f1 • » «•* <>*¦ ws¦n>*W/IMTEP 1374THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEThe quadrangles in winter: photos by Myron DavisAustralopithecus vs. the computerDr. Charles E. OxnardEducation and the 'new values'Robert O. Anderson 13The plasma vortexWinston H. Bostick 16Bandwagon, relevance, and the rhetoric of assentWayne C. Booth 20New esthetic lodestone: the Cochrane-Woods Art Centerand the David and Alfred Smart Gallery 24Yerkes: case of value added by time 27On Leo Strauss: a yahrzeit remembranceGeorge Anastaplo 303 Quadrangle news 39 Alumni newsCOVER: This unusual wintry view on the main quadrangle is one of a group of photosbv Myron Davis. Five more appear on Pages 6 and 7.PICTURE CREDITS: Pages 1. 6, 7. Myron Davis; Page 3 {top), David Rieser; below(left), Michael Shields, (right). United Press International; Pages 8-11, Joan Hives; Pages16-19, Winston H. Bostick: Pages 24-26, Joel Snyder; Pages 27-29 Joseph Tapscott,Yerkes Observatory; Page 31, Margaret J. Faulkner. The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312)753-2175Julian J. Jackson, PhB'31, PresidentArthur Nayer, Director, Alumni AffairsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorKristen Nelson, Program DirectorRegional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91201(213)242-8288825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030New York, New York 10022(212)688-73551000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415)928-0337735 South Fairfax StreetAlexandria, Va. 22314(703) 549-3800Volume LXVIIWinter, 1974 Number 2The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published four times peryear for alumni and the faculty of the University of Chicago, under the auspices of theOffice of the Vice President for PublicAffairs. Letters and editorial contributionsare welcomed.Don Morris, AB'36EditorJennie LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago, Illinoiand at additional mailing offices.Copyright 1974, The University of Chicago.Published quarterly in June, September,December and March.Quadrangle ^h(ewsTen members of Chicago's 1924 Big Ten championship squad cameback to the Midway this fall to watch their football successors of halfa century later. From left: Felix Caruso (SB'25), George Benton(PhB'26), Martin Pokrass (x'26), William Clarke (x'27), William Abbott (PhB'26), Harry Frieda (phB'25), Dr. Walter Marks (PhB'27),Dr. Graham Kernwein (SB'26, MD'31), Fred Law (PhB'25), and Ros-well Rolleston (SB'24). The 1974 Maroons failed to pull out a victoryfor the occasion, however, absorbing a 69-0 shellacking by Oberlin.Warmup for winterWith the world and the nation beset bycolossal problems, and with the Universityconfronting its own financial struggle forsurvival (see message on succeeding pages), itis somehow reassuring to learn (1) that thestudents are frequenting a new campus pubin Ida Noyes, the first ever on campus, and (2)that Professor John Simpson and his colleagues have their eyes (and computers)riveted on the early-December flyby of Jupiterby Pioneer 11.Despite such unsettling developments asthe announcement by Leon Despres ( p!ib' 27,jd '29) that he will not run for another term asHyde Park's alderman, and the demise of theold tree in front of what used to be Wood-worth's and is now O'Gara's — the stump onwhich thousands of notices have been thumb-tacked over the years — which finally rottedout and tumbled over, the University stillforges ahead. Professor emeritus FriedrichHayek won a Nobel prize; Professor Stuart Tave won the Press' Laing award for his bookon Jane Austen.The Campaign for Chicago got off to animpressive official start with a dinner, atwhich the Alumni Cabinet (in town for itsannual meeting) was present, along with avast number of other friends of theUniversity. The principal speaker was Secretary of State Kissinger, who used the occasionto exhort Americans to strive mightily toreduce energy consumption in order todeprive oil producing nations of the politicaland economic leverage that their "blackgold" will otherwise give them.As the second phase of the Campaign forChicago gets under way, George A. Ranney,trustee and Inland Steel executive, assumesthe chairmanship. Robert C. Gunness, trusteeand Standard Oil Company (Indiana)executive, is associate chairman of the drive,and two other trustees are vice-chairmen:Philip D. Block, Jr., (Inland Steel) andHermon D. Smith (Field Foundation ofIllinois). Three trustees namedThree new members have been elected tothe University's board of trustees:Weston R. Christopherson, president of theJewel Companies.William R. Johnson, chairman of IllinoisCentral Industries.Arthur C. Nielsen, Jr., president of A. C.Nielsen Co.ScoreboardIt was a variegated autumn for Maroonteams. The best over-all performance wasturned in by the cross country squad, whichhad a .625 average in dual competition, andwhose best runner, Dan Hildebrand, won All-America honors in the NCAA Division 3meet.The second-best record was put together bythe field hockey team, whose women dividedA footprint on the sands of timeAlthough no alumnus of the University hasserved as President of the United States(yet), it turned out thisfall that Chicago left alasting mark on theincumbent ChiefExecutive. PresidentFord, according toDon Kirkman ofScripps - HowardNewspapers, "has onevisible scar— a smallcrease under his lefteye, which heacquired while makinga flying tackle in a Jay BerwangerMichigan game against the University ofChicago." The year was 1934, the date October 13,and the game was one in which Chicagoturned back the Wolverines 27 to 0. Theplayer whom Mr. Ford, Michigan's center,attempted to bring down was JayBerwanger, playing in bis second year.Reporting the game for this publication,that Midway sage, William V. Morgenstern(phB'20, JD'22) wrote, Berwanger "averagedpractically four yards on each of twenty -one plays from scrimmage; he punted foran average of 39.6 yards, placing his kicksas if he were shooting with a rifle...Berwanger has ferocious power in the openfield— any tackier who gets in the way of hisslashing knees is through for the day— and he is just as deadly on defense." Berwanger(ab'36) told the magazine this fall that hehad no recollection ofthe event ("Ifsomebody tries to grabyour spikes, you don'tturn around to seewho it was"), but herecalled that Mr. Ford(who obviously sawthe play from a different angle) had attributed the scar tohim when they met ata dinner a decade ago.It's hardly more thana footnote to history, but it's the closest anyalum has come to the Presidency.Gerald FordFor the University, in its present fund raising.The next f ew years will be critical onesAlumni of the University will be receiving letters soon asking urgently for contributions to maintain currentprograms during a difficult time.The need is great and a good response from alumni can be helpful not only in the contributions, but as an inspiration.In the last two fiscal years there had been increases in total gifts and bequests to the University, and in unrestricted giving; and there was a very great increase in unrestricted gifts from alumni. In the first three months of thecurrent fiscal year, from July 1 through September 30, there has been a serious decline in such giving. Comparedwith the same quarter last year, for instance, the amount contributed to the Alumni Fund is down 40% and thenumber of donors declined by half. The President's Fund, which is important to the central academic work of theUniversity, was down 76% in the same period. Unrestricted giving of all kinds declined by 36%.There may be many and different reasons for such a drop, including the state of the economy, and the effectsof inflation and uncertainty on people's willingness to contribute. But the decline in the markets has also caused adecline in the amount of income the University receives from endowment, and inflation has driven up the costs ofevery activity.It is important that alumni and other friends of the University understand that a decline in unrestricted giftsthis year and in the next several years could damage the University, possibly in ways from which it could notrecover for a long time.The University's budget is not easy to understand. The consolidated, total budget for this year is more than$191,000,000. That is a very large figure, which might make individual gifts appear insignificant. That part of thebudget which is vital to the support of the central academic purposes of the place is the unrestricted budget, whichis $54,702,000 this year. That is a decline of $991,000 from the previous year. But even that amount will not beavailable unless the University receives at least $3,550,000 in unrestricted gifts, the amount that could be reasonably anticipated when the budget was prepared. It should also be noted that this unrestricted budget includes$3,902,000 which would have to be taken from funds functioning as endowment unless they can be found as gifts.In other words, the total unrestricted part of the budget is between 10% and 15% more than funds available withoutgreat deficit spending or great increases in contributions.For several years the Trustees have approved deficits in the budgets, anticipating that the funds used would bereplaced during the coming fund-raising drive, and judging that the kinds of cuts that would have been necessaryin programs and faculty to balance current budgets might have gravely damaged the University. The administration has told the Trustees that these deficits will gradually decline and that the budget will be balanced in twoyears. Its projections have been justified so far by performance. Two years ago the deficit was more than$5,000,000. In the last fiscal year the administration had projected a deficit of almost $5,000,000, but, at the end ofthe year, the deficit had been held to $2,300,000.The effort has been painful and not entirely harmless. The size of the faculty has been reduced slowly andsteadily for four years, so that there are now sixty-eight fewer faculty than there were four years ago. A wide rangeof economies have been made in all auxiliary services. Increased efforts to stimulate applications and enrolmenthave produced a rise in registrations for the last two years, and tuitions have been increased regularly. An economic study commission examined costs and functions of the University for several years. As a result of this work anoffice of economic analysis was created in the office of the President of the University, to monitor the use of fundsevenly in their two games, for a .500 average.In volleyball the Ida Noyes contingent wonfour of its meets for a .400 average.The soccer team rang up a 2-1 1-2,averaging .154.Football was a disappointing story, asChicago had a second winless year, althoughit was not as bad as the 8-0 record sounds.Despite fairly tough competition, theMaroons scored 51 points, but the opponentswere able to put together 310.Assyrian tradeoffThe Oriental Institute has succeeded in enriching its collection of Assyrianantiquities through the ancient practice ofswapping. The swap partner in this case isthe British Museum, which is turning overtwo 875 B.C. sculptures from the palace ofAshurnasirpal II in Kalhu (now Nimrud),Iraq, in exchange for one of the Institute'stwo three -ton column bases from the Hallof a Hundred Columns at Persepolis (inIran). The hall was built in the fifth centuryB.C. by Xerxes I and Artaxerxes I. Theexchange following ten years of negotiations.The pieces acquired by the OrientalInstitute consist of a relief of a wingedgenius, measuring about three and one- half by two feet, and a relief portrait in profileof Ashurnasirpal II approximately two feetsquare.KudosJohn Simpson, director of the Enrico FermiInstitute, who has been the Edward L.Ryerson distinguished service professor inthe Department of Physics and the College,has been named the first Arthur HollyCompton distinguished service professor.Named for the late Arthur Compton, Nobelprize winning faculty member and divisionchairman, the professorship was endowedand facilities. There has also been a great effort to seek the types of endowments which in effect allow the University to make appointments using restricted funds in such a way that the pressures on the unrestricted budget are relieved. In the last three years the University has secured endowment for some twenty-five professorships, for instance; this has allowed it to make very good new appointments and to assign endowed chairs to some leadingmembers of the faculty already here.So, despite the financial constraints of the past few years, the University is very strong today, one of the fewbest places in the world.That strength, and the determination to build on it, lies under the decision of the University and the Trusteesto begin the second phase now of the Campaign for Chicago, the effort to raise $280,000,000 in three to five years.Again, that figure is so large that it may produce some misunderstanding. And the very fact that there is acampaign may persuade some alumni and other supporters to delay their normal annual giving in anticipation thatthey will be asked for large gifts.Possibly the most important part of the $280,000,000 in the campaign, however, is a total of $31,500,000 in unrestricted funds to be given to support current programs in the University. Since the experience of the immediatepast suggested that the University could expect to bring in $13,500,000 in unrestricted gifts during the period, evenif there were no drive, the goal of the drive is to increase unrestricted giving in the next three years by $6,000,000 ayear, for a total of $18;000,000.Eventually, if the fund drive is successful, the University will have raised $137,000,000 in additional endowment, which should produce an annual income of more than $7,000,000 for the use of the University's programs.But until that money is raised and is producing income, an increase in unrestricted annual giving— the unrestrictedfunds sought in the drive— is essential to maintaining the strength of the institution.Without those funds during the period of the campaign, the University could be forced to make cuts in faculty,in academic programs and in services that would weaken it so seriously that the purpose of the drive itself could beundermined.The purpose of the Campaign for Chicago is to provide deeper foundations for the University forever, to giveit the means to continue in the long future the great achievements it has made in the past and to continue as one ofthe world's few best universities, as it is now.But, in this matter of unrestricted giving for the next few years, the question is not future greatness but presentsurvival. The problem could be that serious in a very short time if the downturn in unrestricted giving is notstopped and more funds are not given.I thought it worth while to give this brief explanation to alumni, since you will understand what is at stakemore quickly and more sympathetically than anyone else. In any case, you should know.The greatness of this University in the past eighty years will make it live forever in men's minds and imaginations; and, if it has the kinds of friends now that it has always found in the past, people with a special appreciationof education, it can live for many centuries, not only in memory but in fact, as a great creator of civilization and ofunderstanding. But the next few years are dangerous ones for this place. The time of a fund-raising effort always isdangerous, of course, but this time is especially worrisome because there are so many pressures in the economy andin the nation which affect the friends of the University but which the University cannot affect.You will be receiving appeals from the University for contributions to unrestricted funds. As you can see,maintaining the University's strength now depends on at least a doubling of alumni gifts. Responding as generouslyas you can, and as quickly, can be the most important thing you can do for the University of Chicago, and I think,for education, in your life.J D.J. R.BrucknerVice President for Public Affairsby the late John W. Watzek, Jr.Robert E. Streeter, an authority onAmerican literature, becomes the EdwardL. Ryerson distinguished service professorin the Department of English and theCollege.Tetsuo Najita, a faculty member since1969, has been named director of theCenter for Far Eastern Studies.Barry D. Karl (am'51), professor ofAmerican history, has been named theHoward L. Willett professor in the College.Gerhard L. Closs, of the Department ofChemistry and the College, a specialist inorganic reaction mechanisms and in magnetic resonance, has been appointed tothe Albert A. Michelson distinguishedservice chair.Leo A. Goodman, the Charles L.Hutchinson distinguished service professorof statistics and sociology, was awarded theSamuel A. Stouffer award by the AmericanSociological Association. The award honorsformer Professor Stouffer (PhB'30), whodied in 1960.Max Rheinstein, professor emeritus of law,received this fall the West Germangovernment's knight commander's cross ofthe order of merit for his contributions toGerman-American reconciliation. Eugene F. Gerwe, named the University'sdirector of development last summer, hasbeen named vice-president fordevelopment.CorrectionThe photo which appeared in theautumn issue of the magazineshowing Professor Morton Kaplan andthe president of Israel incorrectlyidentified the Israeli leader, who is, ofcourse, Ephraim Katzir. ZalmanShazar, who died this fall, had beenpresident preceding Mr. Katzir.THE QUADRANGLES IN WINTER„.„.„„ , , .enthusiasm. (Still, there were places where it was warm m-The former student may recollect the warm days and nights side.) On the other hand, winter in the quadrangles can beof returning to the Midway in the fall. And spring— if there good and true and beautiful, as these pictures, printed to re-was one. (Summer generally meant going away.) But mostly semble woodcuts, show. Myron Davis (x'41), erstwhile Lifethe former student remembers winter— not necessarily with photographer, made them.¦ ¦*3^ff*ag>%gftiS!gBg9*gOne example of how a pelvis is measured and projected for multivariate analysis.Australopithecus vs.Charles E. OxnardToday's conventional wisdom about human evolution dependsupon the (apparent) marked similarity between modern manand the various australopithecine fossils. Studies — in mylaboratory and by others — indicate, however, that the fossilsare uniquely different from modern man in many majorrespects.Again, the conventional wisdom has it that when theaustralopithecine fossils do depart from the condition ofmodern man, then they do so in the direction of the Africanapes, the gorilla and chimpanzee, our nearest genetic relatives.Our present studies indicate that this may not be the case.Dr. Oxnard is professor in the Departments of Anatomy andAnthropology, the Committee on Evolutionary Biology, andthe College. In addition, he is dean of the College. This articleis adapted from his book. Uniqueness and Diversity in HumanEvolution: Morphometric Studies of Australopithecines,which will be published next year by the University of ChicagoPress. Dr. Oxnard, born in Durham City, England, holds fourdegrees from the University of Birmingham. He joined theUniversity's faculty in 1966. His studies include some collaborative endeavors with Lord Zuckerman, University of EastAnglia, Prof essor Eric Ashton, University of Birmingham, andProfessor Peter Lisowski, University of Hong Kong. TheNational Science Foundation and The National Institutes ofHealth have supported his work since 1960. the computerIn terms of their postcranial morphology — the shapes ofthe bones of their trunks and limbs which are available to us—the various australopithecines (the so-called "killer apes") aregenerally more similar to one another than any individualspecimen among them is to any living primate. They areuniquely different from any living form to a degree comparable at least to the differences among living genera. Themanner in which they are similar to living hominoids is eithersuch as to be applicable to all living hominoids, or to displayspecial morphological resemblances to the orang-utan. In onlya few ways are the australopithecines more similar to eitherman or the African apes than these latter are to each other.Presumably the patterns of uniqueness and diversity thathave been uncovered relate to the evolution of locomotion. Themore speculative deductions that these results speak to are thefollowing:• The australopithecines, in displaying uniqueness in morphology, may likewise have been functionally unique-distinguishable from all living hominoids.• This surely means that they were not arboreal in any of thediffering manners of the Asiastic apes, gibbons, siamangs andorang-utans, and they were not terrestrial in the knuckle-walking mode of the African apes. And they were not solelybipedal like man.• They therefore displayed either a totally new and unknownmanner of locomotion, which would be unique, and which we8shall judge to be rather unlikely. Or they display such a mixture of locomotor abilities — and therefore anatomical adaptations, and therefore bony morphologies — as to be renderedunique through being a mixture of different intermediates.• The modes in which they are similar to man indicate propensities for a type of bipedality. But the ways in which theyare similar to orang-utans may well also indicate abilities forquadrupedal movement, presumably in an arboreal environment, and with a degree of acrobatic climbing abilities such asare reminiscent of all apes when they are in an arboreal milieu(or, just possibly, a cliff-like terrain).-Let us be clear that the nature of these suggestions is notmerely an extension of human capabilities. Man can climb,using methods which are rather like those used by apes, butdifferent from those used by monkeys. But man's abilities tolive in a climbing setting are almost non-existent. Likewiseman can — and does when an infant — move on all fours, but infact his quadrupedal facility is zero. Man's true abilities inboth these directions cannot be said by anyone to be other thana total liability in any conceivable life framework where theyare required.Such was presumably not the case with Australopithecus,although we are not able to distinguish the time relationshipsof these abilities. Australopithecus may display the variousforms we find in the fossil bones because it had both arborealand terrestrial abilities or because, while performing the one asa new acquisition, it had not lost the hallmarks of the other,older, mode.It is possible that these form-function results are consonantwith the status of australopithecines as being close to theevolution of the pathway of bipedality as expressed in theevolution of man. This is the standard view.If this is true, however, it suggests that bipedality arose bysome markedly complicated process involving genetic intermediates very much unlike man, and that all this occurred inan extremely short period of time. But the form-function results are actually rather more consonant with a simpler idea —that human bipedality was not nature's only experiment in thisdirection. The australopithecines may well be representing forus another experiment that failed.Since the disentangling of these relationships is an important factor in evaluating our belief in the conventional wisdomregarding the australopithecines, let us look at some of theways in which such findings may be achieved. They includedirect approaches and simulations, as well as the applicationof inductive methods and various statistical techniques.Biomechanical aspects of form can be studied at relativelysimple levels. For instance, physical principles relating to size,loading, and properties of materials provide constraints thatdetermine some of the limits of biological form. We understand, thus, that land animals the size of the biggest of theblue whales, if constructed of conventional biologicalmaterials, cannot exist. We accept, likewise, that there areconstraints, based upon physical laws, which bound the orderof magnitude of insects as we know them on earth.There is no doubt that the locomotor behavior of an animal Three comparisons of the pelvis of the fossil, man and apes.The results of a high - dimensional multivariate analysis havebeen displayed by embedding them within the many dimensions of a sine -cosine function. Similarity in wavy lines meanssimilarity in the results. The upper frame shows that it is possible to pick features which produce a similarity between thefossil and man. The middle frame shows that it is also possibleto pick features which produce a similarity of the fossil withthe apes (shown by the shaded envelope). But the bottomframe shows the result of analyzing all available features. A l-t hough at the left-hand end the curve for the fossil is intermediate between man and apes suggesting perhaps inter-mediacy which would correlate well with the idea of the gradual evolution of bipedality, the right-hand end of the curveshows the fossil to be outlying away from man and the ape.This means that the fossil is not intermediate and is in factuniquely different from both living forms.9is, on a gross level, controlled by the anatomy of the animal.An example of this phenomenon in the primates is the prehensile tail. Certainly this structure allows a differentapproach to locomotion. Yet it was not the development of aprehensile tail which then led some monkey to curl its tailaround a branch. The reality of the situation is that cebidmonkeys without a specialized tail morphology engage invarious behaviors involving wrapping of the tail around someobject (a comrade's tail, mother or a branch). Indeed, even theOld World crab-eating monkey (Macaca irus) can use its tail tograsp small objects loosely and does use it (in captivity) forvarious manipulative activities. One can speculate confidentlythat it may have been these kinds of behaviors which precededthe morphological changes seen in the tails of the prehensile-tailed New World monkey; it may have been the existence ofthese behaviors which were necessary in order for the morphological changes in the tail to have been selected. This relationship depends primarily upon the anecdotal association ofmovement and morphology.But many biomechanical studies have become considerablymore complicated as a result of the capability for study that isprovided by modern developments in such fields as, forexample, equipment miniaturization and computer simulation. Experimental methods such as cineradiography are alsotoday providing information about biomechanisms that honeour understanding and in many cases provide entirely newviews.Studies of chimpanzee bipedalism, for example, have beenThis diagram provides a geometrical description of the multivariate statistical analysis. The two swarms A and B arepositioned with reference to the axes X' and X" which represent the original data. But the separations between them arebest seen from the viewpoint of the new rotated axis \. made by Farish Jenkins, using cineradiography to define thedifference that exists between the way apes walk when theyattempt upright movement and the bipedal gait of modernman. Chimpanzees, he has reported, do not adopt a newmethod of walking when they move bipedally; rather do theyretain the pattern of flexion and extension of their legs that ischaracteristic of their own locomotion on four feet and apply itwithin a pattern that includes a reoriented pelvis. Such differences allow us to define in detail how the biomechanicalelements of the structure of the human hip differ from that ofan ape. And the combination of a number of such experimental methods can be most fruitful.When, however, our interests stray toward making functional-structural assessments of fossil forms, a number ofmarked restraints enter into methodology. For the direct approaches are capable of providing information about fossilsonly to the extent that analogy with extant forms can beutilized.Thus the methods of experimental stress analysis can also beapplied to fossil shapes in comparisons with the structures ofextant species whose functions are known. For instance, wehave shown that the complicated architecture of the fingerbones of higher primates relates fairly well to the primaryfunctions they exhibit during locomotion:• The finger bones of the chimpanzee and the gorilla areefficient within static knuckle-walking simulations, whilethose of the orang-utan are not.• These same architectures are, for the chimpanzee andgorilla, somewhat inefficient in a static hanging-climbingcontext, where in this situation those of the orang-utan areefficient.• Man is inefficient in both situations (of course we know thathe practices neither).• A finger bone of the Olduvai hand ("Homo habilis" — anaustralopithecine) is inefficient at knuckle-walking butefficient in the hanging-climbing mode.A second — the indirect — approach is also available for thestudy of animal form. This, the inductive method, consists ofallowing the structures to speak, as it were, for themselves.And because the structures do not always speak very clearlywhen they tell us about themselves, we may run into differentsets of problems.However, although the results must be inferred fromcomplex comparisons, rather than neatly displayed by experiment, the inductive approach has some major facets in whichit is decidedly superior to the experimental. Thus it is moreeasily able to deal with populations rather than individuals;the former represents difficulties that are usually prohibitivefor more than a small number of cases in experimental work.Inductive methods are better able to deal with a wide range ofanatomical structures and a broad diversity of animal typessuch as can scarcely be included in carefully planned experimental studies with adequate controls. And these methods arecapable of dealing with fragmentary and incomplete specimens in a manner difficult to arrange in experimental studies.Thus they are especially appropriate for the study of fossils.10We must acknowledge, however, that the inductive methodsare not at variance with direct techniques. In fact it is clearthat the converse applies; the approaches are truly complementary rather than competitive. Concordance among them isan important strength in evaluating results; disagreementsshould make each look to the beam in his own eye.The inductive approach may involve a methodology assimple as associating, visually, functional observations withmorphological information. For example, animals with curvedbut non-buttressed finger bones are usually capable climbers(gibbon, spider monkey, orang-utan); ergo, fossils with curved,non-buttressed finger bones may have been capable climbers.This is a well-known methodology that has been practiced fordecades.It may run into difficulties, however, once biological problems become more refined, as indeed has this particularexample: chimpanzees and gorillas also have curved fingerbones, but in these cases with special buttresses that seem to berelated to knuckle-walking.Where do buttresses start and end in the examination offossil forms in which the incipient natures of the morphological differences and beginning behaviors may be the preciseinformation that is needed in an evolutionary context?Once we become interested in shades of differences, thecomplex nature of bone form and pattern — and the complicated series of developmental, evolutionary and biomechanicalprocesses that are responsible for its precise expression — defythe facile explanation. Under such circumstances a number ofother techniques for characterizing bone form and patternmay also be useful.One particular method, the multivariate statistical approach,has been utilized fairly extensively for the characterization ofbone form. And although this method has been used by anumber of workers in different anatomical regions purely as amethod of characterizing and comparing shapes, it has beenused in a rather special manner in our laboratories forexamining postcranial sketetal elements; in these particularstudies the features used for comparisons are chosen in such away as to maximize the content of the data which is related tofunction.The core of the multivariate techniques is the following. Ifwe suppose that a single object can be defined by three measurements, then that object can be represented as a pointwithin a three-dimensional coordinate system. A group ofsimilar objects will then appear as a swarm of points withinthat three-dimensional space. Other different groups ofobjects will appear as other swarms. If the original measurements defining the objects are uncorrelated with one another,then the original coordinate system will truly describe thearrangement of the swarms.If however the original measurements defining the objectsare correlated with one another to some or other degree, thenthe true relations among the swarms will be best seen from thevantage point of some other set of coordinate axes. Geometrically this is the equivalent of constructing and viewingfrom one position a three-dimensional model of the swarmsand then rotating and viewing the model from a new position This diagram represents a three-dimensional construction thatresults from a multivariate analysis of the toe bones of apes,man and the fossil. The picture above shows a view in whichthe fossil appears to resemble man— the conventional wisdom.The second picture shows that when we rotate the model, thefossil is actually uniquely different from both man and Africanapes.that best separates the swarms.If we can extrapolate such a three-dimensional geometricaldescription to an example in which we have taken many measurements upon each object, then the algebraic problem ismulti-dimensional and scarcely realizable save with thecomputer; but the geometrical analogy remains simple, as theillustrations accompanying this article demonstrate.Multivariate studies of several anatomical regions, shoulder,pelvis, ankle, foot, elbow and hand are now available for theaustralopithecines. These suggest that the common view, thatthese fossils are similar to modern man or that on thoseoccasions when they depart from a similarity to man theyresemble the African great apes, may be incorrect. Most ofthese fossil fragments are in fact, uniquely different from bothman and man's nearest living genetic relatives, the chimpanzeeand gorilla.To the extent that resemblances exist with living forms, they11tend to be with the orang-utan. This does not, of course, implygenetic affinity with the orang-utan. But it very well couldmean that in these fossils we see morphological remnants ofadaptations to arboreal locomotion and that if indeed theseanimals are truly bipedal, then the nature of their bipedalitymay have differed uniquely from that of modern man.Three other pieces of evidence support these ideas and areindependent of those assembled in this study. One comes fromthe recent finding at East Rudolf by Richard Leakey of a talus— the keystone of the arch of the foot — that was found lyingbetween layers that have been reliably dated at 1.57 ±0.00 and2.61 £0.26 million years by argon isotope techniques. Thisspecimen is thus as old if not appreciably older than theaustralopithecine specimen from Olduvai (the dating of theKromdraai australopithecine talus is problematical).Yet this new specimen is much larger than the australopithecine specimens and appears to be much more like man asfar as can be judged from the published picture and descriptions. Further description and examination using multivariatestatistics by Bernard Wood confirms that it is indeed verysimilar to modern man and is thus unlike the australopithecine specimens. Unless evolution took the talus through astage where it was much like man (as at East Rudolf) thenthrough a stage where it was uniquely different from man (asat Olduvai and possibly Kromdraai) and back again to a stagelike modern man, then the australopithecine fossil tali had tohave been unrelated to any direct human line.A second indication comes from the recent finding byLeakey of a skull dated at almost 3,000,000 years (certainlymore than 2,000,000) and with an endocranial volume ofpossibly 800ccs or even more. Such a find, if the accuratedating can be certainly pinned to the fossil rather than to thelayer in which it was found (and this seems likely), and if thevolume can be independently confirmed (it certainly looksreasonable from the casts of the reconstruction that I wasallowed to examine), makes it much less likely that theaustralopithecines, the youngest of which is less than 1 ,000,000years and the endocranial volume of which is just over400ccs — the same as a large gorilla, disregarding over-allbodily size — are on any direct line of human ancestry. Unlesscranial capacity went from large to small then large again, thenew find makes it clear that the australopithecines had to havebeen off the main stream of man's development.The third piece of evidence comes from an even earlier find,a fragment of arm bone perhaps 4,000,000 years old fromKanapoi. This has already been shown to be very similar tothat of modern man, and some of our demonstrations clearlysupport that contention. Again, unless arm bones evolvedthrough a cycle of being more like man at an earlier stage, lesslike him at later australopithecine stage and more like himagain at a much later human stage, then the australopithecineshad to have lain on an evolutionary side branch.Further, these pieces of evidence must also mean thatperhaps as long as 5,000,000 years ago (and the possibility isnot lost that future finds may place this yet further back intime) there may well have been creatures living that were generally similar to Homo erectus and therefore classifiable asman in a way that we must deny to any australopithecine(whether named H. habilis, H. africanus or whatever else).The removal of the different members of this relativelysmall-brained, curiously unique genus, Australopithecus, intoone or more parallel sides lines away from a direct link withman, would make it easier for the mind to accept the findingswe have encountered. But whatever the explanation may be,these findings are real; the fossils are much less like man thanpresently recognized. These results must be accounted for inwhatever conclusions are drawn concerning the evolution ofman.This much earlier existence of individuals somewhat likeHomo (in the very few features available for comparison) leadsinexorably to a further much broader possibility. That is: thelength of time that would have been available for the psychosocial evolution of Homo may well have been almost an orderof magnitude greater than that presently believed to have beenoperative.Homo erectus is generally thought to be less than 1,000,000years old (although W. W. Howells perspicaciously argues fora longer period). Knowing as we do the enormously greaterspeed of psycho-social evolution as compared with the slowrate of biological evolution, then a longer absolute time spanof, say, 5,000,000 years, may have allowed an even greateramount of relative evolutionary time for the evolution of thebehavioral, cultural and intellectual qualities that stamp manas unique from any animal.Thus it may be that the exceedingly cruel, yet sophisticatednature of human aggression towards his own species is less dependent upon a prior animal base and more dependent uponthe relatively long psycho-social evolutionary time span that wemay now suppose to have existed.The extreme intricacies of human culture may likewise reflect somewhat less upon a previous basic behavior as pertaining to a non-human primate and somewhat more upon thisextra period of evolutionary time than has previously beensupposed by many workers. Human intellectual prowess mayhave had as much as ten times more time to increase from alevel comparable to that of some non-human stage of development than we have previously realized.One would expect that Leakey (and others) will find moreevidence of earlier forms that are considerably more human inall respects. These forms would, on present evidence, be likelyto be more like man than the later australopithecines (eventhough these latter must also have existed at earlier periods intime).Certainly, the numbers of fossil remnants that are now appearing through the work of many investigators in Africawould yield a great deal of information if compared with livingspecies by the methods used in this essay. We may well have toaccept that human bipedality is far older than previouslyguessed, and that australopithecine locomotion included oneor more unsuccessful parallel experiments. We may well haveto accept that it is rather unlikely that any of the australopithecines, including "Homo habilis," can have had anydirect phylogenetic link with the genus Homo. '"12Self fulfilment is not enoughEducation and the 'new values'Robert O. AndersonMy feelings when I was graduated in 1939 were perhapsbest summed up in words written by John Gunther, class of'22, when he visited here not long ago."Quality aside," he wrote, "this is a school which standsfor freedom of expression, freedom to speculate and experiment, freedom for spacious inquiry, freedom to be agadfly if necessary and freedom not only to be right but totake a chance on being wrong...."I still have that feeling today because I think the Americaof 1974 needs this type of academic freedom more than everbefore in its history. It is only in an atmosphere such as thisthat the young people of today can develop the thinkingability that will let them cope with the complex burden ofdecision that this age has put upon them. They are beingasked to make conscious choices on issues that earliergenerations could simply ignore— many did not exist; as forthe others, one could be confident that the decision wouldbe made for them through nature, tradition, habit, thefinger of God or, if you prefer, the hoof of chance.Through man's supreme accomplishment of thiscentury — the amazing development of appliedtechnology— we have achieved seemingly complete dominionover nature, the unconquerable foe of all previous humanhistory. Nature now seems very tame and even vulnerable.With our new tools, we have the power to foul the biggestriver, choke the air with endless pollutants, upset thedelicate balance of plant and animal life, alter mentalprocesses through the use of drugs, and, of course, blowourselves to atoms if we choose. Even woebegone India hasthe latter distinction.In the area of medical science, advances have vastlyreduced the level of infant mortality, but mankind goes onbreeding as though we were still living in the hazardousdays of history when the chances of surviving to adulthoodwere slim.In the area of particular concern to me, we have dreamedup marvelous new uses for energy— full-power autos, all-Robert O. Anderson (ab'39) is a trustee of the University.Chairman and chief executive officer of Atlantic Richfield Co.,he spoke earlier this year at the President' s dinner; his article isa slightly abridged version of that address. The Yankelovichstudy to which he refers has since been published as The NewMorality: a Profile of American Youth in the '70s (New York:McGraw-Hill, 1974). It covers responses from more than 6,000interviews with persons in the 16-25 age group. electric kitchens, hourly jets to Paris, and so forth — and arenow running short of the basic stuff itself. In a very few years,seven or so, the United States has gone from being a surplusnation in energy— and several other raw materials— to beinga have-not nation.The energy crisis of last winter and spring demonstratedhow energy oriented we have become. We still don't knowwhat the outcome means in terms of international powerbalances and economic shakeouts, but it is clear that thiscountry will never again find itself in those comfortablecircumstances when we could eat up a third of the world'senergy while actively planning ways to get still more.Finally, our speed of movement and communication,while key to so much of the pleasure and excitement ofmodern-day living, is also the source of at least as muchdistress and apprehension, and maybe more. Distance itselfis no longer any guarantee of anything. Whether the badnews originates in the Chicago Loop, the Golan Heights, orthe Australian outback, it's all a lively threat and adds aliketo our psychological burden, and generally our tax burden.All of these issues, as well as many more, raisetremendous questions that the citizens of the United States,present and future, must prepare themselves to answer. Andthe time fuse, as we say in business, is not long but short.No American statesman or businessman or educator orscientist of the '70s has the leisure to contemplatealternatives for a decade or so before he makes his decision.The moves and policies we adopt in energy during thenext two to three years will very likely determine whether ornot this country will have an adequate supply twenty tothirty years from now.It is against this background of a gathering urgency inworld affairs and personal affairs that we must askquestions about our educational system— its generaladequacy, the directions it seems to be taking, and, ofcourse, the quality of the products it is producing. Theanswers we are getting lately seem to me disquieting.One current source of information, the DanielYankelovich polling organization, is a frequent purveyor ofunsettling news. We hire him to find out what the publicthinks about the petroleum industry. When we see theresults we wonder why we asked.Yankelovich has published a new study called "ChangingYouth Values in the '70s: A Study of American Youth." Ifyou have been concerned about our youngsters, this studywill do nothing to calm your nerves.The "new values" Yankelovich uncovered among those hepolled are euphemistically lumped together under the term13"self- fulfilment.""Stress on the theme of gratification," the survey says, "isthe individual's way of saying that there must be somethingmore to life than making a living, struggling to make endsmeet, and caring for others. The self-fulfilment concept alsoimplies a greater preoccupation with self at the expense ofsacrificing one's self for family, employer, and community."I do not intend to represent this poll, as isolated andrandom as it probably is, as the basis for predicting the endof western civilization. Yet as a straw in the wind I think itmerits thoughtful consideration by all those who would bedismayed at the prospect of an American nation governedby such "new values" as those revolving around the idea ofself- gratification above all else.What this development says about our educational effortsin this country is that we are somehow failing to do thecentral thing we should be doing— teaching people how tothink. Unlike their predecessors of the frantic '60s, theyoung people of 1974 are not down on formal education.According to Yankelovich, they are all for it because theysee that education alone can equip them to earn a goodsalary in a durable career. This is an altogether acceptableobjective, and especially logical today, when technologicalspecialization has driven the relatively unschooled generalistto the wall.But career preparation, however necessary, cannot in anysense be considered the primary goal of education, althoughin most instances today, I am afraid that it is.As a result the cultivation of pure thought— objective,dispassionate, analytical— suffers."Thinking," Bob Hutchins noted some years ago, "ispainful, unnecessary, and unpopular. The din of public andprivate propaganda in which we live, the pressure exertedby the institutions in which we work and have our being,and the tyranny of our neighbor's lifted eyebrow are makingthinking next to impossible. Under these circumstances thehabit of not thinking is the easiest in the world to acquire.The most common statement you can hear today is, 'I don'twant to get involved.'"Yet as emphasis shifts from the development oftechnology to the behavior of those who will use thattechnology, we will have to get involved— all of us, youngand old, but particularly the age group represented by thoseYankelovich encountered on his rounds. In a very few yearsthose young men and women will be making the decisionsabout politics and population, about energy and economics,and about all the rest of the issues that are massing on thenear horizon.And I believe it is clearly apparent that it is only hardthinking and self-denial— not self- gratification— that willpull us through the difficult days ahead.We desperately need the kind of objective thinking thatthe University of Chicago in the tradition of William RaineyHarper has fostered in its students as its principal reason forbeing. The kind of thinking that can only be produced bythe liberalizing, humanizing philosophy that infuses thisinstitution's entire curriculum, from the liberal arts through the physical and social sciences. The kind of thinking thatwe must have in liberal amounts if we are ever to solve theprincipal problem of our time— that of building themetaphysical foundation for the new way of life whichtechnology has made possible, subjecting science once againto broad-gauge human perspective, supplying rational endsto the frighteningly powerful means that we are endlesslycapable of producing.In the weeks and months ahead, the University will beundertaking a major drive for financial help for theUniversity. A goal of $280,000,000 has been set, asubstantial amount, even in terms of the petroleum industry.I sincerely believe that no better investment can be madethan to sustain this unique institution, and to strengthen itas well. It is an integral and important facet of this greatcity.To raise this amount we must exert every effort forindividual contributions. With the decline of great personalfortunes, gifts such as John D. Rockefeller's, which foundedthis institution, are no longer available. While the individualremains the principal support, our corporations mustrecognize the need to support the private educational sector.The University of Chicago is an outstanding example ofan institution established and maintained through privategiving whose independent status has enabled it to achieveits remarkable standards of excellence. The school'sinfluence extends throughout U. S. higher education,including all of the great universities in this land. TheUniversity has produced 137 of the present U. S. collegeand university presidents. More than 700 members of thecurrent faculties of Big 10 institutions trained here. Of thePhDs teaching at the University of California at Berkeley,120 trained at Chicago. The same is true of sixty-five PhDson the Yale faculty and sixty at Harvard. And a surveytaken over the last two decades reveals that two -thirds ofthe University of Chicago's PhDs have gone into teaching orresearch. The same study indicates that Chicago leads thenation in the percentage of its undergraduate degree holderswho have gone on to successfully complete their doctoralstudies.Impressive as this record is, however, it does not definethe University of Chicago's principal value to mankind.Certainly the sole objective is not the training of PhDs or aflock of reasonably successful lawyers, administrators, orengineers.We cannot justify an appeal for private funds in solelystatistical terms— the number of graduates and the amountof money they are making, and so forth. Because thisapproach fails to make the vital distinction between privatehigher education and the state -supported variety— that oneis free of potentially distorting controls and the other is not.The issue of private giving to higher education has beenconfused by the social decision made in this country duringrecent decades that higher education must be extended tothe mass of the American people. Mass higher educationclearly must be the responsibility of the state. Privateinstitutions cannot do it. We argue, of course, that the14amplified need for state support of higher education in noway diminishes the importance of the private institution.But that argument holds water only if the privateinstitutions are in fact different, and do in fact serve afunction that the state -supported mass institutions by theirnature cannot serve. That special function is the provision ofquality education in an atmosphere of complete speculativefreedom.If the University of Chicago is to continue to be the"exciting institution" John Gunther saw a few years ago, itmust remain free— free to operate as a center of humanisticthought, free to be smaller and more innovative than thoseinstitutions whose state charter requires them to take allcomers and do something practical with them, free tofunction as an independent community of scholarsbeholden, if you will, only to the truth itself. For thattimeless concept— the truth— is needed more today than atany other time in our history.As to the first aspect of the University's dual strength, thehumanities, I will only say that I believe the humanities arethe basic core of all that is best and most valuable ineducation, the disciplines that best define the educativefunction of this or any other school, college, or university. Itis true that exposure to the humanities will not necessarilyenable one to produce a product— a thumbtack or asuspension bridge. The humanities are, in that sense, utterlyuseless. Why, then, bother with them?The basic value of the humanities in higher educationcurricula does not depend on any indirect utility they mayhave for a job. Their value does not consist in what astudent can do with them, but in what they do for him as areasoning human being.The study of history, literature, the arts, religion andphilosophy, the fine arts and the performing artsaccomplishes all the things, I believe, that school catalogshave always claimed. The 1973 - '74 catalog of theUniversity's Humanities Collegiate Division, for example,speaks of such studies as producing encounter with culturaltraditions, sharpening perception and thinking, and openingyoung lives to the most significant human problems andpleasures.I agree with all that, but I would say in somewhat lesslofty terms that we need the humanities simply to give ouryoung people some enduring values. Certainly one of themost salient aspects of our culture at the moment is thelarge number of young people — able, sensitive,articulate— who are unclear about the meaning of their lives.And a large part of the reason, I think, is that we have nottaken the trouble to initiate them into moral and ethicalvalues, into principles of conduct which civilized peoplehave taken for granted since time immemorial.The only real protection we can offer our students againstthe cynicism, the superficial, the pat answer, the falserealism that surrounds them is early and consistent exposureto the works of men and women who have been able andwilling to think hard about the human condition and to putthose thoughts down with grace and aptitude. The students Yankelovich interviewed are, of course,right— there is more to life than they are able to perceive interms of their own experience— a lot more, certainly, thanthe example of their elders would apparently lead them tobelieve. But they will broaden their view and enrich theirideas in an academic atmosphere in which specializedconcepts are seen for what they are, elements of the truthand not the truth itself. And this University has longdedicated itself, as Bob Hutchins pointed out, to cultivatingan atmosphere in which one can "see knowledge, life, theworld, or truth whole. ..to tame the pretensions and excessesof experts and specialists by drawing them into theacademic circle and subjecting them to the criticism of otherdisciplines. ..to see everything in the light of everything else."Many colleges and universities in the United States try tomaintain this speculative freedom to follow truth where itbeckons but I believe, for a few obvious reasons, that thistask is most successfully done in a private university ratherthan in one that is controlled by the state.The tendency nowadays, of course, is to use mass highereducation for some purpose determined by those who holdpolitical power. Many of these efforts are appropriate andneeded. We need, for example, to improve the vocationalcapability of our system of education from the bottom up.Too many college youngsters are drifting along with noparticular purpose in mind other than to delay getting a job.We also need the extraordinary research capabilities ofthe universities which are funded by the federal governmentor by the foundations for legitimate national purposes.But this is not the basic function of the classic university.And it will not give the meaning, coherence, and unity thatour world is parched without.A true university, in the sense in which the University ofChicago properly sees its role, is not to be a mirror of theneeds of society but a beacon which society can follow. Theproper function of a university is not to be used by someother institution to accomplish the ends of that institution,however worthy they may be, but to discover and define theobjectives which as an intellectual community it believes areworthy and enduring. A university cannot be a servicestation to the community or a paid functionary of federal orstate government and still produce a universally validscholarship.Because the University of Chicago has avoided thosepitfalls and maintained its integrity and independence, I amproud to pledge my support and to urge the support ofothers who are as convinced as I am that the quality ofAmerican life depends directly on the quality of Americanthought.You are shedding a light on contemporary Americanproblems that is reflective of the past as well as the present.You are searching for the new values without neglecting anyof the great works of man, whenever produced, from whichwe can still learn. You are able, in the stridency of thepresent, to listen, as Daniel Boorstin says, for "the still,small whisper of reason." I can think of no better reason forthis great University to exist.15Figure 1. A schematic anatomy of a high-amplitude non-linearAlfven wave. The vertical lines represent the background magnetic field. The left and right-hand spindle-like filaments showthat the convected force-free mass is made up of parallel constituents including B, the local magnetic field, j , electricalcurrent density, -v, fluid velocity, and-co, fluid vorticity.The plasma vortexUltimately it may provide the key to mankind'sproductive use of thermonuclear energyW. H. BostickEveryone is acquainted in some measure with thephenomenon of vortex formation in water and air (both ofwhich are fluids). The vortices produced by a teaspoon in ateacup or by the oar of a rowboat are frequently observedby layman and scholar alike. Vortices are an importantcharacteristic feature of a fluid medium in motion:There is a range of mountains in the eastern part of Argentina known as La Sierra de la Ventana (The Mountainsof the Window), where there is a large hole that has beendrilled through the rock near the top of the range. The drilling instrument consists of the swirling rock particles whichhave been entrained by the vortex which occurs as the restless winds of Patagonia roll diagonally over the crest of themountain.Edgar Allen Poe tells a somewhat exaggerated and embroidered but fascinating story about a vortex in his Descentinto the Maelstrom. In The Wizard of Oz it is a vortex whichpicks up Dorothy's house at the beginning of the story.Rotation can impart to a fluid or an otherwise limpstructure a large measure of rigidity and integrity: A gentlesummer zephyr can be pleasantly caressing, but the same medium when excited into a vortex as violent as a tornadocan have the cutting effect of a pneumatic hammer and thedestructive effect of a nuclear-weapon blast wave. The limpdisk of dough in a pizza baker's hands is galvanized into rigidity as he throws it twirlingly above his head. Many stableelementary particles, such as the electron and proton,possess spin, and one cannot resist the philosophicalconjecture that the spin has something to do with the existence, integrity, and stability of these elementary particles.Vortex formation is the mechanism whereby the kinetic energy in large-scale motion of a fluid can be transformedinto smaller-scale motion. These vortices create even smallerones as the energy is dissipated ever more rapidly into thermal energy of the fluid. Thus a hedgerow or drift fencewhich breaks the wind into small vortices will cause the winter wind to loose its grip on the drifting snow and thusdeposit the snow near the row or fence. And birds know thatthey can obtain shelter from the winter winds in a thicket ofevergreens, where the myriad of evergreen needles breaksup the large-scale motion of the wind into tiny vorticeswhich travel only a short distance before they fade.16Winston Bostick (sb'38, pIid'41) is professor of physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, and is widely knownfor his work in vortex phenomena in plasma physics, a field ofendeavor which some day may enable men to put the earth'svast supply of hydrogen to work in the creation of energythrough fusion. The work on plasma vortex filaments reportedin this article has been carried out at Stevens by Mr. Bostick,W. Prior and V. Nardi and supported by the A ir Force Officeof Scientific Research, NATO, and the New Jersey and Central New Jersey Power and Light Cos. In addition to his scientific activities, Mr. Bostick was a candidate for Congress inthe New Jersey Democratic primary in 1966 and in 1968 wasa delegate to the stormy Democratic National Convention atwhich, he recalls, he was "probably the only member of theAmerican Physical Society to spend a night in Mayor Daley'sjail. "The formation and extension of the deltas of rivers, largeand small, occur through the constant generation and decayof myriads of small vortices as the waters of the delta flowthrough the reeds and grasses which grow in these shallowwaters. Sidney Lanier's poem, The Song of the Chattahoochee, describes the phenomenon so dramatically in theline: "The little reeds sighed, 'Abide, abide'..."A vortex in a teacup will last about a second. Thevortices generated by the oars of a rowboat last severalseconds. The vortices produced in the wake of a large jetplane last minutes, and are dangerous to small planes. Atornado may last an hour. A hurricane lasts for days. Agalaxy lasts for 1010 years.The local degree of vortex rotation of a fluid is characterized by the concept known as "vorticity." The lift forcedensity of an airplane can be obtained by multiplying thevelocity of flow of the air over the wings by the perpendicular component of the vorticity of the air's vortexrotation about the airfoil (the air actually rotates as a vortexaround the airfoil). This force density is known as the Magnus force, and it is thus the Magnus force which enablesbirds and airplanes to fly. For the Magnus force to existthere must be a degree of perpendicularity between thegross velocity of the air and the vorticity.Wild geese make use of the existence of the vortex,which not only rotates around their wings, but extendsbeyond the wingtips. They fly in the v formation so thateach goose can get the benefit of the updraft of the vortexcreated by the goose which is immediately ahead of it andoff its wingtip.There are vortices also which exist in fluids which aregood enough conductors of electric currents for the electriccurrents to influence the motion. Sea water is a fluid whichis a conductor of electric currents, but sea water is not asufficiently good conductor for the electric current toinfluence its motion. However, the fluid materials of thesun, both its interior and its atmosphere, are good electric conductors. And thus a sunspot represents a vortexphenomenon (lasting for weeks) where the formation ofelectric currents and magnetic fields plays a role of importance equal to that of the purely mechanical effects of thefluid. The "convection rolls" whose axes go radially outwardin the penumbra of sunspots are also examples of vortices inan electrically conducting liquid. The study of the behaviorof a fluid which is a good conductor of electricity isfrequently referred to as the subject of magnetohydrodyna-mics or hydromagnetics.In both astrophysics and controlled thermonuclear fusion research, the magneto-hydrodynamical fluid of mostimportance is that of an ionized gas— that is, a gas in whichelectrons have been stripped from the atoms and where theresulting free electrons and positive ions occupy approximately the same gross volume. The resulting ionized gas,called a plasma, is an electrically conducting fluid. The electrically conducting properties of an ionized gas were firstrecognized by William Gilbert, the court physician of QueenElizabeth; he observed that the shape of a flame isinfluenced by the presence of a magnet.In an electrically conducting fluid in a magnetic fieldthere is a force in addition to the Magnus force. This additional force density is called the Lorentz force; it is equal tothe product of the electric current density and the perpendicular component of the magnetic field. It is theLorentz force which makes electric motors work.When an electrically conducting fluid is immersed in amagnetic field a local sudden motion of the fluid across thefield lines is propagated as a wave along the magnetic fieldline, like a wave propagated on a plucked guitar string.Such a magnetic-hydrodynamic wave was discovered theoretically by the Nobel prize-winning Swedish physicist, Han-nes Alfven, and demonstrated experimentally by hiscolleagues, using liquid mercury in a high magnetic field.Now it is known that waves in ordinary fluids canc — Copper outer electrode\\\\\V-'.Vx\\\^\\'.. n'AWV. x'. \- -, \-.\w W.WW V-Figure 2. Schematic cross -section of coaxial accelerator witha hollow center electrode. The current sheath (1) is shown (1)during motion between the electrodes, and later (2) at the limeof halo formation, when neutrons and x - rays are formed.17Figures 3 and 4. Axial photos of paired vortex filaments —fine white radial lines lying in corrugations of the currentproduce vortices if the waves are highly steepened and largein amplitude: for example, the ripple on a millpond is asimple small-amplitude wave on the surface of the water.However, water waves steepen as they break on a beach,and the heavenly dream of every ambitious surfer is tobecome wrapped in the hollow of a green-water vortexproduced by a gigantic ocean wave breaking upon a gradualbeach in the Pacific. Conceivably a string (like a guitarstring) carrying a wave could be so strongly excited as toform a loop.A magnetic-hydrodynamic fluid can be excited to sucha high amplitude Alfven wave that it forms vortex filamentswhich travel along the magnetic field at the speed of the Alfvenwave.What are these vortex filaments? In days gone by thewoman of a household sat at her spinning wheel, spinningyarn or thread out of fibers of cotton, wool or flax from herdistaff by using a combined twisting and pulling action. Itcan be recognized that the configuration of fiber producedin such a yarn is similar to that of the vectors in thefilaments shown in Figures 1 and 5. Indeed the action of theswirling plasma in the vortex filaments in these drawings isto spin all four vectors— the magnetic field, the current density, the fluid velocity, and the vorticity — into that sameyarn-like configuration.In Figure 1 we have diagramed a pair of magneto-hydrodynamic vortex filaments. By peeling them back asone would peel an onion to investigate its structure, one cansee that locally the magnetic field B, electric current density j , fluid velocity -v, and fluid vorticity -&> are all parallel.Herein lies the uniqueness of the high degree of equilibriumand stability of these structures: Both the Magnus force density and Lorentz force density are everywhere zero, and thevortices are thus said to be Magnus- and Lorentz-force-free.'1 Lorentz-force-free structures in astrophysics have been investigated extensively by S. I. Chandrasekhar of the University ofChicago and by one of his co-workers, Lodewyk Woltjer, morerecently of Columbia University. Professor Wells of the University ofMiami has shown thai Magnus- and Lorentz-force-free hydromag-netic structures have a remarkable degree of global stability. sheath. The filaments in the form of concentric circles arediamagnetic vortices.This veritable nirvana of magneto-hydrodynamicmotion has been handsomely achieved by the deuteriumplasma in the current sheath of a device known as a plasmacoaxial accelerator, diagramed in Figure 2. The currentsheath becomes naturally corrugated, and in the grooves ofthe corrugations there are formed force-free vortexfilaments. Figures 3 and 4 are five-nanosecond-exposure image converter photos of the vortex filaments which haveformed in the current sheath. (A nanosecond is one billionthof a second.) The radially aligned vortex filaments whichform, for the most part, in pairs can be clearly seen.A diagram of a pair of these vortex filaments as theyappear in the current sheath of the plasma focus is shown inFigure 5. Note that here one component of the pair is right-handed and the other is left-handed. The vortex filamentsdiagramed in Figures 2 and 5 are called "paramagnetic"vortices, because the vortex axis contains a magnetic field ina direction where there was none originally before thevortex was created. Paramagnetic vortices have their axesperpendicular to the background magnetic field.There is another type of plasma vortex, the diamagneticvortex, whose axes are parallel to the background magneticfield. These vortices can also be seen in Figure 4 as segments of concentric circles around the center of the picture.When the paramagnetic vortex filaments mutually destroyeach other and also rearrange themselves both on the machine axis and in the halo of the discharge, the magneticenergy stored in the filaments is quickly converted toelectron and deuteron energy. The resulting high energyelectrons produce x-rays. These x-ray sources as photographed with an x-ray pinhole camera are exceedingly small(about 0.1 mm in diameter, about 0.4 mm long) and thesources flash for about ten nanoseconds. The resulting highenergy deuterons produce the fusion reactions:-He3 + n1 (2.1+5 Mev)2 o^/ <:XH3 + .jp1 (hW)18The upper branch of this reaction is readily detected by thecharacteristic 2.45 Mev neutrons. This device, known as theplasma focus, is the largest producer of neutrons in thewhole controlled-thermonuclear-research-program "zoo." Abig plasma focus machine (about one megajoule) operatingwith a 50%-50% mixture of deuterium and tritium canproduce about 1015 neutrons per pulse.(A megajoule is the amount of energy expended by a220-pound man in climbing a mountain which is about1,000 meters [approximately 3,000 feet] high. Approximatelyten megajoules would be expended by the same man inclimbing Mount Everest.)Not only does the plasma focus produce the D-D (deuterium-deuterium) 2.45 Mev neutrons2 from these smallconcentrations of plasma whose images we can record withx-ray pinhole photos. There is now mounting evidence thatthe plasma focus produces also the 14.1 Mev neutrons fromthe deuterium-tritium reaction (tritium is H3)./ + it3 -He + n2 o ClA.l Mev)And this is true even when only deuterium is used to fill thechamber. The most likely interpretation is that the D-D reaction produces enough tritium in these small dense plasmaconcentrations to permit the D-T reaction also to occur, albeit in relatively small numbers.The process of conversion of the magnetic energy toparticle energy as the vortex filaments rearrange their structure in the plasma focus is similar to the solar flare processwhich occurs on the surface of the sun. Indeed, not only2 Actually the nominally 2.45 Mev neutrons have a wide spread ofenergy in the laboratory, from about 3.9 to 1.7 Mev, because of therapid motions of the center of mass of the reacting deuterons.plasma densityflow vectority ofrentsheetFigure 5. A pair of paramagnetic vortex filaments formed inthe current sheath oftheplasma coaxial accelerator, in this casehexagonal. "B" represents the background magnetic field. does the plasma focus generate high-energy positive ionsand x-rays (as does the solar flare) but its microwave emission pattern is similar to that of the solar flare. In the plasmafocus it can be experimentally ascertained that the densityof electrons in the small plasma concentrations which emitx-rays is 1027cm3. (This density is 1,000,000 times higherthan the plasma density in currently fashionable controlledthermonuclear fusion machines.)The directed speed of these electrons can be measuredand a magnetic field of 200 megagauss for these plasmaconcentrations can be inferred. These magnetic fields, whichare force-free, are at least twenty times larger than the highest magnetic fields heretofore produced and measured inearthly laboratories. These high magnetic field valuesimprove the theoretical "scaling" of the "solar flare"phenomenon from the size of the plasma focus to the size ofa solar flare on the solar surface.Thus between the laboratory scale of about 0. 1 to 1 mmand the solar surface scale of 1,000 km (for solar flares) themost efficient process for changing magnetic energy to particle energy is that of rearranging the magnetic fields offorce-free vortex filaments.We might hazard the conjecture that the astrophysicalacceleration of particles to the cosmic ray energies may alsocome from the same type of process on a galactic scale. After all, the arms of spiral galaxies also look like vortexfilaments. Undoubtedly magnetic fields and vorticity of thegalactic plasma have a great influence on the formation ofthe galactic arms. The galactic plasma is concentrated in thearms which are, very likely, vortex filaments and it is theformation of stars out of this denser galactic plasma which"turns on the lights" and permits us to see the galactic arms.It is the natural concentration of plasma by the vortexfilaments in the current sheath of the plasma which enablesus to photograph the filaments as in Figures 3 and 4.No one as yet has demonstrated experimentally how toturn the plasma focus into a practical fusion reactor forproducing efficiently energy by controlled thermonuclearfusion. But it is calculated by the Russians that a ten-mega-joule plasma focus (ten times larger than any now existing)would produce more fusion energy than it consumes.The controlled thermonuclear fusion research programsof the world have concerned themselves largely, thus far,with finding a stable "magnetic bottle" with which tocontain statically the hot reacting deuterium plasma. (In"static" containment the plasma is hot but has no ordered,force-free mass velocity or vorticity.) Although much theoretical understanding and experimental progress has beenaccomplished in this program during the past twenty-fiveyears, one must still say that the effort thus far has been unsuccessful.In the plasma vortex, nature has displayed for us a dynamically stable "magnetic bottle" where the plasma mustbe flowing, not static. It is now a challenge for us to learnhow to use the plasma vortex concept effectively in theefforts to achieve a controlled thermonuclear reactor.19Bandwagon, relevance, andthe rhetoric of assentWayne C. BoothIn classical rhetoric, three kinds of persuasion about values were usually distinguished: judicial or forensic, aboutthe value -ridden facts of guilt or innocence concerning pastactions; deliberative, about policy for the future: anddemonstrative, praising or blaming persons or institutions inthe present. In such a scheme, our modern demonstrations,designed to protest this or that evil or to demand this or thatgood, take on a special interest. If value can in fact bedemonstrated in ways other than by public demonstrationsof force or violence, it is also true that extreme public displays of commitment always say something real to anyoneseriously inquiring into the values at stake in any conflict.To pretend that a display of commitment, even an extremeact of violence, is necessarily unrelated to how we thinkabout such matters is, in our present view, to forget that theway we establish values is the way we establish anything: byearning communal validation through trying them out onother men.To try them out in simple direct acts of physical protesthas become a national habit partly because people seemconvinced that they cannot try them out meaningfully inother ways. Thus we once again polarize oursleves, rationalists claiming that demonstrations demonstrate nothing,irrationalists claiming that nothing can be demonstratedwithout power or violence. The former talk of blind passion,How, Mr. Booth asks in his new book. Modern Dogma andthe Rhetoric of Assent, can reasonable people argue sensiblyabout important matters in a world in which the increasingly "polarized" voices of scientists and irrationalists grow increasingly shrill? In this article, excerpted from the book, heexamines two areas of discourse in which, by reversing currentintellectual shibboleths, progress toward a saner "reasoningtogether" might be achieved. Mr. Booth, no stranger to thesepages, is the George M. Pullman professor in the Departmentof English and the College. Modern Dogma and the Rhetoricof Assent, published in hard cover by the University of NotreDame (©1974 University of Notre Dame Press) and in paperbv the University of Chicago Press, is Mr. Booth 's second bookof 1974; the other, A Rhetoric of Irony, was published this fallby the University of Chicago Press. senseless destructiveness, and fascist oppression by self-intoxicated and self-righteous mobs; the latter talk of inhuman and unfeeling machines, of bureaucrats rationalizingthe status quo, and of fascist oppression by the entrenchedelite. I scarcely expect that anything I say here willtransform such groups into mutual inquirers; name-calling,like war, often achieves what we call results, and most menmost of the time will probably fail to see the good reasonsfor rising above their local interests. But those who prefer touse their heads as well as their mouths and bodies needhave no shame, if fact -values or valued -facts are accessibleto reason.Example 1: Finding a concurring public vs. getting on thebandwagonModern rhetorics have often listed the bandwagon technique as one fallacious kind of argument. In deciding what Iwant to believe or do, it is said, I must not be swayed by thefact that everyone's doing it. "Everyone" does a lot of crazythings; fads and fancies fill the air. Clearly the man who respects his mind will make his own decisions and not followwherever the winds of group assent would carry him.But of course one man's bandwagon is another man's reasoned consensus. A teacher may find himself arguingagainst the bandwagon technique in his composition courseand then feeling annoyed when students in literature coursesrefuse to respect what his bandwagon says about the importance of literature or of critical thought. "Why should Ithink Shakespeare is great just because everybody says so?"the student asks, and the liberal teacher says, "Oh. of courseyou shouldn't; you should make up your own mind"— evenwhile thinking that perhaps something has gone wrong ifthe weight of generations of thoughtful and sensitive criticscounts for absolutely nothing as against the opinion of agreen, arrogant, and analphabetic youth.We should now be able to see (and to seek ways of teaching) that to resist one bandwagon is often to embrace another— possibly but not necessarily one that is older and "better established." The young student cannot make up his ownmind about Shakespeare, if by that is meant coming to anopinion about Shakespeare uninfluenced by one tradition oranother-even if it is only the tradition of taking TV shows20as a standard of dramatic value. And to tell him not tojump on bandwagons because he should think for himself isonce again to define his ^//"negatively, as what is left overafter all influences have been discounted. No wonder somany of his kind finally tell us, in effect, that whateverbandwagon comes along— Jesus freaks, Devil's Disciples,Hell's Angels, Children of God— is better than no bandwagon at all. After all, we have taught that there's no disputing about taste in bandwagons.When established universities and their critics haveclashed in recent years, the defense has often been in thename of a dispassionate neutrality, while the attackers haveclaimed, quite rightly, that the universities and colleges arenot neutral, that they are defending their own commitmentsand interests. Professors and administrators have argued,again with justice, that they cannot pursue truth if the truthis prejudged by political or social commitments of the kindssought by protesting students. And students then have replied— after more or less perfunctory efforts to discuss matters—that "we tried to reason with you, but you wouldn't listen, so we were forced to resort to sit-ins or violence." (Thesame pattern of argument is heard, needless to say, in national disputes about racial injustice or the Vietnam war orwomen's rights.)Again and again I've heard people on both sides say,"Well, of course, you can't deal rationally with differencesabout values." The academic defenders then go on to argue,in an obvious circle, that it is highly important to humanityto preserve institutions which pursue questions in an objective spirit, untainted with values. And the students, havingheard the message that values are beyond dispute, grasp theother horn of the false dilemma, and say, "Since accordingto your own teachings, O my mentors, we cannot hope todeal rationally with our value differences, and since valuesmatter to us more than they do to you, let us then deal withthem irrationally: burn it down!" Or words to that effect.But having examined critically the dogmas of modernism.we can rediscover what never should have been forgotten:that some values are in fact better- grounded than others,and that disputes about them can yield results that ought tobe accepted by all parties to the dispute, even though theycannot be called certain or positive.A rational protest is possible, in short, about any violationof any value we hold dear. When I enter into the lists, Icannot be sure, it is true, that I will come out unchanged,since my protest may be invalidated— now that I have learned that listening is important— by the reasons offered by myopponents. But I have no good reason to believe, in advanceof a conflict, that reasons will prove irrelevant simply because values are at stake. It is not only that most disputesabout values turn out, on examination, to be about meansand not ends (even the dogmatic modernists admit, most ofthem, that dispute about means can be rational). It is alsothat ends are themselves subject to meaningful communalinquiry.I think, for example, that in pursuing a rhetoric of assentwe have at the same time been discoursing about ends and pursuing the grounds for a rationally legitimated protest.Or, to put it another way, / have been making what I taketo be a reasonable protest against many of the modernist assumptions (and the practices that those assumptions imply)that have been felt to be dehumanizing and soul -destroyingby some of the irrationalists who have protested in less discursive ways.Since I know that I cannot disprove the dogmas in a posi-tivist sense, one way to proceed might have been to organizea sit-in at my university, demanding that all dogmaticmodernists be fired. But so long as I believe that the dogmascan and should be tested in another sense, by this kind ofdiscourse, I could never resort to a kind of action that in effect proclaimed reason to be helpless and precluded my discovering how and where I am wrong. A protest, even themost violent protest, becomes legitimated when and onlywhen the affirmations on which it is based are in fact (notjust in personal conviction) supported by good reasons, goodreasons shared or potentially sharable by the communitythat is relevant.It is often said, by those who want to defend the Tightnessof individual protest, that one man plus God makes amajority. The formulation ignores the opposite truth, thatone man plus the devil can make a hell on earth. If we areto make our protests not just self- satisfying, not just "sincere," not just desperate and ineffectual last-ditch stands,we must validate them in the courts of communal exchange.But if there really are such things as good reasons aboutends, this is not so difficult a thing as we have often beenled to believe. Whenever any person or institution violatesthe inherent values of free human exchange among persons.imposing upon anyone a diminution of his nature as arhetorical animal, he is now shown, in this view, to bewrong— not just inconvenient or unpleasant but wrong.There are genuine values, intersubjectively demonstrable,that judge his wrongness.Those same values will of course sit in judgment on anymode of protest against the violation. I am not free tochoose whether it is right to silence you because you wouldsilence me: of course it will be wrong to silence you. I mayof course be forced to do so in opposing a greater wrong,even knowing that my means are evil, as we had to work atsilencing the Nazis once they had set out to use force to silence the rest of us. But as I do so I will know that the justice of my action is determined by whether what look likegood reasons for the employment of warfare are in fact goodreasons. And that can only be determined in social or potentially social converse with reasonable men, not in private, isolated, "logical" consultation of my atomic self and itswisdom: as ethical theorists are fond of saying, I must act sothat the principles of my conduct are reversible, against myself, universally applicable. Rhetorically speaking, thismeans that I must have good reason to believe that if myopponent would open his mind to full rhetorical exchange,he would be led, by good reasons, either to come to my viewor at least to tolerate it as one reasonable view.In some such way as this the philosophy of good reasons21leads us to a reaffirmation of those central human valuesthat other philosophies and religions have reached by otherroutes: of tolerance, of justice or fairness, of "democratic"equality of vote in all matters that concern all men equally.Kant once remarked that the result of all his philosophizingwas to establish a rational basis for the pious beliefs of hisancestors: the golden rule reappears for him as the categorical imperative, and it reappears in our rhetorical view asthe command to pay as much attention to your opponent'sreasons as you expect him to pay to yours.This traditionalism of our results doesn't bother me: I revel in it, partly because it is so radical. Here we depend onthe obvious and age-old belief that if there is any hope forman it can be found neither in repudiating all past truthsnor in repudiating all revolutions. We must select, as always,from old and new by testing in discourse which truths meetcircumstances that are always both novel and precedented.A society cannot exist, the past seems to teach us, unless itcan somehow constitute itself as a rhetorical field, as whatDewey called "a public," and this means that we cannot exist without recognizing that some of our shared values carryan inescapable weight for all of us. Too often our way oftalking about the increasing fragmentation of publics is tothrow up our hands: "You can't talk with them becausethey have gone beyond the pale." In other words, we decideto declare war. Though I hold no great hope that a revitalized rhetoric can ever eliminate "warfare"— lying, trickery,blackmail, and physical persuasions— I think the commandupon us is inescapable: we must build new rhetoricalcommunities, we must find a common faith in modes of argument, or every institution we care about will die.Example 2: RelevanceWhatever is irrelevant is taken by many students as finally dismissed, without further argument. My files are full, asthat rhetorician Joseph McCarthy used to say about theCommunist names in his files, of quotations in which students prove that such-and-such an item in the curriculum,say Plato's Republic, is bad because irrelevant, and shouldbe replaced by. say. Paul Goodman's Growing Up Absurd,or— five years later— Frantz Fanon's The Wretched of theEarth. The typical faculty response, not necessarily mistakenbut usually ineffective, is to say. "But it is relevant, if youonly knew. You just don't know what relevance is." Towhich the good student will say, having been taught to doso, "Relevance is a value term, and conflicts about it arematters of personal choice. If I say Plato is irrelevant, Platois irrelevant to me. I alone know whether I am bored, and ifyou claim to know better, you are an authoritarian and anelitist, because you claim to speak for a hierarchy of valuesinstead of admitting that you simply prefer Plato toGoodman."A letter from a student dramatizes the conflict:[I'd like to see you] to clear the air regarding the third quarterof Liberal Arts I [last vear]. 1 was highly antagonistic in class. 1 know, and this had more to do with my own feelings of lackof direction in myself than with any fault in the course, theprofessors, or the University of Chicago. Liberal Arts I got the"frontal attack" though, because of all the "irrelevant" thingsI was studying it seemed the most irrelevant.The strange thing now is that in thinking back over what weread, in rereading my papers and also rereading some of theworks we studied, I find that while intellectually perhaps Iunderstood them last year, I now understand them in terms ofmy own experience. In this sense then they have becomemore than relevant— exciting, intriguing, and positively helpfulto me in understanding my own life.Now what strikes me about this girl's letter is that lastyear I tried to say all those things to her myself. These documents from the past— this Plato, this Aristotle, thisNietzsche, this Kierkegaard, this Weber, this Shakespeare—all of these, I then said, or perhaps preached, arerelevant to a part of you that you have not yet fully discovered. But she, being then involved in radical politics,particularly the women's rights branch called WRAP, feltguilty when she was working on anything that did not relateto the cause now. (Her retrospective discoveries, incidentally,were possible only because she had been more dutiful thanmany students; she had done the work even when feelingguilty about it, and hence had the material in some senseavailable for retrospective revaluation. You won't find thetopic "obedience" used favorably in any protest rhetoric,and those of us who see some value in it still must workhard to show its relevance to more popular topics likegrowth and freedom.)Relevance is thus a cover word for a variety of real topicsabout education and what it should be. The students themselves are inevitably ambiguous about it: sometimes theyare talking about relevance to "how I feel now"; good education is that education which reveals itself to me right nowas vital and alive-as the letter says, "exciting, intriguing,and positively helpful in the present." But sometimes theyare talking about relevance to an imagined future-to thetriumph of this or that picture of the movement, the revolution, really under the topic of expediency or usefulness.The tougher revolutionaries sometimes attack their associates for being distracted from the cause by illusions of qualitative improvement in the present: drugs reduce a man'swill to fight; enjoyment of literature or music can distractfrom the future; worry about hurting people is a bourgeoisdistraction. These defenders of relevance can in fact denigrate every present phenomenon or fact or judgment ofquality or feeling as irrelevant to the true picture, that picture of course being a notion of what the future must be.Listen to a publication called Fire! published by the Weatherman branch of SDS (November 21, 1969):Since I vamped on the spy pig in the New York MovementCenter during the National Action. I've been forced to spendmost of my time in hiding. Though I have managed to bomba lot of shit [I infer, from internal evidence, that this means"use aerosol bombs to scrawl messages on walls," but I'm not22sure] and even direct some struggles over these past six weeks.my life in the under has given me a lot of time to think aboutthe needs of our movement coming off of Chicago and nowWashington, I've made some decisions and communicatedthem to the up -front leadership of SDS. Involved in all ofthis is the Winter National Council Meeting, which will beheld December 26-31, place to be announced.... One thingthat really blew my mind [in Washington] was the incrediblenumber of kids who were paying no attention at all to theMobe's march and rally. Not just the 10,000 or so kids whotrashed up the city Friday and Saturday nights and Sundaymorning. There were tens of thousands of others who weren'tinto violence yet— maybe they weren't sure or werescared-but they knew that standing around looking stupidwhile some dude told you how beautiful it all was just wasn'twhere it was at.... The new mass movement is taking place ina totally different context— we're moving toward armedstruggle in this country. That's what the Chicago action wasabout, what the South Vietnam Embassy and Justice Department actions in Washington were about, what the wave ofbombing over the last month has been about.People say what's the point of trashing windows— that won'twin the revolution. The criticism seems to come from the left.from a struggle angle that we should be doing more. Weshould be doing more.... But we've got to dig that the criticisms of the Action, of the violence. ..of "terrorism" arecoming from the right.... They're saying it's a bad thing thatHog Elrod broke his neck. They're saying we shouldn't bemoving toward armed struggle.The highest level of struggle always defines all the others,puts them in perspective, helps people at the other levels figure out what they're about.In this branch of the plea for relevance, personal temptations of feeling and morality and justice now are attacked aspresent distractions from the vision of the future that willalone lead to that just future. Note how often the writerhere refers to "what it's really about," or to "where it's at."In each case it's "about" the future; "where it's at" is reallyin the future.In another article in the same journal, called "Principles,Schminciples," Howie Machtinger begins:It is always insightful to point to all the important politicalquestions that confront us, search for "political principleswhich are at the base of the struggles within SDS," and thenfacilely quote Mao about unity-struggle-unity.... All this avoids what it's all about. Political questions are questions ofstrategy. Strategy is about winning.... So, in America, the central task of the left is the development of a detachment of theinternational army. ..and moving to armed struggle as soon aspossible. For the world revolution is already happening, andevery leap in the development of our struggle hastens incredibly the victory of the people of the world. It is in this lightthat we must look at questions of adventurism [raised bythose who want to worry about principles], beating thepeople, and blah blah blah.Worry about principles (the topic of what is true or right),and about whether it is bad that a public official was paralyzed (now, in the present) by a blow from a member of SDS(not the police) is here relegated to blah blah blah: irrelevant, because the future is now. The student revolution has thus come full circle andjoined those who were originally its worst enemies: thosewho willingly corrupt the present in any degree necessary toachieve an imagined future, those vicious establishmentconstructors of the rat -race who reduce the lives of studentsand workers to mere means. If we compare what HowieMachtinger, former graduate student at the University ofChicago, says here with what most students were saying twoor three years ago in the attacks on the university and its irrelevance, we thus see that what began as a kind of demonstrative rhetoric about intolerable degradations of the quality of life in the present has gradually become a substitutefor deliberation about what to do to achieve a desired quality of life in the future.Such shrill rhetoric can be highly appropriate and evenreasonable in showing the world how intolerable a particular degradation feels in the present. But as rhetoric aboutpolicy, it establishes only the shakiest of claims for anyprogram of action. It is especially weak when the report isnot of "how I feel about X now" but of "how I will feelabout Y in the future." When a maker of the countercultureechoes that Utopian dream of Russell, proclaiming "a newheaven and a new earth, so vast, so marvellous, that the inordinate claims of technical expertise must of necessity withdraw to a subordinate and marginal status in the lives ofmen," we ought to be able to detect in the desperate inflation of the style that what he is talking about is next tonothing; unlike those who report on "how this presentcondition makes me feel," such reports on the future andhow it will feel are indeed relevant only to a current wish,and it can tell us nothing about anything else. But again weare offered such reports as if they were evidence of what"must of necessity" happen: as if to say, "The revolution iscoming, as is proved by my demonstrations of violence, ormy unbridled statement of feelings, now."...What we say matters, and it matters how we say it. Butthe rules for good discourse or clear thinking can no longerbe confined to logical prose— we must take in the proofs ofpersonal appeal and commitment, of art and myth and ritual. Though a whole new effort to "purify the language ofthe tribe" is implicit in the rhetoric of assent, we cannotknow in advance of exploration whether the new vocabularywill include or exclude the gestures of yoga and the"nonsense" of Zen along with the propositional analyses ofa Wittgenstein.Perhaps even more important, in a world that talks of thethreat of alienation and the loss of community, we havefound a community that everyman can assent to: as old asAdam and as new as the morning's newscast, it is thecommunity of those who want to discover good reasonstogether.It is not a comfortable community nor a stable one. Eventhose who join it consciously and systematically, as we all doby talking together here, cannot provide a convenient list ofgods and devils, friends and enemies. But at the same timeit can give us some ease in whatever subcommunity we havealreadv assented to.23New esthetic lodestoneWith Cochrane-Woods Center and Smart Gallery,graphic, plastic arts now bracket the campusWorks of visual art have a new home on the University'scampus— the newest home, be it noted, of several. The David and Alfred Smart Gallery was dedicated in October asan integral part of the Cochrane-Woods Art Center. (TheExterior of the new art complex on Greenwood Avenue. Cochrane-Woods Center was already providing for theclassroom requirements of art-oriented members of the student population.)Designed by Edward Larrabee Barnes, the Cochrane-Woods complex joins, by means of a covered walk, theSmart Gallery and the Department of Art building. Betweenthe two handsome, limestone-clad units is an open court,planned for the display of weather-worthy sculpture.The construction of the $2,750,000 complex was madepossible by gifts from the Woods Charitable Fund and theSmart Family Foundation. The center is named for the lateFrank Henry Woods and his wife, the late Nelle CochraneWoods; their son, Frank H. Woods, president of SaharaCoal Company, is vice-president and treasurer of the Fundand a trustee of the University. The Smart Gallery is namedin memory of the elder brothers of John Smart, chairman ofEsquire Inc., publisher of Esquire, founded by the threebrothers in Chicago.The art center and gallery are the initial components ofa projected multi-unit center for the arts which, according to24Guests pass through the gallery's striking foyer at the reception which marked its opening.Vplan, will provide the University with a new music building,an art library, and a theater.Many works of art which have been donated to theUniversity were on display at the gopening of the Smart Gallery:«Mr. and Mrs. Joel Starrels contributeda collection of 164 19th and 20th centurysculpture and drawings by sculptors,given in memory of their son, Joel; Starrels, Jr. (jd'50).•The Samuel H. Kress Foundation gavethe gallery a collection of sculptures,' paintings and other works.•Gaylord Donnelley, chairman of theboard of trustees, and Mrs. JeannetteShambaugh Stein contributed funds forthe purchase of a group of twenty-sixChinese and Japanese paintings.•Art critic Katherine Kuh (am'35)donated a group of contemporary American paintings.•In addition to the new gifts, the gallery will display worksfrom the University's permanent collection, gathered overCenterpiece in the entrance hall: a unique dining table ensemble designed by FrankLloyd Wright in 1908 for the Robie House.25the years, including paintings left to the University in 1932by Martin A. Ryerson, former board of trustees chairman;the collection gathered by Frank B. Tarbell, a pioneer member of the pre- 1900 faculty; and another collection bequeathed in 1973 by Joseph Hale Schaffner.Presiding over the new operation are Herbert L. Kessler,chairman of the Department of Art, and Edward A. Maser,professor of art and of Germanic languages and director ofthe gallery.The Cochrane-Woods Center and the Smart Gallerybecome the new flagship of the various centers of artisticendeavor on the campus. The others include the MidwayStudios, the remodeled and augmented Lorado Taft studio;the Max Epstein Archive; the Bergman Gallery in CobbHall; and, in its own field of specialization, the Oriental Institute.Scene at the dedication of the Smart Gallery. In picture atleft, Edward H. Weiss (phB'22), Chicago artist and sometimeadvertising executive, is at right, conversing with fellow guests.2bThe world's largest refracting telescope is sixty -three feetlong; it peers at the sky from a dome ninety feet in diameter.Its eyepiece is on a floor seventy -five feet across, which can beConsider the case of a noted septuagenarian, once preeminent in his field. As time goes on he dwindles in status,becoming an interesting but obsolete antique. Then, almostovernight, partly because of his stockpile of memories, the raised and lowered through a range of twenty -three feet topermit the telescope to point at objects near the horizon ornear the zenith.graybeard once again becomes a global celebrity.That, essentially, is the story of the great forty - inchrefracting telescope at Yerkes Observatory. Surpassed in sizeagain and again in the past several decades (by reflectors),Yerkes: a case of value added by timeIronically, as its work grows ever moreimportant, its dome is falling apart27These photos, taken twenty -two years apart, show the relativemotion of Barnard's star, the fastest -moving star in the sky.With most stellar motion, the distance traveled in this brief interval would be imperceptible. The star is named for its dis-the seventy -seven -year -old telescope is now coming into itsown again. Always the largest refractor, it is now the mostvaluable astrometric instrument in the world.Two factors figure in the comeback of the telescope. Oneis the collection of 150,000 sky photographs made since the"priceless gem," as its donor, Charles T. Yerkes, called theforty -inch lens, began operating. The other is the development of new instrumentation heightening the accuracyand improving the interpretation of its photographic explorations.Photographic recording of the skies began at Yerkes atthe observatory's very beginning, under the youthful GeorgeEllery Hale and his colleagues. It was anticipated, such wasthen the nature of the art, that the pictures would be usefulto later generations of astronomers.Why the time lag? It is a factor of the remoteness of theThe eve end of the telescope is ordinarily covered by photographic apparatus such as this camera, which was speciallybuilt at Yerkes.28 coverer, Edward E. Barnard, a member of the original facultyat Yerkes. He also discovered sixteen comets and the fifth •.moon of Jupiter. Photo at left made August 24, 1894; the oneat right May 30, 1916.stars to be studied. The drift of a nearby star relative to its Ineighbors may be observable over short periods. But tostudy the structure and evolution of distant star clusters, andof the galaxy itself, it is necessary to observe the motions ofdistant stars— movements so small as to be perceptible onlyover long periods.Until very recently the position of a star relative to its celestial neighbors could be measured generally to a precisionof about 0. 1 second of arc— by utilizing great care and patience, to perhaps 0.01 second. Thus, for example, the distance to the nearest star (Alpha Centauri, at 4.3 light years,or 1.3 parsecs, or 25 trillion miles) could be measured to a |precision of about 2%— adequate for most purposes. But far- !ther out there were difficulties. At 20 parsecs the distance Icould be measured to an accuracy of only 20%— a measurement of little use.Yet such measurements are the basis for all distance measurements of all celestial objects. The distance to a star mustbe known before its luminosity can be determined and itsinternal structure deduced.Thus the importance of the new techniques, whichcombine electronic detection with on - line computer j.analysis. With these methods the accuracy of position mea- I,surements have been stepped up to 0.005 seconds and willsoon attain 0.002 seconds— a tenfold increase, making itpossible to study 10,000 stars within the 60 parsec range.Among the 10,000 are ancient stars, dating from the earlydays of the formation of the galaxy, when matter wasalmost entirely in the form of heUum and hydrogen.A factor of ten in the determination of positions meansthat the astronomer need wait only one - tenth as long to determine the motions of stars. At present an eighty -year -oldphotographic plate can be compared with a new photo of \the same areas and motions be evident which heretoforecould not have been detected for another 300 years. Whenthe new techniques are fully in operation, motions will bestudied which would have required waiting nearly 800years— if the plates could be preserved that long.One of the two developments which are making possiblethis tremendous increase in the efficiency of observations ofcelestial objects is the automated electronic micro-densitometer, which scans 10,000 points in a photographicplate in twenty seconds, giving an immediate and precisetelevision -like picture of the image. This picture is then puton magnetic tape and a computer, programed to find thecenter of the image, does so making use of all 10,000 measured points. And corrections for any idiosyncrasies of thetelescope itself can be built into the computer program.The other development is the performance of the highspeed scanning of the optical image directly in the telescopewithout the intermediate step of the photographic plate,thereby avoiding photographic graininess and emulsion distortion. The data are fed directly from the photomultiplieron the telescope to the computer, and the scanning of theimage continues until the computer signals that it has builtWhen Yerkes Observatory was built its telescope was the outstanding instrument in the world. Today, after a period inwhich its fame was eclipsed by that of the giant reflecting telescopes, it now is enjoying a rebirth attributable in large measure, paradoxically, to its advanced age. This 1895 photoshows the dome's construction: steel sheathing on planks onsteel girders. up enough data to locate the center of the image to thespecified precision.With this enormous increase in precision it has becomeimperative that the original forty -inch refractor be kept inThe new plate vault maintains Yerkes ' priceless glass negativesunder constant temperature and humidity control.active service, not only because the continued use of a giventelescope provides optimum comparability, largely eliminating the need for corrections for distortions of the field,but also because the refractor, despite its age, is thetelescope best suited for astrometric studies.And herein lies a problem. The telescope has beenbrought up to date mechanically. The sophisticated newequipment will be completed when approximately $150,000has been raised. A new vault, constructed with the aid of aNational Science Foundation grant, guards the collection ofold plates. But the dome which protects the big telescope itself is falling apart. Built in 1895, the dome is made of woodon a steel framework, covered with thin steel plates. Thebolts are rusting; the steel is coming loose; the wood hasrotted in many places; in a rain, the dome leaks. The University's Women's Board has made available $75,000 towardthe cost of redoming the observatory, but this is only abouthalf of the money needed. Meanwhile the telescope's workcontinues on a precarious shoestring.For studies of the composition of primordial matter andthe infancy of the universe, for studies of stellar evolutionand the dynamics of stars and star systems, the newmethods and the old telescope will combine to produce results that otherwise would not have been available until thetwenty -fifth century.These photos show the rotted planks, rusting bolts and peelingmetal skin of the dome as it progressively succumbs to the rav ages of time and weather. Yerkes celebrated its seventy-fifthbirthday in 1972.29ON LEO STRAUSS-. AGeorge Anastaplo"When we were in our twenties"There came to my attention, during my first twenty-six yearsin the University of Chicago community, two men of an extraordinary eminence, Enrico Fermi and Leo Strauss.This has been an eminence accorded them by theirimmediate associates. That is, a number of men of obvioustalent have recognized each of them as somehow of adifferent order from other intellectual leaders they haveknown at the University and, indeed, anywhere else in theirrespective professions, physics and political science.My primary concern on this occasion is with Mr. Strauss,particularly as approached from his years at the University.But it will be useful, in thinking about Mr. Strauss, toglance at Mr. Fermi and his career. The significance ofmodern physics for modern life, including politics andpolitical science, is no doubt generally appreciated. Physicscan even be seen as attempting to provide us thatcomprehensive view of things once expected by most menfrom Revelation.Mr. Fermi was born in Italy on September 29, 1901. Hecame to the United States in 1939, to the University ofChicago with the Manhattan Project in 1942, and becamean American citizen in 1944. He died in Chicago onNovember 30, 1954, in the fifty -fourth year of his life.Mr. Strauss was born in Germany on September 20, 1899.He came to the United States from England in 1939,became an American citizen in 1944, and came to theUniversity of Chicago from the New School for SocialResearch in 1949. He died in Annapolis, Maryland, onMr. Anastaplo (ab'48, jd'51, pho'64) is lecturer in the liberalarts, the University of Chicago, and professor of political science and of philosophy. Rosary College. His many publications include The Constitutionalist: Notes on the FirstAmendment (published by Southern Methodist UniversityPress) and the forthcoming Swallow Press book, HumanBeing and Citizen: Essays on Virtue. Freedom and theCommon Good.30 RZEIT REMEMBRANCE. . .And IDelight to imagine them seated there;There, on the mountain and the sky.On all the tragic scene they stare.One asks for mournful melodies;Accomplished fingers begin to play.Their eyes mid many wrinkles, their eves,Their ancient, glittering eves, are gay.W. B. Yeats, Lapis LazuliOctober 18, 1973, in the seventy - fifth year of his life.Mr. Fermi— by the time I came to the University in 1947 j;upon completing my service as an Air Force flyingofficer— was already a figure of international renown. Hehad been awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1938 "forhis identification of new radioactive elements produced byneutron bombardment and his discovery, made inconnection with this work, of nuclear reactions effected byslow neutrons." He had been in charge of the successfulmilitary efforts (at the University of Chicago) to achieve"the first self-sustaining chain reaction and thereby initiated !the controlled release of nuclear energy." He would bepointed out to new students as a campus institution. I recallsitting in on lectures of his where an exceptionally vitalmind could be observed in action. It is upon talking toformer colleagues and students of his— mature men who are "¦¦themselves obviously talented in their own right— that theoutsider can really get some idea of how remarkable Mr.Fermi must have been, ranking just below Albert Einstein intheir estimation. ;vMr. Strauss, on the other hand, worked in a field (that ofpolitical philosophy) where excellence is less readilyrecognized today than it is in physics. Even so, I had heardenough about him to want to sit in on classes of his while Iwas still in the Law School. But it was not until after itbecame unlikely that I would ever practice law and that Ishould go ahead for my doctorate while I was employed atthe University (this was after 1951), that I began to followhis courses steadily— something I was to do for his finalthirteen years at the University.That which was said of Mr. Fermi by a fellow physicistcan be said as well of Mr. Strauss: "[His] most striking traitwas his simplicity and realism, his willingness to accept factsand men as they were. He disliked complicated theories andavoided them as much as possible." Each man was, as Ihave indicated, distinguished by the caliber of the men whoregarded him as their master. Mr. Fermi's admirers includedthe scientists who had harnessed the atom; Mr. Strauss' *included much -traveled veterans of the second world war.Both investigators shared as well, but in different ways ofcourse, a reliance upon numbers and numbering as anindispensable key to the things most worth studying: inphysics, such reliance is generally recognized to be required;in political science— in the reading of the books of thegreatest minds— counting (as distinguished from quantifying)has long been regarded with suspicion because of its cabalisticconnotations.The successes of Mr. Fermi's discipline, ratified in recentcenturies by noteworthy technological feats, make moredifficult today the proper recognition of Mr. Strauss' old-fashioned political science. What physics (along withDarwinism) has done to the idea of "nature," as well as to ourunderstanding of "knowing," very much affects the status,standards and methods of the social sciences. All this hasbeen complicated by the understandable inclination ofuniversity administrations to be fashionable, to go alongwith the opinions and judgments of the discipline to whicheach department is devoted. In this way, universities becomeessentially derivative, and hence unimaginative if not evenirresponsible, in their assessments.In the case of Mr. Fermi, of course, such institutionaltimidity did not matter. A scientist who had won the awardshe had, and who was eventually to have an element namedafter him, was bound to be recognized by any universitywhich he served. Thus, we have (right across Ellis Avenuefrom the site of the famous Stagg Field experiment, nowmarked by Henry Moore's ominous death -head helmet) theEnrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies. Mr. Strauss didbecome a Distinguished Service Professor at the Universityin 1959. But he remained controversial (and, one may evensay, generally suspect) to the end of his days here: hisstudents were enthusiastic but always a minority even in hisdepartment, and they expected to remain that in thepolitical science profession.A few more comments on modern physics can serve toilluminate what will be said on this occasion about Mr.Strauss' career. What seems to be missing in the currentscientific enterprise is a systematic inquiry into itspresuppositions and purposes. That is, the limits of modernscience do not seem to be properly recognized. BertrandRussell has been quoted as saying, "Physics is mathematicalnot because we know so much about the physical world, butbecause we know so little: it is only its mathematicalproperties that we can discover." But the significance of thisobservation is not generally appreciated— as one learns upontrying to persuade competent physicists to join in presentinga course devoted to a careful reading of Aristotle's Physics.Is there any reason to doubt that physicists will, if theycontinue as they have in the twentieth century, achieveagain and again "decisive breakthroughs" in dividingsubatomic "particles"? But what future, or genuineunderstanding, is there in that! I believe it would be fruitfulfor physicists— that is, for a few of the more imaginativeamong them— to consider seriously the nature of what wecan call the "ultron." What must this ultimate particle belike (if, indeed, it is a particle and not an idea or aprinciple)? For is not an "ultron" implied by the endeavorsof our physicists, by their recourse to more and more Leo Straussingenious (and expensive) equipment and experiments? Orare we to assume an infinite regress (sometimes called"progress") and no standing place or starting point? Or, toput this question still another way, what is it that permitsthe universe to be and to be (if it is) intelligible? To asksuch questions is to raise fundamental questions about whatMr. Strauss called "the modern project."It was one of Mr. Strauss' accomplishments that herealized there were several longstanding philosophicalquestions, taken by contemporary intellectuals to be settled,which had merely been bypassed in recent centuries. Hiswork consists in large part in reviving such fundamentalquestions, in demonstrating that they have not really beenanswered, in demonstrating also that they very much needto be addressed today. He had no ready answershimself— and indeed he can be thought of as having noanswers at all— but he was confident (and he managed toinstil that confidence in others) that the truly importantquestions had been most usefully addressed (and sometimesforgotten) long before the twentieth century. Even so, herecognized that modern science has kept alive a tradition ofinquiry, a respect for reason and for the truth.This is not the occasion to try to develop Mr. Strauss'thought, even though that is the essential part of him.Rather, I shall provide here a few notes toward a memoir,notes about the "human side" of Mr. Strauss which may beuseful for those who will try some day to write at lengthabout him. These notes, in addition to being an introductionof him to the larger University of Chicago communityserved by this magazine, also hold a mirror up to both theUniversity and contemporary scholarship.The human side of Mr. Strauss may have been easier to31observe while he was at the University of Chicago than atany other stage of his career, for he was here for ageneration and thus long enough to share with a settledcommunity the full range of human experience— to haveopportunities to respond to both joy and sadness, to birthand death, to triumphs and disasters, to the wholeness oflife.Such wholeness, with its proper mixing of gravity andlevity, is suggested by what he wrote in his Thoughts onMachiavelli:...Other contemporary readers are reminded by Machiavelli'steaching of Thucydides; they find in both authors the same"realism," i.e.. the same denial of the power of the gods or ofjustice and the same sensitivity to harsh necessity and elusivechance. Yet Thucydides never calls in question the intrinsicsuperiority of nobility to baseness, a superiority that shinesforth particularly when the noble is destroyed by the base.Therefore Thucydides' History arouses in the reader a sadnesswhich is never aroused by Machiavelli's books. In Machiavelliwe find comedies, parodies, and satires but nothing remindingof tragedy. One half of humanity remains outside of histhought. There is no tragedy in Machiavelli because he has nosense of the sacredness of "the common."...MemorabiliaMy limitations, even as the mere reporter I here try to be,should be acknowledged at the outset of these recollections:I was a quarter century Mr. Strauss' junior; I was neverreally an intimate of his; and I am neither Jewish norconventionally conservative, both of which conditions didtend to promote intimacy with him. In fact, I was probablythe most, at times the only, "liberal" of the studentsassociated with him, at least among those I know well. Hewas to identify, and hence tolerate, me as someone"unique," as "a conservative libertarian."1The last time I talked to Leo Strauss was in a hospitalroom in Annapolis. (He had, upon retiring from theUniversity in 1967, settled in as Scholar in Residence at St.John's College after a trial interlude at a SouthernCalifornia college.) I had then the impression that I wasintruding upon a dying man. It was at his insistence that Idid not simply pay my respects and leave him to his nursesand their ministrations. There then followed what happenedwith his students during other hospital visits over the years,a revival of his spirits and his strength as he talked. And soMr. Strauss. I should add, was not really as conservative as mostof his devoted students, not only because he did not care as muchas (or in the way) they did about practical matters but alsobecause he knew better than they that the institutions whichconservatives so passionately protect often have questionableradical origins. His conservatism, I should also add, did not evenmean that he dogmatically took the conventional "anti -Communist" position. Thus, he could (in a two-sentence letter ofJune. 1961) write to a student of his who had been turned down inthe courts after running afoul of McCarthy Era "loyaltyproceedings." "This is only to pay you my respects for your braveand just action. If the American Bench and Bar have any sense ofshame they must come on their knees to apologize to you." we had an hour and a half of good conversation, eventhough he had begun by saying that the day before hadbeen the worst day of his life.I had the sense, on this occasion, that various "accounts"between us were being settled, that he felt that certainthings should be said by him "for the record." Much of ourtalk was about the University of Chicago, partly because heno doubt recalled my inclination on other occasions to saywhat could be said on its behalf. Certain memories had atlast been softened for him.I encouraged him to dwell upon the better aspects of hisdays on the Midway. Thus, he could volunteer and enjoythe recollection of having had three good political sciencedepartment chairmen (whom he named) and of having beenable to teach classes of enduring worth. He wryly recognizedas well, in accounting for the difficulties he had had in hislast years at the University, that he had been so imprudentas to show his contempt for certain colleagues andadministrators.Mr. Strauss indicated, in the course of this "settling ofaccounts," that he had recently been obliged, by theconsiderate competence shown him by his nurses duringintermittent hospital visits, to move closer than he had beento my position on American race relations. He wasparticularly impressed, in this connection, by the sacrificeshe had learned one of the hospital scrubbing women tohave been making in order to send her children to college.He was, in these as in other respects, a man always opento new experiences and to reconsiderations of both the oldand the new. Such reconsiderations, we can assume, musttake into account his caution (in the preface to his Spinozabook), "It is safer to try to understand the low in the light ofthe high than the high in the light of the low. In doing thelatter one necessarily distorts the high, whereas in doing theformer one does not deprive the low of the freedom toreveal itself fully as what it is."Mr. Strauss was, during the last twenty years of his life, aman who was often seriously ill and in pain. (He expressed,during our last conversation, amazement and not a littlepleasure that he had somehow managed to live longer thanhis father, a far stronger man, it seems.) Students who methim for the first time in his final decade could be impressedmost of all by how ill he was. Yet there was throughout thisperiod, however much he dramatized and even exploited hisafflictions, a steady dedication to his work. Despite thegeneral decrepitude of his body, heralded by a massiveheart attack in (I believe) 1956, he was able to do anincredible amount of fine writing after leaving theUniversity. Through one medical disaster after another, themmd kept working steadily-and he remained to the endclearly superior to even his best students both in depth ofinsight and in literary productivity.Mr. Strauss was small, markedly small, of delicatefeatures and bones, at times quite frail. His hands wereespecially delicate and most expressive. His manner wasgentle and courteous, yet sometimes so firmly efficient as toborder on a callous selfishness. He could remind one of32Socrates— not in his body, for evidently Socrates was robustand took care of himself— but in the majesty of his head, avery large head, made to appear even larger by thesmallness of the body which supported it. He had as well avery small voice— and a congenital incapacity to makeproper use of a microphone or of a telephone, especiallywhen he warmed up to his subject. He sported, withcharming casualness, a beret, a cigarette holder, Americanslang, and an acute sense of propriety.For years students at the University packed his classes,classes which would routinely run double the ninety minutesallotted to them in the time schedule. I believe that personalcontact was critical to the effect Mr. Strauss achieved. I donot believe that his intellectual common sense, hisinstructive playfulness and the range of his scholarship areas evident in his writing as they were in conversation (ofwhich one can get some notion from the transcripts whichhave been preserved of his courses). Nor do I believe thathis writings alone would have produced the personaldevotion which has contributed so much to his influenceamong thoughtful political scientists in this country andabroad. Certainly, it was largely a matter of chance thatmost of us got to know him— for I doubt that his writingsalone would have induced us to go to him.The University of Chicago was, I believe, the right placefor him to be in this country. Things of the mind matteredhere, even in such "practical" departments as politicalscience, not the delusion by which certain other schools aredominated that "we are going to run the country some day."I pointed out to him, at a time when he was consideringleaving the University even earlier than he did, that many,perhaps most, of his best students since the war had been ofthe kind who would normally be attracted to the University,who had come here for other purposes and who had been"captured" by him. But it soon became evident to me thatthis consideration did not matter for him as it might have adecade earlier. He would, in his declining years, establishfew intimate ties of the kind established earlier. He oncepointed out to me that a man of fifty could establishrelations with twenty -five year old graduate students that aman of sixty -five simply could not.He was never, upon leaving Chicago, to teach as he hadhere. The old-style conversations (with considerable good-humored give-and-take) came to be reserved for the mostpart for those whom he had come to know earlier. He didcontinue to work hard, of course, but he was less open andrelaxed in class, less inclined to consider at length thequestions which students raised. (In addition, the studentswere younger and less informed professionally than theChicago graduate students he had gotten used to.) He wasall too conscious that time was running out— and he had asense of much to do. And yet, he once explained to me, hehad done far more than he had ever "planned" to do.The significance of the University of Chicago in Mr.Strauss' life can be suggested in still another way. Twoanthologies have been published in which there are reflectedhis influence on others, a history of political philosophy (which he co- edited) and a Festschrift (on the occasion ofhis sixty - fifth birthday). Of the three dozen differentcontributors to these two volumes, about three - fourths havebeen associated in some capacity with the University. Thusthere developed a "Chicago school," generated by one man,which the University has not yet been able to acknowledgeproperly.Even if the University of Chicago was the right place forMr. Strauss to have been in this country, the questionremains whether it was good for him to have been in thiscountry at all. I believe he could accomplish in Americanuniversities what he could never have done in Europe. Itwas in a sense fortunate for him (as well as for us) that hehad been obliged to leave German academic life andbecome exposed for so long to the English and Americancommunities, communities in which political common senseis much more important than it has been on the Continentfor at least a century.In fact, I suspect that our political sobriety, implicit in thevery language which we shape and are in turn shaped by, isneeded to permit one to deal properly with the metaphysicalexcesses of the Germans who have dominated philosophicalendeavors of the past two centuries. This suspicion issupported by Mr. Strauss' note, in one of his last writings,that he had relied for an interpretation of one of EdmundHusserl's essays upon the English translation as well as uponthe German original. Or, put another way, it was good thatsomeone dedicated as he was to political philosophy shouldhave spent so much of his academic career in a countrywhere politics are fairly sensible, decent and stable.This is not to say that Mr. Strauss allowed himself to getcaught up in American political life, however alert he mighthave been to what was happening here. He was alwaysinterested primarily in the books produced by the greatestminds, in articulating each book strictly in its own terms andgetting to the nerve of its argument. What he did wasreferred to by him as "interpretation." What this meant forhim is a problem. Thus, a classical scholar has found hisbook on Aristophanes' plays one of the strangest books hehas ever read. It first appeared to him only a paraphrase ofthe plots of various comedies— mere summaries. Then, as hereconsidered the book, he changed his mind and decidedthat it was not really about Aristophanes at all but was all aconstruction by Mr. Strauss himself.2Be that as it may, Mr. Strauss' primary concern was to understand books in their own terms— and this permitted andrequired him to take the classics seriously. (There was aboutthis approach something which could be recognized as Tal-mudic or rabbinic in character. Of course, sectarianism canresult from such an approach, especially when "reading between the lines" is made as much of as he was obliged todo.) Although his comments on the moderns are valuable, itis probably his restoration of interest among political scien-2 Interpretation is the name of the valuable journal, edited atQueens College of the City University of New York, in which Mr.Strauss' influence may be seen.33tists in the classics which remains his greatest achievement.Xenophon has been resurrected by him, and this may bethought of as his distinctive contribution to conventionalscholarship. Even so, Plato was his acknowledged philosophicalmaster.The competent authoritativeness of Mr. Strauss' mind remained evident to the end. One of my children remarkedupon the uncompromising thoroughness with which Mr.Strauss would approach a text in his weekly seminar at St.John's College. He did not make big, spectacular points (Iwas reminded by this account of what I had myselfobserved a generation earlier) but rather accumulated as hemoved along a considerable aggregate of many points (anyone of which, it sometimes seemed, other scholars mighthave made). Mr. Strauss somehow managed to keep allthese points in mind, all of them together, as he subjectedthe text to a deeper and deeper interpretation week afterweek.This youngster, who had been imbued with the salutarySt. John's College modesty in the face of the greatestauthors, once listened in silent wonder when we visited theStrauss apartment. It is unusual for a St. John's student tohear someone speak as familiarly as did Mr. Strauss aboutthe authors touched upon during that conversation. Particularly memorable for the student that afternoon was acomment Mr. Strauss made about Friedrich Nietzsche: healways found Nietzsche interesting in his masterful generalizations; but he often found him simply wrong in the detailswhich he could check out for himself. It was somehow evident that this magisterial assessment was not presump-tuousness on Mr. Strauss' part.One almost always had the impression in Mr. Strauss of amind at work, a mind in which the reason was in charge,not what we call the esthetic element. He had little to dowith the plastic arts. Nor did he have an ear for music, except (I believe he once told me) for military marches and synagogue music. These, I take it, were legacies of hischildhood— as was, in a different way, the political Zionismto which he was passionately devoted as a young man. Allthat was put behind him as he sat down at his well-ordereddesk for a half- century of truly serious inquiry.One of his former students now on the faculty of the University, who regards Mr. Strauss' reading of books as "somewhat doctrinaire" and who is dubious about the discipleshiphe "permitted" among students, continues to stand in awe ofhis "electrifying seriousness." And a former Universitycolleague can remember him, despite their profound differences, as "a man of extraordinary mental power with a kindof fantasy of the intellect, creative, almost like a poet... Hecared about thoughts and their life and their relation tobooks and to the world with a white-hot intensity."A leave-takingThese remarks have been at times more intimate than mighthave properly been made public in Mr. Strauss' lifetime. How he seemed to some of us then, insofar as that could beexpressed in his presence, may be seen in the introduction Idelivered December 1, 1967, when he lectured at theDowntown Center of the University.Heretofore it has been sufficient upon Mr. Strauss' annual appearance on these premises merely to call the meeting toorder. It is obvious from the size of this audience tonight thaton this occasion, too, no introduction is required.But it is also obvious that since this is the last public appearance of Mr. Strauss as a member of this university, somethingin the way of a valedictory prologue is called for. As Mr.Strauss himself once advised me in circumstances far sadderthan these, propriety requires that certain ceremonies beprolonged, that it is better in such cases to err on the side ofexcess than of deficiency.The lecture tonight is sponsored by the Political Science Department of the University of Chicago and by the University'sBasic Program of Liberal Education for Adults. Mr.Strauss— who has been for two decades a distinguished member of the Political Science Department— has had a significantinfluence on the Basic Program. He has been for at least adecade not only a regular lecturer at the Downtown Center ofthe University but also a teacher on the Quadrangles of BasicProgram teachers. His lectures have included examinations ofthe Book of Genesis, of Aristophanes' Clouds, of Plato's Republic [of Lucretius' On the Nature of Things], of Machiavelli's Prince, of Hobbes' Leviathan [and of liberal education].These lectures (which reflect his wide-ranging work in political philosophy) have been particularly appropriate for BasicProgram— that is, for adult— audiences, not only because of thequality of the books examined but even more because of therigorous yet imaginative way Mr. Strauss examines them. Hisway of reading, informed as it is by an abiding respect for nature and hence for the whole of things, takes very seriously (ifonly as a beginning) the surface, the obvious meaning, of agreat book, the appearance of the book as it first comes toview not to the learned scholar but to the interested adult. Heutilizes, in his quest for the eternal, that which common sensediscovers.Mr. Strauss shares with the layman the all- too -human desireto make sense of the world and thus to master it. This yearning is nicely suggested by an observation made by a formerprison inmate who happened some years ago to talk withmembers of the Political Science Department of this university. The ex -convict was thereafter asked for his impressionsof various members of the department. Yes, he did recall Mr.Strauss. In fact, he was moved to describe him by drawingupon his prison experience: "He reminds me of a con aboutto make a break." It was not, we trust, any incipient criminality which was detected by that observer-for Mr. Strauss is(despite his playfulness) obviously the most law-abiding and,some might even say. the most pious of men-but rather theremust have been divined in Mr. Strauss the single-minded andeven consuming purpose, the self-confident yet cautious daring, and the disciplined but infectious excitement which havecharacterized his constant wondering about the things thattruly matter.An even more fitting description of him, however, is onespoken not in the accent of American prison life but comesrather from the ghettos of Eastern Europe, where it would besaid of a rare kind of man, "He knows how to learn." Mr.Strauss, too, is a man who knows how to learn. It is sad to re-34alize that he is about to succeed, at last, in making a breakfrom our community by escaping to those Elysian Fields menbelieve California to be. But how much sadder still we of thisuniversity would have reason to be if fortune had not afforded us the opportunity all these years to observe throughhim what it means to know how to learn.Mr. Strauss is a man who knows also how to speak for himself—and this we can now permit him to do, now that ourspiritual debt is acknowledged and our ceremonial duty is discharged. His subject for this occasion, "The Socratic Question," is most fitting and proper, reminding us once again ofMr. Strauss' lifelong eagerness to examine, with all who desireto know, "the treasures of the wise men of old."Mr. Strauss departed Chicago shortly after this lecture. Hecame back to the city only once more, on the train whichtook him from California to Annapolis in 1969. A spontaneous champagne party greeted him, his wife, adopteddaughter and son-in-law at the railroad station between trains.It is fitting that his last book— on Plato's Laws— will bepublished by the University of Chicago Press."Comedies, parodies, and satires"Mr. Strauss' seriousness was no doubt evident to all. Therewas about him no foolishness, even though there was oftenconsiderable comedy in what he had to say. Indeed, it was ajoy to see him truly amused. He did like to joke, but usuallywith a point to be made in the process.Even my 1967 introduction of him could not be deliveredwithout the risk of provoking some playfulness on his part.His spontaneous response on that occasion is revealing, reminding us in passing of what he had learned about enthy-memes, from hours of relaxation in front of the televisionset, and about the significant exotericism which modernshave lost sight of:I must say a few words about the remarks of Mr. Anastaplo.If one may compare a lofty thing with a thing that is not solofty, Mr. Anastaplo's remarks reminded me of a verse whichsome of you may have heard: "If you're out of Schlitz, you'reout of beer." That is an exaggeration. We all know there isPabst and Budweiser and Lowenbrau and quite a few others.Someone might say, "But it was Schlitz that made Milwaukeefamous." To which I would reply, "There are other brandswhich made other places famous— for example, Berkeley andHarvard and some other places."But to speak somewhat more seriously, it is an embarrassingsituation. If I agree with Mr. Anastaplo — then I would be justly accused of lack of modesty. If I disagree with him, I accusehim tacitly of lack of judgment and not only him but, in away, even the University of Chicago— and this would seem toshow lack of civility.What then should one do? Now, some of my teachers— theywere Islamic philosophers in the twelfth century or thereabouts—found a way out of a comparable although not identical dilemma. They began their books in about this manner:"After the praise of Allah, I say that it is my intention to explain the intention of Aristotle's science of prior analytics." So I will say, "After my thanks to Mr. Anastaplo, I say that itis my intention to explain the Socratic question."Mr. Strauss then turned immediately to his lecture.I trust I had in mind, as I prepared my introduction ofhim (which I later learned he spoke well of in private), thestory Mr. Strauss liked to tell about the public receptionaccorded a prominent official by an obsequious subordinatewho punctuated virtually every sentence with "Your Excellency." To this reception the great man responded."'Your excellency,' yes, but only now and then."Such playfulness as Mr. Strauss could exhibit was, I suspect, inherited, for another story he liked to tell was of aprank played by his father upon a traveling businessmanwho used to stop in their German town. The traveler wasknown as a prodigious eater— and among his feats was thatof feasting upon an omelette of a dozen eggs. On one occasion, the elder Strauss paid the innkeeper to put, unannounced, two dozen eggs in the omelette. The traveler ateand ate and ate, but simply could not finish what had beenserved him. He was heard to lament, as he pushed his plateaway, "I am not the man I was."The man Mr. Strauss always was may be seen in a storyhe told a decade or so ago on his "closest friend," a friendlyrival of a half- century who had always had an "idiosyncratic abhorrence of publicity— of anything which even remotely reminds of the limelight." I make a few minor adjustments in Mr. Strauss' story for publication:I always found that Mr. went somewhat too far in thisbut all too justified abhorrence of publicity. When we were inour twenties we worked every day during a longish period forsome hours in the Prussian State Library in Berlin and we relaxed from our work in a coffee house close by the Library.There we sat together for many hours with a number of otheryoung men and talked about everything which came to ourmind— mixing gravity and levity in the proportion in whichyouth is likely to mix them. As far as Mr. was concerned,there was, I am tempted to say, only one limit: we must notappear to the public as young men cultivating their minds; letus avoid at all costs— this was his silent maxim— the appearance that we are anything other than idle and inefficientyoung men of business or of the lucrative professions or anyother kind of drones. On such occasions I derived enjoymentfrom suddenly exclaiming as loudly as I could something suchas "Nietzsche!" and from watching the anticipated wincing ofMr. - -.Mr. Strauss, it was evident to all who knew him well, notonly had eccentricities but was not unaware of them. He didget some reassurance as well as pleasure, however, from astory he told of an exchange with one of his nurses in Annapolis. He had had occasion to apologize to her for animposition: "I'm a queer man in some ways.... No doubtyou've noticed." "No, Mr. Strauss," she replied, "you're notqueer; you're real!"Some would consider even more eccentric what he said onanother occasion to one of his students: "I'm aware of thefact that the wholeness of a part does not preclude a plural:there is barely a moment in my waking life when I do not35think of dogs and donkeys." Certainly he did delight in theexuberance of dogs and the braying of donkeys.One of his finest jests took the form of the pious insistence, opportunely resorted to when it suited hisconvenience, that he was "always respectful of authority."The Socratic questionSocrates was, for Mr. Strauss, always a question, a riddle,not an authority. He devoted himself in his last years to asearch for the meaning of Socrates, relying on the guidanceprovided by Aristophanes, Plato and Xenophon and testingthereby the seductive proscriptions of Nietzsche. He hadprepared himself for this quest by delving for many yearsinto the moderns, into the men who claim to have superseded the ancients.The "Socratic question" includes an inquiry into how itwas that philosophy and political philosophy emerged whenthey did, into what the relation is among poetry, philosophyand revelation (or "physics"), and into what it was thatSocrates sought and did. There were about Mr. Strauss several features which could be said to be Socratic. He had acertain immoderation, an uncanny singlemindedness, withrespect to the things of the mind. His probing into the veryfoundations of things could and did threaten establishedscholars: since he did try to go to the root of things, hecould not help but call into question much of what passestoday for academic accomplishment. (He could say thatthere may have been one or two of Plato's dialogs which hecompletely understood. Such modesty could threaten thoseconventional scholars who believe themselves to know virtually all there is worth knowing about the classics.)In Mr. Strauss' hands "value -free" social science (andmany of the humanities as well) either was exposed aschildish or was supplied a setting which made some sense ofit. Neither contribution made him popular with hisacademic peers. Secondary sources became superfluous ashe encouraged his students to approach directly the textsmost worth reading. But he also encouraged them topractice the prudence he saw in the greatest writers, aprudence which reflects an awareness of the tenuousposition both of philosophy in the cities of men and of therule of law in every community.Mr. Strauss attracted the students he did because deepthinking was obviously the major part of his life. Studentscould see how close he was to the life of great minds, howmuch that kind of life mattered to him and what he coulddo for and with it. He managed to face, and to seem to face,the great questions more directly than the other scholars oneencountered. But not all serious questions occupied him, itshould be noted, or at least not all of them to the sameextent: he had more to say (at least explicitly) aboutanthropos and nature than about nous and the cosmos.One of his students— a student of some twenty years whowas of all his students perhaps most like a son tohim— spoke at the St. John's College memorial meeting forMr. Strauss "about the themes of his investigations": Philosophy and science come into the world, according toStrauss, with the discovery of nature; and the fundamental in-tra-philosophic issue, the issue between the ancients and themoderns, concerns their different understandings of natureand nature's status. Mr. Strauss concentrated especially on thestudy of human nature. This is not the place to go into howthe study of human nature is complicated by the rediscoveryof exotericism, except perhaps to remark that the study ofwhat most of the greatest writers prior to Kant mean by human nature is inseparable from the study of the implicationsof their rhetoric. The connection between nature and humannature becomes evident by questions such as these: Are wecorrect to speak of what is good for man by nature? Are weequipped by nature to understand nature, to understand whatis good by nature? Or is nature indifferent or hostile to man'shighest aspirations? Is it naive to think that the human intellect is constituted by nature so as to understand nature, thatnature is so constituted as to be understood by the human intellect? If it is naive, as the moderns argue, is not nature rather to be studied with a view to its ultimate conquest, with aview to its intellectual conquest by means of the art of symbolic mathematics and experiment and its physical conquestby the technological arts concomitant with mathematicalphysics? Is nature then to be studied with a view to the ultimate triumph of human art? But if nature cannot provide uswith standards, how are we to determine the purposes towhich that art is to be put? The dilemmas, not to speak ofhorrors, consequent upon the modern project require a careful tracing back of our steps, the rediscovery of the fundamental notions and assumptions that brought us to this impasse. That means, to speak in the broadest outline, the rediscovery of the fundamental notions and assumptions thatunderlie the modern understanding of nature, the rediscoveryof the fundamental notions and assumptions of the classicalunderstanding of nature which the moderns reject and thereby presuppose that they understand. And lastly it means therediscovery of the basic insights and assumptions that underliethe original discovery of nature, the original discovery ofphilosophy and science. This last task brings us face to facewith the alternatives to philosophy....Mr. Strauss was so compelling and so alive (and hencetruly human) because he took seriously the possibility ofphilosophy. He did question even this, in that he tookseriously as well the alternatives to philosophy, including therecourse to living -according -to -nature (a radical rejectionof civilization) and the recourse to an all - consumingpolitical (or religious) life. What he had to say, especially inhis Herculean revival of the ancients among politicalscientists, was like a light in the dark. He was thus able toappeal to and challenge the best in students, especially theyoung and the young in heart.It would be both foolhardy and superfluous of me toattempt to say more than I have already about "the Socraticquestion" to which Mr. Strauss addressed himself. Hiswritings are, of course, available to the interested reader.Different kinds of introductions to Mr. Strauss' thought(including his "method," the most careful reading) areprovided by three of his books, On Tyranny, The City andMan, and Natural Right and History and by four of hisarticles, "Persecution and the Art of Writing," "Preface toSpinoza's Critique of Religion," "What Is Political3bPhilosophy?" and "What Is Liberal Education?"Something more might usefully be recorded, as a guidefor those who come to write some day of Mr. Strauss'career, about the perhaps inevitable effects of his Socraticways upon those in the community who (for one reason oranother) could not be expected to understand his thought.Thus, the sensitive wife of one of his students could writeyears afterwards of the teacher who had come to mean somuch to the graduate students she had known at theUniversity:Mr. Strauss was a man's man. This was instantly obvious toany woman who met him. Whatever exists in a man'spersonality to interest a woman or to be interested in her waslacking in him. I believe he could respond to feminineadmiration; in fact, I rather suspect he thought it was his due,and he could talk to women without discomfort for shortperiods of time. But the bridge that forms quickly betweensome minds of opposite sexes would never form with him.Mr. Strauss was both over -anxious and indifferent to theconditions of the material world. He had no sense of measure.He ignored things while he worked until "nature struck back"and he had to rely on others to salvage the situation.Although he could judge which way the wind was blowing, hewas not quite sure what to do about it.He could be a delightful companion and, I hear, an ardentpursuer of ideas. However, much of his personality was childlike. He could sum up the world at a distance in writing andwords, but one had the feeling that somehow he had neverreally grown to be a man.A kind of impracticality, a not -caring, about the things ofthis world may be detected in this sketch of Mr. Strauss, thesort of aloofness from the cares of the world (with itssometimes disastrous effects on family life) which onedetects as well in the complaints about Socrates. (Onerecalls, in this connection, Socrates' long-suffering, andlong - suffered, wife.) Also Socratic is the dedication tophilosophy of the erotic part of the soul which may bedetected in this sketch.It should at once be added, however, that Mr. Strauss didnot have that contempt for death which one also associateswith Socrates. He was through much of his life a physicallytimid man, perhaps unduly so; certainly, curiously so. (I amreminded in this respect both of Cicero and of Hobbes.) Butbodily existence did become a dreadful burden for him— andhe could finally ask to be allowed to die. This was a longway from the man who could once be intimidated bythunder and lightning. (See Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights,XIX, i.)However that may be, it would have been unthinkable forMr. Strauss, while in good health, to go to his death aswillingly as Socrates seems to have gone. He always feltvulnerable, physically and financially, even while mostconfident about his ability to think and to write.But, on the other hand, Socrates did have his "daemonicthing" to help protect him from a premature death, therebypermitting him through a long life to do good both forhimself and for others. Jerusalem, yes; Athens, now and then?Mr. Strauss' curious sense of vulnerability (which hehimself never seemed to treat as a defect) has not keptseveral of his most intimate, and perhaps best, students frompublicly pronouncing him to have been a philosopher. He, itshould be noticed, never called himself a philosopher. Thatwas a term he carefully reserved for the rare man, perhapsone or two a century at best. He did call himself a scholar.Perhaps we can dare to expand that appellation at least intoPlutarch's phrase, "philosophical companion." (See, e.g.,Plutarch, Cicero, XX, 2.)To regard Mr. Strauss as simply a philosopher wouldmean (among other things) that one had come to terms withthe Judaism which seems to have meant so much to him. Ofcourse, one could simply say that what Judaism reallymeant to him can be inferred from the fact that he was aphilosopher— but this, it seems to me, would not take dueaccount of the reservoir of passion in him upon which"Jewish" issues drew. (His occasional references to themedieval "Muslim philosophers" should also be considered.)Did his Judaism, with its dedication to a wise righteousness,permit him to ignore to the extent he did the cosmology ofmodern science? But must not philosophy come to termswith physics, ancient or modern? (See Cicero, Republic, I, x,15-16; Diogenes Laertius, Lives ["Socrates"], II, 45. Cf.Plato, Phaedo 96a sq.; Deuteronomy 4: 6. See, also, Philo,On the Account of the World's Creation Given by Moses. Cf.,also, Philo, On the Eternity of the World; Maimonides, TheGuide of the Perplexed, II, 13 sq.)Socrates, we suspect, did not really recognize the gods ofhis city. No such public charge was ever leveled against Mr.Strauss, even though he was not (in the conventional sense)an observant Jew. Indeed, it may have been his Judaism,including its tradition of careful reading of the most exaltedtexts, which permitted a man of his extraordinary talents toremain open to philosophy by keeping him from certaincontemporary excesses— excesses associated with theEnlightenment and Cosmopolitanism and their infatuationwith the idea of progress, with modern science and itstechnology, and with individuality.I have heard it said that Mr. Strauss' Judaic studies alonewould have made a name for him in the scholarly world.One could see him at Hillel House, helping a particularlyastute rabbi and his conscientious successor make Judaismintellectually respectable for sophisticated young Jews. Mr.Strauss showed them, as well as their Gentile fellow-travelers, that there was indeed much in Jewish faith and tradition to be respected and salvaged. There was, perhaps aboveall for him, an obligation for every Jew (mindful of familyfeeling, honor and gratitude) to stand firm with his peoplearound the world and through the ages. (See Plato, Apology34d.)If there is any "false step" among Mr. Strauss' writings itmay have been occasioned by his dedication to this nobleobligation to defend the respectable post in which one37happens to have been stationed by birth. That is, heobserved in one of his last essays:In order to understand Heidegger's thought and therefore inparticular his posture toward politics and political philosophy,one must not neglect the work of his teacher Husserl. Theaccess to Husserl is not rendered difficult by any false steplike those taken by Heidegger in 1933 and 1953. [Thereference here is, of course, to Heidegger's Nazi experiment in1933, which was never repudiated by him and which he tacitlyreaffirmed in 1953.] I have heard it said that the Husserlianequivalent was his conversion, not proceeding fromconviction, to Christianity. If this were proven to be the case,it would become a task for a casuist of exceptional gifts toconsider the dissimilarities and similarities of the two kinds ofacts and to weigh their respective demerits and merits.I suspect that this kind of "weighing" would not really bemuch of a problem for a Gentile casuist appalled by MartinHeidegger's gross misconduct, misconduct which leaves himexposed as the Macbeth of philosophy.1Be that as it may, the serious student of Mr. Strauss mustcertainly come to terms with what Judaism meant for himand why. He did travel to Israel. I do not believe he evermade it to Athens and its Acropolis. He did get as far as thePiraeus, on the voyage between Israel and the United States.But he was too ill to travel up to the city and had to settle for aview of Athens from its port. Was Jerusalem necessarily for himmore a thing of the body than was Athens, something to beseen close-up rather than from a distance.Mr. Strauss did walk the streets of Jerusalem and feel athome there. Fellow Jews can remember him standing infront of his apartment at 7:30 in the morning, with his fuelcan in hand, waiting for his regular allotment of neft from ahorse -drawn wagon. This was a physical discipline which heseems to have looked forward to and which it would havebeen unthinkable to expect of him in the Chicago whichserved as his Athens."The sacredness of 'the common' "It should be evident, when I speak of Mr. Strauss andJudaism, that I do presume to speak of matters which I canglimpse only at a distance, if at all. Even so, as I haveindicated, the outsider can realize that there is somethinghere to be investigated by a competent student. Thus, Mr.Strauss could acknowledge publicly that there was a' Mr. Strauss himself treated Heidegger's conduct quite differentlyfrom Husserl's. Thus, he could instruct certain of his studentsvisiting Germany not to have anything to do socially withHeidegger after the war. (I know also that he refused to haveanything further to do personally with a noted scholar, a Jewishfriend of his from their youth in Germany, who made his peacewith Heidegger.) Even so, he always acknowledged the remarkabletalents of Heidegger, considering him "incomparable in our time,"especially in the comprehensiveness of his thought. Fortunately,the revival of the classics in political science today is saved fromserious temptations to, or facile charges of, fascism becausesomeone as important to that revival as Mr. Strauss was obviouslyand passionately and -Nazi in his conservatism. disproportion between the "primitive feelings" he alwaysretained from his Orthodox upbringing and the "rationaljudgment" guided in him by philosophy.Perhaps nothing can serve as well as certain remarksmade thirteen years ago by Mr. Strauss himself both to putthe trespassing Gentile on notice here and to challenge thethoughtful Jew. One can see in these remarks, made by Mr.Strauss on December 6, 1961, at the funeral in Chicago of athirty - two year old graduate student, the solace whichJudaism can provide mankind in the face of death,especially an untimely death:We are struck by the awesome, unfathomable experience ofdeath, of the death of one near and dear to us. We aregrieved particularly because our friend died so young— whenhe was about to come into his own, to enter on a career whichwould have made him esteemed beyond the circle of hisfriends here and elsewhere and his pupils in the Liberal ArtsProgram. It is not given to me to say words of comfort of myown. I can only try to say what, I believe, Jason Aronson hadcome to know. I saw him for the last time about three weeksago in my office. He knew where he stood. He jokinglyreminded me of an old joke: all men are mortal but somemore than others. He decided bravely and wisely to continuehis study of Shaftesbury. At his suggestion we agreed that wewould read the Bible together, starting from the beginning.Death is terrible, terrifying, but we cannot live as humanbeings if this terror grips us to the point of corroding our core.Jason Aronson had two experiences which protected himagainst this corrosive as well as its kin. The one is to come togrips with the corrosives, to face them, to think them through,to understand the ineluctable necessities, and to understandthat without them no life, no human life, no good life, ispossible. Slowly, step by step, but with ever greater surenessand awakeness did he begin to become a philosopher. I donot know whether he knew the word of a man of old: maymy soul die the death of the philosophers, but young as hewas he died that death.The other experience which gave him strength and depth washis realizing ever more clearly and profoundly what it meansto be a son of the Jewish people— of the 'am 'olam— to haveone's roots deep in the oldest past and to be committed to afuture beyond all futures.He did not permit his mind to stifle the voice of his heart norhis heart to give commands to his mind.I apply to his life the daring, gay, and noble motto: courte etbonne— his life was short and good. We shall not forget himand for what he stood.I address to his wife, his mother, and brother, and his sisterthe traditional Jewish formula: "May God comfort youamong the others who mourn for Zion and Jerusalem."Thus ends my remembrance for this occasion of a mostremarkable man, an intrepid stepson of the University ofChicago and its determined benefactor. Even if I should bedestined to remain in this university community anothertwenty -six years, I for one do not expect to happen uponhis like again.Hyde ParkChicago, Illinois22 Tishrei 573538lAlumni D^cwsClass notesf\f\ in memoriam: Jennie Coon Eulette,\J\J x 1900, church woman, traveler,speaker, poet, died September 4 in Chicago.f\A in memoriam: Edna C. Dunlap, ab'04,V/T" am'29, who taught French at ParkerHigh School in Chicago for thirty- five years,died July 25 in Evanston. She was 95.Joseph R. Morrell, md'04, Ogden, Ut, diedJuly 5 at the age of 94.f\£ in memoriam: Edward M. Kerwin,\J*J ab'05, retired senior vice-presidentof the E. J. Brach & Sons candy company,member of the Citizens Board of theUniversity, died September 20 in San Diego.George Schobinger, ab'05, retired civilengineer, died June 12 in Swarthmore, Pa.C\/' in memoriam: Marie G.Ortmayer,UO phB'06, md' 17, Carmel Valley,Ca., a specialist in gastroenterologicalendoscopy who practiced for more than fiftyyears in Chicago before moving to California,died July 24 following a long illness. A formermember of the University of Chicago andUniversity of Colorado medical schoolfaculties, Dr. Ortmayer was highly regardedfor her research on pain of duodenal ulcer.f\(\ in memoriam: Marian E. Daniells,\Jy ab'09, retired mathematics professorand high school administrator, died June 27 inAmes, la.1 r\ in memoriam: Opal Luehrs Hocker,1 \J abTO, retired teacher at HaverfordTownship Junior High School (Haverford,Pa.), died September 9; John H. Shantz,pIibTO, am'11, Rock Island, II., retired highschool social studies teacher, died June 28.11 in memoriam: Elizabeth Halsey,1 phB'l 1, former head of the physicaleducation department, University of Iowa,died September 10 in Carmel Valley, Ca.;Albert F. Mecklenburger, jd'11, retiredChicago attorney, died July 17 at his home inHighland Park, II.; Jeannette ThielensPhillips, PhB'l 1, Chicago, honorary regent of the DeWalt Mechlin chapter of the Daughtersof the American Revolution, died August 4.1 ^ in memoriam: Paul G. Hoffman, x'12,L A, first administrator of the MarshallPlan and a former trustee of the University ofChicago, died October 8 at his home in NewYork. Mr. Hoffman started out as an autorepairman and rose quickly to president andlater chairman of the board of the StudebakerCorporation. He devoted himself to publicservice from the World War II era onward. HeClub eventsCHICAGO, January 18, Alumni lunch, basketball game; March 21: Special showing ofMonet retrospective at the Art Institute.Dallas, February 4: Martin Marty,professor, associate dean, Divinity School,will speak.LOS ANGELES, January 21: Political scientistSusanne Rudolph will be the speaker.MINNEAPOLIS, February 14: ProfessorMartin Marty of the Divinity School willspeak.phoenix, January 22: John Cawelti,professor of English, will be the speaker.SAN DIEGO, January 20: Susanne Rudolph,professor of political science, will speak.san francisco, January 25: Seminar—"Chicago by the Bay II."tucson, January 23: Professor of EnglishJohn Cawelti will speak.WASHINGTON, January 26: Tour of theHirshhorn Museum; February (date to beset): tennis evening, Fairfax Racquet Club;March 16: Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar,"at the Arena Stage. was awarded the University's William Bentonmedal in 1972 for distinguished service toeducation.Mabel Williard Davis, p1ib'12. Little Rock,Ar„ died June 16.1 O in memoriam: Katherine A. Knowlton,JO sm' 13, West Hartford, Ct., diedFebruary 27, 1974.William Allen Swim, sb'13, md'15, LosAngeles, died June 9.Brig. Gen. Lawrence H. Whiting (ret.), xT3,Chicago, founder/president of the AmericanFurniture Mart (now the American MartCorporation) and the last living survivor ofGen. John J. Pershing's World War I staff,died September 9 in a Deerfield, II., nursinghome. After the war Gen. Whiting attendedthe two meetings of veterans in 1919 that ledto the founding of the American Legion. Helater served ten terms as president of theSociety of American Legion Founders. He waschief consultant to the War Department onpersonnel classification during World War II.Gen. Whiting was also active in Chicago civicaffairs, serving as chairman of Mayor Daley'scommittee on culture during the late 1950s.While at Chicago he played center on footballteams coached by Amos Alonzo Stagg andwas the Big Ten high hurdles champion in1911.Memmett arnold, x'14, is the authorof Gold-Camp Drifter, 1906-1910(University of Nevada Press. Bristleconepaperback series), an autobiographicalaccount of his experiences in Nevada's roaringmining camps at the turn of the century. As alad of 14, Arnold made a sweep of the then-thriving gold and silver rush areas in Nevada,finding employment on a jack-of-all-tradesbasis, from messenger boy to mule skinnerand hard rock miner. Now living in McAllen.Tx., he raises citrus, owns rental propertiesand is engaged in a modest oil operation.in memoriam: Paul R. Pierce, phB'14. am'27.phD'34, retired administrator in the Chicagopublic schools who pioneered the Chicagopreschool program, died September 24 inNormal, II.39Ruth Margaret Whitfield, p1ib'14, whotaught English at New Trier Township HighSchool in Winnetka until her retirement in1955. died September 2 in Wheaton, Md. Aneducational scholarship fund is beingestablished in Ms. Whitfield's name. Thosewishing to contribute may do so through theUnited Presbyterian Church, 10701 OldGeorgetown Rd., Rockville, Md. 20852."1 ^ GERALDYNE HODGES MAJOR, PtlB'15,L w/ who celebrated her eightieth birthdayon July 29. is still active on both the work andsocial scenes in New York. A longtimenewspaperwoman, journalist and jet setter.Ms. Major is currently senior editor of Ebonvand society editor of Jet. She started workingfor those publications in 1953. According toan article in Ebonv, Ms. Major once thoughtof retiring to the Virgin Islands or theBahamas but put that down. Those places aresometimes just too far away from what'shappening.in memoriam: Walker M. Alderton, x'15,associate professor emeritus of the FederatedTheological Faculty at the University, diedJuly 1 in Phoenix, Az.; John Chester Baker,x'15, retired business executive, died July 3 inFayetteville, N. Y.1 /C PHOEBE BAKER SHACKELFORD, SB'16.1 \J and benjamin e. Shackelford, p1id'16,due to their heavy involvement in communitywork over the years, were the subject of anarticle last summer in the Sunday Star-Ledger(Newark, N. J.). Mrs. Shackelford, a dedicatedvolunteer worker for some forty years andwinner of an alumni citation for public servicein 1950, is particularly enthusiastic about herlatest project. She is responsible for the idea ofputting out comic books to discourage juvenilecrime. "I think comics are a great way tocommunicate with youngsters." she said. Thecomics, which depict the adventures of "SuperCool" and "Super Cool Kid," are beingfunded by several organizations, including theSocial Welfare Research Foundation. Mr.Shackelford joined his wife in her communityinterests after his retirement eighteen yearsago from RCA. They live in Orange, N. J.in memoriam: Rev. Leif H. Awes, db'16, ofSt. John's Lutheran Church in Minneapolis.died July 13; John Mcintosh, jd'16, died May16; Irma Hauser Miller, sb'16, md'20, LagunaHills, Ca., a retired pediatrician, diedSeptember 6; Agnes A. Sharp, p1ib'16, am'30,phD'38, former director of research and chiefpsychologist at the Psychiatric Institute of theMunicipal Court of Chicago and a pioneer inindustrial psychology, died August 5 inTucson, Az. nD JEROME FISHER, SB'17, SM'20,p1id'22. mineralogist, educator.professor emeritus of geophysical sciences atUC since 1961, has retired for the second time.Fisher kept his UC office and continued withhis research here until 1968 at which time hepacked up and set out for Phoenix, Az.,supposedly to retire. That retirement wasshort-lived because he was quickly recruitedas a part-time professor in the geologydepartment of Arizona State University.Recently Fisher announced he is retiringagain, and this time he means it. "I spentforty-one years at Chicago." he told theTempe, Az., Daily News. "I think it's time toloaf awhile." But for Fisher, who playedcenter on Amos Alonzo Stagg's great footballteams and captained the UC track team toconference championships, loafing does notmean inactivity. The septuagenarian joins agroup of local outdoors types once a week at 5a.m. to scale the 1,200-foot Squaw Peak, anendeavor that takes about an hour.in memoriam: Elizabeth MacClintockEfroymson, phB'17, of Carmel, In.; MarionEisendrath Horween, x'17, died August 4 inChicago.1 O in memoriam: Raymond R. Beatty,J. O x'18, real estate agent who spent manyof his years in Scarsdale, N. Y., until movingto Florida a few years ago, died August 16.Agnes Murray Kelly, PhB'l 8, Santa Ana,Ca., died September 26.Bessie Louise Pierce, am'18, professoremeritus in the Department of History at theUniversity and a noted Chicago historian,died October 3 in Iowa City. Dr. Pierce wasauthor of the critically acclaimed History ofChicago series. Volume I of the mammothproject was published in 1937, volume II in1940 and volume III in 1957. Dr. Pierce wasediting the fourth and final volume when shedied.1 C\ JEANNETTE ridlon piccard. sm'19.J. j7 whose feats as a pioneering balloonisthave been mentioned before in these pages,almost achieved her lifetime ambition a fewmonths ago— at the age of 79. She was one ofthe eleven women whose ordination asEpiscopal priests in Philadelphia last summerwas declared invalid in a controversial rulingby the house of bishops of the EpiscopalChurch. Rev. Piccard, who has wanted to be apriest since she was a teen-ager, has beenfighting the church's bias against women formost of her life.A consultant at NASA's Manned SpacecraftCenter in Houston from 1963 to 1969, Rev.Piccard subsequently moved to Minneapolis where her activity in the church increased."Perhaps the respect with which I was treatedeverywhere except in the church contributedto my sense of rebellion," she once told Ms.magazine. She applied to be a lay reader andwas issued a license restricted to a summerresort. As a result of vigorous protests, she wasgranted an unrestricted license in 1970 andwent on to become an Episcopal deacon. Assome of the biases were eased, seminary doorswere finally opened to women and Rev.Piccard enrolled. She completed the academicrequirements for the priesthood last year atGeneral Theological Seminary in New York.<^/"\ in memoriam: Eleanor M. Burgess,ZSj phB'20, Oak Park, II., retiredhigh school English teacher, died August 7.r\ f\ max ferber, phB'22, and eightZ*jL* other graduate students from theUniversity of Southern California spent threeweeks at Cambridge University last summerstudying 20th-century British literature.Ferber and his classmates, who were enrolledin a special course co-sponsored by USC'smaster of liberal arts program and the boardof extra-mural studies at Cambridge, lived ina 400-year-old Tudor manor house in thecountryside near Cambridge, where facultymembers came to lecture on modern Britishfiction, drama and poetry. Ferber, formerfounder and head of a major collectioncompany, in his 70s is the oldest student toearn the master of liberal arts degree fromUSC since that degree program was initiatedfour years ago.in memoriam: Ernest A. Obering, sb'22, oilgeologist, died in Oklahoma City in July ofthis year.^ ^ homer p. rainey, am'23, phD'24,A* J) of Boulder, Co., professor emeritus ofeducation at the University of Colorado,returned in July to his native Eliasville, Tx., asa featured speaker at the town's annual OldSettlers Reunion. Dr. Rainey served aspresident of four schools— Franklin College,Bucknell University, the University of Texasand Stephens College— and in 1946 was therunner-up for governor of Texas.in memoriam: Benjamin A. Daskal, x'23,rabbi emeritus of Congregation Rodfei Zedekin Chicago; Harvey L. Horwich, PhB'23, jd'25,Chicago attorney, died September 20 inScottsdale, Az., where he had been living sincehis retirement a year ago; Walter B. Mahan,phD'23, retired chairman of the philosophydepartment at Southern Methodist University,died September 3 in Dallas; Henry Van Zyl,Jr., phB'23, am'26, chairman of the education40department at Calvin College (Grand Rapids,Mi.) until his retirement in 1953, diedSeptember 25 at the age of 92./^ A HERBERT A. SHEEN, SB'24, MD'30,ZJi who worked his way through UC as awaiter, Pullman porter, musician, and postalclerk, writes that he is "still fighting theproblems of ghetto practice and trying tobalance them with the dreams of a legacyknown as Sheenway Corporation and SheenEducational Foundation." Adjacent to Dr.Sheen's medical offices in Los Angeles is theSheenway Child Care Center, a centerdesigned to remedy educational and culturaldeficiencies stemming from poverty, lack ofsocial mobility and poor schooling. Thecenter, which offers scholarships to promisingyoungsters, is much more than just ababysitting service. The curriculum includesdance, drama, voice, black history, karate,cinematography and photography, not tomention Swahili and Spanish.in memoriam: Arthur Cody, phB'24,Rhinelander, Wi., president of the class, diedJuly 1 1 following a long illness. MargaretMonilaw Cody, PhB'24, writes that herhusband was especially grateful for all thenice notes written to him by classmatesattending the fiftieth reunion last June. Mr.Cody, who suffered from a rare form ofcancer, willed his body to the University ofWisconsin medical school to further medicalresearch.^\ C willard l, wood, sb'25, md'30, pro-Z*U fessor emeritus of medicine at RushMedical College, authority and specialist inarthritis and internal medicine, was honoredby Indiana State University (Terre Haute) lastspring when an honorary doctor of sciencedegree was conferred upon him duringcommencement ceremonies.Brother h. charles severin, sb'25, sm'27,p1id'30, professor of biology at St. Mary'sCollege (Winona, Mn.), has been chosen toappear in the national awards volume for1974, Outstanding Educators of America. Amember of the St. Mary's faculty since 1933,Brother Severin served as chairman of thebiology department for thirty-five years. Oneof the first to recognize the importance ofecology, he initiated courses on the subject inthe St. Mary's curriculum in 1935. His mostrecent publication, A Pocket Manual forIdentifying Philippine Trees, was printed in1973 by United Publishing Company ofManila.in memoriam: Ernest H. Clay, md'25,physician who practiced in Changli, NorthChina Hospital from 1926 to 1943 on a United Methodist Church medical servicecommission, and then in Montebello, Ca.,from 1944 until his retirement in 1970, diedAugust 4.^ S~ EDWIN J. DeCOSTA, sb'26, md'30,LJ\j and john m. dorsey, sb'26, md'3 1 ,were honored with emeritus appointmentsrecently upon retiring from the medical schoolfaculty of Northwestern University. DeCosta,of Highland Park, was designated professoremeritus of obstetrics and gynecology, andDorsey, of Evanston, professor emeritus ofsurgery.in memoriam: Julia A. Dodge, sb'26. GlenEllyn, II., died August 16; Ethel M. Evans,sm'26, died in January of 1974; Samuel C.Steinman, x'26, died August 10.f\ r-l JULIUS E. GINSBERG, SB'27, MD'32,Z^ I has retired from the faculty ofNorthwestern University medical school asassociate professor emeritus of dermatology.He has been with NU since 1940.in memoriam: Procope S. Costas, am'27,phD'33, professor emeritus of classics atBrooklyn (N. Y.) College, died August 26 inBrooklyn.^ Q max s. bloom, phB'28, chairman of^O the board of S. Bloom, Inc., wholesaletobacco, confectionery, and kindred consumerproducts distributors headquartered inCountryside, II., was honored at the 1974convention of the National Association ofTobacco Distributors, held in Miami Beachearlier this year, when he was named toreceive the annual Sol Bornstein memorialaward for community service. Bloom, wholives in Chicago, was especially cited for his"long and valuable service" with the IllinoisState Chamber of Commerce, the ChicagoAssociation of Commerce and Industry, andthe Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago.O d HOWARD K- bauernfeind, am'29, BrynZSy Mawr, Pa., has retired from J. B.Lippincott Company after forty -four years ofassociation— first as editor, then as president(1949-'60), and finally as chairman of theboard.in memoriam: Mae K. Kernan, phB'29, SantaBarbara, Ca.; Mrs. Robert K. Summerbell,x'29, Northbrook, II.s> r\ [CATHERINE MADISON riddle, PhB'30,3 \) has retired after seventeen years ofteaching at Lincoln elementary school inHighland Park, II. Ms. Riddle, who has beenconsiderably active in community and Ernest C. ColuellErnest Cadman Colwell, phD'30, formerpresident of the University of Chicago, diedin Deland, Fl., September 12 at the age of73. Mr. Colwell joined the faculty in 1930.In 1939 he was appointed a professor andchairman of the Department of the NewTestament. Later that year he wasappointed dean of the Divinity School. Hewas president of the University and deanof faculties from 1945, when Robert M.Hutchins moved up to become chancellor,until 1951. Mr Colwell published severalworks including Prolegomena to the Studyof the Lectionary Texts of the Gospels. Heleft Chicago in 1951 to become dean offaculties and vice-president of EmoryUniversity. He was president of the Schoolof Theology at Claremont, Ca., from 1957to 1968. During his past few years ofretirement, he taught Greek at StetsonUniversity in Deland.charitable causes over the years, was awardeda citation for public service from theUniversity in 1957.Rabbi mordecai schultz. PhB'30, whoundertook the pulpit at Chicago's LawnManor Beth Jacob Congregation more thanforty years ago, has retired.in memoriam: Cameron Eddy, x'30, diedAugust 27; E. Harold Hallows, jd'30, formerchief justice of the Wisconsin Supreme Court,died September 12 in Madison, Wi.; Grace A.Klein, p1ib'30, public school teacher inEvansville, In., for the past twenty-two years,died July 10.31 in memoriam: Annette Raphael Dunn,1 jd'31, a partner with her husbandMax (PhB'28, jd'30) in the Chicago law firm ofDunn & Dunn for the past forty years, diedAugust 23; Rev. Donald C. McMillan, p1ib'31,Hutchinson, Ks., died in February of 1974.^\ ^ DOROTHY R mohr sb'32, am'33, re-«_) Z* tired August 30 from her positions ofprofessor and head of women's physicaleducation at California State University,Sacramento. Dr. Mohr, who began her forty-one-year teaching career in Illinois highschools, has since then taught at colleges anduniversities in Tennessee. Iowa, Texas.Oregon, Maryland and California. In 1966 shereceived the honor fellow award of theAmerican Association for Health. PhysicalEducation and Recreation.The Reverend harold a. bosley, db'32.41phD'33, retired earlier this year as seniorminister of Christ Church (United Methodist)in New York. Rev. Bosley, who was firstlicensed as a Methodist minister in 1924, isnow minister emeritus of the church.pauls davis. jd'32, has been appointed anadministrative law judge in the Department ofHealth, Education and Welfare, assigned tothe Detroit (Mi.) office. Judge Davis for someyears was assistant counsel for MichiganWisconsin Pipe Line Company in Detroit andwas formerly special counsel for the Securitiesand Exchange Commission, Washington.O Q HERMAN H. GOLDSTINE. SB'33, SM'34,^jj PhD'36, of the Institute forAdvanced Study, Princeton. N. J., reports thathe received a doctorate, honoris causa, lastspring from the University of Lund, Sweden.alice mooradian, x'33, was honored at adinner last summer which was attended bynearly 600 people on the occasion of herretirement as executive director of the GoldenAge Clubs of Niagara Falls (N. Y.). At theevent she was presented with a number ofawards, including the Rotary Club seniorcitizen award. "Now I'm embarked on a newlife style and will be involved in volunteerservices," writes Ms. Mooradian who won analumni citation for public service from theUniversity in 1966. "Retirement years arewhat we make them, and I plan hopefully forfruitful years of continued service."in memoriam: Edgar S. Greenwald, llb'33,Chicago.f\ A ABRAHAM aidenoff, ab'34. New York,Jn is currently deputy director of thestatistical office of the United Nations.Henry James, a biography by harry tmoore, p1ib'34, research professor at SouthernIllinois University, was published in Augustby the Viking Press ($7.95). Among Moore'spreviously published works are TheElizabethan Age. Contemporary AmericanNovelists. The Collected Letters of D. HLawrence (two volumes), E. M. Forster, andThe Priest of Love: A Life of D. H Lawrence.which appeared last spring,Sidney l simon. sb'34, p1id'39, has joined thefirm of Kensington Management Consultants(Stamford. Ct.) as a senior associateconsultant.in memoriam: Myrtle L. Larsen. phB'34, diedSeptember 12 in Riverside, Ca.; Marie ReeseWilson, PhB'34, am'36, Bethesda. Md., diedJune 15, Harry Kalven, Jr.Harry Kalven, Jr., ab'35, JD'38, theHarry A. Bigelow professor of law atthe University and an authority onthe American jury system and theFirst Amendment, died October 29 athis home in Chicago. He was 60.In 1935, in his final undergraduateyear, Mr. Kalven collaborated withRobert L. Oshins, ab'36, in writing"In Brains We Trust," the Blackfriarsproduction for that year.He joined the law faculty in 1945,becoming director of the University'sJury Project in 1955. His study ofjuries hit the newspapers in that yearwhen he and two colleagues weresubpenaed by a probing Senatesubcommittee to explain having secretly recorded federal jury deliberations in Kansas. Mr. Kalven and hisfellow investigators had been givenpermission to do so by the presidingjudge, but Atty. Gen. HerbertBrownell, Jr., criticized the project asdetrimental to the privacy and trustof the jury system. Mr. Kalven defended it as a method of increasingknowledge of juries and won hispoint. In 1966, based on that re search, he co-authored The AmericanJury with Hans Zeisel, professor inthe Law School and in the Department of Sociology. In recent yearsMr. Kalven's interests centered onproblems of censorship and freedomof speech. In 1965 he wrote The Negro and the First Amendment. He defended the late comedian LennyBruce before the Illinois SupremeCourt against obscenity chargesstemming from a 1963 nightclub act;participated in litigation challengingthe constitutionality of the House un-American activities committee; andserved on the Sparling Commission,the citizens group that investigatedthe disorders during the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. At the time of his death, Mr.Kalven was preparing a book lengthcritical essay on theories underlyingthe contemporary American law offreedom of speech. Memorial contributions may be sent to the HarryKalven Jr. Memorial, Law School,Room A206, 1111 E. 60th St., Chicago 60637.35 leo horvitz, phD'35, president ofHorvitz Research Laboratories, Inc.. Houston, has been named by the Houstonchapter of the American Jewish Committee asrecipient of the 1974 Max H. Nathan humanrelations award. Active in community affairsfor many years, Horvitz is presently a memberof the board of trustees of the JewishCommunity Council. He is a past president ofthe Jewish Community Center and the JewishCommunity Council and past chairman of theHouston Commission for Jewish Education.in memoriam: Robert D. Meade, PhD'35,Lynchburg, Va., died April 27 following along illness.O /T The new student health center build-«_/U ing at Western Illinois University(Macomb) has been named in honor of franka beu, phD'36, president emeritus of the school.Beu lives in Macomb.owen c. berg, sb'36, md'41, has discontinuedhis twenty-five-year practice of urology inWichita Falls, Tx., and has moved to the townof Denton (near Dallas). There he is settingup a private practice and has joined the staffof the new Westgate Hospital and MedicalCenter. An amateur photographer, Berg currently serves as vice-president in charge ofdivisions for the Photographic Society ofAmerica. He was the first Texan ever awardeda fellowship in PSA (1970) and is the state'sonly five-star exhibitor in the nature division,albert dorfman, sb'36, p1id'39, Richard T.Crane distinguished service professor in theDepartment of Pediatrics, director of theJoseph P. Kennedy, Jr., Mental RetardationResearch Center, and professor in theDepartment of Biochemistry, La RabidaInstitute, the Committee on Genetics and theCommittee on Developmental Biology, theUniversity of Chicago, was one of some eightyscientists from around the world who met inSeptember to discuss ways of preventing birthdefects at the University of SouthernCalifornia's international Santa CatalinaIsland colloquium.in memoriam: George Donald Lukes, sb'36,a former Defense Department scientist andWhite House aide who was an authority onupper atmospheric science, died June 13 inCicero, II. In ill health, Mr. Lukes had dividedhis time in recent years between theWashington area and Chicago, where he wasborn.42f) ry charles d. thomas. pho'37, Morgan-J I town, W. V., professor of physicsand a forty-one-year faculty member at WestVirginia University, has retired.in memoriam: Elinor Loeff Gordon, ab'37,civic leader in New York, formerly presidentof the Citizens' Committee for Children ofNew York and chairman of the StateDepartment's Conference on Racism andAmerican Education, died September 8. Atthe time of her death, Ms. Gordon was vice-chairman of the board of overseers of theCenter for New York Affairs of the NewSchool, a member of the executive council ofthe Committee for Public Justice and a boardmember of the Committee for Public Change.She is survived by her husband, Milton A.Gordon, phB'29, jd'31, a son and a daughter.>J Q RICHARD W. MATTOON, SM'38, PllD'48,J(j Lake Forest, II., head of the chemicalphysics laboratory at Abbott Laboratories inNorth Chicago, is currently serving a one-yearterm as chairman of the Chicago section of theAmerican Chemical Society.Gordon p. freese, ab'38, formerly vice-president and secretary of Stephens College inColumbia, Mo., has joined the staff of CentreCollege (Danville, Ky.) as vice-president forresources and endowment.in memoriam: Parmeta Jones Simpson,phB'38, a public school teacher for forty-fiveyears, died June 24 in Chicago.^ f\ hope kromback bair. x'39, the dedi-«_) J7 cated head of the Voluntary ActionCenter in Akron, Oh., for over fifteen years,was profiled earlier this year in the AkronBeacon Journal. The center brings togetherwilling workers and needful agencies.A f\ geraldine lane mardis, ab'40, am'58,i \J director of the social servicedepartment at Schwab Rehabilitation Hospitalin Chicago, has been appointed by IllinoisGovernor Dan Walker to the Governor'sCommittee on the Handicapped and to thestanding subcommittee of the Governor'sAdvisory Council on Manpower. Ms. Mardis,who lives in Hyde Park, is also a fieldinstructor in the school of social work, LoyolaUniversity.Harold f. schuknecht, md'40, has beenelected president of the centurion club of theDeafness Research Foundation. An otologist,Dr. Schuknecht is affiliated with theMassachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston,where he does research, maintains a surgicalpractice, directs a residency training programand holds the Walter Augustus LeCompte chair in otology. He was the recipient of oneof the Deafness Research Foundation's firstachievement awards for his significantcontributions in the study of age-relatedchanges in hearing.richard l. longini, sb'40, professor of solidstate electronics in the electrical engineeringdepartment of Carnegie- Mellon University, isa member of a research team who are workingto develop a computerized method ofmonitoring the heartbeat of babies duringlabor, a procedure that is expected to reducethe number of stillbirths.A 1 Robert w. mathews, x'41, was an exec-T" A utive for the 1974 campaign of theUnited Way of McLean County, II.A^\ J ALFRED RIDER, SB'42, MD'44,j£* phD'51, a specialist in gastrointestinaldiseases, also continues his dedicated workoutside his specialty with the organization heand his wife founded in San Francisco, theChildren's Brain Diseases Foundation forResearch. The story of the fund-raising.research-coordinating organization's founding,as recounted in the San Francisco SundayExaminer & Chronicle, began with the Riders'tragic discovery that their son is a victim ofBatten's disease, a brain-deterioratingaffliction that cripples and kills children. Toage 8 their son was a normal, healthy boywith a high IQ. When he suddenly beganslipping in school, the Riders, who couldn'tbelieve the inference of school psychologiststhat he was just "spoiled," set out to determinewhat was wrong with the boy. It took themeleven heartbreaking and agonizing years ofseeking out the world's leading experts beforethe disease was definitely diagnosed. Overthose years and since, the Riders have had towatch the progressive mental and physicaldeterioration of their son who, now 26 andhelpless, is the oldest known living victim ofBatten's disease.The Riders decided to start the foundationeven though their son probably couldn't besaved by its efforts. There have been somepromising breakthroughs in research since thefoundation began its work and, as Rider toldthe Examiner, there are some indications thatthe disease is reversible and could be treatedin a manner similar to administering insulin toa diabetic,jeanette shames fields, ab'42, originator ofthe first organized architectural tours ofChicago, has been named by the Chicagochapter of the American Institute of Architectsas winner of their distinguished service awardfor outstanding contributions to Chicagoarchitecture. Ms. Fields, who received an alumni citation for public service from UC in1966, is currently executive director of theChicago School of Architecture Foundationwhich sends out 200 trained volunteer guideson seventeen different architectural tours ofChicagoland in the nation's only program ofthis kind.A retrospective of the work of leon albertgolub, ab'42, consisting of some thirty-onepaintings, was held this fall at Chicago'sMuseum of Contemporary Art,A O EDWARD H, storer. sb'43, md'45.i J professor of surgery at the medicalschool of Yale University (New Haven, Ct.),was named chief of staff of the VeteransAdministration Hospital, an affiliate of Yale.earlier this year.in memoriam: Emily C. Cardew, sb'43, sm'45,of Oak Park, first dean of the University ofIllinois college of nursing and the first womandean in the school's history, died September10; Rose Bernice Phelps, phD'43, Phoenix, Az„died July 6; Kathleen Wilson, am'43. Boise,Id., died July 7.A A william h. haynie, sb'44, Pittsford,II N. Y., has been appointed a programmanager in the special projects area inconsumer products engineering of the KodakApparatus Division. Haynie joined Kodak in1952 as an engineer.A C franz schulze, pIib'45, has beeni *J appointed to a new chair at LakeForest (II.) College, the Betty Jane SchultzHollender professorship. A member of theLake Forest art faculty since 1952, Schulzewon the E. Harris Harbison award from theDanforth Foundation in 1971 as one of theten most gifted teachers in the nation. Callinghim a "writer of great insight," in 1971 theGraham Foundation for Advanced Studies inthe Fine Arts awarded him a fellowship towrite a book on Chicago architecture.Sometimes called the "dean" of Chicago artcritics, Schulze has written for the ChicagoDaily News since 1962. He also is Chicagocorrespondent for the periodicals Art inAmerica and Art News. He is the author ofFantastic Images: Chicago An Since 1945(FollettBooks, 1972) and Art, Architecture andCivilization (Scott, Foresman & Company.1968).HILLIER L BAKER. SB'45, MD'46. whoseappointment as chairman of the departmentof diagnostic roentgenology at Mayo Clinic(Rochester, Mn.) was reported in the autumnissue of the magazine, has now received apromotion at the Mayo medical school to therank of professor of radiology.43A /_ nt ill derrick, pIid'46, retiredi \J professor of .statistics at the Universityof Illinois, received a centennial alumni awardfrom Eastern Kentucky University earlier thisyear. Ms. Derrick lives in Elmhurst. II,victor p starr. pIid'46, Newton. Ma.,professor of meteorology at the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology, has retired. Starr, anauthority on the circulation of planetaryatmospheres and the author of the theory ofnegative viscosity, joined the MIT faculty in1947. The theories expressed in his book,Physics of Negative Viscosity Phenomena, haveproven useful in understanding equatorialacceleration in the rotation of the sun and themaintenance of prevailing easterly andwesterly- winds around the earth.l pal l kassolf, mba'46. Birmingham. Al„has been elected president of the AlabamaSociety of Certified Public Accountants.A i—I WERNER s zimmt, p1ib'47, sb'47.T" / sm'49, phD'51, a research fellowwith E. I. duPont, Marshall Laboratory,Philadelphia, was named by the NationalPaint and Coatings Association last year asrecipient of the highest honor the paintindustry can bestow, the George BaughHeckel award, for "outstanding contributionsto the protective coatings industry." A memberof the NPCA, Zimmt has been missionmanager of the organization's air quality taskforce since 1972.GEORGE r wren. phB'47, sb'49, sm'49, mba'51,director of health administration at GeorgiaState University in Atlanta, writes that hisbook Modern Health Administration waspublished this year by the University ofGeorgia Press.marjorif hyer, ab'47, religion writer for theWashington Post, has been named by theReligion Newswriters Association as winner oftheir annual James O. Supple memorial awardfor excellence in religion newswriting.alvin w skardon, am'47. p1id'60. has twoitems to report: "The first is that I wasrecently married at the youthful age of 58.Many of my friends will regard this as proofthat the age of miracles is not over." Secondly.his book. The Church Leader in the Cities:William Augustus Muhlenburg. which wasbased on the doctoral dissertation that hewrote under the direction of Sidney Mead andDaniel Boorstin. has been published by theUniversity of Pennsylvania Press,A Q James r iorio, am'48. has sent in an^O autographed copy of his first published collection of poetry. Entitled The FifthSeason (Francestown, N. H.: Golden QuillPress, 1974. $5.00), the volume includes"Autumn Haze" which appeared in the viagazine a year ago.maybelle reid newby, am'48, has resigned assupervisor of the Mabee reading clinic at theUniversity of Tulsa to become curriculumcoordinator and reading specialist at Townand Country School, a facility in Tulsa, Ok.,serving children with learning disabilities.Robert e. lamitie. ab'48, has been appointedassistant commissioner for elementary,secondary and continuing education planningfor the state of New York.shirley moscov stark, pIib'48, is working onher doctorate in art history at the Universityof Pittsburgh.AC\ MINNA GREEN DUNCAN, am'49, hasHy opened a private practice as a psychiatric social worker at her home in Cobden,II. Ms. Duncan, who headed the Chicagodistrict office of the Jewish Family Servicesfor sixteen years, is also teaching a course insocial welfare programs at Southern IllinoisUniversity at Carbondale.john r coleman, am'49, p1id'50, president ofHaverford College and the author of sevenbooks on labor and economics, has set forthhis experiences as an itinerant blue-collarworker in the book Blue-Collar Journal: ACollege President's Sabbatical, publishedrecently by J. B. Lippincott Company. Asrecounted in a previous issue of the magazine,Coleman spent a two-month sabbatical leavein 1973 working as a ditchdigger in Atlanta, asa dishwasher in Boston (he was fired from thisjob), as the sandwich and salad man at aBoston seafood restaurant, and as a garbagecollector working a route in suburbanWashington, D. C. The book, of course, istaken from the notes Coleman kept duringthis unusual experiment.Shortly after the political arrests of Jews inLeningrad, Riga, and other Soviet cities in1970, LEONARD schroeter, am'49, Seattlelawyer and civil liberties activist who served asa principal legal assistant to the attorneygeneral of Israel, was asked to assist in effortsbeing made to attract world public opinion tothe human rights implications of the politicaltrials to come. For two and a half years, asSoviet Jews arrived in Israel, he interviewedand worked intimately with them on problemsassociated with their struggles in Israel andwith the condition of those they had leftbehind. He also visited the U. S. S. R. andtalked with Jewish leaders and importantfigures in the human rights movement there.Based largely on those interviews. The LastExodus, recently published by Universe Books(New York: $10.95). is Schroeter's detailedaccount of the Jewish dissident movement inthe U. S. S. R. in memoriam: George G. Stern, phD'49,professor of psychology and education atSyracuse (N. Y.) University, died July 20when a sailboat he and three others wereracing on Lake Ontario capsized and sank inrough waters. There were two survivors.Cf\ william r. brandt, jd'50, has been+}\J named to the five- member board ofgovernors of the McLean County (II.) BarAssociation.william h. faricy, ab'50, am'54, has leftMichigan State University to accept the newlycreated position of director of institutionalresearch at Montclair State College, UpperMontclair, N. J.51 STANLEY E. BRUSH. AM'51, is inPakistan conducting a study on thepolitical culture of Western education inLahore, capital of the Punjab province, on aFulbright Hays senior research grant for the1974-75 academic year. Brush, an associateprofessor of history on leave from theUniversity of Bridgeport (Ct.), will beaffiliated with the University of Punjab duringhis nine-month stay.gene balsley. ab'51, has joined the staff ofPhoto Methods for Industry magazine, NewYork, as associate editor. A free-lance filmand magazine writer and former book editorfor the University of Chicago Press, Balsleyhas done extensive writing for the EastmanKodak Company on many aspects ofphotography.in memoriam: Alan S. Maremont, jd'5 1, aSan Francisco attorney and leader in the fieldof low cost housing for the poor, diedSeptember 2 of leukemia. He was 45. Mostrecently Mr. Maremont was executive directorof the Stanford University-sponsored Mid-Peninsula Coalition Housing DevelopmentCorporation, a non-profit organizationresponsible for low cost housing projects inthe San Francisco Bay area. He was a formermember of the alumni cabinet.^^ MAURICE glicksman. sm'52, p1id'54,_/ zL university professor and professor ofengineering at Brown University, recently tookover as dean of the graduate school.vera sangernebo flandorf, am'52, haspublished a volume of religious/Christmaspoetry, entitled Cymbal Star (Jericho, N. Y.:Exposition Press, Inc., 1974. $3.50). Ms.Flandorf, now retired, was the librarian atChildren's Memorial Hospital for over twentyyears.53 Herbert h. werlin, ab'53, reports heis spending the current academic44year at Hofstra University (Hempstead, N, Y.)as visiting associate professor in thedepartment of political science. His new book,Governing an African City: A Studv of Nairobi,was published earlier this year by AfricanaPublishing Company, New York.brucia fried witthoft, ab'53, assistantprofessor of art history at Framingham (Ma.)State College, advises us that she received herdoctorate from Harvard in 1973 in the field offine arts. Her dissertation title: The TacuinumSanitatis: Studies in Secular ManuscriptIllumination in Late Fourteenth-CenturyLombardy.arthur c. gentile, p1id'53. was named vice-president for academic affairs at theUniversity of Nevada, Las Vegas, effectiveSeptember 1. He came to the Nevada campusfrom the University of Oklahoma, where hewas dean of the graduate college and vice-provost for research administration.Robert michels. ab'53, has joined thedepartment of psychiatry of CornellUniversity medical college as professor andchairman. In addition, he has been appointedpsychiatrist-in-chief of the New YorkHospital-Cornell Medical Center.philip J. cohen, ab'53, am'56, formerlyassistant executive director for administrationof the Jewish Community Center of Rochester,N. Y., has accepted a new position as assistantexecutive director of the Jewish CommunityHouse of Bensonhurst in Brooklyn, N. Y.Cohen, his wife and two children, live inPaterson, N. J.in memoriam: Helen V. Clauson, am'53, diedAugust 9 at her home in Sacramento, Ca.^ A carol horning stacey, ab'54, am'57,«-/" formerly the second in command, hastaken over as chairperson of the KootenaiCounty (Id.) Democratic Central Committee.A McGovern organizer, she served as analternate to the 1972 Democratic Convention.Ms. Stacey and her husband, who live inCoeur d'Alene, publish a weekly freenewspaper, the Nickels Worth.The members of the House ofRepresentatives rose and applauded theappointment of william holmes brown, jd'54,as House parliamentarian, to succeed LewisDeschler who resigned effective June 30, whenit was announced by Speaker of the HouseCarl Albert. As parliamentarian, the postconsidered to be the most important on thestaff of the House, Brown is chief adviser tothe speaker and members of Congress onparliamentary procedure in the House, on therights and prerogatives of the members, andother legal matters. A member of theparliamentarian's staff for sixteen years, Brown became first assistant parliamentarianlast year.Ralph b. hirsch, ab'54, associate professor ofurban planning in the college of engineeringat Drexel University, has been appointedexecutive director of the new Bicycle andPedestrian Transportation Research Center(Philadelphia), a non-profit research institutechartered in June by the state of Pennsylvania.Hirsch reports that during the summers of1973 and '74, he bicycled about 800 milesthrough England and Scotland, and about1,000 miles through Germany and theNetherlands, gathering information aboutcurrent planning and design of facilities forbicyclists and pedestrians.^" ^ elinor bloch waters, am'55, formerly*J +J the assistant director, has moved up tothe directorship of the continuum center foradult counseling and leadership training atOakland University, Rochester, Mi.Walter l. walker, ab'55, former vice-president for planning at UC, has beeninstalled as president of LeMoyne-OwenCollege in Memphis, Tn. At Chicago Walkerwas also an associate professor in the Schoolof Social Service Administration and residentmaster of Burton-Judson Courts.^ /T GERALDINE EVERETT WARRICK, AM'56,*J\J community affairs director for theNew York radio station, WNBC (AM-FM), iscurrently hosting her own show, "TheConsumer Gazette on the Air," whichbroadcasts over WNBC-FM every Sundayevening. Before moving to the NBC offices inNew York, Ms. Warrick was with WMAQ-TVin Chicago as broadcast standards supervisorand producer of the program, "It's Academic."In New York she was senior policy managerfor WNBC-TV broadcast standards beforetaking over the community affairs post.john m, mcintyre. mba'56, administrator ofthe Meriden-Wallingford Hospital, Meriden,Ct., is serving a term as president of theConnecticut Hospital Association.in memoriam: Aubrey L. Ruess, pIid'56, diedin July of 1974.Jane Magorian Sales, db'56, am'71, phD'72, amissionary of the United Church of Christ inBotswana, Africa, died July 6 of cancer. Shewas 43. Survivors include her husband, Rev.Richard W. Sales, db'56, am'63.E^l NATHAN HARE. AM'57, PllD'62, is*J I publisher of The Black Scholar,monthly journal of black cultural and politicalcommentary, and president of the BlackWorld Foundation, Sausalito, Ca. Anindependent and non-profit educational organization formed in 1969, the Black WorldFoundation sponsors a comprehensive bookservice which provides the most distinguishedworks available on the black experience; alecture bureau wherein the major figures inthe black cultural revolution— leaders, artistsand intellectuals— may be booked for speakingengagements; and a prisoners' fund whichprovides subscriptions to The Black Scholarand books to black prisoners throughout theU. S. Former coordinator of black studies atSan Francisco State College, Hare haspublished extensively. His books includeGuidelines for Black Studies, The Black AngloSaxons, A Darker Shade of Black and Notes ofa Black Professor. His articles have appearedin Newsweek. Saturday Review, SocialEducation and the Times of London.irvin g wilmot, mba'57, of Rye, N. Y..executive vice-president of the New YorkUniversity Medical Center, has been elected tothe council of regents of the American Collegeof Hospital Administrators for a three-yearterm.^ Q philip Kaufman, ab'58, director of«y O The White Dawn, the Paramount filmstarring Warren Oates, Timothy Bottoms andLou Gosset that began circulating earlier thisyear, is currently writing a screenplay basedon Gascoyne, a novel by Stanley Crawford,ab'58, Kaufman's erstwhile roommate at UC.Kaufman's Hollywood career as a writer-director got off the ground with The GreatNorthfield, Minnesota, Raid, the highlyregarded mood piece based on the JesseJames/Cole Younger saga.Margaret mckenzie, phD'58, associateprofessor of German at Vassar College(Poughkeepsie, N. Y.), has been elected to theboard of trustees of Scripps College inClaremont, Ca.hans h, penner, db'58, am'62, phD'65, hasbeen promoted at Dartmouth College(Hanover, N. H.) to professor of religion. Amember of that faculty since 1965, Penner is ascholar of myths and rituals andmethodological problems in the understandingof religion.£f\ Rama s, pandey, am'59, began teaching*jy at the University of Minnesota.Duluth, this fall as professor of social work.From 1950 to 1968 Pandey taught at KashiVidyapith University in India, also serving asdean of social work. He was subsequently aprogram specialist with the InternationalAssociation of Schools of Social Work in NewYork and a consultant to the United NationsChildren's Fund.45/^/"\ FREDERICK F. C0HN, AB'60, JD'62,VJV/ Chicago attorney, informs us that heparticipated as a consultant in the report, "AnEvaluation of Indigent Criminal DefenseServices in Louisiana and a Proposal for aStatewide Public Defender Service," whichwas prepared by the criminal courts technicalassistance project, the American Universitylaw school in Washington./f 1 richard newhouse, jd'61, Illinois\J JL state senator, announced his candidacy for mayor of Chicago on September 5.A political maverick who sometimes sides withfellow Democrats, sometimes withRepublicans, sometimes with independents,and often stands alone, Newhouse said hismayoral bid is necessary if blacks are toachieve any real political clout in Chicago."We're approaching a real generationalchange in the politics of this town," he said."We blacks could take control, or we could belocked out for the next thirty years. I don'tagree with the view that a black mayor isinevitable; it's logical, but not inevitable."Newhouse's political career began in 1966when he staged an upset over the regularorganization incumbent candidate in theDemocratic primary for state senator from the24th district, the area comprising most ofHyde Park and South Shore.Anva, the second novel by susan frombergschaefffr, ab'61, am'63, phD'66, recentlypublished by the Macmillan Company ($8.95),is the story of a survivor of the Jewishholocaust of World War II. Ms. Schaeffer'shighly acclaimed first novel. Falling, came outabout a year ago,/T^ FITAN BERGLAS, am'62, PhD'63.\J .-— on leave as dean of the faculty ofsocial sciences at Tel Aviv University, isspending the academic year as Xerox visitingprofessor of economics at the University ofRochester.in memoriam: Not noted previously in themagazine was the death of Harry B.Henderson III. ab'62. in July, 1972, followingan auto collision. At the time of his death Mr.Henderson, an assistant professor of Americanhistory at the State University of New York atPurchase, was at work on the final manuscriptrevisions of a book, entitled Versions of thePast: The Historical Imagination in A mericanFiction. The book, which was completed byhis widow and father, was published inOctober by Oxford University Press.S~ O sally chappell, am'63, reports that\j3 she went on to get a doctorate in arthistory at Northwestern in 1968, and has since become the films and art editor of the ArtJournal. At the moment she is also engaged insleuthing out photographs and other materialsfor a book on the World's ColumbianExposition of 1893.roger l. ladda, md'63, has been namedassistant professor of pediatrics and chief ofthe division of genetics at the Milton S.Hershey medical center of Pennsylvania StateUniversity (Elizabethtown).samuel m. gray, sb'63, is now practicinginternal medicine and gastroenterology inWestfield, N. J.kalindi jaswant randeri. am'63, has beenawarded her doctorate in education bySouthern Illinois University in Carbondale./^ A sandra kay roos scott, ab'64, enteredVJT" law school at the University ofFlorida, Gainesville, in March, 1974.eugene c. wittenstrom, md'64, orthopedicsurgeon and member of the medical staffs ofDelnor Hospital (St. Charles, II.) andCommunity Hospital (Geneva, II.), has beenelected a fellow of the American Academy ofOrthopedic Surgery./f ^ judith lonnquist, jd'65, as national\J*J vice-president for legal affairs,National Organization for Women,coordinates all NOW court cases across thecountry, providing additional legal advice andlists of experts as needed. In addition to herNOW position, Ms. Lonnquist is an associatein the Chicago law firm of Jacobs, Gore,Burns and Sugarman, specializing in laborunion law and civil rights lawsuits, especiallysex discrimination cases.Valerie nash chang, am'65, has joined theYokefellow Institute in Richmond, In., asresident counselor and is conductingworkshops in transactional analysis and thebehavioral sciences, as well as leading TAtraining programs.jeanne m. lynch, mba'65, has been named aconsultant in teaching materials at theHarvard business school. In 1973, after morethan seventeen years' experience incommunications and public relations, Ms.Lynch enrolled at Harvard as a candidate forthe doctor of business administration degree,specializing in business policy.Sf/7 richard hasher, sb'66, carves pipes\J\J and picks bananas out in Los Angeleswhere he has been living since leavingChicago over eight years ago.The appointment of grace thomas green,am'66, as district supervisor of English -language arts, was approved by the SouthColonie (N. Y.) board of education in August. In the newly created position, Ms. Greensupervises instruction in reading, language artsand English for the district's eight elementaryand three secondary schools.jerry n. clark, jd'66, was named earlier thisyear to the position of director of research andstatistics in the welfare and retirement fund,United Mine Workers of America. Clark iscurrently a doctoral candidate in politicalscience at the University of Minnesota.peter w. kuyper, mba'66, Woodcliff Lake, N.J., has been appointed vice-president andexecutive assistant to the president ofParamount Pictures Corporation. Kuyperjoined Paramount Television in California in1969 as director of business development. Heis currently based in the company's New Yorkoffice./^¦"7 ANDREW B. HARRIS, ab'67. New York\J I playwright, is enrolled at Columbiawhere he is presently completing work towardshis doctorate in theater arts. His most recentplay— 200 years of american furniture...— &comedy, broke the house record when it wasperformed in June by the New DramatistsCommittee, Inc., New York. The committee, anon-profit organization supported by theNational Endowment for the Arts and theBroadway community to encourage newplaywrighting talent, has an activemembership of forty-five people, chosen onthe merits of their written works. Harris, oneof the three new members admitted in the pastyear and a half out of some 300 applicants,has since been elected by his fellowplaywrights to serve on the body's board ofdirectors. Although he has yet to have a playon Broadway, his 200 vears "should make iton the boards before the nation celebrates its200th birthday," writes Harris, "if all goeswell."michael r a wade, ab'67, and Carole Westwere married on August 25 in New York.Patricia chase heron. pIid'67. a staff memberat the Denver Mental Health Center, has beeninstalled as president of Colorado WomenPsychologists.judith testa, am'67, promoted recently toassistant professor of art at Northern IllinoisUniversity in DeKalb. presented two paperson visual sources for the art of HieronymusBosch during the past year: one at the meetingof the Midwest Art History Society, held atChicago's Art Institute in March, and theother at the Ninth Annual Conference onMedieval Studies, held in May at WesternMichigan University. More recently, she wascoordinator of a panel entitled "Women'sStudies in Art and Art History" at the Mid-America College Art Association meeting, held46at NIU this autumn.john d. denne, mba'67, has been appointed tothe faculty of the University of IllinoisMedical Center, Chicago, as a researchassociate in the center for the study of patientcare and community health./" Q gary e. midkiff, ab'68, production\JO planning director at the corporateheadquarters of the Signode Corporation inGlenview, II., received a master ofmanagement degree from NorthwesternUniversity in June. He reports that he and hiswife, Arlene, are expecting their first child inFebruary.Robert l. schuettinger, am'68, seniorresearch associate for the Republican SteeringCommittee in the House of Representatives,has been spending the fall term at YaleUniversity as a visiting lecturer in politicalscience. His biography. Lord Acton: Historianof Liberty, will be published by Open Court(La Salle, II.) in January.eva frost kahana, p1id'68, has beenpromoted to professor of sociology at WayneState University in Detroit. Ms. Kahana, whois director of the Elderly Care ResearchCenter, was the recipient of a Probus awardfor academic achievement last May and afive-year career development award from theNational Institute of Mental Health in July.david m. stigler, jd'68, has joined HeubleinInternational Ltd., Hartford, Ct., as anassistant general counsel. He had been withthe New York law firm of Rogers and Wellsfor the past six years./Tf\ EDGAR LEON NEWMAN. PhD'69, is\JJs studying the popular culture ofpost-Revolutionary France on a NationalEndowment for the Humanities youngerhumanist grant. Newman, who is on leave thisyear from the history department at NewMexico State University, reports his election assecretary-treasurer and editor of theProceedings of the Western Society for FrenchHistory and the publication of his article,"The Blouse and the Frock Coat: TheAlliance of the Common People with theMiddle Class and the Liberal Leadershipduring the Last Years of the BourbonRestoration in France," in the March, 1974,edition of the Journal of Modern History.The Physician and Sexuality in VictorianAmerica, co-authored by robin gillespiehaller, am'69, was published in March, 1974,by the University of Illinois Press.-harold m. nelson, am'69, advises us that heis on a two-year leave from Minot (N. D.)State College, where he is assistant professor of English, and is working on his doctorate inEnglish at the University of North Dakota.jonothan l. logan, ab'69, who completed hisdoctorate at Rockefeller University in June, isstaying on there as a research associate.in memoriam: Alma Crews Schwartz, ab'69,died tragically on July 16 in Menlo Park, Ca.Ms. Schwartz, 27, who was employed in aresearch laboratory, died from pulmonary andcerebral edema due to chemicals used in herwork. It was thought that a cyanide system inthe lab had leaked. Among the survivors is herhusband, Barry D. Schwartz, sb'68.^7/~V GEORGE H. KLUMPNER, AB'70, is/ \J currently an assistant attorney generalfor the state of Illinois working in theappellate division (Chicago), so the magazineis advised by judith kahn klumpner, ab'71.sheila e. megley, am'70, former Englishliterature instructor at the University ofNebraska, has been appointed dean ofstudents and associate dean of Salve ReginaCollege, Newport, R. I.adrienne dianne kraft, am'70, is in privatepractice in Chicago's Loop providingdiagnostic evaluations and psychotherapy forchildren and adults. She is also executivedirector of St. Mary's Services, a licensed childwelfare agency, and is currently a candidate inthe child therapy program of the ChicagoInstitute for Psychoanalysis. Ms. Kraft, whohas traveled extensively since graduation, likesto (snow) ski and race in her spare time, aswell as swim one- half mile a day.JAMES ADAM STANKIEWICZ, AB'70, MD'74,started serving his residency in basic surgeryat the University of Chicago Hospitals andClinics in July. He plans to specialize inotolaryngology.^1 1 Patrick l. mcguire, ab'71, arrived/ J. in the Soviet Union in August wherehe is conducting research on his dissertationtopic— models of society in Soviet sciencefiction— at Moscow State University.john c. tweed, ab'71, graduated from theUniversity of Virginia law school last Mayand is now an attorney with the SouthernNatural Gas Company of Birmingham, Al.allan weder, ab'71, student at HahnemannMedical College of Philadelphia, has gained alisting in Who's Who Among AmericanStudents.^7^ linda R. hall, am'72, started working/ Z* for the Unified Mental Health Boardof Marinette County (Wi.) last summer asadministrative assistant to the director.harold a. mcwilliams, am'72, currently adoctoral candidate at UC, is teaching at Bucknell University (Lewisburg, Pa.) this vearin the capacity of visiting assistant professor ofsociology.john w. schwarten, am'72, has beenappointed by Marine Midland Bank. NewYork, to the post of assistant internationalbanking officer, Canadian region.^70 The Reverend edward j. mckenna,/ *J am'73, pastor of St. Thomas AquinasRectory, Chicago, joined the part-time facultyof the Chicago Conservatory College this fallas instructor in violin. A composer, Rev.McKenna hopes to be performing his newpiece for violin and piano at a recital duringthe coming year.rosalie resch, ab'73, served as the women'svarsity volleyball coach at the University ofMassachusetts for two months this fall whilefinishing up her master's degree in physicaleducation at Smith College, Northampton,Ma.daniel e. Frederick, am'73, has taken overthe executive directorship of BirminghamArea (Al.) Planned Parenthood.^7 A Two University of Chicago people/ T" were recently cited by the PhiGamma Delta national fraternity, donald mheinrich, ab'74, received the fraternity'shighest honor, the Cecil J. Wilkinson awardwhich is presented annually to the outstandingsenior undergraduate member of Phi GammaDelta in the U. S. and Canada. The Chicagochapter's alumni adviser, james w. vice, am'54,assistant dean of students at the Universityand lecturer in the social sciences in theCollege, won the Durrance award as theoutstanding alumni adviser in the nation.Heinrich, who grew up on a farm outside ofBarrington, II. , lettered in gymnastics at UCand continued on the team until an injuryretired him. He joined Phi Gamma Delta inhis freshman year and was elected presidenthis second year. He served as president fortwo years and played a leading role inbuilding up the UC chapter from fourteenmen to forty-one by spring, '74. Heinrich iscurrently enrolled in the professional optionprogram of the Graduate School of Business.frank p tirro, phD'74, associate professor ofmusic and a specialist in the music of theRenaissance in northern Italy, has beennamed chairman of the department of musicat Duke University.bruce l, rockwood, jd'74, is teaching thisyear at the Pettit college of law, OhioNorthern University (Ada, Oh.) as an assistantprofessor of law.thomas p. gauthier, am'74, is working as aprogram and policy analyst on the staff ofIllinois Governor Daniel Walker,47For Members OfUniversity of Chicago Alumni AssociationAnd Their Families and FriendsCome with us on a Completely Deluxe 10-NkjhtHawaiian Vacation!• •Blue HawaiiCarnival1 night Hilo at the Naniloa Surf2 nights Kona at the Kona Surf7 nights Honolulu at the Hawaiian Regentor Hilton Hawaiian Village$649complete DEPARTING ONMARCH 12, 1975FROM CHICAGO faAmehcanAirlinesor other U.S. certificatedcarrierHERE'S WHAT'S INCLUDED» Round trip jet flights• Food and beverages served aloft» Free in-flight movies and stereo headsets? Accommodations in deluxe hotels (as listed orcomparable)• 2 cocktail parties in Honolulu• All transfers between hotels and airports• Inter-island flights* Luggage handling (tips included)• Sightseeing tour of Honolulu & Mt. Tantalus• Flower lei greeting• Escort• Service desk in hotels• Pre-registration• Hotel and airport taxes• Full American breakfasts daily* Dinners nightly (on dine around in Honolulu)• ABSOLUTELY NO REGIMENTATION This is the vacation that lets you really experience Hawaii.First off, you'll be greeted with a lei of fresh flowers and afriendly "Aloha".Then, you'll have 10 sparkling days to discover in depthall the joys of the fabled Magical Isles. Take a morning'scruise to Pearl Harbor . Stroll along beautiful Waikiki Beach.Visit Sea World or the fabulous Polynesian Cultural Center.At night the clubs reign supreme along Waikiki . . . there'sDon Ho, Tavana's Polynesian Revue . . . plus many other bigname entertainers.Come on . . . the sun is shining, the palms are swaying and thewater is refreshing and deep, deep blue. Join us on BlueHawaii Carnival ... the vacation that dreams are made of.U. of Chicago Alumni Association- Attn: Ruth Halloran5733 S. University Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637312-753-2178Gentlemen:Enclosed please find $ as deposit — as payment in full — for no. of persons.Make check or money order payable to: BLUE HAWAII CARNIVAL$649 per person double occupancy. $100 minimum deposit per person.Final payment due 35 days before departure. Please print, and if more than one couple, attach separate list withcomplete information as below.FULL NAME ____ __ . __ __ DEPARTURE DATED Single occupancy (if individual, and no! a single, name of person sharing room)Return this reservation immediately to assure space Rates are based ondouble occupancy Single rates and rates on children under 12 sharingwiih parents available on request Although flights are usually non-stop,