullamong men.While all the world was overcome by this turbulence, bullof the Bharatas, only the seven seers, Manu, and the fishcould be seen. And for many a year that fish pulled the arkuntiringly, O king, on the expanse of the water. Then the fishpulled the ark to the highest peak of the Himalaya, bullamong men, joy of the Kurus. And, gently laughing, it said tothe seers, "Moor the ship quickly to this Himalaya peak."And upon hearing the words of the fish they quickly mooredthe ship to the peak of the Himalaya. Know, Kaunteya, bullof the Bharatas, that till this very day the highest peak of theHimalaya is still called "the Mooring."The unblinking creature said to the assembled seers, "I amBrahma, the Lord of the Creatures. Nothing is found that issuperior to me. In the form of a fish I have set you free fromdanger. Manu is now to create all the creatures, Gods,Asuras, and men, all the worlds, whatever stirs and does notstir. By virtue of his very severe self-mortifications themanner shall be manifest to him and by my grace he shallmake no mistake in creating the creatures."Having spoken these words, the fish instantly vanished;and Manu Vaivasvata became desirous himself to bring forththe creatures. He was unsure about the manner of creatingand performed many austerities; then, aided by his greatasceticism, Manu himself proceeded to create all the creaturesrightly, bull of the Bharatas.Thus have I narrated to you the Lore that is famous as thePurana of the Fish, which cleanses all evil. He who dailylistens to the deeds of Manu from the beginning will be happyand successful in all his designs, and go to the world ofheaven.destroy us. Fish eats fish. You should keep me at first in alittle jar. When I grow out of it, you should dig a hole andkeep me in there. When I grow out of that, you should takeme to the ocean. Then I shall be past destruction.'"Eventually it became a sea monster, for that grows thelargest." 'In such and such year the Flood will come. Build a shipand wait for me. When that flood has risen, embark on thatship, then I shall rescue you.'"Having kept it in this fashion, he took it to the ocean. Inthe year it had predicted, he built the ship and waited. WhenManu, Ut-Napishtim, and Noah<£> The repetitive and redemptive legend of the Floodnthe flood rose, he embarked. The fish came swimming up,and he tied a noose from the ship to its horn. By means of thishe coursed quickly to the Northern Mountain."It said, 'I have saved you. Moor the ship at a tree. Thewater must not cut you off while on the mountain. As thewater recedes you may make your way down.' By and by hemade his way down. Hence that side of the Northern Mountain is 'Manu's Descent.' That flood washed away allcreatures."In a desire for offspring he practiced worship andausterity." Manu subsequently offers up a sacrifice, andfrom it a woman is born and creation begins anew.In the treatments of the theme of the Flood it is alwaystacitly assumed that the Mesopotamian accounts are thesource not only of the biblical legend but also of the Indianone. The reason is probably the immense antiquity we unconsciously attribute to the ancient Near East. But in fact theseaccounts are not really all that old. The Flood episode of theGilgamesh epic, in Assyrian cuneiform, dates from theseventh century b.c. Other Mesopotamian versions areyounger. Of the two versions that are fused in the Genesisaccount, the Yahweh version and the Priestly one, the formerdates from the eighth century, the latter from the sixth.The date of TheSatapatha Brdhmana as a whole must antedate the sixth century, and there is of course no telling the realage of its component stories. There is, indeed, archeologicalevidence for recurrent heavy floods in Mesopotamia between4000 and 2800 b.c. and many see in those floods the occasionof the Flood legend. But there is also mounting evidence thatheavy flooding contributed to the downfall of the IndusValley civilization, so that, by the same token, there is atleast the possibility open that the legend originated in India.The matter cannot be decided definitely, and for the timebeing we should keep Manu in the distinguished company ofUt-Napishtim and Noah.In the end it does not gravely matter what company Manukept transculturally but what he left to his own culture. Compared with the Mesopotamian versions the Indian emphasishas not been on the man that survived the Flood, but on theagency that was indispensable for his survival. God in Indiawas placed in the water that threatened the continuity ofmankind. There are no birds that scout the earth for man,there is the fish that simply takes him home.While many cultures have the end of the world as either afire or a flood, or both, India has both, and as standardpractice: worlds go continually through a redeath and rebirth.The man, Manu, was not important himself, as both Ut-Napishtim and Noah are: he is the flotsam of cosmic continuity. The continuity itself was vested elsewhere.With its ritual sequel The Satapatha Brdhmana illustrateswhere this continuity was anchored: in the ritual, viz., the Idaoffering, personified as Manu's Daughter; this continuitycould easily have been generalized as the brahman, the trinityof rite, spell, and person, that was more and more seen as aGod Brahma, the ever-active creator; The Mahabharataaccount of the Fish has no trouble whatever to call it Brahma,and this Brahma has no hesitation whatever to let Manu do Jacket art of the first volume of the translation.his creating by means of ritual acts.But brahman as Brahma has lost some of his creativity. In astriking parallel with the Gilgamesh account, The Mahabharata version has Manu take "the seeds of all creatures."Could it be that those seeds were never lost, that they ger-minally survived in the being that has always led man fromcosmos to cosmos?Here the eschatology that Markandeya narrates comes intofocus. After the ultimate conflagration, the Fire of Doomsday, the Ekpyrosis, which Markandeya like another Manusurvives, the rains and floods come and render earth one vastocean, and desolately he roams the vast desolation — a Manuwithout the need for an ark, but in search of his fish. He findsit in form of a child sitting in a banyan tree — a tree to whichthe fish piloted Manu? — the tree whose branches are roots.Inside the child Markandeya explores the worlds in all theirvariety, and these "worlds" are of course nothing but theirown seeds.The ultimate celebration of this agency of renewal is thetransmogrification— but how gradual— of the divine instrument of survival into the person of Narayana, who sleeps thesleep of a new dawn, tucked into the coils of the snakeAnanta— the Serpent Eternal. From Narayana's navel— thebeginning of life— grows the lotus, symbol of the new, water-borne purity, in which the old Brahma takes shape, andrenewal has happened. Since Narayana is the prototype ofKrsna, and Krsna is Visnu come to earth, and Visnu has cometo earth in his various avatdras, who is the fish in the end butthe incarnation of Visnu? And here, then, does the story of12The Fish come to its close as the completed chronicle of thefirst of the God's ten avatdras.Wherever the Flood legend came from, India has done wellIf one were to lump together those landmarks of literatureand civilization, the Bible, the Iliad and the Odyssey, andcompare their combined bulk to that of the Mahabharata,that mighty Sanskrit epic of war, valor, and genealogy wouldamount to half again as much as the total of the others. Sincethe Mahabharata' s content is comparable in significance toHomer and the Bible as a basic historical and cultural document, its translation into English is an important event forwestern understanding of India's ancient roots. And thistranslation is now in the process of being published.The Mahabharata is a wide-angle reflection of the development of Hindu civilization. Its central core is the story ofthe struggle between the Panda vas and the Kauravas, twobranches of the Bharatas, a baronial family. This story, overthe eight centuries or so in which it took shape, became, inaddition, the framework for a vast collection of legends (suchas "The Fish," recorded and commented upon above).The story of Manu and the fish is told in the course of thethird major unit of the work, "The Book of the Forest," inwhich the five Pandava brothers and their beautiful communal wife, Draupadi, wander in exile for thirteen years.Many of the incorporated stories, of course, probably dateto even earlier times than the basic epic, and the entire workpersisted through the centuries by being recited bystorytellers of one generation to audiences of the succeedinggeneration. The first form taken by the Mahabharataprobably was created around 400 B.C., and the process of accretion continued until, possibly, 400 a.d. Parts of the epichad attained written form as early as the 4th century a.d., butit was not until 1839 that the entire work was set down inwritten form — in Bengal.Yet little beyond the name of the Mahabharata (the accentis on the bhar) and some of its parts — for example theBhagavadgita, the Book ofAstika, the Story of Sakuntala —are well known in the West. Translations of the entire textinto English have been begun, only to stop in mid-passagebecause of the brevity of the human life span and the monumental proportions of the work — which traditionally contains100,000 thirty-two-syllable slokas (couplets). Only oneEnglish version of the entire work has reached completion(the "Roy translation" made by Kesari Mohan Ganguli in1883-1896) and it is a rather turgid rendering of the original.Now, however, a new and eminently readable Englishtranslation is emerging on the Midway, giving western readersaccess to the pleasure, enlightenment and wonder to be foundin this ancient text. The new translation (carefully organized,explicated and annotated) is being made by JohannesAdrianus Bernardus van Buitenen (friends call him Hans), aDutch-born scholar, who came to the Quadrangles in 1957 as by it. The Fish in the end stands at the beginning of the redemptive renewals of the world by God's intervention thatspells hope upon hope for all that lives.Professor van Buitenen at work in his Foster Hall office.a research associate, returned to the University of Utrecht fortwo years, and then settled in Chicago in 1959. He is now distinguished service professor and chairman of the Departmentof South Asian Languages and Civilizations and past chairman of the Committee on Southern Asian Studies.(Both the department and the committee are quartered inFoster Hall, which many an alum will recall as a dormitory,but which has been converted to scholarly purposes.Recently it has also become the scene of a new kind ofactivity; the department has been allocated a $600,000matching grant by the Ford Foundation — posing a problemfor the University, which must find $1,200,000 to qualify forthe grant.)Eventually the translation will appear in eight to tenvolumes. The first one was published last year by the University of Chicago Press, and the second appeared this fall.Translation of three more volumes has been completed andtheir publication process has begun. So it appears that Mr.van Buitenen (who is now 47) has an excellent chance of doingwhat most of his predecessors did not — survive the lengthyprocess of seeing the whole Mahabharata through. (Translations into other languages also are currently in the works;one promising example is the Russian version being carriedforward by V. I. Kalyanov.)Like other ancient works, the Mahabharata's stories arefilled with hundreds of such supernatural events as bearing orsiring of offspring by rivers, mountains, snakes, and gods,and by such human phenomena as marital distrust, a "shotgun" wedding, and a case of maternal absent-mindednesswhich led to the five Pandava brothers' marrying a singlewife. An old but new world springs up to rival the stories ofRuth and Boaz, Helen and Paris, Odysseus and Circe.*2> THE EPIC TASK OF TRANSLATING THE EPICPetroleum and politics in the Persian GulfMarvin ZonisOne justification for an interest in the Persian Gulf harksback to that immortal line of Willie Sutton, the notoriousbank robber. When asked by the police to explain why herobbed banks, he put it simply, "Because that's where themoney is."And, of course, we are reminded by another famous commentator on social reality, Karl Marx, that where the moneyis, one can find power. Those of us who are concerned aboutmoney and power in the world, about international relations,foreign trade, and even world peace, are inevitably going tobe paying much closer attention to the Persian Gulf than hasbeen the case in the past.In 1974, the oil revenues accruing to the states borderingthe Persian Gulf totaled approximately $80,000,000,000. Asrecently as 1970, the amount of money transferred to thosestates for their oil totaled less than $10,000,000,000. The increased production of petroleum and the quadrupling of oilprices in 1973 and 1974 — spearheaded by the shah of Iran —has produced those enormous revenues and with them,entirely new circumstances for the Persian Gulf.Now, just what is the Persian Gulf? In fact, it is a not veryimpressive waterway — a cul-de-sac — jutting out from thenorthwest corner of the Arabian Sea, which, in turn, is partof the Indian Ocean. Never over 300 feet deep, it narrows atthe Straits of Hormuz to a thirty-five-mile-wide passageway,both features making submarines and large ships especiallyvulnerable, once in the gulf.This body of water is surrounded by fourteen states — someof them mini-states — thirteen of which are Arab states, one ofwhich is not. Iran is the non-Arab state, peopled by Aryansrather than Semites and speaking an Indo-European ratherthan a Semitic language. Iran considers its culture to be vastlysuperior to the Arab states which are its neighbors.On the other hand, Iran shares with all of the fourteenstates save Iraq, which since 1958 has been governed by aBa'ath Party-military coalition, rule by monarchs or quasi-monarchs. The official religion of all fourteen states is Islam.The fact that all of the states surrounding the Persian Gulfare Muslim and nearly all monarchies — as well as Arab, aswell as oil producers — establishes a base of common interestnot to be forgotten in the midst of sometimes sharp differences of military and petroleum policies.Of the fourteen states, the largest in terms of area is SaudiThis article is adapted from a lecture given earlier this yearunder the auspices of the Chicago Council on ForeignRelations, by Mr. Zonis, associate professor in the Collegeand the Department of Behavioral Sciences. Arabia — some 830,000 square miles, which nearly equals theentire Indian sub-continent. Iran is the second largest state,while the smallest is Ajman which boasts slightly less than 100square miles. The largest population, some 33,000,000people, is found in Iran, while 3,700 people live in one of themini-states, Umm al Qaiwain, the least populated.It certainly is not for their populations nor for their territory that we concern ourselves with the Persian Gulf states.Their total geographical area is relatively small. Their totalpopulation of some 46,000,000 people is not dramaticallygreater than the total population of Egypt. And the PersianGulf itself is merely the butt end of an ocean. In short, thosetraditional factors which elicit concern for another state orregion are missing. Rather, an entirely new basis of international influence — oil power — gives significance to the area.While approximately 7% of the world's crude oil reserves arelocated in the United States and 14% in the Soviet Union,approximately 55% -60% of the world's crude oil reserves arelocated in these fourteen states. Every day, through the thirty-five-mile-wide Straits of Hormuz, hundreds of millions ofgallons of oil pass to Japan, Western Europe, and the UnitedStates. Of Japan's energy, some 90% is derived from oil, andsome 90% of Japan's oil is derived from these states in theMiddle East. Nearly half of Europe's oil and a growingpercentage of our own oil supply — probably now around15% — comes from these same countries.Now, it is not only that we need the oil from these statesthat makes them significant to us. It is also the fact that themoney which they receive for the oil is virtually all profit,because the production costs of a barrel of Persian Gulf crudeis generously estimated at only twelve cents a barrel of forty-two gallons. In the United States, the cost per barrel is above$1.50, and in the Soviet Union it is estimated to cost slightlyabove $1.The boundaries of vast oil fields have been well establishedin the gulf, both onshore and offshore. Very few dry wells aredrilled; gushers are common. Thus while production costs areminimal, the monopolistic control over exportable oil exercised by the Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countrieshas allowed them to set their selling price, as of their September, 1975, meeting in Vienna, in the vicinity of $11.50 perbarrel. Whereas, in the past, most of this profit went to the oilcompanies and in the form of taxes to the governments inwhich the oil companies were registered— that is to say, theUnited States, France, Holland, and Great Britain— thedifferential is now largely going to the oil producing countriesthemselves. It is that differential between cost of productionand selling price, multiplied by those hundreds of millions ofgallons, which explains our interest in the Persian Gulf states,14not only because of the balance of payments drain which isrepresented by the transfer of money needed for theindustrialized countries to buy the oil, but from the fact thatthe billions of dollars in the gulf are being used to buy international power.In the most literal sense, power is being acquired by the gulfoil exporters through the acquisition of weapons. Iran, theextreme case, has acquired far more military hardware thanany of the other countries of the gulf. Between 1954 and 1972,as the United States attempted to strengthen the shah'sregime, $837,000,000 worth of military credits for U.S.weapons was extended to Iran. Beginning in 1965, the shahbegan a major effort to "modernize" his armed forces, andby 1973 he had spent $4,000,000,000 more on that effort. In1974 alone, after the oil price rise, Iran spent an additional$4,000,000,000 on United States military equipment. In otherwords, in eight years, the shah has spent $8,000,000,000 onmilitary equipment in the United States and other billions forweapons primarily from Great Britain and the Soviet Union.For its money, Iran has acquired an astounding array ofhardware: six new destroyers being manufactured by LittonIndustries; eighty F series fighter planes at $14,000,000apiece — fighter planes which have not yet been introducedinto the American navy; six Boeing 747s; 700-plus Bell helicopters, making the Iranian helicopter fleet third largest inthe world after the United States and the Soviet Union; 100F-4 Phantom fighter planes which can be used to take offfrom aircraft carriers; 135 K-3 aerial tankers to fuel theseplanes so that they can be used for long-range missions; fiftyC-130 American transport cargo aircraft, which can be usedto move entire battalions of the Iranian armed forces overlong distances; 800 Chieftain tanks (the Chieftain tanks areBritain's most impressive tanks); the world's largest fleet ofhovercraft, now operating on the gulf.And the list, of course, goes on. It is not about to stop. Forexample, Iran is still trying to persuade the United Statesgovernment to let it bankroll the Lockheed Corporation, sothat Lockheed can resume production of the C-5A transportplane. Each of those costs $55,000,000, and carries a massivenumber of soldiers and equipment.It is not only weapons and planes that Iran has been acquiring. It has also been acquiring military and technicalassistance from the United States for the operation, maintenance, and supply of these weapons. The Pentagon recentlyannounced that American military personnel were serving inthirty-four countries around the world and were earning$727,000,000 in contracts from those countries. A closereading of Pentagon documents reveals that of the$727,000,000, we were receiving $676,000,000 from Iran andSaudi Arabia. The remaining $50,000,000 were from thirty-two other countries of the world, each of which could claimno more than twenty American advisers. Iran and SaudiArabia have each welcomed over 2,500 American militarypersonnel and their families.But military advisers are not restricted to those on activeduty. The Bell Helicopter Corporation has thousands of itscivilian employees in Iran, training Iranians in the care and use of their new mammoth helicopter fleet. The vast majorityof these advisers are ex-U.S. servicemen who learned theirskills in Vietnam. In Saudi Arabia, the contract awarded theVinnell Corporation for training Saudi military personnel willalso be executed by Vietnam veterans. These advisers, ofcourse, are not reflected in the Pentagon's reports on the involvement of active duty members of the armed forces.We know that Iran and Saudi Arabia are not the onlybuyers of American military assistance nor Iran, of Americanmilitary hardware. Saudi Arabia has also been rapidly expanding its supplies of tanks, planes, anti-aircraft missilesand, more recently, naval vessels.But even more important, this transfer of weapons is nownot restricted to the major countries of the gulf. Abu Dhabi,the principal oil sheikhdom — the richest oil producing mini-state on the southern shores of the Persian Gulf — has a totalpopulation of 46,000 people. Its oil income in 1974 was about$2,000,000,000, giving it the highest average per capitaincome in the world. Abu Dhabi has recently bought sixteenFrench Mirage jet fighters for $140,000,000, British Rapieranti-aircraft missiles for $100,000,000 and a new fleet ofC-130 transport planes.What motivates these countries to acquire the volume andsophistication of such weapons systems? Their motivesseemed clearer before the June, 1967, Arab-Israeli War.Before that war, President Nasser had dispatched Egyptiantroops to perpetuate the new republican regime of Yemen onthe Saudi Arabian peninsula. Simultaneously, Egypt took anactivist position toward the entire region. Saudi Arabia itselfwas threatened, as revolution was encouraged in SouthArabia. New "liberation movements" created a great deal ofanxiety of the Trucial sheikhdoms and in Kuwait. Nasser advanced Arab claims for the southwestern province of Iran,Khuzestan, as an Arab province, and supported exiledIranian extremist religious groups living in Iraq in their anti-shah efforts.The immediate regional consequence of the 1967 war wasto enhance immensely the security of the Persian Gulf, ingeneral, and of Iran in particular. The war demonstrated thetremendous importance of a strong Israel as a counterweightto a unified Arab world, both to the shah and to the other so-called conservative rulers of the mini-states of the PersianGulf. Secondly, the defeat of the Arab armies — and of courseprimarily those of Egypt — led to the total dismantling ofEgypt's foreign policy adventures on the Arabian peninsulaand around the Persian Gulf. Thirdly, the closing of the SuezCanal contributed to these same ends by making access to theIndian Ocean and the Persian Gulf especially difficult for theSoviet Union.Despite the relaxation of pressures which followed the war,the shah continued his earlier policy of strengthening hisarmed forces against future threats. In addition, he made acommitment to build a military capability in the Persian Gulf.The wisdom of that commitment was borne out as early as1968, when the British announced their intention to withdrawall forces from the gulf by the end of 1971. From his earlierdecision to protect the vital interests of Iran in the gulf to re-15placing the British as the principal peace-keeping force of theregion was but a short step for the shah. And the shah hasmade it clear that the gulf is of vital significance for Iran. Herefers to the Straits of Hormuz as the "jugular vein" of Iran.Before the British pulled out, as a way of insuring the protection of this so-called "jugular vein," Iranian armed forcesinvaded three islands in the Persian Gulf which command theapproaches to those straits. These islands have been claimedfor centuries by Iran, as well as by Arab states on the oppositeside of the gulf. But conflicting claims proved no barrier tomilitary action in the interests of Iranian strategic security.Open sea lanes are now guaranteed by Iranian troops.The response was predictable. Libya nationalized theBritish Petroleum Company, claiming Iran and the shahmere fronts for continued British imperialism. But other thanthat and some Arab grumblings, nothing affected the shah'soccupation of the islands. Despite this early success in military diplomacy, the shah has consistently argued that "thepoliceman of the Persian Gulf is the last thing that we wouldlike to be. We have repeatedly proclaimed that we would liketo have regional cooperation. But if others do not have themeans of assuring the stability of the area, we can do it andwe will. Our life depends upon it. Not just our life, but thefuture of Europe and Japan."Aside from the grandiose notion that the future of westerncivilization depends on the actions of this monarch, what isclear is that the shah believes the statement, has engaged in awhirlwind of negotiations to settle Iran's outstanding disputesthrough diplomacy, but also has acted to provide the militarycapacity to play the role of policeman in the Persian Gulf,should the necessity arise.Clear also is that the shah does not restrict Iran's militaryneeds to the narrows of the Persian Gulf. In his view, in orderto protect the gulf, Iran must have a strong presence in theIndian Ocean, which he defines as extending to Australia.The probable realization of this presence has been accentuated by Iran's recent acquisition of a naval facility on theIndian Ocean island of Mauritius. Moreover, reports now circulating detail Iranian negotiations with the United States tobuy surplus aircraft carriers to be kept in the Indian Ocean,not in the inhospitable waters of the gulf.One element remains to complete the picture and thatelement is now falling into place. Iran is committed to the development of an indigenous nuclear technology which willgive it the capacity to develop nuclear weapons. FollowingIndia's explosion of a nuclear device, Iran has increasinglycome to see the projection of its own power as bound up withthe possible development of nuclear weapons. For the timebeing, the shah has made it clear that Iran's growing nuclearcapacity will not be immediately translated into weaponsproduction. But certainly his perception of nuclear proliferation, especially in the Middle East, would be translated into adecision for the rapid development of an atomic arsenal.The ostensible goal of the rapid Iranian military build-up isclear — military capability which will allow Iran to protect itsindependence and its ability to continue to export oil as itwishes. This benign goal is one with which most observers shareconsiderable sympathy. But difficulty immediately arisesfrom the suspicion that the shah interprets that goal asbroadly as possible. Certainly Iran's military capability willbe used to repel any conventional invasion of Iranian territoryby the armies of another state. But, Iran, or more correctlythe shah, also considers it Iran's right — and in fact obligation — to the rest of us to protect neighboring states fromdismemberment — Pakistan, for example, in consequence ofany future war with India.Iran also appears to intend to protect neighboring statesfrom changes of regime from the conservative ruling institutions, which now hold sway in the mini-states of the gulf, toany more radical forms of political organization. Certainlyany "radical" takeover attempts of these sheikhdoms wouldbe greeted by the shah with great concern and would bringabout the possibility of invasion by Iranian troops. The Federation of Arab Emirates, a more or less loosely linked coalition of seven of those sheikhdoms, was formed under Britishauspices to offer a modicum of stability to the ruling housesof the mini-states after the British withdrawal of 1971. Muchto the surprise of most observers, the federation has not onlyremained intact but has preserved the power of the originalrulers. Nonetheless, the mini-states are viewed as prime targets for radical takeovers which might then confront Iranianinterests immediately across the gulf.But lurking behind the purely regional uses of Iran's armedforces, there looms a more frightening — albeit no less real-possibility that Iran's military might is also meant to serve asa check, or a deterrent, to any great power, the United Statesincluded, which might contemplate intervention for thesecuring of oil supplies from the southern shores of the Persian Gulf. Since, of course, the powers which would mostlikely contemplate such intervention would be the EuropeanNATO allies and the United States, the implications for theWest of the Iranian military build-up are unmistakable.Furthermore, it would be unwise to discount the role ofsimple great power aspiration which the shah has alwaysdemonstrated. Since his first days as king, in 1941, he has extended the military forces of Iran beyond the best judgment16of every foreign adviser and sympathizer, let alone critic.Aspirations toward the restoration of the ancient glories ofIran, if not ancient empires, are not missing in Tehran.Whatever the shah's motives for Iran's rapid militarybuild-up, then, the consequence has been extraordinarymilitary capabilities for the new regional super-power of thePersian Gulf. A number of situations in which those capabilities might be employed have already been mentioned. Infact, a number of conflicts already involving Iran beset thegulf, while others seem recently to have been defused.The most important of the active conflicts is now occurringin Dhofar, a province of Oman stretching between the easternand southern coasts of the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Theprovince has been in "revolution" since 1965, a revolutionwhich began as a tribal war and was quickly converted in1968, with the arrival of Chinese military advisers, into anideological campaign against the sultan of Oman.In 1971 the Iranians responded to a plea for assistance fromthe new sultan of Oman by dispatching Iranian troops, whoare still fighting the guerrillas in the province. Recent reportssuggest immense Iranian success in having driven the rebelsalmost entirely out of the province into the neighboringDemocratic Republic of South Yemen. While their success isdue partly to their competence in anti-guerrilla activities, theIranian armed forces (and the sultan of Oman) have been assisted by the decision of the Chinese to cease supplyingmilitary aid to the rebels. The Chinese seem to have concluded that a friendly and powerful Iran is much more valuable to Chinese interests as a counter to Soviet influence in theMiddle East and the Persian Gulf than is the fomenting ofrevolutionary movements in the monarchical states of theArabian peninsula. The almost frenetic courting of the shahby highly placed Chinese officials is the public counterpart tothe private but decisive cessation of Chinese military suppliesto the Dhofar rebels.The most important of the defused conflicts concerns thedispute between Iran and Iraq. Stretching back to the overthrow of the Iraqi monarchy and the government of Nurial-Said in 1958, that conflict had become intense, multi-faceted, and seemingly perpetual. In a move which took mostforeign observers by surprise, President Boumedienne of Algeria announced at an Islamic heads of state conference in hiscountry in early 1975 that he had successfully mediated anend to the conflict between the shah and the president of Iraq.As might be expected after so many years of such intenseenmity, the announcement was received with generalskepticism. Much to the astonishment of the doubters, theagreement seems to have been implemented and to have held.The publicized provisions of the agreement entailed a tradeoff. The shah would close the Iran-Iraq frontier to the Kurds,who were able to maintain their long war against Iraq byseeking sanctuary in Iran, as well as cease the delivery of whathad been considerable military assistance to them. For theirpart, the Iraqis agreed to cease support of anti-shah movements harbored in Iraq and to recognize Iranian claims thatthe common border of the two states in the south would bethe center of the Shatt al Arab River, rather than the bank on the Iranian side.A more important motivation to the perpetuation and implementation of the agreement, however, has been assumedto be the common interests which Iraq and Iran share, incontrast to Saudi Arabia, vis-a-vis OPEC oil policy. As twohighly populated and relatively developed oil producers, bothseek constantly higher oil prices to assure maximum funds foreconomic and military development. Saudi Arabia, on theother hand, boasts far greater reserves of oil than the othertwo states combined and a population only one-tenth of theircombined totals. It is much less in need of the funds andmuch more likely to waver in the face of Western and particularly U.S. pressure for lower oil prices. It seems likely thatmore than any other factor, the Iran-Iraq rapprochement is"fueled" by the shah's perception of the need for a commonfront against the holder of the largest OPEC oil reserves andthe state most able to influence international oil prices.In addition to these central conflicts, a host of latent conflicts characterize the Persian Gulf. One of these latent conflicts concerns Iraq and Kuwait. Iraq's coastline on the gulf isvirtually all marshland and its desire to have an efficientdeepwater port means that it must move its port facilities asclose to the Kuwait border as possible, and thus away fromthe marshland. As a way of protecting that port, Iraq has always wanted to move the Iraqi-Kuwait border farther south.In March, 1973, Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait, and only greatremonstrances from the Arab League and Iran's public offerof troops to help Kuwait protect itself led Iraq to pull out itsarmed forces. The issue is now moot, but far from solved.Another potential conflict is found in Bahrein, an island inthe gulf. Bahrein is the most economically and socially advanced of all the Arab countries in the area, with the probableexception of Kuwait, because of the rather enlightenedpolicies of its ruler, built on its long history of oil revenues.Now, however, Bahrein's oil reserves are running out. A relatively sophisticated industrial work force, which is used to afairly high standard of living, will be quite disgruntled as theoil money declines. Their potential for direct political actionhas already been demonstrated by the first, and rather widespread strike of laborers in the Persian Gulf which occurredin March, 1972. Bahreini workers in the oil and aluminum industries struck to protest the presence of American warshipsat a Bahrein facility leased to the U.S. navy.Another source of conflict will almost certainly be generated by political changes within the sheikhdoms. It is inevitablethat such changes will occur, given the archaic political conditions pertaining in these states before the British withdrawalin 1971 . The relative peacefulness of the changes is, however,at issue.Oman, for example, has been an independent country since1650. It has never been subjected to colonialism. It has neverbeen occupied by an imperial power. In 1970, the presentruler of Oman overthrew his father and opened that countryto the western world for the first time. What westerners foundwhen they arrived was a country of 650,000 people with atotal of only six primary schools and no secondary schools.They found a country with near total illiteracy, in which not a17single newspaper was published, where the gates of the citiesof Oman were closed at dark every night. Anyone who wasfound on the street after dark without a lantern was arrested.Another source of potential conflict for the states of thePersian Gulf besides the recency with which they have undertaken to "modernize" their societies, is that such modernization in many of these states is being achieved through theemployment of foreign labor. More than half of the workforce of every one of the countries along the southern coast ofthe Persian Gulf are non-citizens. There has been a massiveimportation of Pakistanis, Baluchis, Egyptians and Palestinians. None of these people have been granted citizenshipin the states in which they work. One consequence is thata small portion of the population is guaranteed virtually all ofthe economic and social benefits, while a large non-citizenlabor force receives relatively low levels of pay with whichthey, nonetheless, have been satisfied given their inability tofind more remunerative positions in their own countries.The situation persists. Mention was made above that AbuDhabi had contracted to buy C-130s from the U.S. Fourteenmembers of the Abu Dhabi air force were sent to Californiafor training in the operation of the aircraft. When thosemembers of A.D. A. F. reached California, it was learned thatall fourteen were Pakistani. The potential for internal strifepresented by such large percentages of a non-citizen laborforce is considerable.Two other potential sources of conflict need be mentioned.One concerns the danger of the dismemberment of Pakistaneither in the event of another war with India or through civilwar. The latter is worrisome to the shah of Iran, especiallygiven that the Soviet Union and, previously, Iraq have notbeen remiss in trying to convince the Baluchi people, whosenation spans the Iran-Pakistan border, to demand independence from Pakistan. The shah can appreciate that thesuccess of that demand would lead to similar demands beingleveled at Iran.A final series of problems for the states of the Persian Gulfstem from the Arab-Israeli conflict. A strong Israel contributes to keeping the Arab Mediterranean states focusedthere, rather than on the Persian Gulf, thereby making iteasier for Iran to achieve the hegemony over the gulf which ithas pursued since the British withdrawal. It is, thus, verymuch in the interests of Iran to contribute to that strength.The so-called Arab "confrontation states" — for example,Iraq — ardently support the Palestinians. But, until recently,the problem for Iraq has been that its own internal divisive-ness — its internal political problems and the problems of itsrelationship with Iran — kept it from being a significant factorin the Arab-Israeli conflict. With the recent Algiers accord,that has changed.What else has changed are the oil revenues. The oil producing states of the Persian Gulf now transfer large sums ofmoney to the Palestinian Liberation Organization, withoutquestion the richest revolutionary organization in the historyof the world, as well as to other "front-line" enemies ofIsrael. An even more direct involvement is likely in the eventof a fifth round of war between Israel and the Arabs. The weapons systems being bought by the Persian Gulf countrieswould in all probability be transferred to the states thenactually fighting with Israel. As Libya transferred the Miragejet aircraft in direct violation of the written contract it hadsigned with France, how much more likely is it that the samething will happen with, say, Abu Dhabi which has not evenhad to sign such a non-transferability agreement with France?After the widespread violations of such agreements in the1973 war, France gave up on the whole idea of trying to control its weapons once they were sold. The U.S., on the otherhand, still claims that it maintains control over the transfer ofAmerican weapons once they have been exported. But theevidence suggests to the contrary. In the 1965 India-Pakistanwar, Iran transferred American jet fighters to Pakistan in violation of its agreements, never having even sought to acquirepermission for that transfer. How much more likely is it thatSaudi Arabia would transfer American planes in the eventthat Israel were making significant military progress inanother round of fighting?One source of potential conflict in the Persian Gulf has notyet been mentioned and that is the possibility of direct intervention by the Soviet Union. For the present that seemsremote in the face of U.S.-U.S.S.R detente and the greaterinvolvement of the United States in the Middle East. But theSoviets have, to the consternation of the shah, markedly increased both the size of their fleets and the number of navalvisits to friendly ports in the Persian Gulf and the IndianOcean. Even more troublesome, the Soviets have establishedan additional presence on the Arabian peninsula. Formerly theonly diplomatic mission which they could boast south of thePersian Gulf was geographically isolated in the DemocraticRepublic of South Yemen. But recently Soviet military equipment and military advisers have appeared in Kuwait.On balance, the U.S.S.R. has benefited immensely fromthe fivefold increases in oil prices. As an oil and gas exporter,its balance of trade has received a major boost from thehigher energy prices. And its interests are also served by theeconomic disarray which characterizes the European powersand Japan as a result of the price rises. In all likelihood, thepolicy which the Soviet Union has pursued in the region of thegulf will continue — a long-term effort to wean states awayfrom complete dependence on the West.For at least that part of the immediate future of the fourteen states surrounding the Persian Gulf is clear — a majorportion of their new riches will be spent on the acquisition ofa panoply of the most lethal armaments now for sale. The riskof conflict between states will be increased as their armedforces become more central actors in the domestic politicalprocess of each state and as their capabilities for foreignmilitary adventures increase. Simultaneously, the possibilitiesof military coups d'etat increase as the rulers become moredependent on a formal military bureaucracy.And certainly the effort of those thirteen monarchs orsheikhs or emirs, struggling to hold onto their thrones, withor without the intervention of the shah of Iran, to preservethe "stability" of the Persian Gulf states, must be viewed asan heroic, if ultimately futile, gesture.18Letter from IraqFrom sites to patternsRobert McC. AdamsIn a sense, archeological surveys of what is now southernIraq may be said to have begun even before Assyriologybegan to emerge as a scholarly discipline. Refinements havebeen added at an accelerating pace during recent years, principally concerned with statistical methods, with formalmodels of spatial networks and urban hierarchies, and withthe use of aerial photographs. Perhaps the objective has evenshifted significantly — away from identifying particularancient towns as targets for excavation and toward the discovery of historical patterning in land use and the distributionof human populations.There are now fairly lengthy roots, even in my own study ofthe ancient Mesopotamian landscape. That began almost twodecades ago. What then seemed like a fairly straightforwardtwo or three-year research undertaking has broadened andaltered its direction during the long, frequent, and generallyinvoluntary intervals of interruption since then.It is accordingly difficult to avoid a preoccupation withboth change and continuity as the project enters what areprobably its final phases.The sense of change is greatest if I consider the contemporary countryside through which we move, by jeep or foot.Pavements ended essentially at the outskirts of Baghdad inthe mid-'50s; today they knit all the major cities and many ofthe major towns as well. The spreading network of roads maybe most directly contributive to my own research, but with ithave come all of the other, closely related features of a socialand economic transformation: clinics, schools, power generating plants, TV antennas, sewage and chlorination facilities.In the mid-'50s it could be said with fair accuracy that mudhuts, traditionally primitive and inefficient agriculturalmethods, and the massive resistance of peasant suspicionsand tribal loyalties lay around the urban islands like a sea.Today, as one drives the trunk road south as far as Hilla,Diwaniya and even beyond, the scene is different. GiganticRussian backhoes and draglines and American land-levelingmachinery, long lines of high tension transmission towers,and plumes of smoke from new factories are to be seeneverywhere.And yet even along these pulsing new arteries the old intersects with the new. Squatting in the dust at the highway side,awaiting the same creaking and picturesquely painted lorriesMr. Adams (phB'47, am'52, p1id'56) who is the Harold H.Swift distinguished service professor in the OrientalInstitute and in the Departments of Anthropology and NearEastern Languages and Civilizations, wrote the above letterto his colleagues from Baghdad. It was published earlier thisyear in the Oriental Institute's News and Notes. of ancient vintage, are still to be found the same knots ofweatherbeaten farmers with a sack of grain and a sheep ortwo to finance their market purchases.So how fundamental are the changes? Has the balancereally shifted irreversibly? My purpose in returning here towork is not to study the development process, and one cannotanswer these questions with mere vignettes of travel. But oneis inevitably drawn to the conclusion that, perhaps like thedevelopment process everywhere, the picture is uneven andnot a little contradictory. The new agricultural cooperativesare fully functioning and effective communities, not merePotemkin villages with sloganeering billboards — and yet onewonders how rapidly and effectively even they can change theface of agriculture in this country. All hoary traditions of aGarden of Eden or a caliphal golden age here aside, this is insome purely physical respects a desperately unpromisingregion for truly modern agriculture. Soil salinity is an ever-recurring problem of major proportions, only kept in checkby enormous and expensive drainage programs.Even shortages of irrigation water are beginning to be acritical deterrent, as the rising curve of population intersectswith a declining curve of supply brought about by newEuphrates dams in Syria and Turkey.My work this year is primarily in the Jazira, here meaningthe uncultivated desert regions between the Tigris and theEuphrates in the southern part of the alluvial plain. Many ofthese districts have not been settled or cultivated in athousand years or more, and have been deeply and cleanlyscoured by wind erosion during that interval. Here is wherethe aerial photographs are most useful, recording a palimpsest of canal and river systems that now overlie one another.The modern canal system is largely an eclectic one — partlygravity-flow, partly pumped, partly planned, partly growingby accretion. Discernible beneath it, and still partly followedby it, is a much more comprehensive system that coveredvirtually the whole of the southern Iraqi countryside with anetwork of angularly trifurcating main canals.In the main this is of Sassanian date, fourteen to seventeencenturies ago, while beneath it are the fainter but still fairlygeneral patterns of a rectangular grid system oriented to thecardinal directions that may be Hellenistic. Much older stillare fragmentary traces, frequently lost beneath later levees, ofthe many meandering channels of the Euphrates across theplain during the fourth, third, and early second millenniaB.C.It is now apparent that there was a major westward shift inthe Euphrates system of channels as a whole during Kassitetimes. This imposed a new set of canalization requirements ifwater was still to be brought to the older cities and cultcenters. The needed supplies in some cases could only bechanneled across formerly unsettled tracts of presumedswamp or desert, opening a new frontier in the west for small,rigorous townships and villages on the Akkadian pattern, ascontrasted with the Sumerian emphasis on cities.West, southwest and south of ancient Isin, accordingly,was "Kassite country" during the late second and perhapsearly first millennia b.c. — although the term is here used as19an archeological designation only, and does not imply Kassitepolitical suzerainty. That period is generally regarded as a"dark age," a population nadir, and perhaps especially so inthe south. Such a characterization is wholly consistent withmy own findings elsewhere. In parts of this region, however,the Kassite-Middle Babylonian density of settlement not onlygreatly exceeds that of earlier periods, but exceeds even themassive and ubiquitous remains of the much later Sassanianperiod.Perhaps, to return to a theme with which I began, this isanother instance of "uneven development." The districts ofnew second millennium settlement are laced with deepdepressions that the classical Islamic geographers later characterized as the "Great Swamp" and then largely ignored.Today they are shell-strewn but dry, their extent nicelydefined at this season by a dense blanket of new grass thataffords subsistence for thousands of bedouin and semi-sedentary folk with their black tents and flocks and camels.When the water was not diverted elsewhere, however, thedepressions would have been filled with relatively permanentlagoons and even lakes, the largest that I have been able totrace exceeding a hundred square kilometers in area. TheKassite chains of settlement seem to link and depend uponthese lakes, perhaps not only drawing a measure of protectionfrom the swampy, lacustrine setting but even using the lakesas irrigation reservoirs.How then can we account for the apparent lack of contemporary archival references to what surely was animportant focus of town-building and agricultural activity?The distinctiveness and inaccessibility of the topography? Thelack of tradition associated with these settlements, or in otherwords their failure to produce archival materials of theirown? Their affiliation with relatively obscure dynastiesoriginating in Isin, the "Sealand" and elsewhere? Or merelythe failure of archeologists heretofore to have a look at anarea that even the maps still dismiss with the designation "un-surveyed desert"?Well, the questions arise more urgently because it isn'tunsurveyed any longer. After three thousand or so of theroughest sort of jeep miles, grinding across tussocks of sandand camelthorn, skirting dunes, jacking into and out ofancient ditches, we can now accurately plot and describeseveral hundred archeological sites out there.Incidentally, oil exploration parties also have been intensively at work in the same region. Uneven development again:drill rigs and air-conditioned aluminum trailers look a bit incongruous among the bedouin tents, not to speak (with morethan a little envy) of the huge, special-purpose reconnaissancevehicles that one occasionally sees on the skyline lumberingamong the indifferently grazing camels. Unless books andarticles be counted, I can assure that we leave correspondinglymuch less residue.But bear in mind that no one here reckons this a pristinewilderness, a desert in western American terms, to be preserved in isolation and sanctity as a national monument. TheIraqi Jazira is not a natural wasteland but an artifact — anoutcome of water distribution patterns, of shifting nomad- cultivator political and ecological balances, of the repeatedphases of human re-use and then abandonment that havealmost entirely created its present topography. And myobjective is simply to record this artifact on the eve of itsnewest phase of transformation, before it is once again obscured for a few decades or centuries.An uneven, contrastive picture once again emerges if weturn to late prehistoric periods, during which the majorSumerian cities were coming into existence. Some years agoProfessor Hans Nissen and I were able to map more than ahundred villages and towns that clustered to the north andeast of ancient Uruk during the late fourth millennium b.c. Asimilar pattern occurs northeast, east and southeast ofNippur, along what surely was the major channel of theEuphrates in hydrological terms. Fortunately, the meandersof the latter have been scoured into relatively easy visibility onthe air photographs by a thousand years of wind erosion.But nothing comparable occurs in the Isin wilderness. Wasit unwatered and arid then? The small number of early settlements that we have found argues that the answer is probablynot so simple. Perhaps clusterings and discontinuities werealmost a prerequisite for the processes of political consolidation and urban growth, much as botanists speak of pioneerplant communities as being "contagiously distributed" ratherthan randomly or uniformly dispersed when they begin tooccupy new zones.As you will have gathered, this is only a report of work inprogress. The only regularity that I can detect is that interpretations of findings like these grow progressively moredifferentiated and complex, never simpler.For one thing, the frame of interactions of which we haveto be cognizant is an expanding one. As little as a decade agoit seemed reasonable to think of a single Sumerian city and itshinterlands as a unit for which explanatory paradigms onurbanization could be discovered. What is the paradigmaticunit today, when we know that the zone of significant interactions frequently extended far up into Syria, Turkey andIran, as well as down the Arabo-Persian Gulf and perhapseven to the Indus Valley? What had seemed a reasonable,sufficiently bounded research approach to be undertaken by asingle investigator now has to be viewed as only a component in a geographically much more extensive program thatwill require work in many countries and over many decades.A similar line of thought, about the growing intercon-nectedness of things, even while we stress the disjunctions between them, has occurred to me almost nightly with regard tothe contemporary scene while I have been sampling the delights of Rumaitha and Diwaniya restaurants. It is a curiousworld in which the so-called "developed" countries becomethe principal suppliers of agricultural produce, yet merchantsin those towns are doing a land-office business in Australianmutton and French pre-packaged chicken. The tools of myarcheological trade, aimed at transcending individual sitesand tying them into regional networks but always within thelimits of the desert horizon, have been a prismatic compassand three-arm protractor. For this sort of world one clearlyneeds something more.20The old and the newYouthful enjoyment of rigorous thinkingThe University takes over program for future mathematicianswhich is based on the thinking of Chicago giants of the pastFelix E. BrowderI should like to tell you of the new and the old in a very specialcontext within the University, which, despite its special character, may be illuminating as an example of the relationsbetween innovation and tradition. The context to which Irefer is that of a new program begun within the Departmentof Mathematics for the mathematical and scientific development of gifted students at a pre-college level, and its hiddenconnection with the little-known mathematical tradition ofthe University of Chicago.Before we turn to this context, we must face and surmounta crucial problem which appears from the beginning whenone speaks of the new and the old, of innovation andtradition. In terms of our contemporary commonplaces, wethink of the new and the old as novelty and the past. What isnovel like the action in the spotlight in the circus ring mustrivet the attention of its potential audience without any effortor thought on their part. It must delight by total novelty,exhibited by its disconnection with the past. On the otherside, to relieve the boredom of the endless chain of emptyclaims to total novelty, we have the sentimental cult of thepast as an exotic surface, as an unending costume ball.The angle of vision which I propose, however, is fundamentally different — a profound mutual dependence betweeninnovation and tradition. At the very least, it rests upon twobasic principles: An innovation flourishes if it finds roots in asignificant part of the tradition of the past and if it creates anew vital tradition of its own. The traditional past retains itsmeaningfulness and its hold on life only through its embodiment in meaningful and innovative action in the present.Let me begin, then, with our particular innovation. In theMr. Browder is the Louis Block professor and chairman ofthe Department of Mathematics and professor in the Committee on the Conceptual Foundations of Science and inthe College. His most recent contribution to these pages was"Is Mathematics Relevant? And if so, to What?" in thespring, 1975, issue. summer quarter of 1975, the Mathematics Department sponsored a summer institute for talented high school studentsfrom all parts of the country, with support from the StudentScience Training Program (SSTP) of the National ScienceFoundation.Even in the present epoch of relative lack of interest inscientific education or talent in this country, the NSF sponsored over 105 SSTP programs during the past summer. TheChicago summer program, however, is of a unique type,within a very special department, in a very unusual university.The SSTP program at Chicago in the summer of 1975 wasunique but not new. It was a transplantation, together with itsprincipal active figure, Professor Arnold Ross (sb'28, sm'29,phD'31), of Ohio State University where Professor Ross hasrecently finished a long term as chairman of the mathematicsdepartment. The program had flourished for a number ofyears at Ohio State, and earlier still at Notre Dame, whenProfessor Ross was chairman of the mathematics departmentat the latter institution — a total of seventeen years up throughthe summer of 1975. It is unique because of its principles ofoperation and because of its remarkable success.From its beginning, it was rooted on the principle ofmaking its student participants learn by solving problems,rather than being taught a formal subject matter; of doingproblems on the most basic topics of the classical theory ofnumbers, rather than on sophisticated axiomatic disciplinesof recent mathematical fashion; on stressing cooperation andmutual encouragement, rather than unrestrained andmutually destructive competition; and, finally, on an uninhibited search for student participants of the greatest talentand motivation.With these principles applied by Arnold Ross whosemastery of the ethos of energizing and disciplining talentedyoung people is probably unparalleled in the present-dayworld, the program has achieved remarkable results. In ourown department, as well as in other leading mathematicsdepartments in this country, the results can be evaluated interms of the number and quality of the students we have hadwho had earlier been participants in Ross' program.21Math students engage in study of applied geometry inattempting to recover a Frisbee which had soared into thetrees.As an example, over the past six years, the University ofChicago has entered a team in the William Lowell Putnamnational undergraduate mathematics competition, which embraces all the universities and undergraduate colleges of theU.S. and is taken seriously by all of them. During five ofthose six years, our team has taken one of the first threeplaces, (first place for one year, second place for two years,third place for two years) — a record ahead of Harvard, MIT,Princeton, and sometimes even Cal Tech.Each one of those teams has had at least one veteran of theSSTP program at Ohio State on it, and in most cases, two.What is distinctive about the mathematics department thathas adopted the Ross program and proposes to carry it forward on the basic principles which I have outlined above, is that the Chicago department is one of the "big four" of themathematical research and graduate teaching departments inthe U.S.; has been so almost uninterruptedly from thefounding of the University; and that the University ofChicago itself has a long tradition, dating from itsfoundation, of a central emphasis upon research and scholarship.The initiative which the Department of Mathematics hasnow taken in adopting and sponsoring this program goessignificantly beyond the present ethos of the strong researchdepartments. It represents a very explicit commitment to theprinciple that the major scientific research centers must adoptas their own responsibility the development of a nucleus ofyoung people genuinely talented in scientific research, evenbelow the collegiate level. The successful carrying through ofthis principle in mathematics, as well as other scientific fieldswhich could be brought into collaboration with this program,would certainly be an exceedingly important contribution, inboth practical and symbolic terms, to increasing the strengthof scientific education and future scientific research and todemonstrating their fundamental unity.It is abundantly clear that the commitment of a major research department in any scientific field to such principlesand to a program of the SSTP type is a radical innovation interms of present attitudes and practice in any field of science.Yet I should like to suggest that this innovation and the Rossprogram have very deep, though little-known, roots in thehistory and tradition of the Chicago Mathematics Department.When the University of Chicago was founded, the UnitedStates was still a relatively underdeveloped country, in bothcultural and scientific terms, by comparison with the leadingcountries in western Europe. This was emphatically the casein mathematics and the various physical sciences, in which theleading American figures got their fundamental scientificorientation (and most often, their doctoral degrees)through years of study inEuropean centers. Indeed,up to that time, no real research department ofmathematics, in the European sense, existed inAmerican universities inwhich research at the highest level of the field wasconsidered one of the primary duties of the department's faculty.This situation changedwhen the Chicago department was founded. Thefirst research departmentwas the Chicago department, and it remained theprincipal and most significant exemplar of the type Eliakim H. Moore22AND IT ISN'T EASYi.The integer 25 is a "perfect square" since it is a square of another integer,namely the integer 5. The least positive remainder of 25 upon division by 8 is 1.Find, if possible, an integer which is a perfect square and which has the leastpositive remainder 3 upon division by 8.2.Let A, B, C, D, and E be five towns such that the straight line distancebetween A and B is 30 miles, between B and C is 80 miles, between C and Dis 236 miles, between D and E is 86 miles, and between E and A is 40 miles.Can you find the distance between C and E without a map?3.In a very hotly fought battle, at least 70% of the combatants lost an eye; at least75%, an ear; at least 80%, an arm; at least 85%, a leg. How many lost all fourmembers?4.Nine students use a fraternity dining room which has four tables with threesettings on each table. How should one vary the seating arrangement so that infour days each student would share a table at dinner with each other student?The problems reproduced above* were part of the application form for the SSTP program at the University lastsummer. The nationwide population of high schoolstudents who applied, having completed their junior year,were, by means of these and other criteria, winnoweddown to the top fifty, who thereupon moved into Snell andHitchcock Halls to have their brains steeped in math foreight weeks.The primary session, which dealt with number theoryand was taught by Professor Ross, was held each morning.The subject matter included such matters as "Euclid'salgorithm and its uses in the solution of linear Diophantineequations, divisibility theory, quadratic congruences, andthe basic properties of arithmetic functions, including theMoebius inversion formula."Afternoon sessions were led by members of the University's faculty, including Robert P. Geroch, professor in theDepartments of Physics and Mathematics, the FermiInstitute and the College (his subject: geometry and physicsin American universities until the first World War.The man who gave it its basic orientation, exerted its influence over the body of American mathematics for decades,and was the undisputed leader of the Chicago department foralmost forty years was the man whom Harper first appointedas acting head in 1892 and, four years later, as head of thedepartment. This was a young associate professor at Northwestern named Eliakim Hastings Moore, who retired atChicago in 1931.Moore was a very skilled and very original research mathe- in four dimensions), and Jonathan L. Alperin, professor inthe Department of Mathematics and the College, whosesessions covered a number of ramifications of the theory ofgroups.And 13 young counselors, representing a number of universities, and themselves, in most cases, alumni of the Rossprogram, assisted the students as they plowed their waythrough some rather difficult material. (Inevitably, ofcourse, the youngsters still had time for relaxation after thedaily sessions were over; see photo on facing page.)More than 1,000 high school students have, over theyears, participated in the program, and its graduates haveestablished outstanding records in their subsequent careersin higher education. Each year a significant proportion ofthe country's strongest new PhDs in mathematical fieldscan be dated to their recipients' participation in thissummer science experience, now established on theMidway.*Comments on Page 44.matician with a broad range of mathematical interests. Hismost lasting reputation in his research activities comes fromhis founding work on the foundations of general topologyand of functional analysis in the first decade of the 20thcentury, though his originality in the latter field has beenobscured (probably permanently) by his extreme eccentricityof style in writing technical papers and by his use of a highlycomplex personal notation.The extent of his influence upon American mathematicsand mathematical research can best be seen by considering23Arnold Ross discusses theory of number.four of his most significant students: Leonard E. Dickson,Oswald Veblen, R. L. Moore, and George D. Birkhoff.Dickson, who was Moore's first Ph.D. student at Chicago,became the principal figure of the Chicago school of algebraas a professor at the University from 1900 to 1939. Veblenfounded the Princeton tradition in topology and geometryand was the builder both of the Princeton mathematicsdepartment and the school of mathematics at the Institute forAdvanced Study in Princeton. R. L. Moore (who was norelation of his namesake and teacher) was the founder andprincipal figure of the 'Texas school' of point-set topology, aswell as the promulgator of an extremely influential movementin mathematics education. Birkhoff was the principal figurein the Harvard mathematics department for several decadesand the leading figure (after the great French mathematicianPoincare) in the fields of dynamical systems and ergodictheory till the second World War. As these men and theirWhen one runs out of blackboard space, a door will do.24 careers testify, Moore's school generated the most importantand influential centers of American mathematics. E. H.Moore was the recipient of a full quota of academic honors(including an honorary doctorate from Gottingen in 1899).He was one of the principal founders of the AmericanMathematical Society in 1894 and its president in 1900-'02 aswell as president of the AAAS in 1921.What might seem rather surprising about this man, whowas both the central influence and the epitome of the emphasis upon advanced research in the American mathematicalcommunity, is the fact that when the principal professionalorganization of mathematics teachers on the pre-collegiatelevel, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, produced its first yearbook in 1925 on the theme, A GeneralSurvey of Progress in the Past Twenty-Five Years in theUnited States, it should reprint the retiring presidentialaddress of E. H. Moore before the American MathematicalSociety in 1902 as the first and most prominent article in theAs usual, students learn a lot talking among themselves.collection, declaring that "this era of progress seems to havebeen inspired by the address."Professor Ross was a disciple of E. H. Moore in the ethosof education and a doctoral student of Dickson in numbertheory. As I have already suggested, the Ross program is in itsessence the inheritor of the educational tradition and insightof E. H. Moore, and it is explicitly that in Ross' mind.From this point of view, its transplantation to the University of Chicago is a return to its sources. In the same way,the SSTP program at Chicago, and the commitment it represents to a fundamental concern with the training of themathematically talented among secondary school students,also returns to a commitment characteristic of E. H. Mooreand his tradition. It is useful to remark that this commitmentin no way dampened Moore's basic thrust towards the highestlevel of research activity for himself and his colleagues.As inheritors of the past, we can do nothing humanlysignificant by either repudiating it or worshiping it. Our taskis to use it as a building block for greater achievements andhigher degrees of excellence, and of this purpose the projectnewly acquired by Chicago seems to be an excellent example.CHALLENGE$1,000,000 must be raised in new or increased giftsfrom alumni to The University of Chicago's annual giving programs by December 31, 1975 to fulfill the Challenge of alumni Robert O. and Barbara Anderson.Any increase this year over your contribution to theUniversity, the College, the divisions, or the professionalschools in 1974 will be matched dollar-for-dollar.Your gift will help us meet the basic costs of oureducational program and benefit today's students.On art, calculation, and dreamsLewis Carroll, C. L Dodgsonand their AlicesWhat was the mild-mannered mathematician sayingabout the little girl and -- perhaps less consciously -about himself?George AnastaploThe fair illusion of the dream sphere, in the production ofwhich every man proves himself an accomplished artist, is a precondition not only of all plastic art, but even, as we shallpresently see, of a wide range of poetry. Here we enjoy animmediate apprehension of forms, all shapes speak to us directly, nothing seems indifferent or redundant. Despite the highintensity with which these dream realities exist for us, we stillhave a residual sensation that they are illusions. . . . Men ofphilosophical disposition are known for their constant premonition that our everyday reality, too, is an illusion, hidinganother, totally different kind of reality. . . . The person who isresponsive to the stimuli of art behaves toward the reality ofdreams much the way the philosopher behaves toward thereality of existence: he observes exactly and enjoys his observations, for it is by these images that he interprets life, by theseprocesses that he rehearses it. . . .— Friedrich Nietzsche, The Birth of TragedyI. Poetry and orderIt has been said that Lewis Carroll is, except for WilliamShakespeare, quoted more in Great Britain than any otherEnglish author.There can be no doubt about the artistic effectiveness ofCarroll's extraordinarily popular books about what happenedto a seven year old girl in her dreams, Alice's Adventures inWonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, and WhatAlice Found There. His imagination, good will and stylecaptivate us. One is inspired to imitate him, if only as arespectful critic.It should be conceded that subjecting stories such as theseto careful scrutiny might do one's reader the disservice of subverting their magic. But we dare take this chance, sincesuch scrutiny can contribute to our ability to read otherbooks, perhaps can even help us understand the very bestworks of the mind. In addition, our pleasure and profit inreading Lewis Carroll himself may be enhanced — especially ifwe should happen to notice aspects of his stories which mayhave been neglected by other readers.Let us begin on this occasion with the primary question oneshould usually confront in coming to terms with any carefullywrought text: What is its principle of order? We should not besurprised to learn that a professional mathematician such asCharles Dodgson, an Oxford don and a churchman of sorts,should (as Lewis Carroll) produce texts which exhibit andexploit certain proportions. Does not such organizationacknowledge an intelligent, and intelligible, grasp of things?Are not numbers, and the stability and symmetry they mayreflect, essential to the ordering of things literary as well asphysical?Poets are, after all, intelligent beings— and the better thepoet, generally, the more intelligent. The use of numbers bypoets is evident in their recourse to meter, to rhyme patterns,and to quantities and arrangements of lines. Inspiration is, ofcourse, vital to any successful poetic endeavor. But it surely isnot enough: it must be disciplined, or at least supported by discipline, thereby permitting the finest poetic effect to beachieved and preserved.1I assume in what I say here that the reader is somewhatfamiliar with Lewis Carroll's Alice stories. An invaluableedition of the two Alice books is that prepared by MartinGardner (ab'36), The Annotated Alice.262. Aduenrures in WonderlandChapter divisions and chapter headings are provided byCarroll for his Alice books, books which appear at firstreading as chaotic or haphazard as dreams are apt to. Eachof the two books has a dozen chapters: an effort seems to havebeen made to make them similar in this respect. This formalorganization by chapters provides convenient guideposts forthe inexperienced reader.An even more instructive principle of organization emergesif one divides each book according to its action or development. The difference in the principal form of change in the twobooks makes a considerable difference in the over-all meaningand effect of the two stories. In Wonderland, Alice does movearound; but the moving around (important as it is) is overshadowed by her changes in size. These changes in size are whatpermit her to get into and out of places. Her primary purpose,to which she refers on several occasions, is to be somewhere — in the Garden. In Looking-Glass, on the other hand,it seems that Alice remains constant in size; but her changes inlocation are critical — for they are what permit her to becomethat which she desires to be — a queen.There are, according to my calculations, twelve differentsize changes explicitly referred to in Wonderland, includingAlice's gradual return to her natural size at the end of thedream. Twelve size changes mean thirteen different stages inthe career of Alice in Wonderland, with each stage set off bysize changes. The first stage is before the first size changeoccurs in the dream — that stage which is itself preceded by thenatural growth we have as human beings. The last stage, inwhich the dream ends, is followed by Alice's natural growth,the growth into womanhood which her older sisteranticipates.Of the thirteen stages in Wonderland, the central one (StageVII) is critical in certain respects. Alice acquires, toward theend of the preceding stage, the secret of the power to controlher size. That is, she learns from the Caterpillar that eatingfrom "one side" of the mushroom can make her grow taller,and eating from "the other side" of the mushroom can makeher grow shorter. She has to experiment, however, to learnwhich is which.Alice's first and second uses of the mushroom tightlyGeorge Anastaplo (ab'48, jd'51, p!id'64) is lecturer in theliberal arts, the University of Chicago, and professor ofpolitical science and of philosophy, Rosary College. (He hasalso been serving as research director and adviser for theIllinois Governor's Commission on Individual Liberty andPersonal Privacy.) His many publications include The Constitutionalist: Notes on the First Amendment (SouthernMethodist University Press) and Human Being and Citizen:Essays on Virtue, Freedom and the Common Good (SwallowPress). This article is an abridgement of a lecture given inJanuary, 1975, in the "Works of the Mind" series at the University's Downtown Center. bracket what I am inspired to identify as Stage VII of her careerin Wonderland:"And now which is which?" she said to herself, and nibbled alittle of the right-hand bit to try the effect. The next moment shefelt a violent blow underneath her chin: it had struck her foot!She was a good deal frightened by this very sudden change, butshe felt that there was no time to be lost, as she was shrinkingrapidly: so she set to work at once to eat some of the other bit.Her chin was pressed so closely against her foot, that there washardly room to open her mouth; but she did it at last, andmanaged to swallow a morsel of the left-hand bit.She soon finds herself, upon eating of "the left-hand bit,"with a terribly elongated neck, extending high above the trees.This growth (in Stage VIII) brings on problems of its own, butshe has at least been saved from extinction.Stage VII is the shortest in the book, only a dozen lines in all.On the other hand, Stage VIII, with Alice at her tallest, is notthe longest in the book: there is no conformity there betweenform and content. The reinforcement in Stage VII of contentby form may further indicate that this stage is particularlysignificant.Indeed, Stage VII can be thought of as the crisis for Alice inWonderland. She must confront other difficulties, of course,but nothing so frightening as this grotesquely violent threat toher very existence. She now realizes the power she has managedto acquire. Her experiments permit her to harness that powerby Stage IX. Thereafter she controls her size, as circumstancesrequire, until she finds herself somehow growing to her normalsize in bringing these adventures to an end.2We can say, therefore, that Stages I through VI of Wonderland are stages of exploration, inquiry and experimentation,stages of challenge and even frustration. Then, by the end ofStage VI, Alice is starting to come into full control of her size,mastering such control by Stage IX. She then goes on to StageX with the Duchess and the Cheshire Cat, Stage XI with theMad Tea Party, and Stage XII where she finally enters thelonged-for Garden. Stage XII is, by far, the longest stage inthe book, for the Garden leads on, eventually, to the finalTrial scene. The entire book has been, in a sense, a preparation for Stage XII, to which one-third of the book is devoted.We can also say that the turning of the story around StageVII depended on Alice doing something, on her making asensible choice. She had to make a determined effort to saveherself from extinction. If she had not been able to cope withthe challenge she had set herself, she would have awakened —and the experience would probably have been remembered as anightmare.We need not decide whether the artist deliberately devisedwhat I describe here. Men have long known that a poet mayinstinctively arrange things, without realizing what he is doing,in order to achieve the desired effect. (See, e.g., Plato,Apology 22a-b.) Carroll did try out earlier versions of thesestories on children— and he must have perceived what combination of difficulty and success for Alice was required tohold the interest of children and, perhaps above all, what theturning point should be in Alice's progress toward what young27readers would accept as a satisfactory control of her destiny.All this raises the question, to which I will return, Why didall these things happen to Alice especially? A preliminaryanswer is that Lewis Carroll did know and like someone likeAlice (and of that name), a girl who was evidently quiteremarkable (as recorded, for example, in John Ruskin'simpressions of her.) Be that as it may, is not the reader made tosense that the Alice of this story has somehow earned her wayto the ability she acquires to get into the Garden?Is the Garden really worth all the trouble? One might as wellask: Is adulthood worth the trouble of getting there? Does theGarden represent an instinctive desire to return to the Gardenof Eden? Or to a Golden Age? Perhaps the former, with itsbountiful innocence — since there seem to be relatively fewtraces of classical imagery and language in Carroll.It suffices to notice for the moment, with respect to the intrinsic worth of the Garden, that the first thing Alice sees uponentering "the beautiful garden" are three workmen paintingthe roses to conform with the Queen's expectations. Thereaftershe observes sporadic attempts at tyranny. And this part of herjuvenile adventures ends, as does the dream itself, with herrebellion against unjust judicial proceedings in the famous trialof the Knave of Hearts. (See, e.g., John Milton, ParadiseLost, I, 242-270, IX, 952-999.)3. Through the Looking-GlassChess provides the model for the action in Looking-Glass. Itseems that Alice has recourse to a dream partly in order tocome to terms with the defeat she has just suffered in a game ofchess.She moves, in Looking-Glass, from the status of pawn tothat of queen. There are, in addition to the preliminary andconcluding accounts — that is, the accounts before and afterthe "chess game" is "played" — seven stages in Alice's journeying across the chessboard-like terrain. (A pawn starts fromthe second row and can move to the eighth row and become aqueen.) These seven stages are one-half of the thirteen stagesfound in Wonderland. 'Why are there only half as many stages in Looking-Glass asin Wonderland? In a "looking-glass" world, the "missinghalf" can be seen as "reflected" — as turning around Stage VIIof Looking-Glass, and thereby implied. This missing half canbe thought of as Alice's adult life, her career as a "queen."Carroll does not choose to — perhaps he cannot — show us that.Alice's adult career may be prefigured in the affectionate wayshe mothers the kittens. (We notice, by the way, that Dinah,her cat, is a determined mother in Looking-Glass; she had beenspoken of as primarily a successful huntress in Wonderland.)A "program" is given Alice in Stage I of Looking-Glass: sheis told what to expect in each of the squares she will passthrough . Five moves will suffice to get her from the second rowto the eighth row. That program is provided for Alice (and forus) by the Red Queen in these words:A pawn goes two squares in its first move, you know. So you'llgo very quickly through the Third Square — by railway, I shouldthink — and you'll find yourself in the Fourth Square in no time.Well, that square belongs to Tweedledum and Tweedledee — the Fifth is mostly water— the Sixth belongs to HumptyDumpty. . . .. . . The Seventh Square is all forest— however, one of theKnights will show you the way— and in the Eighth Square weshall be Queens together, and it's all feasting and fun!Central to the seven stages in Looking-Glass is Stage IV (orthe Fifth Square), described by the Red Queen as "mostlywater." There are various indications that this is the turningpoint of the book (just as Stage VII, the final stage in Looking-Glass, is the turning point of Alice's life, as she moves fromchildhood into adulthood): On either side of Stage IV, in theRed Queen's program, are the only characters in the programwith proper names, Tweedledum and Tweedledee (in Stage III)and Humpty Dumpty (in Stage V); the Queen had said thateach of those squares "belongs" to those she named. In thedescriptions of Alice's activity in the squares two rows away oneither side of Stage IV, there is an emphasis on movement:thus, it is said of Stage II that she will move through it "byrailway"; and it is said of Stage VI that "a knight will show[her] the way. " Finally, only in the squares three rows away oneither side of Stage IV (that is, Stages I and VII, the first andlast stages in the Looking-Glass "chess game") are Alice andthe Red Queen together.What is special about Stage IV (the central Fifth Square) thatso much should turn upon it in Looking-Glass? The movements within the stage are most dreamlike. Alice observes that"things flow about so here" (and she soon finds herself onwater, the only time in this book, I believe). She says what shedoes about things flowing because it is hard for her eyes tofocus on anything in the shop in which she first finds herself:each shelf she looks directly at is empty, although all othershelves around it are filled. Does not this emphasize thedifficulty of really grasping dream-things?Also, it is dark in the shop: it is hard to see. In fact, is it notharder to see here than anywhere else in Looking-Glass? Is notthe competent and self-reliant Alice least herself, here, as aseeing and hence controlling being? Her powers of comprehension and direction shrink to a minimum, just as had happened to her physical stature in the central stage of Wonderland.Matters are complicated by the internal fluidity of the scene:first Alice is in a shop; then she finds herself rowing in a boat;then suddenly she is back in the shop. The shop attendant'sknitting needles (the shop attendant had been a white queen;she now looks very much like a sheep) — her knitting needlesturn into oars; and it is hard rowing for Alice. Even herattempts to pick rushes are frustrating: the best ones keepgetting away, and the ones picked quickly fade and even melt.It is from this stage alone that the crossing over into the nextstage is not shown as either being done by Alice or being ratified by her (as when on the railway): she is somehow across thebrook bordering this square without knowing what ishappening.Is not Stage IV the nadir of Alice's experiences in Looking-Glass! Is not she here the most passive, the least royal? Boththe stage immediately before and the stage immediately afterfind her recollecting verses— about Tweedledee and Tweedle-28dum (in Stage III), about Humpty Dumpty and about the Unicorn and the Lion (in Stage V) — verses which permit her (in thefashion of a poet) to anticipate, and thus, in effect, to controlthe action.I have likened the central stage in Looking-Glass to that inWonderland. There, Alice moved desperately, but effectively,to save herself from extinction. Does Alice do anything to resume control of her career here? She does manage, despite allthe uncertainty in the shop, to buy something from the difficult shopkeeper. Her choice of an egg somehow leads herinto the Humpty Dumpty stage. Did she not somehow drawupon what the Red Queen had told her at the outset about herprogram, that the next square belonged to (the egg-like)Humpty Dumpty? She then conformed to, even though she didnot yet understand, the shopkeeper's announcement: "I neverput things into people's hands — that would never do — youmust get it for yourself."Alice thus insists upon sticking to the course originallyplotted for her, a course which she very much wants to pursue,despite the distractions and frustrations of the maturationwhich the journey across the squares represents. She keeps herwits about her and earns thereby (should we not say?) the rightto continue. And she continues on to the end, until she wakes,having tested herself and gotten where she wants to be. (See,e.g., Plato, Republic 619b-c, 620c-d.)4. A man and his artThe decisive test may seem to some to lie beyond Stage IV ofLooking-Glass, for Alice must still work out her relations withsomeone like the poet himself, in the next-to-last stage of thisjourney. But Stage VI does not seem to me to pose for her thedifficulties the central stage did: she has, by that time, becomequite sure of herself, very much in control of what ishappening, and eager to make the final crossing intoqueenhood.Indeed, the critical problem remaining after Stage IV is notAlice's but rather Dodgson-Carroll's. More than with anyother work of stature I know (with the possible exception ofMarcel Proust's), the "personality" of the author can,perhaps should, figure in the reader's understanding of theAlice books. Compare, for example, Shakespeare's work: weneed know nothing of his life in order to understand his plays.One indication of this is that all kinds of theories have beenpropounded as to who actually wrote those plays. The seriousreader of Shakespeare need not concern himself with thesecontending theories. It is quite a different matter, however,when one turns to the Alice books.We see Carroll as fairly sure of himself in Wonderland: theOxford child he works from there is still quite young. Hereventual maturation does not yet pose a threat to him (although that maturation is anticipated in the sister's soliloquyat the end of that book). At one point we are told about theDodo, which had appeared in Wonderland, "... the Dodocould not answer without a great deal of thought, and it stoodfor a long time with one finger pressed upon its forehead, (theposition in which you usually see Shakespeare, in the pictures "I see you're admiring my little box, " the Knight said in afriendly tone. "It's my own invention — to keep clothes andsandwiches in. You see I carry it upside-down, so that the raincan't get in. "ofhim). ..." It seems to be generally known that "Dodo" wasa nickname for Dodgson. (We also see the Dodo invent andorganize a game, just as Dodgson is known to have done onmany occasions.)Does not Carroll quietly recognize himself here as a kind ofShakespeare, as doing for children or with the child's worldwhat Shakespeare had done for and with adults? Are we notagain reminded ("one finger pressed upon its forehead") thatthe greatest poets do not rely on inspiration alone, that intelligence and thought are critical in what they do? One can seehere a self-conscious poet, someone who realizes andappreciates what he is doing, but perhaps not without someself-mockery.All this is merely to be glimpsed in Wonderland. In Looking-Glass, published six years later, the poet is much more explicitabout his state of mind, perhaps because he is more threatenedas a human being by the maturation of the girl who has meantso much to him.4 Alice must pass through the forest in StageVII (the next-to-last stage) of her journey to queenhood. Aknight must help her along. It has been noticed by commen-29"Can't remember what things?" said the Caterpillar.tators that the White Knight who comes to help Alice verymuch resembles Dodgson physically; it has also been noticedthat he is one of the few characters, in the all too oftenthreatening world of the two books, who seems really fond ofAlice.But I do not believe it has been noticed that the White Knightis presented at his most confident in the role of poet. In thecourse of this forest episode, he falls off his horse some thirteen times. He is an awful rider — and even the compassionateAlice cannot always restrain her mirth at his ingenious incompetence. But while he recites his poem, a longish poem in whichan old man (like himself?) gives three accounts of his life, hesits securely in his saddle, without even holding the reins. TheWhite Knight resumes falling off his horse after he serves aspoet.Perhaps this is indeed the story of Dodgson-Carroll's life.The White Knight knows that Alice must grow up, but hecannot bear the sight of her leaving him; he must have it seemthat he leaves her. She readily agrees to see him off (no reasonis given — it is simply understood between them? — why hemakes this request) before she crosses the final brook.The poet does not seem to think much of what lies ahead forAlice. At the outset, the Red Queen had promised "feastingand fun" in the Eighth Square — but life in that square (just asin the Garden of Wonderland) turns out to be far less pleasantthan had been anticipated. Dodgson-Carroll evidently did notsee adulthood as an attractive (however inevitable) successor tochildhood — and this may have helped him to see life as adream, as something to be diverted (if not even enriched) by ingenious play with children. But Alice will not be denied: onemay even say, nature will not be denied, however much this30 poet (or a part of him) would arrest this development.There is about all this the poignancy expressed in the sister'sreflections at the end of Wonderland and restated in the poemappended to Looking-Glass. But there is, for the poet, someself-knowledge as well. As a non-poet, Dodgson stumblesalong. Did he sense this would be especially true of himself as alover (or father)? But as a dreamer (or poet), Carroll can asserthimself and touch the child in us all, thereby reviving our"vanish'd summer glory."55. Dreams and dreamersA recourse to play and dream — to the kind of playfuldreaming which is drawn upon for both these books — is arespectable escape for the adult to whom everyday life hasnever become attractive. Is there not about all this somethingultimately questionable? It is not, in the final analysis, serious.But in a poet of genius it can be great fun, and instructive,especially when (as here) there is a piquant mixture of old-fashioned propriety, whimsy and modern science.Perhaps the most valuable lesson for us older readers of theAlice books is what a sensitive observer such as Carroll canteach us about the nature of dreams. Or rather, we can confirma good deal of what we all already know and perhaps have always known about dreams. By thus making explicit andexamining further what we know, we may add to our awareness not only of dreams by also of poetry and the mind of man.One can catalog dozens of instances in the Alice books whichdepend upon Carroll's awareness of the nature of dreams, anawareness which may be as informed and perceptive as anyfound in modern literature. A few examples must suffice here:in dreams the incongruous is casually accepted as routine; onecan do all sorts of dangerous things without injury; one canwish for a way out of a predicament — and miraculous meanssomehow become available; one is unexpectedly called upon toproduce "prizes" and finds them in one's pocket, with justenough for everyone; there are a frustrating inability to do thesimplest things and an exhilarating ability to do the most difficult; scenes flow easily into one another, as one knows justwhere to look for what one wants; one can pass on to something different when one's interest in or ability to cope with asituation fades.Is not everything in a dream "known" by the dreamerthroughout the dream (except, perhaps, when outside stimulisuddenly intrude)? Is not a dreamer really in control from theoutset, anticipating what is to come, somehow handling allthat comes along in a manner which had been originally"planned" by her? And are not the Alice books sound, so faras they go, in thus presenting the dreams of their heroine —dreams in which each memorable character has a part of thedreamer in it?Throughout a dream the dreamer knows what she isdoing— or, at least, is aware of much of what she knows in herwaking state. She incorporates into her dream what she has experienced theretofore, what is happening around her, what shebelieves to be good, what she happens to want and what she hasimagined. All this permits her (especially if she has a well-ordered soul) to understand better, and to accept with moregrace and perhaps even wisdom, the sometimes harsh necessities of what Nietzsche called "everyday reality."The dreamer usually controls the length of her dream. Inboth books, Alice breaks out of the dream world, therebyreasserting her dedication to waking life and the standards andaspirations she has been taught. When she awakens inLooking-Glass, Alice can confidently bring the two worldstogether, the waking and the dreaming, by connecting"people" and incidents in the dream to her everyday experiences and acquaintances.6It is significant, I believe, that Alice recalls her immortaldreams as "wonderful" and "nice." Does she not therebyratify, and reinforce, the kind of human being she is?6. A child and her dreamsI have suggested that the experience, character and aspirations of the dreamer are critical in determining the content andtone of a dream. Can these, however, be Alice's dreams? Ofcourse, Lewis Carroll imagined all this — but is he sound inwhat he attributes to Alice?By and large, it can be argued, nothing is presented but whatAlice herself observes. Carroll does slip when he presents de-"Feather! Feather!" the Sheep cried again, taking moreneedles. "You'll be catching a crab directly. " tails in episodes which Alice does not notice, perhaps evencould not notice. This flaw is difficult to avoid, especially sincethe poet always does know more than even his principal character, if only because he knows the whole story in advance andin a way that a character, in the progress of a story, cannot. Butthen, I have argued, Alice (as dreamer) also knows the wholestory in advance.A truly serious artistic flaw would be to present dreamswhich simply are not consistent with the character and experience of the supposed dreamer. Some sophisticateddevotees of the Alice books consider Alice herself as essentiallyirrelevant to the story, as merely a foil for Carroll's wit. Forsuch readers, far more important than Alice are the other characters in the stories, the episodes, the commentaries on humanaffairs, the logical games and the paradoxes.There is a surface plausibility to the belief that Alice does notreally matter. Consider, however, what I have suggested aboutthe decisions Alice (as dream-character) does make, about therelation between the ways she conducts herself and the outcomes of the two books. I suspect that the decisive role ofAlice, which may become fully evident only to the reader whoplots (as I have begun to do here) the developments in eachbook, is instinctively sensed by the sympathetic child in thereader — and adds to the charm and interest of the books foryoung and old alike.But we still have the problem whether a child's mind can beas subtle as Carroll seems to have it in the Alice books (whetheror not he is aware of what he has done). It is a mind which can,for instance, sense the White Knight's ambivalence about thepawn's impending elevation to queenhood, and which cansense as well that the decent thing to do is allow the WhiteKnight to leave her rather than for her to leave him. Does notthe sensitive and decent woman in Alice recognize and respectthe signals transmitted by the vulnerable Dodgson?How subtle, indeed, is a child's mind? Do we not underestimate the complexity of the souls of children? After all,what do Platonic suggestions about the innateness and pervasiveness of "the ideas" and about the nature of recollectionteach us about what is somehow in every human soul? Thus,for example, may not the alert, intelligent child intuitivelygrasp and rework what is implied in the folklore, morality andhistory (and hence language) of her people?Who is the Alice who dreams the dreams recorded in LewisCarroll's narratives? She does have the form of a nicelycourteous girl of some seven years, an imaginative, good-natured and sensible explorer. But there is about this curiousgirl something eternal as well — and this truly distinctive partof her may be divined in the soul she shares with the agingpoet who has proved her benevolently perceptive spokesman.7. Nature and poetryOur understanding of human things, which poetry isdedicated to helping us with, cannot rest only on such books asthese . If sense is to be made of the whole of things , we need alsoto learn more about what an Alice would be like as a woman, aswell as about the male side of humanity (both among children31and among adults) and about the tragic dimension of life.To make sense — or should we not say, to discover thesense? — of the whole depends, therefore, upon a thoroughexploration of nature, an examination of the status of nature inhuman things. What does nature mean to Carroll? Is not he (ora part of him) threatened by it? Nature does mean, amongother things, growth and dissolution, whereas Carroll yearns(in a childlike way) to deny change and death (and hence lifeitself).But is it not also childlike — and Carroll respects this in Alice— to want to grow, to take one's chances with life, to try toNOTES1. See Anastaplo, The Constitutionalist (Dallas: Southern MethodistUniversity Press, 1971), pp. 30-32 (Shakespeare), 787 (Proust), 807(Homer), 806-808 (nuclear physics). Consider, also, the instructiveorganization, in Boccaccio's Decameron, of the ten sets of tenstories. See, on how to read a book, Leo Strauss, On Tyranny (NewYork: Free Press, 1963).2. Virginia Wexman has observed (in an unpublished paper, University of Chicago, 1973), "[Once Alice] has learned to control hersize by eating the appropriate side of the mushroom, the issue of heridentity never again comes up. And from that point onward, her predominant attitude toward the creatures of Wonderland changesfrom one of timid acquiescence and confusion to a more relaxedassertiveness." Thus Mrs. Wexman, too, seems to have responded(from another perspective) to my "Stage VII" as the turning pointof the story.It is not clear, by the way, that the mushroom can affect anyoneelse as it does Alice. Is not the Caterpillar satisfied with its size? Itseems to be only the child Alice for whom changes in size matter, asis appropriate for creatures who are all too often aware of their disabilities because of their size and who long for the day when they canboth know and cope with the adult world (or, rather, the world runby adults — by the adults who matter so much to the young andwhom they are destined to replace).The twelve size changes by Alice in Wonderland may be found atthe following places in Martin Gardner, The Annotated Alice (NewYork: World Publishing Co., 1971): pp. 31, 35, 39, 57, 63, 73, 74,77, 78, 91, 104, 147-161.3. Mr. Gardner observes, "Alice's bewildering changes of size in[Wonderland] are replaced [in Looking-Glass] by equally bewildering changes of place, occasioned of course by the movementsof chess pieces over the board." The Annotated Alice, p. 172.It must suit Carroll just fine that a pawn begins in the second row:he is not interested in infancy; he likes his children mobile and articulate, and of course well-mannered. (Alice is seven in Wonderland,seven and one-half in Looking-Glass. Ruskin's impressions of AliceLiddell as a child are indicated in The Annotated Alice, p. 12.)Playing cards figure critically in Wonderland. Does thirteen (as inthe thirteen stages I have conjured up there) come from the numberof cards in each suit in a deck of cards? To ask such a question is toassume that dreams do make sense?4. Alice Liddell was born in 1852. The Wonderland story was firsttold to her and her sisters in 1862; it was published in 1865. Looking-Glass was published in 1871.On May 11, 1865, Dodgson recorded in his diary, "Met Alice andMiss Prickett in the quadrangle: Alice seems changed a good deal,and hardly for the better — probably going through the usual awkward stage of transition." Mr. Gardner notes that although "themajority of Carroll's child-friends broke off contact with him (or hewith them) after their adolescence," "the finest tribute ever paid toCarroll are the recollections of him expressed by Alice in her lateryears." The Annotated Alice, p. 173.5. The Annotated Alice, p. 174. The selfish part of Dodgson-Carrollmay be seen in the Red Knight, whom the White Knight must overcome before Alice can go on to her destination.See, for an indication of Dodgson's psychic limitations, The become the complete adult to which one is drawn by nature,however forbidding this prospect may at times seem to theimmature? And does not nature try to teach child and adultalike that virtue is somehow rewarded, that prudence andhence self-restraint make sense?We have begun, but only begun, to answer the question ofwhat sense there is to human things by noticing how the Alicestories (which in this respect imitate nature) are put together,what helps make them "work" as deservedly popular storiesand why it is that our maturing heroine can entrust herself with— and interest us in — the adventures she dares to dream.'Annotated Alice, p. 251, n. 4. Readers familiar with the theological,political and academic controversies of Dodgson's day can no doubtfind much of interest buried in the ^4//ce books, as can those with ataste for sociological and psychoanalytical excavations.The three accounts of the old man's life, given (autobio-graphically?) by the White Knight, bear looking into. What hedescribes in the first account ("I look for butterflies/That sleepamong the wheat;/I make them into mutton-pies, /And sell them inthe street.") is both incongruous and attractive. But the old man'sfirst account is not attended to, and he must give another (moreprosaic?) and still another (even more prosaic?) account. But shouldnot the first account remain the most haunting and instructive, atleast for those who listen properly? Those pies are sold to men —all of us? — "who sail on stormy seas."6. Such bringing together of the two worlds is also done after Alice'sdream in Wonderland, but there it is done primarily by Alice's oldersister.The commonsensical reader is not likely to be as uncertain asCarroll tries to have both Alice and the reader be, about whether it isall the Red King's dream or Alice's dream in Looking-Glass. Is it notclearly the dream of Carroll's Alice, in that it is Alice's characterwhich determines what happens in this dream? In this respect,Carroll's deep-rooted artistic instincts prevail over his modern"philosophical" opinions.The "whose dream?" inquiry Carroll attempts to leave us withmay draw upon and reflect the Cartesian influence in modernity.Indeed, one might even say that Lewis Carroll would not have beenpossible without Rene Descartes.7. Uses, in the Alice books, of some form of "nature" may be foundat the following places in The Annotated Alice, pp. 26, 45, 55, 87,90, 139, 198, 211, 232, 263, 287, 335. See, also, ibid., pp. 33 ("whatgenerally happens," "in the common way"), 148 ("grow at a reasonable pace"), 226-227 (on the significance of names), 266 ("onecannot help growing older"). See, on nature and the guidance it provides, Anastaplo, "One Introduction to Confucian Thought,"University of Chicago Magazine, Summer 1974, p. 21; "On LeoStrauss," ibid., Winter 1974, p. 36; Human Being and Citizen(Chicago: Swallow Press, 1975), Essays 4 and 6.Does Carroll's nominalism undermine "nature" as a standard?And does the modern infatuation with individualism also encouragea depreciation of nature as something in accordance with which individuals should be shaped? Has the modern unnatural enthronementof childhood been prompted by the prevailing concern with individuality and hence with the formative years one happens to have?See ibid. , Essays 7 and 17 (on the "self" and on death).The emphasis in Wonderland seems to be placed upon Alice's"adventures" and in Looking-Glass upon "what Alice foundthere." The former dream may be more concerned with the play ofchildren and with action (and ends at the trial with a problem ofjustice), the latter with a journey of maturation and with one'sobservations en route (and ends with a problem of knowledge:whose dream is it?). Thus, the first story is concerned more withacting, the second with knowing. Are we not to understand that onemust, before one can become a complete adult, come to terms withboth of these related, but yet quite different, activities of the humansoul? See Plato, Republic 487b-488a.32^Alumni V^ewsClass notesr\A in memoriam: Edith Simpkin Battis-^* combe, ab'04, Exmouth, Devon,England, died July 16; Edith ThornsGordon, p1ib'04, former dean of women atKalamazoo (Mi.) College and the mother often children, all living, died August 6 in Milwaukee; Ovid Rogers Sellers, ab'04, Biblicalarcheologist, former professor of OldTestament and dean of McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, died July 6 inLexington, Mo.(\H in memoriam: Basil Brewer, x'07," ' president and treasurer of E. Anthony& Sons, Inc., the principal owner of the NewBedford Standard-Times and the Cape CodStandard-Times and the owner of severalradio and television stations, died October 5at his summer home in Chatham, Ma.(\Q in memoriam: Rose Josephine Seitz,UO phB'08, phM'09, retired Chicagoteacher, died August 16.1 f\ in memoriam: Nina Yeoman Holton,¦l" pIib'IO, who was active in the NorthernIllinois Federation of Women's Auxiliariesof Goodwill Industries, died July 6 inChicago; Lucia Raymond Steidel, phB'10,operator of a personnel agency in the SanFrancisco area for more than fifty years, anactivist in Bay Area women's affairs, diedJuly 27 at the home of her daughter in Alexandria, Va.1 ^ in memoriam: Edmund Vincent*¦£* Cowdry, Sr.,phi>'12, cancer researcherand gerontologist, professor emeritus ofanatomy at the Washington Universityschool of medicine, died June 25 at his St.Louis (Mo.) home; Dwight P. Green, Sr.,jd'12, retired Chicago attorney living in KeyBiscayne, Fl., died August 3.1 'i in memoriam: Hyrum L. Mulliner,¦I 3 llb'13, Salt Lake City, Ut., died June10, 1975.1 c ernest j. morris, pIib' 15, who three*¦ ~ years ago, starting in Georgia, hikedthe southernmost 800 miles of the Appalachian Trail but had to stop because of theadvancing autumn (as recounted in thesepages in the September/October, 1972,issue), went back to the trail last spring andhiked the northern 1 ,200 miles, finishing inSeptember atop Mount Katahdin in Maine.Even though he accomplished the feat in twoinstalments, he believes that he, at 86, is theoldest person ever to go the whole distance.Morris won his letter in cross country in hisdays at the University, and feels that hisexperience as a harrier helped build the stamina which, sixty-one years later, servedhim in good stead.He is now back in his adopted home in theCalifornia Sierras, where his principaloccupation is, naturally, mountain climbing.george caldwell, phB'15, Brunswick,Ga., was thrown a surprise party last July atJekyll Island, off the coast of Georgia, onthe occasion of his 83rd birthday. Attendingthe festivities, which included dancing, abirthday cake, champagne, etc., were hiswife Edna's five sisters and one brother andtheir spouses. Last May the Florida TimesUnion ran a Sunday feature article onCaldwell entitled "Caruso Memories Lingeron for Brunswick Resident." The article recounted Caldwell's experience as one of threeUniversity men responding to the call forsupernumeraries when Caruso sang Pagliacciwith the Chicago Grand Opera. A man ofmultiple careers who for twenty-three yearswas a Presbyterian minister, Caldwell hasgained considerable theatrical experiencesince those days in Chicago. His creditsinclude the role of Cardinal Wolsey in the1967 Oak Ridge (Tn.) Playhouse productionof A Man for All Seasons. Morris at the final pinnacle of his lengthyhike.in memoriam: Not previously noted inthese pages was the death some two years agoWARBLE AW/AY A U/ONDERFUL VA/EEk_ CANARIESYou'll be distant from Spain, but the cuisine's espana;You'll be close to Afrique, but the climate is bonnier;Astride a real camel; you'll view a volcano;Swap squawks with a parrot; swim, golf -- it's muy bueno;See Columbus' casita; eat a Tenerife banana;Just soak up the sun, and murmur, Manana."$379departure from Chicago: February 26, 1976 (January 16 departurehas sold out, and we are now accepting reservations on this secondflight.)Per person based on double occupancy, plus 15% tax and servicecharges. Full payment due January 12. Deposit of $100 will reserveyour spot.To sign up for the Canary Islands Carnival or for more information, call or writeRuth Halloran, Alumni House, 5733 University Ave., Chicago, 111. 60637, (312)753-2178.33of Roland B. Daley, pIib'15, Shreveport,La.; Edward Zbitovsky Rowell, pIib'15,am' 16, pIvd'22, emeritus professor of publicspeaking at the University of California atBerkeley, died in May, 1975; Carl O. Sauer,pho'15, emeritus professor and dean of thegeography department at the University ofCalifornia at Berkeley, founder of what became known as the "Berkeley school of cultural geography," who was regarded as oneof the most influential geographers of hisgeneration, died July 18 at 85.1 11 in memoriam: Virginia Titus Dodge,*^ x'16, died July 28 in Princeton, N.J.;Belle Finston Korman, sb'16, md'24, a cardiologist who practiced in Chicago for forty-five years, died July 30 in Los Angeles whereshe had been living since her retirement tenyears ago.1 n in memoriam: Rabbi Samuel H.*¦ ' Markowitz, am'17, pho'32, Plantation,Fl., retired spiritual leader of Beth DavidReform Congregation, Philadelphia, diedSeptember 13.1 O in memoriam: Arthur A. Baer, pItb' 18,1 ° president of the Emeritus Club and theClass of '18, banker and civic leader, diedOctober 24 at his home in Chicago. At thetime of his death Mr. Baer was boardchairman of three banks: the Beverly Bank,Chicago, the Gary-Wheaton Bank,Wheaton, II., and the Riverdale Bank, River-dale, II. The owner of Baer's DepartmentStore until its closing in 1960, he was simultaneously president of the Beverly Bank from1944 to 1960, when he was made chairman.He had been a bank director since 1929. Mr.Baer was an unusually devoted and generoussupporter of the University. A former president of the Alumni Association ( 1 950) andchairman of the Alumni Foundation, he wasa member of the National DevelopmentCouncil, the Visiting Committees on theHumanities and the College, Citizen's Boardand the Alumni Fund Board. He received acitation for public service from theUniversity in 1945, a plaque for outstandingcitizenship from the Kiwanis Club in 1968,and was named the Chicago Park Districtsenior citizen of the year in 1969. He is survived by his wife, Alice Hogge Baer, ab'07.David Eisenberg, phB'18, consultingeditor of Graphic Arts magazine, died July27 in Chicago. He was a founder of GraphicArts in 1929 and was its managing editor formany years.Florence Lamb Gentleman, phB'18, whoserved the Chicago school system for forty-one years as an American history teacher andelementary school principal, died October 8,1974, in Niles, II.Judge J. Patton Neeley, llb'18, a memberof the Salt Lake City bench from 1950 to1969, died August 1 1 in Logan, Ut.Florence Owens, pfiB'18, retired supervisorof physical education, died August 19 inDuluth, Mn.Irene Frank Page, sb'18, of Glencoe, II., a retired teacher, died July 27.Robert Lincoln Turner, sb'18, FortWorth, Tx. , a retired professor of physics atStephen F. Austin University, Nacogdoches,Tx., died January 26, 1975.May Theilgaard Watts, sb'18, teacher,author, lecturer, a pioneer in conservationand ecology, died August 20 in her Naper-ville (II.) home. From 1942 until her retirement in 1961, Mrs. Watts served as staffnaturalist at the Morton Arboretum in Lisle,II. After retiring she became the leadingfigure in the establishment of the IllinoisPrairie Path, a forty-mile hiking and recreation trail on the former right-of-way of theChicago, Aurora & Elgin Railroad in DuPage County, II. For her efforts, she washonored by the Interior Department and cutthe ribbon that opened the Prairie Path tobecome part of the National Trails System. Awriter and illustrator, she won many awardsin the fields of conservation and horticulture.Her books included Reading the Landscapesof Europe and several guides to the outdoors.1 Q in memoriam: Susan Brandeis Gilbert,'•¦' rD,'19, New York attorney and daughter of the late Associate Justice Louis D.Brandeis of the Supreme Court, diedOctober 8 in New York. Ms. Brandeis, whoused her maiden name professionally, wasadmitted to practice before the SupremeCourt in the early 1920s. In 1925 she set aprecedent when she became the first daughterof a justice to practice before that tribunal.The case involved a provision of the WarInsurance Act. Her father withdrew from thebench because of his daughter's appearanceas counsel and did not take part in thedecision, which went against her client. In1939 she went into partnership with her latehusband, also an attorney, in the New Yorklaw firm of Gilbert & Brandeis.^C\ ln memoriam: Rose Oberman Fisher,^J x'20, a retired teacher and wife ofJoseph Fisher, p1ib'16, jd'18, died October 8in Chicago; Clarence H. Schaller, sb'20,md'21 , died earlier this year.^ 1 in memoriam: Rev. John H. Blough,¦^1 am'21; Andrew McNally Neff, sm'21,pItd'25, research chemist, music patron,aviation authority, one time facultymember at California Institute of Technology, died September 3 in Pasadena;Gordon L. Rosene, md'21, died July 30 inSwedish Covenant Hospital, Chicago, wherehe had been a staff member from 1927 untilhis retirement in 1967.^^ Sydney shlre, sb'22, Dallas, "was**" pleasantly surprised" earlier this yearwhen he learned that his professional engineer's license had been extended to 1977. InJuly Shire attended the state AmericanLegion convention in Chicago and waslooking forward to meeting with fellowmembers of the Retread organization, anhonorary society of people who served in both world wars, at a convention to be heldin late October in North Redington Beach,Fl.ln memoriam: Eleanore Hanson Rustman,phB'22, Northbrook, II., died July 1.tyi FRANCES ANDREWS MULLEN, PhB'23,^3 am'27, phc'39, was installed as president of the International Council of Psychologists, Inc., at its thirty-third annualmeeting in Chicago in August, 1975. She isplanning the next convention to be held inParis in July, 1976.ln memoriam: La Verne Argabright,p1ib'23, a pioneer in the fields of outdoorscience education and conservation,associate professor emerita of biology atWestern Michigan University, Kalamazoo,died August 3.Adolph August Brux, phD'23, Villa Park,II., retired assistant editorial secretary at theOriental Institute, the University of Chicago,died August 13.Lars M. D. Carlson, p1ib'23, president/owner/manager of the Lars CarlsonCompany, Seattle manufacturing agents, amember of the UC alumni cabinet, diedAugust 24.Andrew W. Cordier, am'23, PhD '26,president emeritus of Columbia University,top aide and troubleshooter to UnitedNations secretaries-general from 1946 to1962, died July 11 in Manhasset, N.Y. Mr.Cordier began his career with the UN whenhe went to San Francisco and then London tohelp draft the original UN charter. He wenton to work closely with secretaries-generalTrygve Lie, Dag Hammarskjold and UThant, the last of whom once describedCordier as "a man as identified with the UNas the Statue of Liberty is with the city ofNew York."Aileen Coulson Daugherty, PhB'23, am'43,a retired English teacher living in La Grange,II., died earlier this year.Glen Alfred Lloyd, ro'23, life trustee ofthe University of Chicago and a partner inthe Chicago law firm of Bell, Boyd, Lloyd,Haddad and Burns, died September 14 at hisranch near Antonito, Co. Mr. Lloyd, whobecame a trustee in June, 1953, served aschairman of the Board of Trustees fromJune, 1956, to June, 1963, and then wasmade a life trustee. He had been serving as aconsultant to the University's committee toselect a new president.24 ^ondersof the World of Bears, by^""" BERNADINE FREEMAN BAILEY, AM'24,who has been studying and photographingbears all over the world for the past severalyears, brings to the young reader more thanfifty pages of entertainment and informationin simple, direct text and pictures compiledfrom government agencies, museums, zoosand private sources, as well as from theauthor's own camera work (New York:Dodd, Mead & Company, $4.95). Bailey haspublished some 100 books, including thejunior novel, Paris, I Love You, which wonfor her a decoration from the French Societe34des Arts, Sciences, et Lettres.in memoriam: Carroll Lawrence Chris-tenson, phB'24, p!id'31, who retired as professor of economics at Indiana University in1972, died October 11 in Bloomington, In.;Minnie Jessie Crawford, sm'24, whoseteaching career spanned many years, schoolsand levels, died August 7 in a nursing homenear Tullahoma, Tn.; Cornelius Gouwens,pho'24, mathematics professor at Iowa StateUniversity from 1920 until his retirement,died July 26 in Ames, la.; Viola M. Lynch,phB'24, died August 6 while on vacation inEstes Park, Co.; Howard A. Vaughan, x'24,board chairman of the Vaughan & BushnellManufacturing Company, died July 18 inChicago.>yc BENJAMIN E. mays, am'25, pho'35, in**•* ceremonies at Dartmouth College thispast June during which he was awarded anhonorary doctorate of laws, was cited as"spiritual mentor of the late Martin LutherKing, Jr." and for his "major role in thefight for social justice in America." Mays,president of Morehouse College, Atlanta,from 1940 to 1967, was elected president ofthe Atlanta Board of Education at age 75.in memoriam: Lillis Price Armstrong,sm'25, former teacher and member of theWestern Springs (II.) school board, diedAugust 4 at her home in Black Mountain,N.C.; Marian Taylor Boyd, am'25, HighlandPark, II., social figure and consultant toseveral youth welfare associations, diedAugust 24 while visiting in Rochester, N.Y.;Ernestine Vivian Oldham, phB'25, am'34,retired Chicago teacher, worker with theCatholic Interracial Council, died September1 1 in Hinsdale, II.; William J. Pringle,phB'25, former senior vice-president andgeneral manager of Foote, Cone & Belding'sLos Angeles office, died July 28 at his homein Pasadena.*}/Z An honorary doctor of humane letters^" degree was conferred upon IllinoisSupreme Court Justice Walter v.schaefer, p1ib'26, jd'28, by the DePaulUniversity college of law, Chicago, in convocation ceremonies earlier this year. JusticeSchaefer was engaged in private and governmental law practice from 1929 until 1940. Hewas professor of law at Northwestern University from 1 940 to 1 95 1 , when he wasappointed to the Illinois Supreme Court.in memoriam: Moffatt Grier Boyce, sm'26,pIid'30, professor emeritus of mathematicsat Vanderbilt University, died July 10 inNashville, Tn. Mr. Boyce served theUniversity a number of times as Nashvillechairman of the Alumni Fund.^n harold f. schwede, sb'27, is serving^ ' his third term as chairman of the Nor-walk Community College Regional Council,an advisory body composed of residents ofthe region which the South Norwalk, Ct.,college serves.in memoriam: Charles Andrew McNabb,phB'27, jd'28, bls'46, formerly of Chicago, died September 29 in Burlington, la.TO gene kistler, sm'28, md'31, Chatta-^O nooga, Tn., surgeon has retired afterforty-five years of service in the medicalprofession.CHARLES DURWARD VAN CLEAVE, PnD'28,Chapel Hill, N.C., emeritus professor ofanatomy at the University of NorthCarolina, has received the UNC school ofmedicine's highest honor, the distinguishedservice award, in recognition of his accomplishments as a "researcher, consultant,author, student of the arts, teacher. . . . Bestknown as a superlative teacher of grossanatomy, he spent thirty-one years inspiring,coaching, cajoling and intriguing studentsabout this basic science."in memoriam: Jacob R. K. Stauffer, sm'28,Kingston, R. I., professor emeritus ofmathematics at the University of RhodeIsland, died September 2.^Q HELENE MYNCHENBERG WALLACE**2 toolan, sb'29, Old Bennington, Vt.,founder and first director of the researchinstitute of Putnam Memorial Hospital, hasfreed herself of the administrative duties ofthe director's post but is still active in thecancer research laboratory, spendingapproximately three days per week workingthere. Her other interests include gardening,civic beautification, cooking and the collecting of antique quilts.Rabbi irvtng a. weingart, phB'29, of theCentral Synagogue, Chicago, has received anhonorary doctorate in humane letters fromthe Jewish Theological Seminary ofAmerica, New York, for outstanding serviceto his community.in memoriam: Warren C. Lappin, am'29,retired academic vice-president of MoreheadState University, Ky., died August 6.George F. Nardin, phB'29, retired seniorsystems analyst with ARMCO, theMiddletown, Oh., steel company, diedAugust 1 1 in Cincinnati.Stanley Young, phB'29, poet, playwright,publisher, literary reviewer, teacher, diedMarch 22, 1975, in Huntington, N.Y. Mr.Young was the author of five full-lengthplays, four of which were produced onBroadway. They were Robin Landing (1937),Bright Rebel (1938), Ask My Friend Sandy(1943), and Mr. Pickwick (1952). His fifth,Laurette, based on the life of actress LauretteTaylor, was destined for Broadway in 1964,but it closed in Philadelphia after its star,Judy Holliday, became ill. Laurette waspresented at the Dublin Festival withSiobhan McKenna in the lead role.1A meyer s. ryder, p1ib'30, professor•^ " of industrial relations in the graduateschool of business administration, theUniversity of Michigan, has retired. Beforebeginning his twenty-three-year associationwith UM, Ryder served many years in thefederal government as a regional director ofthe National Labor Relations Board and as aPresidential appointee to the National Wage Stabilization Board. He has been a visitingprofessor at the Netherlands School ofEconomics (Rotterdam, Holland) and theUniversity of Aston (Birmingham, England).In retirement he will continue to write in themanagement-labor disputes area and carryon his labor arbitration practice.February will see the publication of The3:10 to Anywhere, a tongue-in-cheek travelbook by leo rosten, phB'30, pIid'37. Thebook (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976),which is full of odd historical data andcharacters, is Rosten's twenty-third.EDWARD l. haenisch, sb'30, pIid'35,chairman of the chemistry department andscience division, Wabash College, Craw-fordsville, In. , has won $ 1 ,000 as recipient ofa 1975 Manufacturing Chemists Associationchemistry teacher award. Earlier this yearVillanova (Pa.) University conferred anhonorary doctoral degree upon Haenisch.Wallace n. jamie, p1ib'30, recently retireddirector of public relations for the CarnationCompany, Los Angeles, has been appointedpublic relations coordinator of the LosAngeles Bicentennial Committee.Chicago lawyers john mccarthy, pItb'30,jd'32, and susan a. Henderson, jd'69, havebeen elected to head the newly formedChicago chapter of the University of ChicagoLaw School Alumni Association. McCarthy,a partner in the law firm of McCarthy andLevin, was chosen the chapter's first president. He is general counsel to the AmericanBar Association and a past president of theABA. Henderson, an associate of the lawfirm of Schiff, Hardin and Waite, waselected first vice-president. She was trialattorney for the U.S. Department of Justicebefore joining the Chicago firm in 1972.Others elected to office in the Chicagochapter are: Joseph ducoeur, ab'54, jd'56,of the law firm Kirkland and Ellis, electedvice-president; charles a. lippitz, p!ib'48,jd'51, of Levenfield, Kanter, Baskes andLippitz, vice-president; aldus s. Mitchell,jd'58, of McCoy, Ming and Black, vice-president; GEORGE W. ROTHSCHILD, JD'42,general counsel of the General AmericanTransportation Corporation, vice-president;erwtn a. tomaschoff, mba'58, jd'61, ofMayer, Brown and Piatt, vice-president;benson t. caswell, jd'74, of Gardner,Carton, Douglas, Childgren and Waud,secretary; Raymond a. jensen, jd'50, ofBurditt and Calkins, treasurer.in memoriam: Grace M. Boyd, phB'30;Frieda Mae Gipson, am'30; Wayne Gordon,md'30; Rabbi Mordecai A. Schultz, phB'30.11 "Financial aid was my number one•^ -*¦ problem for entering the graduateschool at the University," writes Captainhenry t. richard, sr., am'31, U.S. Armyretired, in his autobiography, A Tree,published July 25 in a limited, numbered,and autographed edition. "As a postal clerkI worked at the U.S. Post Office for one yearfor a small salary; that money was good for agiant step upward." With additional funds35provided by the John Simon GuggenheimMemorial Foundation and the RockefellerFoundation, Richard went on to completethe requirements for his degree at Chicago,including a thesis entitled "Evidence ofNegro Migration from the Upper to theLower South, 1820-1845." The book, whichincludes a number of poems in addition tothe autobiographical episodes, is availablefrom Captain Richard at 2019 S. Glebe Rd.,Arlington, Va. 22204 ($5 a copy, postagepaid).GLADYS CHAMBERS ROBINSON, SM'31, uponher retirement from full-time teaching atGeorge Williams College, Downers Grove,II., last June, was promoted to professoremeritus status. Robinson achieved the additional distinction, announced during theschool's spring commencement ceremonies,of having the lovely marsh which lies alongthe 31st Street front of the school named inher honor. "This 'Gladys C. RobinsonMarsh' (which I'd always referred to as'Muskrat Manor')," she writes, "always wasmy favorite campus field site with my botanystudents. . . . Thanks to the UC BotanyDepartment for what little I know." She iscontinuing to teach on a part-time basis.earl v . pulllas ,AM'31,professorofhigher education at the University ofSouthern California, is the author of a newbook, A Common Sense Philosophy forModern Man: A Search for Fundamentals,published in April, 1975, by the Philosophical Library, New York. His book,A Teacher Is Many Things (with James D.Young), Indiana University Press, 1968, hasbeen translated into nine languages and wasselected by the U.S. Information Agency forits Ladder Series. On July 1 Pullias began histwenty-second consecutive year as a memberof the Los Angeles County Board ofEducation, a service, coordinating and policyagency for the Los Angeles County schoolsystem.russell p. MacFALL, am'31, Evanston, II.,retired metropolitan editor of the ChicagoTribune, reports the fifth edition of his GemHunter's Guide and a new book, Mineralsand Gems, were published this year, both byThomas Y. Crowell.in memoriam: Sue Eva Kinsey, p1ib'31;Theodore J. Kuehnert, phB'31.1^ henry rohs, sb'32, retired plant super-•^^ intendent for the American CyanamidCompany, is very active in Rotary and worksas a volunteer for the Red Cross in Kalamazoo, Mi., where he has lived since 1951.milton s. mayer, x'32, whose most recentcollection of sometimes biting and alwayswitty essays and columns, The Nature of theBeast, was published earlier this year by theUniversity of Massachusetts Press, is currently working on a biography of Robert M.Hutchins, to be published by Harper. Mr.Hutchins, Mayer notes in The Nature of theBeast, wrote him a couple of years ago: "Ihave always been a great admirer of yourwork. Have you done any lately?" in memoriam: Lawrence L. Durisch,pho'32, Knoxville, Tn., former chief ofgovernment operations for the TennesseeValley Authority and political scienceprofessor at the University of Tennessee,died August 19.^ 1 charles newton , pnB ' 3 3 , retired33 this past summer as lecturer emeritus inEnglish at the California Institute of Technology. Newton came to Caltech in 1948 asassistant to the president in charge of fundraising, publications, and public relations.He founded the Industrial Associates,directed Caltech 's first major fund raisingcampaign and resigned in 1966 to accept thefaculty appointment he held until retirement.Last spring he was elected president of theVirginia Steele Scott Foundation, whoseobject is to operate a public gallery featuringclassics of American painting.in memoriam: Louise Gerwig East, p1vb'33,Austin, Tx., died April 4, 1975; ClintonHenry Rich, sm'33, died September 6 inMexico City where he had been in businessfor the past thirty years.'J A roland c. matthees, jd'34, has re-*'" tired as vice-president and treasurer ofWittenberg University (Springfield, Oh.)after thirty-two years of service to the school.An expert in the field of taxation as it affectsphilanthropy and deferred giving, Matthiesgained national recognition in the tax reformarena between 1959 and 1966 when he led aneffort to urge Congress to continue itsadvocacy of charitable gifts. He testifiedbefore the Senate finance committee prior toits favorable consideration of the 1969 TaxReform Act. He has also been active in theLutheran Church of America, the BoyScouts and other civic concerns.in memoriam: Herbert S. Grossberg,phB'34; Janette Eckersall McDevitt, phB'34.If john womer,ab'35, retired president3 *¦' of Great Lakes Mortgage Corporation,Chicago, has gone from banking to botany.He is co-owner of Four Seasons LandscapingNursery, Inc., Valparaiso, In., which openedfor business May 10, 1975.in memoriam: Deton J. Brooks, Jr., sb'35,Chicago commissioner of human resourcesand the first black to serve in Mayor Daley'scabinet, died August 29 in Chicago.James A. Harrison, p1id'35, emeritus professor of biology at Temple University, diedAugust 21 in Philadelphia. An instructorin hygiene and bacteriology at UC beforejoining the Temple faculty in 1935, Dr. Harrison was known for his research in the fieldsof immunology and antigenic variations inbacteria and protozoa. He held patents onthe Harrison pipette and test tube pluggingmachines which enabled the insertion ofcotton plugs in bacteriological test tubes tobe made mechanically and quickly. In 1933Dr. Harrison was named to receive theannual Howard Taylor Ricketts prize for research by UC. Later winners were Drs.Albert Sabin and Jonas Salk.Phyllis Johnson McNatt, sb'35,Bronxville, N.Y., died August 10."3/T ALBERTA SCHMIDT STEBBINS, SB'36,3™ South Haven, Mi., who was badly injured in 1964 when she was assaulted by anunknown prowler in her home, and has sinceundergone several major surgeries andvigorous rehabilitation activities, reports herphysical condition is better, but she is stillparalyzed. This past summer she flew toIceland where her younger son, a U.S. Navyaerographer, is stationed. "It was wonderfulgetting to know my [two] grandchildren,"she writes. This winter she plans to visitfamily and friends in the West.Mathematical Carnival, by martinGardner, ab'36, a collection of games drawnfrom his column in Scientific American, hasjust been published (New York: Knopf,1975).C. TAYLOR WHITTLER, AB'36, AM'38,PhD '48, formerly Kansas commissioner ofeducation, joined the University of Texas atSan Antonio in July as associate professor ofeducational management.Appointed by HEW secretary Caspar W.Weinberger earlier this year to the newtwelve-member National Advisory Councilon the Aging were two alumnae: katherlnedunham, p1ib'36, professor of dance andanthropology and director of the performingarts training center, Southern Illinois University, and bernice levin neugarten, ab'36,am'37, pho'43, professor in the Departmentof Behavioral Sciences and the College, theUniversity of Chicago, whose remarks on"The Young-Old" appeared in the Autumn,'75, issue of the magazine.george scott speer, sm'36, has retired asdirector of the institute for psychological services at Illinois Institute of Technology,Chicago. Speer was recently elected presidentof the International Association of Counseling Services.BERNECE KERN SIMON, AB'36, AM'42, Wasnamed to the Samuel Deutsch chair in theSchool of Social Service Administration atChicago early this year. A member of the UCfaculty since 1944, Simon is a specialist onthe issues and problems of graduate socialwork education, and on social caseworktheory which underlies work with individualsand families.in memoriam: Jane Bull, am'36, executivedirector of the Illinois Commission forHandicapped Children from 1947 to 1961,died August 4 in Geneva, II.'J'J ernest l. snodgrass, p1td'37, has re-3 ' turned to Florida Southern Collegeafter around-the-world engagements whichincluded teaching one full year at HiroshimaJogakuin College in Japan. While there, hereports, a UC alumni meeting was held everyWednesday. India was the high point forMrs. Snodgrass (edith saum, x'33), when thecouple visited scenes of her childhood inMudhya Pradesh and the WoodstockSchool.36Starting to readStuart BrentMy father's hands were a miracle of perfection. He could build a house singlehanded.He could give you a haircut and butcher acow. He could fix shoes and make tools anddies. He could farm and irrigate and buildthe prettiest doll houses in the world. Hecould make chairs, tables, cabinets; andeven as I write this, I am staring at a piperack he made for me of hard wood set in amarble base. But it was not his genius as acraftsman which he passed on to me; it washis infatuation with reading.My father immigrated from Russia in1901 and through his manual skill becamean assistant to the chief tool and die makerat the American Car and Foundry Company in Chicago. Ten years later, hebecame the chief tool and die maker himself. He was a man of activity, using hisphysical being all day long. But at night,after supper, he would retire to his favoritechair and open a book and smoke his pipe.Often in the morning he would arise frombed an hour earlier than necessary to finishreading what he had started the nightbefore, so he could go to work "satisfied."It was a solitary addiction. He could noteven discuss his reading with his near neighbors. Cohen, who lived on one side of us,couldn't put two words of English together.Rosenberg, our neighbor on the oppositeside, couldn't care less. His only interestswere pinochle and drinking tea (withlemon).When I was a child, he often allowed meto go with him in the evening to the newpublic library that had just been opened onHoman Avenue, a distance of nearly threemiles. The streets of Chicago's West Sidewere poorly lighted in those days, but it waspossible to walk them without fear. Myfather would check out five books and depart with the books in one hand and mysmall hand in the other. Usually we walkedin total silence until we got to Kobrick'sgrocery and delicatessen. As we approached the lighted window with itsdisplay of candies, bagels and honey cakes,and the salamis hanging from the ceiling,my heart would almost stop. Would father,this night, decide to buy some pipe tobacco,then, looking down from his toweringheight, ask if I would like a sucker or a bagof polly seeds?Mr. Brent (x'40), proprietor of the well-known Chicago bookstore bearing hisname, is also manager of the general booksportion of the University bookstore. He isthe author of The Seven Stairs and the Mr.Toast children's stories, and, with programs of book criticism, was a Chicagotelevision pioneer. His reminiscence also isbeing published elsewhere: Copyright ©1975, Prism, the socioeconomic magazineof the American Medical Assn. In time, we became co-conspirators inthe love of reading. Books might not makeme a better wage earner, he said, but theycould prevent boredom. The experience ofreading a good book was like getting unstuck and reaching out toward somethingentirely new, even though you still wore thesame tie and shirt and met the same people.But the great beauty of the thing, he said,was that when you are reading, you arenever alone. For my father, to be aleyn (theYiddish for loneliness) was one of the tragicelements in man's experience.His favorite writer was Tolstoy. "Whenyou read Dostoevsky," he would say, "youdescend into a coal mine without a ladderfor climbing out. When you read Tolstoy,it's like the sun after living in an icebox."Anatole France's Penguin Island and thecriticisms of Walter Pater were favorites ofhis. He liked Scott and Dickens. No oneunderstood Dickens until he had read OurMutual Friend, he said. It would be a gravemistake to die without having read thatbook. You may be sure I read Dickens untilI couldn't see straight.I became a teen-ager imbued with thedesire to read everything, to know everything, to be everything. With the advent ofthe depression, the fulfilment of thesemodest ambitions required considerable ingenuity. The entire atmosphere of ourhousehold was altered. First, my sister andher husband and two children moved in.Her husband had lost his job after eighteenyears as a pants cutter at Hart, Schaffnerand Marx. Then, my brother who was asalesman for the wholesale division of Marshall Field lost his job, so he and his wifeand three children joined our crowdedhousehold. Now the only place to read waseither in the bathroom or the public library.Even during these difficult and sometimes tragic years, there were evenings filledwith affection and fun. Everyone crowdedinto the big kitchen and then, between teaand sweet cakes and perhaps a drop or two,or even three, of sweet home-made wine,they would talk and tell deprecatory tales ofhuman stupidity and laugh and cry at thesame time. The warmth and marvel ofthose days have never left me.I was seldom without a book. I readwalking along the street; I read standingup, sitting down, I read and read and read.Before the depression and the great influxof family members, the very best time toread was on Saturday mornings. Normallymy mother baked on Friday, and she had agenius for failing to remember that something was in the oven. So if I was lucky,there would be plenty of cookies or cake orstrudel left, slightly burned, that nobodyelse would touch. But I loved it. Then, too,the house was strangely still on Saturdaymornings. No one was home and I couldturn up the volume of the phonograph as loudly as I wished and sit and listen andread and eat cake. It was wonderful.When reading became out of thequestion at home, I simply went to one ofthe two public libraries within walking distance. I liked best the one identified as theDouglas Park branch. It was newer, theseats more comfortable, the selection ofbooks better.While my remarkable father was responsible for my early love of books, Jesse Feld-man, my teacher in senior high schoolliterature, served to transform that loveinto an enduring and ever more passionateaffair. His enthusiasm supported my own,and at the same time held the key to thewealth of possibilities that literature offers.Through Jesse I learned the differencebetween a good book and a bad book. Agood book is, very simply, a revealingbook. A bad book is bad because it is dull.Its author is obviously lying, not necessarilyby purveying misinformation, but becausehe lards his work with any information thatfalls to hand — a sort of narrative treatmentof the encyclopedia. A good book stirs yoursoul. You find yourself lost, not in a worldof fantasy, but in a world where everythingis understood.Nobody can get along without an interiorlife. The soul must be fed, or somethingugly and anti-human fills the void. Spiritualnourishment is not a frill, apart from everyday necessity. The everyday and the ultimate expression of man do not exist apart.Synge remarked: "When men lose theirpoetic feeling for ordinary life and cannotwrite poetry of ordinary things, theirexalted poetry is likely to lose its strength ofexaltation, in the way men cease to buildbeautiful churches when they have losthappiness in building shops."So many years have passed since myfather started me in reading as a way oflife — marking a passage in a letter fromMelville to Hawthorne, his workman'shands caressing the page: "My development," Melville wrote, "has been all withina few years past. Until I was twenty-five Ihad no development at all. From mytwenty-fifth year I date my life. Threeweeks have scarcely passed, at any timebetween then and now, that I have not unfolded within myself." How proud I was tohave got an earlier start!I think of those days when my hair waslong and I wore the only pair of pants I haduntil they were in shreds. I used to sit in theclassroom with my overcoat on so that thepatches on my behind would not show, orstay in the library until closing time wascalled. Then I'd go out into the solitarynight, walking thoughtfully home. I didn'twant money or success or recognition. Ididn't want a single thing from anybody. Iwanted only to be alone, to read; to think;to unfold.carrol c. hall, am'37, retired departmentchairman and science teacher at Springfield(II.) High School and co-founder of theHorace Mann insurance and finance complex, was honored for his service to the community of Springfield at a citizens' dinner,held on his 70th birthday, October 22. Thetestimonial was co-sponsored by the Sangamon County (II.) Historical Society, theSpringfield Civil War Round Table, and theSpringfield chapter of the Sons of theAmerican Revolution.in memoriam: Susan Parker Cobbs,phx>'37, Greensboro, Al., retired dean ofSwarthmore (Pa.) College, died September28; James C. Shelburne, am'37, phrj'53, FallsChurch, Va., died July 14.lO Robert a. mason, x'38, retired from3 O the Lab School, and retha janerosenheimer mason, ab'38, am'45, are enjoying farm life in southwestern Wisconsin.Mrs. Mason is on a leave of absence from theCity Colleges of Chicago where she is anassociate professor of music. Besides gardening, she is fishing, composing music andteaching adult education classes.in memoriam: Philomela Baker Ber-wanger, ab'40 (who considered herself amember of the Class of '38), Hinsdale, II.(wife of Jay Berwanger, ab'36), died September 2; William J. Haggerty, am'38, pho'43,president of the State University TeachersCollege at New Paltz, N.Y., from 1944 to1966, died June 26 in New York; HerbertFrank Larson, ab'38, Glendale, Ca., diedAugust 23.-JQ "The work begun in 1952 by my Ecu-3^ menism Research Agency, in the oldermaterials of the ecumenical movement,"writes Director a. t. dcgroot, pho'39, SunCity, Az., "now includes fourteen titles,embracing seventy-two journals or denominational records, issued in 300 rolls ofmicrofilm. (In Texas this would be regardedas a sub-species of the hoof-and-mouthdisease.)"lucy prescott winslow, am'39, Scars-dale, N.Y., has been named branch administrator of the Grinton I. Will Library of theYonkers (N.Y.) public library system.william m. cruickshank, am'39, directorof the institute for the study of mental retardation and related disabilities at the University of Michigan, has received the 1975education award of the American Association on Mental Deficiency "for distinguishedservice to handicapped individuals and topersonnel preparing for service in this field."Director of ISMRRD since its creation in1966, Cruickshank also holds joint appointments in the UM school of public health,school of education and the college of literature, science and the arts.ROBERT E. CLARK, AM'39, PllD'47,professor of sociology at Pennsylvania StateUniversity, retired September 1 aftertwenty-eight years of service. Clark hasspecialized primarily in the areas of socialproblems, criminology and penology.in memoriam: Judith Graham Pool, sb'39, pho'46, professor of medicine at StanfordUniversity, died July 13 in Stanford after anillness of several months. She was 56. Anoted hemophilia researcher, Dr. Pooldeveloped a simple method for extractingfrom normal blood the protein needed forhemophiliac patients. This enabled hemophiliacs to treat themselves at home withinjections, reducing the length of hospitalization and treatment costs. She received aprofessional acheivement award from UCthis past June.Af\ NORMAN B. SIGBAND, AB'40, AM'41,^-' pho'54, professor of managementcommunications and director of the centerfor management education in the graduateschool of business, University of SouthernCalifornia, has been given a $2,000 award byUSC "for excellence, innovation, and creativity in teaching and research and for extraordinary service to the university." Sigbandis also an author and lecturer and has doneextensive work as an industrial consultant.charlle shedd, x'40, as pastor of theJekyll Presbyterian Church, Jekyll Island,Ga., continues to combine the demands ofhis original career, the ministry, with thoseof best-selling author, public speaker, TVand radio personality and magazinecolumnist. Shedd first hit the big time as anauthor. His Letters to Karen, featured as aReader's Digest "book of the month"selection, has now sold over a million copies.Two subsequent publications, Letters toPhilip and The Stork Is Dead— the latterbased on Shedd's "Sex and Dating" column,which appeared for four years in TeenMagazine — have each reached the half-million mark. His two latest books deal withthe drug culture (75 Your Family TurnedOn?) and chronic obesity (The Fat Is in YourHead) in which Shedd draws on the personalexpertise gained in shedding — and keepingshed— 120 pounds after tipping the scales at320. Shedd has been writing for periodicalson the subject of family and interpersonalrelationships for some twenty-five years. Hisnewest column, "Family Rap," appears in anumber of monthlies. In addition toappearances on national talk shows, hiscredits in the broadcast media include anNBC special on democracy in the home,which he did with his youngest son, Timothy,and a currently syndicated daily radioprogram called "Parent Talk."in memoriam: Frederick Barrett Emery,sb'40, md'42, died June 28, 1974, and amemorial fund has been established in hisname in Concordia, Ks.; Louise E. McGrath,am'40, a teacher in the Chicago publicschools system for most of her life, diedAugust 6; Robert S. Wymer, am'40, who retired in 1973 as assistant director in charge ofthe Pleasant Hill (Ca.) offices of the ContraCosta County Social Service Department,died September 24 in Walnut Creek, Ca.A 1 carl q. christol, pIid'41 , professor" •*¦ of international law and politicalscience at the University of Southern California, has been appointed chairman of thepolitical science department for the 1975-'76 academic year. Christol, who has participated widely in the development of the international law of outer space and of the oceanenvironment, recently authored a report forthe U.S. Senate committee on aeronauticsand astronautics dealing with the international legal and institutional aspectsof the stratospheric ozone problem. He is amember of a USC team of investigatorswhich has received a grant from theSumitomo Foundation for an inquiry intoU.S. and Japanese relations concerningwhaling.MARJORLE BERG LONG, AB'41, Concertpianist, organist for the Thirtieth Church ofChrist Scientist, Los Angeles, and teacher ofpiano and organ at her home studio in SantaMonica, Ca., recently joined the SantaMonica Lyric Chorus and is being featuredas a piano soloist. Long was formerly on thefaculty of the American Conservatory ofMusic, Chicago.donald h. wollett, ab'41 , professor oflabor law at the University of California,Davis, was named earlier this year to the directorship of the state Office of Labor Relations by New York Gov. Hugh L. Carey.ln memoriam: Charlotte Ann BillingtonBreed, am'41 ; Hazel E. Crice, x'41 .A*y gustave s. margolis, ab'42, a mem-"•^ ber of the Johnstown (Pa.) law firm ofMargolis & Coppersmith, is presently servinga term as president of the Cambria County(Pa.) Bar Association.john h. Donnelly, sb'42, md'46, formerlydirector of the Oregon State Health Division,has become medical director of the BoulderCity-County (Co.) Health Department.BRADLEY PATTERSON, JR., AB'42, AM '43, iscurrently working for Mrs. Gerald Ford asassistant to the first lady for staff coordination. Both Patterson and his wife, shlrleyjane dobos, sb '43, have been members of thealumni cabinet and are on the schoolscommittee.ln memoriam: Robert G. Nunn II, jd'42,senior partner in the Washington law firm ofBatzell and Nunn, died August 12 in Arlington, Va., of cancer.^¦1 m memoriam: Peter Briggs, ab'43,^3 author of more than a dozen booksconcerned with oceanography and the forcesof nature, including 200, 000, 000 Yearsbeneath the Sea (written after a voyage onthe Glomar Challenger, which explored thegeology of the ocean in 1968), died July 17 inNew York; Walter Douglas Davis, md'43,psychiatrist in Wilmington, De., for twenty-three years, died July 7; Stanley Goodfriend,ab'43 , a vice-president of Arthur Rubloff &Company in Chicago for nineteen years,president of Goodfriend, Biere & Immell, areal estate firm he founded three years agoafter moving from Chicago to California,died September 28 in Palm Desert, Ca.A A HELEN BRUNDAGE FISHER, Am'44,' ' director of Info Line, a twenty-four-hour-a-day, seven-day-a-week telephone service in West Hartford, Ct., which helpspeople get in touch with the right person at a38When the UniversityCharles R. FeldsteinThe posters on the Quadrangles announcedthat Dean Charles W. Gilkey would be thespeaker at the Hillel Foundation's firstFriday Evening Fireside in the East Loungeof Ida Noyes Hall. It was the second weekof my first quarter at the University.I do not recall Dean Gilkey's subject;during his talk I pondered how I might bestapproach him. The University was still avery new and strange world to me. I wasconcerned about doing the "right thing."Mrs. Gilkey had been introduced with thedean, and at the reception following hisaddress, I decided she might be my best bet.Dr. John Haynes Holmes was scheduledto preach at Rockefeller Chapel two Sundays hence, and I wanted to meet Holmes. Ihad read his books, and exchanged severalletters with the great liberal pacifist. Thefounder of the Community Church of NewYork had become a hero and mentor to me."Mrs. Gilkey, I am anxious to meet Dr.Holmes. Would it be all right if I came tothe chapel office after his sermon?""No." Her face took on a sudden sternness. "It would not be all right at all."I was nonplussed. Obviously I had madean error. How was I going to get out of thisfaux pas? What had I said that was wrong?And then, Geraldine Gilkey's face brokeinto a warm smile."The way for you to meet Dr. Holmesafter chapel is to come to our house forlunch. Now, tell me your name. We'll beexpecting you. It's the red house behind thechapel."It was really my first adult invitation.The days ahead were filled with the excitement of anticipation. They were filled withanxiety too. Would Mrs. Gilkey rememberme? What if I arrived at her door to findthat it was all a mistake? Surely she hadmore important things to remember thanthis casual invitation to a mere new student.I would walk past the Gilkey house eachday, worrying about the luncheon andabout a world I did not know.By ten o'clock that Sunday morning Iwas on my way. Up Cornell to 56th Street, Icut across the strip of Jackson Park whichfronted the old Windermere. I headed weston 57th Street between the red paintedframe relics of the Columbian Exposition.There was no time that morning to browseat Reid Michener's bookstore. Much of mygrowing library was acquired from Michener's, including a prized find, a copy ofKings II in the Century Bible with the signature of W. R. Harper on the title page.West on 57th Street, past the Co-op,Stineway's and the Tropical Hut. HowMr. Feldstein (am'44) is the president ofCharles R. Feldstein and Company and isdevelopment counsel to the University. Hisson, James (ab'74), also is an alumnus. was my new worldpleasant to remember Leigh's where thewindows of the deluxe grocery always displayed Belgian endive, persimmons andd'Anjou pears, and where the groceryshelves held delicacies like hearts of palmand candied violets. My walk to the chapelmade record time; certainly a lot faster thanwhen I was late for class. I was among thefirst to arrive, more than a half hour beforethe service began.Excited as I was, it was difficult to concentrate on the sermon. My mind dwelt onthe luncheon to follow. Why had Iaccepted? But how could I have said no?Surely, Mrs. Gilkey had forgotten the invitation? Perhaps I should go home andwrite her a note and say that I became ill?What would I talk to them about? Should Igo next door immediately after the recessional, or wait for a few minutes to givethem time to get home? I should use themen's room before I left the chapel. No, Ihad better not smoke at the dean's house.They might be offended by smoking,especially on Sunday.And then I was at the door at 58th andWoodlawn, and Mrs. Gilkey was reachingout her hand in welcome. I heard the reassuring words, "Charles, how nice of you tocome. The dean and I have been lookingforward to seeing you again."I shook hands with their luncheon guest,the tall, distinguished and kindly manwhom I had come to revere as one of thegreat humanitarians of our time. I madea comment about his sermon and abouthow much I had looked forward to meetinghim. It was with surprise that I heard himrefer to our "old friendship" and to ourcorrespondence. I was introduced to another guest, Mrs. Salmon O. Levinson. Ilearned that she was Dr. Holmes's hostessduring his Chicago visit.We settled down to await lunch. I seemto remember a glass of sherry, but I thinkmy memory has invented it. The dean andDr. Holmes reminisced about other times,and I came to realize that the burden of theconversation was not mine. Then we wereall involved in a hilarious account by Mrs.Gilkey of the chickens we were to have forlunch. I was taken aback; did proper ladieslike this talk about the details of theirkitchens to a guest who was so awesomelydistinguished?Her grocery order had not arrived bySaturday afternoon when she and the deanwere readying to leave for the evening. Acall to Stop and Shop assured her that thegroceries were on the truck, that she wouldfind them at the door when she returnedhome on Saturday evening. But there wereno parcels waiting by the door, and no provisions for Sunday lunch. These were thedays before freezers.Geraldine Gilkey was an accomplished storyteller. She said that she was temptedthat morning to call a Mr. Stern at his homeand complain to him of her plight. Butinstead, the hero of that day's story was theproprietor of a kosher butcher shop. (Didshe really know about kosher butchers?) Aquick trip to 55th Street, and the chickenswere in the kitchen before she left forchapel. The kosher butcher broke the ice; Ifound myself at ease.The conversation at lunch was fascinating, and I knew by then that my role wasmostly as a listener. The dean talked abouttheir son who was interned in the Orient.There was much talk of summer in Maineand sailing from Bopthbay Harbor. DeanGilkey did not share Dr. Holmes' absolutepacifism, and I felt that both men skirtedthe subject. Dr. Holmes told us that he hadoffered his resignation to the trustees of theCommunity Church, and although theyrefused it, he insisted that they keep it athand in the event that his position on thewar should prove harmful to the church. Ilearned too that Mrs. Levinson was thewidow of the author of the Kellogg-BriandPact. Mrs. Gilkey spoke of her work in warrelief through the YWCA.When there was a lag in the conversationI found myself describing an event of myfirst week at the University. As a newstudent, I was asked to help serve dinner atthe Divinity School student-faculty banquet. I was an inexperienced waiter, but allwent well until I dropped a portion ofpumpkin pie onto the chair of a facultymember, and saw him settle into it,oblivious of the mishap. I rushed to thekitchen for a towel and knife and when Ireturned my victim was still unaware. Itapped him on the shoulder and whispered,"Sir, I am afraid that I have done something to you." He arose to discover themess, and together, Professor WilliamWarren Steet, D.B., Ph.D., D.D., Litt. D.,and I scraped and wiped the mashedpumpkin and whipped cream from his coat.Amid their laughter, everyone at lunchagreed that with this debut behind me, itwas probably preferable that I planned toconcentrate in Old Testament Literaturerather than in American Church History.Later that afternoon I walked with Dr.Holmes and Mrs. Levinson to her residenceat 58th and Blackstone. We said our farewells; Dr. Holmes wished me well in mystudies and admonished me to avoidsharing pie with the faculty. As I made myway home I knew that now I was part ofthis special place, the City Grey, where onlyyesterday I had been a stranger.In the next years the red brick house onWoodlawn was to be a place of frequentvisits. I took a part-time job at the HillelFoundation, and our office was in thechapel basement. On Monday afternoonsthe chapel staff met at the Gilkeys', andthis house, which once had seemed forbidding, became a familiar place ofwelcome — and of hot biscuits with marmalade and tea on cold winter days.public or private agency and find fastersolutions to their problems along the way,has been named social worker of the year inConnecticut by the state chapter of theNational Social Workers Association. At theInfo Line offices at the Community Councilof the Capitol Region, a United WayAgency, Fisher and her six-person staff"take calls that run the gamut of humanfrustration and experience," according to aHartford Times article by staff reporterJanice Kabel. "Some people want to make acomplaint about an insurance settlement andthey don't know where to go. Some arerecently divorced or suffering from a seriousillness and just need someone to talk to.Many need advice on where to take aretarded child. Many are just 'getting therun-around' at another social serviceagency." Often using what she calls the"heavy" approach, Fisher and staff go tobat in behalf of clients against "bureaucracies that have become tangled up in themselves," and their success rate in achieving aspeedy and satisfactory resolution to clients'problems has been remarkable. Before becoming director of Info Line at its inceptionsome four-and-a-half years ago, Fisher wasadoption consultant for the ConnecticutWelfare Department.laille schutz gablnet, pIib'44, has beenpromoted to assistant professor ofpsychology in the department of psychiatry,school of medicine, Case Western ReserveUniversity, Cleveland.AC msAKOTANAKA, ab'45, hasbeen^3 appointed assistant professor ofJapanese at Pennsylvania State University.Ms. Tanaka, who is a doctoral candidate atthe University of Tokyo, is currently incharge of the newly established Japaneselanguage and literature program in thecollege of the liberal arts.seymore l. hess, sm'45, pho'49, professorof meteorology at Florida State University,Tallahassee, was at Cape Canaveral earlierthis year during preparations for the launchof NASA's Viking mission to Mars. Hess,who is team leader of Viking's meteorologygroup, is one of seventy-four scientistsworking on experiments which will takepictures and conduct a detailed scientificexamination of the planet, including a searchfor life. The first Viking spacecraft isexpected to reach Martian orbit in June,1976, with a soft landing on the surfaceexpected the following month.marcella malloy, am'45, was named professor emeritus upon her recent retirementfrom Sacred Heart University, Bridgeport,Ct., where she was professor and chairmanof the modern foreign languages department.A /T BENJAMIN E. POWELL, PnD'46, who^O retired from Duke University(Durham, N.C.) August 31, was honored inspecial ceremonies recently when it was announced that Duke's library endowmentfund has been renamed for Powell, a moverecommended by the library staff as a"lasting retirement gift" to the man who has headed the Duke libraries since 1946.RICHARD CARL SACKSTEDER, Phji'46, SB'48,and Martha Harrison Bixler were marriedJune 7 in Jaffrey, N.H. Sacksteder is professor of mathematics and executive officerof the doctoral program in mathematics atthe City University of New York.The appointment of Leonard d.berkovitz, sb'46, sm'48, phrj'51, professorof mathematics and a thirteen-year facultymember at Purdue University, WestLafayette, In., as head of the mathematicsdepartment has been confirmed by thePurdue board of trustees.AH JOSEPH A. HASSON, MBA'47, AM'50,^ ' phD'51, Rockville, Md., professor ofeconomics, Howard University, Washington, D.C., was awarded a National UrbanLeague fellowship this past summer.Research completed under the fellowship resulted in a paper entitled "Objective Indicators and the Balance of Payments," read at arecent meeting of the Atlantic EconomicsSociety.LENORE WHITMAN MCNEER, AM'47, head ofthe human services program at VermontCollege of Norwich University, is serving atwo-year term as president of the NewEngland Organization of Human ServicesEducation.WILLIAM H. knisely, p1ib'47, sb'50,currently assistant to the chancellor forhealth affairs, the University of TexasSystem, has accepted joint appointments asvice-president for academic affairs andpresident-elect of the Medical University ofSouth Carolina, Charleston. Knisely hasmade research contributions in a number ofareas including those of aging, dietetics, anticancer agents and microcirculation. He ispresently a consulant to the Office of HealthManpower Opportunity, National Institutesof Health; to Regions 9 and 10 of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare;and to the department of medicine and surgery of the Veterans Administration.SARA UNGER SKOLNLK, AB'47, AM'50,exhibited her steel sculpture, prints andpaintings in a one-woman show this fall atthe University's Center for ContinuingEducation. Skolnik, who teaches art at theLatin School of Chicago and is a member ofthe ARC Gallery, received a prize for sculpture in the 1973 Chicago New Horizonsshow, an award for excellence in the 1973Evanston (II.) Art Festival, and a prize fordrawing in a Greater Schenectady (N.Y.)exhibition. Her work has also been displayedin many other group and individual shows,including the 1971 Christmas show of theAssociated American Artists, the 1964-'65Smithsonian tour, and in Young Collectors'Shows at the University of Chicago.MATTHEW A. FITZSIMONS, PhD'47,professor of history at the University ofNotre Dame (In.), has been selected byfellow faculty members and students to receive the annual Father Charles E. Sheedyaward for excellence in teaching. The awardincludes a $1 ,000 gift from an anonymousdonor. A teacher at Notre Dame for thirty- eight years, he is a specialist in Britishhistory, America's foreign policy and international relations.ln memoriam: Johanna Moore Purtill,am'47, Evansville, In., a retired Chicagopublic schools teacher, died July 15.AO ann todd rubey, am'48, has retired"O after forty-three years on the University of Missouri-Columbia library staff —thirteen of these years as head of thehumanities department, eighteen years ashead of the reference department, and thefour years previous to that as referencelibrarian.WILLIAM SCOTT GRAY, m, PnB'48, MBA'50,senior vice-president of the Harris Trust andSavings Bank, Chicago, is currently serving aterm as chairman of the Financial AnalystsFederation. Gray received a citation forpublic service from the UC AlumniAssociation in 1962.aubrey p. altshuller, sb'48, director,division of chemistry and physics for theU.S. Environmental Protection Agency'sNational Environmental Research Center inResearch Triangle Park, N.C, has won the1975 American Chemical Society award forpollution control, sponsored by theMonsanto Company. Consisting of a $3,000honorarium and a certificate, the award isgiven "to recognize and encourage achievement in pollution control resulting from theapplication of research in chemistry orchemical engineering." Altshuller isrecognized internationally for his knowledgeof chemical and physical properties of airpollutants, their reactions and measurement.Scientists under his guidance at the EPAcenter have analyzed potential cancer-producing compounds in urban air andestablished new information concerning theinteraction of hydrocarbons and nitrogenoxides in sunlight to form photochemicalsmog. This type of data is important indetermining the extent to which fuel modification would assist in reducing photochemical smog levels.AQ WILLIAM G. JOHNSTON, SB'49, SM'52,"-' pho'54, has won a Coolidge fellowshipaward from the General Electric Researchand Development Center, Schenectady,N.Y., where he is employed as a physicist.The Coolidge fellowships were established bythe center in 1970 to honor outstanding andsustained achievements in scientific researchor engineering by staff members. Fellows arefree to pursue individual projects and specialresearch interests for one year. They mayelect to spend the time within the company,at a university or research institute, or elsewhere. Johnston, who joined GE in 1954,has specialized in the study of the plasticdeformation of crystals. His more recentwork concerns the effects of atomic radiationon stainless steel core materials earmarkedfor use in the next generation of nuclearpower reactors, the fast breeders. This workis helping to establish the proper compositionfor alloys that can successfully withstand theconditions inside a breeder reactor.40Countess Anna Maria Helena deNouillesleft her estate to establish anorphanage for girls upon the followingconditions:"No competitive examinations, nostudying before breakfast, no studyingafter 6 P.M., all lessons to be learned in themorning, no girl to work more than four anda half hours daily, no child with curvatureof the spine to write more than fiveminutes a day."We hope you will include The University of Chicago in your will, despite the fact thatstudying goes on before breakfast and after6 P.M. For more information about how toinclude The University of Chicago in yourestate plan, contact:The Office of Gift andEstate PlanningTed Hurwitz or Judy LandtThe University of Chicago5801 Ellis Avenue, Room 601Chicago, Illinois 60637Tel: (31 2) 753-4930 or 4931florine Grossman gelfer, am'49, recentlyreceived her law degree, cum laude, fromWestern State University College of Law ofOrange County (Fullerton, Ca.).amos yoder, pho'49, a veteran of the U.S.State Department, joined the faculty of theUniversity of Idaho last year as Borah distinguished professor of political science.Yoder has served as a political adviser to theU.S. Air Force; worked with the State Department for German, Israel, Chinese andThai affairs; and from 1971 to 1974 was withthe United Nations heading a division whichdeveloped and coordinated U.S. positions ondevelopment and general economic mattersfor UN meetings.Cf\ herminia mendoza ancheta, am'50,3*J executive secretary of the University ofChicago Club of the Philippines, visitedcampus this past summer and renewed tiesbetween the Manila club and the University.Ms. Ancheta, a retired professor of English,was in Chicago as part of an around-the-world trip, occasioned by her attendance atthe International Women's Year conferencein Mexico as the delegate from thePhilippines.d. d. walker, mba'50, chairman andpresident of Funk Seeds International, Inc.,has been named to a college of business advisory council at Illinois State University inNormal.JEAN KATHLEEN MCGILLIVRAY, AM'50, apsychologist in the Lansing (Mi:) SchoolDistrict for the past six years, reports hermarriage, June 18, 1975; she is now Mrs.Jean Schneeber.PATRICIA EDGEWORTH CUNNEA, AB'50,am'55, phx>'63, dean of academic affairs atHood College, Frederick, Md., was electedearlier this year to a three-year term astreasurer and member of the executive boardof the American Conference of AcademicDeans.Clifford d. clark, am'50, pIvd'53, actingpresident of the State University of NewYork-Binghamton since September, 1974,was confirmed as president of the schoolearlier this year by the board of trustees ofthe SUNY system. Clark came to Bingham-ton in July, 1973, as academic vice-president.He was dean of the school of business of theUniversity of Kansas in 1968-'73 and servedfor eleven years before that on the facultyand administration of the New York University graduate school of business.The Cricket Cage is a new gothic-stylemystery (New York: Harper & Row, 1975)by ruth h. shimer, ab'50. Ms. Shimer, inaddition to being a mother and a writer, alsois an amateur archeologist, painter, andceramicist. She lives in Claremont, Ca.in memoriam: Martin Kohn, md'50, assistant clinical professor of medicine at Stanford University and an internist with officesin Burlingame and San Bruno (Ca.), diedSeptember 19; Jules H. Williams, sm'50,associate professor of biology at the Mayfaircampus of the Chicago City Colleges, diedSeptember 1; Marvin Luther Wilt, mba'50, Sun City, Az., former certified publicaccountant with the Aramco American OilCompany in Saudi Arabia, died June 25.C| DONALD JENKLNS, AB'51, AM'70,3 *¦ became director of the Portland (Or.)Art Museum September 1 . Curator of themuseum since last September, Jenkins firstjoined its staff in 1954. In 1969, he leftPortland to become associate curator ofOriental art at the Art Institute of Chicago,where he was responsible for major Orientalexhibitions. Jenkins is a published poet aswell as an art scholar.Baroness marie joy katzin-jorgulesco,x'51, had her fourth one- woman art exhibitthis past August at the West Palm Beach (Fl.)Library.june smeck smith, am'51, and hannissmith, am'49, both librarians, retired fromtheir respective jobs this past June — he, fromthe Minnesota State Department of Education, where he had been director of thelibrary division and office of public librariesand inter-library cooperation since 1956, andshe, from the College of St. Catherine in St.Paul, Mn., after nearly fifteen years as chairperson of the department of library science.c^ davtd mel paul, am'52, and Margareta3** Paul are the translators of The AnimalDoctor, a satiric novel by P. C. Jersildrecently published by Pantheon Books(Random House). The husband-wife teamhad earlier translated from the Swedish Atthe Foot of the Tree by Rolf Edberg(University of Alabama Press, 1972).Bernard krauss, am'52, was electedsenior vice-president of Esquire, Inc., NewYork, by the company's directors in July,1975. Krauss will also continue as presidentof Esquire, Inc.'s education group.Gregory c. chow, am'52, phD'55, directorof the econometric research program atPrinceton University, is the author ofAnalysis and Control of Dynamic EconomicSystems which was recently published byJohn Wiley & Sons ($19.95).C'l MARVIN S. WEINREB, SM'53, MD'53,3 3 has become associate clinical professor of dermatology at the University ofCalifornia Medical School, San Francisco.As previously noted in these pages, llenespack v/elnreb, am'53, was elected mayor ofthe city of Hayward, Ca., in April, 1974.CA DR. DAVTD S. HELBERG, AB'54, JT)'56,3^ who has been practicing ophthalmology in Waukegan, II., for the pasteleven years, writes that he is currentlypresident of the Lake County MedicalSociety.HELENA ZNANLECKI LOPATA, PhD'54, Washonored as the outstanding faculty memberof the year by the faculty council of LoyolaUniversity, Chicago, during commencementexercises last June. Lopata, who is professorof sociology and director of the center forcomparative study of social roles at Loyola,was cited for excellence in teaching, dedication to scholarship and the world-wide recog nition she has brought to Loyola.james a. byrne, pho'54, has been madedean of the "new college, ' ' College of St.Thomas (St. Paul, Mn.), a continuingeducation/adult education unit offeringinterdisciplinary, non-traditional majors aswell as non-credit programs and seminars,which opened in September.arnle matanky, x'54, director of publicinformation for the Chicago Park District,was one of an eighteen-member group fromthe Adult Education Council of GreaterChicago to spend nineteen days in thePeople's Republic of China this past fall.The trip included visits to Peking,Chengchow, Nanking, Hangchow,Shanghai and Kwangchow (Canton).Ralph conant, am'54, p1id'59, foundingpresident and chief executive officer of theSouthwest Center for Urban Research,Houston, has accepted appointment to thepresidency of Shimer College, Mt. Carroll,II. Conant has previously held academic andadministrative positions at Brandeis University, MIT, Harvard and the University ofDenver.ff dr. james p. rosenblum, ab'55,3 3 Beverly Hills (Ca.) psychiatrist andpsychoanalyst, reports that he was votedtreasurer-elect of the Southern CaliforniaPsychiatric Society earlier this year and,thus, will automatically take office astreasurer in May, 1976. Dr. Rosenblum is amember of the Los Angeles PsychoanalyticSociety, an assistant clinical professor ofpsychiatry in the school of medicine atUCLA, and a child psychiatry consultant tothe department of pediatrics, Cedars-SinaiMedical Center in Los Angeles.ted richert, ab'55, a real estate brokerliving in New York and Connecticut, walkedaway $10,600 richer earlier this year afterappearing as a contestant on ABC-TV's"$10,000 Pyramid" quiz show.C/l stuart grout, pho'56, formerly3yf director of academic planning atBoston University, has become the executivevice-president of Seeing Eye, Inc., thepioneer school in the U.S. for teaching blindpeople to use dog guides. As executive vice-president Grout directs the day-by-dayprogram at the school, located in Morris-town, N.J. Since it was founded in 1929,Seeing Eye has placed some 6,500 traineddogs with blind persons. The school trainsboth the dogs and the people who are to usethem.Cn MARY KELLY MULLANE, PhD'57,3 I professor of nursing administration inthe University of Illinois college of nursing,received one of nursing's highest honorsearlier this year when she was presented theNational League for Nursing's Mary Adelaide Nutting award in recognition of heroutstanding leadership and achievement inthe field of nursing.CHARLES v. Hamilton, am'57, pho'64, hastaken a two-year leave of absence from hisfaculty position at Columbia University as42Wallace Sayre professor of government anddirector of graduate studies in Americanpolitics to assume the presidency of theMetropolitan Applied Research Center, NewYork, called "the major black urban research center in the country" by the NewYork Times. Hamilton, a leading analyst ofurban politics, gained national prominencein 1967 with publication of the book he wrotewith Stokely Carmichael, Black Power: ThePolitics of Liberation in America.CO arthurj. rubel, am'58, is cur-3 O rently professor of anthropology andeducation program director in social and behavioral sciences, college of human medicine, at Michigan State University, EastLansing. Rubel is president-elect of theSociety for Medical Anthropology.peter s. amenta, phr>'58, professor ofanatomy, has been named chairman of thedepartment of anatomy at HahnemannMedical College and Hospital, Philadelphia.in memoriam: William Harry Jellema, Jr.,am'58, died August 24.CQ maryf. o'nelll, am'59, pho'72,3 y professor of nursing at Indiana StateUniversity, participated as a Navy judge inthe Twenty-Sixth International Science andEngineering Fair, held in Oklahoma Cityearlier this year. O'Neill was recently promoted to captain in the U.S. Navy Reserveand is believed to be the first nurse ever selected for promotion to that rank in thehistory of the Chicago Naval Reserve. Shecontributed an article, "A Study of Values —Nursing," to the May, 1975, issue of U.S.Navy Medicine.£JT\ alvtn platt, am'60, is currentlyW completing his eighth year as executivedirector of North Shore Congregation Israel,a reform temple in Glencoe, II. A formerschool teacher, Platt left the Chicago PublicSchools and Jewish communal work to jointhe temple as its youth director and later itsdirector of religious education.betsy ruth cabatit, am'60, and MarvinSegal were married last December in GlenEllyn, II.davtd Gottlieb, pho'60, has been appointed dean of the college of social sciencesat the University of Houston, Tx.paul j. skinner, x'60, announces the birthof his fourth child, Roberta Ellen, October 5,1975.joan haley carder, am'60, assistantprofessor at the University of Arkansasgraduate school of social work in LittleRock, has been designated social worker ofthe year for 1975 by the Arkansas chapter ofthe National Association of Social Workers.everett v. fox, mba'60, vice-presidentand administrator of the New York MedicalCenter, was a member of an eight-personmedical team from the U.S. sent to examinethe health care system of the U.S.S.R. earlierthis year as part of a U.S. -Soviet exchangeprogram. The group spent three daysstudying the facilities in each of four cities-Moscow, Kiev, Sochi and Leningrad. They visited hospitals, poli-clinics, mother-childhospitals, ambulance service departments,and one small district hospital in acooperative farming area. As the other halfof the exchange, a Russian medical delegation toured various U.S. hospitals this fall.This was the first such exchange between thiscountry and the Soviet Union on the subjectof healthcare.The San Francisco Weight-Loss Method, anew book by davtd a. schoenstadt, md'60,Tibouron, Ca., was published April 14,1975, by Arthur Fields Books.in memoriam: Ashby C. Black well,pho'60, died July 7 in Charleston, W.V./T1 RICHARD w. hanzel, mba '61, and*} 1 edmond m. shanahan, mba'65, havebeen elected to the board of directors of BellFederal Savings and Loan Association,Chicago. Hanzel is vice-president, engineering, and director of technical services forthe Sunbeam Corporation and Shanahan isvice-president and manager of the savingsdivision of Bell Federal.Joseph p. Flanagan, mba'61, formerlygeneral manager of the Center for Communication Planning, Chicago, has joinedthe management staff of Cohen &Greenbaum, Inc., Chicago based advertisingagency.william m. weir, db'61 , has beenappointed administrator of the Parent-Child Resource Center for the Lower Nauga-tuck Valley (Ct.), a new community mentalhealth facility for children and their families.C/J donald J. baer, jd'62, has been pro-"+* moted to vice-president in the trustdepartment, Continental Illinois NationalBank and Trust Company of Chicago.wtlliam j. wtenke, mba'62, has resignedas vice-president of real estate and construction for the Walgreen Company and isoperating independently in his own firm, theWienke Company (Glenview, II.), as a consultant in real estate, corporate acquisitions,and commercial development.CHARLES E. ZIEGENHAGEN, MBA'62, hasbeen named to the post of vice-president ofplanning by Texon, Inc., South Hadley, Ma.fl'J The paintings of vtcky chaet meyer™3 manning, bfa'63, were on displayduring the month of October at the RichardSumner Gallery, Palo Alto, Ca. Vicky, whoreceived her master's degree from Stanford ashort time ago, and her husband are now inIndia where they expect to stay for at least ayear.kit susan kollenberg, ab'63, am'68, andher husband Gary Lee Blasi are proud to announce the birth of Michael Adam Kollenberg Blasi on May 26, 1975. Kit is currentlyon maternity leave from her job as a day careteacher at the Echo Park-Silverlake Peoples'Child Care Center in Los Angeles.naomi ruth schwlesow, ab'63, has received her doctorate from the school ofadvanced international studies, The JohnsHopkins University, Baltimore, Md. CA arthur s. dover, sb'64, sm'65, writes^* that he is leaving his positions in Cali,Colombia, as research associate with theInternational Center for Medical Researchand Training and assistant professor of pediatrics, Universidad del Valle, and will bespending three months in Bangladesh as ashort-term consultant to the World HealthOrganization smallpox eradication program.After that Dr. Dover plans to set up pediatricpractice in Freedom, Ca., where he will bejoined by his wife Clara and daughters Elisaand Alejandra.peter cooley, am'64, New Orleans,reports the publication of his first book ofpoetry, The Company of Strangers, inOctober, 1975, in the Breakthrough series ofthe University of Missouri Press. Cooleyteaches creative writing at Tulane University.barry h. rumack, sb'64, is now assistantprofessor of pediatrics and medicine in thedivision of clinical pharmacology at theUniversity of Colorado medical center anddirector of the Rocky Mountain PoisonCenter at Denver General Hospital. Dr.Rumack is also editor of Poisindex, a computer generated microfiche emergencypoison management system. "This is thelargest compendium of toxicological information in the world and is distributed tohospitals all over the United States as well asseveral foreign countries," he writes. "Wehave also just recently introduced a newpoison prevention symbol, 'Office Ugg,'designed as an educational tool for youngchildren and their parents. This symbol isavailable for use on a royalty free basis byany recognized poison prevention programsimply by writing and requesting it." Dr.Rumack was one of nine successfulcandidates to be certified in the first examination of the American Board of MedicalToxicology, given this past August.stuart schar, mfa'64, pItd'67, has beenappointed professor of art and director ofthe school of art at Kent State University,Kent, Oh. For the past nine years he wasassociated with the University of Illinois atChicago Circle in an administrative capacityand as an associate professor.melvln j. CHAVTNSON, md'64, has beenpromoted by Case Western ReserveUniversity (Cleveland) to assistant clinicalprofessor in child psychology in the department of pediatrics and to the same rank inthe department of psychiatry.in memoriam: Gilda Helena Gross Gold,jd'64, assistant professor of clinical psychology at Smith College, died July 12 inNorthhampton, Ma.lie davtd backus, db'65, was a speakerV3 at a conference on foreign languageinstruction at the University of WisconsinExtension in Madison earlier this year. Afree-lance writer and translator living nearLand O'Lakes, Wi., Backus has contributedover thirty articles to various periodicals inthe last two years and is presently a memberof the American Translators Association andthe American Association of Teachers ofFrench. Recent activities have included43teaching adult classes in the French language.We learn from w. b. lanier, sm'65,phD'66, London, that his play, All MyFather's Sins, a drama set in the AmericanSouthwest, was performed last June in theLittle Theatre, a studio facility for showcaseproductions located in London's west end.Although he previously sold the play BaldyDrinkwater to Canadian television, writesLanier, All My Father's Sins is the first playhe has had produced.J. michael barrier, jd'65, former government and politics columnist for the ArkansasGazette and most recently head of theSouthern Newspaper Publishers Association's information and publication department, has joined the staff of U.S. SenatorDale Bumpers (D-Ar.). Barrier's job as aspecial assistant to Bumpers in the senator'sWashington office includes such duties asspeech writing.C.C. Joseph h. schwarcz, am'66, since"*¦' returning to Israel from Chicago, hasbeen on the staff of the school of education,the University of Haifa, and "Oranim," theteacher training college of the Kibbutz movement. Currently head of the school of education, Schwarcz teaches and writes in the fieldof creative esthetic education and has givenscholarly papers at a number of international conferences and congresses.carol cirelle gould, ab'66, joined thefaculty of Swarthmore (Pa.) College this fallas assistant professor of philosophy.f.n samuel shanes, jd'67, partner in the" ' Chicago law firm of Shanes andShanes, has been selected as chairman of theStatewide Advisory Committee on Day Care,the official advisory body to the Departmentof Children and Family Services of the stateof Illinois. He also serves as chairman of theEarly Childhood Education Council, Lake/McHenry Counties, II.dorothy chin, ab'67, who received hermaster's degree in law from Harvard thispast June, has been named associate dean ofgraduate studies at the Harvard law school,the magazine learns from marlene heviahellman, ab'69, Piedmont, Ca.philip m. gelber, ab'67, md'71, NewYork, has been certified by the AmericanBoard of Internal Medicine. A son, JacobAdam, was born to the Gelbers inSeptember, 1974.judy beckner sloan, ab'67, who receivedher law degree from the University of Maryland earlier this year, is currently an assistantprofessor in the University of Toledo lawschool.in memoriam: Rena Pierson Dankovich,mst,'67./TO charles l. smith, ab'68, reports he is"O now engaged in the private practice oflaw in Seattle with three other lawyers including judith s. dubester, jd'70. "Both ofus served terms with the public defender office in Seattle. I thrashed about thereafter,working for the state senate for awhile. Ourpresent office is primarily engaged in criminal defense work and in trying to figureout how to get food stamps."peter p. DeBOER, p1vd'68, professor ofeducation at Calvin College, Grand Rapids,Mi., served last spring as humanist in theNorton Shores, Mi., community program ofthe Midwestern Center, National HumanitiesSeries; won re-election, in June, to the boardof the Grand Rapids Public Schools; andtraveled, in July, to Costa Rica to evaluate aschool-to-school program establishedbetween the Grand Rapids schools and twoAmerican schools in San Jose, Costa Rica.klmball j. corson, am'68, jd'71, has beenmade a partner in the Phoenix law firm ofLewis and Roca.CQ CONSUELO LAUDA KERTZ, AB'69,"^ recently received her law degree fromEmory University, Atlanta, Ga. Kertz, whograduated first in her class and was a memberof the Order of the Coif, is presently servinga one-year clerkship with Georgia StateSupreme Court Justice J. ConnallyIngraham.colleen miner stameshkin, ab'69, hasbeen named instructor in philosophy atColby College, Waterville, Me., for thepresent academic year. A specialist in epis-temology and ethics, Ms. Stameshkin received a master's degree this year from theUniversity of Michigan where she is acandidate for her doctorate. Her husband,Hintson solving problems on Page 231. No such integer exists. The square ofany even integer is even and must leave aneven remainder on division by 8. The squareof any odd integer (2n + 1 )2 = 4n2 + 4n + 1 =4n(n+l)+l leaves a remainder of 1 ondivision by 8.2. Given the distances in the problem, thetowns must lie on a straight line. Thedistance between C and E is 150 miles.3. The smallest possible percentage is 100-[(100-70) + (100-75) + (100-80) + (100-85)] =10%.4. Denote the tables by Roman numeralsI, II, III, and the students by letters A, B,C . . . I. One possible seating arrangement is:I II IIINight I ABC DEF GHI" 2 ADG BEH CFI"3 AEI BFG CDH" 4 AFH BDI CEGThese are by no means complete andcareful discussions. The work of justifyingthe answers has not been touched on here,and it constitutes the bulk of any solution ofthe problems. These remarks alone representneither our methods nor what we attempt toteach. davtd stameshkin, ab'67, who recently completed a three-year teaching and administrative stint at Middlebury College in Vermont, is spending the current year finishingup his doctoral dissertation in history for theUniversity of Michigan. The Stameshkins areliving in Oakland, Me.mark swtrsky, ab'69, who received hislaw degree this past May as a member of thefirst graduating class of the Antioch Schoolof Law, Washington, D.C., has accepted aposition as staff attorney with the Neighborhood Legal Services Association inPittsburgh.roy h. behnke, jr., ab'69, received hisdoctorate in anthropology from UCLA lastJune and is currently teaching at the University of California, Santa Barbara, themagazine is advised by Barbara j. ron-NINGEN BEHNKE, AB'69.RAFAEL A. FERNANDEZ, AM'69, a doctoralcandidate in the history of art at UC, has leftthe department of fine arts faculty at LakeForest (II.) College to accept an appointmentas curator of prints and drawings at theSterling and Francine Clark Art Institute,Williamstown, Ma. He is also lecturing part-time in the department of art at WilliamsCollege in a graduate program in the historyof art, offered by the school in collaborationwith the institute. Fernandez was assistantcurator of prints and drawings at the ArtInstitute of Chicago before joining the LakeForest faculty in 1969.tn memoriam: Virginia M. Brantl, p1id'69,professor and associate dean of the graduateprogram, school of nursing, University ofWisconsin-Milwaukee, died August 13 of aheart attack."jr\ wtlliam l. Phillips, ab'70, received' *' a law degree and an M.B.A. in transportation in May from the University ofPennsylvania and is now associated with theWashington law firm of Verner, Liipfert,Bernhard & McPherson.Robert gibson, mba'70, has joined thestaff of the Medical Center of BeaverCounty, Pa., as assistant executive directorof the Rochester (Pa.) unit.thomas m. cleary, mba'70, has beennamed a financial counselor in the trustdepartment, Continental Illinois NationalBank and Trust Company of Chicago.Robert markowitz, md'70, has gone intoassociation with Dr. Andrew Hannes,Monroe, N.Y., for the practice of pediatricand adolescent medicine.n 1 tom hoskins, mat'71, "after teaching' •*¦ precocious high schoolers for twoyears," has been named the administrativefellow for Stouffer college house at theUniversity of Pennsylvania. This "shouldkeep me in groceries while I chase down anM.B.A. degree at Wharton."richard paroutaud, ab'71, graduatedfrom the University of Washington lawschool this past June and began work as clerkto Justice Charles Horowitz of the SupremeCourt of Washington in August.carol cowgill, jd'71, has become the44American Academy of Family Physicians'representative in Washington, D.C.fred cogelow, ab'71, Willmar, Mn.,having recently "retired" after serving threeyears as a counselor of emotionally disturbedadolescents, advises us he has been busyputting the final touches on The Saga ofSweetlips, a book he describes as "a circumspect examination of the phenomenon ofobject cathexes, written with a pronouncedrural virtue bias." Cogelow took a month offfor traveling this fall and plans to take upsuch projects in the future as "achievingcompetence in wood carving and furnituremaking."dennis n. monohan, mat'71 , is currentlyassistant research analyst with the Bank ofAmerica's International Headquarters in SanFrancisco. Monohan moved to Hayward,Ca., after graduating from the Control DataInstitute, Chicago, in 1974.donald v. cosclna, pnD'71, assistant professor of psychiatry at the University ofToronto, reports he was co-recipient of the1974 Clarke Institute of Psychiatry annualresearch fund award, which is presented foroutstanding basic or clinical research in thefield of psychiatry in Canada. His name also appeared in the 1974 volume of OutstandingYoung Men in America.sam d. gill, am'71, p1vd'74, has accepted aposition at Arizona State University inTempe to begin a program for the study andteaching of native American (Indian)religions, especially those of the Southwest.leslle maitland, ab'71 , a reporter on themetropolitan staff of the New York Times,and Jonathan P. Kraushar were marriedJune 15 in Englewood Cliffs, N.J.H*y ' 'After spending the past two years' £* working as a legislative assistant onCapitol Hill," writes thomas w. kates,mat'72, "I have returned to teaching atEpiscopal High School in Alexandria, Va."dennis f. miller, am'72, is currentlyexecutive secretary to the technology assessment advisory council of Congress' office oftechnology assessment. He also holds afaculty position with the Open University ofthe University of Maryland.n'J jerry g. baumgardner, am'73,' 3 Muncie, In., has been appointedcounty court judge in Delaware County, In.,effective January 1 . He received his law degree from Indiana University.HA THOMAS A. ZITVER, MAT '74, who' " worked as a research assistant at theBureau of Labor Statistics until last August,is now a math teacher at the high school ofGeorgetown Day School, Washington.carol golden miller, mpa'74, instructorin art at Agnes Scott College, Decatur, Ga.,had her prints exhibited in a one-womanshow this fall at the school's Dalton Gallery.SHERRY MITTLEMAN EAGLE, MST'74, hasjoined the staff of Thornwood High School,South Holland, II., as a reading diagnostician and clinician. Formerly a thirdgrade teacher at Caroline Sibley ElementarySchool in Calumet City, II., Eagle iscurrently serving a term as president of theSouth Suburban Reading Council.davld c. sobelsohn, ab'74, is currently inhis second year at Boston University LawSchool. Sobelsohn made the staff of the LawReview last year.7C jeffrysears,am'75, has joined the' 3 faculty of Luther College, Decorah,la., as instructor in English and businessadministration.Maroon seeks aidin STOMP effortThe Chicago Maroon has reported on the University'sentire history. Every president from Harper to Hutchins toLevi. The buildings, from Rockefeller Chapel to Regenstein,from the laying of their cornerstones. The campus' brilliantand often controversial minds are profiled. Football is chronicled, from Big Ten days to the abandonment of the sport, toits more recent reinstatement. The back issues of theMaroon comprise an irreplaceable record of Universityhistory, lore, and life styles.Un/ortunately, the paper upon which the issues wereprinted was not designed for a long life. Despite the meticulous care of the University Archives, many issues arecrumbling with age and will soon disintegrate.The current staff of the Maroon has begun a drive tomicrofilm all of the back issues. The drive has been nicknamed STOMP [Save the old Maroon pages). Issues of otherearly University of Chicago papers also will be microfilmed.In addition, a cumulative index of the papers has been begun, in order to make the issues more readily accessible toresearchers and browsers alike.A number of issues are now too fragile to be read. Curiously, in many cases it is the more recent issues, printedupon a poorer quality of paper, which are crumbling mostquickly.STOMP is a major undertaking, beyond the financial scopeof this year's Maroon budget. The University cannot affordthe microfilming. Yet the idea of spreading the costs of theproject over several years is not practical— the issues maynot last that long.The Maroon asks you to help STOMP. Send a donation to A Maroon staff in the '20s: will their labors vanish from the earth?the Save The Old Maroon Pages fund, c/o The Maroon, 1212E. 59th St., Chicago, 11. 60637. Or use the coupon below totake out a subscription for the two remaining academicquarters of this year: the proceeds from the subscriptionswill be used for the STOMP drive, and you will catch up oncurrent campus news.Yes, I want to help STOMP. Enclosed is the $6 payment for atwo quarter subscription to THE MAROON.NAME ADDRESS CITY STATE. ZIP.45jfyttersJimmy's and the Alternativeto the editor: With more than a little immodesty I must correct your brief article inthe magazine on the Woodlawn Tap, betterknown to the cognoscenti as "Jimmy's."You note the two appearances in the Alternative concerning the bar. However, youneglected to note that there was a third.In the June/July, 1975, issue, there appeared a rebuttal to the previous two,entitled "Jimmy's and All That — The University Saloon." This was in reply to MartinNorthway's gushing, might one say 'glassy-eyed'? brief report on "Jimmy's." It alsocovered the institution known as theuniversity saloon.PHILIP BRANTINGHAM, AB'55Glenview, II.P.S. I doubt if Mr. Wilson has any controlling stock in the Alternative, but it's anice thought, anyway.to the editor: I just wanted to write andthank you for the little plug in your articleabout Jimmy's. My article and Zimmer'sresponse were not the end of the discussion,however: Philip Brantingham, anotheralumnus of the U . of C . , wrote a rej oinderwhich appeared in the Alternative.I'm working for the Alternative as theirproduction manager. The manuscript theyaccepted established a link which later led toa job offer. It's funny how things work outsometimes.MARTIN E . NORTHWAYBloomington, In.P.S. Brantingham is right about the datewhen Jimmy's opened up. Of course, I knowbetter — the date was a typographical errorthat somehow crept into a subsequent revision of the original manuscript. Despite allthe apparent disagreement, we seem to feelthe same way about the Woodlawn Tap. Onefurther point: the idea that conversation isincidental to drinking is nonsense. The realserious beer drinker doesn't go to a barbecause drinking in bars is too expensive.Rather, he will buy a cheap bottle of boozeand sit at home and drink by himself.Another tale of two citiesto the editor: Should you ever consider a"Pardon Me" department I'd nominate forearly inclusion an item on Page 35 of yourAutumn, 1975, issue [on Janet TylerFlanner, under the class of ' 14] .The typographical discrepancy between"x'41" and "14" rather explains itself. Butnot as an isolated boo-boo when the title ofher book is Paris Was Yesterday: 1925-1939.Genet has never written from London butalways for the New Yorker from Paris since1925. (Mollie Panter-Downes almost simultaneously has written the "Letter fromLondon.")Paris Was Yesterday was first published in 1972 for $8.50 with a sole successorappearance in 1973 as a paperback. Viking,in the first case.The one and only Janet T. Flanner of thisconnection took one or two courses that I did— a charming, svelte brunette few of us boysdared to consider a possibility. Anyways Iwas there, and I think I've read almost all ofher "Letters" appearing since their start.Unfortunately I don't know the great ladybut I understand she considers the RitzHotel, where she now lives, as a country typehotel in the city. When I'm in Paris I stayaround the corner at a country type hotelthat never left the village. Also a recommendation/compliment.Good luck. I enjoy the magazine always —and Janet really needs no correction. She'sabove all that.ALFRED K. EDDY, PnB'17Chicago, II.Although primarily known for her "Lettersfrom Paris" for the New Yorker, Ms.Flanner, according to Viking Press, NewYork, with whom the magazine has checked,also wrote some of the "Letters fromLondon" series. Viking is quite sure of onething: it published London Was Yesterday:1934-1939, by Janet Flanner (edited by IrvingDrutman), May 28, 1975 (160 pages, $9.95).As noted by Mr. Eddy, collections of' 'Genet 's ' ' Paris letters have previously beenpublished in book form — by Atheneum andPopular Library as well as Viking.fheology: a dim view...to the editor: I noticed your "WorldCapital of Theology' ' article in the Autumn,1975, issue of the university of Chicagomagazine . Theology is a thing of the past.In order to keep up with great increases inknowledge, I think UC should establish aDivision of Engineering and offer courses innuclear and electrical engineering. Stoplooking at the past.ROBERT C. MUNNECKE, AM'61Madison, Wi....and a bright oneto the editor: Your autumn issue fell intomy hands like a lovely maple leaf. Manythanks.Dr. Martin Marty's interesting article onyour Divinity School prompted this:If Chicago sees religionAs a subject so important,Is it time I paid attentionTo my penny catechismAnd devoted half an hourTo a deeper explorationOf the question and the answersThat could be my dissertation:Why did God— if God there still be—Fashion me for liberation?REV. PETER A. NEARINGCombermere, Ontario, CanadaA vote for the trilobitesto the editor: The article on trilobitesinterested and excited me so much that I want to pass on my copy and one other, if Ican obtain one, to interested friends (one inScotland who used to search with me for trilobites) . . .I am also taking this opportunity to add apersonal note: With every year that passes, Ihave become prouder of the University ofChicago and more deeply grateful for theeffects its discipline and perspectives havehad upon my professional and private life,and therefore I greatly appreciate receivingthe magazine and other news about mysecond Alma Mater.MARION A. NOSSER, AM'24Brooklyn, N.Y.fhe Old Man's instructionsto the editor: If you will refer to lines 17,1 8 and 1 9 of Column 2 of Page 1 5 , theautumn issue of the University of ChicagoMagazine, you will read a horror that isbound to call forth howls of rage from someof your alumni, on whom you probablycount for generous remembrances in theirwills. It's calling forth a heartfelt one fromme.The horror is the reference to "inspireathletes with a 'special cadence' " etseq."Special cadence" my ischial callosities! Itwould be appreciated if you would informthis condescending donkey that the cadencewas the Alma Mater. It was played, at 10:06(not 10:05), in honor of A. A. Stagg, becauseit was at that moment that the Old Manpassed the crisis and rallied from a virulentcase of pre-antibiotics pneumonia.Three unsettling thoughts come from thisunfortunate reference in your otherwiseexcellent article on the University's campanology. First, the Alma Mater is no longerheard at night. Second, perhaps, the University is today too sophisticated to botherwith sentimentalities such as an Alma Mater.Third — God forbid! — that the University isforgetting to re-state its faith in the idealsDon Richberg wrote into this small hymn'slyrics.JOHN K. BARTON, PhB'26Amarillo, Tx.We have here a misunderstanding. The request for a "special cadence" was made, inthose words, by A. A. Stagg. As it turnedout, the answer to that request was almostalways (but not always) the Alma Mater.The Alma Mater has not been forgotten. Itis sung at every convocation and also at otheroccasions throughout each academic year. Ithas not been played regularly at 10:06 p. m.on the Alice Freeman Palmer bells for someyears, though the practice has been revivedfrom time to time when ringers have beenavailable, and may well be again.The story of the Alma Mater is an interesting one. It was printed in these pages, aswritten by Anne C. Lavine, (p1vb'26), in theJuly, 1927, issue; her account is reproducedon the facing page. (The writer, she learned,was not Richberg.)46The origin of the Alma MaterAnne C. Lavine, '26The details surrounding the origin and earlyhistory of Chicago's Alma Mater havebecome vague with the passing of the years.Even the composer has been forgotten, andanother man given credit in his stead. Dr.Goodspeed refers briefly to the song'sorigin in his History of the University ofChicago; but no complete record has beenset down.It is high time that the story should bewritten for posterity. Indeed, if it remainsundone in this generation it will become awell-nigh impossible task. Even with somany living who were present at the time ofits inception, collection of data has beenexceedingly difficult.The Alumni Council has asked PaulMandeville, '99, to tell the story. Mr.Mandeville not only witnessed the song'sintroduction, but had a hand in arrangingthe music in its present form.Mr. Mandeville consulted various old-timers. The correspondence became voluminous. Mr. Stagg, Frederick W. Eastman,'98, Horace Lozier, '94, William D.Merrell, '98, Wardner Williams, x'92, andmany others have contributed to the story.After assembling these data Mr. Mandevilleturned them over to the writer.In 1890 the University of Rochesterneeded a new song. Accordingly, ThomasS. Swinburne, Rochester '92, wrote thesestanzas:Beside the river Genesee,Where crystal waters fall and flow,And where the mills sing merrily,And fairest trees and flowers grow,'Tis here our Alma Mater lies,Endeared to us by many ties,Endeared to us by many ties,Our dear old Alma Mater.She boasts no ancient corner stone,Nor founder of illustrious name,But by her modest worth aloneShe rivals those of greater fame;And oft in laurels of a sonHer meed of patient toil is won,Her meed of patient toil is won,Our dear old Alma Mater.And when our college life is past,And we have gone our sev'ral ways,A backward glance we'll often castUpon those dear departed days,And with our classmates we will beIn fancy by the Genesee,In fancy by the Genesee,And our dear Alma Mater.Frank N. Mandeville, a seventeen-year-old boy whom the club had hired as apianist, set these words to music. So theRochester Alma Mater was born, and withit the melody which Chicago's song ofsongs was to appropriate. Mandeville later became one of theleading musical directors of the country. Inthis capacity he helped to stage such lightoperas as The Chocolate Soldier, TheMerry Widow, and Floradora. His lastengagement was as musical conductor forthe Municipal Opera Company of St.Louis. He died in 1921.The Glee Club of the University ofChicago had selected March 6, 1894, as thedate of its first public concert. The oldCentral Music Hall, on Randolph Streetwhere Marshall Field's store now stands,had been engaged for the affair. When theevening arrived, Alfred Williams, managerof the Glee Club, discovered that the program included no Chicago song.Edwin Herbert Lewis, now dean ofLewis Institute, but in those days aninstructor working for his doctor's degreein English at the University, was about tosit down to dinner in his apartment at 6032Ellis Avenue. The door-bell rang. A gentleman entered and made a strange request.He was Williams, of the Glee Club, he said.He wanted the words for an Alma Mater;and he wanted them at once. Lewisprotested that his supper would grow cold."I will take care of that," said Williams,entering the dining-room. Lewis sat at hisdesk; Williams sat at the table.Lewis wrote four stanzas. Three of themare familiar to every one who has studied atChicago; the fourth, which contained asweetheart sentiment, has been abandoned.Dr. Lewis declares that "Of her who ownsus as her sons" is the worst line in theEnglish language."Have we finished?" asked Williams,coming out of the dining-room. He tookthe MSS and sat at the piano. Lewisexcused himself. One tune seemed to fit thewords especially. Fred Eastman, '98, whohad transferred from the University ofRochester the year before, had whistled it.Williams played it over, singing the words.This, he decided, was the song. He wouldcall on Eastman before the club met, andtell him the news.Williams looked up. The English instructor towered above him, with flushed face,brandishing an empty pie-plate. "Youngman — " Lewis began, solemnly. Whathappened at this point is an unsettledquestion. One man relates that a swarm ofbumblebees entered the room (though themonth was March), and that Williams,seizing the pretext, fled to the street.Another argues that the bees were a figmentof Lewis's brain, irate at the loss of hisapple pie. All agree, however, on one point:Williams departed."We were in the chapel," writes HoraceLozier, a member of the Glee Club, "in thenorth end of the main floor of Cobb Hall,waiting for our leader to show up for rehearsal when Eastman burst into the roomwith the announcement: 'Chicago's got an Alma Mater!' We did not share Eastman'senthusiasm at first, but slowly warmed upunder his fusillade of explanation: He hadappropriated the music of the RochesterAlma Mater and Professor Lewis of theEnglish Department had written somewords to it. Eastman read the poem fromthe single copy he had and then 'thumbed'the melody on the piano. . . ."The new Chicago Alma Mater, firstsung at Central Music Hall by the GleeClubs assisted by the Mandolin and BanjoClubs, was enthusiastically received andgave tone to a program which without itmust have sounded amateurish to the seasoned glee club concerters who filled thehall."Originally the song was arranged formale voices only. When Dr. Harper introduced the singing of the Alma Mater inchapel the incongruity of the use of themusic by mixed voices was apparent, evento an unmusical faculty.Dr. Harper was plainly distressed. Heturned to the choir and appealed for avolunteer who would rearrange the music.The work fell upon Paul Mandeville, oneof the members of the choir. By a strangecoincidence both he and the composer borethe same surname. Carrying out Dr.Harper's wish that the music be ready forthe next chapel service, he worked hard athis task.It was a difficult struggle with a monotonous melody and a repetition of chords.He finally produced a harmonization whichwas correct according to what ancientscalled "thorough bass;" but it was stillsadly lacking in variety.To eliminate this fault Mandeville soughtthe aid of a former schoolmate, Arne Old-berg, who added what variety and color hecould, making a decided improvement inthe third line. (Mr. Oldberg is now head ofthe School of Music at NorthwesternUniversity.)Copies were struck off and the song wentsurprisingly well at the next chapel service.Indeed Dr. Harper was so pleased with thesong that he asked that it be sung regularlyat chapel. This practice was followed for along time.To give the final combination authority acopyright was taken out, a plate made forpermanent record, and this plate, togetherwith the copyright, turned over to the University Press. The plate bore the inscription, "Arranged to let the Co-Eds sing.Music by F. N. Mandeville, Rochester.Copyright 1898, by Paul Mandeville,Chicago."Some tinkering editor, thinking thephrasing too long, substituted "Music byPaul Mandeville." Thus the composer wasforgotten.Thus began the career of Chicago's AlmaMater. "As I hear the song sung today,"says Horace Lozier, "it sounds just as it didin 1893 except for a new note: then it was astirring song of sentiment and prophecy;today we add fulfilment.""We are alreadywell beyond -the eleventh hour 4T** r- _.in coming j@&*to terms with Jm*. *&our immense IVr > fihllWBit, MK »BLjand growing il SJ^yPf!capacity ^^ ^"^ ^^ HI # " "X " '!^^BKl hit v Jiiifjfir" • nfiuThe clock on the cover of the Bulletin of the AtomicScientists is a symbol of danger and hope. The danger isthat humankind is already well beyond the 11th hour incoming to terms with its immense and growing capacityfor self-destruction. The hope is that, with reason and asense of urgency, we can succeed despite the lateness ofthe hour.Founded by scientists who helped develop the firstatomic bomb, the Bulletin has served as the conscienceof the international scientific community, focusing attention on the impact of science agd technology onpublic affairs. Written for the scientist an&aion-scientistalike, it is read and respected in living rooms and chancellories around the world for its commentary on publicaffairs. The Bulletin speaks authoritatively on nucleararms and safety topics and addresses itself to otherimportant questions. Recent monthly issues haveincluded:Energy — An inventory of the world's energy resourcesand a definitive statement of the need for early, wholesalerevision of public policy in the energy field, by AmoryLovins, an American physicist assigned to Friends of theEarth in London. Population — The UN's Antonio Car- the worldreturn to reasonthrough^BulletinJ OF THE ATOMIC SCIENTISTSe magazinewhich helpsOU keeptime. . .rillo-Flores on world population policy, Carl Djerassi onthe Chinese achievement in fertility control, GunnarMyrdal on the need for reordering social and economicpriorities. 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