¦ ¦ ¦:-¦¦ ¦¦¦ ¦¦¦ ¦ ::;,,,,v: , .....t > ".,,«* _ ¦„., Iftr Agjii'iTi itiif in in u n UMBUBi"It M&U I • =UNDVL f liOF Gnli^A ug^^—»^V¦*' "". Ilts5LifeML RUNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOUNIVERSITY ARCHIVESJOSEPH REGENSTEIN LIBRARY1100 EAST 57TH STREET NOVEMBER/ DECEMBER 1973UM& " *^7Journey to JupiterJohn A. SimpsonNoblesse in an egalitarian worldKarl J. Weintraub 12Autumn hazeJames R. Iorio 15 THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEMaroons plow into fall schedules 16Some reflections on the videoculture of the futureJohn G. Cawelti 19Report on the postcard questionnaire 253 Quadrangle news 25 Alumni newsVolume LXVI Number 3November/December, 1973The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published six times peryear for alumni and the faculty of TheUniversity of Chicago, under the auspicesof the Office of the Vice President forPublic Affairs. Letters and editorialcontributions are welcomed.Don Morris, AB'36EditorJennie LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois; additional entry at Madison,Wisconsin, Copyright 1973, TheUniversity of Chicago. Published inJuly/August, September/October,November/December, January/February,March/April, and May/June. The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312)753-2175John S. Coulson, '36, PresidentArthur Nayer, Director, Alumni AffairsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorKristen Nelson, Program DirectorRegional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91201(213)242-8288825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030New York, New York 10022(212)688-73551000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415)928-0337735 South Fairfax StreetAlexandria, Va. 22314(703) 549-3800COVER: Maroons' Mike Vidas (22) and John Vail (17) bring Wheaton ball carrier to asudden halt. The game wound up a 6-6 tie (see Page 15).PICTURE CREDITS: Pages 1, 16, Tom Rainey; Page 3, David Windsor; Page 4, SandraKronquist; Page 5, H. Anne Plettinger; Page 7, Yerkes Observatory; Pages 7, 8, 9,NASA; Page 18, Jennie Lightner; Page 19, Leslie Travis.Quadrangle V\(ewsTruncated trunkBy November the students are already thinking about the joys of the end of the quarter,even though a few hurdles intervene. TheReynolds Club bulletin board teems withoffers and requests foryuletide share-the-gasrides to the Boston area, Mexico City, Seattle,Toronto, and other glamor spots.The tuckpointing at Blaine Hall has longbeen completed. The new sidewalk in front ofthe vacant area where Dean Gilkey's houseused to be has been laid. The vacuum causedby the disappearance of Woodworth's bookstore on 57th Street has been filled by themove-in of Joseph O'Gara's bookstore,formerly at the corner of 57th Street andHarper. (Continuity in this move is furnishedby the truncated trunk of the elm tree thatused to stand in front of Woodworth's. It stillserves as a community bulletin board, withattached notices promoting everything fromexperienced babysitting to transcendentalmeditation.)As October waned, the political upheavalsin Washington brought an alumnus of theUniversity into the center of the action. Red-bearded Richard H. Bork (AB'48, JD'53), whohad been serving as solicitor general, wasnamed acting Attorney General following theresignation of Elliot Richardson and thedismissal of William Ruckelshaus. Mr.Bork's first task: fire Archibald Cox. Next:"Continue with full vigor" the Cox investigations.Germany's Willy Brandt,covered by the Maroon as he spoke to theChicago Council on Foreign Relations, wasstiffly upbraided by that newspaper's reporterfor his failure to say anything much. AndIllinois' grant to nineteen-year-olds of theright to drink beer found the customers atJimmy's, the venerable 55th Street spa, aboutthe same as everU.e. garrulous).Yale appointment shifts GraysCharles M. Gray, associate professor in theDepartment of History and in the College,struck a blow for women's liberation thisfall. Hanna Holborn Gray, who had servedwith distinction on the Midway before shemoved to Northwestern last year as dean ofthe College of Arts and Sciences, was namedprovost of Yale University, whereupon theGrays decided that the offer should be accepted even though it meant that Mr. Graywould have to resign his post at Chicago andmove to New Haven.Anthropological influxAlthough sessions were held in the capaciousHilton hotel downtown, University ofChicago people played important roles in thecolossal week-long quinquennial conclave ofsocial scientists held in Chicago in September: the Ninth International Congress ofAnthropological and Ethnological Sciences.Between 2,500 and 3,000 students ofmankind, representing more than onehundred countries, attended the sessions;took note of more than 1,500 papers presented; watched scores of motion pictures ofsociety in dozens of faraway lands (frequently showing the presence of policecordons around otherwise uninhibited nativedancers). Americans were in the minority atvirtually all of the sessions.Following each day's adjournment thevisitors scoured the city in search of a betterunderstanding of the native and non-nativepopulations of Chicago. They also watchedperformances of "Tomu-Tomu," an operaby Gian-Carlo Menotti, specially commissioned by the congress.Playing a key role in the organization ofthe multi-faceted congress was Sol Tax,professor in the Department ofAnthropology and the College.Where else would the bulletin boards inhotel corridors (using various languages)advise the casual observer of the loss of alarge magnifying glass, summon travelers onAir France charter 4524; and invite socialscientists to "Concern for IndigenousPeoples" sessions?Cuminings Center's adventOctober saw the dedication of the$12,000,000 Cummings Life Science Center,an unusual eleven-story structure with fortychimneys. The chimneys play a role in theesthetics of the building by recalling theubiquity of the chimney in the medievaltradition; more importantly, they serve asexhaust conduits. The building, planned tohouse laboratories with maximum flexibilityof function, is built in modules each ofwhich includes a fume hood connection permitting continuous exhaustion of room air. There are, on the average, twenty fumehoods per floor. The labs can be adjusted tomeet specified scientific specifications fortemperature, air pressure, humidity andsterility. One, for instance, can maintain anyrequired temperature from -36°F. to 108°F.The building is the second tallest on thecampus, exceeded only by RockefellerMemorial Chapel (by thirty-five feet).Principal donor of the building is NathanCummings, founder of Consolidated FoodsCorporation.Scientists, including three Nobel laureates,came to the Quadrangles to speak on aspectsof current research in molecular biology. Theprincipal address was given by Arthur Romberg, Stanford biochemist and Nobel prizewinner.In addition to the visiting Nobel laureates,two others, members of the University community, also participated in the events:President Emeritus George W. Beadle andRobert S. Mullikan, the Ernest DeWittBurton distinguished service professor ofphysics and chemistry.Cummings and its chimneys.3Athletic scholars: a first for the MidwayThe University's new Women's AthleticAssociation-Gertrude Dudley scholarship forwomen was awarded twice as the '73-'74academic year began — to Noel Bairey, ofModesto, California, a swimmer nationallyranked in AAU competition, and Laura AnnSilvieus, of Kingsville, Ohio, who competesin basketball, volleyball and softball. Thetwo were chosen from nearly 1,000 highschool applicants; only one Dudley scholarship had been planned, but the magnitude ofthe response led to the double award of thefour-year, full-tuition grant.The scholarships are given to academicallyqualified entering women who have participated in high school sports or alliedactivity, regardless of need. There is nostipulation that the scholarship holder mustparticipate in women's varsity sports, whichnow includes intercollegiate competition inbadminton, basketball, softball, swimming,tennis and volleyball.The new scholarship honors the memoryof Gertrude Dudley, first chairman of theWomen's Physical Education Department,who served in that capacity from 1898 to 1935.Meanwhile, on the other side of the aisle,Stagg scholarships went to Michael F.O'Connor, a high school football and trackman, from Chicago; Gregory S. Retizinger, abasketball standout from Racine, Wisconsin;and John D. Richards, a wrestler andfootball player from Waukegan, Illinois. TheStagg scholarship program, now in itseleventh year, is named for Amos AlonzoStagg, who coached football at Chicago from1892 until 1932.Sickle cell center setDr. James Bowman has been named directorand principal investigator of a newlyestablished Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center at the University. Dr. Bowman is professor in the Departments of Pathology andMedicine and in the Committee on Geneticsin the College. Deputy director of the Centerwill be Dr. John J. Madden, associate professor in the Department of Pediatrics andmedical director of the Woodlawn ChildHealth Care Center. The Sickle Cell Center also involves collaboration with theMid-South Health Planning Organizationand Michael Reese Hospital and MedicalCenter. It was made possible by a five-yeargrant by the National Heart and LungInstitute of the U.S. Public Health Serviceand is one of fifteen such centers receivingthis support.Kress gives art objectsThe Samuel H. Kress Foundation hasdonated twenty-one works of art to the University, where they will become part of thecollection of the David and Arthur SmartGallery. Among the works are paintings byCecco Bravo, Donato Creti, and Jan Steen.Edward A. Maser, professor in the Department of Art and the College and directorof the Gallery, said of the collection: "Theworks . . . are very much what is needed to getthe University's art gallery off to a good startas a serious university museum."Eyes are schizophrenia clueInability of schizophrenics to maintaincontact with reality may be associated withinability of their eyes to follow moving objectin the world around them, according to areport in Science by three Universityscientists.In experiments which involved followingthe motion of a pendulum, it was found that,unlike normal persons or persons with othermental health problems, most subjectsdiagnosed as schizophrenics exhibited halts ineye motion, which normally would mirror thaiof the pendulum.The researchers: Dr. Philip S. Holzman,professor of psychiatry; Dr. Leonard R.Proctor, associate professor of surgery,specializing in otolaryngology; and DominicW. Hughes, Department of Surgery researchtechnologist.The ability to pursue the path of an objectsmoothly, says Dr. Holzman, is a criticalfactor in visual perception; it is a key factor ilkeeping contact with reality. If schizophrenics have impaired visual perception, hesuggests, the condition might account for thebreaks with reality which are an indication ofthis condition."The dysfunction noted here stronglyimplicates smooth pursuit eye movements inschizophrenic pathology," Dr. Holzmanwrites. "It suggests that schizophrenicdysfunction involves the fine regulation ofneuromuscular activity which is required forsmooth pursuit."4f ^fc— L Inm *4&,Firemen fight to contain damage at the north side of Jones, where basement blasts occurred. Beyond them is demolished loading dock.Blowout at Jones LabThe University made some scarcely-to-be-desired headlines this fall, when a series ofexplosions ripped their way through theGeorge Herbert Jones lab. The explosions,occurring in a basement storage area, notonly blew out a portion of the north wall ofJones, buckled floors and did other damage,but the force was so great as to spring themassive doors of Kent Chemical Laboratory,adjoining Jones on the east.Studies of the cause or causes of the blastsare still in progress. Damage to bothbuildings, and more particularly to theircontents, was estimated at $2,500,000. Noleakage of radioactive materials was found.Four University guards, responding after thefirst blast, were slightly injured by the ensuing explosions.The fourth floor of Jones has been designated a national landmark; it was here thatthe element plutonium was first isolated andweighed.Bradburn heads new departmentThe University has established a newdepartment, the Department of theBehavioral Sciences, and has named NormanM. Bradburn to be its chairman. The department will carry the major responsibility inthe University for graduate academicprograms in the area of psychology andclosely related behavioral sciences.After receiving his bachelor's (with honors)at Chicago, Mr. Bradburn took another one at Magdalen College at Oxford and went onto earn his graduate degrees at Harvard. Hehas been a member of the Chicago facultysince 1960.KudosEdward L. Bassett, a faculty member since1952, has been named chairman of theDepartment of Classical Languages andLiteratures, succeeding Anne Pippin Burnett,who returns to teaching and research. Mr.Bassett specializes in Latin literature.Charles W. Wegener, master of the NewCollegiate Division of the College, has beenappointed the first permanent Howard L.Willett professor in the College.Dr. Frank W. Newell, the James and AnnaLouise Raymond professor in and chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology,has been named president-elect of theAmerican Academy of Ophthalmology andOtolaryngology.Harry D. Harootunian, a scholar in thefield of Japanese history formerly at theUniversity of Rochester, has joined the University as the first holder of the newlyestablished Max Palevsky chair in history andcivilizations. A $300,000 gift from Mr.Palevsky, a trustee of the University, matchedfunds for the chair previously provided by agrant from the Andrew W. MellonFoundation. Howard Guy Williams- Ashman, aspecialist in the biochemistry of the malegenital system and its relationship tohormone-dependent cancers, has been namedto the new Maurice Goldblatt professorshipin the Ben May Laboratory for CancerResearch and the Department ofBiochemistry.Edwin Gerow (AB'52, PhD'62), a studentof civilizations, has been named to the newFrank L. Sulzberger chair in the College,which, like the Palevsky chair, matches aMellon grant. Mr. Gerow's special interest isin the field of Sanskrit.The coveted Bolivar medal of the Boli-varian Society of the United States wasawarded to Dr. Humberto Fernandez-Moran, who is the A. N. Pritzker professorof biophysics at the University and head of aworld renowned electron microscope lab. Heis the first scientist to receive the award,which is usually given to heads of state.Dr. Fernandez-Moran, who nearly twodecades ago invented the diamond knife as atool in biological ultrastructure research, wasborn in Venezuela and headed theDepartment of Biophysics at the Universityof Caracas. He came to the United States in1958 and organized the Mixter Laboratoriesat Massachusetts General Hospital inBoston. He headed this operation until 1962,when he joined the University of Chicagofaculty.The American College of Surgeons honoredthe University's Dr. Charles B. Huggins,dedicating the Proceedings of its 29th ClinicalCongress to him.5Journey to JupiterProbe will make closest-ever approach to the big planeton December 3, and the University will be aboardJohn A. SimpsonOne of the most dramatic revolutions in the history ofscience is under way today in the fields of astronomy andastrophysics. If that were where these events ended, theywould remain quite a remote subject for most people. But itis not. The fact is that the kinds of astrophysical problemsthat challenge us today feed back to our understanding ofphysical phenomena and their applications on earth.We do not know where this revolution, derived fromobservations and ideas, is taking us, but we have alreadyentered a new golden age of astronomy and astrophysics.We see ahead of us the possibility for deciding — really forthe first time — among models for the origin of the universe,stellar systems, and even the genesis of the chemicalelements as we know them today.Much of the new astrophysics is based on non-equilibrium — even explosive — phenomena, rather than the steadystate thermal phenomena which have been the primaryconcerns of astrophysics in the past. It is the violence of thephenomena discovered in the astrophysics of the pastfifteen years that has changed dramatically our currentviews of the universe. A remarkably large portion of our knowledge of thesephenomena comes from studies made on earth satellitesand deep space probes. Visible light, X rays and radio wavesall radiate in the form of bursts as well as steady emissionsfrom objects such as the sun, binary star systems andgalaxies. These emissions, in many cases, result from theacceleration of charged particles moving in magnetic fieldsand plasmas. These high energy particles are mostly electrons or the nuclei of atoms, principally the nuclei of hydrogen atoms (protons). It is the study of these high energyparticles on all astrophysical scales that has attracted theattention of my students and myself over many years, and itis within the framework of these studies that the mission toJupiter which concerns us here is to be placed. The study ofhigh energy charged particles in nature was one of thefields that initiated the research area which we call highenergy astrophysics.The conduct of experiments in space is not new to theLaboratory for Astrophysics and Space Research at theUniversity. Indeed, we have carried out more than twenty-eight missions on earth satellites, deep space probes,planetary probes or probes landing on the moon, all withinthe past eleven years. In the whole range of studies so far,however, man has been constrained to work within what Iwill call the inner solar system, that is, the space betweenthe sun and Mars (which we studied with instruments on theMariner 4 in 1965).The Jupiter probe, Pioneer 10, which is due to reach thatplanet at 8:30 p.m., December 3 (C.S.T.), and itscompanion probe, Pioneer 11, are different. They representman's first steps to break the gravitational "chains" thathave linked him to the inner solar system. For the first timeman has the opportunity to enter space occupied by theouter planets, to pass outside the influence of the solarsystem, and to enter interstellar space.If the two Pioneer spacecraft survive the asteroid belt (asthe first already has) and the passage of Jupiter, they willescape the solar system. Their communications systems areso sophisticated that with a transmitter power of approximately eight watts — the power used in one of the lamps on aMr. Simpson, who is Edward L. Ryerson distinguished service professor in the Department of Physics, this summer added responsibilitiesas director of the EnricoFermi Institute for NuclearStudies. He came to Chicagoas a group leader in theManhattan Project in 1943and joined the physicsfaculty in 1945. This articleis an updated adaptation ofa talk originally given byMr. Simpson before theUniversity's Citizens Board.6string of Christmas tree lights — transmission of data overtwo billion miles will be achieved readily with only the lossof information of one part in two hundred. This already ismany orders of magnitude beyond the communicationcapabilities of anything achieved in the United States, or inthe world, so far.Talking to the spacecraft is a slow, tedious process. Forexample, to query the spacecraft at Jupiter from earth andto receive a reply at the velocity of light will take about oneand a half hours.But, as we shall learn, these are some of the technical sideeffects of our main objective — scientific investigation.Broadly speaking, our laboratory has four major scientificobjectives for the mission:First, as the spacecraft travels between the orbit of Earthand Jupiter, and between Jupiter and the distant pointwhere we anticipate losing communication with the probe,we will explore the way charged particles move from theRotationAxisdeciroelnc Radiation(Sync htotton Radiation)\The Jupiter probes may help explain how electrons are injected intothe planet 's magnetosphere. indicated in this drawing, and are accelerated to relativistic energies. Banded, flattened at the poles, with its red "eye" visible at lowerright, this is Jupiter, target of Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11.galaxy inward through the magnetic fields and plasmas ofsolar origin which permeate all interplanetary space — thatis, we shall study the dynamics of the interplanetarymedium.Second, we hope to understand for the first time some ofthe phenomena occurring near the interface between theinterplanetary medium and the interstellar medium.As a third objective, these studies will advance enormously our understanding of the low energy cosmic rays inthe galaxy which, although not reaching to the orbit ofEarth, play an important role in many phenomena on agalactic scale.Finally, there is the challenge of Jupiter itself. With itsenormous magnetic field, it has trapped and acceleratedcharged particles to such an extent that its radiation beltsexceed in intensity the radiation belts of the earth by morethan a factor of 1,000. Here we hope to understand how theparticles are accelerated and generate radio waves whichreach Earth. Indeed this will be the first opportunity inastrophysics to compare the radio emission from an astro-physical body with direct measurements of electrons whichare the source of the radio waves.The story of our participation in the missions to Jupiterand beyond began many years ago when we made our ownplans, based on the premise that some day there must besuch a mission. We knew which scientific objectives weregoing to yield the discoveries we were after; so we went towork on the necessary technologies in our laboratory. Welooked selectively at the factors that would decide whetherwe could carry out the experiments if Congress appropriated the funds for such a mission.Congressional approval was obtained by NASA, which in1968 issued a request for scientific proposals for such amission. We were ready (and so were more than 100 otherscientific groups, in five nations). After two weeks of what I7might call "show and tell" before scientific reviewcommittees, it turned out that eleven instruments finallywere selected. One of these is the University of Chicagofamily of charged particle experiments, which representssomething like 15% of the whole payload weight and a proportionate commitment of the approximately $130,000,000enterprise. From 1969 until the launch of Pioneer 10 inMarch, 1972 (and then the launch of its sister ship, Pioneer11, in April, 1973), there has been a very dedicated group inthe Laboratory for Astrophysics and Space Research of theEnrico Fermi Institute working toward these goals.Let me mention just a few of the kinds of problems weand NASA faced. Some of these problems are likely to havetheir counterparts in enterprises on Earth in the future. Ourfirst problem was to protect ourselves against the radiationdamage which we were almost certainly going to suffer inpassing near Jupiter. From the radio emission received atEarth we knew that Jupiter has a magnetic field withinwhich electrons — and probably high energy protons — arePIONEER-10/ll TRAJECTORY(Monthly Pomli, Eorlh-Sun Lino Find)Pionter-10 •Pionter - 1 1 ° circulating.These particles radiate radio waves not only continuouslybut also in bursts — and from the radio emissions one canget a rough idea of how high the intensity may be for theelectrons trapped in the magnetic field. The drawing onPage 7 is an artist's conception of what the intensity profileof the particles trapped in the Jovian magnetic field may be.Radio bursts have been observed which are so energeticthat although they last only a few seconds they correspondto the emission at Jupiter's surface of a third of a billionkilowatts, or more power than the combined capacity of allthe electric generating plants in the United States. Since theconversion of energy from trapped electrons to radioemission is very inefficient, it is obvious that we are dealingwith a very high density of trapped particles. Thus we arefaced with the question, if we are going to pass through thisregion of space and survive, what is the maximum radiationlevel for survival and how much radiation damage is ourexperiment going to suffer?The United States, Russia, and several othernations have become quitesophisticated in the field ofradiation damage physics.This is an outgrowth of theirwork on nuclear power andhydrogen bomb developments. Although this information is valuable as abackground, there are manyrelatively new problems,since we are now dealingwith the penetration ofparticles of much higherenergy in semi-conductordevices unknown at the timeof the earlier studies ofradiation damage.Since our electronic circuits are almost all solidstate, changes in the operational characteristics as aresult of radiation damagecould result in the circuitsbecoming inoperative. Ourproblem was to assure ourselves, in an experimentcontaining over ten thousand semi-conductor devices, that even with radiation damage our instrumentwould return valuable scientific data. In addition to theelectronics, glasses and insulation around wires willPionttr-llEncounter withJuprlor, SDoc.,'746AUI. Pionoor-10Encounter withJupittr, 3 Doc ,'73suffer severe damage. Ordinary glass would turn opaque;ordinary insulated wire would have its insulation drop off asa powder.A second class of problems involves the approximately1.770 identified asteroids in space between the orbit ofMars and the orbit of Jupiter, a region known as theasteroid belt. Although some of them are as large as 450iiiles in diameter, most of them are very small— smallerthan buckshot. Consequently, various schemes had to beused to protect the spacecraft without introducing armorPlate for passage through the region. (It turns out that thep'oneer 10 successfully penetrated the asteroid belt withoutar>y evidence of damage and certainly without interferingw>th the University of Chicago experiment. Pioneer 1 1 , as ofOctober, 1973, is within the asteroid belt following on thefootsteps of Pioneer 10 and it, too, at this time is still in"good health.")The third problem is one you have probably already'nought about, namely a continuous supply of electricPower for the experiments in the spacecraft at these great^stances. The use of solar paddles to collect radiant energyf°r conversion to electrical power is hopeless at these great^'stances. Indeed, as viewed from Jupiter, the sun is but aliny glowing spot in a relatively dark sky. Thus, for the firsttirile in a deep space mission it is necessary to turn to•"adioactive thermal generators to provide a more or lessc°ntinuous power source of approximately 130 watts.These generators are located on booms. They are located0n booms, not only to reduce the radiation damage to theexPeriments, but also to prevent the charged particle back-bounds which they produce in the instruments from interring with the scientific measurements.Cavity assistA fourth problem is how to escape the gravitational field°* the sun. Not even the most powerful rockets in the UnitedStates or in the Soviet Union could undertake this missionWithout the assistance of Jupiter itself. In order to reach theSolar system escape velocity, we will utilize a trick which hasn(;ver been used before: we will use the gravity assist of aPlanet to "kick" our spacecraft out of the solar system. Nowy°u say there is something strange in this because if thePlanet has a gravitational field, and if the probe is comingtoward the planet, then it is being accelerated; but on the0thcr hand, as it goes past the planet it will again be de-Ce'erated by approximately the same amount, so there is no"et effec(. This is true if you treat the planet as a stationary°°jcct. But in fact the planet is moving in an orbit such that,3s the space probe comes past the planet, the planet isfiling away from the position of the spacecraft at the sametime. And it is this small increment of acceleration— that Artist's conception of the Pioneer 10 passing close to Jupiter.Scientific instruments, including the University's, are locatedadjacent to the hexagonal hub of the spacecraft and behind thesaucer-shaped high-gain antenna.yields a small increment of velocity — which makes thedifference between staying in the solar system and escapingfrom it forever.With all the hazards, what if we do have an accident?Suppose that the accident is the failure of one of the sensorsin our experiment; for example, a tiny particle from theasteroid belt might enter the window or the first detector ofour telescope to destroy its operation. We have designed ourexperiment so that it will send us diagnostic information toearth on the nature of the failure. With this information wemay be able not only to reconstruct what happened, but decide how we might reconstruct our experiment by changingthe logical operation of our experiment. We are able to sendback a set of commands to the spacecraft which essentiallysay, "Okay, part of the experiment has to be taken out, andnow we are going to reconstruct the experiment with all theremaining elements."We issue these commands electronically; the experiment isreconfigured, and we go on with the mission. Obviously wehave degraded the experiment and may, indeed, have lostsome of our objectives, but we will not have lost all of themission objectives. Thus we have for the first time introduced in experiments interactive diagnostics and repair-ability of ongoing experiments in space. This may becomeof great importance to us if the mission goes to its fullextent of seven to nine years.This is the beginning of a new era of automated flight forlong-term missions to the planets that will eventually findits way into our thinking on how we may investigate Marsinstead of sending up a man in the 1990s — that is, go to anautomated program somewhat like what the Russians arenow doing. (Since the time of this talk the Soviets havelaunched four probes to Mars with the intent of landing onMars with automatic apparatus sometime in February,1974.)The acquisition of the data from the spacecraft and itsdelivery to our laboratory in Chicago is a crucial part of themission. In order to transmit with only eight watts of power9the spacecraft must constantly face earth. The spacecraft isdynamically balanced so that it rotates five times a minute.There are gas jets around the rim of the radio dish whichkeep the dish pointed at earth at all times so it is able toconcentrate all of its transmitting power into a narrowbeam. To aid in the pointing, the radio dish is made towobble slightly as it rotates. This introduces a Dopplereffect in the radio emission, so that the engineering staff atearth can measure the alignment of the radio dish throughout the year as earth moves about the sun.On earth there are three radio dishes, 210 feet indiameter, which are brought into play every twenty-fourhours. As the earth rotates, the dishes come into operationsuccessively to receive the information which is then transmitted to a center where the data for the University arestripped onto a magnetic tape along with all the engineeringdata, and delivered to our Chicago laboratories, where wedo all of our analytic work with computers.For our experiment at the University, my collaborators inthese missions are A. J. Tuzzolino (PhD'58) and J. J.O'Gallagher (PhD'67), now assistant professor at theUniversity of Maryland. Our experiment is essentially an allUniversity of Chicago effort. One of the major benefits tothe University is the major role played by our graduatestudents from the\Department of Physics. By encouragingtheir participation \n the design phase and later in theanalysis of the data, they learn to work in the real environment of problem solving in creative research — boththeoretical and experimental. It is very important not toisolate the scientific efforts of the faculty — no matter howlarge or advanced the effort — from our students who areour future scientists. Their intense enthusiasm in themissions to Jupiter proves this point.Enigmatic planetJupiter — Pioneer mission's target — is probably the mostinteresting planet in the solar system. It is a planet thatmight not have been a planet at all, but rather a star, ifsome events in its early history had occurred a little differently.It is a spectacular planet in many ways. It is the fifthplanet from the sun, and it takes twelve years to go aroundthe sun. Its diameter is eleven times Earth's and it has twoand a half times the mass of all the other planets combined.Jupiter has twelve moons, the largest of which is as big asthe planet Mercury. Jupiter's magnetic field is thought to beat least fifty thousand times as strong as Earth's.I have already alluded to the enormously high intensityradiation trapped in this magnetic field. If Jupiter's radiation belts were visible to the eye from Earth, they wouldappear as large as the full moon when viewed from Earth. It is a beautiful and mysterious planet. As I mentioned, ithas characteristics which suggest it is not a typical planet.For example, Jupiter appears to give off more energy than itreceives. Classically a planet is defined as a body thatreflects light, whereas a star is a body that generates itsown heat and radiates it like our sun. But Jupiter may besomething in between. This is one of the mysteries which thePioneer mission may help to unravel.It is a very primitive planet, being made up of a combination of gases and elements, perhaps as they were mixed onearth two billion years ago. If it turns out that this is evenonly partly true, it would be extremely interesting because,as has been pointed out many times, Jupiter would becomea new Rosetta Stone, enabling us to go back in time to reconstruct much of the chemistry and physics of planetaryformation. Hence, like the studies now under way on thehistory of the moon, these studies may cast light on theorigin of our solar system.As seen from Earth through a telescope, Jupiter appearsas a hazy, multi-colored object dominated by horizontalstriations or stripes. The banded surface is interrupted bythe famous great red spot. What we actually see is theatmosphere of Jupiter dominated by clouds of ammoniacrystals and droplets, under which probably lie ice crystalsand water droplets. This clouded atmosphere is maintainedin motion by the rotation of the planet yielding a more-or-less permanent structure.For meteorologists, Jupiter will become a fantastic playground, since the study of the Jovian atmosphere must inevitably broaden our understanding of planetary atmospheres and ultimately lead to a better understanding of thedynamics of our own atmosphere.A special feature of the atmosphere is the great red spot,first seen by Galileo. So far as we know today, it appears tobe a vortex of gas that has somehow been stabilized,perhaps half a billion years ago — so as to float in the Jovianatmosphere and to travel with it as the atmosphere continues to be driven by planetary rotation. It is possible thatin the Pioneer mission this red spot can be viewed edgewiseWho's doing what aboard the spacecraftInstrumentsMeteroid detectorAsteroid/meteoroid detectorPlasma analyzerHelium vector magnetometerJovian trapped particles, cosmic ray telescopesCosmic ray telescopeGeiger-tube telescopeTrapped radiation telescopeUltraviolet photometerInfrared radiometerImaging photopolarimeter Principal Scientific GroupLangley Research CenterGeneral Electric Co.NASA Ames Research CenterJet Propulsion Laboratory (Cal. Tech.)University of ChicagoNASA Goddard Space Flight CenterUniversity of IowaUniversity of California at San DiegoUniversity of Southern CaliforniaCalifornia Institute of TechnologyUniversity of Arizona10so as to obtain a totally new profile. Indeed, it is one of thepurposes of the Pioneer mission to measure the infraredemission from Jupiter over the whole planet, its atmosphere,and the great red spot. This work is being undertaken by agroup at the California Institute of Technology. Their measurements may answer the question as to whether Jupiteremits more energy in the form of heat than it receives.Anatomy of a planetThe structure of Jupiter has been the subject of manyhypotheses and models. If we were to take a thin slice out ofthe planet extending all the way to the center, we might expect — starting from the outermost Jovian cloud layer andgoing toward the center — a distribution of ammoniacrystals and vapor, and water vapor which forms theatmosphere; then, moving inward, we reach the sensiblesurface of the planet, which is presumably a mix of liquidand solid hydrogen, and then on into a new form of hydrogen — metallic hydrogen — which is a form of matter of greattheoretical interest in the U.S. and the Soviet Union.Finally one would reach a dense core probably made ofrocky silicates and metallic elements. It has been estimatedthat the core of Jupiter itself may have a mass at least tentimes that of earth. The solid state studies resulting fromthe Pioneer mission observations of Jupiter will inevitablystimulate further research in the solid states of matter inour laboratories on earth.As I pointed out earlier, the radio emission from Jupiterhas provided proof that electrons are trapped in a magneticfield which extends from the interior of the planet. Thisfield probably has its origin in a "dynamo" within theplanet. Thus one of the major questions is how a planet withthe composition I have described above can provide internalmotions which generate this gigantic magnetic field.This question leads me directly into the measurements tobe made by the Pioneer missions as the respective spacecraft pass the planet. Instruments are carried on board thespacecraft to measure the Jovian magnetic field, plasmas(ionized gas) in and around the planet, and to measure electrons, protons and the nuclei of helium which have been accelerated within the magnetic fields of the planet.These latter measurements constitute one of the mainobjectives of our group. From the combined magnetic fieldand high energy particle measurements we hope toconstruct a rough model of the trapped radiation aroundJupiter, the main structure of the magnetic field of Jupiter,and even to obtain a new insight into the way nature accelerates electrons and protons within the magnetic field toenergies as high as tens or hundreds of millions of electronvolts. The key to this problem may also be the key to theacceleration of these particles on a vastly larger scale in ourgalaxy. As I mentioned earlier, this mission will provide for the first time an opportunity to compare the radio emissionfrom an astrophysical body with direct measurements of theelectrons which produce the radio emission.Up to this point I have focused on the planet itself as amain objective of the mission, and indeed it is a main objective, even for the engineers who will be anxious to know themaximum high energy particle intensities to which spacecraft may be exposed for future missions, since clearlyJupiter is the "gateway" for all future missions to the outerplanets because of its effect in accelerating the spacecraft.What will we learn from studies with the instrumentationduring the long flight from Earth to Jupiter, and fromJupiter to the time when we cease to detect the radio transmission — a time exceeding seven to nine years? For some ofmy colleagues with experiments on the spacecraft thestudies make it possible to analyze the distribution ofmicrometeorites and larger objects in the asteroid belt, oreven to deduce the trajectories of meteorites which mightcome near the spacecraft. (When Pioneer 10 successfullypenetrated the asteroid belt it was discovered that thepopulation of small particulate which could have eroded thesurface of the spacecraft or destroyed some of its functionsis dramatically smaller than everyone expected. Apparentlythe small particles which could be dangerous but unob-servable from Earth have in large measure been swept upover the past billion years. The asteroid belt is "cleaner"than we thought.)Our own experimental objectives are being realized. Weare studying the high energy cosmic ray particles whichpenetrate into the interplanetary space between Earth andJupiter, and we are learning already that we must changesome of our ideas on how these particles travel through theinterplanetary medium and how the interplanetary magnetic field, whose origin is at the sun, is distributed in space.We observe the nuclear composition of matter from thegalaxy that was energized millions of years ago, and we areattempting to construct a picture of what the compositionof this matter was like from these distant sources at thatearlier time — a study which bears on the origin of theelements in nature. As we move outward beyond Jupiterduring the next few years, we will enter regions of spaceaccessible to low energy particles from the galaxy which weotherwise could never examine from near the inner solarsystem. These studies should tell us whether or not the lowenergy galactic cosmic rays constitute an additional component, separate from the high energy cosmic rays, andwhether they are able to heat the dilute clouds of gas in theinterstellar medium as many investigators at this time thinkthey do.Clearly the mission to Jupiter in the long run will not onlyadd immeasurably to our knowledge, but will provide agreat stimulus to scientific investigation and applications ofnew ideas.11^7" u esse in an ega la anan wof idKarl J. WeintraubGoethe once said that every initiation is a consecration anda curse. The line itself occurs in his autobiography,Dichtung und Wahrheit; the scene to which it is uncannilyrelevant is in his poetic drama Tasso.* When Leonore ofEste, the princess of Ferrara, presses the laurel wreath onTasso's head for the finished Gerusalemme liberata whichhe has just handed her, the high moment of glory captureshim, but then turns into such fearful anxiety that he begsher to take the laurel crown off again. He has lived for thatcrowning moment, and when it is upon him, he fears itscurse. Will it silence his Muse? Will the awareness of hisown worth turn to incapacitating vanity? As the arch-poet,he gives immediate expression to his vision: he sees thelaurel-wreathed youth run into the glade, where he sinksdown and admires his face in the narcissus reflection on themirror-still lake until he sees himself surrounded by all thegreat poets of the past who came to welcome him as one oftheir own. May anyone grasp for a consecrating crownbefore his life is consummated in death?Consecration and curse are two such mighty words thatperhaps neither one can appropriately be applied tomoments of our common lives. The high tone and the sublime is disconsonant with our sober taste in dealing with oneanother. Day in, day out, we are so painfully beset by anirresponsible inflating of terms, by a disproportionateblowing up of momentary events to make them eyecatching, that we instinctively tend to retrench ourselvesbehind a slightly cynical wall which permits us the cultivation of our sensitivity in an inner, private preserve. In someway, all public ceremony has become awkward for us.And yet we have not given up where it would be harmfullyeasy to give in. I think we are right in trusting an instinctwhich holds us to a few traditions even if we are not verygood at expressing their meaning in words.Homo ludens, man playing, is a player with forms. In allour daily actions we are surrounded by forms we ourselveshave not designed; the artist faces the laws of his medium,*I take the suggestion for this from Elizabeth M. Wilkinson'sessay on Goethe's Tasso, in Goethe, Poet and Thinker (London:Arnold, 1962). the chess player faces his board, the lawyer faces the formsof his courtroom procedure, the priest faces those of hisritual, the teacher those of his class, and all of us face theproblem in our dwindling forms of politesse. Rarely are wewise enough to fashion new forms, though we can constantly reformulate when we live authentically. Everymoment our living spirit entrusts itself to a form in which ithopes to live; and when it lives in it, it endows the form withmeaning once again. To that subtle interplay we should beresponsible.What I want to express is a problem; that means: I havebut a tentative answer to it; and I continue to struggle for ananswer to two conflicting antinomies. The problem is aneducational one and it seems to lie at the very heart of theinstitution of Phi Beta Kappa itself.How does one live with a double commitment to the valueof an egalitarian society and the aristocratic concern withexcellence? Wherever you touch the fabric of oureducational activities, you touch on this dilemma.This article is adapted from a talk made at the initiation ojnew members of the University chapter of Phi Beta Kappa,earlier this year, by Mr.Weintraub, who is theThomas E. Donnelley professor in the Department ofHistory and the College andthe newly appointed dean ofthe Division of the Humanities. Mr. Weintraub received his bachelor's degreeat Chicago in 1949, hismaster's in 1952 and hisdoctorate in 1957. He hasbeen a member of thefaculty since 1955 and isthe author of Visions ofCulture.12Wheresoever you turn in this educational world, theproblem of excelling looks back at you. It is an agonisticenterprise, in the sense in which the Greeks conceived of theagon as a challenging contest. Since you encounter it anywhere, you might as well confront it in the very context inwhich you are right now.But while you cannot escape the implications of strivingfor excellence, neither can you quiet the voice inside youthat warns us against rising too high above our commonhuman fellowship. We correctly sense the value of solidaritywith others, of working with equals on common objectives,of arriving together at common insights, of the double enjoyment of a common experience in which equal sharingreinforced our personal elation.Egalitarian influenceHowever much we may differentiate our ranks, we stillwant our university to be the place where a distinguishedservice professor may learn from the insight of the greenestfreshman. We have the right to expect that our educationprepares us for common citizenship in a society that will notgrant special rights to a few. Society herself has the right toexpect that education be a process of acculturation whichprepares all to function in a common binding framework,subject to common standards and practices, and as equalbeneficiaries of all the cultural goods that can and must beshared if we want to have culture at all.And besides all these warnings about our egalitariancommitments, we have a deep private concern with education on which the public agon, the competition for publicrecognition, does not impinge at all, or does so only veryslightly. There is a realm of judgment for us in which thevalue of our education is immune to the public judgment,the public honor. We work, at what we work, for ourpersonal enrichment, our personal enjoyment, our personalimprovement.The application of the objective norm, the public standard, does not seem to measure the value of our educationalexperience. We measure by private standards, and we knowthat a C in a course for which we had no talent, but withwhich we struggled, means more to us than an easilyobtained grade of A which looks good in the public light.We are, no doubt, right in protecting the meaning ofeducation behind a cordon where we can personalize it andextricate it from judgments we deem external to it.But I fear we delude ourselves if we think that we therebyescaped the demanding rule of the aristocratic code of excellence. At the heart of that codes lives what for centurieshas been summed up in the two words: noblesse oblige; itexerts its immense power over us whenever we ask more ofourselves, whenever we make the extra effort to excel beyond where we were before. So, by striving for self-improvement we have entered a side door to the agon. Wemay have personalized it somewhat, we may have "democratized" it to a degree, but we have not disengaged trulyfrom that kind of contest which leads from a more protected self-testing out again into the open arena where weultimately seek self -justification in the public light.However strong our egalitarian sentiments are, anycommitment to true education places us in an inescapablefield of tension between two powerful demands in which an"aristocratic" stance towards life is forced upon us as well.The tension between our double commitments reflects agenuine problem; that is to say: the problem cannot beresolved by simply denying the validity of either one pole ofthe argument. We remain caught between two powerfuldemands and we are forced to live with the problem in athoughtful manner. I am convinced that it is a much vasterproblem than merely an educational one, because it seemsto me a deep-seated problem of our Western society andculture. I cannot now prove that to you, but let me sketch itat least in some very broad strokes.As the heirs of the American Revolution, the FrenchRevolution, and especially the Industrial Revolution wehave a commitment to the equality among men so basic thatwe cannot alter it in our lifetime. Century old developmentslie behind these modern turning points: the Socratic turntoward a binding common rationality; Stoic teachings abouta lawful oikumene in which a slave like Epictetus can rise tothe same human heights as the emperor Marcus Aurelius;an age-old Hebrew tradition insisting on the common communal fate of a whole people from among whom no one issingled out by God for personal salvation; an exceedinglystrong Christian element in the belief that the humblestsoul is dear to God; a sense, developed over the centuries,that only in common submission to the law lies theprotection against arbitrary whim and the fate of anyone'sfreedom; and ever so many other developments.The two great political revolutions — even if they hadconflicting strains as well — were preeminent expressions ofthe intense belief in the dignity of man, the potential virtueand value of each human being, and the rights of all to thegoods that make man truly man.Privilege under suspicionPrivilege, so centrally important in the older corporateconception of society, now appeared to be an intolerablesocial reality. Elites became so suspect that protection lay inbeing simply citoyen and citoyenne and dressing like thesans- culottes. The aristocratic view of life has had to be onthe defensive even since — surely a sign of our powerfulegalitarian persuasion.13The two political revolutions, and all the subsequentrevolutions they fostered, coincided with the IndustrialRevolution, a fact of enormous significance. For the firsttime in the life of mankind, man now found the means forgiving material substance to his dreams of equality. Thewish for equality is a wish that all may share in the goodthings of life; but the world prior to 1800 was marked by thedilemma that after every producer of a good came tens ofpeople running who wanted to have that good. Pleaseremind yourselves that 200 years ago it would have beenunlikely that we could have set aside a day for reaping thefruits of precious leisure; most likely we all would have belonged to the 90% of mankind that worked the fields toproduce what men needed to live and to permit a 10%minority a degree of cultured life.Surely, we still have not solved the problem of need, andprobably never shall reach the point where everyone hasalways fifty cents more than his desires demand. But still:what an immense difference is a society where 5% producemore food than we can consume, where so many people goto college. Technology and standardization of productionstrongly support our egalitarian inclinations. It is not easyto guess from outward appearance the economic andcultural standing of the people you look at while strollingdown Michigan Avenue. As Jacques Barzun has put this: weall look like upper massmen. The commitment to equalityand its increasing realization cannot be wiped off ourexistence.Longing for immortalityBut this is only half the story. The aristocratic view of lifeclaims us as strongly. The irresistible drive for excellenceand eminence continues to stand in conflict with our egal-itarianism. The reasons for this sit ineradicably deep withinus and in our culture. While at times we find comfort insolidarity and anonymity, we also have a fear of sinkingaway in the nameless mass. A longing for immortality drivesus to some degree of visibility. Herostratus burnt down thetemple of Diana at Ephesus to be remembered — and hesucceeded. Some of the demented shoot presidents andgovernors to fight their lonely anonymity. What is theattraction of "Queen for a Day"? Why do people run afterany TV camera crew in the streets in the hope of appearingfor one brief minute at least before millions? Why does itmean so much to us to be ever so briefly in the presence ofthe eminent — and that word simply means: those who stickout of the human mass? We, like the nameless Myrmidon,seem to derive comfort from having been associated with anAchilles.One hardly needs to tell the young about such drives;almost all my students left me with the impression that they will not be satisfied with leading an average life. They strivefor some form of eminence, however much they may try toplace this in the context of wanting to make a contributionin the service of a whole humanity. We are arch- agonisticcreatures; we are committed to the agon; and educationstrengthens this commitment immensely. Educationinevitably reinforces our aristocratic drives as it holdsbefore us the great models of human achievement and as itleads us ever deeper into the world of truly refined valuesand skills. The very notion of education entails a meaningof "leading us out" into a world of heightened values,capacities, and powers.In one sense, there is no non-aristocratic education. Ithink this is so because ultimately there is no non- aristocratic culture. At least, we in the West have not known such.Behind us stand deeply aristocratic ways of life that we havenever been able to shake. The Greek world was most profoundly agonistic. In Homer the father sends the son outinto the world with the admonition: "and always try to befirst."True, we especially value the later example of Athens'radical democracy, fulfilling the polis' ideal of involving allcitizens as citizens, the world of a common agora and acommon theater. Yet, what was Periclean Athens but thegrandiose experiment to raise all to the level of an aristocratic existence — the attempt to endow all with greatness byletting them derive greatness from Athens, that collectivehero who for Pericles far outshone Achilles and needed noHomer to immortalize its glory?And what measure of equality there ruled within the poliswas bought at the price of an aristocratic stance towards thenon- Athenian world, at the price of an empire that paid forthis great social experiment, an empire to which Periclesthought Athens was entitled by her greater excellence.In as seemingly egalitarian a world as that of humbleChristians, they look up to the especially devoted athlete ofGod, the monk, the saint; and ultimately the upwarddrawing ideal is the Imitatio Christi.The personal agonBehind us stands the world of honor of the Germanicwarrior hero, then the chivalric world of the knight, transformed for us into the ideal of the gentleman and the lady.Like Athens before us, we live off an aristocratic traditionand, at best, we seek to raise all to the level of such a heightened life. Much of our egalitarianism is only the egalitar-ianism of an aristocracy of equals — and it is, of course, amost interesting fact that the agon exists only among peers;there is no value, no honor in having Achilles race thecripple. But insofar as we strive for a world of higher value,greater skill, more refined taste, we live in a world in which14the "best" rules. No other egalitarian philosophy of valuehas appeared. Humanity always tends to express its idealthrough the best that has been accomplished and envisaged.I know that I have crudely simplified a great and subtleproblem. I believe it is a genuine problem; it will not goaway. We will have to live with it responsibly. As with anysuch problem: everything then depends upon the innerattitude of a human being trying to live with the problem.Living in a field of tension, living "problematically,"demands an inner honesty and courage that accepts thevalid claims of our diverse loyalties.The current fashion of our society makes it relatively easyfor us to adhere to our egalitarian commitment; public suspicion of any elitism makes it much more difficult toacknowledge whatever drives us to the noble life. Much ofthat suspicion seems entirely justified — for, any aristocraticstance is so easily a false one. It is so easily beset by prideand conceit; claims of achievement so easily mislead us intoclaims to special rights and to unjustifiable socialdistinction. Most historical aristocracies have deteriorated;they tend to outlive their usefulness fast; no one is morepitiful than the man who merely tries to live off the accomplishments of forefathers without adding new life to histitle.Talleyrand's potatoWhen Talleyrand once heard an old aristocrat praisehimself by referring to his long line of distinguishedancestors, Talleyrand mocked him by saying that he reminded one of the potato plant, where the best also liesunder the ground.Perhaps we could help ourselves in our dilemma by reflecting upon a few fundamentals. Dedication to anythingthat ennobles life is a dedication to serve. The only privilegewe may claim is the privilege to the conditions that enableus to serve. Nobility obliges, but it only obliges oneself.There is. no right except the right to demand the utmostfrom ourselves. Only he who continually strives can becounted. Our language itself suggests that when we restinert, we behave like mass. Without striving for excellencenot yet achieved, without the extra exertion of the agon, weremain parasites, living off that which has been given to us.True, it is simple to state this; it is difficult to live since somuch of our human makeup pulls us forever into themediocre non-demanding life. As the Greeks put it already,who stood there early in our Western adventure: if we wantman's glory, we have to cross a threshold below which liesan ignominious vegetable-like existence; only training(askesis) qualifies for the agon; only by full exertion in theagon can we excel. Only constantly renewed dedicationconsecrates life. But the Greek was equally conscious of the otherthreshold; when we contend beyond it, when we overreachourselves, when we commit hybris, we incur the curse ofAte, the blindness striking the proud so that he ruinshimself. The very force that drives us across the firstthreshold dangerously tempts us to commit hybris. Of thisthe god at Delphi warned: Know yourself! — which onlymeant: remember that you are a mortal human and not agod — thus pointedly referring us back to our very commonhumanity.The life of risk in the field of tension between the twothresholds demands the virtue of sophrosyne, the sense fordoing everything with tact and measure, a sensibility for theunbreakable tie between consecration and curse.Autumn hazeCatalpas are rare now.We say the big leaves killthe lawn grass in the falland in the springits white flowersare a sweep-up chore.We have forgottenthe old timesand tribal wayswhen fall beganwith guarded ritualthat spelled the end of summer— boy summer —as we satcross legged and somberin unbroken circlesmoking the slender pod— brown and tree dried —tears rolling down our cheeksas we blew out acrid smokethat was to bethe autumn hazeof thatour Indian Summer.JAMES R. IORIO, AM'48This poem is from a collection, "The Fifth Season," aforthcoming publication of Golden Quill Press, Frances-town, N.H.15«b*Steve Kroeter (14) hands off to Mike O'Connor (25) in the Wheaton game as the 1973 season got underway.Maroons plow into fall schedulesThe University's varsity sports contenders got off to a prettyfair start in their season openers. The cross country teambeat Siena Heights College 18 to 45; the football teamfought to a 6 to 6 tie with the Wheaton College junior varsity; and the soccer team lost to Triton College. After that,however, the football team was shut out in three successivegames. The harriers compiled a four and seven record. Butin soccer the Maroons won four of the next six, tying once.All this represents, for all three teams, an average of .400,a noticeable dip from the .447 level achieved in the fallquarter of 1972.In the cross country curtain raiser, Chicago harriers tooknine of the first ten places. Blair Bertaccini, a veteran,shared in a first place tie with Dan Hildebrand, who is anewly arrived transfer from Grinnell, but no stranger to theMidway, having run for U High, and being a member of afamily steeped in Midway tradition. His brother, Peter(AB'67), for example, was an All-America runner forChicago, and his father, Roger (also a runner), is a distinguished faculty member in the Physics Department and theCollege (of which he is former dean).Messrs. D. Hildebrand and Bertaccini lowered the Sienacourse record with their four-mile time of 20:27, and theIn these days when athletic scholarships go to womenstudents as well as men (see Page 4), and a male-femaleprofessional tennis match outdraws "Bonnie and Clyde" ontelevision, some readers may wonder why the accompanyingarticle is confined to the male sports scene. The answer, ofcourse, is the Magazine's chronic space problem. We expectto provide coverage of women's sports in a later issue. mark was also bested by another veteran Chicago harrier,Charles Lutz, who finished fourth. Jim Scanlan, a freshman, finished sixth, and John Schuster, another freshman,was eighth. A brace of veterans also ran well: includingBrian Kay, Mike Borish and Laurenz Byk.The football game with Wheaton was a contest betweenthe defensive capabilities of the two teams until near halftime, when Chicago, receiving a punt on the twenty-four,started a drive which culminated in a pass play from SteveKroeter to George Jones that was good for fifty-nine yardsand a touchdown. An attempted pass conversion was foiled,and a second offensive in the third quarter was stopped atthe five-yard line, largely as the result of a series of penaltiesagainst the Maroons. In the fourth quarter Wheaton tookeighteen plays to acquire its touchdown, and Chicagoblocked the conversion attempt. In the final four minutes aChicago pass play from Kroeter to John Vail, a freshman,would have scored except for a penalty call which groundedthe ball where it was caught.The soccer team, in its opener, outplayed Triton duringmost of the opening game, but lost, on a wet field, primarilybecause of defense slips. Triton, furthermore, was playingits fourth game of the season, and it actually looks like avery good year is coming up for Coach Bill Vendl's forces.Strong scorers include Turgay Kaya, Aris Stylianopoulos,Al Herre, and Co-captain John Chu.Plagued by personnel problems at the goalie position,Coach Vendl's fortunes took an upward spurt in the secondweek, when four experienced men showed up: Bob Griffin,who will probably wind up as starter; plus HomayunFatolahzeadeh (an Iranian, known more conveniently asHutch); Gregory Koster, and Curtis Ridge, a freshman, inaddition to the previously overworked Bernardo Esqueda.16Varsity sports are only part of the athletic picture on theMidway, of course. One other aspect is the big and activeintramural program. The third, a relatively new addition,consists of the clubs — a form particularly adapted toChicago, where the graduate students considerablyoutnumber the undergraduates.The clubs, whose members include students, alumni, andothers who enjoy competing under the University banner,compete in a hefty variety of schedules of dual and triangular meets and AAU events. There are active clubs inrugby, judo, karate and table tennis, but the jewel in thisdiadem is probably the University of Chicago Track Club,which operates under the wing of the varsity track coach,Ted Haydon (PhB'33, AM'54).Last year four members of the club were members of theU.S. Olympic team, and at Munich Jan Johnson took thethird place bronze medal in broad jump, John Craft wasfifth in the triple jump, and Brian Oldfield placed sixth inthe shot put. (Rick Wohlhuter, probably the best half milerin the U.S., fell, in the course of the preliminary heat, anddidn't compete in the finals.)The club currently includes two two-mile relay teamswhich hold world record times in indoor and outdoor com-What are the thoughts of Chicago's gridders about thegame offootball? Dick Kubik, of the University's publicinformation office, and a Maroon sports buff queriedsome of the varsity players with the following results:"I wanted to see what real-live football playing waslike," says George Yuhas, a senior linebacker. Georgegraduated from a small high school in Serena, Illinois("There were only fifty-five in my graduating class"). Hehad never played organized football before coming to theUniversity. When he got to the campus, he went out forthe team, made it, and has been playing ever since.Since then he has discovered two other reasons forplaying football: "Playing football gives me a chance tobe part of something. And it gives me an opportunity tofulfil my ego. I enjoy competing head-on with others andthe physical force is a welcome release from the classroom. Ego fulfilment comes from knowing there issomething I've worked at, improved in, and have givenmy best to."Quarterback Steve Kroeter says playing football "is ameans of keeping both my mental and physical beings petition respectively. Last February Tom Bach, John Mock,Lowell Paul and Ken Sparks ran the distance in 7:23.6, andin May, Bach, Sparks, Paul and Wohlhuter chalked up a7:10.4.Even without its stars, the UCTC would be prettyremarkable. Originally suggested in 1950 by T. N. Metcalf,then athletic director, the club had grown to a membershipof about 100 — also its present size — when it was reported inthese pages by Coach Haydon in 1965. Of this membership,30 to 40% are varsity athletes, another 30 to 40% graduatestudents, and the remainder alumni and out-of -schoolathletes.The club does no recruiting, and although it runs a longschedule of its own events in addition to others in which itparticipates, it is virtually self-supporting. Because of itssuccess in providing an opportunity for continuing competition on its unique basis, the club is viewed with somethingapproaching awe by some track and field authorities.In its opening event of the autumn season the club, led byKevin Keough (20:24) and Jim Alexander (20:28) lookedimpressive in a four-mile event on the Washington Parkcourse, taking eleven of the first thirteen places and fifteenof the first twenty.sharp and active." Steve, a senior from Quincy, Illinois,adds that "playing football can be conceived of as confronting the mind with a set of constantly changingproblems to be solved."One of the most intriguing aspects of footballinvolves its demands for unification of mental perceptionand physical execution. The nature of the game is suchthat in order to attain success both areas of considerationmust be performed equally well. A player must be able todetermine what the proper reaction to a particular situation is and then translate that perception into the appropriate physical response."George Jones, tight end from Fort Worth, Texas, has asimpler reason for playing: "I want to help the teambecome reputable." Jones was selected by his teammatesas last season's most valuable offensive player.Denny Christen, a 145-pound wingback from Lima,Ohio, says he plays football "because it is my favoritesport:"Everyone says it is a game of physical violence, butfew also describe it as a game of precision, perfecttiming, finesse, and as has be;en said many times, a gameof inches. It is a valuable learning experience."The appropriate physical response917Forwards of the Rugby Club win a "set- scrum" from the University of Illinois, as scrum-half Tom Rainey, a master's candidate in theDivinity School, tosses the ball out to the backs, in a game last spring which UC dominated 12 to 0. Made up of graduates, undergraduates, alumni and a partisan or two, the club is in its eleventh year of competition in the Midwest Rugby Union, playing autumn andspring against other Chicago-area clubs and Big-Ten schools.Chicago hasn't been making the headlines in athletics forsome time, but the substance is there, nonetheless: Last fallChicago beat Marquette in football, but lost to Oberlin,Loras and four others. In soccer the Maroons bested Rock-ford, Shimer, Valparaiso and five other teams, losing toNorthwestern, Notre Dame and four others. The crosscountry team was also eight and nine.The rest of the year showed Coach Joe Stampf's (AB'41)basketball team winning fifteen and losing four, and theMaroons were one and eleven in gymnastics, three andtwelve in fencing, five and six in swimming, five and five inwrestling, twenty-one and five in track, eight and nine inbaseball, two and sixteen in golf, and twelve and three (plusa tie) in tennis.As sports writers view the world scene, this was not a veryspectacular record, but it represented a lot of intercollegiatecompetition. This fall is Chicago's fifth season back inintercollegiate football, after a thirty-year hiatus, and although the Maroons are playing against minor league teams(and frequently losing to them), it's a fairer deal for thestudents than was that 1939 season, when Chicago lost 61-0,85-0, 47-0, 61-0 and 46-0 to institutions with aggressive recruiting programs and (omitting Harvard) undergraduatestudent bodies ten times Chicago's size. (Even in that yearChicago was two-and-one in its games with the caliber ofinstitutions it is playing now, beating Wabash and Oberlinand losing to Beloit.)"Our squads," says Walter Hass, athletic director andfootball coach, "probably have the same mental attitudes assquads throughout the country. However, many of our menusually must learn to discipline themselves and their attitudes, as they have not had any previous experience in beingteam members." Another comment came from then Dean Hildebrand:"The nice thing about our football program is that it isreally fun for everybody. Our rooting section is distinguished for its originally and for what I shall call its delightful lack of regimentation. The players on the field havesometimes shown the same characteristics, but ouropponents should not count on it."The site of Chicago's home soccer and football games isStagg Field. But how can this be? As readers of thisMagazine know full well, Stagg Field is the site of theRegenstein library. Just as the City Gray superseded theCity White, a new Stagg Field is now in existence, at 56thStreet and Cottage Grove. Whereas the capacious stands atthe old Stagg Field were often lightly populated, the 1,000-seat bleachers at the new Stagg Field are routinely jammedand overflowing — possibly an example of the application ofParkinson's law to the subject of sports.Meanwhile, Chicago's aging athletic facilities are overburdened (4,000 students participate in intramural competition in twenty-one sports; attendance in the Bartlett andIda Noyes tanks combined is at the rate of 2,700 per month;there are 2,000 reservations monthly for handball courtsand 500 for the indoor tennis courts in the Field House).The University, therefore, is planning a building andrenovation program which will include (1) a mezzanine inthe Field House creating an additional 57,250 square feet ofspace; (2) a new swimming building immediately north ofBartlett; (3) moving of women's sports activity from IdaNoyes to the Bartlett-Field House complex, and (4) construction of a new building for lockers and other backupfacilities at Stagg Field. It's a package which will cost morethan $8,500,000, and, when the money is put together, willstand as a testimonial to the University's commitment.18Some reflections onThe videoculture of the futureJohn G. CaweltiIn 1973, virtually every American has easy and frequentaccess to a television set. TV sets are in 90% to 95% ofAmerican homes and are watched by somebody from aboutthree to six hours a day. This undoubtedly constitutes thelargest group of people bound together in a single communications net in history.Perhaps even more significantly, no large, complexsociety has ever possessed the potential of continual simultaneous communication to almost everyone — all classes, allages, all groups — through a medium which can be more orless comprehended by all because it combines the two mostwidely and easily grasped forms of expression: the spokenlanguage and pictures.Of course, the level of political, philosophical, or estheticexpression thus far transmitted through this medium hasnot been more than superficial and manipulative, except ina few major instances. Nevertheless, television hasgenerated a popular culture in the sense of a culture inwhich most people can and do participate on an unprecedented scale.In the very near future the massive spread of two furtherdevelopments of video technology will further extend andintensify the role of television in American culture: inexpensive videotape recording and cable television.It seems likely that within ten or twenty years the vastmajority of American homes will be equipped with a TV setand a videotape machine, possibly with camera, and will beMr. Cawelti is professor of English and the humanities atthe University and chairmanof the Committee on General Studies in the Humanities. He is author ofApostles of the Self-MadeMan, The Six-Gun Mystique, Focus on Bonnie andClyde and various studies ofAmerican literature, cultural history and popularculture. His most recent appearance in these pages wasin the January/February,1973 issue. hooked into a cable system with the capacity to disseminatesignals on forty to eighty channels, possibly with some formof return signal.However, while it is fairly easy, on the basis of presenttechnology, to predict the sort of equipment that will beavailable, it is extremely difficult to imagine what kind ofimpact these developments will have on American culture.It is possible that the difference will be minimal; thatAmericans will continue to prefer the traditional popularentertainments, news, and sports turned out by the majornetworks while the new cable and videotape developmentswill be used primarily by specialized and elite groups.On the other hand, it is also conceivable that the newvideo technologies will bring about drastic cultural changesby opening up a great variety of new channels of communication and expression. In any case, the cultural impact ofnew communications technology will be at least partlyshaped by our own capacity to imagine effective uses forthis equipment and by the models of a videoculture withwhich we approach the problem of organizing the use andconceiving of the appropriate contents for this newmedium.I would like to suggest some tentative problems we mustconsider in preparing ourselves to seize upon the potentialbenefits and to become aware of some of the possibledangers inherent in some of the ways in which the video-culture may develop. To do so, I would like to consider threepossible models of such a culture.Global villageThe first is that of the global village, that striking conception of Marshall McLuhan's which, I think, is one of themore tantalizing and also dangerous images of the future ofhuman culture. The vision is that of an electronicallyunified world in which the different elements are relatedlike the components of the central nervous system, or, inanother of McLuhan's striking images, like the closely knitmembers of a primitive village, but on a world-wide scale.This model has a certain plausibility through theassumption that communication through television andother electronic media is different in both degree andquality from communication through earlier media. First ofall, through electronics technology — at least according tothis model — all persons can be linked in a continual: 19communications net with all other persons. Secondly, theMcLuhanites assume that video is a deeper, more involvingform of communication than other media because it evokeson a new level the complex web of feeling once carried byspeech in smaller primitive communities. Because of this,video can be understood by all men and it has the potentialto unify them psychologically and spiritually. Thus thevideoculture can recreate on a national or perhaps evenglobal scale the mystical and sacral unity which we like tothink characterized many primitive tribes.It is easy enough to treat this model ironically as anotherversion of the myth of Paradise Regained, or the restorationof the Golden Age when men lived in complete harmonywith one another and the world. It is perhaps almost tooobvious to point out that before the fall there was only onehuman being and that when another was created, discordimmediately entered the world.Moments of communionBut that is, I think, unfair, for there is evidence thatearlier forms of social organization did possess a kind ofmystic social unity, and there have been tantalizingexamples when television has momentarily created in thevast majority of the American population something thatmany people felt as a transcendent sense of socialcommunion.Most strikingly this was the case with the Kennedyassassination and funeral, a video drama and ritual of suchprofound impact that its political and cultural implicationsare, I believe, still with us. It is too much to attribute thepeaceful succession of President Johnson to the ritual unitywhich the video presentation of this event evoked, thoughthere are probably few countries in the world where such anassassination would not have led to massive disorders.But just what might the "global village" be like? Can weconceive of how video technology might be used to bringabout a culture of deep tribal unity and communal involvement in a complex, diverse, and increasingly fragmented society like that of the United States? I suspect thatin such a culture we would see two major prioritiesdominating the videostructure.First of all, there would almost have to be some kind ofmodern analog to the traditional ritual year, a cycle ofannual ceremonies, games, and other rituals participated insimultaneously by all citizens. This ritual year would give aprimary structure and identity to the culture therebymaking each individual a communal participant in the flowof time. That video might make such mass ceremoniespossible seems unquestionable in the light of phenomenonlike the Kennedy assassination, the landing on the moon,and the superbowls. Indeed, the television schedule has already developed some of the mystic regularities whichmight be associated with a ritual year.In addition to the collective expression of cultural unitythrough video ceremony, a complex web of individual andgroup involvements would have to develop, parallelling therich web of oral interchange between the members of atribe. One can imagine cable TV taking this role. Itsmultiple channels could foster a continual dialog whichmight enable each major group to enter imaginatively intothe consciousness of all other groups.Videotape would probably play a very important role hereas well. Already experiments with social tools like videodialog and video confrontation suggest the potential ofvideotape and cable for creating a new kind of deep psychological and cultural communication between groups,which have heretofore largely avoided the level of personalinvolvement with each other.The vision is attractive. Unfortunately, it is rather difficult to imagine just how such a system might develop outof the present state of affairs. If the great attraction of theglobal village is its social unity and harmony through individual involvement and fulfilment in the community, such asystem would be most unlikely to develop in the very socialsituation where a prevailing concern with fragmentationand alienation makes the model most attractive.Suppression of dissentIt is far easier to see how the video village could beimposed from above by a powerful ruling group seeking toenhance its power by reducing social diversity to the expression of a single ritual cycle and by forcing the expression ofvarying points of view into a system of continual surveillance of all members of the community in order toidentify and suppress any signs of dissent. The Nazisconsciously employed the media in these ways in the 1930sand were able to achieve a sort of national village or tribe toa considerable extent. Orwell imagined an even morethoroughgoing system of this kind, and in his brilliantdystopia we can see how plausible it is that the global villagemight develop into the satanic form of 1984.The problem of the global village model is the temptationit offers to men of great conviction and power to use theintensity and distribution of video to make their will that ofthe community. While it is conceivable that men mightevolve a less authoritarian form of unity and harmonythrough a long period of continuous interchange, I see noreason why video communication should bring about a kindof social order that no other form of communication hascome near to generating except under conditions of dictatorial power.Of course if it is really true that "the medium is the20message," I am dead wrong about this. However, I haveseen no evidence that this slogan is more than a provocativeand useful half-truth. Short of this, it seems to me that theevident totalitarian implications of the global village modelshould lead us to seek the social values it claims to achievethrough other means.Computer cultureAnother model which seems to me a far more likely possibility for the videoculture of the future could be labeledthat of the computer culture, or the rationalistic Utopia.In the global village, the central dynamic is the flow ofattitude and feeling from one person or group towardanother, the ultimate result being a transcendent culturalunity out of great social diversity. In the computer culturethe dynamic would probably be the flow of informationleading toward the highest possible degree of coordinationand efficiency in performing the various tasks necessaryto the effective operation of the increasingly complexmachinery of society.Since ultimate efficiency lies in total coordination, thiscould provide a powerful incentive for the increasing use ofvideo technology for such purposes. Indeed, a great manypresent-day proposals for the use of cable TV involve avariety of such functional roles: coordination of production,direction of police and fire services, rapid exchange ofbusiness and medical information, etc.I would guess that to imagine the further developments ofvideoculture in terms of this model, we need onlyextrapolate such present-day tendencies. Thus, thecomputer culture would be one in which the resources of theelectronic media would be primarily employed for theprocessing, storage and circulation of information. In sucha society, each individual and group would presumably haveinstant access to all the relevant information not only abouttheir own activities, but about the intersecting activities ofall other individuals and groups. Such a culture would nodoubt achieve a considerable degree of order and harmonybased on, one would hope, the priority of the most efficientproduction and distribution of goods and services possiblewithin the limits of ecological stabilization.There are, of course, other less attractive possibilities forthe computer culture, depending on whether or not aparticular group seizes control of the flow of informationand uses it for its own advantage against other groups. Onan international scale, such a development might well leadto the rise of a set of super-efficient warfare states.However, since one evident consequence of such a state ofaffairs would be the further improvement of a technology ofdestruction already adequate to total annihilation, we wouldprobably not have to worry about the consequences of such a development for very long. One hopes that the humanrace has enough residual survival instinct to avoid such afate. If so, the computer culture is much more likely tomove toward maximum distribution of the goods and services needed to create an adequate material existence for all.To accomplish this, it will obviously be necessary todevelop means of psychological control and coordinationalong with the increasing rationalization of the processes ofproduction and distribution. In order to make the flow ofinformation effective in ordering the manufacture andcirculation of goods and services, men will have to learn toovercome their present-day individualistic competitiveness,irrationality and ethnocentrism and to accept the imperatives of reason.Such a state of affairs may not be as Utopian as it wouldseem from our present-day perspective. If B. F. Skinner iscorrect in his analysis of human psychology, thedevelopment of a "technology of behavior" may well evolvealong with the intensification of the videoculture. In thiscase, the proliferation of electronic technology could lead tothe development of a videoenvironment capable of delivering what Skinner calls the "schedules of reinforcement" —i.e. the system of learning and incentives — necessary to therational control of behavior. Since the videoenvironmentcould be centrally controlled by specialists to a degree thatthe traditional learning environments of family, secondarygroups, schools, and other social institutions dependent onthe vagaries of large numbers of individuals have neverbeen able to, the systematic application of a technology ofbehavior on a national scale may become possible for thefirst time.It is difficult to decide just how one feels about thecomputer culture or rationalistic Utopia. Major Utopianthinkers in the 19th century — the Fourierists, Robert Owen,Edward Bellamy in his Looking Backward — viewed thepossibility with a good deal of hopeful anticipation, thoughthey did not generally envision the technological developments which would make such a society on a large scalemore than a Utopian dream.Many experiments on the small-scale level of Utopiancommunities were tried, but all floundered on the inabilityof such a culture to exist within a larger society with different institutions and priorities.Classical analysisHowever, in the 20th century, most intellectuals' attitudetoward the computer culture model has been negative.Huxley's Brave New World is the classical analysis from thispoint of view. Our sense that contemporary social and technological developments could easily evolve toward thecomputer culture is backed up by Huxley's own recent21argument in Brave New World Revisited that many of thephenomena he imagined in his original dystopia haveactually emerged in modern industrial America. \Huxley's criticism of the computer culture derived fromthree implicit assumptions: (1) that human reason is toolimited, fallible or perverse to be entrusted with the powerof planning a total society; (2) that autonomous choice is theessence of human dignity and therefore to live in a totallyplanned society is to be dehumanized or forced to becomelike a machine or an animal; (3) that man's irrationality, hiscapacity for suffering, and his susceptibility to evil areprimary sources of what is most characteristic and best inhuman life; therefore, to eliminate pain, conflict, sufferingand sin would make man spiritually empty.These assumptions continue to dominate 20th centuryimaginative visions of a rational Utopia. Most recently theywere expressed in a powerful and extreme form in AnthonyBurgess' novel A Clockwork Orange and in StanleyKubrick's film adaptation of that work. However, B. F.Skinner's Beyond Freedom and Dignity may be the beginning of a considerable change in contemporary intellectualattitudes toward the potentialities of a rational Utopia, forSkinner eloquently argues against the basic beliefs implicitin Brave New World and in the 20th century artistic andphilosophic tradition of anti-utopian thinking.Even without being at all sure that I understand or acceptSkinner's line of argument, I am persuaded that we havebeen wrong to dismiss this cultural model as inherentlyinimical to human life and values. It is both possible as afuture line of development and conceivably desirable as asolution to many of the problems which beset us.Human dignity vs. rationalityHuxley's vision of the computer dystopia suggests thatthere would be another important use of the newcommunications technology in this second model society:the provision of exciting modes of vicarious gratification foremotional needs which the rational activities of the computer culture would tend to leave unsatisfied. If, as Huxleysuggests, pain and suffering are the experiences which giveman his humanity and dignity, to eliminate the possibilityof actual tragedy will force society's planners to find someway of giving harmless expression to this side of humanexistence. Thus, in Brave New World, tragedy becomespornography, works of art and ritual constructed by expertsto give maximal vicarious expression to aggressive anderotic feelings thereby relieving the terrible boredom of atotally planned and controlled rational existence.A good Skinnerian would argue that Huxley's view issimply a rationalization of existing behavior patterns whichwould be changed in a more rational society, and he might well be correct.However, the weight of experience would seem to be onHuxley's side. If we look at present-day uses of the massmedia, we can see that to a considerable extent they tendtoward various forms of pornography in this broad sense.Therefore, in the computer culture, just as the media wouldbe primarily controlled by functional elites in the process ofplanning and directing the affairs of society, so the aspectof entertainment and artistic expression would probably bedominated by elites who specialized in the creation of effective pornographies of various sorts.This state of affairs would probably be no more than anintensification of certain aspects of the contemporaryorganization of the mass media.VideodiversityMy third model is based on the assumption that the newvideo technology of cable and tape makes possible thedevelopment of TV as a medium of highly diversified communication to many different, smaller publics rather than amass medium seeking to reach the largest possible audiencewith standardized forms of communication.In effect, this model predicts that TV will develop alongthe same lines of diversification and specialization that havealready been followed by publishing, by radio broadcastingand even, in recent years, by film.Structurally, the complete dominance of the air waves bythree major networks with standardized programingwould be replaced by a proliferation of cable channelsbroadcasting to a great diversity of specialized interestgroups and subcultures and by the rich development ofvideo cassette recording along the lines of present-day book,magazine and record production and distribution.Two major forces might provide the motive power for thisdevelopment: first the possibility that video as a medium iscapable of effective communication to a wider range ofsociety than any medium except speech and is conceivablymore powerful than the latter; second, the apparent trendof modern industrial societies toward increasing leisure forthe population, higher general levels of education, and anincreasing variety of individual interests and life styles.The first assumption is certainly subject to question,though it is clearly just as rational, if not more so, than therelated assertion of the unique qualities of video made bythe proponents of the global village model.If it is the case that video is a uniquely effective medium,there seems no necessary reason to believe that it will fostera world of universal mystic involvement. On the contrary,why should it not simply extend to more social groups thekinds of diverse and specialized communication that printnow makes possible among regular readers?22Although it could be argued that the standardizing tendencies of modern industrial society are against this kind ofdevelopment, it seems to me that this argument might wellwork the other way. For, if we look at recent trends in someareas of modern industrial society, it begins to seempossible that standardization is not an inherent quality ofmodern industrial economies, but only a necessity of thefirst stage of their development.Once industrial societies have reached the point whereproduction hias become efficient enough to outstripdemand, there may well be a strong impetus toward the useof leisure to cultivate a variety of interests which will in turncreate demand for new kinds of products and services.Video could become a major channel for the cultivation andsatisfaction of a vast new variety of interests.Perhaps the most striking consequence of this model isthat it envisages a culture that goes beyond present-dayconceptions of a pluralistic culture as emerging from theinterplay of diverse subcultures and interest groups.This model also implies the emergence of another kind ofdiversity embodied in the complex and continual process ofthe choice and cultivation of new interests and associations.In other words, an individual's identity in this culture wouldbe determined not only by the traditional subcultures andinterest groups of family, ethnic subculture, occupation,locality, etc., but by a large range of new associations madepossible through his continual selection from the manifoldgroupings he can plug into through cable TV and videotape.Let us call this model the society of videodiversity.Given the present-day dominance of the principle of masscommunication — i.e. use of the media to reach as large anaudience as possible — the emergence of a culture ofmanifold groupings seems, if anything, less likely than theglobal village or the computer culture.Non- acceptance of alternativesOn the whole, few people have chosen to take advantageof the minimal diversity offered by such present-dayattempts to break up the uniformity of network programing as educational TV, public broadcasting, pay TV,or local programing. Conceivably even the proliferation ofavailable channels and the eventual development of videocassette technology to the point where it is economicallycompetitive with paperback books will not lead the majorityof the population to change their preference for the traditional forms of mass culture.The basic question, I suppose, is whether modern industrial societies require a mass medium in the sense of acentralized and standardized network of more or less continual rapid communication of the same basic messages to alarge proportion of society. However, there is a great difference between the need tomake certain kinds of information instantaneously available to the great mass of the population, and the need tohave a vehicle for advertising. The model of manifoldgroupings assumes that however diverse a network of videocommunication might develop, it would still be capable ofinstantaneous mass communication as needed.The thing that would change in the culture of manifoldgroupings would be the dominant use of video to distributestandardized formulaic entertainment conceived asappealing to everyone. Presumably the traditional forms ofpopular culture would still be available, but, in competitionwith a vast diversity of other kinds of programing aimed atthe particular needs of specific groups.Components of diversityAs I dimly see it, there would be four main kinds ofgrouping in the culture of videodiversity: (1) existing subcultures; (2) political and economic interest groups; (3)biological and psychological groupings; (4) new forms ofgrouping along the lines of hobbies and fanship.1. Presumably one of the most important bases ofaudience differentiation in an environment of many different channels of communication would be an extension ofgroupings that already exist. We would anticipate that thevarious local, regional and ethnic subcultures of the UnitedStates would find much richer arid fuller expression. Ethnictraditions, rituals and forms of narrative and humor shouldbecome one major source of programing.A whole range of programs appealing to the interests andconcerns of specific subcultural groups which now findalmost no expression in television could lead to importantchanges in the individual American's sense of identity and togreater understanding between subcultures.2. Just as present-day mass media tend to blur the differences between subcultures, they also rarely permit thearticulation of the many different economic and politicalinterests which make up our society. This is particularlytrue in the area of entertainment programing where, untilthe impact of "All in the Family," one would have thoughtfrom the situation comedy and drama on television thatAmerica had no conflicting social interest groups.Even the presentation of news and documentary featuresdo not on the whole adequately reflect our different socialinterests, because they are supposed to be objective (Le. toreflect the general interest of a mythical middle-classmajority). The many channels of the culture of video-diversity will do away with the need for "objectivity" byeliminating the present monopoly of a few groups over themajor communications networks.3. By biological or psychological groupings I mean23groupings around some complex of needs, interests, orattitudes growing out of the circumstances of the life cycle(e.g. youth subcultures or senior citizen communities) or outof some widely shared psychological quality (e.g. those witha special need for the exercise of vicarious aggression). Wehave already seen how important a role the media can playin the process of age grouping, for one of the central vehiclesin the formation of the contemporary youth culture hasbeen music communicated through radio and recordings.Certainly some of the many channels of the culture ofvideodiversity will be devoted to the ideas, forms of expression and rituals which define and validate the individual'sfeeling of identity with an age group. Other channels maybecome part of a process of psychological grouping bycommunicating materials which meet various patterns ofpsychological needs and encourage interchange and understanding between those of various psychic constitutions. Itseems not impossible, for example, that various forms ofpsychotherapy through video rnight well develop.4. A fourth kind of grouping would, be neither cultural,political, biological nor psychological, but esthetic. If theproductive capacities of modern societies do in fact increasethe leisure time of the majority of the population the needfor a variety of satisfying leisure activities will become avital matter. To some extent we see this trend already underway with the proliferation of televised sports. In the cultureof videodiversity we can anticipate many more groupings ofthis sort growing up around channels which disseminateboth presentation of and commentary on many varieties ofsports, games, hobbies, works of drama, music, art, etc.The human values that are at least potentially likely toflourish in the culture of videodiversity are those of variety,toleration and autonomy. The individual will no longer bebound by the life styles available to him through his familybackground or local peer group.But there are also real dangers lurking in this model. Thenegative side of videodiversity is fairly obvious: further extension of the fragmentation, specialization, and privatization long characteristic of American culture.However, this effect might actually be offset by theprecision and complexity of discussion generated by theformation of many articulate interest groups around themultiple channels and groupings of videodiversity.In addition, the intensification of diversity will causemany strains in the social fabric. All groups will have toaccept a wider range of differences, life styles and beliefs,for these differences will inevitably find public expressionthrough the channels of the videodiverse society. This wouldbe a difficult experience for many Americans accustomedto the bland uniformity of the mid-20th century suburb andthe restrictive moralism of the dominant white, middle-class religiously-oriented subcultures. Because there are such dangers inherent in the model ofvideodiversity, we will need to develop a number of creativeand technical skills to counteract them. One such skill willinvolve finding means of encouraging individual autonomyand respect for differences in life styles.I mentioned earlier the possible use of video for newforms of psychotherapy. If I am correct in thinking thatincreasing possibilities of cultural choice will create seriouspsychological strains, then the development of modes ofassisting people to deal with these strains without having toresort to large-scale repression of deviance will be animportant task for future media specialists and educators.Actually, the recent flourishing of pornographic filmsand the ambiguous public reactions to this developmentprovide us with a continuing case study of the problemsinherent in a sudden change in what is culturally acceptable.Another area where great imaginative skills will beneeded is in the establishment of rich and complex dialogsbetween the distinctive groupings of subculture, interestand taste which will develop. We must create forms of videowhich will articulate and express diverse interests,encourage sympathetic communication and understandingbetween different groupings, and serve as a means of resolving the inevitable conflicts of interest which willmultiply in a society which fosters such diversity.Dealing with the futureI would not like to claim any more than an exploratoryinterest for the three models I have sketched out. In ourdiscussions we should consider whether these or another setof patterns are the most useful and plausible means forspeculating about the future of popular culture. I am convinced, however, that if we can develop a useful set of suchmodels we can not only gain some perspective on thestructure of mass culture in our own times, but begin tothink about how we might deal more rationally with thefuture impact of new cultural technology.In particular, it seems to me that we must begin givingmore thought to the education of the future.How are we to prepare individuals to lead effective andfulfilling lives in the global village, the computer culture,the world of videodiversity or whatever other new culturalstructures seem likely to develop?What sort of education should be given those who willcreate and organize the new media technology?These seem to me the most important problems that faceus. I hope that by trying to cast our minds ahead to imaginethe various shapes which the popular culture of the futuremight take we will be able to begin thinking effectivelyabout these basic problems of the nature of future scholarship and education.24zAlumni V\(ewsClass notesSYLVIA miller, pIib'10, am'15, took asummer trip to Alaska with her sisterand then moved from the Walla Walla,Wash., area to Kansas City, where she isliving with a cousin. The 92-year-old Ms.Miller, a former justice of the peace in WallaWalla County and a school teacher for 63years, was still active as a legal counselor, atleast until her recent move to Kansas City.She described some ironic aspects of thetermination of her teaching career to theWalla Walla Union-Bulletin recently. It waswhile teaching in White Salmon (Wash.) that"my pedagogical neck was severed," she said,Between August 28 and September 18 thefirst 1,002 replies to the postcard quiz inthe July/August issue were received atAlumni House. This represents nearly1.5% of the alumni to whom the issue wasmailed, and although the early respondersare doubtless those with the highest interest in the Magazine (pro and con), 1,000is a nice, round number to work with; so itseems to be time for at least an interimlook at the results. The results will have animportant bearing on the course of theMagazine.The accompanying filled-in reproduction of the quiz gives the tabulatedresponses. So far as content is concerned,most of you who replied want the sameamount, or more, of every category in theMagazine. (Yet a number of alumni wrotethat they didn't want a thicker magazine,since they already have too much otherreading to do.) The "okay now" groupdrew 57% of the votes over-all; the"mores" were 27.5% of the aggregate; the"lesses" were 15.5%).Using the number of checkmarks as anindex of interest, the question of the pos- "I was handed a legal dismissal notice — thatI had taught them how to write — fornonrenewal of my contract for the next year.They were not giving contracts to teachersover 65. 1 didn't ask for a hearing to let themknow that I was 81!"1 1 in memoriam: Mary Colt Edwards,¦* phB' 1 1 , died September 6 in Evanston,111. Survivors are her husband, Earnway, twodaughters, and five grandchildren.j A in memoriam: Percival Bailey, sb'14,-*- ' p1id'18, neurosurgeon, psychiatrist,sible institution of a subscription chargewas number one, with 912 responding. Ofthese, 54%o said they would be willing topay as much as $10 a year, and another 4%oindicated willingness to pay a smallleramount. Many of the people who said theywere willing to pay also said they didn'tthink instituting the charge would be wise.A few alumni, taking the potentiality forfact, sent in $10; their checks werereturned. We still hope to avoid this step.Proving what everybody knew — thatChicago alumni are a vocal group — 42.5%of the cards carried comments. Some ofthese simply emphasized one or another ofthe writers' checkmarks, but 392 used the"comment" space to add further information for the editor. These comments fellinto three groups: suggestions on costreduction, general evaluation, and specificcontent suggestions.Many suggested using cheaper paper(but the paper we are now using is thecheapest we can get without going tonewsprint). Some suggested using fewer orsmaller pictures (but in the publishingworld of today, it actually costs less to fill a faculty member at UC (1917-'39) and theUniversity of Illinois (1939-'67), died August11 in Evanston, 111.Holly Reed Bennett, sb'14, Chicago,former financial writer for Hornblower &Weeks (Chicago), botanist who contributedthousands of plant specimens to Chicago'sField Museum, died September 12.j C in memoriam: Helen A. Carnes,1 ^ phB' 15, of Seattle, August 22; ElizabethMiller Lobingier, phB' 15, August 24 inWinchester, Mass.; Frieda S. Miller, x'15,July 21 in New York.given space with a picture than it does withtypeset words). Some said four-color is anextravagance (but, with an advertiserpaying for four-color on the back cover,the added cost of the other color pages wasrelatively small). Other cost-cutting suggestions: skip the summer issue; stop publishing for a year and see what happens;revert to a membership setup; put payment on a voluntary basis; charge for subscriptions to non-donors to the AlumniFund; go to a tabloid format; take ads.Some asked how alumni who had paid forlife subscriptions would be treated (theirlife subscriptions would of course behonored). The general tenor was one ofsincere concern for the Magazine.General evaluations: 57 wrote of theMagazine in highly flattering tones, andanother 86 wrote that they like the Magazine as it is. Ten said they would be just ashappy without it. In addition there weresuch comments as "keeps me informed,""increases my affinity with the University," and "makes me think" — but also"sloppy editing," "looks like Ford MotorCompany annual report," and "fed upwith your revolutionary baloney." It was astandoff between those who thought theMagazine too scholarly and those whothought it too popular. A number ofalumni in families receiving three to fivedifferent alumni magazines wrote thatthey liked this one best, but otherssimilarly situated cited other alumni publications they preferred.Other suggestions ranged from usingmore student writing to carrying moreabout sports and to printing memoirs ofretired faculty members. All in all, plentyfor an editor to think about while waitingfor the galley proofs to come back.CONTENTPrefer Okay Prefermore now lessArticles by faculty D383Articles aboutfaculty Q196Articles by orabout alumni . . Q264Alumni news notes Q 225News of students Q128Universityactivities D326Book reviews ... ? 260Club news ? 46 Q467 Q 50Q565 Q 90? 471 ? 91? 516 Q108? 461 Q187? 483 ? 36? 388 D184? 418 Q294 POSSIBLE ECONOMYMEASURESIf necessary, would you pay asubscription charge for theMagazine? (Price would depend on number of subscribers, pages, frequency, etc.; let'stentatively assume $10 per Yesyear) ?493Would you prefer a thickermagazine less often (perhaps Yes Noquarterly)? 0392^425Report on the postcard questionnairei z: in memoriam: Morris Aronson,-* ™ phB' 16, jd'17, Chicago attorney, diedSeptember 3 in Chicago.niN memoriam: Elsa Chapin, am' 17,phD'30, educator, August 10 in SantaBarbara, Calif.; Basil Fred Wise, phB' 17,musician, educator, one of the founders ofRoosevelt University, August 25 in Chicago.1 O lillian leffert, llb'18, has been a¦* ® member of the Iowa legislative staff formost of the past fifty-eight years. Her namefirst appeared in the 1915 edition of the IowaOfficial Register as a journal clerk for thegeneral assembly. Through the years, she hasheld positions of chief clerk in the secretary ofstate's office, clerk to the attorney generaland code editor. As Iowa house legislativecounsel, the job she has held since it wascreated in the forties, she has been checkingthe wording and form of thousands of billsintroduced in the house. "Very few thingsupset her around here, except possibly bad .punctuation and printing costs," said onecolleague of Ms. Leffert. Another refers to heras "one of the watchdogs of the state's dollar"because she will return any draft that runsonly a few lines onto the last page and ask fora rewrite in order to save the printing cost ofthat extra page.i Q in memoriam: Francis L. Lederer,-^ ^ sb'19, md'21, Chicago physician,former head of the otolaryngologydepartment at the University of IllinoisSchool of Medicine (Chicago), died lastspring.^f\ ROGER DANIEL WINGER, AM'20,£^J Omaha, remains active in the ministryserving as interim minister of the FirstCongregational Church in Council Bluffs, la.He retired from a full-time pastorate in 1971.0 1 everett lee hunt , am' 2 1 , former" -^ dean of men at Swarthmore College,has been honored with the endowment of ascholarship in his name by the Swarthmoreclass of 1937. Dean for over thirty years, Huntcame to Swarthmore in 1921. He was madedean emeritus in 1956 and professor emeritusin 1959. In commenting on the scholarship,Hunt noted that perhaps the SwarthmoreDepression era graduates were in a measurepaying back their professors for financialsacrifices incurred in their behalf.in memoriam: Orletha Healy Graham,x'21; Daniel G. Lai, sb'21, md'24. of Public Health this fall as visiting researchscholar on population policy. A majorcontributor to political science methodology,Dr. Lasswell has held teaching positions atnumerous schools, including Chicago, theUniversity of California, Tokyo University,Yale and Stanford. He was awarded theUniversity of Chicago's coveted alumni medalin 1972. At Harvard he is working with the, center for population studies, concentratingon such world problems as populationpolitics.The will of anna k. krivitsky, pIib'22,jd'25, whose death was noted in the last issueof the Magazine, provided for an unrestrictedbequest of her residuary estate to theUniversity.in memoriam: Frank Torell, phB'22,retired proofreader for the Grand Rapids(Mich.) Press, died August 1 1 .^O in memoriam: Frederick H. Frost,^^ sb'23, pioneer in paper processingresearch, died August 21 in Portland, Me.^r in memoriam: Ralph N. Larson,^^ pIib'25, chairman and director of theMorris Plan Company of California from1947 to 1971 , died earlier this year.^ZZ MARTIN EMILIUS CARLSON, PnB'26,^^ Washington, D. C. attorney, wascommended by the Secretary of the NavyClub events22 HAROLD D. LASSWELL, PnB'22, PnD'26,joined the faculty of the Harvard School Chicago, November 16: "Everyman," atRockefeller Chapel, following dinner atQuadrangle Club for area alumni. November30: (GSB) — Professor James Lorie speaks toExecutive Club program luncheon, PalmerHouse. December 2: "One Flew Over theCuckoo's Nest" — matinee performance forChicago area alumni at the llth Street Theater. December 6: (GSB) — Business forecastluncheon. January 11, 1974: (Music) —Vermeer Quartet in Mandel Hall, featuringRichard Stolzman, clarinetist.los angeles, January 20, 1974: Seminarwith area alumni will discuss new trends inthe College.san francisco, January 19, 1974: Seminarwith area alumni (tentative title — "What'sNew in the College").Washington, d. c, January, 1974: Combined program with Graduate School of Business. March, 1974: Theater party at KennedyCenter. recently for his outstanding service as atop-level defense counsel for war criminalstried by the Navy during the period fromJune, 1946, to May, 1949.in memoriam: Clara M. McFrancis,phB'26, College Station, Tex., July 24.^ H roy a. price, pIib'27, has retired from^ ' the faculty of Syracuse University afteran association of many years. Hired asprofessor of social science and education in1935, he went on to found the social sciencesdoctoral program in 1946 of which hecontinued as chairman until his retirement.Price has no firm retirement plans as yet,other than to finish up some ongoingresearch. "You can't have roots this deepwithout taking a long time to break them," hesaid.^O Joseph cedeyco, am'28, retired pro-^® fessor of foreign languages atAppalachian State Teacher's College (Boone,N. C.), received an honorary doctorate ofhumane letters last spring from TransylvaniaUniversity (Lexington, Ky.) in recognition ofhis contributions to higher education in thefield of foreign languages. Mr. Cedeyco livesin St. Petersburg, Fla.in memoriam: Albert Frederick Cotton,pfiB'28, who served the University for nearlyforty years as bursar, student loan officer andadviser, died August 18 in Chicago; EugeneRussell Thorrens, p1ib'28, jd'30, died lastspring in North Miami Beach.^Q DOROTHY HOPKINS SCHAAD, AM'29, was^ -* ordained by the First Unitarian Churchof Chicago last year.in memoriam: William George Gardiner,x'29, former juvenile court judge, diedAugust 7 in St. Petersburg, Fla.1A ULRICA WHITAKER, PnB'30, Am'35, is^^ collector of historic documents for theGirl's Preparatory School (Chattanooga,Tenn.), a position she has held since herretirement in 1967 from a forty-six yearteaching career at the school. Chicagoalumnae, Ms. Whitaker writes, have beenprominent on the school's staff ever since itwas founded in 1906 by three ex-Midwayites,one of whom was the late eula jarnagin,ab'17. It was in 1921 that GPS hired both MsWhitaker and her sister, roxana whitakerlawwill, ab'22, the latter teaching thereuntil her death in 1950. GPS, whose currentstudent body numbers 530 seventh throughtwelfth graders, "can be said to be theoffspring of a great university," insists Ms.Whitaker, "the University of Chicago."thomas park, sb'30, pIid'32, professor inthe Department of Biology, the College and26the Committee on Evolutionary Biology atChicago, received an honorary doctor ofscience degree from the University of Illinoisearlier this year. Known for his pioneeringwork in population biology and hisdevelopment of model systems, Park iscredited with almost single-handedlyfounding an entire subdiscipline of ecology byhis laboratory study of the genustribolium — the flour beetle, if or more ontribolium see Class of '54.)in memoriam: Robert A. Oakes, phB'30,jd'32, attorney, died September 12 at hishome in Del Mar, Calif.^5 1 david bodian, sb'31 , p1id'34, md'37,*3 -*¦ professor and chairman, department ofanatomy, the Johns Hopkins UniversitySchool of Medicine, was elected earlier thisyear to the American Philosophical Society.Dr. Bodian's research on polio laid much ofthe groundwork for the development of theSalk polio vaccine.in memoriam: Maud Wilson, am'31,professor emeritus of home economics atOregon State University.0^> gilbert f. white, sb'32, sm'34,^^ phD'42, professor of geography atChicago from 1956 to 1969, currently directorof the University of Colorado Institute ofBehavioral Science, has won the 1973Thomas Jefferson award. The $450 cashaward and citation, presented by theassociated alumni of Colorado, is givenannually to a member of the universitycommunity who has contributed substantiallyto the advancement of those idealsexemplified by Thomas Jefferson.in memoriam: Edgar Fuller, jd'32,educator, authority on federal educationlaws, died August 4.'lA ROBERT J. HASTERLIK, SB'34, MD'38,^ ¦ former professor of medicine and afaculty member at UC from 1948 to 1970, hasbeen appointed professor of medicine at theUniversity of Southern California School ofMedicine and associate director for regionalactivities of the Los Angeles County-USCCancer Center. A specialist in humanradio-biology, especially the late effects ofionizing radiation in causing malignanttumors in man, Dr. Hasterlik directed a large-scale, twenty-year study in Illinois on the lateeffects of radium ingestion by radium dialpainters of the 1914-1930 era. For the pastthree years, he has been on the medicalfaculty of the University of California at SanDiego.35 Clifford g. massoth, p1ib'35, directorof public relations and advertising for the Illinois Central Gulf Railroad, has beenelected president of the Railroad Public Relations Association. (Mr. Massoth's account ofthe alumni trip to Mallorca appeared in theJanuary /February, 1971, Magazine.)'IC van a.burd, ab'36, iseditor of anew^" two-volume work on John Ruskin, 19thcentury writer on art and social problems,entitled The Ruskin Family Letters: The Correspondence ofJohn James Ruskin, His Wife,and Their Son, John, 1801-1843 (CornellUniversity Press). This and his 1970 work,The Winnington Letters: John Ruskin s Correspondence with Margaret Alexis Bell andthe Children at Winnington Hall (HarvardUniversity Press), have both been publishedin England. A member of the English department faculty at Cortland College (StateUniversity of New York) since 1951, Dr. Burdwas recently accorded the rank of "distinguished professor" by the SUNY board oftrustees.ROBERT h. (flip) ebert, sb'36, md'42,dean of the Harvard medical school, wrotethe article on medical education in theSeptember ("Life and Death and Medicine")issue of Scientific American. He concluded,after pointing out some of the perils of forecasting, with a group of predictions on thefuture of medical education. Here are the firsttwo:"First, the total educational experience willbe shortened so that much of what is nowtaught in the first year and a half of medicalschool will be presented at the undergraduatelevel. In addition there will be a fusing ofclinical training at the medical-student levelwith internship and residency, so that thetotal amount of time spent in giving thestudent clinical experience will be shortened."Second, the character of medical schoolswill be altered. The basic medical scienceswill become an integral part of the university,whereas clinical training will become evenmore detached from the university, althoughit will remain under the university umbrella.""5 H When the New York Times expanded^ ' its syndicated news service to includephoto coverage last May, john g. morris,ab'37, until then Times news picture editor,was named editor of the new operation, calledNYT Pictures. Among the services offered bythe new Times subsidiary are the resale ofpictures from the paper's picture library andenlargement of its photo service — launchedlast year for News Service subscribers — toinclude picture layouts and weekly photofeatures. In addition to pictures generated bythe Times, NYT Pictures seeks out anddistributes the work of talented non-Timesphotographers. Morris has held picture- jSki ;Kitzbuhel in ?anuargJust a reminder that the joys of skiingin the Alps may still be available to youand your immediate family as 1974 getsunder way. The Alumni Associationtour to the Tyrolean town of Kitzbiihelleaves January 18, returns January 26.Kitzbiihel lies at 2,438 feet, surroundedby three major slopes — the Hahnen-kamm, the Kitbuheler Horn and theBichlalm. The ninety-four miles ofslopes include scores of practice areas,of course. The ski runs are linked by anetwork of four cable cars, twenty-three chair lifts and twenty- threeT-bars — an aggregate transport capacity of 28,000 per hour. And skiingisn't all; skating, sleighing, curling —even indoor swimming are jolly alternatives. The cost, including air fare,ground transport from Munich, bedand two meals a day: $374. If you areinterested in joining the fun, call RuthHalloran at Alumni House, (312)753-2178.editing spots with the Washington Post,Magnum Photos, Ladies' Home Journal andLife, as well as the Times.in memoriam: Robert P. Herwick, md'37,died August 8.IO robert e. cusack, ab'38, Chicago^^ attorney, has been elected to fill a judicial vacancy in the Circuit Court.'IQ e.hughbehymer, am' 39, former*3s director of libraries at C. W. Post College, founder and first dean of the graduatelibrary school of Long Island University(located at the C. W. Post Center), retiredAugust 31 and was granted the rank of deanand professor emeritus. Mr. Behymer residesin Great Barrington, Mass.ARTHUR CHARLES LUNDAHL, SB'39, SM'42,was awarded the prestigious National Security Medal — the fifteenth such ever to beissued by the White House — upon his retirement this summer as director of the NationalPhotographic Interpretation Center in Washington. He and Mrs. Lundahl, mary emilyhvid, sb'41, who spent the summer in GulfLake, Mich., are back in Maryland now,where he is doing consulting work in themulti-sensor field for peaceful purposes:remote sensing of crop infestation, pollutionsources, energy resources, urban analysis, etc.Mr. Lundahl is enjoying "the unclassifiedfreedom of writing and discussion after somethirty-two years of involvement in national27intelligence problems."in memoriam: Louise Huffaker Davenport, x'39; Frances M. Hanson, ab'39, sm'41.J. COTTER HIRSCHBERG, Md'40,specialist in child psychiatry and psychiatric education, is now dean of faculty,Menninger School of Psychiatry.MARSHALL S. WALLER, SbMO, MBA^O, hastaken early retirement from GTE AutomaticElectric, Northlake, 111. Employed by the firmfor more than thirty years, he was mostrecently executive director of the servicesdivision laboratories.rosemary f. wiley, ab'40, am'41, whosedeath was noted in the last Magazine,arranged in her will for a bequest to theUniversity.im memoriam: Merle M. Kauffman,am'40.A\ adelma e. mooth, sm'41, has been™ ^ appointed dean of the division of nursing at Arkansas State University, Jonesboro.A*J WALTER l. schlegel, jr., ab'42, hasnrZf Deen elected general counsel ofAMSTED Industries, Chicago, and willcontinue as chief patent attorney. He hasbeen with the firm for over thirty-two years.MURRAY LIONEL wax, sb'42, p1id'59, androsalie hankey wax, pIid'51 , have left theUniversity of Kansas, where both held facultypositions, to accept appointments at Washington University, St. Louis, he as professorof sociology and chairman of the department,and she as professor of anthropology.Authorities on the American Indian, theWaxes ran the Indian education researchproject at the University of Kansas forseveral years.madelaine mershon, am'43, phD'50,University of Maryland faculty memberfor twenty-six years, retired this summer andwas made a professor emeritus. Ms. Mershonwas associated with Maryland's institute forchild study since its inception.in memoriam: Paul Thompson, phn'43,parasitologist, a leader in the development ofanti-malaria drugs, died in July.james pritchett, sb'44, does not havethe background one might expect of theactor who is well into his tenth year of playingDr. Matt Powers, lead role in the NBC-TVdaily soap opera, "The Doctors." Aftergraduating from Chicago in meteorology andserving in World War II, Pritchett enteredlaw school at the University of NorthCarolina, earned his degree, and went intopractice with his father in his hometown ofLenoir, N. C. But two "miserable" years' experience as a practicing attorney convincedhim to redirect his efforts, this time towards acareer in the theater. So he returned to UNC,gained a master's degree in dramatic arts,and soon thereafter gravitated to New York.At first he was happy to land various "bit"assignments on television, but he soongraduated to major roles on live dramaticproductions: "Omnibus," "Studio One,""Robert Montgomery Presents," "GoodyearPlayhouse" and "Kraft Theater."Pritchett, his wife and three children maintain a residence on Manhattan's West Sidebut escape it whenever possible for their farmin upstate New York.richard r. taylor, sb'44, md'46, becamesurgeon general of the Army in October. Hisappointment to the post, which was confirmed by the Senate during July, broughtwith it a promotion from the rank of majorgeneral to lieutenant general.AC Rabbi daniel goldberger, phs'45,^"^ am'50, has had a new settlement(nachlat) in Israel named in his honor, according to a Denver newspaper. Rabbi Gold-berger has been in private practice in Denversince 1971 as a pastoral counselor, specializing in marriage and divorce situations alongwith individual and family counseling. From1951 -'71 he was the rabbi of Beth Joseph,Denver.AC. ALICE OLSON blake, phs'46, an ac-¦ ^ count executive with the investmentfirm of Walston & Company, Inc., since1963, has been made an assistant vice-president of the firm. Ms. Blake is a memberand former president of Investment Womenof Chicago.vergil e. hiatt, pIid'46, chairman of thedepartment of classical languages and archaeology at Butler University (Indianapolis)and a member of the faculty since 1947, hasretired and was granted emeritus rank.EVELYN freeman johnson, ab'46, chiefhearing officer for Cook County in the motorvehicle division of the secretary of state'soffice since February, has been moved up toexecutive assistant in charge of the commercial department of the secretary's office andchief legal officer for the secretary, the highest positions ever to be held by a woman inthe office of the Illinois secretary of state.Partner in a Chicago law firm, Ms. Johnsonis admitted to practice before the U. S. Supreme Court.in memoriam: Albert Damon, pho'46,senior research associate and curator ofmedical anthropology at Harvard.THERESA sosa carterette, ab'47, hasbeen promoted to the rank of full pro fessor of psychology at Simmons College,Boston. She joined the Simmons faculty in1964.AQ Stanley m. heggen, mba'48, has been¦ ^ elected president of the McLean County(111.) Heart Association.steve lewellyn, ab'48, photographerand owner of the Lewellyn Studio in theBeverly area of Chicago, was one of the judgesthis fall in a photography contest sponsoredby Concordia Federal Savings, Chicago, thesame bank that exhibited a collection of hisphotography over the summer months.Lewellyn's subjects range from aerials andarchitecturals to executive portraits, creativewedding candids and theatrical photography,Many of his memorable pictures appeared inthis Magazine {see Page 3).sadie e. smith, am'48, and Chester C.Diettert were married August 18 and aremaking their home in North Judson, Ind.samuel enoch stumpf, pho'48, has announced that he will resign as president ofCornell College (Mount Vernon, la.) onJune 30, 1974.marvin weissman, phfi'48, has beenappointed director of the AID (Agency forInternational Development) mission toBrazil.in memoriam: Richard Greenwood III,SB'48,July23.A^Q archie jones, am'49, pho'54, former¦ -* head of academic affairs at Fort LewisCollege, Durango, Col., assumed the presidency of Southwest Minnesota State Collegethis summer. Mr. Jones has held administrative positions at several other colleges anduniversities and for six years wrote bookreviews and short articles for the ChicagoSun-Times.max JOSEPH putzel, ab'49, am'52, phD'65,and Sheila Winifred Rees Jacques weremarried August 1 in Chicago.ALAN m. fern, ab'50, am'54, phD'60,former assistant professor of humanities at the University, has been moved upfrom assistant chief to chief of the prints andphotographs division of the Library of Congress. He joined the Library's staff in 1961 asassistant curator of fine prints.att allah kappas, md'50, member of themedical faculties of both Rockefeller andCornell universities, has received a special$25,000 grant from the Burroughs WellcomeFund which he is using to implement development of a joint Rockefeller-Cornell programin clinical pharmacology. Kappas wasformerly associate professor of medicine andhead of the metabolism and arthritis section,University of Chicago Hospitals and Clinics.28calvin m. newman, mba'50, whose deathwas noted in a previous Magazine, providedin his will for a bequest to the University.arthur uhlir, jr., sm'50, p1id'52, chairman of the electrical engineering departmentat Tufts University (Med ford, Mass.), hasbeen named acting dean of the college ofengineering. Dr. Uhlir left the business worldin 1970 to join the faculty at Tufts.in memoriam: Bill Leroy Kell, prm'50,professor of psychology and head of theCounseling Center at Michigan State University, died in June of this year.r 1 janet stewart chase, ab'51 , has been**) -^ awarded a master of science degree ineducation by Bucknell University.john golden, am'51, Arlington, Va., isnow vice-president and treasurer of theCorporation for Public Broadcasting.C *J shea Zellweger, ab'52, has been0& granted tenure by Mount Union College, Alliance, O., where he is associate professor of psychology and chairman of thedepartment.CI JOHN j. mckibben, sb'53, pho'57, is^^ now chairman of the mathematics department at Skidmore College.in memoriam: Earle G. Eley, phD'53,September 10 in Chicago.CA ROBERT l. payton, am'54, who had*^ ^ resigned, effective August 31 , as president of C. W. Post College of Long IslandUniversity, has accepted appointment to anew college presidency, that of Hofstra University. Mr. Payton, former U.S. ambassadorto the United Republic of Cameroon andspecial assistant to the undersecretary of statefor administration in 1966-'67, resigned fromPost College because of what he called a lackof an "appropriate degree of autonomy" forthe college in the university's structure.ALEXANDER SOKOLOFF, PnD'54, biologyprofessor at California State College, SanBernadino, has published the first of a three-volume series on the tribolium (flour beetle),entitled The Biology of Tribolium withSpecial Emphasis on Genetic Aspects(Clarendon Press-Oxford University). Areference work geared to the specialist buttoned down so that the interested layman canunderstand it, the book discusses all aspectsof the flour beetle — "everything from soup tonuts." Dr. Sokoloff has been studying thetribolium for eighteen years. In 1963 heestablished a tribolium center which nowstocks five different species of flour beetles, afew related species, and about 2,000 differentmutant stocks. The stocks are supplied free ofcharge to other scientists for research and teaching.in memoriam: Norman H. Wilson, am'54,September 15 in Putney, Vt.C C PATRICK j. parker, ab'55, mba'55, has^^ been named by Secretary of DefenseJames R. Schlesinger to the new post ofdeputy assistant secretary of defense (intelligence assessment). Parker and his wife,EVELYN HEIMS PARKER, Ab'54, live inArlington, Va.in memoriam: Robert A. Mungerson,am'55, psychiatric social worker in Chicagofor over thirty years, was found slain in hisOld Town apartment August 17.C C GERHARD SPIEGLER, DB'56, AM'60,^^ pIid'61 , formerly religion professor andacting president of Haverford College, hasaccepted an appointment at Temple University (Philadelphia) as vice-president for academic affairs.C*7 douglas a. fox, am'57, associate^ ' professor of religion at Colorado College (Colorado Springs), is the author ofBuddhism, Christianity and the Future ofMan, published by Westminster Press, Philadelphia.EDWARD A. KOLODZIEJ, Am'57, PhD'61,became professor and head of the politicalscience department at the University ofIllinois on September 1 . He had been on thegovernment faculty at the University of Virginia.CO paul b. weiss, sb'58, has joined the^^ staff of the Los Alamos ScientificLaboratory to work with the laser researchand technology division.CQ RAE DEZETTEL PERLS, AB'59, has COIT1-^ ^ pleted the work for her doctorate in education at the University of New Mexico inthe area of counseling psychology. The title ofher dissertation: "Experiential Awareness —an Existential Approach to Group Psychotherapy with Adolescents." Dr. Perls is nowin private practice in Albuquerque.CLAUDETTE DWYER, AM'59, Am'70, hasbeen chosen by the presidents of fourChicago-area private colleges — Aurora,George Williams, Illinois Benedictine andNorth Central — as director of the West Suburban Intercollegiate Council, an organization recently formed to foster interinstitu-tional cooperation. Ms. Dwyer has been amember of the theology and religion facultyat St. Xavier College (Chicago) since 1959 andis currently a doctoral candidate in theologyat Marquette University, Milwaukee.Frances darr smith, am'59, has beennamed by the Gary (Ind.) board of health to be director of nursing in the health department. Ms. Smith has been active in the community health field for many years. Since1972 she has been a consultant to the Northwest Indiana Comprehensive Health Planning Council and from 1954 to 1972 was theexecutive director of the Visiting NurseAssociation in East Chicago.in memoriam: David Hirsch, md'59, heartsurgeon, died of cancer earlier this year.Cf\ harvey choldin, ab'60, am'63,W phD'65, associate professor of sociologyat the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), is conducting a statistical studyof the relationship between population density and human behavior. On a joint grant of$40,500 from the Ford and Rockefeller foundations, Choldin and his staff are collectingand analyzing data on crime, mental healthand living conditions, on a block by blockbasis, from four U.S. cities — two with highdensity populations and two with low. "Thiswill be the most detailed examination of theeffects of crowding on people that has beenattempted," he said.C 1 marjorie p. quimby, am'61 , assistant^ * professor of elementary education atBall State University (Muncie, Ind.), has received the doctor of education degree fromthe University of Georgia.C *} larry w. bowman, ab'62, am'65, assis-^ ^ tant professor of political science at theUniversity of Connecticut, reports that he hasjust had his first book published: Politics inRhodesia White Power in an African State(Harvard University Press). Since completingthe manuscript, he has spent his time makingstained glass lamps and raising his "beautifulblonde" son, Cassidy, so that his wife, ruthkatz bowman, ab'64, can continue as HeadStart director for southwestern Connecticut.The Bowmans would welcome hearing fromtheir friends, so that they can invite them toone of their New-Dorm-style dancing parties.The address: RFD l, Box 79, Hampton, Ct.06247.sally frisbie hacker, ab'62, am'65,phD'69, assistant professor of sociology atDrake University (Des Moines), is conductinga study of how technological change affectswomen in industry. On a one-year Ford Foundation grant, Ms. Hacker is investigatingthe phenomenon in four Iowa industries: telephone communication, insurance, printingand agriculture.james latturner, jd'62, Chicago, hasbeen named deputy director of the Legal Assistance Foundation. A practicing trial lawyerfor seven years, Latturner has extensive legalbackground in consumer and welfare legisla-29tion, as well as law reform. He has been director of litigation for the Community LegalCounsel, supervising attorney for the Wood-lawn office joint programs of the Legal AidBureau and Community Legal Counsel, andsupervising attorney of the Uptown legal program.C O HUGH MARSHALL FLREMARK, pllD'63,V*J md'65, has received a promotion to assistant professor of neurology at HarvardMedical School.EVE BELL GALANTER, AB'63, is now theconsumer affairs reporter for Channel 4KWBEN-TV), Buffalo, N. Y. Formerly president of the Consumer Federation of Illinoisand member of the Illinois attorney general'sConsumer Affairs Advisory Committee, shewas tapped for the job after speaking inBuffalo before consumer groups. Commenting on her appointment to the Buffalo Courier Express, she said, "The consumer movement has been asking for years for representation on TV. The newspapers, in many ways,have answered it with action lines." But therehave been few consumer specialists in thebroadcast media, she pointed out.edward warner, db'63, has beenawarded a doctorate in religion by the University of Iowa.C A gretel chapman, pfiD'64, is spending^ ¦ the current academic year in Europe ona research grant from the American Councilof Learned Societies. Ms. Chapman, who hastaken a leave from her chairmanship of thevisual arts department at Goucher College, isplanning to write a book on the methodologyof art research, based largely on her findingson the 12th-century workshops of the MeuseValley in Belgium.c. fred fox, pIid'64, associate professor ofmolecular biology in bacteriology at UCLA,has been chosen 1973 winner of the AmericanChemical Society's $2,000 award in biologicalchemistry, sponsored by Eli Lilly and Company, for his research on membranes.C C edward m. custer, sb'65, received his^^ doctorate in chemistry from the University of Oregon in June and has accepted aposition in the clinical chemistry program atHoward University, Washington, D. C.james h. overfield, am'65, has been promoted to associate professor of history at theUniversity of Vermont.ROBERT STAUFFER, AM'65, PflD'68, SOCiol-ogy professor at the University of North Carolina, has won a $1,000 award for excellencein teaching at the undergraduate level.66 clark mayo, am'66, pIid'72, associateprofessor of English at California State College, San Bernardino, has been granted asabbatical leave for 1973-'74 to complete abook on Hemingway's short stories and workon a critical study of fantasy. He and hisfamily are spending the year in a communeon the northern California coast.C H arvid f. sponberg, am'67, assistant^ ' professor of English at Valparaiso University, completed his doctorate this summerat trie University of Michigan. The subject ofhis dissertation was the Irish playwright, JohnMillington Synge. Dr. Sponberg has begunresearch on the early Abbey Theatre actorsand would appreciate help from alumni whoknew any of the early actors at any time intheir lives, who know the whereabouts of relatives and descendants of the actors or whoknow the whereabouts of letters, diaries,notebooks, programs, playbills, scripts andthe like which may have belonged to the earlyactors. Any information can be sent to him atValparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind.46383.douglas e. colton, sm'67, has receivedhis doctor of philosophy degree in biochemistry from the University of Nebraska.JO ANN STRATEMAN VOGT, AM'67, PnD'72,joined the faculty of Lake Forest College thisfall as part-time lecturer in the department offoreign languages.michael wade, ab'67, has been promotedto assistant executive secretary for policy coordination, Cost of Living Council, Washington.CO JUDITH LYNN SEBESTA, AB'68, has^^ returned from the Universitat zu Koln,West Germany, where she spent the summeron a National Endowment for the Humanitiesgrant, pursuing the problems of the continuity of classical culture and the influence ofRome among the free Germans. She receivedher doctorate from Stanford University inSeptember, 1972, and is now assistant professor of classics at the University of South Dakota.C Q MARTHA GLORIA GOLD, Ab'69, doctoral^ ^ student in medieval studies at Stanford,and David Leslie Amor were married inAugust in Palo Alto.H(\ barton isenberg, jd'70, Harrisburg,' U Pa., has won a $1,000 Harry J. Lomanresearch grant which he is using to explorethe concept of prepaid legal insurance. Isenberg is assistant attorney general and chiefcounsel of the Pennsylvania insurance department. He is also doing advanced degree workat Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.edward robinson, mat'70, recipient of a one-year Ford Foundation graduate fellowship for black Americans, has taken a leavefrom Northeastern Illinois University, wherehe is assistant professor in the secondaryeducation department, in order to continuehis doctoral work at Northwestern. Robinsonwas narrator for the 1967 Emmy award win-ning television program, "The Giants and theCommon Men," and teacher-host for "Like itWas: The Black Man in America," a series ofthirty TV programs in Afro-American historyand culture produced in 1969 by NBC and theChicago board of education.H 1 ronni singer chern, am'71 , is now an' * assistant director of admissions at theUniversity of Rochester. Her husband, Kenneth chern, am'69, is assistant professor ofhistory at Rochester.charles a. felton, am'71 , has beennamed superintendent of the Joliet (111.) Penitentiary.H*J konrad k. opitz, mba'72, has been ap-' " pointed assistant to the vice-presidentof international relations, Diamond PowerSpecialty Corporation, a subsidiary of Bab-cock & Wilcox, manufacturer of boiler cleaning equipment for the power generation, pulpand paper, and processing industries. Mr.Opitz and his wife are now living in Lancaster, O.marc blecher, am'72, who covered themusical scene for the Chicago Daily Newsduring the summer, enrolled at Yale this fallon a four-year fellowship in psychology.mary greeley durkin, am'72, is directorof the suburban external learning center ofDePaul University's School for New Learning, which began operations this fall in theform of offering non-traditional programs toadults twenty-four years old and over.cary i. klafter, jd'72, is now a memberof the San Francisco law firm of Morrison,Foerster, Hollow ay, Clinton & Clark.kyle kreigh, ab'72, has moved to Chicagoand is working for the Environmental Protection Agency.bernice burson liao, ab'72, is now associated with the Wells Fargo Realty Advisors,San Francisco, investment counselors toWells Fargo mortgage investors. Her husband, WAYNE MING-CHENG LIAO, AB'72, is alaw school student at the University of California, Berkeley.H O Two March graduates of the University,' ^ PAUL W. KAHN, AB'73, and GEORGE W.van cleve, ab'73, have been granted Dan-forth fellowships for advanced study for thephD degree. Danforths are awarded each yearto outstanding college graduates who showpromise for distinguished careers in collegeteaching.30THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONAND THE DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC PRESENTMusic buMozartSchubert and "Brahms ERMEERShmuel Ashkenasi Pierre Jvienard, violins:Nobuko Imai viola: MarcJ ohnson/cello-Guest artist: Hichard Stoltzman, clarinetFRIDAX JANUARY 11,1974 $'30MANDEL HALL5706 S- UNIVERSITY AVEAdmission: $5pxcM; $230 student- One dollar discount to UC Alumni, faculty, students andCMS subscribers- Tor uour convenience in ordering ticketsplease use the order form bdowOCONCERT OFFICE5835 S- UNIVERSITY AVE-CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60637 $¦ .enclosedTleasesend ticketsfor vermeer. qv artet concert mMandeljiall on January //, 1974asjvllows: $5 $1.50- UCJlumni, faculty, students and CMS subscribers, one dollardiscount applicable—. Name — , Address Zip Checks should be made payable to The University of Chicago- "Enclose a self-addressed stampedenvelope- -All seats reserved-The University of Chicago Press againoffers a special ALUMNI DISCOUNTon a selection of books from our warehouseFolktales of CNna From time to time, as a service toalumni (and in order to reduceour storage problems), The University of Chicago Press will makeavailable (while they last) to readers of the Magazine a number ofbooks at substantial savings. Toobtain one or more of the bookslisted below, fill in the couponand mail it, with payment, to theUniversity of Chicago Press.University of Chicago Press11030 S. LangleyChicago, Illinois 60628I enclose payment for the books checked in the accompanying list. (I understand there is no postagecharge and that 111. residents should add 5 percentsales tax.) Please send the books to :Cloth BooksI i A/tick. Richard an JLu uc ks . JamesH Amir. 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KarlD Zweifel, Frances Uneasy Case forProgressive Taxation PI 30Vikings of thePacific P31Learning ro ListenP79Politics of Oil P284Problem atic Rebel :Melville, Dostoievsky, Kafka,Camus P358Introduction toExisten tialismP34A ndrew Joh nsonand Reconstruction P153The ProfessionalThief P10Visions of C ultureP340Hand book of Biological Illustration P5 10 List Price$1.951 503.9 53953.252 952 35 AlumnPnitr$1 .001 50752 001 651 001 .501.20