THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINE Next: the breeder reactorIs this an objet d'art?Leo Rosten 10Backtalk from abroad 12Joseph J. SchwabPlus excerpts from a discussion between Mr. Schwab and Robert M. Hutchinscover' The sunspot of Sep-tember21, 1879, adaptedfromthe drawing by Samuel Pier-pont Langley, symbolically re-presents the subject of energy,discussed in this issue in Quad-rangle News and in the articleon Argonne Lab's contribu-tions to the breeder reactor. Foranother look at solar energy onthe rampage see the photobelow, showing the sunspot ofJune 30. 1928, mode by W. W.Morgan, the Bernard E. andEllen C. Sunny distinguishedservice professor in the Department of Astronomy and Astro-physics at Yerkes Observatory. Three poemsRebecca A. Roberts 18A three-letter word for 'sport'Lowell Paul . 19The 'Old Man' — a recollectionHayward D. Warner 23CattailsA sculpture by Alexander M. Riskin, M.D. 313 Quadrangle news 24 Alumni newsVolume LXVI Number 5March/Aprii, 1974The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published six times peryear for alumni and the faculty of TheUniversity of Chicago, under the auspicesof the Office of the Vice President forPublic Affairs. Lettere and editorialcontributions are welcomed.Don Morris, AB'36EditorJennie LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois; additional entry at Madison,Wisconsin, Copyright 1974, TheUniversity of Chicago. Published inJuly/August, September/October,November/December, January/February,March/Aprii, and May/June. The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312)753-2175Julian J. Jackson, PhB'31, PresidentArthur Nayer, Director, Alumni AffairsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorK risten Nelson, Program DirectorRegional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91201(213)242-8288825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030New- York, New York 10022(212)688-73,551000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415)928-0337735 South Fairfax StreetAlexandria, Va. 22314(703) 549-3800%- picture credits: Page 1, S. P. Langley; Page 2, W. W. Morgan, Yerkes Observatory; Page 3, Roland Winston; Page 5 (above), University Archives; (below), A. D.Whitney, University Archives; Page 7, 9, Atomic Energy Commission; Page 16, H<James Chen; Page 19, George Kalinsky; Page 31, Philip Chen.Quadrangle V\(ewsSolar power nearer in Winston breakthroughRoland Winston, associate professor in theDepartment of Physics, the Enrico FermiInstitute and the College, set out in 1966 todevelop a new type of collector for Cherenkovradiation. Today he winds up having inventeda device which may prove to be of consideratale importance in solving the world's energyshortage.Mr. Winston (sb'56, sm'57, p1id'63) re-called, at a departmental colloquium oncampus earlier this year, how he worked outthe mathematics for an "ideal collector" ofthe faint Cherenkov light, which is emitted bycharged particles traveling faster than light(in a medium) and is useful in identifyingenergetic electrons. The collector turned outto be composed, in cross section, of two tiltedparabolas.Enter Robert G. Sachs, professor in theDepartment of Physics and the FermiInstitute, who last year took over the reins asdirector of Argonne National Laboratory. Inthe course of meetings with an Argonne planning group working on possible energysources, Mr. Sachs remembered the Winstonlight collector project and suggested to Mr.Winston that it might be adapted for the col-lection of solar energy.Previous efforts to harnass the sun's energyhad not produced practical results, in partbecause stationary collectors could concentrate only about three times as muchenergy as the general level of ambient sun-light. The Winston collector, lined with athin reflective film, was capable of ten timesas much energy concentration as the generallevel of sunlight (figured roughly, under idealconditions, as one kilowatt per square meter),without diurnal tracking of the sun. It had,therefore, the potentiality of being practicallyapplicable as a power source.Mr. Winston and his collaboratore atArgonne received in January a go-aheàd, inthe form of research grants, from the AtomicEnergy Commission and the National ScienceFoundation. Following the prescribed patternof feasibility studies, test models and demon-stration installations, the solar collector isexpected to be ready to put the sun to work.The light collector obviously will not play afole in this year's energy crunch, but if theenergy Squeeze is viewed as a long-term phenomenon — which it is — the Winstonapparatus may become valuable on one orboth of two levels, one longer-range than theother. The device is capable of convertingenough sunlight so that it may ultimately beused as a primary source for the generation ofelectricity, but its development for thispurpose will take a while. In the shorter haulit may be possible to develop units for theheating (and also cooling) of individuai homesand other buildings.One of Mr. Winston's key contributions inworking out his ideal collector was his aban-donment of the notion that the collectorwould necessarily be governed by the prin-ciples of conventional imaging optics. Hislight concentrator would have, in opticalterms, an extremely low/number— 0.5. The/number is a concept familiar, at least inapproximate terms, to anyone who operates acamera; it represents the relation between thebrightness of the image and the size of theaperture. No ordinary camera can achieve assmall an/ number as 0.5, but this is becauseof the necessity of creating an image. If theimaging requirement is dropped, Mr.Winston found, the ultimate/ number can beobtained.Mr. Winston's chief collaborator in theearly stages of his work was Henry Hinter-berger, formerly chief engineer of the FermiInstitute's cyclotron; he is now at the NationalAccelerator Laboratory at Batavia, Illinois.This drawing of the Winston solar light collector shows how, in use, it would consist of abank of troughs. More recently Riccardo Levi Setti, professorof physics, became an enthusiastic proponentof the application of ideal collectors to solarenergy.Another difficulty encountered in previousefforts to make use of solar radiation was theapparent motion of the sun. It was possible tobuild tracking equipment like that used in anobservatory, where it keeps the telescopetrained on its objective. But this representedtremendous added complications — and costfactors. Mr. Winston worked out a simplersolution to this problem: adapt the collectorin the form of a trough, so that the sun"follows" the collector, rather than thereverse.Not ali the problems are now solved, ofcourse. One difficulty is that the sun (l)doesn't shine at night, (2) is weak at the startand end of the day, and (3) on cloudy dayslacks a good deal of its sunny day punch. Theanswer, obviously, is energy Storage, and thereare many methods of storing energy, in-cluding batteries.The whole effort has been a course ofscientific ecumenism for Mr. Winston. In thecourse of the work he found himself studyinga number of subjects outside his own field ofphysics — optics, astronomy, and even humananatomy and marine biology. After he hadcompleted his initial studies on the shape ofthe "ideal collector" he learned in a con-versation with Mr. Levi Setti, who also has aconsiderable interest in biology, that, morethan 100,000,000 years ago, nature had per-fected in the horseshoe crab very much thesame parabolic collector, in the form of thereceptor units (ommatidia) of the animal'scompound eyes. He had read of thephenomenon in a journal.Messrs. Levi Setti and Winston, workingwith Donald Park, a research assistant atFermi, acquired and studied a horseshoecrab; the work confirmed Mr. Levi Setti'srecollection, and Mr. Winston later acknowl-edged ruefully that if he had been aware ofthe eyes of the Limulus earlier it would havesaved him a year of work.Even the cone cells in the human eye, whichcan detect the presence of even a few photons,use the same structural principle, he learnedfrom Jay Enoch, of Washington University3School of Medicine, who is an expert on theoptics of vision.And while the Atomic Age has yet to reachits zenith, the Solar Age may already bedawning.Much ado; not about nothingThe winter quarter started off lively, thoughnot invariably happy.A green light was accorded to RolandWinston's solar energy project (see above).The University sadly announced that it willdose the Downtown Center for Adult Educa-tion June 30 for reasons of economy. (TheGraduate School of Business' downtownoperation will not be affected.)And signs went up at ali campus elevatoreurging folk on the quadrangles to walk up oneflight and down two flights. (Whether thismeasure was reinstituted as a result of areference in these pages [September/October,'73] to its use in the old days has not beendetermined.)Meanwhile Billings Hospital got into thenews twice. The University instituted suit for$4,000,000 against the Illinois Department ofPublic Assistance for failure to pay its clients'hospital bills. And a night pharmacistabsconded with what what estimated to bemore than $1,000,000 worth of materiamedica. (Both were recovered.)Among alumni, Joseph Sisco (am'47,p1id'50) who has been Assistant Secretary ofState for Near East and South Asian affairs,was promoted to Undersecretary of State forpoliticai affairs, elevating him to membershipin an elite corps of "super-diplomats."Deaths hit campusDeath took a veteran trustee and two distin-guished faculty members from the Universityas 1973ended.Albert W. Sherer (ab'06), who joined theboard of trustees in June, 1922, diedDecember 22. An advertising executive, Mr.Sherer had been vice-president of the formerLord & Thomas and then of McCann-Erickson. He was awarded an alumni citationin 1943 and had been a life trustee since 1953.William Hay Taliaferro, the EliakimHastings Moore distinguished service professor emeritus of microbiology, who retired in1960 after thirty-six yeare' service on thefaculty, died December 21. A pioneer inresearch on immunity to parasitic diseases, hebecame a senior scientist at Argonne NationalLaboratory following his retirement from theMidway.Gerhard E. O. Meyer, professor emeritusof economics and University tutor in the Social Sciences Collegiate Division and theNew Collegiate Division, died December 30. Afaculty member since 1937, he was a recipientin 1944 of a Quantrell award for excellence inundergraduate teaching. A portion ofremarks he made at the celebration of hisseventieth birthday last year appeared inthese pages in the May/June, 1973, issue.Two memorial funds have been set up inhonor of Mr. Meyer, one to finance extra-ordinary needs of students at the University,the other for the rehabilitation of woundedIsraeli students. Alumni"wishing to contributeto either or both of these funds may sendchecks marked "Gerhard Meyer Fund" to, inthe former instance, Charles Oxnard, dean ofthe College, University of Chicago, Chicago,111. 60637; in the latter instance, to AmericanFriends of the Hebrew University ofJerusalem, 1 North La Salle Street, Chicago,111. 60602. Both funds, which are deductibleand are to be expended rather than preserved,continue work in which Mr. Meyer washimself engaged. Four new trustees namedFour new members, including three alumni,have been elected to the University's board oftrustees. They are Lawrence Buttenwieser(ab'51, am'55), a partner in the New Yorklaw firm of Rosenman Colin Kaye PetschelcFreund and Emil; James H. Evans (id'48),president of Union Pacific Corporation;Stanford J. Goldblatt, vice-president ofGoldblatt Brothers; and John B. Poole (x'33)partner in the Detroit law firm of Poole,Littell and Sutherland and chairman of PooleBroadcasting Company, Flint, Michigan. Mr.Goldblatt attended the University's Laboratory Schools; his degrees are from Harvard.Including the new board members, thirty-three of the University's trustees are alumniMaroon athletes do wellA snappy 57-52 victory over Illinois Techbrought the Maroon basketball team to aseason won-lost record of 1 1 -2. At the end ofA check representing the $1,000,000 grant to the University from the Japanese governmeiipresented to President Levi (left) by Tateo Suzuki (far righi), Consul General ofJapan. Wthem (left to tight) are Emmett Dedmon (ab' 39), vice-president and editorial director opChicago Sun-Times and a trustee ofthe University; Akira Iriye, professor in the DepartmetiHistory and the College; and Philip A. Kuhn, associate professor in the Departments oflEastern Languages and Civilizations and of History and in the College. The grant, to fui»Japanese studies, was reported in the magazine's September/October, 1973, issue.4This photo of the Midway, with Poster Hall in the background and the World 's ColumbianExposition of 1892 in theforeground, is pari of an exhibit held at Joseph Regenstein Library inconnection with publication by the library of a retrospective book on the University, One inSpirit, based on materials in the University Archives. The wheel, designed by GeorgeWashington Ferris, was the focal point of the "city white."the first month of the quarter the average ofali varsity teams was .592.The varsity track team won two of its firstthree varsity indoor meets.Meanwhile a strong University of ChicagoTrack Club squad went down to Bloomingtonand racked up a victory over Indiana University, the Big Ten champion (with the aid ofIndiana, which helped foot travel bills andeven supplied some of its own ineligiblestudents, who ran for UCTC). In the meetRick Wohlhuter clocked a 3:59.1 mile, whichmay be the first under-4 mile on an unbankedone-furlong track.In February UCTC's Tom Bach, LowellPaul, Ken Sparks and Wohlhuter ran a7:20.8 to break the world's two-mile relayrecord in the Mason-Dixon games.The gymnasts compiled a 10 and 5 recordto start the quarter, but the fencers were 0and 2.The energy crisis snarled the early phase ofChicago's swimming schedule. After finishinga respectable fifth in the college division ofthe Illinois intercollegiate meet, the Maroonshad to cancel a dual meet at Grinnell becauseof the impossibility of getting enough gas forthe return trip in the wee hours of a Saturdaynight. In the next two double-dual meets thewon-lost was a disappointing 0 and 4.Maroon wrestlers' dual meet scores havebeen compiled in triangular and quadran-gular meets this year — another gasoline scar-city phenomenon. As of completion of thefirst batch of these, the wrestlers were 6 and 6.And, for the second time in a row, theUniversity's chess team was winner of the PanAmerican intercollegiate tournament, led byGreg DeFotis, who won seven of his eightmatches.Orientalists schedule tripThe Orientai Institute will sponsor a tour ofthe ancient Egyptian and Near East artcollections in Europe and the Soviet Union,leaving from Chicago May 2 and returning toChicago May 23. Highlights: the Museums ofEast and West Berlin, Leningrad andMoscow, and collections of ancient art inFlorence, Turin, Paris, London, and Oxford.The lecturer-guide for the tour will beEdward Brovarski, doctoral candidate inEgyptology with field experience in the NearEast.The cost of the tour from Chicago is$1,575, which includes a $100 tax-deductiblecontribution to the Orientai Institute.Membership in the tour is limited to 30persons, and Orientai Institute membership($15 per person or for husband and wife) isfequired for participation. A brochure andadditional information are available from theInstitute, 1 155 E. 58th St., Chicago 60637 orcali (312) 753-2471. Regenstein marks Midway pastAcknowledging that "no exhibition can cap-ture the full sweep of the University'sexistence," Robert Rosenthal, curator ofspecial collections at the Joseph RegensteinLibrary, introduces a new volume publishedby Regenstein and recapitulating much of alibrary exhibition of the University's past asrepresented in the archives. The book, "Onein Spirit" (William Rainey Harper said, "Thequestion before us is how to become one inspirit, not necessarily in opinion"), was puttogether by Albert Tannler of the Departmentof Special Collections.Speaking to a visiting committee at theexhibition, Barry D. Karl, professor in theDepartment of History and the College,said, "As an historian who has spent a fairamount of time in the archives of variousAmerican universities, let me say that onecelebrates something rather different whenone examines the daily working papere of aninstitution from what one celebrates when onelooks at the speeches of its president and thepublications of its faculty."The latter standard is a common one, anda real one, to be sure. It is the fundamentalmeans of measuring greatness in an institution. But from an historical piont of view itobscures as much as it reveals. One canrespect the majesty of a mountain quitedifferently if one flies in a piane over its peakrather than taking rope and ax to climb it.Institutional greatness is achieved with ropeand ax, and if the peaks sometimes seemfarther apart and higher than one thought, that, too, is part of a reality worth con-sidering. ..."The book is not a chronology, but it deals,in roughly chronological order, with twenty-two major aspects of the University's past,beginning with the Old University andincluding the development of the College andof graduate education, pioneering in thesocial sciences, and neighborhood relations.One illustratìon in Regenstein's new book isthis one ofthe collapsed west tower of HarperLibrary. The photo was made by Alan D.Whitney (phB'13) when he was a sophomoreand was presented to the University archives adecade ago. The collapse was recounted in atalk by Dean Lorna Straus digested in theJanuary/ February issue of the magazine.In that issue the wrong photo was used toillustrate her account.5FROM EBR TO LMFBRNext: the breeder reactorTo the astonishment of practically nobody,the University is involved in the solution ofthe world's energy problemsthrough its relationshipto Argonne National LaboratoryIt should not be surprising that when the United States neededto chose a long-term solution to the great electrical energyshortage on which to concentrate its effort (and money) thatthe solution would turn out to be a project in which the University has had a hand for the past twenty-five years.The important work of developing the chosen solution hasbeen done by Argonne National Laboratory which is the immediate deseendant of the Metallurgical Laboratory at theUniversity of Chicago where the first nuclear chain reactionwas produced. The University, as a prime contractor for theAtomic Energy Commission, operates Argonne.(In the University's financial reports there is inevitably afootnote to the effect that Argonne's figures are excluded; thisis done so that readers may gain an undistorted picture of thefiscal situation which is specifically the University's. To wit:the University's operating expenditures in 1972-'73 were$173,606,000; Argonne's, for which the University is respon-sible, were $96,000,000. Combined figures clearly wouldhave been misleading.)Argonne is tied to the University more closely than the merecontractual relationship would indicate. Its director, Robert G.Sachs, formerly director of the Enrico Fermi Institute, is, as ofnow, also professor in the Department of Physics and theEnrico Fermi Institute. The Argonne staff includes scores ofalumni of the University, and at various levels there is scien-tific collaboration between members of the two organizations(see story on Page 3).The Argonne project on which the nation is relying so heavily, known by its somewhat unwieldy initials, LMFBR, isthe liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor.Almost every reactor in the United States currently in commercial use creates electrical energy through the use of boilingor pressurized water. However, the LMFBR's fuel elements areimmersed in liquid sodium and it is the^efore capable ofoperation at considerably higher temperatures and is thereforemore efficient. In addition, the breeder reactor has the uniquecapacity of creating more fissionable material than it uses,(Not a totally unmitigated advantage; plutonium is dangerousto handle and hard to dispose of.)Today about 25% of energy consumed in the United Statesis in the form of electricity. By 1980, with consumption con-tinuing to increase as population and technology proliferate,that figure may be up to 37%. Of the electric energy consumed, about 5% is today generated by nuclear power. By 1980this proportion may have risen to 20%. That means that by thetime the government has established for completion of whatiscalled Project Independence, nuclear power may be supplying7% of the nation's total energy needs.^There are currently a score of nuclear generators in service,but, despite delays, more are coming into production eachyear. By 1980 there may be as many as 100. But 1980 will beonly the beginning.Ali of the current plants are converters, not breeders. Astheir number increases, so does the consumption of fissionableuranium, U235 , itself a scarce material. The advent of thebreeder will begin to reverse this process.6J:.:¦¦¦¦:.¦:¦.> » ./iT/jw photo looks down into Experimental Breeder Reactor IIbefore the tank is filled with molten sodium. The mechanismin the foreground is lowering the last fuel assembly into the IJ >icore. The rods in the center are control rod drìves. Duringoperation these mechanisms are operated by remote control,with the entire core submerged in the molten sodium.The reason for using 1980 as a watershed date in nuclearpower calculations is that that is the date the government hasset for the completion of the first demonstration model of thebreeder reactor, which produces more fissionable materialthan it uses. This doesn't mean that, as of 1980, the countrywill switch over to power from a phalanx of breeder reactors. Itstili will require a decade, more or less, to put up and activate acommercial breeder reactor. But, if the demonstration plantcan be set in operation by 1980, at least the process will beunder way.The demonstration plant, to be located at Oak Ridge,Tennessee, represents an investment of some $700,000,000.The plant is a cooperative venture. Privately owned utility com-panies and the Tennessee Valley Authority are investing$240,000,000 in the effort, and the Atomic Energy Com-mission (using government money — Le. yours and mine) isputting up the remainder.How does a breeder reactor breed? Its ability to create morefissionable material than it consumes is not "something for nothing."Typically the fuel rods in an LMFBR contain (initially) 20%plutonium dioxide and 80% uranium dioxide. The latterportion consists of relatively plentiful naturai uranium.Around the stainless steel casing of the fuel element flows theliquid metal (sodium), which cools the element by drawing offheat which is applied to water to create steam — which turns aturbine which, in turn, drives a generator.The sodium leaves the reactor at about 1,050°F. It enters aheat exchanger, where its temperature is reduced, throughcontact with another sealed system, also containing liquidsodium, to some 800°. It then goes back into the reactor to bereheated.Meanwhile the sodium in the second loop, heated to 975° bythe sodium in the reactor loop, enters the equivalent of aboiler, where it heats steam for the turbine to 900°, thenreturning to the exchanger loop to be reheated.The secondary loop is actually a safety feature of LMFBR,functioning to insure that no radioactive sodium comes in7contact with the steam used to drive the generator in the powerplant itself.The phenomenon of breedingThus does the reactor create energy. How does it breed?Surrounding the fuel elements in the core of the reactor is ablanket of "fertile material," consisting of uranium238 , whichis bombarded by neutrons given off in the process of fission inthe reactor core. Gradually these "excess" neutrons convertthe U238 into plutonium. The "excess" of neutrons whichperform this conversion is not large; a reactor which candoublé the amount of plutonium it started with in a decade isconsidered to be breeding satisfactorily.That accounts for the LM (liquid-metal-cooled) and B(breeder) in LMFBR. What does the F— "fast"— represent? Itrefers to the velocity of the neutrons in the reactor. In the converter reactors currently operating in the nuclear generators inthe U.S. the neutrons are "thermal," Le. they are moving atabout the speed of the atoms in the moderator substance(usually water) used in this type of reactor. kThermal neutrons are moving at an average speed of a mere5,000 to 10,000 miles an hour. In the breeder reactor theneutrons' velocity is in the range of 30,000,000 to 40,000,000miles an hour. In part this disparity is caused by the design ofthe reactor core; it is also partly because the liquid sodium hasless tendency to slow the neutrons than does water or any ofthe other moderating substances. Because the liquid sodiumcan be heated to higher temperatures than are possible withwater, the breeder permits greater efficiency in the use of theenergy generated in the fission process.At the, Argonne West site, on the AEC's National ReactorTesting Station in Idaho, Argonne scientists have beenworking with fast breeder reactors as power generators sincethe late 1940s (earlier work on fast reactors had been done atLos Alamos, but not directly in connection with powergeneration). The first experimental breeder reactor (EBRI)went into actual operation in 1951; it lit up four 200 watt lightbulbs, marking, as AEC puts it, the "beginning of the nuclearpower industry." On the second day of operation EBRI wasproviding ali the power for the building in which it was housed.In a short time EBRI had produced enough data to verify thehypothesis that it was actually breeding fissionable material.EBRI was followed by EBR2, also at Argonne West. At thestart, in 1963, it was used for the purposes for which it hadbeen originally designed: to demonstrate the breeder principlein a power-producing reactor and also to test and demonstratea new reprocessing method for fast reactor fuel. Later it wasconverted to serve as an irradiation reactor for developingLMFBR fuels with greatly increased performance. Also, since1964, it has fed electricity into the Idaho power grid duringoperation, though its main function is stili that of a develop-ment facility. Much of the work of Argonne's scientists is directly relatedto the breeder reactor, but they have also been occupied byresearch and development activities in many other energy.related areas, some of them stemming directly from the prob.lems of nuclear energy, but others less directly related, and stiliothers seemingly far afield.Large amounts of eff ort, for instance, have gone into healthand safety aspects of producing and using nuclear power, andthe Laboratory has also been at work evaluating the envi-ronmental effects of nuclear power generation.Another field in which the Laboratory has been active is alogistical energy matter: the Storage of electric power. This isintimately related to the nuclear power plant because of thecyclic pattern of demand for electricity. Here Argonne scientists and engineers have come up with a high temperatureStorage battery using lithium and sulfur. It has six to seventimes as much energy Storage capacity as the conventionallead-acid battery of comparable size and weight.If this battery were used, for example, to store electricity forpeak periods in a building the size of the John Hancock Centerin Chicago, whose consumption level fluctuates betweentwenty-five and forty megawatts, it could make use of ahundred-megawatt Storage bank fifty by fifty feet andapproximately five feet high. This unit, located in the building,would be subject to drain in peak periods, and would then berecharged in off-peak periods.A by-product of this eff ort in the field of energy Storage hasbeen the development of a battery (as long as batteries arebeing developed, what else can be done with them?) whichcould power a medium-size car. Calculations indicate that this600-pound battery could move a car 150 miles at fifty miles anhour before requiring a recharge.Because of the time scale involved in the development ofreactors, including the breeder, Argonne has felt it necessary1to devote some of its research efforts to the achievement ofmore efficient use of existing sources of energy. It is, forexample, developing a non-polluting method of burning high-sulfur coal.Using a "fluidized bed" method of combustion, researchershave been able to eliminate 90% of air pollution, whileincreasing the energy output efficiency of the soft coal. In thissystem, the coal is pulverized and fed into the combustionchamber with pulverized limestone (in the chamber the com-bustibles, in powder form, behave like a liquid; hence the terni"fluidized"). The combination is burned at 1,500°F., heatingawater coil and ejecting calcium sulfate, rather than the sulfurparticulate matter which messes up the environment."Fluidized bed" burning is, of course, only one of a numberof methods being worked on in various laboratories **Argonne and elsewhere to enable the country to make use of $enormous coal reserves without contaminating the atflios*phere. Which of these methods, which also include gasifiG^tion of coal and the conversion of coal to methane gas $8Control a arod drivemechanism — ?Ont']ControlrodFuelregionBlanketSodiummethyl alcohol, will turn out tobe the "chosen instrument" —or which combination ofthem — remains to be seen.And since utilization of coalis certain to involve theexpansion of strip mining,Argonne has also been study-ing the restoration of strip-mined land, just as it has beenstudying the thermal effects onLake Michigan and otherbodies of water caused by thedischarge of warm water afterits use in cooling a reactor.(The results are not yet in fromthe latter studies, but indica-tions so far are that "thermalpollution" has been overratedas a perii to fish.)Far in the future (at leastsomewhere beyond the year2000) is that will-o'-the-wispknown as fusion, which isexpected to be a far bettersolution to the world's energyproblems than either the burning of fossil fuels or energygeneration by means of nuclear fission, as used in both present(converter) and future (breeder) reactors. In this process offusion, atoms of hydrogen — an element in virtually unlimitedsupply — are combined to form heavier elements, and energy isreleased in the process.Argonne scientists have developed a superconductingmagnet which is expected to be an important element in thedevelopment of fusion reactor technology, and the Lab hasbeen named a service science center in the thermonuclear(fusion) power project.Today's energy crisis would have become a crisis without theArabian oil embargo. At a seminar held on campus in the fallof 1972 to mark the thirtieth anniversary of the world's firstsustained nuclear reaction under the erstwhile West Stand atStagg Field, representatives of the oil, gas, electricity andbanking industries, the Atomic Energy Commission, Argonne,the Congress and the University met and discussed the comingproblems, which even then were painfully apparent.Last month, summing up the situation in positive terms —at least for the long run — Mr. Sachs said: "Argonne has beenlong at the f orefront of energy research and development. Theprogression from the first nuclear chain reacting pile to thesophistication of EBR2 in less than twenty-five years isdramatic evidence of Argonne's capabilities. We are con-tinuing to apply our ingenuity to the further developmentof the LMFBR concept while also pursuing vigorously other 900° F• SteamSteamgeneratorReactorloop Intermediateloop ¦*- WaterPower-generationloopThe diagrams above and below indicate the operation of,respectively, the liquid- metal- cooled fast breeder reactor and apressurized water reactor.SteamSteam generatorWaterenergy research which will ensure plentiful and clean energysystems for the future."9Is this an objLeo RostenMRS. HERMAN P. KLITCHER210 Placebo ParkEuphoriaIllinois 60035January2, 1974Dear Cher Leo —Since you have been a true-blue friend in need (sometimes),I will ask you a little favor that won't take up more than 1-2minutes of your time (and don't think for 1 sec I am the last torecognize how valuabel that must really be!! Pas moi,monsieuf!)I want your honest opinion of my daughter "Baby" as anArt Talent! (She is Hermie's daughter, alsò, of course, but it'snaturai for a mother to say things like "my home" or "mychina pattern" or even "my son" when in fact they are ownedin common with a hubby or wife as the case may be.)"Baby" (that is Hortense's nick-name) is only 12, but hasalways been precotious, especialy in regards crayoning, fingerpainting, colors, etc. even in her nursery school days! So I en-close a beautif ull drawing she has made, for you to have some-thing to go by. It is a "portrait" of Alvin, her brother, and itwas done without any hints or coxing on his or my part what-so-ever.The accompanying exchange ofletters is excerptedfrom a newbook by Leo Rosten (pIib'30, pAd'37). The book is "DearHerm" (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1974. Copyright 1974, LeoRosten). Alumni who recali his Hyman Kaplan stories in the'30s will recognize an analog if not a consanguinity. Betweenthese two works he wrote, among others, Captain Newman,M.D., The Joys of Yiddish, and A Treasury of JewishQuotations. A portion of the last of these appeared in thispublications November/December, 1972 issue. et d'art?I think "Baby" has the possible makings of a real artiste. Doyou not?! In your opinion, is this an object de arts?Please do not teli Hermie I am writing— because his nose isout of the joint, f earing I will send Hortense to Art School afterclasses, which means extra tuition, of which he complains hepays enough already to feed 1,000 hungry children in Indiana.With beaucoup thanks before I get your repìy,Toujours yours,Florence ("Fio") K.P.S. I enclose the picture "Baby" drew of Alvin. Please returnit after enjoying.LEO ROSTENConnoisseur: Fine Arts and Fines Herbs149 Beret BoulevardLeft BankParis, FranceJanuary8Dear "Fio"—It took but a cursory examination of the drawing you sent(which I am happy to return) for me to conclude, reluctantly,that Hortense does not have the makings of a real artist. Ithink she has the makings of a real ornithologist.Frankly, Fio, I have rarely seen a more sensitive rendition ofthe Andalusian Thatched Warbler. Of course (I hope you willtake this in the right spirit) if — and I stress the "rj" — Alvinhappens to resemble an Andalusian Thatched Warbler (whichis nothing to scoff at; after ali, Einstein resembled a FrenchPoodle) then I will be the first to say that "Baby" has themakings of a superb portrait painter. In order to do this, ofcourse, I would have to compare her drawing of Alvin to aphotograph (of Alvin).10But you had better wait with that, Fio, because I am justleaving for the Olduvai Gorge. I want to see what is so newabout it.Yours,LeoFROM THE DESK OFHERMAN P. KLITCHERJanuary 14Dear Leo:You really upset "Fio" (and me, too, Mac) by using suchswearing language in your epistle as "cursory".There was no reason to use Oats in front of a Lady!Please explain your lack of being sensitive to a woman'sfiner feelings."Herm"LEO ROSTENCorrespondent with Furniture48 Roller Drawer Ave.Sheboygan, Mimi.January 20Dear Desk:Please extend my heartfelt apologies to Fio. Assure her that"cursory" does not come from "cursing" and has nothingwhatsoever to do with oaths."Cursory" comes from the Hindu word "curry" and theNepalese "sory." The combination of "curry" (a Hindu condi-ment) and "sory" (a Nepalese sponge) is one of the finest com-pliments a man can pay a virgin in the Middle East.Your pai,Leo FROM THE DESK OFHERMAN P. KLITCHERJanuary 24Dear Leo —Fio and me have produced 4 children, so how the h— can shebe a virgin??!"Herm"From the desk of Leo RostenJanuary 27Dear Desk:I was talking about "Baby."LeoFROM THE DESK OFHERMAN P. KLITCHERJanuary 30Dear Leo —O I see. You are right. "Baby" certainly is "cursory."HermP.S. I wish I could say the same of Penelope. "Penny" has beendating a new string pf male pistols, and they make her formerboy-friends look like "Goody-2 Shoes." Some of them wearbeards and Apache head-ake bands and they look like f ujitivesfrom a chain (smoking) gang! I will not let my-self speculate ònwhat they are smoking, but I sure know what they mean thesedays when they say some-one is "freaking out" or on a "trip."They are ali freaks, and they never take a vacation, being onthat ali year around.Ce-ripes, Leo, "going to pot" isnt what we used to meanback on the old West Side.H.11BACKTALK FROM ABROADJoseph J. SchwabI have three lectures to give you — not one. So I must talk fast.The first lecture is about why my title is 80% wrong.The second is about the liberal education I would wish foryou and why you won't get some of it at the University.The third lecture will catalog a few items of meta-education.Meta-education consists of things you can learn, but which noinstitution — least of ali an educational institution — can hopeto teach on purpose.FIRST LECTUREMy advertised title is, "Backtalk from Abroad." The title iswrong. It is not from abroad. And the ^backtalk, the sass, willbe minimal.It is not from abroad, because no one who ever was amember of this collegiality, this University of Chicago, everleaves it.He takes it with him. He takes it with him in two senses andin two vessels.Look at the two senses first.He takes it with him in the solipsistic sense. Wherever he is,he keeps feeling like a member of the collegium; he keepsfeeling the kinds of impulses this place engenders andresponds to.But he takes it with him publicly as well as solipsistically.Other people note his odd, Chicago habits. One witness said,with anger: "When two of you people from Chicago gettogether, there' s no room for people from other places; wecan't figure out what you are doing." Another witness said,with a kind of hunger: "You people from Chicago have somehabits I wish I had. You talk together."These witnesses to the Chicago habit already suggest theother half of the Chicago story: That we take it away with us inOne of the talks given on campus following the Harper-Wieboldt rededication ceremonies at the end of last year wasthis one, by Joseph Schwab (phB'30, sm'36, Fhv'38), one ofthe best known and most highly regarded of faculty membersto generations of students — twice accorded the Quantrellawardfor his teaching. His teaching at Chicago began in 1934and continued, with a one-year interruption back in the '30s,until last year, when he left tojoin the Center for the Study ofDemocratic Institutions in Santa Barbara. two receptacles, not one.We take it away in our hearts, of course. We doubtless hadcolleagues who bored us to death. We had a few others wefeared as rascals. We may have worked under at least onechairman we thought a fool and one dean with the mannersand self image of a Richard Nixon.But for every bore, there were five who excited, informed,and urged us to thought. For every rascal, there was a nearlyselfless one, and ten more whose ambitions and maneuveringswere under excellent control. For every ugly dean and chairman, there was at least a half of one who was excellent indeed.So we keep on feeling that the collegium at Chicagoafforded us some of the best years of our life.But most alumni of most institutions take their alma matersaway in their hearts — or mistake nostalgia for gone youth asmemory of a place. What distinguishes Chicago is that itpenetrates the brain barrier as well — as do few drugs andfewer institutions. Its alumni take it away in their heads, ashabits of mind.I will tease out three such habits as the stigmata of Chicago:1. When another speaks, we respond to his point, not ourown.2. We take it that his point lies, not in his conclusion, but inhis problem and in the terms with which he takes hold of it.3. We respond by pursuing his problem. We pursue it firstin his terms. We pursue it second in related terms. We pursueit third by suggesting, and pursuing with him, relatedproblems.In brief , we do not debate but discuss. We join an inquiry.The goal is a closer approximation of the truth, not Browniepoints.END OF FIRST LECTURESECOND LECTUREAbout the liberal education I would wish for you and whyyou won't get some of it, even at this university.There are many terms with which, taken one at a time, onecan think badly about the problem of liberal education,generate questionable alternative solutions to the problem andselect among them. I shall name each of a set of four and illustrate each by one of its typical corruptions.One can think about education in terms of subject matte**12What departments of knowledge are there? What groupings ofthese departments? What subfields in each? What is thecontent of each? How and to what extent can the bits com-posing it be simplified, trimmed and fitted into the availabletime? Which bits are the most important bits? If we are lucky,the last question becomes, "Which bits are most important oruseful to students?" Usually, however, "most important" goesunqualified because everybody who is anybody knows that itmeans what the professor finds most important to him.The corruption of this way of thinking about the liberalcurriculum is the survey course. We had one once at the University of Chicago. It ran an academic year; it was called, "TheNature of the World and of Man." The measure of its corruption is the fact that it sent most of its students away believingthat they knew the nature of the world and man.Alternatively, one can think about the curriculum in termsof the nation, the polity, the society: its problems, needs andcharacter. This sort of thinking runs in either of two contrarydirections. In one direction, it goes like this: What are thepresent manpower needs of the nation? What values andattitudes will best strengthen the strength of those currentlyin power? What subject matters, how treated, will most effec-tively internalize these attitudes and seduce the young intoengineering, business, chemistry or hamburger franchising, orwhatever else Washington statistics show to be needed?The corruption of this is best seen in the regional statecollege campus, with its quick rush of students into vocationaltraining and its apparatus of regulations, petty administrators,tests and grading systems, clubs, athletics and visiting jobrecruiters to teach students how to detect expectations and liveup to them. It is most obvious in the regional state college, butits presence is felt, as well, in the Berkeleys and Centercampuses across the nation.//In the other direction, thinking about curriculum in termsof national need runs like this: What are the unsolvedproblems of our day — the environment, the energy shortage,urban detérioration, industriai exploitation of men, racism,what will make democracy safe from the Presidency? With theproblems named, the thinking turns to solutions. What oughtwe to fight against to save the environment? Who are the evilmen responsible for the energy shortage and the proliferationof dangerous atomic energy plants? What must we do to forcesomebody to pay attention to solar energy as our one truesource? How can we deprofessionalize law and medicine? Howreorganize the union leadership now hand-in-glove withmanagement?The corruption of this is the College of Zealotry. Pockets ofit can be found, in departments of politicai science, history,biology and English literature, in practicalty any university. ///So much for two of the set of four terms. We can also thinkbadly about education in terms of the student. This thinkingbegins with deceptive simplicity. We ask: What are his needs,privations, prior miseducations, which we must serve, supplyor correct? Then it gets complicated. For, to identify needs,privations and vices, we require norms, and well-espoused, incomplete norms assert themselves at us from a dozendirections. There are psychological theories of humandevelopment, each with its own set of phases and stages. Thereare amateur philosophies of the nature of man. There areviews of the good citizen. There stili remain, in a few cases,firm ideas about the proper behavior and manner of the betterclasses — though the middle-middle-middle turns out to be thebetter in most instances.This embarrassment of riches leaves us, oddly enough, withonly two choices: To pick the locally most-favored norm or topick no norm at ali. The typical corruption of the former canbe found in the dwindling roster of "select" small collegeswhich stili exist here and there. The corruption of the latter —of picking no norm at ali — is ali over the place. It consists ofthe free elective system or its thinly disguised identical twin,the distribution requirement.IVNow for the fourth and last term: the teacher. Thinkingeducation in terms of the teacher is simplicity itself . We needask only one of two questions and get it answered by informaiquestionnaire: "What can we ask of the faculty which willannoy them least?" Or, "What can we cajole from faculty byappeal to their interest in their status and livelihood?" There isno corruption of this mode of educational thought, for it is,itself, a corruption. It can be found wherever administratorsare timorous or weak — and that is a lot of places.Now stop listening f orward for a moment and turn reflexive.Look back at what I have done. I began by claiming that Iwould talk about the liberal education I wish for you. But I didnot. Instead, I talked about how to talk about education(actually, by way of parody — how not to).There is a pretentious name for talk about talk which someof you know. It is called "second intension." A degree of talkin the second intension is what separates the sheep from thegoats, a great university from a merely good one. For thoughtin the second intension is thought about what and how one isworking and how the work can be improved. Are dynaniicalequations really applicable to human history? Is reduction ofbiology to physico-chemical systems the only right way to studythe live thing or only a fashionable way? Is something lostwhen we try for an all-embracing systems theory? Is a freemarket model the only model which will get us into heaven?But a passion for second intension, for f orever talking about13how to do it instead of doing it, is one of the two curses ofacademia and a special threat to certain desirable parts of aliberal education. We shall return to this point soon.Catalog of competencesNow let us resumé — and in the first intension: indeed teliyou what liberal education I wish for you. I shall merely teli,not argue or defend, and teli by a catalog of the competences Ihope you will get. I ask only that you believe that the wishesarise from thinking about the problem — not in some one ofour four terms, but with ali, in their multiplex connection.I wish for you, first, certain competences which better menbefore me have called Arts of Access. These are the arts bywhich we know what questions to ask of a work — a scientificpaper, a novel, a lecture, a lithograph, a sonata, a cinema —and the arts by which to find the answers: the arts, in short, bywhich we gain access to sources of sense and sensibility andmake them our own. There are five such arts I hope for you.I hope you will gain access to ats least one system ofmathematics or one well-theorized facet of physics. I wish thisfor you for no short-term usefulness it will have, nor evenmiddle-term, but in order that you will undergo, at least once,an experience of elegance, so that you will have known at leastonce what elegance is and thereafter remember with satis-faction what it feels like to look on elegance.I hope you will gain access to sources of biologicalknowledge, but not just any biological knowledge and not,heaven knows, for the sake of elegance, but for the sake ofcertain short, middle and long-term usefulnesses. I want foryou access to the biological knowledge which pertains immedi-ately to the body you live in and with. I want you to know whatmiracles that ugly, big organ, the liver, performs by way ofprotecting you against your own stupidities, against thestupidity of physicians who practice from one fat book calledthe PDR, and from the cupidities of pharmaceutical corpo-rations. I want you to be able to know what we will continue tolearn about our gut and the needs of our cells, so that you willbe no sucker for the regimenal and dietary fads which drifteastward from Southern California.There will be new knowledge of the chemistry and behaviorof our nervous organization which will help you live with yourshifts of mood and impulse and waste less of your substanceon fears and foolish therapies. I want you to be able to learnwhat the world around you contributes to your sickness andhealth and how similarities and differences link thegenerations. Let that suffice to suggest what access to biology Iwish for you.I wish you access to the continuing discoveries of the socialsciences, so that you will know better how to be beneighboredand how to protect your privacy against your neighbors; how toshare in determining your own destiny; what evils and benefitsyour own culture affords by contrast to other cultures, and how you may contribute to improvement of your own; how yo^can serve the politicai community on which your life dependsand how you can make it serve you — no merely neutral socialsciences these. Especially I wish for you the criticai powers bywhich to distinguish the cheap in the social sciences, of whichthere is plenty — the pop psychology, economics and politicswhich arise from the cupidity of self-styled experts and the popsociology which arises from mediocre professors and ignorantjournalists.Abpve ali, I wish for you access to two fine arts. One of themmust be a fine art of the word: the novel, the drama, the lyricpoem. By prejudice, I prefer that it be the novel, not onlybecause it is one of the richest and most rewarding (and newsof its imminent demise is premature), but because you cankeep it in the house, have access to it in bed and while sittingon the John. Perhaps, when the videotape cassette is perfected,this advantage of the novel will disappear and drama too canbe kept in the house.The other fine art access should be to an art which caresses asingle sense. With the aid of imagination, the fine art of theword has access to ali the senses (with the possible exception oftaste and smeli), but direct caressing of one sense by an art hasa compelling value of its own. Let the other access, then, be tomusic or a plastic art.These doorways, these accesses, I think you will get at theUniversity of Chicago — even access to a one-sense-caressingfine art.The second thing I wish for you is a craft. I don't care whatcraft: the modifying of a piece of Detroit iron; refinishing ofold furniture; the merry craft of making a garden grow;playing cello in a neighborhood quartet or sculpting with ablowtorch. The only thing that matters is that the wisdom shalllie in God's second-best invention- — your hands.Will you get that here at the University? Perhaps. Univer-sities are not for crafts. They aren't against them, either, andmoney exists for extra-curriculum.I wish you, too, some skill in the art of communication, ofspeaking and writing (listening and reading) with clarity anddistinction. No more need be said of that art. It has defendersand explicators by the thousands. (I hasten to add, however,that there are dozens on this faculty who could benefit fromthe merest elements of it.)My fourth wish for you (Fear not: I shan't exhaust theordinai digits) is that you have one experience of sustainedinquiry: a small piece of scientific research; the study of somepersons ot community; of some events or conditions of thepast; of some philosophic issue or of a major piece of fine art. Iwish this for you for one main reason. Few of us realize thegreat magnitude of most problems. We tend to take them, im-patiently, to be as easily solved as the solution is to state. It isonly when we try to solve a relatively simple one that we cometo know how big and difficult they are.My f ifth wish for you stems from a weakness in the arts ofaccess. They are specialized arts, in the domain of a special-14ized department or division. They can convey to you, there-f ore, the illusion that subjects of access and inquiry are indeedthe naturai segments of the world— individuai and society,living and non-living, fact and value, art and nature, fictionand fact. Moreóver, we may adopt from chance reading, or,worse, discipleship, a doctrinaire notion of the relations amongthe disciplines: that societies arise to fulfil human needs andpropensities; that a humàn's apparent heeds and values areentirely imposed by his culture and society; that the livingorganism is a mere suiti of its physico-chemical parts; thatsciences progress in consequence of their inner logie, or assubsystems entirely at the mercy of their economie, social andcultural surrounding.The dangers of such naivetes point to the need for someacquàintance with the many different ways in which disciplines can be related to one another. But how many on thefaculty are prejpared to convey sùch matters — are themselvesuritainted by the chauvinism of a particular doctrine?Now my last wish. I wish for you a beginning mastery of thearts of the practical. Since these arts are alien, indeedthreatening, to the academìc (apart from its professionalschools), some words of explanation are in order.The arts of the practical are numeròus but group conveniente into three. The first group I cali Arts of Eclectic; theyconcern use of organized sources of information. Practicalproblems arise from complex transactions among men andthings, a web of transactions which knows nothing of theboundaries which separate economics from sociology orpolitics from physical science; Yet, our fullest knowledge ofthe constituents of this web lies in economics, politics,sociology, physics and other organized fields of knowledge.To compound this difficulty, each such science readies itssubject of inquiry by separating it from the whole of the worldand conferring on its selected part an appeaf ance of wholenessand unity. These separations and smoothings of subjectsreadied for inquiry are reflected in the bodies of knowledgewhich emerge from the inquiries. Each of them is couched inits own terms, and only a few terms of each (if any) haveconnections with the terms of another science.Bridges among the sciencesThe incongruence of practical problems and bodies ofknowledge requires that we relate the relevant sciences to oneanother. The incongruence of the terms employed by thevarious sciences forbids a theoretical, that is, a neatly ordered,unification, except in exceedingly rare instances. What is re-quired is a practical healing of the breaches among thesciences — a recourse to tentative and temporary bridges builtin the light of the practical problem under consideration andin a way appropriately specific to that practical problem. Thebuilding of such bridges is the business of one subgroup of the Arts of Eclectic.To the second group of practical arts I give a traditionalname: the Arts of Deliberation. The need for arts of delibera-tion arises from the fact that academic knowledge is generalknowledge. It is achieved by processes of abstraction andidealization, by search for uniformities and discard of thegrossly variable.The very fabric of the practical, on the other hand, consistsof the numeròus and varied particulars from which theoryabstraets only its chosen few. Solution of practical problemsrequires, theri, that we recognize and take account of thoseparticulars which would otherwise go ignored.There are additional Arts of Deliberation. There are arts ofproblemation through which we assign various méanings toperceiveii detail of a situation in order to shape differentformulations of "the" problem. There are arts for weighingalternative formulations of the problem. There are arts forgenerating alternative solutions to the problem, for tracingalternative àctions to their consequences, including those sub-jective consequences which consist of how well we like them, ifat ali. There are arts for weighing and choosing alternativésand arts for appropriately terminating deliberation in theinterest of action.The third group of practical arts is composed of the arts ofpersuadirig and being persuaded; the arts of being an effectivemember of a committee; the arts of making a committee work.It includes, as well, the arts of collaboration toward proximategoals on the part of men whose ultimate goals may differ.Will you receive a beginning competence in these practicalarts? I fear not, even though a program now exists which iscalled "The Art of the Practical." I fear that you will not because the practical runs counter to two pervasive qualities of auniversity— a passion for coherence and order and the passionfor second intension.The search for coherence and order is the main business of auniversity, hence its passion for them is understandable. Butthe practical is non-coherent and unordered. There are fewneat rules for controlling practical inquiry. There are nocanons of relevant fact and treatment of fact, except thosewhich arise anew with each new problem. There is no measureof an adequate solution to a practical problem, nor any meansof knowing clearly when a practical inquiry is completed. Canlovers of coherence and order tolerate long the absence of theirbeloveds?1 think not. I think that you may learn much about thenumeròus ways in which rhetoric has been defined, but getlittle practice indeed in the arts of persuasion. I think you maylearn much of various conceptions of deliberation but havelittle d|)portunity to deliberate about an actual (or even asimulated) concrete and particular problem. You may learnmuch about modes of relating disciplines to one another buthavè little occasion for joining, say, social psychology andjurisprudence in solving, for example, the practical problem ofa better substitute for the paramilitary organization of police.15competence to get a passing grade in, that toughest of acourses in character-education: monogamy prò vita — stayinfmarried to one woman (or man, as the case may be) for a sustantial duration. In no other way can men learn to see thenvselves (and others) and alter themselves (and another) in thethings worth learning which no educational institution can ways required to make intimacy with one's self and anotteach. It will take less than two minutes. possible, durable, and rewarding.I hope that you will have the guts to pass through, and the I hope that your meta-education will convey sharneie •I hope, of course, that my fears are misplaced.END OF SECOND LECTURETHIRD LECTUREThe third lecture concerns meta-education. It lists a few'What we wanted were people who could use their heads'Newest of the alumni cluhs scattered across the country isthe club in Santa Barbara, California, which held its firstmeeting, with an attendance of eighty-five, last December.One reason for the club's success fui launch was the factthat, since Santa Barbara is the site of the Center for theStudy of Democratic Institutions, the club organizing committee, led by Henry C. Goppelt (ab '5/), was in a handylocation to request the services of Robert M. Hutchins,former president ofthe University and retirìng chairman ofthe Center, and Joseph Schwab, veteran faculty member atChicago, now at the Center, as participants in a discus-sion of education.hutchins: An intellectual community in principle shouldbe one in which everybody in it is better intellectually, because he is in it, than he would be if he were operating onhis own. And ali the program at the University of Chicagoconsisted of then was trying to discover what education was,how it could be communicated, how you could make senseof its various units. Because of the depression, and becauseof the extraordinary board of trustees with which we wereMr. Hutchins chats with Mr. Schwab. At righi is Brownlee W.Haydon (ab '35), one of the Santa Barbara alumni group. accidentally favored, we were able to take a new look-don't say that the new look always resulted in better resultathan the old; but at least we did have a chance. And wlavailed ourselves of it as best we could.schwab: I got a criticism of universities the other day wh»cI didn't feel in the mood to answer. But I suspect that «one of the stereotyped criticisms, and I'd like to hazard a»1answer to it here, as if one of you had made it, and theninvite Mr. Hutchins to criticize my answer. The criticisnwas: Universities are not doing their job. They are n°teaching the correct morality to the young. And the proof °this is their behavior in the '60s.Much of the absurdity of this lies, I think, in the fact thathe people who were raising the hell in the '60s were °course just beginning students, and not the produets °their university but of their homes, their high schools, the»1neighborhoods — and their fathers' Cadillacs, maybe.Apart from that there was, it seemed to me, a compiefailure to realize what constitutes morals. It is true tha^moral problems are usually so urgent and so complex thawe need to have built into us an apparatus which will prvide ready answers. And for that reason the function of thhome, and perhaps the function of early schooling, oughtbe to provide the prevailing morality.But somewhere along the line what is morality f°r 4 ,Cchild ceases to be moral for the adult, because moralitypurposive activity, not habituated activity. It is doing w"8you have chosen to do in the light of reason, and becaus*-you have chosen it. Somewhere along the line, we have tvery difficult problem of going into a student's celi, so asprovide him with the competence both to examine whathas been habituated to — and to alter what he has beehabituated to in the light of his examination — and at tsame time not lose complete hold of that which he was »ndoctrinated to, and which constitutes his common Arr»ercan polity-ism, or community. ,Consequently, in universities, you don't instil a bodymoral precepts; you teach man to think about what precepare indeed moral.16readiness to confess ignorance in order to ask questions.I hope that in a life full of prudence it will let you retain acapacity to damn the consequences on those rare, important^casions when rascality requires that you damn rascality. Inthat way you will not bore your friends with excess ofc°nformity, or of righteous indignation, as well as save your0*n soul.I hope your meta-education will give you zest for ali the"Utchins: This, of course, is a very fundamental American^isconception insofar as Americans think of education asai»ything beyond the acquisition of certificates, diplomas,and degrees. . .ScHwab: And information.Hutchins: Well this is it. It's either the business of ac-quiring the degrees, certificates, and diplomas, which areu«eful economically and socially— you can always throw oneat a personnel officer and get some kind of job; or, ifWricans have any other conception of education, it is that!' 'S information, and that this information has to be correctlnformation.\ think the kind of program that was developed atChicago was one in which we decided that what we wantedWe»"e people who could use their heads, who could face newProblems, who could play a role as citizens, no matter what'{^community might turn out to be. It was for this reason'"at we placed so much emphasis on discussion, because we^anted to make sure that ali respectable and even someUnrespectable points of view were considered, that thest"dent learn how to make a judgment on the issues that^ere presented, which are often really issues of life anddeath.r- Schwab responds energetically to a question following theScussion. pleasures a healthy body affords — from your cerebral cortex toyour toes, and ali between.END OF THIRD LECTUREEPILOGUEThe three little lectures bear certain relations to oneanother. One of these relations has a hearing on teaching andlearning. It arises from a discovery reported by Wayne Boothin his Rhetoric of Fiction. Wayne points to a shadowy figurewhich can be detected in most novels standing between the realauthor and his more substantial creatures. It is the shadowyfigure who tells us who wears the white hats, who the black.Wayne calls him the "implied author."The idea of an implied author readily suggests a counter-poise: the implied audience. It is this notion of a distinct,implied audience which relates the three little lectures. Eachlecture addresses a different audience.The first lecture, about educators, their habits and lack ofthem, is addressed to members of the faculty (". . . we keep onfeeling that the collegium at Chicago afforded us some of thebest years of our lives"). It is addressed to faculty, but studentsin the actual audience are clearly invited to listen through thekeyhole. Thus students can hear one teacher address anotherabout teachers and learn from that keyhole listening, notmerely what the speaking teacher has to say, but learn, too,from what a teacher chooses to say to teachers. He, thestudent, stands in a specially privileged position with respect tothe conversation.The second lecture (about my ideal of an education) is addressed to students (". . . the liberal education I would wish foryou"). It is addressed to students but faculty members in theactual audience are clearly invited to listen at the keyhole.Thus I am enabled to say things which, otherwise, I could notsay. 1 can pretend to be unaware of the faculty at the keyhole,thus able to accuse faculty of certain sins. Were my impliedaudience otherwise — were it faculty members themselves —I would be too shy to state some of the sins I assert and facultymembers would have felt and shown even more umbrage thanthat which I noted on the faces of some. Thus by not beingaddressed directly, faculty are freed to hear to a degree and ina way they could not have heard had I spoken directly to them.The third lecture is addressed to ali, and to ali withoutthought of their student- or teacher-hood; in brief it is addressed to friends (". . . give you zest for ali the pleasures."). By couching it thus and as a well-wishing, I am enabledio phrase a few of my wilder thoughts and speak of a matter ortwo which He dose to my heart, actions I could not undertakewere my audience so formally conceived as just audiences ofstudents or members of a faculty.I remark on these matters of who speaks to whom and whomay listen, because they have something to say about how welearn and how we might teach, if we gave as much thought toteaching as we give to constructing discourse for ourprofessional peers.17Tk ree poemsnby Rebecca A, RobertsEven now,Before,I would have goneto a flowerand asked for its opinion,over and over with each petalorto a treeand carved upon its skin the propositionorto an appièand twisted its arm till it shouted the answer.Bui—flowers are not born in Novemberapples are not in season;my scar will fade —as do initialsbledfrom a tree. I can stili seetrees thererunning inforests of thick greensand browns,breaking clouds apart on theirbranches;roadssmooth and windingin shelves along mountain walk;riverstwistingfor the pleasure of white speedand power;and glimpsethe evening sunsetstossed casuallyover shoulders of mountainslike afterthoughts of color;here,as I watch the sky at dusk,its sunsetthe limited blush ofayounggirlNow I know for certainpart of my hearthas drifted away:it rests above trees and rivers there,as another piece ofbroken cloud.IliMiss Roberts is afreshman at theUniversity. Last year she wonScholastic Magazine's top honorfor student verse. Her home is inAiken, S.C. 0 God,I thank youforbutteredslices of sunlightandthe toast ed airwarming me.18Character-building? NoA three-letter word for 'sport'Lowell PaulI would like to discuss briefly some aspects of sport in thiscountry which I find disturbing, and to suggest some changeswhich I feel would be beneficiai. Before I become morespecific, however, I would like to set forth a couple of premisesconcerning the nature of sport which form the basis for a lot ofmy opinions. I intend merely to state them, not to justify orrationalize them. The first premise is, quite simply, that sportis an activity which is at bottom intrinsically valuable. JoseOrtega y Gasset, in considering the origin and nature of sportin his essay "Meditations on Hunting," expresses it this way:. . . Sport is the eff ort which is carried out for the pleasure that itgives in itself and not for the transitory result that the effortbrings forth. It follows that when an activity becomes a sport,whatever that activity may be, the hierarchy of its values becomesinverted.In other words, in response to the question of why oneengages in sport, it is a legitimate answer simply to say: "Forthe fun of it."The second premise, which is actually a corollary of the first,is that, if the basic value of sport lies in the actual doing of itand not in the extrinsic results which it may produce, thensport should be participant-oriented and not spectator-oriented. When people would not only rather watch than play,but are furthermore able to exert control and influence overthose who do actively take part, then something has gone badlywrong.If you agree with these two premises, I suspect you're in aminority of Americans, or at least a very silent majority. Peoplemay pay lip service to the notion of finding pleasure and joy insport, but what most of them really mean by that is: "Lookhow much fun it is to win." Once the organizers get ahold ofsport — by junior high school at the latest, if you've somehowmanaged to miss Little League baseball — the word "fun" quickly falls into disuse. From then on it's work work workand win win win.Nobody asks the athletes themselves what they want to do orAfter getting his degree Mr.Paul (jd'70) spent nearly threeyears in Germany as part oftheforeign law program. For thepast year he has been workingin Topeka for VISTA. Despitethe traveling involved, he is anactive member of the University of Chicago Track Club,and is a member of the UCTCindoor and outdoor two-milerelay teams which are holdersof the world records in theirrespective events. He is a three-time winner of the Charles K.McNeil (pAb '25) award, givento the club's outstandingathlete ofthe year. His article isadapted from the talk he gaveat last year's UCTC annualdinner. In this photo Mr. Paulbreaks the tape after runninganchor (1:49.4) for the UCTCtwo-mile relay team as it won,for the second year in a row, theOlympic Torch 3,200-meterrun in Madison Square Garden. The team's meet recordtime: 7:27.8. Mr. Paul isrunning this year withoutbeard.19how they want to do it. A classic statement of this philosophy isto be found in a speech giveri by Max Rafferty to the California State Conference of Athletic Directors in 1969:There are two great national institutions which simply cannottolerate either internai dissension or external interference: ourarmed forces, and our interscholastic sports program. Both areof necessity benevolent dictatorships because by their very naturethey cannot be otherwise. A combat squad which has to sit downand poli its members bef ore it reacts to an emergency has had it,and so has a football team which lets its opponents teli it whomto start in next Saturday's game.This hard-nosed approach to organized sport has a numberof consequences, most of them bad, in my opinion. One ofthem is that this emphasis on winning, on competence on theplaying field, leads to a ruthless selection process at ali levelsof sport. Only those athletes survive who are able to pass thetest of competence, and this test becomes increasingly rigorousat each succeeding level, until there are very few survivors re-maining. Those who fall by the wayside are, for the most part,left to He there. They will get no f urther help or encouragementfrom organized sport.And they will always remember that they were not goodenough to play. It has never ceased to amaze me how manypeople, when the topic of conversation turns to sports, as itinevitably does when someone catches sight of one of mywristwatches, will say, almost apologetically: "Yes, I used to dosuch and such — run, play football, basketball, etc. — but Iwasn't ever any good." — as if that were the whole point ofsport. The result is that most people, once they have f ailed thetest of competence, cease to actively engagé in sport, which becomes, in a strange and perverse sense, a privilege instead of aright.The ultimate consequence of this is that sport ceases to beoriented toward encouraging widespread participation. Instead, the actual participants become fewer and fewer at eachlevel — levels which for the most part correspond to age — andeveryone else finds himself on the sidelines. Unfortunately,and a bit surprisingly, most Americans have passively acceptedthis judgment, and, partly as a result, we are fast becoming anation of spectators. (I say surprisingly because we pride our-selves so on being a nation of rugged individualists and do-it-yourself ers.)I'm not trying to say that watching is necessarily bad, onlythat it should not become a substitute for doing, and that whenpeople confine their sporting activities to jumping up anddown in joy or rage, pounding their heroes on the back, orrunning between the refrigerator and the TV set, then I thinkwe're in trouble. I think furthermore that this athletic voyeurismi bodes ili not only for the state of sport but for the state of society as well. As two Englishmen, Philip Goodhart and ChrisChataway have perceptively stated:The growing passion for sport may be seen as a sad commentaryon the inadequacy of the societies we have created. It is onlybecause millions of people are not effectively involved in thesocieties in which they live and work that they identify themselvesso passionately with the participants in some sporting ritual. Aswork becomes even less satisfying, and as the feeling of being acog in an impersonal machine spreads further, the ranks of theeager spectators are sure to swell.In one sense, then, spectator sport may be viewed as aplacebo, as bread and circuses, which defuses the frustraticiand aggressions which the unsatisfactory quality of their livesengenders in the mass of spectators. It thus becomes clear thatmass spectator sport serves the interests of the Establishment,Le., of those individuate and institutions interested in main-taining the status quo, for it serves to distract people from at-tacking the real core of their frustrations and more activelyseeking social and politicai justice and a more meaningf ul life,I would like to look at a few of the things which I thinkmight be done to make things better. The first, it seems to me,is to convince people that sport is really a labor of joy and love,not a grim, serious business; that it is at its best a great devicefor self-expression, self-discovery and self-fulfilment.The place to begin is, of course, in the schools. Unfortunately, ali too many coaches and school administrators, andparents as well, for that matter, regard sport more as a vehiclefor building character, for instilling discipline, for preparingyoung men for the "real world" — to say nothing of bringingprestige to the school and esteem and success to the coach. Ithink this is a sadly misguided approach.Bruce Ogilvie and Thomas Tutko, probably the two mostwell-known sports psychologists in America today, shocked theathletic establishment by stating that their research, covering aperiod of eight years and involving about 15,000 athletes,yielded no empirical support for the tradition that sport buildscharacter. "Athletic competition," they state, "has no morebeneficiai effects than intense endeavor in any other field,"and "there is evidence that athletic competition limits growthin some areas." They do not, of course, intend to say that sporthas no beneficiai effects — far from it. But character-building,they assert, is not one of them.As far as discipline goes, the authoritarian approach toorganized sport so common in America today may well imparta type of discipline to those rugged souls who manage to survive. It is the kind of discipline which makes a good soldier or agood company man. I suspect that this is no accident, and thatthis is in large part what is meant by preparing the young forthe real world. But it is not the type of self -discipline whichforms the basis for outstanding individuai achievement,creativity, self-reliance and strength of character. This is, inmy opinion, a far worthier goal for the educative process thanthe production of mindless automatons. Sport is equally well20suited to convey this type of self-discipline, if undertaken withthat in mind.Since sport in America is so closely bound up with the schoolsystem, it is clear that this is where reform has to start. I wouldlike to see a great humanization in school sport, from the firstgrade ali the way up to the college level. The emphasis shouldbe removed from winning as the ultimate goal, from achieve-ment, from toughening the young for the real world.Instead, sport should be taught in the school for what it canteach one about oneself; as a valuable tool for expressingoneself ; and for the sheer innate pleasure which the unfettereduse of a healthy body can bring. Everyone should be encour-aged to participate at whatever level he chooses, to seek hisown value and meaning from sport. And no preconditions,such as length of hair, beard, use of alcohol or tobacco, etc,should be set. To turn the old adage around: Anything reallyworth doing is worth doing poorly. The notion of "not beinggood enough" would cease to make any sense.At the same time that sport in the schools is beinghumanized, I would also like to see the strong tie betweenschool and sport in this country greatly loosened. Sport is toooften regarded as a pastime for schoolboys and students. Pre-sumably, however, when one becomes a man, one puts awaychildish things. If I am right in claiming that there issomething basically enjoyable and satisfying about engaging insport, then it does not f ollow that it is an activity which shouldbe abandoned upon leaving school, if not before.Values of sports clubsI think one thing that could be done to encourage and facilitate continued participation in sport, and certainly in trackand field, to which I would now like to turn my attention, is togreatly expand the club system. I know of no other country inthe world which places so great an emphasis on school sportand has such a poorly developed club system as does theUnited States. In contrast, the sport club is at the center of thesport structure of ali the European countries. The Germansystem, which I carne to know well in the almost three yearswhich I have spent there, is a typical example.School sport in Germany is essentially equivalent to physicaleducation in America. Virtually ali competitive sport is undertaken through the sport club, which provides training facilitiesand coaching assistance and sponsors competition. Almostevery community of any size at ali has at least one club, andlarger cities have several. Some are strictly one-sport clubs,, gymnastics, or track clubs; many are, however, multi-sport associations.The advantages of this type of organizational structure are,in my opinion, numeròus. By greatly relaxing, if not com-pletely severing, the unnatural tie between sport and schoolwhich exists in this country, it allows sport to be approachedfrom an educational viewpoint in the schools, Le. with a view to what sport can bring to the individuai in his quest toward self-discovery and self-expression, not how the student can be usedto bring prestige and glory to the scholastic institution and thecoach.At the same time, a widespread club structure can encourage and facilitate active participation in sport from a muchbroader range of people than can a school system. A club canoffer training facilities, training companions, coaching assistance and opportunities for competition to men and women ofali ages who desire to take an active part. (I must note here thatwhen I speak of a club structure I am really thinking of suchdemocratic institutions as the University of Chicago TrackClub, and not the New York Athletic Club.)In addition to encouraging a broad base of active participants, a well-developed club system could also be a boon tomany top-level athletes as well. Under the present setup in thiscountry, an athlete who is no longer a student or for somereason does not wish, or is not allowed, to compete for hisschool team, is often hard pressed to find opportunities totrain and compete.A widespread club structure would also, hopefully, removethe f actor of athletic competition from the major role which itnow plays in such non-sport-related decisions as choice ofschool or job. And if the United States were to follow theGerman example, an athlete in a club system would be freer topian his own competitive schedule in accordance with his owntraining program and other personal plans.I think it would be a mistake for an American club structureto pattern itself after our school system, with its fixed competitive schedules for the whole team and great emphasis uponteam scoring. Track and field, like swimming, gymnastics andother sports, is not really a team sport — certainly not in thesense in which football, basketball or baseball are — and Iwould like to see that aspect of the sport greatly deemphasized.With the exception of relays, track and field competition is apurely individuai thing, and an athlete' s success or failure isultimately solely dependent upon the performance which herenders, not on any team score. Too often, the team in trackand field becomes little more than a vehicle to carry a coach toa successful career and a university to athletic glory, which re-sults in the exploitation of the individuai athlete.The athlete' s interestsA coach who doubles and triples his athletes week afterweek to gain team points, so that at the end of the season theindividuai athlete' s physical and mental reserves are sodepleted that he is no longer able to perform at his best in thenational meets where everything for the individuai is atstake — a national title, All^American honors, foreign tours,etc. — is guilty of immorally subordinating the interests of hisathletes to his own ends and those of the institution for whichhe works.Returning briefly to the discussion of expanding the club21structure, it should be possible to make some sort of arrange-ments with schools and universities for use of the facilities,many of which are quite good and badly underused. Someinstitutions, of course, may be reluctant to encourage anyorganization which would threaten their own monopoly onsport, but most could probably be talked into it.The basic idea, I guess, is just to give people a chance to dotheir own thing, and to off er help and encouragement to thosewho want it. Money is, of course, a problem, but money canalways be found if one looks hard enough for it.Organizational politickingFd like to add a word on the present governing structure ofamateur track and field in the U.S. I don't want to go into theunhappy details of the AAU-NCAA-USTFF bickering or ofthe actions of the individuai bodies. Instead, I would merelylike to suggest that, if I am correct in stating that the real valueof sport lies in the doing of it, then it follows that the guidingprinciple of these governing bodies should be the best interestsof the athletes themselves.Unfortunately, it seems to me that ali too often this end islost in the politicking and the power plays of these bodies, or issimply disregarded in favor of imposing personal and/or out-moded ideals upon the athletes. Here again we sometimes findthe athletes being manipulated to serve the purposes of thesemen and their organizations, instead of these organizationsbeing set up to serve the athletes. The difficulties of Jim Ryunand Tom Hill in getting their world records submitted by theAAU for ratif ication because they were set in an unsanctionedUSTFF meet is a prime example.There are, unfortunately, some men in these organizationswho seem to think that they know better than the athletesthemselves what their best interests are. Regardless of howwell-meaning this may be, I think it is the height of paternalarrogance, especially once the athlete has reached college ageand is allowed to vote and to serve and die in the army. Itseems clear to me that the athletes themselves must be given adetermining voice in those matters which directly involve oraffect them, perhaps through some sort of an athlete controlboard or a referendum system.Finally, I would like to discuss briefly the subject of inter-national competition. This has been the topic of a lot ofalarmist discussion for some time now, culminating after theOlympics with the accusations of failure on the part of theAmerican team. I don't really wish to respond directly to thatsort of talk, because in my opinion that way of thinking missesthe whole point. I might just add that I don't think the failed in Munich in any sense of the word, unless you'rethe type that gets your kicks out of hearing the Star SpangledBanner ali the time.But it seems to me that the real problem with this type ofsuccess/f ailure, win/lose thinking is that it is a carfyover of the Cold War mentality of the 1950s. My impression, actually, isthat international competition isn't supposed to perpetuate theCold War, but rather to thaw it out. It seems to me that whatwe really should be concerned about is not what we can do toinsure that we clobber the Russians, but rather how inter-national competition can best promote good will and under-standing and most benefit the individuai athletes involved. Tothis end I think there are several things which might be done:I think we ought to strongly encourage ali athletes to takeadvantage of opportunities to compete internationally. lnorder to compete abroad, however, an athlete has to obtain atravel permit from the AAU, and these travel permits havebeen the subject of much controversy in the past, with manyathletes claiming that the AAU has used its power to withholdtravel permits to try to coerce athletes into competing in meetswhich it considers important.There are hopeful indications that, if this has in fact oc-curred in the past, it will not happen again in the future, and Iwould prefer to wait and see what happens. It seems obvious tome that the AAU should strongly encourage any athlete whohas the initiative and means to seek international competitionon his own to do so.In addition, I would like to see the AAU alter its ownprogram of international competition. The pattern in the pasthas been to center the international season around two or threehigh-powered, prestige dual meets which, although they mayturn out to be good meets, often do more to serve the interestsof politicians and bloodthirsty f ans than those of the athletesthemselves.The thing that has really made these meets bad in the pasthas been the policy of the AAU in insisting that ali members ofthe national team travel together, compete in or be availablefor ali the meets, and not compete in other meets before or inbetween the team meets. The result is usually that many of theathletes get only three or four meets while they are abroad—not exactly the best way to accumulate a lot of internationalexperience. Here again I think the AAU may have realized thatthis is really not the best way to do things, and is revising andrelaxing a lot of these rules.On this mildly optimistic note, I would like to dose withwhat I feel are two indicators of a brighter tomorrow for sportin this country. The first is the concluding paragraph toOglivie and Tutko's article, "Sport: If You Want to BuildCharacter, Try Something Else":"Eventually, the world of sport is going to take the emphasisoff winning-at-any-cost. The new direction will be towardhelping athletes make personally chosen modifications in be-havior; toward the joyous pursuit of esthetic experience;toward wide variety of personality types and values."The second, unlike the first, has no basis in empiricalevidence. For a crossword puzzle freak like myself, however,its psychic significance is just as great. A few days ago I neededa three-letter word meaning * sport.' The word turned out to beF-U-N.22Character-building? YesThe 'Old Man* - a recollectionfifty years ago nextfall, the University's football team, led byfranklin Gowdy, clinched the championship of the Big Ten,holding Red Grange to a 21-21 tie. Meanwhile in 1923-'24Chicago had won conference championships in waterbasketball, fencing, and gymnastics and participated in athree-way tie for first place in basketball. (The sports reporterfor this magazine then was Clifton M. Utley, class of '25.)The kingpin of Midway athletics in those days, was, as hehad been for decades, Amos Alonzo Stagg. Hayward D.Warner, who ran the mile on the Old Mans '02 track team,has sent the magazine a recollection of Coach Stagg, excerptsfrom which follow:Hayward D. WarnerIn these days of professional football, with giant stadiumsfilled with spectators and of munificent salaries for theplayers, we older ones look back toward the turn of the centurywith nostalgia. Those were the days of great amateur athletics,especially in the colleges, and when the greatest of the coacheswas Amos Alonzo Stagg.Amos Alonzo Stagg retired at 91 in 1954 after a career ashead coach at three schools. He won fame at the University ofChicago for forty-one years; then a mandatory rule forced hisretirement at 70. Next he accepted the offer of College of thePacific, where he coached for fourteen years more; then hespent six years with his spn, Amos Alonzo Stagg, Jr., directorof athletics at Susquehanna University.Alonzo Stagg was a kindly and unassuming man in personalrelations, but on the training fields he was a general, requiringdiscipline more stringent than any army. His overridingpurpose in life was to make men of his players.When he arrived at Chicago in September of 1892, classeshad started in a Cobb Hall that was not quite completed, and atemporary, one- story brick gymnasium had been built oncampus that Coach Stagg had to put up with for ten years ormore. What was to be the athletic field was vacant ground.This was soon turned into the playing fields and spectatorstands that were necessary, but not until 1914 was there acomplete athletic facility with a great new gymnasium andfield house and permanent stands.The coaches of the large midwestern universities began to beaware in 1893 and '94 that a new football wizard had appearedin that new college in Chicago who was inventing plays thatwere beating them. About the same time something new was happening to thisserious, good looking, young bachelor of 30. He was a tennisplayer, and it was on the tennis courts of the University that hemet Stella. She was a freshman of 17 who had come from theEast, attracted to the new coeducational university in theWest — an outdoor girl interested in ali sports. It was not longuntil she became intensely interested in football and ali theproblems of Lonnie, as she called him.The autumn of 1894 seemed to be the right time for thewedding, but how were they to have a honeymoon during thefootball season?That problem was solved for them. Lonnie's old friend,Walter Camp of Yale, was now coaching at the new StanfordUniversity, and a series of three games out there wasscheduled. Chicago had a game with Stanford on Christmasday in San Francisco, and won; played another game withthem in midweek at Los Angeles, and lost; then went back toSan Francisco to play the Reliance Athletic Club, coached byPringle of Yale, on New Year's day, where they lost. So thehoneymoon of Lonnie and Stella became the long train ridewest, the week there, and the long ride back — chaperoned bythe entire football squad.Stagg was a leader in the f ormation of the Big Ten and wason its football rules committee as long as he was a coach. Theyear 1905 was a tremendous one for both Stagg andMichigan's Fielding (Hurry Up) Yost. Both their teams hadgone undefeated. Chicago had total scores of 245 to 5 foropponents. The culmination of the season was theThanksgiving day game between the two, and Chicago won, 2to 0.In 1906 there were reforms in the rules, and at hissuggestion the f orward pass was legalized in order to open upthe game.On a trip through California in 1935 I stopped to see him atStockton. I had been on his track team in 1902, and he stiliremembered me. He was then 73, and he told me that he hadplayed three sets of tennis that morning.He finally retired at 91, after an unprecedented sixty-oneyears as a head coach. Among his other honors, he is inFootball's Hall of Fame as both a player and as a coach.On his lOOth birthday, August 16, 1962, there were dinnersin twelve cities over the nation, where former players andfriends gathered to do him honor.Stella had been the star of Lonnie's life until the star wentout on July 22, 1964. He lived less than a year longer; he diedMarch 17, 1965, at age 102.23z-Alurnni V^*ewsClass notesr\^\ in memoriam: Joseph W. Bingham,UZ ab'02, jd'04, died December 15 inMenlo Park, Calif., at the age of 95. Aretired professor of law at Stanford, he wasappointed in 1928 to the American advisorycommittee on the codification of international law undertaken by the League ofNations.r\r in memoriam: Albert W. Sherer,V/v) ab '06, life trustee of the University ofChicago (see Page 4).rvo in memoriam: Sessue Hayakawa,yJO x'OS, who had roles in more than 120motion pictures including Bridge over theRiver Kwai, for which he gained anAcademy Award nomination, died inNovember of 1973 in Tokyo.Eugene Van Cleef, sb'08, professoremeritus of urban geography at Ohio StateUniversity, died November 7 in Columbus.r\Q in memoriam: Adelaide Wetzler,V/^ pIib'09, retired Chicago high schoolteacher, died December 2 in Chicago.UÀ retrospective exhibition of the worksOf CYRUS LEROY BALDRIDGE, PllB'll,was held recently at the University ofWyoming Art Museum, selected fromamong the large collection of works from1917 through 1972 donated by the artist asa permanent gift to the museum.Mr. Baldridge's career in art began im-mediately following graduation from UC,when he worked a few years as an illustratorfor a Chicago publishing firm. He was withthe U. S. cavalry on the Mexican border in1916 and, when the opportunity arose, hewent to Europe to cover the war there.When the U. S. joined the war in 1918, hewas assigned to the Paris staff of thenewspaper, Stars and Stripes, for which hedrew cartoons and combat scenes and wroteseveral articles. After the war, havinggained a reputation for reporting and on-the-scene sketches, Baldridge bookedpassage for China where he spent severalmonths in 1919. In the years following hespent time in Japan, Korea, China, CentralAsia, India, Persia, and much of Africa,sketching the lands and their people, oftenwalking great distances or using oxcarts,mules, primitive boats, or ancient autos toget around. He did the portraits of many heads of state and other notables includingPearl Buck, who said in 1931 that Baldridgewas the only American artist who coulddraw the Chinese.He has illustrated many articles andbooks and published his^ autobiography,Time and Chance, in 1947. Today he livesand works in Santa Fé, N. M., as he hassince memoriam: Irene B. Hunt, ab'11,December 4 in Spokane, Wash.-j ^ in memoriam: Helen ElizabethAZ Taggart, se' 12, died December 8 inSt. Louis, Mo.A A EUNICE FORD STACKHOUSE, PllB'14,At" am'27, dean emeritus of LimestoneCollege, Gaffney, S. C, has gained a listingin World Who's Who of Women, 1973edition. Ms. Stackhouse, who has served asa member of the S. C. State Probation,Parole and Pardon Board and as presidentofthe S. C. Rehabilitation Association, wasalso mentioned (and pictured) in the lastedition of Two Thousand Women ofAchievement, published in London.Club eventsnew Orleans, March 12: The speaker willbe Richard Stern, professor of English andwell-known york, March 28: John Coleman (am'49,pIid'50), president of Haverford College, willspeak.Portland, May 20: John G. Cawelti, professor in the Department of English and theCollege and chairman of the Committee onGeneral Studies in the Humanities, willspeak.Seattle, May 21: Speaker will be John G.Cawelti.Washington, d. e, March 21: Theaterparty at Arena Stage. May 10: Annualdinner. in memoriam: Samuel Heller, pIib'14,am'31, former Chicago municipal courtjudge, died November 20 in Chicago.-j e in memoriam: Mary Murray, phB'15AO Naperville, 111., who began her teach-'ing career at the age of 15, died December14. Most of Ms. Murray' s teaching yearswere spent at Lindblom High School inChicago where she taught English andFrench until her retirement at the age of 65.-J r ELEANOR DOUGHERTY TRIVES, PllB'l6,AD has sent us her latest book of poems,The Sun Path (Paris: Firmin-Didot et Cie.)for donation to the library. Previouslypublished collections of her poetry includeRainbows (1960) and The Open Door(1967).in memoriam: Ruth Manierre Freeman,pIib'16; R. Bruce Martin, p1ib'16; Leland W.Parr, sb'16, pIib'23; James W. Tufts,pIib'16, December 16 in Amherst, Mass.-j o Margaret a. hayes, p1ib'18, presidentAO 0f the Retired Teachers Association ofChicago, the first woman ever to hold thatposition, was chosen by the Citizens ofGreater Chicago to receive their 1973 awardof merit for her outstanding service in better-ing the living and educational conditions ofthe underprivileged and the handicapped,and for her career in education "in behalf ofali children." Ms. Hayes, whose entire careerwas spent in the Chicago school system, wasprincipal of the Jane Neil Special School (forthe physically handicapped) at the time ofher retirement in memoriam: Nathan Perlman, pub' 18,River Forest, 111., died November 9.-j q in memoriam: Walter A. Bowers,A!7 phB'20, Yates Center, Kan., diedNovember 9 from injuries sustained in anauto accident. He was 75.Katharine B. Frost, pub' 19, died Septem-ber 29 in Highland Park, 111.Samuel Lerner, sb'19, md'21, physician,one of the f ounders of Roosevelt MemorialHospital in Chicago, died October 27.*\f\ HOMERP. BALABANIS, PUb'20, AM^,ZU vice-president for academic affairs andprofessor of economics emeritus atHumboldt State University (Arcata, Caìif.),was honored by the Humboldt (County) ArtsCouncil on the occasion of the organization'sfourth annual awards dinner. Long knownfor his encouragement of both the visual andperforming arts, he founded the council in1966, while a member of the California ArtsCommission, "to stimulate and aid art talentand activities throughout the county in ali24REUNION 74Changing times-,ehanging tasksThe Reunion /74 program is a new reflection of the University's answer to thechanging interests and needs of our alumni. You have suggested that reunion is morethan an opportunity to renew friendships. It is an occasion to cali upon the resourcesofthe University to enhance thelife-long learning process of its graduates. We believethe reunion program in /74, newly augmented with a trio of colloquium sessions, willbe an appropriate response to these changing tasks.The colloquium will include many opportunities for the warm fellowship that hastraditionally been the focus of reunion. But it will also provide a series of challengingdiscussions with University faculty and alumni speakers who will share their views withyou on the changing tasks before the University, both nationally and in the arena ofinternational affairs.We invite ali alumni to attend these provocative seminars. The schedule has beenarranged so that those alumni whose reunion classes will not meet this year may be fullparticipants in the lectures and discussions. They may also renew their contacts withthe Midway if they did not do so when their reunion classes last met.We look upon Reunion /74 as an ALL-ALUMNI event and hope that as you reviewthe program it will create in you the same excitement that we have felt in planning it.FRJDAY.JUNE7Colloquium - Session I "Changing Tasks in theUniversity"LuncheonColloquium - Session II "Changing Tasks in OurSociety"Class Reunion and Emeritus Club Banquet(Classes: '14, '24, '34)Dormitory Open HouseSATURDAY, JUNE 8Colloquium - Session III "Changing Tasks inForeign Policy" Awards LuncheonPresident's ReceptionCampus ToursClass Reunion Banquet ( Classes : '39, '44, '49, '54,'59, '64)Sixty-fourth IFC SingFireworksSUNDAY.JUNE9Convocation Sunday Rockefeller Chapel CharlesLong, University of Chicago Divinity Schoolpor information about Reunion /74 events, return coupon to Kristen Nelson, Program Director, Alumni Association,&733 South University Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637.^lease send me more information about Reunion /74 events.Name. . YEAR .ADDRESSCITY/STATE/ZIP PHONE25ways and to make such activity a vitalinfluence in the life of the community." Afifty-year faculty member at HumboldtState, Dr. Balabanis has authored threebooks, most recently, The Classica! Ideal ofthe Good Man (1972).in memoriam: Ernest Kentwortz, p1ib'20,jd'23; Sophie B. Wulf, sb'20.^ -j in memoriam: Evelyn Tripp Berdahl,£ A am'21, Urbana, 111., teacher of rhetoricat the University of Illinois and then Southern Illinois University, died December 27.LeRoy David Owen, p1lb'21, jd'23,Pasadena, Calif., pioneer realtor inindustriai properties, died October 27.Byron A. Russell, x'21, Largo, Fla., diedin September of 1973.^\^\ in memoriam: George H. Hartong,££ ^22; Arleigh Willard Jones, am'22;Cardinal L. Kelly, p1ib'22; William Simkin,sb'22, md'24.*)*! I- BROOKS HECKERT, AM'23, ÌS the**à author of a novel, The Office Girls,published January 4 by the Vantage Press,New York ($4.95). A release on the bookpraises the author for proving "it is possibleto write a good story without the extensiveuse of four-letter words or situations."Heckert, a retired accountant, businessmanand professor emeritus at Ohio StateUniversity, lives in Columbus.Andrew cordier, am'23, pIid'26, the topaide to United Nations secretaries-generalfor sixteen years, president emeritus ofColumbia University, currently director ofdevelopment for Columbia' s School of International Affairs, spent the winter quarter asa regents' professor at the University ofCalifornia, Berkeley. Sponsored by thepoliticai science department and the Instituteof International Studies at Berkeley, he gavea seminar on international organization,focusing on the role of the U. N. secretary-general. Cordier, who helped draft the U. N.charter, served under the secretaries-generalTrygve Lie and Dag a in memoriam: Myron I. Myers^ ¦ pIib'24, Colorado Springs, Col., diedSeptember 16.*\ r GEORGE dykhuizen, am'25, pud'34,**^ professor emeritus of philosophy at theUniversity of Vermont, has authored abiography, The Life and Mind ofJohnDewey, published last fall by SouthernIllinois University memoriam: J. Kenneth Laird, ab '25,advertising executive and co-founder ofTatham-Laird & Kudner Inc., Chicago, died lylp honoroutstanding graduataNominations are in order for theAssociation s 1974 alumni medal,community service citations andprofessional achievement awards,to be given at the reuniòn June 7and 8.Ifyou know of an alumnus or analumna who in your opinion de-serves this recognition because ofnotable contributions profes-sionally or in his or her community,write, giving the pertinent information, to the Awards Coordinator,Alumni Association, 5733 University Ave., Chicago, III., 60637.December 27. In recent years Mr. Laird haddivided his time between his homes in FortLauderdale, Fla., and Wilmette, 111.*\r in memoriam: Maurice Greiman,^O phs'26, jd'28; Alberti. Horrell, jd'26;Bryan Newsom, x'26; F. Kenneth Power,MD'26.f\*1 LORRAINE SINKLER, pllB'27, Am'32,£ ' has authored The Spiritual Journey ofJoelS. Goldsmith (Harper & Row, 1973), abiography of the spiritual leader and mysticwho died in 1964 and to whose teachings Ms.Sinkler has devoted her life since she firstmet him in 1949. That chance meeting, inChicago's Loop, prompted her to leave ateaching career and subsequently to edittwenty-two of his twenty-eight books. Hercurrent efforts toward perpetuatingGoldsmith' s ethic include engaging herselfon extensive lecture tours, editing a monthlynewsletter from her Palm Beach home, andconducting study groups which have drawnas many as 250 students of the "InfiniteWay."in memoriam: Robert Wesley Brown,phD'27; Robert T. Markley, phB'27.^Q GERHARDT RAST, pIib'28, ANl'33,^O professor of education at the University of Bridgeport (Conn.), will retire in July.Rast joined the Bridgeport faculty in 1963.Before that he had been superintendent ofschools in Windsor and Westport (Conn.),superintendent of rural education in NewHaven and director of Lincoln Schools inNew York City. in memoriam: William C. Krueger,p1id'28, died November 16 in Mesa, Ariz.^Q JOSEPH swidler, pub'29, jd'30, has"J resigned, effective this March, aschairman of the New York state PublicService Commission to serve as director ofthe new Institute of Policy Alternatives, StataUniversity of New York, set up last Octoberat the recommendation of then Gov.Rockefeller. One of the institute's majorprojeets will be to do studies for Mr.Rockefeller' s new Commission on CriticaiChoices for memoriam: Clarence F. Kerr, x'29,Woodstock, 111., died October 24.r*Sf\ AUSTIN t. gardner, p1lb'30, has*5v/ retired as president and chiefexecutive, but continues as chairman ofDelmarva Power & Light, Wilmington, memoriam: Louis Feinberg, sb'30,md'34; Howard L. Willett, Jr., p1ib'30.'J-J JAMES r. couplin, phs'31, hotelOl. executive, genealogist, soldier, nowretired, is currently listed in Whofs Who inFinance and Industry, Dictionary ofInternational Biography, and Illinois Lives.Now living in Elgin, 111., Major Couplin hasbeen a biographee of Who's Who in theMidwest for many years.howard p. clarke, p1ib'31, jd'32, hasretired after thirty years of legai service toUnited States Steel, most recently as generalattorney in charge of the company's northeraarea law offices, headquartered in Duluth,Minn. Clarke and his wife pian to remaininDuluth.llewelyn ho well, md'31, staff memberfor thirty-seven years, has retired from theMayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Dr. Howell,a specialist in endocrine disease, particularlydiabetes, was senior consultant in the division of endocrinology and internai medicine,as well as associate professor in the Mayograduate school of medicine at the time ofhis retirement.j. allen hynek, sb'31, p1id'35, Northwestern University astronomer and an au-thority on unidentified flying objects, is inthe process of establishing a center for UFOstudies which will be an academic-oriented,non- government operation. Hynek, asreported in "Kup's Column" of the ChicagoSun- Times, is notifying ali sheriffs andpolice departments in the nation to contacthim with any UFO sightings they receive.32 After a forty-seven year teachingcareer, earl s. johnson, am'32,pIid'41, has, "not without a good deal of fe'luctance," retired from active teaching. He26taught for six years in Kansas high schools;for twenty-seven years at the University ofChicago (he is currently emeritus professorin the social sciences); and for fourteen yearsas visiting professor in the school ofeducation at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. For twelve of his years atChicago he was chairman of the divisionaimaster's program in the social sciences. Heand Mrs. Johnson, who celebrated theirfiftieth wedding anniversary last June, nowlive in Baldwin City, Kans., where hecontinues to write and do consultative workin the social studies for high schools andjunior colleges.lyman g. parratt, phD'32, veteran offorty years of teaching, research and depart-mental administration at Cornell University,has retired and been named professor ofphysics, emeritus. A group leader in the LosAlamos Manhattan Project during WorldWar II, Parratt has authored numeròus research articles, mostly on the subject of*} HERMAN H. GOLDSTINE, SB'33, Sm'34,0%J phD' 36, Princeton, N. J., has won theannual Phi Beta Kappa award for an out-standing contribution to the literature ofscience for his recent book, The Computerfrom Pascal to von Neumann. Known for hiswork in computers and mathematics,Goldstine is presently consultant to thedirector of research at International BusinessMachines, after having served as director ofIBM's mathematical sciences and scientificdevelopment since 1958. He is also a trusteeof Hampshire College in Amherst, memoriam: The Reverend Daniel DayWilliams, am'33.*SA J, MERCER RAMPONA, MD'34,«3 ¦ Trenton, N. J., internist, has retiredafter a thirty-seven year career in the medicaiprofession. Dr. Rampona worked as anengineer for several years following hisgraduation in that field from Cornell University in 1925, but a strong interest in medicinecaused him to drop his originai profession infavor of entering medicai school at Chicago.Robert w. reneker, pIib'34, has beenelected first chairman of the board ofEsmark Inc., Chicago. He had beenpresident and chief executive off icer of thefirm since it was f ormed a year ago from thebusinesses that had been Swift & memoriam: Annabelle Callanan Meyer,PhB'34; Oswald K. Sagen, p1id'34.^ r ray w. macdonald, ab'35, has been*3^ appointed chairman of the board andchief executive officer of the BurroughsCorp., Detroit. He joined the firm in 1935 as a salesman.*\n William w. herzog, ab'37, has been*3 / promoted by Johnson Wax to vice-president and deputy director of Europeanoperations. He will continue to be based atthe company's Eurocentre offices at Ascot,near London.Herman b. schulz, x'37, is now purchas-ing agent with the Huntington alloy productsdivision of the International Nickel Company, Huntington, W. memoriam: Charles W. Holt, am'37,Chicago, died in July of 1973.^O KATH ARINE MEYER GRAHAM, AB '38,*30 publisher of the Washington Post anda trustee of the University, is the first womanever to win the John Peter Zenger award fordistinguished service to freedom of the press."Like John Peter Zenger, she withstoodofficiai wrath to defend the people' s right toknow," said her nomination for the honor."The reputation of the Post was on the lineduring those long, lonely months when thenewspaper carried the brunt of the Water-gate investigation." (Ms. Graham' s "Water-gate, the Media, and the Universities"appeared in the September/October, '73,MAGAZINEWilliam c. petty, am'38, carne out ofretirement for a two-month period recentlyto fili in as interim superintendent of anelementary school in Wadsworth, 111. LakeCounty (111.) superintendent of schools forforty years until his retirement in 1971, Pettyis currently president of the Lake CountyBoard of Mental Health.^Q IRVING E. SHEFFEL, AB'39, Was3 y recently elected vice-president of theMenninger Foundation, where he has beenemployed in various administrative capacitiessince 1949. beth Silver sheffel, ab'39,am'45, a social worker with the Kansas statedepartment of health, has been serving onthe state commission on alcoholism duringthe past year. "In recent years," she reports,"the state of Kansas has had some encour-agingly successful innovative programs, bothpublic and private, in the field ofalcoholism."in memoriam: Norman M. Kaplan,ab'39, am'48, phD'70; William EverettMcBride, am'39.Af\ J. ERNEST WILKINS, SB'40, SM'41,¦ V/ phD'42, distinguished professor of ap-plied mathematical physics at HowardUniversity, has been elected president of theAmerican Nuclear Society, the professionalbody concerned with the application ofnuclear energy for peaceful purposes. A4 VIRGINIA LUNDQUIST FENSKE, AM'41,¦A Olympia, Wash., has retired aftertwenty-eight years of service in the Washington state department of social and healthservices. As part of her most recent job,coordinator of adult services programs, shehelped develop into a statewide program aproject to provide family homes for adults.fred t. holden, p1id'41, has beenpromoted by the Exxon Company, U. S. A.,to the position of senior exploration geolo-gist. He is assigned to a project head-quartered in Midland, memoriam: John J. Sherman, md'41;Mary Walling Williamson, ab'41.A*\ DONALD D. PANARESE, AB'42, has¦ ^ been elected state commander of theIllinois Department of Italian American WarVeterans. He is senior member of theChicago law firm, Panarese & Panarese.ALBERT S. MORACZEWSKI, SB'42, Sm'47,pIid'58, became president of the PopeJohn XXIII Medical-Moral Research andEducation Center on January 1. The St.Louis based organization was set up a yearago to deal with the long-range advances inmedicine and science that relate to ethicsand morality. It operates under the auspicesof the Catholic Hospital memoriam: Henrietta Louise HerodMcMillian, pIid'42.A*J JOANNE GEROULD SIMPSON, SB'43,¦ *3 sm'45, phD'49, meteorologist, has beennominated by the editors of Ladies' HomeJournal for the publication's Woman of theYear awards, 1974. Winners in eightcategories, to be honored Aprii 8 on an hour-long CBS -TV special, will be determined onthe basis of reader balloting, plus the evalua-tion of a panel of judges. Ms. Simpson,director of the Experimental MeteorologyLaboratory (Department of Commerce' sNational Oceanie and AtmosphericAdministration), Cor al Gables, Fla., iscontending in the "science and research"category.PHILIP d. mcmanus, ab'43, mba'46, hasmoved up to the executive vice-presidency ofEagle-Picher Industries, Cincinnati.A A ALICE SELBY BOYACK, AM'44, PllD'64,^t has been ordained as a minister of theUnited Church of Christ. Ms. Boyack, whoteaches philosophy and religion at West-minster College in Salt Lake City, completedthe requirements for the professional minis-try some time ago, but, as she told the SaltLake Tribune, she held back from takingthat final step because of the great prejudiceagainst women becoming mihisters. Thewomen's liberation movement, she said, was27among the important influences in herdecision "to assume the responsibility to doas I believe is right."REBECCA EVANS CARROLL, AM'44, nOWassistant superintendent of curriculum andinstructional management for Baltimore cityschools, worked her way to that positionthrough the ranks of the Baltimore schoolsystem. Ms. Carroll, the subject of a profilein the Baltimore News American, served suc-cessively as teacher, demonstration teacher,supervising teacher, assistant principal,principal (the city's first black principal of alarge predominantly white school) , areadirector, and acting assistant superintendentin charge of the elementary division. Also anactive Catholic layman, she was knighted bythe Pope two years ago for her church work.Ar james f. light, ab'45, am'47, dean¦ ^ of the faculties at Herbert H. LehmanCollege (City University of New York) since1972, has been named to the additional postof provost. Also an English scholar, Dr.Light has written extensively on modemAmerican literature. His works includeNathanael West: An Interpretive Study(1961) and John William De Foresi (1965),an examination of the life and work of thepioneering novelist of American memoriam: Louis Liswood, mba'45,Denver, died in November of 1973.A r JAMES J. tyson, sb'46, md'49,¦"O surgeon in Big Rapids, Mich., fortwenty years, retired from active practice lastyear. He will continue to perform medicineon a strictly volunteer memoriam: Cari A. Olson, mba'46,died October 31 in Evansville, Ind.A*J MARG ARETTA SACKVILLE TANGERMAN,¦ / am'47, former dean of women andhead of the sociology and social work department and currently professor emeritus atValparaiso (Ind.) University, has beenawarded an honorary doctor of letters degreeby Hamilton State University (Tucson, Ariz.)"because of an exceptionally productivecareer worthy of academic note."BABETTE CASPER BLOCH, PllB'47, SB'49, ÌSthe incumbent president of the Mill Valley(Calif .) Middle School Parent-Teacher-Student Association.WILLIAM DANIELSON, PllB'47, SB'49,ensured his election to the Illinois Association of Real Estate Board's "Million DollarSales Club" recently when he brought hissales figure for a one-year period to over therequired amount. Danielson, who lives inDes Plaines, works for William L. Kunkel &Company, Realtors.FRANK t. hess, ab'47, sb'49, sm'55, has been appointed by Parke, Davis & Companyas clinic al editor of the firm's researchlaboratories in Ann Arbor (Mich.).A Ci FRANCES CARLIN LEEK, AB '48, has• O contributed a short biographical sup-plement as follows: "I am married to JosephHugh Leek who took his residency at Billingsin otolaryngology. We now live in Duluth,Minn., with our seven children — five girlsand two boys. Two are in college now. ... Iam a professional flutist playing with theDuluth Symphony. I teach limitedly andsometimes take courses at the College of St.Scholastica in Duluth."Carlos s. kakouris, am'48, foreign service diplomat who has been consul general ofCosta Rica and consultant to presidents ofGuatemala, Mexico, Venezuela and CostaRica, was honored recently by the Floridacity where he makes his permanent homewhen the mayor proclaimed him "ambassa-dor at large of the city of Cor al Gables."marvin weissman, p1ib '48, has beensworn in as mission director to Brazil,Agency for International Development. Hehas previously worked for AID in Chile,Ecuador, Venezuela, Perù, Guatemala and,most recently, Colombia.^Q CLARE SOLBERG GAULT, AM'49, and*y her husband Frank have co-authoredanother children' s book, The Way the StarsPlayed the Monsters, published early thisyear. In 1973 the Gaults' collaborations re-sulted in four books: Norman Plays SecondBase, How to Be a Good Baseball Player,How to Be a Good Football Player, and FourStars from the World of Sports.rr\ FAUZI M. najjar, am'50, phD'54,^vy was one of sixteen faculty memberscited by Michigan State University last Juneat the annual awards convocation for distinguished teaching, research and public service. Dr. Najjar, who has taught in the socialsciences department of MSU since 1956, waspresented a certificate and $1,000. He andhis WÌfe, VIVIAN BERQUIST NAJJAR, AB '54,live in East memoriam: Thomas J. McArdle,p1ib'50, October 27 in Rockville, Md.r* rene Anselmo, ab'51, president of<^A the Spanish International Network,made up of thirteen Spanish-language TVstations across the nation, is one of twobroadcast executives behind the recentchange to an ali-news format — the first suchventure in television — of KMEX-TV, theSpanish-language station in Los Angeles.milton l. glick, am'51, p1id'63, has beenpromoted to professor of economics at Wittenberg University, Springfield, O.r*\ ed win f. alder, sm'52, has been*3£ named a vice-president of Lilly Research Laboratories, a new division of EliLilly and Company, formed to consolidateand direct ali research and developmentactivities. Alder joined the firm, whose head-quarters are in Indianapolis, in 1957 as aplant physiologist.r*y matt phillips, am'53, as winner of^ *3 a $10,000 Guggenheim grant ingraphics, has taken a leave-of-absence fromhis duties as professor of art and director ofthe Procter Art Center at Bard College(Annandale-on-Hudson, N. Y.). He is devot-ing the period to painting, graphics, book il-lustration and travel. A monotypist, Phillipsis represented in the collections of manymuseums, including the MetropolitanMuseum of Art, Library of Congress, National Gallery, Whitney Museum and thePhiladelphia Museum. He was representedin the Smithsonian Institution' s 1972 travel-ing exhibition, for which he wrote catalogtext, and has had numeròus one-man memoriam: John B. Harris, md'53,associate professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, diedOctober 16.MJACQUELINE HERRMANN GOUREVITCH,ab'54, ab'57, landscape painter spe-cializing in clouds, has been teaching at theart school of the University of Hartford(Conn.) this year as visiting artist. Ms.Gourevitch, who has been showing since1954, had a solo show last fall at theTibor de Nagy Gallery in New York (herfourth at that gallery) and was represented inthe recent Whitney Museum Biennial ofContemporary American Art.rr STANTON T. FRIEDMAN, SB'55, Sm'56,^^ director of the California UFO Research Institute, continues to be heavilybooked on the 1974 lecture circuit with his il-lustrated lecture, "Flying Saucers^4re Real,"a presentation he already gave at ninety-three colleges during 1973. Friedman, whospent fourteen years working in industry withnuclear aircraft and rockets, fusion rocketsand nuclear powerplants until 1959, when hedecided to devote himself full-time to theUFO question, has appeared frequently onradio and TV in his effort to convince thepublic that the earth is being visited by intel-ligently controlied vehicles from space. Hetells us that polis indicate the greater theeducation of an individuai, the more likelyhe or she is to believe in the UFOphenomenon; the older one is, the less likely-28Friedman requests that alums (or any-one, for that matter) who think they haveobserved a UFO write to him at 2420 GrantAvenue, Redondo Beach, Calif . 90278.Wltnesses' names will not be used withoutpermission. A stamped, self- addressedenvelope, he adds, will bring a free list ofscientific references on the subject of UFOs.(For news on another alum who is chasingdown UFOs, see Class of '31.)DONALD E. MCVICKER, AB'55, Am'62,phD'69, visiting lecturer at UC during the1972-73 year, has joined the faculty ofNorth Central College (Naperville, 111.) asassociate professor of sociology and anthro-pology. During summers McVicker conductsarcheological field trips for Chicago's FieldMuseum of Naturai History.LEONA JACKER PETERSON, Am'55, pllD'71,has been named coordinator of the practicalnurse training program at Purdue UniversityCalumet Campus (Hammond, Ind.). Ms.Peterson, who will also hold the rank ofassociate professor of nursing and will serveas administrative assistant to the sectionchairman of the nursing department, spentthe past two years in Kinshasa, capital ofZaire (formerly the Belgian Congo), whereshe was involved in the training of nursesand other educational projects.r r Stuart grout, p1id'56, director of^O academic planning and supportservices at Boston University, has beennamed to the board of trustees of DeanJunior College, Franklin, Mass.FRANKLIN N. KARMATZ, Am'56, associateprofessor of journalism at California StateUniversity, San Jose, since 1971, has beenappointed director of corporate Communications for Computer Sciences Corp., ElSegundo, Calif. After receiving his master'sdegree from Chicago in 1956, Karmatzworked as a bureau manager for BusinessWeek and Time magazines until 1963, whenhe started his own firm, eventuallyproducing more than twenty-five coverstories and 500 major articles in business andtechnical areas. He will shortly receive hisdoctorate in Communications research fromthe University of Missouri school ofjournalism.C*T CHARLES V. HAMILTON, AM'57, PllD'64,^ ' professor of politicai science and Wallace S. Sayre professor of government at Columbia University, will have lectured at sometwelve institutions of higher learning by theend of this academic year as a Phi BetaKappa visiting scholar. Hamilton, a nationalboard member of the NAACP legai defenseand education fund, is the author of TheBlack Preacher in America and The BlackExperience in American Politics. please help uskeep from 'losing' alumniAlumni of the University, even morethan most people, tend to move about alot. In 1972 the Alumni Associationprocessed 45,000 changes of address, arather high number in an alumni bodyof 88,000. At any given time more than5,000 alumni are "lost," and sometimesthe number rises much higher.If you know of a f ellow alum who hasmoved and isn't getting alumni meetingnotices or the magazine, please helpus find him or her. Just drop us a note,or suggest that your friend write to theAlumni Association, 5733 UniversityAve., Chicago, 111. 60637.r o sanford n. katz, jd'58, has returned^O from Cambridge University where hewas an associate at Clare Hall, and is currently a member of the law faculty at BostonCollege and editor-in-chief of the FamilyLaw memoriam: Mason Griff , pud' 58,Westport Point, Mass., died in July of 1973.rQ Charles d. kelso, mat'59, professor*Js at the Indianapolis law school, IndianaUniversity, has been elected chairman of thesection of legai education and admissions tothe bar, American Bar Association.s~r\ Thomas l. bohan, sb'60, memberO V/ of the physics and astronomy faculty atBowdoin College (Brunswick, Me.), has wonthe school a $17,500 Research Corporationof New York City grant in support ofresearch he is doing on "Magnetic Reso-nance and Optical Spectroscopy of HemeProteins at Low Temperatures." The project,directed toward a greater understanding ofbiological mechanisms such as cellular respi-ration, involves a study of the structure andfunction of heme proteins, molecules important in the life process.WILLIAM W. SHROPSHIRE, JR., MBA'60, hasbeen transf erred to New York by the International Nickel Company of Canada, Ltd.,to assume the post of manager, venturesdevelopment.DAVID j. trecker, sm'60, pud'62, has leftUnion Carbide to accept an appointmentwith Pfizer Inc., pharmaceutical manufacturing firm, as director of specialty chemi-cals research within the Pfizer centrairesearch division, Groton, Conn. Trecker, who sits on the board of editors of theJournal ofOrganic Chemistry, holds twenty-eight patents and is co-author of the book,Oxidation (1971).r A PAUL A. GOTTSCHALK, AM'61, PllD'65,™ A has been promoted to associate professor of English at Cornell University. Aspecialist in Shakespeare, he is the author ofThe Meanings of 'Hamlet".Filmguide to the Rules of the Game, ananalysis of the famous Renoir flick, byGERALD mast, ab'61, am'62, pIid'67, hasbeen published by the Indiana UniversityPress. Mast, assistant professor of English atRichmond College, City University of NewYork, has previously authored A ShortHistory of the Movies and The Comic Mind:Comedy and the Movies.r*\ john harbeson, am'62, associateOZr professor of politicai science at theUniversity of Wisconsin-Parkside, is inEthiopia as winner of a two-year teachingappointment at Haile Selassie University.Harbeson, who was granted leave fromUW-P for the 1973- '75 academic years, wasselected for the position by the Agency forInternational Development in competitionwith several hundred other politicaiscientists. Previously Harbeson spent twoyears in Kenya doing field research for hisdoctoral dissertation. His book, NationBuilding in Kenya: The Role ofLandReform, published last year, resulted fromthat memoriam: Richard J. Landry, am'62,professor of politicai science at the University of Massachusetts in Boston, diedNovember 3.f-sy GORDON M. BURGHARDT, SB'63,0*5 p1id'66, University of Tennesseefaculty member in both psychology andEnglish, took on the additional job last yearof research curator of the Knoxville Zoo.rA EUGENE C. WITTENSTROM, MD'64,OH" formerly of Boca Raton, Fla., hasopened medicai practice in Geneva, 111., inhis specialties — orthopedics, fractures andhand surgery.Michael a. feit, jd'64, attorney inAlbany, N. Y., and a doctoral f ellow in theschool of criminal justice at Albany StateUniversity, is chairman of the New YorkState Bar Association' s committee oncorrectional system.cynthia samaras, ab'64, is the programdirector for the Boston branch of BerlitzSchool of Languages. Ms. Samaras, whogrew up speaking Greek as well as English,is also fluent in French and Spanish. She is29planning to learn German next.darwin o. coy, pIib'64, has left thefaculty of Milliken University (Decatur, 111.)to accept appointment to the posts of deanof students and associate professor ofnaturai sciences at the University of NorthFlorida (Jacksonville). Coy's areas ofspecialization include the genetics of fungi,the genetics of bacteria, plant tissue culture,and the mutagenic effects of hallucinogenicdrugs.manuel l. Jackson, am'64, johied thefull-time faculty of George Williams College,Downers Grove, last fall as assistantprofessor of social work in the social work/applied behavioral science division. Hetaught part-time at the school last year.Jackson, who has niaintained a privatepractive in chìld and faniily therapy since1966, is co-founder of Human DevelopmentAssociates, Chicago, an organizationproviding consultation and training servicesfor child serving agencies, and of Afro-American Child and Family Services, a blacksocial service agency in Chicago.r ^ Michael jacobson, ab'65, contributo ted an article, "Accentuate the Positive," to the January issue of Instructor, inwhich he describes a new food rating systemdesigned by the Center for Science in thePublic Interest in Washington of which he isco-director. The article indicates that people,especially children, will change to better eat-ing habits if presented with an easy-to-com-prehend method of judging the nutritionalqualities of food. He explains that tradition-al efforts to teach nutrition — around learn-ing the Basic Four and memorizing the ill-nesses caused by vitamin deficiencies — oftencreated a negative reaction in children tolearning anything about nutrition, asevidenced in the mounting sales of soda popand other non-nutritive snack foods.m. barbara akin, am'65, pho'70, is anassociate professor of history at Grove City(Pa.) College.BARRY R. DWORKIN, AB'66, havfolgbeen awarded a doctorate fromRockefeller University in June, 1973, wasappointed to that faculty last fall as assistantprofessor in the field of physiologicalpsychology.linda brust, am'66, is teaching atSangamon State University (Springfield, 111.)this year as visiting assistant professor ofliterature. Ms. Brust, who has studiedcomparative literature in Munster, Frankfurtand Munchen, Germany, is a doctoral candidate at Indiana University.barbara darrah, am'66, pIid'73, hasjoined the faculty of Aurora (111.) College as assistant professor of English.KATHERINE SPROAT KADISH, Am'66,Binghamton, N. Y., won a New York Stategrant from the Creative Artists Public Service Program for her current project — a port-folio of etchings about women. Ms. Kadish'sdrawings and etchings, primarily of thehuman figure, will be among those shown inthe biennial national print exhibition of theLibrary of Congress.peter e. marzio, am'66, pIid'69, residenthistorian of the Smithsonian Institution, metRube Goldberg in 1970 in connection with aspecial exhibit he was organizing of the greatcartoonist's work. Marzio had access toGoldberg' s papers, and in researching thefamily collections, he uncovered manyoriginai cartoons and manuscripts which hadbeen forgotten. Now his biography of thehumorist, Rube Goldberg: His Life andWork, including 190 of his greatest cartoons,drawings and inventions along with many ofhis writings, has been released by Harper &Row. Marzio attempts in the work to placeGoldberg in the history of American journalism and show his influence on the development of the cartoon.neil philip arkuss, ab '66, and NancyNewton Warsawer were married October 14in Carmel, N. Y. He is an attorney with theNew York law firm of Barrett, Smith,Schapiro & Simon.IO CAROLE MaCKAY BUNDY, MTh'67,dm'69, and james bundy, dmu'69,am'71, pho student in church history at UC,have been installed as co-ministers of Gale-wood Community Church, United Church ofChrist, in Chicago.FREDERICK!. CUMMINGS, pIid'67,assistant director of the Detroit Institute ofArts since 1967, has moved up to the post ofdirector. Cummings, formerly an instructorin the history of art at the University ofMissouri, joined the art museum in 1964 ascurator of European art.STEPHEN TALLACKSON, AM'67, ÌS UOWdirector of the human relations commissionof the city of Gary, Ind.wantland l. sandel, jr., llm'68,has been appointed director of the division of judicial services activities of theAmerican Bar Association, Chicago.Stephen goodman, ab'70, reportsthat he is at present the Philadelphiaarea sales representative for McGraw-HillBook Company, college textbook division.david b. bukey, jb'7Q, was named actingU. S. attorney in Milwaukee, following aresignation, to serve until President Nixonchooses a permanent replacement for the post. Bukey has been assistant U. S. attorneisince 1971.7<i Gregory p. urban, ab'71, recipieiit1 of a 1973-'74 Doherty fellowship foradvanced study in Latin America, isspending twelve months in Brazil studyingthe social structure of a Ge-speaking tribe.He is a graduate student in anthropology atUCcj*j theodore berland, am'72, Chicago,/ JL tells us that his latest and ninth book,Rating the Diets, was published byConsumer Guide in January. In addition, apaper he wrote on eyeglasses and contactlenses was cited recently by the Vision Con-servation Institute.timothy f. acker, ab '72, is teaching atSt. PauTs School, Concord, N. H., this year,as an intern instructor in the modem lan-guages department.CAROL ELIZABETH MOSELEY (BRAUN),jd'72, has been named an assistant U. in Chicago, to work in the civildivision.RICHARD ALAN williams, am'72, and aUC doctoral candidate, is at the Universityof Denver this year as visiting assistant professor of foreign languages and literature.Williams, a Hindi and Sanskrit linguist, isan assistant editor of Mahfìl, A Ouarterly ojSouth Asìan Literature, and has been aresearch assistant for the University ofChicago Hindi dictionary project.73 ELLIN BERMAN, DAVID J. CLARDY,and janet h. pine, ali ab '73, are first-year medicai students, Berman and Pine atHarvard, and Clardy at Washington University in St. Louis.Richard p. horn, jd'73, has joined theMaytag Company (Newton, la.) as an attorney in the legai department.thomas e. lelon, pho'73, formerassistant to the senior vice-president and thedean of faculties at Boston College, has ac-cepted an appointment as dean of graduateprograms at Babson College (Wellesley,Mass.). At Babson, a coeducational collegeof management, Lelon is in charge of theMBA programs.Shelley m. cox, am'73, is now curatoréfrare books at Southern Illinois University inCarbondale.james f. ruethling, mba'73, Wilmette,an employee of the First National Bank ofChicago since 1970, has been promoted toloan officer of the commercial bankingdepartment.henry willis, mba'73, has beenpromoted by Foote, Cone & Belding(Chicago) to account supervisor. He joinedthe agency early last year.30CattailsTop prize in the twenty-seventhannual San Francisco artfestival went to a Chicagoalumnus, Alexander M. Riskin(md'35) for this sculpture,"Cattails." The city acquiredthe work for $1,500 and is con-sìdering making it a permanentexhibit. San Francisco' s cityhall is in the background, withthe flexible metal reeds tossingin the breeze. Dr. Riskin isshown above.A UNIQUE PRESENTATION OF THE UNIVERSITY'S PAST - NOW AVAILABLEin opimoOctoberThe Ferris Wheel; Foster Hall lower rigMONE IN SPTRIT [A RETROSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO BASED ON THE RECORDS OFTHE UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES; AN EXHIBITION HELD AT THE JOSEPH REGENSTEIN LIBRARY, NOVEMBER 1973- MARCH 1974. CHICAGO, C1973]125 PAGES. 103 ILLUSTRATIONS, FACSIMILES, PORTRAITS.The book contains twenty-two chapters, tracing thegrowth of the University from its beginnings through theneighborhood renewal efforts of the 1950s. The illustrateci narrative, based on selected documents, photo- graphs, and memorabilia in the University Archives.highlights the scope and diversity of University life andthe role of The University of Chicago in higher educationin the twentieth century.$6.00 per copy, including handling and postageThe University of Chicago LibraryUniversity Archives1100 East 57th StreetChicago, Illinois 60637I enclose payment for copyties) of ONE IN SPIRITand for other exhibit catalogs as checked in theaccompanying list. Please send catalogs to:Name.Address_City State. .Zip ? Notable Books and Manuscripts from the University Library'slections. 95 Pages. 37 Illus. $4.00D The Latin Manuscript Book: The Development of Book MakingPalaeography. 53 Pages. 19 Illus. $2.00?DD Cda""Far East Collections: The University Library's Resources on CW ^Japan, and Other Far Eastern Cultures. 34 Pages. 22 Illus. $JlNew Testament Manuscript Traditions: The Historical and LitefContext on the Scriptures. 52 Pages. $4.00The Morris Fishbein Collection: Books on the History of Medicland Science. 40 Pages. $1.50Music in the University Library Collections: Manuscripts, Scores,Printed Sources. 30 Pages. 13 Illus. $2.00? The Sir Nicholas Bacon Collection: Sources on the Domestic HistofiH Oli J^H IH U. IN I><ILII|| V l)| |i;i | Hill. .H MI II IN UH II IL. I / IJ 1 1 I L 3 l ' «- " *Jof England from the Middle Ages to 1700. 101 Pages. 7 Illus. **'ff>