THEWW&STPtOF CHICAGOMAGAZINESEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 197THE NEW ALUMNI DIRECTORYWILL MAILED IN JANUARYWILL YOU RECEIVE YOURS?iv%' 3 ?^5M HMK The University's first national Alumni Directory since1919 is steadily moving toward print.Changes in home address and business information havebeen processed, and computer tapes of all the listingsare now being generated for the printer.Response to the University's call for updated biographical information has been enthusiastic — sometimesalmost too enthusiastic. Among the 21,500 alumni whoreturned the questionnaire mailed in February were 200individuals who supplied complete curriculum vitae anddetailed life histories. ( The most voluminous came froman alumnus living in Denmark, a graduate of theDepartment of Education, who provided a 1200 pagemanuscript for use of the Education Library. TheLibrary was most pleased.)Plans for the Directory were announced in January byJohn Coulson, president of the Alumni Association.Complimentary copies will be mailed at the end of theyear to all alumni who contribute $25 in unrestrictedfunds to the general Alumni Fund in 1973 or who havemade a gift to the Fund in each of the past three years.( If you hold a degree from a professional school only,check with your school's Alumni Fund office aboutreserving a copy.)The University's 77,000 alumni will be listed in threesections in the Directory : alphabetically, ingeographical order and according to name change.Included will be school, year and degree, home addressand current occupational information.Only a limited number of directories will be printed, so copieswill not be available for sale. The next time you receive anAlumni Fund appeal, why not join the 3,000 alumni who havealready reserved their copies?Watergate, the media, and the universities 7Katharine Meyer GrahamThe evolving College gets a new home 11How cells communicate 15Creativity is strenuousSalvatore R. Maddi 184 Quadrangle news 24 Books 25 Class notesVolume LXVI Number 2September/October, 1973The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published six times peryear for alumni and the faculty of TheUniversity of Chicago, under the auspicesof the Office of the Vice President forPublic Affairs. Letters and editorialcontributions are welcomed.Don Morris, AB'36EditorJennie LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois; additional entry at Madison,Wisconsin, Copyright 1973, TheUniversity of Chicago. Published inJuly/August, September/October,November/December, January/February,March/April, and May/June. The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312)753-2175John S. Coulson, '36, PresidentArthur Nayer, Director, Alumni AffairsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorKristen NelsonProgram DirectorRegional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91201(213)242-8288825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030New York, New York 10022(212)688-73551000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415)928-0337735 South Fairfax StreetAlexandria, Va. 22314(703) 549-3800COVER: In this photomicrograph, a slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum, mayresemble a shmoo, but its life story offers promise of a better understanding of howcells communicate with each other (see Page 15).PICTURE CREDITS: Pages 1, 15, 16, 17, David Drage; Page 5, Lloyd Saunders;Page 6, Sandi Kronquist.fck t Quadrangle \h[ewsGood part, bad partThis was the summer of Watergate. (AtJimmy's, the venerable 55th Street spa, thehearings were sometimes offered on radiowhile the audio was turned off for the telecastof the day's baseball game, giving an eerieeffect.)But it was also the summer that Wood-worth's ancient bookstore held a lugubriousfarewell bankruptcy sale of books, sneakers,pencils, T-shirts.As the end of summer approached theUniversity got two pieces of good news. Thegovernment of Japan granted $10,000,000 toten American universities; the University wasone, and the $1,000,000 will go to improveunderstanding of that island nation. Thenthe Department of Health, Education andWelfare announced a $4,291,352 construction grant to the University, giving a mightyboost to cancer research at Chicago. Thegrant, to the newly organized Cancer Research Center, headed by Dr. John Ultmann,is on a matching basis. The Universityhas received gifts or pledges toward theproject of about $2,000,000 and is seekingthe remaining $2,300,000. The goals of thecenter include efforts in patient diagnosis andcare, and cancer research, both in clinicalareas and in basic science.Watergate: a new coursePresumably nothing so all-pervasive as theSenate's Watergate hearings could fail togenerate a wave in the University. The dawnof the autumn quarter will see a new undergraduate course, "Constitutional Aspects ofWatergate," added to the curriculum.The course will be given by Philip Kurland,professor in the Law School, who this summerwas appointed, in addition, to the William R.Kenan, Jr. professorship in the College. Mr.Kurland, who has been advising the Watergate committee's chairman, Senator Ervin,and whose most recent discussion of theSupreme Court was featured in theJuly/August issue of the Magazine, willteach two other undergraduate courses in thenascent academic year: "Church and Stateand the Constitution," and "CivilProcedure," the latter part of the PRELsequence mentioned in a report on the College elsewhere in this issue.Separation of powersMeanwhile the Law School issued as an"occasional paper," a discussion "OnEmergency Powers of the President: EveryInch a King?" by Gerhard Casper, professorof law and political science. The paper wasbased on a statement by Mr. Casper earlierthis year before the Senate special committeeon the termination of the nationalemergency.After examining the historical backgroundof the constitutional provisions relating toseparation of powers (he cites Franklin'sobservation that "the first man put at thehelm will be a good one. Nobody knows whatsort may come afterwards."), Mr. Casperconcluded:"It should be noted that some. . .developments, like the so-called communicationsrevolution, have benefited the Congress. ThePresident will find it much easier nowadaysto convene the Congress on 'extraordinaryoccasions,' if that becomes necessary, than in1787. The fact is that the Congress isnowadays practically in permanent session."Also, many of the recent emergencies, forinstance the Vietnam War, did not exactlyhappen from one minute to another. Thebalance of payments emergency was in themaking for many years. As concerns anyneed to respond swiftly to developments onforeign exchanges: does one really want toargue that multinational corporations and oilsheiks can amend the United StatesConstitution?"It is quite true that the Congress does notpresently have the bureaucratic capacitiesthat might be needed for careful evaluationof administration policies. That deficiency,however, most certainly is remediable."In any event, the alleged lack ofinformation and understanding on the partof the Congress is largely of the Presidents'making. The executive concludes secretexecutive agreements, invokes executiveprivilege for the vastly expanded WhiteHouse bureaucracy, impounds funds fromone day to another, and then argues that theCongress would not know what to do in anemergency."However, Presidents are only partiallyresponsible for this state of affairs. If unfortunate and unwise, it is still naturalthat they show no excessive concern forkeeping the Congress viable. Most of theresponsibility for the sad state of affairs lieswith the Congress."While kings, even Presidents, may abdicate. Congress has no constitutional rightto do so. 'Emergency powers' are among themost serious dangers to democracy. The dutjof Congress to abate the danger is clear. Allthat is doubtful is whether the members ofCongress have the will to abide theirconstitutional oath of office."Johnson, Harris add assignmentsTwo senior faculty members, bothformer deans, have been appointed specialassistants to President Edward H. Levi.In his new capacity, D. Gale Johnson,professor and chairman of the Departmentof Economics, will make an analysis of theresources and expenditures of the variousacademic units of the University.Chauncy D. Harris, the Samuel N. Harpaprofessor of geography and director of theCenter for International Studies, willcoordinate plans and programs for academicdevelopment in connection with the quest fafinancial support.Both men will continue their teaching andother assignments on campus.Returning scholars are invitedFor the first time, the University, in aprogram called "The Returning Scholar," isopening its regular courses on the maincampus to qualified persons who wish topursue serious academic studies withoutcommitting themselves to degree programs.More than 800 graduate and undergraduatecourses are being offered on this basis athalf of normal tuition.The program is open to persons thirty-five years of age or older who are notcurrently degree students, or to personsunder thirty-years who have not been degreistudents for ten years. Tuition is $200 for asingle course, $335 for two, $460 for three,and $570 for four. An individualized counseling program will help returning scholarsin evaluating past academic experience andreaching an accommodation of the programand the aims and interests of the individual4For additional information or a counselingappointment, phone University Extension,(312) 753-3139.Kudo'sTwenty senior faculty members at theUniversity have been appointed todistinguished service or named professorships.Appointed to distinguished serviceprofessorships:• Eric P. Hamp, named the Robert MaynardHutchins distinguished service professor. Anauthority on general linguistic theory, he is aprofessor of linguistics and director of theUniversity's Center for Balkan Studies. Hehas been at the University since 1950.• Philip W. Jackson, named the David LeeShillinglaw distinguished service professor.An authority on creativity and intelligence inyoung children, he is director of pre-collegiate education and professor in theDepartment and Graduate School ofEducation, the College, and the Committeeon Human Development.• Morris Janowitz, named a distinguishedservice professor. An eminent authority onpolitical and urban sociology, he is aprofessor of sociology and director of theCenter for Social Organization Studies. Hewas chairman of the Department ofSociology from 1967 to 1972.• D. Gale Johnson, named the EliakimHastings Moore distinguished serviceprofessor. An internationally known scholarin the field of agricultural economics, Mr.Johnson has been with the University since1944. He currently is professor and chairmanof the Department of Economics. He servedas dean of the University's Division of theSocial Sciences from 1960 to 1970 and wasacting director of the University Libraryfrom July, 1971, to June, 1972. He is aspecial assistant to President Levi.• William H. Kruskal, named the ErnestDeWitt Burton distinguished serviceprofessor. Mr. Kruskal is professor in theDepartment of Statistics and in the College.Chairman of the Department of Statisticsfrom 1966 to 1973, he is an authority ontheoretical statistics.• Eugene N. Parker, named a distinguishedservice professor. Mr. Parker is theoriginator of the "solar wind" concept. In Paul Yovovich, a senior, this fall becomesthe University's sixth student ombudsman. The office, first of its kind on anycampus in the country, involves dealingwith student grievances which haveproved resistant to solution through ordinary channels of communication.addition to serving as professor and chairman of the Department of Astronomy andAstrophysics, he is a professor in the EnricoFermi Institute, in the Department ofPhysics, and in the College. He served aschairman of the Department of Physics from1970 to 1972.• Robert E. Streeter, named a distinguishedservice professor. Mr. Streeter is retiring asdean of the Division of the Humanities toreturn to full-time teaching and research. Aprofessor in the Department of English andin the College, he is an authority onAmerican literature.• J. A. B. van Buitenen, named a distinguished service professor. Chairman ofthe Department of South Asian Languagesand Civilizations, Mr. van Buitenen is anauthority on Sanskrit. The author ofnumerous books and articles, he is currentlytranslating the entire Mahabharata. The firstvolume is scheduled for publication by theUniversity of Chicago Press in September.He also serves as professor in the College andin the Committee on Southern Asian Studies.In addition, two faculty members whohave held named professorships have beenappointed distinguished service professors: • Chauncy D. Harris, now the Samuel N.Harper distinguished service professor ofgeography, and who is a special assistant toPresident Levi, is an internationally recognized authority on Soviet urban geography.He also serves as director of the Center forInternational Studies at the University and,from 1954 to 1960, was dean of the Divisionof the Social Sciences.• Leonard B. Meyer, now the Phyllis FayHorton distinguished service professor in theDepartment of Music, is an internationallyknown music theorist. Mr. Meyer served aschairman of the Department of Music from1961 to 1970. The named chair honors thelate Phyllis Fay Horton (AB'15).Appointed to named professorships:• Edward Anders, named the Horace B.Horton professor in the physical sciences.Mr. Anders is a professor in the Departmentof Chemistry, the Enrico Fermi Institute,and the College. His research is concernedwith meteorites, the chemistry of the moon,and the origin of the solar system. Thenamed chair honors the late Horace B.Horton (SB'07).• Joseph Fried, named the Louis Blockprofessor in the biological sciences, was apioneer in the systematic chemical alterations of steroid hormones to produce"tailor-made" drugs for specific uses. Aprofessor in the Departments of Chemistryand Biochemistry and in the Ben MayLaboratory for Cancer Research, he has alsohelped develop drugs which relieve inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis andallergies.• Robert M. Grant, named the Carl DarlingBuck professor of the humanities, isprofessor of the history of early Christianityin the Divinity School and chairman of theDepartment of New Testament and EarlyChristian Literature in the Division of theHumanities.• Robert Haselkorn, named the Fanny L.Pritzker professor in the biological sciences,is professor and chairman of the Departmentof Biophysics and professor in the College.His field of interest is the study of virusesthat infect bacteria and blue-green algae.• Dr. Frank Newell, named the James andAnna Louise Raymond professor in thePritzker School of Medicine, is professor andchairman of the Department of Ophthal-5A gold-edged medal with a ruby center, the Order of the Rising Sun, Third Class,was awarded this summer to Dr. Albert Dahlberg of the University's Zoller DentalClini&t Department of Anthropology and Committee on Evolutionary Biology. Dr.Dahlberg, a dental anthropologist, has made extensive studies of dentition ofancient populations with particular regard to their genetic and evolutionary aspects.mology. He is a specialist in eye surgery andhas done extensive research on glaucoma andeye changes in diabetes.• Dr. Murray Rabinowitz, named the LouisBlock professor in the biological sciences, isa professor of medicine and biochemistry.He is a specialist in cardiovascularphysiology and metabolism and research onmitochondrial biogenesis and in biochemicalmechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy.• Erica Reiner, named the John A. Wilsonprofessor in the Oriental Institute, is also aprofessor in the Departments of NearEastern Languages and Civilizations and ofLinguistics, and serves as editor of theAssyrian Dictionary, being compiled at theUniversity.• Dr. Ronald Singer, named the Robert R. Bensley professor in biology and medicalsciences, is professor and chairman of theDepartment of Anatomy and professor in theDepartment of Anthropology, the Committeeon Evolutionary Biology, the Committee onGenetics, the Committee on African Studies,and the College. An authority on anatomyand evolutionary morphology as related tohuman evolution, he has directed excavationsof prehistoric sites in Africa and Englandand has published more than 100 papers,including studies of the sickle cell trait inAfrica and Madagascar.• Robert B. Uretz, named the Ralph W.Gerard professor in the biological sciences, isa specialist in radiobiology and photobiologyof bacteria and viruses. He has been at theUniversity since 1944, where he also is deputy dean for the basic sciences in theDivision of the Biological Sciences and thePritzker School of Medicine. The Ralph W.Gerard professorship honors Dr. Gerard,who served on the University's faculty from1927 through 1952 and then again in1954-*55. Dr. Gerard (SB*19, PhD'21, MD'25)received the alumni medal in 1967.• Ira G. Wool, named the A. J. Carlsonprofessor in the biological sciences, isprofessor of biochemistry. An authority onthe regulation of protein synthesis andmechanism of hormone action, he has beenwith the University since 1957.• Philip W. Jackson, named to the Shilling-law distinguished service professorship, hasbeen named dean of the Graduate School ofEducation and chairman of the Departmentof Education. An authority on educationalpsychology, he succeeds J. Alan Thomas, theWilliam Claude Reavis professor in theDepartment of Education and GraduateSchool of Education.• John A. Simpson has been appointeddirector of the University's Enrico FermiInstitute. Mr. Simpson, the Edward L.Ryerson distinguished service professor inthe Department of Physics, the Enrico FermiInstitute, and the College, is currentlyinvolved with the University's cosmic rayexperiments on board the Pioneer 10 and 11spacecraft, now on their way to Jupiter. Atthe Fermi Institute he succeeds Robert G.Sachs, recently appointed director of theArgonne National Laboratory.• John Wymer, research associate in theDepartment of Anatomy, has been awardedthe prestigious Henry Stopes memorialmedal by the British Geologists' Associationfor "work on the prehistory of man and hisgeological environment." Later in the year hewill deliver the Stopes lecture at the association's annual meeting. Mr. Wymer, who livesin England, has been conducting archaeological investigations with Dr. Ronald Singer,newly named Robert R. Bensley professor in•biology and medical sciences (see above) andchairman of the Department of Anatomy, athis fossil-bearing sites in Africa and England.• Jiuji G. Kasai (PhB' 1 3), Japanese businessand civic leader and president of the Japan-American Cultural Society, received anaward of special recognition from theEmeritus Club, honoring his long service tothe cause of Japanese-American relations.6Watergate, the media,and the universitiesKatharine GrahamThe newsroom and the classroom may seem to be polesapart, but the business of the press and universities — thebusiness of inquiry into facts and ideas — is basically thesame. The Commission on the Freedom of the Press, whichRobert M. Hutchins chaired, recognized this is 1947. Itsreport declared, "The agencies of mass communications arean educational instrument, perhaps the most powerful thereis.If that was true a quarter-century ago, it is equally truetoday. Watergate is a prime example of the educationalfunction of the press. For months, virtually all that theAmerican people learned about the illegal and improperactivities labeled "Watergate" was unearthed by energeticmembers of the press. More recently, television has carriedthe Senate hearings into every corner of the land, giving thepublic an unprecedented course which combines elementsof law, political science, psychology and sociology — andwhich will provide meat for students in all those disciplinesfor years to come.To be sure, there are substantial differences in the waysKatharine Meyer Graham (AB'38), after working as areporter for the old San Francisco News, joined the Washington Post, where she worked in various capacities from1939 until 1945. Following ¦yM|m'J(^ v. y-ithe death of her husband, MYsucceeded him as president ^^MLof the Washington Post Co.,of which she is now board v Jchairman. She is a trustee of »J|the University as well as ofthe Committee for Economic Development. George I A ^gWashington University, and ^Mother educational, civic and \^L\ m\^journalistic organizations.The accompanying article is adapted from a talk she gavebefore the trustees of the University. the press and universities go about their common educational work. The press operates under the most intense andlimiting pressures of time and space. Often we can only digup raw information, raise a few questions or flag the inconsistencies. We look to the academic realm for the perspective, wisdom and scholarship which can shape enduringanswers, suggest new ways of coping with new problems andexpand the frontiers of public understanding.I might note that the press increasingly has the problemof covering academic activities. For even as scholarly studiesof the press are becoming more common and popularwithin the universities, so we of the press find ourselvesobliged to devote more attention to work on campus too. Itis not easy. In fact the world of ideas is a very hard assignment for the press. A scholar's research and writing may beso technical and abstruse that it surpasses understanding byall but the most brilliant of his or her colleagues. Yet thepress must try to tell the world about this work in laymen'sterms, as fully and accurately as we can, so that people canunderstand and appreciate these labors and follow the intellectual trails which have been blazed.As institutions of education, the press and the universitieshave more in common than a generally shared function oftransmitting information and knowledge. One of the mostimportant questions about a university, for example, is howit preserves its integrity and maintains the ability to pursuethe inquiries which in its judgment, or the judgment ofindividual faculty members, should be pursued.This question is equally crucial for the press. Reporters,like professors, must be free to follow facts and ideas wherethey lead. And quite often where the facts lead, as in theWatergate case here or Vietnam abroad, may provoke thehostility of the powers that be.The more aggressive and irreverent a newspaper or university is, the more doggedly it carries out its mission ofinquiry, the greater may be the efforts to curtail itsfreedom.There is a third similarity between the press and theuniversity. Americans have always held that private institutions of learning, together with public institutions, are es-7sential to a free system of education. With the exception ofpublic broadcasting, the media are, of course, exclusivelyprivate. As private companies, news organizations have tobe profit-minded and business-oriented. Our very qualitydepends on our ability to be profitable and thus support thevery expensive news-gathering systems we must maintain.The stronger a firm in the news business is as a business, themore able it will be to meet its obligation to the public andto withstand assaults on its freedom by government on onehand, and by irritated readers or advertisers on the other.Similarly, the excellence and freedom of a universitydepend on a sufficient measure of private support andendowment by people who believe in it, and indeed who loveit. Any institution which is economically wobbly is thatmuch more vulnerable to pressures or seduction by those inpositions to grant favors, information or funds — at acertain price.Finally, outside incursions and financial strains are notthe only challenges facing both the press and universities.We also must contend with problems from within: thepressures of rising expectations; student and uniondemands; the proper and urgent grievances of women andminorities; the need to train and develop talented peopleand, once they have blossomed professionally, to keep themby competing in salaries and other benefits with our competitors, with government and with business.It would be hard enough to keep all of the complexmachinery of a great university or newspaper functioningsmoothly under the best conditions. Today both institutionslabor under the growing burdens of many types of regulation: wage and price controls, EEOC requirements, all ofthe intricate strings that are wrapped around governmentgrants to higher education, and in the case of broadcasting,FCC policies and challenges when licenses come up forrenewal.Fairness and judgmentThe more such threats and tensions accumulate, thegreater is the need to keep our institutions strong and toenhance the quality of our performance. I do not take thesecond of these obligations lightly. While I do not believethat the absolute freedom — academic or press freedom —which we claim is conditional on "gooo! behavior", I do believe that freedom makes demands on us, on our own senseof fairness and our desire to excel. If I may discuss theseclaims strictly in terms of the press for a moment, I think itwill be apparent that the media and other instruments ofeducation have much the same imperatives and duties.I would start with the blunt concession that there is a legitimate problem of fairness and competency concerningthe press. It permeates the news business, and underlieseach one of the literally thousands of professionaljudgments which go into every daily edition or nightly newsshow. It is the problem of selection: what to report andemphasize in a limited space and time, in order to delivernews which is not only accurate in detail, but fairly representative of the whole turbulent stream of world, nationaland local events.The reporter faces questions of fairness when he or shemust describe the essence of a loud four-hour meeting in sixinches. The editor faces fairness questions when he or shemakes assignments and allocates the human resources ofthe organization among the many topics competing forattention.More than a simple caseFor instance, shortly after the break-in at the DemocraticNational Committee on June 17, 1972, the Post assigned tworeporters and an editor to that story full-time. The decisionto invest so much talent on a single story was not made outof any partisan impulse or desire to embarrass the Nixonadministration. It was a professional judgment that thismatter — whose full dimensions we could not imagine at thetime — involved more than a simple case of breaking andentering, and that the full affair ought to be brought tolight.I will leave to future students of journalism an evaluationof how well the Post and other news organizations haveserved the public in handling the Watergate story, bothduring those lonely months of persistent digging, andduring the current phase, when information has poured outin a nearly overwhelming flood. At this point I would simplynote that, at every step, the editors and reporters of the Postand Newsweek have taken extraordinary precautions andsubjected their stories to the most painstaking journalistictests to insure that every printed word about Watergateconforms to the highest standards of fairness and accuracy.Such decisions are ultimately judgment calls. Theultimate question is whose judgment should prevail. Whatis most frustrating to critics of the press, and understandably so, is that we are, in the end, autonomous. Exceptin a certain few matters involving broadcasting, the pressmakes the initial news judgments and also decides how tohandle criticisms of them. The editor who approved — ormaybe even wrote — the offending editorial in the first placeis the same one who decides how much space will be allotedto those writing letters or columns taking issue with it. Andthe editor responsible for a news story that comes under8attack decides whether to run a correction or otherwiseacknowledge publicly that the story was misfocused or inerror — if it was.We serve then not only as defendant but also as judge andjury in our own case.I do not know anyone who thinks this is anything but animperfect system and one that leaves the way open for greatacts of recklessness and irresponsibility on the part of thepress. But I would also argue that, imperfect and perilous asit is, it is the best of the alternatives available. It is, in otherwords, a condition — a hard condition — of the freedom ofthe press.Consider the alternatives. Surely, the least desirablewould be that which substituted, however subtly or indirectly, any form of government control. Slightly betterthan that — less obnoxious, if you will — might be the variousproposals for oversight, review or monitoring by some prestigious body, independent of both government and thepress. One such idea is a press council, first proposed by Dr.Hutchins' commission in 1947 and recently established inmodified form by the Twentieth Century Fund.This is a tricky proposition, but it is not unique.Americans seem constantly to be seeking the ultimate impartial body that will render pure justice and find objective,absolute answers — where neither is possible. Thus, the presscouncil proposal reflects, in part, the national impulse tobuck hard questions, such as fairness, to special panels orcommissions and to remove responsibility from those whoshould be made to accept it. It also reflects the yearning fordecisive ways to deal with problems which are not, as Fvesuggested, really simple or easily resolvable.There is a strong possibility that such a council wouldsettle nothing and would be merely cosmetic. There aresome people who consider that it could alleviate the problem by taking some of the heat off the press. But there isalso the possibility that such a private agency, by acquiringan air of authority, could become a semi-official voice, akind of surrogate for government. And if the history of suchgroups is any precedent, it seems all but certain that thepolitical necessity of trading off the desires and views ofdifferent members against one another to reach consensuswould also infect the result.Easy solutions donh workIn short, in seems to me that all the easy responses to thehard questions facing the press involve more loss than gainand more surrender than salvation. To say that is toacknowledge, indeed to invite, a greater responsibility onthe part of the press. For if we are to maintain our indepen dence, then I believe we are also obliged to show an evergreater degree of professionalism, honesty and responsiveness to legitimate complaint.I also believe that what the nation really needs is an evenmore vigorous, probing and independent press. For journalists and for the public, one of the least comfortinglessons of the past few months should be the extent to whichofficial cover-ups of crimes and abuses of power haveworked, or at least have succeeded in keeping vital information secret until long after the event.Millions of voters did not know when they cast theirballots last November what had been done in the name ofthe reelection of the president. The Congress did not knowuntil this summer that the United States had been bombingCambodia in 1969 and early 1970. Few people knew untilthis year that, for at least five days in 1970, a domesticintelligence plan which sanctioned burglary and severalvarieties of surveillance was official government policy. Wemay not find out for some time what other gross misuses ofauthority may have been perpetrated while the press andpublic have been so preoccupied and indeed fascinated withWatergate.That there are analogies between the challenges facingthe press and those confronting universities these daysseems obvious. The task for both institutions is not just toprotect the freedom of inquiry we claim as an absoluteright, but to justify that freedom by a constant effort to useit better, to be more incisive, more dispassionate and moreprofessional.Freedom is not a tranquil state. A free society is badlyserved, and at times truly endangered, if its agencies of inquiry and its instruments of education are timid, defensive,or content simply to pass along that which is superficial,conventional or comforting. The real process of education,and the maintenance of a climate of freedom, require aconstant curiosity, a clarity of thought, and a certainwillingness to entertain heresies.Addressing the University's board of trustees twelve yearsago, my husband, Philip Graham, set forth an agendawhich is still compelling today. "My hopes for the Univer-sity," he said, "are low hopes. I do not dream for it dreamsof universal achievement. I only pray for it some minorprayers for a small progress toward human excellence. Ipray that it may from time to time abominate the properdevils, at times pay reverence to the right gods, at timesoppose its considerable powers to the evils of ignorance."These very un-low hopes should be pursued not only bythose in the business of education, but by all who value thepursuit of knowledge as the spark and safeguard of anopen, free society.9WWVwj?jf ,*!|* '*; fe. <fa^-*<W. 4 >> ¦¦¦•a,* -J - ^"S.-Ji-iill^ii^ *mm tmmmrm-mm-w^^W9»***•? ,» ** •» «%#»' «*III":.- ;.',( r Y T-XUML.. * ¦' j*5b J. sfis «!' ill 1 st\:i il !• 1 )r ill r f "'¦::¦ P^ ^^" "^X*jJ|fcj. — * - 1 j-f¥ *¦ ;r»iflHHfc*' 1Tk e evoivml College £ets a new no meAs alumni know, the College keeps building more statelymansions, of both the intellectual and the limestonevarieties. In the past dozen years this magazine has carriedreports about the College at least seven times. Each reportwas different from the others, because the College is continually evolving, continually changing — and occasionallybuilding new "chambers."This fall the College expands into additional quarters inHarper, Wieboldt and part of Business East (the erstwhileLaw School building), as noted in the July/ August issue ofthis publication. (This brings the College's own premisesscattered across the campus for years to six buildings. Itpreviously took over Cobb, Gates and Blake.)In addition to this spatial growth, the College is acquiringa new dean, welcoming six hundred or so new matriculantsand getting its new programs in motion.What is the College of '73-'74 like?For one thing, it has, at long last, a home of its own. Theshape of the home is something like a backward J, withHaskell Hall (Museum, if the reader is of that vintage),Swift and Bond Chapel nestling in the middle.The first floor of Harper has changed a lot. What at one time was the president's office is now an amphitheater-stylelecture room. The old library reference room is a lecturehall. The entire southeast corner has been taken over by theundergraduate Office of Admissions and Aid, which movedthere from its former quarters in what used to be the BetaTheta Pi house. Most of the remaining space on this floor,including the area where Bill Morgenstern used to holdforth as press relations director, has been converted toseminar rooms.The old west tower elevator, beside which there used to bea sign that said "Walk up one flight, walk down twoflights," has been replaced by a new and less crochetymodel, sans sign. (A campus wag in the old days pointed outthat following the sign's dictum just got you down into thestacks.)Also, it is now possible to get from Harper to the groundfloor of Social Science Research without going outdoors.The second floor is dedicated to deans' offices and officesfor advisers, the latter arranged ingeniously in a patternsomething like the ones bees create in a honeycomb.Harper's magnificent reading room remains magnificent.The principal difference has been the substitution of more. . . The need at the college level is to have the educational mechanismsresponsive to the tension between the impossibility of knowingeverything and the need to know enough, between the demands of onefield and the importance of knowing others, between the craftsmanshipof the specialist and the conversion of insights gained from the specificinto the more general. — Edward H. Levi, president.11I scarcely need to remind anyone of the "knowledge explosion* and thethreat that it offers to the whole concept of liberal education. It haslong been quite clear that there is more knowledge obtainable, evenwithin the confines of narrowly- defined disciplines, than any one mancan master in four years, or in a lifetime. Earlier curricular planners atChicago faced this fact with a decision to abandon the effort at"surveying" available knowledge or "fields," and to try to deal,instead, with the liberal disciplines: not subject matters but methods,not knowledge areas but skills. The decision Was the right one, surely,but it is no longer as satisfying as it once seemed. In 1965 the variety ofdisciplines has burgeoned far beyond that available when the lastserious curricular planning was done. . . . Wayne C. Booth, George M.Pullman professor of English, former dean of the College.comfortable seating. The third floor, as a matter of fact, isone long series of reading rooms, of varying degrees offormality (or informality) from Wieboldt, through Harper,and across the bridge into the north reading room inBusiness East. The area also contains, however, the periodical room, the reserve book room, and a snack facility.Underneath the reading room in Wieboldt are classroomsand seminar rooms; above it, offices.Harper's east and west towers, from the fourth throughthe sixth floors, are office space. The seventh floor is reserved for elevator operating machinery. Always relativelycool because of its massive stone construction, the wholeCollge complex is now equipped with air conditioning.The buildings don't look any different from the outside.The old order changethThe College is now the entire undergraduate portion ofthe University. It has a population of approximately 2,100students and a faculty of about 300. A large number ofCollege faculty members also teach in the graduatedivisions, of course; the College figures its student-teacherratio at about eight to one. Class sizes vary considerably, butthe median is in the twenty to twenty-five range.The College is divided into five collegiate divisions, fourof them corresponding to — and administratively meshedwith — the four graduate divisions (the associate dean of agraduate division being, usually, the master of the relatedcollegiate division). This setup, while it may sound like adust-dry paragraph — the result of months of haggling — inan academic committee report, is actually an important steptoward the old goal of making the University truly a community of scholars.The fifth unit of the College is the New CollegiateDivision. Numerically it is by far the smallest of the five,and its smallness is related to its function of providing programs for students whose interests don't fall within therespective traditional purviews of the other divisions.Beyond this, though, the New Collegiate Division also servesas a laboratory in which new programs may be developed —and which can also lead to adaptive mutations in the olderdivisions.In the College the old survey courses are gone. They havebeen replaced by a plan according to which every student,whatever his eventual field of concentration, chooses fourfull-year sequences, one in each of the four divisional areas.But there are a lot of choices from which to pick thesesequences. Instead of taking Biological Sciences I, forexample, today's student may take a three-quarter sequence, "The Biochemical Basis of Body Function,""Genetic Continuity," and "Animal Parasitism, Symbiosis,and Disease." Or he may take "Continuity and Evolution,""The Cell," and "Biological Energy." He may take "Structural Principles in Subcellular Biology," "ExperimentalNeuroembryology," and "Genetics, Regulation, and Behavior" or "The Bacteria," "Ecosystems and the Quality ofLife," and "The Evolutionary Perspective."Later, after he has chosen his field of concentration, thestudent must take another pair of sequences in two divisionsother than his own. All these sequences, of course, offer thestudent a degree of variety, enabling him to match to someextent the requirements of the College with his owninterests. More importantly than the particular subjectmatter of the course sequences, each is designed to teach a12Oxnard is new deanCharles E. Oxnard, whose field is evolutionarybiology, will take over as dean of the College October1 from Roger Hilde-brand, who is returningto full-time teaching andresearch in the Department of Physics. Mr. Oxnard, whose degrees arefrom the University ofBirmingham, in England, has two fields: evolutionary morphologyand vitamin deficiencydiseases in primate nervous systems. He came toChicago in 1966. As partof the interlocking system which links the graduate and College divisionhe has been associate dean of the College and masterof the College's biological sciences division, as well asassociate dean of the Division of the BiologicalSciences.common methodology and theory.In addition the student must also take two languagesequences. And the upshot of all this is to make generaleducation ever more general.Students in the College get lots of advice. The advisers,for some of whom advising is a full-time job and for othersa function carried on in addition to teaching and research,have grown in numbers and utilization. (There have beentimes in the history of the University when a student might get by with a single friendly handshake with his adviser inthe course of his entire undergraduate career.) The studentnow has a professional adviser and a faculty adviser, andstudents these days typically do ask for and get advice ontheir academic problems and plans, their progress in theirprograms, and the status of their preparation for the future.The old comprehensive examinations are gone. The advantages they purportedly provided when they were beingused — objectivity and the avoidance of professorial whim —today are offset, in the eyes of the faculty, by the greaterusefulness of the instructor-administered exam as ateaching device and the educational value represented bythe essay question, a far more delicate instrument than theproverbial "none of the above" objective test.More courses. More faculty. Small classes. More advisers.It sounds expensive. It is expensive. But there is no otherway, if the University is to maintain an educational standard to which the wise and righteous may repair. It isimpossible to recruit the most promising young facultymembers today without giving them a modicum of headroom. And advisers? At Chicago about 60% of the matriculants graduate approximately on schedule. That means 40%drop out, which is comparable to the figures at otherinstitutions. But at Chicago half of the dropouts come back,and go on to their degrees, bringing the figure for eventualgraduates to 80%, an outstanding record. And the largestshare of credit for this record belongs to the advisers. It istheir somewhat surprising contribution to the University'sefficiency in this area.Demanding, yes, but pragmatic?Last June the New York Times carried a story on the newPREL ("Politics, Rhetoric, Economics, and Law") programin the New Collegiate Division under the headline, "Collegeturning to pragmatism." With due deference to this good,gray newspaper (and also with due sympathy for the writerof a one-column headline), the statement isn't true. TheThis development of multiple ways of achieving the objectives ofgeneral education was accelerated by a variety of influences, not theleast of which was the tendency of younger faculty members beingrecruited in the '60s to reject the notion of any common enterprise. . . .It was and remains extremely difficult to recruit younger faculty whoare enthusiastic about moving into an existing curriculum and workingtogether at it. — Charles W. Wegener, professor of the humanities,master of the New Collegiate Division, associate dean of the College.13. o . That there sometimes appears to be a division between research andteaching is at least in part an artefact of the regular academicprograms of most colleges and universities which exclude the middleelements. The special contribution that the College at the University ofChicago makes is that it especially emphasizes the middle ground. Todo this well requires many scholars and few students; it requires thatthe best scholars and investigators in the graduate divisions have also acollege influence; it requires the personal and institutional flexibilitythat allows the undergraduate to stray from formal book and lecturelearning, to individual discussion, personal scholarship and guided andthen independent investigation. — Charles Ee Oxnard, dean designateof the College.College is turning. (It is always turning.) But a singleacademic program representing a slight shift in emphasistoward consideration of the citizen's problems can scarcelybe construed as pragmatism. (PREL is just the newest of theNew Collegiate Division's contributions; the "Civilization"courses and the new "Human Behavior" program are otherexamples.)The Times is not the only eminence which finds itselffloundering a bit in its understanding of the College.Alumni, contemplating such developments as the New Collegiate Division, also are sometimes hard put to it to understand what is going on. Attempting to explain the results ofyears of painstaking committee work, educators maybecome so immersed in their innovations that they see themsomewhat larger than they appear to the alumnus. Thechange may be one in the auspices under which a degree isgranted. It may involve a totally new structure of interdepartmental relations. It is almost certain to create some newterminology. These are, as viewed from the standpoint ofthe educator, important differences, and they are rightly soviewed.But underneath all this organizational innovation, theinner core — the content as perceived by the student — maynot have changed that much. It is a fairly safe bet that thealumnus, whether in his memories the College is represented by a Teddy Linn, a Phil Allen, a Norman Maclean,an Anton J. Carlson swallowing a balloon, a Jimmy Cate ora Thomas Vernor Smith, would feel more or less at home inany of the courses offered in the College of 1973.In many he would be fascinated. Consider exhibits Athrough T as a sample: "The Image of Society in Fictionand Non-Fiction." "The Atmosphere of the Oceans.""Mann, Kafka, Brecht." "Classical Japanese Poetry.""Pleistocene Environments." "American Ethnic Politics." "Arts of Love and Manuals of Marriage: Metamorphosis ofa Genre." "Experimental Molecular Biology of EukaryoticCells." "Philosophical Anthropology." "Realist Jurisprudence-Settling Disputes." "Behavioral Pharmacology.""Local Institutions in Modern China." "The AmericanPresidency." "Sociology of Women." "Antecedents of theAbsurd." "Human Sexuality." "Modernization of IslamicLaw in Pakistan." "Mechanics of Particles and Continua Iand II." "Molecular Morphology of Biological Systems.""Selected Problems in Soviet Politics."The PREL program referred to earlier, being offered forthe first time by the New Collegiate Division, exemplifiesfurther the sort of direction the College is taking. In thefirst place it brings into the College a distinguishedprofessor of law, Philip Kurland, first holder of the WilliamR. Kenan, Jr., chair in the College. He will teach one of thethree courses in the PREL law sequence, which will covercriminal law, civil procedures and torts.The PREL faculty also includes Stanley Katz andRichard Posner of the Law School; Paul Peterson and LloydRudolph, political scientists; George Stigler, veteraneconomist, and Wayne Booth, professor of English.Students in this program also will take such courses as"Political Craftsmanship," "Political Parties and Elections:Empirical Theories of Decision and Voting Choice,""Philosophy of Discourse" (three quarters), after whichthey (sixteen students are in this program) will developindividual plans of independent study. "It is clear," says thefaculty announcement, "that this will be a demandingprogram."The objective of PREL: "to equip students to participatein and contribute to intelligent discussion and decision onproblems of action and social policy." If this be pragmatism. . . .14CHEMOTACTIC CONTACT IN SLIME MOLDThe mold as it starts to rise to create the fruiting body. This stage precedes the one shown on the cover.HOW CELLS COMMUNICATECommunication among cells? In an era in which communication between whales is used to enrich the world of musicand computers have been observed talking to each other,communication among cells need startle no one. Cells in anembryo, for example, must communicate in order to establish their characteristic forms as the embryo grows. Howthey communicate has been a puzzler. And an understanding of the process could assume immense importancein studies devoted to body functions. One step toward this understanding has been achieved atthe University, where, pursuing the discovery by Bonner andhis colleagues at Princeton that cyclic AMP has a role in theaggregation of cellular slime molds, scientists have beenstudying the lowly slime mold further. By activating moldcells with cyclic AMP, they confirmed that it was indeed thecommunication medium. From this point studies have goneforward on how the communication mechanism works.The scientists: Anthony D. J. Robertson, assistant pro-15fessor in the Department of Theoretical Biology, andMorrel H. Cohen, the Louis Block professor in the Departments of Physics and Theoretical Biology. Working withthem was David Drage, electronics engineer.Slime mold amebae live in damp places and feed onbacteria. Among the most thoroughly studied forms isDictyostelium discoideum, which was the subject of thestudy by Messrs. Cohen and Robertson. The amebae continue to ingest bacteria in their vicinity until they are allconsumed. At this point an eight-hour pause — an interphase — takes place, after which the amebae are ready toaggregate. Some of the cells begin to emit pulses of cyclicAMP which propagate as waves if the density of the amebapopulation is sufficient. Other cells are drawn toward thesource of the attracting material.Readers of this publication last encountered cyclicAMP in connection with an account of studies of theprostaglandins (November/December, 1972). Cyclic AMP,in that arena, was described by Dr. Joseph Swartwout as thetrigger which activated a cell through its effect at or withinthe cell wall.Messrs. Robertson and Cohen, however, are investigatingthe role of AMP, not inside the cell, but as a chemotacticmessenger which allows one group of cells to attract others.The dominant cells in a growing slime mold aggregate forma tip or nipple, which emits a steady signal, also probablyconsisting of cyclic AMP. This signal allows the "organizer"tip to control the behavior of the other cells which joined theaggregate. As they move, the other cells themselves relay thecyclic AMP signal, but with periodicity, rather than as asteady discharge. This allows efficient signaling over relatively long distances. In addition, as in a nerve cell after ithas signaled, a slime mold ameba becomes refractory tofurther stimulation for a period after it has released its ownsignal. This prevents the cells from reacting to their ownsignals as bounced off other cells.Accompanying tip formation in the aggregated amebae isa great increase in the secretion of a mucopolysaccarideslime, which hardens as it flows over the surface of the aggregate (though remaining liquid in the tip area). Thehardened slime forms a sheath around a growing column ofcells. This eventually falls over, becoming the migratoryphase of the mold, which then becomes a fruiting body anddistributes spores.Several groups, particularly in the U. S. and England, areworking on theories involving the control of embryologicaldevelopment. One U. S. group is at the University; inEngland, work is centered at Cambridge University (whereDr. Cohen is working at present); and in London and theUniversity of Sussex. standing how communication evolved in highly complexSays Mr. Robertson: "Understanding intercellular com- organisms. It is interesting," he adds, "that cyclic AMP hasmunication at this simple level may be useful in under- important roles in both."These photos show the life cycle of Dictyostelium dis- In M the migratory slug is shown with its slime sheath col-coideum. In the top row 04 to F) the spores germinate. In G lapsing behind it. In N. an hour after the end of its migra-the amebae spend a day vegetating; they contain partially lion, the slug begins to be transformed into a fruiting body;digested bacteria, and the nucleus and contractile vacuole three hours later the fruiting body (O) continues to erect.are visible. H shows a field of amebae one hour after centri- and in P. another eight hours later, the fruiting body, atop/ligation; six hours later (J) the process of aggregation its sialk. has become a spherical mass, the tip dif'fer-begins. and in K, two hours after J, the streaming process is entiating into spores. The photos are in various magnifica-evident. and a tip is beginning to form. Six hours later (L) lions: In A through G the length mark indicates 0.0 1 mm; Hthe aggregate has formed, and the migratory slug is leaving. through K, I mm; L. M and P. 0.5mm: N and O, 0. 1 mm.17Hothouse environmentmisses the pointCreativity is strenuousSalvatore R. MaddiI am not much of an historian. Nor does my personal involvement with the creativity area stretch back very manyyears; But it does seem to me that much creativity study haslabored for some time under a serious limitation because ofthe failure to recognize fully the enormous strenuousness ofthe creative life.Perhaps the difficulty is that we stand in awe of creativityso much we cannot imagine pain, suffering, or loss associated with its pursuit. Nor have we always regarded creativeendeavor as something to which persons are inexorablydriven, regardless of the obstacles they may encounter.It may be that this difficulty can be traced to excessiveemphasis in research on the characteristics of creative actsand the strictly cognitive processes involved in bringingthem about, coupled with some neglect of the motivationalfactors in, and socio-political implications of, the lifededicated to creative endeavor.Situational view of creativity-One expression of the view of creativity I am criticizing isthe persistent theme in creativity study that situational structure, pressure, and constraint have an inhibiting effectupon innovative tendencies. This position has been taken bymany investigators not only in psychology, but educationand industrial management as well. I am not disputing thatsome of these studies include data indicating that unstructured, permissive and nurturant environments encourageimaginativeness, flexibility, and originality. I am not evenquestioning whether the behaviors involved are remarkableenough to be considered creative, though they are generallyexpressive of wit rather than any really ground-breakinginsight. What I am skeptical about is that the persons whoneeded such a felicitous environment would ever be able toMr. Maddi, professor in the Department of Psychology andthe College, is currently involved in a study of the relationship of alienation and creativity. His most recent appearance in these pages was in the July/October, 1971, issue, inwhich he discussed "Existential Sickness and Health,"which now, in expanded form, is in the process of preparation as a book.18manage creativity in the real world of varying and uncontrollable environments.Yet it has been common to assume that a good way totrain persons for creativity is to put them in an unstructured, permissive environment for a time. For example,brainstorming sessions are supposed to increase creativepotential by freeing participants to think and say anything,no matter how ridiculous it might seem in more conventional circumstances. The various programs available forencouraging creativity in the schools generally regard asbasic provisions whereby students can be made to feel freeto explore unusual approaches without fear of criticism.The common theme in all these training programs is thatan important way to produce a stable increase in creativityis to have persons function for a time in an unstructuredand permissive environment.While there is certainly evidence that the volume anddiversity of ideas can be temporarily increased in thisfashion, it has not been definitely demonstrated that thiseffect persists beyond the training session long enough toshift the whole course of a life toward creative endeavor.And, once again, I must ask whether the mild shift in ideasthat takes place is remarkable enough to have significantimplications for real creativity.Although this approach to the understanding andfostering of creativity emphasizes environmental factors, itdoes make assumptions about human nature. After all,there is no way of trying to explain behavior without makingsuch assumptions. A convenient way of finding the view ofhuman nature involved in the situational explanation ofcreativity is to consider what the human being must be likeif it requires an unstructured, permissive surrounding inorder to perform.The impetus to produce novel and useful acts must bevery frail indeed if it can be significantly curtailed by structured, evaluative environments. There must be considerablevulnerability and lack of self-confidence for opposition andcriticism from the outside to make so much difference.Presumably, the person's own ideas and self-structure arenot clear, important, or strong enough to withstand disapproval and compete with existing structure external to him.Whatever the protests of situationists that they are beingmisunderstood, the picture that emerges is of a humanbeing who is basically dependent and weak, and too proneto crippling anxiety, therefore, to manage vigorous creativity when constrained or criticized.Sometimes, the position that emphasizes the flowering ofcreativity in permissive, unstructured circumstances occurswithout any position having been taken on how creativitycan be trained. This is very understandable because of the situational emphasis in the creativity explanation. What isassumed here is that the human is by nature capable ofcreative acts, there being little if anything that can betaught which will influence this. Perhaps the developmentof certain skills and funds of information is useful, butthese play a merely catalytic role to a creative capabilityrooted in the conditions of birth.The picture emerging here is that if the outside worldwould only desist from manipulating and exploiting theperson, his frail though inherently patterned creativepotential would find its greatest expression more or lessspontaneously.Sometimes, those who consider creativity to be heavily influenced situationally do believe that training can affectcreativity level. But the training advocated is ratherrestricted to cognitive exercises for growing in imaginativeness — by such means as restructuring problems, selfconsciously thinking of low probability solutions, andoperating through analogies and metaphors. There arevirtually no exercises emphasized for developing othercharacteristics than imaginativeness, such as the values andhabits of persistence, authenticity, and self-reliance. Theimplicit assumption being made here is virtually the same asif no training procedures were specified. The picture is stillof creativity as an inherently patterned capability that canbe sharpened by exercise, but cannot be radically altered byhow one develops, by one's life style and personal commitments. This position is quite consistent with an emphasis onunstructured and permissive environments as indispensableto vigorous expressions of creativity.Self- actualization as the good lifeOne reason why the view of creativity I have talked aboutthus far has been influential in research and conceptualization of late is that it fits right in with an over-all attitudetoward the good life that is in the ascendancy. The good life,according to this attitude, is that in which one's inherentpotentialities are actualized.As you will recognize, this view has been given influentialexpression by some psychologists. Like acorns growing tooaks, human beings are construed as possessing a sort ofgenetic blueprint which is to be enacted in the process ofliving and developing. Although actualizing one's potentialsis not exactly an automatic, non-intellective process, it isorganismically patterned, in a very deep, evolutionary sense.Acutalization will tend to take place without the aid ofsocialization. Indeed, society is usually regarded, in thisview, as an obstruction, because it forces individuals intomolds, roles, conventions that have little to do with their19own unique potentialities. The best thing society can do isimpinge upon the individual as little as possible.No wonder that actualization theorists are natural socialcritics, typically finding existing societies overly structuredand evaluative.As societies tend to obstruct the actualization process, sotoo do attempts at special mental resolve of self -discipline,however worthy these attempts may appear. The trouble,according to actualization theorists, is that self-disciplineand mental resolve to lead the good life are heavily expressive of conventional values, taboos, and sanctions, inculcated through socialization. The definite implication here isthat true actualization is an organismic, mysterious process,only to be misunderstood and distorted by attempts to plan,problem solve, work hard, and reflect upon experience.Just how extensive is the rejection of rationality is exemplified by Carl Rogers, who decries "conditions of worth"(which are, after all, nothing really different from idealsapplied to oneself) as inhibiting and therefore cripplingexpressions of mind. Instead, one should be "open toexperience," "trust one's organism" and "live spontaneously." If this is accomplished, one's self-concept willchange rapidly, and one will define himself as his activities.Self-reflection will be minimal. Mental life will be littlemore complex than a generalized sense of well-being. Therewill be little pain and suffering.This approach leads to such contemporary phenomena assensitivity-training groups and drug abuse. In both, there isthe assumption that the breakdown of inhibitions is theroyal road to the good life.Misevaluation of 'freedom'The situational view of creativity I discussed at the outsetcomes right out of the actualization view. Indeed, actualization theorists often refer to the life independent of socialand mental constraint that they have described as creative.Charming though this view of creativity may be, I think itquite mistaken. Was it freedom from social constraint andan absence of mental discipline that sparked the creativityof Einstein, Michelangelo, Shakespeare, Plato, Christ,Freud, or anyone else history remembers? Were thecreations of these persons emanations from some mysterious organismic pool of potentialities relatively uninfluencedby education and experience? Was their typical life experience one of simple well-being, devoid of suffering, conflict, alienation, self-consciousness, and the like? Theanswer to all these questions is: of course not!It is a trivial view of creativity that derives from theactualization position. If confuses garden-variety imagina tiveness, day-to-day shifts in ordinary life experience, andan unreflective immersion in one's activities, with the stuffof greatness. Once the concept of creativity is democratizedsufficiently to be an actuality for everyone, if only he or shewill "stay loose" and avoid restriction, it has ceased to meananything of importance.Suggestions on defining creativityI am aware of the danger, in defining creativity, of substituting my value judgment for another which I find unacceptable. A Chinese wise man is reputed to have said, "Ifyou would know what a man holds dear, ask him to defineintelligence." In our culture and era, this insight is evenmore true of the creativity concept.Nonetheless, each of us must push ahead with his definition of creativity, trying to make it as relevant as possible,and hoping through argument and experiment to convincethe others that it is best.J. S. Bruner's position seems cogent to me, because hedefines a creative act as not only novel but also useful orvaluable or effective. Acts can be useful in such ways asaiding in or constituting the solution of an existing problem,or by producing an esthetically satisfying whole.In contrast, actualization positions tend to emphasizeonly the novelty component of creative acts. When focusingon the personal characteristics rendering novel acts likely,Bruner's position and actualization positions would bothstress imaginativeness, in such forms as disjunctive thinkingand spontaneous flexibility.But whereas actualization positions often stop there,Bruner would concern himself with the person's judgmentalprocesses which could help him fashion acts that wereuseful rather than merely novel.Once you add judgment to imaginativeness as relevantabilities, you already have a view of the creative personemphasizing more discipline, planfulness, and self-criticality than would appear desirable in the actualizationposition.I like the connotations of Bruner's approach whichrender creativity as hard work, rather than "fun andgames." Judging what would be useful and effective iscertainly a difficult endeavor. Equally, if not more difficult,is the exercise of imagination in the direction of producingsomething not only useful, but also new. We should not, inour admiration of creative acts, construe them as tumblingout of those fortunate persons who have been born rightand are blessed by favorable environments. It is easy tofunction conventionally, producing nothing new, andavailing oneself of the standards of usefulness provided by20others. To function creatively is enormously taxing, I wouldcontend, even for those giants who shape our lives by theirefforts.We should not let ourselves be confused about this bythose descriptions by creative persons of how a great insightcame to* them when least expected or focused upon. Thebusiness end of their creativity was the long, grueling,intense period of hard mental work preceding the flash ofinsight. During this work period, the person was organizinghis capabilities so as to optimize the emergence of a noveland useful product. En route, many possibilities werethought of and discarded as ineffective, and hence, the hardwork might seem for naught.When the creative solution finally comes, it very likely isgreeted with wonder. There, in pure, shimmering form isthe long sought solution! It is a romantic, though understandable reaction, to imagine the creative act to be unrelated to the exhausting, seemingly unsuccessful toil thatpreceded.But the creative life is even more strenuous. In demonstrating this, let me ask a naive question: Why does anyonebother with creative endeavor, if it is so difficult by comparison with more ordinary pursuits? The actualizationposition would contend that creativity is genetically patterned in all human beings, and it pressures for expressionbecause it is the nature of organisms to develop along thelines of their potentialities.In answering the obvious next question about how it canbe that there are some persons who show little creativity, theactualization position would decry the existence of inhibiting social structure and pressure. At this point, the positionruns afoul of observations to the effect that virtually allthose we remember as having been creative were so despiteenormous social forces arrayed against them. Galileo,Marx, Darwin, Freud, Dante, Byron, Yeats, Christ, Michelangelo, Zapata — the list is very long indeed of those whosecreative endeavors involved socio-political risks and punishments. Once again, I must point out that garden-varietyimaginativeness is not the same as creativity.Creativity as a socio- politial threatI do not think it accidental that the list of persons whoran social, political, and economic risks in their creativeendeavors is so long. It can be cogently argued that thefunction of social systems, institutions, and groups ismainly that of maintaining the status quo. Thus, laws,conventions, values, traditions, folkways, and mores areevolved whenever persons interact in order to preserve thecommon good. The common good usually amounts to the greatest service to an individual's or group's interestswithout thereby infringing on another individual's orgroup's interests sufficiently to cause conflict. The wholeweight of this is in the direction of finding some workablebalance and holding on to it.But a common effect of creative endeavor is a disruptionof the social status quo, regardless of the subject matterinvolved, or the insightfulness of the creative person into theimplications of his actions. Perhaps the creative act couldlead in the long run to a new and even more useful balanceof socio-political interests, but in the short run the effect isdisruption of the status quo. Nor is this true only in the caseof those persons whose creativity has obvious social content{e.g., Christ, Marx, Freud).'Value-free' innovations not exemptEven apparently value-free and scientific creations disrupt the status quo in the relevant professions (in suchfashion as shifting the patterns of prestige and power and inrequiring the reorganization of research and teachingefforts) and usually have social-change side-effects (as inthe development of controlled nuclear energy leading to theatomic bomb).It is hardly a stretch of the imagination to contend thatcreative acts and persons are threats, and are reacted to asdangerous, in direct relationship to their effectiveness.Whatever else is involved, to create is to disrupt the statusquo.We should not be deluded by the alacrity with which, inmodern, industrialized states, creativity is mouthed as avalue. By and large, the social structures and publics involved are not prepared to accept changes or disruptionsaffecting their own lives. Actually, in traditional, primitive,pre-industrial societies there is little pretense that creativityis a virtue. What leads toward change is rather franklyregarded as dangerous.If this analysis is correct, then the true extent to which theactualization position is mistaken can be seen. To regardunstructured and permissive environments as prerequisitesto creativity is to misunderstand the nature of both societiesand the creative endeavor. To train for creativity by carefully constructing mock environments that are unstructuredand permissive is to fail in producing persons hardy enoughto create under natural circumstances. If a person needssuch unantagonistic environments in order to enter intocreative endeavor, he has little or no chance of doinganything importantly new and useful.We should take seriously the findings that creativepersons are very self-confident, self-reliant, even egotistical,21and do not regard the approval or even respect of others asvery important. Socially, they can get by with a few trustedfriends.Biographies of creative persons yield similar results.Freud, for example, believed from childhood that he wouldbe a great man, and maintained himself quite well with hisinner circle of friends and colleagues all the while his societyrejected him as a pervert and devil. Christ, Marx, andGalileo are similar examples.Others, such as Nietzsche and Kierkegaard rejectedpolite society without even the cushion of close friends. *If we want to help persons to be more creative, we shouldbe toughening them up by encouraging self-confidence, abelief in their own greatness, and an imperviousness tosocial approval or rejection, rather than having thempractice little exercises in novelty in the hothouse climate ofa permissive and loving laboratory.The driven quality of creative endeavorIf correct, my analysis only raises more insistently thequestion of why persons engage in creative endeavor at all.Given the enormous difficulty of being creative and the veryreal socio-political risks it entails, the answer must take theform that the person has, in some sense, no "choice" but tooperate thus.There are four general approaches that I can think ofwhich have this form.One assumes that if one has the genetic endowment forcreativity, it will express itself, no matter what obstaclesthere are. This seems unlikely to me. First, it is rather intangible, leaving creativity a mystery. Second, we would, Ithink, have to make the improbable postulation that suchthings as imperviousness to social approval and interest inself-discipline and hard work are genetically patterned,along with the talents obviously relevant. Third, we areaccumulating evidence in our field that all sorts of capabilities thought genetically fixed, such as intelligence, aregreatly influenceable by training and experience.In contrast, the other three general approaches to whycreative persons seem to have little alternative appear rathercogent to me at this point. Let me outline them and urgethat they become the focus of future comparative study.One promising approach considers the motivation forcreativity to emanate from deep-seated, unconscious conflicts of great significance in the life of the individual.These conflicts would presumably be due to some less thandevelopmentally ideal response to the child's instinctualexpressions on the part of significant adults. In order toavoid the pain of punishment and guilt, the child adaptively forces the conflict out of consciousness.But this freezes the conflict in an unresolved state, whichcontinues as a source of mysterious tension and discomfortthat expresses itself in the self -discipline and willingness toface risk that characterize creative endeavor.You will, of course, recognize this as a psychoanalyticformulation. What is needed in the approach is somedefinite position on the content or form of unconsciousconflicts that leads specifically to creative endeavor and notsome other kind of activity. It is not really enough to consider creative endeavor "regression in the service of theego," which means little more, as far as I can see, than becoming childlike without being sick.Why do some persons regress in service of their egos andothers not? Is it oral, anal, or phallic conflicts, or somemixture of these, or something of the manner in which conflicts have been defended against, which pushes the personinexorably toward hard creative effort? Whatever theanswer here, the general contention of the psychoanalyticapproach is that creative acts certainly express, and mayactually resolve, the underlying conflicts motivating them.Frank Barron has made a start on relevant research here,but more effort is needed.There is another intriguing possibility as to why peopleengage in creative work which builds on the observationthat social systems and groups attempt to preserve, whereascreative acts disrupt, the status quo.Perhaps the creative person's early learning has eventuated in a self-image as a lonely searcher and crusader forfulfilment amidst a multitude of drones.Perhaps the ostracism and risk he runs are actually valuable, because they confirm his expectations concerninghimself and others. Given this basis for thrusting himselfinto conflict with social forces, the creative person canthereby reap the benefit that comes through the antagonism.What I am suggesting is that the conflict between society's opposition to, and one's own effort toward, change canactually be stimulating, enlivening, and challenging. Thiseffect is rendered likely if one not only expects the conflict,but almost looks forward to it as a kind of fulfilment ofone's self -definition and world view.Michelangelo's responseI have formulated this possibility on the basis of the lifeexperiences of great persons, as written about in autobiographies, biographies and letters. It seems to me verycommon, in such persons, to find the self-definition oflonely, misunderstood fighter for truth and beauty, and the22world view of society and others as obstacles due to conventionality. For example, all the while he was in Rome,Michelangelo wrote long, painful letters to his brotherabout how he had been robbed of his freedom by rich,church-related patrons, who forced projects on him unmercifully. Michelangelo had to take on these unwanted commissions, not only because he needed the money, but alsobecause the patrons were very powerful and could havedestroyed him if they wished. He saw most of them as conventional, unsophisticated persons who nonetheless hadpower over him. Needless to say, he was very depressed, andexhausted from the unwanted work.From reading the letters, one would never guess thatmajor masterpieces of sculpture and painting were issuingfrom his hands at an incredible rate!Picture a wealthy and powerful patron insisting thatMichelangelo make a pieta (he sculpted four; all commissioned) when that was the farthest thing from his mind.Imagine what feats of imagination and judgment he musthave been forced to in order to fulfill the commission andstill do justice, in some sense, to his talents and wishes.One pieta of his shows a madonna who is the same age asthe Christ she mourns. Are they mother and son, or lovers?This sculpture started a great controversy, and was considered heretical by some.Another pieta includes a mourning figure in the background who looks suspiciously like Michelangelo himself.Does this scene depict a painful episode of history, or theuniversality of spiritual and physical death? PerhapsMichelangelo was spurred to this stretching of thetraditional meaning of the pieta by being forced to take onprojects he disliked.Reflection on experienceA third possibility as to why some persons are driven tocreative work concerns the attempt to avoid alienation.Theorists from Hegel and Marx to Fromm, Kierkegaard,and Heidegger agree that the unique attribute of humans isthe cognitive ability to reflect upon their experience.Animals can perceive, remember, and make simplejudgments, but only the human can raise questions ofworthwhileness, necessity, and alternatives. Not to exerciseand develop this self-reflective ability is to remain a conventional person, which is as close to the animals as humanscan be.But once one engages vigorously in self-reflectivethought, the result very rapidly becomes alienation — thatfeeling of separation from the world, and even oneself, thatis the especially human pain. Frankl puts it well when he asserts that only man can question the "whole dubiousnessof being" and even commit suicide. For these theorists, themain purpose of life is to establish its meaning for oneself.Put in dramatic terms, this search for meaning is thehuman's way of avoiding suicide.The search for meaningHow can one find meaning in life? Some have done so byaccepting traditional, familial, or religious values. Whilethese may keep one going, they indicate conventionality, inthe sense that the values are given from outside and do notemerge from one's own reflection on his or her experience.If one accepts tradition, he asserts that the old ways arebest. Familial values assume that family members, functions, and responsibilities come first, no matter what. Andreligious values incorporate the two in tying meaning tosome supernatural (rather than internal) frame of reference.The locus of meaning is outside the person in each ofthese cases. Not only are they not the highest form ofhuman development; they may also expose the person to thedebilitating effects of such stresses as social upheaval andthreat of death. Because externally, socially-imposed valuesare by their nature conventional, they are rather easily dis-confirmed by the stresses I have mentioned. These stressesare quite common in modern industrialized states, andhence, espousal of traditional, familial, and religious valuesmay not even be very adaptive any more.By far the best antidote to alienation is creative endeavor.Through producing new and useful acts, the person literallyconstructs a framework of meaning which is personal,rather than imposed externally. Perhaps persons whodedicate themselves to creative endeavor have developedtheir human faculties of self -reflective thought to such ahigh degree that the enormous alienation which results canonly be assuaged through producing their own meaning.Their life style would be at the same time enormouslystrenuous and a pinnacle of humanness.It is my impression that in the past twenty-five years wehave not done quite enough research on the characteristicsof creative acts and the environmental conditions thatfacilitate their emergence. In the future, our efforts shouldfocus upon the personality and motivational factors which,when present, literally force the person into creativeendeavor, no matter what the cost in strenuousness andrisk. Only when we have done this will our conceptualization of creativity be such that we can convincingly understand the lonely, driven giants whose efforts shape their ownand our worlds.23'BooksTHE FLIGHT OF PETER FROMMMartin GardnerMartin Gardner (AB'36), who in his studentdays was editor of the literary magazineComment (long since defunct), wrote somemagazine fiction early in his career, but sincexthen has confined (?) his activities topublishing books of recreationalmathematics, for both adults and children;writing about science (and on its fraudulentmisusers); annotating such classics as Alicein Wonderland and "Casey at the Bat"; andcompiling the popular mathematical gamescolumn for Scientific American.Now he has produced his first novel, TheFlight of Peter Fromm (Los Altos, Cal.:William Kaufmann, Inc., 1973. $8.95), whichtakes place primarily on the Universitycampus and, like Joyce's Ulysses, deals withthe relationship of a young man and hissymbolic father. The father, a smug,pedantic, but good-hearted professor in thedivinity school, is the narrator, and his storyis that of one of his students, who between1938 and 1948 moves from a position offundamentalist zealotry, which he hopes topropound from the pulpit, to somethingapproximating the opposite position. In thistransition he also plays poignant roles in war,politics, and love, ultimately approaching theresolution of his problems by goingspectacularly berserk while delivering asermon. The title of the book refers to a linefrom the gospel of Mark: "He left the linencloth and fled from them naked."Mr. Gardner, annotator of Carroll,Coleridge, and others, has heavily annotatedhimself. The heart of the novel is itsdramatic exposition of immemorially unresolved religious problems as young Peterand his mentor struggle over the issues oftheism and atheism.ON FREEDOM AND HUMAN DIGNITYMorton A. KaplanIn On Freedom and Human Dignity: TheImportance of the Sacred in Politics(Morristown, N. J.: General Learning Press,1973. $2.50 [paper]), Morton A. Kaplancarries forward arguments he has advancedin three previous books, System and Process, Macropolitics, and On Historical andPolitical Knowing. Mr. Kaplan is professor ofpolitical science and chairman of theUniversity's Committee on InternationalRelations.Rejecting acerbically arguments of thelogical positivists, such behaviorists as B. F.Skinner, and impulse- oriented thinking suchas that of Charles Reich, Mr. Kaplan,acknowledging the difficulty of defininghuman nature, finds that the distinctiveaspects of it are man's capacity to be"conscious of his own consciousness," torecognize his identity with other men, and tobe aware of his own mortality. Through theseawarenesses, he says, the element of thereligious is introduced into man's nature,and he contends provocatively that much ofcurrent social thought suffers from itsfailure to consider the influence of thiselement."If one thinks not of being but becoming," he says, "then the potentiality of thehuman mind necessarily introduces thenotion of God, for it introduces the notion ofperfection. Even if perfection can never beachieved in the real world, the strivingtoward better societies and better men is astriving toward this asymptotic state. This isessentially a religious notion, for it placesinfinite worth, not on human actuality buton human possibility."Applying this conception to the polity, tothe economy, and to education, he pointsout, in the third instance: "The trouble withthe world in which we live is that we have theworst of all worlds. When education wasdemocratically extended to all, it fell into thegrasp of an educational bureaucracy thatdeveloped in a period when the requisitetalent was not available for the larger enterprise. The self protective measures of thebureaucracy have produced a caricature ofeducation. We repress individuality to salvethe psyches of educators. We ignoreintellectual discipline, for most educators donot possess it, and thus are incapable oftransmitting it. In an age of instant coffeesand instant soups, we desire instant wisdom.As a consequence, our prophets are Cronkiteand Brinkley. Our famous intellectuals areJohn Kenneth Galbraith, Charles Reich, andB. F. Skinner. We have no standards exceptthat of instant acceptance by the media andso we now live in an age of electronicpablum." LIONS IN THE STREETPaul Hoffman"The inside story of the great Wall Streetlaw firms," Lions in the Street (New York:Saturday Review Press, 1973. $7.95), is muchmore (or less?) than a book for lawyers. Mr.Hoffman (AB'57, AM'58), formerly areporter for the New York Post, now a freelancer, gives his reader a rollicking tour ofthe big New York legal establishments whichis loaded with anecdotes about, and revealingpersonal comment by, members of thesefirms, of which the John Mitchells, ArthurGoldbergs, Richard Nixons, Tom Deweysand Herb Brownells are merely the visible tipof this aggregation of "brahmins of the bar."MARK TWAIN: GOD'S FOOLHamlin HillIn Mark Twain: God's Fool (New York:Harper & Row, 1973. $10), Hamlin Hill(PhD'59), professor in the Department ofEnglish and the College, presents a fascinating — if sometimes painful to the pointof agony — portrait of Samuel Clemens in thefinal decade of his life. Based largely on theMark Twain papers at the University ofCalifornia at Berkeley, the book includesmuch material hitherto unavailable andcorrects errors of commission and omissionin earlier biographical writings about Twain.Unlike the familiar Mark Twain stereotypebased on Albert Bigelow Paine's "official"biography, published in 1912, which presentsClemens as a benign sage and spokesman forthe oppressed, the Clemens revealed by Mr.Hill is cantankerous and narcissistic, besetby financial problems and by illness andfeuding in his family and inner circle. In hiswork the aging writer moves away fromTwain the immortal and becomesincreasingly Clemens the mortal (i.e. auto-biographer). Still, in moments betweenhaving his ego massaged and being subjectedto family anguish, between being thepetulant and fawned upon "king" of hismenage and the battler for real or imagined"rights" — his own or those of others — theold iconoclast continues to keep alive thespark which, in his earlier writings, markedhim as an American "great."24tt/flumni J^ewsClass notesr\r in memoriam: Inghram Dickson*JyJ Hook, p1ib'o6, Kansas City attorney,former president of the Missouri bar, diedAugust 4.r\r-j in memoriam: Florence R. Scott,U ' phB'07, professor emeritus of Englishat USC, died July 24; Philip G. Van Zandt,ab'07, db'IO, West Lafayette, Ind., died in memoriam: Gertrude Chalmers,UO phB'08, Los Angeles, died July 1;George J. Miller, sb'08, sm'09, Normal, 111.,died July memoriam: David Levinson,pIib'IO, jd'12, founder and retired10partner in a Chicago law firm, died June 27.UiN memoriam: H. Harper McKee,sb'H, sm'12, Forest Hills, N. Y., retired consulting engineer, died July 9.a **% louis w. sauer, md'13, phD'24, re-^ *J tired pediatrician, developer of the vac-ine for whooping cough, was profiled recently in the Miami Herald. The story of thevaccine's discovery, as related by Sauer tothe Herald, began at UC when he was studying bacteriology with Drs. George andGladys Dick, perfecters of the scarlet fevervaccine. The former, Sauer's adviser, suggested working on whooping cough. "If youwork on it five years, you'll have it," saidDick. Following a trip to Europe to get cultures of the bacillus, Dr. Sauer began hisresearch, in 1925, at the Evanston (111.) Hospital where he was a member of the pediatrics staff. His vaccine was perfected around1929 and accepted in 1931. A few years laterhe developed a multiple injection calledDPT, for diptheria, pertussis (whoopingcough), and tetanus. Since retiring in 1959,Dr. Sauer has been living in Coral Gables,Fla., where he donates a couple of morningsper week to a local children's hospital, tendshis roses and orchids, and plays tournamentbridge with his wife, Mir a.ina perego stannard, p1ib'13, retiredactress, director, dramatic reader andteacher, tells us she will be listed in the 1973edition of International Biography. Ms.Stannard, a resident of Chicago Hts., became active in community work followingher professional retirement five years ago and gained a listing in the 1970- '71 editionof Community Leaders of America.A r LESTER R. DRAGSTEDT, SB'15, SM'16,J-^ phD'20, md'21, Gainesville, Fla., hasbeen awarded an honorary doctor of medicine degree by the University of Uppsala,Sweden, for "distinguished contributions tolearning and medical research." Dr.Dragstedt is the Thomas D. Jones professoremeritus in the University's Department ofSurgery.a n in memoriam: Hedwig Stieglitz Kuhn,¦1 ' sb '1 7, md'19, ophthalmologist who wasinstrumental in developing safety glasses foruse in industry, died June 17.a o in memoriam: Fred W. Emerson,1° sm'18, phD'21, Elon College, N. C,retired educator and botanist, died May 22.^f\ john toigo, pIib'20, has innovated"^J and is operating a manual trainingprogram at Santiago (Chile) College. Theschool is for kindergarten through highschool-level memoriam: A. Gordon Humphrey,pIib'20, jd'22; Rosina Larkin, x'20; HilbertA. Waldkoenigj p1ib'20.*\ a carl d. werner, pub '21, businessman"*- and civic contributor in Dayton, O.,received an honorary doctor of humane letters degree from Wittenberg University atthe school's commencement exercises June10.Club eventsChicago, October 25-27. Annual Cabinetmeeting.New York, October 3. Paintings from theMidwestern Universities collection to be previewed at the Wildenstein Art Gallery, co-sponsored by the Committee on InstitutionalCooperation.Washington, d.c, September 20. Report byNancy Wilson Kleppner on her trip to thePeople's Republic of China. November 7."Whatever Happened to the Bill of Rights?— or a Night at the Archives." ^\^\ RICHARD FOSTER FLINT, SB'22, PhD'25,^^ emeritus professor of geology at YaleUniversity, has authored an introductorytext, The Earth and Its History, publishedearlier this year by W. W. Norton & Co.,New York ($9.95). Based on a course whichProfessor Flint gave for over twenty years toliberal arts undergraduates at Yale, the bookis written for readers with a minimum ofearlier scientific training and is geared tothose whose major focus may lie well outsidethe sciences.The author of previous books on glacialand quaternary geology, Professor Flint hasdone extensive field work in North America,Argentina and southern memoriam: Anna K. Krivitsky, p1ib'22;jd'25; Maurice Simkin, sb'22, md'24.'-X'S ALMA CRAMER LIVERMORE, PllB'23,"^ Evanston, 111., was honored recently bythe Democratic women of the tenth congressional district for her many years of dedicated service to Democratic principles. Ms.Liver more has served on the board of thegroup since memoriam: Halbert C. Christofferson,am'23.^A in memoriam: Ira Sprague Bowen,^ ¦ x'24, physicist, former director of theMount Wilson and Palomar Observatories,died early this year.*\ r- libby pulsifer, md'25, clinical assis-^^ tant professor of medicine emeritus atthe University of Rochester school of medicine and dentistry and former chief of medicine at Rochester General Hospital, has beerpresented with an honorary doctor of sciencedegree by Colby College, Waterville, Me. Dr.Pulsifer, who lives in Penfield, N. Y., wonthe highest award of the Rochester Academyof Medicine — the Albert David Kaiser medal—in memoriam: Amanda Johnson, p1id'25,died June 5 at Pine Island, Minn.^z: in memoriam: Franklin K. Gowdy,^O sb'26, md'36; Max Rose, p1ib'26; PikeH. Sullivan, llb'26.*\n in memoriam: Gideon O. Karlson,** ' phB'27, Sheboygan Falls, Wis., diedMay 21; Robert Tieken, phB'27, jd'32,Libertyville, 111., died June 29.25^o harry barnard, phB'28, biographer,^™ educator, former journalist and authorof a nationally syndicated column, has completed a new work, The Forging of an American Jew: The Life and Time of Judge JulianW. Mack, to be published by the HerzlPress. Judge Mack was a member of the firstfaculty of the University of Chicago memoriam: Leo Rane, sb'28, directorof the University of Miami chemotherapylaboratory, died June 21.s*f\ ELBERT L. LITTLE, JR., SM'29, PllD'29,^^ dendrologist with the U. S. Forest Service in Washington, has received the distinguished service award of the United StatesDepartment of Agriculture for his valuablecontributions to the classification of trees ofthe western hemisphere. Dr. Little, who hasbeen in research work with the Forest Service since 1934, is the author of severalbooks, the latest of which axe Alaska Treesand Shrubs and the first volume of Atlas ofUnited States Trees.e. Elizabeth michael, am'29, was honored by Coe College (Cedar Rapids, Iowa)during commencement last spring when shewas awarded an honorary doctor of literaturedegree. Ms. Michael is a professor of Frenchat Eastern Illinois University.sam selby, p1id'29, who retired from themathematics faculty of Hiram (O.) College atthe end of May, leaves for Rome this September where he will initiate a mathematicsprogram at John Cabot College, a schooladministered by Hiram College which primarily serves Americans in Europe. Dr.Selby, who retired in 1968 from the University of Akron where he headed the mathematics department, came out of retirementfive years ago to resume teaching at Hiram.He plans to teach in Rome for one quarter,after which he and his wife hope to do memoriam: Emmorette DawsonMojonnier, p1ib'29, died June 24.^>rv c. malcolm moss, jd'30, retired at*-^ the end of June as vice-president andgeneral counsel of the American Life Insurance Association and is now a counselor withthe Chicago law firm of Schiff, Hardin &Waite.BERNARD WEINBERG, PllB'30, PllD'36,Robert Maynard Hutchins distinguished service professor of Romance languages andliteratures, arranged in his will for the creation of the Bernard Weinberg fellowshipfund, the income from which will be used toprovide graduate fellowships. In his willProfessor Weinberg, who died earlier thisyear, further provided that his entire library,including a collection of rare books, bedonated to the University.^SA ANDREW J. BRISLEN, SB'31, MD'36, Was*-* -*- elected speaker of the Illinois StateMedical Society house of delegates at theorganization's annual meeting. An internistand cardiologist, Dr. Brislen is also co-chairman, department of internal medicineand head of the intensive care section of theWoodlawn Hospital in memoriam: William R. Ming, phB'31,jd'33, veteran civil rights lawyer, died June30 in Chicago.'j'\ A revised and enlarged edition of the^r* book, From Crossbow to H-Bomb, byBernard, p1ib'32, pIid'40, and fawn mckaybrodie, am' 36, was released during thespring by Indiana University Press. Theenlarged edition of the work, which is acomprehensive history of weapons fromArchimedes' catapult down to MIRV andthe ABM, as well as an examination of theapplication of science to warfare and its effects on military strategy, includes an extensive new chapter on guided missiles, antibal-listic systems, nuclear-powered submarines,and the new developments in conventionalweaponry born of the wish to "put the nuclear genie back into the bottle." (Availablein a clothbound edition at $7.95; in paperback at $2.95.) Mr. and Mrs. Brodie areprofessors of political science and history,respectively, at UCLA.lillian m. johnson, sm'32, pud'38, relinquished the positions of vice provost anddirector of educational innovation at theUniversity of Cincinnati September 1 inorder to return to teaching. She is a memberof the psychology faculty.donald a. Wallace, phD'32, was honoredat a retirement dinner July 27 by colleagues,former students and friends who workedclosely with him during his twenty-two yeartenure in the college of dentistry faculty,University of Illinois at the Medical Center,Chicago. Professor of dental radiology at the time of his retirement, Dr. Wallace was alsosecretary of the university senate and of thecollege of dentistry faculty. Before becomingan educator in 1951, he held various positions in industry and worked with the American Dental Association. A prolific writer inhis field, he edited eight different editions ofthe ADA handbook on dental therapeutics,Accepted Dental Remedies, which is widelyused as a text. Dr. and Mrs. Wallace, whowas the first librarian for the mathematicsand physics library in UC's Eckhart Hall,now live in Wilmette.*y *y The Young Mencken: The Best of His^^ Work, collected by carl bode,phB'33, has been published (New York: DialPress, 1973, $15). The selections — from theinitial poem, first printed in 1896 whenMencken was a schoolboy, to the final essay,which appeared in 1917 when he hadreached the peak of his power — have neverbefore been reprinted. The writings showMencken in the capacity of poet, yearlingreporter, short story writer, witty essayist andopinioned critic on such subjects as operaand drama, bartenders, Baltimore, freedom,puritanism, Mark Twain, Joseph Conradand, of course, the American language. Mr.Bode, professor of American literature at theUniversity of Maryland, has long been interested in literary rebels. He has edited or co-edited Thoreau's poems and letters andcompiled the most widely used Thoreau anthology. His life of Mencken, considered astandard reference work, was issued in hardcover in 1969 and in paperback this year.marion castle, p1ib'33, am'36, has retired as principal of Hancock and Crerarschools in Chicago. Before becoming anadministrator, Ms. Castle taught Englishand civics at various Chicago public schools.daniel Rhodes, pub'33, was given emeritus status upon his retirement this year fromthe faculty of the New York State College ofCeramics at Alfred University. A potter andauthority on kilns and glazes, Rhodes wrotethe book Clay and Glazes for the Potter, astandard reference work first published in1957, which was issued in a revised editionearlier this year by the Chilton Book Company, Philadelphia. Examples of his ceramicsculpture and pottery are held in the permanent collections of a number of major museums, including the Victoria and Albert inLondon, the Everson in Syracuse (N, Y.), the26Smithsonian in Washington, and the Museum of Contemporary Crafts in New York.s%a david levine, x'34, has retired as*5^" editor of a monthly newsletter published by the social and rehabilitation serviceof the Department of Health, Education andWelfare. First on the retirement agenda, hetells us, is finishing up a book he is writingon the great debates in Congress. His bookThe Rift, a history and analysis of the Sino-Soviet dispute, was published in 1968.noel gerson, ab'34, author of historicalnovels and biographies, has been electedpresident of the board of the GoodspeedOpera House Foundation, East Haddam,Conn., a non-profit organization dedicatedto the preservation of the historical Victorianbuilding on the banks of the ConnecticutRiver which houses the opera, and to its continuance as a functioning musical memoriam: John H. Goreham, phB'34,died July 13 in Madison, Wis.^r LEORA CALKINS RUDOLPH, AM'35, has^^ retired from the faculty of the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. She was anassistant professor in the analysis -synthesisconcentration. Ms. Rudolph, an active participant in community affairs, plans to continue her work with such organizations asthe American Association of University Wo-*\r CHARLES F. KRAFT, DB'36, PllD'37,^^ faculty member at Garrett TheologicalSeminary (Evanston, 111.) since 1947, hasbeen installed as the Frederick Carl Eiselenprofessor of Old Testament memoriam: Raymond M. Lahr, ab'36;Charles Marshall Rush, jd'36.*yn theodore fox, sb'37, md'37, is prob-^ ' ably hoping that business is slow — theslower the better, iii fact — as he begins another season as orthopedic surgeon for theChicago Bears football club and consultantto the Chicago Blackhawks hockey club. Dr.Fox, who took his internship as well as a fellowship in pathology and a residency in fractures at Cook County Hospital, is also associate professor of orthopedic surgery at theUniversity of Illinois' Research and Education Hospitals in Chicago and editor of theManual of Orthopedic Surgery. in memoriam: Robert L. Platzman, sb'37,sm'40, phD'42, professor of physics andchemistry and in the College, University ofChicago, died July 2.^O FRANCES OLDHAM KELSEY, PhD'38,^™ md'50, pharmacologist with the Foodand Drug Administration, was awarded anhonorary degree this summer by DrexelUniversity. Dr. Kelsey won internationalrecognition for her work in exposing thedrug thalidomide.rex w. allen, sb'38, sm'47, has retired asresearch zoologist and director of the AnimalParasite Research Laboratory, a cooperativefacility of the Department of Agriculture andthe New Mexico Agricultural memoriam: Francis Lamb, md'38;Fredric Ryan Veeder, am'38, mba'47.'JQ ROLAND N. MCKEAN, AB'39, AM'48,^^ phD'48, has been designated the Commonwealth professor of economics at theUniversity of Virginia.Af\ DOROTHY SHAWHAN CRAGG, AB'40,^" am'41, Winnetka, 111., plays flute withthe Evanston Symphony Orchestra.ben s. meeker, am'40, has retired as chiefprobation officer for the U. S. district courtfor northern Illinois. Mr. Meeker, a HydeParker, joined the staff of the federal probation office twenty-three years ago as a memoriam: Jacob L. Reddix, x'40;Rosemary F. Wiley, ab'40, am'41.a a Major General kenneth d. orr,¦ -¦- md'41, returned to civilian life in Junewith his retirement from the post of superintendent of the Academy of Health Sciences, U. S. Army. General Orr, who is nowliving in San Antonio, was awarded an honorary doctor of laws degree this August byBaylor memoriam: Henry Litvak, ab'41, jd'48,Chicago attorney, died July 9.a*\ leon golub, ab'42, is one of eight*** artists named recently to receive a$3,000 award by the American Academy andthe National Institute of Arts and Letters.Mr. Golub, whose paintings are in collections at the Art Institute of Chicago and the Smithsonian Institution, teaches at RutgersUniversity.john l. scott, am'42, former city manager of Schenectady, N. Y., is now city administrator of Santa Barbara, Calif.john sharp, am'42, p1id'49, professor ofmodern languages and linguistics at the University of Texas at El Paso, has been selectedto receive an outstanding teacher awardfrom the Standard Oil (Indiana) Foundation.He was chosen for the award, which carriesan honorarium of $1,000, by a committee offaculty members, students and administrators.helen m. thatcher, ab'42, has beenunanimously approved by the board oftrustees of the John Marshall Law School,Chicago, as assistant dean for academic administration. Formerly registrar at theschool, she is a member of the Chicago,Illinois and American bar associations andhas been admitted to practice before theU. S. district court.john e. tilton, am'42, retired July l asprincipal of Thornridge High School,Dolton, 111.A^\ ROBERT DENKEWALTER, PhD'43,"*-* Westfield, N. J., who came out of retirement recently to become vice-presidentfor technology of Allied Chemical, sports afull black beard streaked with gray, reportedly the first beard on the firm's corporate executive level. A mountain climber, hegrew his Hemingway-style beard four yearsago while scaling Mount Kilimanjaro.Denkewalter, who has climbed many of theworld's peaks — in Alaska (20,000 ft.), Africa,the Himalayas (16,000 ft.), Nepal — keeps inshape by jogging three hours, four nights memoriam: Arna Bontemps, am'43,writer in residence at Fisk University, one ofthe last surviving members of a group ofblack writers and poets known as theHarlem Renaissance group, died June 4 inNashville. Mr. Bontemps taught literature atUC from 1966 until 1969.A A KENNETH R. WILLIAMS, PUD '44, who¦ ¦ retired June 30 as founding presidentof Florida Atlantic University (Boca Raton),has taken a leave of absence from his university position — regents professor of highereducation — to accept an assignment with the27Asia Foundation as consultant for highereducation-Vietnam. At graduation/convocation in June, Florida Atlantic granted him anhonorary doctor of humane letters degree.a r Walter j. levy, am'45, has assumed¦ *-* the executive directorship of the JewishWelfare Federation of Dallas. He and hiswife, hilma cohn levy, am'47, report thattheir oldest daughter, deborah l. levy,ab'72, begins graduate study in psychologyat UC this fall.Ar FRANK L. ALLEN, PllB'46, SB'46,¦ ^ pud'53, is now a vice-president ofArthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, Mass. Hejoined the firm in 1955.phyllis harper carson, sb'46, is nowworking as dietician for the Jasper County(Ind.) Hospital. Ms. Carson resides inGoodland, memoriam: Hal Tillotson Hum, sb'46,md'46; Barbara Salomon Lowy, ab'46.a*j The Sociology of Social Conflicts, by¦ 'LOUIS KRIESBERG, PhB'47, Am'50,phD'53, professor of sociology at SyracuseUniversity, has been published by Prentice-Hall.irving paley, ab'47, has accepted a postwith Chicago's Museum of Science andIndustry as manager of public relations. Hehad been director of the office of publicinformation at UC since early 1971.HENRY RALPH WINKLER, PhD'47, andBeatrice Chaikind Ross, both of HighlandPark, N. J., were married early this year. Mr.Winkler is senior vice-president for academicaffairs and university professor of history atRutgers University.AC% ANN COLLAR BRODER, AB'48, AM'51,¦ ® has been appointed to the ArlingtonCounty (Va.) school board.Sister Esther heffernan, phB'48, am'51,professor of sociology and head of the socialscience department at Edgewood College,Madison, Wis., has written a book, MakingIt in Prison (John Wiley and Son, NewYork), based on material she gathered frominmates at two women's reformatories: onein Washington and another in Alderson, W.Va. For a six to eight month period, SisterHeffernan paid almost daily visits to one orthe other prison, administered question naires to all the inmates and personallyinterviewed all those convicted of felonies. Aspart of the project she lived-in for severaldays to get the "twenty- four hour feel of theplace."AQ JOHN R. COLEMAN, AM'49, PhD'50,¦ >* president of Haverford College, wenton leave last February, and telling no oneexcept his oldest son — not even his board oftrustees nor his secretary — embarked upon arather remarkable- project, at least for a college president. In an attempt to break whathe calls "the lockstep" — the pattern that formany educators leads directly from kindergarten through graduate school straight onto the ivory towers of academia — he went toAtlanta and proceeded to dig ditches forsewers and water lines, at $2.75 an hour.After two weeks of this exhausting work, hehad to quit to attend a meeting of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, of whichhe is president. "It was unreal," he toldTime magazine, which picked up the storyduring the summer. "I had to keep pinchingmyself and asking, Ts this any less role playing than what I've been doing?' " Colemannext sought gainful employment as a dishwasher in Boston, but before the first hourwas up, his boss slipped him $2 and said hewouldn't do. "It was amazingly demoralizing," he said. "I'd never been fired and I'dnever been unemployed. For three days Iwalked the streets." After several unsuccessful employment attempts he finally landed ajob as sandwich and salad man at the UnionOyster House in Boston where he stayednearly a month. He was even offered a promotion to assistant chef, but had to pass thatup to attend another meeting of the reservebank. Next he was hired as a garbage man,at $2.50 an hour, in Maryland. "There'senormous contempt for garbage men," heobserved. After that he set sail for Europe,figuring enough was enough.Coleman's academic specialty is laboreconomics (he wrote Labor Problems in1953), but the idea of actually going out anddoing physical labor first occurred to himwhen the clash between hard-hat construction workers and anti-war demonstratorsoccurred three years ago on Wall Street.That incident, which "terrified" Coleman,awakened him to a "tremendous arroganceamong higher education professionals. Weget a very distorted view of ourselves and become very intolerant of other points ofview."One result of his recent adventures on thelabor force is that he has recommended tothe Haverford trustees that students berequired, not just permitted, to take time outto work before receiving their degrees.Herbert h. neuer, ab'49, has beenappointed national regional director of theAmerican Federation of TV & Radio Artists(AFTRA) as well as executive secretary of theChicago AFTRA local. An attorney, Mr.Neuer is also executive secretary of theChicago branch of the Screen Actors Guildand the American Guild of Musical Artists.virgil j. vogel, am'49, p1id'66, presentsAmerican Indian History in original documents from the Mayas and Aztecs to theoccupation of Alcatraz Island in 1968 in hisnew book, This Country Was Ours: A Documentary History of the American Indian(Harper & Row, $12.95). The foreword to thebook is written by sol tax, phD'35, professorof anthropology at UC. Mr. Vogel teacheshistory at Mayfair College, City Colleges memoriam: Amos H. Lytton, am'49,Madison, Wis., died June 14.rf\ william r. brandt, jd'50, partner in^^ a Bloomington, 111., law firm, has beenelected president of the McLean County BarAssociation.JANET FRAZEE HAYES, AM'50, San Jose,Calif., councilwoman, has been elected bythe mayor and her colleagues on the citycouncil to the post of vice-mayor of San Jose.Her election to the position, which has neverbefore been held by a woman, was memoriam: Robert Leroy Bothwell,am'50, executive director of the MetropolitanParks Foundation, Portland, Ore., formerMidwest regional director for the University,died June 20.rA julius halpern, ab'51, was the only^-*- public employee to testify before theU. S. House of Representatives Ways andMeans Committee in Washington at itsspring hearings on tax revision. Mr.Halpern, an employee of the state of Illinois,proposed tax reforms that would benefit thenation's 14,000,000 public servants. He alsotells us that his nephew, mark gruenberg,a third-year undergraduate at UC, is editor28of the Maroon this year.The nomination of william b.macomber, jr., am'51, as U. S. ambassadorto Turkey has been confirmed by the Senateforeign relations committee.ROBERT h. myers, am'51, p1id'55, with hisrecent retirement as lecturer in generalbusiness administration at Ball State University (Muncie, Ind.) has completed histhird professional career. Mr. Myers did hisdegree work at UC after retiring from along-time career in banking. His other career, as an officer in the U. S. Army,spanned the years of the Mexican border warof 1916-'17 through the post- World War IIperiod during which he continued to serve asa colonel in the reserve. At his latest retirement, he was granted the new title of lecturer emeritus by Ball memoriam: Bernard O. Erf, am' 51.r<~% george l. river, ab'52, has been^^ certified as a diplomate in hematologyby the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. River is director of clinical hematology at St. Elizabeth's Hospital, Youngs-town, O., and participates in the training ofresidents, interns, medical technologists andnurses.r ^ e. wood stevens, x'53, has retired^^ from American National Bank & TrustCompany of Chicago where he worked forthirty- seven years, most recently as memoriam: Stanley L. Lind, mba'53;Erwin K. Moore, mba'53.rA gil levine, ab'54, ab'56, a track an-^ ¦ nouncer in Chicago for over thirteenyears, has become well-known to the localhorse racing set for his well-paced, accurateaccounts of the harness races. Levine, whoonce boasted to the Chicago Sun-Times thathe is the only UC graduate calling harnessraces, got into this unusual line — for anyone,let alone a UC grad — after a short, but notso sweet, stint of teaching history in theChicago public schools. Instead of teaching,he found he was "keeping order and keepingbooks." A regular at the harness meetings,he took to calling the races for himself. Andthe fans around him, far from being annoyed, would clamor for more. He receivedmuch encouragement when he met StanBergstrom, then the track announcer at Sportsman's Park, who was so impressedwith Levine that he advised him to maketapes of his descriptions. Levine did so, andwhen he finally got his big chance, at theAurora track near Chicago, he practicallyblew it during his very first try — when hedropped the mike. But after more than thirteen years at it, he doesn't get quite sorattled. It takes him only about a minute torun down the names in any race and getthem well enough set in his mind for broadcast.fredric solomon, ab'54, sb'55, md'58,writes that he is associate professor ofpsychiatry at the college of medicine,Howard University, in charge of pre-clinicalteaching of the behavioral sciences. He alsohas a part-time practice in psychoanalysisand child psychiatry in Washington. He andhis wife, dorothy kent solomon, ab'60,are the proud parents of two sons, agedseven and nine.r r roger c. cramton, jd'55, who re-^^ signed in February from his post asAssistant Attorney General in charge of theoffice of legal counsel, became dean of theCornell University Law School (Ithaca,N. Y.) July 1. He had been on leave to theJustice Department from the University ofMichigan Law School. Cramton was an assistant dean of the University of ChicagoLaw School before joining the Michigan •faculty.rr DONALD D. brown, sm'56, md'56,^^ Baltimore, was selected by the National Academy of Sciences as this year'swinner of the U. S. Steel Foundation awardin molecular biology for "his studies of thestructure, regulation, and evolution of genesin animals, particularly the genes specifyingribosomal RNA in xenopus [African clawedtoad] and silk fibroin in bombyx [silkworm]." The award carries an honorarium of$5,000. Dr. Brown is a staff member of theCarnegie Institution's embryology department and professor of biology at the JohnsHopkins University.C*7 DONALD g. dusanic,sb'57, sm'59,^ ' PhD '63, life sciences professor atIndiana State University (Terre Haute), hasbeen awarded a U. S. Public Health Servicegrant to continue research on African sleeping sickness and Chagas' disease. CO Robert sullivant, p1id'58, former*^ dean of the graduate school at the University of Missouri's St. Louis campus, became executive vice-president at the University of Toledo (Ohio) September 1. Mr.Sullivant, whose academic field is politicalscience, is a specialist in the study of theRussian Communist party. He is the authorof Soviet Politics and the Ukraine, 1917-1957and was a post doctoral exchange scholar atMoscow State Universtiy in 1961.rn Siegfried a. buss, am'59, and family^ -^ have returned to Tokyo for their thirdterm with the Evangelical Alliance Mission.Mr. Buss now is a professor of German atTokyo Christian College and is in charge oflanguage programs at the OchanomizuStudent Christian Center. He reports thatVanderbilt University granted him a doctorate in Germanic languages and literature attheir December, 1972, convocation.r r\ hiram caton, ab'60, am'62, examines^^ the Cartesian origin of modern rationalism in his new book, The Origin of Subjectivity: an Essay on Descartes, scheduled forpublication in September by the Yale University Press. Caton's study poses a challengeto much of the work done in the past decades and adds him to the ranks' of the smallbut distinguished minority of commentatorswho maintain that Descartes' ethical thoughtis consciously hostile to classical and Christian ethics. Caton is currently a research fellow at the Research School of Social Sciencein the Institute of Advanced Studies of theAustralian National University, Canberra.rA SUSAN FROMBERG SCHAEFFER, AB'61,"-¦¦ am'63, phD'66, has written a novel entitled Falling (Macmillan Publishing Company), which was praised to the skies in aNew York Times Book Review article writtenby wayne c. booth, am'47, p1id'50, theGeorge M. Pullman professor of English atChicago and author of The Rhetoric of Fiction. Ms. Schaeffer, associate professor ofEnglish at Brooklyn College, has publishedtwo volumes of poetry: The Witch and theWeather Report (mentioned in an earliermagazine) and Nearer and Nearer the Beakof the Crow. She has also written a book onNabokov.thomas f. scully, mba'61, has beenelected to the presidency of International29Junior College, Fort Wayne, Ind., a two-yearco-educational business school.dwight steward, am'61, has written aHarper novel of suspense, The AcupunctureMurders (New York: Harper & Row, 1973.$5.95), in which the main character andsleuth — one Sampson Trehune — probablyrepresents an unprecedented development inthe detective story genre in that he is totallydeaf. In the two years he spent researchingfor the book, Mr. Steward not only studiedacupuncture, but spent a good deal of timeat the National Theatre of the Deaf. Currently a teacher at Delaware State College,Steward has performed in night clubs as amagician, juggler and ventriloquist; editedthe American Surgical Grade AssociationJournal for two years; and taught a dramacourse for Chicago educational TV.vernon r. wiehe, am'61, presentedseminars on the use of group methods withadoptive couples at regional conferences ofthe Child Welfare League of America inToronto, Atlanta and memoriam: The Rev. John GeorgeKoehler, db'61.r^\ laird noh, mb a' 63, a sheep rancher^^ in Kimberly, Idaho, runs an operationconsisting of 5,000 range ewes, called theNoh Sheep Co. He is active in the IdahoWoolgrowers Association and the AmericanSheep Producers Council.william l. richardson, jd'63, is currently serving a six-year term as districtcourt judge in Multnomah County, Portland,Oregon.rA WAYNE a. kerstetter, ab'64, jd'67,^" former New York police official, is nowhead of the Illinois Bureau of Investigation.jerome eisenfeld, sm'64, p1id'66, associate professor of mathematics, Universityof Texas at Arlington, has been conductingresearch on what might seem an unlikelysubject for a mathematician — arthritis. Together with an orthopedic surgeon and twomechanical physicists, he is exploring thepossibility that the cause of arthritis may bescientifically analogous to the ridges of sandon a beach left by the motion of waves. Using the electron microscope, the team studiesthe ridged synovial tissue on the surface ofarthritic bones. On the hypothesis that theridges may be caused by the motion of fluidover the area, Dr. Eisenfeld steps in with his computer and determines the frequencies ofthe fluid motion in correspondence with theridges.r r eda g. Goldstein, ab'65, am'67, has^^ completed the course work and passedher comprehensive examinations in partialfufillment for the doctorate of social welfareat Columbia University. She writes that sheis still employed as senior psychiatric socialworker at the New York State PsychiatricInstitute. Two of her articles on social workwith the dying. patient are soon to be published.john j. wiorkowski, sb'65, sm'66,phD'72, research associate (assistant professor) with UC's statistics department sinceAugust, 1971, has accepted a position as assistant professor of statistics, PennsylvaniaState University.rr Nicholas j. bosen, jd'66, Chicago^^ attorney, has been elected to the boardof governors of the City Club of Chicago andto a selection committee of the DemocraticNational Committee.martin sternstein, sb'66, has beenelected to a three-year term as chairman ofthe mathematics department at Ithaca College, Ithaca, N. Y. In addition to teachingstraightforward math courses at Ithaca, Mr.Sternstein last year initiated a course on thetheory and history of chess.67 john d. denne, mba'67, has authoredan article, "Society and the Monster,"which is included in the new Prentice-Hallbook, Focus on the Horror Film, edited byRoss and Huss.Joseph r. simpson, pIid'67, a 1973 graduate of Harvard Medical School, is serving hisinternship in medicine at Chicago's MichaelReese Hospital and Medical memoriam: James William Maclnnes,phD'67.r o kenneth c. hallum, am'68, has been^^ promoted to associate professor ofsocial welfare and sociology and grantedtenure at California State University,Humboldt (Areata, Calif.).vincent l. ouellette, am'68, vicar forpastoral affairs in the chancery offices of theDiocese of Marquette (Mich.), has assumedthe executive editorship of the Upper Peninsula Catholic, newspaper of the diocese. CAROLYN LANSDEN WHITTLE, AM'68, is theDemocratic candidate for county legislator,White Plains district (N. Y.), to be electedNovember 6.r q byron starns, jd'69, has been ap-^ ^ pointed by Minnesota Attorney General Warren Spannaus to the post of deputyattorney general of the Pollution ControlAgency of Minnesota.ROGER CHARLES ALPERIN, AB'69, hasreceived a doctorate in mathematics fromRice University (Houston).H(\ seth masia, ab'70, completed his civil-' ^ ian alternative service last Novemberand spent the winter skiing in Colorado andUtah. Recently he was appointed equipmenteditor for Backpacker which he describes as"a slick outdoorsy magazine."JAMES w. coleman, am'70, is the firstblack man to be appointed to a full-timeacademic post at Colorado College. Namedan assistant professor of English as of thisautumn, he will be teaching courses in blackliterature, late 19th century American literature, 20th century literature, and advancedstudies in the American short story.pamela jean hartwig, ab'70, has beenawarded a law degree by the University ofMichigan.*ja thomas fabel, jd'71, has been named' -*¦ deputy attorney general of the Department of Public Welfare of Minnesota.marianne k. o'brien, jd'71, Chicago, isnow assistant staff director of the AmericanBar Association's law student division. Shewas previously a VISTA lawyer with theChicago Legal Aid Society.^r^s paul m. brinich, am'72, who has been' " working for the past three years as aclinical and research psychologist at theLangley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute,University of California Medical Center inSan Francisco, tells us he has been admittedto candidacy for the PhD in human development at Chicago. This October he begins afour-year training program in psychoanalyticwork with children at the Hampstead Child-Therapy Clinic in London, under the direction of Ms. Anna Freud. "I would very muchenjoy seeing any of my friends fromChicago," he writes, "who might be visitingLondon." The clinic's address: 21 MaresfieldGardens, London NW3.30CompatibilityIt's the one thinga really excellent chairmust have:• Compatibility with its owner's personalhistory.• Compatibility with his or her Geist; mannerand accoutrements of living.• And of course anatomical compatibility; achair has its pragmatic aspect.The Chicago chair is such a chair.Compatible.Chicago chairs are sturdily built of northern yellow birch andfinished in black lacquer with antique gold trim. The armchair isavailable with black or natural cherry arms. The side chair,formerly available, has been discontinued. Both the armchair and'~lThe University of Chicago Alumni Association5733 University Ave.. Chicago, 111. 60637Enclosed is my check for $ , payable to the University ofChicago Alumni Association, for the following Chicago chair(s):.Armchairs (cherry arms) at $54.00 each.Armchairs (black arms) at $52.00 eachBoston rockers at $44.00 eachName(Please print)Address __(Zip).J the rocker carry the Universitycrest in gold on the backrest,and both are made by S. Bent &Brothers, century-old manufacturer, of Gardner, Mass.Please make your check payable to the University ofChicago Alumni Association.Orders are shipped expresscollect from the factory inGardner, Mass., and deliveryshould be expected in approximately eight weeks. Shippingcharges are payable when thechairs are received. Please usethe accompanying coupon toorder your Chicago chair.MEETING IN CHICAGO?There is aunique environmentfor your meetingat the UniversitySince the Center for Continuing Education was established in 1963, ithas hosted thousands of meetings, seminars, workshops, trainingsessions and conferences. Each year its facilities are utilized by groupsrepresenting the academic world, business, the professions, industry,government, labor and the community.The Center's environment was planned to anticipate every need:comfortable guest rooms and suites; a diverse array of meeting roomsfrom the intimate to the expansive; comprehensive audio-visual andduplication equipment; spacious, tastefully-appointed lobby areas andlounges; complete dining facilities, formal and informal; and a cocktaillounge.The Center's staff is prepared to furnish virtually any service ortechnical aid a meeting's chairman might request.For information contact THE UNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOCENTER FORCONTINUINGEDUCATIONASSISTANT DIRECTORCenter for Continuing Education1307 East 60th StreetChicago, Illinois 60637(312)753-3184 Zf9f)9 a viv"II 09VOIMOI33yjLS H16S ISV3 9TTTAyvyenid33 aa0D3>f -WIH3SC9V0IHD 30 AlISd3AINfl