MITUMN 1974THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOLIBRARYTHEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINE , C- '7The proton microscopeSchools at ChicagoMilton Friedman 11A sound basis for judgmentsJohn Hope Franklin 17Women: a formidable force in sportsNina Cohen 19Community and communicationJohn H. Johnson 23A tour in the city: a poemMary Neville 24Problems of contemporary music: a discussion 25Leonard Meyer, Shulamit Ran, Easley Blackwood, Paul Fromm, Milton BabbittFrom Podunk to SoHoWilliam Levitt, Jr. 29A little magazineThomas Joyce 32The 1974 alumni awards 40,413 Quadrangle news 37 Alumni news(over Symbolic of the efflorescence of women's athletics at the University in thepast year (stoty on Page 19) is this photo of Jean Donehower, of Wilmington, De.,who begins her junior year this fall and is here shown clearing the bar at a track meetlast spring.picture credits: Pages I, 19-22, Jennie Lightner; Page 3, NASA (/.), StephenLewellyn (r.): Page 5, Mike Shields; Page 7, Jac Stafford; Pages 8, 10, Riccardo LeviSetti. Timothy Fox, William Escovitz; Page 30, Al Wagner; Page 31, Ken Mori; Page32, Myron Davis; Page 35. L. Ori. Paul de Vree; Page 38, Isabel F. Jarvis; Page 40,Harvard University (1.), Intl. Council for Educational Dev. (r.); Page 48, Leslie Travis. The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312)753-2175Julian J. Jackson, PhB'31, PresidentArthur Nayer, Director, Alumni AffairsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorKristen Nelson, Program DirectorRegional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91201(213)242-8288825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030New York, New York 10022(212)688-73551000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415)928-0337735 South Fairfax StreetAlexandria, Va. 22314(703) 549-3800Volume LXVI1Autumn, 1974 Number 1The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published four times peryear for alumni and the faculty of the University of Chicago, under the auspices of theOffice of the Vice President for PublicAffairs. Letters and editorial contributionsare welcomed.Don Morris, AB'36EditorJennie LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois.and at additional mailing offices.Copyright 1974, The University of Chicago.Published quarterly in June, September,December and March.Quadrangle V^^ewsAnticipation and recollectionWhen the class of '78, which enters theUniversity this fall, is graduated, it will havebeen four score and seven years since Messrs.Harper and Rockefeller brought forth uponthe Midway a new University.This fall, as has previously been noted inthese pages, will also mark the fiftieth an-niversity of Chicago's last Big Ten footballchampionship.The University, however, looks forward aswell as backward — like Janus. October willsee the gala opening of the Art Department'sDavid and Alfred Smart Gallery and theCochrane-Woods Art Center.The season will also bring the end to thesuspension of Students for a DemocraticSociety's status as a student organization. Thesuspension was voted by the Student Government in May after SDS members (most ofthem not Chicago students) and others, including members of the Committee againstRacism, shouted down a visiting lecturerwhose views they found repugnant. The lecturer, Edward Banfield, of the University ofPennsylvania, was prevented from speakingas scheduled, though he addressed anothergroup the following day. The SDS suspensionwas the first such action ever taken byStudent Government.Looking both forward and backward,political scientists in convention assembled,will honor in September the 100th anniversaryof the birth of Charles E. Merriam, formerchairman of the University's Department ofPolitical Science. And the University ofChicago Press will publish a volume onNew Jupiter portrait Merriam by Barry Karl (am'51), professor ofhistory.Later in the autumn — in November — andlooking back even farther, the Midway will bethe scene of an international conference commemorating the 700th anniversary of St.Thomas Aquinas and St. Bonaventure.The University looked back last spring incommemorating the career of the late ErnestW. Burgess, who enlivened the sociologicalarena on this campus in three decades. ThePress published a book outlining some of hiscontributions, and sociologists met, under thechairmanship of Morris Janowitz (pIid'48),distinguished service professor in the Department of Sociology and the College, to recallBurgess' work. Edward Shils (x'37), distinguished service professor in the Committeeon Social Thought and the Department ofSociology, remarked that in addition to pioneering sociological research which could becarried out in discrete units in discreteperiods of time, Professor Burgess was outstanding in serving in the field with hisstudents, not acting "as a general fifty milesbehind the lines, sending out orders."And the latter point was underlined byPhilip M . Hauser (phii'29, am'33 , p1id'38),newly named Lucy Flower professor of urbansociology and director of the Population Research Center. He recalled his research effortsunder Burgess as including work in a reformatory, at funerals, as a census taker, andin a taxi dance hall.Pioneers, Mariner on moveSome of the University's ongoing activities arefar out:Pioneer 10, carrying Chicago experimentsamong others, zoomed past Jupiter last year,and, as reported in these pages, is now movingout into space. It is now nearly half a billionmiles away, and signals from it take aboutforty-five minutes to reach the earth.Pioneer 11, Jupiter-bound, should reachthe big planet in December.Before that happens, however, Mariner 10,which like the Pioneers carries equipmentfrom the Enrico Fermi Institute, will havemade its second Mercury passage; the encounter will take place about September 21 .Compared to last spring's encounter, whichtook it briefly to about 450 miles from theplanet, this will be a rather remote one for theprobe, and the scientists at Chicago are getting set for a second close pass nextMarch, which should be more productive fortheir purposes.In last spring's encounter the Chicagogroup, headed by John Simpson, the EdwardL. Ryerson distinguished service professor inthe Department of Physics and the FermiInstitute, of which he also is director, foundintense and puzzling activity in a planet whichwas not supposed to have a magnetic field.Seemingly it does. More surprising, theyfound that it is the scene of intense and well-defined bursts of electrons and protons abovethe 100,000 electron volt level. The source oftheir acceleration, especially in the light oftheir conflicting electrical charges, is stillundetermined. If all goes well, next spring'smeeting with Mercury may help unravel someof the puzzling phenomena.Ryerson Lab has birthdayWatermelon was the mainstay of the celebration of the eightieth birthday of RyersonLab this summer.The occasion was suggested in the pages ofa new biography of Albert Michelson by hisdaughter, Dorothy Michelson Livingston (TheMaster of Light. New York: Scribner, 1973),which told of the construction of the building— the cradle of at least half a dozen Nobelprizes in addition to that won by Mr. Michelson, the first ever conferred on an American.Ryerson Lab itself remains much the sameas ever, with few ravages remaining after itsservice in the Manhattan District days of thefirst sustained nuclear reaction.To one older-generation alum, however, thebuilding is no longer the same sans theFoucault pendulum, which for many yearsOld Foucault pendulumThe alumnus* role in the new Campaign for ChicagoIn the summer, 1974, issue of this publication alumni were twice advised of theresumption of the Campaign forChicago — once in a message from JulianJackson, president of the AlumniAssociation, and again in a report drawnfrom President Levi's "State of theUniversity" address. Now the beginningstages of the undertaking are under way.In this effort to raise, over three years,some $280,000,000 for the University, whatis the role of the alumnus? It is a dual role,and it involves both the immediate bread-and-butter problems of the University andthose of the long years ahead.The University asks each alumnus tomaintain — and if possible to increase — hisor her annual gift. If the alumnus has notbeen an annual donor, the Universityhopes that he will become one. Throughincreases in the size of gifts and increasesin the numbers of alumni donors theUniversity hopes that the heroic degree ofsupport attained last year can be doubled.If this level of giving is achieved, theUniversity will have gone a long waytoward solving its problems of operatingsupport.IIIn addition the University asks thatsometime during the next three years, eachalumnus prepare to augment his annualgiving with a contribution to the University's endowment — a gift which will help, in the years to come, to make theinstitution less vulnerable to the vagaries ofthe marketplace and of the economy.The alumni will not be alone in theirefforts, of course. As the campaignproceeds, support will be sought fromfoundations, from corporations, and fromindividuals who are not graduates of theUniversity. And one principal thrust inthis phase of the effort will be the buildingComparative endowmentsMarket valueof endowmentat 6/30/73*(in millions,rounded off)Harvard (1636) $1,189Yale (1701) 503Rochester (1850) 494M.I.T. (1861) 437Princeton (1746) 433Stanford (1891) 350Cornell (1865) 300Chicago (1891) 293Northwestern (1851) 279Columbia (1754) 255*Yale's figure is as of 12/31/73. of endowment.The generosity of the alumni, however,will be vital to the success of the campaign.Despite the economies which have beeninstituted, the University's budget is stillout of balance, and if the aggregate gifts ofalumni can be brought to a level whichprovides significant help for this problem,it will enable the University to campaignelsewhere for the augmented capitalendowment which ultimately may give theUniversity a strong measure of security.As the accompanying table indicates,the University, partly because of itsrelative youth (at age 83!), is outranked toa considerable extent by other institutionsin its level of endowment income. Thepresent campaign can scarcely be expectedto bring Chicago's endowment up to that ofHarvard, which, after all, had a 255-yearhead start. But it can effectively make upfor some of the University's lack oflongevity and, even in these inflationarytimes, put it on a surer economic footing.The critically important factor in theentire effort will be the generosity of thealumni. A twofold effort on their part, itwill have a twofold effect in the campaign:It will be vital in itself, as the University attempts to strengthen the financial baseon which it must rely to continue its role ofleadership. And it will say eloquently toothers whom the University approachesfor support, "See, this is what those whoknow the University best — its alumni — aredoing to keep it great."hung in the recess under the tower. Thependulum was removed in the '50s in order tomake room for an elevator shaft so that thirdfloor space could be used for classes (ah, those20-ft. ceilings). Later the elevator was extended to the fourth floor.The great ball of the pendulum remains inits storage niche in the basement. Perhaps it isall for the best. Usable classroom space thesedays is probably a more vital concern for thephysics faculty than a replica of a halloweddevice demonstrating that the earth is arotating body.Admissions climb;alumni share creditStudents of the caliber appropriate to theUniversity's tradition are not as easily comebv nowadays as they were a few years ago, butas the result of a goodly amount of effort expended by the Office of Admissions and by alumni, the numbers of entering students thisfall are up. There will be about 580 enteringfreshmen, compared to 521 last year. Thenumber of transfer students is approximately150, compared with 1973's 143."A few years ago," reports Margaret Perry,acting director of College admissions, "oncestudents had been admitted, colleges couldpredict, on the basis of experience, how manywould accept. This is no longer possible."In 1960," she said, "50% of college-boundstudents moved from high school intoprivately supported colleges. In 1970 about1 7% moved in that direction. . ."The actual number of 18-year-olds in thiscountry will not begin to decline until the endof the '70s, but the curve indicating the interest high school students have in going tocollege is declining. In the late '60s more than60% of high school students wanted to go tocollege. Less than 58% are interested thisyear."In addition, she points out, "the stories wecan't cope with are those about the wicked city of Chicago and about crime-ridden HydePark . . . Fear of crime and violence has adreadful psychological impact. That so manyof us can live comfortably and happily inHyde Park doesn't penetrate."When admitted students tell us they aregoing to Harvard because it is safer, theywouldn't believe us if we should tell them thatthe crime rate in Harvard Square is higherthan it is in Hyde Park."As for the University's success in overcoming national trends and local bugaboos,Ms. Perry said, "Our recruiting efforts havealso been helped by alumni, who interviewstudents, hold information sessions, representus at a number of schools, and have partiesfor prospective and admitted students."We would be hard pressed without theirhelp. We have, across the country, twenty-one major committees and eleven subgroupsmaking up the Alumni Schools Committees,with a membership of about 800. In additionto the help from these organized groups, 240other alumni interviewed for us this year."4Trustee Philip D. Block, Jr., speaks at ground-breaking ceremonies for the Surgery-BrainResearch Building. Standing with him is Leon Jacobson. dean of the Division of BiologicalSciences and of the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Joseph Regenstein professor of biologicaland medical sciences, and professor in the College.Gridders girdFifty years ago this fall Chicago won its mostrecent Big Ten football championship. With anew football season about to begin theMaroons offer no threat to Ohio State orMichigan, but they are bent on doing betterwith the opponents they do face than they didlast year.Coach Wally Hass expects a squad of forty-five players to report when football practicebegins September 12. Most notable amongthe returnees are sophomore quarterbackJohn Vail, junior halfback Dennis Christian,and sophomore offensive end Roger Tweed.In the flickering moments of the 1973 seasonthese three players sparked the Chicagooffense and should do the same this season.Also on tap for the offense is senior tight endGeorge Jones. Jones, noted for his green shoesand shoe string catches, should add life towhat last year was an ineffectual offense.Untested on offense is sophomore fullbackSteve Stwora, an outstanding runner fromSchurz High School in Chicago. This will beStwora's first season with the Maroons. OtherChicago offensive players to watch arequarterbacks Gene Szuflita and DickRubesch; ends Charles White and DickO'Brien; and linemen O. D. Spurgeon, CurtSpiller, and Tom Schultz.On defense the team will be bolstered bylinebackers Dick Kovacs and Paul Swiont-kowski. On the defensive line, veterans MikeKrauss and Jones will be helped by newcomers Cliff Tabin, Clarence Norman, and Dahl. The Maroons have two good defensivebacks in senior Paul LeMelle and sophomoreTony Miksanek.Four Stagg scholars will be in the footballline-up September 28 when the Maroons opentheir eight-game season at home againstBeloit. Among them will be captain JackLeVan, a veteran of two previous Chicagocampaigns, and a strong interior lineman at6T" and 190 pounds. Another Stagg scholarship winner is sophomore Mike O'Connor.O'Connor, a graduate of St. Laurence highand an alumnus of the 1972 Chicago PrepCity Championship team, earned distinctionas a tough safety and speedy halfback in hisfirst Maroon season. Freshman winners areMark Talamonti, an All-Area quarterbackand veteran of Marian High School, and JohnDahl, a 6'4", 230-pound tackle and middle'74 Football scheduleSept. 28 Beloit*Oct. 5 Lawrence*Oct. 12 N. E. Illinois*Oct. 19 Lake ForestOct. 26 Oberlin*Nov. 2 GrinnellNov. 9 LorasNov. 16 Marquette** Home games, Stagg Field,56th and Cottage Grove Av. guard from Red Wing, Mn.Fund honors MacleanFriends and former students of Norman F.Maclean — and both are legion — have established the Norman Maclean ScholarshipFund in honor of the professor emeritus ofEnglish, who last year won the Quantrellaward for excellence in undergraduate teaching for the third time. (His article, "ThisQuarter I Am Taking McKeon," appeared inthis publication's January/February, '74,issue.)Alumni who wish to contribute to the fundare invited to send checks payable to theUniversity of Chicago to Edward Rosenheim,Jr., or Gwin Kolb at the Department ofEnglish, 1050 E. 59th St., Chicago, II. 60637.Levi, Berwanger view competition"What's the difference between winning theHeisman trophy now and when you won it?"The question was put to Jay Berwanger at thisyear's Order of the C dinner. Mr. Berwanger(ab'36), first to receive the famous award,quipped, "Oh, about $1,000,000."Likewise addressing the Order of the C,President Levi presented a rationale, in thelight of today's society, for competitive effortas exemplified in athletics:"The greatest criticism that can be made ofhigher education today," he said, "is thefailure of undergraduates — and, I might alsoGENERAL BOOKBINDING COMorton A. Kaplan (left), professor of political science and chairman of the University'sCommittee on International Relations, called on Zalman Shazar, president of Israel, in thecourse of a visit to Jerusalem earlier this year.say, graduates — to realize the importance ofbeing craftsmen in whatever they do; to becapable of doing not only the best which iswithin them, but in many ways to do the bestwhich might be in anyone."I think it is extremely important," Mr.Levi said, "that we do have activities on thiscampus where young people can exhibit thevery best which is in them, and where there isno notion at all that the life of the mind existsin some kind of disembodied way."And history was made at the dinner, in theaward of varsity Cs to two women athletes (seestory beginning on Page 19).KudosTwo faculty members, Leonard B. Meyer(phD'54), the Phyllis Fay Horton distinguished service professor in the Departmentof Music and the College, and Guy Williams-Ashman, the Maurice Goldblatt professor inthe Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research, the Department of Biochemistry andthe Pritzker School of Medicine, were electedfellows of the American Academy of Arts andSciences. (For more about Mr. Meyer seecolloquium beginning on Page 25.)Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Morton D.Hull distinguished service professor in theDepartments of Astronomy and Astrophysics,has been named the 1974-75 Nora andEdward Ryerson lecturer. (An abridged version of the first Ryerson lecture, given lastspring by historian John Hope Franklin,begins on Page 18.)Josef Fried, the Louis Block professor inthe Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry and in the Ben May Laboratory,was awarded the 1974 medicinal chemistryaward of the medicinal chemistry division ofthe American Chemical Society.Bernard Roizman, professor in the Department of Microbiology and Biophysics andthe Department of Theoretical Biology, waswinner of the 1974 Esther Langer award foran outstanding contribution to cancer research through his work on the molecularbiology of herpes virus infections as theyrelate to cancer.Warner A. Wick (p1id'41), professor ofphilosophy and editor of Ethics, has beennamed the William Rainey Harper professorof the humanities in the College.Stagg scholars for 1974-'75 are John Dahl,of Red Wing, Mn.; Don Hayes, of Collins-ville, II.; and Mark Talamonti, of ChicagoHeights, II.Dudley scholars will be Jean Dufort, ofLatham, N.Y.; and Barbara Brink, of Car-pentersville, II.Of the fifteen Luce scholars named in theUnited States, three are students at the Uni versity: Lawrence Fenster, a student in theLaw School; Jeffrey C. Laurence, a student inthe Pritzker School of Medicine; and DonaldW. Quander, a senior in the College.Four faculty members won 1974 Quantrellawards for excellence in undergraduateteaching: Philip Gossett, associate professorin the Department of Music and the College;Robert Haselkorn, the Fanny L. Pritzker professor and chairman of the Department ofBiophysics and Experimental Biology andPritzker professor in the College; Ira A.Kipnis (am'44, p1id'50, jd'54), associateprofessor of the social sciences in the College;and Leon M. Stock, professor in the Department of Chemistry and the College.The University awarded honorary degreesin June to Dr. Robert A. Good, president ofthe Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, and two foreign scholars, Dr. Hugh E.Huxley, of the Medical Research CouncilLaboratory of Molecular Biology in England,and Arnaldo Pizzorusso, professor of Frenchliterature at the University of Florence.Janellen Huttenlocher, professor of psychology and education at Teachers College,Columbia University, has been appointed theWilliam S. Gray professor of education at theUniversity.Herman H. Fussier (am'41, p1id'48), professor in the Graduate Library School, hasbeen named to the Martin A. Ryerson distinguished service professorship.Deborah L. Mack, a student of Islamicurbanism and cultural geography, has beennamed one of seven Ralph Bunche scholars inthe U.S. She will study Egypt's transfer of itsNubian population in the 1950s.Saunders MacLane (am'31), Max Masondistinguished service professor of mathematics, has been named to the NationalScience Board, policy making body of theNational Science Foundation.L. M. Hobbs, associate professor ofastronomy and astrophysics, has been nameddirector of Yerkes Observatory, succeedingWilliam F. van Altena, associate professor ofastronomy and astrophysics, who returns toteaching and research.When Time this past summer nominated"two hundred faces for the future" bothalumni and trustees of the University were,not surprisingly, among this group of thenation's young leaders. Alumni includedJames C. Goodale, id'58; Carl Sagan, ab'54,sb'55, sm'56, p1id'60; Stanley L. Miller,phD'54; Herbert J. Stern, id'61; and James0- Wilson, am'57, phD'59.Trustees listed included A. Robert Abboud,Marshall Field V, and John D. RockefellerIV.And James F. Hoge, Jr., am'61, is both analumnus and a trustee.6THE PROTON SCANNING MICROSCOPEScientists at the University, as readers of this magazine recall,have brought the scanning electron microscope to such anextraordinarily high level of development in the past few yearsthat it has been used to make photographs of individual atoms.And the work, under Albert V. Crewe, professor in the Departments of Physics and Biophysics, the Fermi Institute andthe College and dean of the Division of Physical Sciences, continues.Now another group of researchers is at work on anothersophisticated microscope. Its operation is based, not on theelectron but on the proton, the positively charged component ofan atom's core. (In the simplest case, the hydrogen atom comprises a single electron and a single proton. Take away theelectron and the proton becomes a positive ion.)The work on the proton microscope (called STIM — scanningtransmission ion microscope) has, in its brief span, been underthe direction of Riccardo Levi Setti, professor in the Department of Physics, the Fermi Institute and the College, workingwith two graduate students, William Escovitz and Timothy Fox.Mr. Levi Setti's microscope had modest beginnings.Protons are vastly more massive than electrons, but they have considerably smaller wave lengths. The difference betweenusing an electron and a proton in examining a specimen issomething like the difference between probing for trees in aforest using a ping pong ball and using a lead BB shot.Still in the early stages of its development, the proton microscope can be expected to open up some new horizons as aresearch instrument complementary to the electron microscope,among other things, in biological studies, where its uniqueadvantage may be its capacity to detect the presence of hydrogen bound in organic molecules. (With both the scanning electron microscope and the scanning proton microscope it is notnecessary to use stained material.)A proton microscope had been proposed and built a score ofyears ago by French scientists C. Magnan and P. Chanson. Butbefore some of the problems which they encountered had beenmastered, along came the rapid development of the electronmicroscope which, with its success and versatility, overshadowedother work in microscopy, and the efforts of Chanson andMagnan were eclipsed.The very success of the Crewe work at Chicago, however,spurred Levi Setti to think about the proton version. By 1971 heFlanked by his two collaborators, graduate students Timothy Fox (left) and William Escovitz, Mr. Levi Setti stands next to hisnascent STIM (scanning transmission ion microscope).7.» .-MUM,! » Ml* i' .»r 'f,»*<H I.K.I 'I' • ¦ «,.*«5^ v"\. •. >«¦ -Till "7ii*' *~* >¦*'lil1 35 :^i^n K-« tifj/".*t-i*'j>»¦' tl !**«' MlUir"1^^ ^4rrr '¦ tife^fil; ^ ill PlIlP!"!Hilir**iHhV . .»U*i,f •, ,. 14 s ti/ . . . ,T$¦ t.n„z\ c;W*H«{ilf!;>i: **?**' *r,» * Tift .>««!i;;U.,:'>4 " '!r.v^FM i '..JH^iL -i. ..-JJ L.tu. ;rt'^*i . .'h'm -;Tm'o unstained human chromosomes appear in this photo made by the scanning proton microscope July 2, 1974. The magnification is 17,500 times. Each of the small black blips making up the image represents the impact of a single proton.had completed enough calculations to believe that the devicecould work and be a valuable supplement to the electronmachine. He and his colleagues started building components tosee if they could be made to work as a proton microscope.They constructed a vacuum chamber made of brass, but theyfound it would not work; at very high vacuums the zinc in thebrass was simply sucked out of the alloy.While they were casting about for new possible componentsfor the machine, late in the same year, they encountered a strokeof luck. The Crewe group had received a grant which enabledthem to put together a new and better electron microscope; theshell of an old one was passed along to Levi Setti.By the beginning of 1972 they had begun work aimed atadapting the electron microscope to the requirements of theproton. They experimented with moving the electrodes toaccommodate higher voltages; some day they hope to run themicroscope at 100,000 electron volts. But at this stage they werecontent merely to try for 65kev.They also found that it would be necessary to pump down themicroscope to pressures comparable to those used in the Creweelectron microscope — 10 "9 torr or better — before introducingthe hydrogen, at 10 "4 torr.And by the summer of 1972 they were working on a cryostaticunit which would make possible the cooling of the tungsten tip,which creates the beam of hydrogen ions, to a temperature of-195°C.But every change in one part of the machine made it necessary to create corresponding changes all along the line. Thetungsten tips had an exasperating way of blowing out when subjected to the necessary voltage, and each time this happened theDETECTOR OFSECONDARYELECTRONSSPECIMENANNULAR DETECTOR OFELASTICALLV SCATTEREPELECTRONSSPECTROMETER group had to manufacture (meaning make by hand) a new one.The tip, a piece of .005-inch-thick tungsten wire, is sharpenedby dipping it in an electrolytic bath of sodium hydroxide inwhich the action of the electricity eats away the wire — much as abeaver chews off a birch tree. As the wire is eaten into in theelectrolyte it grows thinner and thinner until the bottom portiondrops off.Summer is a poor time. for working on this kind of apparatusbecause of Chicago's humidity, but by the fall of '72 the groupwas ready for another try at making the microscope work. Butthe high voltage dome, even with the weather drying a bit, stillwouldn't hold beyond 30kev.To figure out what was happening each time something wentwrong, the trio discovered it was possible to test individual partsof the machine by reconverting it to operation as an electronmicroscope. If a part worked that way, that portion of the workswas operating.The tungsten filament itself was a problem. The crystallinestructure of ordinary drawn tungsten filament is such that it hasa "hole," electrically speaking, at its core. There is another kindof tungsten filament which is built up by crystalline growth; itsstructure is different, so that instead of a "hole," it has a hotspot at the center. Problem: this kind of tungsten filament costsabout $100 an inch. Even though only a few millimeters of it areneeded to make a tip, counting failures, the needed amount maybe out of reach in a project which has virtually no budget. TheCrewe group again came through. They had a little of the cry-/ II ^.'-' '.'¦'' \ , DETECTOR/ I \ *' I^X^I ELECTRONSPECTROMETERDETECTOR SPECIMENDETECTOR OF SECONDARYANNULAR DETECTOR OFELASTICALLY SCATTEREDPROTONSCHARGED PARTICLESPECTROMETEROR SWEEPING MAGNETDETECTOR OF NEUTRALBEAM COMPONENTDETECTOR SYSTEM EOR SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPES PROPOSED DETECTOR SYSTEM FOR SCANNING ION MICROSCOPES9This photo, showing a 400-lines-to-the-inch grid, made inJanuary, was the first ever made using the Levi Setti protonmicroscope. Comparison with the picture on Page 8 gives a notionof the group's six-months progress.stallized tungsten filament on hand and turned it over to theproton microscope project.Spring came and went, with the testing still going on. Therewere still problems with voltage, with vacuum, with creating theintense cold which was needed for the tip to create a truly brilliant beam. The summer of '73 was devoted to improving thesystem's insulation. By autumn the trio was ready to try testingthe STIM again.By December Levi Setti and his colleagues were extracting65kev, and by January '74, they had made their first protonphotographs.These were still crude. The power they could put to work wasonly a fraction of the lOOkev they wanted in theory — even of the65kev the microscope could deliver.Resolution was still far short of what they wanted.Theoretically a proton microscope should be able to get itsresolving power down to 1 A, but the Levi Setti group is aimingat something in the 5A range, meaning that its photos distinguish variations in tone which are only 5A apart — i.e.1/50.000,000 of an inch.And troubles were still not over. After the initial set of photographs had been made the tip blew.Once again summer C74) came on — the spoiler. But this timeso much testing was under the belts of the group that they couldtake advantage of even a few days of reduced humidity. Onesuch dry spell yielded the photomicrographs accompanying thisreport.In its present prototype form. STIM, using a two-electrodelens, focuses the hydrogen ions produced by a field ionizationsource to a beam about 2.000A in width. As a result of its smallsize and ion yield, field ionization produces by far the brightestion source ever used in a particle accelerator.It still has a long wav to go before reaching the fineness ofbeam attained by the electron microscope, but it already has advantages in that it produces more kinds of information. Inaddition to the input of data represented (in both the electronand proton microscopes) by the ratio between particles whichare bent while passing through the specimen and those which gothrough unaffected by collisions, it can make use of two additional sources of information.Of the hydrogen entering the specimen, 40% consists ofsingle-proton ions; the other 60% are H2 ions. Upon impact thelatter tend to break up, and each proton retains only half of theenergy with which, as H2, it entered the specimen. This meansthat when the beam is magnetically bent by the spectrometer thesingle-proton ions make a much wider sweep than do the lessenergetic products of the H2 breakup, which thus becomes apotent contrast mechanism.Another information source consists of the ions which acquireelectrons in the course of their passage and become hydrogenatoms again. In this form they form a new and separate beam. Itis this neutral component beam which is expected to reveal thepresence of bound hydrogen in organic material. (The boundhydrogen is virtually transparent to the electron microscope.)Even more importantly, the proton is so hefty that it will bestopped — absorbed — in the specimen if the specimen is thickenough. If it is less thick — and the depth to which a proton willpenetrate is sharply defined — some protons will be blocked andothers will pass through, depending on variations in the internaldensity of the material — and will thus provide information onthe internal structure.(This may be of particular importance in the case of cancercells, which are known to have anomalous density distributionsin comparison with healthy cells.)Besides, interactions with the specimen produce a quantity ofelectrons which emerge downstream from the specimen, andthese will provide an additional supply of information.The very massiveness of protons bombarding a specimen hasled many scientists to fear that these particles would carry toomuch punch to be used in biological research, but this is notactually the case. All particles which contribute to image formation have, as a matter of fact, done some damage; this issimply a necessary condition for distinguishing image signalfrom background, and it is true of both electrons and protons.If the creation of a dot in the image requires 10,000 electrons,only 100 of these contribute to the image signal. The same resultcan be obtained with 100 protons, since each one of them cancontribute to the image.In addition, Mr. Levi Setti says, since the bombardmentwould not injure such molecular constituents as tracer isotopes,"useful information may be derived from the visualization ofeven the charred remains of an organic molecule."In the first year of the proton scanning microscope effort thebudget consisted of a $10,000 grant from the Block Fund. In '72and '73 the financing, from the Sloan Foundation, grew to$15,000 a year. Now, with a $40,000 two-year grant from theNational Science Foundation plus a $45,000-a-year pact withthe National Institutes of Health, Mr. Levi Setti figures that thefunding has reached 40% of what is needed to carry the workforward. But, even at the 40% level, the work goes forwardanyhow.10SCHOOLS AT CHICAGOIn the Midwest they have flourishedwithout threatening the University'straditional heterodoxyMilton FriedmanTo economists the world over, "Chicago" designates not acity, not even a University, but a "school." The term is usedsometimes as an epithet, sometimes as an accolade, but alwayswith a fairly definite — though by no means single-valued —meaning.In discussions of economic policy, "Chicago" stands for belief in the efficacy of the free market as a means of organizingresources, for scepticism about government intervention intoeconomic affairs, and for emphasis on the quantity of moneyas a key factor in producing inflation.In discussions of economic science, "Chicago" stands for anapproach that takes seriously the use of economic theory as atool for analyzing a startlingly wide range of concreteproblems, rather than as an abstract mathematical structureof great beauty but little power; for an approach that insists onthe empirical testing of theoretical generalizations and thatrejects alike facts without theory and theory without facts.These denotations of the Chicago school of economics are oflong standing. They have prevailed for decades, with onlyminor, though not negligible, changes in meaning, despite acomplete change in the persons regarded as the "leaders" ofthe school.My personal experience with the Chicago school of economics began more than forty years ago, as a graduatestudent, when Frank Knight, Jacob Viner, and Henry Simonswere the acknowledged leaders of the Chicago school. Today,the Chicago school has an even broader base than it did then.Mr. Friedman is the Paul S. Russell distinguished service professor of economics. The accompanying article was given as anaddress before the annual dinner of the University s board oftrustees early this year. Because in the address Mr. Friedmanreferred to widespread misunderstandings of his positions oneconomic phenomena, the Magazine reproduces, starting onthe next page, some comments on the economy which he madeearlier this year before a group of European journalists. numbering among its leaders not only some of us at the University but also economists at other institutions, some of whomhave never been formally connected with the University. Butall are students — direct or indirect — of Knight, Viner, andSimons, and, at a still longer remove, of Adam Smith — whobut for the accident of having been born in the wrong centuryand the wrong country would undoubtedly have been a distinguished service professor at the University.The mixture of irritation and pleasure that I have experienced at being alternately damned and applauded — and always, as I felt, misunderstood — as a member of the Chicagoschool has led me to become something of a collector of intellectual schools. One impression that I have formed from mycasual collection is that the University of Chicago is a particularly fertile breeding ground for "schools" — though it clearlyhas no monopoly.Already in 1903, William James greeted a book by JohnDewey and several of his associates, Studies in Logical Theory,as "the signal of the birth of a 'Chicago school' of pragmaticphilosophy." Unfortunately, Dewey resigned his professorshipat Chicago shortly thereafter, so that this Chicago school maynot have had a long life.In sociology, Albion Small — the initial head of the department — laid the basis for the famous Chicago school of sociology led by W. I. Thomas, Robert Park, and Ernest Burgess —a school that reigned from 1920 to perhaps 1950. MorrisJanowitz describes the central thrust of the Chicago school ofsociology as consisting of emphasis "on empirical data and theneed for integrating data into what they believed to be an appropriate theoretical framework" — a description that appliesequally to one aspect of the Chicago school of economics.In political science, "the Chicago school ... led by CharlesE. Merriam and . . . Harold D. Lasswell," has been describedas "diverse in its interests but united in its aim to explore newmethods of studying political and administrative behavior" —again a description that could apply to economics andsociology.Chicago pioneered in the social sciences and fostered active11ooperation among them — most concretely by constructing a social sciences and should have had much in common. Witnessingle social science building to house them all, so it is perhaps the quotation from Lord Kelvin, carved in stone on theot surprising that "schools" should have flourished in the Social Science Building: "When you cannot measure, yourSOME THOUGHTS ABOUT THE CURRENT ECONOMIC SCENEFollowing is a somewhat abridged version of Mr. Friedman 's portion of a press conference in February with a groupof European journalists as broadcast on the University's"From the Midway" radio program.FRIEDMAN : I think the great mistake which people makein looking at an economy like that of the United States is tolook at it from a short run point of view. That has been particularly notable with respect to the so-called energy crisis— with respect to the problem of oil and so on. And Ithought I would say just a few words to put the situation in alonger term perspective.The basic element of the American situation is that forsome twenty years we have been in a process which can bedescribed as interrupted inflation. Whenever we have had arecession there has been an over-reaction by the authoritiesthat has coincided with an end to the recession but the beginning of inflation. As inflation has risen the authoritieshave gotten concerned about inflation. They have steppedon the brake.As a result the basic picture for the last twenty years hasbeen one of a sequence of ups and downs in the rate ofinflation, with each up tending to bring us to a higher pointthan before, and with these ups being produced by theover-reaction to recession by the fiscal and monetaryauthorities.At the moment we are in one of these temporary recessions. The signals all look as if we will once again repeatthe course of action that has taken place each prior time. Asa result the short term outlook is for continued recession orslowdown.The important point here is that the output of theUnited States will be growing at a rate less than its longterm rate; we will have a slowdown in that sense. That willcontinue, probably through the rest of this year. Temporarily the rate of inflation may taper off. It's been running at8% or 9% a year. That was abnormally high. There weresome special circumstances that caused it to be that high.It will probably keep tapering off in 1975 but then, asthese expansionary measures start taking hold, the economywill turn around. It will recover and start up again, andsometime in late '75 or '76 inflation will accelerate againand the next turn of the ratchet will bring it to a still higherlevel. So far as I can see that's the prospect for about thenext ten years or so.Now none of this in any way denies that underlying thiswhole- process there is a very strong, very productivenational economy. Despite this process of the past twentyyears we have had a large increase in the real output of thecountry. We have had a large increase in the real income percapita. We have had a large increase in the waste of moneythrough government spending. And all of those signs ofaffluence will continue, in my opinion, over the next ten or twenty years.How serious this situation is depends, as I see it, on twoquestions. The first is: Will we learn from our recent experience of price and wage controls that they make theproblem worse and not better — that open inflation,however bad it is, is a lesser evil than suppressed inflation?Second: How rapidly will we develop arrangements, of anescalator clause kind, which will enable us to live with theinflation with less cost from either its speeding up or itsslowing down? The kind of arrangements I have in mind arenot only escalator clauses in wage contracts, but in mortgage contracts, in bonds, in securities — in a whole range ofalternative contracts. Those will develop, I have no doubt.There are already signs of the development of such contracts on a private basis, and they will spread rapidly if inflation stays at its present level or speeds up.With respect to all the talk about an energy crisis, andabout the fact that we have to stop our energy-wasting wayof life and undergo fundamental changes and so on, I thinkthat's all a bunch of nonsense. It's a case of taking a shortterm problem and converting it into a long term problem.There is no energy crisis in the United States or anywherein the world. What there is has been a temporary phenomenon produced by accidental circumstances that gave theMiddle East oil cartel more political strength than it wouldotherwise have had. These countries have used this in a waythat in the long run will be adverse to their own interests.There is plenty of crude oil in the world. There is noshortage of it. The world crude oil price cannot stay at $10 abarrel; it will drop drastically within the next six or ninemonths as the reductions in consumption stimulated by 'the rise in price start taking over, and as the rise in pricestimulates additional supplies. From the long run point ofview there is absolutely no reason to suppose that we arein a completely new ball game, or a new world.One more subject I will touch on briefly: internationalfinancial arrangements. This is related to our previous subject because there has been a lot of talk about the$50,000,000,000 and $100,000,000,000 in funds that aregoing to be flowing to the Arab nations. And the one thingthose calculations demonstrate is that this will not happen.The countries of the world are not about to spend abroad$50,000,000,000 more than they are taking in in order tosupport the habit of current levels of consumption of crudeoil. What those calculations show is the impossibility ofmaintaining world oil prices at their present level. World oil 'prices will drop, and we are not going to get any moneyflows of that magnitude. We will get some temporary flows,because for a few months — four or six months, or evenmaybe a year— it will be possible for the Middle East oil ,cartel to keep down output of oil and raise prices. But theycan't keep prices up, and the only way they can try to keepthem up is by reducing their own output — which reduces12knowledge is meagre and unsatisfactory" — a quotation whichFrank Knight one day contemplated at length and thenmuttered, "And if you cannot measure it, measure it anyhow."the income they get. Sooner or later the cartel will collapse,and there will be no such movement of funds. That problemis just a non-problem that will not persist.The international monetary system is in excellent andhealthy shape. We have now, at long last, a system ofroughly floating exchange rates. The one thing we can beabsolutely sure of is that there will be no agreement to endthis because such an agreement can come only if there is acrisis, and so long as there is a floating exchange rate therecannot be a crisis.Floating exchange rates have proved to be an extremelyviable and effective system in the period during which theyhave operated. If we had continued with the fixed ratesystem there isn't the slightest doubt that we would havehad major financial crises in the last three months. Theforeign exchange markets in Europe would have beenclosed. There would have been big headlines about emergency meetings of central bankers and so on. None of thathappened, and the reason it didn't was because, instead ofhaving massive movements of billions of marks, francs andpounds into dollars, we had an appreciation of the price ofthe dollar by about 5% or 10% and then, when thesentiment shifted the other way, it came back down again.QUESTION : If the U.S. government does not encourageeconomic growth, and if unemployment rises, is it possiblethat the economy will find a new equilibrium?FRIEDMAN : No, it is not possible. It is a mistake that wasderived from Keynes' general theory that that was possible.All theoretical and statistical analysis that has been donesince that day leads to the conclusion that his results are notcorrect.What is true is that, given that we have started on an inflationary course, there is no way of going from that position to a position of no inflation without passing through aperiod of underemployment.But from a long run point of view there is no trade-offbetween inflation and unemployment and that's clearly truehistorically.A government may have whatever goals it wants, but ithas to achieve those goals through an economic system thatit cannot fully control. It is perfectly possible to havehigh inflation and high unemployment, and indeed I thinkwe will. So I don't think that there is any danger of the kindyou suggest. On the contrary, I think the real danger is thatthe combination of measures — on the one hand measuresthat are supposed to stimulate the economy, and on the otherhand, measures that are supposed to stop the inflation —will have the combined effect of producing a higher level ofunemployment and a lower level of output than we wouldhave without either the one or the other. And that's what'sbeen happening.The unemployment figures that we see are very misleading, by the way, because they represent a sort of globaltotal for everybody put together. To understand its meaningyou have to break it down. Almost all the people who are However, schools have flourished at Chicago not only in thesocial sciences, but elsewhere as well.In English, a Chicago school of criticism was initiated andlisted as unemployed are between jobs. The most interestingnumber to look at is not the number of unemployed but howlong, on the average, is a man unemployed. The answer tothat at the moment, if I remember the numbers, is aboutfive weeks. Of the people who enter the labor market in anyone week, roughly half of them find a job within a week,three quarters of them within a month.There are a small number who are long term unemployed; they are the real problem. But they amount toperhaps 10% of the total number unemployed, and I thinkit is certainly desirable that under present circumstances weshould have some system of income maintenance which willprevent distress as a result of the temporary unemployment.QUESTION : It is generally felt that the world as a wholeneeds a redistribution of wealth. Will market forces becapable of accomplishing this?FRIEDMAN : There are no other forces that will. Whatother forces are there? Only two forces can produce aredistribution of wealth — market forces and police forces.And do you really think there are police forces that aregoing to produce it? Voluntary arrangements by people,voluntary giving of charity to other countries are marketforces. Market forces mean voluntary forces. They are notsolely buying and selling. It is worth stressing that the 19thcentury in the United States, when people would have saidthat capitalism reigned supreme, was the period of thegreatest development of eleemosynary, charitable, nonprofit, voluntary activities in the history of the country.That was the period when this University was founded. Thatwas the period when a large number of the colleges andinstitutions throughout the Middle West were founded byprivate people and their private resources.We have only either voluntary arrangements — which aremarket arrangements, broadly conceived — or we havetroops. I trust that we will leave any changes in the distribution of wealth to the market forces.I do not believe the world needs a redistribution ofwealth. I think that is wrong. What the world needs is an effective development by every country of its own resources.India is not poor because the United States has not given itlarge sums. On the contrary, I believe that United Statesaid to India has done India and the United States harm. Ithink India today would be better off if we had never giventhem a penny, because the only major effect of our givingthem money through foreign aid has been to encouragethem to follow economic policies which have aborted apotentially very rapid economic advance in India.What the world needs is not a redistribution of wealth.What it needs is that country after country should followthe path that has been followed by the developed countries— more recently by countries like Japan, Germany, Brazil,Taiwan, Israel. They should follow the path of rapideconomic growth which is perfectly possible, given their ownresources. That does not require any redistribution ofwealth.led by Ronald Crane. In theology, the larger part of a historyof the University of Chicago Divinity School by Charles H.Arnold is devoted to tracing the sixty-year history of the"Chicago school of theology." Members of this audience can, Iam sure, add to that list, and I shall appreciate it very much ifthey do. Indeed, one reason I chose the topic for this discussionwas to add to my collection in the most painless and efficientway.A school is not a cultThere are, of course, Cambridge schools and Oxford schoolsand Viennese schools and Harvard schools, and I have madeno exhaustive survey of them all. So I cannot claim to havedemonstrated that Chicago is exceptionally fertile as a producer of "schools." But I shall assume for the present that myimpression to that effect is correct and turn to the mainquestion I want to discuss: Why? What has there been aboutthe University of Chicago that has given rise to schools?When I asked one friend this question, his offhand remarkwas that perhaps Chicago's geographical isolation had ledpeople to become inbred and to develop homogeneous, if offbeat, views.This answer, while a very natural one, misconceives thenature of schools and is, besides, demonstrably wrong as adescription of fact. A "school" may be, but need not be, a"cult." None of the social science schools I have mentionedwas a "cult." All of them were rather pioneer attempts to openup new directions of research and analysis, new ways oflooking at phenomena. All of them numbered among theirmembers persons working on a wide variety of topics andholding diverse views. All of them affected the course of scientific research in their disciplines and have been in considerable measure absorbed in those disciplines. Rather thanbeing "crank" outsiders, their leaders were recognized andhonored by their professional brethren, serving as presidentsof their professional associations and editors of professionaljournals.But while a "school" need not be a "cult," neither, to go tothe other extreme, is it simply a designation of excellence. Totake another example from the social sciences, anthropologyhas always been an excellent department at Chicago, widelyrecognized as one of the best in the world. It has had manyoutstanding and famous members, yet apparently there hasnever been a Chicago school of anthropology, in the sense of adistinctive approach pursued by a number of leading scholarsand propagated by their students.If Chicago's geographical location had an effect — as I shallargue later that it did — it was not by encouraging narrowness,homogeneity, and inbreeding. The fact is that none of the departments ever consisted primarily of members of the corresponding schools. In his discussion of the Chicago school ofsociology, Morris Janowitz notes that "Albion Small . . . waseclectic in his interests and tastes," and that "there was a continual effort to have all aspects of sociology actively represented."Robert E. L. Faris, in his book on Chicago Sociology, states that "probably the most important factor in the growth atChicago was the intelligent perception by Small, acceptedenthusiastically by his colleagues and successors, of the inhibiting consequences of doctrines, schools of thought, andauthoritative leaders ...."This openness to influences from other traditions was alsoreflected in the decision to bring Ogburn to Chicago fromColumbia, thus enriching the local sociological content withthe research-method emphasis that had been developing atColumbia. In that period (1920s and 1930s) no Chicago-trained sociologist was brought into the departmentat Columbia or Yale. Brown first appointed a very younginstructor from Chicago ... in 1931. .. . Mid-century approached before Harvard ventured to bring in a representativeof the Chicago sociology."And I may add that Harvard has still not ventured to bringin a full-fledged representative of the Chicago school of economics, though it has, in recent years, hired a number ofChicago Ph.D.s.In political science, every biographical reference to CharlesE. Merriam that I have seen has stressed his eclecticism, histolerance of diversity, his concern solely for quality. And apolitical science department that in our days hassimultaneously included Hans Morgenthau, David Easton,and Leo Strauss among its leading members can hardly be described as narrow and inbred.Laughlin and VeblenIn economics — where I am personally most aware of thecharge of narrowness and parochialism — the situation issimilar. The first head of the Department of Economics wasJames Laurence Laughlin — whose portrait hangs in SocialSciences 122 and who was characterized by a historian of theChicago school of economics as "one of the most conservativeeconomists in the country." Laughlin was a leading "hard-money" man of his time, vigorously opposing the free-silvermovement that reached its climax with William JenningsBryan's famous "Cross of Gold" speech in 1896.(Incidentally, to display one of my few bits of local lore, thatspeech was given, and Bryan subsequently nominated for thePresidency, in the neighborhood of the University of Chicago,roughly at what later became known as "sin corner" — 63rdand Cottage Grove. In 1896, there were open fields there, andthe El provided convenient transportation, so the DemocraticNational Convention was held in large tents pitched for thepurpose.)To return to Laughlin, he publicly debated in Chicago withWilliam H. Harvey, whose pamphlet entitled "Coin's FinancialSchool" provided the most influential intellectual justificationfor the free-silver movement.In these ways, Laughlin would be regarded by many assharing some of the characteristics of the present Chicagoschool, though I hasten to add that in other respects, hediffered drastically. In particular, he was a firm opponent ofthe quantity theory of money— largely because it had beenused by the free-silver advocates to justify their proposals—14and as long ago as 1910, he analyzed inflation as arising fromthe monopolistic practices of trade unions and large enterprises rather than from increases in the quantity of money —a decidedly non-Chicago position.Despite his own strong views and active participation inpolitical controversy, Laughlin sought out quality and diversityin the men he appointed to the faculty. As A. W. Coatsremarks, "Laughlin was, indeed, a rigid thinker, an uncompromising and sometimes unfair polemicist, and an extremeconservative. Nevertheless, during his twenty-four years atChicago his department became a leading center and breedingground of economic heterodoxy."Laughlin was an unrelenting individualist who genuinelyrespected the independence of his colleagues, and he was asoutspoken in his resistance to Harper's encroachments uponhis departmental independence as he was toward the encroachments of government upon individual freedom."At the very outset, Laughlin brought with him from Cornellto Chicago Thorstein Veblen, whom Laughlin liked "preciselybecause Veblen was different in his background, in his pointof view, and even in his personal characteristics." Veblenserved as the first managing editor of the Journal of PoliticalEconomy and remained on the faculty until 1906, even though"Laughlin on occasion had difficulty in getting Veblen's contract renewed and in securing advances for him."Similarly, one of the students of Robert Hoxie, who joinedthe faculty in 1906, wrote: "generally speaking, Hoxie andLaughlin were as far apart as West and East, but it speaksworlds for Laughlin's tolerance that he brought Hoxie to, andkept him in his department." Laughlin appointed such diversepersons as Wesley C. Mitchell, Alvin Johnson, WaltonHamilton, and John Maurice Clark — all, moreover, not afterthey had become famous, but when they were in the earlystages of their careers. Scientific excellence, not conformity,was clearly his major criterion. Of course, we have never beenable to monopolize excellence — each of these four famousscholars served most of their careers at other institutions.Laughlin's example has been followed to this day. When Iwas a student at Chicago, Paul Douglas, hardly a full-fledgedmember of the Chicago school in the policy sense, was aleading member of the department. The disputes betweenDouglas and Knight and between Knight and Viner formed animportant part of our education.The department included also Harry Alvin Millis, SimeonLeland, and John U. Nef, to mention only some of the outstanding non-Chicago Chicagoans. Subsequently, the department appointed Oskar Lange, a proclaimed Socialist, laterPoland's representative to the U.N., and still later a member ofPoland's Communist government — but also an outstandingeconomic scholar.Gold water or JohnsonIn 1964, during the Johnson-Goldwater presidential elections, my friend and colleague George Stigler remarked thatChicago was one of the few major universities, if not the onlyone, that without difficulty could staff a highly qualified Council of Economic Advisers for both Johnson and Gold-water. Many another university could have staffed (and did) aJohnson council. Two or three others could have staffed aGoldwater council. But only Chicago — and, less easily,Columbia — could readily have staffed both.To cite one other statistic. The American Economic Association awards a John Bates Clark medal every second year to theeconomist under forty "adjudged to have made a significantcontribution to economic thought and knowledge." Since itsinception, thirteen medals have been awarded. Nine of thethirteen recipients were either teaching at Chicago when theyreceived the award, or had taught at Chicago before receivingthe award. Of the remaining four, two had studied at Chicago(and the remaining two had received offers from Chicago).Clearly, Chicago has not been an enclave outside the professional mainstream. On the contrary, I believe that no othermajor university has consistently had so wide a spectrum ofviews represented on its economic faculty as has Chicago.Chicago is noted for free market and anti-Keynesian views, notbecause they are the only ones represented at Chicago, but because Chicago is one of the few universities at which they arestrongly and effectively represented, albeit, even here, by onlya minority of the department.Not isolation and uniformity, but tolerance for diversity,stress on scientific quality as the decisive criterion for appointments, and success in identifying and attracting future leadersof their profession — these are the sources of the Chicagoproclivity to generate "schools." But what in turn accounts forthese characteristics? This is a topic for a specialist in thesociology of knowledge, not for a mere economist. Yet perhapsmy personal involvement will excuse my presumption in venturing to suggest a possible answer.(Jhieago's tabula rasaPart of the explanation for Chicago's proclivity to generateschools was suggested to me by Edward Shils — who is aspecialist in the sociology of knowledge. The University ofChicago, he pointed out, was the first major university, withthe possible exception of Johns Hopkins, that was notestablished primarily as either a finishing school for the children of the upper classes, or as a seminary for training clerics.From the very beginning, Chicago was established as a centerof learning, devoted to advancing and transmitting knowledge.Harper's vision led to the assembling at the University ofChicago of an exceptionally able and dedicated faculty — andfor our purposes, the critical feature is that they were dedicated not to training gentlemen for gentlemanly pursuits, notto spreading particular religious or ethical or social doctrines,but to the objective pursuit of knowledge — to science in thebroadest sense. It is crucial also that Harper chose them, notonly for their ability, but also for their personal force anddemonstrated executive ability.The group of extraordinarily able men could write on atabula rasa. There was no deadwood to be eliminated, novested interests to be rooted out, intellectual or personal. Theresult was to establish from the outset a tradition of which we15all remain the beneficiaries, these eight decades later, a tradition of objective scholarship for its own sake, of stress on theintellectual quality of people, with little regard for their personal idiosyncracies or political views, and above all, of tolerance and respect for diversity.To complete Shils' explanation, I believe that this traditionwas able to flourish and to be successful at the Universitylargely because of our geographic location. Had the Universitybeen established in or near New York City under precisely thesame auspices and the same initial personnel, I believe that theresults would have been very different.I have been led to this view largely by personal experience.In 1964 — to the disgust and dismay of most of my academicfriends — I served as an economic adviser to Barry Goldwaterduring his quest for the Presidency. That year also, I was avisiting professor at Columbia University. The two togethergave me a rare entree into the New York intellectual community. I talked to and argued with groups from academia, fromthe media, from the financial community, from thefoundation world, from you name it.I was appalled at what I found. There was an unbelievabledegree of intellectual homogeneity, of acceptance of a standard set of views complete with cliche answers to every objection, of smug self-satisfaction at belonging to an in-group. Theclosest similar experience I have ever had was at Cambridge,England, and even that was a distant second.Stultifying homogeneityThe homogeneity and provincialism of the New York intellectual community made them pushovers in discussions aboutGoldwater's views. They had cliche answers but only to theirself-created straw men. To exaggerate only slightly, they hadnever talked to anyone who really believed, and had thoughtdeeply about, views drastically different from their own. As aresult, when they heard real arguments instead of caricatures,they had no answers, only amazement that such views could beexpressed by someone who had the external characteristics ofbeing a member of the intellectual community, and that suchviews could be defended with apparent cogency.Never have I been more impressed with the advice I oncereceived: "You cannot be sure that you are right unless youunderstand the arguments against your views better than youropponents do."To come back to our present topic, this kind of intellectualhomogeneity is destructive of tolerance. It is no accident thatin the New York — or more generally, the eastern — environment, divergent views take the form of cults, not schools. Oneof the great economists of all time, Ludwig von Mises, whorecently died at an advanced age, was barely tolerated for yearsin a peripheral academic position at New York University. Hewas never accepted as being in the intellectual mainstream,even though he had a far greater influence than all but ahandful of the more prestigious professors of economics atColumbia, Yale, Princeton, or Harvard. Mises had disciplesbut few students because of the overpowering and stultifyingintellectual atmosphere of New York. The great good fortune of our University was that it was notestablished on the East Coast. If it had been, it would verylikely have become like all the other eastern universities. MayJohns Hopkins not be a case in point? A university that wasunable to achieve its initial promise except in the area ofmedicine.The criterion of qualityFortunately, we were established in Chicago, a new, raw city,bursting with energy, far less sophisticated than New York,but for that very reason far more tolerant of diversity, ofheterodox ideas. New York looked east, to the Old World. Itsought above all to be recognized by that world and thereforeimitated it and was hostile to any influences that might causethe Old World to look down its nose at the New.Chicago, like other cities this side of the Appalachians,looked west, to the frontiers — though needless to say it had itsshare of mindless fawning on Europe, as witness ColonelMcCormick's love-hate affair with England. But this did notprevent Chicago from being characterized by diversity in everydimension, by a willingness to experiment, to judge peopleby their performance rather than their origins, to judge ideasby their consequences rather than their antecedents.To return to my personal experience. I could hold the views Idid at Chicago, and even be an adviser to Goldwater, withoutlosing the respect of either town or gown, but rather while stillbeing accepted as a responsible member in good standing ofthe intellectual community. Had my career been in New York,and had I held the same views, I suspect that that would nothave been possible. I would have been regarded as a "kook"and no doubt would have begun to act like one even earlierthan I did.If this amateur exercise in the sociology of knowledge hasany validity, it has important implications for our University.First and foremost, if we are to preserve our heritage, we mustcontinue to insist that intellectual quality and intellectualquality alone be the basis of appointments to the faculty—not political or social views, not personal attractiveness or sexor race, not grantsmanship, not even potential contribution toa balanced faculty. Balance and diversity have been and willcontinue to be valuable by-products of an undeviatingemphasis on quality alone. They are not objectives to be soughtdirectly.Second, as we face severe financial pressure in the comingyears, it is well to recall that the schools that developed atChicago owed far more to a handful of geniuses than to thelavish expenditure of funds. The availability of funds certainlyhelped. But far more crucial was the success of the faculty inseeking out the young scholars who had within them thecapacity to strike out in new directions and the willingness ofthe administration to back the faculty's judgment.These remain the key to success in surmounting our presentproblems. And identification of potential geniuses remains theone element that only the faculty can provide. Trustees,alumni, and other friends of the University can prepare theseedbed for excellence; only we can furnish the seeds.16The historian and public policyA SOUND BASIS FOR JUDGMENTSJohn Hope FranklinOne cannot be certain that official historians, whether holdingelective office or merely civil servants, will always serve the bestinterests of the public. For, as Herbert Butterfield has reminded us, when historians are in the service of the government and the public policy of that government rests on a certain set of historical precedents, it is difficult for men to placetruth above public advantage when public advantage mightmean the winning of a war, the circumvention of a diplomaticcrisis, the covering of a reputation, or even an improvement ingeneral welfare.Their commitment is to a policy that, having been determined and agreed upon, does not seek alternatives to the sameor a similar end and rejects differences or challenges asinimical to its objectives.It would seem highly important, therefore, that historianswith no governmental connections should participate in thediscussion of public policy with that independence of mindand spirit that their private position affords. Indeed, fromtheir relatively detached position, they could engage, challenge, debate and criticize their governmental colleagues whoare a part of the apparatus where public policy is determined.Historians on the outside could raise questions about theoperation of a given policy that is defended on the ground thatit is in line with historical public policy in that area. Indeed,and by the same token, the outsiders could challenge thetraditional public policy if, on the basis of their examination ofthe record, they find it to be out of line with historical facts aswell as current interests and needs. . .In 1935, for example, the manual of the Federal HousingThis article is excerpted from the first Nora and Edward Ryerson lecture, given earlier this year by Mr. Franklin, the JohnM. Manly distinguished service professor in the Department ofHistory. The lecture has been published by the Center for PolicyStudy of the University. © The University of Chicago. Administration stated that in order to maintain communitystability, properties should continue to be occupied by thesame racial and social classes as in the past. On the basis ofthis stated public policy, segregated public housing waserected, with the support of the federal government, all overthe United States. It is lamentable that some outside historianhad not challenged the policy and stated then and there thatsince the Civil War, blacks and whites lived next door to eachother — and were still doing so in 1935 — in Richmond, Raleigh,Charleston, Mobile, New Orleans and dozens of other places.In the absence of such a challenge, the policy stood and, in thewords of one housing authority, it did more to entrenchhousing bias in the American neighborhoods than any courtcould undo by a ruling.I do not know how many historians there are today in theBureau of Indian Affairs. A decade ago, when several Indiantribes were suing the United States government to recovermany millions of dollars from proceeds of oil lands that theIndians claimed as theirs, the bureau became suddenly conscious of the value of historians in supporting or challengingthe claims of the Indians. The government had its historians,and the Indians had theirs. The result was a very lively debate,not altogether uncongenial but terribly expensive, over therelative merits of the Indian claims. The tribes recovered enormous sums through the courts, on the basis of the evidencethat historians provided regarding treaty claims.One wonders if the Bureau of Indian Affairs continues tohave an appreciation of how historians can assist the bureau inthe formulation of public policy regarding these firstAmericans. The history of American Indian policy is itself notonly sordid but enormously complicated in every possible way.The government has vacillated between a policy of intransigenthostility and one of fawning paternalism and back again.Indians have been 'Uncle Sam's Stepchildren,' 'the NobleSavage,' and the enemies of progress, who in the eyes of somewould better be dead because they are red.Somewhere, there needs to be a recognition and understanding of the extent as well as the reasons for vacillation in17public policy in this area. . .If the historians in the bureau cannot or will not indicatehow and why these shifts in policy add up to a monumentallyimmoral public posture, then historians outside the bureaushould have the temerity and the courage to do so.This is not to suggest that historians should provide justification and defense for the actions of American Indians inseizing the rock of Alcatraz, or in seizing the office of thebureau itself, or in taking over the South Dakota reservation.It is to suggest that the historic shifts, uncertainties, and vacillations have served to exacerbate the situation unduly and havedriven reasonable men to violence. It is the role of thedetached, independent historian to point out the historic fallacies in American public policy in this crucially importantarea.Need for perspectiveFew areas, if any, are more important than foreign policyin the requirement that public policy issues involved in itshould reflect the highest integrity in their resolution andformulation. Likewise, few areas, if any, are more in need ofthe perspective and critical evaluation that historians canprovide. Not that the United States needs to be saved fromisolationism, for it has really never been isolationist. Not that itneeds to be reminded of its role as keepers of the peace, for ithas never been successfully cast in such a role. Not that itneeds to be kept mindful of its duty as protectors of thenational rights and territorial integrity of the smaller nations,for it has never consistently functioned in that role. Most ofall, the issues of foreign policy of the United States or, indeed,of any nation, need to be regularly canvassed and reexaminedin order to define, more precisely, what its posture should betoward other nations. What is the historian's role in such anexamination?In foreign policy, perhaps more than in any other area, theworld's leaders tend to speak of their own nation's historicalrole in encouraging peoples of the world to become self-governing and to seek the paths of peace. Quite frequently,they summon the events of the past to support their currentposture.Almost invariably, it is a misleading posture. Britain wasnot seeking to encourage self-government in India during herseveral centuries of control of the sub-continent. The SovietUnion can hardly be accused of protecting the right of self-government in its move into Hungary in 1956 or its intervention in Czechoslovakia in 1968. The United States had nodeep interest in the self-government of Haiti when the Marinesmoved into that country in 1916 and remained there foreighteen years.Without emphasizing unnecessarily the moral dimensionsof the foreign policy of nations, it is reasonable to assert thatthe historians ought at least to keep the record straight andmake an attempt to keep their nations honest by calling attention to the disparity between historical assertions on the onehand and the facts of history on the other.One supposes that every nation in the world wants to be regarded as peace-loving and that it pursues a foreign policywell calculated to preserve the peace. It is so easy for a nationto slip into a warlike posture with the claim that it has to do soin order to maintain the peace. The United States has done itmany times, both in the past century and in the present one. Sohave many other nations. It is comforting and reassuring for anation to assume such a high-minded posture.But there is no guarantee that the claim of being a lover ofthe peace and a keeper of the peace is, at any given time, anaccurate statement of a nation's foreign policy position. Thus,the United States has been involved in no less than seven majorforeign wars since the beginning of the 19th century. This isnot to argue that such a record qualifies the United States as awarmonger, but the record of having to resort to war so oftenin order to keep the peace does not qualify it as a peace-monger, either. In going to war so often in the name of peace,freedom, and democratic institutions, the record is a mostdifficult one to defend.The historian cannot and should not have any interest indefending such a role if, indeed, the facts suggest that innumerable considerations entered into the decision to fight notonly peoples in distant lands but nearby neighbors as well.As a nation views its history and the various positions thatit has taken, it is not difficult to conclude that its postures havebeen mixed and exist on several levels of morality. At times, inthe case of the United States, at least, its public policy hasbeen human, healthy, and worthy; it has helped earthquakevictims, fed starving peoples, and fought the Nazi barbarians.At other times, it has been bereft of many or any praiseworthyobjectives. It has upheld corrupt regimes abroad, interfered inthe internal affairs of sovereign nations, and taken territoriesbelonging to others. . .The nation's conscienceOne might argue that the historian is the conscience of hisnation, if honesty and consistency are factors that nurture theconscience. Perhaps that is too much to claim for the historianwho, after all, is not in the business of protecting the morals ofa people.It would be enough if in our time the historian were to lookat our many public policies that we claim to be firmly based inthe hallowed past and see if that is in fact the case. As we approach the bicentennial of our national independence and aswe pursue many of our public policies in the name of thefounding fathers — our black policy, our red policy, our foreignpolicy, or whatever— the historian and, indeed, all of us shouldtake a hard look at what we ascribe to the founding fathers.But in this antepenultimate year of our bicentennial, the timeis at hand for us to recognize the fact that deep veneration isone thing and uncritical approbation is quite another. If wecannot celebrate their achievements and, at the same timerecognize their human frailties which led them to makenumerous mistakes, we are unworthy of the legacy we claim tocelebrate.The people, yes, the people, shall judge; but they require asound basis for making judgments.18able force in sp/»Maroon varsity golfers Sue Missner (left), a junior, and Sandy Kqstyk, a senior, discuss forthcoming match as they sit on the newsteps in front ofBartlett gym. (The old steps, their edges rounded by the tread of thousands of athletes of the past, were replacedlast year.)Nina CohenA lot of excitement was generated by women's varsity teams onthe Midway last year, and there is a strong likelihood that theexcitement will be greater in the year beginning this fall. Some73-74 highlights:• Two women golfers made the heretofore all-male varsityteam last spring.• Intercollegiate competition in women's track — a seventhsport — was inaugurated, and other fields of action are yet to be added.• In the vanguard of this year's great leap forward in women'ssports were not only the two winners of the nation's firstathletic scholarships for women, but also more than a score ofother applicants for the scholarships who entered the University nonetheless, and enriched its athletic talent pool.• Much of this activity had been in the works before theproclamation of the now-famous government action calling forequal opportunity for women in sports, but the advent of Title199, too, doubtless fanned the fire.Take basketball. Fans who marveled at the dedication of the73-74 squad — mostly freshmen — predict a good chance oftheir qualifying for the state championship in 74-75; theynarrowly missed it last time around. Certainly the women students' serious devotion to athletics is rare in Chicago's high-pressure academic environment, and they kept demandingmore practices and showed by their competitive drive that theywere not interested in basketball only for the fun of it, butwere anxious to raise the quality of their playing.And they really brought home the bacon, from their firsttriumphant game in mid-January against Northwestern,through a trip to North Central College to make a play for thestate qualifying tournament. Their 39-49 loss of the first gameto Olivet-Nazarene left them in a consolation category, eventhough they won the next three games they played in thetournament, and what they brought home was the consolationwinner's trophy. The team finished up the season with an 8-6record. Ms. Cohen, who hails from Larchmont, N.Y., is a student inthe College, starting her second year this fall, and is a sportsbuff, writer and sometime participant.Take swimming. The swimmers practiced all fall, andgrabbed a second place at their opening meet, the Northwestern Relays, against George Williams College, NorthernIllinois University, and Northwestern. The six-person autumnsquad compiled four first-place and one third-place relaymedals at that meet, plus a fourth-place diving award — atremendous accomplishment for such a small team. At thenext meet, against Augustana College and the University ofIowa, they again took second place, this time earning it withsix firsts and three seconds.In the winter quarter the seven-member varsity team had a5-4 record and produced a relay team whose time qualified itLaura Silvieus, one of last year's Dudley scholarship winners, started on the mound as the Maroons went down before ChicagoState last spring. At first base is Claire Orner(No. 23). Both start the sophomore year this fall; Silvieus is from Kingsville. 0„Orner from Gary, Ind.20to compete in the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics forWomen national swimming and diving championships at PennState. The relay, which competed in the 400-yard freestyle,consisted of Noel Bairey 77, Judy Banks 75, Rebecca Forbes77, and Lynne Haynes 76, and they qualified for the nationalswith a time of 4:12.6. Noel Bairey, one of the two Dudleyscholarship winners for 1973-74, also qualified for thenationals in the 50, 100, and 200-yard freestyle events. Unfortunately flu knocked Noel out of the big tournament.The swimmers generally showed quality but lacked quantityto beat the larger schools. Each member had to work harder.Noel swims two hours a day and says she would have givenmore time if she could have. "I wish more girls would get intoit," she remarked. "I guess it's because the College is so small.I heard that at Berkeley [undergraduate population: 18,500]they have dormitory leagues of two or three teams in eachhouse."Noel gives sport more time than do most. As a high schoolsenior in 1973 she ranked third in the nation in the 50-yardfreestyle and fourth in the 50-meter freestyle in AAU nationalrankings for women.As are both Dudley scholars, Noel is a well-rounded person:she is majoring in biology in preparation for a career in medicine, and she also plays both the violin and the viola. Noelreceived a major C at the Women's Athletic Associationbanquet in May. Her fellow Dudley scholar, Laura Silvieus,won major Cs for volleyball, basketball and softball last year;she was voted most valuable player by her volleyball teammates.The Gertrude Dudley scholarship, set up last year as a meritaward for academic and athletic excellence, has done muchmore than simply allow two qualified applicants to attend thisuniversity each year; last year, of the more than forty applicants, twenty who missed out on the scholarships decided tocome to Chicago anyhow.Outdated and insufficient athletic facilities at the Universitymake it difficult for most students even to get enough exercise;high-caliber athletic achievement demands better facilities,more coaching and more time than are available. Yet theinstitution of the unique Dudley scholarship has uncovered orstimulated student interest in all the varsity teams and, in thewords of former Women's Athletic Association presidentHiroko Kawaguchi, "has changed the face of varsity athleticsat the University."Hiroko, who graduated this year, talked about her experience with sports in school: "Many of us had participated inhigh school and did well scholastically. When we got to collegethere was a sense that hard study precluded hard sports."Noting the dramatic change this year, she observed that thenew students don't seem afraid of playing their hearts out tocreate a competitive reputation. "We were the 'old wood,'she laughed. "We were in for the enjoyment of the purelyphysical release and the camaraderie. The new players seemedrather serious about winning and losing — I guess because theyknew that they had something to work on, and recognized theirown potential."Most participants speak enthusiastically about the Depart- Catherine Vanderloos, a sophomore from Bridger, Mont., letsthe discus fly.ment of Women's Physical Education. With only five facultymembers, the department has established seven varsity teamsand will be adding an eighth this fall. The faculty members arecompletely responsive to student desires — and fully supportive, whether the teams do well or poorly. Adds Laura21»¦ m i K/ 3aMtm^t-** m*>** <yAt practice running the hurdles is Becky Clouse, a second-yearstudent from Alexander, N.D.Silvieus, "Teams here have less spirit than they had in my highschool, where the school was fully behind us, but the WAA isbehind us, no matter what. I was about to quit school at onepoint last year, but everybody wanted to help me — Ms. Mul-vaney, Ms. Kirby. Yet I've never seen them pressure anybodyinto doing something they don't want to do."The first six varsity teams were set up in 1967-'68, the sameyear Ms. Kirby joined the staff. Before that there had beenSports Days — interscholastic competition in tennis, basketball, and volleyball with other regional schools. But they onlylasted one day. There was almost no preparation for them, andthe level of sport played was correspondingly lower.The current vigor of the women's teams is new at Chicago,but it surprises no one who has been watching women'sathletics in the country recently. Says Coach Kirby, "Women'ssports are progressing at schools all across the country.Although the interest is more intense than I expected, it comesas a natural growth of what has been going on for the pastseveral years."Coach Patricia Kirby's 1974 girls' softball team consistedmostly of freshmen. The team lost its first three games toDuPage College, Carthage College and the University ofIllinois Circle Campus, but showed tremendous improvementduring the season and ended with a 3-4 record. Problems withpitching and with soggy practice fields held them back, but "ifwe make the same strides toward improving the team as we didlast year," says Ms. Kirby, "we'll make it to the state tournament. We were very close indeed." She expects to schedulemore games next spring, and considers last spring's youthfulsquad a good one to build around.The eight-woman varsity tennis team managed a 1-2-1 dualmeet season (four other scheduled contests were canceled byrain). The first two meets, played at North Central College andat Northwestern, were lost 0-6 and 0-7, respectively, but ahome session against DuPage resulted in a 4-4 tie, and the team took down Circle Campus 7-1.The newest women's varsity entry is the track team, formedin 1974 and coached by Sharon Mathis. Response to the initiation of this team was astounding: in the first season thirteenmembers worked out together twice a week and, in addition,on their own as much as they could. Their first and only meet(more rain) was against Northwestern, an easy 70-43 Maroonvictory, with participants in all ten events. But they also participated in developmental meets held on Sunday afternoons atStagg Field, and in the Stagg Relays on May 25. The team'sstrength lies in its size, allowing representation in a wide rangeof events, and in its promising relay lineups. The team islooking forward to more meets next year — and by then theyexpect to be able to compete in uniform.For the first time two golf letters were awarded by theWomen's Athletic Association, although there is no varsitygolf team for women. The two recipients had competed withthe men's varsity golf squad, coached by Walter Hass, whichhas been plagued by a lack of depth. Susan Missner 76 maywell be the number three golfer on this coeducational varsityteam next year, and Sandra Kostyk 75 should have no troublein making the team again. According to the rules of theAssociation for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, womencan compete as members of a men's team as long as there is nowomen's team at the school.Mary Jean Mulvaney, director of the Women's Athletic Department, explains this regulation: "If you take the giftedwomen from the women's teams, you'll never upgrade thewomen's teams. Right now is a transition period and I think itmight be a bit difficult for the gifted female athlete, because thecompetition is not equal to her ability, but this will bechanging." According to Ms. Mulvaney, this will become lessof a problem as more women participate in athletics at thehigh school level. Now, she says, it's quite common for womenwho stopped playing their sport at some time in high school tofind later that they've fallen behind the competition.But the times when women will be excluded from competitive sports are past, and one wag has even suggested that theestablishment of the women's scholarships might introducecorruption into women's athletics.Women interested in continuing gymnastics skills theydeveloped in high school now practice in Bartlett Gym with themale gymnasts, but the problem of double towel service hasnot yet been solved.An eighth sport — field hockey — will be played on an intercollegiate basis on the Midway this fall. And, again in responseto the current revival of interest in sports, there will be a thir-teen-sport women's intramural program in the 1974-75 season.Maroons to invade EastChicago's women cagers are scheduled to compete in theMIT Invitiational next winter, facing Radcliffe andBrown as well as MIT. The tournament is set for January31 and February 1.22The crisis:Community and communicationJohn H. JohnsonIt should be apparent by now to all of us that we have reacheda point of unprecedented seriousness in this country. There isrising tension between parties, groups, generations, and races. . . and increasing turbulence in the economic field. To makematters worse and to add to public confusion, Watergate hascalled into question the moral and political foundations of therepublic.The manifestations of this total crisis are many and varied.But all relate, in one way or another, to the crisis in community. And since the creation of community is a primary responsibility of communicators, the crisis of the hour is a directchallenge to communicators and communications media.It is a challenge, first of all, to our understanding and oursense of enlightened self-interest. For the current crisis is, inlarge part, a function of our failure to understand the ancienttruth that the time for a man to defend his freedom is when hisneighbor's freedom is denied.The late Jackie Robinson used to say that no black man canbe free in America until all black men are free. And we canparaphrase him today and say that no white man can be free inAmerica until all black men are free. Nor, to extend thephrase, can any white reporter be free until all black reportersare free.And what this means is that there is a reciprocal relationshipbetween black freedom and white freedom. The two conceptsare opposite sides of the same coin, and when one changes theother changes. In other words, an increase in the amount offreedom available to blacks increases the amount of freedomavailable to whites. And the converse is also true: a decrease inthe amount of freedom available to blacks leads to a decreasein the amount of freedom available to whites.This is the larger meaning of Watergate: Freedom isindivisible, and so is repression.Police repression in the ghetto requires police repressionoutside the ghetto. The arrest of black reporters leads in evitably to the arrest of white reporters. Breaking and enteringagainst a poor civil rights group leads inevitably to breakingand entering against the powerful Democratic party.Freedom is indivisible, and so is repression.There is a tendency in this country to put the rights of blacksand the rights of whites into separate compartments. There iscrime, and then there is black crime. There is poverty, andthen there is black poverty. There is morality, and then thereis black morality. And these phenomena are frequentlyinterpreted in different lights.There is also a distinct tendency in this country to separatepublic morality from private morality. And any treatment ofblacks in accordance with the basic tenets of our religiousheritage is left for the "great beyond." This dual standard ofmorality generates a climate of ambiguity which prevents thisnation from dealing with its most serious problems.Because of this dual standard, the polluted waters of injustice have finally backed up to the front doorsteps ofAmerica. Each day brings new evidence that white people aresuffering injustices which blacks have endured for more than200 years.It is instructive in this general connection to note that theblack press has always understood the close connection between black freedom and white freedom. The first blacknewspaper, Freedom's Journal, understood clearly that athreat to the rights of any man was a threat to the rights of allmen. And Freedom's Journal was in the forefront of the fightagainst slavery. Since that time, black newspapers andmagazines have been in the front ranks of the fight for freespeech and free association. When Mussolini invadedEthiopia, the black press was the first to point out the international implications. When Hitler turned on the Jews, theblack press opposed him. The black press also condemned theinternment of Japanese-Americans in World War II. In thatsame conflict, the black press fought for integration in theeffort to defeat the Axis powers. And during the decade of thesixties, the black press was the cutting edge of the movementfor social justice.What I am concerned to emphasize here is that freedom forall men and women is the guiding principle of the black press,which has always understood that freedom is indivisible, evenin the press. This is a point of great importance, for we arewitnessing what appears to be an effort to contain the freepress. Some reporters have been jailed for refusing to divulgeconfidential sources and for refusing to give their notes togovernmental agencies. Others have been threatened and intimidated, and still others are on their way to jail.Mr. Johnson (x'42), president of Johnson PublishingCompany, publisher of Ebony, Jet, Black Stars, Ebony Jr., andBlack World, and chairman of WJPC, gave the talk presentedhere in accepting the Alumni Association's Communicator ofthe Year award for 1974. It was while he was attending theUniversity that Mr. Johnson entered the editorial world aspart-time assistant editor of the employee publication of theSupreme Life Insurance Company of America, of which he isnow chairman and chief executive officer.23In deference to that old adage, "Physician, heal thyself," Isay, "Press, protect thyself." If the press had mobilized a longtime ago, when blacks and students were being attacked, itwould be in a better position today to defend its own rights. Ifthe press had drawn the line a long time ago, when black reporters were being attacked — if it had put all its resources behind Earl Caldwell, for example — it would be in a better position today to protect white reporters. And I would like toemphasize here the very obvious fact that the movement tocontain the white press grew, in part, out of the movement tocontain blacks and other minorities.For that reason, and for others as well, I believe the whitepress is obligated — out of its own self-interest — to speak forthe oppressed in this country. I believe also that the black pressand the white press must wage a coordinated struggle to extend the boundaries of freedom in America.This is particularly important at this juncture, for in sevendays we will celebrate the twentieth anniversary of theSupreme Court decision on school desegregation. Thatdecision — Brown versus Board of Education of Topeka —established a new national goal — an America free of artificialbarriers of caste and race.Since that decision was handed down on May 17, 1954, theracial situation has changed and improved. But much workremains to be done.In spite of many substantial gains, young black people inAmerica today have only one-half the chance for highereducation, and one-third the job opportunities of whiteAmericans. And twenty years after the Brown decision, one-third of all black families exist below the poverty line.It is our responsibility to tell this story and to prepare Americans for truth and responsibility.The white press can make a real contribution to this effortby eliminating employment bias within the industry and bycommunicating "a feeling [as the Kerner Report suggested]for the difficulties and the frustrations of being a Negro in theUnited States."By the same token, the black press has a responsibility to tellblack and white Americans the truth about black achievements, black aspirations and black obligations.The black press and the white press must also agree on themeans necessary to achieve freedom in America. The blackpress and the white press, I believe, can and should supportnational social programs for the elimination of poverty, discrimination, and urban blight. We can also work together forthe restoration of public confidence in public institutions andfor a sensitive and informed citizenry.Our form of government — in fact, the very foundations ofour society — rests upon an informed citizenry. To participateeffectively in the decision-making processes and to maintain awatchful eye over public officials require access to information. This is truer today than it was two hundred years ago,because of the increasing centralization of the government andbecause there is a growing acceptance by the public thatsecrecy in government is necessary.I sincerely hope that this state of mind will change in thelight of current events and that legislators, with the prodding of the press, will repeal laws which stifle the free flow ofinformation and threaten the rights of citizens. This is onearea in which the black and white press can work together. Therepeal of "stop-and-frisk," "no-knock," and "preventivedetention," and "gag" laws are clearly in order at this time.Let me say in conclusion that we are witnessing only thebackwaters of Watergate — water that has been rising for along time. And every man and every woman is being issued asubpoena to appear as a witness at the trial of freedom. We arecalled upon individually to confirm or deny whether thisnation or any other nation committed to freedom, justice andequality can endure — not forever — but for a mere twohundred years.This is the challenge, and we must meet that challenge byrededicating ourselves to the values of our craft and byremembering that the press will survive to pay homage to thetruth only if it protects the truth and uses the truth.A tour in the cityMary NevilleNow we are inthe center of the central city.In this stony corewhere are the green, leafy places?Those placesare far from here.Are theredrifts of golden leaves in autumn?The leavesin autumn are at the edge of the city.And in summerwhere is the grass to lie in to watchthe ant's great climb?In summer nowthe grass grows outside the city where it isfed and watered.But are therebutterflies in the city?No there are nobutterflies in this city for as you knowit's nectar they are seeking.And the children —are they in the city?Yes the children belong to the city. Theyare in its innermost part, know its great weightand are not known or heard or felt.Mary Neville Woodrich ( ab '38), who has long been a teacher,mostly in the Cleveland public schools, is also the author ofCreative Writing in City Schools and of children 's books, oneof which. Woody and Me (New York; Pantheon, 1966), is inwidespread use.24PROBLEMS OF CONTEMPORARY MUSICEarlier this year the Department of Music held a seminar,moderated by Robert L. Marshall, chairman of the department, on "The Contemporary Composer and His Music," ofwhich the accompanying article is an abridged version.Participants in the discussion, in addition to Mr. Marshall,included three members of the music faculty: Easley Blackwood, Leonard B. Meyer, and Shulamit Ran; and two distinguished visitors: Milton Babbitt, professor of compositionat Princeton, and Paul Fromm, founder and director of theFromm Music Foundation.meyer: Our time has been, and continues to be, one of pervasive pluralism and bizarre eclecticism. A host of differentmusical styles and idioms, techniques and movements,programs and philosophies co-exist in confusing competition.Tonal styles from the remote, as well as the recent, past;serialism in its many manifestations; chance music and mixedmedia works; folk music, jazz and popular music; and themusics of non-Western cultures — all of these are present inour variegated and uncomfortable present. And all are readilyavailable through concerts, recordings and the media.This cultural supermarket has seemed perplexing andanomalous because the evolutionary model we have been accustomed to use in order to conceptualize history, and ourposition in it, posits a linear succession of musical styles, thatis, renaissance, baroque, classical, romantic and — questionmark. As a result, we have come to expect that a singlecommon style would emerge in the 20th century — whether asthe result of some radically new development, the accommodation of prevailing styles to one another, or the "triumph" ofone of the already existing styles.In my view, this mode of conceptualizing 20th-centurycultural history is not illuminating.Instead, I think that 20th-century culture should belikened to the effect known in physics as Brownidn movement.This effect refers to the behavior of minute particles in a gas orliquid as they dart to and fro in flurries of essentially randommotion. Physicist Clerk Maxwell's image is precise and vivid.He compared Brownian motion to "a swarm of bees, whereevery individual bee is flying furiously, first in one directionand then in another, while the swarm as a whole is either atrest or sails slowly through the air." If you will think of themultitude of stylistic possibilities present in our culture asindividual bees moving this way and that, forming temporary groups and clusters, then perhaps you will be able tounderstand what I intend by characterizing our present cultural situation as one of fluctuating stasis — a kind of active,even dynamic, steady state.Such a Brownian movement culture would be atemporal andnon-linear, pluralistic, eclectic and inclusive. There would beno progression or succession, though there would be movementand change.If this view has merit, then it is clear that for the composer(and, one might add, for the audience and the critic as well) thecentral problem of our time is that of choosing.The problem is as complex as it is ubiquitous. Not only mustthe composer adopt some stylistic stance, but having adoptedone, he must select from the possibilities established by thestyle — inventing melodic, rhythmic, harmonic and timbralpatterns, envisaging their implications and choosing fromamong alternative implications.Imagine for the moment Mozart beginning a composition. Acoherent and well-established tradition — a set of gesturalconventions, grammatical norms and syntactic procedures —all of these limit his choice of melodic, harmonic and rhythmicrelationships. And this is why in a very short life he could writeforty-one symphonies, two dozen string quartets, twentydramatic works and so on and so on.Now for the moment think of the 20th-century composerfacing that terrifying sheet of blank music paper. His choicesare almost unlimited, and because of this, decision making isincredibly difficult. This is one reason why most contemporarycomposers have written far fewer works than Bach or Haydn,Beethoven or Brahms. It is also why many have devisedmethods for limiting the choices that they do make. For, froma behavioral point of view, the twelve-tone method, for instance, can be regarded as a way of limiting the number ofdecisions a composer must make, while aleatoric methods canbe considered a way of avoiding choice altogether — that is, ofletting chance make decisions for you.Like being a physicist in the 15th century, being a composerin the 20th is traumatic and onerous. If there appear to befewer masterpieces written in our time than in, say, the 18thcentury, it is not because there has been a decline of musicaltalent. The genetic pool of geniuses remains statistically constant over time; and this means that in absolute numbers thereare probably more potential geniuses in the 20th century thanin the 18th. But there are fewer masterpieces, because in theabsence of a viable and vital tradition and of an acceptedgrammar and syntax, compositional choices are extremelydifficult to make.Yet there is a paradox in all of this. For I just argued that amultiplicity of traditions and styles co-exist in our culture. The25difficulty in my view is that because many of the composershave been haunted by the specter of the Hegelian Zeitgeist,which asserts that art must "progress" or move forward(whatever that may mean); they have not been able for ideological reasons to employ the traditions that are theirs as inventively or effectively as they might have.And for me, at least, this suggests that the search forstylistic innovation and experimental methods should beabandoned. We must cease to confuse originality with technological innovations. It suggests to me the composer shouldinstead concentrate on finding ways to use existing mannersand means of traditions with skill and imagination, creatingcompositions that are elegant, intriguing, moving and captivating.mran: Many composers are beginning to suspect that thefamous total control of serial technique really means a totallack of it. That is, the products may still be totally controlled,but by whom — by what? The signature, the stamp, hasstrangely been lost. A faceless composition is eying us,apatheticaly awaiting a second performance, which doesindeed take place, but with another work, and another one,just like the first, replacing it. The totally controlled has become the totally replaceable. Countless composers are usingevery conceivable means to create something that sounds likeno one else. And the result does indeed sound like no one wecan identify. Except it sounds like all the other countless un-identifiables trying to sound like no one else we know.Pointillism — a beautiful word. But is that what Webern wasreally all about? How about distillment — wasn't that the trueessence of it? Where, a few years before, composers wouldhave taken twenty phrases and a 150-piece orchestra to say thesame, Webern said it with but a few notes: highly compressed,economically expressive, a few terse yet delicately juxtaposedpoints hoping to replace a world. But today, alas, only thepoints are left. A fury of points coming upon us, frightening uslike a skeleton which never owned a body nor a spirit.Some are going back to the past — our beautiful past, so richand warm. Our toys are still all intact for us to play with. Theyused to make them so strong in the good old days — so strong,in fact, that with all our current furious playing we can't harmthem. In fact, mostly they win. And so Crumb uses assortedquotations, Rochberg writes a quartet "in the style of" andPeter Maxwell Davies uses late medieval and renaissance techniques in his beautifully ugly "Revelation and Fall." Theresults may be memorable products, but what is in it for us?Can we go on and quote forever? And for how many of uswould writing in a quasi-late Beethoven style constitute anhonest act on the deepest gut level? And medieval techniquesand forms are fine, as are baroque and classical ones, butDavies fills these old forms with Davies. So what can we learnfrom that? Perhaps the most difficult dilemma confronting a composertoday is the pressure to "evolve." That pressure to "take musicyet a step further," is indeed a substantial load which each ofus is forced to come to grips with. And while in previous daysan evolutionary phase was allowed to be in existence for atleast three quarters of a century, nowadays owing to certaincircumstances having to do more with the times than withmusic, a phase seems to reach its zenith in but a few shortyears, and unless we think up some new phase to replace theold aging one with, it seems we are not worthy of carrying thetitle "composer." This leads to an artificial manufacturing ofa so-called "progress."Moreover, while in the past composers had to learn to livewith only scattered approval from audiences, today theapproval of fellow composers seems even harder to attain—unless of course, they are of the same school of thought. Evena minimum audience acceptance makes the composer suspectof not living up to the highest ideals of intellectual celibacy andconceding to the public's taste. Though no one would publiclyadmit this, equating merit with incomprehensibility is both aninevitable as well as dangerous next step.So, unless one is willing to accept one of the latest labelswhich imply progress as a model for his work — such as non-teleological music, for example — one is branded as a 19th-century mind. (Again the same fallacy is at work — 20thcentury is newer and, therefore, better than 19th century.) Thisis not to say non-teleological music is bad. Serialism, pointillism, "return-to-the-past-music" (interestingly presented as astep further), non-teleology, indeterminacy — these are allmeans as silent as electronic machines until a human mindactivates them and shapes them in its image. But why are wepushed so hard in all these directions?wblackwood: There are difficulties here which go far beyond what one might call contemporary music's incomprehensibility. It is certainly more difficult to compose this musicthan it would be to compose in the style of Mozart. I don'tthink that this is necessarily because one has such a wide rangeof choices. In fact, the range of choices is just as narrow for acomposer writing non-tonal music as it is for a composerwriting tonal music. The choices are different. But, in fact,part of a composer's job is to structure the situation so that achoice can be made, so that you don't impose so many conditions that you end up with no possible choice, and on theother hand, that you don't impose so few conditions that youdon't know what note to start with.This is a problem which is not really terribly difficult to dealwith. But it is harder to hear this music in one's imagination. Itis harder to hear aggregates of chromatic intervals than it isaggregates of diatonic intervals. It is harder to envisionrhythms which go beyond the simple multiplications anddivisions by two. It is more difficult to arrange these rhythms,26using the conventional notation, so that the piece will be expected to come out reasonably the same each time it is played.It is harder to keep in mind the dramatic flow of the composition that you are writing.As far as the performer is concerned, I regret very much tosay this but it is in every respect much more difficult to perform this music than it is to perform Beethoven's sonatas orLiszt's compositions. The physical difficulties are at least asgreat if not greater. The endurance required is comparable.The difficulty of getting one's fingers over the notes in the firstplace is at least as great, if not greater. Fingerings are as complicated or more complicated. Very specifically, the problemsposed to any pianist by the requirement of putting his thumbor his little finger on the black key come up much morefrequently.It is more difficult to count the music. It is more difficult toplay five against three on piano than it is if the first violin playsthe three and the second violin plays the five.It is much more difficult to memorize the music, andfurthermore you don't even have the ability to play wrongnotes without anyone knowing because you know; and it isoften the case that a wrong note struck very solidly disruptsyour memory and thus triggers a memory slip that otherwisewould not happen. I find that much more practice is necessaryfor this music than for Beethoven's sonatas.Now as if this weren't enough, the reaction that one getsfrom the public is rather curiously divided depending on whereyou are. Far and away the public which is most receptive to thisis in the United States. My efforts to proselytize this music inEurope have met with a lot heavier barricade than I wouldexpect in this country.This varies from musical center to musical center. FromLondon, for example, where minds are the most open, toVienna where perhaps they are most closed. Even so, however,it appears that the public which likes contemporary music (andthere is one; it is a genuine one, but it is small) is not the sameone that likes Beethoven and Schubert and Liszt. The difficulty is not one of incomprehensibility, especially where European audiences are concerned. They understand the contemporary music fully well, and they do not like it.This is a point that must be borne very carefully in mind.European audiences have much more security in the musicalopinions that they hold than do American audiences. AEuropean will say forthrightly: "I don't like that," whereas anAmerican will invent a neat little euphemism and say "I didnot understand that work." So you then ask the sameAmerican, "Well did you understand the Mozart sonata whichwas played in the same program?" He will say, "No, I didn'tunderstand that, but it is something I am familiar with." Well,at this point, the cat is out of the bag. He meant he did not likethe other piece.In Europe it is, practically speaking, not feasible to playprograms consisting entirely of contemporary music. Just togive you briefly a little recent history, I played a recital inMunich about four weeks ago. Long before the recital tookplace the program was being settled upon, and since I wasplaying at my own risk I could choose whatever program I wanted. I suggested the complete piano music of Schoenberg,Berg and Webern, these ultra modernists who wrote from 1908until 1937 or so. Back came the reaction from Munich: "Whilewe think the program is terribly interesting, we are afraid thatwe would be utterly unable to find any audience for thisprogram, and we suggest that a judicious combination of standard works plus perhaps one contemporary work at the mostwould be advisable."The problem seems to be that if you go all out for this [contemporary piano music] no one pays any attention, and on theother hand, if you try a middle-of-the-road approach youoffend both the avant-gardist and the people who ordinarily goto piano recitals. This combination of difficulties is somethingwhich I feel at the present time, practically speaking, isbecoming impossible to deal with — especially since musicianswho are interested in contemporary music of whatever sort arebecoming more and more in the nature of professional beggarsin this country these days.So I am sorry to have to sing you such an unhappy song, butit begins to look to me as though the chance for building anaudience in any way for contemporary music is virtually zerogiven the resources that are presently available for doing this.wfromm: The listener should have a voice in any discussion ofcontemporary music or music in general because, in the lastanalysis, music exists for him. I say "should have" because Ibelieve our most vexing problem today is that our audiences,especially those of symphony concerts, have abdicated theirresponsibility not so much to contemporary music as to themselves: the responsibility to judge for themselves rather than tohave the judgment made for them by the organizers of concerts.I am focusing on the symphony audiences because chambermusic audiences generally hear contemporary music withgreater frequency. A symphony concert in a big city isgenerally attended by 3,000 individuals, and they count for asmany musical experiences and opinions. If we could actuallyinterview in depth all 3,000 people separately, we could provethe fallacy of managerial thinking that the person who comesto a concert is a simple soul who is content to sit half stupor -ously all evening hearing year after year a program that isgeared to the social life of the 19th century.To me it is inconceivable that the average concert goer (ifthere is such a creature) should elect to surround himself withthe same routineness of experience in the concert hall withwhich his daily life is unalterably filled. I would think that theact of going to a concert is a reaching-out for something different, something exciting, a compelling experience of somekind. Yet our concert producers have conditioned listeners toexpect and accept only what is given to them, and to applaudbecause they were conditioned to.Because our audiences have not yet established their rela-27tionship with earlier 20th-century scores they have no frame ofreference for contemporary music. This gap between the composer's language of expression and the sensibilities of even theeducated public is a cause of deep concern.We cannot expect the initiative for correcting this problemto come from symphony managers. It must come from musicdirectors. They are supposed to provide musical leadership inthe community. I am not even suggesting that our musicdirectors must themselves conduct complex contemporaryscores. Many of them lack the sympathy and the experience todo justice to new music. But they could alleviate the problemby inviting guest conductors to include one or two substantial20th-century scores in each of their programs. Many conductors, especially those of our younger generation, would beeager to do this.Acceptance from the audiences cannot come from the occasional hearing of a contemporary score but only through theassimilation of musical styles and idioms that come fromconstant exposure to individual works. Only after the statusquo is changed will we, the listeners, recognize that there is nodivision between old music and new music. There is onlymusic.wbabbitt: I shall talk about the composer in the university,because I would love to induce some kind of reaction from myyounger colleagues with regard to this more-crucial-than-evermatter.I honestly believe that, at this particular moment, nothingless than, and nothing other than, sheer survival is at stake.And I can't pretend at this moment that I regard such survival,or the conditions necessary for survival, as likely when so seriously threatened.These conditions obviously are the corporeal survival of thecomposer in his role as a composer, and the survival of hiscompositions in some communicable semi-permanent or permanent work, graphemically or on tape. (By the way, facing ablank piece of tape is almost as difficult as facing a blankpiece of music paper.)Above all, the conditions include the survival of the university in a role which many universities find more than everdifficult to assume. (Perhaps they are unwilling to assume it;perhaps they are unable to assume it.) The role, of course, isthat of the mightiest of fortresses against the overwhelming,outnumbering forces, both within and without the university,of anti-intellectualism, cultural populism, public relations andpassing fashion.For me this necessary transfer of the functions of musicfrom the museums of music, the show biz citadels of music,the public salons, to the university is not primarily, or even veryimportantly, a result of the perfectly obvious practical facts oflife that is that public world of music. Not the terrifyingeconomics of the performance of music out there in the great world of music, not even the terrifying growth of the numberof conspicuous consumers of public culture, not evenubiquitous controllers of journalism account for the transfer.Rather it is music itself.Music has changed in fundamental ways, and in ways thatshould not be minimized by those who would insist upon theleveling effect of historical perspective. It is this change whichhas created difficulties — for the listener, for the performer,for the composer.For some of us the university represents a happy conjunctionof professional need and professional accommodation. Wefeel that we need the university and that we have a right to aplace in the university. As music grows up it grows out. Thetotal resources of the university are required to accommodatethis growth. This isn't of course to imply for a moment thatwhat we have is an idyllic condition. What we have is muchmore like an uneasy alliance and the causes of this uneasinessrest on both sides of this alliance.What we are confronted by is a situation in which we ascomposers are only very, very partially functioning as composers, not only because of the societal situation, but becauseof the academic situation. The fact is that my academic colleagues regard taking contemporary music seriously with attitudes ranging from amused tolerance to unamusedintolerance.The truth of the matter is that they — some of our colleagueswho should be sharing the barricades with us — would love toconsign us to "the great world out there." "Out there" we arenot only academic composers, we are American composers.And if the best thing you can be is a dead composer and thenext-best thing you can be is a German composer, the worstthing you can be is an American composer.If you think I am being paranoid about this — let me mention the following tale. When my daughter was in college a fewyears ago she brought home a magazine which is supposed tobe the most read among sophisticated co-eds. There was aculture quiz in it. (I am not going to tell you what the magazinewas, but you can infer from its circulation that it wasn't theJournal of Symbolic Logic or Perspectives of New Music.) Thereplies ran to beautiful, accepted form. Favorite novelists:Joyce, Proust, Faulkner — I think in that order.Favorite composers (not song writers, not performers:composers — would you think Tschaikovsky or Beethoven orwhom?): first, Bob Dylan; second, Lennon and McCartney;third, Henri Mancini.So you see, in case any of you were under the impression thatwe are training the knowing listeners of tomorrow, obviouslywe have failed.We know whom we are training. We are basicallyattempting to train composers, and already the cumulativecircularity has begun. The positive feedback cycle is beginningto destroy us. We are just about to explode. So those of us whodare to hope that we are trying to make music as much as itcan be, rather than as little as one can obviously get away with(music being under the current egalitarian dispensation), andwho have entered the university because it is our last hope,hope that we are not about to be abandoned.28From Podunk to SoHoA painter's move from York, Pa., to New YorkWilliam Levitt, Jr.What does a year in New York do to a painter? To me, for instance? Every artist in America wants to live in a loft in NewYork. Not in just any of its boroughs, but in Manhattan. Notjust anywhere in Manhattan, but in the thirty-two squareblocks of 19th century cast iron commercial buildings north ofCanal Street, west of Lafayette Street, east of West Broadway,and south of Houston Street, from which the area derives itsname: SoHo. Anywhere else in the country is Podunk, Philistine-land, an arrid desert where talent and creativity wither.(This, at any rate, is the impression I receive from "The Artistand Podunk," the best attended session at the national convention of the College Art Association of America.)To live in a loft one must be plumber, electrician, carpenter,and architect, with no outside occupational demands on one'stime. A passion for construction equal to that of the Pharaohsor Ludwig the Mad is a necessity. Since lofts were never intended to be lived in, they usually lack everything exceptechoing space and single toilets. Plumbing, heat, closets,shelving, and any subdivision of space into such niceties asbathroom or kitchen areas are the tenant's responsibility.Many artists spend a full year or more just "fixing up" theirspace.First in priority was a general paint job. Sections of the wallhad never been painted and remained dirty plasterboard. Thequickest way to get the job done seemed to be to give a loft-painting-party and do it in one evening. I phoned numerousMr. Levitt ( pAd '71) is, in addition to being a painter, chairman of the art department at Wagner College, on StatenIsland, and a sometime lecturer at the New School, in NewYork. He is also the author of an unpublished book on Grand-ville, which he wrote at the behest of Quadrangle Books. Thepublisher, however, while the manuscript was still in theworks, changed its publishing policy to obviate books of thisgenre from its list; so Mr. Levitt, while an acknowledged artist,remains an unpublished author. friends who seemed delighted to help set up a real artist'sstudio in chic SoHo.Thus encouraged, I bought a dozen rollers, extenders,mixing trays, and an odd assortment of alcohols, sodas, andfood. On the evening of the party the only people who appeared were a girl from Fire Island and myself.For a solitary week I worked alone on the walls. The twelve-foot ceilings proved the major problem. They were painted bymeans of a roller attached to a six-foot wooden extender pole.This system presented several drawbacks: the strain on thearms was terrific; to force the roller along the ceiling proveddifficult. Moving forward was possible, but in painting towardmyself I tended to topple over backward. Shortly, as a result oflifting the paint-soaked roller to the ceiling, I was covered withwhite paint. This irritation could be ignored until the firstsplash fell into my eye, causing a half-day halt in the work dueto temporary blindness. From then on I worked wearing atennis hat and sunglasses which had to be removed whenever Iwanted to see how much area had been covered.Naturally, as an loft dweller could tell you, no doorbell orbuzzer existed. The SoHo arrival usually makes his presenceknown by screaming up from the street. After some thought Iattached a string of camel bells to the inside of my frontwindow and ran a length of picture wire down from them tostreet level as a pull.The first evening I returned to the loft after the installationof my unique buzzer system, Saint Anthony's festival broughtcrowds to the usually deserted neighborhood. As the suburbanItalians strolled past my loft, I noticed, they all stopped to reada large neatly lettered placard newly attached to my bell pull.It read:PLEASE HELP!As you pass by, pull cord. I suffer from a progressive, degenerative auditory disease. Doctors tell me that my only chance ofaural normalcy is to be subjected to irregular yet repeated decibelshock. Please help me. Regardless of how often or at what timeyou pass, pull the cord. Thank you. And God bless you one andall.The perpetrators (my friends) had planted the sign then29crossed the street to watch the results. One unusually largeman, they said, pulled so hard the placard fell off and had tobe replaced.Afterwards I raised the level of the pull so that only my verytallest friends could reach it via basketball leaps.Although I had brought along some 19th century furnitureacquired from Pennsylvania farm sales, the huge loft space required additional pieces, especially for storage. Whileshopping on Canal Street for used furniture, I was struck byone of those insights which occasionally illuminate life. Aninterior voice suddenly said: "You are thirty years old, too oldto keep your dishes in a filing cabinet." But what to do?Barcelona chairs were beyond a college professor's means; yetyears of art school had made me snobbish about contemporarydesign — the best or nothing.Finally I decided to buy nothing: a simple, unfinished,linen cabinet of good design seemed to be the answer and $115not unreasonable for such a solid, unpretentious piece. Whenit arrived, however, several things were immediately obvious.This painting demonstrates Mr. Levitt's penchant for barbershop scenes, a development which occurred after his arrival inSoHo. The double doors looked as if they had been hung by adrunken sailor. A distance of an inch and a half separated thetwo handles which should have met. Louvered doors in the advertisement had become solid pieces of wood with cleverlydesigned undercutting to make them appear to be shutters.Most disappointing was the cabinet's construction. It washeld together not be dowels (unreasonable to expect), not bynails, not even by screws, but by staples.After this foray into the world of contemporary furniture Ireturned to my favorite source of supply, the street. SoHoincludes a number of 19th century offices whose trash pilesoften contain solidly built oak or walnut chairs, desks,cabinets, and even wardrobes. All one needs is a strong-armedand willing friend to help carry to bijou back to the loft.My major problem in the neighborhood was noise pollution.Below me on the ground floor was a label manufacturer whosepresses began running at 7 a.m. and stopped at 5 p.m. Due tothe constant racket the owners screamed at each other inYiddish, screamed even when the presses were not operating.Their cries easily penetrated my sheet metal floor (the buildingboasted no soundproofing of any kind).The lyricism beatOn the floor above lived a tall but attractive girl, aself-proclaimed "lyrical abstractionist." When she walkedacross her floor in wooden clogs it sounded as though a herd ofbuffalo were stampeding over my ceiling. Until her movementsstopped, all conversation was impossible.Sue's painting habits were artistically irregular. She workedfrom 3 to 6 a.m. After 2:45 in the morning she would comebounding in the street entrance, noisily chain her bicycle to thestair railing in the narrow hallway (making my entrances andexits almost impossible), clomp up the stairs (directly behindmy bed), spread her canvas out on the floor (directly above myhead), pour paint onto it and begin to stomp the fluid intopatterns.For mood she played rock from the '50s at incrediblevolume. This, as well as deafening me, produced overwhelmingd'eja vu, reminding me of long-forgotten high school dances(Sidney Lanier High School for Boys, Macon, Georgia) andmaking me wonder how I could ever have adored such simple-minded music. During breaks from her painting she relaxedby practicing an amateur flamenco choreography.When she retired about 6 a.m. all remained blissfully quietuntil the press began an hour later at 7.My first defense tried against these aural onslaughts was earplugs, which proved to be of negligible value. They shut out alittle noise but made me so conscious of my own heartbeat thatI constantly expected a heart attack or stroke. Finally I foundthat by running my air conditioner on 'fan' I could create acover noise which allowed me to sleep.Another problem of the neighborhood was garbage disposal.Commercial zoning restrictions made domestic garbage disposal illegal in SoHo. At 11:30 p.m. one joined the army ofstealthy, hooded figures slinking about the streets with plastic30bags, searching suitable dumping sites. Such details of theneighborhood did not conform to my ideas of the Good Life."I have three degrees," I thought. "Why am I sneaking aroundlooking for a place to dump my coffee grounds?"Not speaking any of the areas' four languages — Chinese,Italian, Spanish or Yiddish — I also felt very much a foreigner.Still, I reasoned, one must give up something to be in NewYork; here is the creative center of America, take advantage ofit.Bones and grease spotsIn visiting SoHo galleries to see the current art trends, Ifound a pseudo-primitivism prevalent. Mud, feathers, and furwere much in evidence, combined in constructions which resembled American Indian artifacts blown up to the crazy scalenecessary to fill the huge gallery spaces. One show consisted ofnumerous identical plaster casts of the leg of a Tyrannosaurusrex, artistically arranged in piles on the gallery floor. Anotherdisplayed squares of felt stained by grease spots. A sculptorexhibited stovepipes filled with plaster, and neon signs constituted a number of gallery offerings.These art tours made me feel an esthetic foreigner to theneighborhood in addition to my previous feeling of socialdegagement. "To speak in the old style," as Beckett says,I am a painter, i.e. I work with brushes and paint on a flat surface. My paintings do not wiggle, bump, light-up, talk, makemusic, or self-destruct.Not surprisingly they proved too 'advanced' for local taste. Amajor art dealer came to the loft to look at my work. "Youmust realize," he said, "that your iconography is obscure. It'snot what's being done. People won't understand it."If the paintings are good enough, I thought, people willmake the effort to understand them. Who knew or cared aboutthe look of East European ghettos until Chagall painted them?But how to say this to my visitor? The paintings themselves,not my verbal explanations, must convince, and their iconography is admittedly personal.Living in New York has influenced my work, though it is thecity itself rather than its art that has affected me. Somehowthe filth, confusion, pace, and people are — though at timesdepressing — vital and real in a way that makes most of remaining America appear plastic. Partially it is contrasts. Asubway ad showing miles of peanut brittle jostles one for acure for swollen hemorrhoids. A truck offers party and sickroom supplies. My favorite SoHo business is the MutualScrew Company.Partially it is power and competence. A New York successin any field means competence that equals or betters anythingin the country, and quality that can compete internationally.The city still offers the sense of living at dead center. NewYork has caused me to paint subways, dog walkers, and, oddlyenough, barbershops.Pigs have obsessed me for years. I have painted them eversince art school days, long before they became political symbols. Their meaning changes in each painting; sometimes they Mr. Levitt poses with one of his paintings involving a pig.are animal lust, sometimes me. In high heels they are women.Their delicate feet resemble the stiletto heels of the fifties. Theincongruity of their bodies amuses me — heavy animal weightpoised on delicate, tender toes. Often these painted pigs eatpeople or attack sleeping angels.Recovering from my first New York winter, I enjoyed asummer of genteel poverty on eastern Long Island, getting toknow the area. Then came a chance to take an apartment inthe Village in a friend's 1815 townhouse, with two workingfireplaces and original floorboards.I left SoHo without regret. It is not the place for a thirtyish,non-carpenter, middle class, ivy-educated, tradition-oriented,painter. Those adjectives are even more unpopular in SoHothan elsewhere.Yet Flaubert said that one must be a good bourgeois in one'slife style in order to be a revolutionary in one's work. I sought amore ordered environment.My second year in New York begins: In my apartment is theunpublished manuscript of a biography of the French artistGrandville and a studio full of unexhibited paintings. In mynearby — exorbitantly expensive — garage sits a still-to-be-paid-for new car, a replacement for one which was stolen inSoHo.Yet each day may produce anything here. New York hasturned my pigs into barbershops. That must mean something.I wouldn't be any place else.31A little magazineIn a genre which is anything but stable, and despiteits own sometimes tempestuous past, the Chicago Reviewis setting new marks for longevity and excellenceThomas JoyceWhat is a little magazine? The "little" classifies, like the"short" in short story; it doesn't describe. Let me say whatdoes not constitute a little magazine. Time and Newsweek donot qualify, nor does Reader's Digest, or Publications of theModern Language Association. You couldn't call the Maroona little mag, or the magazine you are reading at this moment,though in the past the alumni magazine has published fictionand poetry. To count as a little magazine a periodical mustpublish fiction or poetry regularly without any other apparentmotive than the propagation of serious literature. Every list oflittle magazines will mention American Poetry Review,TriQuarterly, Hudson Review, Massachusetts Review,Antaeus, Poetry, Partisan Review, London Magazine, ParisReview, and a host of others including some of the most amateurish mimeographed fly-by-nights.Think of a community like the University of Chicago. Byany criteria you choose, it is a living creature. It occupies ahabitat known as 20th century Western civilization. Moneyfeeds it, and other creatures compete for the food supply in theFathoming a little magazine can be a pretty tall order, says Mr.Joyce (sb'7J), editor of the Chicago Review. "Every littlemag has its own history and anatomy and touches on all partsof the publishing, advertising, and printing industries. Thefirst time I realized this was when I became editor of theReview. / set about trying to coordinate staff members andorganizations outside the magazine; in no time at all I foundmyself grappling with the most unexpected problems. How todisconnect and transfer a telephone from one outlet toanother, how to operate the auxiliary drum-attachment on acomputer card key-punch machine, what is the correct salutation to use when addressing a consul general. A second timeI agreed to represent the Review was when I undertook to writethis article, and for the second time I never guessed I wastaking such a tiger by the tail."32 struggle for existence. It produces all kinds of by-products inthe course of living off its environment, and often spawnssmaller organizations that must fend for themselves. Alwayslife goes on. Off from the heart of the being, a minor organ isworking away, serving some obscure literary purpose. Whatthat purpose is isn't too clear, but no harm comes of it, andliterary growth on campus can proceed as long as it doesn'tinterfere destructively with the University's health.Since the beginnings of the University some two dozencampus literary periodicals have seen the light of day, all but ahandful flourishing but briefly before succumbing to apathy,lack of support, and no funds. The Chicagoan, Circle,Comment, Phoenix, Forge, Chicago Literary Review all made ago at it, but one tough specimen, Chicago Review, hasweathered thirty years of mishaps, incompetency, and neglect.If we follow the Review through this unprecedentedly longhistory we can make out four stages: development,consolidation, crisis, and reconstruction. Because history repeats itself, as one might expect, the magazine may go throughthe cycle three or four times in the course of its chronology. Wecan see that the particular stage the magazine has reachedsheds light on a particular aspect of this entity known as thelittle magazine. I'll consider in turn the exterior and the interior of the Chicago Review; how in audience and contributors it differed from other college magazines from thebeginning; what kinds of commercial forethought go into thecreation of the mag; what the editor-in-chief can do with alittle magazine; and the present state of Chicago Review — andits precarious well-being.The postwar 'normalcy' of 1946 presented the opportunityto begin yet another campus literary magazine. It wouldn't bejust any old literary magazine, you understand. Things weredifferent now that the war was over. Students were returningto campus with a new seriousness and a new vigor. Look backto the magazines that had foundered on the rocks! A successorcould be built, an inheritor learning from their unfortunatelessons, that would avoid their mistakes and succeed whereLITERARY MAGAZINES AT THE UNIVERSITY*Chanticleer 'Chicago Literary Magazine f 4/lore 'OS , JO 75 '20 . y25 '10 ', 'M i I 'JO . f5, -'50 '55 '60 '65 70 75*In some cases the word "literary" is used in a rather broad sense.they had failed. A blind man could see the time was ripe.J. Radcliffe Squires (am'46) and Carolyn Dillard (x'46)may have reasoned along these lines when they started a newlitmag called Chicago Review. But beyond the campus literarytradition, which was admittedly modest, they and their coworkers took models and inspiration from a larger frameworkof literary experience. Maybe in the back of their mindssmoldered a challenge to Partisan Review or stirred rumors ofThe Dial, The Egoist, and Poetry of a generation earlier.The critics got off to a pessimistic worship of the past in the 17thcentury. By 1820 Thomas Love Peacock had decided poetry wasan extinct art. . .. . . rather than to compare, condemn, or praise The Chicago Review (sic) chooses to present a contemporary standard of goodwriting. The emphasis in American universities has rested tooheavily on the history and analysis of literature — too lightly on itscreation.(Foreword, CR, v. 1, no. 1)From the first, Squires, Dillard, and their successors balkedat featuring mainly undergraduate work, avoiding the cul-de-sac of college magazines. As the decade turned, this cosmopolitan offering was the only fundamental distinguishingmark to differentiate Chicago Review from its more reputablepredecessors.For example, The Circle (early '20s) made a commendabletry at bringing before the University community the more controversial intellectual questions of the day. It published poetryby Max Bodenheim, fiction by young Meyer Levin (phB'24),and non-fiction by Clarence Darrow and John Gunther(phB'22). But The Circle self-limited its audience at the outsetby restricting its pages to on-campus talent. Any such predisposition immediately removes a magazine from the ranks ofserious competition, identifying it as a fragile, curious yet inbred species, unfit to survive outside the protected domains ofthe greenhouse it lives in: break the glass cage and the fresh air will kill it. Forge (1924-'25), on the other hand, a short-livedbut very interesting poetry magazine edited by Gladys Campbell (phB'18), presents the opposite case. Stated in its inaugural issue is its avowal of intent, "The Forge will publishthe verse of poets everywhere." True to its word, the magazineattracted contributors from every corner of the U.S. and evenranged as far afield as Canada, Ireland, and France.If its program exemplified an eclectic approach to newwriting, its organization pointed out all too well the dangers ofrelying on a clique. An inner core of Chicago esthetes, desiringtheir own forum independent of then-dominant Poetry, thestaff of Forge received little aid from the University. As GladysCampbell explained to me, the very devotion that sustained theenterprise stopped it from sinking roots. The close-knit staff'senergy and enthusiasm fueled the magazine, got the letterswritten and the readings arranged; but they neglected to laythe foundation for future continuity. Remember the fable ofthe grasshopper and the ant? The graduate students andyoung faculty members had to find jobs; few had the time tomeet or produce a magazine; the old unity was fractured. SoForge, more a pledge of allegiance than a living magazine, didnot outlast its founding community of volunteers.Between these two extremes lay the other campus productions, such as Comment, which according to Martin Gardner(ab'36), managed to include material by Kay Boyle, ThorntonWilder, Marguerite Young, and others while remaining virtually a one-man affair.By '53 an entirely new editorial staff had infiltrated theReview. Throughout these fallow years the magazine had lostsome initial pep and verve and was just shuffling along. Fromits physical appearance, funding couldn't have been lavish. Itpossessed no reputation. I suppose the ambitions of the earlyeditors and the climate of the time combined to create somefriendly feeling toward the magazine, but I also think moderate resistance within the administration would have sufficed toknock it down. What then tided the Chicago Review over inthese years? Pure luck.Everything changed when Frank Karmatz (am'56) steppedin as editor-in-chief in 1953, to serve through 1955. His tenureleft two lasting positive marks on the magazine.You might not applaud the first innovation unless you knewsomething about the production and marketing of books:Chicago Review became "perfect bound"; that is, instead ofbeing folded and stapled together, the pages are glued againsta stiff cover; a like construction goes into the ordinary paperback. In the twenty years since that time, the magazine hasn'tchanged substantially its outward face, except to add morecolor and a varnished finish.Any book lover treasures a well-bound hardcover over thecheap paper version, although they contain identical texts. Bythe same token, if two unknown magazines sit side by side ona counter, one well-made and one just slapped together, theone sporting a polished look practically asks to be picked upand handled. Finely-made products attract, a snazzier packaging boosts bookstore sales, colors catch the eye, handsomemagazines make decent gifts. There is a value in sprucing up apublication. Moreover a distinctive cover and original format33kv:» IH:> {¦ f iiirw/iiJiiitfillllJlJ.W0Mi '(IChicago Review Editor-in-chief Thomas Joyce (foreground) at his desk. Steven Bookman, advisory editor, is at left; RogerGilman, poetry editor, the magazine preserve its individuality in a crowdedmarket.Karmatz's second innovation consisted in soliciting the best-known "names" in serious literature. Look no further than hiscovers: he came up with names any editor in the country wouldhave felt proud publishing: Marianne Moore, David Riesman,Leo Strauss, Paul Klee, W. C. Williams, Nikos Kazantzakis,Richard Eberhart, Wayne Morse, Kenneth Burke, ConradAiken, Ben Shahn, Arnold Toynbee, E. E. Cummings, MarkVan Doren.Karmatz had marketing sense, but his ambition exceededthe bounds. It wasn't enough that his special issue, "Contemporary American Culture," had hyped circulation considerably; he had to go out with a bang. Thus for his finalsuper-nova issue he ordered a massive press run of 22,500copies, complemented by a public announcement that duringhis term as editor he had raised Chicago Review's circulationtenfold. Several months after he left it dawned on everyonethat the magazine stood neck-deep in debt.Especially nowadays, when competition is fiercer, thetemptation to publish names makes one reconsider the purpose of the little magazine. Scrambling to snare some famousby-lines will sell a few more copies and give the mag somethingto brag about, but it tends to erode whatever "personality" theparticular magazine may possess. For, unless the big names allhappen to be working in the same area, they share nothing except reputation; and reputation doesn't necessarily guaranteevalue. The word gets around, "Oh, they publish names." Andnow, much more so than in the '50s, practical reasons argue for dropping out of the race for famous writers: most littlemags simply can't afford to publish them, being impoverishedin both the money and circulation.Before we consider the further adventures of Chicago Review, which I group under the successive tenures of David Ray(ab'52, am'57) and Irving Rosenthal, it might be well to notewhat the magazine had grown into after ten years of existence.While in its infancy the magazine had remained in the sameleague as The Circle, et alii; by 1956 it had overtaken and surpassed all these productions. The only other student-operatedperiodical to come close to the Chicago Review of that yearwould be The Phoenix of 1963. Festival of the Arts sponsoredan issue of this reincarnated Phoenix whose contributors included Norman Mailer, Erich Leinsdorf, Bruno Bettelheim,Milton Babbitt, and Severn Darden (x'50). But that issue wasan unusual effort, and Phoenix soon went under for good.David Ray and his successor, Irving Rosenthal, do not seemto have been like-minded collaborators. Nevertheless, theireditorial policies ran parallel. Both men, for all their differences, recongized and put to use the little magazine's specialability to work at the forefront of writing, encouragingbudding talents and fostering experimental approaches toliterature. The more flamboyant Ray infused the magazinewith this spirit of experiment. Turning his back on Karmatz'sname-hunting, he insisted on quality and purposefully openedthe magazine to little-known writers who he felt had genuinecontributions to make. But it was up to Rosenthal to bring tofull realization the Review as a beacon for new writing, whichhe accomplished in his special issues on Zen and the San34Francisco beat scene. These numbers, appearing in 1958,brought to the public eye the Zen-infatuation then widespreadamong painters and poets, together with the cluster of writersissociated with Allen Ginsburg, Jack Kerouac, and WilliamBurroughs; Zen has since taken on the colorations of a fad,and the Beat Poets are only a memory. But in those days bothwere waiting to be discovered, and Chicago Review had a handin the gold rush. The issues were complete successes and themagazine began to command national attention.Rosenthal's aggressive editorial work, following up on Ray'strail-blazing independence, set a precedent of sorts. Enterprising successors of these men have prepared special issues todirect attention to emerging currents of literature. Not all ofthese efforts were significant breakthroughs; some flopped; atleast two stand out as more recent landmarks of their kind. In1967 Eugene Wildman (am'64) oversaw the publication of thefirst American anthology of "concrete poetry," that genre inwhich the word is seen as a physical entity apart from itsmeaning. This issue subsequently was published as a book bySwallow Press and went into three printings.Poesia visivalabour symphony / opera k.713 / incompiutaMmpr* •ovltnando l'e*pr«»*ton» « crcac. poco a poce Autumn of 1973 witnessed Alexander Besher's Anthology ofModern Japanese Poetry, a superb collection that has not yetreached its final orbit.Such issues are milestones, doing in a spectacular way whatthe magazine must carry out on a smaller scale regularly: isolating a phenomenon worthy of recognition and using the bestmeans at its disposal to present it.Strangely enough, Rosenthal's time of heady success was toset up the Review for one of the most severe tests in its life. Hispatronizing of "filthy writers" like William Burroughs drewflak from the Chicago Daily News. A columnist accused theReview of publishing pornography in an article that embarrassed the University and caused faculty members to intervene. For the first time outright censorship prevailed. Confronted with the choice between martyrdom and recantation,the staff was divided; some pulled up stakes altogether, andthe rest made the realistic compromise and knuckled under toauthority. Official maneuvering took the wind out of themagazine's sails entirely and set it on a wholly different tack.Here are twoEuropean example of the Poesia Visiva to which Mr.Joyce refers: a fuller assortment will appear in a forthcomingissue of the Chicago Review. At left is "Labor Symphony" by L.Ori; below is Paul de Vree's "Revolutie."35Closely scrutinized, the mag began to toe the mark, changingfrom a quarterly of experimental writing to a more academicjournal. The ensuing editorship of H. W. Pak (ab'58) kept upa steady flow of "liberal intellectual" articles that mimicked,say Partisan Review of the 1940s.At the next change of editors, however, which occurred in1963, the magazine reverted. Peter Michelsen guided theReview back onto the path of an experimental quarterly.Automatically, naturally, and in spite of official resistance ithappened, and Chicago Review assumed once again thatcharacter which I believe to be most proper to the little magazine and resumed the tradition instituted by Ray and Rosenthal. This quiet revolution, without hoopla or fanfare, tells memore than the cymbals-and-trumpets surrounding the 1959purge; it demonstrates what Chicago Review will become if lefton its own to develop freely; and it pretty much laid down thelines the mag has pursued during the last ten years.Even when recovering from the "newest" disaster, whichstruck in 1969, the Review seemed to fall into that same veinall by itself. Five years ago an incompetent editor screwed upthe whole works; the magazine failed to put out several issues,went bankrupt, ran afoul of IRS law. Subsequently, as editorsJudith Ruskamp (ab'69), Juliet McGrath (phD'70) and RobertMcKean (am'70) nursed it back to health, Chicago Reviewjust seemed to take up where it left off.In the past year the Review scored a number of successes. In1973 it received a larger grant than did any other beneficiaryof the Coordinating Council of Literary Magazines. Last Junethe Illinois Arts Council accorded the magazine more awardsthan any other magazine in the state.It's too early, as this is written, to know the outcome of thisyear's deliberations.And for the first time in many years an issue has gone out ofprint; Volume 25, Number 1, the summer of '73 fiction issue,is sold out.The Review has been settling down and sharpening itsimage: practitioners of traditional modes counterbalanceprophets of the vanguard. Consult the future for examples: wehave prepared for October publication first English translations of work by the Austrian master, Heimito von Doderer,a project that falls into the "traditional" slot; but in the issueafter that, slated for January, we'll feature selections from thecurrent European literary movement, known as Poesia Visiva,writings which have to be seen and cannot be explained.From the beginning the University of Chicago has maintained its high reputation by supporting scholarly research.The creative arts never have enjoyed a coexistence withscholarship remotely approaching equality. Whenever acreative activity outside the classroom has tried to gain a toehold, the burden of support has fallen to the small group ofAlumni interest ¦d in subscribing to the Ch icago Review(S6.95 for Dili year SI 1.95 for two. $17.95 for three) may do sobv writing to: Chicago Review, Facult\ Exchange, University ofChicago. Chicago. 11. 606 17.3b students particularly interested in it. For good reason, non-scholarly pursuits must continually prove themselves to winofficial acceptance. It's almost symptomatic of this alienationthat no editor-in-chief of the Chicago Review ever went on toobtain a PhD. Money problems hound us relentlessly. TheHumanities Division helps out in indispensable ways, but it,like everyone else, is caught in the pincers of a tighteningbudget. The Review needs not only to attain firm status as aself-supporting magazine; it feels it must go beyond that andbecome sufficiently solvent to pay its contributors the moneythey deserve and to give the editors enough material means sothat they can devote themselves full-time to the magazine.Tomorrow ("and tomorrow and tomorrow. . . ") I'll creepover to the secondhand bookstore with unused review copies,which I'll sell for the money to buy postage to mail the nextday's letters. It's all in a day's scrounging. If reason ruled theworld, Chicago Review would never exist. How could anymagazine of our slight stature survive the crises of the '50s,Karmatz's ambition or Rosenthal's demise, of the neardestruction of '69? How could a publication enduring such ashuffle of changing editors ever hope to establish a consistentreputation?How could a magazine not only subsist but compete with thebest in the country — manned by a staff of volunteer workers(including the editor-in-chief), disbursing a total budget thatwouldn't even pay the salary of the editor of Northwestern'sfine little magazine, TriQuarterly?Chicago Review's singular harmony of unlikes, which sets itapart from other magazines, may account for its survival: it'ssimply too much of a paradox to obey the laws of reasonablethings.Surely few publications of our nature can boast such aheterogeneous staff: the students are as likely to be grad asundergrad; in addition to scholastic competence they possess apowerful streak of originality. An affinity for the magazine isusually their natural creative bent seeking expression. Consider the make-up: two mathematicians, two divinity students,a PhD candidate in psychopharmacology, a linguist, a pre-med student, two scholars in the history and philosophy ofscience, a pair of art students, several who work full time outside the University, plus the English majors. Pace, C. P. Snow,but here are no two cultures.I don't think I could argue that little magazines perform auseful social function, if that means serving "society." In thefirst place "society" takes in quite a lot; besides, no detectableprofit or benefit results from their continued operation. But asLionel Trilling notes in his essay, "The Function of the LittleMagazine," the power of literature is hard to gauge:. . . Whenever it becomes a question of measuring the power ofliterature, Shelley's old comment recurs, and "it exceeds allimagination to conceive what would have been the moral condition of the world" if literature did not continue in existencewith its appeal to limited groups, keeping the road open.Far from merely serving the existing order of things, littlemagazines generate new societies of their own, whose membersare drawn from the world at large. They, too, create life-forms.¦^Alumni V\(cwsClass notesr\r\ thomas s. miller, p1ib'09, partner in*Js the William L. Sharp Company,Chicago, and Elizabeth thielens miller,p1ib'09, celebrated their sixtieth weddinganniversary in memoriam: Not noted previously inthe magazine was the death of Oma MoodyLawrence, ab'09, in April of 1973 in theSalem, Or., home of her daughter, MaryLawrence Warren Stillings, sb'51, and son-in-law, Edwin J. Stillings, am'48, p!id'52.Mrs. Lawrence, teacher, movie critic, newspaperwoman, social worker, dedicatedDemocrat, had completed courses in calligraphy and Esperanto within the year of herdeath. She is also survived by two sons,including Philip Rutter Lawrence, ab'40,llb'42, eleven grandchildren and fourgreat-grandchildren .1 C\ IN memoriam: Lucile Billings Jarvis*-*J Arne, ab'10, Alexandria, La., died inJune of this year. died April 3; Clara Allen Rahill, p1ib'12,died May 22 in Coronado, Ca.; Frank F.Soule, x'12, Deerfield Beach, Fl., died in thespring of this year.-j a evelyn cole duclos, p1ibT4, was*-' honored by the city of Orlando, Fl.,late last year when she was named winner ofthe central business district's "woman ofachievement" award in the arts. Ms. Duclos,known as the guiding light behind the formation of the city's new Central FloridaCivic Theater, moved to the state in 1955.She taught speech and drama for twenty-eight years and directed her own off-Broadway group from 1950 to 1956. Ms.Duclos, who lives in Winter Park, hasproduced and directed a variety of programsfor area civic clubs.15 ADA WALLACE ROBERTS, phB'15,am'28, a member of the Culver- Stockton College English department for thirty-seven years, was the recipient of an honorarydoctor of literature degree during spring convocation festivities at the Canton, Mo. institution. The school's first professor emeritus, shewas a full professor and had served as deanof women for four years at the time of herretirement in 1960. A tireless civic andcommunity leader, she was named "bestcitizen" of Canton in 1960. Among hernumerous public service activities are thePTA, of which she served as the town's firstpresident, the Boy Scouts, Camp Fire Girls,and the Baptist Church, where she waspianist and organist for thirty memoriam: Maud Abernathy Griswold,sb'15, retired San Jose, Ca., elementaryschool teacher, died May 2 following a longillness; Harry W. Johnson, db'15, am' 15,Boise, Id., died in October of 1973;Edwin G. Nourse, pIid'15, named byPresident Truman in 1946 as first chair-Udana winslow atchley, sb'11,emeritus professor of the collegeof physicians and surgeons, ColumbiaUniversity, has been elected to membership;in the Society of Scholars at the Johns.Hopkins University in Baltimore, anhonorary organization of postdoctoralfellows at Johns Hopkins who have gainedmarked distinction in their fields of academic or professional interest. Dr. Atchley,an educator and physician, is a specialist in"physiological chemistry, the chemical"problems of internal medicine, edema andnephritis. Among his numerous publishedvorks is Physician; Healer and'Scientist (1961).in memoriam: Carl Otto Rinder, sb'11,¦:.hdT3, on April 12, 1974.I >¦) Elizabeth c. crosby, sm'12, p!idT5,*¦" has been named the 1974 distin-•' ;uished faculty lecturer by her colleagues athe University of Alabama in Birmingham.vis. Crosby, a specialist in neuroanatomy,'/as a faculty member at the University ofVlichigan for almost forty years and was thejrst woman to be named to a full professor-' hip in the medical school there. She hasI'i'een at UAB since 1964, currently holding(fie title of consultant in anatomy.:,v in memoriam: Mary M. French, p1ib'12, MAU/HG 0£DICATIPTOMVALMA MATE- SS Or/2'2 ^AVE "E LIFE TIME FfttENDXThis drawing of the city-county building in Salt Lake City is one of the fruits of a twenty-yearproject in which one courthouse in each of forty-eight states was drawn by Isabel F. Jarvis(phB'12). Ms. Jarvis dedicated the Utah drawing to the University, "whose class of '12 gave melifetime friends." She donated the entire collection to the Smithsonian Institution last year andhas provided that a second set of the drawings go, at her death, to the Art Institute of Chicago.37man of the Council of Economic Advisersand awarded the Rosenberger medal by theUniversity of Chicago in 1959. died April 7in Bethesda, Md.-< r in memoriam: Lora A. Hutchens.AO am'16, Richland Center. Wi., diedearlier this year; Raymond C. Moore,phD'16, professor emeritus of geology at theUniversity of Kansas, former director of theGeological Survey of Kansas, died April 16in Lawrence, Ks.; Wilmer Souder, phD'16,Landisville, Pa., dentist, former chief of thedental research section of the NationalBureau of Standards, some of whose earlyspecifications for toughness of amalgamsused in tooth fillings stood for more thanforty years, died April 8.¦* *j in memoriam: Leoline Gardner Kroll,-*- ' phB'17, educational counselor, loyalsupporter of the University, died April 4.j o in memoriam: Ruth Herrick, sb'18,-*-0 md'28, Lowell, Mi., retired dermatologist, collector, archeologist, was killed in anautomobile crash that occurred June 9 tenmiles southwest of Marion. In. An expert onGreentownware — a type of glass made inGreentown, In. — about which she wrote andillustrated a book, Dr. Herrick was on herway home from attending the fifth annualGreentown glass celebration when theaccident occurred.Hobart H. Sommers, p1ib'18, Columbus,Oh., died suddenly on April 14.-j q in memoriam: The Reverend Lucy W.-^ ^ Markley, phB'19, am'20, db'21, phD'25,retired university librarian and clergy-woman, died May 23 in New Haven, Ct.;Frank S. L. Newcomb, sb'19, md'22, physician in Pasadena, Ca., died March 17;Thyra E. Sands, phB'19, retired socialworker who was living in Pentwater, Mi.,died in May of this year."\r\ in memoriam: Chester Tilden*-^J Schrader, pIib'20, Homewood, II.,a retired auditor, died May 8, 1974.r\ -< in memoriam: Austin Harris Hobson,"*- phB'21, Montpelier, Vt., died April 26,at the age of seventy-four, following a shortillness.>-\'\ in memoriam: Paul McNair Becker,^^ sb'22, died March 19 at his home inGrosse Pointe Farms, Mi.; James A. Dyke,phB'22, Lansing, Mi., djed March 28; VernKnudson, pIid'22, chancellor emeritus of theUniversity of California at Los Angeles, prominent acoustical engineer who played amajor role in the construction of more than500 auditoriums and concert halls across thecountry, died May 13 in Los Angeles;Philip F. Stein, pliB'22,died in December of1973; Florence J. Wheeler, phB'22, am'45,Chicago, died May 12.'¦)'} NORMAN WOOD BECK, AB'23, PtlD'41,£"$ Jersey City (N.J.) State College facultymember for twenty-three years until hisretirement in 1972, was granted the rank ofprofessor emeritus during the school'scommencement ceremonies in June. He wasparticularly cited for his "significantcontribution to the study of politicalscience" and for his role in designing newcourses and developing new approaches tothe study of political science at the school.Dr. Beck served as chairman of the politicalscience department from the time of itsfounding in 1969 until his memoriam: Frederick W. Barber,phB'23, Warrens, Wi., May 2; Merritt H.Barnum, sb'23, San Diego, Ca., in September of 1973; Robert E. Corcoran, phB'23,jd'24, Chicago attorney, in November of 1973;Kenneth Faxon, phB'23, jd'24, am'25, civicleader in Brownsville, Tx., May 9; ViolaBergland Griswold, p1ib'23, May 19; AdolphMarius Hansen, md'23, May 10; AnnaRobin, phB'23, June 15 in Santa Barbara,Ca.; Trevor K. Serviss, phB'23, April 25 athis home in Falmouth, Ma.; John P. Tate,Sr., x'23, in Boise, Id.r\ A ZELMA WATSON GEORGE, PhB'24,¦^ ¦ sociologist, educator, diplomat, singerand actress, received an honorary degreeand delivered the commencement address inJune at Cleveland State University. Ms.George, who gained national attention as asinger in the opera "The Medium," wasrecipient of the Dag Hammarskjold awardfor contribution to international under-67 if. 6 eventsChicago. October 26: Football Day—celebrating the fiftieth anniversary ofthe University of Chicago's Big Tenchampionship. November 14-16: Eighthannual meeting of the Alumni Cabinet.Detroit. September 24: John Could,associate professor in the GraduateSchool of Business, will speak.san francisco, October: Youngalumni program.Washington, d.c September 26: Tourof the Museum of African Art. standing in 1961 and the Edwin T. Dahlbergpeace award in memoriam: Captain William McKee,am'24, president of the American Instituteof Economics in New Wilmington, Pa., diedin February of this year; James M.Reinhardt, x'24, Lincoln, Ne., died April 23;Delvy Thomas Walton, jd'24, died April 5in the VA hospital in Salt Lake Cityfollowing a long illness.^\ C A chemistry fellowship awards pro-^"¦^ gram, named in honor of francis e.cislak, sb'25, sm'26, has been establishedat Butler University (Indianapolis) under a$100,000 endowment from Reilly Tar &Chemical Corp. The fellowships "implementthe desire of Reilly to recognize the outstanding contributions of Dr. Cislak to theadvancement of chemistry," said thepresident of Butler in announcing theendowment. Widely recognized as a pioneerin the field of pyridine chemistry, Cislakwas director of research at Reilly when heretired last January after a forty-four yearassociation with the firm. He holds morethan 100 patents in the U. S. memoriam: Harold Buschman,phB'25, phD'32; Theodore R. Iserman,phB'25, jd'26.'¦)/" james a. Conner, sb'26, chairman^J of the department of pediatrics atHinsdale (II.) Sanitarium and Hospital andassociate professor emeritus at NorthwesternUniversity Medical School, was recentlypresented a distinguished service award bythe Chicago Pediatric Association.chou pei-yuan, sb'26, sm'26, a specialistin aerodynamics, is currently vice-chairmanof the university revolutionary committee atPeking University, People's Republic ofof memoriam: Irvin Richter, phB'26,jd'28, Brookfield, II, died May 21."y*j When the Chicago Tribune published•^ ' "mini-biographies" of Chicago'saldermen, the following description —"alderman since 1955 when he was firstelected as an independent . . . ; consideredmost eloquent member of the anti-administration bloc; tours his integratedHyde Park ward on a bicycle, often cyclesto his Loop law office" — was referring, ofcourse, to leon m. despres, p1ib'27, jd'29.ralph w. tyler, pIid'27, directoremeritus of the Center for Advanced Study jin the Behavioral Sciences at StanfordUniversity, former professor and chairmanof the Department of Education at the38University of Chicago, has been awarded anhonorary doctor of science degree by theUniversity of memoriam: Harold F. Batho, sm'27,phD'33.>-\q Alice lohrer, phB'28, am'44,¦"^ professor of library science and afaculty member at the University of Illinoissince 1941, retired in August. Last year theIllinois Association of School Librarianshonored Ms. Lohrer when they named herthe first recipient of a new annual schoollibrarian's award for her "outstandingcontribution to school library mediaservices in the state of Illinois."Mention in these pages of masajimarumoto, phB'27, associate justice of theHawaii supreme court, recalled student daysto eli e. fink, phB'28, id'30, as he wasflying to Hawaii last spring. Attorney Finkdiscovered that his hotel was next door toJudge Marumoto's home, and he wound updining and reminiscing with the Judge andMrs. Marumoto thousands of miles fromthe campus — or from Fink's Chicago office.ARNOLD e. ross, sb'28, sm'29, p1id'31,has been honored by Ohio State Universitywith a 1974 alumni award for distinguishedteaching. Ross, professor and chairman ofthe OSU mathematics department, was oneof eight winners chosen by a committee ofstudents and faculty.maurice a. walker, md'28, physicianand chairman of the Urban RenewalAgency board of Kansas City, Ks., was citedby that city's Chamber of Commerce lastyear when he was named winner of theorganization's annual community citizenshipaward.'"\Q melanie loewenthal pflaum,£7) phB'29, in a letter from Javea(Alicante), Spain, reports that some ofher earlier novels have been selected asbooks-of-the-month, or the English equivalent, by the British Book Society. Her ninthand latest novel, Lili (Pegasus Press of NewZealand), draws from her wartime background as chief of the Iberian division ofthe Board of Economic Warfare as well asfrom that of her husband, irving b.pflaum, phB'28, who was in Englandworking with PWE (Political WarfareExecutive) during the memoriam: The Reverend DonaldWilliam Blackwell, ab'29; Marion RobbRoberts, pIib'29; Dorothy E. Willy, phB'29.¦jr\ leo rosten, p1ib'30, phD'37,-J*J selections from whose newest book "Dear Herm" (New York: McGraw-Hill,1974), have appeared in recent issues of thispublication, hied himself to England lastspring to give an invited lecture before theRoyal College of Surgeons. Title of theirrepressible writer's talk: "A Crisp Resumeof Everything Worth Knowing."in memoriam: Adeline Fabbrini, p1ib'30;Ben H. Gray, p1ib'30; Elizabeth ThomasonGriffin, p1ib'30; Ralph S. Underwood,pIid'30; Charles I. Ziman, sb'30.31 alberta eisenberg schultz, p1ib'31,who recently retired from the CookCounty Bureau of Welfare after thirtyyears of service, and her husband, LeonSchultz, celebrated their fortieth weddinganniversary on July 24. Ms. Schultz, oneof the founders of Beth Torah congregationin Chicago, was the sisterhood president in1969 and served on the board of directorsof the Federation of Reform TempleSisterhoods. The Schultzes moved recentlyto Laguna Hills, Ca.ROBERT M.CUNNINGHAM, JR., pflB'31,editor of Modern Hospital magazine, hasaccepted appointment as chairman of theeditorial board of Modern Healthcare, amonthly journal.saunders maclane,am'31, Max Masondistinguished service professor of mathematics at the University, was awarded anhonorary doctor of science degree by CoeCollege, Cedar Rapids, la., during springcommencement ceremonies. MacLane holdsprevious honorary doctorates from Purdue,Yale and Glasgow universities.^^ earl s. johnson, am'32, pIid'41,»-^ emeritus professor of the socialsciences at UC, has been awarded thehonorary degree of doctor of humane lettersby the University of memoriam: Faye Ellen Bates, p1ib'32,am'33; Marjorie Vann Foster, p1ib'32.'^'j ramona sawyer barth, x' 33, has*-'*-' been busy explaining the women'sliberation movement to various East Coastcommunity groups on a professional lecturecircuit. The author of The Fiery Angel,a biography of Florence Nightingale, as wellas articles in the Nation, Reader's Digest,the Progressive and Journal of LiberalReligion, Ms. Barth and her husband, Rev.Joseph n. barth, phB'35, former ministerof King's Chapel in Boston, now retired,live in Alna, mahin, p1ib'33, a man who hasbattled Illinois' patronage system most ofhis life, resigned from state governmentearlier this year because he felt there wasn't enough work to justify his salary. In anarticle carried by the Chicago Tribune,Mahin said he was leaving his $27,500-a-year position as assistant to George Lind-berg, state comptroller, because "I havefought against payrollers all my life and I'mnot about to become one." The former staterevenue director and head of the BetterGovernment Association was hired inFebruary, 1973, to help modernize thecomptroller's office, assist it in taking overthe functions of the state auditor, and putthe state on a uniform accounting system.Those tasks, he feels, are almost complete.One of the better known BGA investigationsunder his direction zeroed in on patronageworkers for then Secretary of State PaulPowell who were losing the state millionsof dollars in truck licensing fees, Mahincharged, because of their practice ofallowing trucks to register in other memoriam: Lawrence W. Gidwitz,phB'33, id'34.*\A MADELINE KANN LELEWER, PflB'34,•^ ¦ who has been associated with J-HKahn Realtors in Glencoe, II., for morethan seventeen years, has been appointed tothe seven-member zoning commission forthat town.Robert e. hosack, am'34, former headof the social science department and twicechairman of the political science departmentwho came to the University of Idahocampus in 1943 "to teach for a shortwhile," retired on June 1. Hosack, professorof political science whose major fields arecomparative government, internationalrelations and Chinese government, hasapplied for a visa to visit mainland China.He would particularly like to visit thenorthern province of Shantung, the subjectof his doctoral dissertation. If the visa doesnot come through, Hosack and his wifestill hope to get in some traveling, althoughhe would like to continue to do someteaching at another memoriam: Bertha Myrtle AlbertCottle, x'34; Anne C. Tripp, pIib'34./jr in memoriam: Maude McJames*-'v-' Holton, phB'35, Evanston, II., died inNovember of last year; William ParkHotchkiss, phD'35, retired professor ofhistory at Syracuse (N. Y.) University, diedMay 17.~\C WILLIAM h. safranek, sb'36, was•-J" one of fifty inventors who washonored in June for patents they receivedduring 1973 as staff members of the39ALUMNI MEDALS HONOR JONES. THOMPSON"Innumerable forces within and without the university tend, willy-nilly, to urbanize the institution," Harvard's Howard MunrfordJones said, accepting the Alumni Medal."Asa university develops, the intricacy of research requires technological resources availableonly from urban industry,"he said. "Medical teachingrequires hospitals that furnish a wide variety of illnessand accident, something inwhich — alas! — our cities areprolific. And needs of housing, supply, sendees, food,and amusement createaround the university anurbanized, and sometimesunlovely environment thatis usually not urbane."But a distinction is to bemade between a city university and a university in acity. A city university becomes one when the citytends to overwhelm academic function. The city haseconomic problems; whydoesn't the department ofeconomics do something to Howard Mumford Jonessolve them? The city has housing problems; why doesn't theuniversity, that tax-free enterprise, house the poor? The city hasan educational problem; let the university institute adult education, night schools, extension courses, tactful teaching of minoritygroups, and day care for children. It is also urged to lower itsstandards so that the minorities can get in."The demands of the city are superficially plausible because thegood is always the enemy of the best. Lowered entrance requirements may throw a temporary sop to the Cerberus of masspressure, but who wants to go to a superficial dentist, a half-trained lawyer, a plausible surgeon, or a propagandist historian?Some thousands of years ago Euclid informed a prince that thereis no royal road to geometry, and there is no royal road to any formof academic excellence. In the end we do good by doing well."1 suggest it is the peculiar glory of the University of Chicago aspresently administered to have remained a university in the citywithout becoming a city university," Mr. Jones said.Said his citation, in part:Howard Mumford Jones (am 75) is one of the most distinguished scholars of American literature in the country. His distinctive contribution has arisen from a complex interplay of threeroles: literary and cultural historian, humanistic educator, andman of letters. As a scholar, he has formulated fresh conceptionsof Americans' understanding of their own culture and its differences from European modes of thought and expression.At Harvard since 1936, Howard Mumford Jones was named thefirst Abbott Lawrence Lowell professor of the humanities there in1960. A leader of humane education, he has ser\>ed as editor-in-chief of the John Harvard Library. As president of the AmericanAcademy of Arts and Sciences, and chairman of the AmericanCouncil of Learned Societies, he helped to make the largelyhonorific organizations into functional forums for interdisciplinary' and inter-university cooperation. "Today's constitutional crisis is cultural before it is personal, anational no less than individual sickness," said Kenneth W.Thompson, of the International Council for Educational Development, as he was awarded the Alumni Medal. "The predicamentof American society in the 1970s arises from the deep gulf betweenvaulting ambitions and personal capacities, between dreams andreality, between the quest for power and the fragmentary rolesmost of us play," he said. "There is too much space between man'sthirst for dominance and realizable expectations."You may dispute this, saying our problem is apathy not ambition, too much despair not too many dreams, an all-pervasivepowerlessness not lusting after power. But I would ask what liesbeneath these symptoms? What is it which has left us bereft ofpractical ambitions, realistic dreams and usable power? How is itthat we soar to such heights in our fantasies and plunge to suchdepths of depression and withdrawal? Why do we feel mostthreatened and powerless when we are most powerful? What is itin the culture which propels us up and down sharp peaks andvalleys of illusions and disillusionment? . . ."President Richard M. Nixon overwhelmed a rival who hadasked the innocent question whether anyone could be or should beall-powerful. Opposing this, the President won an unprecedentedelectoral victory on the slogan, 'Keep America No. 1.' Wherever weturn in society, we come face to face with the same guidingphilosophy. . ."There is something profoundly unsettling about this obsession.If the only goal we recognize is triumphal victory orwell-publicized success, we end up substituting results forstandards and appearances for deeper reality. And when we see inoutward success proof of inward virtue, we have taken the firstlong and probably irretrievable step toward an insensitive self-righteousness andincurable self-deception.Cruel and inhuman conductfollows — in the name ofvirtue. . ."The idea of immediaterewards and privileges forthe good and punishmentfor the evil leaves little roomfor the play of contingent ornatural forces and least ofall for human suffering ortragedy. It closes prematurely the great structures ofmeaning unfolding in personal or national life. Ityields to the temptation ofusing religion as a safeguardagainst all the insecurities oflife at a moment when uncertainties and insecuritiesmay be out of control. . ."American history and mankind's should teach us we have noguarantee the righteous will prosper nor that power and successare readily identified with personal or national worth. If this wereaccepted, we might be safeguarded from the most corruptingaspects of the search for and seizure of power."Lincoln went further than this, he knew that the power heexercised (even at the point he suspended habeas corpus andraised an army before war was declared) was tentative and pro-Kenneth W. Thompsonvisional at best. More importantly, he held his power in trust,balanced in every action he took by the power of others. He couldnot be master in any continuing sense because he acted under thelaw and within a constitutional system with its complex equilibriaof power. But neither was he slave when moral resolve was calledfor — nor could the Union survive half-free and half-slave."Those who suppose that their future or that of the republicdepend on absolute and unquestioned power with means sanctified by the end could do worse than reread and ponder his words,his alternative to a national psychology which if it persists couldyield a whole succession of Watergates and our eventual undoing."Said Mr. Thompson's citation, in part:Kenneth W. Thompson (am'48, vho'51), a one-man State Department," taught at Northwestern University and the University of Chicago before becoming associated with the Rockefeller Foundation (of which he was made vice-president in 1961)addressing issues such as colonialism, the nuclear dilemma andthe cold war, European unity and the Common Market. He hasbeen an important member of the Policy Studies Program of theUnited Nations Association. One of the most knowledgeableauthorities on university problems, particularly in the developingcountries, he is currently at the International Council forEducational Development as director of a program on HigherEducation for Development which is sponsored by twelve international, national, and private aid agencies, working on ways inwhich these and other agencies can concertedly assist highereducation in developing countries.Awards, citations go to tenThe professional achievement awardsMarian Alschuler Despres (pIid'30)A founder of the Chicago School of Architecture Foundation; activein the restoration and use of Glessner House; creator of volunteerguided tours of Chicago's architecture; member of the Commissionon Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks and of theMayor's Commission for the Preservation of Chicago's HistoricalArchitecture. Long devoted to civic and educational improvement inthe Hyde Park-Kenwood area.Louise Landman Palmer (ab'41)Created persuasive studies for county government referenda, localand state educational funding, the first statewide bond issue formental institutions of higher education. Legislative chairman of theFairfax-Falls Church (Virginia) Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services Board. Member of the state Commission onMental, Indigent and Geriatric Patients.Joseph Randall Shapiro (x'34)A founder of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Chicago. Pre-jminent collector. Governing life member and director of the ArtInstitute of Chicago. Innovator of the "Art to Live With" program atthe University; guide of the Arts Council of Illinois.Beverly Simek Wendt (ab'48)Vice-president of the school board of the Allegheny IntermediateUnit, president of the Forbes Road East Vocational Technical SchoolBoard, Pittsburgh. The public service citationsSelma Jeanne Cohen (ab'41, am'42, p1id'46)Founder-editor of Dance Perspectives and a major figure in thescholarship of dance and dance criticism.Charles L. Dunham (md'34)Consultant, formerly director of the division of medicine of theAtomic Energy Commission and chairman of the division of medicalsciences at the National Research Council-National Academy ofScience.Lucia Jordan Dunham (md'36)A major researcher in the field of geographic pathology — the epidemiology of cancer, which depends upon international cooperationand exchange of information — with the National Cancer Institute,Washington.Sister Candida Lund, O.P. (p1id'63)President of Rosary College, River Forest, 111., who continues to teachwhile serving in leadership posts in education and performing in outstanding ways as an administrator.Eleanor Bemert Sheldon (pIid'49)President of the Social Science Research Council, New York, a distinguished student of population changes.Herbert Stein (p1id'38)Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, Washington, he hasprovided the best advice that professional analysis could yield in thenation's efforts to solve its complex economic problems.Columbus Laboratories of BattelleMemorial Institute, Columbus, Oh. Safraneks co-holder of a patent on a new techniqueFor applying a nickel/chromium coating onnetal products.0^7 A new annual award, named in,:? ' honor of james brown iv, am'37,^'hD'39, has been established by the ChicagoCommunity Trust, the organization Brown;erved for twenty-three years as executivelirector. Named earlier this year as firstr ecipient of the Brown award forCommunity service was the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. Brown, who retiredfrom CCT in 1973, is a member of thevisiting committee to UC's School of SocialService Administration.Catherine b. cleary, ab'37, presidentof the First Wisconsin Trust Company,Milwaukee, was the featured speaker atLawrence University's 125th commencementin June. A member of numerous boards ofdirectors, Ms. Cleary received nationwideattention in 1972 when she was elected thefirst woman director of General Motors.Among recent honors, she was namedWisconsinite of the Year by the Wisconsin Broadcasters Association last February.edward b. beeks, ab'37, formerlydirector of industrial development atColorado State University, is currentlyheading the school's new office of businessrelations.nat h. newman, ab'37, was elected to theboard of directors of the York (Pa.) Bankand Trust Company early this year. He ispresident of Jack's of York, Inc., whichoperates three women's fashion stores in thethe memoriam: Charlotte Rosenbaum,ab'37; John M. Whitelaw, am'37.41-^Q ELIZABETH JACOB, AB'38, AM'47,*-**-' director of the Virginia Frank ChildDevelopment Center of Jewish FamilyServices, was one of three Chicagoansnamed by Governor Walker earlier this yearas public members of the state commissionon mental health, the body which advisesthe legislature on mental health matters. Anon-salaried appointee, she will serve untilJuly, 1975.karl a. olsson, am'38, p1id'48, directorof leadership training for Faith at Work, aNew York based national organizationencouraging church renewal, is the authorof a new book entitled Find Your Self inthe Bible: A Guide to Relational BibleStudy for Small Groups (Minneapolis:Augsburg Publishing House. $2.95).Formerly president of North Park Collegeand Theological Seminary in Chicago,Olsson has published several previousworks, including Come to the Party, andwrites regularly for Faith at Work magazine.KATHARINE MEYER GRAHAM, Ab'38,president and board chairman of theWashington Post Company and a trustee ofthe University, became the first womanboard member of the Associated Press whenshe was elected to the eighteen-memberbody earlier this memoriam: Rolin J. Downie, ab'38;Dorothy E. Eshbaugh, sb'38; Mary BotzHletko, sb'38.•-JQ PAULINE O. ROBERTS, sb'39, health*-* -^ officer of the South Health District(Los Angeles), has been appointed to thefaculty of Drew Postgraduate MedicalSchool and Martin Luther King, Jr.,General Hospital, Los Angeles, as associateprofessor of community medicine. Dr.Roberts lives in Pasadena.irving b. slutsky, sb'39, sm'41, has beennamed vice-chancellor for operationalservices and building planning for the CityColleges of Chicago.john h. smith, mba'39, phD'41, has beendesignated professor emeritus ofmathematics and statistics at the AmericanUniversity in Washington, D. C. Smith, aformer visiting professor at the University ofChicago, is retiring this year after twenty-seven years of teaching at memoriam: James W. Teener, phD'39,died June 15 in Topeka, Ks.Af\ edward b. bates, ab'40, president¦'-' and chief executive officer ofConnecticut Mutual Life InsuranceCompany, was the recipient of an honorarydoctor of laws degree from Trinity College(Hartford, Ct.) during the school's spring commencement exercises.J. ERNEST WILKINS, SB'40, SM'41, PhD'42,distinguished professor of appliedmathematical physics at Howard University,Washington, D. C, took office as presidentof the American Nuclear Society on June memoriam: Frances Smith Brownlee,p1id'40; John O. Levinson, jd'40.a -t The paintings and drawings of sara' ¦*¦ richman harris, ab'41, were ondisplay last spring in Schenectady, N. Y.The month-long show was sponsored by theSchenectady Art Society.Rabbi elias l. epstein, p1id'41,professor of Hebrew language and literatureemeritus at Hebrew Union College-JewishInstitute of Religion, Cincinnati, wasawarded the honorary degree of doctor ofdivinity, honoris causa, by the school onMay 31, 1974. A faculty member for thirtyyears, Rabbi Epstein is editor of thecollege's scientific publications and waschairman of the graduate department from1963 to 1971.ed zebroski, sb'41, is now with theElectric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto,Ca., as assistant director for nuclear systemsand materials, nuclear power division.O. DONALD OLSON, AB'41, MBA'48, whoserves as mobilization assistant to thesuperintendent of the U.S. Air ForceAcademy, has been promoted to majorgeneral in the Air Force Reserve.LAWRENCE E. GLENDENIN, SB'41, anArgonne National Laboratory chemist, hasbeen named recipient of the AmericanChemical Society's $2,000 award for nuclearapplications in chemistry in recognition ofhis outstanding contributions to the field ofnuclear fission, particularly his work on thechemical isolation and identification of fission products. Co-discoverer of the chemicalelement promethium (element 61),Glendenin has contributed to proceduresfor the chemical separation of sixteen otherfission-related elements.a ^\ Father of the Man, the work on"¦^ personality development in youngchildren, by Allison davis, p1id'42, theJohn Dewey distinguished service professorin the Department of Education at theUniversity, has now been issued in aJapanese translation. Previously it had beenpublished in Swedish, and certain chaptersin French and Portuguese.lyle w. smith, ab'42, has been namedvice-president (marketing) at HawthornMellody , Inc., Chicago-based dairy.ruby stutts lyells, am'42, of Jackson, Ms., has been elected to membership in theInternational Platform Association. Aneducator, social and civic leader, Ms. Lyellsis former executive director of theMississippi State Council on HumanRelations.edward v. zegarelli, sm'42, wasappointed dean of the Columbia Universityschool of dental and oral surgery in springof this year. Zegarelli, a member ofColumbia's faculty for thirty-seven years,had been serving as acting dean sinceSeptember, 1973.paul a. florian, mba'42, Chicago, hasbeen serving as campaign director for the1974 March of memoriam: Mary Edith Runyan,ab'42, am'45.A s\ JOHN r. hogness, sb'43, md'46,iJ moved into the University of Washington (Seattle) presidency this spring whilethe institution was still reeling from a blowdelivered just a few days earlier by theOffice of Civil Rights. If the school does notcorrect its discrimination in employment,said the OCR in a show cause order,millions of dollars in federal contracts willbe withheld from the school. According to aSeattle Daily Times article, Hogness regardsthe university's problems with the federalgovernment over anti-bias programs as ofthe highest priority. A president who intendsto "deliver" on his promises, he announcedthat "one or two of my first four seniorappointments will be women." A nationalauthority on health policy, Hogness left apioneering position as head of the Instituteof Medicine of the National Academy ofSciences to accept the Washingtonpresidency.jack krakauer, ab'43, jd'48, now ofLa Jolla, Ca., is working as a salesassociate for the commercial and industrialreal estate firm of Thomas-Fletcher-Nicol.Krakauer practiced law in Chicago fortwenty-four years.maurice f. seay, pho'43, a former deanat Western Michigan University, nowretired, is serving on the Calhoun County(Mi.) Mental Health Services Board.a a david s. fox, md'44, surgeon, has¦ ¦ been named president-elect of theChicago Medical Society. A resident ofOlympia Fields, II., Dr. Fox has been inprivate surgical practice in the Woodlawnarea of Chicago for most of his professionalcareer. He is a member and secretary of theboard of the Woodlawn Hospital and ischairman of its department of surgery.42Ar PAUL H. kusuda, pIib'45, am'49,'^ director of the bureau of planning,development and research, Wisconsindivision of corrections, was named "SocialWorker of the Year" by the Madison (Wi.)chapter of the National Council on SocialWork in Corrections earlier this year.Kusuda, winner of a 1973 alumni citationfrom UC's School of Social ServiceAdministration, is president of the NationalAssociation for Corrections Research andStatistics.hillier l. baker, sb'45, md'46, has beenappointed chairman of the department ofdiagnostic roentgenology of the Mayo Clinic,Rochester, Mn. He is associate professor ofradiology at the Mayo medical memoriam: Ray E. Brown, mba'45,professor of hospital and health servicesadministration management and executivevice-president of McGaw medical center ofNorthwestern University, died May 4 at hishome in Chicago.a r jewel stradford lafontant, jd'46,¦ " principal commencement speaker atHeidelberg College (Tiffin, Oh.) last spring,implored graduating seniors not to join theranks of the cynics but to become involvedand use the power of youth for socialchange. Ms. Lafontant, deputy solicitorgeneral of the United States, delivered theaddress after accepting an honorary doctorate of humane letters.albert e. finholt, pIid'46, professor ofchemistry at St. Olaf College, Northfield,Mn., has been cited by the ManufacturingChemists Association for excellence in theteaching of college chemistry.charles d. kelso, ab'46, jd'50, a facultymember of the Indianapolis Law School,Indiana University-Purdue University, iseditor of Learning and the Law, the newquarterly publication of the American BarAssociation's section of legal education andadditions to the bar.iames w. toren, ab'46, mba'47,following a ten-year affiliation withVirginia Industries (D. C), has rejoinedthe Prudential Insurance Company, Newark,N.J., as vice-president in the bond andcommercial loan memoriam: Lloyd A. Fallers, phB'46,t am'49, phD'53, Albert Michelsoni distinguished service professor in thei Departments of Anthropology and Sociologyand chairman of the Committee on{Comparative Study of New Nations at the^University of Chicago, died July 4.47 THOMAS MEADE HARWELL, AM'47, hasedited and written the introduction for Studies in Relevance: Romantic andVictorian Writers in 1972 (UniversitatSalzburg, Austria), a collection of papersproviding 18th and 19th century backgrounds for such topics of contemporaryinterest as ecology, radical chic society,nihilistic esthetics, absurdity, and relativity.Harwell, professor of English at ArkansasState University, authored Keats and theCritics, 1848-1900 in 1972. He is currentlypreparing a two-volume sequel to that studyfor the periods 1900-'25 and 1925-'50, aswell as a work entitled 19th Century Essayson the Gothic Novel, all to be published bythe Universitat Salzburg.STEPHEN L. ANGELL, JR., AM'47, wasnamed earlier in the year to a newposition — nutrition project coordinator —for the Dutchess County (N. Y.) Officefor the Aging.Robert j. bailyn, p1ib'47, former editorof the Sunday Home News in New Brunswick, N. J ., became executive editor of theD anbury, Ct., News-Times in June.lenore whitman mcneer, am'47,director of the mental health technology andhuman services programs at VermontCollege, is serving as chairman of theNortheastern Faculty DevelopmentConference, a regional organization ofmental health educators.Ms. McNeer, a former assistant director ofInternational House at UC, is currently adoctoral candidate in human servicesadministration at the University ofMassachusetts.Howard n. gilbert, pIib'47, partner inthe Chicago law firm of Rusnak, Deutschand Gilbert, was elected president ofMount Sinai Hospital Medical Centerof Chicago earlier this year.benjamin c. korschot, mba'47, has beenelected president of Waddell & Reed, Inc.,a national financial services complex basedin Kansas City, Mo.lyman c. peck, sm'47, professor ofmathematics at Miami University, Oxford,Oh., has been notified that his most recenttext, Basic Mathematics for Managementand Economics (Scott, Foresman andCompany, 1970), has now been issued in aSpanish language edition by EdicionesPiramide, S.A., Madrid.A Q First Persons, the newest novel by'O AUSTIN wright, am'48, p1id'59, has,as its main character, one Ralph Burr,a lonely middle-aged widower and professorof romantic literature who wakes up onemorning to discover he has become theprotagonist of a novel. In this role Burr meets a series of adventures. Published byHarper & Row, First Persons is a work offiction, a tale of mystery, in which Wrightalso explores the nature of the novel itself.An English teacher at the University ofCincinnati, Wright previously authored TheAmerican Short Story in the Twenties andCamden's Eyes.robert w. doty, sb'48, sm'49, pIid'50,professor of brain research, physiology andpsychology in the University of Rochestercenter for brain research, has been chosenpresident-elect of the Society for Neuro-science, a professional organization ofscientists from a variety of disciplines, butwhose major interest is brain research.Doty's term as president begins in October,1975. Editor of both the Journal de Physiologic of Paris and the Acta Biologae ofWarsaw, he is a member of an internationalcommittee planning a meeting of theInternational Brain Research Organizationin Toronto in 1976.SEYMOUR l. halleck, p1ib'48, sb'50,md'52, professor of psychiatry at theUniversity of North Carolina (ChapelHill), was honored by the Menninger Schoolof Psychiatry alumni association last Junewhen he was named to receive the ArthurMarshall distinguished alumnus award.james leon philon, pIib'48, Los Angeles,has been promoted to vice-president ofHilton Inns, Inc. He joined the Hiltonorganization in 1951.samuel e. stumpf, p1id'48, president ofCornell College (Mount Vernon, la.) from1967-'73, currently visiting professor ofmedical ethics at Vanderbilt University(Nashville, Tn.), was the guest speaker forNorth Georgia College's honors nightconvocation last memoriam: William F. Shore, phB'48,am'52.jq Elizabeth h. wright, sm'49, retired'^ last fall as education director of theMoline (II.) Public Hospital School ofNursing, a post she held for seven years.GWENDOLYN PAGE RITCHIE, AB'49, beganserving a two-year term as president of theChicago branch, American Association ofUniversity Women, on July 1. A teacher inthe Chicago public schools, Ms. Ritchie is amember of the League of Women Votersand of the benefits committee for the DanceTheater of Harlem. She is a national boardmember of UC's Alumni Fund.o. WILLIAM perlmutter, am'49, pIid'59,academic vice-president of Saint John'sUniversity (Collegeville, Mn.), has co-authored a children's book, The EndlessPavement.43RICHARD D. GOLDEN, AB'49, MBA'53,president of LPM Parts & Service (ElkGrove, II.), a retail distributor of industrialtruck parts, has left the board of trustees ofNorth Shore Country Day School(Winnetka), having served the school formany years as alumni president. Hecontinues as board member of the ElkGrove Village High School Career GuidanceCouncil and next year joins the governingbody of the Winnetka Community memoriam: William Henri Hale,phD'49, assistant to the vice-president forstudent services and professor of sociologyat Utah State University (Logan), presidentof Langston (Ok.) University from 1960-'69,died May 2.crv delmar d. walker, mba'50,'-''"' chairman and president of Funk SeedsInc., Bloomington, II., has been named"boss of the year" by the Bloomington-Normal Jaycees. The award, one of sixannual honors, is presented by theorganization in recognition of communityservice.marvin fox, p1id'50, is leaving thefaculty of Ohio State University thisSeptember to accept a named professorship,the Nathan and Janet Appleman chair inJewish studies, at Brandeis University.charles o. hucker, p1id'50, professor ofChinese and history at the University ofMichigan, has been awarded an honorarydoctorate of humanities by OaklandUniversity (Rochester, Mi.) in recognition ofhis outstanding scholarship in premodernChinese history and his contributions to thedevelopment of Asian studies in Americanhigher education.C-j milton j. davis, am'51, retired from*^*- the staff of Gurnee (II.) Grade Schoolon June 30, having served the district forthirty-one years as a classroom teacher,principal and superintendent. His retirementplans include working in the business fieldand continued involvement in volunteeractivities.Cornelia ladwig, x'51, coordinator ofthe placement service at West VirginiaUniversity, has retired. Ms. Ladwig, whowas instrumental in establishing the serviceat WVU in 1949, was one of the firstwomen in the nation to be appointed tohead a college placement k. Herbert, am'51, has beenappointed associate dean of the graduateschool of social work at the University ofTexas at Austin.joseph r. royce, p1id'51, professor of psychology and director of the Center forAdvanced Study in Theoretical Psychology,University of Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta,Canada), is editor of Multivariate Analysisand Psychological Theory, published in 1973by Academic Press.peter g. Peterson, mba'51, New York,chairman of Lehman Brothers, Inc., hasbeen elected a trustee of the Museum ofModern Art. The former Secretary ofCommerce is also a trustee of theUniversity.The Subordinate Sex: A History ofAttitudes toward Women (University ofIllinois), by vern l. bullough, am'51,phD'54, came out in Penguin paperback inApril of this year. It is the first in a trilogyof studies about the history of sex, thesecond of which is scheduled for publicationnext year by the University of CaliforniaPress with the tentative title of Sex, Culture,and Deviance. The third volume, to be delivered to the University of Illinois Press atthe end of this year, deals with prostitution.Bullough, professor of history at CaliforniaState University, Northridge, has also editeda series of reprints of 18th and 19thcentury studies of sex for Heritage Press.seymour scher, am'51, p1id'56, formercity manager of Yonkers, N. Y., was swornin as first deputy comptroller of New Yorkearlier this year. Before assuming theYonkers post in 1970, Scher was citymanager of Rochester (N.Y.).The selection of alan kistler, am'51, byGeorge Meany to head the AFL-CIO'sdepartment of organization and fieldservices and its newly defined mission ofcoordinating all federation activities at theregional level, was approved by theorganization's executive council earlier thisyear. Kistler had served as assistant directorof the department of organization memoriam: S. A. Bayitch, jd'51;Gerald E. Williams, am'51, p1id'61.52 CHARLES EDWIN BISHOP, PllD'52,chancellor of the College Park campusof the University of Maryland, has beenappointed president of the University ofArkansas multi-campus system.Herman g. richey, ab'52, professor ofchemistry at Penn State, has won the thirdannual college of science student councilC. I. Noll award for excellence inundergraduate teaching.john chavis, am'52, previously thedirector of behavioral science research andprofessor of history at Tuskegee (Al.) Institute, has accepted an appointment atLincoln University in Jefferson City, Mo., asvice-president and chief academic officer.KENNETH SCRUGGS TOLLETT, AB'52, JD'55,am'58, professor of higher education atHoward University.HERBERT l. caplan, ab'52, jd'57, Chicago,was nominated in the March primaryto run for the office of judge of the CircuitCourt of Cook County in the November 5,1974, general election.r/J IRENE SPACK WEINREB , AM'53, was«-J»-J elected mayor of Hayward, Ca.,defeating the incumbent in a spiritedelection last spring. The first woman everelected to that office, she was chosen sixyears ago as the city's first woman councilmember."Mental health in the later years requiresa program to counteract the stresses ofaging, not an arrangement which intensifiesthose stresses by isolation and over-protection," says DAVID d. stonecypher,jr., md'53, in his new book, Getting Olderand Staying Young: A Doctor's Prescriptionfor Continuing Vitality in Later Life (NewYork: W. W. Norton & Company, 1974.$8.95). In the work the San Diegoophthalmologist, who has done extensiveresearch on the cause and prevention ofsenility discusses both the physical andpsychological aspects of the aging memoriam: Walter Graessle, ab'53,am'58, died June 3 in Chicago.54 john t. dygdon, mba'54, directorof Illinois Institute of Technology'sevening division and special educationalprograms, is the author of the recentlyrevised textbook, Basic Technical Drawing,published by the MacMillan Company, NewYork. Dygdon co-authored the originaledition of the work with the late Henry C.Spencer of IIT.ethel b. jones, am'54, p1id'61, professorof economics at the University of Georgia,has been selected as "woman of the year ineducation" by the Athens (Ga.) Businessand Professional Women and the city's FirstAmerican Bank and Trust Co. A member ofthe board of editors of the SouthernEconomics Journal and the Journal ofBusiness and Research since 1972, Ms.Jones currently holds one of twelve FordFoundation faculty fellowships for study ofa topic relating to the role of womenin society.remick mcdowell, mba'54, Chicago andWoodstock, II., chairman and chief44executive officer and a 34-year employee ofPeoples Gas Company, retired March 1.arnie matanky, x'54, director of publicinformation for the Chicago Park District,has been named by the Chicago Associationof Commerce and Industry to itsgovernmental affairs council, Chicagosociety, and harbors and waterwayscommittee. He has been reappointed to thecommunications and promotion committees.dale a. Morrison, ab'54, left in July forAnkara, Turkey, where he has beenassigned as the information officer to theAmerican Embassy. Before joining USIA asa career foreign service information officerin 1962, Morrison was a reporter and writerfor the Chicago Daily News and later servedin the same capacity with WBBM-Radioin Chicago.The Reverend Howard t. leach, ab'54,has been appointed associate minister of theFirst United Methodist Church of GlenEllyn, II. Rev. Leach, who will serve as theminister of education, most recently serveda five-year pastorate in Oak Park, II.richard i. seltin, sm'54, pho'56, hasbeen named chairman of the department ofnatural science in Michigan StateUniversity's university college. Seltin,a vertebrate paleontologist, joined theMSU faculty in 1956.55 ROLAND DINGLEY JONES, MBA'55,vice-president of sales for theTowmotor Corporation (Mentor, Oh.), asubsidiary of Caterpillar Tractor Company,has been elected president of the MaterialHandling Institute.davis b. bobrow, ab'55, ab'56, has leftthe University of Minnesota to accept anappointment as chairman of the departmentof government and politics at the Universityof Maryland, College Park campus. Bobrowhas published numerous scholarly articlesand four books, the latest of which isInternational Relations— New memoriam: The Reverend Brendan C.Connolly, S.J., p1id'55; Troy E. Knowles,mba'55.r r franklin d. loomos, ab'56, jd'61,*^™ has co-founded a private law firm inAuburn, Wa. Loomos practiced law inChicago until 1968 when he movedto Washington.salvatore g. rotella, am'56, p1id'71,'has been appointed associate vice-chancellorfor the newly established institute for .•city-wide programs of the City Collegesof Chicago.en paul eidelberg, am'57, pIid'66, has^ ' accepted an appointment as visiting research professor of political science atClaremont (Ca.) Men's College. His newestwork, A Discourse on Statesmanship, isscheduled for publication this September bythe University of Illinois Press.Robert j. zirkel, mba'57, Danvers, employee of the Middlesex Bank since1964, was promoted earlier this year tosenior vice-president, marketing.diane m. kelder, am'57, member of theart faculty at Richmond College, CityUniversity of New York, has taken on theadditional job of editor of the quarterly, ArtJournal.john bjork, mba'57, has joined the staffof Unijax, Inc., a distributor of paper andallied products headquartered in Jacksonville, Fl., as vice-president and executiveassistant to the chairman and chiefexecutive officer of the firm.wilson k. talley, sm'57, assistantvice-president for academic planning andprogram review at the University ofCalifornia, Berkeley, was appointed earlierthis year by Nelson A. Rockefeller as studydirector of the Commission for CriticalChoices for America.clyde a. carrell, sb'57, has joinedOn-Line Business Systems, San Francisco,as a senior member of the advisory staff.On-Line provides programming andcomputer processing for business andfinancial management.r o marcelino crudo, am'58, has^O assumed the position of associate vicechancellor for governmental affairs andfunded projects for City College of Chicago.Robert emans, am'58, pIid'63, has leftOhio State University where he waschairman and professor of early and middlechildhood education, to become dean of thecollege of education at the University ofMaryland's College Park campus.CQ WALTER H. SANGREE, pIvd'59,'-'-' professor of anthropology at theUniversity of Rochester (N. Y.), has beenappointed chairman of that department.A social anthropologist, Sangree is anauthority on the changes in the social andpolitical organization of several Africantribal societies being integrated into modernnational states, particularly in Kenyaand Nigeria.Published in May by Praeger Publishers,New York, was the book, One Last Chance:The Democratic Party, 1974-76, by john g.stewart, am'59, pIid'68, of Washington,D. C. "His book," wrote Pulitzer Prizewinner david s. broder, ab'47, am'51, nationally syndicated political reporter andcolumnist for the Washington Post, "is oneof two recent volumes offering evidence thatat least some younger Democrats havebegun to think their way through theparadoxes of the party's present position."eugene a. Herman, sb'59, has beenpromoted to professor of mathematics atGrinnell (la.) College.rf\ BRIAN E. MCKNIGHT, AB'60, Am'64,"'-' phD'68, member of the historydepartment faculty, University of Hawaii atManoa, writes that since publishing hisbook on village level political institutions intraditional China (Village and Bureaucracyin Southern Sung China, University ofChicago Press, 1971), he has turned hisattention to the police and judicial systemsof Sung China. In line with this interest hewill be spending the 1974-'75 academic yearstudying criminal law and legal history atthe Harvard law school on a grant for postdoctoral research from the AmericanCouncil of Learned Societies. Patriciamorrow mcknight, x'51, is a recentgraduate of the bachelor's degree programin nursing at the University of Hawaii.earl johnson, jr., jd'60, associateprofessor of law at the University ofSouthern California, has been elected to theOrder of the Coif, national legalhonor society.h. gene blocker, ab'60, who teachesesthetics at Ohio State University,collaborated with William Hannafordon a textbook, Introduction to Philosophy,published in April by Van Nostrand.Another book by Blocker, Meaning andMeaninglessness, was released during thesummer by Martinus Nijhoff (the Hague,Netherlands).monroe g. mckay, jd'60, senior partnerin the law firm of Lewis and Roca in Mesa,Az., has been named to the J. Reuben Clarklaw school faculty at Brigham YoungUniversity, Salt Lake City, as associateprofessor of law.61 myra g. posert, ab'61, receivedhonorable mention in the SanFrancisco Women Artists Annual Show forher painting entitled "Beginningto Understand."gerald koci, ab'61, is currently runningthe district Social Security office in Berwyn,II. During his nearly thirteen years with theSocial Security Administration Koci hasserved in a variety of positions in the field,and in administrative staff positions in theChicago regional office.CHARLES E. BECKER, SB'61, MBA'62,45Homewood, II., has been promoted topersonnel officer at Continental IllinoisNational Bank and Trust Companyof Chicago.r ^ bruce m. johnson, ab'62, as winnerVJt* 0f a National Endowment for theHumanities senior fellowship, is studying"models of consciousness" in Victorianwriters, such as Hardy and Kipling, as wellas in selected contemporary writers.Johnson is a member of the English faculty atthe University of Rochester.Arthur v. wynne, mba'62, Livingston,N. J., joined the board of managers of theOrange (N. J.) Savings Bank in spring ofthis year. A councilman and former mayorof Livingston, Wynne is currently a partnerand chief executive officer of Burrelle'sPress Clipping Service.thomas f. lynch, am'62, p1id'67, hasbeen promoted to professor of anthropologyat Cornell University (Ithaca, N. Y.). Anarcheologist. Lynch has worked extensivelyon excavations in Idaho, Spain, Ecuadorand Peru, where he recently discovered theoldest known remains of cultivated beans. Thebeans, as dated by the radiocarbon method,were determined to be 7,680 years old, plusor minus 280 years.C.'X barney m. engel, phD'63, has'J*-' accepted the appointment of chairmanof the education department, college of artsand sciences, Rutgers University,Camden, N. J.jay r. greenberg, ab'63, pIid'68, a staffscientist at the Worcester Foundation forExperimental Biology, Shrewsbury, Ma., hasreceived a three-year cancer research grantfrom the Massachusetts division of theAmerican Cancer Society.BARBARA G. MYERHOFF, AM'63, associateprofessor of anthropology at the Universityof Southern California, is the author ofPeyote Hunt: The Sacred Journey of theHuichol Indians, published earlier this yearby Cornell University Press.rA richard i. fine, jd'64, a deputyO ¦ attorney for Los Angeles, was assignedby the city attorney's office earlier this yearto head a newly-created division specializingin anti-trust law, believed to be the firstsuch division at the municipal level in thecountry. Fine, a former Justice Departmentattorney in the anti-trust section, describedthe new division for a Los Angelesnewspaper as "a private anti-trust firm witha captive client" which will concentrate on prosecuting price fixing, monopolies, andprice discrimination.g. edwin howe, mba'64, director of OhioState University Hospitals, Columbus, wasnamed the Robert S. Hudgens "YoungHospital Administrator of the Year" at ameeting of the American College ofHospital Administrators, held in Chicagoearlier this year.CAROLYN moll burke, am'64, is one ofseven law students at the University ofSouthern California who have been namednote and article editors for the SouthernCalifornia Law Review, a quarterlypublication of the USC law center.philip m. burno, am'64, has beenpromoted to general partner in the Chicagoinvestment firm of Wayne Hummer and Co.thomas w. lyman, pho'64, has received apromotion at Emory University (Atlanta),effective September 1, to professor in thehistory of art. Lyman, who has doneresearch on medieval art in France, is amember of the advisory board of theInternational Center for Medieval Art andthe board of trustees of the AtlantaArts Festival.r C BARBARA j. katz, ab'65, am'69, of theWO National Observer, has been named bythe National Association of Science Writersas one of the two winners of the science-in-society journalism award for 1974.Consisting of $1,000 and a medallion, theaward is given in recognition of outstandinginvestigative and interpretive writing aboutscience and its impact on the quality of life.Ms. Katz won in the life-science categoryfor her story on the birth-control perils ofintrauterine devices (IUDs).Ms. Katz' article stirred up controversy ina number of quarters, and two criticalletters, one from the inventor and anotherfrom a spokesman for the company thatmanufactures an IUD known as the DalkonShield, were subsequently printed in theObserver. The inventor contended her storywas "unjustifiably negative" in focusing onthat device, and the spokesman for theA. H. Robins Co., manufacturer of theDalkon Shield, complained the article"could create unjustified apprehension andfear among thousands of women." Shortlythereafter, however, the Robins Co. sent outa letter to one-third of the nation'sphysicians confirming that "late in 1973 wewere able to confirm" four cases of"maternal fatality" among women who hadbecome pregnant while using the DalkonShield. (They miscarried and died fromblood poisoning.) The firm urged "precautionary steps" by doctors. But theFood and Drug Administration has gone abit further, and early this summer asked themanufacturer to stop distributing andselling the Dalkon Shield. The companyagreed.GARY LANDAU, AB'65, MBA'66, Wasappointed earlier this year to the newposition of senior vice-president of MedicalLaboratory Automation, Inc., MountVernon, N. Y.,DANIEL m. farrell, ab'65, am'68,member of the philosophy departmentfaculty at Ohio State University, wasawarded his doctorate by RockefellerUniversity in June.charles t. levitan, ab'65, physician inNew Bedford, Ma., has joined the medicalstaff of St. Luke's Hospital in that city.julius hovany, am'65, formerly a specialassistant in the executive office of thegovernor of Illinois, joined the NationalCarwash Council earlier this year asnational legislative director.william f. steigman, jd'65, joined thestaff of the American Hospital Association(Chicago) earlier this year as assistantdirector of the office of legal affairs.An eighty-five foot painting of theBrooklyn Bridge, by johan sellenraad,mfa'65, was on display for a month thisspring at New York's Whitney Museum ofAmerican Art. The painting, in sevensections, "attempts to simulate walkingalongside the bridge, the four city blocksfrom Water Street to City Hall," saidSellenraad. "As the sidewalk meanders sodoes proximity to the mass."Between 1965 and 1970, I had a loft onWater Street overlooking that section of thebridge .... The rest of the city was cut offfrom view by another building, and thefront windows were frosted. So it was thereand became my M oby-Dick . For four yearsI resisted it, doing figure paintings. Finally,I succumbed."66 SHIRLEY BUOP ZIMMERMAN, Am'66, aSfirst women's coordinator for SantaClara (Ca.) County, is working towards thegoal of ensuring equal employment andpromotion opportunities for women incounty government. Previously Ms.Zimmerman and her husband spent threeyears in the Philippines developing ajuvenile center rehabilitation program.john taggart, am'66, has beenpromoted to associate professor of Englishat Shippensburg (Pa.) State College. A poetTaggart has published three volumes ofverse: To Construct a Clock. Pyramid46Canon, and The Pyramid Is a Pure Crystal.RICHARD o. ryan, mba'66, budgetdirector and controller of the Chicago Boardof Trade, has been named to the additionalpost of assistant treasurer.HERBERT abramson, am'66, has beenappointed an instructor in classicalarcheology at Franklin and Marshall College(Lancaster, Pa.) for the 1974-75 academicyear. Abramson expects to complete worktoward his doctorate at Berkeley inDecember. He is writing his dissertation on"Greek Hero Shrines."rn Robert flanagan, am'67, associate^ ' professor of English at Ohio WesleyanUniversity (Delaware, Oh.), has beenawarded a National Endowment for the Artsgrant for fiction. He recently had a story,"Gaming," published in the magazine,Fiction, and his first novel, Maggot, is nowin its third printing with over 80,000 copiessold.PAULA LIPNICK GOLDSMID, AM'67, PflD'72,formerly a member of the sociology facultyat the University of North Carolina, becameassociate dean in the college of arts andsciences at Oberlin (Oh.) College on July 15.Among her duties in the new post isresponsibility for the development offeminist interests of curricular and professional kinds, including the design of awomen's studies program and therecruitment of women as candidates forpositions in the faculty and administration.LAURETTE SELIG LAURENT, AB'67, hasbeen appointed to fill a vacancy on theGlenview (II.) Plan Commission. Her termruns until July 31, 1977.leon botstein, ab'67, president ofFranconia (N. H.) College, has been elected:o the board of trustees of Brewster\cademy, a prep school in Wolfeboro,*1. H. Botstein achieved national>rominence in 1970 when he was appointedo the presidency of Franconia, thus>ecoming, at the age of twenty-three, theoungest college president in the nation.judith dressel peters, am'67, becameexecutive director of the Rochester-Monroe"ounty (N. Y.) Youth Board earlier this,fear.'-q adele geffen, ab'68, has received¦'O her law degree from the Columbus lawchool of Catholic University, Washing-on, D. C.gilbert w. bassett, mba'68, hasesigned as president of MGD Graphiciystems in Chicago, to accept the executivelirectorship of the Graphic Arts Technical-bundation. /-q gerald marks, mba'69, is owner/" -' manager of the new Arlington Heights(II.) office of Fanning Personnel Agency.Joseph h. Friedman, ab'69, in a recentswitch of fields, has enrolled in medicalschool at the Columbia University college ofphysicians and surgeons. Friedman taughtmathematics at the Bimbilla TeacherTraining College in northern Ghana for twoyears following graduation from UC.bern paul myers, ab'69, attorney, hasannounced the opening of his law practicein San Diego, Ca.susan e. grosser, ab'69, has beengranted a master's degree in regionalplanning by the University of NorthCarolina.Joseph d. brisben, ab'69, has beenpromoted at Drake University (Des Moines,la.) to associate director of the office ofuniversity relations.RONALD A. BERNSTEIN, SB'69, whoreceived his medical degree last spring fromthe Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, is serving a surgical residency atNorthwestern University Medical Centerin Chicago. He is specializing in neurosurgery, with emphasis on cancer research.john leverence, am'69, research fellowat the Center for the Study of PopularCulture, Bowling Green University, Oh., isthe author of a new book, a biography ofpopular novelist, Irving Wallace, a Writer'sProfile (Bowling Green, Oh.: Popular Press,1974. $6.95).70 elise frank masur, ab'70, has beennamed to the faculty of TuftsUniversity (Medford, Ma.) as assistantprofessor in the Eliot Pearson departmentof child study, howard masur, ab'70, has aBenjamin Pierce assistant professorship inmathematics at Harvard. Both Masursexpect to receive their doctorates this yearfrom the University of Minnesota.DANIEL H. KAISER, AM'70, plans tocomplete his doctoral research on latemedieval Russian law at the Universities ofMoscow and Leningrad. Kaiser is spendingthe academic year in the Soviet Union ona Fulbright-Hays scholarship.71 wendy Rosenblatt, x'71, is founder/executive director of the LearningExchange, Inc., in her words "an innovativealternative pre-school" in Sausalito, Ca. Theschool is growing by a grade each year.GARY dean cable, sm'71, and CeliaArias were married May 25 in Albuquerque,N. M. Cable, who earned a doctorate inphysics at the University of Arizona, iscurrently working at Kirtland AFB (N. M.) in the field of near-earth radiation physics.CHARLES f. flynn, ab'71, is theco-author (with Todd McCarthy) of Kings ofthe Bs, a definitive history of Hollywood"B" movies to be published in January byE. P. Dutton.naomi lindstrom, ab'71, has recentlyreceived her doctorate in Spanish fromArizona State University.The Reverend Robert s. denig, mt!i'71,DMn'72, has been appointed Episcopalchaplain at the University of Massachusetts.BARBARA LANDERS BOWLES, MBA'71, hasbeen elected a trust officer at the FirstNational Bank of Chicago.judith mears, jd'71, is working as anattorney for the American Civil LibertiesUnion in New York City.richard w. moodey, p1id'71, a facultymember at Allegheny College (Meadville,Pa.) since 1968, has been promoted toassociate professor of sociology.i-i^ Theodore berland, am'72, Chicago,' ^ tells us that his latest book, Livingwith Your Eye Operation, has been published by St. Martin's Press. He wrote thebook in collaboration with Dr. Richard A.Perritt.Harriet heyman, am'72, is currently aneditor in the Week in Review section of theSunday New York Times.'J') RICHARD springwater, ab'73, was' *-* one of two students chosen by thefaculty of the architecture school, Washington University in St. Louis, as winners ofthe Fredrick Widmann prize. Presented atthe conclusion of the 1973-'74 academicyear, the $300 prize distinguished Spring-water as the "best architectural student inthe university."corinne rice hollar, ab'73, has joinedthe staff of Northwest Community Center inRockford, II., as director of day care servicesfor children.MARCELLA BACHLER, AM'73, and JOHN D.denne, mba'67, are co-authors of A HealthProfile of the State of Illinois, publishedthis year by the Illinois Regional MedicalProgram, pierre de vise, am'58, wrote theforeword and was in charge of the over-alldirection of the h. hoffman, mba'73, has joinedCorning (N. Y.) Glass Works as financialcontrol manager in manufacturing planningin the manufacturing and engineeringdivision.*y a donald e.clark, mba'74, has been'¦ appointed controller of the St. Charles(II.) Manufacturing Company.47Z£909 J3I DxdJaiS H12.S iS7d 0311S3MH3«\! >vilSy3AQ0VDIH3 JD AiISd3/a 1W n* *; -a •w*^'^