fr>:,«?&!> UNIVERSITJOF CHICAGOMAGAZINE ¦JULY/AUGUST 1973 UNIV^SI TY CF CHICAGOsir™ RECORD CEPT1II<BaST 59TH STRFFT¦¦:niCAC»: IL 6C637THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOLIBRARYTHEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEThe New Supreme CourtPhilip B. Kurland 3New insights into crises of agingMorton A. Lieberman 11A memory of Ezra PoundRichard G. Stern 15China visit 16The search for black music's African rootsDena Epstein 1815 distinguished alumni 25Communicator Kogan reveals secrets . 27Midway major domo 29Friends, Romans, alumni 3123 Quadrangle news 24 Alumni newscover: This photo, taken by Mrs. Levi in the course of the Women's Board trip toChina, shows President Edward Levi in conversation with Ku-I-Tung (extreme left) and LuYu Tao, former Midwayites, as George Ranney, trustee of the University, talks with othermembers of Futan University in Shanghai (more on Pages 16 and 17).picture credits: Page 1, Mrs. Edward H. Levi; Pages 16, 17, George Ranney; Page 19,unknown painter (ca. 1810), courtesy Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection,Williamsburg, Va.; Pages 25, 27, Lloyd Saunders; Page 31, Dennis Galloway. Volume LXVI Number 1July/ August, 1973The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published six times peryear for alumni and the faculty of TheUniversity of Chicago, under the auspicesof the Office of the Vice President forPublic Affairs. Letters and editorialcontributions are welcomed.Don Morris, AB'36EditorJennie LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois; additional entry at Madison,Wisconsin, Copyright 1973, TheUniversity of Chicago. Published inJuly/August, September/October,November/December, January/February,March/April, and May/June.The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312)753-2175John S. Coulson, '36, PresidentArthur Nayer, Director, Alumni AffairsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorLisa Wally, AM'68Program DirectorRegional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91201(213)242-8288825 Third Avenue, Suite 1030New York, New York 10022(212)688-73551000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415)928-0337735 South Fairfax StreetAlexandria, Va. 22314(703)549-3800tie new u'lipFenne v^our tPhilip B. KurlandThe Supreme Court of the United States is a peculiarinstitution. It is peculiar in two senses: it is peculiar in thesense that it is unique; it is peculiar, too, in the sense thatit is strange.I think we are usually aware that the Supreme Court isboth strange and unique. What we tend to forget is that itis an institution. As a people we generally ignore theinstitutional aspects of our government. And many of ourpresent ills derive from this failure to comprehend thatgovernment institutions — like other institutions of oursociety — are both more than and different from the menwho happen, at any given time, to occupy office. If theconsequences of this failure are not immediately discernible, they are nonetheless grave. Indeed, I respectfully submit, it is this failure of perception that may very wellprove fatal to the basic American concept of democraticgovernment.When this nation was born, the Constitution served theMr. Kurland, professor in the Law School, has been amember of the University's faculty since 1953. After acquiring degrees from the University of Pennsylvania andHarvard Law School, he served as law clerk to U.S. Appellate Court Justice Jerome Frank and to Supreme CourtJustice Felix Frankfurter. Eight books he has written oredited deal with one aspect or another of the SupremeCourt, and these are in addition to the annual SupremeCourt Review, published by the University of ChicagoPress; in this series this years volume will be thefourteenth. function of assigning different powers to different branchesof government. It was recognized by the Founding Fathers,if not by their successors, that power is corrupting of theindividuals who exercise it and dangerous to the people onwhose behalf those powers are theoretically exercised. TheConstitution, therefore, divided power, not only betweenthe nation and the states in that unique scheme that wasAmerican federalism, but within the national governmentamong three branches. The constitutionally commandedseparation of powers and system of checks and balanceswas thought necessary to the preservation of individualfreedom.It is, in part, the rejection of these checks and balancesand separation of powers that has resulted in the inordinate loss of individual freedom from which we suffer todayand which is likely to be exacerbated tomorrow. For we arealready living in an era in which the individual has beensubordinated to a whole group of corporate elements inour society, not least of which is government itself.One need spend very little time in Washington, D.C., torecognize that, for the most part, government exists for itsown sake and not for the benefit of the people to whom itshould be responsible. Nor is Springfield or City Hall anydifferent on this score. It was this condition that JohnAdams sought to prevent when he advocated a governmentof laws and not of men.Instead of a division of function between local andnational government, we have witnessed over the lastcentury a steady accumulation of national power with aconcomitant reduction in local authority. Certainly this isdue to a multitude of causes. In many ways it is the natural3result of our technological progress that has reduced spaceand time through better — or at least quicker — means oftransportation and communication, that has, indeed, madeone society out of many. In no small measure, however, itis also a consequence of an unwillingness on the part oflocal government to assume its obligations and responsibilities.And this has been matched by a grasp for power by thecentral government that was made to exceed even thebureaucratic reach. When the lawyers for the rich warnedus of the dangers inherent in the national income tax, wetended to deride them for special pleading. But it is thenational income tax that has made the states dependent onthe charity of the national government, charity which in itslatest form is labeled "revenue sharing." Charity may bethe greatest of individual virtues; it is the most stifling ofgovernmental powers.Just as the states have become mdribund as agencies ofgovernment, destroying the safeguards that federalism wasintended to secure, so too have we seen the deterioration ofseparation of powers in the national sphere. Here again thecentralization of power in the executive branch is in somemeasure due to the inordinate growth of government thathas made it impossible for Congress adequately to overseethe functions of that government. In part, it is due to thefailure of Congress to perform the tasks assigned to it,because it was easier to let someone else do it. In part, it isdue to the desire and demand for power — some may call itusurpation — by the executive branch itself.The personality approachMeanwhile, the American people have tended tomeasure the desirability of the result of this deteriorationof representative government in terms of their personalpredilections for the occupants of the Presidential office.When it is a President with what has come to be called"charisma," a Franklin Delano Roosevelt or a JohnFitzgerald Kennedy, some of us have applauded theseizure of power by the President. When that office isoccupied by one whose objectives are less to our tastes, wedeplore the power that has become his to exercise.We have not been willing to understand that when weapprove the transfer of power from Congress to the President because we tend to trust and admire the recipient ofthat authority, we are assuring that his successor, too,whoever he might be, will be able to assert the sameauthority, even if he uses it to different ends. As JusticesRoberts, Frankfurter and Jackson once observed: "Evilmen are rarely given power; they take it over from better men to whom it had been entrusted." (Screws v. UnitedStates, 325 U.S. 91, 160.)It is essentially since the regime of Franklin Rooseveltthat this country has become the subject of Presidentialgovernment so clearly distinguished from Congressionalgovernment as described by Woodrow Wilson manydecades ago.Executive power intensifiesBut it is also true that the powers that were exerted byFranklin Roosevelt were puny as compared with thosewhich are now exercised by his successors in office. For wehave arrived at the stage where the President asserts —without meaningful challenge — powers and privileges thatonce were those of the legislature, even to the point ofassuming the power over the appropriations process whichwas thought to be the primary safeguard of democraticgovernment.(It may be recalled that it was Parliament's successfulassertion of the power over the purse that moved Englandfrom an autocratic monarchy to a democratic polity.)The new Presidency has ridden over even the authorityof the old-line executive departments. These executive departments have been reduced to menial status. All policy ismade and largely effected by what is benignly known as"the White House staff," a staff that once could be morethan amply housed in a single wing of the White House,but which now sprawls through buildings that once contained the entire Department of State and several otherold-line departments as well.And, without a semblance of substantial concern by thepeople or their elected representatives, the President nowproposes to reorganize the national government to reducefurther the power of these departments by consolidatingthem in a way that affords greater and greater WhiteHouse control. Yes, that reorganization may make formore efficiency, although I doubt it. But as Mr. JusticeDouglas once noted: "All executive power — from the reignof ancient kings to the rule of modern dictators — has theoutward appearance of efficiency." Youngstown Sheet &Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579, 629.)It may be that the problem of the ever-expandingexecutive power has come closer to American consciousness in recent years as Presidents — and I am certainlyspeaking of more than one — have undertaken to engagethis country in foreign wars without Congressionalauthority, as Truman and Eisenhower and Kennedy did; toimpose economic controls by fiat, as Kennedy and Nixonhave done; to determine which Congressional programs4they will effectuate and which they will ignore, as Trumanand Kennedy and Nixon have done; and to do all thesethings behind a cloak of secrecy that cannot be penetratedeven by the elected representatives of the people — as certainly all of them have done.And all of this has been justified by invoking precedents,precedents to which the American people took no exception because the leaders who indulged in this abuse ofpower were trusted by them to bring about the right ends,even if by the wrong means.It was Mr. Justice Frankfurter who reminded us, whenthe Court stopped the exertion of executive authority in thecase of the seizure of the steel mills by the President: "Theaccretion of dangerous power does not come in a day. Itdoes come, however slowly, from the generative force ofunchecked disregard of the restrictions that fence in eventhe most disinterested assertion of authority." (Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579, 594.)I have dwelled on the Presidency and the violation of itsinstitutional limits because they are easily discerned and,today at least, readily acknowledged. Senators who acquiesced for years in Presidential aggrandizement aresuddenly vocally cognizant of the dangers. It remains to beseen whether Congress has the backbone to indulge morethan empty words to reestablish its constitutionalauthority. (Despite "Watergate," the House continues tobe the tail to the presidential kite.)Judicial activismAs with the White House, so, too, with the SupremeCourt. During the tenure of Chief Justice Warren, therewere many who could find no fault with the constantly expanding power of the judiciary. For surely it was directedto ends of which they approved. Now that the personnel ofthe Court has changed, and with that change has come achange in the apparent values of the justices, these samepeople who once so loudly acclaimed the assertion ofjudicial authority are now concerned to assure that thejudiciary be kept in its sphere. The lesson of the Sorcerer'sApprentice must be learned once again.Just as it may be too late to restore the Presidency to itsproper dimensions, so it may be impossible to confine theCourt. Despite the plentiful rhetoric, the question is nolonger whether we should have an activist Court. Anactivist Court is one that assumes capacities to govern inbroader and broader areas. An activist Court is one thatinterferes with legislative and executive judgments on thebasis of its own contrafy personal predilections.But such a Court may have either a conservative or liberal bias. It will remain an activist Court even if itsclientele changes from the laborer, the black, and theeconomically deprived, to big business, big labor, and biggovernment. The Nine Old Men whom Roosevelt sought todisplace were no less an activist Court than the WarrenCourt, whose justices President Nixon has — almost as successfully so far — sought to replace.The Burger Court with its inheritance of authority is notlikely to prove less activist, but only less liberal. And thosewho scorned the idea of institutional limitations — constitutional limitations if you will — -are suddenly taken withthe importance of those limitations. Too late.Responsibility and life tenureThere are, however, several differences between thejudicial and executive branches of the national governmentthat are relevant here. The first is that the judicial branchhas no direct responsibility to the people. Where the President must be chosen every four years — representativesevery two and each senator every six — the judicial appointees remain in office for life. A new Court, unlike anew administration or a new Congress, is a fortuitousevent. And, contrary to public opinion, a new Court doesnot derive from the appointment of a new chief justice. Forthe other justices are not subordinate to the chief justice.The chief justice has no lawmaking authority that isgreater than that of his judicial brethren.Indeed, a new Court, in the sense of a new jurisprudence, need not even be brought about by a change of amajority of the personnel and, on the other hand, may bebrought about even where the personnel does not changeat all. I would submit as examples the fact that theRoosevelt Court came into existence, in the sense of theend of the era of "substantive due process," when JusticesHughes and Roberts became firmly attached to the theretofore dissenting trio of Brandeis, Stone and Cardozo, evenbefore any Roosevelt appointee joined it.Again, the Warren Court did not come into existence in1954, when Warren was appointed and the SchoolDesegregation Cases were decided. (The school cases wouldhave been decided the way they were had Vinson survivedto preside over that term of Court.) The Warren Court — aCourt with its own patent judicial philosophy — did notcome into existence really until the decision in a case calledMapp v. Ohio made it clear that the Court was prepared toimpose on the states its own expansive notions of a code ofcriminal procedure, and the decision in Baker v. Carr,which made it clear that the Court was prepared to prescribe the proper form of government for the states.5And it was called the Warren Court because Warren wasits chairman, not because Warren was its leader. Thedoctrines of the Warren Court had been formulated byJustices Black and Douglas long before the advent ofWarren, and those two justices remained the WarrenCourt's doctrinal leaders throughout its life.Acquiescence necessaryThere is, moreover, one difference of no small importance between the accretion of power in the judiciary andthat which has occurred in the executive branch. Thejudiciary is inherently a governmental weakling. Its poweris dependent upon acquiescence in its orders by the otherbranches of government. Thus, the school segregationdecisions were meaningless words so long as PresidentEisenhower and the Congress refused the approval andcooperation of their powers that could make the decisionsmeaningful.Indeed, much of the Court's alleged successes in recentyears have been verbal rather than real, with the result thatit has been given both credit and blame which do notproperly belong to it.For example, if we examine the three areas in which theCourt established its reputation for doing good during theWarren regime, we discover something less than gloriousachievement. One needn't live in Chicago, under theshadow of yesterday's headlines, to know that separation ofthe races, in and out of school, remains — despite theCourt's decision — the dominant problem of Americansociety.It is clear that the state legislatures have been reapportioned in accordance with the commands of the federalcourts, commands frequently issued by divided federalthree-judge courts, divided according to the political partyallegiance of each of the judges. Even so, the shift of seatsin the legislatures has been from a conservative farmconstituency to a more conservative suburban constituency.The plight of urban America is no more the direct concern of the new legislatures than it was of the old ones. Thecure has been of a symptom rather than a disease. Foreven under the "new equality" of the Warren Court,the power of gerrymander has remained undisturbed.Corporate, i.e., group, interests as distinguished from individual interests are well served under the new allocationas they were under the old one.When we come to that area of constitutional law whichhas aroused perhaps the greatest political furor, theSupreme Court's decisions in the area of criminal justice,we again see little change wrought by the Court's judgments. Surely the Court is not to blame for the crimewave that inundates the country. Certainly, as a result ofthe Court's decisions, there are criminals on the loose whomight otherwise have been punished.But it is ludicrous to suggest that the overabundance ofcriminals that we have with us are charting their coursesby the decisions of the Supreme Court. Law is probably thelast thing in the minds of those who have made the FBIcrime statistics look like our national debt, climbing at aneven more rapid rate.On the other hand, when it is noted that the function ofthe Court's rulings was not to free the guilty but to chastisethe police and the prosecutor so that they would notengage in police-state tactics against the innocent citizen,it must be recognized that the Supreme Court's decisionsseem to have brought about no noticeable improvement inpolice behavior, either. Mr. Justice Holmes' dictum is asapplicable to the Warren Court's activities as to that of allits predecessors. Courts are capable of bringing about onlymolecular, and not molar, changes in our society.Nevertheless, it should be recognized that the Court'sbehavior is not unimportant. If it affirms basic ethicalconcepts, which may be as old as the decalog or the gloriesof Greece or Rome, it provides a strong moral force forgood, but by way of example rather than precept. And,then, none knows better than those now living that molecular changes, too, can be of no small consequence whenenough molecules are rearranged to form new patterns ordestroy old ones.Unpredictable differenceThat the new Court — the Burger Court — is differentfrom the old one — the Warren Court — is easily acknowledged, and yet prediction of what results that difference isgoing to bring about would be foolhardy. One could hardlyhave anticipated that the Burger Court would have beenthe one to decide that the death penalty as it has beenapplied is unconstitutional. The Warren Court had thatquestion before it again and again. Never did it face up tothe question and hold, as the Burger Court did last term,that the death penalty violated the "cruel or unusualpunishment" clause of the Eighth Amendment.And yet every member of the five-man majority in thatcase was a holdover from the Warren Court, and every dissenting member of the Court in that case was a Nixonappointee.And it was the Burger Court that, earlier this year,struck down state laws banning abortions, a result repeatedly sought from and repeatedly denied by the Warren6Court. It cannot be said that precedent or personalpredilection was an adequate basis for predicting the outcome of the capital punishment cases or the abortioncases.New directionsOn the other hand, we have already seen that the BurgerCourt has drawn back fronl an extension of the WarrenCourt's decisions in the area of criminal procedure. Theinfamous Miranda rule that prevented convictions forpolice failure to instruct the accused of his right to silenceand to counsel has not been overruled but stopped in itstracks — tracks made, until the advent of the Burger Court,by seven-league boots.The sanctification of the jury trial by the Warren Courthas been reversed by the Burger Court, in the latter' sholdings that less than twelve persons can properly constitute a jury — even in the federal courts — and, indeed, thata less than unanimous verdict satisfies the demands of theConstitution.If pornography has received less protection from theBurger Court than it did from the Warren Court —although it should be remembered that Chief JusticeWarren himself was not often to be found on the side ofthe First Amendment against the claims for suppression ofobscenity — it might be noted that it was the Burger Courtthat ruled in favor of the right of the New York Times topublish classified data purloined from the secret files ofthe Defense Department.The Court is a complex mechanism. Those who wouldpaint it with a broad brush and in a single color cannot betrue to the subject or to the viewer for whose benefit theimage is created. The perspective of time will reveal thenew Court's dominant characteristics. They have not yetemerged.Comparisons, moreover, are difficult if not impossible.The new Court will be facing new problems arising in newcontexts. We live in a volatile society and the law — even aspronounced by the most powerful judicial tribunal in theworld — remains essentially a response to the demands ofits society rather than a formulator of that society.In some ways, the new Court will be faced with harderquestions than its predecessor was prepared to meet. Ihave already made reference to the capital punishmentcases. Let me offer one more example. The Warren Courtchose not to answer the question whether non-Southernstates, too, have obligations to desegregate their schools.But the Burger Court has, in the Denver case, held applicable to the North, East, and West, the rules that the Warren Court would apply only to the South.Then, too, the Burger court will have important newfacts to assay in reaching its conclusions about thecontinued validity of earlier decisions. Just to stick to theschool desegregation question for the moment, it should benoted that Brown v. Board of Education rested on theproposition that equality of educational opportunity wasdependent on desegregation of the schools. Recentscientific — or quasi-scientific — data have undermined thatpremise. Work culminating in the Coleman Report, theMoynihan and Mosteller book, the study by DavidArmour, and the recent book by Christopher Jencks seemsto suggest that it is not the educational process that createsthe differences in educational achievement of blacks andwhites.How should the Court utilize the new data whichcontradict the social science evidence on which the Courtpurported to rely in Brown? Surely it is not going to reverse Brown. But how is it going to accommodate the lawto the facts?Decision as symbolSo, too, we have evidence that the Miranda rule hasbrought about none of the results that were anticipated.Whether or not the fourfold warning is delivered to anaccused, he seems to behave in the same way, and so, too,do his prosecutors. These facts confound the condemnersof the Miranda decision no less than its defenders. Butwhat is the Court to do about it? The Miranda decision,like the Brown case, is more important now as a symbolthan as a reality.Not only is the experiential base on which the BurgerCourt operates different from that of its predecessor, sotoo, of necessity is its legal base. Its inheritance is differentfrom that of the Warren Court. One of the major determinants of the new Court's behavior will be its attitudetoward precedents, including the precedents of the WarrenCourt. And the question will be whether the Burger Courtwill do as the Warren Court did or as the Warren Courtsaid. For surely, no Court ever treated precedents morecavalierly than did the Warren Court. A similar attitude onthe part of the Burger Court could soon doom all thejudgments of recent years. And, as might be expected, thenew Court has already followed example rather than precept. If it has not overruled precedents, it has distinguishedthem in such a way as to leave them all but dead.Members of the Warren Court asserted that nojudgment was binding on them in which they did not per-7sonally participate. Such a rule would mean that precedents of the Warren Court would remain extant onlyuntil the President makes one more appointment to thehigh court bench.Still another question about the new Court, yet to beanswered, is how the justices themselves will regard theCourt's proper role. I do not refer here to the sterileconcept of strict construction, but rather to which groupswill be selected by the Court as its clientele, its wards, itsconstituency, however you wish to phrase it.History has revealed that the rhetoric of judicialopinions has remained fairly consistent, however disparatethe results. The banners of freedom and equality have beenraised by the Court over very different contending forces. Itwas freedom — freedom of contract — that grounded theactions of the followers of Mr. Justice Field in affordingprotection to commercial and industrial interests againstthe onslaught of government regulation. It was the notionof equality that so long doomed the labor unions togovernment by injunction. The answer to the question ofwho will be the beneficiary of the new Court's benevolenceremains in the womb of time. Thus far the Burger Courtseems to have taken only "Women's Lib" under its protective wing.The abdication vacuumOne more factor in the fashioning of the Burger Courtwill be the action or inaction of other branches of theAmerican government. It surely must be conceded that, inno small measure, the original impetus for the WarrenCourt's jurisprudence came from the failure of the nationaland state governments to address meaningfully the myriadof problems deriving from the racial discrimination thatplagued the nation; from the failure of the state legislatures to abide the commands of their own constitutionsto apportion their legislatures democratically; from thefailure of the states to provide against the abuses of thecriminal laws, even after these abuses had been pointedout to them by the Supreme Court. If the other branches ofgovernment undertake to perform their functions andattempt to resolve the societal problems that sicken thenation, there may be no reason for the judicial branch tointervene at all; certainly there will be less compulsion todo so.Allow me a few minutes more to speak of the BurgerCourt's attitude toward state power and authority. First,however, I would make it clear that the one constant factor in the Supreme Court's jurisprudence, from Chief JusticeMarshall's day to this one, has been its persistent contribution to the movement of power from the states to thenation.In this regard the United States Supreme Court has notbeen unique. Historians have shown that it was thenational judiciaries that provided the avenue for the transfer of power from the barons to the crown in medievalEurope. This too was the lesson of Westminster in Englishhistory. And the role of the national judiciary in thiscountry has been the same, as Jefferson saw at the outsetof his controversy with Marshall and Marshall's SupremeCourt. There is no reason to suspect that there will be areversal of this general position by the Burger Court. Somecases, however, such as the recent pornography decisionsand criminal law cases, speak of the return of authority tolocal government.Resurgence of due processThere are two basic means for the Supreme Court andthe other courts of the federal judicial system to invalidatestate statutes and to reverse or overrule state judicialdecisions: the equal protection clause and the due processclause of the Fourteenth Amendment.Evidence is that the former will prove less expansiveunder the Burger Court than it was under the WarrenCourt. Equality will no longer be the primary slogan tojustify constitutional decisions.On the other hand, due process — minimal standards ofdecency as distinguished from equal standards of decency — may well see a resurgence.We have already witnessed some decisions that give riseto this anticipation. But, before I build your hopes toohigh, it should be made clear that there is not likely to be ajudicial revolution on this score. Equality for wornen willbe a developing area, both under the existent statutoryprovisions and under the demands of the equal protectionclause — and more so if the vagaries of the equal rightsamendment become binding on the Court. Problems ofdesegregation will continue to receive friendly attention,although it is likely that the school desegregation caseshave reached the end of the road. The NAACP desire to"metropolitanize" school systems to incorporate suburbsand cities is not likely to succeed, although desegregationamong school systems throughout the country will, sooneror later, be brought about. And the classic demands for8equality in such matters as jury selection are not likely to bestayed.So, too, it would seem that the reapportionment caseswill not be expanded to meet the remaining essentialproblem of gerrymandering, with the exception of thosecases that fall afoul the Fifteenth Amendment's ban on theinhibition of the franchise for blacks as revealed in theTuskegee case, lo these many years ago now. Indeed, therequirements of the simplistic "one-man, one-vote" rulehave been substantially limited in the most recent term.The equality cases do show that the Court is no longerreaching out to establish doctrines of substantive equalprotection. This may be seen in last term's decision in theMoose Lodge case that permitted a private club to discriminate despite the liquor monopoly conferred by thestate. And we have the refusal of the Court to find discrimination violative of the Constitution in Texas'sallocation of welfare payments in such a fashion that thecategory with the highest proportion of blacks andMexicans received the highest proportional cut in benefits.But it must be said, in all fairness, that the Burger Courthas not been niggling in its readings of federal statutescommanding equality of treatment.Due process requirements on the other hand, have seenless substantial limitations from the Burger Court. It istrue that there have been several major cases in which theBurger Court refused to damn judgments that would surelyhave fallen during the heyday of the Warren Court. Therefusal to extend the Miranda rule to exclude evidenceused solely for impeachment purposes is typical of these.Fourteenth amendment reinterpretedThere is a burgeoning area of Supreme Court substantive constitutional law to be found under the rubric of the"right to travel." My own analysis is that this foreshadows adevelopment of the third major provision of the FourteenthAmendment, the privileges or immunities clause, fromwhich the notion of the right to travel originally derived.The right to welfare benefits and the right to a ballot, bothwithout residency requirement, have already been established under this new doctrine. It is in defining the privileges or immunities clause that I expect the Burger Court tomake its major impression on the meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment's restrictions on the states. -I venture only*one prediction about the Burger Courthere. For prediction is a function of scientists and foolsand I know I am not a scientist. I predict that those who blindly worshipped the WarrenCourt as the epitome of good, largely because it reflectedtheir own prejudices, will find the Burger Court an abomination. For those who, equally blindly, despised theWarren Court as the epitome of evil, largely because itrejected their own prejudices, the Burger Court will be regarded as an improvement.For those of us who consider ourselves somewhere in between these extremes— as we all do — it is necessary toremember that the Supreme Court is not the governmentof the United States, but only a part of it. Its primaryfunction remains, in part because its capacities will allow itno more, to restrain the misbehavior of other governmentalbodies. It is overburdened with problems that shouldbetter be left outside its ken: some too large, others toosmall to call on the limited resources that the Court canbring to bear.This is not to demean the Court's role, but to preserve it.It remains the one governmental institution above allothers capable of affording some protection, howevertemporary, to individuals and minorities against the incursion of majorities.The primary defect of the Burger Court so far revealed isthe same defect that was observed in the Warren Court. Ithas failed to account properly for its judgments. It hasissued decrees but it has not afforded adequate rationalesfor them; it has attempted to rule by fiat rather thanreason.Perhaps the Warren Court was the right Court for theAge of Aquarius, that period of purple passions whenreason was subordinated to emotion and righteousness wasovercome by self-righteousness.The Age of Aquarius is dead. Its funeral was held onNovember 7, 1972. What the proper appellation will be forthe age that is dawning, we do not know.The Court may be the quiet voice of reason that inhibitsa populism that is the opposite of Aquarianism and yet isthe same, just as fascism and communism are identicalopposites. It may be the handmaiden of an executive powerthat is destructive of individual freedom. It could be anally of a legislative resurgence that may yet make democratic government meaningful without destroying minorityrights. The new Supreme Court has not yet taken shape.I would close with a quotation from G. K. Chesterton'sBallad of the White Horse:I tell you naught for your comfort,Yea, nought for your desire,Save that the sky grows darker yet,And the sea rises higher.9CompatibilityIt's the one thinga really excellent chairmust have:• Compatibility with its owner's personalhistory.• Compatibility with his or her Geist; mannerand accoutrements of living.• And of course anatomical compatibility; achair has its pragmatic aspect.The Chicago chair is such a chair.Compatible.Chicago chairs are sturdily built of northern yellow birch andfinished in black lacquer with antique gold trim. The armchair isavailable with black or natural cherry arms. The side chair,formerly available, has been discontinued. Both the armchair andThe I'niversity of ( hie ago Alumni Association5733 University Ave.. Chicago. III. 60637EncloMd is mv chock for $ . payable to the University ofI IbicagO Alumni Assoc iation, for the following Chicago chairls):_Armrhairs [cherry arms) at $54.00each_Armi hairs [black arms) at $52.00 eat hJ3oston rockers at $44.00 eachNamell'lease print)Address(Zip).J the rocker carry the Universitycrest in gold on the backrest,and both are made by S. Bent &Brothers, century-old manufacturer, of Gardner, Mass.Please make your check payable to the University ofChicago Alumni Association.Orders are shipped expresscollect from the factory inGardner, Mass., and deliveryshould be expected in approximately eight weeks. Shippingcharges are payable when thechairs are received. Please usethe accompanying coupon toorder your Chicago chair.10Grouchiness: aNew insightsMorton A. LiebermanMan is born to troubleAs the sparks fly upward.Students of aging can often find ready identity with themultitude of anguished feelings expressed by Job, for intrying to understand and explain the last two decades oflife, one is immediately confronted with the numerouscrises that frequent the aged. Although major life disturbances are not the only events experienced by the aged (norare they, of course, limited to this time of life), theirnumber and their certainty make them intrinsic to the lastdecade of life. Events such as retirement, widowhood,economic changes, increasing illness and frailty, disruptivechanges in family constellation, and so forth, are for all toomany aged, all too frequent. In a word, growing old isstressful.The author (phD'58)/s professor in the Department of Psychology and the Committee on Human Development and isan authority on interpersonal relationships and on aspectsof the aging process. The article was adapted from Mr.Lieberman 's portion of a colloquium on "Changing Imagesof Aging" given before Chicago alumni; he shared the podium with Berenice L. Neugarten, professor and chairwomanof the Committee on Human Development, who discussedproblems of the aged and deplored the persistence of stereotypes of the aged which have limited public understandingand involvement. 1 assetinto crises or a£inI have chosen for discussion two sets of circumstancestypical of crises involving the aged. I want to examine theseespecially in the light of some relevant empirical findings.The two areas: first, institutionalization, and second,dealing with one's own increasing sense of mortality.Although only 4% of the aged reside in institutions, thecrises concerning institutionalization go far beyond thesmall portion. The impact on the families and friends ofthe aged who may be facing the possibility of institutionalization in and of itself creates a severe strain on a muchlarger network than the 4% referred to. Thoughts aboutinstitutionalization and concerns about needing such protective environments preoccupy large numbers of agedpeople, and the popular attitude regarding institutions as"death houses" is shared almost uniformly by the aged.Furthermore, the 4% figure represents a static proportion; and in reality, if one lives long enough, the probabilityof having to live the last days of one's life in an institutionis much higher.The effects of institutionalization on the psychologicalwell being and physical integrity of aged adults has been aquestion of humanitarian interest since the late 19thcentury, and of scientific inquiry for the past forty years.Whether one turns to the social novels of the 19th century,or the current view of the scientific community, the imagesof the havoc institutions wreak on the aged are identical —and discouraging.In the minds of most — both lay people and professionals— institutions are dumping grounds for the aged. They are11seen as a product of malevolent society and of callous offspring. Yet, the best evidence available is that most residents who reside in institutions are not there by somewhim of society or of their families — they have specialneeds and cannot live fully independent lives.This is not to say that more humane means should notbe found to provide for such needs. Unfortunately, untilvery recently aged persons and their families facing suchneeds have confronted an either/or situation: total independent living arrangements or a total institution.A number of the current program attempts (and as yetthey are certainly too infrequent) provide means for establishing steps in between total institutional living andindependent community living. Institutions that provide arevolving-door policy — where, for example, the agedperson living with his family can have a temporary separation to give both the old person and his family a respite —have proved immensely successful in England. The widevariety of semi-independent living arrangements (such asapartment houses with central facilities and so forth) aresteps in the right direction.Let me turn, however, not to the variety of alternativestructures that are slowly being evolved, but rather directlyto the question of whether the commonly held views ofinstitutionalization are based on fact.Problem of anticipationIn our own work, where we have been able to study agedpersons awaiting entrance to homes for the aged, a majorfinding has been that the qualities associated with living ininstitutions — on how the person functions, how he feelsabout himself, his relationships with people, his mood, andso forth — are characteristics of those about to enterinstitutions, rather than qualities of people that appear tohave been created by life in the institution. In other words,one of the major effects of institutionalization is not reallya direct result of living in an institution at all. Rather it isan indirect result of the processes surrounding institutionalization, in which the person who has reached that pointof life where he is about to enter an institution reacts to themeaning of such entrance.I think if one reflects for a moment on this, it seems nottoo surprising a finding. Tearing oneself out of a socialfabric that may have been part of one's life for fifty to sixtyyears — the giving up of life style and the alteration of significant relationships which involve the person who isabout to move into an institution — is a major social dislocation. Such dislocations can be found among manyother groups, and with much the same effects.For example, the dislocation created by urban renewal has been well documented and has been shown to haveeffects parallel to those usually ascribed to institutionalization. Numerous descriptions of the effects of migrationshow some similar findings.Minimizing the havocEven in such groups as Peace Corps youth, the effects of"culture shock" have many parallels to what we are describing in relation to institutionalization. It is no wonder,then, that for a group of individuals in their seventies andeighties who are, at that point in life, biologically less endowed and equipped with fewer adaptive resources, themistaken assumption that it is the institution itself thatwreaks such havoc would have been made. In our studiesof aged populations involved in major social dislocations,we have found that anywhere from 40% to 50% of suchgroups will suffer negative consequences as a result of themove.The question thus is not whether to institutionalize ornot; rather it is: What are the conditions under whichsocial dislocations can be mitigated? The obvious — thoughunreal — answer would be to minimize social dislocation;but the realities of existence in our complex urban setting,and the problems and paucity of alternative institutions formeeting the real needs that bring aged persons intoinstitutions, may often preclude answers that do not involve social dislocations.Our research has suggested several potential strategiesfor minimizing the havoc wrought by such dislocation. Wehave found that certain traits or characteristics of peopleare less likely to lead to negative consequences as a resultof dislocation; so that some consideration of thepsychology of the person can provide rational bases forchoosing the alternative of moving or not moving. Asecond potential, which appears to us to be more amenableto practical remedial use, is not the selection of personaltraits, but rather looking at the institutions and asking thequestion: What kinds of environments are more likely tomitigate the horrendous toll that social dislocation takes?Our findings have suggested that the quality or characteristics of the environment can make a considerabledifference in how well or poorly the old person adapts. Onemust look beyond the simple brick-and-mortar ambienceof the physical environment to some of the more subtlepsychological characteristics to find the answer.In general, environments that allow and encourage theaged to express their individuality and are emotionallysupportive and tolerant of deviant behavior are the oneswhich foster positive adaptation. To the extent that the12environments tend to emphasize high care and to perceivethe aged person as needing a great amount of supervision — and to cater to his dependencies (to see the oldpeople, perhaps, as children) — -they proved to be destructive. These are general considerations; I believe a moreprecise answer for each individual person confronting thisproblem can be given. Our findings have strongly indicatedthat the degree of turmoil and maladaptive reactions attendant upon entering an institution can be radicallymitigated if the environment that the person goes intosupports his previous life style.Obviously, individuals differ; and in turning to the oftenhorrendous question of selecting an appropriate setting foran aged person, thought must be given to his particular setof needs and his style in achieving them.Perhaps a simple example will better give a picture ofthe kinds of issues that should be considered. I rememberan elderly lady who was awaiting entrance to a home herein Chicago. She was an individual with highly independent,idiosyncratic life style. Much of this was manifested interms of her creating time in terms of her own inner needs,rather than clocks. She would arise when rested; eat whenhungry; go to bed when tired — independent of clock time.Her entrance into an institution that was run by the clock,in which everyone was required to fit into a highly structured time schedule, presented this elderly women with animmense dilemma which eventually led to her deterioration. She did not have the resources to adapt to such aradically different life style.It is important to remember that the aged person'scapacity to change and adapt is probably less, and therefore more care must be given to matching the person andthe new environment.'Preparation9 ineffectiveOne last comment on institutionalization. The most frequent method for achieving ease of adaptation into institutions has been the attempt to work on the feelings andattitudes of the person, to try to "prepare" him or her forthe upcoming event. Our data suggest that this strategy oforienting, preparing, people — although based on perhapssensible and humane principles — is not effective strategy.Old age is marked by the increasing acknowledgementof the proximity of one's own death as a psychologicalreality. The increasing certainty that one is mortal mayappear as a stark and perhaps overwhelming crisis in thelast decade of life. Death and dying have through the agesbeen the concern of philosophy and religion in westernthought (only recently — in the past decade — in the social sciences). How people die — under what conditions deathoccurs, and what role it plays in the psychology of life — hasincreasingly become the concern of social scientists and thehelping professions.Many have reasoned that the increasing certainty ofone's own death that is concomitant with old age wouldsuggest that only through a study of the elderly's feelingsand thoughts and reactions about death could one understand the last decade of life.To phrase the question another way: To what extentdoes his own sense of increasing proximity to death presentthe elderly person with a crisis?Awareness of mortalityIn our own studies, I've been interested to observe thatthe label "crisis" is probably inaccurate. Almost any investigator who has inquired into this area has come awaysurprised to discover that most old people are quite willingto discuss at some length their feelings and thoughts aboutdeath. It seems to me that the crisis proportions have beenan invention of the young rather than the old.In one study of eighty elderly persons, forty of whomdied within a year of our discussing this issue, only threeout of the eighty found such discussion difficult and had toresort to extreme psychological maneuvers to avoidthinking and talking about death.In a series of studies we have found that one can identifysystematic psychological changes in individuals muchbefore their actual physical death — changes which can beclearly attributed to dying. Of interest is that for many, butnot all, of these individuals, some level of recognition ofthese internal changes which were symbolized as death,could be found (although this is not always conscious).Despite these clear signs, the elderly exhibited nostorminess, no reactivity, no disruptiveness. It was as ifthey were dealing with a developmental task that they werecoping with adequately. To put it perhaps in another way:It is the rare case for an individual to have lived into theseventh or eighth decade of life without having come togrips with his own death and developed some personalphilosophical system — although possibly a primitive one —for accounting for and dealing with it.We have found that impending death creates a crisisonly in specific situations. The elderly who were already incrises, in which previous patterns of relationships and themeaning or significance of others — their own selfimage — were being challenged and tested by disruptions,were those who did not have the emotional wherewithal todeal with their impending death. It is as if the crisis was13not over the approaching death, but because life again hadimpinged upon them and forced them to face anew previously solved problems.Thus the view of one's impending death as an overridingissue to be grappled with, or as an organizing specterduring the last years of life, does not seem to be supportedby our data. It is not that death has no meaning for thevery old, but rather that its meaning as a primary issue islimited to specific, restricted conditions. It seems likelythat the death issue is a crucial one much earlier in life —perhaps in late middle age.Troublemakers' triumphI've discussed two of the many crises that face theelderly. We could have selected others — loss of a spouse,retirement, and so forth — and discussed them in somewhatthe same terms. But rather than go -on. listing crises, I'dlike to turn to a question of what helps in coping with suchcrises; and particularly, from my perspective, what psychological characteristics or attributes of the person aresignificant.Before embarking on this discussion, it would be well toclarify the referent to "coping with crises" that I am using.Some investigators have looked at the end-point of copingas being satisfaction, or happiness, or a sense of wellbeing; others, and I fall into this second category, havelooked upon adequacy of coping in terms of a rather narrowdefinition; that is, of intact survival, of maintaining thesame level of competence and behavior after the crisis asbefore the crisis.I think it is not so much that my own philosophical orpersonal values are in this direction, as much as it is thatwe have found it easier to measure survival than tomeasure these other end-points. So what follows may bestbe looked upon as a psychological guide to survival — notnecessarily to bliss.Phrasing the question this way, we have come up withsome rather surprising findings.It looks as if "growing old gracefully" is an invention ofpoets, rather than an adequate guide to survival. For themost important characteristic of the aged and their abilityto adapt to crisis is a personality quality that is almost thepolar opposite of the gracious elderly. Those who were aggressive, irritating, narcissistic (that is, self-preoccupied),demanding, were the individuals that we found to be mostlikely to survive major life crises intact. They certainly werenot the most likable elderly. Being a good guy — passiveacceptance — were qualities we found in people most likelynot to survive. A poignant illustration occurred in one of our studies, in which we asked the staff of an institution topredict survival. We found a very high, but negative,association between their predictions and actual survival.When we examined the data more closely, it was obviousthat those individuals whom the staff liked — who were nottroublemakers, who were easy to relate to — were chosenand were seen by them as being more able to survive crises.Quite the contrary. It appeared that the old person couldbe quite neurotic and still adapt quite well to the crises ofage. Seemingly the traditional views of mental health andmental illness are of no help in determining survivalability. A certain amount of magical thinking, and perceiving oneself as the center of the universe, combined witha pugnacious stance toward the world — even a highlysuspicious one — seemed more likely to insure survival.Let me try to mitigate this rather unlikable portrait ofthe survival-prone aged, to suggest that there are severalother important factors. Although one can be neurotic andobnoxious, and even magical, in his approach to life, it isimportant, to be survival-prone, that certain ties to theworld remain. Those who distort reality— who, forexample, ignore outlandishly external events — are notlikely to survive. Such an orientation, in which the ties tothe world are cut too strongly — whether it be in denyingimpending events, such as a move from the community tothe institution, or in inventing data to maintain a consistent self-image (of seeing oneself as strong, based onlyupon wish) are not survival characteristics.A total inability to look inside oneself is not a survivalcharacteristic; nor is the inability to organize informationfrom the world likely to insure survival. So our picture ofthe enhancement of survival is one that shows individualswho have maintained crucial skills for appraising theenvironment, but who may do this in strange and obviouslyirritating ways.Of interest: the kinds of relationships one has withothers does not appear to be critical in our survival-proneindividuals. This is perhaps understandable, given thequalities I have described.Whether survival is worth the price of becoming such anindividual is, of course, a personal question. Whether onecan even change these characteristics is, at this point, anunknown. But clearly, graciousness in old age is, at leastfor those interested in survival, not the most successfulorientation.Rather, perhaps one should follow the advice DylanThomas gave to his aged and dying father when he said:Do not go gentle into that good night.Rage, rage against the dying of the light.14This head of Ezra Pound, sculpturedby Joan FitzGerald, is one of three{two by her) representations of thepoet done from life in the past fiftyyears. It is owned by Mr. Stern andProfessor Wayne Booth and stands inRegenstein Library. A memory o r Ezra PoundThe following brief excerpt is from "A Memory or Two of Mr. Pound"by Mr. Stern, professor in the Department of English, the College, andthe Committee on General Studies in the Humanities. The excerpt istaken from a considerably longer article in Paideuma, published (andcopyrighted) by the National Poetry Foundation and devoted to EzraPound scholarship. It appears here with the permission of theFoundation. Mr. Stern's sixth novel (the fifth is the short work, Veni,Vidi . . . Wendt, from 1968) will be published in the fall of 1973 byDutton. Its title: Other Men's Daughters. His "orderly miscellany," TheBooks in Fred Hampton's Apartment, appeared in March, 1973.Richard Stern. . . We talked for a couple of hours, fairly easily,though I felt uncomfortably like an extractor. He askedme what was going on. I told him what I knew, we disagreed about Eliot's plays — he liked them a lot — hespoke of the coherence in Frost and Eliot ("Frostwanted to be New England"), men who had their feetplanted in one place, a fortunate, an enviable thing.Nothing overwhelming, but every sentence clear, complete and underwritten by thought, so rare that theword sanity took on new depth for me. A reversal ofnotorious expectations. Now and then there'd be an oddremark, "Don't think pianos waited for the railroad,"(which, I suppose, had to do with cultural independence; knowledgeable Poundians may make somethingmore of it).One had that sense of occasion with him, that was notthe reverse of mere simplicity. I suppose the properword is courtesy: he acted fittingly, though this did notexclude a playful use of social formula. "How are you,Mr. Pound?" "Senile." Or a visiting poet said that Xand Y asked to be remembered. "They're in no dangerof being forgotten."Yet memory was the central worry of that year. Myone emotional session with him turned on it. The sculptress had come back from a visit to America and wewent over for tea. The subject of a local Americancelebrity came up. I was going there for supper (thewoman had fastened on my wife); I repeated somethingshe'd said about EP in Paris in the '20s. It did not gowell, Pound said I was testing his memory, he was re lieved to know for sure that what I said was fiction. Thewords froze the room. The two women talked abovethem and then went downstairs. I told myself, "Well,he's shown his hand at last. I guess some of the stuffI've heard is so." I debated leaving with no more than anod, but went over to the bed, held out my hand andsaid he was probably right, most social talk was a useless mix of persiflage and fiction. I was sorry to inflict iton him. He held my hand tight and drew me close.My face was within inches of his. The blue eyeswere charged with what? — appeal, reaching out."No," he said in that almost Irish-burred English."Wrong, wrong, wrong. I've always been wrong.Eighty-seven per cent wrong." It was something. Imanaged to say maybe he'd been wrong, but those whotold him he was weren't in the same league when itcame to verity. "I've never recognised benevolence," hesaid. "You don't know what it's like, to get off on thewrong path. Not to remember." I tried something comforting. He said no, he'd left only notes, scattered notes,he hadn't made anything clear. I'd just been readinghim, I mentioned things that were not only clear butradiant. It was no time for mollification. He quotedsomething, perhaps from Dante, about imperfection,and there was more, some I didn't hear or follow. Theold man was touching bottom, holding on meanwhile tosomething human on the surface. After I don't knowhow much time, minutes perhaps, I withdrew — I shouldhave stayed with him till he came all the way back — andtouched him for goodby. There've been very fewmoments in the same heart-range as this one.15> Si -fl M-K"41' **'At far right, in this photo of the Chicago group at Peking are Lue Tai Hen, head of the China International Travel SemCHINA VISITThis spring's University of Chicago visit to China, -and to agoodly number of its educational institutions (and alumni),was sponsored by the Women 's Board and was organized byMrs. J. Harris Ward. The following account of the trip iscondensed from a conversation with an alumnus, a businessman, who was one of the travelers. Presenting therecollections and impressions of one person, it obviously willnot necessarily reflect those of all members of such a diverseand alert group of twenty.No matter how many pictures of the Great Wall of Chinathe visitor may have seen, the actual Wall's seemingly endless meander across hills and valleys to the horizon is awesome. It was like that for the Chicago group, and it mightserve as a metaphor for many of their impressions of Chinaitself.Interest in education was the rationale for China's decision to welcome the delegation from the University, and education, at various levels, remained the focus of theirattention as the group moved from Hong Kong to the vastmetropolitan miasma of Canton, to the charm of Hang-chow, to Shanghai with its swarming waterfront, to Peking,the huge dusty capital (and educational center).Everywhere the travelers were met with applause — theclapping which is the Chinese expression of approbation.Occasionally they encountered a lack of the comforts ofhome (though they were fed magnificently), the lack notespecially surprising in a nation which is only now openingits door — a crack — and still experimenting with its roletoward visitors. (China would like more visitors; their number is limited by a shortage of foreign-speaking interpreters.English is taught: oddly, the "text" at one school wasCronin's The Citadel.)The educational scene was often enigmatic — as enigmaticin its way as the eventual official request to President Levi todesist from his novel practice of photographing with his16Chou P'ei Yuan (sb'26, sm'26), vice-rector of PekingUniversity; Mr. and Mrs. Levi; and Lucy Chow Chen(PhD'48).p°'aroid the clapping throngs that surrounded the bus*hen it stopped, and from distributing the instant prints tothe delighted Chinese.The Chinese process of higher education is appliedbroadcast across the population, on the assumption that to?eny a student college admission on the basis of academic'"adequacy would be to deny his rights as a member of thePe°ple served by the government.Tr»e establishment of a pharmaceuticals factory as a part°f the process of a university education, strange as it seemsj° a westerner, was, in the eyes of the authorities at theUniversity of Peking, a wholly natural expression of theWork ethic.(Speaking, in a commencement address after the trip, ofChina's "venture of creating and maintaining and constant-'y recreating a society of one moral climate," President LeviSa'd, "Perhaps we have forgotten that our society of diver-8e"t moralities is difficult to accomplish because it assumes //; Canton this school for deaf-mute children impressed thevisitors. Ranged along the wall, with translators interspersed, are (from left) Robert B. Mayer, James Alsdorf andtrustees J. Harris Ward and Philip D. Block, Jr.A highlight of the trip was a cocktail party for alumni inHong Kong. In this picture life trustee EarleLudgin (secondfrom left) poses with alumni group.that with all our cherished differences we can hold to agreater common morality, and that we can keep fresh, in anopen society, the ideals of justice and generosity and theshared love of that which is honorable and noble, and thateach of us can carry within ourselves, without the tutelage ofthe state, the spirit to accomplish these ends.")The vastness of the Chinese canvas was part of itsstrangeness to the visiting group. The country, in manyways, is serving its 800,000,000 people. Their standard ofliving is up. (Begging seemingly doesn't exist.)The state is not merely central, it is all-pervading. And ituses every means it has to make sure this remains so. Art isarchaeology. Opera inevitably reiterates the message of thestate. A vaguely westernized Chinese music is a device forthe promulgaton of the revolutionary story.China. A new context for testing old ideas? Yes. Anunforgettable glimpse of an emerging gigantic actor in thehuman drama? Yes.17The librarian as detectiveThe search for blackmusic's African rootsDena EpsteinIn 1959, in an excellent book called Anglo-American Folksong Scholarship since 1898, D. K. Wilgus wrote of thehistory of the Negro spiritual: "There is no trustworthyevidence before the Civil War." Such a statement could becompared with telling Sherlock Holmes, "We have a murder. There is a body, but there are no clues/ ' No self-respecting mystery fan would accept such an anomaloussituation for a moment. If there was a murder, there mustbe clues.An historic record of slavery existed, based on primarysources. Those same documents were potential sources forthe history of the music which originated in slavery. Theproblems were where to begin and how to look. Librarianswho answer reference questions day after day are oldhands at this game. Trained to be familiar with books invarious fields and to cross disciplinary lines without hesitation, they know from experience that simple questionsmay have elusive answers, and, when one approach doesn'twork, the conscientious investigator then proceeds to tryanother.As early as 1953, I had first thought of trying my handat finding an historic record of black folk music. I hadstumbled by accident on the manuscript diary of William18 Francis Allen, the senior editor of that historic firstcollection of 1867, Slave Songs of the United States. Thisdiary covering his Civil War experiences had been in alibrary for close to fifty years, but no one had ever examined it for its musical content. Allen had had two co-editors — Lucy McKim Garrison and Charles PickardWare.The search for facts about Lucy McKim Garrison wasDena J. Polacheck Epstein (AB'37) is assistant musiclibrarian in the University's Regenstein Library. Thisarticle is drawn from a paper presented at the annualsummer meeting of the Music Library Association in June,1972, to which information has been added from her"African Music in British and French America," published in the January, 1973, issue of The Musical Quarterly. Mrs. Epstein 's work received vital support from theAmerican Council of Learned Societies, the Illinois ArtsCouncil, and, later, the National Endowment for theHumanities. The findings and conclusions do not necessarily represent the views of these organizations.This watercolor, "The Old Plantation," painted at the end of the 18th century (artist unknown), clearly documents vestigesin South Carolina of life in Africa. (The figures shown are recognizeable as descendants of the Yoruba and Hausa people ofnorthern and southwestern Nigeria, the same groups which played an important role in the development of Haiti. Thebanjo-like instrument is called a molo: the Yoruba drum is a gudugudu. Dance movements depicted are unmistakablyAfrican, and the custom of jumping over a stick is a familiar part of the tribal wedding ritual.)an adventure in itself. The trail began with the Dictionaryof American Biography, which included articles about herfather, James Miller McKim, a noted abolitionist; herbrother, Charles Follen McKim, the eminent architect ofMcKim, Meade and White; her husband, Wendell PhillipsGarrison, the first literary editor of the Nation; and hisfather, William Lloyd Garrison himself. With so manynotables closely related to her, it should have been easy tolearn anything anyone wanted to know. But it wasn't.Finding printed sources of little help, I decided to lookfor manuscripts. First it was necessary to locate her descendants. Her daughter-in-law was last listed in the socialregister for 1927, but Who's Who in America identifiedand located a grandson. He in turn supplied the names ofother relatives, and eventually I wrote to all of them. Theletters were always answered promptly and courteously,with expressions of great interest and deep regret that thewriter could not help. Even her grandson knew only thatshe played the piano and collected slave songs.The daughter-in-law, now remarried but still owning theGarrison house in which Lucy McKim had lived, wascordial but negative, regretting that no papers survived.That should have convinced me. I'm not sure why it didn't, except that I had an impression that people in the 19thcentury seemed to save letters and diaries. When other approaches were exhausted, I contrived new reasons forwriting her again, hoping for an invitation to visit her.Three years had passed when at the very end of her thirdor possibly fourth reply, saying how sorry she was shecouldn't help me, she suggested writing to Miss EleanorGarrison in Santa Barbara, California. She didn't explainwho Miss Garrison was or why she might be able to help.Off to California went another letter, and this time themiracle happened! Within a week came three long lettersfrom Eleanor Garrison with extended extracts copied fromLucy McKim's letters, culminating in a package of themanuscript letters themselves. Miss Garrison decided itwas silly for her to copy page after page when she couldsend the originals.I can still remember how my hands shook when Irealized that I was holding letters which everyone hadassured me were no longer in existence.Later I learned who Eleanor Garrison was and how shehappened to have these letters. Past 80, she was thedaughter of William Lloyd Garrison II and Ellen WrightGarrison, Lucy's friend from childhood and later her19sister-in-law. . The letters were mostly addressed to EllenWright, beginning with one that said: "I will be nine yearsold the 30th of October. Mother says that Pennsylvaniaexcels New York in the growth of children."When Ellen Wright Garrison moved to California in the1920s, she took with her what I was told was a freight carfull of family papers, which she housed in a garage. In1947 her surviving children, Frank and Eleanor, began totransfer these papers a few at a time to the Smith CollegeLibrary. By a queer trick of fate, my letter arrived in SantaBarbara just as Lucy's letters had been reached in thesorting process.My excitement was apparently matched by MissGarrison's delight in finding someone who was interestedin her papers. At one point when it seemed doubtful that Icould go to Northampton to see the papers that were already there, she asked Smith College to ship the whole collection to me!This was the beginning of a delightful friendship whichstill continues. Mrs. Hendon Chubb, the remarrieddaughter-in-law, did invite me to visit her and showed methe Garrison house in Llewellyn Park, West Orange, NewJersey, where Lucy McKim spent her married life andwhere she died. Mrs. Chubb was generosity itself, lendingme books with marginal notations and sending me lettersthat turned up from time to time.In 1961 Mrs. Chubb invited me to spend a day with herand Eleanor Garrison, whom I had not previously met,sorting the family books which she had decided to give toSmith College. Both the ladies were near 85 at that time,utterly charming and great fun to talk to. All morning wetalked as we ransacked bookshelves or went up and downstepladders. After lunch while they rested, I transferred myactivities to the studio, a large room on the second floor,lined with bookshelves above and cupboards below.The books varied from children's schoolbooks to antiquarian items like an 18th century French edition ofRousseau. It seemed almost a shame to scatter this literaryprofile of an eminent American family.Found: Lucy's own booksAfter going through all the shelves, I began searchingthe cupboards. And there I found Lucy's own music books,one of them with her name stamped on the cover in goldleaf. She had died in this house at the age of 34 in 1877,and her books were still there, although Mrs. Chubbcouldn't remember having seen them before. She urged meto take them home with me to study and approved my suggestion for their final disposition. They are now in themusic division of the New York Public Library.The third editor, Charles Pickard Ware, promised to beless of a problem, but even so several years were to elapsebefore my questions were answered. At the outset I foundhis letters conveniently published in a book I alreadyowned! Many of the contributors to Slave Songs of theUnited States had participated in the so-called Port RoyalExperiment, an attempt to prove that slaves could workand learn as freemen by sending teachers and superintendents from the North to the Sea Island region behindthe Confederate lines where several hundred slaves hadbeen abandoned by their masters.Penetrable disguisesOne of the best contemporary accounts of the Experiment was a volume called Letters from Port Royal Writtenat the Time of the Civil War, published in 1906. Theintroduction identified the writers still living by theirinitials only, but it didn't take much of a detective topenetrate that disguise. C. P. W. was Charles PickardWare and H. W., his sister Harriet.Again Who's Who in America came to the rescue, identifying Charles Ware's granddaughter as a well-knownhistorian, Caroline Farrar Ware. Surely she would beinterested in the project, I thought, but letter after letter toher went unanswered. When hope was almost gone, Ilearned she was abroad, editing the UNESCO history ofthe world. Another letter was written, and this time shereplied. We met, she answered my questions, and lent mepapers found only the preceding summer when she cleanedout the attic of her family's home after her mother's death.Charles Ware had contributed the largest single collection of songs to Slave Songs of the United States, butnothing was known of his musical background. There hadbeen no musical instruction at Harvard when he was astudent. His published letters threw no light on the matter,and his subsequent career as an official of the New England Telephone Company did not help. But Caroline Wareknew that he had had piano lessons from Miss EmmaForbes, who taught all the children, and that he continuedto play four-hands music all his life. She rememberedplaying Schubert and Schumann duets with her grandfather.As to Harriet Ware, she was sent to South Carolina as amissionary, but her letters never referred to religionbeyond going to church on Sundays. What kind of missionary was she? Oh, said Caroline Ware, she called her-20self a missionary because there was no better word for itthen. Today we would call her a social worker.Long before I finally met Eleanor Garrison or CarolineWare, I began the search through published accounts ofslavery for descriptions of religious services, instruments,music and dancing. Narratives written by the slaves themselves headed the list, followed by diaries, letters, missionary reports, polemics on slavery, both for and against,collections of legal documents, such as court records —even novels. Most of these works were not indexed by subject; many did not even have tables of contents, so the onlypossible procedure was to scan them page by page.Perhaps twenty volumes could be scanned in a workingday, and quite often not one mention of music would befound in any of them.When results were almost entirely negative, I would tryto think of another approach, but none ever occurred tome. By this time I was hooked, so I persisted.Enough exciting finds turned up to convince me that itwas not a waste of time. For example, there was SolomonNorthup's description of his life as a slave fiddler, with thetranscription of a fiddle tune in his narrative, Twelve Yearsa Slave. There was a detailed account of a corn dance inGeorge Tucker's novel, The Valley of Shenandoah, andthere were notated words and music of two slave songs inan autobiographical novel, James Hungerford's The OldPlantation and What I Gathered There in an AutumnMonth.And there was a case filed in the chancery court ofLouisville, Kentucky, in 1844, involving three professionalslave musicians, who took their instruments, music andclothing and escaped on a steamboat to Cincinnati, thecase described in Helen Catterall's Judicial Cases Concerning American Slavery arid the Negro. Their ownersued the owner of the steamboat for damages— and lost.A theory discardedMy theory that touring actors or musicians would belikely to comment on the music of the slaves proved to bealmost completely wrong.The sources that did discuss slave music were found inmany places. Since I was living at that time in New Jersey,I relied very heavily on the New York Public Library,especially the American history division, the SchomburgCollection of Negro History, and the manuscripts division.Manuscripts were also found at Cornell University, theHoughton Library at Harvard, Rutgers, and, of course, the Garrison Collection at Smith College. Still other librariesthat yielded rich treasure were the Library of Congress, theAmerican Antiquarian Society, the Newberry Library andthe University of Chicago libraries.By 1962 enough material had been accumulated to provide a survey of sources, " Slave Music in the United Statesbefore I860," that appeared in two parts in Music LibraryAssociation Notes in 1963. An article on Lucy McKimGarrison was also published in 1963 in the Bulletin of theNew York Public Library. Before either of them appearedin print, however, my work was interrupted by a movefrom New Jersey to Chicago and my return to professionalwork at the University of Chicago. As I resumed work, Iassumed that the research was virtually completed and thatall that remained to be done was to organize the materialand to write a book on the history of black folk music in theUnited States.The field's mushroom growthIn the interim interest in black subjects had mushroomed and what had been an almost empty field was nowa highly competitive one.Publication of my findings was clearly desirable, butsome questions still bothered me; above all — what was thenature of the music brought by the slaves from Africa andhow was it transformed into something recognizably different? The answers to these questions were the missinglinks in the chain of evidence needed to solve one of themajor mysteries surrounding the Negro spiritual: how andfrom what did it develop? Traditional answers postulatingcollective composition by groups of black slaves had beenchallenged by eminent men, citing collections of whitespirituals as proof of white antecedents. This evidencecould not be refuted merely by pointing out that illiterateslaves could not be expected to publish the songs theysang. Some kind of positive contemporary evidence wasnecessary.The historic record accumulated thus far was reasonablyconvincing for the period after 1800, but by then onlyvestigial traces of African cultural patterns survived in thewritten record. For the period before 1800, however,repeated and intensive searches of accounts of colonialAmerica yielded only the briefest mentions of the blacks,with almost no details. It seemed as if Ralph Ellison'sInvisible Man had already become invisible.I was troubled not only by the lack of information but bymy inability to explain that lack, until I realized that theblack population of the thirteen mainland colonies grew21very slowly throughout the 17th century and that it waswidely dispersed among a much larger white population.Under such circumstances it was understandable that theblacks had little impact on travelers or other witnesses.The thirteen mainland colonies, however, did not standalone. Sister colonies on the islands to the southeast werepart of the same colonial structure governed by the sameoffices in London and Paris. While the West Indiancolonies, both British and French, had close cultural andcommercial ties with the mainland colonies, they exceededthem in their rate of growth and in the ratio of blacks towhites. These conditions were conducive to the persistenceof the cultural heritage brought from Africa, common toblacks in both areas.From the earliest reports of the islands, British andFrench chroniclers gave vivid descriptions of Africanmusic, instruments and dancing, descriptions that werequite consistent with the few fragmentary accounts fromthe mainland. Even more striking were accounts andpictures of African instruments and notated African musicrecorded in Jamaica before 1700. \The ubiquitous banjoOne of the most fascinating and persistent examples isthat of the banjo, variously referred to in contemporaryreports as the banza, bans haw, bandore, banjer andbangil. One English physician reported, after leavingJamaica in 1689, "They have several sorts of Instruments inimitation of Lutes, made of small Gourds fitted withNecks, strung with Horse hairs, or the peeled stalks ofclimbing Plants or Wyths. These Instruments are sometimes made of hollow'd Timber covered with Parchment orother Skin wetted, having a Bow for its Neck, the Stringsty'd longer or shorter, as they would alter their sounds."The controversy over whether the banjo originated in theUnited States or in Africa can be resolved in favor ofAfrica merely on the basis of documents now in hand.Visible demonstrations of acculturation in action werereported from various parts of the West Indies: Africandancing to African instruments side by side with Europeandancing to European instruments. At least two accountsfrom the mainland unmistakably tell of the same phenomenon in South Carolina in 1805 and in Louisiana in 1808.Nor was acculturation a one-way street. In 18th centuryVirginia whites were very fond of dancing Negro jigs as achange from country dances and minuets.The case is far from closed, but evidence now in handdemonstrates convincingly that African music was transplanted to the New World and acculturated into various kinds of Af^o-American music. Eyewitnesses can now becited, telling of dances; all kinds of work songs — forrowing, shucking corn, harvesting; religious exercises,including songs from which the spiritual developed; andmusical instruments, both African and Afro-American.The record indicates that the importation of music anddancing was aided and abetted by the slave traders, thoughnot for esthetic or altruistic reasons. The mortality rate inthe slave trade was staggering, and it behooved even themost brutalizing slaving captain to take some measures toinsure the profitable arrival of his cargo. Dancing servedthe twofold purpose of providing physical exercise in alimited space and combating the widespread danger ofdepression, recognized as a forerunner of suicide or revolt.In 1793 a native of the West Indies wrote of the "MiddlePassage": "In the intervals between their meals they [theslaves] are encouraged to divert themselves with music anddancing; for which purpose such rude and uncouth instruments as are used in Africa, are collected before theirdeparture. ..." A slaving captain, then, for purely pragmatic reasons, might well have been an unwitting agent intransmitting African instruments to the New World.Why, then, did African music disappear from view inthe mainland slave areas?The evangelical missionaries who had increasing influence in the islands toward the middle of the 19thcentury had been even more influential on the mainlandamong both the blacks and whites alike. Their efforts tostamp out secular music and dancing were successful to alarge degree, leading to the post^Civil War belief that therewas no secular music among the former slaves. A typicalstatement about the decline in popularity of dancing wasmade by Frederick Law Olmsted, writing fromWashington, D.C., Christmas, 1853: "Formerly, it is said,the slaves were accustomed to amuse themselves, in theevening, and on holidays, a great deal in dancing. ... Itwas at length, however, preached against, and the 'professors' [of religion] so generally induced to use theirinfluence against it, as an immoral practice, that it hasgreatly gone 'out of fashion.' ... I have not seen anydancing during these holidays."Unbroken chain of evidenceThe early material seems remote from the spiritual, tosay nothing of blues, jazz and rock, but each witness is alink in the unbroken chain of evidence linking Africa andthe United States. The development of black folk music inthe United States emerges from the mists of tradition asdocumented historical fact.22Quadrangle Zh(ewsAnother corner for the CollegeThe City Grey basks in the summer sunshine,looking, as always, its best among the greenelms. Along 59th Street the watchful walkerencounters cars bearing licenses from half ofthese United States.But the denizens don't bask much. Themarquee may be dark, but inside the cast isbusy rehearsing. The trip to Canada orCopenhagen was all too short, and the fallquarter looms.A major highlight of the forthcomingautumn will be the rededication of theCollege, including a special convocationOctober 26, plus a cluster of other eventscelebrating this unique institution. TheCollege, which has been edging its waysouthward from Cobb Hall to Gates-Blake,will turn the corner, tnoving into its new andconsiderably remodeled quarters in Wieboldtand Harper (though Gates-Blake and Cobbwill continue in use by the College).The renovation of Harper and Wieboldt, aswell as of Classics and the Business Eastbuildings, constituted a $2,600,000 project,funded by a $1,000,000 matching grant fromthe Kresge Foundation and grants from theAndrew W. Mellon and Gulf OilFoundations, plus alumni gifts.The College has turned a lot of corners. Ithas pioneered in efforts to break down thewalls separating the traditional disciplines. Anew program, for example, will be introducedthis fall to be known as PREL — politics,rhetoric, economics and law. Another corner:the combined bachelor' s-master's programssuch as those in mathematics and economics,which permit a student to combine worktoward both degrees, shortening the elapsedtime required.Plus c'est la mSme chose, plus ca change.Doctorate oversupply overstatedThe nation's oft-referred-to PhD "glut" maybe only a myth — at least as far as Chicagograduates are concerned.A new study, which covered 400 studentswho received their Chicago doctoratesbetween July 1, 1971, and June 30, 1972, wasconducted by Anita S. Sandke, director ofcareer counseling and placement. Only 2% ofthe Chicago phDS were known to be unemployed and actively seekingemployment, she found."This study bears out our conviction thatthe Chicago doctorate continues to be a verysignificant degree, and that, in spite of thenational publicity about the PhD 'glut,' ourgraduates can and do find successfulemployment," Mrs. Sandke said.The report shows that in theperiod reviewed, the University awarded 450doctoral degrees.Of these, fifty went to foreign students ontemporary visas who did not enter the U. S.job market after receiving their degrees.Of the remaining 400:• 63% found employment in college oruniversity teaching.• 2% were in college or universityadministration.• 1% were in public school teaching oradministration.• 15% received fellowships for postdoctoralstudies in the U. S. or abroad.• 1% were in business occupations.• 5% were in government.• 8% were affiliated with non-profitorganizations.• 1% were taking up further study.• 1% were not seeking employment.• 2% were unemployed while activelyseeking work.• 1% were unavailable, whereaboutsunknown.Mrs. Sandke's study also shows that PhDgraduates in the humanities have the lowestunemployment rate (1.4%).KudosHonors came in quartets at the Juneconvocation:• The University awarded honorary degrees toNorman Ashton, University of London;Fredson Bowers, University of Virginia;Maria Dluska, Jagiellonian University ofCracow; and Frank H. Westheimer, HarvardUniversity.• Norman F. Maclean, William RaineyHarper professor in the Department ofEnglish, became the second faculty member to win a second Quantrell Award forexcellence in undergraduate teaching. JosephSchwab, now at the Center for the Study ofDemocratic Institutions, was the previousdouble winner. Other 1973 Quantrell awardswent to John L. Hubby, professor in theDepartment of Biology, the Committee onGenetics and Evolutionary Biology, and theCollege; Edward Anders, professor in theDepartment of Chemistry, the Enrico FermiInstitute, and the College; and SusanneHoeber Rudolph, professor in theDepartment of Political Science and theCollege.• The Argonne Cancer Research Hospital wasrenamed the Franklin McLean MemorialResearch Institute to honor the late Dr.McLean [bsc'07, MD(Rush)'10, md '12,phD'15], first chairman of the University'sDepartment of Medicine and first director ofthe University Clinics.• The Press won a coveted National BookAward for George B. Schaller's The SerengetiLion.• Of ninety-nine newly elected fellows of theAmerican Academy of Arts and Sciences tenare University faculty members, and of theten, three are alumni: Leo A. Goodman(ab'54), statistics, sociology; James M.Gustafson(DB'51), divinity; and Bernard D.Meltzer (jd'37), law. The other seven honored:Edward Anders, chemistry; William H.Kruskal, statistics; Edward Lowinsky, music;Lloyd Metzler, economics; Yoichiro Nambu,physics; Victor W. Turner, anthropology; andJohn T. Wilson, education and psychology,and provost of the University.A note of sorrowReaders of the Magazine will besaddened, as were her formercolleagues at Alumni House, to learn ofthe untimely death of its previouseditor, Gabriella Azrael Nelson. AMinnesotan, she studied abroad, wasgraduated with honors at Radcliffe.She brought to the Magazine abackground as editor and translator.Mother of three, she also is survived byher former husband, Jeremy Azrael, aUniversity faculty member, and hersecond husband, Barry Nelson.23^Alumni V^wsClass notesf\ i E. C. MC KIBBEN, SR., SB'Ol, MD'04,^ ¦*¦ has had a scholarship established in hishonor by the Kirkland (Wash.) Rotary Club.A past president of the club and formermayor of the town, Dr. McKibben, 94,practiced general medicine in Kirkland forfifty years. He retired in 1964.03 in memoriam: Victoria Bergstrom,mdX)3, 92, general practitioner andpediatrician, member of the first graduatingclass at Rush Medical College to includewomen, died April 3 in Chicago.f\f. in memoriam: Harry J. Corper,^^ sb '06, PhD' 11, md'11, former director ofresearch at National Jewish Hospital inDenver and associate professor of medicine atthe University of Colorado School ofMedicine, dfed May 12 at his home in Denverafter a long illness.Susannah J. McMurphy, p1im'06, of ¦Tacoma, Wash., died March 21.f\n in memoriam: Ivan Doseff, sb'07,^ ' former faculty member at the University of Minnesota and Augsburg College inMinneapolis, died May 3.rvQ in memoriam: Florence Calvert^ -* Thorne, p1ib'09, a pioneer in thedevelopment of research techniques in theAmerican labor movement, died inWashington in March. Ms. Thorne, who hadbeen a close associate and colleague ofSamuel Gompers, founder/president of theAFL, served for many years as director ofresearch for the federation. Her work duringthose years contributed to the development ofthe social security and unemploymentcompensation systems, as well as health andmedical care plans for wage earners. Herbiography of Gompers, SamuelGompers — American Statesman, waspublished in 1957.| f\ harris l. MacNEiLL, pIid'10, retired•* ^ New Testament professor in the divinitycollege of McMaster University (Hamilton,Ontario, Canada), celebrated his 101 stbirthday lecturing to two freshman classes inMcMaster's new medical college. Prof.MacNeill, who lives in Hamilton, will be 102on November 30.j -i dana w. atchley, sb'11, professor* ¦*- emeritus of medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, ColumbiaUniversity, and medical consultant atColumbia's Presbyterian Hospital, added yetone more to a continuing succession of awardsand honors recently when he received anhonorary degree — the Docteur HonorisCausa — from the Universite Louis Pasteur(Strasbourg, France) during ceremoniescommemorating the 150th anniversary of thebirth of Pasteur. Dr. Atchley makes his homein Englewood, N.J.12 in memoriam: Milford E. Barnes,sb'12, md'14, former head of thedepartment of preventive medicine andhygiene at the medical college of Iowa StateUniversity, died recently in Toledo, O.-j *j helen earl, phB'13, did some*** volunteer part-time teaching during thepast school year in a fourth grade class atTryon (N. C.) Elementary School. Ms. Earlheaded MacDuffie Country Day School inSpringfield, Mass., for many memoriam: Albert H. Dekker, pIib'13;Helen Dorcas Magee Marshall, pIib'13.-i A The University has received a bequest-"of $6,-192.58 from the estate of rachelfoote jones, phB'14, am'31. The money is tobe added to the Class of 1914 Loan Fund.-j r in memoriam: Reuben E.E.^^ Harkness, am'15, db'17, phD'27, diedinFebruary in New London, N. H. He had beena professor at Crozer Theological Seminary inChester, Pa., president of the AmericanBaptist Historical Society and served as achaplain at the state prison in Waupun, Wis.<i r in memoriam: Paul H. Daus,-** ^ sb '16, who taught mathematics atUCLA for nearly four decades, died in March.18 in memoriam: Wilby T. Gooch,Sr., PhD' 18, who served BaylorUniversity (Waco, Tex.) for fifty years in bothacademic and administrative capacities, diedApril 21 in Port Arthur, Tex.< Q in memoriam: Suchen Wang Lai,* ^ sb'19, pediatrician, died April 28 inJarrettsville, Md.John Silas Lundy, md'19, founder/directorof the anesthesiology department of the MayoClinic and internationally known specialist,died April 26 in Seattle. Harriet Robbins Moses, sm'19, formerbiology teacher at Kansas Wesleyan, died inSalina, Kans., in March.^f\ wayne guthrie, x'20, this year is^^ celebrating his 53rd anniversary on thestaff of the Indianapolis News. He has servedthe newspaper in various capacities sinceJanuary, 1921 — right after leaving UC for thewinter mid-term break. He was city editor 14years before becoming a daily columnist,which he has been for 26 years. He tells usthat the article by Herbert Anderson in theMarch/April issue, 'Three Questions aboutthe Sustained Nuclear Chain Reaction,"reminded him that he covered three atomictests — two at Bikini in 1946 and one at YuccaFlat in memoriam: Emmet B. Bay, sb'20,md'22, professor emeritus of medicine and afaculty member at the University for forty-fiveyears, died April 7 in Oak Lawn, 111. Acardiologist, Dr. Bay was the co-developer, in1961, of an accurate instrument for directlymeasuring the speed and volume of bloodflow without opening a blood vessel.Bernice Tucker Cory, pIib'20, co-founderand senior vice-president of Scripture PressPublications, died April 21 in Wheaton, 111.Lawrence M. Graves, am'20, p!id'24,professor emeritus of mathematics at theUniversity, one of the architects of themodern subject known as functional analysis,died May 25 in La Grange, 111.^ j in memoriam: Sydney K. Schiff,^ * phB'21 , jd'23, partner in the Chicagolaw firm of Schiff, Hardin, Waite, Sorscheland Britton, died May 16, after a brief illness,in Palm Springs.William J. Vynalek, sb'21, md'23, formerchief of staff and chief of surgery, and one ofthe founders of MacNeal Memorial Hospitalin Berwyn,Tll., died March 25.^^ VERNE J. SCHLEGEL, LLB'22,^^ retired from the practice of law someyears ago due to a heart condition and hasbeen living in Bradenton, Fla. "Even so I keepactive," he writes. "Have to regulate it tohumor a jealous heart. Anyway I have had afull life." Before retiring, Mr. Schlegel lived inBloomfield, la., where he had a private lawpractice. He served as city attorney for twoyears and county attorney for six. Afterspending three years in Germany (1946-'49) asContinued on Page 262415 distinguished alumni;Kamen is medalistThe night carbon-14 was discovered itwas chilly in Berkeley, and a drivingrain beat on the tin roof of the cyclotronbuilding, in which Martin Kamen(SB'33,PhD'36) had been workingalmost continuously for three days andnights to create the isotope known ascarbon-14. To the general noise wereadded from time to time blasts causedby high voltage discharges deep in thebowels of the cyclotron."Bone-tired and red-eyed," Dr.Kamen wrote recently, "I shut downthe machine, rescued the remainingfragments of the carbon target, whichresembled so many bits of intenselyradioactive bird gravel, and shambledover to the ramshackle hut in which Dr.Samuel Ruben, my collaborator,worked and would be appearingshortly." (To climax the occasion, onthe way home in the wee hours, he was stopped for questioning by the police.)After that night in February, 1940,the world changed. Carbon-14, theworkhorse of the isotopes, is now, asDr. Kamen says, "as plentiful asaspirin." It has revolutionized scientificinquiry in a number of fields.Recognition of the importance of theisotope is implicit in the fact that workemploying it has brought Nobel laurels'to half a dozen scientists.Perhaps even better known for hiswork in photosynthesis, Dr. Kamen,professor of biochemistry at theUniversity of California, San Diego,was honored by the University ofChicago with an honorary degree in1969. And at the 1973 reunion hereceived the University's covetedalumni medal for extraordinarydistinction in his field and forextraordinary service to society. Martin D. KamenProfessional achievement awardsSylvia Edmonia Bowman (am' 43)Chancellor, Indiana University regional campuses; author ofseveral works about Edward Bellamy.Ernest Cadman Colwell (phn'30)President emeritus, School of Theology at Claremont; formerpresident of the University of Chicago.John Rusten Hogness (sb'43, md'46)President, National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine.Peter Pierre Lejins (phD'38)Professor of sociology and director, University of MarylandInstitute of Criminal Justice and Criminology.Margaret Pittman (sm'26, phD'29)Guest worker in the Division of Biologies Standards, formerlychief bacteriologist, Laboratory of Bacterial Products, NationalInstitutes of Health.Josephine Serhmes (ab'43)Neuropsychologist at the National Institute of Mental Health.Tatsuji Takeuchi (ph.D'31)Professor of political science and international relations,Kwansei Gakuin University. Citations for public serviceAlfreda Barnett Duster (pha'24)Community worker in delinquency prevention and board member, Mid-South Model Cities Council, DuSable Museum ofAfrican American History, Chicago Public Library, Catalyst forYouth, and Chicago International Program.Augusta Sarah Hewlett (sb'25)School attendance officer and former social worker who hasaided numerous Southern Appalachian families in Chicago.Mildred Elizabeth Hipskind (pIib'25)Former chairman, Social Studies Department, Wabash (Ind.)High School.Howard Benjamin Miller (jd'60)Lawyer and participant in Public Broadcasting/NationalEducational Television series, "The Advocates."Lillian Steichen Sandburg (p1ib'04)Former teacher, active in Easter Seal Drive, Unitarian Univer-salist Church, United Nations Association and establishment ofNational Historic Site at Connemara, N. C.Paul Bigelow Sears (PhD'22)Professor emeritus, Yale University, and eminent ecologist.John Gilman Stewart (am'59, phD'68)Communications director, Democratic National Party. Churchman and public servant; campaigner for social justice.25a judge in the Military Government Courts,he returned to Bloomfield and was tapped asdistrict director for the 1950 census. Afterthat he went to Washington and worked forthe Justice Department (alien propertydivision) for about three years. He thenreturned to Iowa and practiced law for severalmore years before retiring to memoriam: Mary McPheeters Moor,phB'22.^ ^5 ANDREW CORDIER, AM'23, PhD'26,^^ former executive assistant to thesecretary general of the UN, has beennominated for the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize byRep. Ralph Regula (R-Ohio). Cordier beganhis career with the UN when he went to SanFrancisco in 1945 to help draft the UNcharter. He went on to work closely withsecretaries general Trygve Lie, DagHammarskjold and U. Thant, the latter ofwhom once described Cordier as "a man asidentified with the UN as the Statue of Libertyis with the city of New York." Cordier resignedfrom the UN in 1962 and went to ColumbiaUniversity, first in the capacity of dean, thenacting president-trustee, then president, andcurrently director of development for theschool of international affairs. He wasawarded the alumni medal by UC in memoriam: Wallace Bates, phB'23;William John N. Davis, sb'23, md'27; MableKatterjohn Nord, x'23.^) A in memoriam: Wilbur A. Giffen,^ ¦ llb'24, tax attorney, died March 22 inChicago. Mr. Giffen formerly was footballticket manager and a member of the legalstaff of the business manager's office at theUniversity.^r edward c. ames, p1ib'26, retired^^ vice-president of the administrativedivision of Owens-Illinois, Inc. (Toledo), hashad an honorary doctor of laws degreeconferred upon him by the University memoriam: James Ernest Davis, sb'26,am'28, pIid'32.^"l in memoriam: EliseBeygrau^ ' Torbert, am'27, civic leader, organizer ofseveral League of Women Voters chapters inIdaho and the Boise chapter's first president,died in March. ^O in memoriam: Thurman A.Bridgers, am'28, who retired in Januaryas director of the University of Maryland'soffice of international education services andforeign student affairs, died March 27.Communist China has reported the deathof Mei Ju-ao, jd'28, April 23 in Peking.Considered by the Communists as anauthority on international law, he was amember of the National Committee of thePolitical Consultative Conference and aspecial consultant to the foreign ministry atthe time of his death.^Q in memoriam: Rev. James Colletti,^ -* am'29; Alice Nelson BenningDarlington, pIib'29; Jerome J. Nathan,phB'29, mba'49.OA in memoriam: Bernice E. Leary,^U phB'30, am'31, phD'33, died March 20in Grinnell, la.; Wayne A. R. Leys, pIid'30,died March 7 in his home near Makanda, 111.*j ^ j. lester fraser, pIib'31, retired*^ -^ in March as president of the Atlantadivision of Casual Corner [shoe] Stores and isnow working with SCORE in Atlanta, underthe auspices of the Small BusinessAdministration.john m. kahlert, p1ib'31, am'46, andjanet pleak kahlert, am'39, have beenliving in Door County, Wise, since theirretirement in 1960. "I have joined Friends ofDoor County Libraries," writes Mr. Kahlert."My wife is hooking a rug."'j'y Baxter mow, am'32, former mis-^ sionary/teacher in India, has beenpledged as a Red Cross volunteer assigned, asa consultant, to the international relationscommittee of the Roanoke Valley (Va.)chapter. Rev. Mow, 81, is an avid bicyclist,choir member, teacher of private Greeklessons and amateur astronomer. He firstbecame interested in celestial phenomena in1900"when he watched a solar eclipse with hismother. His dream, as reported in theRoanoke (Va.) World News, is to live to seeHaley's Comet reappear in memoriam: Harriet C. Kahlert, phB'32,retired Chicago school teacher, died April 15at her home in Carlyle, 111.33 HERMAN E. RIES, JR., SB'33,phD'36, who retired from American Oil (Whiting, Ind.) a year ago June, spent the1972-73 academic year in Japan where he wasa visiting professor, Institute for ChemicalResearch, Kyoto memoriam: Dora Almeda Berg, am'33;Earl V. Kennedy, sb'33, am'39.^A HELEN L. MORGAN, AB'34, AM'36,^ is principal of the American Academyfor Girls, Uskudar, Turkey, a position she hasheld since 1956. Sponsored by the UnitedChurch of Christ, the Academy is acombination day and boarding school for 530girls of ages 1 1 to 18 who are admitted on thebasis of competitive entrance examinations.Ms. Morgan first came to the school in 1952on a three-year leave from MacalesterCollege, where she was assistant professor ofSpanish, "little realizing that this was tobecome my life work."oswald k. sagen, pIid'34, assistantdirector for health statistics development ofHEW's National Center for Health Statistics,has been awarded a high decoration by thegovernment of Yugoslavia — the" Yugoslavenska Zastava Sa Zlatnin Vencom"(Yugoslav Flag with Gold Wreath) — for hiscontributions to U. S. -Yugoslav cooperativeprograms in the health field. Dr. Sagen is thefirst American scientist to be so memoriam: George H. Buck, p1ib'34,died early this year in Evanston, 111.-> C charles a. bane, ab'35, member*^ of the Chicago law firm of Isham,Lincoln & Beale, is author of a new bookentitled The Electrical EquipmentConspiracies/The Treble DamageActions (Federal Legal Publications, Inc.,New York). The book is a complete account ofthe nearly 2,000 separate cases, tried in thefederal court system from 1960 to 1966, inwhich customers of heavy electricalequipment alleged and proved that GeneralElectric, Westinghouse and some twenty-fiveother manufacturers conspired to fix pricesand allocate markets for practically allequipment utilized in the generation,transmission and distribution of electricity inthe U. S. He is a member of the Citizens' Boardof the memoriam: Jerome Walter Stowell,phB'35, clarinetist with the ChicagoSymphony Orchestra since 1936 and amember of its Woodwind Quintet, died May 5in Melrose Park, 111.Continued on Page 2826Communicator Kogan reveals secretsAccepting the University's 1973Communicator of the Year Award, veteranChicago newspaperman Herman Kogan(ab'36) discussed the propensity of manymembers of the public to believe that thepress makes up the news, rather than merelyreporting it. Mr. Kogan, editor of the ChicagoSun-Times' "Showcase" magazine, recalled afriend's comment that the city's image was"due not really to what had happened overthe years, but because its writers who wroteabout it were so 'vital and dynamic' that theycreated the image of what Chicago was to theentire world." Quoting a column he wrote atthe time, Mr. Kogan said:Why did my good friend have to goand say it? Now that he has spilled soprofound a secret, I am impelled, like asinner stumbling down a revivalist'ssawdust trail, to babble on and on andon. And the awful truth that I mustblurt out is that we did make it up.Every vital and dynamic word of it.Remember Lords of the Levee? Whenit came out twenty years ago, ourpublishers touted it as the first and onlybook on the most colorful characters inthe toughest ward in the ripsnortingesttown, in the most glorious decade of thelast century. And critics and customershailed it as exciting, convincing,dramatic, and above all, authentic.Ah, the fools, the deluded fools.Lloyd Wendt and I were able to inventBathhouse John Coughlin and HinkyDink Kenna, and vote stealing and theWorld's Columbian Exposition, andKing Mike McDonald, and the FirstWard, and the Spanish-American War,and Billy Skakel and crookedpoliticians, and illicit land deals andJohnny DePow Powers and graft andgang murders and Big Jim Colisimoand all those others, and we persuadedeverybody they really existed.Minna and Ada Everleigh — theEverleigh Club? Figments of our vitaland dynamic imaginations. Actually,there were two real life sisters, named Herman KoganMillie and Annie Elderly, who owned amansion in which visitors gatheredevery night to discuss the novels ofHamlin Garland or to read from thelatest issue of Martha Louise Rayne'smagazine of fashion, music and homereading. What we did was to weave a lotof lurid facts around them and that'show the legend of the Everleigh sistersand their bawdy establishment gotstarted and spread all over the world.And then, bursting with vitality, wesinned again a decade later with a bookcalled Big Bill of Chicago. Thispurported to be the biography ofsomeone called William HaleThompson. We manufactured the myththat he was a former cowboy and a starathlete and tagged him with thenickname of Big Bill although he wasonly four feet tall. I've often wonderedwhy Big Bill of Chicago was notinstantly spotted as a flagrantfabrication. Its opening line was,"Once upon a time there really was aBig Bill Thompson." And any doltknows that a book that begins with "once upon a time" is going to be afable.Anyway, we made Big Bill mayor forthree rowdy terms, that were filled withsuch imaginary things as vote stealingand crooked politicians and illicit landdeals and school problems and graftand World War I and gang murdersand such imaginary people as JohnnyTorrio and Al Capone and Jack Zutaand Fred Lundin and Diamond JoeEsposito and Jake Lingle.One of the nuttiest stories wedreamed up was that Big Bill believedhis superintendent of schools was paidby King George of England to subvertthe city kids, and Big Bill threatened topunch the king in the nose if he evercame to Chicago.Naturally Big Bill was the city's mostfervent fan. And what fantastic sloganswe dreamed up for him. Don't be aknocker, be a booster. Throw awayyour hammer and get a horn.And then, as a dynamic reporter, myvitality knew no limits. When Ifashioned those fantasies aboutsomething bearing the unlikely name ofthe West Side Bloc. One of my editorswas so bamboozled that he titled oneseries of such myths "Blackjack overChicago." Occasional tales about suchelfin characters named Accardo andGiancana and Humphreys and Caifanoand about vote stealing and illicit landdeals, school problems and dopepeddling and crooked politicians andother illusions.And I wound up by saying I've longsince given up being vital and dynamicabout such matters, but I am worriedabout all those young innocents in ournewsroom, who are writing all thatvivid prose about fellows namedAccardo and Giancana andHumphreys, Alderisio and Cerone, andabout vote stealing and illicit landdeals, school problems and otherillusions. Don't they know there are nosuch people and no such things, andthat some sad day they too will have togrovel in the sawdust as I've just done?27/Jfl EATON V. W. READ, MBA'36, PhD'38,*~^ has retired as professor of businessadministration at the University of Bridgeport(Conn.). An ordained deacon in the EpiscopalChurch, Dr. Read is continuing as assistant inSt. George's Church, Bridgeport, and haslaunched a new career as travel counselor in alocal travel bureau. This summer he is servingas Protestant chaplain aboard the S. S.Statendam of the Holland American Lineduring a six-week North Cape/Scandinaviancruise. He has been hired in a similar capacityby the Norwegian American Line for a cruiseduring Christmas and by the SwedishAmerican Line for a cruise next memoriam: William Davidson, ab'36;William Hered,SB'36, phD'39.07 in memoriam: Leslie A. Stauber,^ ' PhD'37, member of the RutgersUniversity faculty for thirty-seven years untilhis retirement a year ago June, died March *27. At Rutgers he was professor ofparasitology and served as chairman of thezoology department for several years.^O PAUL P. PICKERING, SB'38, SM'39,^^ md'41, associate clinical professor of(plastic) surgery at the University ofCalifornia, San Diego, has been appointed tothe physicians self assessment resource centerproject advisory panel of the AM A torepresent the American Society of Plastic andReconstructive memoriam: Donald M. McEndaffer,md'38, Denver physician, died March 20.William C. Rasmussen, sb'38, sm'39,hydrologist who was in Vietnam studying thewater supply systems of two refugee camps,was killed May 1 1 when the jeep in which heand two others were riding hit a landmine 75miles east of Saigon.Sharvy G. Umbeck, am'38, phD'40,president of Knox College (Galesburg, 111.)since 1949, died suddenly on May 5.A -j in memoriam: Vincent J. Burke,¦ -¦* ab'4 1 , senior member of the staff of theWashington bureau of the Los AngelesTimes, died May 7 in Washington of cancer.For many years Mr. Burke worked for UP andUPI. He joined the Times when the paper wasexpanding its arena of operations in 1963. Ayear later, he was sent to Moscow to establisha Times bureau there. He and his wife, velmawhitgrove burke, ab'43, stayed in the SovietUnion three years. Reassigned to Washington in 1967, Mr. Burke covered urban affairs andspecialized in the welfare crisis during thelater part of the Johnson administration andearly part of the Nixon administration. Heand his wife were writing a book on thewelfare program.A A GEORGE N. HALE, JR., SB'44, is^ now assistant vice-president, investmentmanagement service, with Wells Fargo Bank,San memoriam: Vearl E. Payne, ab'44,teacher/administrator in the LawrenceCounty (111.) schools, died March 26.A CZ SYLVIA KORAL LANSKY, SB'45,¦ *^ Solon, O., has received a master ofeducation degree from Kent State University.AC NORMAN ANDERSON, SB'46, SM'49,' ^ psychology professor at the Universityof California, San Diego, has won the 1972socio-psychological prize of the AmericanAssociation for the Advancement of Science.The $1,000 prize, awarded annually toencourage the methodology that has provenfruitful in the natural sciences, was presentedto Anderson on the basis of an essay he wroteon decision making and how "there is ageneral cognitive algebra that people use toreach decisions."B. EVERARD. BLANCHARD, AM'46, whosedevelopment of an unusual procedure fordeterminig one's tendency toward obesity wasmentioned a while ago in these pages, has nowdeveloped a gadget — a couple of plastic discsthat rotate on each other — that by simpledialing will perform the mathematics involvedin his obesity index formula and will give areading on one's nutritional state as well.Preliminary requests for the BONI Computer,which stands for Blanchard Obesity andNutritional Index and sells for $4.95 pluspostage and handling, have exceeded 50,000,reports Blanchard.The obesity formula involves subtractingwaistline measurement (in inches) from height(in inches). If the answer is 36, your weight isideal.Though simple, the procedure was notsimple to work out. It was the result oftenyears Blanchard devoted to the tediousaccumulation, classification andprogramming of statistical data, as well asdoctors' reports, gathered on 800 subjects —students and faculty at Chicago's De PaulUniversity, where Blanchard works. When Blanchard began his work, he wasthinking toward a future in whichinterplanetary travel would be common, andtravelers, living for months in a gravity-freeenvironment, would be unable to use ordinarymethods of keeping track of their weight, akey index to general health. He had the SpaceAge in mind, and according to Science EditorArthur J. Snider of the Chicago Daily News,NASA is memoriam: Mary Owen Brenz, am'46.An DAVID S. BRODER, AB'47, AM'51,¦ ' national political reporter andcolumnist for the Washington Post, has wonthis year's Pulitzer Prize for commentary.Broder, who won UC's 1972 Communicator ofthe Year Award, has reported on major stateelections, political conventions andPresidential campaigns since memoriam: William H. Robinson,am'47, representative to the Illinois House forten years, head of the Cook CountyDepartment of Public Aid from 1967-'69,director of registration and education forformer Gov. Ogilvie, died March 23 inChicago.Ole P. Sand, am'47, p1id'48, teacher,author, staff member of the NationalEducational Association, died April 2 in NewOrleans.AO HANS W. MATTICK, AB'48, AM'56,¦ ^ professor and director of the Center forResearch in Criminal Justice, University ofIllinois at Chicago Circle, was one oftwenty-two statewide recipients of theGovernor's Justice Award for 1972 "fordistinguished achievement and service to thecommunity in strengthening the Americantradition of justice under law." Mr. Mattickformerly co-directed the Center for Studies inCriminal Justice at the University of Chicago.JOHN BUETTNER-JANUSCH, PllB'48, SB'49,am'53, leaves the Duke University faculty thisSeptember to become chairman of New YorkUniversity's department of anthropology.Known for his work in primate and humanevolution and in biochemical genetics, heoften collaborates professionally with his wife,vina mallowitz, p1ib'48, sb'49, a biochemistand academic administrator who shares hisinterest in laboratory and field research inprotein chemistry. The Buettner-Januschshave worked together in such places asNairobi, Kenya, and Tananarive, MalagasyRepublic. Mr. Buettner-Janusch, who has28also been director of the Primate Facility atDuke, a unique colony of prosimians that heestablished in 1958, was once heard to say:"My lemurs remind me of myundergraduates, my baboons of my colleaguesand my gorillas of university presidents.Lemurs are bright-eyed and bushy-tailed witha look in their eye that suggests they cannotbelieve the way of the world is what it is.Baboons are clever, highly intelligent, vocal,gregarious, untidy, and one must never turnone's back on them."Gorillas are creatures of great distinctionwith superb gray and black coats. Theychomp their way through the (academic)jungle uttering superb vocalizations as theylead their troops. ..."When asked where graduate students fitinto this extended metaphor, he answered"graduate students are like sloths, not likeprimates." ^Q DONALD R. MCCOY, AM'49, is¦^ co-author of the book, Quest andResponse: Minority Rights and the TrumanAdministration, published by the Universityof Kansas Press. Based on extensive researchin primary source materials, the book tracesthe significant developments in the quest forminority rights from 1945 to 1953.CA harry fisher, ab'50, id'53, St. Louis^ public relations counselor, continues towrite hymns in his spare time. Since writingthe text for "Listen, Corinth," his first suchcreative venture which was reported in themagazine last year, Mr. Fisher has writtennearly a dozen more hymn texts, including aChristmas carol "He Lives."in memoriam: C. M. "Nick" Newman,mba'50. C C DAVID H. HESLA, AM'56, pllD'64,'¦''"' associate professor of humanities,literature and theology at Emory University(Atlanta), pocketed $750 recently as winner in the University of MinnesotaPress' annual McKnight competition.Professor Hesla's book, The Shape of Chaos:An Interpretation of the Art of SamuelBeckett, was chosen as one of the three mostdistinguished books published by Minnesotaduring the year preceding. He returns toEmory this fall from a leave-of-absence whichhe spent as a Fulbright lecturer at theUniversity of Oulu in Finland.C C\ A. E. NYEMA iones, sm'60, p1id'62,reports that he has been promoted fromdeputy minister to minister of lands andmines, government of Liberia.Midway major domoA unique event took place at thisyear's reunion, when one of theHowell Murray awards, ordinarilyWalter in his early days presented to graduating students foroutstanding contributions toextracurricular affairs, went, not to astudent at all, but to Walter Jeschke,who, for thirty-seven of his forty- fiveyears on the Midway, has been nightguard, major domo, unofficial policymaker and "dean" of Ida Noyes Hall.Friend and raconteur extraordinaireto generations of students, he hasappeared in faculty "Revels," inBlackfriars, and in "Walter'sFollies," an Ida Noyes special of hisown creation. In his famous costumehe has served as marshal for thegrand march at every WashingtonProm held in Ida Noyes, and he hastramped the campus in anunimaginable variety of regalia topromote campus activities andathletic events. A sui generis medalist.The more conventional awardswent to seniors Thomas Campbell,Michael Dorf, Mitchell Glass, SusanMarie Johnson, Rosalie Marie Resch,Joseph Morris, Nancy Oxfeld,William Petryk and Richard Scotch. Marshal of the Prom29NEWTON g. ashby, ab'61, is avice-president of AMB BondingCompany, San Francisco. AMB, headed byBenjamin Miller, former federalRedevelopment Agency official, was foundedto help enhance the effectiveness of black andother minority contractors in bidding onconstruction jobs.miriam kovner ringo, am'61, was nameddirector of the office of personnel by MichaelJ. Howlett following his election as secretaryof state of Illinois. She and her husband, royringo, sb'36, pho'40, a physicist at ArgonneNational Laboratory, live in Hinsdale.£Z^J THOMAS H. HAWKES, AM'62,XJAd pfojy^ has been appointed chairmanof the department of psychoeducationalprocesses in the college of education, TempleUniversity (Philadelphia). Before joining theTemple faculty in 1968, Hawkes directed aNational Institute of Mental Health-fundedproject at UC investigating the use of smallgroups in adapting problem students. Heco-authored the book, Role Perceptions andTask Performance of ExperimentallyComposed Small Groups, published in 1969by the University of Chicago memoriam: Joel Elizabeth Murray,sb '62, md'66, assistant professor of medicineat the University, died May 24 in Chicago.r J PARATHUNDYILT. THOMAS, AM'63,^*J am' 70, since his return to India, hasbeen teaching in the English department ofMar Ivanios College in Kerala. In addition, heis pastor of two small parishes. In a recentletter, Rev. Thomas, his wife, Aleyamma, andtheir four children extend a most generousoffer: "We shall always be delighted to receiveany visitors from the University of Chicagofamily. We can easily accommodate three ata time. We live only twelve miles away fromthe world-famous Kovalam beach. AndKerala has many other attractions too." TheThomas' address: Panavila, Trivandram-15,Kerala, India.JAN HOWARD FINDER, SM'64, ISnow working for the U. S. Air Force asproject transition counselor at SpangdahlemFlugplatz in Germany. He writes that he hasbeen asked to organize a Tolkien program fora science fiction convention — EUROCONII — to be held in Brussels in August, 1974. /C £ The appointment of mary cullen^^ leahy, jd'66, to head the IllinoisEnvironmental Protection Agency, reportedin the magazine's May /June issue, has beenrejected by the Illinois Senate in what waswidely interpreted as an act of politicalretaliation. Ms. Leahy's qualifications for theEPA post, which she had occupied sinceJanuary, were considered to be excellent. But"petty political vindictiveness," as a ChicagoSun-Times editorial put it, was overriding.Ms. Leahy was attorney for Aid. William S.Singer and other insurgent Democrats whoousted Mayor Daley's delegation at last year'sDemocratic National Convention.r *j john ashcroft, jd'67, was appointed^ state auditor of Missouri early this year,to serve out the remaining two years of afour-year term in the office vacated byChristopher Bond when Bond was electedgovernor of the state last November. Ashcroft,who taught business law at SouthwestMissouri State University for several years, isthe youngest state auditor in Missouri history.Former UC rugby player and his wife, janetroede ashcroft, jd'68, also an attorney,have one young daughter, Martha./:o lionel e. deimel, jr., ab'68, has^^ received his masters degree in information and computer science from GeorgiaInstitute of Technology and is currently working toward his pHd there, betty lovelldeimel, ab'69, holds a permanent appointment as catalog librarian at Georgia StateUniversity, Atlanta."A remarkable and important document"is typical of what Wall Street Journal bookreviewer James Ring Adams has to say aboutBlack Education: Myths and Tragedies(David McKay Company, $6.95), by thomassowell, pho'68. Adams hails UCLAeconomics professor Sowell not only for hisunusually insightful treatment of hissubject — collegiate black studies programs,I. Q. tests, black recruitment and the like —but also for his remarkable narrative tonewhich contrasts so markedly with "the bitterstyle currently fashionable in treating theblack experience."One painful episode recounted in the bookoccurred at Cornell University — whereSowell, during the late sixties, was the onlyblack faculty member — when admission wasdenied to a black girl with College Board scores in the top 1%, on the basis of thefollowing: ". . . her cultural and educationalbackground does not indicate deprivation tothe extent necessary for qualification as adisadvantaged. . .student. In spite of the factthat both her parents are laundry workers,she has been adequately motivated by them tca point where she has achieved academicsuccess and some degree of culturalsophistication."Mr. Sowell's views on trends toward"relevancy" in education, though even moreunfashionable at the time his " 'Available'University" appeared in these pages(Nov/Dec 1970), struck a responsive chord inthe magazine's memoriam: Robert J. Coughlan,pho'68.r Q BARBARA J. NUSSBAUM, AM'69,^ -^ married david l. passman, jd'67, onMarch 11. They reside in Chicago, where sheis a psychiatric social worker assigned to theneurosurgery department of Billings Hospitaland he is a member of the law firm of Arvey,Hodes & Mantynband.victor pasnick, mba'71, informsus that he is director of businesspackaging for West Side Planning Group,Inc., Fresno, Calif.MILTON P. WEBSTER, III, MBA'71, whoworks for the Morgan Guaranty TrustCompany of New York, reports that he hasbeen elected a director of the Afro- AmericanCompany, publisher of the Afro- AmericanNewspaper, largest black newpaper chain inthe country.n^J Three 1972 graduates of the Law Schoo' ^ have been chosen by U. S. SupremeCourt justices to join their law clerking staffsthis summer. All three have been clerking forjudges on the U. S. Court of Appeals duringthe past year, john j. buckley, jr., moves tohis Supreme Court clerkship with AssociateJustice Lewis F. Powell, Jr., from NewOrleans, where he assisted Judge John MinorWisdom of the U. S. Court of Appeals of theFifth Circuit; robert i. richter, a clerk ftJudge Irving Goldberg of the Fifth Circuit,Dallas, will join the staff of Associate JusticeHarry A. Blackmun; and hal c. scott, whohas been working with Judge HaroldLeventhal of the Washington, D. C, Circuit,will serve Associate Justice Byron R. White.30Friends,Romans,alumniAbove: Mr. Frankenstein addresses the alumni, as does (below, left) Mr. Leonetti. Listening(below, right) are Richard S. Krohn (ab'47,mba'50), and his guest, Bunny Kirsch. Mr. Krohn isa member of the national Alumni Fund board."Chicago Meets Rome in Berkeley" was, let itbe recorded, a California happening thisspring, brought about by the Bay Area AlumniClub. Members gathered at the University ArtMuseum in Berkeley to examine a show called"The Third Rome, 1870-1950: Traffic andGlory," and containing some 1,200 architectural photographs. The speakers were threeChicago alumni, Peter Selz (am'49, phD'54),director of the museum; David Leonetti(ab'58), assistant director; and Alfred Frankenstein (phB'32), art critic of the San FranciscoChronicle. (The first Rome was the city of theCaesars, the second the Rome of the popes.The "third Rome" dates from the establishment of the Italian nation in 1870.)Above: John Neukom (phB'34), a trustee of the University, pointsout the Vatican City area to Mrs. Neukom on a map of Rome atthe exhibit. Below: Mr. Selz chats with Roland Brandel (jd'66),president of the Bay Area club. Above: Dr. Robert Gordon (md'52) and Mrs. Gordon. Below:George Halcrow (ab'38, jd'40) and Jack Frankel (ab'47, id'50).Advertlftement (Personal)Assignment: Turn in three essays( no deadline)I. What I Was Like When I Was LittleYour mother, or someone who knows can write this; whateverit takes is O. K.II What I Was Like When I Was Your StudentAgain, get a schoolmate, or someone who knows to write it orto help.III. What I Am Like NowSame idea— whatever it takes to write a good essay.Work out the details of the assignment to suit yourself; I have nofurther information for you.Whenever you finish one of the above, mail it to me at Room 513B.E.B. Austin, Texas 78712. (no hurry)