p I libUNIVERSITYfOF CHICAGO"MAGAZINETHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOFOUNDED BY JOHN D. ROCKEFELLERJanuary 23, 1975To the Alumni of the University:As many of you will know already, a committee of Trustees andFaculty has been formed to consider selection of a new President ofthe University. Seven Trustees are included and the Faculty hasnow elected seven of its own members, with seven alternates, to meetwith the Trustees. This is a customary procedure when a newpresident has to be chosen.We started this process last November. During the summer, theTrustees had asked Edward Levi to agree to remain on as Presidentbeyond the usual retirement age of 65. He gave this long and carefulconsideration and then said he thought he should not. We did askhim to reconsider and he did that, but again decided that he shouldretire as President at the age of 65 and informed us that he wouldleave office in September, 1976. He has been appointed to the ArthurGoodhart chair in jurisprudence at Cambridge for the academic year1976-77. He has just been appointed Karl Llewellyn DistinguishedService Professor in the Law School. We hope that he will be at TheUniversity of Chicago for many years, of course. Throughout thecountry, he is recognized now as the best president of a university;so he has brought great honor to your University.In any case, it was necessary to begin the process of deliberation - even before the President of the United States decided tosubmit Edward's name in nomination as Attorney General.It has been the experience of the Trustees and Faculty in thepast, when presidents have been chosen, that often alumni want toexpress interest or give suggestions and that many of these have beenvery valuable.If any alumnus or alumna of the University wants to communicatewith the committee now, your letters will be welcome, and they will becarefully considered. We want to study every possible candidate, torecruit the very best President for The University of Chicago. Sincethere may be many of these communications, they should be in writingand they can be sent to:The Chairman, The Board of TrusteesThe University of ChicagoRoom 6055801 South Ellis AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637Obviously, this is an important time for the University and thecommittee of Trustees and Faculty has some very difficult and mostimportant work. Your suggestions will be welcome, and your support isneeded.Yours sincerely,THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEThe energy problem can be solved!Henry A. KissingerThe new diplomacy of movement: a caveatHans J. MorgenthauIs mathematics relevant? And, if so, to what?Felix E. Browder 11The magic hexagonMartin Gardner 16Are we, too, to 'decline and fall'?George F. W. Young 17A near miss in chess 22China: excerpts from a historian's journalPhilip A. Kuhn 24Phyllis' chronology, a poemPhyllis Mattingly 30Nelson Norgren: 'He loved the game and his Alma Mater' 37One doctor's dreamGeorge Colburn 404 Quadrangle news 36 Alumni newscover: Ed Friedman concentrates on his next move in the Pan-American collegiatechess tournament. Story on Page 22.picture credits: Pages I, 22, 23, D. Morris; Page 4, United Press International; Page5, Theresa Marousek; Page 7, Dan De Hainut, MIT Technique; Page 8, James Biery;Page 24, Arthur Kelman; Page 29, Courtesy Philip Kuhn; Page 41, Mark Griffiths. The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312)753-2175Julian J. Jackson, PhB'31 , PresidentArthur Nayer, Director, Alumni AffairsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorKristen Nelson, Program DirectorRegional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91 201(213)242-8288825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030New York, New York 10022(212)688-73551000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415)928-0337735 South Fairfax StreetAlexandria, Va. 22314(703) 549-3800Volume LXVIISpring, 1975 Number 3The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published four times peryear for alumni and the faculty of The University of Chicago, under the auspices of theOffice of the Vice President for PublicAffairs. Letters and editorial contributionsare welcomed.Don Morris, AB'36EditorJennie LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois, and at additional mailing offices.Copyright 1975, The University of Chicago.Published quarterly.Quadrangle V\(ewsMr. Levi goes to WashingtonChicago's first alumnus presidentbecomes Attorney GeneralEdward Hirsch Levi (phn'32, id'35), theeighth president of the University and thefirst alumnus to hold that post, has left theUniversity, appointed by President Ford tobecome Attorney General of the UnitedStates. He is the first alumnus to hold aCabinet-rank government position sincePeter G. Peterson (mba'51) left the Department of Commerce. Like Mr. Peterson, whois a trustee, Mr. Levi is not severing his connections with the University; he has been appointed Karl Llewellyn distinguished serviceprofessor in the Law School.Of the University's eight presidents, Mr.Levi was the second whose field was the law(the other: Robert M. Hutchins). PresidentHarper was a hebraicist, President J udson ahistorian, President Burton a New Testamentscholar. President Mason a physicist andmathematician. President Kimpton a philosopher, and President Beadle a geneticist.(Their degrees represented a broad educational spectrum, including Cornell,Gottingen, Muskingum, Nebraska, Stanford, Wisconsin and Yale.)Mr. Levi is not a stranger at the Department of J ustice. In one of the rare hiatuses inhis career on the quadrangles he served asspecial assistant to the Attorney Generalfrom 1940 to 1945, a portion of that stint asfirst assistant to Thurman Arnold in the antitrust division.Beyond that, however, his credentials as alegal scholar are imposing. HteAn Introduction to Legal Reasoning, for example, is regarded as a classic. On a more practical level,he was a principal draftsman of the Mc-Mahon Atomic Energy Control Law of 1946,which provided the basis for the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission andwhich, as this publication once reported. "was virtually written in the basement of theUniversity's old Law School building."Mr. Levi had planned to retire from thepresidency of the University in 1976; he hadaccepted a year's appointment to lecture onthe law at Cambridge University in 1976-'77. But in December President Ford indicated that he planned to name Mr. Levi tosucceed William Saxbe at Justice. Initiallythere was a little resistance to the proposedappointment, some of it, according to thenewspapers, coming, ironically, from Sen.Roman Hruska (x'28). But Mr. Ford calledMr. Levi to Washington, and any hint ofserious opposition melted away. (JohnGunther [p1ib'22] once wrote that "EdwardLevi . . . is one of the most persuasive menalive.")With Mr. Levi's return to the Justice Department, the bow tie, long his sartorialtrademark, will have come full circle. The in spiration for his adoption of this perky styleof neckwear reportedly was former SupremeCourt Associate Justice Tom Clark (himselfat one time U.S. Attorney General), who wasan aficionado of this jaunty style of neckwear.Clifton R. Wharton (am'56, phD'58), president of Michigan State University,remarked to the magazine one time that thepresident of a university confronts such acomplex array of problems that it isimpossible for him to find much understanding of his activity even among his bestfriends. About the only company in which hecan feel he is really understood, Mr. Wharton said, is the company of other universitypresidents.If Edward Levi feels this way, he is fortunate in one way, since, in departing to become Attorney General, he becomes one of aPresident Levi prepares to testify before the Senate judiciary committee's hearing on hisconfirmation as A ttorney General. With him is Senator Charles Percy (ab '41), who sponsoredMr. Levi; Mr. Percy is a trustee of the University.To brighten the otherwise drab fence which surrounds the construction site of the Surgery-Brain Research Pavilion now going up between Billings Hospital and Abbott Hall, studentsenrolled in Fine Arts 201 painted a series of murals. The one above, by Barbara Harms,represents a trio of chromatids (constituent strands of chromosomes) in blue and green,performing a "danceof life," which, in the view of Christina Madej, a graduate student in arthistory and a Billings employee, is reminiscent of the work of Henri Matisse. The entireproject was under the leadership of Harold Haydon (phB'30, am'31), professor in theDepartment of Art and director of Midway Studios.foursome of living former presidents of theUniversity of Chicago. (They are, however, asomewhat scattered group, since Mr.Hutchins is in California, Mr. Kimpton inFlorida, Mr. Levi in Washington, and onlyMr. Beadle still resident in Hyde Park.)Suffice it to say that the presidency of acorporate university is a large task, andEdward Levi handled it well. The Maroon,after asserting its belief that he " has the po -tential for becoming an excellent AttorneyGeneral because of his commitment to therule of law , " referred to him w istf ully as " inaccessible," though he had been accessible toMaroon reporters upon innumerableoccasions.That he has been quiet, witty, thoughtful,capable, conscientious, and effective is theconsensus on the Midway. Alumni can beproud that the first president they have contributed to their University departs with arecord of great achievement as he enters animportant new sphere which will be scarcelyless challenging.Campaign is on scheduleThe four most vital activities in progress onthe Midway this spring are (1) education, (2)research, (3) the quest for the ninth presidentof the University, to succeed Edward H.Levi, and (4) Phase 2 of the Campaign forChicago.Education and research, of course, areperennial (though perpetually changing). Thequest for a new president is dealt with elsewhere in these pages.The least visible of the four, but by nomeans the least important, is the campaign,which, in the first of its projected three years,has succeeded to the extent of more than$82,000,000— of its over-all goal of$280,000,000. All of the University's con-stitutencies — alumni and other individuals,foundations, corporations, associations,and, importantly, the trustees— are represented in the amount.Nearing one-third of the goal, the two-thirds of the campaign's projected time spanahead, the effort was described by D. J. R.Bruckner, vice-president for public affairs,as "pretty well on schedule." The$198,000,000 mountain, of course, stilllooms.Search for a new PresidentGaylord Donnelley, chairman of the boardof trustees, has announced the election of acommittee of seven trustees to select a new president of the University to succeed Edward H. Levi. In addition, Mr. Donnelleysaid , Glen A . Lloyd ( jd' 23) , life trustee andformer chairman of the board, has agreed tomeet and consult with the committee.Meanwhile a seven-member committee(plus seven alternates) has been elected by thecouncil of the University Senate; this groupwill consult with the trustees committee inthe course of the selection process. Alumniare represented in each group.The members of the trustees committee are:A. Robert Abboud, deputy chairman ofthe board of the First National Bank ofChicago;Katharine Graham (ab'38), chairman ofthe board of the Washington Post Company;Ben W. Heineman, president of NorthwestIndustries, Inc.;George A. Ranney, vice chairman of theInland Steel Company;Robert W. Reneker (phB'34), presidentand chief executive officer of Esmark, Inc.;Hermon Dunlap Smith, president of the Field Foundation of Illinois, Inc.;Gaylord Donnelley, chairman of the boardof R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company.The faculty committee:John Hope Franklin, the John MatthewsManly distinguished service professor in theDepartment of History;Dr. Charles E. Oxnard, dean of the College and professor in the Departments ofAnatomy, Anthropology, and theCommittee on Evolutionary Biology;Philip B. Kurland, the William R. Kenan,Jr., professor in the College and professor inthe Law School;John E. Jeuck (ab'37, mba'38, phPD'49),the Robert Law professor in the GraduateSchool of Business;Erica Reiner (phD'55), the John A. Wilsonprofessor in the Oriental Institute and in theDepartments of Near Eastern Languages andCivilizations and Linguistics;Norman H. Nachtrieb (sb'36, ph.D'41),master of the Physical Sciences CollegiateDivision, associate dean of the College, andprofessor in the Department of Chemistry;5Norman M. Bradburn (ab'52), professorand chairman of the Department ofBehavioral Sciences and professor in theGraduate School of Business and in theCollege.The faculty alternates:Stuart M. Tave, the William Rainey Harper professor in the College and professorand chairman of the Department of English;Harold A. Richman (am'61, p1id'69), professor and dean of the School of Social Service Administration;Saunders Mac Lane, the Max Mason distinguished service professor in the Department of Mathematics, Committee on theConceptual Foundations of Science, Committee on Ideas and Methods and in theCollege;Susanne H. Rudolph, master and professor in the Social Sciences Collegiate Division, associate dean of the College and theDivision of the Social Sciences, and professor in the Department of Political Science;James M. Gustafson (db'51), Universityprofessor in the Divinity School;Dr. Jarl E. Dyrud, professor and directorof clinical services in the Department ofPsychiatry;Gerhard Casper, professor in the LawSchool and in the Department of PoliticalScience.Wilson named acting presidentJohn T. Wilson, provost of the Universitysince 1 969, has been named acting president,following the resignation of Edward Levi, thenew Attorney General. (Mr. Levi has beendesignated president emeritus.)Mr. Wilson's undergraduate work was atGeorge Washington University and hisgraduate degrees from the State University ofIowa and Stanford. In 1961 he left theNational Science Foundation, whither he hadgone following service in military and navaltraining and a stint at the American Psychological Association, to come to Chicago asspecial assistant to President Beadle and asprofessor of psychology. He returned to NSFas deputy director in 1963, and then, again, tothe University, as vice-president and dean ofthe faculties, in 1968.Theft, books, tapes, and OromoIt hasn't been a quiet season on the quadrangles. In addition to everything else, theOriental Institute fell prey to the relaxedrules on possession of gold when thievesmade off with several Syrian-Hittite artifactsdating back more than 3,400 years. It was a blow to the Institute, though it was by nomeans as bad as the newspapers reported it;press accounts put the loss at $500,000,though the objects were bought for $8,000,and their current value is not a lot more thanthat.That hardy perennial, the University ofChicago bookstore, yielded up part of itsoperation to a new setup under which StuartBrent, a Chicago bookseller, will run (andexpand) it as a private contractor to theUniversity. Mr. Brent will continue to ownand operate his Michigan Avenue bookshop,and University personnel will continue tohandle the textbook and service operationsof the store, located in what for many yearswas the University of Chicago Pressbuilding.Meanwhile the Press, which last falllaunched a new quarterly called CriticalInquiry, last winter published its first cookbook, The Hows and Whys of FrenchCooking by Alma Lach (whose husband,Donald F., is Bernadotte E. Schmittprofessor of history). Now that springapproaches, the Press is out with a series ofsix tape cassettes, called University ofChicago Medical Reviews, designed to helpthe practicing physician keep current withdevelopments in medicine. The discussionsare moderated by Dr. Richard Landau, andeach features a faculty expert from theUniversity of Chicago Hospitals and Clinics.The cassettes ($8.50 each from the orderdepartment of the University of ChicagoPress, 11030 S. Langley Av., Chicago, II.60628) cover: diabetes mellitus (Dr. ArthurH. Rubenstein), essential hypertension (Dr.Suzanne Oparil), treatment of bronchialasthma (Dr. Nicholas Gross), managementof lymphomas (Dr. John E. Ultmann), treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (Dr. Daniel J.Upshaken by the phenomenon of severalhundred twittering sparrows, which regularlycongregate in a small tree in front of International House, a student posted this whimsical notice. The birds' response has beennoisy, but difficult to interpret. McCarty), and evaluation and managementof patients with chronic active hepatitis (Dr.James L. Boyer).The apartment buildings in Hyde Parkkeep converting to condominia, and therecycling center operated by the Hyde Park-Kenwood Community Conference seeks newquarters after being expelled from theparking lot of the Hyde Park ShoppingCenter.The Department of Linguistics, scarcely abelligerent constituent of the University, hasacurious affinity for violence. The departmentsent a scholar to Israel in the early summer of1 967— and war broke out . This year Gene B.Gragg (phD '66), a professor in the departmentwent to Ethiopia to work on a dictionary ofthe Oromo language (spoken in the southernportion of the country), and, sparked by anindependence movement in Eritrea, warbroke out.When last heard from, Mr. Gragg was inAddis Ababa, where the Ethiopian army wasin complete control. Meanwhile his studies ofOromo, a Cushitic language (one of eightytongues in Ethiopia) are continuing. A Sumer-ologist, Mr. Gragg, in addition to his post inthe Department of Linguistics, is associateprofessor in the Department of Near EasternLanguages and in the Oriental Institute and isdirector of the College linguistics program.Besides his knowledge of Oromo, which heis engaged in improving, he also has athorough reading familiarity with Amharicand Ge'ez, two other Ethiopian languages,the latter a "dead" language, similar in use toLatin in the West.The extended quadranglesVastly more remote than Ethiopia is theplanet Mercury, which in March is to receivea third visit from Mariner 10 (part of whoseload consists of University of Chicago apparatus for the measurement of high energyradiation). Mariner 10's initial visit was aclose pass last year which produced somepuzzling data. A second encounter last fallwas at too great a distance to furnish muchadditional useful information.Even farther out, David Schramm,associate professor in the Department ofAstronomy and Astrophysics, has, with coauthors of a current report, taken his standon the side of the infinite universe theory,basing his views in part on the relative abundance of deuterium in space. It would take ahigher-density universe (with proportionatelymore He') to recondense after reaching finitelimits, he believes.6. w(muiAili^H®h &*XChicago 's women basketball players journeyed east to participate in the MIT Invitational January 31 and February 1. The luck of the drawpitted them against Brown, the eventual winner, in the opening game, and the Maroons lost 59-38. In their second game they fell before MIT43-35 — altogether a disappointing showing. Chicago, however, salvaged the honor of playing host to next year's tournament. Havingundergone their baptism in tournament play, the Maroons are looking forward to an improved performance in 1976.KudosRichard N. Rosett, who had been chairmanof the economics department at the University of Rochester, was named dean of theUniversity's Graduate School of Businesslast fall, succeeding Sidney Davidson, whobecame dean in 1969, when George Shultzresigned to become Secretary of Labor. Onleave at the Center for Advanced Study in theBehavioral Sciences in California throughthe current academic year, Mr. Davidson willreturn to the Midway this fall. Mr. Rosett,whose degrees are from Columbia and Yale,is a specialist in econometrics and in land useand health care economics.Walter J. Blum (ab'39, jd'41), a memberof the Law School faculty since 1946, hasbeen named to the newly established Wilson-Dickinson professorship of law. The chair isthe second in the Law School supported bythe John P. Wilson Memorial Fund, namedfor the founder of Wilson and Mclllvaine, Chicago law firm. The new chair honors thememory of the elder Mr. Wilson's son anddaughter.Flint Schier, a senior, is one of this year'sthirty-two Rhodes scholarship winners; aphilosophy student, he will pursue studies inclassics and philosophy at Oxford.Bruce A. Morrissette, professor andchairman of the Department of RomanceLanguages and Literatures and professor inthe College, has been named the Bernard E.and Ellen C. Sunny distinguished serviceprofessor. He has been a faculty member atChicago since 1962.Mary Petrie, acting treasurer of the University since last July, when Richard M.Burridge resigned to return to privatebusiness, has been elected treasurer.Sol Tax (phD'35), professor in theDepartment of Anthropology and in theCollege and director of the SmithsonianInstitution's Center for the Study of Man,was awarded an honorary Sc.D. degree by the University of the Valley of Guatemala inNovember. Prior to the award, a week-long"shriftfest" in his honor was held by twenty-eight former students and colleagues whodelivered papers and marked the fortiethyear of Mr. Tax's anthropological field research in Guatemala.The University of Chicago Track Club againbrought kudos to the University when, inFebruary, Rick Wohlhuter, the club'sleading middle distance runner, accepted theJames E. Sullivan award, the world's No. 1honor for amateur athletes of all sports.Wohlhuter, who holds world records in the880 (1:44.1) and the 1,500 meter run (2: 13. 9),is a Notre Dame alumnus who runs underChicago's colors because he works inChicago and loves to run. (In addition to hisown world marks he was a member of thetrack club's two-mile relay team, also aworld record holder.) The always astonishingUCTC is coached by Ted Haydon (phB'33,am'54).7The energy problem can be solved!In his University of Chicago addressthe Secretary of State promulgatesa blueprint for world cooperationHenry KissingerA generation ago the western world faced an historic crisis —the breakdown of international order in the wake of world war.Threatened by economic chaos and political upheaval, thenations of the West built a system of security relations andcooperative institutions that have nourished our safety, ourprosperity and our freedom ever since. A moment of gravecrisis was transformed into an act of lasting creativity.We face another such moment today. The stakes are as highas they were twenty-five years ago. The challenge to ourcourage, our vision, and our will is as profound. And ouropportunity is as great.What will be our response?I speak, of course, of the energy crisis. Tonight I want to discuss how the Administraton views this problem, what we havebeen doing about it and where we must now go. I will stress twothemes that this government has emphasized for a year and ahalf:The occasion at which Secretary of State Kissinger deliveredthe address published here was the formal opening, lastNovember 14, of the secondphase of the Campaign forChicago. In that sense hisappearance was importantto alumni and to the University, but as the weeks andmonths have unfolded sincethen, the Secretary's wordshave taken on greater significance: it has becomeapparent that his addressrepresented a sweeping outline of the world energyproposals the United Stateshas been pursuing, step by step, ever since. A discussion of Mr.Kissinger's ideas, by Hans J. Morgenthau, accompanies theSecretary's text. Secretary Kissinger First, the problem is grave but it is soluble.Second, international collaboration, particularly among theindustrial nations of North America, western Europe andJapan is an inescapable necessity.The economic facts are stark. By 1973, worldwide industrialexpansion was outstripping energy supply; the threat of shortages was already real. Then, without warning, we were facedfirst with a political embargo followed quickly by massiveincreases in the price of oil. In the course of a single year theprice of the world's most strategic commodity was raised400%. The impact has been drastic and global:• The industrial nations now face a collective payments deficitof $40,000,000,000, the largest in history, and beyond theexperience or capacity of our financial institutions. We suffersimultaneously a slowdown of production and a speed-up of aninflation that was already straining the ability of governmentsto control.• The nations of the developing world face a collective yearlydeficit of $20,000,000,000, over half of which is due to increases in oil prices. The rise in energy costs in fact roughlyequals the total flow of external aid. In other words, the newoil bill threatens hopes for progress and advancement andrenders problematical the ability to finance even basic humanneeds such as food.• The oil producers now enjoy a surplus of $60,000,000,000,far beyond their payments or development needs and manifestly more than they can invest. Enormous unabsorbedsurplus revenues now jeopardize the very functioning of theinternational monetary system.Yet this is only the first year of inflated oil prices. The fullbrunt of the petrodollar flood is yet to come. If currenteconomic trends continue, we face further and mountingworldwide shortages, unemployment, poverty and hunger. Nonation, east or west, north or south, consumer or producer, willbe spared the consequences.An economic crisis of such magnitude would inevitablyproduce dangerous political consequences. Mounting inflationand recession— brought on by remote decisions over whichconsumers have no influence — will fuel the frustration of allwhose hopes for economic progress are suddenly and cruellyrebuffed. This is fertile ground for social conflict and politicalturmoil. Moderate governments and moderate solutions will beunder severe attack. Democratic societies could become vulnerable to extremist pressures from right and left to a degreenot experienced since the '20s and '30s. The great achievements of this generation in preserving our institutions andconstructing an international order will be imperiled.The destinies of consumers and producers are joined in thesame global economic system, on which the progress of bothdepends. If either attempts to wield economic power aggressively both run grave risks. Political cooperation, the prerequisite of a thriving international economy, is shattered. Newtensions will engulf the world just when the antagonisms ofThe new diplomacy ofHans J. MorgenthauWhatever the verdict on the foreign policy of Secretary of StateHenry Kissinger is likely to be, he will be remembered ashaving initiated a new era in world politics which is characterized by movement instead of rigid confrontation.The new diplomacy of movement characterizes not only thedirect relations among the super- and great powers, but alsotheir indirect relations through the intermediary of smallpowers. The most striking example is the Middle East. Untilthe October war of 1973, the Arab nations of the Middle Eastwere lined up against Israel, each side supplied and supportedby one of the super-powers. The rigidity of that alignment hasnow made way for an unprecedented flexibility of Americanpolicy, supplying and supporting not only Israel, but alsoEgypt, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia, with a readiness to do thesame for Syria, provided the latter is receptive.That policy obviously aims at the limitation, if not expulsionof Soviet power and influence in the Middle East, just asSoviet policy seeks the limitation, if not expulsion, ofAmerican power and influence in Western Europe. If theSoviet Union emerged from such a change as the predominantpower in all of Europe, so would the United States in theMiddle East.These opportunities for diplomatic maneuver were once themain stakes of foreign policy. Their judicious use was once themain instrument, short of war, by which nations tried toachieve their ends. Their usefulness has by no means beeneliminated altogether; for it is still necessary for nations tocompete for power and other advantages, to accommodate andreconcile divergent interests, to settle conflicts peacefully.But the usefulness has been qualified by two factors whichhave no precedent in recorded history: (1) the divorcement ofmilitary power from economic and political power insofar asthe latter is derived from the former; and (2) the availability of two decades of the Cold War have begun to diminish.The potentially most serious international consequencescould occur in relations between North America, Europe andJapan. If the energy crisis is permitted to continue unchecked,some countries will be tempted to secure unilateral benefitthrough separate arrangements at the expense of the collaboration that offers the only hope for survival over the long term.Such unilateral arrangements are guaranteed to enshrine inflated prices, dilute the bargaining power of the consumers,and perpetuate the economic burden for all. The political consequences of disarray would be pervasive. Traditional patternsof policy may be abandoned because of dependence on astrategic commodity. Even the hopeful process of easing tensions with our adversaries could suffer because it has alwaysContinued on Page 31movement: a caveatnuclear weapons, transforming war from a rational continuumwith foreign policy, seeking to bend the enemy's will to one'sown, into an instrument of the enemy's total destruction.Throughout history, political power has tended to be afunction of military power, and military power has in themodern age tended to be a function of economic and, moreparticularly, technological power. I need mention only twoexamples from modern history. The political ascendancy ofEurope, especially in the form of colonial empires, wasprimarily due to a military superiority which, in turn, was theresult of a technological differential in favor of the Europeannations. The political status of super-power is a function of themilitary ability to wage all-out nuclear war and to absorb a lessthan all-out one; an ability which, in turn, is due to industrialand technological capacity. This functional relationshipbetween political, military, and economic power has beensevered by the very dynamics of modern industrial andtechnological developments. In consequence, a nation or groupof nations, completely devoid of a modern industrial andtechnological capacity and military potential, is able to wieldpolitical power over nations far superior to them in thatMr. Morgenthau, a) member of the University's faculty since1943, is the A. A. Michelson distinguished service professoremeritus in the Departments of Political Science and History.Also the Leonard Davis distinguished professor emeritus at theCity University of New York, he is now University professor ofpolitical science at the New School for Social Research. Hisarticle is adapted from one he wrote for the British publicationEncounter in A ugust, 1974. (In Encounter's November, 1974,issue he contributed an analysis of Secretary Kissinger.)9capacity and potential. That ability results from the monopolistic or quasi-monopolistic control of raw materials essentialto the operations of advanced economies and the financialpower derived from that control. That dependence upon suchcontrolled raw materials is itself dictated by industrial andtechnological advancement — that is to say, industrial andtechnological backwardness is a protection against suchdependence, while such dependence is the price to be paid forindustrial and technological advancement.Two basic factors have in our period of history madepossible this divorcement of political power from military andindustrial-technological power:1. Free trade between the private producers and consumersof certain raw materials and monopolistically controlled tradethrough colonial and semi-colonial arrangements by theconsumer governments has been replaced by monopolistic orquasi-monopolistic controls on the part of the producergovernments acting in concert. Formerly the consumers couldkeep the price low through colonial arrangements and thecontrol of consumption; now the producers can keep the pricehigh by controlling production.2. Formerly producers and consumers of raw materials weretied together by complementary interests the balance of whichfavored the consumers. The latter's needs were limited ascompared with the number of potential producers and thequantity of raw materials available. He had, accordingly, achoice among several producers to buy from, and also of thequantity to buy from the several producers chosen. What wasonce a buyer's market has become a seller's market. The consumption of raw materials has enormously increased not onlyin absolute terms — between 1760 and 1913 imports of foodand raw materials to Great Britain increased seventyfold — butalso relative to available resources. Thus oil has become thelife blood of industrially and technologically advanced nationsmany of which are completely (e.g. Japan), or in considerablemeasure (e.g. the nations of Western Europe), dependent uponimports from other nations.Many of these nations, especially in the Middle East, areone-product producers in that they are completely devoid ofmodern industry and technology and are in the possession ofbut one natural product: oil. Acting in concert, they can notonly create havoc with the economies of the oil-importingnations by increasing the price of oil virtually at will; but theycan also bring the industrial and technological life of the latterto a standstill and cause major social and political dislocationsby shutting off the flow of oil completely or partially, permanently or temporarily. That is to say, since oil has become thelife blood of industrially and technologically advanced nations, control over the supply of oil implies control over the lifeof the oil-importing nations. This control has not only negative, destructive implications but, applied with sophistication,can become an instrument of political power. In other words,the oil-producing nations can make the supply and price of oildependent upon certain policies on the part of the importingnations, supportive of and favorable to the former's interests.Such a disjunction between military and industrial-tech nological power, on the one hand, and political power, on theother, had it occurred at any time before the second world warwould have been quickly and effectively redressed through theuse of military power by the politically disadvantaged nations.A colonial or semi-colonial relationship would have beenestablished between the producing and consuming nations,restoring the traditional functional relationship betweenpolitical, military, and industrial-technological power. It is adistinguishing characteristic of the present period of worldpolitics that the use of military power for those purposes indicated is no longer considered practicable. This is so for threeinterconnected reasons:The moral climate permeating the age of de-colonization ishostile to attempts at the revival of open colonial relationships,however much of them may have survived under the cover ofemancipation and national independence.Furthermore, this moral climate favors guerrilla wars onbehalf of de-colonization, making military measures by consumer nations hazardous.Finally, given the interconnectedness of interests in contemporary world politics, especially between super- and greatpowers on the one hand, and former colonies on the other, themilitary issues in which one or the other of the nuclear powersis involved run a more or less immediate risk of beingcountered by another of the nuclear powers — and a conventional military confrontation by the nuclear powers cannot becompletely insulated from the ability to wage nuclear war andtheir willingness to do so if the stakes appear to be sufficientlyhigh. Consequently, the politically disadvantaged consumernations have refrained from resorting to what was once considered the ultima ratio regum: military force.The military impotence of well armed and otherwise strongpowers vis-a-vis nations weak in every respect but two (thequasi-monopolistic control of oil, and enormous financial resources flowing therefrom) points up the basic defect ofcontemporary world politics, the main source of globaldisorder, and the principal threat to the survival of civilization.It is the incompatibility of the nation-state as a principle ofpolitical organization with the social forces at work in the formof the technology of transportation, communication andwarfare, and with the quasi-monopolistic control, by relativelyfew nations, of the products of nature necessary to maintaincivilization and life itself.The technological revolutions of our age have rendered thenation-state's principle of political organization as obsolete asthe first modern industrial revolution of the steam engine didfeudalism. The governments of nation-states are no longerable to perform the functions for the sake of which civilizedgovernments have been instituted in the first place: to defendand promote the life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness of thecitizenry.Unable to perform these functions with regard to their owncitizens, these governments are incapable of performing themin their relations with each other. Once atomic proliferationContinued on Page 3510Is mathematics relevant?And if so, to what?'One sees the world as governed by objective laws of form,which can be discovered ... by the dialectic between thecreative insight of the individual discoverer ... and theobjective testimony of the consequences ...'Felix E. BrowderLet me first remark that even though the title of these remarksis not facetious, it is mysterious. It is mysterious not because itMr. Browder is the Louis Block professor and chairman of theDepartment of Mathematics and professor in the Committeeon Conceptual Foundations of Science and the College."Several years ago," he recalls, "I was asked by one of mycolleagues in the Department of Mathematics to present ageneral non- mathematical lecture on mathematics for a non-specialist audience consisting mainly of students in the College. The colleague was Izaak Wirszup, and the lecture was thefirst in the Woodward Court Lecture Series. For this curiouslyunorthodox venture into semi-mathematical rhetoric, I choseas the title: Is mathematics relevant, and if so, to what? In thefollowing year, L presented substantially the same materialunder the same title as an invited lecturer to a nationalmeeting of mathematicians. Having tested the ground withthese two very dissimilar audiences, I have come to the conclusion that the content of this lecture deserves a more permanent form. The title I chose was not intended in a trivial orfacetious sense as a catchy advertisement for an essentially unrelated set of remarks. To the possible surprise of somemembers of each audience, I took this title seriously and drewsome rather serious consequences from its structure." contains exotic or technical terms far from our common experience of the use of language. Rather, it contains two ordinary terms, "mathematics" and "relevant" with which all buta small minority of us are familiar. The mystery lies in theirordinariness and their frequent use in ambiguous and un-thoughtful ways. To get a meaningful answer to the question,we must clarify its meaning in a significant way.Let us begin with the word "relevant." As it has been customarily used in the past few years, relevant refers to a relationship between some institution or mode of action, and abody of values or purposes. The modifying clause, and if so, towhat, points to the basic vagueness of the customary usage ofrelevant by asking implicitly: What body of values or purposes? We know that different bodies of values or purposeshave been emphasized or pursued within different social orhistorical contexts, on the basis of different views of the worldor of the cosmos, and upon the basis of different perspectivesof the important aspects of the human condition.If we presume an unambiguous meaning for the wordrelevance, the way in which the question is posed asks if wehave reached a consensus with one another on the nature ofthe Good. It can also be taken as asking, if we wish, if we arewilling to accept definitions of value and purpose arising outof particular aspects of human action as forming a spectrumof diverse human values, which hopefully can be tied togetherin a coherent view of the human condition.11Identity ivith the GoodWhat has all this to do with mathematics, aside from thepractice which arose a few years ago of making publicdemands that all intellectual institutions should prove theirrelevance? To answer this question in a convincing way, I shallhave to lay the appropriate foundation by clarifying what wemean by the word mathematics. Before I proceed to this task,let me note an interesting and important historical precedentfor any discussion of the relation of mathematics and values.A little more than 2,300 years ago, a very celebrated lecturewas given in Athens on a closely related theme. This was thefamous "Lecture on the Good" by Plato, the most influentialof the world's philosophers, and it is the only lecture (or set oflectures) by Plato of which there is any objective evidence.Among his listeners was Aristotle, then a student in thePlatonic Academy and later a critic of Plato's doctrines. Aristotle put down his testimony on the contents of Plato's lecture(or lectures) in a treatise in three books called "On the Good"of which no fragment remains, but which was paraphrased inthe writings of Aristotle's disciples. "Many," wrote one ofthese, "attended the lecture under the impression that theywould obtain some of the human goods, such as riches, health,power, or above all a wonderful blissfulness. However, whenthe exposition began with mathematics, number, geometry,and astronomy and the thesis, 'The class of the Limit taken asOne is the Good,' the surprise became general. A part lostinterest in the subject, the others criticized him." Plato isreported to have said: "The foundations of all things are theOne and Indeterminate Magnitude, or the 'more or less.' "In present day terms, what he seems to have said is that theArchai, the foundations of both the physical and moral orders(which he did not distinguish from one another) are theprocesses by which there is generated the sequence of integersor natural numbers and the continuum. Thus the report byAristotle on Plato's most fundamental Unwritten Doctrine isthat Plato solved the problem of the relationship between thefoundations of the Good and of mathematics by identifyingthe two.Plato's solution of the problem of value by identifying theGood with mathematics is one that very few of us nowadayswould be willing to defend, especially in public. The report onPlato's Unwritten Doctrine by Aristotle and his followers hasbecome a perennial scandal in the history of philosophy, andover the ensuing two thousand years continues to generatescholarly controversy to the present day as to whether such arespectable man as Plato could have held such raffish beliefs.Some of the psychological consequences are apparently sodrastic that one extreme wing of the classical fraternity led byProfessor Harold Cherniss of the Institute for Advanced Studyin Princeton has tried to get rid of the problem by declaring onprinciple that Aristotle was a tendentious and misleading reporter on all his philosophical predecessors and contemporaries and therefore his testimony should be ignored. Moreweight (and the force of the evidence) can be assigned to viewslike those of W. D. Ross in his book Plato's Theory of Ideas that Plato did indeed put forward the views ascribed to him byAristotle.It seems clear that it was in the Academy, which Platofounded in Athens as the prototype of later institutions ofhigher education and research, that under the stimulus ofPlato's emphasis upon the central role of mathematics and thenew standards of logical rigor introduced by such logicalcritics as Zeno of Elea, the basic topics of Greek mathematics(geometry and the natural numbers) were first made the objectof a reasoned penetrating logical development from firstprinciples. Plato was himself a great patron of mathematicsbut not a mathematician. The Academy, however, sponsoredand stimulated the work of some of the greatest mathematicians of its period, such as Theodorus, Thaetetus, and mostimportant of all, Eudoxus, who created the basic tools ofGreek mathematical astronomy as well as resolving the logicalproblems of incommensurable magnitudes by creating theanalogue of the modern theory of real numbers.In one of his late Dialogues, the Timaeus, Plato expressed inwriting the concept of a cosmos founded on mathematicalprinciples. This concept was firmly opposed by Aristotle, whotended to limit the role of mathematics to the heavenly bodiesand, on the terrestrial level, to essentially the counting of individual instances of a phenomenon or type.The grand Platonic vision of the universe organized onmathematical principles had relatively little influence in theclassical world or in the Middle Ages after the death of Platoand his immediate disciples. The Platonists or neo-Platonistsof succeeding ages (Plotinus, Porphyry, Iamblichus, Proclus,and others) had great intellectual influence during the RomanEmpire and indeed seem to be the chief fountainhead of everyvariety of high mysticism which has flourished since their time,but they took over all the mystical elements in Plato's thoughtand relatively little of his mathematical interest.It took the great scientific revolution of the 16th and 17thcenturies (as the great historian of science, Alexandre Koyre,has pointed out) to vindicate Plato's dream and bring it tofruition. The central point of the greatest achievement of themodern scientific world-view was the creation of a completelysuccessful mathematical physics and astronomy by IsaacNewton as the culmination of the beginnings made by Galileoand Kepler to try to justify the Copernican vision. The Newtonian mathematical astronomy was the model of a fulfilledPlatonic vision of the cosmos.Though there are few open believers in the explicit doctrineof Plato that mathematics is identical with the Good, our intellectual world in many of its most active and vital branches continues to be dominated by great Platonic visions of mathematical order. In mathematical physics, the Newtonian cosmoshas been replaced by the even more perfected Platonic visionof general relativity theory. Mathematics itself has been consumed over the past hundred years as well as pricked,delighted, and tormented by Cantor's great Platonic vision ofthe theory of the accomplished infinite, the precise reasonedtheory of infinite magnitudes.The main course of modern physics has moved through the12channel of the revolutionary development of quantummechanics in the late 1920s, yielding a new and precise mathematical formalism whose consequences were inexpressible interms of classical physical intuitions. One consequence was afundamental mathematicization of the basic principles ofchemistry.In more recent decades, we have seen the development ofmolecular biology founding the basic machinery of biologicalinheritance upon the geometry of the DNA molecule and thecombinatorics of sequences of amino acids. New cosmologicalvisions of the Platonic order have been formulated for theorigin and possibly the vanishing of the whole physical cosmos.On a more speculative note, we have the suggestive Platonicprogram of the theory of catastrophes formulated by ReneThorn and his disciples for the mathematicization of developmental biology.As a final example, let us note the recent history oflinguistics and the movement called structuralism in thehumanistic and social disciplines in France which argues forformal mathematical structures underlying all the variedspheres of human action and meaning.We have proceeded in the discussion of the Platonictradition in western thought and its relation to the steeping ofcrucial areas of modern science in their mathematical foundations and visions without further attention to the clarification of what we mean by the word mathematics. To repair thisomission, I shall have to proceed with care, and less in the styleof Plato than of Aristotle. I believe and propose to show in detail that there are indeed four fundamentally differentmeanings in basic usage of the term mathematics. Thus, Ipropose to speak not about mathematics simple but Mathematics I, Mathematics II, Mathematics III, and MathematicsIV.Mathematics IMathematics I refers to the mathematical practice imbedded in the common life of mankind in all civilized societies,and most intensively in the advanced industrial societies ofwhich the U.S. is the leading example. This kind of mathematics includes all the counting, measuring, and calculationwhich is part of the life process for almost all human beings inour society, as well as the systems of calculation andmeasurement which underlie the organization of everyeconomic system beyond the most primitive stage when moneyis introduced.In its higher reaches, Mathematics I includes the use ofmathematical techniques in such activities as accounting,engineering, and architecture, the collection of statistical data,the counting of votes, not to speak of the tremendous transformation of social practice that has been brought about in recentyears by the use of electronic computers.The criterion of relevance or value with respect to Mathematics I is social utility and (even though the concept of social utility is not completely transparent, especially in its relation toindividual utility) we tend to assign such value in terms of theeffectiveness or efficiency of the mathematical techniques orpractices involved toward specific goals of social effort. Sucheffectiveness is often achieved through the use of relativelystandardized techniques which are not especially interestingfrom an intellectual point of view.Mathematics IIMathematics II refers to the use of known mathematicaltechniques and concepts to formulate and solve problems inother intellectual disciplines. In terms of day-to-day practice,this is the primary function of mathematics in the physicalsciences and more recently in the biological and socialsciences. The intellectual difficulties which must be resolvedand the ingenuity which must be applied are often of a highorder of magnitude in these applications, but the standard ofrelevance within the framework of these applications is theusefulness of the result for the discipline to which it appliedrather than the intrinsic interest and fruitfulness of the pre-cesses by which that result is reached.Mathematics II represents an ever expanding area of intellectual activity taking over ever larger portions of many intellectual disciplines, sometimes to the despair of those disciplines' more old-fashioned practitioners.As an example less familiar than some, let me refer to theapplication of mathematical or statistical techniques in thehistorical field known under names like cliometry or pros-ophography, which proposes to obtain more objective or accurate information about historical trends by a detailedanalysis of data concerning life patterns of social or economicgroups in a given historical period.Since the relevance of the mathematical activity underMathematics II is its fruitfulness for the solution of the intellectual problems of the extra-mathematical discipline to whichit is applied, its value is thereby linked to the relevance of thatdiscipline in its own terms.Mathematics IIIBy Mathematics III, I refer to the body of what is usuallycalled mathematical research, to the investigation of the concepts, methods, and problems of the diverse mathematicaldisciplines. Historically, these have developed over twothousand years from the classical problems of geometry, thetheory of numbers, the solution of algebraic equations, thesolution of the differential equations of mathematical physics,and the study of the formal methods of mathematical reasoning themselves.Though originating from this basic stock, new and extremely vital mathematical disciplines have emerged whosepower and fruitfulness both in solving the problems of olderfields and in generating important insights in newer directionshave made them new generating foci of basic mathematicaldevelopments. Four of the most important examples are the13theory of groups, analytic functions of one or several complexvariables, functional analysis, and algebraic and differentialtopology.Let me note explicitly that the division between Mathematics III and Mathematics II is not the same as the roughdivision which is sometimes made between pure and appliedmathematics. Much that is done in the best varieties of appliedmathematics falls under Mathematics III, since the criterion ofdemarcation is whether the mathematical practitioner isseriously interested in the concepts and methods of the mathematical investigation in their own right or is mainly absorbedin the result of the particular application. Mathematics IIIdenotes what mathematicians themselves refer to as "realmathematics."The criterion of relevance for Mathematics III for all itscomponents, whether pure or applied, is the intellectualcriterion of the effectiveness of the mathematical activities inresolving the unsolved problems of their mathematical sub-discipline, in improving the power and fruitfulness of theirconcepts and methodological tools, and in clarifying thelogical structure of calculations and proofs. As many greatmathematicians such as Hadamard and Poincare have described in detail, the practice of this intellectual discipline onthe highest level takes the form of a creative art which workson the objective material of given problems and concepts bymeans of inventive jumps and intuitions.These free creations of the mind (to use a phrase of whichEinstein was fond) find their judgment in their effectiveness intangibly transforming the state of the discipline and solving itsproblems. They are subject to the most stringent analysis andcriticism. The practitioners on the highest level judge theirpath forward, however, not by the prudential analysis of thesafest path but by an unarticulated intuitive grasp, sometimesin esthetic terms, of the undeveloped potentialities of a givenstate of a mathematical field.So far, so good. But of what of Mathematics IV? Indeed, Isuspect many mathematicians of my acquaintance mightresent the notion that any category might be put somewhere"above" or "beyond" the concrete practice of mathematicalresearch. Yet, I propose to put forward such a category, whichI believe essential to a complete description of the nature ofmathematics.Mathematics IIMathematics IV differs from the preceding three subdivisions in not being the full-time activity of any sector of themathematically employed population, and yet represents amajor element of the impulse and vitality of the other threecategories, and a large part of their unity as well.By Mathematics IV, I refer to the vision of mathematics asthe ultimate and transparent form of all human knowledgeand practice. We come here to the most radical question aboutthe meaning of the word "mathematics." In classical Greece(and purportedly, among the Pythagoreans), the word"mathematics" came into existence with the original meaning, that which can be taught. From the classical age in Greecethrough the Renaissance, mathematics came to be identifiedwith the great structure of deductive geometry as embodied inEuclid's Elements and the writings of Archimedes. In the 16thand 17th centuries, it came to be identified with the new analytical methods and the techniques of the differential andintegral calculus.From the 17th century on, however, a broader vision ofmathematics arose in the minds of such intellectual innovatorsas Leibniz and Descartes, a vision of mathematics as the totalscience of intellectual order, as the science of pattern andstructure. It was in this form that the vital impulse of thePlatonic vision of the world was reborn in its most permanentform.This new vision of mathematics has had many significantfruits in the centuries that followed. Its most importantcharacteristic has been the ability to detect and analyze significant form in one domain of human experience (often arelatively technical domain in classical mathematics) and thenapply the insight so obtained to illuminate apparently unrelated contexts of human thought and action.As a first illustration, consider the development andapplication of the theory of groups. The basic algebraic concept of group, which gives a precise form to the intuitive concept of symmetry, originated in its explicit form as a consequence of the study of the roots of algebraic equations in thework of Lagrange and Galois in the late 18th and early 19thcenturies. During the course of the 1 9th century, group theorybecame one of the leading themes of mathematical development which was interwoven with many of the other centralthemes of the developing mathematics of the time: analyticfunctions of a complex variable, the foundations of geometry,the theory of matrices, and the study of ordinary and partialdifferential equations. Group theory itself became a centralbuilding-block and starting point of new mathematical developments and has remained so till the present day. However, ithas also become the fundamental conceptual and formal toolof the mathematical description of the physical world in the20th century, from its earliest uses as the basis of crystallography to its present role as the foundation of the descriptionof the fundamental particles of high energy physics.As another illustration of a more extreme sort, consider theconsequences of the development of mathematical logic andthe foundations of mathematics in the first three decades ofthe 20th century. In the early 1930s, Kurt Gddel, to theastonishment of the mathematical world, proved that theprogram put forward by the celebrated German mathematician Hilbert for justifying the framework of classical 19thcentury mathematics (by showing its consistency as a formalsystem) could not be carried through.To derive this conclusion, Gbdel had to give a precise description of the formal structure of what is meant by a mathematical proof within the restrictions placed by Hilbert. In sodoing, he created a theory which shortly afterwards was14christened the theory of recursive functions.What is most remarkable as a historical consequence, butwas already appreciated at the time by such far-sightedmathematicians as Turing, was that the theory thus createdwas the basic theory of what could be accomplished bymachines like the digital computer. Indeed, the theoreticaldevelopment of the digital computer rested and still rests uponthe foundation thus laid by Godel's work.This broader concept of mathematics as the science of significant form has furnished the background and world viewfor the brilliant triumphs of mathematical research in all of itsvaried concrete forms, but it has also been the ultimaterationale for the belief in the power of mathematical methodsin their application to all the varied intellectual disciplinesbeyond the boundaries of mathematics in its most restrictedsense.Within the sweep of this concept, one sees the world asgoverned by objective laws of form, which can be discovered,in the last analysis, only by the dialectic between the creativeinsight of the individual or the creative fantasy of the individual discoverer on the one hand and the objective testing ofthe consequences of the intuitive insight or fantasy on theother.When this dialectic works — and it works surprisingly oftenand with a surprising consistency — one obtains the experienceof a concept of an order enhancing rather than stifling, individual creativity and spontaneity. It is this experience thatseems to have lain behind the original vision of Plato. And itmight well be that in this kind of union of order with spontaneity and creativity, there resides an educational value ofmathematics for those who will not be mathematicians thatgoes considerably beyond the technical utility of mathematics.It was a thought of this sort that was expressed by theAnglo-American philosopher Alfred North Whitehead who inone of his last essays put forward his own rewriting of Plato'slecture on the Good in an intellectual credo entitled, "Mathematics and the Good," written for the volume dedicated to himin the Library of Living Philosophers.Whitehead wrote: "The notion of the importance of patternis as old as civilization. Every art is founded on the study ofpattern. The cohesion of social systems depends on the maintenance of patterns of behavior, and advances in civilizationdepend on the fortunate modification of such behaviorpatterns. Thus the infusion of patterns into natural occurrences and the stability of such patterns, and the modificationof such patterns is the necessary condition for the realizationof the Good. Mathematics is the most powerful technique forthe understanding of pattern, and for the analysis of therelation of patterns."Here, we reach the fundamental justification for the topicof Plato's lecture. Having regard to the immensity of itssubject matter, mathematics, even modern mathematics is ascience in its babyhood. If civilization continues to advance, inthe next two thousand years, the overwhelming novelty inhuman thought will be the dominance of mathematicalunderstanding." It is this new and sophisticated version of the Platonic visionexpressed in Whitehead's words that I have called Mathematics IV.All the four modes of existence of mathematics as I havedescribed them above are of great antiquity. Certainly Mathematics I and II both clearly existed in Babylonian civilization,where numerical calculation and algebraic manipulationreached remarkable levels of proficiency while they wereapplied to both mercantile transactions and the religiouslyoriented charting of the heavens. In ancient Greece, as alreadyremarked, Mathematics III and IV appeared in a full-fledgedmature form. By their nature, the four forms of mathematicalactivity and consciousness are mutually autonomous, since inany realistic sense, no one of the four can absorb any of theothers. All such attempts at absorption usually represent aneffort to destroy the influence or activity of whatever aspect ofmathematics is supposed to be absorbed.On the other hand, when all the aspects of the mathematicalenterprise are flourishing, their mutual interaction is usuallyintensive. In modern times, they have flourished only together.In terms of social influence, mathematics as a tool in every-daylife and in the technical aspects of social life tends to stimulatethe application of mathematics as a tool in the very variedintellectual disciplines. In turn, the latter tends to stimulatethe development of mathematical research and the success ofresearch in generating new concepts and principles yields thetranscendental ideal of mathematical knowledge.In terms of intellectual influence, the pattern of forcesusually runs in the opposite direction. The transcendent idealof mathematical knowledge gives meaning and force to theimpulse of mathematical research, which in turn yields newtools and impulses for the application of mathematics, first, asin other intellectual domains and through their successes, inthe practical life of mankind.Exhilarating and alarmingWhat can we say on the basis of this picture about therelation of mathematics and value in our contemporaryhistorical context and in our own society?The complete answer is both exhilarating and alarming. Onthe one hand, we see the tremendous intellectual vitality ofmathematics and the mathematicized sciences in the pastseveral decades, their tremendous successes in solving theirown problems and creating new tools for the solutions of bothtechnical and practical problems.On the other hand, while the mathematicization of societygoes on in leaps and bounds, as far as the every-day consciousness of the mass of human beings in our society is concerned,the forms of this development become more and more alien totheir outlook. What might have been an increase in humanpowers and freedom becomes a vaguely defined and somewhatmonstrous threat looming in the background of present-daylife. The technical, as well as the mathematical, tools of society15take an external and bureaucratic form which depresseshuman possibilities rather than raising them.It is my suspicion that the discrepancy between the intellectual power of our mathematical and scientific disciplinesand their negative impact upon the thinking of non-mathematicians and non-scientists, even (or, perhaps, we should say,especially) among the well-educated in our society, may be attributed in no small part to a profound defect in our fundamental concept of mathematical and scientific education forthe non-specialists.To put the matter in mathematical terms, the defect lies inviewing the teaching of mathematics in practical, technical, orresearch terms exclusively, i.e., in terms of Mathematics I, II,The magic hexagonMartin GardnerIs it possible to place numbers 1 through 19 in the 19 cells ofthis hexagonal array so that every row has the same sum?There are 15 rows: 5 vertical, 5 slanting one way, 5 slantingthe other way. It is not hard to prove that if there is asolution, the constant sum must be 38.The answer to the question is yes, and the solution is oneof the most remarkable patterns in the history of combinatorial arithmetic. To understand why, consider the ancientrecreation of magic squares. A magic square is an arrangement of consecutive numbers from 1 to n in a square arrayso that every vertical and horizontal row has the same sum.Not counting rotations and mirror reflections as different,there is only one way to make a magic square of order-3 (3cells on the side):4 9 23 5 78 1 6There are 880 varieties of magic squares of order-4.Nobody knows how many order-5 squares exist, the numberruns into the millions.There is only one magic hexagon! It was first discoveredin 1895 by William Radcliffe, who lived on the Isle of Man.He patented his "38 Puzzle" in 1896, both in England andthe United States, but was unsuccessful in marketing it.The discovery was quickly forgotten.Sixty years later the pattern was rediscovered by TomMartin Gardner (ab'36~) writes the mathematical gamescolumn in Scientific American. His other writings have included The Annotated Alice, Fads and Fallacies: In theName of Science, and, in 1973, a novel. The Flight of PeterFromm, soon to appear in paperback. Learning that theMagazine was going to publish Mr. Browder's article,Gardner contributed this account of a famous mathematical puzzle. ses or III. We have failed, in large measure, to find ways to conveythe spirit of Mathematics IV, the transcendent ideal of mathe-tel- matics as a fundamental and universal form of knowledge.nes This failure is, in turn, due to the failure or refusal of many ofhe- our contemporaries among the mathematicians to recognizeay, the validity or even the meaningfulness of such an ideal.at- It is my hope that this failure represents a challenge that willia- be overcome in the historical period in which we play a part. Itfor can be overcome only, as Whitehead told us, in the spirit thateven modern mathematics is still in its potential infancy —in and that the overwhelming novelty in human thought for manyor centuries to come will be the dominant role of mathematicalII, understanding.Vickers, who published it in The Mathematical Gazette,1958. It was not until 1963 that Charles W. Trigg proved thesolution to be unique, and that no other magic hexagon, ofany order, is possible. Among the infinite number of ways toplace integers from 1 through n in an hexagonal array, onlyone is magic!Does the pattern have any use? So far as anyone knows, itdoes not. But it is a striking display of that curious kind ofelegance that mathematical patterns can possess. It belongsto the Platonic realm of pure form to which ProfessorBrowder refers.Readers are urged to see if they can create the pattern.The solution appears on Page 46.Civis Americanus sumAre we, too, to 'decline and fair?George F. W. YoungOn July 4, 1976, when the American republic will be twohundred years old as a sovereign state, will she be at the zenithof her trajectory through history? Or has she already begun todecline? Or, on the other hand, will she still have before her agreat future in the history of mankind yet to be realized on thisplanet?In jest (and in dismay at their own precipitous decline) theEnglish are fond of repeating that the United States is the onlycountry to go from barbarism to decadence without a period ofcivilization in between. Many Americans themselves maywonder whether Watergate, drugs, hedonism, and violentcrime are not the harbingers of decline, if not the very manifestations of it.And for reflective Americans this immediately calls to mindmany previous historical instances of "decline and fall":Egypt, Sumer, Babylon; Persia and Athens, Sparta and Macedonia, and of course Rome. And still more recent are theexamples of Renaissance Italy, Spain and Portugal, Holland,France, and in our own time and before our own eyes,England. Hence the unavoidable question: are we, too, to"decline and fall"?The two towering figures in the field of philosophy ofhistory, Oswald Spengler and Arnold Toynbee, both agree thatdecline and fall have been the eventual fate of nearly all thestates and civilizations of the past, and they foresee the samefor us: Spengler sees it as inexorable; Toynbee sees it as probable unless we turn quickly to religion.Yet despite the appearance of having investigated all humanhistory, both of these men really base their conclusions on thehistory of classical civilization, to which the history of our ownwestern civilization seems strikingly parallel. Spengler, whowrote his doctoral dissertation on Heraclitus, conceived thetitle of his famous work, Der Untergang des Abendlandes(Vienna, 1918), in a rush of imagination when in 1912 hecasually noticed a book on the decline of Rome in a Munichbookstore window. Toynbee similarly reveals the initial conception of his monumental Study of History (London, 1934-'61) as follows:What set me off was a sudden realization, after the outbreak ofthe first world war, that our world was just then entering on anexperience that the Greek world had been through in the Pelo-ponnesian War.1The detection of this seeming parallel between classical and modern history was certainly not original with either Spengleror Toynbee; it has been noted many times before and since bythose familiar with classical history. However, as Spenglersays:Historians were content . . . simply to register it, adding someclever remarks as to the marvels of coincidence, dubbing Rhodesthe 'Venice of antiquity' and Napoleon the "modern Alexander."2What is original in Spengler and Toynbee is their construction of a system, each his own, incorporating the history of allknown civilizations in an attempt at comprehensive totality.Their attempts notwithstanding, the classical-modern parallelremains the mental construct at the core of their systems.Should this parallel prove indefensible, their systems would bein jeopardy.Since classical antiquity was our predecessor in civilizedliving in the West, and since so much of our own civilizationhas its roots in the classical past, it is natural that its historicalexperience should hold a great interest for us — hitherto probably greater than interest in any other civilization, past orpresent. Thus the fact that classical antiquity seems to havesuffered a decline and terminal dissolution during our so-called Dark Ages (ca. 400-900 a.d.) has always left a lingeringpresentment of doom in modern westerners. It was onlynatural, therefore, that Spengler and Toynbee (among manyothers) should have seen a parallel between these two successive civilizations which prescribes an eventual demise for themodern West. In fact this parallel can be elaborated and particularized to a surprising extent.The modern parallel with classical historyEurope, with its diversity of national states emerging fromthe barbarian tribal kingdoms of the "Dark Ages" some thousand years ago, can be seen replicated in ancient Greece,whose diversity of city-states likewise emerged from the barbarian tribes of the Doric invasions (the "Greek Dark Ages").Mr. Young (phn'69) is associate professor in the Departmentof History at St. Mary's University in Halifax, Nova Scotia.17Over a period of about a thousand years (ca. 1100-100 b.c.)these city-states developed a characteristic civilized way of life(Hellenism), expanded by colonization and conquest all overthe Mediterranean and Black Seas, and of course created thegreat intellectual and cultural achievements for which theyremain everlastingly famous.In similar manner, the Europeans, in the thousand yearssince Charlemagne, have forged a civilization of their own,have expanded all over the world, and have achieved equallygreat, if not greater, intellectual and cultural accomplishments.But the parallel runs farther; a new western state, muchlarger and hence more powerful than any Greek city-state, acomposite of federated cities and allied tribes, namely Rome,conquered and ruled the Hellenic homeland after 146 B.C. aswell as the whole Hellenized Mediterranean world. Rome washerself a Hellenized state, but with certain peculiarities of herown, and her conquest of the Hellenistic world (Asia Minor,the Near East, and Egypt) integrated that world into a singlehegemonial polity which eliminated "international war."Is not the modern analog of this ancient power in the Westthe United States? Surely if there is any parallel at all it wouldseem so. The United States shares its civilization with Europebut has decided characteristics of its own; it is a new state relative to European history and has expanded over a continent bycoequal federal incorporation of new territories; it is muchlarger with many times the manpower and resources of anysingle European state; and it has begun to dominate largeparts of the Europeanized world as well as Europe itself.Furthermore, just as Rome had a running confrontation in theEast with the Persian empire, the United States has likewise itsgreat antagonist in the Soviet Union — also an empire in theEast.Rome and the tiiited StatesIt is no doubt very flattering for Americans to see themselvesas the modern Romans, and also rather heartening if one takesthe parallel seriously, for at least in the near future it wouldseem that the United States is still "destined" for great things,among them the integration of the western Europeanizedworld into a single hegemonial imperium which will eliminateinter-state war, at least within the area of its control. In fact,have not the OAS, NATO, and the UN already done this to agreat extent? One might even find a modern analog forCarthage in Japan. Rome's great struggle with Carthage forcontrol of the western Mediterranean over the sixty-five yearperiod of the first two Punic wars (264-241 and 218-201 B.C.)marked her entry as a great power in the Mediterranean world,and the total defeat of imperial mercantile Carthage in201 b.c. opened up the whole western Mediterranean toRoman domination and economic expansion.In similar manner, the United States contended with Japanfor influence and commerce in the Pacific Far East since theSino-Japanese war (1895). When this contention culminated in"world war" and "unconditional surrender" a half century later, the United States gained enormous economic advantageand emerged as the hegemonial power in the Pacific, whereincidentally it has had to fight two subsequent "border wars."Hence, why should Americans even begin to think of themselves in decline? From the end of the second Punic war (201b.c.) and the nearly coincidental victory in the second Macedonian war (196 b.c.) — whereat the Roman general Flaminiusproclaimed the "freedom of the Hellenes" (shades of Eisenhower in Europe and the formation of NATO in 1949!) — theRoman state expanded to its apogee under the Antonineemperors (138-192 a.d.) before suffering serious crisis and thebeginning of economic regression. That makes four hundredyears of Roman hegemony and the rule of law during whichtime probably more people enjoyed more peace and prosperitythan ever before (and some time since) in the Mediterraneanworld.Americans might take heart from the experience of thesefour hundred years, for it would seem by analogy that we are atthe beginning of just such a period — barring destruction byatomic holocaust, ecological collapse, or demographic glut.Indeed, would not a Pax Americana constitute a first steptowards forestalling such disasters?Historical systems are imaginary creationsBut alas, the analogy with Rome and the broader parallelbetween classical and modern history are, in this writer'sopinion, nothing more than an esthetic creation. The idea thatone civilization will be a facsimile of its predecessor, or thatone state will punctiliously replicate the history of a previousstate, or that a universal system should determine the unfolding of all civilized history is an idea in company with suchphantasms as changing lead into gold, finding the fountain ofyouth, or concocting the elixir of life: wishful thinking andnothing more.The real trouble, however, with historical parallels andanalogies is that they irresistibly draw one deeper and deeperinto parallelistic thinking which, although esthetically agreeable, inevitably leads to distortion of the facts to fit the system.Both Spengler and Toynbee have tripped into this snare manytimes.An amusing illustration of the point is in the world of a neo-Spenglerian, Amaury de Reincourt, The Coming Caesars (New ,York, 1957), who, in deftly drawing out the analogy betweenthe United States and Rome, determines that America'scounterpart of Carthage is 19th-century Mexico! Despite itsbeing an "older culture" lying in the way of American expansion across the continent, surely that distracted country withits ruthless and divisive internecine conflicts could never be theanalog of prosperous and expansive Carthage in anything buta schematically determined conclusion.But besides the danger of distortion, the basic notion thatthe collapse of classical civilization implies a correspondingcollapse of ours is a supposition freighted with misconception.Notwithstanding Gibbon's famous Decline and Fall of theRoman Empire (London, 1776-'87), which in no small part is18an 18th-century rationalistic attack on Christianity, classicalcivilization really did not "fall," and in the Greek East it maybe argued that it did not even "decline." In fact, the easternRoman Empire lasted on (as it is usually put) for a thousandyears — to 1453!But obviously it did not just last; the Greek-speaking inhabitants of the East transformed their civilization first byevolving the Orthodox Christian Byzantine empire, which wasthen overrun by the newly Islamized Turks and reconstitutedin the Ottoman empire, and then again by achieving independence as a modern European state in Greece after 1830 and inTurkey after 1920. In truth, civilization never disappearedfrom the Greek East; it only changed in form and in the outershell of political organization.This was because the area of the eastern Roman Empire hadbeen thoroughly civilized a long time before Rome ever cameon the scene. Urban life and urban economy had become irreversibly established with professional, artisan, and commercialclasses, and the rural population on the bottom of the socialpyramid had become a sessile and passive peasantry — a"fellaheen population," to use Spengler's apt characterization. In Greece and Turkey, and a fortiori in Egypt, Syria, andMesopotamia, civilization has continued to persist since itsinception and does so today. Here there are no barbarian (i.e.,semi-civilized) tribes or primitive peoples, except possibly inthe most remote and peripheral areas. All men are civilizedalthough, from our point of view, a very large number of themare economically dispossessed and culturally inert.The Roman Empire in the West, on the other hand, didundergo an economic decline after about 200 a.d. This iswhat has subsequently arrested the interest of so many westerners. It is at the root of the notion of "decline and fall" ofcivilizations.The Latin West was culturally very different from the GreekEast. Italy and the other lands around the western Mediterranean (North Africa, Spain, Gaul) were populated by somesmall coastal civilized centers backed by a hinterland of warlike agricultural tribesmen. In Spain and Gaul it took sometwo hundred years to subdue all the latter, and this was doneby posting garrisons at strong points, introducing trade in thearticles of civilized manufacture, and establishing civil administration — much as the Spaniards later did in Latin America.Needless to say, the Romanization, that is civilization, of theLatin West only gradually established itself and never progressed much beyond a provincial, small-town, or backwoodslevel before the barbarian Germanic invasions arrested itsgrowth.Stagnation in ItalyBut, more than that, Rome herself, together with Italy, reverted into provincial status vis-a-vis the Greek East after thesecond century a.d. Once the original Roman military expansion had spent itself (ca. 100 a.d.) and a defensive psychologyhad set in, the basically agricultural economy of Italy no longerreceived injections of booty and slaves. It became stagnant and relapsed into a subsistence manorialism. On this static economic base the frontiers had to be defended by an ever morecostly army supported by a tax-grabbing bureaucracy, whichfinally resulted in the great economic and political crisis of thethird century a.d. The Latin West was left pauperized, andwhen Diocletian and Constantine restored the empire at thebeginning of the fourth century a.d., they did so from theGreek East, as symbolized by the new capital at Constantinople — the "second Rome."The subsequent Germanic invasions in the West, therefore,did not wipe out civilization, for there was not much of it;rather they broke through the outer political shell and organized their own "successor states" on the subsistence manorial economy. Backward as this was, it still improved upon thepre-Roman Celtic village economies and kinship politicalsystems. Thus it can be seen that civilization, especially highcivilization, did not really decline and fall in the West; whatlittle of it there was was captured by the barbarians to becomea base for growth, in time, into a new European civilization.Civilization and historyThis unfamiliar yet legitimate view of the end of classicalantiquity has been elucidated at some length, not only to disabuse the reader of the notion of the inevitable decline and fallof civilizations and of cyclical historical systems constructedon that notion, but also to present a more empirical conceptionof the evolution of human history, and of America's place in it.A recent attempt at universal history by the Chicago historian, William H. McNeill (ab'38, am'39), The Rise of theWest (Chicago, 1963), very admirably demonstrates how thehistory of civilization in toto has proceeded cumulatively fromits original inception to the present time. Urban civilized livinghaving once arisen, first in Mesopotamia, then in Egypt, India,and slightly later in China, spread gradually out from thosefour centers to constitute by about 100 b.c. a swath of variegated civilized societies reaching across the Old World fromthe Strait of Gibraltar to the Yellow Sea. New inventions infood production (the plow), military science (the chariot), andgovernmental administration (bureaucracy) gave a local hegemony from time to time to certain peoples and regions, butbefore long the new invention was diffused and adopted by allcivilized societies. And not only has there been definite territorial expansion over the past 5,000 years, there has also beenan elaboration and cumulation of the techniques and lore ofcivilization, as exemplified by such recent accomplishments asthe landings on the moon, the United Nations, and modernhumanitarianism.Yet civilization is not a living organism with a finite lifecycle, nor are its many variants, past and present, livingorganisms. It is rather like language in general and languagesin particular. It proliferates; certain variants achieve a temporary dominance, are elaborated and enriched, and thenagain evolve and recast themselves into new configurations.Witness the career of the Latin language from an Italic dialectinto a world language, into a lingua franca, into a family of19?5$suUltX^»'»."%*s'.¦j£Z3LrsRome's Flavius Stilicho negotiates with the Goths. Wmtransformed Romance languages. The American anthropologist, A. L. Kroeber, has very graphically described thisflowing quality of civilization:Within the gently variable continuum in which culture normallyextends through area and time . . . there separate out here andthere somewhat greater variations comparable to clottings orcoagulations in a continuous liquid — to crystallizations, if onewill. They are primarily recognizable as special or distinctivepatterns of organization of culture, usually also somewhat morecomplex than those which surround or precede them.3In the above view the history of civilization is plastic: a configuration is fashioned, elaborated, refined, and then remolded into a new configuration, all the while adding to itsmass by incorporating new improvisations and discoveries. Butin truth, this view does not fully satisfy reality, for it takes noaccount of the long observed rise and decline or growth anddecay in human history. The missing element here is fundamental to an empirical understanding of historical evolution.It is not civilization in general or civilizations in particular that rise and fall as though of their own, nor is it the lone individualor the whole of humanity who bring about growth and decay; itis rather an aggregate of individuals, be it a clan, tribe, nation,city, kingdom, empire, oligarchy, or aristocracy, which is theelemental entity in history. From the primitive bands of simplehunters and gatherers to the communist party of MaoistChina, such aggregations have perennially found the cohesionto act in common, and thus develop need of a course of action(policy), which in turn gives rise to the pursuit of objectives andaspirations in human affairs. This is the body politic.The moving parts of historyIt is here, amongst bodies politic or polities, that one findsrise and fall, growth and decay, florescence and subsidence;polities are the "moving parts" of history. They may beminute, personalist and localized feudatories as in medievalEurope, or they may be elaborately structured and fully integrated states. They may consist of a culturally homogeneous20population (a classical Greek polls), or of a conquered "fellaheen population" harnessed and driven by a ruling class(Spanish Mexico and Peru), or of many diverse combinationsand permutations of these rather extreme types.A polity, no matter what its form, has the cohesion to act asan entity in history and thereby acquire a destiny, a trackrecord, a trajectory through time. The individual persons whomake up a polity are consciously aware that together they havethis common destiny, this common trajectory. Within limits(physical, economic, demographic, psychological) the membersof a polity do in fact direct its actions and formulate its aspirations. Thus it becomes a meta-bionic organism: a seemingliving thing. And within the purview of the variables which themembers of the polity can control, it does act like a livingbeing: indeed like a human being, for human minds are thesource of its lifelike quality.And just as some individuals are more energetic than others,more ambitious, more creative, more aggressive, so also certainpolities from time to time and place to place are likewise moreenergetic, more ambitious, more creative, and more aggressivethan other ones. But in human affairs nothing is permanent,nothing remains indefinitely unchanged. An individual orfamily or community must ever defend its position in society orlose it to some other individual, family, or community. Insimilar manner, polities also suffer insecurity. They must likewise ever defend their position against rivals — and all peopleand all polities have rivals. Human nature makes it so.Hence, strength and accomplishment (prestige) are very significant qualities in both biography and history, for the moreprestigious always hold hegemony over the less so. This is whymilitary strength together with economic vigor, social integration, and intellectual accomplishment have always characterized the dynamic polities of history. The passive ones havebeen submerged and have definitely participated less in theelaboration of civilized history, if they have not been completely eliminated from it. The dynamic polities, therefore, arethe key contributors to history; they lay out its course.That polities should become dynamic, rise, and prosper is anagreeable notion, especially to members of rising or successfulones. That the same should lose their vigor and fall into decayis disagreeable, both to members of declining polities as well asto members of dynamic ones, for it suggests that they too willsomeday decline.The factors leading to decline, as in all things human, aremany and diverse. Yet historical experience indicates some ofthe prime conditions: addiction to excessive luxury and unrestrained self-indulgence; intellectual and economic listless-ness; loss of confidence and personal identification with thedestiny of one's polity; widespread acceptance of cynical self-seeking egoism and greed as the basic motivation of socialintercourse. Be it noted that there is no moralizing here:Hitler's Germany was a dynamic polity, heinous as it was; weare simply fortunate that it was defeated by more humanepolities (save Stalinist Russia!) Indeed, humanitarian moralityhas no place in history unless polities put it there. The successful hold hegemony according to their lights. Is America the modern Rome?America stands today among the successful and dynamicpolities of history. But an intrusive question increasinglyasserts itself: how long will she remain so? Earlier on we sawthat the past history of Rome does not control the presenthistory of the United States, nor is there any historical lawwhich might govern both. They are completely independentself-directing polities. Yet between them there are analogiesand parallels that inevitably emerge when the two are juxtaposed. How so? In answer this writer would say that just as twototally different individuals in different times and places mayfind themselves in similar circumstances, so also does theUnited States find herself today in similar circumstances withlate republican Rome. Note well, this is not to say that thecircumstances are identical — just similar. Hence the reactionsof the United States to the circumstances need not be identicalwith those of Rome, nor need they even be similar. Individualsin similar circumstances can act identically, completely differently, or more or less similarly. The same applies to polities,and to the case at hand.The feeling that the United States finds herself in circumstances similar to those of the Roman republic of the Hellenistic Age can be both gratifying and terrifying: gratifyingin that Rome was great, powerful and significant in history;terrifying in that Rome reacted to the circumstances by conquering the Mediterranean world in a cycle of war and violencewhich only came to an end with the establishment of a militarized autocracy.But do not forget the two hundred year Pax Romana, thestill living corpus juris civilis, the extension of civilized living topreviously barbarian Europe. Would that America be someday credited with such achievements! The circumstances seempropitious; will she grasp and avail herself of the opportunity?We need not follow Rome's course of action in order toestablish a Pax Americana, but we do need something likeRoman confidence, perseverance, and authority to realize it.Hopefully our humanitarianism — virtually a cosmopolitansecular religion today — will keep us from some of Rome'sbrutalities, and our economic knowledge will preserve us froman economic collapse like that which overtook Rome's exploitive tribute-based economy.What we should take from Rome, however, is the courageand conviction that we too have justification for maintainingpeaceful civilized living over a large area of the globe. We mayshrink from that conviction, or we may turn ourselves intofudge and be subjected to some other polity's convictions. Theoptions are open; we have only ourselves to do the choosing.NOTES1. Arnold Toynbee, "A Study of History: What the Book Is For; Howthe Book Took Shape" in Toynbee and History, M. F. AshleyMontagu, ed. (Boston, 1956), p. 8.2. Oswald Spengler, The Decline of the West, 2 vols., Charles FrancisAtkinson, tr. (New York, 1926-'28), I, p. 49.3. Alfred L. Kroeber, A Roster of Civilizations and Culture (Chicago,1962), p. 59.21Chicago 's A team in the final round of the Pan-American tournament in Louisville.A near miss in chessBut among U.S. teams Chicago is still unsurpassedFor five days in the final week of 1974, the meeting rooms,halls , and elevators of Stouffer's Louisville Inn swarmed withyoung chess players — 377 men and one woman. They wereengaged in playing out the twentieth annual Pan-AmericanIntercollegiate Chess Team Championships, sponsored by thecollegiate affiliate of the U.S. Chess Federation. There wereeighty-nine teams representing seventy educational institutionsin twenty-nine states and Canada.When it was all over, the University of Chicago had beentoppled from the supremacy it has held for the past two years— but not toppled very far. The new champions were theplayers from the University of Toronto. Chicago wound up in atie for second with Harvard. Toronto's over-all score: llA;Chicago and Harvard had 6!/2 each.Two wrong moves in the seventh-round match — withToronto — knocked Chicago out of the top spot; if even there had been only a single miscue, the four-man Maroon teamprobably would have come home with the gold trophy onceagain. As it happened, Chicago's eighth-round victory overC.C.N. Y. was good only for runner-up honors, though it mightbe noted that the Midway A team still is No. 1 (tied) amongU.S. teams. And Chicago, with five championships, still reignsas the powerhouse of collegiate chess; Columbia, the closestrival, has four.Chicago's B team tied for seventeenth in the over-allstandings and tied with Penn and Ohio State for top honorsamong B teams. The Chicago C team, predictably, did lesswell, placing seventy-fifth in the over-all standings.Chicago's team captain was Edward Friedman, a graduatestudent in biophysics, who played for Brown in his undergraduate days. The No. 2 board was played by Paul Cornelius,a senior in the College and president of the University ofFriedman studies board in match with Toronto. His game was a draw.Chicago Chess Club. Third board was played by Gary DeFotis,a graduate student in chemistry, who won seven of his eighttournament games. Tim Redman, a graduate student in comparative literature, was the fourth member of the team.Each displayed his own style in the tournament. Friedman,cool and more serious than usual; Cornelius, more excitable(he often seemed to be trying to use body English on his board);DeFotis, working off tension by vibrating his legs; Redman,who supplied himself with a bottle of orange juice, maintaining what seemed like total immobility while playing. (Oneof the Toronto players brought along a can of Budweiser; itmay have calmed his nerves, and it plainly didn't detract fromhis play.)DeFotis developed a cold in the course of the tournamentand frequently blew his nose (which, chess being chess, mayhave been merely a competitive ploy).Tournament chess is a nerve-wracking activity. Each playerhas to complete forty-five moves per two hours of play (anaverage of two minutes, forty seconds per move), and the tension, especially after a match has been in progress for severalhours, can be excruciating. People were constantly in motionin the playing rooms after the opening campaigns. Some werekibitzers who had completed their games; others were theplayers themselves, each of whom, after depressing the buttonon his clock to signal completion of a move (pushing thebutton starts the opponent's clock), would get up and movearound the room, into the corridor, over to the water table —anything to relieve muscle tension and clear the head.In other ways, too, chess is far from being a static game. Inthe course of the tournament there were two fights; one playergot sick and was hospitalized; there were accusations of prearranged draws, and criticisms of Stouffer's for its heartless-ness in accommodating a wedding reception that some playersfound distracting. Temple pulled out before the final round,necessitating a reshuffle of the pairings. Brigham YoungUniversity had to scout around (in vain) for a team willing toplay after midnight Sunday, competition on the sabbath beingproscribed for Mormons.No one knows, at this moment, whether all, or any, of thisyear's team will be sitting at the long tables when next year'stournament week rolls around. In any case, in the view ofHarold Winston, lecturer in the divisional master's program inthe social sciences and faculty adviser to the club, Chicago willagain be fielding a strong team at the end of 1975. And itsmembers will be enthusiastically (but very quietly) fighting toclimb back to the top spot — and to bring home another goldtrophy to add to the Chicago collection. Redman is engrossed in the possibilities.DeFotis records a move.Cornelius stares at the lineups of opposing pieces at start of game.China: excerpts from a historian's journalWorkers in a vegetable commune (in this case, chives) near Canton.Philip A. KuhnIt is an occupational complaint of historians that they cannever visit the societies they are studying. Still, you wouldthink that a historian of China specializing in the century and ahalf preceding 1949 (being, relatively speaking, a modernist)would find many familiar things on a trip to China such as Imade this past September. But this was not altogether the case.In terms of the basic qualities of society, a specialist on Elizabethan England would find about as familiar a scene remaining in today's London, as I found in today's Peking.There is no doubt that history can help us in many ways tounderstand contemporary China. Yet the rapid changes thatcountry has undergone meant that I was, in some respects, asblank a screen as the most neophyte tourist. Indeed, if theseimpressions prove interesting, it will be precisely because theyrepresent a first, fleeting contact with Chinese reality on thepart of a scholar who has cared deeply about that country butnever before visited it. Excerpts from my travel diary, which Ikept nightly during the trip, will best serve to convey the rarefeeling of meeting an old friend whose spirit has been transformed.As companions I was privileged to have ten American agricultural scientists led by Dr. Sterling Wortman of the Rockefeller Foundation. All are in the forefront of those fundamental discoveries in plant breeding and genetics that arerevolutionizing the world's crop yields. Their task was to studyChinese agriculture and lay a foundation for future exchangesin that field. My job as China scholar and Chinese speaker wasto ease the way for them where I could. For me the auspiceswere particularly valuable, for the group spent most of itstime visiting the rural areas, home of some 80% of China'spopulation, and a particular research interest of mine.Sunday, 8 Sept. 1974, Sian. [On our morning's drive to the Agri cultural Academy of Shensi Province, in the traditionally poorand arid northwest, we were lucky to see a holiday phenomenon:the roadside market. Though China's rural economy is collectivized, there is a small sector in which peasants can sell theproduce of their small private plots. I was informed by one of ourhosts that the free market at Maweichen, which we passed aboutmid-morning, used to convene every three days, as it had forgenerations. Since the Cultural Revolution it has been held onSundays only. It was thought to take too much time from productive work, and also presumably represented an anomaly inthe socialist economy. There is now an office in each productionbrigade which sells and buys for the peasants' private accounts,making market attendance unnecessary. The social aspect ofmarket day, however, may be harder to replace.]The road was narrow, with mud walls on either side. Peasantssat in the shade of new saplings, buying and selling all imaginable kinds of vegetables and fruits, along with some householdhandicraft products such as woven straw mats. The scene isfestive, with women in brightly printed blouses, young menjoking together in small groups, older ones sitting and smokingthe long Chinese tobacco pipes. The road is clogged with carts,some man-drawn, some mule-drawn. (The two-rubber-tired cartMr. Kuhn, professor in the Departments of History and FarEastern Languages and Civilizations and in the College, was,until this year director of the University's Center for FarEastern Studies and is now chairman of the Center's Committee on Chinese Studies. In addition he was awarded a JohnSimon Guggenheim Foundation fellowship to pursue hisstudies of the political development of 20th century ruralChina. Last fall he was a member of a group of Americanscientists who visited various parts of China; in this article heexpands and comments on portions of the diary he keptthrough the trip.24is the main vehicle for small and medium loads, replacing theshoulder pole and the older, wooden-wheeled cart. It is drawnwith a strap over the driver's shoulders, the handles being usedlargely for balancing the load. Some women, and even somerather small children, were helping to pull them, with substantialloads of vegetables, hay, or a pig for sale. I saw several fathers orgrandfathers being pulled along by younger family members.)Everyone is in good humor, and I can begin to understand thesocial function of the periodic marketing system.Naturally, going around in a group, with a tightly packedschedule, there has been no way of finding out directly howpeople feel about life, and certainly no way of measuring extremely complex and subtle changes involved in passage fromone set of social outlooks to another. From purely externalevidence, though, the general impression I have of that section ofthe Chinese peasantry that can be seen on a late summer Sundayalong the road to Wu-kung in central Shensi is very favorable.This impression is not merely based on the predominantlycheerful faces. Consider: out of the possibly 1,000 people I got agood look at in the course of the day, the only sign of skin diseaseof any kind was a small patch of purple medication painted onthe cheek of one child; of eye disease I saw no evidence whateverexcept for one old blind man being led by a small child, and oneyoungish man with a blind or swollen eye.Judging by pictures and accounts of the old China, this visualevidence suggests a major turnabout in public health in a singlegeneration. Another fact: not a single adult without shoes, andno ragged clothing. The general aspect all along the road, for fivehours round-trip, was of healthy and confident people.Vast Chou, Ch'in and Han royal tumuli loomed in the distancenorth of the road. . . The movement to criticize Confucius andLin Piao reaches even to the small settlements, with signs on mudwalls, such as "the way of the Golden Mean [a Confucianconcept] is the way of restoration of the old regime ..." It isquite remarkable to see this ancient area of the Wei valley, whereChinese agriculture and settled civilization originated perhaps6,000 years ago, still being successfully exploited through humanadaptability and creativity. In a sense the political and societalchanges of recent years represent human adaptation to two setsof new environmental conditions: First, the need to cope withman's own fertility by increasing both crop yields and socialcontrol; and second, the need to cope with the menacing international environment by creating the internal political andeconomic frameworks for a modern nation-state.The above notes were taken in one of China's poorerregions. The arid northwest, despite its rich loess soil deposits,has always been a hard area to farm. Some parched crops wereto be seen on hilly, non-irrigable land; and wildly dissectedslopes suggest that the battle against erosion is still far fromwon. The perennial struggle of the Shensi peasantry continues,despite greatly improved conditions. As might be expected,crop conditions were better, and economic development moreadvanced, in the rich Yangtze valley in east central China.Saturday, 14 Sept. 1974, Shanghai. We took the 6:45 train fromNanking station for Shanghai. Covering this famous area bytrain was a valuable experience. Compared with the north andnorthwest, this is a fortunate part of rural China. It is a watery lifehere (with "the aroma of fish and rice," the saying goes), and ifwater control is in order, there is potential for tremendous pro ductivity . . . This area appears to have been completely electrified, at least with respect to the basic task of water movement.The only way in which we saw water being moved from a lower toa higher level was by electric pumps, which are numerous andobviously very effective, water gushing abundantly from pipes towhich they were attached. Roads through little villages andbetween villages were often stone-paved. There is the usual tree-planting along all roads, here mainly willows. Boats of all sorts,many of them motorized, move along the larger waterways.The tiny villages near Nanking which we saw from the railroadembankment had a bustling and reasonably prosperous look. Ata stop near Wusih, two women and a small child picking weedsfrom the embankment looked at us with some curiosity throughthe train windows. I wrote "American friends" in large characters on a piece of paper and held it up to the window, whichbrought forth delighted smiles. Early in the morning manypeasant children were walking along little paths to school andback for lunch at noon. This is a new feature of life in theseparts, a symbol of the ways things have changed. Abandonedconcrete pillboxes, left by the Japanese or the Kuomintang, arestill in place along the railway, a reminder of earlier times. Two10-year old girls walk along a country road arm in arm, onecarrying an abacus.The revolutionary changes in China's countryside havetaken many forms over the past quarter-century, from theredistribution of land, to its collectivization, to the building ofa new infrastructure of local government. Often, old residenceand marketing units have been turned to new purposes: the oldvillage unit is now a production team, which owns and farmsits land collectively. These teams are grouped into productionbrigades — groups of several villages which seem, in somecases, to conform to old administrative divisions or kinshipboundaries. Some two dozen such brigades make up a commune, which may be based either on the old market town andits hinterland or upon the old administrative ward, a sub-county division.This structure has made possible the mobilization of laborand resources for vast flood-control and irrigation projects,such as the one we saw in Nan-hai county, southwest ofCanton. Here 20,000 peasants were mobilized from two counties to build a drainage system for some 150 square miles inthis chronically flooded region. On the village scale, the neworder has done away with the old system of corporate lineages,which used to dominate the rural society of the Pearl Riverdelta.Friday. 20 Sept. 1974, Canton. . . . Not far from the pumpingstation is the village of Hang-pien (now called the No. 2 Production Team of the Hsi-ch'iao Production Brigade, though the oldpeople still call it by its former name). Without intensive interviewing, it was not possible to discover how strong the old villageconception remains, in comparison with the production brigade-commune conception. Certainly the physical discreteness of thevillage would tend to preserve its identity. The little village is ineffect an island, completely surrounded by rice paddies. It consists of solid-looking brick houses. The embankment overlookingthe little pond is neatly whitewashed. The village is reached fromthe road by foot or bicycle via a narrow causeway lined by small25trees. Single slabs of stone span ditches to connect the causewaywith the footpaths going out into the paddies. (I discovered thatthese little stone bridges were all old grave steles, with nicelycarved calligraphy. A pile of extras were lying near the edge ofthe village.)While the others of our group were having tea with our hostsunder some shade trees, I walked back along the causeway toexamine one that had been the marker of a Mrs. Ch'en, nee Li,who was buried on an auspicious day in the chia-shen year of theKuang-hsu reign (1884). Great numbers of these stones musthave been displaced by the collectivization movment, whichcreated the immense rice fields we now see.Although the family remains the basic unit of Chinesesociety, the obliteration of the ancestor cult that lay at theroots of the lineage system indicates that large-scale kinshipgroups no longer exist as functioning units. Pending furtherresearch, one can only speculate on the local revolutionaryenergies which China's leaders harnessed to effect this momentous change. It is worth remembering, though, that thelineage system in this part of China was dominated by the richand powerful literate elite, and that its economic benefitsseldom extended to the poor peasantry.China's revolution is, in one of its aspects, a vast transfer ofpolitical status and economic rewards from the old governingelites to the huge deprived majority of China's citizens. Inanother aspect, though, it must be seen as a process ofeconomic development, in which this huge society is makingthe transition from the pre-industrial age into modernity.Nowhere is this process as important as in the villages, whichhave been the last to benefit from modern techniques and toabsorb modern attitudes. Hence some programs with highlypolitical coloration are, at the same time, aimed directly atmodernizing the techniques and attitudes of village life. Takeas an example the program of "sending down" educatedpeople to the countryside to be "remolded" by living with thepeasants. Most of the intellectuals I met had already spent oneor two years in such activity and expect to spend more later.City high school graduates are sent down in great numbers,most to settle permanently.Friday, 6 Sept. 1974 Shenyang. Manchuria. A driving rainstorm.On the way to the airport we passed a parade of trucks and busesproceeding, to clash of cymbals, down to the countryside with alarge group of "young educated people." These were recent highschool graduates who were being sent to the communes for atleast one or two years, and in many cases permanently. It is madea festive occasion, with flags on the vehicles and signs along theway congratulating the youngsters for their revolutionary deed.The occasion was somewhat dampened by the weather, however,and one can only guess at the feeling of the children as they lefthome, for how long none could predict.A Chinese companion pointed out to me that one of the goalsof this "sending down" is the injection of educated talent intothe villages, which have been without literate local leadership fora long time. These "educated people" (all who have graduatedfrom junior high school are considered educated people) areclosing the cultural gap between city and countryside. They bringwith them a modern approach to local problems, a smattering of scientific knowledge, and a more advanced political vocabulary.I asked one of our hosts which was more important: theeffect on the educated people who were sent down, or theireffect upon the villages. He answered that both were important, but that the second was clearly more so. "You mustunderstand," he said, "that Marxism aims at transforming theobjective world. The remolding of attitudes among educatedpeople is really a method to accomplish this." This characteristically Maoist ends-means conception seems to be operating,through the "send-down" process, as a powerful stimulus torural modernization.Some older educated people told me that they had donemass literacy work while in the countryside and had helped insuch local political tasks as writing wall-newspapers. I was toldrepeatedly about the hospitality and generosity of the peasantstoward their city guests. But lest it be supposed that city peoplecan walk right into leadership roles in the countryside, onepeasant cadre near Sian told me that they were quite ignorantwhen they arrived and "had to learn a few things before theycould go around making suggestions."Although the revolution has obliterated many of the physical and intellectual monuments that remind Chinese of theirlong history, history is nevertheless felt to be a deeplyimportant subject, and its correct appreciation is a major concern of China's leadership. Soon after arriving in Peking Ivisited the old Forbidden City, home of China's emperorsbetween the 15th century and the 20th. It is now called thePalace Museum, and its immense grounds are a public park. Ihad gone on an official group tour shortly after our arrival inPeking, but went back by myself later, while my companionswere visiting the Great Wall. I paid my 10 fen (5 cents U.S.) ata booth just in front of the gigantic Wu-men gate and passedthrough the entrance tunnel with the Sunday crowd.Sunday. 1 Sept. 1974, Peking. The real entrance to the palace,the Wu-men, is of awesome proportions, with a forbidding andslightly barbaric aspect . . . The first really stunning impressionof regal grandeur, however, is on the gigantic walkway before theHall of Supreme Peace. Having climbed the marble staircase tothe lofty, triple-tiered platform on which the principal halls arebuilt, one first catches that airy, floating illusion caused by thefact that the platform itself is so large that from certain anglesone can no longer see the surrounding ground level but only thegolden roofs of the buildings and the hills and clouds beyond.As I mentioned earlier to Pao Cheng-ku [ vice-director of thePeking National Library], one of my keenest impressions inPeking was the awesome effect the palace must have had on allwho experienced it, not least the emperors themselves. The overwhelming power, majesty, and unearthliness of the throne isamply manifested in the gigantic scale and transcendental effectof the palace architecture. The immensity of this physicalexpression of dynastic power I had not anticipated.Pao replied that if I thought the Ming and Ch'ing dynastieswere successful in demonstrating their power this way, I shouldconsider the T'ang [618-907a.d.] , which at Ch'ang-an [present-day Sian] erected palaces on an even more magnificent scale.All over the palace the huge Sunday crowd was relaxed and the26atmosphere was pleasant. Families brought their children. Todaythere were few of the standard blue work clothes. Men worelight short-sleeved shirts, many of the women bright printblouses. This was a public park of a peculiar magnificence whoselike probably cannot be found anywhere in the world. TheRoman Forum is very tame by comparison . . .The attitude of the visitors toward the dynastic rulers, judgingby random snatches of conversation I picked up, was not at all irreverent, but rather one of curiosity and awe. This was apparently felt to be a monument to great national power and culturaleminence, not merely the extravagant pretension of a vicious anddiscredited social system. Judging by the way the governmentkeeps the place up, I suspect that this is a general feeling in highcircles, too. As far as I could see, I was the only foreigner (saveone European behind a camera and tripod) in that entire vastpalace enclosure, among perhaps 20,000 persons. It is indicativeof the atmosphere of that orderly, relaxed Sunday crowd that Ifelt quite relaxed and delighted, myself.It is also indicative of the pace and atmosphere of delegationtravel that this was one of the few times I had the leisureto wander off by myself and mingle freely with ordinaryChinese. Ironically, but hardly surprisingly, this Sunday soloexcursion contributed more to my positive impressions of lifein China than did any of the group tours.In today's China, history is not just for Sunday strolls, butalso for everyday study. Rewriting history according to theprecepts of the new ideology has been a major project forboth leadership and ordinary citizens since 1949. During the'50s and early '60s, the main effort was to reorder historicalknowledge according to the general premises of Marxism-Leninism and the historical thinking of Mao Tse-tung. Afterthe hiatus of the Cultural Revolution, however, the effort hasbecome more concentrated and specific. In connection withthe unrelenting attack on the late Lin Piao, a sweeping critiquehas emerged of Confucius [551-479 b.c] and his philosophicalschool.Though Confucius and Confucianism have been targets ofChinese reformers and revolutionaries since the 1920s, thepresent attack is declared to be more incisive because it isembedded in a scientific class analysis of ancient Chinesehistory. It also embodies a new, positive appreciation of theopponents of Confucianism, the Legalists. Generally speaking,the Legalists are pictured as champions of strong, centralizedbureaucratic rule, written (as opposed to customary) legalcodes, and the breakup of the patriarchal order of ancientChina. Thus in the context of ancient China, the Legalists areseen as "progressive" in relation to the "reactionary" Con-fucianists. In some sense all of China's succeeding history isseen as analagous to this ancient struggle between progressivesand reactionaries (Mao himself is seen as the latest heir to theLegalist tradition).All this has led to a renewed interest in ancient history; inorder to criticize the Confucian classics, people are readingthem again. The intensity of historical study on all levels ofsociety is impressive. A visit to the Shanghai municipal libraryshowed me how one institution serves the "Criticize Lin and Confucius Movement":Monday, 16 Sept. 1974, Shanghai. The extent of the library'spublic education efforts can hardly be imagined by anyone whohas been brought up within the U.S. library system. First, thereare the public "report sessions" in which the library organizesmass meetings of 3,000-5,000 people in some outside arena tohear speeches on the Confucian-Legalist struggle. The mainspeaker may be anyone, from a university professor to a factoryworker. Library personnel give advisory support. Then there arethe "discussion meetings," small groups which meet to discussspecific books lent by the library (and presumably recommendedby it). These may be traditional novels (The Dream of the RedChamber, a classic novel from the 18th century, is a favoritetopic for such meetings, possibly because of its intrinsic merit) orrecent novels. Finally, there are the "book critiques," some ofwhich come out of such meetings; the best are copied out in largecharacters and posted in the library.The most amazing thing to see is the actual operation of theCriticize-Confucius movement within the library precincts. Thegeneral study room on the second floor was packed with perhaps100 people, all doing Confucius-criticism work. This consists, forinstance, of reading the Wei dynasty section in the History of theThree Kingdoms, evidently to get material on Ts'ao Ts'ao[ 155-220 a.d. ] , one of the Legalists currently in favor. Theperson doing this identified himself as a worker in a certainfactory. Obviously he had received at least a high-school education, or he would not be reading that material [which is written indifficult classical Chinese]. I assume he was a member of a"theory small group" assigned to such work. Another worker wasreading Biographies of Virtuous Women, presumably to criticizethe Confucian image of womanhood. The people up here wereapparently those able to do serious research.Downstairs, the scene was even more startling. In a big readingroom were maybe 500 people, some as young as junior highstudents, crowded together busily reading all manner of materialon the anti-Confucian agenda. This level was apparently forthose who relied on colloquial trots: no books in classical Chinesewere visible. One boy was studying a colloquial translation of theRecord of Rites [a Confucian text of the second century B.C.];others were reading the Dream of the Red Chamber . . .In an adjoining room were another 200, all studying newspaper and periodical articles on the same critical themes. Therewas much busy note-taking and a long line at the book checkout window. Nearby was a large room with exhibition boardsintroducing famous Legalists of antiquity, all described in themost basic terms to youngsters who had obviously never heard ofthem. Everywhere were display cases and bulletin boards withthe large-character "book critiques" described earlier. Signatures were mostly those of factory workers . . .Despite some yawns and a few sleepers, the general sense ofinvolvement in these rooms was very high, and would give ourstudents in Regenstein something to think about. It is all verywell to say that this is all pre-cooked research, and that thecritical standards are determined by higher authority. Yet thereis something inherently encouraging about a municipal librarybeing used with this intensity, with such a broad section of thepopulace participating, and with universal study a publiclysupported social norm. The library as a whole had a living, vitalquality about it — it was really closer to a schoolroom of the"open" variety than to any library that we know in our society.27The past decade has been very hard on the intellectuals.Among other things, the iconoclasm of the Cultural Revolution destroyed much of the old rationale for scientific andscholarly work and imposed upon intellectuals the need to redefine functions and purposes in every sphere of life. Asymbolic case is the magnificent and justly famous Lung-huaplant nursery on the western outskirts of Shanghai, whichraises ornamental trees and shrubs for public places.Monday. 16 Sept. 1974. Shanghai. . . . The section of the greatestinterest is the immense bonsai collection: many hundreds ofdwarf trees, some of them centuries old, surely one of the world'smost extensive collections of this old art. Though I had alwaysregarded this technique with some distaste as being too manipulative of nature, I was almost completely converted by theesthetic effect of the Lung-hua collection. The miniaturizationdoes make possible a unique kind of encounter with nature. (TheChinese term for this is p'en-ching — literally, "pot-scapes.")Among the most effective were the numerous dwarf podocarpus,which lend themselves well to miniaturization while still retaining their fresh greenery.The nursery has evidently had its troubles making sense of itswork in the light of current ideological pressures. The emphasison "promoting production" has led, I was told, to increased useof fruit trees and medicinal herbs as ornamentals, though we sawfew examples.Bonsai would seem to offer the knottiest challenge, but theresponse was not lacking: whereas bonsai were valued in the oldsociety as something "ancient, old, decayed, and odd" (ku-laok'u-kuai), their significance in the new China was best summedup tl was told by one staff member) as "(seemingly) dried woodbursts forth in springtime with new growth" {k'u-mu feng-ch'un). The rebirth of something ancient and apparently neardeath is an old theme in Chinese revolutionary thinking. Inaddition, the point is made that this new "bursting forth" is theresult of human effort, not of the natural rhythms of nature; sothe mastery-of-nature theme is brought in.As an example of how history is put to work for the neworder, I was particularly interested to visit the village of San-yuanli, now a part of Canton, the site of the famous resistanceby peasant militia against the British in 1841 during theOpium War. Since I had previously studied this subject somewhat myself, the whole excursion was filled with excitementfor me.Saturday, 21 Sept. 1974, Canton. The Sanyuanli ProductionBrigade lies along a bicycle-clogged road; on the west of the roadis a park with a stele commemorating the fallen heroes of thefight against the British. Down a slope to the east lies the Sanyuanli Production Team, a crowded village of brick buildingsinterspersed with ponds and vegetable plots. Rice paddies leadeastward toward a small range of hills. Teen age boys areswimming in a large rectangular pond bordered on one side bythe brick walls of houses.The Sanyuanli Historical Museum is housed in a formerTaoist temple that was the site of the famous first gathering ofthe peasant militia under local gentry leadership. Arrangedaround the walls of the main hall of the temple are educationalexhibits on the people's struggle against the invaders. I had abriefing in a small side hall; the main points were as follows: Beginning about 1800 the British began shipping opium intoChina, which was vigorously opposed by the Chinese people. [Ihad to extract the information that Commissioner Lin Tse-hsuwas somehow involved, with the support of the Tao-kuang Emperor.] In 1839, Commissioner Lin burned the opium, which gavethe English their chance to send a military expedition. TheEnglish Parliament was composed of two cliques, for and againstthe war. The war clique, which included Queen Victoria, won theday. The name of Jardine [the leading opium merchant] is notknown here, but those MPs who opposed the war (the "respectable merchant element") are carefully recorded, perhaps for thebenefit of British visitors.The British landed at Ni-ch'eng along the river and establishedtheir headquarters at a fort just north of the Canton city wall.Foraging northward as far as Sanyuanli, they committed outrages, but the villagers got together and resisted. The peasantshad a meeting at the temple, then sent messengers out to 103villages of the area, which then sent representatives to an enlarged meeting. No gentry were mentioned at all, but I was toldthat some "students" were also involved. The peasant leader wasWei Shao-kuang, a local vegetable farmer. Some gentry thenjoined (I had asked again if any gentry were involved) because ofthe English looting, but later abandoned the movement underofficial pressure.A detachment of English was lured to Niu-lan-kang, a hillypiece of wasteland just north of Sanyuanli, where they were ambushed by peasant militia. They managed to get back to the fort,which was then surrounded by tens of thousands of peasants.Eventually, as we all know, the traitorous Ch'ing prefect intervened, and the British were enabled to abandon the fort andretire ignominiously, whereupon the fort was occupied by triumphant peasant fighters.The final toll: more than 200 English killed, including a juniorofficer, and 20 more taken prisoner [British sources record atotal of one British killed and 15 wounded in the encounter.] Thepainting in the main exhibit hall shows a battle for the fort thatresembles representations of Bunker Hill (but with the British atthe top).The theme of the whole exhibit: the Chinese people arecapable, through their own strength and concerted action, ofsuccessfully resisting all threats to their sovereignty and independence. All this is in the nature of what might be called Clio-therapy, the building of self-confidence by the imaginative use ofhistory. The effect could only be achieved by stressing the spontaneous organizational capacity of the masses, which means thatthe gentry role had to be eliminated. ... A modern nation cannotbe built without this kind of confidence in the basic qualities ofthe people, and the feeling of security and group solidarity thatthis confidence engenders.A view from the porch of the temple conjures up visions of howit must have been in those days, like the visions one has atLexington Common and Concord Bridge, our closest analogs.Two immense, hoary trees, one recently dead, stand near thetemple, probably survivors from the period. The thin, strongCantonese peasants one sees going about their tasks in the villageare a basis for imagining the actual participants in the affair.They contrast strikingly with the stereotypical representations instatues and paintings inside the museum, which reflect theofficial preference for square-faced, pudgy heroes. Every revolution no doubt deserves its Lexington Common, and there werefew enough such episodes in that humiliating age to make thisone worth careful preservation and nurture.28Popular poster entitled "The Great Victory at Niulankang" shows peasant militia defeating British during the Opium War .The Opium War and the battle of Sanyuanli took place at atime of dynastic weakness when internal order and externaldefenses were crumbling. Times are very different now. Arevolution has swept away most of the old society and has builtChina once again into a strong, centralized state. As a result,China is again in command of her borders; and, like everysovereign state, lays down the rules under which foreignersmay move about within them. These rules are, by and large,not what Westerners are accustomed to in their own part of theworld, and they take some getting used to.Monday, 9 Sept. 1974, Sian. We are now entering our third weekin China. The group has become somewhat acclimatized — not tolife in China — but to the peculiar sort of "delegation life" welead here. Our vehicle is like a high-technology transparentbubble, in which we are levitated through and over a livingsociety, which we can see plainly but with which we can make nomeaningful contact. To heighten the feeling of being here,appropriate sensory stimuli are provided within the bubble toproduce the proper atmosphere — Chinese food, for instance, ordramatic entertainment. This sort of experience cannot quite beduplicated anywhere else, to my knowledge. Our hosts areextremely hospitable, and no doubt much can be learned frominside a bubble. . . .Looking back on this diary entry, it seems a bit peevish.There is much to be said for the "delegation" approach tohandling foreigners in China. One immense benefit to us wasthe group of five deputed by our host organization, the Agri cultural Association, to travel with us. One was an eminentprofessor of plant physiology, two were able administrativecadres, and two were expert teacher-interpreters. It is fair tosay that I learned more from these Chinese companions than Ihad from years of study, and all of us developed feelings ofdeep respect and affection for them. Our hosts handled localarrangements helpfully and efficiently through their branchoffices all over the country.Because of numerous factors, including the pressure ontravel facilities, the supply of interpreters, and differences incustoms and lifestyles, traveling in delegations is probably themost feasible form of contact in this early stage of our relationship. But are we ever to get beyond it? I would like to thinkof the delegation method as an intermediate step toward theday when China will feel secure enough to admit foreigners forlonger and more flexible visits for travel and study. Yet, on arainy Monday in northwest China, I was not so sure.I sense that this is really the proper way in which foreignersought to come into contact with Chinese life, in the Chinese view.It is quite likely that this represents in part a limitation of foreigncontact imposed by the needs of the socialist system; but perhapsin greater part, the reassertion of older assumptions about theproper place of outsiders in Chinese society: as honored guests,whose attainment of a correct view of China is very important tothe hosts, which view is best to be obtained through carefully organized group tours of limited duration, affording minimal contact with Chinese having no official business with the group.That this time- honored pattern should have been reasserted isperhaps only understandable in the light of China's terrible ex-29perience during the past century and a half, a trauma that willlong be felt here. China's time of troubles was also a time inwhich many foreigners lived here, coming and going as theypleased, protected by unequal treaties and extraterritorial rights.If such foreigners ever did China any good, that good was overshadowed by the humiliating circumstances under which theywere present. And of course many of them did China grievousharm.Doubtless, it could be argued that China would now benefitfrom the understanding gained, and spread, by friendly andsympathetic foreign guests who were allowed greater freedom tostudy here. But how could it be ascertained who was friendly andsympathetic if a horde of foreigners were to be allowed in?Antonioni [the Italian director of a film entitled China, whichdeeply offended the Chinese] probably seemed friendly enoughat first.The safer course is to follow the delegation approach, whichruns with the grain of the culture anyway. Though normalizingour diplomatic relations with China ought clearly to be first onour agenda, I somehow doubt that it would have much effectupon this basic pattern, notwithstanding our Chinese hosts'repeated assurances that it would.None of this, however, seems to affect the spontaneous goodwill shown toward us by ordinary people whenever we are luckyenough to come in contact with them; our experience in thisregard has been universally positive and encouraging.The reference above to Michelangelo Antonioni points uphow difficult it sometimes is to appreciate the Chinese viewpoint just by reading official literature. When I first saw theAntonioni film China two years ago, I thought it was in somerespects quite sympathetic. Consequently I was surprised whenit was vigorously denouned in China as being "hostile" anddishonest. A particularly brilliant and articulate young cadregave me another perspective:Monday. 9 Sept. 1974, Sian. Antonioni's offense, I learn fromone of my hosts, was not that he showed some backward featuresof Chinese life, but that he completely neglected the teleology ofthe situation. He was led into this pitfall by the fact that he hadsophisticated cinematographic ideas but no historical understanding.The example my informant gave was of the portrayal of twobuildings, one a mud-brick hut, the other a gleaming modernstructure. It is perfectly all right to show that China still hassome backward features like mud huts, but unfair not to pointout that the new building represents the great progress she hasmade since Liberation. The "China, Land of Contrasts" approach that Antonioni took (come to think of it, a hackneyedtechnique of countless travelogs) traded on incongruities (thenew truck and the human cart-puller, for instance) withoutstressing that there is movement from one to the other; thatbefore 1949, in the old society, there might have been just agroup of cart-pullers!The inadequacy of the static, visual approach as a way toevaluate the new society does suggest the corruption that moviesand television have brought to journalism. The striking picture ismore salable than the long, necessarily verbal explanation ofwhat it means, and pictures of exotic contrasts are particularlysalable to an uninstructed Western audience. Seen from thispoint of view, the Chinese outrage over Antonioni is more under standable. The Chinese have worked their heads off to build anew society and transform the physical scene, and all they get isthe "land of contrasts" treatment!In order words, if my informant was correct, the Chineseconception of fair reporting does not require excising allreferences to the pre-industrial techniques and old equipmentwith which many Chinese are still making do. But it doesrequire the corresponding appreciation that China is moving,with great energy and dedication, to transform her economyand raise the living standards of her people. Here the historianis, after all, at some advantage, even on a first visit. For thedistance China has traveled from the widespread economicmisery of the old society — so plainly imprinted on the historical record — is indeed impressive.Phyllis' chronologyPhyllis MattinglyIt's never been quite clear to meHow old a person ought to be.When I was young, I shared my youthWith antiquated arks of truthWhose timeless attitudes were kinTo fantasies I'd oft be in.No napping, nodding old folks these,Turned by years to travesties.With sprightly step and shining eyeThey sought adventures as did I.Now I've reached a certain stateWhere people think it's appropriateFor me to sit and atrophy,Observing life arthritically.The Child Adult I have becomeIs threat and nuisance now to some.How old I am is hard to be —My years and I just don't agree.I've got no patience with the dead(Especially those dead in the head).Phyllis G. Mattingly (ab'38) is business adviser to CommunityIndustries, a vocational rehabilitation and training facility inFort Collins, Colorado.30KissingerContinued from Page 9presupposed the political unity of the Atlantic nations andJapan.The need for consumer cooperationThis need not be our fate. On the contrary, the energy crisisshould summon once again the cooperative effort which sustained the policies of North America, western Europe andJapan for a quarter century. The Atlantic nations and Japanhave the ability, if we have the will, not only to master theenergy crisis but to shape from it a new era of creativity andcommon progress.In fact we have no other alternative.The energy crisis is not a problem of transitional adjustment. Our financial institutions and mechanisms of cooperation were never designed to handle so abrupt and artificiallysustained a price rise of so essential a commodity with suchmassive economic and political ramifications. We face a long-term drain which challenges us to common action or dooms usto perpetual crisis.The problem will not go away by permitting inflation toproceed to redress the balance between oil producers andproducers of other goods. Inflation is the most grotesque kindof adjustment, in which all elements in the domestic structureare upset in an attempt to balance one — the oil bill. In anyevent, the producers could and would respond by raisingprices, thereby accelerating all the political and social dangersI have described.Nor can consumers finance their oil bill by going into debt tothe producers without making their domestic structure hostageto the decisions of others. Already, producers have the powerto cause major financial upheavals simply by shifting investment funds from one country to another or even from oneinstitution to another. The political implications are ominousand unpredictable. Those who wield financial power wouldsooner or later seek to dictate the political terms of the newrelationships.Finally, price reductions will not be brought about byconsumer/producer dialog alone. The price of oil will comedown only when objective conditions for a reduction arecreated and not before. Today the producers are able tomanipulate prices at will and with apparent impunity. Theyare not persuaded by our protestations of damage to oursocieties and economies, because we have taken scant action todefend them ourselves. They are not moved by our alarmsabout the health of the western world which never included andsometimes exploited them. And, even if the producers learneventually that their long-term interest requires a cooperativeadjustment of the price structure, it would be foolhardy tocount on it or passively wait for it.We agree that a consumer/producer dialog is essential. Butit must be accompanied by the elaboration of greater con sumer solidarity. The heart of our approach must be collaboration among the consuming nations. No one else will dothe job for us.A strategy for consumer cooperationConsumer cooperation has been the central element of U.S.policy for the past year and a half.In April, 1973, the United States warned that energy wasbecoming a problem of unprecedented proportions and thatcollaboration among the nations of the West and Japan wasessential. In December of the same year, we proposed aprogram of collective action. This led to the WashingtonEnergy Conference in February, 1974, at which the major consumers established new machinery for consultation, with amandate to create, as soon as possible, institutions for thepooling of effort, risk and technology.In April, 1974, and then again this fall before the UNGeneral Assembly, President Ford and I reiterated the American philosophy that global cooperation offers the only long-term solution, and that our efforts with fellow consumers weredesigned to pave the way for constructive dialog with theproducers. In September, 1974, we convened a meeting of theforeign and finance ministers of the United Kingdom, Japan,the Federal Republic of Germany, France and the UnitedStates to consider further measures of consumer cooperation.And last fall, President Ford announced a long-term nationalpolicy of conservation and development to reinforce our international efforts to meet the energy challenge.In our view, a concerted consumer strategy has two basicelements:First, we must create the objective conditions necessary tobring about lower oil prices. Since the industrialized nationsare the principal consumers, their actions can have a decisiveimpact. Determined national action, reinforced by collectiveefforts, can transform the market, by reducing our consumption of oil and accelerating development of new sources ofenergy. Over time this will create a powerful pressure onprices.Second, in the interim we must protect the vitality of oureconomies. Effective action on conservation will requiremonths; development of alternative sources will take years. Inthe meantime, we will face two great dangers. One is the threatof a new embargo. The other is that our financial system maybe unable to manage chronic deficits and to recycle the hugeflows of oil dollars that producers will invest each year in oureconomies. A financial collapse — or the threat of it — somewhere in the system could result in restrictive monetary, fiscaland trade measures and a downward spiral of income andjobs.The consumers have taken two major steps to safeguardthemselves against these dangers by collaborative action.One of the results of the Washington Energy Conferencewas a new permanent institution for consumer energy cooperation — the International Energy Agency. This agency will oversee a comprehensive common effort — in conservation, cooper-31ative research and development, broad new action in nuclearenrichment, investment in new energy supplies, and theelaboration of consumer positions for the consumer-producerdialog.Equally significant is the unprecedented agreement to shareoil supplies among principal consumers in the event of anothercrisis. The International Energy Program that grew out of theWashington Energy Conference is an historic step towardsconsumer solidarity. It provides a detailed blueprint for common action should either a general or selective embargo occur.It is a defensive arrangement, not a challenge to producers.But producing countries must know that it expresses thedetermination of the consumers to shape their own futureand not to remain vulnerable to outside pressures.The International Energy Agency and the InternationalEnergy Program are the first fruits of our efforts.But they are only foundations. We must now bring our blueprint to life.The next stepsTo carry through the over-all design, the consuming countries must act in five interrelated areas.First, we must accelerate our national programs of energyconservation and we must coordinate them to ensure theireffectiveness.Second, we must press on with the development of new surpluses of oil and alternative sources of energy.Third, we must strengthen economic security — to protectagainst oil emergencies and to safeguard the internationalfinancial system.Fourth, we must assist the poor nations whose hopes andefforts for progress have been cruelly blunted by the oil pricerises of the past year.Fifth, on the basis of consumer solidarity we should enter adialog with the producers to establish a fair and durable long-term relationship.Let me deal with each of these points in turn.Conservation and new suppliesConservation and the development of new sources of energyare basic to the solution: The industrialized countries as awhole now import nearly two-thirds of their oil and over one-third of their total energy. Over the next decade, we must conserve enough oil and develop sufficient alternative supplies toreduce these imports to no more than one-fifth of the totalenergy consumption. This requires that the industrializedcountries manage the growth of their economies without increasing the volume of their oil imports over the next decade.The effect of this reduced dependence will be crucial. If itsucceeds, the demand of the industrialized countries forimported oil will remain static, while new sources of energy willbecome available both inside and outside of OPEC. OPECmay attempt to offset efforts to strengthen conservation and develop alternative sources by deeper and deeper cuts in production, reducing the income of producers who seek greaterrevenues for their development. The majority of producers willthen see their interest in expanding supply and seeking a newequilibrium between supply and demand at a fair price.Limiting oil imports into industrial countries to a roughlyconstant figure is an extremely demanding goal requiringdiscipline for conservation and investment for the development of new energy sources. The United States, which nowimports one-third of its oil and one-sixth of its total energy,will have to become largely self-sufficient. Specifically we shallset as a target that we reduce our imports over the next decadefrom 7,000,000 barrels a day to no more than 1,000,000 barrelsor less than 2% of our total energy consumption.Conservation is, of course, the most immediate road torelief. President Ford has stated that the United States willreduce oil imports by 1,000,000 barrels per day by the end of1975— a 15% reduction.But one country's reduction in consumption can be negatedif other major consumers do not follow suit. Fortunately, othernations have begun conservation programs of their own. Whatis needed now is to relate these programs to common goals andan over-all design. Therefore, the United States proposes aninternational agreement to set consumption goals. The UnitedStates is prepared to join an international conservation agreement that would lead to systematic and long-term savings onan equitable basis.As part of such a program, we propose that by the end of1975 the industrialized countries reduce their consumption ofoil by 3,000,000 barrels a day below what it would be otherwise — a reduction of approximately 10% of the total importsof the group. This reduction can be carried out withoutprejudice to economic growth and jobs, by cutting back onwasteful and inefficient uses of energy both in personal consumption and in industry. The United States is prepared toassume a fair share of the total reduction.The principal consumer nations should meet each year todetermine appropriate annual targets.New supplyConservation measures will be effective to the extent thatthey are part of a dynamic program for the development ofalternative energy sources. All countries must make a majorshift toward nuclear power, coal, gas and other sources. If weare to assure substantial amounts of new energy in the 1980swe must start now. If the industrialized nations take the stepswhich are within their power they will be able to transformenergy shortages into energy surpluses by the 1980s.Project Independence is the American contribution to thiseffort. It represents the investment of hundreds of billions ofdollars, public and private — dwarfing our moon landing program and the Manhattan Project, two previous examples ofAmerican technology mobilized for a great goal. Project Independence demonstrates that the United States will neverpermit itself to be held hostage— politically or economically—32to a strategic commodity.Project Independence will be complemented by an activepolicy of supporting cooperative projects with other consumers. The International Energy Agency is well-designed tolaunch and coordinate such programs. Plans are alreadydrawn up for joint projects in coal, technology, and solarenergy. The United States is prepared to expand these collective activities substantially to include such fields as uraniumenrichment.The area of controlled thermonuclear fusion is particularlypromising for joint ventures for it would make availableabundant energy from virtually inexhaustible resources. TheUnited States is prepared to join with other IEA members in abroad program of joint planning, exchange of scientific personnel, shared use of national facilities and the developmentof joint facilities of accelerate theadvent of fusion power.Finally, we shall recommend to theIEA that it create a common fund tofinance or guarantee investment inpromising energy projects, in participating countries and in those ready tocooperate with the IEA on a long-termbasis.Financial solidarityThe most serious immediate problemfacing the consuming countries is theeconomic and financial strain resultingfrom high oil prices. Producer revenueswill inevitably be reinvested in the industrialized world; there is no otheroutlet. But they will not necessarily flowback to the countries whose balance-of-payments problems are most acute.Thus many countries will remain unableto finance their deficits and all will bevulnerable to massive sudden withdrawals.The industrialized nations, actingtogether, can correct this imbalance andreduce their vulnerability. Just as producers are free to choose where theyplace their funds, so the consumersmust be free to redistribute these fundsto meet their own needs, and those ofthe developing countries.Private financial institutions are already deeply involved in this process.To buttress their efforts, central banksare assuring that necessary support isavailable to the private institutions —particularly since so much of the oilmoney has been invested in relativelyshort-term obligations. Private institu tions should not bear all the risks indefinitely, however. Wecannot afford to test the limits of their capacity.Therefore, the governments of western Europe, NorthAmerica and Japan should move now to put in place a systemof mutual support that will augment and buttress privatechannels whenever necessary. The United States proposes thata common loan and guarantee facility be created to provide forredistributing up to $25,000,000,000 in 1975, and as muchagain the next year if necessary. The facility will not be a newaid institution to be funded by additional taxes. It will be amechanism for recycling, at commercial interest rates, fundsflowing back to the industrial world from the oil producers.Support from the facility would not be automatic, but contingent on full resort to private financing and on reasonableself-help measures. No country should expect financial assis-FRIDAY, JUNE 6:Faculty-Alumni Seminars: Center for Continuing EducationClass Reunions: 1918, 1925, 1930, 1935, 1940Hospitality Lounge: Alumni HouseSATURDAY, JUNE 7:President's ReceptionFOTA FinaleCampus ToursAwards LuncheonAll-campus Parade Class Reunions: 1950, 1955, 1960, 1965, 1945,Emeritus ClubSUNDAY, JUNE 8:Convocation Sunday, Rockefeller Chapel: Malcolm R. Sutherland, Jr.,President, Meadville-LombardTheological SchoolFor information about reservations for tours, Awards Luncheon, reception or class events,send for a reunion announcement or contact Kris Nelson, Program Director, AlumniHouse, 5733 South University Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, 60637.Please send Reunion information to:NAME. CLASS YEAR.ADDRESS. .CITY/STATE. ZIP.33tance that is not moving effectively to lessen its dependence onimported oil.Such a facility will help assure the stability of the entirefinancial system and the creditworthiness of participatinggovernments; in the long run it would reduce the need forofficial financing. If implemented rapidly it would:protect financial institutions from the excessive risks posedby an enormous volume of funds beyond their control orcapacity;ensure that no nation is forced to pursue disruptive and restrictive policies for lack of adequate financing;assure that no consuming country will be compelled to accept financing on intolerable political or economic terms;andenable each participating country to demonstrate to peoplethat efforts and sacrifices are being shared equitably — thatthe national survival is buttressed by consumer solidarity.We have already begun discussion of this proposal; it was aprincipal focus of the meeting of the finance and foreignministers of the Federal Republic of Germany, the UnitedStates, Japan, the United Kingdom, and France in September,1974, in Washington.The developing worldThe strategy I have outlined here is also essential to ease theserious plight of many developing countries. All consumingnations are in need of relief from excessive oil prices, but thedeveloping world cannot wait for the process to unfold. Forthem, the oil crisis has already produced an emergency. The oilbill has wiped out the external assistance of the poorer developing countries, halted agricultural and industrial development and inflated the prices for their most fundamentalneeds, including food. Unlike the industrial nations, developing countries do not have many options of self-help; theirmargin for reducing energy consumption is limited; they havelittle capacity to develop alternative sources.For both moral and practical reasons, we cannot permithopes for development to die, or cut ourselves off from thepolitical and economic needs of so great a part of mankind. Atthe very least, the industrial nations must maintain the presentlevel of their aid to the developing world and take specialaccount of its needs in the multilateral trade negotiations.We must also look for ways to help in the critical area offood. At the World Food Conference I outlined a strategy formeeting the food and agricultural needs of the least developedcountries. The United States is uniquely equipped to make acontribution in this field and will make a contribution worthyof its special strength.A major responsibility must rest with those oil producerswhose actions aggravated the problems of the developingcountries and who because of their new-found wealth nowhave greatly increased resources for assistance.But even after all presently available resources have been drawn upon, an unfinanced payment of deficit of between$1,000,000,000 and $2,000,000,000 will remain for the twenty-five or thirty countries most seriously affected by high oilprices. It could grow in 1976.We need new international mechanisms to meet this deficit.One possibility would be to supplement regular InternationalMonetary Fund facilities by the creation of a separate trustfund managed by the IMF, to lend at interest rates recipientcountries could afford. Funds would be provided by nationalcontributions from interested countries, including especiallyoil producers. The IMF itself could contribute the profits fromIMF gold sales undertaken for this purpose. We urge theInterim Committee of the IMF and the joint IMF/IBRDDevelopment Committee to examine this proposal on anurgent basis.Relations with producersWhen the consumers have taken some collective stepstoward a durable solution — that is, measures to further conservation and the development of new supplies — and for ourinterim protection through emergency planning and financialsolidarity, the conditions for a constructive dialog with producers will have been created.We do not see consumer cooperation as antagonistic toconsumer-producer cooperation. Rather, we view it as a necessary prerequisite to a constructive dialog as do many of theproducers themselves who have urged the consumers to curbinflation, conserve energy, and preserve international financialstability.A dialog that is not carefully prepared will compound theproblems which it is supposed to solve. Until the consumersdevelop a coherent approach to their own problems, discussions with the producers will only repeat in a multilateralforum the many bilateral exchanges which are already takingplace. When consumer solidarity has been developed and thereare realistic prospects for significant progress, the UnitedStates is prepared to participate in a consumer-producermeeting.The main subject of such a dialog must inevitably be price.Clearly the stability of the system on which the economichealth of even the producers depends requires a price reduction. But an equitable solution must also take account of theproducers' need for long-term income security and economicgrowth. This we are prepared to discuss sympathetically.In the meantime the producers must recognize that furtherincreases in the prices while this dialog is being prepared andwhen the system has not even absorbed the previous price riseswould be disruptive and dangerous.On this basis — consumer solidarity in conservation, thedevelopment of alternative supplies and financial security;producer policies of restraint and responsibility; and a mutualrecognition of interdependence and a long-term commoninterest— there can be justifiable hope that a consumer-producer dialog will bring an end to the crisis that has shakenthe world to its economic foundations.34The next stepIt is now a year and a month since the oil crisis began. Wehave made a good beginning, but the major test is still ahead.The United States in the immediate future intends to makefurther proposals to implement the program I have outlined.Next week, we will propose to the new International EnergyAgency a specific program for cooperative action in conservation, the development of new supplies, nuclear enrichment, and the preparation of consumer positions for theeventual producer-consumer dialog.Simultaneously, Secretary Simon will spell out our ideas forfinancial solidarity in detail, and our representative at theGroup of Ten will present them to his colleagues.We will, as well, ask the chairman of the Interim Committeeof the IMF as well as the new joint IMF/IBRD DevelopmentCommittee to consider an urgent program for concessionalassistance to the poorest countries.Yesterday, Secretary Morton announced an acceleratedenergy program to the new Congress.President Ford will submit a detailed and comprehensiveenergy program to the new Congress.ConclusionLet there be no doubt, the energy problem is soluble. It willoverwhelm us only if we retreat from its reality. But there canbe no solution without the collective efforts of the nations ofNorth America, western Europe, and Japan — the very nationswhose cooperation over the course of more than two decadeshas brought prosperity and peace to the postwar world. Nor inthe last analysis can there be a solution without a dialog withthe producers, carried on in a spirit of reconciliation andcompromise.A great responsibility rests upon America for without ourdedication and leadership no progress is possible. This nation,for many years, has carried the major responsibility for main-MorgenthauContinued from Page 10has armed many of them with nuclear weapons, they will havebecome not only each other's enemies, but the enemies ofhumanity, their own peoples included. For their traditionalpolicies, carried out within a novel technological world, carrywithin themselves the seeds of universal destruction.The international disorder and its denouement in a nuclearcatastrophe, a dramatic potential in contemporary world politics, has been glossed over until recently by the relativecoherence of, on the one hand, the two blocs dominated by thesuper-powers and, on the other, the weakness of the nations ofthe Third World. taining the peace, feeding the hungry, sustaining internationaleconomic growth, and inspiring those who would be free. Wedid not seek this heavy burden, and we have often beentempted to put it down. But we have never done so, and wecannot afford to do so now — or the generations that follow uswill pay the price for our self-indulgence.For more than a decade America has been torn by war,social and generational turbulence, and constitutional crisis.Yet the most striking lesson from these events is our fundamental stability and strength. During our upheavals, we stillmanaged to ease tensions around the globe. Our people andour institutions have come through our domestic travails withan extraordinary resiliency. And now, once again, our leadership in technology, agriculture, industry and communicationshas become vital to the world's recovery.Woodrow Wilson once remarked that "wrapped up with theliberty of the world is the continuous perfection of that libertyby the concerted powers of all civilized peoples." That, in thelast analysis, is what the energy crisis is all about. For it is ourliberty that in the end is at stake and it is only through the concerted action of the industrial democracies that it will be maintained.The dangers that Woodrow Wilson and his generationfaced were, by today's standards, relatively simple andstraightforward. The dangers we face now are more subtle andmore profound. The context in which we act is more complexthan even the period following the second world war. Then wedrew inspiration from stewardship, now we must find it inpartnership. Then we and our allies were brought together byan external threat, now we must find it in our devotion to thepolitical and economic institutions of free peoples workingtogether for a common goal. Our challenge is to maintain thecooperative spirit among like-minded nations that has servedus so well for a generation, and to prove, as Woodrow Wilsonsaid in another time and place, that "the highest and best formof efficiency is the spontaneous cooperation of a free people."Unless present indications deceive, I fear that it is exactlythe new diplomacy of movement, initiated by the presentAmerican Secretary of State, which will bring these hiddentendencies toward anarchy and nuclear destruction to the fore.To create out of these disintegrative and destructive tendencies a "structure of peace" would test the ability of thegreatest of statesmen. Can it be that the statesmen of our timewill be harking back to the vision which Franklin D. Rooseveltand Joseph Stalin shared — namely the division of the worldinto gigantic spheres of influence, whose mutual boundarieswould be strictly defined and observed and within which asuper-power would maintain peace and order?35^Alnmni J\(ewsr\^ in memoriam: Mark R. Jacobs, ab'02,^J ^ who retired after twenty-eight years ofservice to the Montebello (Ca.) school districtas a principal and superintendent, diedSeptember 21, 1974.f\C in memoriam: Robert L. Moore,*-'»-' pIid'05, internationally known mathematician and professor emeritus at theUniversity of Texas, died October 4, 1974, inAustin, Tx. Moore gained world fame for hispoint set theory which is considered one of themost significant mathematical developmentsof modern times. His major work,Foundations of Point Set Theory, was hailedas a monumental contribution tomathematics.rv/r in memoriam: Florence Bush Mitchell,V\J AB'06, Wilmette, II., a former Latinteacher, died September 7, 1974.f\f\ harry hansen, p1ib'09, is the editor of^ -? a 1974 revised edition of Illinois: ADescriptive and Historical Guide, a part ofthe American Guide Series originallycompiled by the WPA Federal WritersProject. Hastings House is the publisher.in memoriam: Walter H. Theobald, sb'1 1 ,md'1 1 . physician and surgeon, diedDecember 15, 1974, in Bethesda, Md.-j r\ in memoriam: Alfred C. Kelly, Jr.,-'-'-' phB'13, for many years a resident ofLaGrange, II., who moved recently to Stuart,Fl., died August 22, 1974, after a brief illness.-j -i in memoriam: Myrtie Collier, sb'H,-*- -*¦ former mathematics professor atImmaculate Heart College (Los Angeles) andUCLA, died June 25, 1974, in Los Angeles.Ms. Collier was a co-founder of the Universityof Chicago Club of Los Angeles.-j ^\ in memoriam: A. Boyd Pixley, x'12,A ^ La Jolla, Ca., died August 22, 1974; notpreviously noted in the magazine was thedeath, several years ago, of Julia StreetWheeler, x'12, of Berkeley, Ca.-J O in memoriam: Robert F. Bradburn,A^ phB'13. jd'15. Lighthouse Point, Fl.,died November 8, 1974: Arthur Gee, p1ib'13.jd'15, retired general counsel and member ofthe board of the former Ohio Oil Company(now the Marathon Oil Company), and hiswife died November 17, 1974. in a traffic accident in Palm Beach, FL, where they livedpart of the year; Amy Lord Howe, phB'13,professor emeritus of home economics atPurdue University, died November 4, 1974;Helen Gross Lewis, phB'13, a retired schoolteacher and administrator, died October 24,1974, at her home in La Jolla, Ca.; Alan Loth,phB'13, legal consultant in San Jose, Ca., diedOctober 21 , 1974, of injuries received in anauto accident.¦J A JANET TYLER FLANNER, x'14, Was¦*¦' featured on a program with FrancoiseGiroud (France's secretary of state for thecondition of women) during the Women inFrance festival, held last fall at New YorkUniversity, the magazine learns from ellene. morrison, mfa'64, New York, who sent ina flyer for the event. Ms. Flanner, for manyyears the New Yorker magazine's Paris correspondent, writing under the name of"Genet," has been living in Europe, mostly inParis, since 1921 . Among her many publishedworks are The Cubicle City (a novel). AnAmerican in Paris (a collection of New Yorkerprofiles) and Men and Monuments (artmonographs). She has also translated booksfrom the French, including two by Colette. Amember of the National Institute of Arts andLetters, Ms. Flanner won a National BookAward in 1966 and has been decorated withClub eventsChicago, March 21: Special showing of Monet retrospective at the Art Institute.Cleveland, March 1 1 : Norval Morris, J uliusKreeger professor and co-director of the Center for Studies in Criminal Justice, LawSchool will speak.new york, March 12: Philip Kurland, William R. Kenan, Jr., professor in the Collegeand in the Law School, will speak; May 16: anight on the good ship Robert Fulton.Pittsburgh, March 12: Professor NorvalMorris of the Law School will speak.Washington, March 16: ShakespeareVJul-ious Caesar" at the Arena Stage; March 29:tennis evening, Arlington "Y" Tennis Club;April 25: annual dinner. the Legion of Honor.in memoriam: Lester Aronberg, sb'14,pIid'17, chemist, physicist, president andfounder of the Lake Chemical and Markalcompanies, Chicago paint manufacturers,who was active in numerous Jewishphilanthropic concerns, died December 3,1974, in Chicago; Raymond N. Crawford,am'14, died October 4, 1974, at the age of 89;Nettie Perrill Moore, phB'14, am'24, retiredteacher at Agnes Scott College and CarolinaCollege for Women, died October 15, 1974, inLynchburg, Va.-j r george caldwell, phB'15, writes* *-* that he was pleased to read the ClassNotes item (in the Autumn '74 magazine) onevelyn cole duclos, p1ibT4. "Evelynintroduced me to the Orlando (Fl.) LittleTheater in 1961 , in which I played parts in'Joan of Lorraine,' 'Anastasia,' etc., etc. I wasthen retired and found the Little Theater adelightful experience." Caldwell, 82,celebrated the second anniversary of hismarriage to the former Edna B. McDougle onOctober 7. The couple lives in Brunswick, Ga.jules c. stein, p1ibT5, md'21, was thesubject of a "spotlight" biography in thebusiness section of the Sunday New YorkTimes last October 20. Stein, anophthalmologist, founded MCA, Inc. (MusicCorporation of America) in 1924 andResearch to Prevent Blindness, Inc., in 1960.Playing "schmaltz" violin and saxophonewith his own dance band allowed Stein towork his way through UC, reports the Times."He did postgraduate work in ophthalmologyat the University of Vienna. A paper hepublished in 1924 on telescopic spectaclesremains a definitive medical work." Tosupplement his income after completing hisresidency at Cook County Hospital andentering practice, says the Times, Steinbooked bands "in the dance-crazed 1920s,charging the band leaders a commission. In1924, with $1 ,000 capital, he formalized thisside business, founding the MusicCorporation of America. Two years later, withthe band business booming, he gave up hispractice — and his title — for business. 'I didn'twant anyone calling me Doc' To stimulatebusiness [he] invented the one-night stand Starting with Guy Lombardo, MCA signed upmost of the big names in the band businessand went national. ... By the end of WorldWar II. MCA was the largest of all talentagencies, making it big on 10%commissions." Stein, who still reports to hisUniversal City office three or four days aweek, lives in a Beverly Hills (Ca.) mansionwhere he and his wife have accumulated one36'He loved the game and his Alma Mater9One of the University's alltime great athletes and coaches, and certainly one of thebest loved. Nelson H. Norgren (p1ib74),died December 31in Mill Valley, Ca.He was 83.Norgie's careerwas summarizedin these pages byBill Morgenstern(pIib'20, jd '22) onthe occasion ofNorgren Daywhen the coachretired in 1957.Following is asomewhat abridged version of that story:ANels Norgren. . . As a player Nels won twelve majorCs in four sports in three years — a recordequaled by only one other Maroon athlete, the late Paul (Shorty) Des Jardiens(phB'15).In track Norgren threw the discus andput the shot; on first base he was amember of the 1913 conference championship baseball team; in basketball hewas an all-conference forward.In three years of varsity footballNorgren never missed a game. A superbright halfback, he was the team's numberone punter and, even in later years assisting Stagg as backfield coach, he couldkick the ball farther than any man on theteam. In 1913 he was elected captain ofthe team that won the Western Conference championship.Walter Camp put Norgren on his second and third All-America teams.It is the mark of a man to equal theachievements of Norgren as an undergraduate. He not only succeeded in winningtwelve major Cs, but maintained a highgrade average and was awarded a silver-handled shaving brush in honor ofwinning the annual senior mustache race in 1913.In 1914 Norgren received his bachelorof philosophy degree and a contract asdirector of athletics at the University ofUtah. There he was jack-of-all-athletics.He coached football, basketball, baseball,and track from 1914 to 1917.In 1916 the Utah basketball team wasscheduled to play an exhibition game withthe San Francisco Olympic Club. ThisCalifornia team was barnstorming east tocompete in the national A.A.U. championship at Chicago.Considered a pushover by the SanFrancisco aggregation, Norgren's Utahfive won decisively. The Salt Lake citizenswere so surprised that they quickly raisedthe money to send Nels and his red-hotboys to Chicago where they won the national championship.In 1917 Nelson Norgren joined theArmy Air Service and went to France as apursuit pilot. After the war he returned tothe Midwest to become director ofathletics for the Chicago Association ofCommerce and Industry.Amos Alonzo Stagg brought Norgrenback to the Midway in 1921 as an assistantcoach in football and as coach of basketball and baseball. In 1924 the basketballteam tied Illinois and Wisconsin for theconference championship.To compete with schools which hadmore material, Norgren's teams had toresort to surprise and to defensive strategies. Frequently this meant inventingplays on the spur of the moment.Richard Lounsbury (sb'41) once recalled to Norgren: "I remember clearlyhow some of your last minute stratagemspaid off. There was the night we practiceda stall offense in the shower room a fewminutes before game time and went on tobeat Wisconsin."Between 1910 and 1930 the baseballteam made numerous exhibition trips toJapan. Nels was in charge on the 1925 and 1930 visits.Some of the men on the 1925 trip hadnever found themselves away from home,much less sailing west on the Pacific. Oneboy approached Nels and said: "That certainly is a lot of water." "Yes," repliedNorg, "And you're only seeing the top."On a later J apan jaunt, Roy Henshaw(x' 33) noticed that one of the nauticalmaps indicated that the ship was locatedin an area where the water was over10,000 feet deep. Henshaw apprehensively asked Nels: "Do ships sink hereoften?" Nels responded: "Only once,Roy. Only once."In 1942, crowding fifty, Norgren againvolunteered for service. Commissioned amajor in the Air Force, he spent fifteenmonths in England as group intelligenceofficer for the 379th Heavy Bombardment Group.When Norgren returned to campus in1944 big time athletics were gone. De-emphasis began with the dropping offootball in 1939, gained momentumduring the war, and resulted in Big Tenwithdrawal in 1947. The boys played basketball, but Bill (William S., Ill) Gray(pIib'48, mba'50) one of Nels' latter dayhoopsters summed it up with: "It'samazing how so many with so little [basketball] talent could be accumulated onone campus."But they played because they loved thegame and Nels coached because he lovedthe game and his Alma Mater. And,although the record reads: 191 wins, 420losses, two hundred C men in the diningroom of the Quadrangle Club on NorgrenDay went along with the opinion ofNorgren's grandson, Michael: "He's thebest!"Norgren's retirement from the University in 1957 to be associate professoremeritus of physical education completeda solid career of achievement that spannedfive decades.of the largest collections of 18th-centuryEnglish antiques in the world.in memoriam: I. A. Barnett, sb'15, sm'16,p1id'18, professor emeritus of mathematics atthe University of Cincinnati and Ohio StateUniversity, died September 27 in Chicago;Hays MacFarland, x'15, chairman of theexecutive committee of Earle Ludgin & Company, Chicago advertising agency, diedJanuary 2 in Chicago.-i r in memoriam: Erwin C. Cline,¦*¦" am' 16, principal of Richmond (In.)Senior High School for twenty years andformer state director of the Illinois division ofvocational rehabilitation, died August 8, 1974. in Marian, In.Helen Timberlake Brookes, phB'16,Baltimore, Md.. died in May of 1974.George S. Counts, p1idT6, educator, theauthor of tw enty-nine books on educationalphilosophy, a founder of the New York StateLiberal Party, died November 10, 1974, inBelleville, II. Counts taught at Yale, the37University of Chicago, Columbia, theUniversity of Pittsburgh, and SouthernIllinois University. Although he was defeatedas the Liberal Party candidate for the U.S.Senate in 1 952, Counts polled nearly 500,000votes . He served as state chairman (NewYork) of the party from 1955 to '60.Lawrence M. Henderson, p1id'16, SantaBarbara, Ca., retired educator and researchchemist, died December 17, 1973.Katherine Field White Hotchkiss, p1ibT6,civic and community contributor in Redlands,Ca.. recipient of an alumni citation for publicservice from the University in 1963, diedNovember 13, 1974.17 in memoriam: Donald Pritchett Bean,ph.B'17, one of the leading figures inacademic publishing, died December 1, 1974,in Palo Alto. Ca. Bean took over the publishing department at UC immediately afterhis graduation in 1917 and stayed on atChicago for twenty-five years. Hesubsequently directed publishing activities atStanford and Syracuse universities.Sidney Richard Kaliski, sb'17, md'19,retired San Antonio (Tx.) pediatrician, diedJuly 20, 1974. Dr. Kaliski was twice awardedthe Army's outstanding civilian service medalfor his work as a consultant in pediatrics atBrooke General Hospital from 1946 to 1973.He was also the recipient of a certificate ofmerit from the Air Force for his work inpediatries at Lackland (Tx.) Air Force Basefrom 1957 to 1969.John J. Kritzer, jd'17, Monmouth, II., diedin February of 1974.lone Bostaph Wiedemann, phB'17,Western Springs, II. , former domestic scienceteacher who was active in local church, cultural, and service activities, died January 1 1on her eightieth birthday.a q in memoriam: Marguerite Seeley1 O Chaney, pIib'18, died October 16, 1974,in Sacramento, Ca.; Laura Draper Hamilton,x'18, Flossmoor, II., died in May of 1974; theReverend James B. Ostergren, am'18, db'23,died November 10, 1974, at his home inSeattle, Wa.in memoriam: Benjamin Kempnergel, pIib'19, Milwaukee (Wi.) travel1Q IN M' Eng.counselor, died in November of 1974^f\ GERTRUDE WILSON, pllB'20, AM'38,lAj retirecj educator and social worker, oneof the pioneers of the group concept in socialwork, lives with a retired colleague in amountain home near Pioneer, Ca. Sinceretiring about eleven years ago as professor in the school of social welfare at the Universityof California, Berkeley, Ms. Wilson has beenbusy writing, editing books, lecturing,consulting, teaching, organizing and leadingworkshops, and, in her spare time, pursuingwhat she calls "natural crafts" — makingornaments and other items from such thingsas pine cones and driftwood — and sellingthem in her snowline shop in California's highSierras. Her roommate, Ms. Gladys Ryland, aretired professor from Tulane University, wasMs. Wilson's co-author for the book, SocialGroup Work Practice.in memoriam: Margaret MorrisonBrayton, phB'20. retired director of theChildren's Museum of the Detroit PublicSchools, died October 8, 1974, in TraverseCity, Mi.; Gail F. Moulton, sb'20, sm'22, whoretired in 1963 as staff geologist forRockefeller Brothers, Inc., died November 2,1974. in Vero Beach, FL; John M. Tinker,x'20, a retired duPont Company chemist andexecutive and former foreign service officer,serving for three years as a science attache atthe U.S. Embassy in Karachi, Pakistan, diedNovember 8, 1974, in Wilmington, De.^\-t in memoriam: Henry A. Callis,^" md'2 1 . retired physician and formerassociate professor of medicine at HowardUniversity, died November 12, 1974, inWashington, D.C.; Ruth M. Skinner, p1ib'21,Chicago; Frederick A. Winterhoff, pIib'21,Delta, Oh., died June 20. 1974.r\f\ John C. Murray, x'22, has been«^ named ' ' physician of the year' ' by theMercy Hospital and Medical Center (Chicago) intern-resident alumni association. Agraduate of Northwestern medical school,Dr. Murray has been a staff member atMercy since 1927. He served on the Loyolamedical school faculty until 1965.in memoriam: Charles A. Beckwith,sb'22, died December 31 , 1974, at his homein Dunedin, Fl. ; Eugene Ellsworth Gran-quist, sb'22, El Paso, Tx., died in May of1974; Oliver M. Moore, md'22, San Marino,Ca., died May 7, 1974; Guy Phillips, am'22,Harvey, II., died November 6, 1974; not previously noted in the magazine was the death,two years ago, of Alice C. Propst, p!ib'22,Watervliet, N.Y.^-5 paulf.bechtold, am'23, Des Moines,¦"^ la., advises us that his third book,From Greed to Greatness, has recently beenpublished by the Brethren Press, Elgin, II.MARIE A. HINRICHS, phD'23, Md'34,commutes daily from Riverside, II. , to herjob with the American Medical Association in Chicago. Dr. Hinrichs, 82, is a consultantin the AMA's department of healtheducation.in memoriam: Cora P. Sletten, sm'23,Blue Earth County, Mn.Paul W. Morency, phB'23, broadcastingpioneer and executive, died October 15,1974, in Avon, Ct. Morency spent forty-twoyears in the broadcast industry. Under hisleadership WTIC-FM (Hartford) was begunin 1939 and WTIC-TV in 1957. He retired aspresident of Broadcast-Plaza Inc., the combined WTIC radio-TV operation, in 1967.sja The Spell of Time, the latest book b^^" meyer levin, pIvb'24, has beenselected by the Reader's Digest condensedbook club and as a Literary Guild selection.The setting of the novel is Hebrew Universityin Jerusalem, and the main character is aprofessor of science researching intuition andmysticism. Levin's numerous previous worksinclude The Settlers, Obsession, Eva, MyFather's House, and Yehuda, the first novelanywhere about life in a kibbutz. Levinmoved to Israel after the publication ofCompulsion in 1956, where he built a homeof his own design near Tel Aviv. He has sincedivided his time between that home and aNew York brownstone.in memoriam: James Middleton Pyott,pIib'24, captain of the 1924 Big Ten championship football team under Amos AlonzoStagg, died December 25, 1974, in Chicago;LeRoy Clements, sb'24, Sun City Center,FL, died October 26, 1974; John F. Conn,sm'24, professor emeritus of chemistry atStetson University (Deland, FL), died inDecember of 1974; Natalie Bateson Cotter,phB'24, am'25, Hollywood, Ca., died November 3, 1974; Prudence Cutright, pIib'24,educator, former acting superintendent ofschools in Minneapolis, died October 2,1974, in Miami, Fl.,; Samuel L. Goldberg,sb'24, md'28, senior attending surgeon atMichael Reese Hospital and associate clinicalsurgeon at the Chicago Medical College andat St. Joseph's Hospital, died October 9,1974, in Chicago; Roy C. Newton, p1id'24,retired vice-president of Swift & Company,died last year in Three Rivers, Mi.; Maris M.Proffitt, am'24, November 6, 1974.r\ r A film biography of benjamin e.¦"-' mays, am'25, phD'35, was shown recently over WGTV (Channel 8), theeducational television station in Atlanta. Thesixth in a series about great Georgians, thefilm, produced by the Georgia Center forContinuing Education (Athens, Ga.), traces38the life of Mays from his boyhood in thecotton fields of South Carolina through hiscurrent position as president of the AtlantaSchool Board. Mays served for six years asdean of the school of religion at HowardUniversity (Washington, D.C.) and fortwenty -seven years as president of Morehouse College (Atlanta). He has been knownthroughout his career for his persistentstruggle for the rights of blacks.A conference was presented by PrincetonUniversity in Red Lodge, Mt, last August inhonor of erling dorf, sb'25, p1id'30, on theoccasion of his retirement after forty-eightyears of continuous service on the Princetonfaculty. The conference, "The Central andNorthern Rocky Mountains: Evolution andDevelopment from Laramide Time toPresent," was sponsored by Princeton in cooperation with the Yellowstone-Bighorn Research Association in Red Lodge. Mr. Dorf,professor of geology and curator ofpaleobotany, has distinguished himself asboth a teacher and scholar. In his research heis best known for his contributions towardthe solution of the Cretaceous-Tertiaryboundary in the west; for his investigationsof the primitive early Devonian plants ofWyoming, Newfoundland and Maine; for hisstudies of ancient climates of the past 100million years; and for his work on the petrified forests of the Yellowstone Park region.in memoriam: Harry R. Booth, p1ib'25,jd'26, a lawyer and longtime champion ofconsumer rights, died December 9, 1974, inChicago. Booth gained much of his consumer affairs background as counsel of theIllinois Commerce Commission and as anassistant Illinois attorney general in the1930s. In 1940 he went to Washington as anattorney in charge of the Federal Communications Commission's rate section. Later heserved as utilities counsel and chief of thepublic utilities branch of the federal Office ofPrice Administration. Returning to Chicagoin the late 1940s, he went into privatepractice, launching many of his consumerrights suits. Throughout his career he tookon telephone, power and railroad companiesand the Chicago Transit Authority. Recentlyhe won a suit against WEFM-FM radio whenthe U.S. court of appeals ruled that the FCCmust hold public hearings before allowingthe Chicago station to change its formatfrom classical to rock music.J. BurtBouwman, db'25, St. Petersburg,Fl., died August 30, 1974.Leonard Cardon, sb'25, md'29, Chicago,died January 2.Willis Conway Pierce, sm'25, p1id'28, amember of the Chicago faculty from 1928 to 1941, chairman of the chemistry departmentat Pomona College (Claremont, Ca.) from1945 to 1953, and emeritus professor ofchemistry at the University of California,Riverside, died December 23, 1974, inMedford.Or.Samuel Lewis Stern, sb'25, md'29, died inMay of 1974 in Carmel, Ca.i") f- M. king hubbert, sb'26, sm'28,^J phD'37, a senior research geophysicistfor the U.S. Geological Survey, Washington,and a recognized expert on energy andresources, sees some positive things comingfrom the energy crisis, according to a story inthe Denver Post. One of these is the necessityto "start now developing other sources ofpower so we can phase out nuclear as fast aswe can," said Hubbert who was in Denverattending a geological meeting. "Fifteenyears ago I was like everyone else in thinkingnuclear power would help meet our energyneeds. But I've gradually come around tolook at the hazardous aspects and it scaresthe hell out of me," he said. What changedHubbert's thinking is science's increasingawareness of the biological dangers posed byman-made radioactive materials, and the experience of serving, from 1955 to 1963, on aUN scientific committee on the disposal ofradioactive wastes. Co-author of Resourcesand Man, a classic work outlining thegrowth demand for energy, populationgrowth and the limited amount of fuels andminerals on earth, Hubbert has taught atStanford and Columbia and has worked inindustry as well as government.in memoriam: The Reverend RobertBrooks Day, p!ib'26, retired executive director of the Benevolent Fraternity of UnitarianChurches, died November 20, 1974, inBoston; Dorothy Crosby Gerwin, phB'26,Chicago, retired teacher, died December 8,1974; Louis W. Wulfekuhler, phB'26, NorthHollywood, Ca., a retired air terminal adviser, died in December of 1973.r\*i lewis smythe, am'27, pIid'28, pro-^ ' fessor of Christian ethics at the Schoolof Theology at Claremont (Ca.), is author ofThe Christian in Today's World, publishedlast year.in memoriam: Knute Oscar Broady,am'27, retired director of the extension division at the University of Nebraska, formerpresident of Stulman College (Tuscaloosa,AL), died November 22, 1974; Gilmore R.Webber, phB'27, former Lutheran pastor,died J anuary 5 in Decatur, II.28 LIBBIE schnitzer garbow, pIib'28,was saluted last fall by members of the Southside Hadassah (Chicago) at the group'sannual State of Israel Bond Luncheon. Ms.Garbow, the group's education vice-president for more than twelve years, washonored for her dedication to the building of Israel's economy through the IsraelBond program. A certified Hebrew teacher,she has taught at South Side Hebrew Congregation, Rodfei Zedek Congregation andRodfei Sholom. For over a decade she hasconducted a monthly study circle in Jewishhistory for the membership of SouthsideHadassah.victor h. berger, pIib'28, and his wifeNellie celebrated their fiftieth wedding anniversary last fall with open house festivities intheir North Smithfield (R.I.) home, andabout seventy-five guests gathered to paytheir respects and offer best wishes to thecouple who were married August 25, 1924.Berger is retired general secretary of theYMCA in Woonsocket, R.I. He served inthat capacity for twenty-three years, retiringin 1965.in memoriam: Paul M. Bretscher, am'28,pIid'36, Lutheran pastor, retired professor atConcordia Seminary in St. Louis, diedAugust 10, 1974.Herbert Drennon, pIid'28, Laguna Hills,Ca., died December 24, 1974.A. KingMcCord, x'28, Pittsburgh, formerpresident and chairman of Westinghouse AirBrake Company, died December 17, 1974.Sterling North, x'28, novelist, naturewriter and former literary editor of the Chicago Daily News, the New York Post andthe New York World-Telegram and Sun,died December 21, 1974, in Whippany, N.J .He was the author of more than fifty books.OQ frances rappaporthorwich, p1ib'29,¦"-^ longtime mistress of NBC's "DingDong School, ' ' currently lives in Scottsdale,Az., and is lecturing at Arizona State University in Tempe (near Scottsdale) on child development and new education methods forchildren with learning difficulties. Sincemoving to the Southwest about a year and ahalf ago, Ms. Horwich has been asked to goon the air again by a radio station and a TVstation but, according to a Chicago Sun-Times story, is in no hurry to make any suchcommitments due to the recent death of herhusband Harvey (as noted in the lastmagazine).in memoriam: Paul L. Hollister, sm'29,retired biology professor at Tennessee Technical University, died October 9, 1974, inCookeville, Tn.; Edward Larson, phD'29,died October 5, 1974.39Trv leo rosten, phB'30, phD'37, New-^ York, selections from whose newestbook "Dear Herm" have appeared in thesepages, has been voted an honorary fellow ofthe London School of Economics and Political Science — a rare honor for an American. Rosten was also recently awarded an honorary doctorate of humane letters by the University of Rochester.in memoriam: Edward N. Anderson,md'30; Lena Edith Elliott Long, p1ib'30,am'36. <j -I donald h. dalton, sb'31, an attorney*' ¦*¦ in Washington and Silver Spring, Md.,was elected in the fall primary to theRepublican State Central Committee forMaryland and for Montgomery County.Dalton is president of the Lincoln Group ofOne doctor's dreamGeorge A. ColbumIn mid- 191 9, Joseph E. Otis, president ofCentral Bank and Trust Company and headof the Civic Federation of Chicago, couldcommand a place on Page 1 of the ChicagoTribune when he spoke out on issues in anupcoming election.On the south side of the city at approximately the same time. Dean C. Burns(sb'19, md'21 [Rush]), a young man farfrom his home town of Petoskey, Michigan,was receiving his bachelor's in pre-medicinefrom the University of Chicago. After fouryears in Chicago, Burns was still homesick,but he would remain in the city four moreyears to complete his medical education atRush and at St. Luke's.Years later, in the midst of the depression, the two men would meet for the firsttime to discuss a plan to build a modernhospital in Petoskey and to begin efforts tofulfil the young doctor's far fetched dreamof developing a clinic of specialists there.In that era of general practitioners, theidea of a medical clinic staffed by specialistswas a radical departure. And without theassistance of Otis and several other personsof financial means, Burns today probablywould still be dreaming.Instead, today in Petoskey, a bustling year'round tourist community on the southshore of Little Traverse Bay, the BurnsClinic functions, with a staff of fifty-onedoctors, who practice virtually every majormedical specialty but neurosurgery.Last year, the clinic, located adjacent tothe 205-bed Little Traverse Hospital, registered more than 125,000 patients. This year,the number of patients is again increasingdramatically, forcing the staff of the medical complex to consider an expansion of thehospital by 100 to 150 beds and the additionof another fifteen to twenty medical men.The doctors of the clinic staff provide theapproximately 6,500 permanent residents ofPetoskey and those from the surroundingMr. Colbum, long summertime neighborof Dr. Burns, is former education editor ofThe Trib, suburban supplement to theChicago Tribune, and is now with theUniversity of California at San Diego. rural areas with sophisticated and comprehensive medical care unusual outside majorurban centers. In addition, thousands ofpart-time residents who vacation in the areabenefit from the clinic's presence.The complex also represents the area'smost important payroll, employing approximately 800 persons, a side benefit that Dr.Burns never envisioned for a region whereunemployment is endemic.Otis died in 1959 at the age of 92, but Dr.Burns remains an active citizen of the area.Now 78, Dr. Burns steadfastly refuses toadmit that he is retired; he admits only thathe gave up "active practice" in 1959, afterbeing felled by a serious hepatitis attack. Asfounder and director emeritus of the clinic,he maintains an office there and keeps afull-time secretary busy.Today, Dr. Burns is secure in the knowledge that his youthful dream of a groupmedical practice in small, out-of-the-wayPetoskey has been realized and will continueto thrive after he no longer can play any rolein it. (Ironically, Dean Burns' own birthtook place in his family's home because in1896 Petoskey had no hospital at all.)"It was always taken for granted" inyoung Burns' family that he was to becomea doctor. He learned about the medical profession and the health care needs of hishome town during an old-fashioned medicalapprenticeship he served in his high schooldays with Drs. George and John Reycraft.In addition to driving the doctors' horseand buggy and doing errands for them,young Dean Burns also cared for their laboratory, helped deliver babies, gave smallpox vaccinations and fumigated housesafter the quarantines were lifted.At 15, young Burns would sometimesscrub for operations at Petoskey Hospital, awooden, three-storied structure operated byhis preceptors. "Today, I'd probably bearrested for some of the things I did whileassisting the doctors, "Dr. Burns says.Many people in Petoskey at the time tookit for granted that Burns, despite his youth-fulness, was a doctor. At school, the superintendent allowed him to be released fromclasses whenever the doctors called for him. When it came time for him to decidewhere he would go for his medical education, he chose the University of Chicago, aschool he knew only "by reputation."When, in the fall of 1915, young Burnsboarded the train for the twenty-hour trip toChicago, he already had a vague idea ofwhat he wanted to do when he returned withhis M.D.He believed that it might be possible toimprove the delivery of health care, and hethought it might be through some kind ofgroup practice. Such an idea, of course, wasalmost heretical in the early 1900s. Ageneral practitioner jealously guarded hispatients and developed strong personal relationships with them, hoping to prevent defections to other doctors.During his seven years in Chicago, themedical beginner's idea took definite shapeas he learned of the accomplishments ofDoctors Will and Charles Mayo at theirclinic. Today, in Petoskey, people frequentlyrefer to the Burns Clinic as a "mini-MayoClinic," a phrase that Dr. Burns doesn't use,but one that obviously pleases him.As a student, Burns rarely left the University campus or the hospitals where hestudied. Infrequently, he would venture intotown to attend a concert — once he heardfamous Irish tenor John McCormack — andafterwards enjoy a corned beef sandwichand some near beer at the Berghoff.Because his personal savings and thecontributions of his parents could not coverhis expenses, young Burns worked his waythrough school as a student assistant in thebiological library, then as an assistant toWalter Stanley Hanes, professor of toxicology. He also taught nursing students.One of his sharpest memories of life atthe University is the two-year "graduation"ceremony that marked a student's advancement into the University's upper division.The ceremony, a brain child of WilliamRainey Harper, was continued by HarryPratt Judson, president during Burns' yearsat the University.Another vivid recollection is of AmosAlonzo Stagg stalking the halls each falllooking for likely candidates to try out forthe football team. Dr. Burns recalls that themedical students, especially those with jobsin addition to their studies, would hide whenthey saw the great coach coming because40the District of Columbia and a board member of the D.C. Legal Aid Society and the] udge Advocates Association. A former vice-president of the D.C . Bar Association, he isactive in many civic, fraternal and professional organizations. hugh A. edmondson, md'31, professor ofpathology in the school of medicine. University of Southern California, has been electedto the board of trustees of the EisenhowerMedical Center in Palm Desert, Ca. Dr. Edmondson, whose research has concentrated on diseases of the liver, gall bladder andbiliary tract, kidneys and pancreas, served aschairman of his department at USC fortwenty-one years, from 1951 to 1972.in memoriam: Kenneth D. English,pIib'31 ; Arthur John Vorwald, pho'31,they didn't want to cope with his persuasiveentreaties to "be a man; come out for theteam."Then, too, he remembers how he wasgripped with the patriotism that infected thecampus after America entered the war in1917. He enlisted, along with many others,but the government had no intention ofallowing potential doctors to go off to war.Instead, they were placed in a makeshift"Medical Enlisted Reserve Corps," housedtogether in a dormitory and drilled everyevening on the campus grounds.Although the medical students didn't getclose to the actual fighting, the war wasbrought to Chicago through the influenzapandemic that spread from Europe'swestern front. With death all around them,Dr. Burns and the other medical studentsinoculated thousands in the University area.During his last year in Chicago, Dr. Burnsspecialized in surgery at the old St. Luke'sHospital and was offered a fellowship tocontinue his work at the Mayo Clinic. Heturned it down, however, to return home toPetoskey and fulfil what he considered to be"a great moral obligation" to the Reycrafts.Dr. Burns knew at the time that he couldnot even discuss the idea of a clinic with thetwo doctors because, in Burns' words today,"they had no use for a clinic of specialists;they did everything themselves." So theyoung doctor waited for his old friends toretire and secretly began to purchase landfor the clinic and hospital of his dreams.As Petoskey's summer population mushroomed during the 1920s, Dr. Burns caredfor more and more injuries and suddenillnesses of the seasonal visitors.By 1931, both the Reycrafts had died andDr. Burns was left alone to minister to thepatients that three doctors had served before. He also inherited the rickety woodenhospital, plus a mountain of unpaid bills.Despite all this, Dr. Burns believed it wastime to start the clinic that he had alwaysenvisioned. From Detroit, he recruited Dr.William Conway, a graduate of Loyola(Chicago) School of Medicine who was in thefinal months of his residency as an eye, ear,nose and throat specialist. Dr. Conway'sfield, Dr. Burns states today, was one that"people could easily accept; I didn't want tostart the clinic with anything too radical."When he arrived for his first day of work later that year, Dr. Conway was shown aparcel of land on the south end of town andtold it was to be the site of the new hospital."When most people, including doctors, wereconcerned about eking out an existenceduring the depression, [Dr Burns] was talking about a new hospital," Dr. Conway saidrecently. "In those days before governmentgrants, I considered a new hospital forPetoskey rather unthinkable."But Dr. Burns never lost faith. "All along,I knew everything was going to turn out allright. I didn't force things. ... I believe thatyou follow natural trails." In the end, it wasa perfectly natural action on his part thatprovided the impetus for construction of anew hospital and development of a staff.It was in the summer of 1937 that Mrs.Sally Coleman, a summer resident, visitedthe Petoskey Hospital to see a sick friend.Once there, she discovered that the stairswere too steep for her to climb and thatthere was no passenger elevator. Alerted toMrs. Coleman's dilemma, Dr. Burnsleft his office andescorted her to thehand - operatedfreight elevator. Shecame down the sameway.Later, in a bridgegame with threefriends, Mrs. Coleman described hervisit to the hospital,concluding, "Dr.Burns really needs a new hospital." Herfriends agreed, and each pledged $1,000.Mrs. Coleman wasn't through, however.That evening she carried her story to another friend, Joseph E. Otis. The next dayDr. Burns received a call from Otis andlearned that the banker, whose children hadbeen treated by Dr. Burns at the hospital,was willing to organize a campaign to raisemoney for a new, modern hospital. Duringtheir conversation, Otis learned about Dr.Burns' youthful dream of a clinic, and thatproperty on which to build that dream hadbeen painstakingly purchased, lot by lot,over the previous ten years.Otis and a group of friends raised a$75,000 "challenge fund" and then organized a campaign that eventually raised an other $200,000. The new hospital, withsixty-eight beds, opened in 1939.Over the next few years, Dr. Burns steadily built his clinic staff. All were his salariedemployees until 1949, when the clinic wasreorganized as a professional associationheaded by a board of directors.In 1959, the clinic (with, by that time,seventeen specialists) was incorporated, withmembers of the medical staff electing directors who were responsible for hiring andpaying staff members, and for makingpolicy. For Dr. Burns, this spelled the end ofhis very personal involvement in the clinicand hospital. In addition, hepatitis endedhis career as an active surgeon.The clinic staff is still growing. A yearago, for example, a cardiologist was added.The open heart surgery unit at the hospitalnow performs two operations a week. Otherrecent additions include an oncologist, anephrologist and an endocrinologist.The clinic also operates a unique mobilehemodialysis unit, equipped with two artificial kidney machines, which travelsthroughout northern Michigan.The impact of the clinic on life in northern Michigan has been great and, as Dr.Burns reached his fiftieth year as a physician, the honors bestowed on him haveaccelerated. Recently, the state medical society, the city of Petoskey and Lake SuperiorState College, in Sault Ste. Marie, all presented him with awards.Although such tributes please him, thereis no matching the pleasure Dr. Burns experiences when a patient at the hospitaltoday asks for him because sometime in thepast Dr. Burns performed an operation.As Dr. Conway recalls, "Even back in1931, Dr. Burns had patients who camegood distances. . . . because he was energetic, hard working, young, personable, butmost of all because he was a good doctor, agood surgeon. And he had the happy facultyof being able to work incredibly hard over along period of time and not appear tired."Dr. Burns did work hard. He never foundtime to pursue the usual recreational distractions of the north country; swimming,sailing, fishing, hunting and skiing were forother people with more free time. However,there is a deep contentment in the mantoday — contentment with just being wherehe is and knowing what he has done.md'32; Ennis Bryan Womack, phD'31.>} '"N EDWARD G. KLEMM, JR.. PllB'32, hassent in a copy of his first novel, Precious Heritage, which was released by EchoPublishers in New York late last year.Klemm runs a real estate and insuranceagency in Louisville. Ky.helen A. hunscher, pIid'32, recently retired professor and director of the department of nutrition at Case Western ReserveUniversity, Cleveland, has been grantedemeritus status, and a student aid fund,named in her honor, has been established atCWRU.ellis busse, x'32, has retired as secretaryof the international fraternity of Phi GammaDelta. Busse is chairman of the board of theContinental Bank of Cleveland.in memoriam: John Henry Davis,PhD'32; Earle Edward Emme, phD'32.Q *y YARMILA MULLER SCHOLBERG, SB'33,"^ Bedford, Ma., continues to dominatethe Rhode Island begonia show, held eachyear at the University of Rhode Island. Shewon twelve blue ribbons, the Howard Witheeaward for the best begonia in the show, andthe John Weldin award for creativity with anexhibit on propagation by cuttings.MARGARET BARROWS FERKINHOFF, ph.B'33,am' 58, reports her retirement last June fromthe position of senior social worker with theSchool City of East Chicago, In. "Retirement is great, but harder work than working," she writes. "I have a small privatepractice and a couple of research projects under way, and am very busy with the demanding tasks of our Unitarian Church — andbridge."NATALIE BERNICE GOLDSTEIN HEINEMAN,phB'33. Chicago, immediate past presidentof the Child Welfare League of America, hasbeen elected to the board of directors of thatgroup. A former medical social worker, Ms.Heineman has been active in child welfareand civic concerns for many years. She is amember of the Women's Board of theUniversity.in memoriam: Murvel R. Garner, phD'33;Boris B. Rubenstein, phD'33, md'33.¦j A "If government by committee is diffi-*}• cult, writing a book by committee isequally so, as a group which included a number of UC people found out last spring andsummer," reports geraldine smithwickalvarez. pfiB'34. "The book did come out,the group surmounted its journalistic problems, and a small village in Michigan (whichhas been a popular summer residence for University people since 1895) is now memorialized in the Centennial History of Lakeside.Spurred on by carroll mason russell,sb' 19, and charles greenleaf, ab'37,Lakesiders began to prepare for the town's100th birthday by researching their pioneerfamilies, and as their stories began toaccumulate, it became clear that a big writingjob lay ahead, nan dunham, wife of LawSchool professor Allison dunham, dug intothe archives for information on early UC re-sorters. LORRAINE WATSON PARSONS, PllB'34, DOROTHY SHAWHAN CRAGG, AB'40,BETTY HEADLAND OOSTENBRUG, Ab'44, and Iundertook a large portion of the writing; asignificant article was contributed by the latebruce biossat, x'38; additional help wasgiven by Margaret fenton headland,phB' 15; and on the list of writers and researchers are the names of sixteen moreUC-ers.Philosophy as Social Expression (University of Chicago Press, 1974) is the newestwork by albert w. levi, am'34, p1id'38,who is the David May distinguisheduniversity professor of the humanities atWashington University. The book analyzesthe relation of philosophy to the history ofphilosophy, with special reference to fourmilestone thinkers, Plato, Aquinas, Descartes and Moore.in memoriam: Athan A . Pantsios, sb'34,sm'36, pIid'38.<jf An exhibit of photographs by alce"^ ann rust cole, sb'35, entitled "TheHouse on Comfort Island," was held lastOctober in Wurster Hall Gallery on the University of California at Berkeley campus.in memoriam: Dan H. Campbell, p1id'35;Lester R. Gerber, x'35; Alma I. Lindahl, phB'35; David F. Matchett, Jr., jd'35.'J/Z simon bourgin, ab'36, science, space•"''¦' and environment adviser to the U.S.Information Agency, has been lecturing atvarious colleges this year as a senior fellow ofthe Woodrow Wilson National FellowshipFoundation.<J~J C RUSSELL COX, SB'37, Sm'39, MBA"^ '50, has been named to the board ofdirectors of St. George Hospital Corporation, a body which operates three Chicago-area hospitals (Palos Community, Engle-wood and South Shore). Cox is president andchief executive officer of the Andrew Corporation, a manufacturer of antenna equipment for microwave radio systems in OrlandPark, II. Arthur l. funk, am'37, p1id'40, professorand chairman of the history department atthe University of Florida, is the author of anew book describing Operation TORCH, theAllied invasion and occupation of NorthAfrica, entitled ThePolitics of TORCH: TheA Hied L andings and the A Igiers ' 'Putsch, ' '1942 (Lawrence, Ks.: University Press ofKansas, 1974. $11.00). TORCH was one ofthe most important and complex operationsin World War II. Funk's new work goes farbeyond official World War II militaryhistories. A specialist in modern Europeanhistory, Funk is secretary of the AmericanCommittee on the History of the SecondWorld War. He served for seven years withthe U.S. Information Service in Syria, Indiaand Madagascar.in memoriam: Wells D. Burnette, ab'37;Ruth Kraus Linderman, ab'37; Richard J.Smith, ab'37, jd'39; Edmond Uhry, Jr.,md'37.lo margaret pease harper, am' 38,JO founder of "Texas," a musical dramaof Texas Panhandle history which is presented annually in the big Pioneer Amphitheatre in Palo Duro Canyon, Tx., has beennamed the eighth recipient of the Texasgovernor's annual tourist developmentaward. Ms. Harper lives in Canyon, Tx.Stanford c. ericksen, p1id'38, professorof psychology and senior research scientist atthe University of Michigan's center forresearch on learning and teaching, is theauthor of Motivation for Learning, pub- ,|lished in 1974 by the University of MichiganPress.Katharine meyer graham, ab'38, chairman and chief executive officer of theWashington Post Company and a trustee ofthe University of Chicago, has been namedthe 1974 winner of the Advertising Council'sprestigious award for public service.CHARLOTTE LAW FORD HAYMAN, AM'38,has retired from the post of supervisor ofsocial workers for districts five and six inManhattan (N.Y.).in memoriam: Jules C. Alciatore, pIid'38;Gilford Spencer Moss, ab'38; Mary FletcherTerry, sm'38; Lawrence W. Heide, phB'38,director of purchases with Western Acadia,Inc., Chicago, died February 1 1 , 1974, inHinsdale, II.¦5 Q Leonard weiss, ab'39, has movedJ -^ from Arlington, Va., to Dacca, Bangladesh, where he is resident representative ofthe World Bank Mission.in memoriam: Mary E. Giffin, phD'39,42Cleveland, Oh., professor emeritus ofEnglish at Vassar College, died October 7,1974.William C. Lewis, sb'39, md'41, and hiswife Katherine Simonds Lewis, ab'39, werefound dead in each other's arms on November 11, 1974, in their Madison, Wi.,home. Apparently caused by a drug overdose, the deaths were ruled a double suicideby the county coroner. He said a death notesigned by both parties indicated that Mrs.Lewis was terminally ill and that Dr. Lewischose to die rather than live without her. Inan interview with the Madison CapitalTimes, William C. Lewis, Jr., the eldest ofthe couple's seven sons, said that his motherhad been seriously ill for more than a year. Inaddition to emphysema, she suffered kidney,liver and heart dysfunctions. "They hadtalked about it and knew what they weregoingto do," he said. Dr. Lewis was a professor of psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin. One of his sons, Benjamin R., is currently an undergraduate at the University ofChicago.Margaret Slutz Stolzenbach, x'39, mentalhealth counselor, died October 27, 1974, ofcancer at her home in Columbia, Md.Edwin Ruthven Walker, phD'39, Tallahassee, FL, retired president of QueensCollege in New York, died September 19,1974.John S. Wiggins, x'39, Chicago, diedJanuary 5.40 MARGARET VIRGINIA ARNAULT HALL-blom, am'40, became involved lastfall in conducting a pioneer program onmarital enrichment for the Bound Brook(N.J.) Adult School, under sponsorship ofthe Family Counseling Service of SomersetCounty (N.J.). The program is aimed not somuch at saving foundering marriages as atmaking good marriages even better. Ms.Hallblom, a social worker, has been associated with the Bernardsville (N.J .) office ofthe Family Counseling Service for the pastten years.winthrop still Hudson, p1id'40, pro-fessorof the history of Christianity at Colgate Rochester Divinity School/Bexley Hall/Crozer Theological Seminary in Rochester,N.Y., is using his current National Endowment for the Humanities senior fellowship toextend his knowledge — at the Folger Libraryin Washington and at Cambridge University,England — of the young Cambridge humanists who served as court tutors and chaplainsin the last years of Henry VIII. These werethe figures who later provided personnel toformulate policy and staff for both state and In December the University of Chicago Club of Los Angeles, 100 strong, assembled for thepresentation of the club's distinguished alumnus award to David Ziskind (pIib'2.?, jd '25).Alex Pope (ab'48, jd '52) made the presentation talk, summarizing Mr. Ziskind's distinguished legal career. Speaker of the evening was Jeremy Azrael, professor in the Departmentof Political Science and the College and chairman of the University's Committee on SlavicArea Studies. Dr. Bernard G. Sarnat (sn'JJ, md'37), president of the club, presided at theaffair. Shown above (from left) are Brownlee W. Haydon (ab'J5). who introduced Mr. Azrael: Mr. Azrael; Dr. Sarnat; and Messrs. Ziskind and Pope.church in the reign of Elizabeth I and whosedescendants, as Hudson has pointed out, areinfluential to this day in the present British"establishment." Hudson, the author ofmany standard references in the field ofAmerican and Baptist church history, also isa member of the University of Rochesterfaculty.in memoriam: Jesse William Bowen, Jr.,md'40; Albert W. Drigot, ab'40, mba'41;Lawrence H. Hirsch, ab'40.a i The African Methodist Episcopal Zion' Church: Reality of the Black Church,by Bishop william j. walls, am'41, tracesthe epic story of the church's African roots,and its development in the United States(Charlotte, N.C.: A.M.E. Zion PublishingHouse, 1974). Identified with the worldwideecumenical movement, Bishop Walls nowlives in Yonkers, N.Y.in memoriam: Stratton Buck, p1id'41;Louis E. Diamond, sb'41; Caroline VirginiaEwan, am'41.a sy RUBY stutts lyells, am'42, sent us a"¦" postcard last fall from the SovietUnion. She was there as a member of an International Platform Association charteredtour.in memoriam: Oliver Gilbert Brown,am'42; Lucile Vosburg Korf, x'42.A >J JOSEPH TVRZICKY BENEDICT, SB'43, has"^ been appointed director of the pharmaceutical/chemical masters of business administration program at Fairleigh DickinsonUniversity, Teaneck, N J . A A CAROLYN FRIEDMAN STIEBER, AB'44,"" East Lansing, Mi., has been appointedombudsman of Michigan State University.This office, established in 1967, serves as a"complaint department" for MSU's 43,000students.A C LAWRENCE A. LUNDGREN, SB'45, MBA'•J '56, a teacher at Hammond (In.) HighSchool, has been honored for excellence inthe teaching of physics at the secondaryschool level by the Indiana section of theAmerican Association of Physics Teachers.brace pattou, ab'45, has joined the public relations division of the Harris Trust andSavings Bank, Chicago, as manager of pressrelations. Prior to joining the bank in thenewly created position, he had operatedBrace Pattou & Associates, Chicago publicrelations and counseling firm.Andrew foldi, p1ib'45, am'48, returnedto the Chicago Lyric Opera stage recentlyafter a fifteen year absence to sing the part ofSancho Panza in Massenet's "DonQuichotte." Foldi, a bass/baritone who hasbeen singing in Europe for the past decadeand a half, was one of the three originalaudition winners in 1954, the very first yearof the Chicago Lyric Opera. For five years hewas with the Lyric singing such roles as thedoctor in Verdi's "La Traviata" (with Callasand Gobbi), Musetto in Mozart's "Don Giovanni" and the first Nazarene in RichardStrauss' "Salome." But his career really gotoff the ground in Europe where he has sungmajor roles at internationally famous operahouses in Zurich, Milan, Vienna, Naples,Munich, Amsterdam and Brussels. Foldi,43who makes his permanent home in Geneva,Switzerland, makes his Metropolitan Operadebut this spring as Alberich in Wagner's"Das Rheingold," and he'll also do the Sacristan in Puccini's "Tosca."/I /T b. everard blanchard, am'46, Villa"" Park, II. . reports the publication of several articles last year, including "How toRank Your School," in The AmericanSchool Board Journal, January, 1974;"Ranking Schools Throughout the U.S.," inThe Nation's Schools, February, 1974; and"Blanchard Obesity and Nutritional Index,"in the Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness (Italy), June, 1974. Blanchard isbusy putting the final touches on his newbook, A New System of Education.PHOEBE MELLINGER ANDERSON, Am'46,phD'68, Chicago, is writing a book of juvenile fiction based on life in small-townAmerica between the world wars. The bookis autobiographical, drawing from childhoodexperiences in Youngstown, Oh.in memoriam: Charles L. McKeen, sb'46,md'48.A l-l ANNIE RUSSELL RICKS, pflB'47, ScarS-' ' dale, N .Y., "uses her experience withthe warring factions of student governmentin her current work as coordinator of the surgical consultation service of District Council37, American Council of State, County, andMunicipal Employees," the magazine learnsfrom david f. ricks (see Class of '48).norman l. macht, phB'47, and his wife,after a year in London, are now living inSanta Rosa, Ca., where he is associated withPaine Webber J ackson & Curtis. His wifehas opened an antiques shop in Santa Rosa,called "Accentricities." While in London,Macht had a short story, "A Way of Life,"accepted for publication by Victor Gollancz,Ltd., in a science fiction anthology due outthis spring.elaine mazlish seaton, ph.B'47, is currently director of the Manhasset (N.Y.)Public Library, a position she has held sinceSeptember, 1972.The Reverend h. Robert gemmer, db'47,and his wife take off for the Middle East inApril on a tour that will include visits toCairo, Amman and Israel. Friends and relatives gathered in the Gemmers' St. Petersburg, Fl. , home last J une to help the couplecelebrate their twenty-fifth wedding anniversary.marion a. trozzolo, p1ib'47, mba'50, is abusinessman, but he has written a bookabout the "old town" development in Kansas City which he was instrumental in estab lishing and putting on its feet, and theaccount is so fascinating that he must be considered a writer as well. The book, Tales ofRiver Quay, is published by Bimbi Press,and it recounts the growth of Trozzolo'sholdings and of his esthetic understanding ofthe excellence embedded in the blocks of oldbuildings of the city's near north side which,beginning in 1960, he bought, restored, andpeopled with a collection of under-thirty"new breed" businessmen and women.sam j. aurelius, ab'47, mba'48, Munster,In., has been promoted by the Inland SteelCompany at its Indiana harbor works to assistant superintendent of wage and salary administration.A Q BETTY READ SCOTT, AB'48, was^ awarded a doctorate in early childhoodeducation last August by the University ofWashington. Ms. Scott writes that she wouldvery much enjoy hearing from '48 classmatesand "would welcome former UC people whovisit this area." Her address: 3 Enatai Dr.,Bellevue, Wa. 98004.ernst l. gayden, pIib'48, associateprofessor of environmental planning andhuman ecology at Huxley college of environmental studies. Western Washington StateCollege (Bellingham, Wa.), addressed the department of architecture at Washington StateUniversity late last year, where he gave thefirst of a proprietary series to be known asthe L. Hilberseimer Memorial Lectures.Gayden also contributed a chapter on"Transportation and Communications Systems" to Human Ecology, a new bookpublished by North Holland PublishingCompany (edited by F. Sargent II).richard c atkinson, pIib'48, professorof psychology at Stanford University, waselected to the National Academy ofEducation at its fall meetings. During thepast year he was also elected to the NationalAcademy of Sciences and to the AmericanAcademy of Arts and Sciences. He has beena member of the Stanford faculty since 1956except for a three-year period at UCLA .Starting in September, 1975, he will be on ayear's sabbatical leave at Rockefeller University in New York.david. f. ricks, ab'48, phD'56, professorof psychology at the City University of NewYork, who was one of the editors of LifeHistory1 Research in Psycho pathology,Volume I (University of Minnesota Press,1970), writes that he was recently responsiblefor Volume III of this series. He is "trying toredeem himself 'as editor of the ForesightBooks of the Teachers College Press, Columbia, which is about to publish Varieties of Psychotherapeutic Experience, by davidorlinsky, ab'54, pfm'62, associate professor of psychology at the University of Chicago, and KENNETH HOWARD, p1id'59.miles f. shore, ab'48, has been appointed area director and superintendent ofthe Massachusetts Mental Health Center,Roxbury, and professor of psychiatry in thefaculty of medicine at Harvard.MIRIAM FRIEDMAN SIEGLER, AB'48, is theco-author, with H.O. Osmond, of Models ofMadness, Models of Medicine (Macmillan,1974), which analyzes the current state of thetreatment of mental illness by constructingeight models — medical, moral, impaired,psychoanalytic, social, psychedelic, conspiratorial, and family interaction — throughwhose use the various approaches can becompared. Ms. Siegler, a researcher in medical sociology, is adviser to SchizophrenicsAnonymous, Cambridge, Ma.in memoriam: Alexander W. Cameron,ab'48, bss'51; Edward Samuel Ellis, md'48.a q albert l. weeks, am'49, who teaches"^ in the general studies program and inthe associate in arts program for adults inNew York University's school of continuingeducation, reports that his latest book, Sak-harov and Soviet Dissidence, has just beenpublished by Simon & Schuster (MonarchNotes). He is currently preparing a volumeon Solzhenitsyn and his OneDay in theLifeof Ivan Denisovich and is under contractwith NYU Press to write a book on Sovietrelations with the West, an update of his1970 work for Pitman Publishing Company,77?<? Other Side of Coexistence.john e. Zimmerman, jd'49, has been elected senior vice-president finance, chief financial officer and a director of Certain-teedProducts Corporation, Valley Forge, Pa.in memoriam: Richard G. Bader, sb'49,sm'51, p1id"52.Cf\ An exhibit of the manuscripts of hymn-"J^J writer/poet harry fisher, ab'50,jd'53, was held during the month ofDecember at the St. Louis (Mo.) PublicLibrary. Fisher, a public relations executivein St. Louis, has published many hymns,poems and chorales, a documentary filmscript, and a rock ballad (with PeterWestmore), entitled "Praise the ProdigalFather."bernice edwards Harris, am'50, a psychotherapist, recently led a National Organization for Women open discussion inAurora, II., on the problems and personalfeelings surrounding marriage and divorce.Ms. Harris joined her husband, harold44Harris, sb'47, sm'56, in practice at theAurora Psychological Center twelve yearsago when the Harris children reached schoolage.durward b. varner, am'50, president ofthe University of Nebraska, has been appointed to the board of the W.K. KelloggFoundation, the private philanthropic organization which funds programs ineducation, agriculture and health in the U.S.,Canada, Europe, Latin America andAustralia. Varner served as chancellor ofOakland University from 1959 until 1970when he went to the University of Nebraskaas chancellor. He assumed the Nebraskapresidency in 1971.CI JOHN C. MEYER, JR., AB'51, MBA'54,•^ •*¦ advises us that he is currently thefinancial director of General Foods GmbH inElmshorn (near Hamburg), Germany.Courtney h. taber, am'51, was namedvice-president for finance at Kansas City(Mo.) Blue Cross and Blue Shield, effectiveJanuary 1. Taber has been associated withthe Blue Cross and Blue Shield system formore than twenty years.in memoriam: Alice Robbins Wickens,am'51, phD'63.rrt donald f. tapley, md'52, professor-*¦" of medicine and pioneer in thyroid hormone research, became dean of the Columbia University faculty of medicine lastautumn. The former acting dean has beenassociated with Columbia since 1956 when hejoined the medical faculty as assistantprofessor of medicine. Dr. Tapley has beenan important contributor to the basic understanding of the mechanism of action of thethyroid hormones.david ray, ab'52, am'57, hasjust published his third volume of poems, GatheringFirewood: Poems New and Selected(Wesleyan University Press). He is now professor of English and editor of New Letters, aliterary quarterly, at the University ofMissouri-Kansas City. He was co-editor of abook on Richard Wright that was publishedlast year by the University of Michigan Press.gulnar kheirallah bosch, pIid'52, pro-fessor of art at Florida State University, hasreceived the first distinguished service awardgiven by the Southeastern College Art Conference. She is an authority on Islamic bookbindings of the 11th to the 17th centuries.KENNETH SCRUGGS TOLLETT, AB'52, JD'55,am' 58, whose Class Notes item in a previousissue was abridged due to a printing error,delivered the commencement address atJackson (Ms.) State University last spring. Tollett is a distinguished professor of highereducation at Howard University and a member of both the Illinois and Texas bars.helen J. hahne, sm'52, has been promoted by the First National Bank of Chicagoto the position of vice-president in the trustdepartment. An attorney, she is a member ofthe Chicago and Illinois bars as well as theWomen's Bar Association.in memoriam: David Levin, am'52; RuthBurbridge White, x'52.C'J leona b. nelson, phD'53, chair-*¦' *^ woman of the sociology department atCedar Crest College (Allentown, Pa.),teaches a course, now offered each spring, on"Changing Sex Roles." The latter evolvedout of an experimental course, initiated byMs. Nelson in 1970, entitled "Male andFemale: The Sexual Revolution," one of thefirst courses on women to be introduced inthe country at the time.in memoriam: Robert L. Gaudino, am'53,p1id'55.CA ione dugger vargus, am'54, becameJ' associate dean of the school of socialadministration at Temple University(Philadelphia) last fall. A social worker forsome twenty years, Ms. Vargus worked from1960 to 1963 in a demonstration project withthe Boston Housing Authority to determinehow a social worker could have impact in ahousing project. Her work was one of thefirst "outreach" programs for tenants andresulted in the establishment of a departmentof tenant relations within the Boston Housing Authority and helped to lay groundworkfor the multi-service centers set up after theOffice of Economic Opportunity came intobeing. Ms. Vargus was on the University ofIllinois faculty for the three years prior toaccepting her current post.in memoriam: Ingeborg Ostenso Travis,am'54; Geraldine Smith Cain Williams,mba'54.^ ^ james m. mcgrew, x'55, has been•^ -^ named to the board of lectureship ofthe Mother Church, First Church of Christ,Scientist, in Boston, Ma. McGrew waspreviously employed by the Christian SciencePublishing Society as controller and by EkcoProducts in Chicago as treasurer.C/- GORDON K. HARRINGTON, AM'56, PllD-}" '59, Ogden, Ut., professor of historyand chairman of the committee on Asianstudies at Weber State College in Ogden, recently delivered a paper on U.S. -Chinesetrade before an Asian studies conference in Phoenix, Az. He serves on the InternationalTrade Association of Salt Lake City, wherehe is the only academic person among businessmen dealing with many nations, andchairs the curriculum committee of theWeber County (Ut.) Historical Society. Heand his wife, polly (mary e.) paulsonHarrington, am'56, are heavily involved inchurch work.john d. reid, phD'56, professor andchairman of the department of sociology atAtlanta University and editor of Phy Ion, areview of race and culture, has been namedto the Census Advisory Committee on theBlack Population for the 1980 Census.in memoriam: Robert P. McKay, am'56,supervisory social worker at the VeteransAdministration Hospital in Hines, II. , diedApril 26, 1974.ci-j jaro mayda, jd'57, director of the in-^ ' stitute for policy studies and law at theUniversity of Puerto Rico, reports he wassenior adviser on environmental policy andlaw to the government of Columbia lastspring during the final stages of the draftingof a code for environmental resources protection. In August he authored the principaldiscussion paper, "Environmental Problemsin the Developing Countries," for the colloquium of the International Association ofLegal Science/UNESCO in Mexico City.And in October he delivered the keynote address at the Environmental Symposium III ofEXPO '74 in Spokane, Wa.in memoriam: Myron R. Karon, md'57,authority on leukemia and other malignancies of childhood, professor of pediatrics atthe University of Southern California, diedNovember 16, 1974. He was 42.CQ richard a. magill, jd'58, has been•'" named second vice-president anddirector of consumer affairs for the PennMutual Life Insurance Company, Philadelphia.C(\ charlotte adelman, ab'59, jd'62,-' ¦* and two attorney colleagues, haveformed a partnership for the general practiceof law in Chicago under the firm name ofDidzerekis, Hochfelder & Adelman.rr\ paul j. skinner, x'60, Galesburg, II. ,vJV/ reports the birth of a third child,Harriet Kay, on October 5, 1974.£¦ -I MARGARET SWIDECK STRODTZ, AM'61," -*¦ was ordained into the Christian ministry last fall in a service conducted at the La45Grange, (II.) First Presbyterian Church. Rev.Strodtz, of Western Springs, is associatepastor of the Marquette Park PresbyterianChurch in Chicago.john J. agria, am'61, p1id'66, is now deanof academic affairs at Alma (Mi.) College.in memoriam: Joseph U. Campbell,am'61, died in April of 1974.£^\ STANLEY G. IRVINE, Ab'62, JD'65, IS"** serving as assistant dean for admissions, director of legal research, and assistantprofessor of law at Illinois Institute of Technology — Chicago-Kent college of law .mary anne krupsak. jd'62, New Yorkstate senator who has become known as anavid consumer advocate, women's rights activist and advocate of legislative reform, became New York's first female lieutenantgovernor in the elections last November. Ms.Krupsak, who maintains residences in Cana-joharie and New York City, began her political apprenticeship in 1953 when she took ajob in public relations with the State Department of Commerce in Albany. She soon became involved in W. Averell Harriman'scampaign for the governorship and, after hisvictory in 1954, joined the governor's staff asa program associate. She later went to Washington as administrative assistant to Rep.Samuel S. Stratton. She first ran for office in1968 winning a narrow victory for the stateassembly as a Democrat in a heavily Republican district.£_<y Patricia d. Phillips, ab'63, earned a"*^ master's degree in social work at California State University, Sacramento, and isnow director of social services at Children'sBaptist Home, a residential treatment centerfor emotionally disturbed children in Ingle-wood, Ca.The second edition of Black Neighbors:Negroes in a Northern Rural Community, bygeorge k. hesslink, am'63, p1id'66, associate professor of sociology at Pomona College in Claremont, Ca., has been publishedby Bobbs-Merrill.sharon smith irvine. ab'63, is currentlycorporate librarian for the Kraftco Corporation, Glenview , II.THOMAS j. cottle, am'63, p1id'68, is theauthor of Black Children, White Dreams(Houghton Mifflin. 1974), a revealing seriesof in-depth interviews with two eleven-year-old black children. He is associated with theChildren's Defense Fund of the WashingtonResearch Project.john c. nangle. ab'63. Troy. Mi., hasbeen appointed associate regional solicitorfor the U.S. Department of Labor in Detroit.46 In Growing Older Margaret helliehuyck, am'63, p1id'70, has written a handbook for — ultimately — everybody. The book(Prentice-Hall, 1974) gently calls in manyexamples of traditional wisdom on meetingproblems of aging to illuminate currentfindings of gerontology. Ms. Huyck is assistant professor of psychology at Illinois Institute of Technology.s;a richard i. fine, jd'64, formerly chief"" of the antitrust division of the City Attorney's Office, Los Angeles, and attorney inthe foreign commerce section of the antitrustdivision, U.S. Department of Justice, hasopened an office for the practice of law inCentury City, Los Angeles. He is specializingin anti-trust and trade regulations, business,civil litigation, and international matters.jan howard finder, sm'64, publisher ofSpang Blah, a science fiction newsletter forAmericans living in Europe, writes that he isnow employed as a guidance counselor by theU.S. Air Force in Aviano, Italy. He spendsthe rest of his time skiing, traveling to sci-ficonventions and "playing in diplomacygames."JAMES HOWARD PARRY, SB'64, SM'66, PhD'71, accepted a position at the University ofArizona last August as assistant professor ofelectrical engineering and director of thelaboratory for computer-based instruction.He is on leave from the computer-based education research laboratory at the Universityof Illinois. This information comes fromParry's mother-in-law, margaret barrowsferkinhoff (see Class of '33).FRANK TERENCE WATTERS, Am'64, hasjoined the staff of the Lutheran Family Service of Oregon (Portland) as a family specialist. Watters has previously worked with theU.S. Public Health Service in Lexington,Ky., in the narcotics area; at correctionalyouth facilities in Illinois and California; andas a consultant to the Northern Indian California Education Product where he helpeddevelop a six-county teaching and counselingprogram.iff WALTER L. BRENNEMAN, JR., AM'65,'-'-' has received a doctorate in history andthe phenomenology of religion from UnionGraduate School of Ohio. Brennemanteaches world religion at the University ofVermont.££~ MICHAEL A. SHERMAN, AB'66, Am'67,'-''-' PhD' 74, joined the faculty of LawrenceUniversity (Appleton, Wi.) last fall as assistant professor of humanities and history .roger h. folts, mba'66, has been named manager of the Corning Glass Works facilityat Oneonta, N.Y.michael j. folk, mat'66, is currentlyteaching at Drake University in Des Moines,la. , as assistant professor of mathematics.Folk has studied in Germany and taught inTanzania as a member of the Peace Corps.For his doctorate, which he earned in systemsand information science at Syracuse University, he developed methods for teaching computer programing to children.f-i-i Sister mary joyce schladweiler," ' am'67, reading specialist at Assumption High School in Wisconsin Rapids, Wi.,reports that a record number of senior students signed up for her reading classes lastyear.john j. shafer, jr., ab'67, who receivedhis doctorate in philosophy from the University of Calgary in 1971, is currently a visiting \assistant professor at the University of Western Ontario at London.The Reverend douglas l. Petersen,ab'67, MTh'69, coordinator of counselingservices for the Chicago Institute of PastoralCare, has taken on the additional post ofpart-time assistant pastor with the First Presbyterian Church of Homewood, II. He andhis wife, anne cheryl studley Petersen,ab'66, sm'72, phD'73, assistant professor ofpsychiatry at the University of Chicago, livein Hyde Park with their daughter, ChristineAnne.judith a. blank, am'67, p1id'73, joinedthe faculty of Holy Cross College (Worcester, Ma.) last fall as assistant professor ofsociology. Ms. Blank, who formerly taughtanthropology in the University of Missouri'sSoutheast Asia program, has devoted muchThe magic hexagonLlHTt^/^JEirSJHJB^BJtlfiirHJTE.Dj^5\^lSTg3glglS\S\Slg^atS1SlS\SaSlSlglSjj§}^0of her research to the study of dance traditions in non-Western cultures.leon botstein, ab'67, has been electedpresident of Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, N.Y., effective July 1. Currentlypresident of Franconia College in NewHampshire, Botstein was believed to be theyoungest college president in Americanhistory when he was named to that post in1970 at the age of twenty -three.Before leaping to the academic summit atFranconia, Botstein served as special assistant to the president of the Board of Education of New York City. He holds a master'sdegree in history from Harvard where he iscurrently a doctoral candidate. An accomplished musician, he plays violin and violaand has performed with and conducted orchestras at Tanglewood and in New Englandand Chicago./-q brucee.chaddock, am'68, who "after"" sundry detours (the U.S. Army, etc)"received his doctorate in English last Augustfrom Cornell University, is presently anassistant professor in the new school ofliberal arts, Brooklyn (N.Y.) College. WritesChaddock, "If any classmates in the NewYork area happen to remember me, I wouldbe glad to hear from them. And I would enjoy hearing from any Chicagoans in the areawho are at all involved in literature." Theaddress: 38 Prospect Park S.W., Apt. C,Brooklyn, N.Y. 11215.morrie k. blumberg, am'68, after a two-year assignment as program officer in theAgency for International Development'sAfrica regional population office, located inAccra, Ghana, was transferred last fall toPittsburgh, under the IntergovernmentalPersonnel Act, to serve as visiting lecturer inpublic affairs at the University ofPittsburgh's graduate school of public andinternational affairs./rr\ craig owen umland, ab'69, am' 70,"^ reports the publication, in collaboration with his brother Eric, of their book,Mystery of the Ancients, by the Walker Publishing Company, New York, in October,1974.marvin bell, am'69, who teaches at theUniversity of Iowa, had his third volume ofpoems, Residue of Song (Atheneum), published last fall. His first book of verse, AProbable Volume of Dreams, was theLamont Poetry Selection for 1969.carl m. berliner, ab'69, is doing graduate work in Jewish education at Yeshiva University, Ferkauf graduate school, on his Institute for Jewish Life Fellowship in Jewish educational leadership.H(\ NORMAN J. schofield, jr., sm'70, ad-' " vises us that he has joined the P.M.I.division of G.T.E. Sylvania Corporation atGoddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt,Md.) as a satellite data analyst and program-er doing modeling of the earth's radiationbelts. Schofield had been studying at theUniversity of New Hampshire.a. richard janiak, jr., mba'70, has beenmade a vice-president of Smith, Barney &Company, Inc., investment bankers, and hasbeen transferred to the firm's Tokyo office.edward a. robinson, mat'70, assistantprofessor in the department of secondaryeducation at Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, received his doctorate inEnglish education last year from Northwestern University. Robinson, recipient of a FordFoundation graduate fellowship for blackAmericans in 1973, was host in 1969 of a fifteen-week NBC television series, "Like ItWas — The Black Man in America."*j i roxanne bailin, ab'71, is now prac-' J- ticing law with Colorado Rural LegalServices in Trinidad, Co.SANDRA KAY PAULSEN, Ab'71, and JOHN(jay) friedlander, am'71, were married onOctober 12, 1974, in Memphis, Tn.Attending the wedding besides the couple'simmediate families were Jennifer hurd cas-key, ab'72, who is currently studying medicine at the University of Massachusetts, andjanine jason, ab'71, a medical student atHarvard. Jay is currently teaching in the department of English at Memphis StateUniversity and Sandy is a social counselorfor the Tennessee State Welfare Department.barry slotnick, mba'71, is now marketdevelopment manager at the HammondOrgan Company, Chicago.samuel a. banks, p1id'71, chief of the division of social sciences and humanities inthe college of medicine, associate professorof humanities and associate professor of religion at the University of Florida, Gainesville,has been named to the presidency of Dickinson College (Carlisle, Pa.), effective J une 30.ROSEMARY SCHWARTZ MAUCK, MBA'71, Waspromoted by the American National Bankand Trust Company of Chicago last year, tothe post of loan officer.i-ir\ annie pierce, ab'72, whose "Black-' ^ ness is ... " cartoons have been appearing in the Chicago Daily Defender sincelast fall, describes her work as "humorous ina serious way." Ms. Pierce, who taught photography at the King Urban Progress Center in Chicago, also designs note cards which aresold locally. A third year student at Chicago's Art Institute, she is currently looking into poster printing and distribution as well asincreased circulation of her note cards.CAROLYN hogan smithson, mba'72, anaccount officer at the First National CityBank, New York, lectured at FloridaMemorial College last fall as one of over 200black executives participating in the NationalUrban League's Black Executive ExchangeProgram. BEEP has been bringing blackswho hold executive level positions tonineteen traditionally black colleges and universities to teach for two or three consecutivedays in courses related to their experienceand expertise.i-l O JOSHUA AND SUSANNA GREER FEIN , both' *-' ab'73, who were married graduationday in Rockefeller Chapel, now reside in theBoston area. Joshua has begun doctoralwork at the Florence Heller graduate schoolfor advanced studies in social welfare,Brandeis University, under a federal mentalretardation grant. He had been doing socialwork for a community mental retardationagency in Charlottesville, Va. Susanna completed her master's degree in English at theUniversity of Virginia and is now employedas an editorial secretary in the department ofnutrition and food sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she editsfaculty manuscripts and submits them forpublication. The Feins "would enjoyhearing from UC friends." Their address:HOAnglesideRd., Apt. C-4, Waltham, Ma.02154.robin dale mattison, am' 73, following aceremony last year during which she wasordained into the Lutheran ministry, was installed as pastor of Trinity Lutheran Churchin Homer City, Pa.HA PATRICIA LYNN CUMMINGS andDOUGLAS KENT CHARLES, both AB'74,were married August 24, 1974, in Clinton,Mo.peter susi, jd'74, has passed the California bar examination and is now associatedwith the law firm of Quitner and Stutman inLos Angeles.nancy schaefer, jd' 74, was among themore than four hundred young attorneyswho were admitted to practice before the Illinois bar in a ceremony occuring late lastyear in Springfield. One of the presiding dignitaries at the swearing in ceremony wasNancy's father, the Honorable walter v.schaefer, p1tb'26,jd'28, a justice of theIllinois Supreme Court.471^09 II ODVaiHD133yiS H165 JLSV9 9TT1Aavagn ¦¦id3a aaoD3a iv iaas iodvdho jc AiisaaAiNn1ProteciendSSgeredspecies ¦mGenus: EducatioliberalisSpecies: liberalitasprivataVariety: liarperideschicaginensisOur University is dedicated to the careand breeding of the highest qualityeducation. This fragile species cansurvive only in the company of the bestfaculty and the best students — andmoney.It j flourishing at The Universityof Chicago.But we who know the Universityknow that this achievement is based inlarge part on our past support. Now wemust remind ourselves that the futureexcellence of the University is to a largeextent in our hands too. »Our Annual Giving Programs are a vital, sustaining force. Through them weprovide the funds that are essential tomaintain the University's eminence,and the species it is known for.The species is a fragile one. But withour help it will continue to prosper here.University of Chicago Alumni FundPresident's FundFund for the Law SchoolGraduate School of Business Alumni FundEducation Development FundMedical Alumni FundSchool of Social Service AdministrationAlumni FundThe Universityof ChicagoAnnual Giving Programs