TffiVCsfiWmwm§m^MnMrn\AUTUMN 1975 "mmgm.THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOLIBRARYAthens, coffee,Aquinas; and theprotection ofvulnerable genius.Below are excerpts from the new film,A Very Special Kind ot Person, in which32 alumni express themselves on thesubject of the University of Chicago—and on why they support it.Saul Bellow, EX 39,novelist, chairman ofthe University's Committeeon Social Thought.'The fact (is) that so many marvelouslyintelligent and able people are here.People of talent, some few of downrightgenius . . . You can always find someone to talk to . . . about extremely obscure and recondite interests . . . TheUniversity does . . . what it can in astormy world to protect the inner peaceand balance of the people engaged inthese activities. It shields them in theirvulnerability, caused by their eccentricities. It really takes very good care ofthem. I appreciate this." Paul Samuelson, AB'35,Nobel laureate, professorof economics,MIT.'When you're in a golden age, whetherit's Athens or Elizabethan times, everything reinforces everything. And thestaff felt they were tops. They mademediocre people great; and there was amorale and a zest which was veryexhilarating to an eageryoung student."George Steiner, AB'48,founding fellow,Churchill College,Cambridge University.'We literally had a feeling that the daywas too short. And I've never, I think,lived in as intense an intellectualatmosphere. We sat all night— therewere marvelous coffee bars at that time;there was really no problem. You sataround, you got to morning class, andsomehow you slept a little in the afternoon. We often went around the clock." Katharine Graham, AB'38,president of theWashington Post Company,trustee of the University.'The discussions that got the mostheated, in many ways, were argumentsabout Thomas Aquinas— and that wasout of class. In class I think you tookaway a sense of academic challenge,of interest in ideas ... I think I got atChicago a sense of wanting to continue—of growing and continuing educationfor the rest of my life."A Very Special Kind of Person will beshown to alumni groups (and others) as partof the Campaign for Chicago. Forfurther information, write to ALUMNI FUND,University of Chicago, 5801 S. Ellis Ave.,Chicago, IL 60637.THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEThe University of ChicagoAlumni Association.5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312)753-2175Julian J. Jackson, PhB'31, PresidentArthur Nayer, Director, Alumni AffairsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorKristen Nelson, Program DirectorRegional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91201(213)242-8288825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030New York, New York 10022(212)935-19771000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415)928-0337735 Fairfax StreetAlexandria, Va. 22314(703) 549-3800Volume LXVIIIAutumn, 1975 Number 1The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published for alumniand the faculty of the University ofChicago, under the auspices of the Officeof the Vice President for Public Affairs.Letters and editorial contributions arewelcomed.Don Morris, ab'36EditorJennie LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois, and at additional mailing offices.Copyright 1975, The University ofChicago. Published quarterly, Spring,Summer, Fall and Winter. The'tritobifesjtrou'bles and triumphsErosion of history's baseKarl F. Morrison 11Directions for building a house of cardsElder Olson 13Music and mathematics in Mitchell TowerRobert Gruen 14A great library struggles to maintain its greatness 19The young oldBernice Neugarten 22Jimmy's 24A world capital of theologyMartin E. Marty 26Simplicus and the treeRaymond Smullyan 32Dragstedt, Walling are Alumni Medal winners 36Bernstein named communicator of the year 434 Quadrangle News 35 Alumni Newscover: Energetically pulling on a bell rope in Mitchell Tower is Kathleen (Kitty) Picken(ab'72), a member of the University's change ringing group, whose revival of an ancientart is reported by the group's leader, starting on Page 14.picture credits: Pages 1, 14-18, James Quinn; Page 4, Jac Stafford; Page 5 (top),Chicago Photographers, (bottom), Joel Snyder; Pages 6, 19, D. Morris; Pages 7 (top),9-10, Riccardo Levi Setti; Page 7 (bottom), John Groen; Page 8, adapted, courtesyAlfred M. Zeigler; Pages 25, 26, Art Costello; Pages 26-31, 48, Marc PoKempner;Pages 36, 37, 47, Myron Davis; Page 43, courtesy Advertising Age.>5%s^Quantrell winners with Acting President Wilson (center) are (from left) William Veeder, Beatrice Garber, Bertram Cohler, and Paul Moore.The Quantrells -- an annual restatementEver since 1938 the University has honoredannually a few members of the Collegefaculty with $1 ,000 awards for excellence inundergraduate teaching. This year four morewere chosen (three of them alumni).In a talk earlier this year Dr. CharlesOxnard, dean of the College, said, "There isno place for a regular American college at theUniversity of Chicago. We must have aCollege that is a 'very special place' ..."Explaining how "special," he said,"Scratch an internationally known scholarfrom, say, the Committee on SocialThought, or the Enrico Fermi Institute, andyou will find a College teacher. You canscratch hard — they do not bleed. Poke agraduate department such as Chemistry orEnglish or Anatomy and you may havepoked a hornet's nest — but you will havefound College teachers of enormous dedication. Turn over a professional school —Divinity or Medicine, perhaps, — and amongthe moss you will discover a clutch of Collegeteachers."It is on this basis, and to the best of theseteachers, that the Llewellyn J. and HarrietM. Quantrell awards are awarded, and thisyear's quartet — bringing the total over theyears to 135 — are fully representative of theobjective of the late Ernest Quantrell(p1ib'05) when he provided for the honors(named for his parents) to reward andencourage the art of teaching.The four:• Bertram Cohler (ab'61), assistant professorin the Department of Behavioral Sciences,the Department of Education, and theCollege, among whose contributions hasbeen his penetrating presentation of thecourse, "Self, Culture, and Society."• Beatrice Garber (sm'48, p1td'51), associateprofessor in the Departments of Biology andAnatomy, the Committee on DevelopmentalBiology, and the College, cited for her"communication of excitement and enthusiasm" of experimental biology. • Paul B. Moore (sm'63, pho'65), professorin the Department of Geophysical Sciencesand the College, honored for his success inconveying an understanding of "the orderedsimplicity of most of what we term 'solidmatter.' " (Readers of the magazine willrecall Mr. Moore's social extrapolationsfrom his study of butterflies in the summer,1975, issue.)• William R. Veeder, associate professor inthe Department of English Language andLiterature and the College, who "has consistently been able to combine the closereading of texts with the opening of vastintellectual horizons."Anderson challenge spurs driveAs the University moves into the 1975-'76academic year, a number of noteworthydevelopments appear to be just over thehorizon:• Trustees and faculty committees have beenworking steadily at the task of choosing anew president.• Phase 2 of the Campaign for Chicago isexpected to pass the $100,000,000 milestone— and may have done so by the time thesepages are read. That figure represents 35.7%of the campaign goal. It leaves more than64% of the work still to be done.•Of particular importance to alumni is thechallenge presented by Robert O. andBarbara Anderson — their offer to match, upto $1,000,000, new or increased alumnigiving. The challenge has resulted, in the firsttwo months since it was announced, in aninitial response of $ 1 80,000 which can becredited to the Andersons' generous project.With, among other efforts, the autumnprogram of telethons soon to begin, alumniare being urged to help, with their gifts, inachieving this desperately needed $2,000,000 addition to the University's general funds.The challenge is met whether the gift is madeto the University itself or to the alumnus'professional school, but it must be otherwiseunrestricted.Fortune and men's eyesProbably the best news received by anyoneon the campus this past summer was thatwhich came to Alan Welsh (am'73), a graduate student in psychology. The news wasthat he had become a big winner in the statelottery — recipient of $1 ,000 per month forlife. Actuarially this may be more thanusually tough for the state of Illinois; Mr.Welsh is only 28.On another front, Eckhard H. Hess, professor of biopsychology and cognition in theDepartment of Behavioral Sciences, reportedresearch which found that a person's truefeelings are revealed by his eyes, no matterwhat he says he feels. If he sees something helikes or is even mildly interested in, his pupilsdilate; if he has negative feelings or is uninterested, his pupils contract. Pupillometrics,as Mr. Hess refers to his discovery, may havemany applications, not all to his liking."Periodically I have been asked to cooperatein using pupillometrics in enforced 'lie detection' situations," he says. "I have refusedeach time."A new scientific publication, The Journalof Ultramicroscopy, has been founded byElmar Zeitler, professor in the Departmentof Biophysics and Theoretical Biology, theDepartment of Physics, the Fermi Instituteand the College.Lubos J. Hejl, Czech-born economist, hasjoined the Graduate School of Business asdean of students, succeeding Harold R.(Jeff) Metcalf , who has been named dean foralumni and student affairs. Mr. Hejl hadbeen on the faculty at the University ofRochester.Herbert Kessler (ab'61), chairman of theDepartment of Art, has been appointedUniversity director of fine arts, a new position, in which he will oversee and coordinateactivities of the Department of Art, the4Committee on Art and Design, the MidwayStudios, and the Smart and BergmanGalleries.Saul Bellow (x'39), professor of Englishand professor and chairman of theCommittee on Social Thought, thrice winnerof the National Book Award, once againproves he can make utterly fascinating thereality of everyday life, in his new novel,"Humboldt's Gift."A symposium in May honored the work ofEarl A. Evans, Jr., professor and formerchairman of the Department of Biochemistryand the College, who retired July 1 . Mr.Evans was a pioneer in molecular biologyand an authority on the genetics of viruses.The National Endowment for the Humanities this past summer awarded the Universitya grant of up to $2,762, 123 for the establishment of a National Humanities Institute.The institute, which will be headed by NeilHarris, professor in the Department ofHistory, will conduct a program to enrich theteaching of the humanities in Americancolleges and universities, bringing a score ofscholars to the Midway each year.The Department of Education and theGraduate School of Education will merge bythe end of September.Students, faculty members and otherfriends of the University staged a swim marathon in Ida Noyes tank which went on for185 hours, covered some 400 miles, andraised about $1 ,500 to show campus solidarity behind the effort to build a new nata-torium as part of a general refurbishing ofthe University's venerable athletic facilities.A committee to promote the over-all projectis headed by Jay Berwanger (ab'36).The Robert Wood Johnson Foundationhas accorded the University a two-year grantof $1 ,042,470 to study problems involved inAmericans' access to medical care.And the summer of 1975 was the one inwhich scores of small gardens sprouted invacant lots, parkways, and back yards, as theMidway's doughty denizens strove to beatthe high cost of fruits and vegetables.Egypt tomb art republishedIn 1 936 the University of Chicago Press published a remarkable set of paintings, made aquarter of a century earlier by Nina M.Davies, in which she copied, with a highdegree of verisimilitude, paintings on thewalls of Egyptian tombs, dating approximately from 2700 b.c. to 1 100 b.c. Now theOriental Institute is reprinting and republishing the set of 104 18"x 24" color works(only 749 numbered copies will be made) andoffering the boxed set for $500. (Aftercompletion of the publication project theplates will be offered for sale at $300 each.)Persons who believe they might be interestedin acquiring a set may obtain a free sampleprint by writing to the Oriental Institute (1155E. 58th St., Chicago, II. 60637). Mrs. Maurice Goldblatt, president of the women 's auxiliary of the Gastro-Intestinal ResearchFoundation of Billings Hospital, and Dr. Joseph B. Kirsner, chief of staff and deputy deanfor medial affairs of the University's hospitals and clinics, with a super-size portrait of Dr.Kirsner painted by adman-artist Edward H. Weiss (phB' 22). The portrait was presented to Dr.Kirsner at a dinner honoring him, at which Trustee Emmett Dedmon (ab'39) was the speaker.The scoreboardSpring quarter was a good one for varsity contenders on the Midway: not one team failed tobreak even, and one almost rang up a perfectseason. That was the men's tennis team,which won eleven and lost one for an averageof .91 7. The women's tennis team was 8-3 foran average of .727, and women's Softball hadan identical record. The women's tennis teamwas second in state competition.The golf team, which has both male andfemale players, was 9-5 for a .643 average.The men's varsity track team won elevenand lost seven, averaging .611, the same percentage achieved by the baseball team, which gave the 1 975 nine the best record since 1 949.Trailing the field was the women's track team,with a 1 - 1 record and a respectable . 500percentage.1 97.5 Football(Home games in capitals)Sept. 27 BeloitOct. 4 LawrenceOct. 11 N.E. ILLINOISOct. 18 LAKE FORESTOct. 25 MarquetteNov.l GRINNELLNov. 8 LORASBlackfriars alumni from many classes gathered after the 1975 performance and talked offormation of an alumni group. Still inchoate, the nucleus of the group invites inquiries.Address: Blackfriars, Harper 243, 1116 E. 59th Street, Chicago, II. 60637.5Kudos•Leon Carnovsky (pho'32), professoremeritus in the Graduate Library School, wasawarded in July the Joseph W . Lippincottaward for notable achievement. Said thecitation, in part: "Librarianship owes a greatdeal to Leon Carnovsky. . . " The award wasaccepted, because of Mr. Carnovsky's illness,by his wife, Ruth French Strout Carnovsky.The Carnovskys live at 1200 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Ca. 94606. (Mr. Carnovskyand his brother, the eminent actor, MorrisCarnovsky, were profiled in this magazine inthe January/February, 1970, issue.)•President Emeritus Levi, Karl Llewellyn distinguished service professor in the LawSchool (on leave) and currently AttorneyGeneral, was one of six scholars who receivedhonorary degrees at the June Convocation.The others: Ernst H. G. Gombrich (University of London); JohnF. Kermode(Cambridge); Nino Pirrotta (University ofRome); Herman M. Kalckar and Mathew S.Meselson(pfiB'51) of Harvard.•Leading astrophysicists from all over theworld came to Chicago late in May to takepart in a three-day symposium on theoreticalastrophysics honoring Subrahmanyan Chan-drasekhar, the Morton D. Hull distinguishedservice professor in the University's Departments of Astronomy and Astrophysics,Physics, and the Fermi Institute. JeremiahOstriker (pItd'64) and a Princeton colleague,Martin Schwarzschild, were among thespeakers, who also included Robert Geroch of the University's faculty, and scientists fromthe Universities of Thessaloniki, Liege,Sussex, Oxford and Warsaw, ColumbiaUniversity and Cal Tech.•Harold Haydon (phB'30, am'31) washonored at a reception at the Midway Studioshe had long directed, as he became professoremeritus of art; he also was awarded a lifetimemembership in the Artists Guild of Chicago.He is also Chicago Sun-Times art critic.•Dr. Robert Kirschner, assistant professor inthe Department of Pathology, a specialist inthe RNA tumor viruses, has been named thefirst Ben Horwich Scholar of MedicalSciences at the University.•Elwood V. Jensen (phD'44), professor in theDepartment of Biophysics and TheoreticalBiology and director of the Ben MayLaboratory for Cancer Research and theBiomedical Center for Population Research,was awarded in May the Clowes prize of theAmerican Association for Cancer Research.He is the developer of the Jensen estrogenreceptor test, which determines whether ornot a so-called estrogen receptor molecule ispresent in breast cancer tissue, providingvaluable guidance in treatment.•Former Fifth Ward Alderman Leon Despres(phD'27, jd'29) received Page 1 treatment inthe Reader, Chicago "underground" newspaper, which said, as he retired from the CityCouncil, "For twenty years Despres lost voteafter vote, but raised issue after issue. It was astand-off. He was never put down." Faculty deathsRecent months have witnessed the loss to theUniversity community through death of anumber of faculty members and formerfaculty members:William Barnett Blakemore (am'37, db'38,phD '41), professor in the Divinity School anddean of Disciples Divinity House, died May 2.Dr. Lester R. Dragstedt, the Thomas D.Jones distinguished service professor emeritus of surgery, died July 16 (see Page 36).Louis Gottschalk, distinguished serviceprofessor emeritus of history, died June 23.Pinhas P. Delougas, professor and curatoremeritus in the Oriental Institute, died May28.Franklin P. Johnson, professor emeritus inthe Department of Art, died June 9.ErrataIn the summer issue of the magazinethree errors appeared: (1) the statementattributed to Newton in the account ofSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar's 1975Ryerson lecture was, as Mr. Chandra-sekhar correctly said, actually made byDarwin; (2) in the account of the"lively week on the Midway," AllenGinsberg's name was misspelled; (3)the two butterfly photos in PaulMoore's article were inadvertentlytransposed; the identifications, therefore, should be reversed.iA soggy paper boat sailing contest in the Botany Pond was one feature of this year's Festival of the Arts.6THE TRILOBITES:TROUBLESANDTRIUMPHSThis partially curled up specimen of Phacopsrana crassituberculata, found in Ohio silicashale, clearly displays the trilobite's compoundeye structure.Extinct for 250,000,000 years, these fascinating creaturesmay be making another contribution to evolutionary theoryOne of the difficulties involved in writing a book about scientific matters is that the subject itself can change faster thanpublishers' schedules. And, as Riccardo Levi Setti discoveredthis year, this can be true even when the subject is a fossilcreature which has not lived on the earth for hundreds ofmillions of years.Mr. Levi Setti, readers of the magazine will recall, isprofessor in the Department of Physics, the Fermi Institute,and the College. His activities were most recently reported inthese pages (Autumn, 1974) in connection with the protonscanning microscope, devised by himself and two graduatestudents, which has some advantages over the electronmicroscope.Mr. Levi Setti, however, also has an avocation: pursuit ofthe trilobite, an extinct arthropod which, over a period ofsome 350,000,000 years, represented probably the most successful population on earth.This past summer a new book by Mr. Levi Setti, Trilobites:A Photographic Atlas, was published by the University ofChicago Press. While it was in production at the Press he discovered, in the course of a field trip to a rich fossil bed inNewfoundland, that one trilobite (Paradoxides forchham-meri), which he had been seeking in one layer of shale,appeared, instead, in a lower (i.e. older) layer, where it shouldnot have been. This discovery necessitated the inclusion in hisbook of an appendix bringing the situation up to date.To understand his dilemma it is necessary to recall that Newfoundland's Avalon peninsula, where Mr. Levi Setti'sfind occurred, was, in Precambrian, Cambrian and Ordo-Mr. Levi Setti's surroundings speak of fossils as well asphysics.7vician days, part of the continent of Europe. The AtlanticOcean was yet to be created by the shifting of the earth's surface plates.In Scandinavia Paradoxides forchhammeri fossils arefound in layers which are more recent than those holding remains of another trilobite, Paradoxides davidis. But at thehigher level in eastern Newfoundland, Mr. Levi Setti reported, other trilobites associated with Paradoxides forchhammeri were found, "but not Paradoxides forchhammeriitself."Where was the missing trilobite?" he asked."In my sequential quarrying of the shale beds at [the Newfoundland] site," he wrote, "I started near the top of theParadoxides davidis zone. Naturally I did not expect to findan answer to the problem of the missing trilobite: it was thewrong stratigraphic location for such a find. The surprisecame when, after six feet of layers filled with P. davidis, aThis reconstruction of how the continents were arranged inthe Silurian epoch was made by Professor Alfred M. Zieglerof the University and W. S. McKerrow of Oxford. It indicatesthe position of the Avalon-Massachusetts peninsula and otherphenomena. Map abbreviations: Spitz: Spitzbergen; Sc: Scotland; Tex: Texas; Mex: Mexico; Nor: Norway; Eng: England;E. Nfld: eastern Newfoundland; NS: Nova Scotia; Colom:Colombia; Venez: Venezuela; Flor: Florida; Pied: Piedmontof the southern Appalachians; Maurit: Mauritania; Mor:Morocco; Sp: Spain; Alger: Algeria; Lib: Libya. The maporiginally appeared in Nature and is reproduced withpermission. different kind of Paradoxides appeared, completely replacingthe former. These giant trilobites, up to one foot long andcolored in bright yellow, orange and red (the colors of ironoxides coating the carapace), were too large for the averagesize slab to contain. It was a scramble to extract the adjoiningslabs of shale and then to restore the broken specimens totheir former integrity."The full realization of what the different trilobite wasoccurred only when, back home, I could compare my findingswith the Paradoxides of England and Scandinavia. . ."Gradually the conviction grew on me that I had stumbledupon Paradoxides forchhammeri Angelin, the missingtrilobite. But it had occurred in the wrong place!"The previous puzzle now appears to be replaced byanother one. Paradoxides forchhammeri in Newfoundland islocated within the P. davidis zone instead of occupying astratigraphic position above Paradoxides davidis, as in Scandinavia. The two species appear to be very closely related andcould have alternated locally as competing populations."By the time Trilobites: A Photographic Atlas was published, however, it was, in this particular, out of date. Comparison of Mr. Levi Setti's Paradoxides with the typespecimens of P. forchhammeri showed some distinct differences. The indications were, however, that Levi Setti'strilobite was a new mutant form of Paradoxides davidis, themore common European form. In the meantime, two additional mutant forms were identified. This makes the discoveryof considerable interest as an evolutionary phenomenon.Here the process of genetic change from one form to anotherone is observed taking place in small, discrete steps.It was approximately 600,000,000 years ago that the trilobite appeared on the earthly scene in a form which, becauseof the mineral content of its shell, could be converted into afossil and thus be available for examination today. For350,000,000 years the trilobites were the leading populators ofthe earth — or at least those portions of it which, in thatinterval, were covered with shallow seas.A span of 350,000,000 years is a long time — it is some thirtytimes as long as humanoid forms have lived on the earth (thusfar). And since at the beginning of the Paleozoic epoch, whenthe first trilobite fossils appear, they were already basicallysimilar to the form in which they lived for the next third of abillion years, it is a safe assumption that they had beenevolving for a long time before that — perhaps as long as1,000,000,000 years. Not until the Paleozoic, however, didtheir bodies include long-lasting minerals; before that, presumably, their exterior shells were made of chitin, thematerial of present-day insect exoskeletons, and the chitinyielded to the ravages of time, producing no fossil remains.Longevity is a valuable characteristic, and as a result oftheir persistence trilobites have long served paleontologists astime markers. But they have other qualities which have comeThe exoskeleton of this perfect exemplar of Phacops ranacrassituberculata has been replaced by dark green calcite,contrasting sharply with the soft gray shale matrix. >S. 9 '^%rV"%..The sparkle effect displayed by this Calymene celebraRaymond is created by the dolomite crystals which replacedits exoskeleton. The specimen is one of those collected byMatteo and Emile Levi Setti, sons of the light more recently.One of these involves their eyes, which are compound, likethose of many modern arthropods.Some trilobites were blind, but most had marvelous seeingequipment. Some had a large turret-like visual apparatuswhich occupied most of the surface of their heads. Theseeyes were of two kinds, the earlier holochroal eyes, all ofwhose visual units were covered by a single cornea, and thelater schizochroal eyes, in which each optical element wasseparately set in its own accurate mounting. The internalstructure of the trilobites' eyes has disappeared in the processof fossilization, but in some species the lenses are preservedintact, since in the living animal they were made, mirabiledictu, of perfectly oriented calcite crystals, which survived thepassage of a lot of time."The lenses of phacopid trilobites," wrote Mr. Levi Setti,"were doublet structures built to correct the otherwise largespherical aberration of simple thick lenses. The evidence forthis feat of trilobites is so extraordinary that it deserves achronological description."The story begins when I met Dr. E. N. K. Clarkson at theOslo International Conference on Trilobites in July, 1973.Following my presentation of the evidence concerningoptimal light collection properties in the Limulus [horseshoecrab] ommatidia, Dr. Clarkson and I sat for coffee to talkabout trilobite eyes. On that occasion I learned from Dr.Clarkson of his studies of the lens structure in the phacopidtrilobites. . ."Coming back to Chicago with some napkin sketches ofdoublet lenses split by a curious wavy surface, I wasconvinced that trilobites must have tried to correct theiroptics. The real surprise came when I found out how the littleanimals coped with the problem. "This discovery happened when I was browsing throughthe sacred works of Christian Huygens, the father of waveoptics. In his Trade de la Lumiere, published in 1690,Huygens described the construction of an aspherical aplanaticlens, the outline of which resembled unmistakably the wavyshape seen in Clarkson's sketches."This is not all: the mention by Huygens of similar earlyresults by Descartes led me to peruse his La Geometrie,published in 1637. There I found a second construction,somewhat different from that of Huygens, but designed toperform the same function. This matched a second version oftrilobite lens shapes described by Clarkson."All of this produced in Mr. Levi Setti, he wrote, "the conviction that trilobites had solved a very elegant physicalproblem and apparently knew about Fermat's principle,Abbe's sine law, Snell's laws of refraction, and the optics ofbirefringent crystals."(Readers of the magazine may recall that in the report onRoland Winston's ideal solar light collector, Mr. Winston[sb'56, sm'57, phD'63] had learned from Mr. Levi Setti of thebiological perfection of light collectors in the horseshoe crab,which Mr. Levi Setti had been studying in order to learn moreabout this phenomenon in a creature in some ways analogousto the trilobite.)So the trilobite, in addition to the monumental longevity ofits species through time, which enabled it to serve science as acalendar for the dating of fossils, had eyes, at least600,000,000 years ago, which were marvels of optical perfection. Some trilobites could also curl up. They molted in theprocess of growing, going through a "soft shell" stage, ascrabs do. They spread widely through the shallow seas as theirlarvae drifted with the currents.And, perhaps as a result of its wide dispersion, the trilobitemay be in the process of furnishing paleobiologists with somenew insight into how evolution took place.So it is that when Professor Levi Setti is not occupied in therealm of physics he turns to his fascinating fossils. The Atlascontains 178 photographs of many of the 10,000 species oftrilobite (many of them made with the help of such techniquesas photographing the fossils through xylene, a benzene-likeliquid), so that the details of each specimen are astonishinglyvivid.Sad to say, the trilobites, having lived for 350,000,000years, and having persisted as fossils for another 250,000,000,are now becoming an endangered species. Their fossil bedsare being ravaged by the less careful amateur collectors androck hounds (and often by the scholar as well), who tear upthe embedding layers with enthusiastic abandon. Or the trilobites' geological habitats are flooded when quarrying stops.Or they are buried by the roads and buildings of onrushinghuman civilization."I foresee a situation fairly soon where nobody is going tobe able to find the fossils," he says. "You'll know they arethere, but nobody will be able to get at them."Luckily a lot of good trilobite specimens will still be susceptible of study — in libraries, thanks to the Levi Setti Atlas.10Erosion of history's base'Anything is debased when it is used as a means to a higher end'Karl F. MorrisonAlmost since its foundation, the University of Chicago hasheld an unusual eminence in advancing historical knowledge.The achievements of the members of this department are wellknown to you, both those of earlier generations and those ofthe present department, which is a new one, having been completely reconstituted in a novel and venturesome way over thelast decade.Though its predominant orientation toward graduatestudies and its fluid structure, the University has also been acenter — and in some respects, the major center — for investigations of Near Eastern philology and archaeology, sociology, anthropology, and the theory of knowledge. Perhapssurprisingly, physics too has contributed to the high distinction of the University's collective achievement in historythrough Dr. Cesare Emiliani's discovery of oxygen-18 dating,which has called forth a thorough reorganization of knowledge based on fossil remains.(In view of these achievements, it is a good exercise inhumility to reflect that there are people in the city of Chicagowho do not even know of the University's existence.)For persons of developed historical awareness, few centersof learning equal the institution under whose shelter we havecome to live together.Departments and universities often turn inward too much.I acknowledge our distinguished heritage, and the exceptionalstrengths that presently belong to us. I emphasize the internalmatters of concern that distress us. I must also turn your attention outward, beyond the confines of this university, to thewider stage on which we have a part, for that is where we shallencounter our ultimate concerns.It was a surprising change in language when "radical" and"revolutionary" became terms of praise instead of opprobrium, as they had been. Perhaps our acceptance of "revisionism" marked the transition. Now, of course, it bucksup one's spirits to be called radical— that is, a person who attacks received opinions or established institutions at the roots— and some of our best friends have been in jail for radicalism. As a scholar, one vies with others to write somethingthat the reviewers will crown with the adjective "revolu-Mr. Morrison, a student of medieval history, is chairman ofthe Department of History and professor in the Departmentsof History and New Testament and Early Christian History.His article is adapted from a talk he made at an orientationmeeting for graduate students in history. tionary."What happened to the ideals of balance and measure?What happened to the dispassionate search for truth becauseit was good in itself, rather than because it had any immediatepurpose? These were liberal ideals. Since this is a liberal university, they survive here. But not for everyone. Even thosewho keep to the golden mean are reluctant to say that theirtruths may be socially useless. Even they hanker after innovation, relevance, and the restructuring of knowledge throughmethod or interpretation. Perhaps even they see their work asa weapon in the war against standards, and understand that,if history justifies historical writing at all, it is for incitingsocial change, for shattering the machinery of the state.This change in attitude has come about partly through theeffort of the good-natured bourgeois to show their sympathytoward convinced revolutionaries, with the result that, insome circles, the ideals and language of revolution have become petit-bourgeoisified. But, more profoundly, it is also, inpart, the rejection of grace and hope, and above all the conviction of harmony — a rejection that blighted the humanitiesafter World War II, and that nothing has since reversed. "Itisn't pretty, but it's true," draws the limited vision of historians who think of their work as an exercise in psycho-pathology or class war.Embracing this view has meant, for some, accepting violence — or, to use a technical word, crime — as the norm inhuman relations. We would be negligent indeed not to recallthe suffering that this has caused. Remember the deaths ofTom Cottrell, the vice-chancellor of Stirling; of CourtneySmith, the president of Swarthmore; of Pablo Laguzzi, theinfant son of the rector of Buenos Aires, who was blownapart in his own home. Remember the 1,500 academics whohave lost their positions in the University of Chile since Al-lende was overthrown a year ago; the scholars in WesternEurope barred from university positions by political reviewboards; persons who have become non-persons in thePeople's Republic of China in the rejection of Confucianism;colleagues in the Philippines who occasionally teach undermartial law.Remember colleagues at this university who still carry numbers tattooed in their flesh from experiments of this sort inanother land. And remember those who at one time or another, in this country, have had their freedom of speech curtailed by disruptions of lectures, or have found their freedomobserved only because they spoke under armed guard.We have hitherto participated in the independence that our11University has as a private institution. Sometimes we have toomuch assumed that the independence was personal, that it belonged to us individually, rather than primarily to us asmembers of an institution chartered under the laws of a stateand nation. The examples that I have mentioned need to bewatched particularly if, as is widely believed, institutions likeours are in transition from private philanthropy to government support. In this regard, the peremptory dismissal of thepresident of the University of Texas is a matter in which weare all involved.On either extreme — right or left — the university is neededas a branch of the establishment. Without an establishment,there would be no direct action, no restructuring of society,no revolution. Extremists need the establishment that theyalso need to destroy, often using its own strength against it.And, in their swirling factions, enchanted by their ownvisions, they are Salome dancing again before the head ofJohn the Baptist, rapturously kissing the image of herself inthe glazing eyes of the dead prophet.Anything is debased when it is used as a means to a higherend. It is discredited when it fails to serve its purpose, and thisseems to me the present disarray of the social sciences —especially of economics, which has failed to preserve stability;of political science, which has failed to assure equitablegovernment; of sociology, which has failed to achieve anysolution to prevailing sufferings, hostilities and fears. Presentdifficulties have been beyond these disciplines, and vastlybeyond them has been the first requirement of a true science— its predictive accuracy. What about history?But what is history? When Renoir was asked, "What isart?" he answered "Art is when I void against the wall."Similarly, the arrogance of the old and the megalomania ofthe young is such as to agree that history is what the historiandoes. This loss of a common focus is what both right and leftresent, and wish to adjust, whether with extreme nationalismor with proletarian ideology. It springs from a liberalism thatcountenanced the diversification of history, not merely byregion, country, and period, but into compartments labelledeconomic, intellectual, constitutional, statistical, mass, andso forth.Diversification of this sort was approved because knowledge was thought to have its own legitimacy. Under thejargon-word "interdisciplinary," rapports were establishedwith other social sciences in the interest of refining methodsthat would reinforce these compartmentalizations. Eventhirty years ago, some considered the results so dubious as torefer to the "cross-sterilization of the social sciences" (F.Frankfurter, January 7, 1948, letter on Alfred North Whitehead, in N.Y. Times, January 8, 1948, reprinted in A. N.Whitehead, The Aims of Education and Other Essays, N.Y.:Mentor, 1961: p. vii.).A simple, but telling, yardstick is the use of textbooks. Anysubject that has an agreed discipline and content has elementary texts. This is true of studies — called stable by publishers — that have introductory, comprehensive textbooks,such as the sciences, foreign languages (including English as aforeign language), psychology, statistics, and business man agement. It was once true of our area. But now, history belongs among "unstable subjects," including also politicalscience and sociology, in which no basis of knowledge ormethod is commonly accepted as authentic.This state of affairs is not primarily due to the vast scope ofhistorical inquiry, for it marks even introductory courses suchas those in Western Civilization and American History.Where there is so much experimentation, there is an equal andequivalent disarray in norms and purpose. How can a line bedrawn between openness as exploration and openness asvacuity? Thus, academic history has contributed to the lossof an educational center.It has also contributed to the conscious abandonment ofrational discourse as a way of discovery, rather than as one ofaffirmation. For all great revolutionary ideologies, exceptnihilism, put historical interpretation at their cyclonic eyes,and it is in the dreadful, rushing calm of that center thathistorians of either extreme feel a gnawing guilt in their bitterisolation from the people.The bitterness is new, not the isolation. History's roots arenot academic. They reach into the depths of human experience, and, for this reason, many peoples have entrustedtheir histories to priestly orders. The Book of Deuteronomysets God forth as the first historian, and His composition as asong to be taught to all the Israelites by their leaders.This sequestration lives on in the long, ascetic, and specialized training for the professional practice of history. It liveson in the pride that historians take in their separateness: thatis, in the very rigor of what is asked of them, in their hard-won and exacting professional skills.With the primordial division of labor, history inherits andstill possesses a special pain and a special glory. The pain isin the matrix of the historian's subject. For he studies eventsembedded in something that does not exist: namely, in time.The glory is in the subject itself. For the historian's subject islife, and it is his privilege and happiness to move in a dimension outside of time, a dimension that is largely closed toother people. He passes beyond himself. He recalls to theliving present people long dead. In his mind's eye, he and theyare all delivered from the tomb into a community of being,sometimes with effects of world importance, as when Marxrecalled to life ideas of Aristotle, and the Hellenistic philosopher, Plotinus, and the German mystic, Jacob Boehme.In the mind's eye of the historian, he and earlier people arecalled from non-existent time into a shared wholeness ofbeing. And so, what he writes is a memorial: that is, a recordof past actions. It is a history, a documentation of the record.It is a topography of movement. In these ways, it absorbs thepast into the present. But it is also a personal statement, anaddress to the future, the song of the bard to the village, forwhose benefit it was conceived, and whose survival somehowdemands it.Perhaps, academic historians have too much forgotten thattheir professional separateness involves collective responsibilities. The community might well ask of us: If, when theycome home from their voyages of discovery, they will not tellus what they saw, why do they eat our bread and drink the12wine that we mingle for them?The awful question before us is whether this vision ofwholeness can, or should, be pursued at all, and, if so,whether it may be pursued by the individual according to hisown abilities and imagination. Perhaps, liberal ideals werelike freedom of speech and the abolition of slavery, a momentary lapse from the norms of human nature, a deformity to beignored by the greater part of the world and presently to berectified by the West itself. Should the historian forget theimmense joy of brotherhood in what was and is and is to be?Should he give up the disinterested search and confine histhought to the non-existent space of time? For most of theworld, the question has been decided. It was open for uswhen we stepped over the threshold of this university. But wecan never cross the same threshold twice.Everything is at stake. Only one thing is required: that ourlearning become knowledge, knowledge implanted in the rootof wisdom that shall never fall away. Without this grounding,there can be many academics, but no historians. In your personal relations with the members of the faculty, you will findas many visions of how academics can remain true to historyas there are people. Here you encounter your models, as wellas your teachers. Do they find themselves in the life to whichthey have been called? Why and how do they love theirwork? Are they glad to be here? Ask them. Their answers willvary through all shades, and you will frame and contributeyour own understanding of the issues, your own contours to greatness of spirit.You should expect a miraculous vision from a medievalist.Since we meet on the Feast of Francis of Assisi, I will tell youa legend about that saint. After Francis died, one of hisbrethren had a vision of what would come to pass in theinstitution that he had founded, the Franciscan Order.Brother James saw a tree, fair and very great. Its roots weregold; its fruits were men, the members of the Order. St.Francis took a cup, full of the spirit of life, to each of hissons. Some drank fully, devotedly, and became bright andshining as the sun. Others poured out the cup, and they became dark, misshapen, horrible to see. Still others drank apart and threw part out, and they grew partly bright, andpartly dark. The grisly brethren raged against the shiningones, and then a windstorm arose and struck the tree. All thefriars fell. Those who had poured out the cup of the spirit oflife were carried off to places of darkness and torment; butthose who had drunk deeply of it were translated to a place oflife and light. And the tree fell. When the storm passed,another tree sprang from the golden roots, but this one conformed with the roots. It was all of burnished gold. It putforth dazzling leaves, and flowers, and fruit; and tonguecould not tell, nor could eye behold its growth, its beauty andglory, its fragrance and power (Little Flowers, c. XLVIII,Friar James of La Massa).This vision, with its strange premonition of the work thatwe have to share, is my welcoming gift to you.Directions for building a house of cardsThis poem is from Olson's PennyArcade, by Elder Olson (ab'34, am'35,phD'38), distinguished service professorin the Department of English and theCollege. The book (Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press, 1975) is Mr. Olson 'sfirst collection of verse in more than adecade. Elder OlsonThis is a house of cards. To build this houseYou must have patience, and a steady hand.That is the difficulty. You must have a steady handNo matter what has happened, and unless something has happenedYou will not care to build this house of cards.And you must have cards, enough to tell your fortuneOr make your fortune, but to build this houseYou must see all fortunes merely as so many cards,Differing, no doubt, but not for you.You must know this, and still keep a steady hand.And you must have patience, and nothing better to doThan to make this toy because it was your wayTo make a toy of fortune, which was not your toy,Until at last you have nothing better to doThan to build this final thing with nothing inside,Fool's work, a monument to folly, but built with difficultyBecause everything is difficult once you understandThat after what has been, nothing can beBut things like this, with nothing inside, like you.You must see this, and somehow keep a steady hand.13Ringing the changesMusicand mathematicsin Mitchell TowerRobert GruenWalking on the University of Chicago campus on an earlySaturday afternoon, one hears an unfamiliar sort of musicemanating from Mitchell Tower. It has order and directionbut never a recognizable tune. It seems at first repetitious,with its inflexible rhythm; yet one soon becomes aware ofvariations between phrases, of new combinations of tonesand overtones as the bells peal forth in constantly-changingsequence. This is change-ringing, practiced for centuries inEnglish churches but little known in other countries. Whatone American campanologist declared in 1908, when the University of Chicago brought change-ringing bells to its campus,remains largely true:Our people have yet to learn that there exists a method ofscientific ringing, an art intricate and extremely difficult to acquire, a mystery to the laity and even to musicians, largelymathematical and hence perfect from its first inception, embodying the essentials of counterpoint or the most advancedform of music.The curious listener who climbs to the ringing chamberfinds six or eight ringers standing in a circle, watching eachother intently as they pull on ropes which stretch through theceiling to the bells above. Woolen tufts woven into the ropesfly rapidly up and down; and the ringers' hands moverhythmically, pulling alternately on those bright handholdsand on the very ends of their ropes. From time to time oneringer shouts instructions to the others, who respond silentlywith no obvious change in their motions. With three or fourMr. Gruen (am'66) is a doctoral candidate in English. He alsois tower captain and conductor of ringing — the first ever — atMitchell Tower having learned the art of ringing on campusin 1970 and having practiced with the Royal CumberlandYouths in London. Laura Miller Gruen (ab'67, am'68) isamong the ringers in the Chicago group. ringers pulling their ropes each second and the conductorcalling for "bobs" and "singles," the activity seems calculated to confuse the layman. But when they are not busy withthe ropes, ringers are glad to explain.To understand change-ringing, one must first know something about the hanging of bells. There are two ways to ring aheavy bell: one can hang it up and hit it with a hammer —perhaps a hammer controlled by a long cable — or one canmount it on a wheel and swing it, allowing the clapper tostrike against the side of the bell. The first of these techniques, known as "chiming," gives a single ringer greatcommand over the timing and volume of a large number ofbells. By pressing or pulling levers, the chimer or carillonneurcan play melodies much as he would on other keyboardinstruments.Swinging bells, on the other hand, are difficult to control,each demanding one ringer's effort and attention; and theirgreat momentum is ill-suited to the varied tempo of tune-ringing. But swinging bells, which ring with their mouthsfacing up and out, produce fuller notes, with overtones lostwhen bells remain stationary.Toward the end of the Middle Ages and into the 16thcentury, while the Dutch abandoned the swinging bell anddeveloped the carillon, the English kept their ropes andwheels and learned to make order from the jumble of free-swinging bells. They found that they could control the bellswell enough to make them strike in consistent order again andagain in descending scales, called, appropriately, "rounds."¦^j^mi&*m&mm1-2-3-4-5-6 1-2-3-4-5-6 1-2-3-4-5-6 1-2-3-4-5-6The beauty of well-struck rounds can soon give way tomonotony; and for that, too, the early ringers found asolution. Large, accurate variations in speed were impossible,14but with very small adjustments, the ringers could makeadjacent bells trade places to ring in a new order, say 2-1-3-4-5-6 or 2-1-4-3-6-5. With carefully-planned changes, the bellscould be rung through every possible permutation of theoriginal rounds, producing every possible combination oftones and overtones. Ringers devised systems to determine theorder of changes, and scientific ringing had begun.In succeeding centuries, the Exercise, as it is known,became such a passion that curates rightly complained ofringers exploiting church bells for secular pleasure.The British brought change-ringing, along with other customs, to their American colonies, installing bells in Charleston, Philadelphia, and in Boston, where Paul Revere joinedthe first band of ringers. After the Revolutionary War,change-ringing was not heard in this country until 1844, whenP. T. Barnum arranged a tour of English handbell ringers. Asign of how little he thought Americans knew of English ringing, Barnum insisted that these ringers let their mustachesgrow, dress in Swiss costumes, and change their name to "theSwiss Bell Ringers." When they protested that they spokeonly English, Barnum assured them that Americans wouldfind their Lancashire dialects indistinguishable from"Swiss." In Philadelphia, these men discovered the long-Ringers (from left) Ken East, Larry Haverkamp, and Bob G unused bells of Christ Church and rang them for three hours,reportedly to the great delight of a large audience.In the early 1900s, friends of Alice Freeman Palmer, theUniversity of Chicago's (and the world's) first dean ofwomen, established a memorial fund to purchase bells forMitchell Tower. At that time there were very few changeringers in North America, but the young University was eagerto introduce a new art to the Midwest. The tower at MagdalenCollege, Oxford, after which Mitchell Tower was modeled,had ten bells, so Mitchell Tower would have ten also. Thebells, slightly larger than those at Magdalen, were orderedfrom the Whitechapel Bell Foundry (also the maker of BigBen and the Liberty Bell) and were installed in 1908, with apparatus both for chiming and for ringing.From the first, the chimes were used to summon students tochapel, to announce the end of each working day, to sound a10 p.m. curfew, and, at the special request of AthleticDirector Amos Alonzo Stagg, to inspire athletes with a"special cadence" played for them at 10:05 each night.On the other hand, little progress was made with change-ringing. The University encouraged English ringers to moveto Chicago, finding work for them in the area, and very soonhad a band able to ring changes on six of the bells. Afteren at their bell ropes in Mitchell Tower.hearing this ringing Associate Professor David A. Robertsonwrote that "the chiming of the bells gives absolutely nonotion of the great beauty of their sound when swung in thetower." The ringers held practices for two years, but there isno record of students learning the art; and in May, 1911, Mr.Robertson informed an inquiring ringer that "we have had nochange-ringing ... for some time past."Nearly half a century later, two English ringers working atthe Argonne National Laboratory learned of the Palmer bellsand recruited a small band of learners. Although progress wasslow and the two ringers returned to England before theirstudents could ring changes, the new band carried on, improving slowly and introducing many beginners to the termsand technique of change-ringing.Before taking his first pull on the rope, each beginnerlearns that the bell begins its motion with its mouth upwardsand travels through one complete revolution with each pull ofthe rope. A pull on the woolen handhold (the "sally") isTen ringers in Mitchell Tower (clockwise from bottom right):Wenche Haverkamp, Robin Haller, Lisa Kennath (presidentof the society), Kathleen Picken, Laura Gruen, Peter Donovan, Ronald Draus, Larry Haverkamp, Kenneth East, RobertGruen. Messrs. Gruen, East, Haverkamp and Draus andMmes. Gruen and Haverkamp made up the group whichrang the historic first peal. ReversePlain Bob Canterburynimus Bob Minimus1234 12342134 21432314 24133241 42313421 43214312 34124132 31421432 13241423 13424123 31244213 32142431 23412 341 24313214 42133124 41231324 14321342 14233142 41323412 43124321 342142 31 324|2413 23142143 21341243 12431234 1234called a "handstroke." It swings the bell in one direction.Then a pull on the tail of the rope (a "backstroke," not a"tailstroke") returns the bell through its arch to where itbegan. At the top of each swing, a wooden stay and sliderprevent the bell's continuing in one direction; but a ringermust not rely too heavily on the stay. If he pulls much toohard, the stay will break, the bell will keep turning, and therope will disappear through the ceiling.From the start, the new ringer becomes physically involvedwith the heavy, swinging bell, learning first to feel and participate in its rhythm, then to control that rhythm withprecise, well-timed pulls. After several hours of instruction,he should be able to manage the bell on his own and take hisplace in ringing rounds.This for many ringers is a most discouraging time. Roundsrequire only that one maintain a constant speed, but the tinyintervals in the striking ( !4 to Vi second) leave little room forerror, and the bells are too heavy for quick adjustment if theringer misjudges his pull. Weeks may go by before a learnerfeels comfortable in rounds and is ready for change-ringing.What a ringer needs most is not strength but the ability to keeptime. Everybody must be dead-on with their pulls. Nobodymust be uneven. You must bring these two things together inyour mind and let them rest there forever — bells and time, bellsand time.Robert Palgrave, an English tower captain,quoted in Ronald Blythe's A kenfield16Changes from rounds can be called by a conductor whosimply shouts out which pair of bells should trade places, butchanging several pairs every two seconds, the normal rate,requires a better system. For this, ringers memorize one of themany "methods" which tell them which positions their bellswill occupy with each pull of the ropes. When the changesspecified by one of these methods are written in a column, thepositions of any one bell appear as a path. Each bell, exceptthe first (the "treble"), has the same path, starting at a different point, so if a ringer knows a method, he can ring thatmethod on any bell. If each ringer keeps to his path, the bellswill ultimately return to rounds without repeating any sequence along with way, and the conductor will announce,"That is all."Hundreds of methods have been composed for change-ringing, and new ones are published almost weekly. Theycome with simple names like "Little Bob" and "Grandsire"or with more exotic titles like "Frances Genius Delight,""Annabelle's London Surprise," and "Cantuar Alliance."The simplest of these methods, which directs four bellsthrough all twenty-four permutations in about one minute'sringing, is "Plain Bob Minimus." Several years ago, with noconductor to guide them, the University of Chicago ringerswere very happy to ring Plain Bob Minimus correctly. Now,with more seasoned members to help the learners along, theyseldom resort to four-bell ringing.Each new bell brought into the pattern multiplies thenumber of possible changes that can be rung without repetition. Five bells over 120 permutations (5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1); sixoffer 720. Eight bells can be rung through 40,320 differentchanges, which eight energetic Englishmen once accomplished in eighteen straight hours. To ring all 3,628,800possible variations on the ten bells at the University ofChicago would require over three months' non-stop ringing —quite beyond the endurance of any ringers or listeners.With larger numbers of bells, more complex methods canbe devised, challenging the skill and concentration of allringers. So many methods are possible for eight, ten, andtwelve-bell ringing that a ringer who tires of learning established methods can always compose and name his own —if he can find others to join in ringing it.The growth of change-ringing at the University has coincided with similar developments in other North Americancities. Towers are widely separated — our nearest neighborsare in Washington, D. C. — but the newly-formed NorthAmerican Guild helps to draw ringers together. Its memberstravel thousands of miles to its annual meetings, the mostrecent in Calgary, Alberta; and its publication, The Clapper,allows distant ringers to share their experiences.In England, where towers are seldom more than a few milesapart, ringing societies appeared during the Middle Ages,long before the development of change-ringing, and theguilds were paid for their services. During the 17th and 18thcenturies, when the Exercise became immensely popular,local societies vied for supremacy in ringing new methods.These associations frequently monitored each other's ringing, A BELL AT RESTA. StockB. WheelC. StayD. SliderE. ClapperF. FrameG. Gudgeonsdetecting and advertising errors; and one infamous day, whenthe ringers of Norwich were trying to establish a new record,their tower was stoned by rowdy youngsters allegedly inspiredby a rival band. Today, the two leading secular guilds, theAncient Society of College Youths (founded in 1637) and theSociety of Royal Cumberland Youths (founded in 1747),maintain a quieter and usually friendly competition.Mitchell Tower has ties to both of the leading Englishsocieties. Dr. Arthur Nichols, who encouraged the Universityto purchase change-ringing bells and who joined the firstChicago Guild, was a College Youth. More recently, however, a University of Chicago graduate student studying inLondon visited a practice of the Cumberland Youths, took upan apprenticeship with them, and eventually became a member of their society. Several other Chicago ringers have sinceformed valuable friendships with Cumberland Youths, two ofwhom have, in turn, visited Mitchell Tower.Since 1715, experienced ringers have tested and extendedtheir abilities by ringing peals: five thousand or more changeswithout breaks, without irretrievable errors, and (when sevenor more bells are being rung) without repeating a change. If aringer becomes lost and the conductor cannot quickly set himright, the peal attempt will end in confusion, and the ringersmay not begin again where they left off. If a rope breaks, theattempt has failed. Furthermore, no one may aid the ringers.A record 40,320 changes rung in twenty-seven hours in 1761was disallowed by the records committee because the ringersworked in relays.Historic pealOn March 22, 1975, six University of Chicago ringersclimbed to the ringing chamber and rang 5,040 changes in twohours, fifty-two minutes, running through the 720 possiblepermutations seven times in varying orders. In recompensefor their blisters and tired arms, they gained a great deal of17The Mitchell Tower bells in action.experience and the satisfaction of ringing the first peal everachieved on the Alice Freeman Palmer bells. The ringers nowlook forward to peals in more complex methods on morebells.Change ringers are great record keepers, who maintainclose account of their own accomplishments and, throughtheir weekly publication, The Ringing World, of the achievements of other ringers. They record and publish all peals,with particular notice to a wide variety of "firsts": an individual's first peal in a certain method or on a certain numberof bells; longest peals, fastest peals and slowest peals; peals inwhich all the ringers are left-handed or in which all are named"Graham. ' ' The desire of some ringers to accomplish peals ina full alphabet of methods may explain how one new methodcame to be called "Xalanga Surprise Major." Of coursemany ringers scorn such contrived accomplishments, butmost enjoy an occasional "first" — so long as the ringing isgood.Ringing lore contains macabre stories of ringers hung intheir ropes, of blood trickling down to the ringing chamberfrom a poor creature trapped in the apparatus above, his crieslost in the clamor of the bells, and of malevolent bellsbringing summary justice to unwary miscreants. Some ofthese legends must have roots in the longstanding mystery ofbells and in their strong association with births, marriages,and especially with deaths; but some are also true. In fact,bells can be very intolerant of ringers' mistakes. Workingamong the bells when they are poised for ringing can be verydangerous, and a beginner trying too early to ring without aninstructor's help risks becoming entangled in a flailing rope.But with common-sense precautions and careful instruction,nearly all accidents can be avoided. The only recent mishap inMitchell Tower involved an experienced ringer who washandling one of the heavier bells when the rope drifted back to catch on the large ring of keys bulging in his pocket. Therope tightened and shot up, carrying with it both the keys andthe side of the ringer's pants.A visitor to Mitchell Tower once asked if ringers have tolearn and follow methods: "Can't you just ring what youfeel?" Clearly the pleasures of ringing are not those of individual self-expression but those of group effort and commonpurpose. As the bells strike in their assigned places, eachringer concentrates on his own work; but he hears how hiseffort combines with others in the resulting music. Tensionscan run high as the ringers correct each other's errors andstruggle to keep the pattern and rhythm intact, but these areovercome by the exhilaration of joining together to attemptsomething difficult and finally, if not at first, getting it right.There is in souls a sympathy with sounds;And as the mind is pitch'd the ear is pleasedWith melting airs or martial, brisk or grave;Some chord in unison with what we hearIs touch'd within us, and the heart replies.How soft the music of those village bellsFalling at intervals upon the earIn cadence sweet!William Cowper, The TaskAside from the soothing effect of a steady rhythm, much ofthe beauty of change-ringing arises in the tension between theharmony and disharmony as the bells strike sometimes inmusical sequences with pleasant combinations of tones andovertones and sometimes in less agreeable sequences withclashes of tones between adjacent bells. In a good method,the disharmonious changes seem repeatedly to give way to theharmonious ones until, at the end of the composition, theringing returns to the most regular change of all: rounds.Thus change-ringing, like most other forms of music, createsand resolves tensions; and the more a listener knows ofchange-ringing, the better he can hear and appreciate thecomplex interworking of bells.Of the many books dealing with the history, spirit, andtechnique of change-ringing, none has been more widely readthan Dorothy Sayers' popular detective fiction, The NineTailors. That Miss Sayers should have developed one of herfinest mysteries around change-ringing is entirely fitting. As amedievalist known to scholars for her work on Dante as wellas for the Lord Peter Wimsey stories, she easily understoodthe conjunction of art and science in ringing; for the medievalthinker did not try to distinguish, as we often do, betweenexpressive art and dispassionate science. She clearly enjoyedthe mystery surrounding bell-ringing as well as the orderlyprogression of the ringer's method, which, like the carefully-laid plot of the mystery novel, works its way carefully towardconclusion. Change-ringing and detective fiction do not convey the emotional nuances of orchestral music or of the greatnovels, but when well done both can fascinate and perhapsraise the spirits of their audience.Of all sound of all bells — (bells, the music nighest borderingupon heaven) — most solemn and touching is the peal whichrings out the Old Year.Charles Lamb, Essays ofElia18The Regenstein Library, which is in use seventeen hours a day, is also the campus ' social center.A great library struggles to maintain its greatnessThe Joseph Regenstein Library is one of the world's greatacademic libraries. Housed in a remarkable building, it contains two-thirds of the University's 3,600,000 books andanother 5,000,000 manuscripts and documents. It accommodates daily an average of 3,000 users— undergraduates andNobel laureates alike. It serves as home base for the GraduateLibrary School, acknowledged to be in the very top bracketnationally in the discipline of librarianship. In many waysRegenstein is the heart of the University.And it is in trouble., In this it is not unique. Trouble is endemic in the world oflibraries. The trouble is money trouble, and its effect is toreduce the library's effectiveness as a repository ofknowledge.That is why the University library's share of the Campaignfor Chicago, Phase 2, amounts to approximately 10% of thecampaign's total goal of $280,000,000. This makes the librarythe second largest single element of the campaign, and thepercentage testifies both to the importance of the library inthe functioning of the University, and to the magnitude of the problem.Regenstein celebrates its fifth birthday this fall. Completedin 1970, it occupies the site of what most alumni will recall asStagg Field, where it runs approximately from goal line togoal line. (A new Stagg Field now is in use at 56th Street andCottage Grove.)Regenstein itself houses all of the humanities and socialscience materials in the University's collections; scientific collections and the libraries of the various professional schoolsare located nearer to their areas of heaviest use.Open seventeen hours a day, Regenstein has proved to be areal magnet for students, as well as scholars, both visiting andindigenous. Ingeniously planned, it is a honeycomb of stacksand study areas. Stair climbing is minimized through its construction with a basement and a sub-basement — a designwhich also adds to its esthetic qualities, since, although it isthe largest building on campus, it is something like an iceberg:counting its subterranean portions, it is considerably biggerthan it looks.Although the library is among the dozen largest academic19resources in the country, it ranks, proportionately muchhigher in terms of quality, since (1) it serves a relatively smallnumber of faculty and students, and (2), because of the University's approach to education and research, its collectionsneed not include such fields as agriculture, engineering, journalism, etc. On the former ground, it embodies much lessduplication of books; on the second, it can omit entirelybooks involved in disciplines not pursued on the Midway.With all this excellence, why, then, the problems? Andwhat is the library doing about them?There are a number of facets of the library's moneyworries, but the most important are (1) the soaring number ofbooks and journals being published and (2) — as any harriedindividual book buyer knows full well — the soaring cost ofeach of them.Since 1960, for example, the number of books published inthe United States has doubled in quantity, and prices havemore than doubled. Consequently it required at least fourtimes as much money to obtain the same proportion of newU.S. publications. The rate of increase in the publishing ofjournals, conference reports, etc., is equally dramatic. In1965-'66 the University was receiving 27,338 titles at a cost of$155,160, and in 1974-'75 the corresponding figures wereapproximately 41,000 titles for about $500,000. During thisperiod of increasing publication activity and higher costs, thelibrary book budget has remained almost constant, and theacquisition of monographic materials declined sharply.The University should be spending $300,000 more annuallythan it is, just to stay current.The library finds it increasingly difficult to maintain traditional standards when the need to grow is combined withrapidly rising costs. The price of domestic books and periodicals has risen even more rapidly than the nation's cost ofliving, and the prices of foreign materials have been boostedeven further by inflation abroad and the declining value ofthe dollar.The library has been tightening its belt through reducingstaff (the equivalent of fifty full-time employees has beeneliminated) and postponing all but the most necessary maintenance. Thus it has been able to meet its costs without significant impairment of services; but this process has goneabout as far as it can go.The acquisition of books and periodicals by the library isno small-time venture. The bill runs to about $1,000,000 ayear, and this amount buys a steadily diminishing volume ofmaterials."Despite ingenuity and careful selecting by the bibliographers, our coverage of current publications cannotreally become adequate at our present level of support,"Stanley McElderry, director of the University of ChicagoLibrary, reported earlier this year. "Germanics provides agood example. In that area, funds did not permit the additionof all useful current material, even after the allocation was increased. Our approval order with the German book dealer,Harrassowitz, was using most of the funds, and it was necessary to revise and sharply limit the 'profile' we supply to Har rassowitz to guide his selection on our behalf. The list ofcontemporary German authors we undertake to collect wassignificantly reduced, and certain categories of material wereeliminated entirely."This kind of adjustment is becoming necessary throughout the library, with the already-mentioned exceptions of theFar Eastern and Middle East areas, which have had outsidefunding. Only in terms of net additions, then, can it beclaimed that the library was able to maintain 'adequate'collection development," he said.One way to put the acquisitions situation in perspective isto recall that before the University opened its doors PresidentHarper went to Europe and bought the "Berlin collection" of130,000 volumes so that the prospective scholars on theMidway would have an adequate supply of printed matter tochew on. The purchase put the fledgling University's libraryamong the top four in the nation.In 1912 Harper Library was opened. Its book capacity:1,000,000. Fifty-eight years later (and after thirty years ofplanning) came Regenstein; the University's supply of titleswas already nearly three times that."From the beginning," wrote Thomas Wakefield Good-speed, "the University acted on the principle that one of theessentials of a university was books, more books, and stillmore books."Of the $28,025,000 which is the library's goal in the presentCampaign for Chicago, the lion's share ($25,300,000) is to gointo endowment. This amount would so supplement thelibrary's $1,000,000 appropriation from the University'sgeneral funds that it would be on a sensibly secure footing forthe fulfilment of its tasks in the future. (The second vitalshare of the campaign goal is likewise vital — $2,725,000 incatch-up money over the next three years to complete presentprograms and forestall the incipient deterioration which hasresulted from the budget squeeze in recent years.)Books, incidentally, while they are the basic raw materialof the library, are not all. It costs the University more than$750,000 a year just to maintain its magnificent librarybuilding, and more than half of the endowment sought in thecampaign is endowment to underwrite this considerableexpense.The University's library, like many another part of theinstitution, is a living example of hand-to-mouth operation. Itstill is among the best in the country but on such a precariousbasis that the observer wonders how so much has beenachieved with so little. Library endowment funds accumulated over more than eighty years represent 1.3% of thelibrary's annual budget — a total of $55,000.But while the campaign goes on, the library has been doingsome bootstrap hoisting on its own.It has formed an organization — the University of ChicagoLibrary Society — the income from whose growing membership roster is already beginning to provide a degree of flexibility, however slight at present, in its operations. It also seeksprivate and foundation support, especially for additions tothe collections.20In addition, the library is continuously reviewing its procedures to see if charges (or higher charges) for any of theservices it provides ought to be (or can be) instituted. This hasled to some querulousness on the campus, but until now it hasbeen necessary for the library to assume as Scrooge-like aposture as it can.While the library has been going about its regular businessof acquiring and dispensing books and journals, assessing itsvarious functions in terms of money (and attempting to increase the supply thereof), Regenstein has also, for the pastten years, been developing an important project, one which isnow on a functioning basis on some fronts, and one which isadding new capabilities with each passing day.This project is computerization. Computerization shouldeffect some important reductions in the library's costs, butthe main reason for its development has been the library'sawareness that unless more efficient systems of operation arecreated, it runs a serious risk of drowning in a sea of books,cards, and paperwork.The library's own organization conceived and developedthe computerization. In doing so, its efforts were augmentedby two phenomena. One was outside financing. The work hasbeen financed by the Joseph and Helen Regenstein Foundation, the National Science Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Council on Library Resources — for a total expenditure of some $1,750,000.The other phenomenon has been the existence on campusof the University's Computation Center and of its electronicsand machine shops, which otherwise primarily serve thelaboratories of the Enrico Fermi Institute.It became apparent early in the automation effort that noexisting system would do, and that no manufacturer of computer hardware and programs had all the answers. TheUniversity would, in some important measure, have to do thejob itself. Starting in 1968 the burgeoning system of automation began processing purchase orders, catalog cards, andother printed products. The library continued to expand thesystem, which now provides the staff with on-line access tobibliographic records.The heart of the system consists of two computers, the University's big IBM 370/168, and a mini-computer (a Varian 73)which is linked by cable to the IBM. The mini-computer, inturn, is hooked up to a network of cathode ray tube terminals(resembling TV screens) located throughout the librarysystem. Eventually there will be fifty or more of these CRTs.Some of the CRTs will be for the library's own use; somewill be used in conjunction with circulation terminals, wherethey will help the library user in charging out books. The circulation terminals actually are known as JRL 1000s (the JRLsounds technical, but is merely the initials of the library). TheJRL was developed by the library, and the University plans tolicense it elsewhere.The mini-computer, which can also serve as an independentback-up unit if for some reason the big IBM is out of service,will give the library (and to some extent, library users) almostinstantaneous access to information which is now contained on some 12,000,000 cards.A borrower, under the new system, will take up a light-pen scanner and "wand" his bar-coded i.d. card and thebar-coded label on the book. Within seconds the computer'sprinter element will deliver its read-out on the book, alongwith the due date. The user will tear this off and insert it in thepocket of the book. Presto!The computerization goes much farther than this, however.Its store of information, as the accompanying diagram indicates, will guide the library bibliographers in determiningbooks to be ordered, searching for the books, ordering them,paying for them, cataloging, binding, labeling and shelf-listing them. It will offer replies to reference questions and telllibrary management how every detail of its job is going.Obviously, what the growing system of automation can andwill do is plenty, and it is expected that this sophisticatedaddition to its facilities will once more demonstrate theleadership which over the years has characterized the University of Chicago's library.LIBRARY DATA PROCESSINGUniversity of Chicago LibraryData Management SystemConceptual model21The young-oldThings you may not know about this emerging populationBernice L. NeugartenAt the University for the past two years we have been doingsome projections of what it will be like to be old in the year2000.Everybody who reads the newspapers these days knowsthat we live in an aging society. That is simply a way of sayingthat the age distribution in the United States (but it is true alsoof other western societies) is one in which there are more andmore older persons as compared to young people. We get ashift in the makeup of society, with a rise in average age andin the numbers of older people. We can call it an aging societywhen the proportion of persons 65 and over (although there isnothing magic about age 65 as a break point) rises to about10%. We are at that level now in the United States and,depending upon a number of other factors, it is probablygoing to stay at 10% - 12% for the next two or three decades.I call your attention to that fact. It's a pretty safe projection, and the reason I dwell on it for just a moment is that youhave probably seen in the newspapers and other forms of themass media statements that, by the year 2000, 30% of thepopulation will be 65 or over. I hasten to tell you that that isnonsense. It couldn't happen. All the people who will be oldby the year 2000 are already here and alive. We know howmany they will be. We have to adjust for death rates, and thenwe can get a good projection. We couldn't have 30% of thepopulation 65 and over by the year 2000 unless there were nobabies born for the next twenty-five years. And despite thedrop in the birth rate, I think nobody in his lucid momentswould presume that we would have no additions to the population for the next few decades.The question remains, of course, whether persons will livelonger in the next couple of decades than people are nowliving. That is a question that is not so easily answered, but itwould look as if average life expectancy will continue to rise,though slowly, depending upon gains in medical sciences,This article is adapted from an extemporaneous talk given byMrs. Neugarten to alumni attending this year's reunion. Mrs.Neugarten (ab'36, am'37, phD'43) is professor in theDepartment of Behavioral Sciences and the College. Readersinterested in a fuller discussion of the subject may consult herarticle, "Age Groups in American Society and the Rise of theYoung-Old, " in the Annals of Political and Social Sciences,September, 1974, pp. 187-198. gains in regard to health practices — smoking, food, environmental pollution and so on. If those conditions improvesomewhat, then it is not too far out to expect that, for personswho reach 65, maybe we will add about three to five years totheir life expectancy by the year 2000. (This means that, onthe average, men who reached 65 in the year 1970 couldexpect to live to 78; but men who reach 65 in the year 2000will expect to live to 83. For 65-year-old women, these figuresare 81.5 and 86.)That's a relatively optimistic prediction. In order to addfive years to life expectancy at age 65, people will almost bydefinition be healthier for longer. People don't die except ofone or another type of disease, and therefore if one makesprojections that people are going to live longer, then, by andlarge, we can look forward to a longer healthy life span.It may be of interest to draw a distinction between life spanand life expectancy. So far as we know, the life span of manas a species has not increased since he appeared on the earth.What we do know is that more and more people live towardthe limit of that life span. We presume that life span is around100, and more and more people are now living into old age.We are pushing survivorship toward the limit of the life span.There are some biologists who are devoting their time andresearch effort to extending the life span. They hope that theycan discover the secrets of aging. Most of these persons aremolecular biologists, and they think that within two decades,if there is sufficient research support, they can discover thesecret of the biological clock and perhaps extend the humanlife span. Over the past century, as we have made medical advances, we have increased life expectancy but have donenothing about the life span.I am a social scientist, and the very idea of extending thelife span by as much as some people claim — say twenty totwenty-five years — boggles my mind. It would seem to methat if we added even five years to the average life span itwould have a revolutionary effect upon the society in whichwe live — for reasons that I think are obvious. It would meaneven more rapid changes in our economic institutions, in ourfamily institutions, in our systems of health services andsocial services, and in all of the ways in which society is organized. I, for one, am more comfortable with a slow gain inlife expectancy than with a dramatic extension of the lifespan. We have reason to presume the gain will continue butwill be slow, and it will be a gain in terms of health. We willcontrol more diseases and people will enjoy a higher quality22of life, rather than just a greater quantity of life.To get back to what it is going to look like in the year 2000.One prediction — all predictions are open of course to enormous error — is that for older persons the family is likely notto lose its significance. The way our birth rates have beengoing, people who grow old will have more surviving childrenthan is true today. That is, the woman who will reach age 65in the year 1990 or 2000 will have, on the average, moresurviving children than an older woman alive today. Therewill be more family, more kin, than now. (By the year 2020 or2030, the picture may be quite different, again, if birth ratesstay low for the next few decades.)I think this is a relatively important thing to remembersince, again, there is a great set of stereotypes and misconceptions about older people in this society and their familyrelationships. One of these misconceptions is that, as we havemore and more older people, family ties weaken and breakdown. But the evidence is to the contrary.I think where the mistake comes is that people confuse thehousehold with the family. Certainly if persons have theeconomic wherewithal, they usually choose to live separately— both children and parents choose this. We have a trendtoward independent households. But it is not a trend towarddiminution of family ties, either ties of affection or ties ofobligation. This is surprising to some people, but the data arepretty clear: of all persons who have ever had a child and whoare 65 and over, about 80% see at least one child within agiven week.That runs contrary to some of the stereotypes about theisolated old. The old are not isolated in this society, if oneconsiders what is true of most older people.Another general configuration that is appearing is that aspeople live longer, and live in relatively better health, we areseeing the appearance of the young-old. We have an increasing proportion of persons retired who are in relativelygood health. We estimate that in the age range 55 to 75, nomore than, say, one of four has any limitation of his or heractivities because of health. This is a relatively healthy group,and it is an increasingly comfortable group economically.Also it is a dramatically better educated group: by 1990, allpeople in the United States in the age range, 55 to 75, will, onthe average, be high school graduates. This means that 50%will have had some college education.And also this is the age group which is the most politicallyactive, as compared to younger age groups. That's wellestablished now, and there is no reason to assume that thiswill diminish in the next couple of decades. If anything, because political involvement increases with educational level,as more older people become more highly educated, theirpolitical activity is likely to increase.The young-old, who have a great deal of time outside of remunerative work — that is, who include a high proportion ofretirees — are characterized generally by a high level of education, political activity, health and money. And this group willbecome increasingly visible, because age of retirement isdropping and the numbers of the young-old are increasing.And this group, which now constitutes about 15% of the total population, is seeking new and meaningful ways for theuse of their time. Primarily this is the group of persons whodecide where to live on the basis of what they want to do, andthey are looking for ways to enhance their lives. Many areturning to education — sometimes, of course, because theywant new jobs and new careers, but more often because theyare seeking self enhancement or opportunities for communityparticipation.It is this young-old group who are in a sense the wave of thefuture, because in some ways they will be the first age groupto reach what might be called the most human of all societies— a society in which people live relatively free from work andfree from want. Whether this comes true remains to be seen,of course. Other factors are operating, and I am not unawarethat economic cycles and fluctuating birth rates and international problems and so forth will affect the relativeeconomic welfare of all groups, including the young-old.In any case it is a very different picture of aging than hascome through our usual channels of information in the pasttwo decades. I think our present stereotypes are understandable enough, because at the moment we still have a sizableproportion of older people who are disadvantaged: a highproportion of the foreign-born who had never worked atanything but unskilled jobs, and who therefore wound up inold age in relative poverty, and a high proportion of bothnative-born and foreign-born who had little education, poorhealth care in their youth, and other forms of relative disadvantage. It is not unlikely that our stereotypes about oldpeople have come from that minority, because that group,whom I call the needy aged, have — rightfully enough — takenthe attention of the helping professions, by and large — thesocial workers, the physicians, the psychiatrists — personswho are dealing with needy people.But the stereotype of the old as needy persons has, I think,been blown totally out of proportion. Today most old peopleare neither poor nor sick nor isolated.Very recently there was a major national poll of persons 21and over — a well drawn sample and a well carried-throughstudy. It showed that the public, by and large, thinks theconditions of persons 65 and over are much more negativethan do the persons who are themselves old. For example,about 60% of the American public answered that most olderpeople have a major problem with regard to money. Money,they felt, is one of the most serious problems of growing oldin the United States. Yet, of the older people in this sampling,only 15% said that money was a major problem. Do youknow what most older people regard as their most seriousproblem? It isn't money, and it isn't health, and it isn't lackof medical care. It is fear of crime.As a social psychologist I have seen this many times. Whenolder people themselves are asked about older people, theysay the same thing the younger public says. But if you askthem about themselves, they give a much more positive view.We call this pluralistic ignorance. Everybody thinks he is anexception. Then you total up all the exceptions and you find itis the majority. Lots of older people think old people have alot of problems, but they themselves don't.23Vb. ti*=> Pv \tf==^l"jST; BBPt=--=g^Ei, -',:C1waEJj^^pBgT—^H W=^=^ g^^^Bl'ft £':) -^« /' fM»/« «efC?VAlumni of the '50s may recall faces in this composite caricatureof Jimmy's, drawn from life, which has hung in the bar sinceit was created in 1955 by the late Art Costello.JIMMY'SOne of the enduring — and endearing — qualities of the denizens of the Midway over the years has been a tendency towardbeing somewhat disputatious — in a friendly way, usually.This tendency carries over to the students' home-away-from-home, the Woodlawn Tap (more frequently known asJimmy's), where for more than three decades people havegathered to settle the world's weighty issues over a few beers.The carryover nature of the urge to debate was reflectedthis year in the nationally distributed pages of TheAlternative. In successive issues appeared a nostalgicappraisal of Jimmy's by Martin Northway (x'70), a Chicagowriter, and a letter contradicting some of Mr. Northway'sassertions, written by Karl Zimmer (ab'50), an Indianapolispaper manufacturer. Further evidence of its conversation-generating proclivitiesis found in the Tap itself. Unlike most such places of refreshment, it maintains a small reference library, which includesthe Encyclopaedia Britannica, an English and a Latin dictionary, Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, Shakespeare's complete works, a Bible and Norton's anthology of poetry. Thereused to be an atlas, but, despite its bulk, someone spirited itaway. (The establishment also maintains a dozen chess sets,half a dozen sets of dominoes and a couple of Go games, abunch of softballs and other recreational paraphernalia.)Alumni whose student days predate 1940 won't rememberJimmy, who, after eight years as a bartender at the old University Tap (its building now dismantled and replaced by adormitory), opened the Woodlawn Tap a block east. Forpeople of these earlier vintages, the refreshment centers included, at various times, Mike Hanley's (like 55th Street'sother spas, now gone, as a result of urban renewal) and theBeehive, where Jimmy Yancey once played the piano. Thereused to be, in fact, thirty-eight taverns along the street; nowthere is one.And Jimmy's has changed over the years, along with every-24liM* cany* ^KUSt mswwrRMY AMTJSSJWC /t?"I Vs£\" y^ri *v»Ssai WA r. **mSSlT ' /^ 0s ^. Wfmim^"thing else in Hyde Park. It has had, at various times, one,two and (as at present) three rooms. Until 1967 Universityidentification was required for admission to the West Room.In 1950 the jukebox was removed and the musical componentbecame classical hi-fi. Came the days of the Beatles; classicalmusic was relegated to the West Room; rock and its ramifications took over in the East Room.James Wilson, who has now been pouring beverages formembers of the Midway community for thirty-five years, is aChicagoan whose family is celebrating a century in the paintand hardware business. He looks back on those thirty- fiveyears with a quizzically sentimental eye. Now 63, he says that,except for their dress and their tastes in music, he has seenlittle change in Chicago students over the years. And he hasknown thousands. (More than 300 have tended bar for him atone time or another.)"The student hasn't changed," he says. "The student atChicago is just as intellectual as ever, and far more maturethan most college students."Jimmy likes the students; that's why he is still inbusiness — and he still works seven days a week. He has sur vived a battle with Anheuser Busch (over prices; he stoppedselling Budweiser a quarter of a century ago, and is now oneof Schlitz's important outlets), and a license hassle which hewon after five months. (Approximately 75% of his dollarvolume is beer — which means a considerably larger share ofhis gallonage. And in addition to the draft Schlitz [55 cents astein] he stocks sixteen foreign beers.)The Woodlawn Tap boasts (in addition to a West Roomand an East Room) another parallel to notable historic landmarks and treasures: acracked bell. One year hiscrew acquired a heftyschoolhouse bell and gave itto Jimmy for Christmas. Itwas used to signal theclosing hour — until onenight, when an over-eagerbartender banged it toohard. Closing time isquieter now, except for theWilson in the West Room. conversation.25A world capital of theologyIn the beginning was the Divinity School;now half a dozen seminaries cluster aroundthe University's resources for religious studyCTS tower overlooks the moon.Martin E. Marty"Join Us in a New Era." This invitation appears on McCor-mick Theological Seminary's bright new recruitment folder.McCormick has just moved to Hyde Park, to become thesixth theological school to make its home here and to "enjoya new relationship to the University of Chicago."McCormick's move is part of a long-term national trend.The American academy is friendlier to religious studies nowthan it has been for over a century. Over 250 tax-supportedcolleges and universities, in addition to hundreds of privateand denominational schools, now offer programs in religion.(Many of these are staffed by alumni of the University ofChicago Divinity School.) Meanwhile, much "churchreligion" has become at home near universities and participates in their life. Mainline Roman Catholic, Protestant, andJewish schools enjoy association with graduate schools.The University of Chicago's neighborhood is becoming aworld theological capital. Nothing exceeds it in scope fromsea to shining sea, though at the seas' edges — in Boston andBerkeley — comparable resources are brought together intheological school clusters modeled on different lines. InHyde Park every sixth or seventh resident post-graduatestudent is in some form of religious studies. Depending onwho counts and who are counted as full-time scholars, thereare between 1,200 and 1,500 graduate students in theseschools, which cover much of the spectrum of denomina-Mr. Marty (phD'56) is professor of modern church history inand associate dean of the Divinity School. He is also associateeditor o/Christian Century, and has been a frequent speakerbefore alumni groups. tions. Their aggregate faculty and library staffs number about140, including about fifteen women in what had once beenmale provinces; women are generously represented in thestudent bodies.The real estatement investments alone would be an asset inany reckoning of Hyde Park life today, since these schoolsrepresent stabilizing elements. McCormick is moving into theimposing former Phi Kappa Psi building at 56th and Woodlawn. This Presbyterian school will hold classes and house itslibrary in the Lutheran School of Theology, the great glassblack-box on 55th and University, where the Jesuit School ofTheology in Chicago also pursues its academic work: Visionsof Calvin, Luther, and Loyola in coexistence. Such cooperation, which also includes sharing space in apartment complexes, is based on both ecumenical spirit and good businesssense.The Catholic Theological Union makes its home in whathad been an apartment building at 54th and Cornell andenjoys the use of classroom space in Sinai Temple nearby.East of Bartlett and north of the Quadrangle Club, the Disciples Divinity House has long "fit in," as has Meadville/Lombard Theological School's gray Gothic structure atWoodlawn and 57th. Visible from the Quadrangles areChicago Theological Seminary's familiar but still impressivetowered buildings, while in the main Quadrangle is fifty-year-old Swift Hall, home of the University's DivinitySchool.Confusion sometimes results from all these convergences:"Oh, you teach at the Divinity School of the University ofChicago? I used to love to go into your chapel under thattower high overhead. ""No, that high-overhead tower belongs to Chicago Theological Seminary, across the street. It is a school of the United26Swift Hall, home of the University's Divinity School, overlooks the main quadrangle.Church of Christ, and we are part of the University ofChicago..."More serious kinds of confusion have resulted from time totime in relations between the schools. A well-intended but ill-fated Federated Theological Faculty, which thrived throughthe '50s but had to be abandoned, taught the present generation of planners some positive lessons about how to associate with each other.Libraries often symbolize the highest academic intentions.Hyde Park's resources are awesome. The non-university institutions make up the Chicago Cluster of theological schools,which includes three smaller outlying schools. The Clusterlibraries alone — all reachable by Teletype and courier — makeup one of the hemisphere's largest theology collections. Withthe Regenstein holdings in philosophy, religion, and theology, along with vestigial collections in Swift Hall and scattered around in other campus libraries, the neighborhoodtotal is said to be well over 1,000,000 books.The classroom is the true heart of higher education.Students in all these schools find courses in sister institutionsavailable to them on various terms. Most of them cross-register. The Divinity School offers what Broadway ticket-sellers would call a "two-fer" system (officially known as"bi-registration": two courses in the University for the priceof one). Since neighborhood schools' students are not part ofthe dissertation-advising system, this half-price does not leadto instructional overloads. Meanwhile, Divinity School students in ministerial preparation receive support when programs at the other schools are integral to their preparation.The Divinity School regularly gives first priority to membersof the Hyde Park faculties for special guest lectureships andteaching posts.The move from the country or the urban diaspora to Hyde Park has been inspired in part by economic concerns; theological education nationally is second only to medical preparation in cost. Chicago Theological Seminary estimates that$7,000 per capita is involved annually. Such schools have difficulty bidding for congregational and denominational dollars; they definitely do not produce affluent alumni; mostlarge foundations do not (any longer? not yet?) give religionthe attention it deserves in proportion to its place in Americanlife; governmental funds are out of the question.Economics alone, however, has not been a sufficientmotive for the relocations. While clustering and associatinghelp schools avoid some duplication, they also pick up urbanexpenses. Many sylvan seminaries have been Ma and Paoperations. Retired clerical couples often made up much ofthe staff. In Hyde Park everything from library catalogingto food and delivery services is expensive.A change in attitude toward cities and universities occurredin the '60s. The older seminaries had been deliberately locatedat a secure distance from the lures of both. Roman Catholicism is a largely urban entity in America. Yet each Catholicpublisher or marketer had a few "R.F.D.s" on the mailinglist: these were the seminaries.As religious leaders become ever more aware that themetropolis is the fate of most humans in the future, they put anew premium on locating there. Students in the '60s wereespecially impulsive about the move. In the early '70s therewas a slight reaction against the urban trend; because of it,and because of declines in Catholic vocations, the neighborhood schools have not been full to capacity, but there isnow a reversal in that trend, and enrolments currently are up.Their common focus on pastoral ministry has brought theCluster schools into relation with each other. But the University itself was also, of course, a major attraction in Hyde27Meadville/ Lombard Theological School is operated by the Unitarian-Universalist Association.Park. Founding President William Rainey Harper was adivinity scholar and a hebraicist himself, as well as a practicalman with a precocious vision. He wanted religious inquiry tosuffuse university life just as he wanted universities to contribute to what he called the "learned ministry." He helpedtransform a Baptist seminary into the University of Chicagoand made the Divinity School its first professional school.These university schools and disciplines were not to be isolated — in the eyes of President Harper and his successors.These leaders were correct in their assumption that theDivinity School would remain responsible chiefly to theacademic world. While hundreds of alumni are in non-teaching ministries, a couple thousand Divinity School graduates holding Ph.D.s are in the academy. But if academicresponsibility is one thing, accountability to religious institutions is another. So Harper et al wanted to attract church-connected theological schools into association with the University.No master plan was ever wanted or needed. The relation ofeach school to the University is sui generis, based on itsparticular style and university interest at the moment ofarrival. Thus Divinity School Dean Joseph M. Kitagawaproudly points out that the McCormick relocation occurred"without the creation of a single committee," and no newsuperstructure overlies the Divinity School's relation to theschools. If this is not the moment to add to academic or ecclesiastical bureaucracies, it is also not a period in which to suppress traditions or identities. The University explicitly discourages the merging of these schools into a formless andnormless university-based complex. "We cherish McCormickprecisely because it embodies Calvinist, Reformed, and Presbyterian traditions," says Dean Kitagawa. "Similarly, weexpect the Lutherans to be Lutherans, the Jesuits to bring Jesuit distinctives and Meadville/Lombard to represent Unitarian-Universalist traditions . ' 'Those who might worry about university-related schoolsdeveloping faithless and uprooted ministers would be assuredby the Hyde Park resolution. Father Paul Bechtold, who hasjust completed a term as president of the Catholic TheologicalUnion, where thirteen religious orders do their educating,says: "No one knew what would happen when CTU wasfounded. Would the various religious communities lose theiridentity? . . . While students of a given community appreciatethe other communities, their identity as a member of a givencommunity is sharpened, not blurred. No student was everasked to transfer to another community."To non-Catholic readers that issue may need some interpreting. Catholic religious orders have been separate andoften competitive. Journalist John Cogley noted this atopening ceremonies for CTU. He was not surprised to findProtestants, Catholics, Jews enjoying each other at a secularuniversity. He was astounded to find that Catholic religiousorders (Franciscans, Augustinians, and the like) were cooperating. They do at CTU.In the beginning, then, there was the Divinity School. TheUniversity invests most of its direct energies in the religiousfield in this graduate and professional school of twenty-sixfaculty and 240 students. It still follows the Harper charter,seeking the creative interaction of religious, ministerial, andtheological studies under one roof. This pattern contrastswith the familiar either/or of graduate religion departmentsat universities and separate ministerial training schools.The Divinity School faculty, which ten years ago includedPaul Tillich in a notable succession of world-famed teachers,today attracts students to scholars like Mircea Eliade, Paul28The Lutheran School of Theology is housed in this dramatic building at 55th Street and University Avenue.Ricoeur, and James M. Gustafson, experts in the study ofmyth, symbol, and ethics. The faculty is webbed into University life; two-thirds have joint appointments or associationswith other University faculties.The strongest trend in the Divinity School in the pastdecade has been Roman Catholic student growth from zero tothe point where there are more Catholics than representativesof any other tradition. This situation poises the school well todeal with the two nearby Catholic theological institutions andwith the 2,000,000-member Catholic archdiocese. At presentthe school is seeking funds for a chair of Roman Catholicstudies, in order to give focus and recognition to its study ofAmerica's largest church and the western world's most extensive religious tradition.Similarly, and even more strenuously, the Divinity Schoolseeks to give visibility to the University's extensive involvement with Judaica by setting out to establish a chair of JewishReligious Studies. Only one Jew is on the faculty of thenearby Christian schools, though they have some recognizedleaders in the field of Jewish-Christian relations. When Iasked Dean Kitagawa if we also would welcome the presenceof a Jewish theological school in Hyde Park, he answered:"You can say that we are terribly embarrassed by the absenceof one. Judaism represents elements in America's and theUniversity's life too significant to be at a distance. We'd atleast like a Jewish institution to have a toehold, a beach-head,or, best of all, a complete embodiment here." (EasternOrthodox and Evangelical Protestant Christians would alsobe welcomed. Methodism and Episcopalianism are at home inEvanston; otherwise the lure would be extended them aswell.).If the Divinity School was "born Baptist" and its endowment is still supervised by the Baptist Theological Union, it has also enjoyed the presence of the Disciples Divinity Housesince the beginnings of 1894. "DDH" opens a window on theworld of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Disciplesstudents take all their courses in the University, while co-curricular activities introduce them to denominational life."Influential beyond its size," as the saying goes, is theUnitarian-Universalist Association. Much of its leadershiphas come from Meadville/Lombard Theological School,which moved from Galesburg, Illinois, and Meadville, Pennsylvania, to enter fifty years ago (in 1926) into a formal affiliation with the University. Its students do all their in the Divinity School and about half their in the University. President Malcolm Sutherland notesthat non-UUA students are also at home at Meadville andpoints to the record of recent faculty members like JamesLuther Adams and Sidney E. Mead to show the influence ofMeadville/Lombard beyond denominational circles.The city's oldest institution of higher learning is Chicago29The Catholic Theological Union educates members of thirteen religious orders in this converted apartment building.Theological Seminary (1855), which has educated 4,000leaders for the United Church of Christ (historically, in thiscase: Congregationalism). In the "main line" of Americanreligion, it has suffered from its exposure to the largerculture, where it takes on the burden of experiment whilemore sectarian groups "play it safe" and prosper. ChicagoTheological Seminary, which has shared history with the University since 1915, and whose current agreement dates from1960, has never played it safe.The serene Gothic complex is not matched, therefore, by acurriculum that stresses serenity and archaism. Instead, according to historians, this school pioneered in the development of the social gospel, the study of religious sociology, thedevelopment of pastoral counselling and care, and the like.Under President C. Shelby Rooks, a distinguished blackreligious leader, it continues to risk and to venture — and tohave influence beyond its size.Not until about ten years ago did conglomerates fromoutside "the free church tradition" begin to arrive. Theseschools, with more intact confessional (creedal) and liturgicalheritages, were represented first by the Lutheran School ofTheology at Chicago. President Walter F. Wolbrecht is notonly seeing success in his attempts to help assure the school'sfiscal solvency; he is also seeing the creative integration ofonce-separate and contentious Lutheran lineages. From May-wood and Rock Island, Illinois; from Hancock, Michigan;Des Moines, Iowa; Fremont, Nebraska, came schools ofolder-American, German, Swedish, Finnish, and Danishstock.While Lutheranism had been born in the university world,migrants to America had largely distanced themselves until,in the 450th anniversary of Luther's Reformation, October, 1967, the new LSTC moved into its "bold architectural statement" and even bolder educational venture in Hyde Park. Abook-length chronicle of the relocation decision shows theschool's planners attempting first to resist the magnetic pullof Hyde Park. Real estate prices were high. The living was notseen to be easy. More than a twinge of regret and nostalgiacomes to people who uproot from conventional settings. Butthese pioneers decided that Chicago best offered what American Lutheranism has needed. LSTC directly serves the heartland of the Lutheran Church in America; its influence reachesfarther through faculty, students, and alumni.The other conglomerate or collaborative effort is theCatholic Theological Union, which was incorporated the yearthe Lutherans arrived. Here was the true move from metropolis. The old addresses were at Teutopolis andTechny, Olympia Fields and Carthagena, De Pere and Shelby. The roll call of orders in CTU is worth hearing: Franciscans, Servites, Augustinians, Viatorians, Passionists, Nor-bertines, Claretians, Crosiers, Divine Word Fathers, PreciousBlood Fathers, Sacred Heart Missionaries, the Holy GhostCommunity, and the Xavierian Missionaries. Along with theLutheran school, CTU exemplifies world-wide interests; itsoverseas mission program is one of two in U. S. RomanCatholic seminaries. The faculty hold doctorates from bothEuropean and American universities. Twenty women, manyof them sisters pursuing ministry skills, are part of the studentbody.The other major school that helps give the communityaccess to the thought world of America's Roman Catholics isthe Jesuit School of Theology at Chicago, which made its pilgrimage after almost forty years of wandering, from WestBaden Springs, Indiana, through Aurora, Illinois, to HydePark in 1970. Church Historian James Hennesey, who pre-30Newest arrival is McCormick Theological Seminary, for which the old Phi Kappa Psi house is being remodeled.sides over this one of three nationally sponsored Jesuittheologates in the United States, can advertise his school as a"Pontifical Institute of Ecclesiastical Studies, by a decree ofthe Sacred Congregation of Seminaries and Universities (nowof Catholic Education)," but in the University neighborhoodhe is chiefly concerned with perpetuating the highly-regardedreputation Jesuits have in academic spheres.An illustration of the fortunate possibilities in Hyde Parkwas the linking between the Catholic schools and the University's interested parties in last autumn's "Celebration ofthe Medieval Heritage." During Austrian Cardinal Franz-iskus Konig's week on the scene he observed that no European university or community had the resources that Chicagodid for commemorating the 700th anniversary of ThomasAquinas and Bona venture. Red carpets were rolled from doorto door: between the Divinity School, the Center for PolicyStudies, the Division of the Humanities, Regenstein Library,the Department of Music, Rockefeller Chapel, an ad hocdrama group, and the two Catholic schools. For a wholemonth the teaming paid off in well-attended lectures, plays,concerts, and ceremonies. The other neighborhood schoolsalso made up significant parts of the audiences.Now comes McCormick Theological Seminary from itslongtime home on Chicago's north side (after a 19th centurymove from Indiana). Recently retired President MarshallScott reminded his minded-to-move community that its newwork should be undertaken in a university context. Nowanother mainline Protestant group that provides leadershipfor the 3,000,000 members of the United Presbyterian Churchin the U.S.A. and exemplar of a tradition so dominant in ourculture shares "the New Era." Those who know its libraryholdings can hardly conceal their delight— nor can those whoknow McCormick's highly-reputed faculty, its long engage ment with urban ministry, and its student body that includes avery large "in ministry" component of Doctor of Ministrycandidates.Theological schools in America tend to be anomalies: theyare graduate one? professional schools without contexts, oftenexisting in isolation from other disciplines. They are findingthose contexts today, and doing it with eyes wide open.No one is romantic these days about higher education,religious institutions, or urban life. The language of utopian-ism that showed up in the '50s and '60s is muted now. Norshould contacts with the universities be pictured as constantor always intense. Many theological students are simplygrooved into their own curricula and apathetic about extracurricular offerings. In the modern university, people insundry disciplines do not rise early each morn to rush todivinity schools to interview representatives of the deposed"queen of sciences," theology. We doubt whether they dideven in the medieval world, whence that antique and quaintpicture derives. Few parts of a university impress each otherthat much, and satellite schools will not, either. Bi-registeringand cross-registering deans or registrars and librarians are notover-overtaxed.On the levels that truly matter, however, the interactionsand presences are significant. Faculties, student leaders,religious elites of tomorrow share a climate that stimulatesnot mindless faith but mindful and critical affirmations. AUniversity of Chicago official recently observed that religionwas too big and too dangerous a subject not to warrant university attention. More positively, so profound a factor inhuman affairs, both international and domestic, as religionis, deserves university engagement. At Chicago the engagement is well under way.31An open air symposiumSimplicus and the treeRaymond M. Smullyansimplicus: I am enjoying this tree.first phuosopher: No, it is not the tree you are enjoying,rather it is the light from the tree. It is not the tree which is directly influencing your sense organs, but only its reflectedlight. Therefore it is rather that you are enjoying the light ofthe tree.second philosopher: No, no, it is not the light he is enjoying,but rather the image the light forms on his retina.third philosopher: This is superficial physiology! Theretinal image could not affect him if his optic nerves weredead. And his optic nerves are but part of his brain andnervous system. Therefore, what he is really enjoying is theneural activities of his entire brain and nervous system.fourth philosopher: I think it is misleading to say that he isenjoying this physiological activity; I would rather say thathis enjoyment of the tree is this physiological activity.cartesian: All of you are wrong! His physiological process isonly the physical counterpart of an inner mental or spiritualprocess; it is this spiritual soul-activity that he is enjoying.idealist: Except that the evidence for the "material counterpart" of this mental process is — as I have demonstrated —wholly inconclusive. And I don't believe in the existence ofthis "tree." The proper way to phrase it, therefore, is that themind or soul of Simplicus is enjoying his idea of the tree.idealistic mystic: I deny the existence of individual minds.There is no such thing as the "mind of Simplicus"! There isonly one universal mind, called "world soul," "cosmic consciousness," "God," "The Absolute," etc., and it is this universal or absolute mind which is enjoying the tree (whichexists as one of its ideas).realistic mystic1: The viewpoint of my friend the idealisticmystic is about the opposite end of the spectrum from mine,and yet it comes closer to mine — in the sense of abstract identity or isomorphism — than any other yet expressed.I start from the premise that reality is purely material — allthat exists is the material universe, which, for certain purposes might be broken down into material particles and theirmotions. Simplicus' enjoyment of the tree is therefore indeedan event or set of events in the nervous system of the body ofSimplicus. However, this viewpoint, though correct, seems to1. I do not know if there is a school of thought called "realisticmysticism"; if not, let this be the beginning of one. me only partial. Simplicus is not a closed physical system.When Simplicus has a thought, the particles of the cerebrumof Simplicus move not only in relation to each other, but inrelation to every particle of the entire universe. I thereforewish to look upon the thoughts of Simplicus as an activity ofthe universe as a whole. Thus instead of saying that it is Simplicus enjoying the tree, I would say it is the whole physicaluniverse which is enjoying the tree.first logical positivist: I wonder if the viewpoints of theidealistic and realistic mystics really differ in content ormerely in terminology. How do I know that when the firstsays "material" and the second "mental," or the first"physical universe" and the second "universal mind" thatthey are not merely using different words to denote the samething?second logical positivist : I doubt that this question itselfhas any cognitive content. How in principle could one verifywhether they mean the same or different things?physicist: This type of question is out of my domain. I wouldlike to return to the viewpoint of the realistic mystic. Naturally, this viewpoint interests me in that it uses the terminology of science. However it has one serious weakness, whichborders on the downright ridiculous. All right, he translatesthe statement "Simplicus enjoys the tree" to "The universeenjoys the tree." Now suppose someone else — say "Com-plicus" — comes along and claims to enjoy the tree. Again themystic translates the statement "Complicus enjoys the tree"to "The universe enjoys the tree." So when the realisticmystic says "The universe is enjoying the tree" how can Ipossibly know whether it is Simplicus, Complicus or someoneelse — or for that matter some dog — who is enjoying the tree?realistic mystic: I should like first to remark that byprofession I am also a physicist. Now certainly, when I dophysics, or am engaged in daily life activities, I would use themore descriptive and specific terminology "Simplicus is enjoying the tree," "Complicus is enjoying the tree" ratherMr. Smullyan (sb'55) is professor of mathematics at City University of New York. (His doctorate is from Princeton.) Mr.Smullyan's most recent work in mathematics is First OrderLogic (Springer, 1968), which currently is being translatedinto Czech. His dialog, "Simplicus, "published here, is oneof a collection, Philosophical Phantasies, which he ispreparing for publication.32than "The universe is enjoying the tree." Just because Iregard Simplicus' enjoyment of the tree and Complicus' enjoyment of the tree as special cases of the universe enjoyingthe tree, does not mean that I regard them as identical events.And so of course when it is necessary to be more specific(which is most of the time), then I am specific. But for otherpurposes — which might be termed "spiritual," "mystical" or"religious," I believe it more fruitful to regard these particular events as an activity of the universe as a whole.christian theologian: Since you brought up the word"religion," can you honestly believe it possible to incorporateinto your purely materialistic framework the fundamentalideas of religion — "God," "soul," "divine purpose,""reward and punishment"? If all that exists is matter, whatcould it possibly mean for my soul to be immortal, and howcould I anticipate punishment or fear reward?psychiatrist: I think you meant "fear punishment" and"anticipate reward."realistic mystic (amused): I certainly can incorporate allthese ideas into a purely materialistic framework. By "God,"I of course mean the entire universe. The word "soul" or"mind" I happen to use most frequently. I am not a dualist,in that I do not regard soul as a substance, as I do matter.Rather "soul" for me is a combination of memories and dispositions. If I have a beautiful recording of a musical composition, and the record should fall down and be broken, it isno serious tragedy providing I can get another copy.What is important about a particular record is not its particular atoms, but rather the pattern which has been impressed upon it. It is this "pattern" which might well becalled the soul of the record — the propensity to give anotherre-embodiment of the musical idea. Likewise, a man's "soul"consists of his memories and behavioral propensities. In thissense, it seems perfectly natural to also regard the universe ashaving a "soul," viz. its pattern.If you would prefer me to use the word "God" to meanthis "soul" or "pattern" rather than its concrete embodiment, I would have no objection. After all, suppose if bymagic, each atom of the universe were replaced by anidentical particle, or if this is empirically meaningless,suppose all basic particles of the universe to thoroughly reshuffle, but end in a pattern identical with the present one. Iwould hardly say that the universe had undergone any significant change; it would still have the same pattern or"soul."I do, though, disagree with the idealist or dualist whothinks of soul as a "substance," unless (is it possible?) theywould allow a pattern to be called a "substance"? In thiscase, our difference is not metaphysical at all, but purely terminological.This suggests the following thoughts on dualism versusmonism:I can see some sense in distinguishing a particular bodyfrom its pattern if there exists at least one other body with thesame pattern. But since there is only one universe, it is hard to understand the difference between the universe and its pattern. This would mean that we can distinguish the mind of aman from the body of a man, or the mind of a dog from thebody of a dog, but in the limiting case of God, the body ofGod might be the same as the mind of God. Stated in the language of the mathematician, matter and mind may be different locally, but the same globally.However, to return to the other questions of the theologian,I first wish to remark that I have always found it exceedinglyodd that many scientists — even those in the computing field —are perfectly willing to use terms like "thinking," "purpose,""reward," "punishment" both for humans and computingmachines, but absolutely balk at the idea of applying these so-called "anthropomorphic" terms to the universe as a whole.Of course the universe is mainly inorganic, but so is acomputer!I greatly fear that this is a sad reflection of the still presentegocentricity of mankind. Descartes thought that humansthink but dogs do not. (His dog, however, thought otherwise!) People today who believe that humans think, usuallybelieve also that dogs think. With plant life, people aredoubtful, and when it comes to inorganic matter, there mostpeople really draw the line! As if there is some social hierarchy — stones, plants, dogs, men! One calls stones dead andinert. Of course stones are dead, in the purely biologicalsense. The word "inert" is more misleading, considering thefantastically rich life and activities of a stone's inner molecular structure.But to balk at applying psychologistic terms to the wholeuniverse which has a structure so vast and complex comparedto any man or computer — indeed which includes all men andcomputers — to refuse this terminology for the universe as awhole, strikes me as totally unwarranted. No, I certainly haveevery whit as much right to apply such terms as "thinking,""feeling," "planning" to the universe as a whole, as I do toindividuals which are only parts of the universe. To the toughminded, let him think of these terms as purely operational.My so-called "mysticism" consists not of any "metaphysical" meaning attached to this terminology, but purely inmy emotional responses which such terminology tends to engender. At any rate, in this terminology, it of course makessense to refer to the universe as having "purpose" or aspunishing or rewarding us for our actions. For example, Iwould say that the universe punishes a baby — for its ultimategood — for sticking its hand into a fire.As to survival after death, I have no definite opinion for oragainst. In principle there is no a priori reason why after mybodily death, memories of my life may not remain in theuniverse and even eventuate in a re-embodiment. And inprinciple it could be possible that I could then be rewarded orpunished for my present behavior. But this is wholly speculative.There is one aspect of religion — at least western religion —which the theologian did not mention, and which might be abit more of a problem to incorporate into a purely materialistic framework. And that is the statement that God created33the universe. For this, I would need to retract my earlierthought that perhaps the mind of God is the same as the bodyof God. If I am allowed to distinguish the concrete universefrom its abstract pattern or form, then I can certainly say thatthe pattern of the universe existed as a logical possibilitybefore the universe, or better still, exists outside of timealtogether. The creation of the universe by God can thensimply mean the concrete embodiment of this pattern. Thismay not be too far from the meaning of "In the beginningwas the Word."theologian: Are you seriously advocating recasting allreligion into a purely materialistic framework?realistic mystic: Not at all! It is all the same to me whetherreligion is cast into a purely materialistic or a purely idealisticor a dualistic framework. I do not advocate any one morethan any other. Personally, I happen to think in materialisticterms, though not nominalistic, since my ontology doesindeed include abstract entities like "forms" and "patterns."My main point now is not that religion should be cast intomaterialistic terms, but only that it can be. My whole claim isthat the true kernel of religion — that part of religion which isof chief ethical and psychological significance — is totallyneutral with respect to any metaphysical foundations.first epistomologist: Enough theology! Let us come to apractical question. How does Simplicus know that he isenjoying the tree?second epistomologist: Simplicus never said that he knew hewas enjoying the tree, but only that he was enjoying the tree.first epistomologist: But does Simplicus know that he isenjoying the tree?second epistomologist: I don't know.first epistomologist: How do you know you don't know?second epistomologist: I don't.first epistomologist: Then how do I know that Simplicusdoes know that he is enjoying the tree? For all I know, maybehe doesn't know that he is enjoying the tree.rabbi: All right, so maybe he doesn't know he is enjoying thetree!first meany2: I don't believe in fact that Simplicus is enjoyingthe tree!second meany: Exactly! The very fact that he says he is onlyproves that he isn't.third meany: Yeah, if he were really enjoying it, he wouldnot have to say he was. When someone really enjoys something, he does not have to broadcast it to the world. WhenSimplicus says "I am enjoying this tree," methinks the ladydoth protest too much.moralist: No, no; Simplicus obviously is enjoying the tree —2. I obtained the term "meany" from the Beatles movie "YellowSubmarine," in which the villains were called "blue meanies." just look at his face! What I question is whether he has theright to enjoy the tree!second moralist: Exactly! With all the starvation, miseryand social injustice in the world, what the hell is Simplicusdoing there sitting under the tree when he should be out in theworld helping matters?zen master: All this metaphysics, theology, epistomologyand ethics is certainly of interest, but do any of you herereally think you have cast the faintest ray of light on themeaning of Simplicus' original statement? When Simplicussays "I am enjoying the tree" it means nothing more nor lessthan that Simplicus is enjoying the tree.3 All of you havemade the tacit but wholly unwarranted assumption that thisstatement expresses a relation between some subject and someobject. Everyone has been discussing "who has done what towhom" — i.e. what it was that was enjoyed, and what it reallywas that was doing the enjoying. Can't you simply acceptSimplicus' enjoyment of the tree as an event which is non-analyzable? Every sentence when translated loses its essentialmeaning. The sentence "Simplicus is enjoying the tree"simply means that Simplicus is enjoying the tree.zen student: My master is right! The simple truth is thatthere is no Simplicus to enjoy, and no tree to be enjoyed. Inreality, there is just this one unanalyzable event of Simplicusenjoying the tree. This event is not a relation, but just anoccurrence in the great void!zen master (slugging the novice): Oh you great little snit!You the "enlightened one" know all about "simple truth,""reality" and the "great void," don't you? And it is up to youto enlighten all these "poor ignorant" people with your greatnew found wisdom, eh?zen student: But master, how else can I get these people tounderstand the essence of Simplicus' statement?zen master (giving him another blow): By holding yourtongue! Damn it all, how many times must I tell you thatthere is no essence to be understood! If these people can'tunderstand the perfectly plain statement "I am enjoying thistree," then perhaps a few blows with my stick might enlightenthem!second zen master: I think everyone here should be given ablow with the stick regardless of whether he understands Simplicus' statement or not.third zen master: Better still, I think everyone should begiven a non-blow with a non-stick.moralist (in great alarm!): This psychotic conversation hasgone far enough! Unless this stops immediately, and I meanimmediately, I will get very angry, and when I get angry, I canbecome very unpleasant!simplicus: But the tree is so beautiful, why shouldn'tI enjoy it?3. Shade of Alfred Tarski!34zAlumni ^j\cwsClass notesf\T\ in memoriam: Parke Ross, ab 1900,W former member of the Order of the C,died August 19, 1974, in Chicago.ry\ in memoriam: Harvey Monroe Solen-**" berger, phB'02, Springfield, II., retiredgeneral agent of the Mutual Benefit LifeInsurance Company, died March 3 1 at theage of 95.f\A in memoriam: Otis Hout Epley,*'* md'04, New Richmond, Wi., whopracticed medicine for thirty- three years,died November 14, 1974.(\0 in memoriam: Seth S. Walker, sb'08,yo sm'10, died May 21, 1975. Mr. Walkerlived in Tampa, Fl.1 f\ morris fishbein, sb'10, md'12,*¦ " emeritus lecturer at the University ofChicago and emeritus professor of medicineat the University of Illinois college of medicine, was saluted for his numerous contributions to medicine, education and State ofIsrael Bonds at a testimonial dinner, co-sponsored earlier this year by Chicago'sJackson Park Hospital and the State of IsraelBonds medical division. Dr. Fishbein firstachieved fame as editor of the Journal ofthe American Medical Association and otherAMA publications. He has authored morethan forty books and wrote for twenty-fiveyears as a syndicated newspaper columnist.America's unofficial medical ambassadorof goodwill, Dr. Fishbein has been decoratedby nine foreign countries and the MorrisFishbein Center for the Study of the Historyof Science and Medicine at the University isnamed in his memoriam: Gerald A. Fitzgibbon, x'10,Chicago.1^ john h. freeman, x' 12, a partner in* ** the Houston law firm of Fulbright andJaworski, has been named to receive theSanta Rita award, the highest honorbestowed by the University of Texas memoriam: Lorry R. Northrup,sb'13, died January 28, 1975. Mr.Northrup was a resident of McLean, Va.13H London Was Yesterday: 1934-1939, acollection of "Letter from London"pieces written for the New Yorker by janettyler flanner, x'41 , under the nom deplume of "Genet," has been published byViking ($9.95).in memoriam: Laurel E. Elam, id' 14; RuthM. Rathbun, ab'14.15 john w. thornton, md'15, Lansing,la., physician for fifty-seven years, has retired. With the exception of one and one-half years, Dr. Thornton has spent his entirecareer in Lansing since joining his father inpractice in 1917. He recalls crossing the Mississippi River by boat or on foot over the iceto treat patients in the De Soto (Wi.) areabefore the Blackhawk Bridge was completedin 193 1 . He also recalls the trend to hospitalcare from home care, the development andchange in medications and advancements insurgery. He has been connected with thestaffs of St. Francis Hospital, La Crosse(Wi.), for over forty years; VeteransMemorial Hospital, Waukon (la.), for tenyears; and St. Francis Hospital, Waterloo(la.), for seventeen years. As two communityresidents were moved to write to a localnewspaper upon learning of Dr. Thornton'sretirement: "In a time when other smalltowns have been searching for, and manytimes not finding a doctor, Lansing wasblessed with a kind and understanding 'DocJohn' who had no hours, no days off, noclosed accounts, but only tender personalcare for other human beings."john w. davis, x'15, diplomat, educatorand civil rights activist, was paid special tribute by over 1 ,500 business and communityleaders last fall at a dinner given in his honorat the New York Hilton Hotel. Davis , president of West Virginia State College forthirty-four years (1919-'53) and educationalconsultant to the NAACP legal defense andeducational fund for the past twenty-oneyears, was cited by Harvard's president,Derek C. Bok, the main speaker, as "a manwho dedicated his life to creating equalopportunities for all people." Davis stillcommutes from his home in Englewood,N.J., to his NAACP office in Manhattanand is as interested as ever in civil rights andeducation. He has been working on a bookwhich relates the history of West VirginiaState College and plans to write another onthe history of the seventeen land grantcolleges which were authorized under theClub eventsnew york, September 25: Lt. Gov.Mary Anne Krupsak (jd'62) will speak.san francisco, September 7: "Thankyou" party for people who participatedin the phonathon and a kickoff for theSan Francisco fund drive, at the homeof Robert Halperin.Washington, September 21: Alumniwill see "1776" at the Burn Brae DinnerTheatre. November 14: Tennis party atthe Fairfax (Va.) Tennis Club. Second Morrill Act of memoriam: Grace Hotchkiss Crowe,phB'15, am'37; Isabella H. Dickey, x'15;Katharine Wood Hattendorf, p1tbT5; LesterR. Dragstedt, sb'15, sm'16, pIid'20, md'21(see Page 36).1 /T in memoriam: Dorman T. Bennitt,A" phB'16, jd'18, Willits (Ca.) attorney,died in March, 1975; Raymond F. Clapp,x'16, former director of the ClevelandWelfare Department who worked for theD. C. department of public welfare in severalcapacities after moving to the area in 1940, apioneer in the use of statistics to interpretand analyze social trends, died May 2 inBoonsboro, Md.; Dorothy Wing, PhB'16,librarian, died December 1, 1974, in LaCrosse, Wi.niN memoriam: Steward R. Kirkpatrick,x' 17, August 18, 1974; Albert J.Lindar, x'17, May 28; Ella HildebrandtMcNaughton, p1ibT7, February 7; AliceDelight Taggart, p1ib'17, June 10; Harry G.Wheat, am'17, March 29; not previouslynoted was the death of Helen M. Strong,sb'17, phD'21, in April, 1973.1 O in memoriam: Mable Hunt Owen,*¦ O certificate '18, Burleson, Tx., April 8;Rev. Richard Veldman, am' 18, February 26in Sioux Falls, S. D.1 Q in memoriam: John Morris Arthur,*¦ •* sb'19, p1id'26, former assistant in plantphysiology and biochemistry at Iowa StateUniversity and the University of Chicago,died March 12 in Paris, II.jri john g. stutz, pIvb'20, executive^* director of the League of Kansasmunicipalities from 1920 to 1955, hasreceived the National League of Cities distinguished service award in recognition of hisefforts in strengthening the role of cities andother municipalities in the federal system.Stutz, one of the ten founders of NLC in1924, was awarded the citation by LosAngeles' Mayor Tom Bradley during thefiftieth anniversary convention of theCongress of Cities, held in Los Angeles.*\ 1 edith neale, am'21, Fort Calhoun,~* Ne. , who has involved herself inhistory and nature projects for many of heryears, is now in her eighties and "has noplans to retire from her activities," accordingto an Omaha World-Herald profile, writtenby Marilyn Busch. Through Ms. Neale the120-acre "Neale Woods," located in southeastern Washington County (Ne.) and ownedby her family for 1 19 years, was turned overto the public as a nature refuge in 1971. Oneof the organizers of the Washington CountyHistorical Museum in 1938, she served as arranger of exhibits until named to her presentpost as memoriam: Ralph Valentine Hunkins,am'21; Theodora Pottle, pItb'21, am'63; JaneDelaney Rissler, PhB'21; Carl D. Werner,PhB'21. Continued on Page 3835dragstedt. walling are alumni medal winnersThe prepared mindAs this issue of the magazine was beingedited for publication, word came ofDr. Dragstedt's death July 16 as theresult of a heart attack. Dr. Dragstedtwas Thomas D. Jones professor emeritus of surgery. His death occurred lessthan six weeks after he accepted the University's Alumni Medal, his accomplishments having included his development of the vagotomy operation forduodenal ulcer. Following is part of histalk accepting the medal:Lester DragstedtIt has sometimes been said that medical discoveries come about as a result of a happyaccident. Professor Walter Cannon, thegreat physiologist at Harvard University,modestly referred toseveral of hisimportant discoveriesas due to what hecalled serendipity. Heexplained that in thefairy tale the threeprinces of Serendipwere accustomed to goabout their kingdommaking useful andvaluable discoveriesentirely by accident.Dr. Cannon worked inso many fields of physiology that it is quitepossible that some unexpected reaction in theanimals studied would give him a clue to thesolution of some other problem and so hemade this discovery by accident.I like Pasteur's statement better: In thefield of observation chance favors the mindthat is prepared.Let me explain. In 1750 Reaumur discovered that the digestion of food in thestomach is brought about by the chemicalaction of the gastric juice. He made his discovery by making a pet buzzard swallow aperforated metal sphere into which he hadplaced a sponge. After an hour or so hepulled the sphere out of the stomach by anattached string, squeezed out the juice, andshowed that this fluid would dissolve meat,bread and cheese without the usual odor ofputrefaction.This discovery caused great interest. Somephysicians dismissed the experiment ashaving no significance for man. Buzzards eatanything. Other physicians queried: If manhas such a fluid in his stomach which candissolve meat why does it not dissolve thewall of the stomach itself, composed ofessentially the same material? Why does notthe stomach digest itself?Capt. William Beaumont, an Americanarmy surgeon stationed at Fort Mackinac,which was then, in 1830, wilderness territory,interested himself in this controversy.One day Alexis St. Martin, a French Canadian voyageur, was accidently shot inthe upper left abdomen, receiving a fearfulwound. Parts of the stomach and left lungwere shot away. By some miracle St. Martinsurvived, and when the wounds healed hewas left with a permanent opening in thestomach — a gastric fistula.Beaumont at once saw his opportunity. Helooked into St. Martin's stomach, saw foodbeing digested, described the stomachmovements, collected gastric juice for hisexperiments and chemical analysis, anddescribed all these findings in a small bookwhich has become a medical classic. He evenstuck his tongue into the stomach of hispatient and tasted the fluid that was present.Physiologists claim Beaumont as our firstscientific physiologist, and we surgeons claimBeaumont as our first scientific surgeon.It is true that Beaumont was lucky to haveencountered such a patient. But he also had aprepared mind to make the best of hisopportunity. It is important for the physicianto keep abreast of developing knowledge inas many fields of medicine as he possiblycan. Thus he has a prepared mind to takeadvantage of experience in the care ofpatients and during surgical operations.It has been said that Isaac Newton wassleeping in his orchard when an apple fell onhis head, leading him to form his views ongravitation. I take no stock in this fairy tale.I have been hit on the head many times andnothing came of it other than a headache. Ithink that Newton's apple fell on a preparedmind.The resilient university1975 Alumni Medal winner Cheves Walling(pho'39), authority on free radical reactionsin chemistry, is professor at the University ofUtah after a distinguished career which tookhim from duPont,U. S. Rubber, andLever Bros, toColumbia and to hispresent post. Excerptsfrom his acceptancetalk follow:The past few yearshave seen very troubledand confusing timesfor universities.I won't talk abouttheir financial problems, since I know thatthis is one thing on which the University ofChicago keeps its alumni very wellinformed.But I'll point out that the [universitieshave] been having a very wearing sort oflove-hate relation with the public.On the one hand they've been expected toaccomplish a whole series of miracles —educate everyone in such a way as to insurethat they'll have a higher standard of livingand more take-home pay; spearhead theCheves Walling movement of equal opportunities for minorities and women; turn out professionallytrained graduates in all the areas where wethink we're going to want them; and,through their research, solve all of our technical problems from cancer to energy.On the other hand, they get an extraordinary amount of criticism: They aren'taccomplishing all of these somewhatmutually contradictory miracles (or they'removing too fast). They've lost their old virtues (or their faculties are too lazy and resistant to change). They're subverting ouryouth (or repressing their creativity). Youname it.Through all this, I think we've learned afew things which we probably should haveknown all along. One is that, when you makeany change in human arrangements, you setup waves and reverberations which comeback in most unexpected forms anddirections. We aren't very successful atpredicting the consequences of our actions.As a physical scientist, I draw two conclusions from this. Most experiments don'twork or turn out differently than expected,so I'm reluctant to have too many social experiments tried out on me personally — or myinstitution, at the same time. We can onlysurvive so many mistakes.Next, I differ with the view of a number ofwriters and poets. I'm not at all worried thattoo much systematic study will remove themystery and excitement and surprises fromlife.The second thing we've learned is thatuniversities are really quite tough and resilient and can survive a great deal — after all,the great universities of Europe have persisted for centuries, through all kinds ofdisasters. And they still go along performingwhat I believe is their primary function —they create knowledge, they store it, and theypass it along. In this function they have tolook to both the past and the future and takea long view. Although it's a mixed metaphor,they act as both a watch-dog and a balancewheel on society. They don't do these thingsperfectly — they're inhabited by people,people make mistakes, and professors can bejust as silly and just as parochial as anyoneelse.But they're still there trying.The remarkable thing to me is that theysucceed as well as they do, because a university is essentially a vortex. Students aresucked in and spewed out a few years later,presumably greatly improved. Administrators whirl around a little longer, and facultylonger still, trapped in little back-eddies.Still, as any administrator or departmenthead knows, the whole thing is very unstable,and a miscalculation can choke it up orempty it very rapidly. . . .I think the answers will be in shortly, and Ithink we should all be glad that, in spite of allthe turmoil they've been through, the universities are still there doing what is, to me,one of their most important jobs.36Sharpened identityIn accepting on behalf of the winners ofprofessional achievement awards, JoanneSimpson (see below) discussed the crucialrole of example in establishing standards ofcourage and integrity. A portion of her talkfollows:We are all familiar with the assertion thatgreat researchers and great scholars do notnecessarily make great teachers. I think thatmisses the point. Whether or not he or shegives a polished, coherent lecture, the greatscholar sets an example for impressionableyoung people to observe and to absorb.Perhaps the crucial lessons that we learned atthe University of Chicago were subconscious— by absorption of the examples set.Outstanding among these examples wasthe head man, Robert M. Hutchins. Hestood for a militant integrity. He built auniversity as a citadel offering unfetteredpursuit of knowledge in an oasis of what hesaw as the desert of the philistine MadisonAvenue-dominated society. His universityContinued on Page 38 Howell Murray awards to outstanding students are presented by Julian Jackson, president ofthe Alumni Association. Front row (from left): Tim Rudy, Patrick Spurgeon, Jr., Robin B.Prince, Mary Kay O'Brien, Ruth B. Kleiman; back row: Jay Sugarman, Steven R. Smith,Anthony J. Barrett, Michael Krauss, David M. Kehr. Inset: Krauss accepts for all.Twelve alumni receive awards, citationsThe prof essional achievement awardsWilliam T. Born (sb'25)Pioneer in geophysical exploration and its instrumentation, inparticular in seismic prospecting. He has served as director of theresearch laboratory of Geophysical Research Corporation and isa former president of the Society of Exploration Geologists.Herman H. Goldstine (sb'33, sm'34, phr>'36)IBM fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, hehas been an innovator in the development of the digital computerand the logical organization on which it is based.Danny Lyon (ab'63)An outstanding photographer, who uses his photographic skillsin the delineation of social values.Hans W. Mattick (ab'48, am'56)Professor and director of the Center for Criminal Justice at theUniversity of Illinois, Circle Campus, and formerly co-director ofthe University of Chicago's Center for Studies in CriminalJustice, is a leader in research on delinquency and prison reform.Judilh Graham Pool (sb'39, pIid'46)Through her discovery and development of Factor VIII, the clot-promoting principle in blood, has achieved mightily in improvingthe care of hemophilic patients.Annie Lee Sandusky (am'38)She has served as chief of the program operation branch of theU.S. Children's Bureau's social service division, has devoted hercareer to safeguarding and improving the living conditions ofchildren.Joanne Simpson (sb'43, sm'45, pho'49)Professor of environmental science at the University of Virginiaand a member of its Center for Advanced Studies, she is an out standing meteorological scholar particularly in research on cloudand precipitation processes and convection.The public service citationsMarvin Braude (sb'41)As a member of the Los Angeles city council he has been highlyeffective in his efforts to improve the degree to which lands in theLos Angeles area are used for the benefit of the citizenry and,more generally, in the improvement of the environment of theregion.Milton Gordon (p1ib'23, jd'25)Following his retirement after twenty-five years in the federalservice, he turned to the problems of the elderly poor, and has, ina multitude of ways, worked for the amelioration of publichousing, the status of tenants and others concerns of immediateimportance to his fellow citizens.David T. Hellyer (md'44)While tirelessly exerting efforts to preserve the natural wildlifehabitat in the Northwest, he has also continued his professionalactivities by serving in rural and urban clinics and as a volunteermember of the medical faculty of the University of Washington.Frieda P. Simon (phD'39)Participating over the years in educational and mental healthactivities, she has concentrated on the improvement of thecommunity colleges of the nation. After helping to establish theIllinois Community College Trustees Association she participatedin the formation of like organizations on the national level.John W. Webster (ab'37)Jack created and nurtured the Farm Club, near Hinsdale, Illinois,a valuable recreational and educational facility for physically andmentally handicapped people and their families.37Sh a rpen ed id en tilvFrom Page 37protected and encouraged the individual tospeak the truth as he saw it, and to seek truthby methods he himself decided.Hutchins' university encouraged a personto proclaim his views, however much theymight fly in the face of the culture. One ofhis last commencement speeches trenchantlydenounced [Joseph] McCarthy at the verytime that [McCarthy's] threat was at its apexand the majority of university administratorswere trembling quietly in their shoes.From the atmosphere that Hutchins andhis colleagues created we absorbed an unconscious inner foundation. This foundationis needed to fortify a young person in maintaining his own stand in the face of thepowerful and the popular. It provided themotivation, for example, to stick with a newunconventional idea in one's subject whilethe establishment scoffingly kept rejectinghis papers. It provided motivation, forsecond example, to contradict publicly apower hungry superior in your science whofor political reasons asserts that two and twohave now become five. It provided motivation, for a final example, to risk losing atreasured job in order to combat repressiveloyalty oaths or unfair hiring and firingpractices at the place where you areemployed.The standard illuminated here — thatintegrity is worth sacrifices, sacrifices inpopularity, in material benefits, in recognition, in advancement — is, in my opinion,the most valuable lesson that was imbued onthese quadrangles. The lesson, in fact, whichprovides the core of the education to make ameaningful life and the judgment to recognize what/goals are more important than anaffluent or a powerful living.This lesson was never more relevant thanat this time of the recent Watergatecatastrophe. One of the greater shocks inthat whole series of shocks comes when onerealizes that most of the individuals involvedwere actually unaware that their decisionswere in any way wrong. Or that these decisions would lead to the destruction of mostof our freedoms and transfigure the life thathas made this nation a unique and preciousexperiment in man's attempt to govern himself. Had Nixon and his colleagues — theHaldemanns, the Ehrlichmans andMagruders— been able to absorb in theirformative years the kind of education thathas been offered at this university, it is mybelief that the historical, moral and legal perspectives gained, the knowledge of the consequences of man's actions in the past, wouldhave forced at least some of these people tohesitate, to question, or perhaps even to ringthe bell before they not only destroyed theirown administration but, even worse,weakened the foundations of our government, and at the same time its credibility,both in this country and elsewhere in theworld. b.clp pick the > attiard ttiinnersNominations are in order for theAssociation's 1976 alumni medal,public service citations, and professional achievement awards.If you know of alumni who deserverecognition because of notable community or professional contributions,please write, giving the pertinent information, to the Awards Coordinator,Alumni Association, 5733 UniversityAvenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637.Nominations should be received nolater than October 15, 1975, to beconsidered for the 1976 Awards.Class notesFrom Page 35syy roy a. chevjxle, pIib'22, am'23,db'25,^4 pIid'42, presiding patriarch emeritus inthe Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ ofthe Latter Day Saints, gave several presentations earlier this year at the denomination'slocal church in Hannibal, memoriam: Willard J. Bradford,phB'22, chairman of the board of W. J.Bradford Paper Company, Holland, Mi.,died April 12; Edith Dobie, am'22, professoremeritus of history at the University ofWashington, Seattle, died recently at herhome in Seattle; James H. Turner, jd'22,Chicago attorney, died April 5 following along illness.'^'3 in memoriam: Edward Blinks, phs'23;¦^•"J Maurice Brody, phB'23, mba'43; LoganFulrath, phB'23, am'24; Maurice J. Gilbert,phB'23, jd'24; Marjorie Howard Morgan,phB'23; Cosette Faust Newton, sm'23; WalterH. Schoneberger, p1ib'23; Martha Stark,phB'23; Otto E. Strohmeier, phB'23, md'37.r\A THEODORE P. VIMMERSTEDT, PhB'24,¦"+ Chautauqua County (N.Y.) legislator,has been named chairman of the county'sphysician recruitment committee.will geer, sb '24, attended a luncheon inhis honor at UC last spring. The veteranactor who plays Grandpa Walton on the current hit TV series, "The Waltons," was inChicago for a week-long series ofperformances at six retirement memoriam: Ruth Davidson Briggs,X'24, Ogden, Ut., died March 27.^ ^ ALMA CHURCHILL SMITH, PllB'25, Civic^¦^ leader, former member of the IllinoisCollege faculty and widow of the late JoePatterson Smith, sb'24, pIid'30, longtimehead of the IC department of history andgovernment, has been honored with a doctorof literature degree by the Jacksonville (II.)school. Four sons and about eight grandchildrenlooked on proudly last spring as calistatwist herndon, p1ib'25, received hermaster's degree in history during commencement exercises at Sangamon State University,Springfield, memoriam: Charles O. Harris, sb'25,md'29, Mendota, II., died April 14; JamesLee O'Leary, sb'25, pnr>'28, md'31, diedMay 25 in St. Louis; not previously notedin the magazine was the death of ClydeElmer Partridge, md'25, Emporia, Ks., inApril, 1972; Ely Martin Stannard, am'25,Chicago Heights, II., died January 1, 1974;Mary Westall, pho'25, died January 24,1975, in Asheville, N.C.; Hon. J. HowardWilcox, llb'25, Anthony, Ks., died April 26.*)f. ESTHER LAZARUS (GOLDMAN), PhB'26,¦^" former director of the Baltimore Department of Welfare, was one often distinguished Maryland women honored earlierthis year at the world peace luncheon of thewomen's auxiliary of the Maryland council,Jewish National Fund. Currently a memberof the advisory board of the Commission onAging and Retirement Education, she wascited by the group for her contributions inthe field of social memoriam: Lucile Capt, sm'26, diedJanuary 27 in San Angelo, Tx.; Paul R.Conway, am'26, Silver Spring, Md., died inDecember, 1974; Chester Earl Gunn, am'26,Chicago Heights, II., died May 14; HenryLuidens, md'26, Columbus, Oh., diedFebruary 10.syn a. ross mcintyre , sb'27, pIid'30,** • md'3 1 , has been given a distinguishedservice to medicine award by the Universityof Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha. Dr.Mcintyre joined the school's college ofmedicine faculty in 1932 and was named department chairman in 1935. In 1967 he became research professor in experimentalpharmacology and toxicology. Among themany honors Dr. Mcintyre has received isone from the Academia Nationale deiLinceio, the oldest scientific society in theworld, which in 1954 recognized him for hissignificant research in the study of curareand other neuromuscular blocking agentswhich led to the subsequent use of d-turo-curarine as an adjuvant to generalanesthesia.allen s. weller, pIib'27, phD'42, directorof the Krannert art museum and professor ofart at the University of Illinois, was amongseveral Chicago alums, now teaching at UI,to be recognized by the school last spring forexcellence in education, research and university service. The other awardees were:philip kolb, phB'31, am'32, professor ofFrench (see Class of '31); j. thomasHastings, am'40, p1id'43, professor ofeducational psychology and director of thecenter for instructional research and curriculum evaluation; luis leal, am'41 ,pho'50, professor of Spanish; and Robertferber, am'45, phD'51, professor ofeconomics and director of the university'ssurvey research laboratory.38in memoriam: Elizabeth Pederson Backus,phB'27, Land O' Lakes, Wi., died March 20and a memorial gift in her name has beenmade to the Regenstein Library; Horace H.Baker, am'27, Boulder, Co., died June 2;Colin Stuart Gordon, x'27, died May 15 inWoodstock, II.; G. Stuart Kenney, PhB'27,Deltona, FL, died May 12; Frances RedmanShipman, phB'27, Minneapolis, died May 15;Leslie A. White, phD'27, died March 31 inLone Pine, Ca./^o f.t. ("pancho")scanlan, phB'28,£0 Hyattsville, Md., has retired,concluding a forty-year association withNational Railways of Mexico. For the lasttwenty-three of those years he has been theline's executive representative in memoriam: Hugh A. Rice, sb'28, sm'30,Stockton, Ca., died April 1; MarianPlimpton van de Griendt, p1tb'28, died May17 in Denver, Co.^Q MARIE WENDLANDPRADT, phB'29,*->J Rhinelander, Wi., is now coordinatorof volunteers and public relations at theHeadwaters Regional Achievement Center.john ligtenberg, pIib'29, jd'31, Chicago-based general counsel for the America Federation of Teachers, AFL-CIO, attorney forthe Chicago Teachers Union and for theconsul general of The Netherlands inChicago, has been made an honorary lifemember of the educator rights committee ofthe American Civil Liberties Union ofGreater Cleveland in recognition of "morethan three decades of outstanding service inthe protection of educator rights. ' 'Joseph j. h. smith, md'29, retired frommedical practice in Colton, Ca., last year andwas honored for his more than fifty years ofservice to the healing memoriam: Clarence H. Faust, am'29,p1id'35, clergyman, former Ford Foundationexecutive, educator who was associated withUC from 1930 to 1947 as an instructor andprofessor of English and as a dean, died May20 in Claremont, Ca.; Florence SauerHorner, am'29, Dayton, Oh., died earlierthis year."3/*V leo rosten, phB'30, pho'37, is one of*''-' a galaxy of notable contributors included in The Look Book, an anthologyfrom that erstwhile magazine which will bepublished this fall by Harry N. Abrams, Inc.Among the writers, who include WalterLippmann,, Harry S. Truman, Albert Einstein and four Kennedys, Rosten is the onlyone represented by two pieces. Alsoappearing in the volume is the late JohnGunther, phB' memoriam: Gladys Spencer Clarke,ab'30; Mary R. McNerney, phB'30; AndreaUleberg, am'30.-5 1 philip kolb, pfiB'31, am'32, professor¦5 1 of French at the University of Illinois,has retired. Internationally known as anauthority on French novelist Marcel Proust,Kolb has been honored by the French Academy and was chosen to be the U.S.representative to the 1971 internationalcolloquium of scholars celebrating the 100thanniversary of Proust's birth. He plans tocontinue his work at UI on editing aneighteen- volume collection of 5,000 lettersby Proust.Professor of history edward bastian,p1tb'3 1 , who taught at UC for ten yearsbefore joining the Earlham College(Richmond, In.) faculty in 1956, hasretired. Speaking at an all-day seminar givenby Earlham in Bastian's honor last springwere two former Chicago colleagues:william h. mcneill, ab'38, am'39, RobertA. Milliken distinguished service professorof history, and wayne c. booth, am'47,phr>'50, George M. Pullman professor in theDepartment of English and the memoriam: Quirinus Breen, p1id'31;Caroline Hubert Elledge, pIlb'31, am'49;Bruce J . Miller, phr>'3 1 .¦J^ WERNER h. bromund, sb'32, pro-¦^¦^ fessor of chemistry at Oberlin (Oh.)College and a thirty-eight year facultymember, has retired.Also retiring last spring was J. r. jones,sm'32, Atlanta, assistant to the vice-president, marketing, Southern Services,Inc., after nearly forty years in the electricutility memoriam: Max Stern, am'32, Pater-son, N. J., died May 27.'J'J erik wahlgren, pIvb'33, p1id'38,«'«' professor in the Scandinavian section,department of Germanic languages, UCLA,has received the rare, international goldmedal of the American-Scandinavian Foundation "for distinguished service to Americaand to Scandinavia." Given only nine timespreviously in the sixty-five year history of theASF, the medal was conferred at foundationheadquarters in New York last spring. Anauthority on early Scandinavian writings anda former member of the U.S. FulbrightCommission in Sweden, Wahlgren recentlyreturned to California after two years spentas director of Univerity of California studycenters at the Universities of Bergen(Norway) and Lund (Sweden).LORRAINE SOLOMON moss, pfiB'33, hasjoined the Chicago chapter of SCORE(Service Corps of Retired Executives). Moss,the chapter's first female member, manageda local photographic studio for fifteen years.SCORE is co-sponsored by ACTION, thefederal agency for volunteer service, and theSmall Business memoriam: Lewis Hamilton Armen-trout, md'33; Glenn Victor McFarland,phB'33.'J A Frederick t. barrett, jd'34, retired•5^ last fall as chairman of the board ofCudahy Foods (Phoenix, Az.) but continuesas a director of the company.boone robinson, ab'34, has almost completed his first year as the first executivesecretary, California Commission on Aging.elmer j. lawson, sb'34, has retired as director of the patent division of the Sterling-Winthrop Research Institute, Rensselaer,N.Y.-jc g. olin rulon, p1id'35, associate•5 J professor of biological sciences atNorthwestern University and a faculty member since 1947, retired last year and wasgranted emeritus status.paul a. samuelson, ab'35, NobelPrize-winning economist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, received anhonorary doctorate of laws earlier this yearfrom the University of Southern California.beryl brewer, sb'35, retired last year ascounty microbiologist, St. Clair County(Mi.) Health memoriam: Melvin H. Knisely, p1td'35,former member of the anatomy facultiesat the University of Chicago and the MedicalUniversity of South Carolina who wasknown for his work on blood circulation,died March 30 in Charleston, S.C.; WalterSargeant Phillips, pho'35, former chairmanof the botany department at the University ofArizona, died April 7.>\(: HARRIET DUFRESNE HUDSON, AM'36,Jv pho'50, has retired after twenty-twoyears as dean of Randolph-Macon Woman'sCollege, Lynchburg, Va. Dean Hudson alsoheld the position of trustee on the governingboard of the College Entrance ExaminationBoard and served on the executive committeeof the Association of Higher Education. In1957 the senior class at Randolph-Maconestablished the Harriet Dufresne HudsonFund for Faculty Study in her honor tofinance faculty research. A specialist in laboreconomics, she is the author of ProgressiveMine Workers of America: A Study in RivalUnionism.albert a. Goldman, ab'36, chief rabbi ofthe Isaac M. Wise Temple in Cincinnati andchairman of the Board of Rabbis of Cincinnati, was cited for distinguished citizenship last spring when he was made anhonorary doctor of laws by Xavier University, Cincinnati.fawn mckay brodie, am'36, historian andbiographer, was one of ten women honoredby the Los Angeles Times this year as1975 "Times women of the year." Ms.Brodie, professor of history at UCLA, iswidely known for her perceptive historicalbiographies, the latest, Thomas Jefferson, anIntimate History (Norton, 1974), a best-sellerand main selection of the Book of the MonthClub. She has written numerous articles, hasedited two books and co-authored one (withher husband Bernard brodie, p1ib'32,phD'40, a political scientist and authorwho also teaches at UCLA), and haswritten four biographies: No ManKnows My History, the Life ofJoseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet;Thaddeus Stevens, Scourge of the South;The Devil Drives: The Life of Sir RichardBurton, and the Jefferson biography. Noneof her works has taken fewer than five yearsof research and writing. Although she wasborn in Utah and raised a Mormon, "it was39not until I went to the University of Chicagofor graduate work that I decided to writeabout this great figure of my childhood,"Ms. Brodie told Times book editor DigbyDiehl, when questioned about the origins ofher first work. In the UC library, she wenton, ' 'there is a marvelous collection of materials on upper New York state where JosephSmith spent his formative years. Here, I alsoreceived my first training in the historicalmethod." When the Smith work was completed, Ms. Brodie was immediatelyrecognized as a biographer of major stature.Joseph pessin, md'36, a twenty-one yearstaff member at Gateways CommunityMental Health Center, Los Angeles, andclinical director from 1969 to 1972, has received the psychiatric hospital's mentalhealth achievement award "for distinguishedleadership and dedication to the highest professional standards."in memoriam: Stanley Wolcott Hayes, Jr.,ab'36; Henry F. Kelley, ab'36, am'36.1*7 carrol c. hall, am' 37, Spring-"-' ' field, II., was awarded an honorarydoctor of laws degree by Eureka (II.)College last May during commencementceremonies. Hall retired in 1965 as chairmanof the science department of SpringfieldHigh School. He had been a science teacherin the school from 1927 and chairman of thedepartment from 1955. In 1945 he was one ofthe founders and first president of theHorace Mann Insurance Company whichgrew to become the largest insurer ofteachers in the world. He left the office ofpresident in 1963 but continued to serve onthe boards of Horace Mann Companies. Hallhas operated a trade press service for fortyyears and is the co-author of two chemistrytexts for high school use.william horwitz, sb'37, Silver Spring,Md., deputy associate director for science inthe bureau of foods, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, has been named toreceive the 1975 Harvey W. Wiley award ofthe Association of Official AnalyticalChemists. The $750 award, given annuallyfor notable contributions to analyticalmethodology, will be formally presented toHorwitz during the AOAC's annual meetingin October. He is being particularly cited forhis extensive contributions to the analysis ofdairy products and other foods, for his advancement of analysis as editor of fiveeditions of Official Methods of Analysis( 1 955-'75), and for his promotion of international cooperation in standardizinganalytical methods. Horwitz pioneered theuse of gas chromatography to the analysis offoods and made valuable contributions to thesolution of the chick edema factor. He hasspent his entire thirty-six year professionalcareer with the memoriam: Rev. William BarnettBlakemore, am'37, db'38, phD'41, dean ofDisciples Divinity House and professor ofecumenical Christianity in the DivinitySchool, the University of Chicago, and president of the World Convention of the Disciples of Christ, died May 2. He was the author of a number of books, including hislatest, Quest for Intelligence in Ministry(1970). Donations in Rev. Blakemore's namemay be made to the scholarship fund of theDisciples Divinity House at UC or to theAmerican Youth Foundation in St. Louis.Arnold Lazarow, sb'37, md'41 , pho'41 ,professor and chairman of the department ofanatomy of the University of Minnesota,died June 25 in St. Paul.*3 O ruth sager, sb'38, one of the fore-•5 O most investigators working in the areaof cytoplasmic genetics, has joined the faculty of medicine at Harvard as professor of cellular genetics at the Sidney Farber cancercenter and a member of the department ofmicrobiology and molecular genetics, Harvard medical school. Sager had been afaculty member at Hunter College of the CityUniversity of New York. At Harvard she willlead in the establishment of a program ingenetics relating to cancer at a fundamentalcellular level.Gertrude heidenthal, pIld'38, has beenappointed chairperson of the public education committee of the Schenectady County(N. Y.) unit of the American Cancer Society.william robinson, am'38, has retired asprincipal of Burbank Elementary School,Tulsa, Ok. He joined the Tulsa public schoolsystem in 1939 as an English teacher.Actress Lauren Bacall is portrayingWashington Post publisher Katharinemeyer graham, ab'38, in a cameo role in thefilm version of All the President 's Men, theBob Woodward-Carl Bernstein story memoriam: Tess Loth Helburn, ab'38;Harold Edward LaBelle, Jr., sb'38; HerbertG. Lahr, am'38; Simon Rodbard, sb'38,phD'41.¦3Q paul w. Thompson, x'39, research•^ ^ ecologist at the Cranbrook Institute ofScience, Bloomfield Hills, Mi., chairman ofthe big tree committee, Michigan BotanicalClub, has won the Nature Conservancy's oakleaf service award in recognition of his landconservation achievements. The NatureConservancy is a national conservationorganization, receiving its support from thepublic, whose resources are solely devoted tothe preservation of environmentally andecologically significant land.In Tomioka Stories: From the JapaneseOccupation, published last spring by Exposition Press, martin bronfenbrenner,phD'39, who hold the Kenan chair ineconomics at Duke University (where he alsoteaches Japanese history), recalls some highlights of his life in Japan as a languageofficer in the occupation. Most of the storiesare funny or at least ironic, and Bronfen-brenner's wry wit tempers the pathos in therest.augusto bobonis, pIid'39, professor anddean emeritus at the University of PuertoRico and vice-president of the Inter-American University of Puerto Ricountil May 30, 1975, has been awarded anhonorary doctorate of laws by the latter memoriam: Judith Cunningham Barr,x'39; John C. Frazier, pho'39; Elmer B.Swanson, ab'39; Charles J. Tlapa, sb'39.Af\ WILLIAM C. ROGERS, AB'40,AM'41,tU phD'43, was honored at a celebrationof the 25th anniversary of the world affairscenter at the University of Minnesota.Rogers has directed the center from its inception.leo srole, PhD '40, professor of socialsciences in the psychiatry department,Columbia University college of physiciansand surgeons, and extraordinary professor,faculty of psychology and education,University of Louvain, Belgium, is the seniorauthor of Mental Health in the Metropolis:The Midtown Manhattan Study which isbeing published in a revised, enlarged, two-book paperback edition in the HarperTorchbook Series. (Book 1 appeared inApril; Book 2 is scheduled for December.)The National Institute of Mental Health hasrated the Midtown study as "one of the mostoutstanding" institute-supported investigations.david j. Severn, sb'40, sm'42, has beenappointed technical information and publications manager of the Amstar Corporationat its New York headquarters office. Severnand his wife, theresa mckee, sb'41, live inTenafly, memoriam: John Kleih Haas, ab'40,Naples, Fl. , died April 25 .A 1 thomas A. sebeok, ab'41, distinguished^ ¦*¦ professor of linguistics, professor ofanthropology and of Uralic and Altaicstudies, and chairman of the research centerfor the language sciences at Indiana University, reports he is serving out a term as president of the Linguistic Society of America for1975. Sebeok, who was secretary-treasurerof the group in 1969-'73, and vice-presidentand acting secretary-treasurer in 1974, wasalso given the title of Linguistic Society ofAmerica professor for 1975.william a. lessa, am'41, pIid'47,professor emeritus of anthropology atUCLA, is the author of Drake 's Island ofThieves: Ethnological Sleuthing (UniversityPress of Hawaii, 1975), which attemptsthrough anthropological and other clues tosolve certain questions regarding the identityof some Pacific islands come upon by theEnglish circumnavigator, Sir Francis Drake,after he left the coast of California.EVELYN GEIGER JONES, AB'41, whoheads the referral department of the FirstUnited Realtors in Wheaton, II., was namedemployee of the month last October by theGreater Wheaton Chamber of memoriam: William D. Pardridge, x'41,Stanardsville, Va., died May 27; BishopWilliam Jacob Walls, am'41 , of the AfricanMethodist Episcopal Zion Church, diedApril 23 in Yonkers, N.Y.Afy Father ROLLINS E. LAMBERT, AB '42, a^" priest of the Archdiocese of Chicagoand for the past several years director of Cal-40oe Smith's will bequeathed $2,000 "tothat amiable young lady, Miss Jones,who smiles so sweetly in the streetwhen we meet." When the will wasread, it was discovered that there were sixsisters in the Jones family.Does your will leave room for towho is your intended beneficiary9 Thecorrect legal name of the University is "TheUniversity of Chicago, an Illinois not-for-profit corporation." For more information about including TheUniversity of Chicago in your will or a trust,please contact:Ted Hurwitz or Judy LandtThe University of Chicago5801 Ellis Avenue, Room 601Chicago, Illinois 60637Tel: (312) 753-4930 or 4931vert House, the Catholic Student Center atthe University, has been named to the staffof the United States Catholic Conference,Washington, D. C, as adviser for Africanaffairs in the department of social development and world peace. The appointment isan outgrowth of the reorganization of theUSCC approved by the nation's Catholicbishops in November, 1974. The purpose ofthe international justice and peacecomponent of USCC is to assist the bishopsin their teaching ministry concerning theCatholic perspective on various international issues and concerns. FatherLambert has held a number of pastoral assignments and administrative posts as apriest of the Chicago Archdiocese. He hasalso been president of the Black CatholicClergy Caucus and the National Office forBlack Catholics.rose mara giles, ab'42, has been promoted to assistant vice-president at theGolf Mill State Bank, Niles, II.Courtney d. shanken, ab'42, HighlandPark, II., a business executive with Wipeco,Inc., has been voted into the GymnasticsHall of Fame, sponsored by the CitizenSavings Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles.In 1937 Shanken co-captained the firstchampionship gymnastics team at Senn HighSchool, Chicago. In 1941 , competing forUC, he won the national collegiateall-around title and the rope climb. He wonseven NCAA medals — one in each event —between 1941 and 1942. Since then he hasbeen active in many gymnastics organizations, including the U.S. Olympic Gymnastics Committee of which he has been amember since 1946.A'y ADRIENNE GOODER RICHARD, ab'43,"¦^ Weston, Ma., has published threenovels for young people in recent years:Pistol (1969), a western; The Accomplice(1973), a political novel with a Middle Eastsetting; and Wings (1974), the story of a littlegirl who wanted to be an aviatrix. All threewere published by Atlantic-Little Brown.seymour SLrvE, ab'43, pIid'52, Gleasonprofessor of fine arts at Harvard and aspecialist in 17th-century Dutch art, becamedirector of Harvard's Fogg Museum earlierthis year.Lawrence j. bates, sb'43, formerlyprincipal surveyor for western Europe, hasbeen elected a vice-president of the AmericanBureau of Shipping.Robert m. mccormack, md'43, professorand chairman of the division of plasticsurgery at the University of Rochestermedical center, has been designated clinicianof the year by the American Association ofPlastic Surgeons.Patrick suppes, sb'43, has been named tothe new Lucie Stern chair in the socialsciences at Stanford University.a a haskell m . block , ab'44, has been^+ appointed professor of comparativeliterature at the State University of NewYork at Binghamton, effective September 1 .Block had been a Brooklyn College faculty member since 1961 and before that taught atthe University of Wisconsin. He is currentlypresident of the American ComparativeLiterature Association.Elizabeth meek, am'44, has been nameddirector of the information, counseling andreferral service of the Du Page County (II.)Health Department.Virginia butts, ab'44, was elected vice-president, public relations, last fall by FieldEnterprises, Chicago. She joined thecorporation in 1963 as public relationsdirector of the Chicago Sun-Times and theChicago Daily News.ELEANOR POWELL GODFREY, AB'44, hasbeen named to a three-year term as chairperson of the sociology department,Northern Illinois University, De memoriam: Ruth Mitchell Deeds, am'44,died April 1.A C JOHN ANTHONY BROWN, AM'45, has"¦^ been elected president of MuskingumCollege, New Concord, Oh. From 1966 to1973 Brown was president of the Linden-wood Colleges of St. Charles, Mo. For thepast two years he has served as a consultantto leading educational agencies andfoundations, including the U.S. Office ofEducation, the Ford and DanforthFoundations, and the U.S. National Commission for memoriam: Jessie Lola Cade Washington, am'45.AC. geraldine LeMAY, am'46, director of"" the Savannah (Ga.) public librarysystem for more than twenty-three years, hasretired.JAMES b. parsons, am'46, jd'49, hassucceeded Edwin A. Robson, recently retired, as chief judge for the U.S. Court forthe Northern District of Illinois. His career ingovernment began just out of law school in1949 as an assistant corporation counsel forthe city of Chicago. He then served as anassistant U.S. attorney for nine years and in1961 became the first black appointed to thefederal bench.jean head sisco, mba'46, consultant ongovernment and public affairs to theAmerican Retail Federation, has been electedto the board of Textron, Inc., Providence,R.I.jaroslav pelikan, phD'46, Sterlingprofessor of religious studies at Yale, hasbeen named dean of the graduate school.An STEPHEN V. FULKERSON, AM'47, PhD'52,"' recently retired faculty member atShimer College (Mt. Carroll, II.), reports he"happily pocketed a year's back salary plusinterest from the state of Wisconsin." Whileassociate professor of history at WisconsinState University, Whitewater (1962-'66),Fulkerson was summarily evicted from hisclassroom two weeks before the end of the1965-'66 term— no charges nor allegations ofmisconduct — simply to preclude his gaining atenured appointment, which would havebecome automatic had he served those twoweeks. "Major credit for this successful de nouement is due the American Associationof University Professors, which censured theschool in '68, to psychologist Daniel Adler ofAAUP'S Washington office, and to politicalscientist David Fellman of the University ofWisconsin, Madison."MANNING M. PATTILLO, AM'47, PhL)'49,director of special projects at the Universityof Rochester, has been elected president ofOglethorpe University in Atlanta.davtd broder, ab'47, am'51, Pulitzerprize-winning political reporter for theWashington Post and nationally syndicatedcolumnist, has been inducted into the BloomTownship High School (Chicago Heights)hall of fame. Broder left Bloom in 1944 afterhis sophomore year to enroll in the accelerated program at UC.elbert b. smith, am'47, pIld'49, professorof history at the University of Maryland, hasauthored a new book, The Presidency ofJames Buchanan, published recently in theUniversity Press of Kansas' American Presidency Series. He is the author of two previous works, The Death of Slavery andMagnificent Missourian: The Life ofThomas Hart Benton. Long active inpolitics, Smith has been a speech writer andcampaign aide for various local, state andnational candidates, was the Iowa statecampaign coordinator for the Johnson-Humphrey ticket in 1964, and was himself acandidate for the U.S. Senate in 1962 and1966.An CHANNING h. lushbough, ab'48,"O am'52, phr>'56, has accepted a newposition as corporate director of qualityassurance with the Kraftco Corporation,Glenview, II. For the past two years Lush-bough served as director and executive secretary of the citizens' commission on science,law and the food supply, located at theRockefeller University, New York. He hasalso chaired the Alumni Fund campaign inthe New York metropolitan area and servedas a member of the National Alumni FundBoard since its inception several years ago.FRANCES SLOSMAN SHENFELD GROSS, AM'48,has opened a clinical psychology practice inBrunswick, Me., where she recently movedfrom Providence, R.I. She was the firstwoman president of the Rhode Island Psychological Association.ruth rogan benerito, pho'48, researchleader at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Southern Regional Research Centerin New Orleans, has been made an honorarymember of Iota Sigma Pi, national honorsociety for women in chemistry.jane ross mercer, am'48, sociology professor at the University of SouthernCalifornia, appeared last spring on an hour-long televised examination of intelligencetesting entitled "The IQ Myth." Mercer hasdealt extensively with evaluating intelligencetesting, specifically with ethnic minorities.Much of her recent work has had to do withtesting Mexican-Americans in southern California. As noted by Dan Rather, reporter forthe CBS special, "On the basis of Dr. Mercer's work California schools are not allowed42Society need neither disintegrate nor stagnate, says BernsteinAmericans, Sidney R. Bernstein told theUniversity's communications alumni lastspring, are too placid in accepting lawlessness, violence, and the notion that thedevelopednations are infor a future oflowered livingstandards. Mr.Bernstein(mba'56),chairman ofthe executivecommittee ofCrain Communicationsand one ofthe mostrespectedleaders inbusinesspublishing, wasnamed thealumni group'scommunicator of the year.Citing a statement in Art Direction:"Violence sells these days better than everbefore. . . The very same American publicwhich wants more police safety and lessrape can't get enough vicarious violence,"Mr. Bernstein said, "I am even more concerned with real, not vicarious, violenceand lawlessness. I am deeply convinced thatthe quality of American life hasdeteriorated sharply in my lifetime. . .Sidney R. Bernstein "In the real world, the tone of anysociety is set not so much by how you and Iact personally, but by what we are willingto let other people get away with. . . If ourability to register indignation has atrophied, we are lowering the tone of oursociety very nearly as much as are thosewhose attitudes and activities we profess tocondemn. Maybe even more!"Too often, it seems to me, we haveassumed that since the downtrodden, thedispossessed, the young and inexperienced,the social outcasts have so little going forthem, whatever they take it into their mindsto do must be all right, or at least understandable and forgivable."Don't misunderstand me, please. I amnot suggesting that we try to turn the socialclock back. I am not, by any means, suggesting that the poor and the socially depressed be deprived of one iota of the socialand economic gains they have made. Wehave moved forward to the point where atotally new level of human dignity andregard for the sacred quality of individualhuman rights appears like a vision of loveliness on the horizon."But now we've got to make certain thatthis revolution doesn't go too far — thatchaos and anarchy and total destructiondon't take over the parade of progress; andthat we don't let our sympathies and ourconcern for righting past wrongs lead usinto condoning conduct and conceptswhich are anti-social, debilitating and de basing under any circumstances."I wish I could give you some magic formula by which we could solve this problem,but I can't. All I can do is urge upon youa greater sense of indignation, a determination simply not to stand for conditionswe all abhor and a greater willingness tobecome involved and to make yourresolution known."Moving to his second theme, Mr.Bernstein said, "The figures on GNP,employment, housing starts and all theother economic indicators are certainlynothing to bring joy to anyone these days.But I have been literally amazed, and considerably alarmed, by the apparent willingness of the citizenry to submissively acceptthe notion that Americans — and perhapsthe whole 'developed' world — must beprepared to live less well in the future thanthey have in the past."We are being told — and nobody seemsto argue much about it — that there won'tever again be enough energy to meet all ourdemands, that food is likely to be in shortsupply, and that in essence we have beenliving too high on the hog and must learn toadjust our living standards to the starkrealities of a world which can no longer bespendthrift in any sense."Let's not settle for a loss or even a tiebefore we play the game. A future in whicheverything points downward is intolerable.The problems are enormous, but they canbe solved."to classify students as mentally retarded,solely on the basis of intelligence tests."t. d. lingo, pItb'48, am'5 1 , director of theAdventure Trails Research and DevelopmentLaboratories, Black Hawk, Co., reports thathis organization held a one-day "More Orgasm Conference" in June.richard c atkinson, pnB'48, formerlychairman of the psychology department andassociate dean, school of humanities andscience, Stanford University, was sworn inJune 2 as deputy director of the NationalScience Foundation. Atkinson's nominationby President Ford in March was confirmedby the Senate May 8. He is the author oreditor often memoriam: Lathrop V. Beale, am'48,pItd'62, associate professor and chairman ofthe sociology department at the StateUniversity of New York, Binghamton, N.Y.,died March 28; Reuben A. Kessel, mba'48,phx>'54, professor of business economics atthe University of Chicago's Graduate Schoolof Business, died June 20, a week after suffering a stroke at his Flossmoor, II., home;Julius S. Yacker, sb'48, je>'51, mba'51,partner in the Chicago law firm of Yackerand Gerson, died February 18.49 vivian Rogers mccoy, am '49, directorof student services for the division of continuing education, the University ofKansas, Lawrence, has received the creativeprograming award of the National University Extension Association. Ms. McCoy, whothis summer received her doctorate in adultand occupational education at Kansas StateUniversity, was given the award for careerexploration manuals she wrote forcounselors of women.MARY GORMAN GYARFAS, AM'49, PllD'67,associate professor in UC's School of SocialService Administration who also carries on aprivate practice in psychiatric social work inEvanston, was elected last fall to the boardof trustees of Rosary College, River Forest, memoriam: Eric H. Lenneberg, ab'49,am'52; Martha Bernstein Lewis, am'49;William D. Stafford, mba'\ Not previously noted in the magazineJyJ was the election in November, 1974, ofjanet gray frazee hayes, am'50, as mayorof San Jose, Ca. She is the first womanmayor in the nearly 200-year history of SanJose, a fast-growing, metropolitan community with a population of 535,000, and thefirst woman to be elected chief executive ofan American city of more than 500,000 residents. Mayor Hayes has been active in SanJose civic affairs for a number of years. Her political career began in July, 1971, when shewas elected to the city council. Two yearslater she became vice-mayor. She and herhusband, kenneth hayes, md'52, have fourchildren.RICHARD D. CRUMLEY, SM'50, PhD'56,associate professor of mathematics at IllinoisState University, was selected by theNational Education Association to conductworkshops for elementary and secondarymathematics teachers in Katmandu, Nepal,this past summer as a member of an overseasteaching corps, sponsored by the NEA andthe U.S. Agency for InternationalDevelopment.harold r. harding, ab'50, formerexecutive director of the University ofChicago Alumni Association, was awardedan honorary doctorate of humanities byYankton (S.D.) College during the school'sannual commencement convocation in May.Harding, chairman of the board of directorsof the United Church Board for HomelandMinistries and owner of his own data processing and consulting firm, Harding &Company, in Cleveland, was cited in part forhis extraordinary efforts during the year inassisting the college in meeting its financialexigencies. Harding's career spans overtwenty years in educationally-orientedadministrative capacities, and he currently43serves as director of the Yardstick Project,an educational measurement program. Heestablished a wide reputation in alumni andgift records management in the pre-computer era and was among the pioneers indesigning computer-based systems for thispurpose.Hymn lyricist harry fisher, ab'50, jd'53,will go on the road this October. Performances of his songs in conjunction withhis reading of poems are scheduled for SanQuentin Prison on the 1 1th, Mills College inOakland (Ca.) on the 12th, Palo Alto (Ca.)also on the 12th, and Marion College inIndiana on the 24th. Earlier this year Fisher,who is public relations director at Stemmler,Fisher & Associates, a St. Louis advertisingagency, appeared with other members of theSt. Louis Poetry Center for readings atCardinal Glennon College and Notre DameCollege (both in St. Louis). "Praise theProdigal Father," a rock ballad written byFisher in collaboration with Peter Westmore,was premiered April 20 at the latter school.MAURICE K. TOWNSEND, AM'50, PhD'54,vice-president for academic affairs atIndiana State University and a former lecturer in political science at UC, has beenelected president of West Georgia College,Carrollton, Ga.C| ELIASM. STEIN, ab'51, sm'53, p1id'55,•J *¦ former associate professor of mathematics at UC, has been named to the AlbertBaldwin Dod chair in mathematics atPrinceton University. Stein has been on thePrinceton faculty since 1963.JOHN a. peoples, jr., am'51, p1td'61,president of Jackson (Ms.) State University,has been named to the Southern RegionalEducation Board. His appointment, madelast fall by Mississippi Governor WilliamWaller, is effective until memoriam: Robert M. Bowman, db'51,minister of Atkinson Memorial Church,Oregon City, Or., died March 13 of a heartattack.C'J RICHARD F. SCOTT, JD'52, was-^ recently appointed legal adviser of theInternational Energy Agency, established inParis, France, last year on the initiative ofSecretary Kissinger.DOROTHY KOENIG POWERS, SM'52, waselected to a two-year term as president of theNew Jersey League of Women Voters earlierthis year.Frances muller prindle, am'52, associatedean of instruction at Seattle (Wa.) CentralCommunity College, has been designated"woman of the year" by the AmericanAssociation of Women in Community andJunior Colleges for her longstanding involvement in women's programs, particularly inthe child care field.albert madansky, ab'52, sm'55, p1td'58,professor of business administration anddirector of the Center for the Management ofPublic and Non-Profit Enterprise in theGraduate School of Business, has beenelected to the board of trustees of AnalyticServices, Inc., an independent, non-profit corporation engaged in research in the memoriam: Edward T. Gorman, am'52,Whiting, In., died March 31.C-3 philip w. arnold, ab'53, a career-'^ foreign service officer with the U.S.Information Agency, has been assigned as adeputy assistant director for Europe at USIAheadquarters in Washington. He recentlycompleted a tour as counselor for publicaffairs to the American Embassy in Vienna.william marutani, jd'53, has been namedby Pennsylvania Gov. Shapp to fill avacancy on the bench of the common pleascourt in Philadelphia. Marutani was recommended for the post by the Trial CourtNominating Commission, an agency createdby the governor to aid in the appointment ofjudges on a merit basis.lowell e. johnson, am '53, has been promoted to professor of English at St. OlafCollege, Northfield, memoriam: George E. Butler, am'53;William R. Gable, pho'53; Walter HugoReese, mba'53.M james w. vice, am'54, has left UC,where he had been assistant dean ofstudents since 1971 and lecturer in the socialsciences, to become dean of students atIllinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.Vice accepted the deanship after losing in theMay Democratic primary elections for mayorof Wabash, In. , his home town.carl sagan, ab'54, sb'55, sm'56, p1id'60,professor of astronomy and space sciencesand director of the laboratory for planetarystudies at Cornell University, has receivedDickinson College's Priestley award "for hiscontribution to the welfare of mankind."The scientist whose idea it was to place man'sfirst space message aboard the Pioneer 10spacecraft to Jupiter, Sagan is among thebest known spokesmen for exobiology, theemerging science dealing with the possibilityof extraterrestrial life and means for itsdetection. He won NASA's medal for exceptional scientific achievement in 1972 and aninternational astronautics prize in 1973 forhis studies of Mars.morris h. DeoROOT, sm'54, pIid'58,professor of mathematical statistics atCarnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, hasbeen named Pittsburgh statistician of theyear by the local chapter of the AmericanStatistical Association.C C barry targan, am'55, assistant•^ -' director of the university without wallsat Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs,N.Y., has won the coveted Iowa School ofLetters award for short fiction. Targan'sentry, a collection of fourteen short storiesentitled Harry Belten and the MendelssohnViolin Concerto, will be published inOctober by the University of Iowa Press.alvin w. long, mba'55, president ofChicago Title & Trust Company, has beenelected president of the board of trustees ofthe Illinois Children's Home & Aid Society.daniel h. perlman, ab'55, am'56, PhD'71, dean of administrative services at RooseveltUniversity, Chicago, spent the summer as aneducational consultant in the Philippinesunder a Fulbright grant.C/T john brogan, ab'56, directs seminars•'" in business and technical writingthrough his San Francisco firm, ClearWriting Seminars. He also leads seminars forthe University of California Extension. He isthe author of the self-teaching text, ClearTechnical Writing (McGraw-Hill, 1973),and of many articles in journals for technicaland industrial communications.mark hale, phr>'56, professor of socialwork at the University of Illinois, resigned,effective August 20, as director of the JaneAddams school of social work and hasreturned to teaching and consulting onspecial projects for the SUZANNE vtetorisz klinghammer,-' ' ab'57, writes that she enrolled in lawschool after her daughter started school,earned her J.D. degree from Indiana University (Indianapolis) Law School lastJanuary, passed the state bar exam inFebruary, and has opened an office for thepractice of law in Lafayette, In. She continues as officer and business manager of theNorth American Wildlife Park Foundationwhich, among other things, is presently engaged in research on wolves. Over the pastfew years she has also been involved in theproduction of the English edition ofGrzimek 's A nimal Life Encyclopedia ofwhich her husband, erich klinghammer,ab'58, p1id'62, a Purdue University facultymember, was scientific editor of the Englishtranslation.samuel h. rubin, sm'57, professor ofmedicine at New York Medical College, wasnamed earlier this year to the additionalposts of dean and vice-president for academic affairs.nathan hare, am'57, phr>'62, has resignedas publisher of The Black Scholar andsevered all connections with that publication.This summer he received a second doctorate,this time in clinical psychology, withemphasis on psychotherapy, at theCalifornia School of ProfessionalPsychology. In a farewell editorial Mr. Harenoted: "I have had the rare opportunity towatch firsthand a 'black Marxist' takeoverand seizure of an organization, in this caseThe Black Scholar." His decision to resignafter six years with the publication wasmade, Mr. Hare notes, "with gnawingsadness, but also with resolute satisfactionthat in doing so at this crucial time in ourhistory I may contribute my part to preventing the black movement from making anuntimely mistake and getting sidetracked andfurther decimated for perhaps anothergeneration." His new career, he notes, willcombine sociology and psychotherapy as"instruments for the understanding andinterpretation of the black condition."in memoriam: Donald J. O'Brien, ab'57,Alexandria, Va., staff geographer with theBureau of the Census, drowned June 8 while44swimming in Costa Rica where he was onshort-term assignment as an adviser to theCosta Rican government on its nationalcartographic survey program.CO john e. crow, am'58, associate pro-•^ O fessor of political science at the University of Arizona, has been elected to theexecutive council of the Western PoliticalScience Association.rachel weddington, p1ld'58, GreatNeck, N.Y., has been appointed universitydean for teacher education at the CityUniversity of New York.jean lidstone bolley, am'58, is nowdirector of the Early Childhood Development Center, Evanston, II.CQ GEORGE UNVERZAGT, JD'59, Was•) ¦* elected chief justice of the DuPageCounty (II.) 18th circuit judicial court earlierthis year. Unverzagt, who has been a judgefor five years, was the unanimous choice ofhis six bench colleagues.h. w. Baldwin, pIid'59, has beenappointed to a five-year term as assistantprovost and university research officer at theUniversity of Western Ontario, London,Ont.CjT\ mark m. krug, pho'60, whose article*•""' on "The Defamation of AmericanPoles" recently appeared in these pages,delivered a paper earlier this year to membersof the history department and the college ofeducation at San Diego (Ca.) State University on "The New Ethnicity — A SocialMovement or a Romantic Aberration."Krug, who is a professor in the GraduateSchool of Education at the University ofChicago, has been appointed chairman of thecommittee on the study of history in schoolsand colleges of the Organization ofAmerican Historians.martha e. church, phr>'60, took officeAugust 1 as president of Hood College,Frederick, Md. She is the first woman everchosen to that post.john bellairs, am'60, Haverhill, Ma.,reporting on his activities since leaving theMidway, writes that he is now an author ofchildren's books. His first, The House with aClock in Its Walls (Dial, 1973), illustrated byEdward Gorey, was included in the NewYork Times list of outstanding books of thatyear. His second, a sequel to the first, TheFigure in the Shadows, was published earlierthis year. Bellairs is also the author of threeadult books, all published by Macmillan: St.Fidgeta and Other Parodies (1966), ThePedant and the Shuffly (1968), and The Facein the Frost (1969).in memoriam: Roy Hilton Campbell,mba'60, died April 27.C\ CHARLES R. CONNELL, AM'61, AM'64,0 1 phD'73, assistant professor of Germanat Cornell College, Mount Vernon, la., received a Fulbright fellowship this pastsummer to attend a seven-week seminar inWest Germany on contemporary Germansociety. SUSAN FROMBERGSCHAEFFER, AB'61, AM'63,phD'66, associate professor of English atBrooklyn (N.Y.) College has won the Hartford Jewish Community Center's annualEdward Lewis Wallant memorial bookaward for her latest novel, Anya(Macmillan).stasys k. rudys, sb'61, has been awardeda doctorate in chemistry by the University ofIowa.CS} MARGARET E. HARTFORD, PhD'62,"*•* visiting professor of social work at theUniversity of Southern California on leavefrom Case Western Reserve University(Cleveland), has been appointed associatedean of USC's Leonard Davis school of gerontology which opens this fall. She will holdthe academic titles of professor of gerontology and professor in the school ofsocial work.mary anne krupsak, jd'62, lieutenantgovernor of New York, was made anhonorary doctor of letters last spring atClarkson College, Potsdam, N.Y.Peasant Society in Konku, a new book bybrenda e. f. beck, ab'62, assistant professorof anthropology at the University of BritishColumbia, is an ethnographical study of anarea in south India where the caste system isstill somewhat operational (University ofBritish Columbia Press, $16.50).john Stafford weeks, phD'62, has beenappointed dean of the college at Monmouth(II.) College.C/\ ARLENE KIERAS CORDEK, AB'63,"3 wishes to announce her affiliation as asales associate with Century 21 -MitchellBros., Realtors, of Evanston, II.rex edwin lee, jd'63, dean and associateprofessor in the college of law, BrighamYoung University (Provo, Ut.), received aPresidential appointment last spring as assistant U.S. attorney general to head the JusticeDepartment's civil division.Sister miriam patrock cooney, csc,sm'63, phD'69, professor and chairman ofthe mathematics department, has been citedfor excellent teaching by St. Mary's College,Notre Dame, In.Stanley h. block, ab'63, an allergist, hasopened an office for the practice of hisspecialty in Boston, Ma. Dr. Block is agraduate of Yale medical school.CA CHESTER C MCGUIRE, MBA'64, pho'74,*y^ Berkeley, Ca., advises us that he waselected last fall to the board of the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District.Arthur s. dover, sb'64, sm'65, has beennamed assistant professor of pediatrics at theUniversidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia,where he has been working as a researchassociate for the International Center forMedical Research and Training. Dr. Dover,who was recently certified by the AmericanBoard of Pediatrics, lives in Cali with hiswife and two young daughters.VIVIAN ricks wolf, am'64, p1ld'69,recipient of an American Council on Education fellowship in academic administration, begins a nine-month internship this fall in theoffice of the vice-president for academicaffairs and provost, University of Washington. A member of the UW faculty since 1 969,she is currently associate professor ofphysiological nursing.c. Frederick fox, pho'64, professor ofmolecular biology in the department of bacteriology at UCLA and a former member ofthe biochemistry faculty at Chicago, wasawarded an honorary doctor of sciencedegree last fall by Wittenberg University,Springfield, Oh.carl f. hazelbauer, mba'64, WesternSprings, II., has retired from Johnson &Johnson after a distinguished career with thecompany covering four decades. Hazelbauerhas been manager of community and publicrelations of the company's Chicago areaoperations for the past nine years.JEAN PADBERG MILLER SCHMIDT, AM'64,pho'69, assistant professor of modernchurch history at Iliff School of Theology(Denver) since June 1 , is the first woman everelected to the school's full-time faculty.CC ROBERT HASSENGER, PhD '65, has"*^ been named associate dean at theBuffalo regional learning center of EmpireState College, the non-residential, experimental unit within the State University ofNew York. Hassenger, who held the post inan acting capacity during the 1974-'75academic year, has been an associate professor in the SUNY system for three years.His book, The Shape of Catholic HigherEducation, was published by the Universityof Chicago Press in 1967.JOE TAYLOR ford, ab'65, mba'66, has wonthe first John T. Kelley memorial playwritingaward for his play, The Ruins Are Inhabited.The world premiere of the prize- winningdrama was held in February at Theatre East,Studio City, Ca. Ford, also the author of amusical fantasy, Peter Glynn, and a multimedia drama, Hitler, currently lives memoriam: Judith Magidson Herman,ab'65, director of research and planning ofthe American Jewish Committee's Instituteon Pluralism and Group Identity, died May20 in New York of cancer. She was 30 yearsold.C.C A couple of years ago, equipped with a"" fleet of four bicycles and some edibleideas, wes claridge, ab'66, set forth on aunique business venture in Portland, Or.Called Bicycle Boy, the company deliverssandwiches by bicycle. The initial investmentwas less than $3,000 but, according to a storyin a Portland newspaper, costs have become"dazzling," even though the company is nowat the break-even point. Today, there are stillfour bicycles, but three motorcycles and onepickup have been added, and on the bestdays as many as 400 sandwiches have beendelivered. Once a railroad dining car brokedown and Claridge got an order for 80 to 100sandwiches, delivered on the track as thetrain went through. Locally the largest orderhas been for 50 sandwiches; the average is for45three. Recently Claridge added a lunch loftto his Bicycle Boy operation in which customers can come to the sandwiches. Therestaurant offers the popular Bicycle Boysandwiches, which are still available bydelivery, plus some hot specialties liketoasted Reuben and homemade soup in apleasant setting overlooking 9th Street inPortland.jewel naxon klein, jd'66, Chicagoattorney who was named legal counsel forthe Illinois Racing Board earlier this year, isthe first woman to fill that post since horseracing was legalized in the state in 1926 and,according to veteran turf observers, is believed to be the only woman representing aracing commission anywhere in the UnitedStates. Ms. Klein was in private law practiceprior to her appointment and is a two-yearveteran of the Peace Corps.robin lester, mat'66, pho'74, formerlychairman of history and social sciences at theCollegiate School, became headmaster of theTrinity School, New York, in August.Trinity, with an enrolment of 750 students, ismale from kindergarten to eighth grade andcoeducational at the high school level.KENNETH E. NAYLOR, PhD'66, who Wasrecently promoted to professor of Slaviclanguages and literatures at the Ohio StateUniversity, reports that in 1974 he wasawarded a grant from the ACLS-SSRC JointCommittee on East European Studies to conduct research on the history of the Croatianliterary languages in the 19th century andwas elected to a four-year term as editor ofBalkanistica: Occasional Papers in SoutheastEuropean Studies, the periodical of theAmerican Association for South SlavicStudies. He attended one internationalmeeting this past August, the Conference onBalkan Problems sponsored by the University of Skopje of Ohrid, Yugoslavia, and hasbeen invited to a symposium on the 150thanniversary of the birth of Djura Danicic, tobe held this September in Belgrade.CH Two Chicago alumni have been desig-f ' nated affiliated investigators of the Illinois Cooperative Health InformationSystem, recently funded by the Illinois Regional Medical Program. They are john d.denne, mba'67, project director of the healthinformation access program component ofICHIS (at the center for the study of patientcare and community health, school of publichealth, University of Illinois), and pierrede vise, am'58, project director of theChicago regional hospital study, college ofurban sciences, University of Illinois.Denne's report, Age, Death, Doctors, andHospitals: A Health Ranking of Chicago's76 Community Areas, has recently been published by the center for the study of patientcare and community health. Alumniinterested in securing a copy of the reportshould write to Denne at the School of PublicHealth, University of Illinois at the MedicalCenter, P.O. Box 6998, Chicago, II. 60680.june carter perry, am'67, Potomac,Md., community affairs director for WGMS-AM/FM radio, Washington, has received a black achiever award from the HarlemBranch YMCA, New York.karen drigot stone, ab'67, was namedby the University earlier this year as regionalrepresentative for the Alumni Fund in LosAngeles.martha saxton, ab'67, has written JayneMansfield and the American Fifties (Boston:Houghton Mifflin Co., 1975), her first book.The biography explores the thesis that theactress was a creature of the old, unliberated,double-standard '50s, who was passe and lostas the liberated '60s made her status as a sexsymbol somewhat superfluous.bryan e. kohler, pItd'67, has joined thefaculty of Wesleyan University, Middletown,Ct., as associate professor of chemistry.peter wallis stevens, am '67, has beennamed headmaster of the American Schoolin Switzerland. Stevens, who served with thePeace Corps in Malaysia from 1967 to 1970,was most recently a dean and English teacherat the Loomis-Chaffee School, Windsor, Ct.MICHAEL S. MCPHERSON, AB'67, AM70,joined the faculty of Williams College(Williamstown, Ma.) last fall on a three-yearappointment as assistant professor ofeconomics.CO JOAN TAPPER SIEGEL, AB'68, has'-'O been made an editor at New RepublicBooks, Washington, a new publishingventure of the New Republic.ROBERT M. fearn, pho'68, Raleigh, N. C,has been promoted to professor ofeconomics at North Carolina StateUniversity.jud lawrie, mba'68, is currently servingthe Chicago Transit Authority as director ofresearch.judith pick eissner, am'68, Marblehead,Ma., has been elected to a four-year term onthe board of trustees of Skidmore College,Saratoga Springs, N.Y.bruce Gardner, pIld'68, has taken asabbatical from the North Carolina StateUniversity faculty in order to assume the postof senior staff economist on the President'sCouncil of Economic Advisors, Washington.janet roede ashcroft, jd'68, was namedgeneral counsel for the Missouri StateRevenue Department earlier this memoriam: Richard Curtis Loft, ab'68,died December 14, 1974, in Seattle ofleukemia. Mr. Loft was with the U.S. CivilService at Fort Lewis, Wa., until his disability retirement in October, 1974. His survivors include a brother, John D. Loft, agraduate student in the social sciences at UC.CQk MARIA HERMINIA BOARI NAON, AM'69,"^ has been promoted by the ChicagoBoard of Education to bilingual staffassistant of government funded programs inArea A of the city. Naon, a native of Argentina, had been a teacher in the bilingualcenter of W. K. Sullivan elementary school.martin burlingame, pIid'69, has joinedthe faculty of the University of Illinois atChampaign-Urbana as professor and chairperson, department of administration,higher and continuing education, college of Opposite: The Honorable Reunion Paradecrosses the campus. Inset: Julian Jackson,president of the Alumni Association, donneda colorful caftan for the j. kuster, mba'69, previouslygeneral manager, Europe, for McCulloch, aLos Angeles based real estate and development company, has joined the ShakleeBenelux Services Corporation B. V. asmanaging director for Holland, Belgium,Luxembourg and Denmark. Kuster is headquartered in the firm's Amstelveen, Holland,offices.j. p. roos, am'69, has been appointedassistant professor in social policy at theUniversity of Joensuu,\ vicki anderson day, mat'70, reports' *J that after serving as chairperson of theart department at Martin Luther King HighSchool in Chicago, she was employed as anadult interracial educator at Sangamon StateUniversity in Springfield, II. She is one of thefounders of the Black Women's Coalition ofSpringfield, a social action organization, andhas been active in the American Associationof University Women.BARBARA curcic, ab'70, mat'71 , and JOHNl. freeouf, pIid'73, were married June 28 inChicago.governor tipton, jr., ab'70, graduatedlast spring from Columbia University schoolof law.LAURENCE L. EDWARDS, AB'70, Wasordained a rabbi earlier this year at HebrewUnion College- Jewish Institute of Religion,New York, and has accepted a position asassociate chaplain and director of the B'naiB'rith Hillel foundation at DartmouthCollege.donald c. johanson, am'70, pho'74, theCase Western Reserve University assistantprofessor whose unparalleled finds in Ethiopia may force a rethinking of evolutionarytheories, returned stateside earlier this yearwith the oldest and most complete skeleton of an early human ever found. "Lucy,"as Johanson calls his expedition's discovery,will remain for a total of five years at theCleveland Museum of Natural History —hidden in a safe except when Johanson isstudying her or showing her off. The bones,about seventy-five of them, represent 40"% ofthe skeleton of a female who was between 18and 20 years old and a little more than threefeet tall. "Never before has anyone foundsuch a complete skeleton of such antiquityanywhere in the world," said Johanson in aCleveland Plain Dealer interview. "Lucy' 'will eventually be returned to Ethiopia,where she had been buried more than threemillion years before Johanson discovered herlate last year in the Afar region of thecountry. The seventeen-member international expedition, which he led jointly withFrench geologist Maurice Taieb, has uncovered older and more extensive fossils ofearly man than were found by the famousBritish archeologist, the late Louis S. B.46fdJ^i^Leakey and his family. The newly foundbones support the concept that australopith-ecus, at one time thought to have been anancestor of modern man, may instead havelived at the same time as "homo," the firstof our own genus. "It means man could havebeen more modern earlier than we everthought before," said Johanson. His findsare not the oldest hominids. A jaw fragmentfound in Kenya is 5,500,000 years old.MARGARET BURKE LEE, AM'70, a doctoralcandidate in English at the University, wasone of twenty-nine graduate students in theU.S. to win a Woodrow Wilson FellowshipFoundation dissertation fellowship inwomen's studies. Ms. Lee's subject:"Marriage, Divorce, and the Turn of theNovel: A Study in Cultural Change andLiterary Form."allan B. fox, p1ld'70, has resigned fromthe department of English, University ofCincinnati, to take a position as an insuranceagent with Massachusetts Mutual Life,Cincinnati.n 1 AMY ROSENBERG, ab'71, who is "alive' *¦ and well and back in the U. S. A. afterthree years at the University of London,England, for which I received a diploma inthe conservation of archeological material,"reports she is now assistant curator in conservation at the Kelsey museum of ancientand medieval archeology at the University ofMichigan.Leonard a. zax, ab'71, graduated fromHarvard law school in June, having earned amaster of city planning degree along with thedoctorate of law. He served as a tutor andpre-law adviser in Radcliffe's South Houseand taught an undergraduate seminar inurban law and policy. Now in Washington,he is special assistant to the general counsel,U.S. Department of Housing and UrbanDevelopment.william luebke, sm'71, who last fallbecame Modesto (Ca.) Junior College's firstfull-time astronomy instructor, will be rounding out the school's astronomycurriculum this fall by teaching a telescopemaking class. "Astronomy's cultural as wellas scientific impact is the thread runningthrough all my classes," writes Luebke."Since everyone seems to be interested inastronomy, my classes are never empty." Hiscolumn on astronomy in the city newspaperhas been so successful as to embolden theAstronomical Society of the Pacific to try tosyndicate a regular column on astronomy.Luebke and his wife, Margaret fluvog,am'71, have one young child, Eric.donna osterhoudt schaper and Robertschaper, both am'71 , have moved fromTucson, Az., to Philadelphia where Robertwill enter the University of Pennsylvaniaschool of veterinary medicine and Donnawill become associate pastor at TabernacleChurch in West Philadelphia. While inTucson, Donna was associate pastor of theFirst Congregational Church and Robertcompleted his master's degree in entomologyat the University of Arizona.ronnie singer chern, am'71, writingfrom Hong Kong, advises us that she isteaching English at the Hong Kong International School and her husband, kenneths. chern, am'69, pho'74, is teaching in thehistory department of the University ofHong Kong.*]*} s. salman nadvi, pIld'72, advises us' ** that he is currently professor andchairman of the department of Islamicstudies at the University of Durban-Westville, Durban, Republic of SouthAfrica.nancy stanton, pIid'72, professor ofzoology and physiology at the University ofWyoming, is studying bee and flower interrelationships on a $20,000 National ScienceFoundation memoriam: Melvin Harold T. Cole,md'72, a resident psychiatrist at the YaleUniversity medical center, died April 13 frominjuries sustained in an auto accident near New Haven.n'J martin e. hscher, am '73, has been' ^ named editor of three weekly community newspapers distributed by News-Journal- World publications in West andNorthwest side neighborhoods in Chicago.Fischer, who previously worked as a newsreporter for the papers, now edits theNorthwest Journal, the Austin News and theMont Clare-Galewood News-Journal.HA ben t. henry, am '74, Evanston,' " has been appointed executive directorof Hephzibah Children's Association, a children's social service agency in Oak Park, II.Prior to his appointment he served as actingdirector for Methodist Youth Services inChicago and worked for the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services.j. p. shender, ab'74, directed the University of Chicago Theatre group earlier thisyear in the premiere production of his work,Metaphenalia, a multi-media affair involvingsight, sound and poetry.richard f. buckley, jd'74, and his fatherhave formed a partnership for the generalpractice of law in Springfield, Ma.graham pyke, phr>'74, spent two summerschasing bumblebees through Rocky Mountain meadows. Pyke, who began his beeresearch while a graduate student at UC,found that the large insects have "ongoingtendencies" and hold to a relatively straightcourse most of the time. He did field work inCosta Rica and Panama, but had never seena bumblebee. So he went to Colorado andbegan to chart bumblebee movementsthrough thickly flowered mountainmeadows. His technique was to select a particular bee, then track it until he lost the beeor had to stop and log his mental notes.When the flowers were fairly far apart, hefound that he could release a bee at a givenpoint and rush ahead to the bee's arrivalpoint, anticipating where the bee would go inits feeding route.47