^a «é1yB^GT n ffjlMERJi ilk-JMy'ii^'iwtHHB*\ ^1 j H-ili 1 ?l IliK B 1 lJMI li i* H'iM 1 iS 111 B' 1/$UMMER 1974 \INSURING THE CONTINUATIONOF GREATNESSThe University has announced the second phase of the Campaign for Chicago. Thisphase is an effort to raise $280 million during the next several years.As Gaylord Donnelley, chairman of the Board of Trustees, said in announcing thiseffort, about half the total is for endowment of various kinds, much of it for facultysupport and student aid. And he said what most of us know, that the University isvery strong now, and that this support is needed to keep it strong for the long run.The alumni are among the world's rare and favored people; we have had the best ofit. On the whole, we are not a rich group. So many of us are in the professions, or ingovernment, and a tremendous number in teaching. Unlike some universities,Chicago cannot rely on its alumni primarily for the kind of funds it needs.But the alumni have been generous to the University. In the last few years thegiving to the Alumni Fund has quadrupled, going over $2,000,000 last year. That is agood sign of the times.There are many other ways alumni can and do help. Many of us are inCommunications and can keep spreading the word to our friends and to the world. Aliof us can help in the vital business of encouraging the best students from ali over thecountry to attend the University. And ali of us can encourage support from our ownfriends who are not fortunate enough to be alumni.If you have not been back to visit the University recently, try to make anopportunity for a visit. When you are around the place, you can see and feel the oldspirit and a lot of new excitement. And bring others to visit, too. The University willattract — as it always has attracted — the loyalty and the support of people inproportion to how well they know it. Making it known is a job alumni can do betterthan anyone else, and it is one that needs doing over and over again.We who know the University well will play a key part in the new campaign that isnow beginning. We will do so because, knowing the importance of this University'srole in the world, we have a special interest in insuring the continuation of itsgreatness.President, The Alumni AssociationTHEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEThe University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312)753-2175Julian J. Jackson, PhB'31, PresidentArthur Nayer, Director, Alumni Aff airsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorKristen Nelson, Program DirectorRegional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91201(213)242-8288825 Third Averiue, Suite 1030New York, New York 10022(212)688-73551000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415)928-0337735 South Fairfax StreetAlexandria, Va. 22314(703)549-3800Volume LXVI Number6Summer, 1974The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published four times peryear for alumni and the f aculty of the University of Chicago, under the auspices of theOffice of the Vice President for PublicAffairs. Letters and editorial contributionsare welcomed.Don Morris, AB'36EditorJennie LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois;additional entry at Madison, Wisconsin.Copyright 1974, The University of Chicago.Published quarterly in June, September,December and March.picture credits: Page 1, Myron Davis;Pages 15, 16, S. Chandrasekhar; Page 20,United Press International; Pages 34-36,Frank Gruber except 34 top, Jonathan Harris; Page 43 (left), Arthur Shay, (tight), Parade Publications; Page 48, Leslie Travis. Terrorismi the crime of the polistaraxicLawrence Z. FreedmanSome remarks on the development of general relativityPlus: The black hole in astrophysicsS. Chandrasekhar 11Homecoming of a CantoneseKei-on Chan 17One introduction to Conf ucian thoughtGeorge Anastaplo 21The def amation of American PolesMark Krug 29Polyunsaturated facts exposed!Leo Rosten 33The path inward: one student's universityFrank Gruber 34The new Alumni Cabinet 394 Quadrangle news 38 Alumni news 47 Index to '73-'74 issuescover: Three generations ofa University family were feted by the University of ChicagoPress this spring (story on page 5 and 6). In the photograph (by Myron Davis [x'41])made in the office of Morris Philipson, director ofthe Press, are John T. McNeill (phD'20), William H. McNeill (ab'38, am'39) and Ruth McNeill, who, as the occasion re-vealed, is likewise a writer.With this issue the University of Chicago Magazine begins a new publishingschedule. You will be receiving the Magazine four times a year— once eachquarter. We hope to make the publication larger than it has been— to give usspace to run more and sometimes longer articles of general interest to alumni. Inour questionnaire last summer we learned that while many of you would prefer amore frequent schedule, an approximately equal number would accept issuanceless often if the Magazine' s purposes could be fulfilled better in that way.None of us is very happy about having to cut back the number of issues, ofcourse (though the annual aggregate content will remain the same). But acombination of paper shortages with rapidly increasing costs for supplies,mailing and other essentials makes such a move necessary, at a time when theUniversity' s budget is under terrible pressure.Ultimately we may have to institute a subscription charge, but for the timebeing the Magazine will continue to be sent to you free. (And it should go withoutsaying that those who have paid for life subscriptions would not be subject to anysubsequent charge that might be made.)We have considered many possible ways out of our financial quandary andfinally have agreed that issuing the Magazine quarterly is the best way, now, tocontinue to keep you au courant with University affairs.D. J. fì. BrucknerVice-President for Public Affairs3Quadrangle Ds{ewsLevi address keynotes new Campaign for ChicagoPresident Edward H. Levi, in his report on"The State of the University," spokeabout the three-year fund raising Campaignfor Chicago on which the University willembark in June, and on which the trusteeshave already been active in a preliminaryeffort.Mr. Levi presented as the rationale for thecampaign the dilemma which has confrontedthe University: When one is short of funds,one must either reduce spending or acquiremore money.The University has reduced its spending; #current budgets, however, are stili notbalanced.But the University's spending is the supportfor its excellence. To reduce spending furtherwould be to endanger its reason for being.Therefore it must attract more money.In 1965, as ali alumni but those of recentvintage will recali, the University undertookthe first phase of a major campaign; theinitial phase was intended to raise $160,-000,000, much of it to create much-neededplant. The effort was successful, and most ofthe needed buildings have been built.The second phase was planned to underpinthe University's academic programs. A largeshare of the money was to go to endowment,so that the University would be less dependenton the winds of change in its fiscal environ-ment.The planned second effort had beenscheduled to begin in 1970. It had to bedelayed until now, principally because of un-certainties in the economie climate."Possible 1970 was too early in any event,"Mr. Levi said, adding: "Even donors mayneed some rest between extraordinary com-mitments."The two segments of the drive, however,were part of one pian," he said. "The failureto go ahead on the second segment has meantthe University has not been receiving the endowment or expendable funds for facultysalaries, student scholarships or fellowships,or for the maintenance of buildings andlibraries essential to retain the advances ofthe first stage."The originai ten-year pian, by now, ofcourse, is out of date. But over the last fouryears the plans have been twice revised andexpanded. . . "Approximately 80% of the funds raised inthis second stage will be used for professor-ships, programs, student aid and otheressential facilities. Approximately 60% of thisamount, in turn, will be to provide supportingendowment for these purposes."Thus a centrai focus of the second stageof the drive is to achieve sufficient capitaliza-tion so that the most essential activities of theUniversity will not be left as vulnerable asthey now are."This was the intention of the originaiendowment of the University. But Chicago isnow eighth among the universities in the sizeof its endowment. In this sense it is an over-achiever. The University, in the past, has notrequired that new professorships be sup-ported by endowment, that scholarships andfellowships be similarly supported, and thatbuilding not go up without maintenancefunds. We probably should not be criticai ofthis past experience, which surely has shownthat an extraordinary institution could becreated, and which perhaps could not havebeen created in any other way. But our in-ability to start the second stage of the drive asearly as 1970 is, itself, a telling warning thatCAMPAIGN FACTS(Millions ofDollars)Goal $280.43Capitalization 137.7Professorships $54.5Program 69.7Student Aid 13.5Expendable 58.88Unrestricted 31.5Program 22.38Student Aid 5.0Facilities* (including 83.85medicai, physics, theater,music, athletics buildings)?Facilities goals include some capitalizationto cover maintenance costs. while private universities, if viable, will alwaysrequire private funds, long-term obligationsrequire arrangements for long-term support."The University, which had once declined invarious rankings of educational institutionsas a result of its financial belt-tightenings,has been coming back up, Mr. Levi indicated,citing, among others, the American Councilon Education's 1969 report which showsChicago No. 3 nationally in number of de-partments ranked in the top five in theirrespective fields.On a different tack, Mr. Levi said, "As onelooks at our alumni, one should think of ourpresent students. If thirty-seven Nobellaureates have been associated with the University, the more important figure is that tenof these were our students. If our faculty hasa reasonable ranking, as it does, in theNational Academy of Sciences, perhaps it ismore important to note that a recent survey ofthe baccalaureate origins of the NationalAcademy of Sciences placed Chicago second— and third in the listing of institutions fromwhich the highest degree was obtained.Other highlights of Mr. Levi's statement:• Although the University's downtown centeris being phased out as an economy measure,plans are afoot to continue the Basic Programand the Fine Arts Program, though they maybe more costly for enrollees.• Yerkes Observatory, a scientific landmark,is going to be refurbished and redomed.• Partly through the two-part federai grantfor cancer research, the University's complexof medicai buildings will be augmented by theMarjorie Kovler Cancer Virus ResearchBuilding.Tuition is raisedTuition rates, as the budget pinch continues,will rise again in the autumn. Undergraduatetuition, for example, will go up $150, to$3,000 for three academic quarters. The University, however, will be able to "continue anextraordinarily high level of student aid in1974-'75 despite this unfortunate butessential increase," according to Charles D.O'Connell, vice- president and dean ofstudents.4 VScoreboardChicago' s varsity athletes compiled a highlymixed bag of results in the winter quarter.The ones that were good were very, very good.The men's basketball team wound up with16 wins and 2 losses and got itself invited to•he NCAA tournament; there, however, thequintet got knocked out in the first round byWittenberg.Jerry Clark, a senior forward, broke a• 7-year-old individuai scoring record, with atotal of 1.293 points.The gymnasts were 14 and 1 1, the track'eam 5 and 4, and the wrestlcrs broke even at7 and 7. The swimmers and fencers, bothgreen squads, did less well; it was 1 and 8 in•he tank and 1 and 14 on the long mat. NextVear should be better for both.Women's varsity teams did better thanbreak even. The badminton team, weathered°ut of a meeting with two rivals, had a 1 and 2reeord, but the basketball team was 8 and 6,and the swimmers, led by freshman DudleyScholarship winner Noci Bairey, were 5 and 4.Tab Miss Bairey for future stardom. Illness•ook her out of the NCAA meet this year, but*ait unti! '75!Spring quarter saw track added to the list°f sports in the women's varsity lincup.Meanwhile the varsity golf team madehistory as the spring quarter got under way byadding two women members: Sandy KostykJnd Sue Missner.And a team of three math students,Franklin Adams, James McClure and David^ogan, took third place (among 295 univer-sities) in the 34th William Lowell Putnam"lathematical competition. Adams alsoPlaced No. 8 in the individuai standings (outof 2,053), and a fourth student, Gary Miller,rankcd No. 9.KiulosSix faculty members were honored this spring'" their election to the National Academy ofSciences. The six:Edward Anders, the Horace B. HortonProfessor in the Department of Chemistry,•he Fermi Institute and the College.Gerhard L. Closs, professor in the Department of Chemistry and the College.Leo A. Goodman, the Charles L.foutehinson professor in the Departments ofWiology and Statistics.Elwood V. Jensen (phD'44), professor in'he Department of Pharmacological and''hysiological Sciences and director of the Ben^lay Laboratory and the Biomedicai Center'°r Population Research.Richard Levins, professor in the Departments of Biology and Biophysics and Theo-retical Biology and in the College. (Mr.levins rejected membership on principle.)Theodore W. Schultz, the Charles L. $649.0006,500'70Hutchinson distinguished ser-vice professor emeritus ofeconomics.Alumni did even better in theAcademy elections. Ninealumni were chosen (in addi-tion to Mr. Jensen): RichardAtkinson (pIib'48) and LeeCronbach (p1id'40), both ofStanford; Ronald Freedman(phD'47), of Michigan;Herman Goldstine (sb'33,sm'34, pIid'36), of the Institutefor Advanced Study; Harold D.Lasswell (p1ib'22, p1id'26), ofYale {see Page 7 ofthis issue);Richard MacNeish (ab'40,am'44, phD'49), of the PeabodyFoundation for Archaeology;Jeremiah Ostriker (p1id'64) andElias M. Stein (ab'51, sm'53,phD'55), both of Princeton;and George Wetherill (p1ib'48,sb'49, sm'51, phD'53),ofUCLA.Other laurels went to:Jack Halpern (sb'46, pIid'49), the LouisBlock professor in the Department of Chemistry, has been elected a fellow of the RoyalSociety of London for his work on the kineticsand mechanisms of inorganic reactions insolution.Dr. Joseph B. Kirsner (pIid'42), the LouisBlock professor in the Department of Medicine, has been named a distinguished serviceprofessor.Gift is Gerard memoria IRalph Waldo Gerard (sb'19, p1id'21,md'25), who had been, with a single hiatus,a faculty member from 1927 until 1955, diedFebruary 17. After leaving the Midway Dr.Gerard, who had earned an internationalreputation as an authority on the physiologyof the centrai nervous system, helped foundthe University of Michigan's Mental HealthResearch Institute, then became professor ofbiology and dean of the graduate division ofthe then-newly-formed University of California at Irvine. Among other honors, theUniversity's alumni medal was conferred onhim in 1967.Dr. Gerard and Leona Bachrach Gerard(phB'20) had arranged to present to theUniversity a gift of $700,000 establishing anendowment to be applied to a number ofactivities of the University, including$100,000 for the Leona Bachrach GerardEndowment Fund for Music.Mrs. Gerard, a magna cum laude graduate of the University, worked for the Departments of Labor and Interior in Washingtonfor two decades. THE ALUMNI FUND— Number giving— — Amount given $2.301.0009,124¦71 •72 •73Alumni Fund zoomsThe alumni responded in magnificenl fashionto the needs of the University in 1 973. Thenumber of alumni makingeontributions to(he Alumni Fund increased from 9,124 in1972 to 10,654, and the volume of their giftsgrew from '72's $1 ,301 ,000 to $2.301 ,000. Thefactors involved in this dramatic 76% increasewere numerous. doubtless including publica-tion of the alumni directory, and certainlyincluding the growth in the number ofAlumni Fund volunteers in the past couple ofyears from 600 to 1 ,500. As important asthese, and perhaps more so, was the percep-tion by alumni of the pinch, in which theUniversity is finding ilself, berween risingcosts and the dwindling of some of its sourcesof financing.The Alumni Fund is one of five such fundsin the University, the others involving alumniin law, business, medicine and social service.The over-all support of these funds in theaggregate grew 44% in 1973. and. mirabiledictu, none of the growth reported here in-cluded any large special gifts from a singlesource.McNeill, McNeill & McNeillThe two most surprised people at a party theUniversity of Chicago Press gave to celebratethe near-simultaneous publication of twobooks by a father and son were the fatherand son, John T. McNeill and William H.McNeill.The elder McNeill (p1id'20), professoremeritus at Union Theological Seminary anda onetime professor at CTS and onetimeeditor at the Press, was having his history.The Celtic Churches, published just as abook by William McNeill (ab'38, am'39),Venice, the Hinge of Europe, was coming off5the presses.But what surprised them both was theannouncement by the director of the Press,Morris Philipson, that the Press had broughtout a third McNeill book, Growing UpMcNeill by Ruth Netta McNeill,representing a third generation. (An alumnaof U High, she went to Swarthmore.)Among the observations and recollectionsin Miss McNeill' s witty and observant littlebook:"... My earliest memories are of the timewe were in England when I was two andthree years old, My father always asks if Iremember the impressive romanesque archi-tecture of Durham Cathedral; I persist inremembering instead a hotel with a blackbathtub. . . ."... Grandfather invariably wore a tie,even for gardening, when he also wore an oldhat with a green visor."The pictures of retired professors on thewalls of the Chicago History Departmentoffice include a terrifying one ofGrandfather staring out from underimmense bushy white eyebrows. To us it wasa very funny picture: we knew thatGrandfather was not terrifying at ali andthat when barbers offered to trim hiseyebrows he toM them not to bother, hechewed them off from the inside! . . ."... The ivory crib gives a narrow butinteresting view of the world, as I realizedwhen I went away to college. . . ."... Teaching gets to be obsessive, andmy family is as obsessed as any one; myfather took seriously his responsibility toeducate his children. . . .. . . When we children asked questions, wealways got answers. Sometimes they werejoking answers, which we did not alwaysrecoghize as such but parroted back to himthe next time the subject carne up,whereupon Daddy quite honestly wonderedwhere we got such appalling misconcep-tions! ? . ."... Usually, though, his answers weredistinguished for their thoroughness (it is acommon prof essorial f ailing to talk for fiftyminutes at a time) ...."... The dinner table was the activecenter of most of our instruction andshowing off. Whether we were naming statesbordering on Iowa or determining anequitable distribution of meatballs or tellingabout books we had read, we ali talked atonce. . . ."... One of the things I had to adjust towhen I went away to college was that thelibrary was inconveniently located formealtime needs. . . ."... Having a father who returned to histypewriter every evening after reading us abedtime story and three poems made mesuppose that the irregular rhythm of thetypewriter was one of the ordinary Growing: ap McNritlbackground noises of life. One of my minordiscoveries when I went to college was thatmost people find it disturbing. . . ."*? .'-. I remember at a much earlier agebeing incredulous when Daddy tóld me thatyou don't have to start a story -with the title;you can make it up afterwards when youknow what the story is about. . . ."... The first rsal copy of [W. H.McNehTs The Rise ofthe West] carne homeon mother's birthday. My father wrapped itin protective layers of tinfoil and plastic, putit in a cigar box, iced it and set lightedcandles on top, and carried it ceremoniallyinto the dining room. We were ali suitablysurprised when the cake knife struck wood(and relieved to learn that a real cake was onreserve in the kitchen) ....". . .In concluding this memoir, I cannotmake any\comparisons and contrastsbetween the two men who are its subjectwithout becoming either random orirrelevant (Daddy knows more science andGrandfather knows more classics, both haveterrible handwriting). . . ."First chairA fascinating highlight of the winter andspring quarters on the Midway was "FirstChair, " a series of thirteen lectures-cwra-demonstrations-cwra-musical performancesby first chair members of the ChicagoSymphony Orchestra.The series was held on a floating basis infour of the University's student residencehalls. The performers were Joseph Golan,violin; Dale Clevenger, horn; AdolphHerseth, trumpet; Ray Stili, oboe; EdwardDruzinsky, harp; Arnold Jacobs, tuba;Donald Koss, timpani; Joseph Guastafeste,bass; Gordon Peters, percussion; and theSymphony's string quartet: Victor Aitay andEdgar Muenzer, violin; Milton Preves, viola;and Frank Miller, cello.Much of the charm of the performancescarne from the flexibility of their format.Joseph Golan, ab '50, leader of the secondviolin section of the Symphony, appropri-ately enough, initiated the series. He broughtalong his electric violin and gave a renditionof the Mendelssohn Concerto, complete withwa-wa pedal, that is not likely to be heard inOrchestra Hall. Mr. Golan stressed hisinterest in electronic music, mentioning thathe is the leader of the Chicago Current, amodem electronic octet, six of whose members are also in the Symphony.Mr. Golan intimated that if the musicianswere given the responsibility of choosingmusic to be performed by the Symphony,there would be refreshing changes. (Mrs.Golan, incidentally, is Judith Bloom Golan,ab'58, am'61, a dancer.)Mr. Clevenger' s piece de resistance carnewhen a member of the audience who hadheard of some of the musician's extramusical talents, asked him to do hisimpersonations of conductors. Mr. Clevengercomplied with convincing imitations of thevarying baton techniques of Solti, Giulini,Ormandy, Leinsdorf , Steinberg andBernstein. The impersonations followed atalk in which he gave the audience insightsinto the technical problems involved in horn-playing.The string quartet performed whatamounted to a full concert — Beethoven,Dvorak, and Shostakovich — which impliedthat they would rather communicate throughmusic than about it. In the course of thequestion and answer session following theperformance, Mr. Muenzer was asked if henever got the chance to play the first violinpart. He demurred modestly; later when MrAitay removed his suit coat, Mr. Muenzerleaped up and took off his own, remarkingairily, "Everything the first violinist does, Ihave to do!"The informai musical evenings have beenthe brainchild of a fourth-year student ,Foster Chanock, who heads a studentorganization called Friends of the SymphonySociety. He was also instrumentai inarranging for this spring' s Mandel Hallconcert by the Chicago Symphony.The Friends of the Symphony Societyhopes to offer three Chicago Symphonyconcerts on campus in '74-75 in programsemphasizing contemporary music, as well asa number of chamber concerts with membersof the Symphony. Mr. Chanock views theseplans as part of a larger scheme to bring theChicago Symphony to the University on aregular and continuing basis.Mendes leads Bernstein workThe first Chicago performance of LéonardBernstein's Mass was given in RockefellerChapel in May with an augmented chapelchoir, the Chicago Children's Choir, anorchestra drawn largely from that ofChicago' s Lyric Opera, plus soloists anddancers. It was directed by Larry Mendes(ab'71), who is scheduled to receive his JDdegree in June. The performance was part ofthe 1974 Festival of the Arts. Mr. Mendeshas been serving as assistant to RichardVikstrom, director of chapel music andprofessor in the Department of Music, theDivinity School, and the College.6Terrorism: policy, pathology, politicsPROBLEMS OF THE POLISTARAXICLawrence Z, FreedmanTerrorism is defined as the use of violence when its mostimportant result is not the physical and mental damage of thedirect victims but the psychological effect produced on some-one else. Terrorism also involves, in addition to the act, theemotion and the motivation of the terrorist. Violence mayresult in death, injury or destruction of property, or depriva-tion pf liberty. It becomes terror when the significant aim isnot to attain these ends but, through these, to terrorize peopleother than those directly assaulted.This distinction between terror and violence is not absolute.There may be violence linked with terror, in which theintention is to harm the direct victim, but the assault is linkedto an act of terror which either preceded or f ollowed it. Thereis also violence linked to terror in cases such as the freeing of aterrorist.Whether a hijacking — skyjacking, for example — is an act ofterror, depends upon whether the intent of the hijacker is toescape from one country to another or to create terror as anancillary effect— by, for example, the holding of certain per-sons as hostages in order to secure the release either of thehijacker or of other terrorists.Terrorism is a pattern found in seemingly non-terroristicpoliticai contexts and throughout the world. The trait whichoften characterizes this sort of terrorism is a sense of ab-solutism felt by the terrorist. His action is premised on anassumption of the existence of an absolute value. Terrorism inthe service of an absolute value has a kind of psychologicallyreinforcing effect; that is, the extreme nature of the terroristicaction results in reifying the absolutism of the value.Lawrence Zelic Freedman, M.D., Foundations Fund researchprofessor in the University's Department of Psychiatry, coinedthe term "polistaraxic" by combining two Greek words mean-ìng "upsetter of the community. " Terrorism, he says, is (ithepolistaraxic crime par excellence. " Dr. Freedman wishes toacknowledge the contributions in the paper, from which theaccompanying article is adapted and abridged, of Harold D.Lasswell (phB '22, phD '26), of Yale, at one time an outstandingmember of the University's politicai science faculty, andProfessor Abraham Kaplan, dean of social science, UniversityofHaifa. The paper was presented at this spring' s meeting ofthe American Orthopsychiatric Association. Drs. Freedmanand Lasswell are co-chairmen of the Institute for Social andBehavioral Pathology. Mr. Lasswell was awarded the University's alumni medal in 1972. Why does the terrorist commit his act? We have postulatedfour hypotheses beyond, but not excluding, the sense ofabsolute value. They are presented in the order of increasingpsychic depth, and in a sense, therefore, decreasing plaus-ibility, because there is decreasing assurance of securing valid-ation.1. First, the reaffirmation of masculinity. In the pre-terroristic situation there have been severe blows to self-image.Masculinity in this sense is not used in a sexual or sexistframework, but as the ego-ideal, the self-respect, in the senseof oneself as an effectively functioning person deserving ofrespect and attention of others. So in the pre-existing situationthere is a painful awareness of a lack in this respect.Within this there are two sub-categories: It is one thing tohave something taken away that you thought you had, and it isanother thing to be aware that you never did have it. This maybe a significant difference. The first sub-category maycharacterize the terrorism of the Middle East, where— after along period of possessing a self-image of effective militaryprowess and cultural achievement, with religious reinforce-ment — people have been forced to contemplate deprivation.The blacks in the United States, on the other hand, arerecognizing that they have, in a racist society, been denied theaffirmation of the masculine virtues or ego-ideal, self-respect, sense of oneself as an effectively functioning person,deserving the respect and attention of others. This may be whyviolence, in a direct, immediate sense of striking out at knowntargets — even if displaced targets — has been one form of theresponse of American blacks. Invidious treatment carne to berecognized for what it has been, and therefore has beenrepudiated.The terroristic act, as a device for either primary affirmation or for reaffirmation of the character of masculinity, maybe related to activities characteristic of preliterate societies,such as scalp collecting or head hunting, where something isdone to establish what a man is so that the common enemymay know how effective he is. Therefore, what we may see as amorally objectionable act may appear, given the sub-culture,essential to the society' s functioning, because the aim is toproduce an impression of masculinity in the ritual af-firmations of prowess, and that is what we may find interror. So, for example, it is more important to seize an air-piane than to be given one.2. The second factor is that of depersonalization. Deper-sonalization may be viewed as the key feature of the pre-terroristic situation and requires the perception of a group or7of some trans-individual entity. We may here use "group"loosely to refer to politicai entities. A nation or any organiza-tion may be defined and responded to as a group.In these situations, not only the contrast between the individuai and the group, but also a variety of other factors makethe consciousness of existence as a person painful or ineffec-tive or otherwise unacceptable. Individuality requires ac-ceptance of a burden of responsibility. It can create a sense ofimpotence, a sense of impoverishment of the ego — a variety offactors. Depersonalized man is able, in a sense, to abandon hisindividuality and his status as a person and to act only as theinstrument of a larger group.3. The act of terror, like the other acts of violence, may be airiethod of establishing intimacy. Violence, or even the threatof violence, establishes a relationship which otherwise couldexist only in f antasy. A person may feel that he is nothing, thathe is incapable of arousing any interest or attention exceptwhen he is experienced by his human environment as threat-ening, or as creating in that environment a force of danger. Byterrorizing he enforces recognition, and, subjectively, feels asense of intimacy with his victim.The assassin, therefore, has this moment ili the stage ofhistory — and a moment with precisely those who have ali thethings which he believes he lacks. In the act of terror, therefore, there is the symbolic attainment of an end which is farmore effective than what might be done by a direct act ofviolence only. The ultimate objective is not, through the use ofviolence, securing large sums of money or some arms or apiane or a ship. The terror creates such an impact on theconsciousness of the significant others — that the terrorist isrecognized, is negotiated with, and is able to prove his power tobring the most powerf ul and admired figure of his group to hisknees.4. The f ourth hypothesis is belief in magic, specifically, thebelief in the magic of violence. Great indeterminance and, in asense, superhuman powers or forces, can be brought into playon the human scene through the spilling of blood. Violence ishere seen as a kind of terroristic sacrament. In this sacramentthere is not merely the dedication of human powers to theservice of superhuman or god-like powers. As Kaplan hassaid, "An act of violence as a sacrament is involved, but it is asacrament that is not merely the dedication of human powersto the service of the gods. ... In spilling of blood there is notonly a dedication to the service of the gods, but a device tocompel the gods to my service. I have been a channel for them.I provide a way for them to enter my being and make them-selves effective," he says."In this transvaluation of values it is precisely the needless-ness of the act and, from outsiders' viewpoint, the despicablefeatures of the act, the killing, which are essential to it."Distinguishing terrorist from revolutionaryWe must also distinguish terrorists from revolutionaries.The revolutionary act may be terroristic or violent or both or,in some theories of historical process, neither. The distinction that is relevant here, as in other cases, is whether violence issignificant because of its direct effect or because of its impres-sion upon others. Historically, Marx and Engels were verymuch against terror. They saw it as a form of revolutionarysuicide. Their successors, the implementors at the govern-mental level, Lenin and Stalin, were exquisitely aware of, forexample, the contribution of Nechaev, the 19th centuryclassical Russian terrorist. As they saw his acts as a vital pre-cursor of the revolution, they saw the employment of terror bythe government essential to the maintenance of the revolution.As to the distinction between effect and politicai purpose,the effects of course include the unintended and the non-pùrposeful in the ordinary irrational sense; but the effectanticipated at a deeper, unconscious level could be conducive,at this level of expectation or fantasy or hope, to making theindividuai or group bring about the desired effect. The effect,to erriphasize this point, is on the spectator; and the spectatoris the essential element. The person being terrorized is not theonly victim — or even the most important victim.It is the terrorism of the third party which distinguishes itfrom violence* A cruciai distinction between terror and otherforms of violence is in some cases that the link between thevictim and the third party is direct. It is immediate. If therelation between the victim and the third party is symbolic,then we have an act of terror with implications of the demonic,the magic and the effect of the spectator as a purpose in itself .For twenty years we have studied convicted violent of-fenders. Ten years ago, following the assassination of President Kennedy, we embarked on an intensive study of Presi-dential assassins. For five years we have been concerned withterrorists vs. the violence against intimates and Presidentialassassins. When we studied the assassins of American Presi-dents for evidence of conspiracy, we found none. Regicide hasnot been conspiratorial in Parliamentary England.The historical convention has been that the terroristicattacks of Eastern Europe and Russia of the late 19th and 20thcenturies were politicai conspiracies. This distinction can nolonger be maintained. The comparatively few maladaptedisolates in the United States who assaulted the President actedwith rational expectation that they would thereby effectsignificant politicai change. This has been contrasted withpolitically rational conspiratorial efforts of the terrorists inRussia in the 1880s and '90s — politically sophisticated andrationally acting to effect politicai change. That terroristmovement involved a tiny group in Russia, proportionately nogreater than the handful of individuals who have assaultedpersons holding the highest politicai posts in the West. To anastonishing degree they resemble our presumably pathologicalisolates.The assassin in the United States has been a young adultwhite man; physically he has been slight and small but notunattractive. (Surprisingly, with a small number of subjects,studied mainly through clinical reports and historical sources,it was possible to predict the physical habitus, the develop-mental experience, and within limits, the psychological set ofthe assassins before their murderous attacks on persons of8major politicai importance.) He has experienced during hisearlier development severe impediments to his achievement ofan integrated, relatively homogeneous acceptance of himselfas an adult male. These impediments included many socialfactors, some of them accidental. They were imposed on hisfamily as a whole, suddenly and adventitiously, rather than onmembers of the family.Such factors are important, but far more so is the invariableand psychically prepotent deprivation of an appropriate adultmale, whether biological father or father substitute, who couldprovide the boy with a model whom he could imitate, whosehabits and style he could absorb, and with whose values hecould identify. This adult male must have been physicallypresent, emotionally related, and, when available, he musthave been a person whose values, style, habits, temperamenecapacity for control and level of rationality were consistentwith reasonable adjustment to the social environment without,and a tolerable level of self-acceptance and self-esteem within.As an adult the assassin suffered an intensity of self-loathing, a sense of humiliation and abasement, an absence ofself-esteem, profound awareness that he received inadequateapprobation by those who were significant to him in his environment. The intensity of such self-condemnatory, self-demeaning feelings and the reciprocai perception that thesignificant persons in his milieu would reject him and hold himin contempt is certainly, insof ar as we may quantify subjectiveexperience, as heavy a psychic burden as is borne by the morethan 500,000 persons who have succumbed to so severe a formof incompetence and incapacity to perceive reality correctly,and to maintain themselves economically and socially, that theyare labeled psychotic and are hospitalized.Now, in combination, these characteristics distinguish thepolistaraxic — that is a word derived from polis, community,and taraxic, upsetting. It's a word which unifies a variety ofconcepts: the upsetter of the community. It also enables us todistinguish homicidal Presidential assassins from a vastnumber of psychotics, including paranoid schizophrenics, whohave carried out personal homicide; soldiers who have, inmillions, willingly slain or intended to slay strangers,foreigners in the service of their nation; mass murderers whohave, in United States history, periodically murdered ratherlarge numbers of persons who have been strangers to them;threateners of the President by mail and by public and overtattempts.One assumes that polistaraxic crime is in the service of apoliticai goal. But one is mistaken. The goal is the destructionof the head of state. Says Nechaev: "Our task is terrible, total,universal and merciless destruction."To quote from another figure: "Happiness is taking part inthe struggle where there is no borderline between one's ownpersonal world and the world in general. Happiness does notconsist of oneself. ... I never believed I would find morematerial advantages at this stage of development in the SovietUnion than I might have had in the United States. In the eventof war I would kill any American who put on a unif orm in de-fense of the American government — any American. [This was written by Oswald to his brother.] In my own mind I have noattachment of any kind in the United States. I want to and Ishall live a normal, happy and peaceful life here in the SovietUnion for the rest of my life. . . .My mother and you are notobjects of af f ection but only examples of workers in the UnitedStates."He became extremely disenchanted with Russia very shortlythereafter and returned to the United States— and murderedits President.Rehabilitation, prevention, reconstructionIt is highly probable that the scientifically-based stance ofthe world may very well cause the process we cali alienation togo forward. Alienation may breed individuals, and particularlysmall groups, who are predisposed toward actions of defianceand destruction; alternative strategies available for action mayinvolve the mobilization of large, concerted groups; and theexpansion of modem technology is likely to be put in the handsof power elites of the globe, the basis of continuing surveil-lance of protest. Consequently any large-scale counter-move-ment, through time, is likely to be perceived early by theestablishment and acted upon with tools regarded as appropriate. This, one suspects, increases the probability that moreand more small groups and individuals will self-select themselves for performance of the kind of heroic role that is involved in terrorism. This is one of the constructs of the futurethat must be subjected to criticai evaluation as our work pro-ceeds.Of course we are not only interested in causai, trend andprojection questions; we are also interested in goals.Whatever the goals are, the development of normativepolicies or policy alternatives is prof oundly affected by whatever set of goals we postulate, or when we act as an agent ofsome power group or other participant in the process, andundertake to execute its norms. So far as the politicai govern-mental process is concerned, one trusts that our deliberationswill continue to produce contributions to the f ormulations andultimate evaluation of policy alternatives for dealing withwhatever dimensions of the terrorist process we decide to at-tempt to control.Discussions of terrorism tend to become f ocused around oneof the problems of sanction: the handling of positive or negative values in the flows in the society in such a way that con-formity to the norms is elicited, or the norms are rearranged.Ali of us recognize that when we talk about deterrence we areconcerned with the ways by which we diminish the probabilitythat an act of an undesirable kind be completed. We discussdeterrence in terms of its relationship to motivational pro-cesses. But there are some other dimensions — other policyobjectives — involved in a comprehensive sanction. For in-stance, it is useful not only to talk about diminishing the like-lihood that the act be completed; there also is the problemwhich is involved when the act is started: what are the policiesthat one adopts, and when, to stop and bring about a with-9drawal of such a process? How does one act at each stage ?There is the objective of rehabilitation — that is to say,undertaking to repair the damage which has been done by theseries of acts involved. What we are trying to do in this situation is to take the relatives and children of those who have beenkilled and to figure out the sensible way to diminish that kindof damage for those who have been targets of these activities.Another objective might be labeled correction, only in thesense that it is concerned with the ways by which one changesthe motivation of individuals who perform these acts. Acts ofdeterrence, for example, are addressed prirrmrily to peoplewho have some capacity for calculation of cost gains in termsof ali that they value.We are concerned, in the development of alternatives invarious contexts of policy making, with prevention, and theword here is simply intended to ref er to the important ways ofhandling the existing institutions so that we diminish theirprovocative impact on others.And now this last point, which, for the sake of formai con-venience, we will refer to as reconstruction. This goes beyondprevention, raising the fundamental question of reconstruction of the institutional guesses by which values are shapedand shared in any given society. To what extent can we recon-struct the processes of society, from early socializationthroughout later social development? \You can look at ali of this in terms of the pre- and co- andpost-, in relation to the strategy. To look at the actual àdmin-istration of the instrument or procedure, the most obviousfeature is the choice of a target. The terrorista symbolic en-hancement comes through picking that person who is significant to those from whom he desires response. Sometimesone enhances the target by a shocking location. The Borgiaswere very good at this, in selecting the church or a religiousservice as the location, in order to enhance certain effects.Clearly there sometimes is captivity, with a good many falsestarts — the victim is led out, ostensibly for execution, and thenhe comes back. There are the costumes, the masks, designedappropriately to enhance the symbolic potential — the sinistercolors; the sinister sounds; taking, and having people worryabout, hostages. There are the surprise hit-and-run killings,the tortures.Kropotkin formulated the matter of terrorism as a strategywith some degree of precision. This is essentially the strategywhich we have outlined. Kropotkin talked about symbolic en-hancement of the particular act of violence as an element ofterror. It is important to note the disproportionality betweenthe immediate damage imposed upon the context and thepotential damage génerated by the act. To what extent ispoliticai support increased now? In a short period of time?Over a longer period of time? This is a peculiarly politicaiquestion. How does one seize, consolidate, and maintain apower position?The striking thing was that in the '80s and '90s of the lastcentury there were several acts in the Mediterranean world in-dicating increased revolutionary demand on the part ofradicalized elites and masses. However, in 1882 the killing of Alexander had little positive payoff for the movement, andgave way, as a tactic, to other methods — alternatives which didpay off in terms of these movements. The notable thing wasthat terrorism often was bitterly summarized, by communistsand others, and the developing wisdom — true or false — was todrop terrorism as a strategy.The assassin sees himself as the instrument of justice. Hemurders as an act of conscience. The politicai murderer whokills a stranger after careful, secretive planning does so for anideal. Few personal murderers are convinced of their right todeprive another person of human life; most kill an intimate,one whom they have loved, propelled by a passion which ex-tinguished, for that time, rational calculation. After thekilling, the personal murderer often feels remorse, suffersfrom guilt. He f requently seeks punishment by turning himselfin to the authorities. He attempts suicide. He blots out itsmemory. He forgets what he has done. He becomes convertedto a religion.The terrorist is not aware of love or hate toward his victim.After killing he feels neither remorse nor guilt. He rarely blotsout memory of his act. Since the motive which preceded hisdecision was, so far as we know, an abstract ideal, it had thefanatical quality comparable to that experienced by a religiouszealot. He does not turn to religion after his murder, butbefore it.The Confederacy fulfilled for Booth his ideal society of acultured aristocracy. Guiteau [who killed Garfield] was drivenby God to heal the conflict of party strife in a politicai organi-zation. Anarchism, the claims of individuai freedom againstany formai governmental restrictions, drove Czolgosz [assassinof McKinley]. Marxist economics, the rescuing of workersfrom capitalist exploitation, was Oswald's conscious "motive."The terrorist has a politicai ideal. His murder (paroxysm)fulfils it. When Sirhan shouted, after shooting SenatorKennedy, "Let me explain, I can explain," he almost certainlybelieved that his murder in the service of Jordaniannationalism would be persuasive. Oswald "explained" in hishistorjc diary. Czolgosz, when he said, "It is not right for oneman [the President] to get so much attention and another toget so little," was explaining.Unlike the personal murderer, the terrorist does not believehis victim has committed a private wrong against him. Hissense of righteousness is unassailable. In each case, however,the terrorist murderer has struck the wrong target.The terrorist murderer, no less than the personal killer,strikes the mirror. He obliterates an intolerable image of himself which he himself has when he strikes out at his victim.The assassin and the terrorist act politically, not only in thesense that they kill politicai figures, but also in the sense thatthey act and feel as though they were private soldiers in anopposing community, or perhaps that they themselves were anarmy. Históry has not fulfilled the fantasies of the 19thcentury nihilist and terrorist assassins that óverthrowing thedominant power would eliminate the violations of freedomswhich provoked their assaults on the absolutist leaders. But theterror and assassinations continue.10Observation must be confirmed by theory'SOME REMARKS ON THE DEVELOPMENTOF GENERAL RELATIVITYS. ChandrasekharIIn an invited talk at a meeting of this Society which FreemanDyson gave nine years ago1, he described the history of thedevelopment of the general theory of relativity in the f ollowingThis discussion, which has been adapted slightly, was given byMr. Chandrasekhar earlier this year at a meeting of theAmerican Physical Society at which the Society presented tohim its Dannie Heineman prize "for application of the elegantand rigorous techniques of mathematical physics to problemsof stellar structure, radiative transfer, hydromagnetic stability,the post-Newtonian approximation in general relativity, andthe stability of rotating, gravìtating bodies, thus continuingand bringing up to date the tradition established by suchmathematical physicists as Poincaré and Lord Rayleigh."Because it represents fairly difficult readingfor the layman,this publication is accompanying the paper with excerptsadapted from a talk Mr. Chandrasekhar gave previouslybefore a campus audience, in which he discussed the "blackhole" phenomenon. Mr. Chandrasekhar joined the Universityin 1937; since 1952 he has been the Morton D. Hull distinguished service professor in the Departments of Astronomyand Physics and in the Enrico Fermi Institute. further extension of the two principles of Einstein, firstly therepresentation of physical reality as geometrical in nature, andsecondly the insistence on general coordinate invariance, wouldlead to understanding of electromagnetism and of matter, thechief phenomena that remained outside Einstein's originaitheory. As is well known, these expectations proved false. Thetheory of matter and electromagnetism took a totally differentdirection with the advent of quantum mechanics in 1925.Everybody involved in the development of quantum mechanicsforgot rather quickly about gravitation and assumed specialcoordinate systems without apology. Meanwhile the study ofgravitation itself lost interest for physicists because nobody couldthink of any new observations or experiments. So the theory ofgravitation gradually became detached from the rest of physicsand was studied only by specialists.Complementary to Dyson' s last statement that the generaltheory of relativity lost its interest to the physicist because "onecould not think of any new observations or experiments" is thestatement one often hears now, that the renewed interest ingeneral relativity during the '60s is due to the emergence ofnew astronomical observations and new planned experimentshearing on the theory.I shall not presume to disagree with these statements. But Imust confess that it is not clear to me why some very obviousquestions were not asked of general relativity until relativelyrecently — questions whose answers could well have con-tributed to an understanding of the theory itself as distinctfrom its hearing on possible observations or experiments.Let me illustrate by some examples the kinds of questionsthat might have been asked.IIOne of the first accomplishments of the general theory ofrelativity was to show that the trajectory of a test particle in thegravitational field of a centrai mass is a Kepler ellipse whichprecesses (See Fig. 1). The agreement of this predicted pre-cession with that observed for the planet Mercury demon-strated that the theory had successfully met one of Einstein'sthree cruciai tests. The comparison that was made is proper,since the approximation of considering Mercury as an infin-Einstein's theory of gravitation took the world by storm in1919 for two reasons. In the first place, there was the dramaticprediction of the displacement of star-images by the sun's gravitational field, the organization of eclipse expeditions to Braziland Africa to make the very difficult observations that could testthe theory, and the clearly positive outcome of the test. In thesecond place, there was the appealing philosophical character ofthe Einstein theory, starting with the postulate of a space-timecontinuum without any special framework of coordinates to labelpoints of space-time with numbers, so that ali the laws of physicsshould be statements which are true in any possible coordinatesystem.To Einstein himself and to many other physicists of the 1920s,including Hermann Weyl and the youthful Pauli, it appearedthat this beautiful and successful gravitation theory must be themodel for the future development of physics. They expected that11itesimal test particle in the gravitational field solely of the sunis an extremely good one.However, it is well known that in the framework of theNewtonian theory, two finite spherical masses will alsodescribe Kepler ellipses, exactly, about their common center ofmass. On this account, it would be naturai to expect that in theframework of general relativity these Kepler ellipses will, in a first non-trivial approximation to the theory, also precess; andfurther that the precession will be given by the same formulathat is applicable to the case of an infinitesimal test particle.the only difference being that the mass of the centrai body <sreplaced by some reduced mass.If these expectations should be justified, then their establishment in the framework of the theory cannot be veryThe 'black hole' in astrophysicsS. ChandrasekharWhen a stone is thrown upwards, it will normally ascend toa certain height and will then fall back. The height to whichthe stone ascends, before it falls back, will be the higher, thehigher the initial speed with which it is projected. And if it isprojected with a sufficient speed, it will escape from theearth's gravity. Quite generally, the stronger the initialgravitational pulì of the parent body, the faster a stone on itmust be projected if it is to escape from the gravity of thelarger body.It is one of the consequences of the general theory ofrelativity that Iight will also be similarly influenced bygravity. Normally, however, the effect is very small. But it ismeasurable: for example, the bending of light from a dis-tant star, as it grazes the sun during an eclipse, has beenmeasured. For this reason, one can ask whether or not abody like the sun could become sufficiently compressed thatthe force of gravity on its surface would become so strongthat even light could not escape from it. If such circum-stances could be realized, then the sun would not be visiblefrom the outside: it would become a "black hole."It can be calculated that if the sun, with its present mass,could be shrunk from its present radius of 700,000 kilo-meters to a radius of 3.75 kilometers, then light emittedtangentially from its surface would go around and aroundthe sun. If the sun were to shrink stili further — to a radiusof, say, two kilometers — then no light it emitted couldemerge. It would, in fact, recapture everything that mightbe thrown or emitted from it; and no one from the outsidecould see it.The possibility of such a phenomenon happening is aclear prediction of very general ideas and was indeed con-templated by Laplace as long ago as 1798; the phenomenondepends only on the present observationally verified factthat the propagation of light is influenced by gravity.The question which remains is whether objects as massiveas the sun can ever shrink to such small dimensions. Canthey, in fact, become so small that they will disappear fromview and become "black holes" in the sky? Current devel-opments relating to the evolution of stars answer both these questions in the affirmative; and it appears that black holesof the kind predicted by theory do in fact occur in nature-The theoretical and observational grounds for these expec"tations are derived from considerations relating to the fin3stages in the evolution of stars.The radiation of a star is derived from nuclear processestaking place in its interior. In the case of the sun, theprocess consists in the burning of hydrogen into heliurn;and at its present rate of radiation, the consumption °'hydrogen is so small that the sun can continue to radiate f°ra time of the order of 10" years.On the other hand, a star which is ten times as massive asthe sun — and there are many such stars — is known *°radiate energy at a rate which is about 10,000 times greater-Consequently, it will exhaust its internai sources of energyin a relatively short time, of the order of IO7 years.It is estimated that the galaxy has existed for a period <"something like twenty billion years. Therefore, if a star <nthe galaxy loses ali of its energy sources in ten million years.the question as to what happens to it after it has exhauste"its source of energy becomes an important one.As a star exhausts its source of energy it will begin tocontract. The density increases as the contraction proceeds-When the star has reached a density of about 10* grams pefce, there is a well defined state into which it can settle doWif its mass is less than 1.5 times that of the sun. This is thestate which one observes in the so-called white dwarfs (t"companion of Sirius is an example). White dwarfs are startwhich are very faint and not very massive but which do havdensities of the order of 10" grams per ce. The importanproviso here is that in order that a star may have the poS'sibility of settling into such a state, its mass must be lesSthan the limit stated.If the star should have a mass in excess of the limit, thefis no way in which its collapse could be arrested at the whndwarf stage, Le. when its radius is a few thousand l"11'Accordingly the more massive stars must contract further-The next stage where the contraction could be arrestewould be when the atomic nuclei are so tightly packed th*m12difficult. Nevertheless, it was only after twenty years followingthe founding of the theory that the question was asked and itssolution attempted — by Eddington and Clark; Einstein, In-f'eld , and Hoffman; and Fock, working independently.HILet me consider a second example. The principal reason why Einstein felt compelled to develophis general theory was, of course, the fact that the Newtoniantheory is based on instantaneous action at a distance — a prop-osition that is contrary to the tenets of special relativity. In thegeneral theory, gravitational forces are propagated with thevelocity of light; and as a consequence it would be naturai ifthe theory predicted the emission and propagation of gravi-the density of matter becomes comparable to that whichexists inside the atomic nucleus. That density is not IO6grams per ce, but a million million grams per ce. Thequestion arises: Can a star settle down when it reachesnuclear density of 10" to 10" grams/cm3 — the densityrepresented in the so-called neutron stars? That depends onthe star's mass; stable neutron stars can exist only for arcstricted range of masses.Calculations show that, while the permissible range ofrnasses for stable neutron stars is subject to uncertainties,the range is narrow: the current estimate is between 0.3 to1.0 times the solar mass. The principal conclusions thatfollow from the foregoing considerations can be sum-niarized as follows.Massive stars in the course of their evolution must col-'apse to dimensions of the order of 10 to 20 km once theyhave exhausted their nuclear source of energy. In thisprocess of collapse, a substantial fraction of the mass mayhe ejected. If the mass ejected is such that what remains is'n the permissible range of masses for stable neutron stars,then a neutron star will be formed. While the formation of astable neutron star could be expected in some cases, it isclear that their formation is subject to vicissitudes.It is not in fact an a priori likely event that a star initiallyhaving a mass of, say, ten solar masses, ejeets, during an^xplosion, subject to violent fluctuations, an amount ofiiass just sufficient to leave behind a residue in a specified"arrow range of masses. It is more likely that the star ejeetsan amount of mass that is either too large or too little. InsUch cases the residue will not be able to settle into a finitestate; and the process of collapse must continue indefinitelyfntil the gravitational force becomes strong enough to hold'he radiation. In other words, a black hole must forni.The radius that a star of mass M must have, in order that't may not be visible from the outside, is called theSchwarzschild radius; it is given by 2GW/e2 where G is theConstant of gravitation and a is the velocity of light. For aliass equal to that of the sun, this radius is 2.5 km.The phenomena attendant upon stars going into theblack hole" — Le. going inside their Schwarzschild radii —will be described in different ways — by one who is observing't from the outside, and by one who is moving with thesUrface of the collapsing star.Imagine that the observer on the surface of the collapsing star transmits time signals at equal intervals (by his clock) atsome prescribed wavelength (by his standard). So long asthe surface of the collapsing star has a radius that is largecompared to the Schwarzschild radius, these signals will bereceived by the distant observer at intervals that he willjudge as (very nearly) equally spaced. But as the collapseproceeds, the distant observer will judge that the signals arearriving at intervals that are gradually lengthening, and thatthe wavelength of his reception is also lengthening.As the stellar surface approaches the Schwarzschild limitthe lengthening of the intervals, as well as the lengtheningof the wavelength of his reception, will become exponentialby his time. The distant observer will receive no signal afterthe collapsing surface has crossed the Schwarzschild surface; and there is no way for him to learn what happens tothe collapsing star after it has receded inside the Schwarzschild surface.For the distant observer, the collapse to the Schwarzschild radius takes, strictly, an infinite time (by his clock)though the time scale in which he loses contact in the end isof the order of milliseconds.The story is quite different for the observer on the surfaceof the collapsing star. For him nothing unusual happens ashe crosses the Schwarzschild surface: he will cross itsmoothly and at a finite time by his clock. But once he isinside the Schwarzschild surface, he will be propelled in-exorably towards the singularity: there is no way in which hecan avoid being crushed to zero volume at the singularity,and no way at ali to retrace his steps.It is currently believed that the X-ray star Cyg X-l is abinary system in which one of the components (the X-raycomponent) is a black hole. The reason for this belief isderived from the following two circumstances. First, thestar exhibits a rapidly fluctuating intensity on a time scaleof 50 milliseconds or less. From this fact we can concludethat the X-ray emitting regions must be "compact," with alinear dimension less than 10* km. Second, from the observations relating to the binary nature of the system, it hasbeen deduced that the minimum mass of the compact star issix solar masses. Since this minimum of six solar masses isalready considerably in excess of the limiting mass for whitedwarfs, and of ali estimates of the upper limit for stableneutron stars, the conclusion is inevitable that we are heredealing with a black hole.13tational waves by systems that are non-stationary. Simple con-siderations of a semi-heuristic nature show, as Einstein in factshowed in 1918, that on a linearized version of the theory,gravitational radiation will be emitted by systems that are non-stationary; that such radiation will have a quadrupole char-acter; and finally that the flux of such radiation will beproportional to the square of the third time-derivative of thequadrupole moment of the system. In other words, if an ob-ject, initially spherical, periodically becomes oblate and lessoblate, it would radiate.Nevertheless, for some f orty years, serious theoretical doubtswere entertained with regard to the reality òf the predictedradiation. For example, in the Bora-Einstein letters that haverecently been published2, there is an undated letter fromEinstein — there is circumstantial evidence it was written in1937 — in which he wrote:Together with a young collaborato I have arrived at the inter-esting result that gravitational waves do not exist, though theyhad been assumed a certainty to a first approximation. Thisshows that the non-linear general relativistic field equations canteli us more — or, rather, limit us more — than we have expected.Again in the last page of Infeld and Plebanski's book,Motion and Relativity, published in "1961, the statementoccurs: "The radiation can be eliminated by a choice ofcoordinate systems"; and the authors quote Einsteik as havingsaid,We do not have any satisfactory classical theory of radiation.Ritz understood this fact; and he was an intelligent man.That was in 1961.To clarify the doubts that were expressed with regard to thereality of the gravitational waves one had only to ask the following question: Do the equations of motion of a system, whencarried out systematically to the requisite order, include termswhich may be described as expressing radiation-reaction in theprecise sense that these terms contribute to a secular[long-term] decrease of a quantity, which we may cali energy,and which is conserved by the system in the immediately lowerorder approximation to the equations of motion?A remarkable paper3 published by Andrzej Trautman in1958 would have resolved this question unambiguously but foran unfortunate oversight. The oversight, when corrected4,confirms the expectation. The problem was in fact fully resolved in 1962 by the fundamental investigations of Bondi5and Sachs 6 from a different point of view, which I shall notelaborate. After their work, no doubts — le. no theoreticaldoubts — were entertained with regard to the reality of the predicted gravitational radiation by systems with time-dependentquadrupole moments.IVFinally, I shall consider a third example of how one not onlydid not ask of general relativity answers to questions whichwould have clarified its meaning, but actually argued againstits implications. The solution of Einstein's equations appropriate to the fieldoutside of a centrai spherical distribution of mass wasobtained by Karl Schwarzschild in a paper communicated 7 tothe Berlin Academy by Einstein on January 13, 1916, juS{about two months after Einstein himself had published thebasic equations of his theory.The circumstances under which Schwarzschild derived hisnow famous solution are not generally known. I may beallowed to teli the story, particularly as 1973 was the lOOthanniversary of Schwarzschild' s birth.During the spring and summer of 1915, Schwarzschild waswith the German army at the eastern front — that was duringWorld War I. Richard Courant once told me that he had metSchwarzschild proceeding to the eastern front while he, as amember of the general staff, was with a party retreating fromthe front; and Courant said that he was surprised thatsomeone as distinguished as Karl Schwarzschild would beproceeding towards a front which was considered too dan-gerous for the general staff.In any event, while at the eastern front, with a small tech-nical staff, Schwarzschild contracted an infectious disease;and he returned to Germany late in the fall of 1915 very ili;and he died on May 11, 1916. As Eddington wrote in a noticepublished later that year8,Schwarzschild's end is a sad story of long suffering from aterrible illness contracted in the field, borne with great courageand patience.But it is not generally known that it was during the period ofhis last illness that Schwarzschild wrote two of his greatestpapers — papers that are great by any standard. One of these 9was devoted to obtaining the solution of Einstein's equationsappropriate to static systems with spherical symmetry.Now Schwarzschild's solution for the metric (which gives theinterval between two nearby space-time events) external to aspherical source of total inertial mass M , as he gave it, and asit continues to be written, isde2 . .(i . M ) Q*dt2 * (1 - — T1 dr2 + r2 (d62 ? sin2 6 d<\>2).q2t o2rUsing this metric, Schwarzschild derived the formulae for theprecession of the perihelion of Mercury and for the deflectionof light, which Einstein had derived earlier by solving the fieldequations in an approximation beyond the Newtonian.It will be observed that Schwarzschild's solution has anapparent singularity (e.g., the factor multiplying dr2 becomes'infinite') at the radiusThis is the Schwarzschild radius. Schwarzschild himself waspuzzled by this singularity; and he resolved the puzzle forhimself in this way:Since Schwarzschild had considered the metric as describingthe field external to a static spherically symmetric distribution14Fig. L In Newtonian theory the sun's mass compared with thatof the planets is so large that the planets and other bodiesorbit in ellipses, parabolas, or hyperbolas: (1) A body in anellipse retraces its path again and again. Bodies in parabolic orhyperbolic orbits approach the sun only once. Most planets (2)move in circles or nearly circular ellipses; many comets movein highly elongated ellipses. Planetary orbits have shapes suchas A. Cometary orbits have shapes such as B. According togeneral relativity the elliptical orbits do not dose completelyand so rotate orprecess slowly. The effect of this precession ofthe long axis of the ellipse is greatly exaggerated in drawing3. In the case of a fast-moving planet, such as Mercury, theellipse is turned right around after twelve million orbits.of mass, he investigated in a second paper 10 (communicatedfor publication a month later), the solution of Einstein's equations appropriate to the equilibrium of a static sphere of Constant energy-density. And he showed that the radius of such aconfiguration can never be less than 1.125 Ag. He was satisfiedwith this result, since the singularity of the metric atr = R^will not be relevant under the òircumstances he had con-templated. However, it was proved by Birkhoff some yearslater (1923) that a spherically symmetric solution of Einstein'svacuum-equation must necessarily be static; and thatSchwarzschild's solution would apply even if the source,spherically symmetric, were not static. Schwarzschild's lowerlimit 1.125 /?s is not applicable under non-static conditions;and we are required to examine more carefully whether thesurface has any deeper meaning. I tura to this matter now.That there is no real singularity of the geometry of space-time at v = i?s was realized very soon. In fact, Eddingtonshowed already in 1924 that by writing the Schwarzschildsolution in a different coordinate system one can avoid eventhe appearance of a singularity at r = R$ along futuredirected time-like trajectories.The real significance of the surface r ~ Rs becomesclear wheri one examines the family of geodesics [shortestlines] in the Schwarzschild metric. The discussion is indeedstraightforward; but it was explicitly and fully carried out onlyin 1958 by C. G. Darwin11 . In retirement, as he was then,Darwin recalls a paper of his written in 1913 on "Orbits ofElectrons" in the field of a nucleus and starts his study withthe remark that it might be interesting to examine theanalogous problem in the framework of general relativity.Darwin further notes that the analysis could easily have beenmade forty years earlier. So it might have been; but the problem would have appeared too simple to the "specialists"that Dyson refers to in the statement I quoted at the outset.The geodesics in the Schwarzschild metric have been dis-cussed and analyzed at great length since Darwin's papers. Forthe present it is sufficient to draw attention to two particularresults. The first is that ali photon orbits coming from infinitywith an impact parameter less than 33' zr must necessarilyenter the Schwarzschild sphere and arrive at * = 0 , Le. as onesays now, these geodesics are future incomplete. The secondresult is that ali trajectories, nuli or time-like, not only mustend at r = 0 , but must do so in a finite proper time, as, mea-sured by a co-moving observer. For these reasons the surfacer = Rs is called an event horizon.A true picture of the nature of space-time in the neigh-borhood and in the interior of the Schwarzschild radius is ob-tained in the following manner of illustration, due to RogerPenrose. In this picture (see Fig. 2), the wave fronts of lightsignals emanating at various points at a slightly later time areshown. At large distances from the event horizon, the points Heat the centers of the respective wave fronts. At smallerdistances the wave fronts are displaced — pulled toward — thestrong gravitational field present. The wave fronts emanatingfrom points on the event horizon touch the event horizon onthe inside and cannot emerge. Inside the event horizon thecenter of emission is no longer even inside the wave front;consequently, once inside the Schwarzschild sphere, onecannot communicate with the world outside. Moreover, onewould inexorably be propelled towards the center: not ali theking's horses nor king's men can prevent it from happening. Itshould be noted that to deduce ali these properties, one hasonly to draw the light cones at various points — a constructionthat is entirely elementary.In essence the significance of the Schwarzschild surface atr = RS must have been known to Eddington, certainly bythe early '30s; but nevertheless he would not accept theconclusion, even though it appeared inevitable.That there is an upper limit to the mass of degenerate stellarconfiguration had been established 12 by early 1931. Its significance for the final stages of the evolution of stars was fullyappreciated at that time, as the following extract from whatwas written at that time shows 13 :The life history of a star of small mass must be essentiallydifferent from the life history of a star of large mass. For a starof small mass the naturai white-dwarf stage is an initial steptowards complete extinction. A star of large mass cannot pass intothe white-dwarf stage, and one is left speculating on other possi-bilities.And Eddington fully realized what this conclusion implied. Hestated14 :The star apparently has to go on radiating and radiating andcontracting and contracting until, I suppose, it gets down to afew kilometers radius, when gravity becomes strong enough tohold the radiation, and the star can at last find peace.This remark makes it clear that Eddington realized that the15©eventFig. 2. The spadai re presentanoti of the Schwarzschild blackhole. The absolute event horizon occurs at the radiusR. = 2GM/ a2 . The wave fronts of light signals, emanating atvarious points, at a slightly later time are shown. At large distances from the event horizon, the points He at the centres ofthe respective wave fronts. At smaller distances the wave frontsare displaced by the strong gravitational field present. Thewave fronts emanating from points on the event horizon touchthe event horizon on the inside and cannot emerge. Inside theevent horizon the centres of emission are no longer even insidethe wave fronts.existence of an upper limit to white-dwarf configurationsinevitably requires that in the course of evolution of at leastsome of the massive stars, black holes, as we now cali them,must form. But he would not accept the conclusion. For hecontinued to say:I felt driven to the conclusion that this was almost a reductio adahsurdum of the relativistic degeneracy formula. Various acci-dents may intervene to save the star, but I want more protectionthan that. I think that there should be a law of nature to preventthe star from behaving in this absurd way.Indeed, since he considered the conclusion derived from thetheory of Fermi degeneracy of electrons, allowing for theeffects of special relativity, as leading to a reductio ad ab-surdum, he modified the relativistic-degeneracy formula sothat finite equilibrium states will be possible for ali masses.It is interesting to speculate why Eddington, who was one ofthe earliest and staunchest supporters of general relativity,should have found the conclusion that black holes may occurin nature — as they have now been observed to occur — so un-acceptable. The three examples I have described at some length ali pre-date the '60s and are in the context of questions that mighthave been asked of general relativity, questions whose answerwould have contributed to our understanding of general rela-tivity. It will be noticed that the questions which might havebeen asked are precisely those questions that have been fullyanswered during the '60s in the context of relativistic astro-physics.This is not accidental. In a real sense astronomy is thenaturai home for general relativity. It has to be so, for thegeneral theory of relativity is a theory of gravity. And in whatcontext, except in the context of astronomy, can one hope t°observe manifestations of phenomena derived from stronggravitational fields? In other words, the right physica1questions one can ask of general relativity are necessarily inthe context of astronomical possibilities.By saying that astronomy is the naturai home for the genera'theory of relativity, I am envisaging a role for theory 'nastronomy which is not generally accepted. In my judgment.theory has a doublé role to play in astronomy: (1) the commo"one of providing interpretations for observed phenomena; and(2) the uncommon one of providing for astronomy the kind oibasis which experiments provide for physics.The latter role is largely unrecognized and largely not prac'ticed. But one would certainly recognize this role if one wouldonly stop and realize that unless one can be certain of what onemight observe in well-defined astronomical contexts, Le. , undercertain well-defined conditions, one could never be sure of a""inference that one might draw from observations.While I do not wish to go so far, there is an element of truthin an aphorism of Eddington's:You cannot bclieve in astronomical observations before theyare confirmed by theory.REFERENCES1. Freeman Dyson, Physics Today. 21, June 1965. ,2. The Borii -Einstein Letters, Macmillan (London, 1971), p. ,z '201.3. A. Trautman, Bull. Acad. Polon. Sci. 6, 627, 1958.4. S. Chandrasekhar, Ap. J. 160, 153, 1970.5. H. Bondi, M.G.J. van dcr Burg, and A.W.K. Metzner, Proc. R°rSoc. 269, 21, 1962.6. R. K. Sachs, Proc. Roy. Soc. 270, 103, 1962.7. K. Schwarzschild, Berliner Sitzungsber.. 189, 1916.8. A. S. Eddington, Ohservatory, 39, 336, 1916.9. K. Schwarzschild, Berliner Sitzungsber., 548, 1916.10. K. Schwarzschild, Berliner Sitzungsber., 424, 1916.11. C. G. Darwin, Proc. Roy. Soc. 249, 180, 1958; also, Proc. R0?'Soc. 263, 39, 1961. -.12. S. Chandrasekhar, Ap. J. 74, 81, 1931; M.N.R.A.S. 91, 43U'1931; see also Z. /. Ap. 5, 321, 1932.13. S. Chandrasekhar, Ohservatory, 57, 373, 1934.14. A. S. Eddington, Obervatory, 58, 37, 1935.16Homecoming of a CantoneseKei-on ChanIt is no longer something to brag about to get into China,especially to Canton, her gateway to the outside, but even thismodest trip required some effort. I was bora in Hong Kongand can obtain identification as a Hong Kong resident, forwhom entrance into China is relatively easy. So, in addition tocarrying a U.K. passport and an American permanent residence card, I recently added to my wallet a new Hong Kongcard of identity. I was fortunate in having relatives in Canton Ican visit.I had communicated with my aunt and uncle in Cantonbefore departing. I brought along as requested by them adozen bars of bath soap (two are rationed to each person peryear in Canton), a dozen can openers and some chocolate. Thecan openers got me into some trouble, as I had not been ableto explain to the customs officer and the PLA (People'sLiberation Army) why so many were needed. It turned out thatmy aunt had made an error in her letter; she merely wantedone.The train left Hong Kong at 6:30 a.m. and got to the borderby 7:30. There we had to clear the customs and immigration ofChina before changing on to another train for Canton. Thefirst thing oìie noticed was that the PLA, with their distinctivegreen unif orms, were everywhere. They were the ones in chargeof immigration. Throughout the next two hours, any one of thesoldiers could come by and inquire about one's destination,purpose, family background, work. To me they looked verybusinesslike and imposing.At the customs station I was questioned at great length, mypockets emptied and two letters I happened to carry, one frommy aunt and one from my mother, read rather closely. For-tunately they were ali about family business. Just before Ireturned from Canton I destroyed the letters, because I did notwant them to be read again crossing over. There is no suchthing as absolute private property or personal belongings onthe other side of the border. Privacy is not an absolute right.For a bourgeois, lesson number one.Mr. Chan (am'67), has been serving as the Harvard-Yenching visiting lecturer at Chung Chi College, the ChineseUniversity ofHong Kong. Earlier this year he visited relativesin Canton and here reports tofellow alumni his impressions ofhis China trip. Mr. Chan adds: "Confucius and Confucianismhave been used many times in Chinese history to buttress thestatus quo. The current campaign links Confucius with LinPiao and Liu Shao-ch'i. More likely than not, the 'criticizeConfucius' campaign will engulf China this year. I mustconfess that so fari cannot make head or tail out of the wholecampaign." Mr. Chan is scheduled to add his PhD this year. I noticed that many older men and women who lookedobviously like country people going back to China for a visitwere getting less questioning, even though they carried basketsof food, pots, pans and other sundries with them. Two womenwere actually complaining vociferously that they were taxedtoo much. The PLA ignored them. Then, as well as later, I gotthe idea that the best place to be in China is at the bottom. Ifyou are powerless, the authorities can ignore you.The train for Canton was spacious, clean and comfortable.Hot meals were served in the dining car. The 145-kilometertrip took just over two hours. Out of the window one could seethe green countryside of south China.My aunt and uncle met me at the station. My uncle teachesbiology at Chungshan University in Canton; my aunt is amiddle school teacher. They have one boy of fourteen, whoshowed up later. The first thing we had to do was to report myarrivai to the public security office near the station. I was putup in a hotel for travelers from Hong Kong and Macao.The public security for Canton was very tightly organized.As soon as I checked into the hotel in the center of Canton, thehotel notified the precinct public security office that I hadarrived. In the meantime, the public security office atChungshan University, where I had intended to stay, wonderedwhy I had not shown up. They made inquiries at my uncle'shouse, and the matter was finally cleared up. Under theirsystem one's whereabouts is easily traced. I am pretty sure thatif I had stayed out one night without returning to the hotel, theclerk on my floor would have noticed it and reported to thesecurity office.Canton, with a population of over 2,000,000, covers only anarea of f ifty-f our square kilometers— smaller than Hong Kongislahd. Metropolitan Canton, with over 3,000,000 people, is tentimes larger in area. The city is located in the Pearl River deltaand is almost totally fiat. It is studded with many pretty parksand one can stroll the entire city on foot within two days. Thebicycle is the common means of transportation. The buses arefar from adequate during rush hours.Transportation is a major problem and greatly needsmodernization. There is not one traffic light. The pace isnothing like Hong Kong, and one feels quite secure walking inthe middle of the road or dashing across the Street — there isalways plenty of company doing the same.There is no restriction on the movement of the tourist.Burglaries, muggings, etc, do not exist, although there aresupposedly a few pickpockets. But who wants to stay out late?Most shops dose by nine, and buses stop running at ten.I started the trip with the somewhat naive belief thatbecause I am Cantonese I could perhaps strike up conversa-tions with people in the city, and perhaps get to f ind out something about their ways of life. The reality was that most people17I had any business with are in the services: waiters, clerks, busconductors, sales people — ali very businesslike and aloof. Thesame was true with people on the Street.Two evenings I sat in tea houses and watched the people.Strangers often shared a table, but I never noticed anyonesaying hello as a sign of courtesy or to strike up a conversation.Those who sat at my table were taciturn; they did not even talkmuch to their own companions at the table.I attribute the general unsociability to the sullenness of theCantonese that one can observe in Hong Kong. But without therace track, gambling, stock market and .business, there isperhaps even less to talk about in Canton. But perhaps my ownviews were colored by a sense of alienation any tourist wouldfeel in any big city. Canton being a frontier city compoundedthe situation; I am told life is much more relaxed away fromthe two provinces Kwangtung and Fukien, one facing HongKong and the other Taiwan. Politicai discussions seem to berestricted to study sessions that each working unit holds threeto five nights a week, in which the workers review their work,try to solve problems together and raise their politicai consciousness.Confucius and politicai discourseThe lack of open politicai discourse may end soon. Therewas a movement afoot in the school and university of Cantonto mobilize the students and teachers for a campaign of big-character poster writing and reexamination of educationalpolicies in China. This movement, along with the anti-Confucius criticism that is widely publicized in the West, mayportend another struggle between different forces in China.No one can predict the extent of the current campaign, but Iam developing some ideas about why China has neededperiodic drives that sometimes disrupt the country.First of ali, the nationwide drives such as the Great LeapForward may have been deemed necessary to accelerateChina' s modernization and socialization.Second, they have to do with the struggle for power at thetop echelon, either for personal reasons or to vindicate certainpolicy lines.Third, the pace of life in China is relatively slow. As thewelfare of the Chinese people improves, there is a danger thatthey may take socialism for granted and relapse. The danger isparticularly acute among the youths who were bora after therevolution. Would they not be misled by their relatively secureand insular life into a sense of complacency and loss of revolutionary commitment?The material incentive, widely condemned in the CulturalRevolution as symptom of capitalist revival in China, has to bereplaced by another motivating force, namely politicai educa-tion designed to generate enthusiasm to serve the people. AsChina stands up in the international community and thedanger of imperialism appears to recede, can this enthusiasmbe sustained?I watched people at work in shops and small factories as I strolled the city. What I noticed was that people did not seemto work as hard as I had imagined. (I have to admit that thosewho transported goods on their tricycles worked under enor-mous strains, however.)The reasons are:1. Labor is plentiful, and there is no lack of help in loadingand unloading coal, servicing customers, etc.2. With the availability of nurseries, women are releasedfrom household chores and go into the labor force.3. There is underemployment, as there is elsewhere is Asia,because of lack of tools, machines, raw materials; there is inadequate production capacity to utilize fully the immensepopulation.4. There is no immediate reward for working hard.Although salaries are based on a point system, they are cor-related with a person's need, seniority, and size of family.Part of the problem of population growth in the countrysideis that the peasant gets a share of the production brigaderations proportional to the size of his family; thus, havingmore children is an asset to his well-being. Action by thegovernment is now being taken. From now on, the third childof a family will not be eligible to receive state subsidy. Andabortion is encouraged. I noticed a sign in the pharmacy thatsaid, "Free instruction in the use of contraceptive pills." Theproblem China f aces is not unlike that of the welfare mother inan American ghetto. The state reckons that each person needs$12 rmp (one ren min pi dollar equals fifty U.S. cents) a monthto maintain the most basic standard of living. The state makesup the difference if a family' s average income falls below thisamount. Now this subsidy will not be f orthcoming for the thirdchild.In the stores, goods were plentiful enough although somecould only be purchased with ration coupons. For example it isextremely difficult to obtain coupons to purchase a bicycle orbath soap. An adult, on the average, obtains thirty metricpounds of grain, one pound of oil and a one-and-a-half-poundmeat ration per month. The oil and meat rations are inaddition to what one gets from eating in the work unit messhall — at twenty cents a meal. My aunt cooks only two or threemeals a week.My uncle is a biologist at Chungshan (formerly Lingnan)University and has been there for twenty years, since gradu-ation in 1950. He makes about 150 dollars rmp a month. Myaunt, a high school teacher, makes about $75 rmp a month because of her twenty years of teaching experience.They live in a one-room house with their fourteen-year-oldson. The room is partitioned by a sheet hanging from a stand.The house leaks and is in very shabby condition, as well asbeing small. The Windows are mended with bits of cloth andpaper, covering where the glass has been broken. Thebathroom and kitchen are primitive; the furniture is very old.However, rent is only five rmp a month, including utilities.Ali in ali, I think they can easily save $150 a month. But theycannot use the savings to build a house, which in the city isstrictly allocated by the state. Furthermore, as my uncle maybe transf erred to another job at any time, there is no point in18itmtM*j&putting too much effort into housing. Certainly his familycan aff ord to buy better furniture, but it seems hardly worththe trouble.Pragmatism and fishMy uncle studies fish pathology and is involved withfisheries throughout the province. He likes his job, which in-volves applying theory to increasing fish production. He has nointerest in purely theoretical research.My aunt had chosen to stay in Canton during the liberationand was assigned to Peking as a normal school teacher from1950 to 1958, separated from her husband, who taught inCanton. In 1958 she returned to Canton and had her first andonly child the next year. My cousin spent his first six years in anursery; on Saturdays he would come home. Only in 1965 didhe return home to stay and enter school. Then in 1968 myuncle was sent to the May 7 cadre school for two years, becausethe university was closed and there were no students. I reckonthat in my aunt's marriage of over twenty years the entirefamily was together for less than seven.At one point I asked her if her bourgeois background was aConstant stigma which led to harassment. She looked slightlyembarrassed but said that Chairman Mao after ali stated thatpeople should be judged on their performance, rather than ontheir past class background. Both she and my uncle supportthe Cultural Revolution. There appeared to be no reservation.Chungshan University is spacious and has a nicely laid outcampus. But buildings and grounds are not well maintained.Vegetables and herbs are grown on campus. There has beenlittle construction since 1966, and it is only gradually beingresumed. For the size of the school, the enrolment of less thantwo thousand students is really small, especially since it is oneof the major universities in south China. Without permission, Icannot enter any of the buildings.Education was one of the targets of the Cultural Revolution,which is not over by any means. There are now experimentsand debates throughout China over educational policies,concerning admission, length of schooling, curriculum at alilevels. A new campaign is under way to debate the issuesthrough posters and mobilization of student and staff par-ticipation. As the campaign gets going, more light will be shedon the situation in Chinese schools.From 1966 to 1970, schools at ali levels virtually stopped inCanton. For lack of students, many teachers were sent to thecountry or the May 7 school, including my uncle, who learnedto be a cook for seven months.The students were ali automatically promoted, regardless ofperformance. There is no question that many students whowere not qualified academically to graduate neverthéless did.Problems such as whether examination is necessary or if openbook examination is the best are currently debated, althoughsome forms of examination are being used.The students today are apparently very practically oriented. These fateful words, attributed in the second line to Lin Piao,are used to tie China 's lateformer minister of defense, to Confucius. Their message: (<Restrain oneself, return to the rites."Foreign languages are not popular; the students regard themas irrelevant and useless. My cousin is interested in mechanicaland electronic devices but knows little about mathematics andscientific theories. He says that in the schools the students donot work very hard; ali they want is to graduate. The reason isthat upon graduation they are assigned to work in whateverjobs deemed necessary by the state. After that it is highly un-certain that one can get recommended to study in theuniversity by his work unit.Every schoolboy is required to spend some time in thecountry; usually a student spends a total of a year in thecountry during his middle school years. But there is no uni-formity in either the length of study in the middle schools orthe amount of time the student spends in the country in hissummer program.My cousin goes to the country to attend a branch school.The school building and dormitory had been built by my cou-sin's predecessors. Therefore life in the country is not hard forhim. Five days a week he attends class as usuai. On Saturdaythere is a physical labor, on Sunday games and activities.The purpose basically is to condition the schoolboy to life inthe country and to "learning from the peasants." My cousinlikes it because, he says, "when there are problems we get ourheads together and try to solve them together."Last summer my aunt took her class to the country to clearout a riverbed. After twenty days the students were so con-sumed by the hard work and had lost so much weight that theeducational department finally put a stop to this labor.There is an organic unity between an individuai and hiswork unit, be it a school, a hospital, a hotel, a restaurant or aco-op store or factory. His job is what defines his identity andplace in society. Normally he eats in the unit's mess hall, se-cures housing though his unit, which obtains the space fromthe government housing bureau and then allocates it to theunit workers. In the unit the worker attends study sessions. Ifhe needs a bicycle, the unit recommends or refuses him theapplication to the government for the necessary coupon basedupon its relevance to his work.If he goes out of town on business, he obtains a pass throughthe work unit. Otherwise he would be stranded, because thehotels in China would not receive him without the necessarypapers. The work unit also maintains a nursery for theworker's children.In short, if one does not have a work unit to belong to, one is19Students at Peking University at work on assignmentsinvolving criticism of Lin Piao and Confucius.nothing. A free floating individuai with no ties does not exist inChina; he cannot exist. I suppose that the social system is condurne to creating a strong sense of community of interestbetween the individuai and his work unit; together they sink orswim. At the same time one's job is not necessarily fixed. De-pending on the needs of the state, a person can be transferredfrom one job or locality to another at the drop of a pin. This isperhaps necessary to prevent a strong particularism fromdeveloping, at great cost to friendship and stable personalrelationships. But is it not already happening to ali industriaisocieties that represent "progress"?My feeling is that the way a worker is tied to his unit breedsa kind of narrowness and indifference to anything outside ofthe unit. That is why people do not have wide ranging personalcontacts and interests. China is a rigid society.Part of the immobility comes from the need to stop a floodof people into the cities, as happens everywhere in LatinAmerica and Asia. A viable, strong national party organizationis absolutely necessary to coordinate the numerous semi-autonomous units. Since the Cultural Revolution, neither thegovernment bureaucracy nor the party is as strong andcentralized as it once was. Any further weakening of thecentrai apparatus, I believe, will be disastrous to China andperhaps lead to its fragmentation.As it is, there is no longer any uniform education policy inthe country, and the country looks forward to the FourthNational Congress, presumably to be held soon, to lay downsome national guidelines to vital problems. Right now thesolidarity of China lies in her countryside and the peasantry,who have not been seriously affected by the Cultural Revolution. Agriculture continues to thrive.China's decentralization since 1966 makes her less vulnerale to invasion, but in the long run a stable central-localbalance must be created. Any serious outbreak of ideologicaland power struggle could mean the point of no return, espe-cially since Mao and Chou may not be at the helm muchlonger. But the progress in social construction is already quiteremarkable: everyone seemed employed and adequately fed,freely educated and medically treated, and generally secure and content. I found the society as egalitarian as everybodysays it is, to judge from attire and food consumption, as well ashousing. Unlike the Soviet Union, one sees no struttingbureaucrats or ranking military officers.Ranks and insignia are stili absent in the PLA. Governmentbuildings are obscure and unostentatious.Invisible bureaucracyI must suppose, however, that China is run by a large, invisible bureaucracy, since ali final decisions in economics andpolitics ali seem to come from one or the other state agencies,including rationing, allocation of labor, provision of alihousing. Politics is not publicly visible, except a few slogans,but it must be vigorously pursued behind doors within eachlevel of work unit, committee and department.There is not much night life to speak of, although for anickel one can go to the People's Cultural Center and attend avariety of entertainments, from movies (mostly documentaryor concerned with politicai education) to handicraft exhibits.There is a uniformity to the appearance of stores and theproducts they sell. Food appears plentiful. At lunch time it isdifficult to find a seat in the restaurant. An adult has anaverage income of $25 to $30 a month; hard laborers make asmuch as $100 or over.There is a degree of sexual equality in China unthinkable inHong Kong.The average person in Canton looks aloof, indifferent,businesslike and not particularly expressive or friendly. Somewould say that is the character of the Cantonese people, whoare reputedly individualistic, belligerent, have a fiery temperand a long tradition as small traders. The temper is tamed bythe revolutionary discipline now, or so it appears.But, lurking behind the co-op stores and the unhurriedtraffic, one senses the presence of an energetic and impatientpeople, who are just waiting to have a crack at setting upbusiness for themselves. Because of Canton's proximity toHong Kong and the presence of many overseas Chinese andtheir families, mercantile tradition is stili strong. My impres-sion is that if the heavy hand of socialism were liftedtomorrow, thousands of peddlers, hawkers and little foodstands would spring up within a week. It is universally agreedthat social and economie reconstruction has progressed fasterin the Shanghai area and northern China than in Kwangtung.The petty bourgeois tradition of the Cantonese may be thechief culprit.China is stili in a state of flux, and stability is not yet insight. Underlying the apparent contentment and equality oflife in Canton is an uncertainty about the future, an uncer-tainty bred out of the unsettling experience of revolutionarystruggle of the past two decades. I fear that the politicai fabric,rent by ideological differences and factionalism, is not sostrong that it can survive an ongoing and uninterruptedrevolution without snapping. When and if the Fourth People'sCongress is held, we shall have some telling evidence about thefuture course of China.20One introduction to Confucian thoughtGeorge AnastaploSOCRATES: . . . And whether anyone in the city is ofhigh or low birth, or what evil has been inherited by anyone from his ancestors, male or female, are matters towhich [philosophers] pay no more attention than to thenumber of pints in the sea, as the saying goes. [Thephilosopher] does not keep aloof from these things for thesake of gaining reputation, but really it is only his bodywhich has its place and home in the city; his thought, con-sidering ali these things petty and of no account, disdainsthem and is borne is ali directions, as Pindar says, "bothbelow the earth," and measuring the surface of the earth,and "above the sky," studying the stars, and investigatingthe universal nature of every thing that is, each in itsentirety, never lowering itself to anything dose at hand.—Plato, Theaetetus 173d-eThe Confucian traditionConfucius, it is said, probably did not write anything. In thisrespect, it seems, he was like Socrates and Jesus — or, strictlyspeaking, they were like him, since he lived and died beforeeither of them was bora. That is, he is said to have died in 479B.C., the year of the Battle of Plataea (at the end of the GreatWar between the Greeks and the Persians), a decade beforethe birth of Socrates.Not only did Confucius not write anything, he may well nothave said many of the things which have been attributed tohim. However, ali the thought which is traditionally calledConfucian is that in the sense that it was promulgated invarious and varying editions by the Confucian school, by theGeorge Anastaplo (àb'48, jt>'51, v)xd'64) is lecturer in theliberal arts, the University of Chicago, and professor ofpoliticai science and of philosophy, Rosary College. His manypublications include the forthcoming Swallow Press book,Human Being and Citizen: Essays on Virtue, Freedom and theCommon Good. This article is an abridgement of a lecturegiven lanuary 18, in the Works of the Mind series at theUniversity's Downtown Center. That lecture was dedicated tothe memory of Leo Strauss, Robert Maynard Hutchins distinguished service professor of politicai science emeritus, whodied in Annapolis, Md., October 18, 1973. men who considered themselves (and who were generally considered) his disciples and successors.What unites the Chinese scholars during the 500 or so yearsafter Confucius' death (the period during which the authorita-tive texts were evidently put together in the f orms we now havethem) is far greater than what divides them. What unites themis a pervasive sense of what Confucian thought is ali about,something which we of the West find it hard to get more than aglimpse of.Indeed, one must wonder whether Confucian thought is tobe grasped, in the first instance, through a book. Was it in-tended that books would do no more than refine and stabilizewhat had already been ordained by the community and bycenturies of exposure to a way of life?Some might even suggest that what made Confucius as in-fluential as he was — an influence for which it is difficult toimagine the books we have to be alone responsible — was thathe was able, through the force of his personality and in thekind of language he used (neither of which is likely to be ac-cessible to us), to confirm (and thereafter to build upon) adeeply engrained tendency among the Chinese people. Thusunderstood, Confucian thought would not be the work of asingle man but rather the "spirit" of a people expressing itself.Such an account of Confucius would make him seem morehistorical and accidental and hence less philosophical (lessknowing and knowable) than an influential teacher mightotherwise be.Another possible explanation of Confucius' influence is thatthere was a significant (but now lost) orai tradition which ac-companied and explained and made use of the written com-pilations of Confucio' teachings we do have. Certainly, therehas been a great tradition of written commentary on thesurviving texts to which we venture to contribute in this dis-cussion.Philosophy among the Chinese?Our concern on this occasion is not that of theanthropologist. Or, rather, the study of a "high civilization" —and the Confucian is certainly that — may be the only "ànthro-pology" worth taking seriously. Examination of a high civilization can really help us look at ourselves: another way of lifeputs to us the challenge of considering whether it has anythingdecisive to offer us, anything which calls for fundamentalchanges in our own way of life. Criticai to Western life is theimplicit understanding that it is open to improvement, that itis not necessarily the best possible way of life. Indeed, only a21way of life which is open (as the West is) to philosophy canbegin really to understand both itself and other ways of life.Philosophy is that organized and deliberate inquiry whichstrives for knowledge of the whole by the aid of naturai reasonalone. "The whole," Leo Strauss has observed, "is the totalityof the parts. The whole eludes us but we know parts: wepossess partial knowledge of parts. ..." I assume that he says"partial knowledge" because it would require knowledge ofthe whole, which may be for us in our temporal circumstancesunattainable, to put the parts in their places and thus fully toknow even them.Politicai philosophy — and here we come closer to Confucius'evident concerns — is that interest in politicai things which isilluminated by philosophy. It is, Mr. Strauss has said, "theattempt to understand the nature of politicai things." (This hehas called a provisionai definition.) And, it should be added,one may speak thoughtfully of politicai things withoutbeing a politicai philosopher. Thus, Mr. Strauss has said, "Apoliticai thinker who is not a philosopher is primarily interested in, or attached to, a specific order or policy; thepoliticai philosopher is primarily interested in, or attached to,the truth."1It remains to be seen whether Confucius himself (or anyoneworking in the tradition he evidently established) was apoliticai philosopher. Politicai philosophy recognizes, amongother things, that the highest human activity is philosophy.One's way may depend on a "theory" — on an opinion aboutthe whole (and Confucius' way may well do that, just as does,say, Homer's or Pindar's). But such a way need not be concerned with theory. Thus, the underlying theory may be nomore than a kind of "given," the unexamined foundation onwhich everything else rests.Someone might say, in defense of a non-philosophicalConfucius, that whoever takes philosophy most seriously (asthe politicai philosopher does) is, in a way, irresponsible: heselfishly cares more for the truth than he cares for good orderand the general welfare. An inquiry into Confucian thought,therefore, can oblige (and permit) us to examine and thus toknow ourselves a little better than we otherwise might.How should such an inquiry proceed? One must realizefrom the outset how limited our access is to Confucian texts. 2A typical effect on the Western reader of one of the texts is asense of disorientation. He gets the impression that he haswandered in on the middle of conversations at a great dance:he hears snatches of exchanges here and there as he movesaround the ballroom floor. He also gets the impression thatthose engaged in the coversations he overhears do understandthe many allusions and references being exchanged. TheWesterner is indeed an outsider.Constant probing seems to be invited by Confucius' suggestive hints, a probing which trains and qualifies one to jointhe select circle of men who have learned how to think subtlyand responsibly. Indeed, it sometimes seems to the Westernreader, the Confucian texts must be read almost as one wouldread poetry, if not even the many enigmatic nursery rhymes we have inherited. Much depends on the nuance, on the particularcircumstances of an observation. One is encouraged to settleon particular passages for a leisurely discussion. (I have heardthat one might devote a day to each chapter, even a chapterof only a few lines.) A certain moral tone is assumed and rein-forced thereby.Exhortation and example are exhibited in the texts as moreimportant, or at least as more influenzai, than reasoning andorganization. Certainly, the philosophical texts with which weare familiar are obviously much more organized. System-ization means more for us, as do definitions (which themselvesreflect a certain order and, ultimately, nature). What do thesedifferent approaches — the Confucian and the more familiarphilosophical — say, Or assume, about "reality"? What is "theworld" like? The difference in approaches may reflect adifference in ultimate purposes: that is, a life of a certaincharàcter (with an emphasis upon conduct) or a life of con-templation (for which a more or less systematic, examined anddisciplined view of the whole is needed).We sense that we get much, if not most, of Socratesthrough the Platonic dialogs. But we hardly have that impression of the Confucius glimpsed through the Chinese texts.Why should this be so? Are the Chinese texts deliberatelyfragmentary? For Socrates, whatever the force of his remark-able "personality" might have been, the criticai thing seems tohave been the thinking, something which can be somewhatexpressed in words and thus may be captured somewhat onpaper. Extended discussions are required for this purpose. ForConfucius, on the other hand, the criticai thing seems to havebeen the social influence, something which is difficult to putdown on paper.There appears at the very beginning of the Analects anobservation about the pleasure of learning. Thus, there arethings to be learned; and a man is capable of learning them.We recali, by comparison, the opening words of the dialog withwhich the study of Plato traditionally begins, The Apology ofSocrates: "I do not know, men of Athens. . . ." We recali, aswell, the Socratic insistence upon an awareness of ignorance asbeing the mark of a truly wise man. The emphasis seems different in the Analects: there are things to be learned — andConfucius is in the position to teach them to men of abilitywho want to learn.What are the learnable things? That may be the keyquestion of the Analects. The learnable things — the thingswhich may be learned and which may be worth learning —seem to bear directly upon how one should conduct oneself,especially with respect to such duties as filial piety andfraternal submission. However that may be, it seems to berecognized from the outset of Confucian thought that there isa pleasure in learning. And we would say, only the truly know-able can be learned; only that can provide one genuinepleasure. Something of this may be detected in Book 2,Chapter 17, of the Analects: "The Master [Confucius] said,'Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know athing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a22thing, to allow that you do not know it; — this is knowledge.' "We return to the question: What are the learnable things? Ihave called this the key question of the Analects. I should nowqualify what I have said. This may well be the key question forus in our examination of the Analects. Or rather, the truly keyquestion, at least on this occasion, may really be: Does theauthor of the Analects (the editor, say, who understood it aliand put it together) — does the Confucian thinker recognizethis as the key question: What are the learnable things?We tura now to examinations of three sample Confucianpassages, examinations which should at the very least make usrealize that Confucian thought can be most subtle. Suchexaminations are necessarily tentative, permitting one to weavetogether what one sees in the work as a whole. One's reader isthereby introduced to a way of reading and indeed to a way oflife which are both alien and instructive*Rich man, poor man . . .Book 1, Chapter 15, of the Analects reads,/. Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning thepoor man who y et does notflatter, and the rich man who is notproud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are notequal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him,who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."2. Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, Asyou cut and then file, as you carve and then polish. ' Themeaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have justexpressed."3. The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze [Tsze-kungl I canbegin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knewits proper sequence."(This reminds us that the names of the people should betaken into account. What are the traditions respecting them?What is said about them, and by them, in the Analects? I havenot yet tried to be this thorough in my examinations.)We start here with a recognition of the existence of the richand the poor. The problems of the rich and poor, including theproblem of the relation of rich and poor, are always with us,whether the decisive wealth is gold or politicai power orphysical aptitudes. How does one deal with such problems?And how does one speak about how one deals with suchproblems? The Confucian answer seems to be: One shouldspeak discreetly, so that the truly privileged class whichemerges can be both responsible and self-perpetuating. But Ianticipate my analysis of this chapter:We see here the tendencies to which men are prone in vary-ing circumstances. It is most likely (that is, unless correctedand guarded against) that the poor will flatter and the the richwill be proud. It is something of an accomplishment if thepoordo not flatter and if the rich do not swagger. But it would beeven better (but unusual, it seems) for the poor to be cheerful,for the rich to observe rituals caref ully, to respect the proprietyreflected in such rituals. The poor man tends to feel vulnerale. He needs ali the help he can get. He depends a lot onrituals. He does not need to be encouraged to observe rituals. Confucius: Poor, rich or truly rich?(In fact, one might even suspect that ritual observance fits inwith the marked tendency of the poor to flatter. Do we go toofar if we wonder whether Confucius hinted at this?)The rich man, on the other hand, tends to feel invulnerate.Money (or power) shields him from many of the vicissitudes oflife. He can hire doctors and grocers and guards. He does nothave to be encouraged to be cheerful, to enjoy himself, nordoes he ordinarily need whatever it is that many believe ritualto promise mankind. It is useful if the rich man should beobliged to flatter someone, if he should be made aware of hislimitations and vulnerability as a human being and if heshould be thereby restrained in the exercise of his power.These Confucian observations about the rich and the poorare part of a "hard-headed" approach to social relations, anapproach seen throughout the Analects. This approach is to becontrasted to both "idealism" and "cynicism" (which somemight cali "realism" but which can also mean "nihilism").Idealism can fail to recognize how things are and are alwayslikely to be. This can lead to resentment because of disap-pointed expectations, and this in tura can lead to anger andupheaval. That which I have called cynicism fails to recognizethe partial amelioration which is sometimes possible in humanrelations, and this failure can lead in tura to malaise, spirited-lessness and disintegration, perhaps eventually to tyranny as away back to a healthier (naturai) condition of life.I should add that although the neh and the poor, each withtheir special failings, will always be with us, it does not meanthat they cannot be improved, each in their own way. I shouldalso add that Confucius elsewhere counsels rulers on what theyshould do about the poor. He recognizes, that is, that there is alimit to exhortations to cheerfulness: impoverished men canbecome truly desperate.AH this (assuming something like this is conjured up by theexchange thus far) reminds the interlocutor of an old song: hesees what Confucius has just said as an application of something in that song, a song which they may have discussed onanother occasion. 3 It is significant that there is recourse to anold song. What Confucius is saying fits in with, or can be madetofit in with, ancient authority. This shows the attentive reader23how the well-established songs can be reinterpreted in the lightof Confucian thought, how they can be used by a man such asConfucius. In fact, one might even suspect that Confucius de-liberately made things which were somewhat new with himseem much older than they were. (An American might be re-minded of what Abraham Lincoln did in the GettysburgAddress: "Four score and seven years ago" does make thecountry seem much more venerable than would "a couple ofgenerations ago" or "eighty-seven years ago.")Consider the parallels between the old poem and the Confucian observation. There are raw materiato be worked on.Men are always in particular circumstances, such circumstances as poverty and wealth. The raw materials must be cutand filed, must be chiseled and polished. The parallel hereextends to the assumption that there are two kinds of materialsand hence two refining processes. Is not the first process (cutand file) cruder than the second (chisel and polish)? The poorwere mentioned first: they can be cut and filed down; the richcan be carved and polished. That is, a tougher piece can bemade of the poor, a more exquisite piece of the rich. (This canbe said to be the sequence in the poem as well: on the onehand, metal; on the other, jade.)But is there not evident in ali this a *third kind of man aswell — the man who cuts and files, the man who chisels andpolishes? Such a man is, essentially, neither rich nòr poor. Heis "above it ali." He knows how to handle such matters. Heknows what Confucius does about the position and duties ofthe third kind of man. In a sense he is rich, but only in thatwhich is truly worth having, not gold or power or jade, butrather knowledge of what men are like and how they shouldconduct themselves. (Some might be inclined to cali thisattitude "philosophical." Would they be truly rich in so doing?)The third part of this chapter confirms what we have heard,that Confucius' style can be quite allusive (and illusive): heoften does no more than point to his opinions, and to the connection among the things which have been mentioned. Alithis implies that the truth is hard to come by; that one has towork for it; that great care is needed; that it may even be a dis-service, both to the learner and to the community, if things arespelled out fully; that a sense of self-restraint is called for onthe part of those whom we today cali intellectuals.In any event, fruitful inquiry depends, Confucius indicates,on disciplined behavior. Stability is thereby promoted, and anatmosphere of care and of responsible special privilege iscreated. It is evident that much is always left concealed, thatmuch is left unsaid. Does not this reflect an "old-fashioned"understanding of the relation between reason and community?If this is so, can philosophy be far behind?Humpty Dumpty sat on a wallOur next exercise in exegesis deals with the second longest(perhaps even the longest) chapter in the Analects, Book 16,Chapter 1 (which is made up of thirteen sections in the Leggetranslation): 1. The head of the Chi family was going to attackChwan-yu.2. Zan Yu and Chi-lu had an interview with Confucius, andsaid, "Our chief, Chi, is going to commence operations againstChwan-yu."3. Confucius said, "Ch'iu [Zan Yu], is it not you who are infault here?4. "Now, in regard to Chwan-yu, long ago, a former kingappointed its ruler to preside over the sacrifices to the easternMang; moreover, it is in the midst of the territory of our State;and its ruler is a minister in direct connexion with thesovereign: — What has your chief to do with attacking it?"5. Zan Yu [Ch'iu] said, "Our master wishes the thing;neither of us two ministers wishes it."6. Confucius said, "Ch'iu, there are the words of Chau Zan,— 'When he can putforth his ability, he takes his place in theranks of office; when hefinds himself unable to do so, he re-tires from it. How can he be used as a guide to a blind man,who does not support him when tottering, nor raise him upwhen falien? '7. "And further, you speak wrongly. When a tiger orrhinoceros escapes from his cage; when a tortoise or piece ofjade is injured in its repository: — whose is the fault?"8. Zan Yu said, "But at present, Chwan-yu is strong andnear to Pi; if our chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be asorrow to his descendants."9. Confucius said, "Ch'iu, the superior man hates that de-clining to say — T want such and such a thing,' and framingexplanations for the conduct.10. "I have heard that rulers of States and chiefs offamiliesare not troubled lest their people should be few, but they aretroubled lest they should not keep their several places; thatthey are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are troubledwith fears of a want of contented repose among the people intheir several places. For when the people keep their severalplaces, there will be no poverty; when harmony prevails, therewill be no scarcity of people; and when there is such contentedrepose, there will be no rebellious upsettings.11. "So it is. — -Therefore, if remoter people are not submissive, ali the influences of civil culture and virtue are to becultivated to attract them to be so; and when they have been soattracted, they must be made contented and tranquil.12. "Now, here are you, Yu [Chi-lu?] and Ch'iu [Zan Yu\assisting your chief Remoter people are not submissive, and,with your help, he cannot attract them to him. In his own territory there are divisions and downfalls, leavings andseparations, and, with your help, he cannot preserve it.13. "And yet he is planning these hostile movements withinthe State. — / am afraid that the sorrow of the Chi- sun familywill not be on account of Chwan-yu, but will be found withinthe screen of their own court."We make a preliminary examination of this chapter, sectionby section ("editor" refers to the originai Chinese editor):1. Why did the ministers come to Confucius? Are they un-certain? Troubled? Curious? We are told by the editor — this24is our point of departure — that there was indeed an imminentattack. The editor wants us to know that. It should help usunderstand the subsequent exchanges.2. A guarded report is made to Confucius about what isgoing to happen. "Our chief. . .is going to commence opera-tions "A euphemism is used: not "attack" but "commenceoperations." This suggests the ministers' awareness of thedubiousness of the ruler's action.3. Confucius' response is not euphemistic. His way oftalking here is quite different from theirs. He thereby tacitlyrepudiates their approach. He speaks frankly and brutally —and he selects out one man (the elder or more active or seniorminister?) as the one to be addressed, even though both hadspoken to him at the outset. He is precise about where theresponsibility lies.4. Confucius then explains why what they pian to do is acrime. We notice that he uses the word "attack," just as hadthe editor at the very beginning. He puts his emphasis on theritual duties involved and on legai (historical?) obligations. Inaddition, "feudal" relations, of a privileged character, seem tobe referred to. Thus, Confucius seems to object on the basis ofthe status quo. Does he suspect that there are no good reasonsfor what is planned, especially since the ministers began bydisguising the impending attack as they did? Or is it that Confucius (and the expected Chinese reader) knew the facts (thegeography, history, etc.) which would make it clear that theattack would be improper (especially if sacrilegious or in thenature of a civil war)?5. The minister singled out implicitly concedes Confucius'criticism. He tries to shift the blame to his ruler; or failingthat, he tries to shift part of the blame to his companion minister. (He himself did not get to be a minister for nothing? Is itnot the ruler being criticized throughout as well, but with theappropriate outward forms of respect preserved?)6. Confucius again addresses the senior minister. There is atacit rebuke: he will not permit him to shift the blame to theruler or to share it with the junior minister. Confucius relies,first, on a quotation from someone else. That is, Confuciusshares the task of criticism: he succeeds in sharing, somethingwhich the senior minister had not done. This, Confucius suggests, is how to share: attach yourself to a wise man. (Is notConfucius himself available? And he, unlike Socrates, itshould be noted, very much wanted to share in the politicai lifeof whatever community he happened to be in. Also, unlikeSocrates, he liked to travel.) This quotation from Chau Zanalso shows that Confucius' criticism of the ministers is basedon an old teaching: that is, the ministers should have knownbetter even before this conversation with Confucius. Thus,Confucius is, in effect, invoking in tura his superior — a wiseman. He points to the alternative of resigning when an improper course is being pursued by one's nominai superior. It isevidently not clear in the manuscripts whether the last sen-tence of this section is part of the Chau Zan quotation orwhether it is a homely example supplied by Confucius to bringthe ancient teaching closer to home. In any event, the ministers' ruler is shown as tottering, not strong, even thoughhe is about to become an aggressor.7. Confucius then makes the ruler into a wild animai; andthen into something precious (like a tortoise or jade). Thus,however one regards the ruler, whether he is weak or wild orprecious and exalted, there is a proper duty for the ministers.Confucius thereby forecloses various excuses. The result is tomake both ministers move closer to f acing up to the facts. (Isthis intended to be the centrai teaching of the chapter?)8. The senior minister now gives a justification for theaggression. National security, especially on behalf of futuregenerations, is invoked. A country's leaders must look ahead(just as Confucius had looked ahead and stripped the ministersof their def ense). But what they do not try to explain is why alithis is a problem now. Why is a change in attitude called fornow? The ministers' silence is suspicious.9. Confucius responds to the invocation of national security: You stili have not given a good reason. You should haveresigned.10. He then goes on to diagnose the trouble. There is indeedsomething wrong in their country. National security is not theproblem nor is poverty, but that of harmony and propersharing. (Has not Confucius already shown them what isproper and what is improper sharing?)11. Much more needs to be said about the long, concludingspeech of Confucius, which begins in this section, than I canprovide here. Has not everything which has gone before em-powered Confucius to say what he now does? One should con-sider, for instance, what authority he relies upon here andwhat kind of argument. Certainly, he rules them by directingthem to look homeward (and inward) for correction. He arguesthat if a country is well-governed, other countries will want tojoin them; there will be no need for aggression; there will thenbe no threat to their security. This is a kind of imperialismthrough virtue. (To be well-governed, it should be noticed, de-pends not on the rule of law but on the mie of good men.)12. Confucius now addresses both ministers directly. Is thejunior minister being urged to take more responsibility,perhaps even to supplant his colleague? (Is he addressed firsthere?) However that may be, the fundamental character of thecountry is not due just to what is happening at the moment.Both ministers are told: Either resign or attempt to reform therule of your country. (Had the junior minister been troubledenough to induce his senior colleague to consult Confucius?)13. Confucius concludes by addressing, in effect, the rulerof the country. Perhaps he is even suggesting (but in such away that the ministers may convey, unaware, his message tothe ruler) that the ruler should move against his ministersrather than against the proposed enemy. He is asked to face upto the real problem. It is indicated that genuine securitydepends on one's own character and hence the effect of one'scharacter on others. Is it not assumed, here and elsewhere, thatthe truth about regimés is fairly evident, that people generallyknow whose rule is good and whose is not, and that the con-sequences of good and bad rule are predictable? (Does not25Confucius anticipate and share some of the illusions of theEnlightenment? Here, too, the classical politicai philosopherwould travel differently?)We are left to wonder what happens after this conversation.If the character of a ruler is as decisive as Confucius argues,here and elsewhere, and if Confucius rules the ministers, thenthere should have been peace as a result of this conversation.But does not such a ruling character depend, for its effective-ness, on opportunity? Confucius, after ali, is not theirimmediate ruler. Perhaps the most he can do is induce theseministers to resign — and then what would happen? Perhaps weare intended to realize that even the very best advice cannotsuffice, that much also depends on the occasion if crime is tobe prevented. But one does not need "the right occasion" inorder to behave oneself. More needs to be said about what thesilent Chi-ìu may have thought abóut throughout this conversation — and afterwards.. . . Beggarman, thiefOur final exercise in exegesis on this occasion permits us tosee, among other things, one form a poor man's flattery cantake. Book 2, Chapter 24, of the Analects reads,/. The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit whichdoes not belotig to him is flattery.2. "To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage.Where is the flattery here? Who is flattered? The now livingdescendants of the spirit sacrificed to, it seems. Why is thisflattery? Because one may say, by sacrificing to another' sspirit, "Your ancestor was a remarkable man. I wish he weremine." (This is to be distinguished from public sacrifices, suchas those to a Washington or a Lincoln.) Might not even we, inthis more permissive age, regard such behavior as trouble-some? Or at least questionable — this appropriation by oneman of another's ancestor? After ali, what are genealogicalsocieties for, but to keep such things straight? Even so, Confucius does seem to make more of such sacrifices, and ofmourning, and of rituals, than we would. We will return laterto the significance of this. It suffices to say at this point thatrespect for the ancestral contributes to continuity from onegeneration to another and thus promotes stability.The two sections of this chapter could well have been put inseparate chapters. That is, adjoining chapters in the Analectsoften have as much, and as little, obvious connection with oneanother as do the two sections in this chapter. So, to connectthese two is to indicate how chapters might be connected.(I have found when I have tried to connect chapters invarious books of the Analects — to work out a sequence — thatit can be done in a plausible way, that there is a sense to thatpart of the whole. I suspect, although I understand mostscholars do not, that the same might well be done with theAnalects as a whole if the text is reasonably dose to thecondition in which it might have been put by a perceptiveeditor in antiquity. What one has to do is work out what mightbe called the suppressed transitions.) What is the connection between the two sections of this particular chapter? Is not flattery a kind of cowardice, a refusai tolive with or face up to the facts? Is not such flattery, suchancestral sacrifice, a taking for one's own of what belongs toanother — and hence an injustice? In neither case — that offlattery or that of cowardice — does one do what is appropriate,what is expected. In neither case, does one act justly.Something more should be said about ali this, but in doingso we must speak from the Socratic perspective — from whatmay well be a higher perspective. Who would be flattered bysuch appropriation by another of one's ancestor? A vain man?(One could imagine this in a Molière play.) Try also to imagineSocrates' response to such an episode. That is, we must (andcan) see what Confucius sees and does not see. Is sacrifice forConfucius too serious a matter to provide an occasion foramusement? Society rests for him on such things. One canimagine a Homeric character protesting as Confucius doesagainst the misappropriation of an ancestor, but not Socrates.When one asks how Socrates would respond, one notices howsober Confucius is (despite his usuai sense of humor). Does henot take morality more seriously than does Socrates? Does henot restrain himself more than Socrates from lifting the veiland playf ully exposing for inspection the things most men takeso seriously?Is there not something rather amusing about the flatterer'sbehavior? We might even take pleasure in learning about it.Does not this, however, point to our corruption? That is, do wemake too much of learning? And this points to a problem,from the Socratic perspective, with the second section of thischapter: cowardice is not really distinguished from injustice.In fact, may not ali misbehavior be reduced to cowardice bythis Confucian approach? This would fail to distinguishamong the vices as they "really" are (as, for instance, Aristotlépresents them). Nor, on the other hand, does it reduce the vicesto the one of which Plato's Socrates so often speaks, ignorance.Knowledge does not seem (at least in Confucius' publicteaching) to be the criticai thing for virtuous activity, butrather the will. Confucius seems to say that the good is, for mostpractical purposes, known by ali. The only question is likely tobe with respect to one's will to do what is called for. If the willis criticai, then courage (at least, moral courage) becomes themost important virtue.We thus see where the fundamental difference — rootedultimately in the status of knowledge (what it is to know andwhat is knowable) — where the fundamental difference may Hebetween classical politicai philosophy and Confucian thought.Certainly, the politicai philosopher does not stress asConfucius does the importance either of courage or of ritual inthe life of a community.Perhaps ritual is for many an assurance, if not a source, oforder in the cosmos. Adherence to long-established rites ormanners by a ruler means considerable self-restraint on hispart. (One recalls the rich man in Book 1, Chapter 15.) Bothtyranny and anarchy are made less likely by scrupulous regardfor any well-established and humane ritual. This is aside from26the validity of the authority for such rituals: it may be evenbetter if the authority is concealed or obscure and hence lessvulnerable to examination. Are not rituals most useful if theyare not obviously utilitarian in purpose? If a ritual makes somesense, one may more easily feel entitled to adjust it, torationalize changes in it to suit one's passions (or otherwise toquestion and undermine it), ali in the name of serving itsevident utilitarian purpose. Does Confucius, in the Analects,speak covertly about the authority and purpose of ritual? Certainly, he indicates that it is better not to make the purpose anissue. (Compare Maimonides, Guide, III, 25-50.) Certainly,also, the divine is muted throughout the Analects.We have seen in the course of examining these passagesfrom the Analects, how Confucius interprets what peoplesay — and this should alert us both as to what Confucius says(to others and to us) and as to what he may not dare say orperhaps even think. Is there involved in ali this, showingthrough the text, an editor superior even to Confucius? Is thatsuperior editor somehow the embodiment of Reason itself, inthat he depends on the dispassionate reader to subject the textand Confucius himself to the most searching examination?And that is philosophical in its inclination, whatever may havebeen the case of Confucius himself. We venture to suggest,therefore, that Confucius himself probably was not aphilosopher but that one of his editors might have been moredisposed than he was toward a consideration of the fundamental questions which Confucius seems (almost as if by aninstinct) to shy away from. But public manifestation (and perhaps even private maturation) of such a disposition seeminhibited by the pervasiveness of Confucian piety.On ahyssmanship?The family unit is, in much of Confucian thought, criticai tothe ordering of the community. An emphasis upon the familyreinforces continuity and promises stability. But every familydepends on various unexamined (and, for the health of thefamily, unexaminable) premises. Does Confucius recognize theConstant tension and the potential conflict between the familyand the city, and between both of them and questioning? (InSocrates' "best city," we recali, a man may not even know whohis parents are.) If the family is the criticai association, thenthe size of one's city or country does not matter. One should(Confucius indicates) respect one's own, but that "own" canbe the family, which is established and reinforced by variousage-old rituals, independent of obvious politicai concerns.One's place in the family is criticai: one's age or sex iscriticai (it matters whether one is a parent or a child, an olderor a younger brother). The parent is dominant, but he in turais held in check by duties to his ancestors. Philosophy, on theother hand, almost inevitably calls such things into question:public order is thereby sacrificed to serious inquiry.Socrates was interested in questions about the origins ofthings — that is, in the nature of things — while rituals usuallypresent themselves as sufficient accounts about such things. It is the absence of an explicit concern about nature — theabsence of an informed awareness of what "the naturai"means — which may be most revealing about Confucianthought. Without such an awareness and concern, there can beno philosophy. (Nor can there be a systematic teaching aboutthe best possible regime or about what we know as naturairight.) The implied "theory" of Confucian thought seems torest implicitly upon a radicai utilitarianism: a tradition is ac-cepted as the "given"; and that tradition, rather than nature,is then emphasized by him. He may be, in this as in severalother criticai respects, very much like Lincoln."Nature" may be the key term, the term which someeducated Westerner well versed in the Chinese languageshould consider carefully for us in studying the Confuciantexts. Confucius may have discouraged inquiries into thenature of things as disruptive. Philosophy does shake things upso that one can get a better look at them. Confucius may havebeen philanthropic in his cautiousness about inquiry for itsown sake. He may not have thought it good for men to be thusdiverted.4In addition, he may have seen such inquiry as really fruit-less, as something which could not help but lead to error andfrustration. Consider how Ezra Pound, in the introduction tohis translation of the Analects, assesses our philosophicaltradition: "The study of the Confucian philosophy is of greaterprof it than that of the Greek because no time is wasted in idlediscussion of errors. Aristotlé gives, may we say, 90% of histime to errors. ..." We need only remember what a Platonicdialog is like in order to understand what it was that misledMr. Pound. It does sometimes seem that little is accomplishedin most of the dialogs but the repudiation of some error.And once an error has been "authoritatively" repudiated bysomeone, why should we return to it again and again? Òneanswer is that certain fundamental questions are really moreknowable than their answers — and that the alternative to suchquestioning is to live an unexamined life which is hardly worthliving. But, the public-spirited Confucius might reply, this isbut the most subtle and the most dangerous instance ofswaggering by the rich. It is enough, and hard enough, to helpmost men live decent lives; that is the most one can hope forin most circumstances.And, one might also suspect, Confucius might have doubtedthat any answers or any useful reformulation of questionswould be f orthcoming if they had not yet come out of the longChinese history prior to him. But, he might have believed,history does suffice to suggest what "works" and what doesnot. It can help one to establish or preserve a decent regime.This seems to have been the use to which Confucius put thehistory of his country.Does it not take a new people, a presumptuous people, tolook at fundamental questions afresh and to take themseriously again — or for the first time? Herodotus' ancient andhence worldly wise Egyptian observed that the Greeks werealways like children. And Thucydides' Corinthians could com-plain of the Athenians that they were constantly in motion,27taking no rest themselves and making sure no one else restedeither.Dare we go one step further in our assessment of Confucius'curious shyness? Did he fear, and not without some justifica-tion, that if men insisted upon raising fundamental questions,they would eventually f ind themselves looking into an abyss —that they might indeed find answers, but not answers theycould live with? Did Confucius glimpse the abyss whichNietzsche found mankind suspended over? But being of a different temperament, a more cheerful and practical temperamene he could "step back"? Or did he simply say to himself,"This is the way human life is. There are many questionswhich are interesting but essentially insoluble. So let's get onwith the business of living, generation after generation. It isbetter for man to have things roughly settled than to keepeverything constantly in turmoil by trying to settle thingsperfectly or by trying to understand everything." And so thereis the emphasis upon ritual and family and the establishedway. "Besides," he might have added, "most people can seemost of the time, when personal interest does not blind them,what proper behavior is."Confucius does say things like this here and there in thetexts. Does he not, in this way, divine and make use of, eventhough he does not examine explicitly, what nature providesus? Nature manages to assert herself through him?Works of the mindWas Confucius correct to proceed as he did, to sacrifice (ifhe did) philosophy and the intellectual virtues to the moralvirtues and domestic tranquillity? 5 The conditions for theemergence of philosophy are rare and, we suspect, fleeting.Stili, we have been taught to ask what it really means to behuman. It is significant that we can understand so much ofwhat Confucius says. Rationality and humanity are reflectedthere across the ages, despite radically different customs andlanguage. Should not that encourage us to believe, withclassical philosophy, that there is indeed something naturai,something independent of time, place and circumstance,which governs mankind and which is worthy of serious andprolonged study?6But would not Confucius himself advise us against a studyof him? That is, he is not part of our own. There is, he taught,something presumptuous about sacrificing to a spirit which isnot one's own. Perhaps he would direct us Americans torespect and to study the Bible, Shakespeare perhaps, andcertainly the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution,and Lincoln.7But we do study Confucius, in order to help us to understand what is naturai in and for man, to understand what theconditions for philosophy are and are not, and perhaps even tobegin to understand what the nature of nature is.Our dedication to inquiries into what has been thought anddone elsewhere on the earth, as well as into what may be seenin the heavens above and below the earth — this daring, ani- mating and unsettling persistence — suggests that we may nowbe (for better and for worse) constitutionally unable to submitto an approach to the works of the mind which depends asmuch as Confucius' piously seems to do upon respect for whathappens to be one's own.REFERENCES1. The three quotations of Leo Strauss are from his What IsPoliticai Philosophy? (Glencoe, 111.: The Free Press, 1959), pp. 39, 14,12. The third quotation brings Martin Heidegger to mind.2. I myself have used four different English translations of theAnalects, the principal Confucian text, in my effort to get a reliablenotion of what might have been intended. They are, in order of use-f ulhess, the translations by James Legge (in the Dover edition), ArthurWaley (in the Vintage edition), Ezra Pound (in the New Directionsedition), and James R. Ware (in the Mentor edition). Ali my quotations on this occasion are from the well-annotated Legge translation(without the accent marks), as are my citations to the Analects.I have found useful Herman L. Sinaiko, "The Analects of Confucius," in William Theodore de Bary, ed., Approaches to theOrientai Classics (New York: Columbia University Press, 1959); asubsequent unpublished lecture on Confucius by Mr. Sinaiko; andMax Hamburger, "Aristotlé and Confucius: A Comparison," 20Journal of the History of Ideas 236 (1959). See, also, the discussion ofChina in Hegel' s Philosophy of History.Suggestions and corrections from readers will be appreciated.Some obvious, perhaps even major, errors will result from my lack offamiliarity with elementary facts of Chinese history, language andeveryday life. (It should be noticed that familiar forms of names aresometimes used in two of the passages I reproduce: Ts'ze forTsze-kung; Ch'iu for Zan Yu.)3. The song may be found in The Book of Songs, translated byArthur Waley (New York: Grove Press, 1960), p. 46.4. It is possible that Confucius went far beyond the position I havefound it useful to discuss on this occasion. See, for indications of anesoteric teaching, Analects, VII, 1, 8, 23, Vili, 9. The pointers, if theyare that, are most ambiguous. It is prudent to consider my discussionhere as merely introductory and indeed tentative. See Leo Strauss,Persecution and the Art of Writing (Glencoe, 111.: The Free Press,1952). See, also, Iona and Peter Opie, The Oxford Dictionary ofNursery Rhymes (London: Oxford University Press, 1952), pp. 27-30,44-45, 213-215, 404-405.5. See Jacob Klein and Leo Strauss, "A Giving of Accounts," TheCollege (Annapolis: St. John's College, Aprii, 1970), p. 1."The most impressive alternative to philosophy in the life of LeoStrauss is summoned up by the name of a city, Jerusalem, the holycity. What if the one thing most needful is not philosophic wisdom,butrighteousness?" See Laurence Berns, "Leo Strauss," The College(January, 1974), p. 5. Cf. Plato, Euthyphro.6. See George Anastaplo, The Constitutionalist: Notes on the FirstAmendment (Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press), chap. 5,no. 126, chap. 7, nn. 35, 77, chap. 9, n. 20. See, also, my discussion ofobscenity in Toothing Stones: Rethinking the Politicai, ed. Robert E.Meagher (Chicago: Swallow Press, 1972) (reprinted, with additions, in16 St. Louis University Law Journal 527 [1972]), and my argument forthe abolition of television in The Mass Media and ModemDemocracy, ed. Harry M. Clor (Chicago: Rand McNally Co., 1974).7. I say "perhaps" about Shakespeare because of the unsettlingopening to philosophy seen in his treatments of nature. See, onShakespeare, Constn., p. 820. See, also, Laurence Berns, "Gratitude,Nature and Piety in King Lear,''' Interpretation (Autumn, 1972), p.27; Harry V. Jaffa, "On Leo Strauss," National Review (Dee. 7, 1973),p. 1355 ("And Shakespeare was the great vehicle within the Anglo-American world for the transmission of the essentially Socraticunderstanding of the civilization of the West").28The defamation ofMark M. KrugApproximately ten million Polish-Americans have good causeto feel injured and often even defamed by their fellowAmericans. In the face of this attempt to denigrate them,Polish-Americans have, in the main, remained a silentminority.It ought to be made clear at the outset that our referencehere is to Poles who carne to America from Poland and not toJews who also immigrated, in large numbers, to the UnitedStates from Poland. The bulk of both of these immigrationwaves carne between the years 1880 and 1915.The American public has so far shown little curiosity tolearn the story of the immigration of Polish-Americans, theirways of life, their aspirations, hopes and frustrations. Fictionwriters who have written, especially in recent years, dozens ofbooks based on the life of Jewish professors, businessmen, andJewish mothers, Italian "Godfathers" and Irish politicians,have yet to write a novel based on the life, the customs, thepredictions, and the dilemmas of Polish-Americans. Sociol-ogists have produced many learned theories on American-Jewsand American-Italians and other minority groups, but there isno scholarly sociological study of the Polonia, the Polish community in America. Broadway has produced Fiddler on theRoof, the Rose Tattoo, and many other plays with heroes andvillains drawn from the white ethnic groups. Ali that the Polesgot was Stanley Kowalski (or rather Kowalski as played byMarion Brando) in Tennessee Williams' Streetcar NamedDesire. There are no counterparts in the delineation of thePolish-American community (with the possible exception ofNelson Algren) of a Saul Bellow, Philip Roth, Mary McCarthy,Jimmy Breslin or Mario Puzo.Television producers are very sensitive to new opportunitiesfor successful shows. Recently, they have apparently becomeconvinced that there is a demand for "ethnic shows." So after"Ali in the Family" and after "Bridget Loves Bernie," theydecided to put on the air a "Polish" detective, naturally a kindof superman with criminals and women, but they revealedtheir ignorance and carelessness by giving the detective atypically Czech name of "Banacek."But while American Poles are little heard from, they are notentirely forgotten. Americans don't want to know much aboutthem, who they are, whence they carne from and how they live,Mr. Krug (p1id'5c?) is professor of education in history in theGraduate School of Education and the College, associatemember ofthe Department of History faculty, and director ofthe Schwartz Citizenship Project, established by Charles(pIib'Oc?, jd'09) and Lavinia Schwartz. merican Polesbut they have been flooded by the abominable "Polish jokes,"heard in night clubs and on television, which picture ali Polesas simpletons, fools and obscurantists. The fad of the Polishjokes seems to be weakening lately and for that we ought to bethankful. But stili, once a week, millions of Americans laughuproariously when Archie Bunker calls his son-in-law a "dumbPolack" or a "meathead." Sure enough, the son-in-law is anintelligent college student who is supposed to expose Bunker'sbigotry, but survey after survey has shown that the heart of thelistening public belongs to Archie. Americans have tradi-tionally prided themselves in being ingenious, inventive andshrewd. For them to accept the image of millions of Polish-Americans as easily fooled, lacking imagination and incapableof accomplishing a f airly complicated task is a serious matter.It is even more serious and more insulting, since it is sounjust and undeserved. Yet one must ask himself how did thisphenomenon come to pass. The root cause of the presentplight of the Polish-Americans must be sought in the history oftheir country of origin and in the story of their immigration tothe United States.The most significant fact to remember is that Poles whocarne to this country in large numbers between the years 1880and 1910 did not come from a free sovereign homeland. Infact, since 1795 there had been no Poland on the map ofEurope.In 1795, after 800 years of existence as an independent state,Poland was a strong and distinct national entity. Poles, whosef orebears accepted Christianity in the 9th century, consideredthemselves the defenders of the Roman Catholic f aith and anoutpost of western Christian civilization against the repeatedonslaughts of the Russians, the Turks and other "heretic"invaders. Poles proudly claimed that Poland was a living"Christian wall" against the conquest of Europe by the Mon-gols, the Tartars and the Turks. Polish children were taught ontheir fathers' knees the story of the heroic contributions ofKing Jan Sobieski and his Polish army, who helped defeat theTurks in 1683 at the gates of Vienna. Poles also cherished thememory of their resistance to the repeated invasions by theTeutonic Knights, who carne from East Prussia, and thevictories attained in preserving Polish independence againstthe invading armies of Sweden and Russia.For centuries, Poland's powerful neighbors were determinednot to allow the Poles to live as an independent people. Finally,in 1795, Russia occupied eastern Poland, Prussia took thewestern and northern lands, and the southern part of Polandwas incorporated into Austria. From that time on, for 125years, Poles were ruled by three foreign powers. They regainedtheir independence in 1918, when a free Poland was created by29the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, based, in part, on theWilsonian principle of self-determination of nations.This long period of partition of Poland and the incessantstruggle of Poles for independence — in particular two greatuprisings, one in 1831 and the other in 1863 — had a lastingand profound influence on the Polish people. They becameone of the most nationalistic and patriotic peoples in Europe.To Poles, who had lost their independence to foreign invaders,and who were determined to regain their freedom, love ofcountry became almost a national obsession. The Polish poet,Adam Mickiewicz, put it well in verse in one of his poems:". . . . my fatherland, you are like health, only those who havelost you, can know your value." It was indeed a desperatestruggle that the Polish people waged against the might ofczarist Russia, the military machine of Prussia and immensepower of the Austro-Hungarian empire. The occupying powersattempted in varying degrees to suppress the spirit of Polishnationalism through forced Russification or Germanizationand through bribery, politicai concessions and often by brutalforce.Ali these efforts failed. Poles had no independent politicaiinstitutions. Their military rebellions were suppressed. Theirsons died on foreign battlefields, in a vain hope of enlisting thesympathy and the military aid in a fight for an independentPoland. But their dedication to the idea of a free Poland neverfaltered. If anything, during the period of foreign dòminationPoles became an even more united people — united by a will forindependence and united in one language and culture and inone religious faith. Polish language became a precious andeffective bond for Poles in ali three sectors of occupation. Tospeak Polish, to write in Polish, to love the Polish language became almost a religious commandment for ali Poles. Thepatriotic poetry of the great Polish poets, Adam Mickiewicz,Julius Slowacki, and the Messianic writings of StanislawWyspianski became not only great literature for educatedPoles, but their most sacred treasures and a source of Constantinspiration.Church and stateFor the mass of poor and largely illiterate peasants whof ormed the overwhelming majority of the population, the spiritof Polish nationalism was kept alive by the Polish Catholicchurch. While the Catholic church in Poland was faithful andobedient to Rome, it was primarily a Polish Catholic churchbecause it supported the fierce Polish nationalism and kept thedevotion to the Polish language, Polish customs and Polishhopes and aspirations for independence. Priests deliveredpatriotic sermons in Polish and religious schools taught Polishlanguage and literature. This was often done in the face of direthreats of the occupying authorities. As time went on, the linesof demarcation between Polish nationalism and PolishCatholicism became blurred and they have remained blurreduntil the present time.Since several million Poles carne to America during the period of the occupation of their country by foreign powers,they brought with them to this country both the spirit of fiercePolish nationalism and an unbounded devotion to the PolishCatholic church. In that, they differed from Italians who carnefrom a free Italy, and especially from Sicilians, who had littlecomprehension or feeling for Italian nationalism and who,while devout Catholics, viewed the Italian church and Italianpriests with a great deal of suspicion, if not outright cynicism.Obviously, the contrast with Polish and Russian Jews, who feltlittle allegiance to the countries of their origin, was evengreater. Both Polish nationalism and their special devotion tothe Catholic church are stili the most outstanding character-istics of those American Poles who have preserved their ethnicidentity.Polish patriotism stemming directly from the tragic historyof Poland's partition is stili a powerful force today. It is evident in the activities of the Polish-American organizations.American Poles are often exhorted by their leaders to maintainthat spirit of Polish nationalism. For American Poles, Polishnationalism constitutes no conflict with their strong patrioticdevotion to the United States.The mass Polish immigration carne, as we have said, in thelast two decades of the 19th century and in the period beforeWorld War I. It was overwhelmingly peasant in character.During that period of time over three million Poles carne toAmerica, paralleling the massive Italian and Jewish immigra-tions. While the special character of these immigration wavesinfluenced the nature of the Italian-American and Jewish-American communities, the status, the image and the problems of the contemporary Polish community, or of Polonia asPoles cali it, reflect the after-effects of the originai immigration in bolder and clearer relief. In comparison with theItalians, the Jews or the Irish, the Poles have made less economie and social progress in the American milieu. The reasonfor this phenomenon has, of course, nothing to do with theinnate abilities of Poles, but is related to the point at whichthey started their journey to the New World.Polish immigrants were overwhelmingly peasants who carnefrom an occupied country and from a society which stili prac-ticed a variation of feudal economy. Professor FlorianZnaniecki estimated that 60% of Polish immigrants werelandless peasants who eked out a bare living as hired hands onlarge estates and that 27% were small landowners.Polish immigration included few skilled workers or artisans.The mass of the Polish peasants who carne to the United Stateshad no skills to survive in the industrialized and strangecountry to which they carne. They spoke rudimentary,peasants' Polish and were, to an overwhelming extent, illiterate, both in their own language and in English. Thus,unlike the Jewish immigrants and to some extent the Italianneweomers, most Poles were not able to benefit in their ad-justment period from reading the few Polish newspapers inAmerica. In addition, unlike the Jews who were experiencedinternational wanderers, and unlike the Italians who benefitedfrom the love and glamor that American society has alwaysaccorded Italy, Poles carne from a country which was in chains30and which was unknown to the Americans. The Italian immigrants, however, who carne mostly from Sicily and southernItaly, did suffer from the "Mafia" image.Ali that Poles had to offer America was their inordinatecapacity and willingness to do hard physical labor. This con-tribution should have been accepted with gratitude by thebooming American economy and industry, but in fact thePoles were shown little compassion and even less appreciation.The Poles, bewildered in the new society, were determined toadjust and to survive. To do this, they became unskilledlaborers in the steel mills in Pittsburgh and Gary, in the Fordfactories in Detroit and in the stockyards of Chicago. SomePoles who had experience in the coal mines in Poland, andmany others who did not, went to work under hard anddangerous conditions in the coal fields of Pennsylvania.No work was too hard, too menial, too coarse or too dangerous for the Poles. They had no choice and could not bechoosy about jobs if their f amilies were to survive in their newenvironment. This hard, demanding labor was a signal con-tribution of these millions of brawny and healthy immigrantswho without complaining or rebelling helped to make Americathe industriai giant it is today. There was virtually no crimeamong the Poles; their young people did not consider illegalactivities as one possible avenue for advancement in the new,strange and often hostile environment. Crime was unthinkablein a Polish neighborhood where the authority of the parents, ofthe priests and of the police was highly respected and wherethe emphasis was on hard work, thrift and savings. Savingsbanks abounded and most Polish fraternal organizations were(and are) also insurance and savings institutions.How did America repay the contribution and the exemplarybehavior of these Polish immigrants? What they got in returnwas not a sense of welcome and appreciation. On the contrary,ridicule and scora were heaped on the heads of these simpleuneducated folk who worked sixteen hours a day in danger-ously insecure mines, mills and stockyards, for pitiful wages.The reasons for this ridicule and the cruel and unfeelingimage of the "dumb Polacks" must be explained because theproblem of the image they present to America is stili a seriousdilemma facing Polonia today. First, there was great resent-ment that many Poles, like many Italians, have after a periodof time returned to "the old country." This caused them to bebranded as exploiters and sojourners in their new land. Feelingunwelcome in the new country, aliens in a cultural milieuwhich they did not understand, fearful that their childrenwould be lost to them in an environment which violated manyof their values, and doubtful of their prospects for economieadvancement, many Polish immigrants were determined tosave some money and return to their villages. In fact, betweenthe years 1891 and 1910, 234,000 Poles returned to Poland.Since many Polish immigrants intended to return, or werethinking of returning, "some day" to Poland, they felt con-sciously or subconsciously no compelling incentive, as did theJewish and many of the Italian immigrants, to accept and bearthe trials and tribulations of assimilation or to go through the educational steps necessary for naturalization.*Among other factors, this phenomenon may account for thefact that the economie, social and educational advancement ofPoles was much slower than that of the Jews, the Irish and theItalians. The realization that they have been outpaced by otherimmigrant groups has created another dilemma for AmericanPoles — their persistent, although now gradually disappearing,sense of inf eriority which has grown in direct proportion withthe appearance of the periodic epidemics of the senseless,unjust and heartless "Polish jokes."It is virtually impossible to exaggerate the severity of thecultural shock suffered by the mass of Polish peasant immigrants. They carne to this country, not from the advancedregions of Poland, around Warsaw, Poznan and Lodz, butfrom the least advanced regions — the highlands in southernand eastern Poland. They carne from isolated primitive villageswhere they had no interest and no part in the management oftheir own affairs and no voice in the politicai affairs of theregion and of the nation. Politics was the exclusive domain ofthe aristocratic landlords and of the country gentry. If theyvoted, they did so as the locai priest or government officiai toldthem to vote. Even the rudiments of the democratic processwere unknown to them.The Irish immigrants spoke English and had considerablefamiliarity with Anglo-Saxon mores and institutions, whilePoles were largely illiterate in their own language. Jewishimmigrants were overwhelmingly literate and were becoming"Americanized" daily by the Yiddish newspapers which de-voted many pages to instructing them how to survive and toprosper in the new land. In addition, the Jewish immigration,especially that which carne from Russia and Poland, and to alesser degree, the large wave of Italian immigrants, containeda pool of potential leaders and spokesmen. Poles had few ofthese advantages.Generation carryoverThe children of the Polish immigrants suffered in the publicschools the usuai tribulations of the other immigrant students,but they had to cope with another handicap — their unpro-nounceable names. Anglo-Saxon and Irish teachers resentedthe effort it took to pronounce these names correctly and oftensuggested to a Stankiewicz or Wroblewski to teli his parents tochange his name to "Stanley" or to "Warren." Polish childrensoon perceived, directly or by repeated innuendo, that to getalong in school you had to forget or to hide your Polish ties andidentity. When they told their Polish parents, who had* Professor Reverend M. J. Madaj suggests that this widely shared intention ofan eventual return may provide at least a partial explanation for the slowprocess of assimilation or Americanization of the Polish communities. (M. J.Madaj, "The Polish Community — A Ghetto?" Polish American Studies, July-December, 1968, p. 69.)31struggled in occupied Poland to preserve their Polish identity,of their reluctance to speak Polish and of their desire toshorten their names, the reaction was often harsh and un-yielding. No wonder then, that among many second generationPoles there developed a growing feeling of inferiority. Theysuffered from the hostility of their teachers to their culturalheritage and they were ashamed of their poor and illiterateparents who, as they soon discovered, did not even speak a"good" or literate Polish.The generation gap was real and it was painful, and it hadits eff ects on the psyche and the state of mind of the AmericanPole. The effects are stili evident today. Professor EugeneKusielewicz, president of the Kosciuszko Foundation, main-tains that even the third generation of Poles "suffers from thesame feeling of inferiority that is characteristic of the rest ofPolonia." This feeling of inferiority, he believes, is reinforcedby the largely negative image that Poles present to the rest ofAmericans.Many Polish leaders dispute the views of Kusielewicz andcite evidence which indicates that many second and thirdgeneration Poles are interested in and are proud of the Polishidentity and culture. The truth probably is that some youngPolish-Americans are ashamed of their ethnic origin andothers are proud of being Polish, while the attitude of the vastmajority fluctuates somewhere in between these two exfremes.There is no question, however, that many young Americanfamilies of Polish origin, well established economically andsure of their place in the American society, are taking advan-tage of the greater acceptance of ethnicity and are much morecomfortable with their ethnic identity and affiliation.A Polish President?The question of image that they present to the rest of theAmericans is one of the major dilemmas for the Polish-American community. When Senator Edmund Muskie wasrunning for the Democratic Presidential nomination, I askedAloysius Mazewski, president of the Polish National Alliance,a 300,000-member organization, whether he, a well-knownRepublican leader, and the Alliance, which includes manyRepublicans, would endorse Muskie were he to get the nomination. Without hesitation Mazewski said: "Yes, we will, becauseour most important concern is the image of Polonia and whatbetter way is there to improve this image than by having aPolish-American in the White House."The defense of the image of American Poles is the majorpreoccupation of the Polish-American Congress. The Congressis an umbrella organization of over forty Polish fraternities,clubs and associations. It was organized in May, 1944, to helpin the establishment ,of a free and independent Poland at theconclusion of World War II, but now the Congress devotes agreat deal of its efforts to the strengthening of the politicaipositions and influence of American Poles and to the defenseof the public standing of Polonia in the United States.The image problem lies heavy on the hearts of the Polishcommunity, and it ought to He as heavy on the conscience of the American people. For some reason, the dominant American society has chosen to brand the American Poles as slow-witted, and television shows and night club comedians delightin telling jokes, the butt of which is the stupid Pole who hasdifficulty in grasping a simple situation and who is easily out-witted. Such an image would be hard to bear for any group,but for American Poles, the descendants of a people whichprides itself as having been the defenders of Christianity inEurope, which has produced writers like Sienkiewicz, Reymont(both Nobel Prize winners), Mickiewicz, Slowacki and Conrad,and scientists like Copernicus and Eva Sklodowska Curie, thepainter Jan Matejko, and composers like Chopin and Pader-ewski, the burden is almost unbearable.Nicholas von Hoffman wrote in his column in the Washington Post that "Poles have yet to make it as a respected group ofpeople with feelings No other group in America has to putup with this sort of thing. Sure, there stili are anti-Negro andanti-Semitic jokes going the rounds, and anti-other peoplejokes also, but nothing like the Polish jokes. Just about any-body who isn't Polish or at least Slavic thinks nothing ofcracking one of these belittling, invariably unfunny, crueljokes."In recent years, American Poles have launched a long over-due counter-offensive. They have branded their image falseand the "Polish jokes" as an unworthy and an un-Americanabomination.The Polish-American Congress has established a specialcommittee on education and cultural affairs, which has de-manded from the communication media the elimination of"Polish jokes" and asked them to present the contributionsand the positive life-styles of the Polish community inAmerica. So far, this campaign has been only partly success-ful.American Poles have only recently increased their efforts tosupport Polish cultural activities. There are two colleges, sup-ported by Polish-Americans, where the Polish language andliterature are taught extensively. But this effort is far fromadequate.In Polish-American communities throughout America, artclubs, academic group discussions, art shows, and poetryreadings draw large and enthusiastic audiences.In Poland, in spite of the restrictions of the communistregime, the Polish theater, one of the best in Europe, thrives.Playwrights like Stanislaw Witkiewicz, Tadeusz Rozewicz andSlawomir Mrozek have had their plays produced in France,Switzerland and England. Polish movie making is consideredthe most avant-garde in the world, and Hollywood has luredmany Polish film directors and writers to work in America.The ancient Jagiellonian University in Crakow and WarsawUniversity rank among the finest in Europe, and on theirfaculties there are many world renowned scholars.The record of the several generations of Poles in Americaprovides no justification for the defamation and the mentalanguish imposed on this group. But there is a growing spirit ofself-confidence and pride in their cultural heritage amongAmericans of Polish descent.32POLYUNSATURATEDFACTS EXPOSED!Leo RostenPenelope Klitcner210 Placete ParkEupnoria, IllinoisTo Mr. Leo Roston Esq.(by via my mother, Mrs. Florence P. Klitcher)Mr. Roston, can you help me on what is the basic way tolearn the difference between Saturated and Polly-imsaturated Fats?I have read the chapter in our text-book which explainsthat problem 'til I am blue in the f ace — but I just can't get itinto my head! I am really confused by the complex stuffabout Carbon Molecules and Fatty Acids and the "double-chain with Hydrogen" so that they become wnsaturated,and so forth.I am sure that with your gifts of explaining, Mr. Roston,you can make this as clear as a beli, or better, to even I.Please make the explanation simple, not technicel, as Iam a long way from being Mr. Diefenfuss, our teacher, oreven Mr. Lempke, our druggist, who I have tried to discussthis with but with no luck.I am very grateful for any enlightining you can shed onthis subject. And so will my friends, probly.Your admirer, Penelope ("Penny") KlitcherLEO ROSTENProfessor of ChemistryBunsen Burner DrivePharmacologiaSouth DakotaDear Penny:You ask "What is the basic way to learn the differencebetween saturated and polyunsaturated fats?" The best wayis to do your home-work. That will give you the unsaturatedfacts.My way of distinguishing saturated from unsaturatedfats can be put in a nutshell. For best results, the nutshellshould be about the size of a walnut.Pour the fat you are unsure about into this nutshell: Ifthe fat is saturated, the shell will tura pink. If the fat isiwsaturated, the shell will break out in goose-pimples. Andif the fat is Po/yunsaturated, the shell will bulge in theThe Magazine presents another extraci from Dear Herm,the new book by Leo Rosten (p1ib'30, pho'37), which bearsa family resemblance to Mr. Rosten s famous Hyman Kaplanstories of the '30s. The book {© Leo Rosten) is published byMcGraw-Hill middle, loòking roly-poly, which is why it received such acurious name.Notice that words like "saturated," "unsaturated,""statutory," or "Staten Island" ali contain more than one"t". They are ali acids, which tea is, too. Any dictionary willteli you that the technical name for tea, Thea sinensis, isderived from Chinese, Latin and Thai. That is why peoplewho become addicted to the taste of tea-bags, and cannotget them except from criminal pushers, break into such asweat that we say they are "fit to be Thaid."If you want more technical answers, Penny, ones you canuse for Mr. Diefenfuss's exam (and discuss with Mr.Lempke), I am happy to offer them. You must be patient,though, because the answers, although very simple, are verycomplicated.1. Fatty acids consist of four elements:Carbon CarboxylHydrogen LicoriceThese acids are arranged in a chain, which is visibleunder any microscope. The carbon moleculesform the chain; the hydrogen molecules danglefrom it, like souvenirs.Now comes the cruciai part, Penny:2. If the carbon molecules are attached to each other, andshow it by smiling or terms of endearment, theyare called "saturated." But —3. When a chain of carbon molecules is double-chained,it has no room for any hydrogen, and is called"imsaturated." Mind you, unsaturated fats arenot sad, they are just not saturated with friendlyfeelings to or from other molecules.4. Where the carbon elements try to make a mountain outof a molecule, they will reject the friendly over-tures of hydrogen particles and are called "polyunsaturated." This means that the carbons havebecome so spoiled by flattering propositions thatthey have turned frigid and won't let themselvesbe saturated by anyone. Carbons are not veryoriginai.If you depict ali of this on a chart, you are sure to make abig impression on Mr. Diefenfuss (and possibly give Mr.Lempke a nervous bréakdown):Carbon and Hydrogen Componente inMQLBCULAR CHARTS OF THE FATTY ACID FAMILYCHART I Saturated Fats CHART II Unsaturated Cousina„ Home Piate Cv^x^,c cx c' cC^C^H CNH<e-MHellof Fellows" H*- C\c/C^¦Charley BrownCHART III Polyunsaturates(Relatives fromout of Town) /C ¦ H (Mugged)C->(Jealous)(Rejected)That is a map of AustraliaI trust this answers ali your questions. Good luck with theexam.Your friendly bio-chemist, Leo Rosten33The path inwardOneFrank GruberTime slowed the first weeks in Chicago. We ar-rived without pasts and built decades of historyeach day. Despite any doubts we skipped intothe University, jumped into a new universe.Friendships were fluid. The person next to youduring a placement test became your closestfriend for the life of a day or two. In a few daysmy roommate was the best friend I had.In my first year Orientation lasted an entireweek. A forever long period — it ended when theold students, whose existence we had forgot, returned. Once again, before we had establishedourselves among peers, the universe shifted. Imet people, tried to know them, but each daywas such a huge fraction of the time we hadspent together. In crazy places, the like of whichwe had never imagined, we spoke intimately andtried to predict the moment life here would benormal. The moment did not appear. We couldnot stop adapting, we could never orient ourselves toward points which remained fixed.My life has not stopped changing. Stili I aman immigrant. The surroundings are more com-fortable, but the University, the neighborhoodand the city stili challenge me. I have not foundpeace while living here.Upper left: Sportive friends climb trees in the courseofa mock demonstration by the Student Violent Non-Action Committee. Lower left: Kindergarteners visitthe Botany Pond. Below: Maroon staffers at work.student's UniversityI myself have changed and formed in particular ways,however. In four years my character turned inward. My lifebecame more private, my interests more personal. It happenedto everyone. Four years ago we pointed outward. We carnefriendless with unknown and non-existent pasts. Our passionspointed outside, to compensate. We crammed the early dayswith everything it took to adjust to the new universe. We werenot different. That has always been the case with school.Politics were obvious and everywhere. Demonstrations andorganizations manifested the outward orientation. One trustedthose who merely stood beside him. Now students do not lookoutward to interests so far from their own. Demonstrations areonly faraway memories. "What did we do, standing there; didwe talk, did we really scream?" Those recent years are hazyregions in our personal histories. Life outside the individuai isno longer spontaneous. The action and the strength are inside.Four years of study focus interests into coherent self-expression. During the past four the process intensified. Newstudents start where old students finished. Personalities aremore sure, ambitions more clear. The trend is not bad; there isno saying the outside is better than the inside. The newstudents who study more should learn more. That is good. Butno one understands how there was time for outside goals andoutside people. Neither can I remember where I found thetime.I worked for the Maroon as a photographer. Mostly I tookpictures of demonstrations, or else portraits of more or lessprominent people of Hyde Park, generally involved in somedispute. The student press was a part of the whole thing. Ilearned photography as I worked from the photo editor,Steve Aoki.Steve was the first person who toldme about the sit-in of January, 1969.He was not the last; at that time itwas very much on the minds ofeveryone connected with the University. Every new student at aliinterested soon heard both sides ofthe story. Both sides; no one oc-cupied the middle ground. Thevoices of persuasion were alwaysdiscreet and soft; hushed not by fearbut by solemnity. The first time aprofessor invited a class of mine todinner, the occasion ultimately fea-tured his version — and he had been amember of one of the disciplinary Percussion concertMalcolm X. in the main quadrangle marks birthday ofRoommate Jon Harris at work onheadlight. Below: The C Bench. his Karmann Ghia's corrodedLeft: Adrienne Goldstone prepares picnic barbecue. Center: Parade for Harper rededication. Right: Roommate Al Johnson does chore.committees. Perhaps itwas already a sign thatmy four years would notbe' so committed to theoutside that I could nottake ' one side or theother. The topic, ofcourse, has grown old.I joined DocumentaryFilms the first week ofmy first quarter. Sincethen I have seen three orfour movies a week.Movies were an escapethen, but I rationalizedthe time spent on DocFilms and movies; filmwas an important art,part of my liberal education. I stili believe moviesare art, but now escapeis my rationalization.More important, however, I have a career interest in movies. Otherwise, these days, I couldnot justify the time.The second year I moved into an apartment. My roommate,Al Johnson, and I got a place on Woodlawn around 54th. Itwas a good enough place and we had a good time there. It wasover-furnished, however, and a little small. Al and I likedcooking and we had nearly identical tolerations of mess in theapartment. So we did not argue too much.In the second year the two of us and some other friendscreated an organization to promote jazz concerts on campus. Ispent most of that year with Lloyd Redwing, who was head ofNia, the campus black cultural organization. Our two organ-Mary SpeersStudios. at work in Midway izations did a lot together, a lot of concerts. However, wealways had a problem with attendance. We spent our timejuggling what money we could find on one hand and themusicians we wanted to hear on the other. It was ali verystimulating, especially in the beginning. I met musicians andartists, notably members of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians. We put on some fine concerts.We also lost a fair amount of the University's money.During the second week of January we had two concerts withthe Art Ensemble of Chicago. That weekend the temperaturewas minus twenty. Because of cars that would not start webarely got the musicians' equipment to Mandel Hall in time.Then only six hundred or so people carne. However, the musicwas beautiful and we cruised on undaunted, though we con-fined our activities to smaller propositions.We had been pointing our energies outside. Ultimately wefelt confined and frustrated. Al first freed himself; he first sawlife on the inside. He began to sculpt. My commitments tookme to the year's end. An audience of two carne to the lastconcert. That was it for me. It was a graduai process, but I,too, wanted to use my energies for an inside life.It was a slow process, but by then I lived in Chicago and mydose friends were here. I no longer knew many people from"before Chicago." I had had a girl friend in Philadelphia, myhome town, but that ended too. Living here settled down, became more long-term. I spent the summer after second year inHyde Park. I had a good job, working on a documentary withother Doc Films people.Hyde Park felt different and better that summer as anon-student. Perhaps only because I did not have studying tobe guilty about. For work I went downtown a lot, got to knowChicago, started to appreciate it as a city, rather than acampus.I have had partial success looking for the inside. My contactprints show it: the early rolls are outdoor scenes of action andacquaintances. The later ones are inside shots with high speedfilm, large apertures and short depth of field. They show my36friends doing nothing in particular except being myfriends — mostly talking and eating. Friendship is an insidelife. Especially when you meet your friends in apartments,cook for each other, try to understand things together.Winter of the third year I traveled. I left Chicago for aquarter. I carne back much closer to myself. I had more free-dom. A lot of things started over again.That spring I wrote and directed a short movie. It was personal: I never quite thought Icould do it. I directed friends in amovie much about ourselves, ormyself, though the plot was fiction. The two days of shootingwere a culmination of the inside.Late at night the shooting wasover. I was complete.The next day, however, Istarted falling apart. Mistakenly Ithought I had lost a roll of film.Looking for it I found a three-week-old phone bill. My con-structed inside equilibriumstarted crumbling. The missingroll, the unpaid phone bill, werejust enough to jar me, make methink about the problems I hadwhich were not solved by directinga movie.Around dinner I went to theDoc office and watched a film.The apartment was empty when Ireturned. I could not sleep. Idoubted everything, but most ofali whether I was dose to anythingor anyone, whether or not I had aconception of the inside.I could not sleep. I sat up andstarted a book. It was Devil in theHills by Cesare Pavese. It is aboutthree university students whospend their time riding aroundthe old countryside around Turin, looking for something.It begins: "We were very young. I believe I never slept thatyear. But I had a friend who slept even less than I did ..."The second paragraph continues: "Some of the others whotagged along after us couldn't understand what we did whenthe cinemas were closed, and the clubs, the inns and theconversation at an end."You'd be surprised how much the book helped me.Rugby players (back porchneighbors) celebrate.^Alumni V^ewsClass notes(\<*% hayward d. warner, sb'03, former^^ University marshal and miler on UC's1902 track team, is "now 94 and stili ingood health" in Denver, Col. The retiredinsurance broker is a co-f ounder of the CityPark Baptist Church of Denver (now Churchof the Master), one of its deacons and authorof the church' s history in 1963. In 1971 heauthoredA Warner Family Narrative. Hecontributed "The 'Old Man— ARecollection,, to the March/Aprii issue ofthis publication.nr in memoriam: Ralph P. Mulvane,UO phB'05; John H. Weddell, ab'05; AnnaP. Youngman, pIlb'05, pIid'08.a a earl q. gray, sb'11, jd'13, attorney¦*¦-*¦ in Ardmore, Okla., was cited in Febru-ary at a meeting of the f ellows of theAmerican Bar Foundation (research affiliateof the American Bar Association) for fiftyyears of outstanding service to the legaiprofession and the public. A member of theAB A house of delegates since 1956, Gray ispast president of the Oklahoma and CarterCounty bar associations and the OklahomaBar Foundation."There should be no jails. They do notaccomplish what they pretend to accom-plish," said Clarence Darrow. "If youwould wipe them out, there would be nomore criminals than now," he added,according to an article in the f all-winter issueof Chicago History, magazine of the ChicagoHistorical Society, written by Matildafenberg, ab'11. Attorney Fenberg, the firstwoman to matriculate in the Yale law school,stili practices law and is former chairman ofthe uniform divorce bill committee of theNational Association of Women Lawyers.Her reminiscences about Darrow, with whomshe became associated, constitute a livelyfirst-hand account of this legai iconoclast.in memoriam: Dr. Walter ClevelandBurket, sb'11, former assistant attendingsurgeon at Children's Memorial Hospital inChicago and clinical associate in surgery atthe University of Chicago, died February 20in Evanston.13 alan d. whitney, pIib'13, writes thathe ran into several alumni when he was in Florida earlier this year, including leosamuels, pIib'21, proprietor of the Islander(Islamorada, Fla.). "I never knew he was analumnus until I saw the Alumni Directory ona table in the office lobby," writes Whitney.Also guests at the Islander weré Mauricepollar, x'14, and his wife laura kramerpollar, x'28.in memoriam: William H. Black, sb'13;Olive C. Hazlett, sm'13, pIid'15; Agnes E.Kraft, x'13; Howard B. McLane, pIib'13,jd'15; Wilson Lee Miser, pud' 13; FrancesStern Rosenthal, pIib'13.a a david h. stevens, pud' 14, Chicago-" faculty member from 1914 to 1930,writes that he moved from Ephraim, Wis., toLa Jolla, Calif., following the death of hiswife, Ruth D. Stevens, last December.During her years on the Midway, Mrs.Stevens became well known to many andtook an active part in many f acets of University life, especially in founding the UniversityCooperative Nursery School for facultyfamilies. Mr. Stevens, a member of theEnglish department, specialized in Miltonand the 17th century. He served in severaladministrative capacities, including secretaryof the department, assistant to the presidentunder Max Mason and Robert Hutchins,and associate dean of the University.It has just come to our attention thaterling h. lunde, pIib'14, was honored lastyear for his civic contributions when he wasnamed to the hall of fame of the Mayor'sOffice for Senior Citizens. Mr. Lunde wascited for his "positive response to thechallenge of retirement" and for his "significant and continuing contribution to thesocial and cultural life of metropolitanChicago." Since retiring, Mr. Lunde hasworked tirelessly for Citizens of GreaterChicago, a non-partisan civic organizationdedicated to the improvement of governmentthrough citizen education and involvement.Currently CGCs volunteer administrator, hespends many hours answering questionsabout government and attending andtestifying at hearings on subjects of publicconcern. He is also involved in helping newAmericans become responsible citizensthrough his membership on the CitizenshipCouncil for Metropolitan Chicago. in memoriam: Marie Dye, sb'14, pIvd'22-Jesse E. Marshall, jd'14; Charles O. ParkerpIib'14, jd'15; Henry C. Shull, pIib'14,no' 16,a r edmund jacobson, md'15, practicing•*- *J physician in Chicago and New Yorkwith specialties in internai medicine andpsychiatry, was named on March 29 by theAmerican Association for Health, PhysicalEducation and Recreation as recipient oftheir William G. Anderson service award forunusually significant contributions tochildren and youth through the related fieldsof health, physical education and recreation.Considered the f oremost authority onrelaxation in the country, Dr. Jacobson forat least three decades has emphasized thepotential of the field of physical educationfor teaching his method of progressive relaxation to normal subjects. His pioneeringwork in the area of electrical measurementsof neuromuscular states during mentalactivities, conducted during the '30s, is citedtoday in connection with feedback experiments and mental practice techniques.He has authored several books includingProgressive Relaxation, his classic work, in1929. •a r in memoriam: Thomas Joplin Caie,*-V pIib'16, author, editor, who had beenassociated with the Book of Knowledge, theGrolier Society and Doubleday Company,died January 13 in Silver Spring, Md.Pierce MacKenzie, sb'16, jd'18, whodelivered an estimated 20,000 babies duringhis more than fifty years as an obstetrician inEvansville, Ind., died February 25.a *j bertram w. wells, pud' 17, retired¦*¦ ' head of the botany department atNorth Carolina State University and anemeritus member of the American Society ofNaturalists, lives on a 150- acre farm inWake Forest, N.C., in a loop of the NeuseRiver. Based on his technical papers hewrote a semi-popular book, Naturai Gardensof North Carolina. Mr. Wells, who cele-brated his nintieth birthday on March 5, is"stili enjoying good health" and occasionallytakes college students on botanical fieldtrips.in memoriam: Charles Percy Dake,pIib'17; Celeste M. Post, pIib'17.-j q in memoriam: Dr. Arthur F. Abt,**™ sb'18, former Chicago areapediatrician and staff member of Chicago38Lying-In Hospital, died March 25 inBaltimore.A q in memoriam: John C. Gekas, jd'19,-¦"^ an attorney, died March 11 in hishome in Falls Church, Va.; Ralph WaldoGerard, sb'19, p1id'21, md'25 (see Page 5).*yr\ in memoriam: Nellie E. Jones,*^J pIib'20, retired teacher, principal ofLincoln Junior High School in Beloit (Wise.)for twenty-one years, died March 1 inJanesville.*\ a in memoriam: Esther Meyerovitz^ A Barker, p1ib'21, died February 16 ather home in Chicago; Arthur E. Gault,sm'21, Peoria, I1L, died in August of 1973. *\*\ max ferber, p1ib'22, at the age of 73,^^ has earned the master of liberal artsdegree from the University of SouthernCalifornia with the distinction of being theoldest student ever to pursue this particulardegree program at USC. Founder and headof a major collection company, Ferber soldhis business a few years ago, not to retire,but to move on to new areas of interest,including the degree program he justfinished. He remains as a consultant andeditor in the credit industry and serves onIMPAC, the non-prof it government-fundedgroup that helps minority businessmen starttheir own companies.in memoriam: Edwin J. Blonder, sb'22,md'24; Jerome R. Finkle, jd'22; Louis R.Fletcher, md'22. *yj livingston hall, pIib'23, Harvard^*? law professor, has been elected chair-man of the fellows of the American BarFoundation, the research affiliate of theAmerican Bar Association. The fellowsinclude some 3,400 lawyers elected to thebody for outstanding achievements andcontributions to the legai profession. Hall, amember of the ABA house of delegates since1963, is chairman of the committee onreform of federai criminal laws of the ABA'ssection of criminal justice. A former president of the Massachusetts Bar Association,he is co- author of four books on criminal lawand on agency and partnerships.ERNEST SAMUELS, PllB'23, SB'26, AM'31,pIid'42, as editor of the revised edition ofThe Education of Henry Adams, publishedTk e new Al TUL1M.I11 OaoinetÈCharles D. Andersen (p1ib'34, am'35)Edward L. Anderson, Jr. (p1ib'46, sm'49)Russell M. Baird (ab'38)John H. Bauman (ab'47, mba'47)Thomas G. Benedek (p1ib'47, sb'49, md'52)* Joan Wennstrom Bennett (sm'64, p1id'67)Sidney R. Bernstein (mba'56)* Doreen V. Blanc (ab'64, mat'69)# Charles W. Boand (llb'33, mba'57)Roland E. Brandel (jd'66)* Lars Carlson (p1ib'23)# An-Shih Cheng (ab'54)Margaret Merrifield Clark (ab'39)Jewell Cave Coleman (x'41)Mary Hammel Davis (ab'41)Bernard J. Del Giorno (ab'54, ab'55, mba'55)Marian Alschuler Despres (pIib'30, p1id'36)Sydney Branch Diez (ab'65, mat'68)* Alfreda Barnett Duster (pIib'24)Murray Ellis (sb'43)* A. Gerald Erickson (am'60)* Dr. Doris A. Evans (ab'63)Robert S. Firch (pIid'63)Hortense Friedman (pIib'22)Allan Frumkin (p1ib'45)John P. Gallagher (mba'47)Lucy Marx Geiselman (p1id'65)* Helen C. Tieken Geraghty (sb'24, am'29)Paul Glatzer (ab'56, ab'57, am'58)Jory Reis Graham (x'44)* John F. Harvey (p1id'49)* Brownlee W. Haydon (ab'35)## President, Alumni Association# VP, Alumni Association* New or reelected Cabinet member Aileen Wilson Henry (sb'38)* Joan Namburg Hertzberg (ab' 37)William C. Hillman (x'55)Dr. John R. Hogness (sb'43, md'46)* Dr. Helen Huus (am'41, pIid'44)Robert F. Inger (sb'42, pIid'54)##* Julian J. Jackson (pIib'31)* Jack B. Jacobs (ab'64)* Nancy Doherty Jacobsen (ab' 70)* Russell R. Jalbert (am'47)* Demetra Bartzis Karras (ab' 60)* Laurence A. Kaufman (ab'50, am'53)Joyce Bodenheimer Kohn (ab'37)Antigoni Lefteris (ab'65)Kenneth Léonard (ab'60, mba'66)* Muriel Deutsch Lezak (pIib'47, am'49)* Thayer C. Lindauer (ab'61, jd'63)John V. Long (ab'49, jd'51)F. Richard Lyford (ab'66)James A. Malkus (ab'59, jd'61)Philip A. Mason (ab'64, jd'67)Michael E. Meyer (jd'67)* Neda Loseff Michels (phB*47, mba'49)* Àddie Stabler Mitchell (phD'65)Carol Sperry Moss (ab'49)James E. Newman (am'51, phD'70)Joyce Kligerman Newman (pud'55)* Ernest C. Olson (ab'41)William R. Oostenbrug (sb'43)Russell J. Parsons (ab '40, jd'42)Samuel C. Pearson, Jr. (db'53, am'60, phD!* Leo C. Powelson (mba'50)* Dorothy Koenig Powers (sm'52)Raymond M. Rahner (am'69)* Marjorie Green Rapp (ab'51, am'54)* Reed Reynolds, Jr. (mba'67)* Ross R. Rice (am'49, phD'56)* Charles F. Russ, Jr. (jd'51) # Robert E. Samuels (ab'35)Robert G. Schultz (ab'48)A. David Silver (ab'62, mba'63)Louise Hoyt Smith (ab' 37)Gaar W. Steiner (jd'63)* Carolyn Friedman Stieber (ab'44)* Rev. Ralph R. Sundquist, Jr. (am'48)* Maxine Kroman Tanis (pIib'48)Mary Williamson Titzl (phD'68)* C. Russell Twist (ab'66)Raymond Wallenstein (JD'34)* Mitchell S. Watkins (ab'60, mba'65)Jerome S. Weiss (pIib'28, jd'30)* Shirley Warsaw Weiss (x'32)Beverly Simek Wendt (ab'48)* Edwin P. Wiley (ab'49, jd'52)* Robert P. Williams (sm'46, phD'49)Maynard I. Wishner (ab'44, jd'47)* David A. Wylie (ab'50)EX OFFICIOAlumni AssociationArthur R. Nayer, director, alumni affairsAlumni FundEmmett Dedmon (ab'39)Graduate School of BusinessClayton H. Banzhaf (mba'54)Executive Program Club64) James R. Sincox (mba'66)Law SchoolJ. Gordon Henry (jd'41)Medicai Alumni AssociationCatherine L. Dobson (md'32)Otto H. Trippel (sb'44, md'46)Social Service AdministrationBarbara J. McKinney (am'69)in February by Houghton Mifflin ($10.00),has made some forty changes within thepresent text and provides an introduction,notes and an appendix in which the originai1907 manuscript, which was privatelycirculated among Adams' friends, iscompared with the later versions into whichAdams designated changes in preparing thework for publication. An emeritus professorof English at Northwestern University, Mr.Samuels previously authored the definitivethree-volume biography of Henry Adams:The Young Henry Adams (1948), HenryAdams: The Middle Years, which won boththe Bancroft Prize and the Parkman Prize in1958, and Henry Adams: The Major Phase,for which he was awarded the 1965 PulitzerPrize in biography.in memoriam: John T. Barry, p1ib'23;Ferrol B. Green, am'23, history teacher andcoach of baseball, football and basketballteams at Norwalk (Cònn.) High School formany years, died January 4; Everett J. Lewis,pIib'23, Chicago, died February 16; ThomasH. Long, phB'23, jd'25, LaGrange, 111., diedJanuary 14; Paul S. Martin, p1ib'23, p1id'29,eminent anthropologist and archeologist,chairman emeritus of the anthropologydepartment at Chicago's Field Museum ofNaturai History, died January 20 in Tucson,Ariz.; Herbert J. Morris, x'23, Gary (Ind.)attorney, died March 19; Elizabeth KeenWilliams, phB'23, congregation secretary fortwenty years of the University Church of theDisciples of Christ in Hyde Park, whodonated much of her recent time in theservice of Blillings Hospital as a member ofthe Women's Board, of the auxiliarycommittee of the UC Hospitals and Clinics,and as a hospital volunteer worker, died inDecember, 1973, in Chicago.*\A will geer, sb'24, a veteran of the& ¦ stage, is pleased with his role as thegrandfather in the series, "The Waltons,"because he finds television "a little lesstiring." In his portrayal of the kindly,affable septuagenarian, Geer draws on theexperiences of his youth in Frankfort, Ind.,to capture the aura of life during theDepression. "I was a young man duringthose... years, and there are just some thingsyou can't forget," said Geer in an interviewin the Lafayette (Ind.) Journal and Courier,brought to our attention by virginiaROUGIAS REICHARD, AB'44, of WestLafayette. Geer's half-century career in showbusiness has run the full gamut from schoolplays, one-night stands, tent and boat shows, and bit parts in one-horse towns, toBroadway, motion pictures — including rolesin "Lust for Gold," "In Cold Blood,""Winchester 73," "The Reivers," andcurrently "Executive Action," a moviedealing with the assassination of PresidentKennedy — plus television.Since 1924 Geer has had his own repertorygroup and even today is likely to acceptbookings, traveling in a convertedGreyhound bus with a company thatincluées, in the best tradition of the "showbiz" family, his two actress daughters, EllenGeer and Kate Linville — wife of LarryLinville, perhaps better known as FrankBurns, the errant Puritan, in the TV versionof M*A*S*H — and two actor sons, Tad andRaleigh.in memoriam: Margaret Edith Kerr,sm'24; Arthur H. Klawans, sb'24, md'28;Bernard K. Shapiro, pIib'24, jd'28; Dr.Herman H. Zeitlin, x'24.^\r Edward s. lewis, phfì'25, dean of"^ cooperative education and communityrelations, Borough of ManhattanCommunity College, was honored byAlderson-Broaddus College (Philippi, W.Va.) late last year for "significant leadershipin cooperative education in the UnitedStates." A past president of the NationalCooperative Education Association, Lewishas spent many years in the service of theNational Urban League and was director ofbranch offices in Kansas City, Baltimoreand New York.in memoriam: C. Wylie Alien, pIib'25,jd'30; Eloise Vilas Burnett, phB'25; H.H.Halliday, llb'25.*\r Charles r. morris, phfì'26, has sent^O in a copy 0f Tne Story 0f the SuffolkResolves, a booklet he co- authored inconnection with the Milton (Mass.)Revolutionary War Bicentennial Celebrationwhich officially begins September 9, exactly200 years after the passage of a body ofresolutions called the Suffolk Resolves bydelegates from nineteen Suffolk County(Mass.) towns, including Boston, by then aspecial target of English colonial oppression.Carried by Paul Revere to Philadelphia, theSuffolk Resolves were submitted to the FirstContinental Congress and adopted by theCongress on September 17, 1774, a day thatinspired the following entry in John Adams'diary: "This day convinced me that Americawill support Massachusetts or perish withher."Mr. Morris, retired chairman of the Milton Academy English department, ispresident of the Milton Historical Societyand of the Milton Historical Commission.in memoriam: Paul C. Cullom, pfiB'26;The Reverend Daniel L. Eckert, am'26.s\*j Joseph pois, am'27, phD'29, professor^ ' of public administration at theUniversity of Pittsburgh, former member ofthe Chicago school board, has been namedto a six-year term on the Pittsburgh board ofeducation. Pois, who uses the Pittsburghschool budget as an example for students inhis budgeting course at Pitt, conducted af our-year study of the federai GeneralAccounting Office which is to appear inbook form as Watchdog on the Potomac.in memoriam: Seymour S. Borden,pfiB'27, retired Chicago poultry broker, diedJanuary 23 in Fort Myers Beach, Fla.; VirgìlR. Gunn, am'27, former instructor at SanAngelo (Tex.) Junior College, died November29, 1973, in Austin, Tex.; Matthew M.Lewison, sb'27, md'32, physician for morethan forty years in Chicago's South Shorearea, professor of pediatrics at the Universityof Illinois school of medicine, died February15 in Chicago; Louise McGuire, pIib'27,retired director of handicapped workerproblems in the Labor Department' s wageand hour division, died February 6 inWheeling, 111.^o A group of alumni and their spouses**® had a mini-reunion this spring at theLaguna Hills, Calif., home of anatol("speed") raysson, pIib'28, who playedfootball for Chicago in the era of KyleAnderson, Ken Rouse and HughMendenhall. The others, ali nowCalif ornians: nat c. weinfeld, p1ib'29;jacob t. pincus, phB'27, jd'29; andALBERTA EISENBERG SCHULTZ, PllB'31, SOthe magazine is advised by Leon Schultz.in memoriam: Blake Crider, am'28,retired professor of psychology at ClevelandState University and writer of a weeklycolumn for the Cleveland Plain Dealer, diedJanuary 3.^Q HELEN E. MARSHALL, AM'29, Illinois^*2 State University professor of historyemerita, is the author of the book, MaryAdelaide Nutting: Pioneer of ModemNursing, reviewed in a recent issue of theAmerican Historical Review. Ms. Marshall,now of Mountain Home, Ark., has publishedseveral previous works, including DorotheaDix: Forgotten Samaritan, which became a1937 Book of the Month alternate selection.40-^•j in memoriam: Clinton M. Doede,*^-*- sb'31, phD'34, founder/president ofQuantum, Inc., Wallingford, Conn.; GeorgeW. Friede, jd'31, attorney, formerDemocratic representative in the Oregon legislature, past president of the Portlandalumni club, died in February of this year;Robert B. Mayer, pIib'31, president ofRothschild Enterprises and Properties, aco-founder and vice-president of Chicago's Museum of Contemporary Art, died January14 in Chicago.32 A reunion of two old Blackfriarsbuddies occurred in San AntonioCollectivization of the filini commandmentAs reported previously in these pages (July/August, '73) Vincent J. Burke (ab'41), vet-eran Wahington newspaperman, and hiswife, Velma Whilgrove Burke (ab '43), wereat work on a book on the welfare program atthe time of Vince' s untimely death last year.Since that time Vee Burke, a member of thestaff of the fiscal policy subcommittee ofCongress' joint economie committee, hascompleted the book, Nixon's Good Deed:Welfare Reform, which is scheduled forpublication by Columbia University Press inSeptember. Following are excerptsfrom theBurke's workmanlike and frequently sur-prising book:. . . For those who are elderly, blind, ordisabled, income by right was enactedinto law on October 17, 1972, to takeeffect at the start of 1974. Since January1, 1974, persons in these three groups, ifjudged needy under federai rules, havebeen eligible for special new Treasurychecks each month from the SocialSecurity Administration, even thoughthey may never have paid Social Securitypayroll taxes. These Supplemental Security Income checks, however, come fromgeneral revenue, not from the SocialSecurity trust fund.Excluded from our first federai income guarantee were the nation's children, the only other group that is notexpected to work. Ironically, these werethe very persons for whom RichardNixon originally had proposed this his-toric birthright (although he later aban-doned the fight for a children's incomeguarantee). The 92nd Congress left poorchildren to the mercy of states, many ofwhich were slashing welfare payment levels despite the rise in living costs. . . .. . . Although Nixon initially proposedto leave welfare for the aged, blind, anddisabled under state management, heasked Congress to require that states,who then were free to set benefits wher-ever they chose, assure recipients a fe-derally-prescribed minimum income.(Nixon's first draft proposai said $65 amonth, but by the time the bill went toCongress this figure was raised to $90because the drafters learned that the change would cost very little. They dis-covered that thirty-eight states alreadyassured their needy aged who had noother income as much as $90, but had topay the full guarantee to only the minority who Iacked Social Securityincome. Earlier the bill drafters hadmistaken states' average payments fortheir maximums.)Congress welcomed this modest pian,liberalized it, and transformed it into ournation's first minimum cash incomeguarantee. The only other national program offering cash on the basis of need(veterans' pensions) was limited to ve-terans.Since January 1, 1974, the federaigovernment has guaranteed to those over65 years of age, and to the blind anddisabled of any age, a minimum income.(H. R. 1 set the initial guarantee at $130per person monthly, and $195 per cou-ple; but before the program even beganCongress voted to boost the initial levelsto $140 and $210 respectively, and toraise payments again in July, 1974, to$146 and $219.)Supplemental Security Income is amatter of right. The Social Security Administration requires no work record ofrecipients, makes no claims against theirestates (two-thirds of the elderly, evensome of the poorest, own their ownhomes), and makes no demands thatgrown children, if well-to-do, contributeto support of needy parents.For more than 70% of aged poorbeneficiaries, the Supplemental SecurityIncome check is a supplement to a SocialSecurity check. The extra payment con-fined to the poor is alleviating much ofthe poverty among America's aged. Eachrecipient (or couple ) is allowed to add tothe basic SSI payment $240 from anysource. Thus, since January 1, 1974, SSIhas assured every needy recipient of Social Security a total minimum yearlyincome of $1,920 ($2,760 per couple).SSI recipients are allowed to add asizable proportion of earnings to theirSSI check also.Enactment of the guaranteed incomefor the aged signified a revolution in the philosophy and financing of public char-ity in the United States. The new incomeguarantee shifted from states to the federai government the responsibility for thebasic welfare decisions of who gets howmuch. . . .. . . Supplemental Security Income hasremoved from state rolls ali of thesewelfare groups except families with children. Because SSI's rules were muchmore liberal, almost twice as many persons were thought to be eligible to join itsnew rolls as departed from state welfarerolls. An estimated 6.2 million Americans were eligible in mid-1974 for Supplemental Security Income — 4.6 millionaged (more than one of every five Americans over 65!) and 1.6 million blind ordisabled persons (SSI covers disabledchildren, who were excluded from theold state-federal welfare disability programs).By adopting Social Security in 1935,America began to collectivize the duty to"honor thy father and thy mofher" thatwas commanded to Moses at Mt. Sinai.At bottom. Social Security is just a me-chanism that, by use of the taxing powerof the federai government, takes moneyfrom sons and daughters and gives it totheir elderly parents and grandparents(and to younger disabled workers, theirfamilies, and families of deceased workers). When the program was young, payments into the Social Security trust fundgreatly exceeded benefits paid out. In1974, however, there were twice as manyaged parents, compared to the numberof sons and daughters of conventionalworking age (twenty to sixty-four years)as in the 1930s, and nine of every tenaged persons received a monthly SocialSecurity check. Today's recipients aregetting back more than they paid into thefund. In fact, the amount of money inthe Social Security trust fund would notpay the bills for a full year. Ali SocialSecurity payroll taxes currently collectedare currently spent on benefits for thoseon the rolls. By enacting a guaranteedincome for its aged America has completed the collectivization of the filialcommandment.41earlier this year when joe saler, p1ib'32,director of the San Antonio Little Theater(SALT) for some twenty-five years, wassuccessful in his efforts to recruit Robertstorer, ab'36, now of Boston, as guestdirector for the SALT production of thecomedy, "Never Too Late." A Unitarianclergyman, Storer was a professional actorand director in and around the Boston areafor a number of years before moving fromthe stage to the pulpit. Back in the thirtieshe directed such campus productions as "InBrains We Trust" and "One Foot in theAisle" and played the part of RobertHutchins in "Merger for Millions." Salekhad leading roles in several of thoseproductions. In a recent note, Salek andStorer ask that the magazine convey their"salute to ali the ex-Blackfriars writers,musicians, actors, stage hands, here, thereand everywhere doing great things."Working, title of the newest studsterrel, phB'32, jd'34, document of ourtimes, is another masterful mosaic, pieced ^together by Terkel out of three years' worthof tape-recorded interviews of people from awide variety of occupations. His previousbooks, Division Street: America and HardTimes, have been translated into every majorWestern language, as well as Hungarian andJapanese.in memoriam: Reuben Turner, phB'32,died March 5 in Grand Rapids, Mich./j/j osby l. weir, phB'33, retired January<J<J 31 as general manager of the Searsdivision that operates thirty stores in theWashington and Baltimore area. Weir, whowas with Sears for forty years, became thefirm's Washington manager in 1962. In 1969the Sears stores in Baltimore were Consolidated into his locai operation. Activein civic affairs over the years, he was named"Man of the Year" by the MetropolitanBoard of Trade last year. A past president ofthe Board of Trade and the National Symphony Orchestra Association, he currentlysits on on the boards of both organizations.in memoriam: Paul W. Grimes, x'33, DesPlaines, 111., died January 26.*y a john r. beery, am'34, dean of the*^" University of Miami' s school ofeducation since 1947 and a faculty membersince 1941, will be retiring from the schoolbefore the onset of another academic year.in memoriam: William S. Price, am'34,retired chairman of the modem languagesdepartment, University of Tulsa (Okla.),died February 28 in Charleston, S.C., where he had been living since retirement.^q alvin m. weinberg, sb'35, sm'36,^^ phD'39, who went from the MetallurgyLaboratory at the University to the OakRidge National Laboratory in 1945 and hadbeen director of that laboratory since 1955,left at the end of last year to establish theInstitute for Energy Analysis. But he wasalmost immediately drafted by the government to his present post, director ofthe Office of Energy Research and Development, in Washington.in memoriam: Leo P. Clements, pud' 35;Mayme Yoki Dawson, p1ib'35; John K. Rose,phD'35; Alvin Roseman, am'35.*\r CYNTHIA M. GRABO, AB'36, Am'41,*-^ was awarded the exceptional civilianservice medal of the Defense IntelligenceAgency in ceremonies which took placeearlier this year in Washington. In additionto her distinguished service as the senior DIAintelligence analyst at the NationalIndications Center and her "outstandingcontributions in the field of strategiewarning since 1949," Ms. Grabo wasparticularly cited as "author of a three-volume work which serves as the standard re-ference on indications and warningintelligence for the entire intelligencecommunity."marian MADiGAN,phD'36, Weston, Neb.,an authority on mental growth and statisticalpsychology ànd the author of Psychology:Principles and Applications, now in its fifthedition, has gained a listing in the newWorld Who's Who of Women. From 1936 to1968 she was involved as a teacher andeducator in many projeets of the MilwaukeeVocational Technical and Adult Schools,and from 1968 to 1970, at Fort Lauderdale,Fla., University, she was director of thecenter for testing, academic counseling andprogrammed learning and a professor ofpsychology. Although now officially retired,she doesn't seem to slow down much.Recently she has done some work for theGuild for Psychology Studies in SanFrancisco. In addition to travel andphotography Dr. Madigan has taken upflying as a hobby and hopes to get her pilot'slicense soon.in memoriam: Ethel Foster Wyly Belser,ab'36, am'42.sj*j jean e. decrer, ab'37, is treasurer of** ' the Calco Company, Addison, 111.,manuf acturer of aircraft and marineaccessories equipment. Employed by the firm since 1950, she is also treasurer of twoof Calco's subsidiary operations: Environ,Inc. (Haines City, Fla.) and GustafsonEnterprises (Addison) the latter of which sheis also a director. Ms. Decker is listed in thenew (spring) edition of Who's Who ofAmerican Women. She lives in Glen Ellyn.godfrey lehman, ab'37, a San Franciscopublicist, who has done several stints of juryduty.and as a result wrote a handbook,"What You Need to Know for Jury Duty,"proposed, in an article in the San FranciscoExaminer this spring, that the jury principlebe adapted to labor disputes like those whichracked his city earlier this year, suggesting aformula for effectuating this.in memoriam: Johann S. Bornstein,md'37; Elizabeth Sollo Lichton, sb'37,am'42.'jo carl frommherz, ab'38, reports that^O he retired last August. He had beenassociate director of the Lamar Universitylibrary, Beaumont, Tex.ITHIEL DE SOLA POOL, Afi'38, Am'39,phD'52, Cambridge, Mass., and WilburSchramm are the senior editors of a new1000-page opus, Handbook ofCommunica-tion, published by Rand McNally CollegePublishing Co. (Box 7600, Chicago 60680,$25 per copy). This is said to be the only col-lection of review articles which looks broadlyat the field of communication andcomprehensively outlines the present state ofCommunications research in the variousbranches of the discipline. Its thirty-onechapters cover a wide range of topics in thefield.^>Q HOWARD S. GREENLEE, AB'39, AM'41,^^ p1id'50, having resigned as academicdean of Windham College, Putney, Vt.,reports that he and his wife, helenschwarz greenlee, ab'44, are "nowinvestigating semi-subsistence farming" inSouth Royalton, Vt.Abraham j. rauvar, md'39, becamemanager of health and hospitals for the cityof Denver earlier this year.david rritchevsry, sb'39, sm'42, seniormember of the Wistar Institute of Anatomyand Biology, Philadelphia, has been selectedby the American Institute of Nutrition aswinner of the 1974 Borden award innutrition. The award, consisting of $1,000and a gold medal, recognized Kritchevsky'syears of research on the function ofcholesterol plus fat in the diet, morespecifically, on how various fats interact withcholesterol and thus influence its metabol-42ism. He was among the first to point out thedifferences between saturated and unsaturated fats and their influence oncholesterol in the blood, and its effect oncoronary disease. In 1958, he authored thebook, Cholesterol, the first to be publishedon the subject.in memoriam: Merle T. Burgy, sb'39,sm'69; Harry C. Langelan, sb'39.Af\ MIRIAM MANLEY THOMAS, SB'40, has¦ " been selected as one of the Departmentof the Army nominees for the FederaiWomen's Award which is presented annuallyto six outstanding career women in thefederai service. Ms. Thomas, currently aresearch chemist at the U.S. Army Natick(Mass.) Laboratories, was nominated for hercontributions to the nutritional reliability ofrations and food packets for governmentagencies.in memoriam: Betty Jane Wetzel Barrett,ab'40, charter member of the Summit (N. J.)Housing Authority, civic and communityleader, died February 25 in Summit; RobertSteele, p1id'40, biochemist at the Brook-haven National Laboratory, died January 18in his home is Blue Point, N.Y.a*\ Ronald e. zupko, am'42, associate'" professor of history at MarquetteUniversity (Milwaukee), has received atemporary membership in the school ofhistorical studies, Institute for AdvancedStudy, Princeton University, for the springterm of 1975 to conduct research in prepara-tion for a book on the influence of the Ageof Science and the Enlightenment on Britishmetrological development. He is the authorof A Dictionary of English Weights andMeasures from Anglo-Saxon Times to theNineteenth Century (University of WisconsinPress) and has four additional weights andmeasures dictionaries in the works.HENRY J. TOMASEK, Ab'42, Am'46,phD'59, became dean of the University ofNorth Dakota's college of human resourcesdevelopment earlier this year. Tomasek,since joining the politicai science faculty ofNorth Dakota in 1946, has been cited twicefor outstanding teaching — once by thestudent body and most recently, in 1973, bythe alumni organization.prince e. Wilson, am'42, pIid'54, hasassumed the new post at Atlanta Universityof vice-president for academic affairs. V"Nobody paid much attention to me until Kissinger started achieving great exposure, " HarrySholl (x'41) told Parade 's Lloyd Shearer. "That's when it began — people asking me if I wereKissinger.'' There were just enough similarities (in addition to the physical appearance) tomake plausible Parade 's February 17 story on Harry as a possible doublé for the Secretary ofState. Harry Sholl is a basically bashful man, and his inclination was to shrug off the publicitythat followed the Parade article. But he also is director of development for GatewayAssociations Foundation, an organization which provides assistance to drug addicts trying tokick the habit, and he decided to absorb his new-found fame on the basis that it might beturned to the benefit of Gateway. The chance of Sholl doubling for Kissinger is virtually mi.Says Harry (whose wife is Jean Gamwell Sholl [x'44]), "The answer is no. Fve got my ownthing. And Kissinger has his. Maybe if he carne into one of our Gateway Houses, some of ourguys would say, 'Here comes Sholl. ' " In the pictures above Sholl is at left.43 dorothy Taylor, am'43, reports thatshe moved this spring from Pittsburgh to Benaocaz (Cadiz), Spain.DONALD J. YELLON, AB'43, JD'48,Highland Park, has been promoted by theFirst National Bank of Chicago to seniorvice-president and general counsel of the lawdivision. He joined the bank in 1971 after anassociation of many years with the Chicagolaw firm of D'Ancona, Pflaum, Wyatt andRiskind.in memoriam: Mary Nolan Meszaros,sb'43, died January 6.A C JEAN GATEWOOD KOHN, PhB'45, SB'48,'^ md'50, Burlingame, Calif., hasreceived an award for unique contributionsof professional services from the UnitedCerebral Palsy Association (UCPA) ofCalifornia. Dr. Kohn, a clinical instructor inpediatrics at Stanford University, has servedas a consultant to San Mateo County'sCrippled Children Services and on the UCPAboard of directors for the county.The Reverend john s. ruef, ab'45, hasbeen named dean of Nashotah HouseEpiscopal Seminary in Nashotah, Wis.Currently director of the Institute for Religious Studies in the Episcopal Diocese ofWestern New York, Ruef will officiallyassume his new post about July 1 .willis garrard, md'46, has movedfrom Charleston, W. Va., his home for46some twenty-one years, to Ogden, Utah,where he has joined the pathology staff atMcKay-Dee Hospital.in memoriam: Margaret Nancy BayDinning, ab'46, sm'50.AI-I HERBERT J. GANS, PllB'47, Am'50,"' professor of sociology at ColumbiaUniversity holding a Ford Foundation chairand senior research associate at the Centerfor Policy Research, reports that his newestbook, More Equality (Pantheon Books), is astudy of egalitarian trends and of thepossibilities and problems of greater equalityin America. Gans and his wife Louise,coordinating attorney for family law with theNew York City legai services agency, have ason, David, who turned 4 in May.ioseph g. dawson, am'47, p1id'49, professor of psychology at Louisiana State43University, has been elected a fellow in theRoyal Society, the oldest scientific society inGreat Britain. He was elected to thepromotion of health division of the presti-gious body whose foreign membership islimited to fifty people.BARBARA BROWN FRANREL, PllB'47, hasbeen promoted to assistant professor ofsocial relations at Lehigh University,Bethlehem, Pa.A Ci VALERIE ROPECRY CRAIG, MBA'48, and¦^ HARMON B. CRAIG, SM'50, PllD'51,professor of geochemistry at the Universityof California, San Diego, are working on* their collection of marble samples, acquiredon trips to Greece, in a continuation of theproject that brought forth their discovery, acouple of years ago, that the marble from agiven quarry bears a unique chemical (isotopie) signature by which it can be identifiedand distinguished from marble drawn fromany other quarry. Major examples of classicGreek sculpture, they have reported,represent only four marble quarries. Theirdiscovery, of obvious interest to geologistsand archeologists, has also created quite astir in the art world because of its potentialuse as a tool in investigations of the authen-ticity of certain statues and monuments ofdisputed vintage. Example: is the unsunghead of Aphrodite, stored in the basement ofthe British Museum, actually part ofPraxiteles' famous sculpture?alvin edgell, ab'48, am'51, has left forAfghanistan on a two-and-one-half yearassignment as program trainingrepresentative for the Peace Corps. Initially,he is to work out a rural public healthprogram — clinics, inoculations, serums,mother and child training, etc. An overseasveteran, Edgell has previously worked forCARE in Turkey, the British Honduras (hemet his wife Zee, a native of Belize City, onthis assignment), and in Nigeria, where hewas appointed program of f icer of theCARE-East Central State rehabilitationprogram in the fall of 1969, just a fewmonths before the end of the Biafran war. In1956 he co- authored Human Relations in International Affairs with Seymour Bersley.EDWARD L. HENRY, AM'48, MBA*48,pIid'55, the first layman ever named to theoffice of president in the history of St.Mary's College (Notre Dame, Ind.), hasannounced his resignation from that post,effective August 31. Said Henry, whobecame president in July, 1972, "I carne inthe midst of crisis and gave myself anoutside time frame of three years to restore *normality.'...My timetable for those areasover which I could exercise influence isrunning ahead of itself. My commitments tothe college, I feel, have been more thanfulfilled."JAMES V. MITCHELL, JR., AB'48, AM'50,phD' 53, associate dean for graduate studiesin education at the University of Rochester,will be leaving that post on July 1 to acceptan appointment at Ball State University,Muncie, Ind., as dean of the teachers collegeand* professor of psychology and educationalpsychology.Beverly simer wendt, ab'48, currentlypresident of the Forbes Read East AreaVocational-Technical Joint Board of SchoolDirectors (Pittsburgh), is the first woman inAllegheny County ever to serve in thiscapacity. Ms. Wendt is a member of theEdgewood School board, one of the thirteenmember distriets governed by the jointboard.in memoriam: John P. Shaw, am'48,diplomat, specialist on Soviet affairs anddivisions in the international Communistmovement, died January 20 of a heart attackin his Bethesda, Md., home.^q Richard l. bloch, ab'49, is chairman¦ ^ and chief executive off icer ofFilmways, Inc., Beverly Hills, Calif., whichis heavily engaged in publishing andtelevision production. A portion of hisremaining time is spent as president of thePhoenix Suns of the National BasketballAssociation.john r. opel, mba'49, Chappaqua, N.Y.,was elected in February to the presidency ofInternational Business Machines Corp., thesecond-ranking post at the world' s largestmanufacturer of computers. Opel joined thecompany as a salesman in 1949 and becamemarketing vice-president of the dataprocessing division, then the main IBM salesarm, in 1964. He was elected a corporatevice-president in 1966 and was added to themanagement committee the next year. In1968 Opel was elected vice-president,corporate finance and planning, the topfinancial office. In 1969 he became a seniorvice-president and in January, 1972, tookcharge of the data processing product group.robert a. plane, sm'49, pIid'51, formerCornell University provost, has taken overthe top post at Clarkson College of^Technology (Potsdam, N.Y.). "Withoutquestion, Dr. Piane is the outstanding choiceto take up the presidential role at this time,"said the Clarkson board chairman inannouncing Plane's appointment. "He has a wealth of experience as a nationallyrecognized teacher-scholar, an author, andas the second highest ranking administrator"at Cornell. Also a chemist, Piane worked atOak Ridge National Laboratory beforejoining Cornell in 1952.^/\ The Reverend harvey Arnold, db'50,^^ am'61, informs us of the publication ofhis centennial volume, God before You andbehind You: The Hyde Park Union Churchthrough a Century, 1874-1974 ($12.50). Rev.Arnold, who is centennial historian of thechurch (5600 S. Woodlawn Ave.), notes theimportant role the church has played in thelives of many members, past and present, ofthe UC community. University figures whowere church members in their time includeThomas W. Goodspeed, first historian of theUniversity who was also historian of thechurch, then known as the Hyde ParkBaptist Church; William Rainey Harper whowas church school superintendent for tenyears; Arthur H. Compton, a deacon; andAmos Alonzo Stagg.HARRY N. D. FISHER, AB'50, JD'53, St.Louis advertising executive, public relationscounselor and attorney who took up hymnwriting as a sideline several years ago,reports that two of his poems, "My Pastoral"and "Near the Parthenon, Azaleas," werepublished in the January issue of TheologyToday. The latter is dedicated to MauriceCramer who taught humanities at UC in theforties and fifties. On Aprii 7 Mr. Fisherread some of his poetry at the Peoria Heights(111.) Congregational Church at the invitationof the Reverend john m. hoffmann, ab'50,db' 54, and the church choir sang the Illinoispremiere of his anthem, "No Place to LayOne's Head."david lindsey, p1id'50, professor ofhistory at California State University, LosAngeles, has had two books published inrecent months: Americans in Conflict: TheCivil War and Reconstruction (HoughtonMifflin) and a dual biography, AndrewJackson and John C. Calhoun (published byBarrons Education Series in their Shapers ofHistory series).in memoriam: Richard Wesley Clifford,am'50, Northbrook, 111., died January 4.fT4 MYRTLE LUNDQUIST, PllB'51, AM'63,^*- Wilmette, 111., has sent us a copy ofher Book of a Thousand Thimbles (Wallace-Homestead Book Company, Des Moines,la.), a profusely illustrated^manual which isthe first published work devoted exclusivelyto the subject of thimbles. Ms. Lundquist,44whose thimble collection numbers over2,000, has taught in the Hoffman Estates,111., school system and has held variedwriting positions from working on a smalltown paper to editing a company publicationof the Federai Reserve Bank of Chicago.s. marvin rife, pIid'51, has sent in acopy of his recently published volume ofpoetry, Alternatives to Alienation (VantagePress, $3.95). Mr. Rife is a professor ofeducation at the University of Rhode Island.C'} HERBERT L. CAPLAN, AB'52, ID'57,*-^ Chicago, an assistant Illinois attorneygeneral, informs us that he has successfullyconcluded two years of litigation involvinghorse racing privilege taxes which will resultin a recovery of $5.6 million for the state anda three-quarter million dollar annual in-crease in taxes to be collected in the future."The Illinois Supreme Court, reversing thetrial court decision, found that ChicagoThoroughbred Enterprises, a division ofMadison Square Garden, had improperlyavoided its full tax liability over the past sixyears."ioel blocker, ab'52, accepted anappointment with the United NationsEducational, Scientific and CulturalOrganization (UNESCO) earlier this year asdirector of the office of public information.Before joining UNESCO, Blocker was aspecial correspondent with the news divisionof the Columbia Broadcasting System, mostrecently attached to the investigative unit ofthe "CBS Evening News with WalterCronkite." He received an "Emmy" award in1973 from the National Academy ofTelevision Arts and Sciences for outstandingtelevision journalism. A reporter-editor forthe past fifteen years, Blocker was bureauchief in Paris for Newsweek from 1964through 1967. He moved to Saigon in thesame capacity in 1968 and the following yearwas posted in Washington as the magazine'schief White House correspondent. Returningto New York as senior editor, he remainedwith Newsweek until 1972 when he joinedCBS News. He is the editor of Israeli Stories:A Selection of the Best ContemporaryWriting (Schocken Books), now in its thirdedition.Richard ieffrey, am'52, currently theAdam Seybert professor of moral andintellectual philosophy and chairman of thephilosophy department at the University ofPennsylvania, will join the faculty ofPrinceton University July 1 .Michael a. wyatt, ab'52, jd'55, has beenappointed associate general counsel of the dome to CopenhagenThe Alumni Association offers alumni and their immediate families awonderful week in Denmark in August. Come to crisp, clean, carefreeCopenhagen and• Indulge your gourmet tastes amid Scandinavia's unmatchedcomestibles.• Go shopping (Danish modem? Silver? Knitwear, linens? Pewterware?Ali are there!).• One tour is included. Optional in addition: visits to Odense (HansChristian Andersen's home); Kronberg Castle (Elsinore); ChristiansborgCastle; Rosenborg Castle (where Denmark's royal jewels are kept).8 Days, 7 NightsFrom St. Louis$489.0083.90 From Chicago$469.0081.90 includes air fare, hotel (Sheraton Copenhagen or equivalenti, breakfasts, fourdinners in top restaurants, and tour ofCopenhagen.tax, service charge and fuel surcharge.$572.90 $550.90Departure: August 22. Return: August 29 or 30, depending on departuretime.For further information, write to: Ruth HalloranAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637Student Loan Marketing Association(Washington), a federally-sponsored, privatebody created in 1972 to mate funds availableto financial and educational institutionsmaking guaranteed student loans.C'ì caroline noble lee, ab'53, sculptor,*-'*-' accepted an invitation from theUniversity of California, Irvine, to teachadvanced sculpture during the springsession. Before leaving Paris for her firstprolonged visit to the states in fifteen years,Ms. Lee had just completed a work as a statecommission for a school in Brittany, as wellas a monumentai fountain for the town ofSarcelles, near Paris.Richard dehaan, ab'53, former dean ofadministration at Queen's College, CityUniversity of New York, has accepted anappointment at the University of Connecticutas vice-president for financial affairs.FRANKLIN I. STAR, Ab'53, Sb'55, MD'58, &physician in Columbus, Ga., joined thefaculty of Emory University (Atlanta) duringthe 1973-'74 academic year as clinicalassistant professor of surgery.C A MICHAEL BRENNAN, AM'54, pllD'56,*^* has been named vice-president foracademic affairs at Wesleyan University,Middletown, Conn., effective July 1.Brennan is currently dean of the graduateschool and professor of economics at BrownUniversity. w. lester killen, mba'54, has beenelected chairman and chief executive officerof the Bristol (Conn.) Brass Corporation.He will continue as president of the firm, aposition he has held since 1972.rr mitchell p. mazurek, mba'55,v-'v-^ former comptroller of the NationalCongress of Parents and Teachers inChicago, has been hired by the city of Joliet,IH., as director of finance. A certified publicaccountant, he served as treasurer of theAmerican Institute of Laundering from 1966tol971.CfZ grace partin moremen, am'56, tellsv-'" us that her children's book, No, No,Natalie, was published last year by ChildrensPress. William moremen, db'53, is pastorof the First Congregational Church ofWashington.Michael I. harrison, sm'56, pIvd'60, hasbeen appointed dean of Lyman Briggscollege and professor of physics at MichiganState University, East Lansing. LymanBriggs, in Harrison's description, is MSU'sundergraduate residential college forstudents wishing to combine education insome area of the naturai sciences ormathematics with the liberal arts.in memoriam: Sarah Silverman Inger,ab'56, am'63, died January 16 in New York.45C*7 howard m. fish, mba'57, promoted^ ' last fall to major general in the AirForce, is currently assigned to Air Forceheadquarters in Washington as director ofbudget, office of the comptroller.in memoriam: Hai Scharlatt, x'57, vice-president and editor in chief of E. P. Dutton& Company, New York, died February 19following a heart attack.QQ HERBERT V. PROCHNOW, JR., AM'58,^^ and his father, Herbert V. Prochnow,both bankers, have edited a one volumestudy of American banking practices,entitled The Changing World of Banking.Published by Harper & Row on January 30($10.00), the book includes writings bytwenty-three top bankers and economistswho explore the on-going changes inspecialized areas of banking. Previous colla-borations by the Prochnow father and sonteam have produced A Treasury ofHumorous Quotations, The SuccessfulToastmaster, and The Public Speaker* sTreasure Chest. Prochnow, Jr., is seniorattorney for the First National Bank ofChicago.ROBERT H. WELLINGTON, MBA'58,Barrington, 111., as the first person to holdthe new post of executive vice-president atAMSTED Industries, Chicago-baseddiversified manufacturer, has operatingresponsibilities for ali ten of the firm's majordivisions.q»Q JAMES VALENTINO, JR., AB'59, JD'61,^~ Chicago attorney, reports his electionas president of the Illinois State RifleAssociation at the body's annual meetingearly this year.in memoriam: Robert C. Gilchrist,mba'59; G. Henry Moulds, pIid'59.61 Stephen a. Schiller, jd'61, memberof the criminal justice faculty at theUniversity of Illinois at Chicago Circle since1966, became executive director of theChicago Crime Commission on March 25.During his last year in law school, Schillerserved as an assistant to the then CookCounty special prosecutor, Morris J. Wexler,in investigations of alleged vote fraud in the1960 elections.r*\ MARY ANN EININGER, AB'62, ÌS CUr-^^ rently working for National EducationAssociation/Alaska as deputy executivesecretary in the Fairbanks regional office.Ms. Eininger has involved herself in anumber of both community and state-level activities during her more than four years inFairbanks.r q judith breisch wise, jd'63, was"O promoted last fall to assistantprofessor of general education at ClarkTechnical College, Springfield, O. Ms. Wise,who teaches a course on criminal andConstitutional law, was co-developer of astudent-faculty court system, instituted bythe school in 1972.robert e. stevens, jd'63, has beennamed to a partnership in the Chicago lawfirm of Lord, Bissell and Brook.edward r. vrdolyak, jd'63, Democraticorganization rebel and alderman fromChicago's tenth ward, was defeated in theMarch primaries by the regular Democraticcandidate in the contest to win thenomination for assessor of Cook County.rA RICHARD D. CLAYPOOL, AB'64, who^" has been music program director ofradio station WEFM, Chicago, possibly theoldest classical music radio station in thenation, has been named to the MoravianMusic Foundation in Winston- Salem, N.C.,to undertake the cataloguing of the manu-script and printed music collections held bythe foundation in Bethlehem, Pa., as well asin Winston- Salem.jerald e. walker, db'64, vice-presidentfor university relations and associateprofessor of religion at South westernUniversity, Georgetown, Tex., has beennamed president of Baker University,B aid win City, Kans.£C Richard e. dooley, mba'65, former^^ vice-president and head of the information management services division, FirstNational Bank of Chicago, currently divideshis time between Chicago, as lecturer inmanagement at the Illinois Institute of Technology, and Phoenix, where he is co-founderand partner in a management consultingfirm. About a year and a half ago Dooleydecided to give up a successful seventeen-year career in banking because he thought itwas time for a change and felt he had ac-complished what he had set out to do inbanking."Faces & Facades" was the title of an ex-hibition of photographs by robert m.lipgar, p1id'65, held in Aprii in the IllinoisCenter building in Chicago.r r charlie gellert, ab'66, writes that^^ he is "happily employed,, at theNational Archives in Washington, D.C. Gellert, who "has been enjoying the flowersof spring,' ' will soon be moving into a 100-year-old house in that city.l. paul knauth, ab '66, assistantprofessor of geology at Louisiana State University, has received a National ScienceFoundation grant towards his researchproject concerning cherts, a flint-like rockfound in sedimentary rocks of oceans andlake beds. Work already done by Knauthindicates that variations in the nuclearmakeup of cherts may have been caused bythe differences in climate at the time theywere formed. If so, it would providescientists with a key for determining the temperature of the earth, at any given "cherttime," for the past 3.5 billion years. Initialdata yielded by Knauth, for example,suggests that the earth remained "hot" muchlonger than was earlier thought to be thecase by scientists. If proven, the theorywould have significant implications for theevolution of life and the history of the terres-trial atmosphere.DAVID H. ROSENBLOOM, AM'66, PnD'69,formerly a visiting senior lecturer at Tel AvivUniversity, Ramat Aviv, Israel, is currentlyan assistant professor of politicai science atthe University of Vermont.rn george burman, mba'67, pItd'73,^ ' Washington Redskins' specialty teamcenter, has announced he is retiring fromprofessional football to become an assistantprofessor and associate dean in the school ofurban and public affairs at Carnegie MellonUniversity, Pittsburgh.Charles e. tate, mba'67, has beenpromoted at Kentucky Fried Chicken (Louis-ville, Ky.) to marketing manager of newprograms in the new produets/new programsdepartment.r O joan phillips sandy, ab'68, Water-^^ ville, was appointed an assistant countyattorney for Kennebec County, Me., earlierthis year. Her responsibilities include theprosecution of criminal cases andrepresentation of the county in civil matters.She is the first woman in the history ofKennebec County ever to hold that position.ruth caldwell, am'68, pIid'73, has beenpromoted to assistant professor of French atLuther College, Decorah, la.manabu waida, am'68, doctoralcandidate at UC, who has been teaching thehistory of religions at the University ofRochester, will return to Nova Scotia inSeptember to teach at St. Mary's Universityin Halifax.469 Patricia g. spear, p1id'69, joinedthe Department of Microbiology at UCst fall as an assistant professor. She was asearch associate in virology at theniversity from 1969 to 1971 and held amilar position subsequently at theockefeller University.ROBERT G. BENNETT, MBA'69, ÌS nOWcond vice-president, Continental Illinoismture Corp., a venture capital firmfiliated with the big Chicago bank.j. p. roos, am'69, spent the winter quarterthe University of California, Los Angeles,i a visiting appointment as lecturer in thefiool of architecture and urban planning.r. Roos, who completed his doctorate:ently at the University of Helsinki,tiland, tells us he is currently preparing aok on the foundations of societalmning.r\ david barnard, ab'70, has initiated a^ program in the humanities for doctors,rses and other f ellow staff members at3unt Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, Mass,le program, a pilot venture involvingninar discussions of literature, psychologyd philosophy, is an experiment in applyingmanist disciplines in a practical situation.rnard and his wife, mary silvestrernard, x'70, live in Waltham, Mass.?aul r. alms, mba'70, has been elected ae-president of Rand McNally & Company,icago, and will continue as industriaiìtions manager.;ara ann bobroff, am'70, p1id'73, who is currently enrolled in Harvard' s two-yearMBA program, has been awarded a Harvardbusiness school fellowship for women.chris thomas, mba'70, as an assistanttreasurer for Chase Manhattan in New York,arranges loan programs for the bank'sclients in the Pacific Northwest area. Ms.Thomas started working for the bank inAugust, 1970, and became an off icer early in1972. She and her husband, also a banker,split the housework in their New Yorkapartment.*r-| jon r. neill, ab'71, having traversed'•*¦ the northern Iranian Elburz mountainsunscathed, "a feat seldom equaled in thewintertime, reached the shores of the fabledSea of Mazandaran" where he "enjoyed ahearty repast of caviar and vodka."Jonathan h. klein, sb'71, reports thatafter receiving his mba degree last June fromHarvard, "a surprisingly humane place," hewent to work for the Southern PacificRailroad in San Francisco. "My work isenjoyable," he adds, "as is San Francisco."myra leifer, p1id'71, has joined thefaculty of Illinois Institute of Technology asassistant professor of psychology in thecollege of liberal arts.*y\ EDWARD F. MADINGER, AB'72, having' ** won a recent bout with hepatitis in Afghanistan, went on a pleasure jaunt toCeylon earlier this year to speed hisrecuperation.thomas l. pangle, p1id'72, who teaches in the politicai science department at Yale,has had a book published by the Universityof Chicago Press, entitled Montesquieu 'sPhilosophy of Liberalism.MARGARET AMY RYAN, AB '72, reports shehas been named co-chairman of thedepartment of English at the Institute ofPoliticai Science, Teheran, and has beenawarded her own office with Venetianblinds, tulip wallpaper and a seven-volumedictionary.Michael t. smith, ab '72, has returnedfrom an expedition to the ancient Mediancapital of Ecbatana where he deciphered aninscription from the tomb of Esther andMordecai while his colleagues stood amazed.^yy Stephen froikin, ab'73, writes that' ** he is forming an internationalcompany, Froikin Enterprises, to promotesporting and entertainment events in Israel.Until further notice the company will beoperating from Froikin's residence at theHartman Yeshivah. The address, to which"earlier associates" and interested partiesare urged to write, is : Froikin Enterprises,P.O. Box 6825, Romema, Jerusalem, Israel.Michael curley, pIid'73, assistantprofessor of English at the University ofPuget Sound (Tacoma, Wash.), has beenawarded a $2,000 grant from the NationalEndowment for the Humanities for asummer research project — the translationfrom Medieval Latin of the text known as"Physiologus," one of the most importantand influential writings on naturaiphilosophy of the Middle Ages.e University of Chicago Magazine. Volume LXVIastaplo, George, One Introduction to Confucian ThoughtSummer, '74.leder Reactor March/ Aprii, '74.svelti, John G., The Videoculture of the Future Nov/Dec, '73.an, Kei-on, Homecoming of a Cantonese Summer, '74.mdrasekhar, Subrahmanyan, Some Remarks on the Developmentof General Relativity Summer, '74.na Visit July/Aug, '73.? College: Evolving Sept/Oct, '73; Transmogrified Jan/Feb, '74.*ud, Jarl E., The Sexual Revolution: Fact or Fantasy? Jan/Feb, '74.tein, Dena, The Search for Black Music 's African Roots July/Aug, '73.edman, Lawrence Z., Terrorism: Crime of the PolistaraxicSummer, '74.on, Elizabeth Brownlee, Burton Court: Land of EnchantmentJan/Feb, '74.ham, Katharine Meyer, Watergate, the Media, and the Universities Sept/Oct, '73.ber, Frank, One Student's University Summer, '74. How Cells Communicate Sept/Oct, '73.Iorio, James, Autumn Haze Nov/Dec, '73.Krug, Mark M., The Defamation of American Poles Summer, '74.Kurland, Philip B., The New Supreme Court July/Aug, '73.Lieberman, Morton A., New Insights into Crises ofAging July/Aug,'73.Maclean, Norman F., This Quarter I Am Taking McKeon Jan/Feb,'74.Maddi, Salvatore R., Creativity Is Strenuous Sept/Oct, '73.Maroons Plow into Fall Schedules Nov/Dec, '73.Paul, Lowell, A Three-Letter Word for 'Sport' March/Aprii, '74.Roberts, Rebecca A., Three Poems March/ Aprii, '74.Rosenberg, Harold, Thoughts about Ideas Jan/Feb, '74.Rosten, Leo, Is This an Objet dArt? March/Aprii, '74; Polyun-saturated Facts Exposed! Summer, '74.Schwab, Joseph J., Back Talk from Abroad March/ Aprii, '74.Simpson, John A., Journey to Jupiter Nov/Dec, '73.Stern, Richard, A Memory of Ezra Pound July/Aug, '73.Warner, Hayward, The 'Old Man ': a Recollection March/ Aprii, '74.Weintraub, Karl J., Noblesse in an Egalitarian World Nov/Dec, '73.47