^nk IHtUNIVERSIT'J5fs|j .¦¦" • ^F OF CHICAGOMAGAZINE% * <**IKjIi ^ .#v'•Fi'>3 ^3 ^1^ ** w. f> 1 . wn?J cYf SERIAL p"opo±116 E. 59TH STRFETCHIC/JGO "' M»* *THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO ALUMNI ASSOCIATION & THEOo<o£OOhO v^ J Présentée! by^^ The Marlboro Music£ ^^ | Rudolf Serkin, artistic directorGO ^^^^^ Lee Luvisi piano Hiroko Yajima violinPh John Graham viola Jennie Hansen violaF* ^ É Ronald Léonard cello Julius Levine bass£ "^W ^ RAVEL Sonata for Violin and CelloP ^^J^ MENDELSSOHN Sextet in D, op. 110w 0^^^\ SCHUBERT Quintet in A, op. 1 14 ( "Trout")^FRIDAY 8:30 P.M. FEBRUARY 23, 1973§o ^1 MANDEL HALL ^^ <§ Y^T 5706 S. UNIVERSITY AVE. M g~~^^^f^ Admission: $4 General; $2 Student with ID card ^^Ê^r ^5? ^^r^ $1 discount to UC Alumni and CMS subscribers. ^^^ ^^ For your convenience in ordering ^C^ ^^^m^t OÇ ^^^W tickets, please use order form ^^^^^^^^ ^I ^ T «0V IQ O>3HX / 3ISIW JO XNaWXWdHd 3HX *? NOIXVIOOSSV INRQrConcert Office5835 University AvenueChicago 60637 $ enclosedPlease send tickets for Music from Marlboro concert in MandelHall on February 23, 1973 as follows: $4; $2.UC Alumni or CMS subscribers. $1 discount applicable Name Address zip_Checks mode payable to The University of Chicago should accompany yourorder. Please enclose a self-addressed stamped envelope. AU seats reserved.Photographing the atom 4The cuit of the mandragora in RemaniaMircea Eliade 8The failings of policy scienceMilton J. Rosenberg 17Reflections on the new western filmsJohn G. Cawelti 25Small crimes and afterthoughtsHelen Harris Perlman 33A bridge for digging 4737 Quadrangle news 40 Books39 Letters 41 Alumni news THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEVolume LXV Number 4January/February, 1973The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published six timesper year for alumni and the faculty ofThe University of Chicago, under theauspices of the Office of the Vice Président for Public Afïairs. Letters andeditorial contributions are welcomed.Don Morris, AB'36EditorJane LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois; additional entry at Madison,Wisconsin. Copyright 1973, The University of Chicago. Published in July/August, September/October, Novem-ber/December, January/February,March/April, and May/June. The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312)753-2175John S. Coulson, '36, PrésidentArthur Nayer, Director, AlumniAfïairsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorLisa Wally, AM'68Program DirectorRégional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91201(213) 242-8288320 Central Park West, Suite 14ANew York, New York 10025(212) 787-78001000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415) 928-03375850 Cameron Run TerraceAlexandria, Va. 22303(703) 768-7220cover: Two superimposed pictures show clarity of image achieved by use ofelastic and inelastic électron beams in Albert V. Crewe's transmission électronmicroscope (s tory begins on page 4). The green spots are molécules of ferritin, thebody's iron-carrying substance. The black dots within the green are molécules offerrous hydroxide.picture crédits: Page 1, Joseph Wall; Page 4, Sandra Kronquist; Page 5, 7,Albert V. Crewe; Page 6, courtesy Scientific American; Page 9, Mary Popa; Page17, 38, Lloyd Saunders; Page 27, courtesy United Artists; Page 29, courtesy 20thCentury-Fox; Page 43, courtesy Project Hope.Dr. Crewe at his dean 's desk. Outer office walls display conventional photos he has made of flowers andother macroscopic objects.4/n //ii^ c/ia/n polymer, produced by reacting thorium nitrate with 1,2,4,5 benzenetetra-carbolic acid, the small bright spots are individual atoms of thorium; the larger ones consistof two or more thorium atoms. The dark spaces between are the width of a benzène ring. Thewidth of the area shown is approximately 600 angstroms. The chain molécule has beensprayed onto a 25-angstrom film of evaporated carbon.Photoâraphing the atomScanning électron microscope opensnew horizons in biological researchAmong the subjects which most interest biological scien-tists thèse days are those involving DNA and RNA, thebuilding blocks of human gènes; viruses; enzymes; membranes, cell components and other protein structures.They ail hâve at least three things in common: they arevery small, they are very délicate, and their functioning isintimately related to their internai structure.Thèse qualities make studying them important butdifficult. The degree of difficulty is now being reduced,however, with the expanding use of the scanning électronmicroscope which has been developed over the pastseveral years by Albert V. Crewe, English-born physi-cist, who came to the Midway in 1955 to work on the University's old cyclotron, and who, in the years since,has amassed an impressive string of titles. He is prof essor in the Department of Physics, in the Enrico FermiInstitute and in the Department of Biophysics, and healso is dean of the Division of the Physical Sciences.(From 1958 until 1967 he took time out from the University to head, first, the particle accelerator division ofArgonne National Laboratory and then to head theLaboratory itself.)Dr. Crewe's scanning électron microscope (which likecommercial transmission microscopes, weighs about3,000 pounds) has accomplished the astonishing feat ofphotographing individual atoms, and it is this which has5given it such importance in the biological arena.The scanning électron microscope at the Universityroutinely magnifies to 10,000,000 diameters, and its topmagnifying power is expected eventually to reach50,000,000 diameters. (At this magnification, a 120mmsnapshot would be enlarged to almost 4,000 miles.)Even this magnification will not reveal the lighteratoms, but by "tagging" a molécule with the moremassive atoms, such as uranium or thorium, it is possibleto ascertain détails of the molecular structure. Further-more, it permits the biological researcher to work withunstained spécimens and, because of the light touch itapplies to the spécimen, it reduces greatly the risk ofaltering or injuring the material — a problem with theconventional transmission électron microscope."The resolution is so good that it enables us to obtaincontrast and see an image without staining," says Dr.Robert Haselkorn, professor and chairman of the Department of Biophysics and professor in the Collège."With the conventional microscope one must stain.""It permits us to get quantification of unstained material at the atomic level," says Dr. Robert Uretz (sb'47,PhD '54), professor in the Department of Biophysics andthe Collège and deputy dean of the Division of theBiological Sciences and the Pritzker School of Medicine."It enables us to develop new ideas of the structure ofcompounds without staining, which distorts the image,and with minimum damage to the spécimen."An alumnus of the University, Clinton J. Davisson(sb'04), of the Bell Téléphone Laboratories, with hiscolleague, Lester H. Germer, laid the groundwork for theélectron microscope with his confirmation in 1927 of thewave nature of the électron (the work brought him aNobel prize a décade later). In 1932 the first électronmicroscope was invented in Germany. It was an important breakthrough, since the limit of the resolvingpower of any microscope is approximately equal to thewavelength of the radiation used; the wavelength ofvisible light is about 5,000 times the diameter of mostatoms and ten to twenty times the diameter of manystructures of interest within the living cell.The transmission électron microscope increased resolving power to about fifty times the diameter of theaverage atom; while this was a huge gain for manypurposes, it left the atom still invisible.In 1938 a scanning microscope was proposed, but itwas not until a décade later that the concept began to beput into action, by C. W. Oatley of Cambridge University. And it was still another décade before the first actualmodels appeared.The transmission électron microscope opérâtes like alight microscope — a beam of électrons is passed throughthe spécimen and the resulting image is focused on ascreen. The scanning microscope works more like atélévision set, producing a flying spot of électrons whichscans the object to create an image. The initial scanning microscopes, however, were un-able to produce images superior to those achievable withtransmission instruments, although it was theoreticallypossible to do so. This is where Dr. Crewe and hiscolleagues at the University came in.Improvements in the opération of the scanning micro-fitlO EMISSION SOURCE f?SCAN:SCANNiNG COilSMAGNETlC UNSDETEC^OR FOR FLASTlCAlLYSCATTERED ELECTRONSENERGY ANA1DETFCTOR FOR¦LOSSELECTRONSDDDETECTOR FORNO LOSSELECTRONSFrom "A High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscope" by Albert V. Crewe. Copyright<S 1971 by Scientific American. Inc. AU rights reserved.This drawing shows the steps through which électronspass in producing photographs in which single atoms canbe seen. Most elastically scattered électrons are in-tercepted by the ring-shaped detector. Unscattered andinelastically scattered électrons pass through the ring andinto energy analyzer where the différence in bendingproduces varying signais.6scope had to be made ail along the line. The relativelybroad tungsten filament was replaced as the électronsource by a tungsten point about one-tenth of a micron insize at the tip. This permitted concentration of theélectrons in a much smaller spot, up to one hundred timessmaller than with a tungsten filament.In order to use this électron source, however, it wasnecessary that the émission take place in a vacuum10,000 times better than that used in transmission microscopes.To produce enough intensity for the flying beam topenetrate spécimens, a new "électron gun" had to bedeveloped to boost the energy of the électrons.To focus the électrons a new magnetic lens of veryshort focal length had to be devised, one suitable forplacing in the much better vacuum.The critical différence between the transmission microscope and the scanning microscope appears at thispoint. The transmission microscope makes use of a beamof ail the électrons emitted at its source. This is what may"burn up" the spécimen. But it is also why the power ofresolution is limited to one considerably larger than thewavelength of the électron.In Dr. Crewe's scanning microscope the électronsemerging from the spécimen without having been de-flected by the atoms in the spécimen are separated fromthose which struck atoms. Further, the électrons whichdid strike atoms in the spécimen are separated into (1)those which bounced off without loss of energy, in whatis called elastic scattering, and (2) those which hit atomsand dissipated some of their energy in doing so, passingthrough in "inelastic scattering."In Dr. Crewe's apparatus the no-energy-loss électronsare separated from those which hâve lost energy bypassing through a ring-shaped device and then are bentby a spectrometer, so that the flying spot contains twocomponents. The no-loss component paints the primarypicture of the spécimen; the loss component gives it the"shading" analogous to that with which, in another area,an artist gives perspective to his painting. Thèse ferritin molécules, like those shown on the cover,are photographed as light spots by Dr. Crewe's scanningélectron microscope. They carry molécules of ferroushydroxide (the dark spots).The picture produced can, for example, represent theratio between the two kinds of électrons, and it is thisphenomenon which accounts for the tremendous in-crease in contrast and visibility achieved by the device."The resolution of our scanning microscope is 100times better than the resolution of other scanning microscopes and it is in fact comparable to the resolution of atransmission microscope," says Dr. Crewe. "It is not yet,however, better than a transmission microscope. Hope-fully it soon will be, because we hâve a new microscopejust being put into opération."The fact that we can see single atoms is due primarilyto the much greater contrast and visibility which wehâve, rather than to the resolution. Commercial microscopes hâve the same resolution but are much inferior intheir contrast."The University's scanning électron microscope, likemost such "home-made contraptions," is still underdevelopment. Its results are growing more consistent. Away may be devised to reduce the time required to pumpout the extremely high vacuum it requires.But it is already a highly valued research instrument,and one which has accomplished the once-impossiblefeat of making a single atom visible.Electron SourceVacuum requiredOutput from spécimenMagnification SOME VITAL STATISTICSU. of C. Scanning E.M.Tungsten point 1,000A°*focused spot 3A°1/10,000,000,000 tonSpots of elastically, inelasticallyscattered électrons10,000,000 diameters*1A° = 1 angstrom unit = diameter of average atom = 4/1,000,000,000 inch.1A° = 1/10,000 micron. Wavelength of visible light = 0.5 micron. Transmission E.M.Tungsten filament 10 microns1/10,000 tonBeam of undifferentiated électrons250,000 diameters7Mircea EliadeOf ail the plants that are sought out in Romania for theirmagical or médicinal virtues — whether by professionalsorceresses or by ordinary village women and girls — notone equals the mandragora, or mandrake, in the numberof "dramatic" éléments that enter into the ritual ofgathering it. The technique of digging it is stranger andmore complex than that of any other herb, even thosethat are essential in sorcery or folk medicine. Only themysterious opérations performed in digging mandragoraclearly préserve very ancient rites. In addition, many ofthe practices connected with the gathering of other magical or médicinal plants are drawn from the ritual of themandragora.The magical virtues of the mandragora go far to ex-plain the singular destiny of the plant. For the root of themandragora can hâve a direct influence on the vitalforces of man or Nature; it can arrange marriages forgirls, bring luck in love and fertility in marriage; it canmake cows give more milk; it has a bénéficiai effect onbusiness affairs, it increases wealth, and, in gênerai,brings prosperity, harmony, and so on. The magicalproperties of the mandragora can also be turned againstanother person, for example, against a girl, so that the Theof theinMâtrâgunâ, mâtrâgunaMâritâ-mâ peste-o lunâDe nu 'n asta 'n cealâlaltâ,Mâritâ-mâ dupa olaltâ.young men of the village will no longer ask her to dance,or against an enemy, to make him fall ill or even go mad.In addition to its magical properties, the mandragora hasmédicinal virtues. But for this latter use, too, it is dugaccording to the same ritual.In the commune of Vad (department of Maramures),the mandragora is brought from a "deaf wood," that is, awood so far from the village that the crowing cocks arenot heard in it. The women and sorceresses who go tolook for it (babele mesure, "old wisewomen") set out atdawn before the village is awake, taking care that no oneshall see them. If a dog becomes aware of their présence,or if they hear barking, the charm is broken and theopération loses its effect; mandragora gathered undersuch conditions has no power.The propitious season for gathering mandragora is theperiod from Easter to Ascension Day. The "old wisewomen" take some food with them when they set out: eggsblessed in the church, a cake made from puff paste,stuffed cabbage, brandy, wine, and so on. A week before-hand the mandragora is "destined"; that is, a mandragoraplant is sought out and a red ribbon tied to it, so that itcan be more easily found on the morning of the gathering.8cuitmandragoraRomaniaAs soon as they reach the wood the women go straight toit; "they must not search." Then the earth is dug up, theplant is uprooted and laid on the ground. The food thathas been brought is set around it. The "wisewomen" eatand drink, "embrace and caress one another." Finallythey begin talking about the person for whom the mandragora is intended and about the effect it is to produce — success in business, considération in the village(for may ors, counselors), more milk from particularcows, and so forth.When two girls go to gather mandragora they embraceand caress each other saying:Mandragora, Mandragora,Marry me after a month,For if you can 't marry meTU corne back and break you to pièces.Or else:Mandragora, Mandragora,Marry me after a month,If not this one, at least the next,But marry me in any case."Amorous" women also hâve recourse to mandragora Mr. Eliade is Sewell L. Avery distinguished service professor and professor of the history of religions in theDivinity School and professor in the Committee on SocialThought. His article is adapted from a chapter in his newbook, Zalmoxis, the Vanishing God (Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press, 1972. $9.50). The work has been trans-latedfrom the original French by Willard R. Trask. In hisdiscussion of the pre-Christian cuit of the mandragoraMr. Eliade draws on the Archiva de Folklor a AcademieiRomane, Valeriu Butura, Ion Muslea, Arthur Goroveiand M. Lupescu and a number of other sources. Mr.Eliade received his master's degree and doctorate fromthe University ofBucharest. After a stint with the Roman-ian foreign service he taught at the Sorbonne. He came tothe University of Chicago in 1957.9to make their husbands love them. Women of less strictmorals, the "libertines" (femelle lumefe), in order toarouse love in men take off ail their clothes when they digthe mandragora.In the hole left by the uprooted mandragora a fewpièces of sugar and some coins are put, and wine ispoured. The mandragora is also washed with wine. Whenthe meal is over and the charm completed, the gathererputs the mandragora in her bosom and goes home. Noone must know that the woman for whom it is intended,or the "old wisewoman," is bringing the mandragoraback. So, be it the one or the other, they speak pleasantlyto whomever they may meet and greet everyone."If anyone knows they are bringing back a mandragora, or if, behind them on the path they hâve taken,there is fighting or quarreling or cursing or throwingstones, or if anyone drops something, the effect of themandragora is the opposite of what it was gathered for."The same informant from Vad also supplies the follow-ing:The charm reversée"One day the mother of one of the village girls broughtback a mandragora. After the women had passed, ourmaidservant suddenly starts hitting me. She insults me,pulls my hair, tells me to go to the de vil, then drives meaway by throwing clods of earth at me. I cry , not knowingwhat she wanted of me. She rushes into the kitchen,knocks around the pots and pans, the tableware, thebuckets. From there she runs to the watercloset andbegins furiously throwing stones and clods of earth intoit, ail the while muttering that they were not stones shewas throwing into it but such-and-such a girl, such-and-such a woman, so that she should never be loved, shouldbe disdained by the youths and men.""Some weeks later the girl whose mother the maidservant had seen as she was coming back with themandragora was beaten and driven out of the rounddance. Her mother complained e very where, saying thatshe could not understand why her daughter was dislikedby everyone and unattractive to the young men. Whatshe didn't know was that our maidservant had known shewas bringing back a mandragora, and so had destroyedthe charm."In Maramure§ the girls go to the fields, accompanied byan "old wisewoman"; there, after eating, they dance around the mandragora almost naked, repeating:Mandragora, good plantMarry me after a month,For if you can 't marry me,Fil eat what fasting forblds,For if you don 't brlng him to me,Fil eat everything that fasting forbids.In the department of Turda the girls who want to beinvited to dances most often, and so get married thesoonest, go to a mandragora at midnight with their armsaround each other. There they take off their shoes andprostrate themselves three times. Each of them hasbrought a small silver coin, which she holds in her mouthso that it touches both tongue and teeth. Then they leanover the mandragora, not touching it with their hands,and eut a few leaves from it with their teeth against thesilver coin. They return, again with their arms aroundeach other, still dancing, being careful not to be seen or tobe overtaken by the light of dawn. If they wear a leaf ofmandragora, wrapped in a bit of cloth, never touching itwith their hands, they will be eagerly sought as partnersat dances and will very soon marry.In the department of Turda, too, girls or young womengo to the mandragora in pairs at midnight, naked, withtheir hair down, and keeping their arms around eachother ail the way . Arrived there, they lie down one on topof the other, and each plucks a leaf with her hand. Thenthey go home, still dancing with their arms around eachother, and let the mandragora leaf dry until it can bereduced to powder. After that, they go to the mill andsteal flour with a hand held upslde down, then put itthrough a sleve held upslde down. With the flour, themandragora leaf, and honey they make a dough, whichthey leave to sour. The dough is then put into brandy ortea or coffee or into a cake, which is served to the youngman to arouse his love.In the commune of Tritenii-de-Sus (department ofTurda) the ritual for gathering mandragora is différent:"Four girls who want to shine in the village round dancegather mandragora, put charms on it, and bury it in themiddle of the street, where they dance stark naked. Whilethey are dancing, four youths stay near them to guardthem, repeating:Mandragora, good Dame,Marry me durlng this month,If not this month, at least next,But let me no longer remain a maid.10They carry the mandragora to church during Lent, onHoly Thursday, hiding it under their apron or theirblouse, so that it will be blessed; on Saint George's Daythey wear itwhen they go dancing.The présence of young men and girls together in mandragora rituals is documented only occasionally in Ro-mania. The most usual formula is for two girls or twoyoung women to go gathering it in the company of anolder woman or a wisewoman. Elsewhere the pair ofyoung women is replaced by a pair of young men. This isthe custom in the department of Bacâu. An old wisewoman, accompanied by two girls or two young men, goesto a wood very early, so that at sunrise they are near themandragora. They take some food and wine with them."After finding the plant, the wisewoman pronouncesmagical formulas, while her companions eat, drink, talkto each other amorously, embrace, and cover each otherwith kisses. When the wisewoman has finished, theydance around the plant, while the old woman carefullydigs up the ground so as not to break the smallest bit ofthe root." This is the procédure when the mandragora isgathered "for love." If it gathered "for hâte," to bringbad luck or to make someone ill, the young people,instead of talking to each other amorously and embrac-ing, quarrel, spit in each other's faces and even fight.Neither cocks nor catsIn the Apuseni Mountains, mandragora is gathered"for love" (pe dragoste), "for marriage" (pe mâritat),"for dancing" (pe joc), "for drink" (pe bâuturâ), "forhâte" (pe urît). Two middle-aged women go to look for it,on a Tuesday and fasting, very early in the morning, sothat they will meet no one. The plant must be gathered farfrom the village, so that neither cockcrow nor the mew-ing of cats is heard. The women do not speak to eachother on the way. "They take bread, sait and a small coin.As they look for the mandragora, they silently reciteprayers, and when they find it in some well-shelteredplace they proceed to gather it. To do so, they mustundress and prostrate themselves three times, facingeast. They walk around the plant three times, recitingmagical formulas. They then dig up the mandragora, lift itwith the spade, and put it on the ground, to the east ofwhere it grew. In the hole they put the bread, the sait, andthe coin, 'the price of the mandragora.' The price must be paid, not only on pain of making the plant powerless, butalso of hearing it cry out at night to those who gathered it,demanding that it be put back where it was, and of itsvengeance if they do not obey," says an informant citedin the Archiva de Folklor. "Finally the two women replace the earth where the mandragora was, and prostratethemselves three times, facing west. After this they sitdown back to back, one facing east, the other west. Thelatter takes the mandragora and hands it to the former.This complètes the gathering."When the gathering is "for love," the two women puttheir arms around each other, embrace, and exchangepassionate words of endearment. As they circle aroundthe plant (no doubt a réminiscence of a ritual dance) thewomen say:Mandragora, good Mother,I do not take you for madness,I take you for love;I do not take you to drive me madI take you to make me in love.If the mandragora is gathered "for marriage," themagical chant that is sung is almost the same, with someinsignificant variants, throughout Romania:Mandragora, good Mother,Marry me during this month,If not this month, at least next,Let me not remain without a husband.If it is gathered "for hâte," to keep the person forwhom it is intended not only from being loved but even11from being liked, the women turn their faces away fromthe mandragora and say, scratching their backs:/ will take youBut why shall I take you ?To make hateful, not to make pleasing,And not for being seen.Who takes you, who drinks you,Shall see you only from the back,Never from the front.When it is gathered "pe joc," to make the person forwhom it is intended sure to be invited to the villagedance, the two women circle the mandragora calling:Hop, hop, hop,To me in the dance,Mandragora, good Dame.In Moldavia, in the department of Vaslui, the mandragora — which is also called "High Lady" (Doamnâmare), "Empress" (Impârâteasa) — serves principally"for love." The women and girls who use it must changetheir clothes, at least their shirts, when they wear it; theymust also speak to it with respect, as a sacred plant. It isgathered in April and May, before Pentecost; for thebelief is that after that date the plant's magical virtuesdisappear. The woman who goes to gather mandragoramust be neatly dressed and not hâve had sexual relations.She goes to the wood in silence, taking care that she isnot seen, uproots a mandragora, and puts in its placebread or maize gruel, honey or sugar, saying: "I give youhoney, bread, and sait, give me Your Holiness's virtue!"If the woman has to cross a stream on the way, shethrows a little bread or maize gruel into it so that thewater will carry away the fragments, not the magicalvirtue of the plant.The rite must be performed on a day when the moon isfull. The hairs on the root of the mandragora are then tiedtogether in fives, sevens, or nines, while the name of theperson for whom it is intended is spoken. Thèse bunches12 Thèse two ancient drawings show the stylized form whichthe mandrake took in early représentations. Oddly, Dios-corides, first century Greek physician, figures in bothdrawings. The one at right includes a dog which is used topull up the root and thereafter dies — a legend widespreadin Europe but not in the Romanian stories.of root hairs are called gherbe (sheaves?).On a day that is not a f ast day the woman puts the firstthree gherbe in a new pot, adding honey, sugar, and wine,and saying: "I give you thèse delicacies, give So-and-sohealth and beauty." She then pours "unsullied" water,taken from three springs, on the mixture and recites: "Asthe water flows from the spring clear and pure, so maySo-and-so, when she washes, become shining and calledby everyone" (i.e., invited to dance by the young menbefore ail the other girls).Then she fills up the pot with dough, covers it, andboils the contents until nightfall. The person (man orwoman) for whom the drink is prepared makes the sign ofthe Cross once for each of the gherbe that hâve been usedand swallows the same number of mouthfuls of theliquid. He then goes to the edge of a stream, rubs hisjoints with the mixture (the ingrédients boiled in the pot),and pours the rest over his head, in such a way that onlyhis head is touched and ail the liquid is carried away bythe current. When he leaves, he must not look back or themagical virtue of the plant will be dissipated.Sometimes the opération is performed beside a flower-ing tree, and the herbs from the pot are hung on itsbranches and left there until they dry up and are de-stroyed.Sometimes, too, the root of the mandragora is keptunder the hat or sewed into the clothes; this assures thewearer of high regard in the community. When the mandragora is gathered "for hâte," the women — as we hâveseen is the case everywhere in Romania — use preciselythe opposite procédure: they go to the plant in dirtyclothes, talk coarsely, make grotesque movements withtheir heads, hands, and eyes, in order to annul the plant'smagical virtues. Anyone who tastes a dish or wine con-taining mandragora root hairs on which such a spell hasbeen put risks madness.In the department of Hotin (Bessarabia) the mandragora, before being gathered, is "treated" with sait andspirits. It is approached with greeting, "Good-day, Mandragora!" When it is brought back the plant is boiled(whether the root or the leaves is not stated); then thewater is used to wash the face "to bring beauty andconsidération."In the Oa§ région mandragora is gathered by veryyoung girls accompanied by an old woman. The favorable day is the Friday of Pentecost. The girls take spirits with them, put a small coin at the root of the plant, thenbegin embracing one another and dancing around it.After digging up the root they lay it on the ground anddance around it again. Finally they fill their glasses withspirits and give a toast:Long life if you love me,If not, perish like Sodom!Then they eat the puff paste cake that they hâvebrought from the house. And they return with severalmandragora roots, to be used through the year. Whenthey go to the village dance, they carry a bit of the rootwrapped in a handkerchief ; in this way they will be sureof being asked to dance.In Boine§ti, another commune in the same région, thegirls go in pairs to gather mandragora, carry ing spirits,bread, backfat, honey, and unleavened bread blessed on13Easter Sunday. They must not touch the plant beforethey hâve drunk a glass of spirits to its health and said,"Glory to Jésus Christ" and, "As I honor you by drink-ing, you will honor me." The plant is then sprinkled withspirits. It is dug up, and the bread, the backfat, and theunleavened bread are put in the place where it grew.Then the girls undress and dance around the spot naked.At Moi§eni the girls always set out with an old wisewoman, until Saint John's Day and Pentecost. To gathermandragora they carry spirits and a cake made from puffpaste. "They undress, drink spirits, making toasts, caressand embrace one another, and dance." The girl whowears mandragora is in great demand among the youngmen for the village dance.On Good Friday in the commune of Cârmâzana (also inthe Oa§ région) the girls go with an old woman to thefairy "Garden of the Pitiful" (grâdina Milostivelor) togather herbs in the same way that they go to gathermandragora. They drink spirits and dance naked untildawn. Then the herbs are first dipped in holy water andafterward boiled, to the recitation of magical "dancing"formulas. The liquid, when applied to the head, makesthe hair grow.Elsewhere (commune of Rac§a), the girl goes with nocompanion but the old woman, who carries the spiritsand the puff paste cake. When they corne to the mandragora, they both strip naked and dance. The old womanthen recites the familiar invocation:Mandragora, good Mother,Marry me after a month, etc.In Moldavia the mandragora appears again in anotherfolk song:Green herb, O mandragora,Beautiful bird, that is so madTo sing to me in the evening by moonlight.In the department of Baia the old wisewoman goes togather mandragora in company with the youth or girl forwhom it is intended. She takes a spoonful of honey, aglass of wine, a slice of bread, and some sugar. She looksfor a mandragora and invokes it as follows: "Lady Mandragora, with honey I will anoint you, with wine I willsprinkle you, with sugar I will sweeten you, with bread Iwill feed you" (so saying, rub the bottom of the stem withhoney, sprinkle the plant with wine, and put the bread and the sugar by the root). . . ."I left my house strong and beautiful, in flourishinghealth, by the highroad, by the path. I met evil [potça] onthe way: he shot his arrows into my head, my heart, myeyebrows, my eyes . . . and I fell down more than dead.The Good Virgin heard me crying and complaining. Shesaid to me: 'Be still, Ileana, cry no more, for I will corneto you myself, with cold water I will wash you, with atowel I will dry your head, your eyelashes, your face,your heart, and very soon it will be ail over and yourheart will be at peace.'"Secrets of rétentionAfter this incantation the wisewoman takes the threemandragora roots that she has found beforehand, rollsthem together, and puts them on the head of the personfor whom the charm has been performed. He or she mustat once give a dance cry, and begin dancing. With thehelp of the wisewoman, the mandragora roots, still rolledtogether, are put in the carry ing bag; thèn the two gather-ers go back, one of them carrying the roots inside his(her) blouse, taking care that no one calls after them.Before getting home they must not spit or blow theirnoses or urinate. The gathered mandragora is laid on thetable, and the whole house must be kept scrupulouslyclean.A few hairs from a mandragora in wine or spiritsassures the tavern-keeper of many customers.Girls who wear it in their bosoms are often invited todance and soon marry. A few mandragora leaves wornagainst the chest wherever you go will make you es-pecially honored. Some people transplant mandragorainto their garden, in a very clean place, taking care that itdoes not become soiled.In the commune of Sâpânja (department of Mar-mure§), mandragora can be gathered by a young man anda girl or even by groups of people, the only conditionbeing that they must not be seen. After offering themandragora gifts, they dance around it stark naked,shouting. They return, again making sure that they arenot seen.To dig the plant, the ground around it is spaded upcarefully, so that the root will not be broken. This isgathering mandragora "for good." When, on the con-trary, it is gathered "for evil," it must be beaten with a14stick, dragged over the ground, broken to pièces, andthrown at the person with whom a quarrel, or whosedeath, is sought; as the pièces of the plant are thrown, hisname and the evil that is to befall him are spoken.In the department of Baia, when mandragora is gathered for médicinal purposes, it is invoked as follows:"Most honored Empress Mandragora. I honor you withbread, with sait, prostrating myself : in return, give meyour clothes. Wash me, purify me, free me from ail spells[de ddtâturâ, de fâcâturâ]. May I remain pure, shining assilver passed through a sieve, like the Mother of the Lordwho put me on earth."In the department of Gorj mandragora is gathered formagical purposes by two old women who "undress, letdown their hair, and utter incantations, ail the whilemaking the most incongruous movements with their armsand legs and running like madwomen."In the department of NeamÇ (commune of Gârcina), forcertain serious illnesses, the patient is given an infusionof mandragora to drink. He goes into delirium, and if hehas not corne back to himself in three day s, it means thathe will never recover from his illness.Mandragora is also gathered to cure spécifie diseases.In the commune of Doftana (Tg. Ocna) mandragora isused against pains in the legs, the hands, the loins, againstfevers, and so forth. But whether for curing or forwitcheraft, it is gathered according to the same ritual.The plant is boiled in a new pot. Before the patientdrinks, he is tied into his bed, for after tasting the liquidhe becomes insanely delirious. His whole body is washedwith this mandragora juice and he is given three spoon-fuls of it to drink. This is done three times a day for threedays in succession.Temporary deliriumMeanwhile the patient must not eat raw onion for threedays or drink spirits for two weeks or wine for six. Hemust not touch fresh milk or sweet f oods for at least fourweeks. During ail this time he must be kept very clean.In Moldavia the mandragora and certain other plantsare used as charms against stiffness (lipiturâ); a cough iscured by burning dried mandragora leaves. In otherplaces mandragora leaves are used in a poultice to cureabscesses and against dropsy both in men and animais. They are applied to the forehead of people with fever,and often effect a cure. "The only disadvantage of thismédicament is that it makes those who use it slightlydelirious, but they soon get over it." Mandragora is alsorecommended to cure toothache.In Bessarabia the leaves are still used against boils. Butit is very probable that in Bessarabia, as in other Roma-nian provinces, the médicinal use of mandragora (Atropabelladona) is taken over by the white bryony (Bryoniadioica), a plant very often used in Bessarabian folkmedicine. In the région of the lower Dniester mandragora is effective against the intestinal worms of cattle.Dried leaves reduced to powder in a mortar are applied tothe sores.An aid to businessMandragora is also put under millstones, to draw patrons to the mill. Tavern-keepers use it to attract manycustomers. "He pays two women who know how togather it. They take with them from the tavern ail kindsof beverages, bread, sait, a small silver coin, and dust(also from the tavern) which has been carried around abarrel three times in the opposite direction to the courseof the sun. With ail this, the women walk around themandragora, drinking and making the wish that peoplewho enter the tavern will not leave it until their pocketsare empty."After it has been gathered in this way it is put underthe wine cask or else in the drink itself . It is even believedof certain taverns that customers go there drawn by themandragora."The same belief is found in Moldavia. Tavern-keepersput the charmed mandragora on the cask of wine or thebarrel of spirits; they are finished in two or three days,for "people drink till they lose their minds."The belief that a person who possesses a mandragoracan ask anything of it and quickly grows rich — a wide-spread belief in central Europe — is also held in Moldavia(department of Vaslui). "Go to it on a Sunday, find it inthe fields, give it food and drink — wine and bread — andcarry it home, surrounded by musicians and people; ifyou then pay it the honors that are its due, if you rejoicein its présence, if you do not quarrel and do not swear —beware of forgetting any of thèse rules, the mandragora15would kill you — then you can send it anywhere, ask it foranything, which it will give you [our italics]. But beware:let not a Sunday pass without your bringing it musiciansand men of the village to dance; and be sure that you aregaiety itself, especially on that day."The mighty plantLet us try to distinguish the characteristic features ofthis ritual scénario:1. The Romanians hâve no knowledge of the legend thatthe mandragora springs from the semen of a hanged man(northern and Germanie Europe); nor do they know therite of gathering it with the help of a black dog (Europe-Orient).2. The mandragora is preeminently the erotic plant. Itbrings love, marriage, and fertility. It also has magicalvirtues: if it is gathered for that purpose, it brings wealth.Source of love (fertility) and wealth, it is also a médicinalplant, bringing health.3. Gathering the mandragora is a ritual. Obligatory conditions are: sexual purity, cleanliness, silence, and soforth. The plant must be gathered without anyone'sknowledge; hence distance is necessary (forests whereneither the cock nor the barking of dogs can be heard),comparative solitude (meeting no one on the way), se-crecy (no one must know of the intention). Women andgirls dance naked around the mandragora, but sometimesthey only let down their hair (vestiges of magical nudity).Couples caress and embrace each other. To gather mandragora leaves, girls lie one on top of the other, mimick-ing the sexual act.4. The gathering is surrounded by a whole séries ofmagical acts and précautions. The plant must be gatheredat the full moon. The leaves must not be touched with thehands but only with the teeth. The flour from which themagical dough is made with the mandragora leaves mustbe stolen from the mill, with the hand held upside down.5. The plant must be paid, otherwise it produces no16 In some médiéval accounts the mandrake itself possessesa sexual identity, as shown in thèse fifteenth centuryreprésentations of maie and female versions of the plant.effect. Gifts are made to it in exchange for its root: sait,bread, sugar, wine, and so on. The mandragora is per-sonified: "Great Lady," "Empress," "Good Mother."6. The mandragora is very dangerous. If it is not gathered in accordance with the rules, if enough respect is notpaid to it, its magical virtues operate against the personwho has gathered it. The mandragora has a twofoldpower. Its strange virtues can be directed either towardgood or evil, can be summoned for love and health, or forhâte or madness.7. Whether it is gathered for good or for evil, the mandragora is feared and respected as a miraculous plant, farstronger than any other. It harbors extraordinary powers,which can multiply life or strike dead. In some measure,then, the mandragora is "the herb of life and death."The I ailings of policy scienceCold warandfrozen headsMilton J. RosenbergThe foreign and military policies of the UnitedStates hâve never been more vigorously nor moreacrimoniously debated than during the past five orsix years, when attentive sectors of the AmericanThis is the third article in the past four issues of theMagazine dealing with key issues related to the warin Vietnam. In July/August, Professor Edward Shilsconsidered the responsibility of intellectuals in relation to their rôle vis-a-vis government; in Novem-ber/December Marcus Raskin (AB '54, JD '57) sug-gested that the country should consider assessingpenalties against those involved in waging such awar. Hère a social psychologist offers a criticalexamination of the performance of the "policy scien-tists" in the Cold War years and suggests somenecessary changes in their approach to issues offoreign and défense policy.Mr. Rosenberg is professor in the Department ofPsychology and in the Collège. He received his Ph.D.at the University of Michigan. He joined the University of Chicago faculty in 1965. Among his majorfields of interest are attitude change and the psycho-logical aspects of international relations. An ex-panded version of Mr. Rosenberg 's article appearsas his introductory chapter in Beyond Conflict andContainment (Transaction-Dutton, 1972), of whichhe was the editor. public, increasingly dismayed by the war in Vietnam, began to look beyond that war to the contextof policies in which it was set.While this shift in public mood was under way aparallel shift was ^^™* ^g/mmmmmm — -occurring in the ^^^M^^ ^HKacademy. Especial-ly was this the caseon the periphery of ^^^the "policy sciences." By this lat-ter term I mean thesectors of the social ¦ ' Jkscience disciplineswhere policy issues l^ff^Éare examined and ^^Jpolicy choices arerecommended.The ^^^^l^^^^^^^^^^^Bscholarly work has Milton J. Rosenbergexerted some détectable influenceupon policy making itself, not so much by alteringthe basic convictions of those in highest power asby energizing the informed criticism to which theymust inevitably respond. As that criticism growsmore politically potent, particularly as it resonatesin the Congress and through électoral contests,17some altération in foreign and arms policy becomesincreasingly likely and, in the light of récent devel-opments, has apparently begun to show itself.Indeed, some of the major props of our classicCold War stance now seem to be wobbling. Moststriking at the moment are last year's Moscow accords, with their intimation that the United Statesand the USSR hâve at last started to consolidantetheir détente, so that théy may begin to move towardthe still-distant prospect of entente.Yet other pqrtents of a shift away from the rigidi-ties of the Cold War came into view during the pastyear: the Senate is in revolt against the kind offoreign aid that has been practiced since the Marshall Plan; a still confusing but quite significantthawing of the Sino- American, freeze has begun;direct American participation in the land war inIndochina has been ended (though even before themining of North Vietnam's harbors and the laterhésitation over the terms of a final seulement ithad become painfully clear that the American aspiration for influence over Southeast Asia had notyet been completely put aside); the research, devel-opment and déployaient aspirations of the militaryare now receiving unrelenting scrutiny in the Con-gress.Policy and politicsIn gênerai, a struggle over basic arms and foreignpolicy now appears to be under way and, with everyélection year, it becomes more apparent that thestruggle is being waged through the American politi-cal process itself. The outcome cannot be readilypredicted, but it seems possible (how probable isanother matter) that, in this décade, we shall notagain relapse into unquestioned reliance on "pro-tracted conflict" and "containment."Whether or not this turns out to be true, two ofthe trends of change that I hâve alluded to are worthcloser study. The first is the shift toward a newtemper in policy studies, one that might be charac-terized as moving from a pragmatic to a prophétiestyle (in the Old Testament sensé of critical, valué-oriented advocacy of the "good"); from workingwithin the Cold War dynamic to a deep criticism ofthat dynamic. The second is the temptation withinthe policy establishment to revise the perceptionsand purposes which hâve sustainèd the Cold Warforeign policy of the Western alliance. Thèse two main trends are, of course, so closelyrelated as to be almost obverse sides of the samecoin: the académie critics of containment and pro-tracted conflict are influenced by — and exert significant influence upon — disaffected pçrsons andgroups who, whether as legislators or bureaucrats,stand closer to the settings in which policy décisionsare made.Student influence feltBut the influences that hâve prompted and rein-forced scholarly dissent dérive from a number ofother sources as well. One of thèse was the politicaldismay voiced by the most ethically responsive ofthe collège student s during the 1960s. Though ini-tially organized around the issue of Vietnam, student protest went far beyond it.Not only Left activists but more conventionallibérais began to question the larger pattern of policy in which the war was set. The outcome was anassault upon the mythwork of two décades of ColdWar. Particularly susceptible to contemptuous re-jection was the représentation pf the communistworld as undifferentiated, as conspiring for worlddomination, and as ready to use immolative nuclearsurprise toward that end.A second and related thème was the renewal ofhostility toward American eorporate, governmentaland military institutions. It took its force from adeep suspicion that thèse institutions were eitherinadvertently or conspiratorially fostering a newAmerican imperialism — a Pax Americana whichcould be maintained only by blighting the aspirations of emerging nations, by ready recourse toconventional war and by a willingness to risk nuclear war to défend or extend American power.Though it waxed and waned in its immédiatepolitical significance, the student movement con-veyed enough anguish and produced enough rele-vantly pointed analysis to affect a significant number within the contiguôus faculties. Social scientistswere particularly sensitive to the embittered com-plaint that they had facilitated the drift or, as theideological simplicists saw it, the forced mardi toward an American empire.Few, if any, of the responding académies believedthat their disciplines had been guilty of anythingmore than sloth and smugness, of living the unex-amined professional life. But this laxity now seemed18sinful enough. Thèse scholars began to see that byadhering to the received doctrine of "value-free"inquiry, by obsessive investment in the search forperfected methodology, arid by faith in "incrémental" improvements, the policy sciences had be-come completely pragmatic.According to some who felt the problem mostdeeply, what had really happened in the Cold Warera was that the social sciences had been largelyincorporated into the network of ruling and managing institutions. Most social scientists had corne toaccept définitions of their rôle which limited them toimplementing major policies. Skepticism aboutthose policies, any direct examination of theirmorality, or any advocacy of radically différentpolicies, had been placed far out of their reach.Thus, partly in responsè to the j 'accuse from theirstudents, some policy scholars discovered that theyand their colleagues had been trapped in the dynamic of the Cold War. They saw that the Realpolitikof protracted East-West conflict — a guiding viewwhich they or their professions had helped to form-ulate and popularize — had generated many dismay-ing conséquences. One of thèse was that it ham-pered accurate analysis of the political life of thecommunist states and, particularly, of their relationswith one another.Manipulation — sometimes suppressionEven more déplorable was the influence of ColdWar thinking upon our understanding of smallernations emerging into, or aspiring toward, autonomyand modernity. The prevailing policy style requiredsuspicion, manipulation and, sometimes, suppression of any "new nation" that was moving toward asocialist organization of its institutions — especiallyif that nation's élite found inspiration, or even anapplicable rhetoric, in Marxist concepts.The officiai, most lavishly supported scholarshipencouraged this approach, usually by finding that"révolution" or "internai war" was a process thatcould be undermined or deflected if its sources wereproperly understood and if the détails of any localinstance were adequately described.Some scholars — particularly those locatéd in themore "marginal" disciplines, such as sociology, an-thropology and geography — did deviate from theprevailing Cold War line toward the emerging nations. Especially noteworthy was the development of "area studies" as an approach to describingrégional cultural and institutional Systems and pre-dicting how they were likely to process the urgetoward modernization.Stratégie intellectualsNo such déviance from the main trend is to beobserved in the history, over the last two décades,of another major body of work developed by American policy scientists. I speak of the rise and pros-perous influence of the stratégie intellectuals — ofdeterrence theory and the new "rationality" in theprocessing of arms policy décisions. In no otherdomain of Cold War policy studies hâve scholarshad greater influence upon basic policy making; andin no other domain hâve they operated with moresanguine, even enthusiastic, acceptance of themodel of international reality offered them by theirclients and sponsors.The first round of SALT accords (though deepambiguities still becloud the matter) can be seen,putting the most hopeful interprétation upon them,as the beginning of the end for the arms-policyorientation developed by the stratégie intellectuals.Their non-military clients seem, at last, to hâverecognized that the pursuit of invulnérable deterrence is an ambition as ruinous and dangerous as itis unattainable.The time is certainly propitious for an examination of the style of analysis and f orecasting whichled the stratégie intellectuals and their sponsorsdown a path that, twenty years and over $100,000,000,000 later, seems to hâve brought us to a deadend. If policy science cannot profit from its past, ithad best abandon the realm of arms policy and leaveto the gênerais the art of using arms in the prévention of war.The most remarkable achievement of the stratégie intellectuals was that they were able to updateClausewitz and persuade themselves and their gov-ernmental clients that even nuclear war can becorrectly viewed as the "continuation of policy byother means." At any rate, they contended, prudence requires us to live with the fact that thecommunist powers will be disposed to play theClausewitz game with post-Clausewitz weapons.Thus it was argued that national security requiredthe United States to build a potent nuclear assaultforce. For the only sure way to prevent our nuclear19destruction by the Soviet Union was to achieve anddisplay a "crédible" second strike capability. Thedisplay of our power of retributive destructionwould inhibit the Soviet Union's élite from attack-ing us in their quest for world domination. This inturn meant that our nuclear force had to be con-siderably larger than theirs and that we had to keepit "hardened" — defended as much as possible frompreemptive assault — and teçhnologically superior.It was on the basis of this gênerai perspective, asdeveloped at the RAND Corporation and elsewhereby such men as Brodie, Enthoven, Kahn, Kissinger,Schelling, Snyder and Wohlstetter, that the firstphase of the nuclear arms race was energized andmanaged. As a resuit, we had achieved by themid- 1960s a vast superiority in stratégie weapons, asuperiority that, according to the original vision ofthe deterrence theorists, should hâve given us asensé of security in an insecure international en-vironment.Paranoid logicIt might hâve, but for two further developments:the USSR would not hold still; and stratégie theory,committed always to the search for absolute security, evolved toward the conscious choice of a higherform of paranoid logic.That péjorative label is not applied loosely. Thebasic processing rule of paranoid thought is thatwhatever threat can be conceived is to be believed.The basic rule that the stratégie theorists fell backupon with increasing unif ormity was one they calledthe "conservative assumption" or the "prudentialstandard." It asserted, in essence, that the maintenance of a crédible second strike capability requiredthat the antagoniste capability for successfulpreejnptive assault be overestimated rather thanunderestimated. Why not correctly estimated? Be-cause that was made impossible, or at least uncon-firmable, by the ambiguities that bedevil any at-tempt to assess technological developments andweapons deploymeiits about five years hence.Therefore, the working guide to American armspolicy became to assign the worst (from the point ofview of American security) missile deploymentsand aggressive intentions to the Soviets, as theymight be in five or ten years, and then to press onwith the weapons development and deploymentplans deemed necessary to meet that possiblethreat. This meant that, in the realm of offensive and défensive missiles and other delivery Systems, thenation must do everything reasonably necessary toguarantee an invulnérable second strike capabilityagainst an antagonist far more effectively armedthan it was at the moment.But because two parties, at least, are engaged insuch deadly games, this "délicate balance of terror"could not be long stabilized. Instead, when each sidefell back upon prudential analysis, each was alwaysrunning scared and thereby scaring its potentialopponent. The "action-réaction cycle" spiraled on,spinning off more and more distressing conséquences with every révolution.Most obvious of ail thèse conséquences was thegigantic cost of new stratégie weapons and "défensive" Systems, a cost which inevitably depletednational wealth and fostered inattention to otherbasic domestic needs. Even more disturbing tothose who peered closely at the modem militarywas their occasionally visible restiveness over therestricted utility of nuclear weapons. So vast aninvestment in a spécial and highly potent technologyof destruction must, inevitably, breed the tempta-tion to get some international political return fromit.Nuclear threat usedThus on each side of the Cold War, particularlywhen it turned warm, the threat of nuclear assaulthas been used at least once (by the USSR during theSuez crisis and by the United States during theCuban missile crisis) to force a major concessionfrom the antagonist.What some observers feared deeply was thatcontinued escalation in the sophistication and po-tency of nuclear weapons would further encouragethe scoring of geopolitical points by going to thenuclear brink. Incidentally, that fear will persist aslong as the opponents are permitted — as in theintérim agreement signed at Moscow— to make"qualitative improvements" in nuclear missiles.Even more unnerving to those in government andin the country who began to examine what thestratégie vision had achieved was the possibilitythat the nuclear arms race might yet produce thesort of technological breakthrough that would con-vince one or the other contestant that an effectivepreemptive assault — one that would disable muchof the opponent's second strike capability — had atlast become feasible. Under such conditions the20application of the logic of "prudentialism" mightstimulate pre-preemption. And, in the anguishedrush to strike the first and only blow before receiv-ing it, the disruption of the délicate balance of terrorwould inevitably end in immolation.The prevalence of such concerns led us, at last,into the S ALT negotiations, and on to the hopefuloutcome of the first stage of those negotiations.Those same concerns also force us toward thisquestion: taking deterrence theory as an instance inwhich intellectual work has had very significant(and possibly dangerous) conséquences, what canwe learn from it for the future management andapplication of policy science endeavors?Several tentative answers corne to mind. Andthough they bear particularly upon stratégie scienceand deterrence theory, they also reflect a broadertype of critical sensibility that can probably beapplied across the gênerai range of policy science.Perhaps the most obvious failing of Cold Warpolicy science — and one that is particularly évidentin the work of the deterrence theorists — is that theremote effects of policy recommendations are rare-ly examined. To advocate "hard point" ABM défense of ICBM sites and not to consider what thatwould probably suggest to "prudent" Soviet strate-gists was, to say the least, shortsighted. Similarly, torecommend "pacification" of South Vietnam without reckoning the likely conséquences of the re-moval of perhaps two million peasants from theirvillages was equally hasty. Or, for that matter, towage a long-term Cold War (and to warm it upoccasionally) without any projective analysis ofhow this will affect American political life and howit might disrupt the délicate balance of pluralism,speaks of a similar failure of intellectual responsi-bility.Remote effectsAt its worst, the policy scholarship of the ColdWar period seemed to ignore a stricture familiar toany thoughtful social scientist: when initiatives areinserted into a functionally integrated national orinternational system, they are likely to make waves,to produce systemic conséquences other than thoseimmediately intended.Thus, a good portion of the challenge facing apolicy scholar is to organize his interprétations andput forward his recommendations with an acutesensé of secondary , tertiary and, for that matter, nth position effects. While avoiding the hubris of seer-like certainty, the responsible analyst must aspire tothink beyond tomorrow. Also he must think across— that is, from the political, military or économiesector in which a policy initiative is contemplated tocontiguous sectors in which it might produce un-toward or unmanageable effects.Unwitting partisanshipA second failing seems évident in the work ofmost of the deterrence theorists and some of thepolitical area experts, particularly those who hâvespecialized in developing worried assessments ofthe international aspirations of communist nations.Too often, thèse scholars seem not to understandthat their work tends to strengthen some groupsengaged in the struggle for political power (in thiscase the power to control major foreign and militarypolicies) while weakening others.Nor do they usually seem aware of the likelihoodthat their work will provide "guiding myths" andthat thèse may affect the very substance of international relations by closing out some channels downwhich the stream of major events might otherwiseflow.Putting this more concretely, a good deal of thepolicy science work of the 1950s and 1960s servedthe interests of the more apocalyptic military as weîlas various other élite, hard-line enthusiasts. Bysummoning expert opinion, and by displaying datagathered or estimâtes projected by experts, thosewho helped to foster and maintain the Cold War(whether on the western or communist side) defend-ed and extended their case. Thus they were able tomaintain continuing control over policy.And at the same time, they were further impas-sioned by their experts' readings of internationaland stratégie reality. This pattern of mutual rein-forcement between the experts and their most pow-erful clients, between the proposers and the dis-posers, helped to keep the Cold War dynamic go-ing— perhaps even after it had reached its ownintrinsic culmination.If the policy intellectuals did sometimes offer upinterprétations and projections that tended to be-come self-fulfilling prophecies, what is the correc-tive? It is not to abandon the search for organizingoverviews; nor to put aside the building of ambi-tious integrative théories from which a brjbad rangeof particular judgments can be derived. Intellectual21endeavor must reach toward System, but it shouldbe possible to ask, as well, how the inquiry alters theissues or opportunities being studied.For example, the deterrence theorists might hâvestudied and reported upon the ways in which deter-rence-guided décisions might prevent either of thegreat protagonist nations from finding a way out ofthe action-réaction cycle of arms acquisition.Alternative assumptionsOr they might hâve asked how correctives couldbe built into their own analytic procédures so as tolimit the degree of overestimation of the potentialenemy's future missile force or of his temptations toexpand that force. Or they might quite simply hâvestressed to their clients that their primary assumptions were not the only assumptions available.Another deficiency of policy studies during theCold War era involves a complaint that must bedirected not at those who did the work, but at thosewho did not. The overwhelming and unnervingproblem that the great nations faced within a fewyears after the shapïng up of the Cold War was howto handle the nuclear weapons that they and theirpotential antagonists now possessed.Many subsidiary problems needed close analysis.Much relevant data needed to be gathered andsifted. Inventiveness in the design of alternativeplans for negotiation and arms control was urgentlyrequired.The established social sciences such as sociology,anthropology, political science and social psycholo-gy might hâve proved pertinent, if not fully adéquate, to thèse tasks, but in the main the membersof those disciplines remained diffident. Except for asizable contingent of political scientists, they didnot rush in to confront the challenge.Undoubtedly this was partly because they (except, again, for the political scientists) had not beeninvited. The intellectual vacuum was filled by newclaimants — by physicists, by some trained in analytic philosophy, by occasional mathematicians andeconomists and by men-of-all work, geiieralists at-tached to the military or somehow responsive to itstemper.With a f uller représentation of ail of thQ relevantdisciplines, stratégie studies (and, thus, the ultimateshape of policy) might hâve taken a différent turn.The blâme certainly lies partly with those in politicalor institutional power who failed to issue the invita tion, but it lies also with those too timorous toprésume where they had not been invited. Thelesson that may hâve been learned by now is thatsocial scientists hâve a responsibility to addressimportant policy issues whenever those issues involve variables and processes encompassed by theirdisciplines.As for the académies and others who did thepolicy studies, the question that remains for futurehistorical a^sessment is whether they merely con-tributed to the maintenance and rationalization pfthe Cold War or whether they played a major rôle inits initiation. I would east my lot with the school ofhistory that assumes the flow of ideas to be far moreinfluenced by the uses of power than are the uses ofpower directed by the flow of ideas.Regarding the origins of the Cold War, I hâveperhaps been more influenced by the conventionalhistorians than by their revisionist critics. Thus, itseems to me that the Cold War was historicallyinévitable, though to be sure, the background conditions that made it inévitable may hâve been pro-ducts of still earlier policy choices which need nothâve been elected.Inévitable but not eternalBut even if the postwar turn toward protractedconflict between East and West was inévitable, itclearly does not follow that it need be eternal.Indeed, it seems a certainty that it cannot be, fornothing in the relations between states is particularly stable — and certainly not conflict, which, by itsnature, plays itself out toward some reorganizationof the international System.In fact, the historical record of the past twenty-five years seems to suggest that, though the American and Soviet élites, together with the élites oftheir respective major allies, were joined in mutualprosecution of their protracted struggle, neither wasbound within an absolutely uniform consensus.Western observers cannot penetrate completelythe haze that envelops the récent policy history ofthe Soviet Union,, but from the évidence picked upwhen a "circulation of élites" occurs, and from thereflections of policy debate that glance off the pagesof Pravda, Izvestia, Trud and Red Star, this muchseems clear: both hard-line and conciliationist positions hâve been heard in the highest decision-making councils of the Soviet Union. Vacillationsbetween tough and mild postures in Soviet initia-22tives toward the western powers cannot.be taken, assome Sovietologists hâve done, as mère trickeryintended to keep the West confused.As regards the West, the picture is clear. At manyimportant junctures in the Cold War, the élites ofour allies hâve opposed and limited some aspects ofAmerican policy. And within the American policyélite — including not only the Président and his immédiate advisers, but also the higher bureaucrats ofthe State and Défense Departments, the Senate as atotal body and various committees of the House—debate and disagreement grew broader and deeperwith each passing year of the 1960s.Conffict or stabilization?Undoubtedly the war in Vietnam speeded thereexamination of basic policy commitments, but ithad already begun toward the end of the Eisen-hower administration. This is not the place, nor is itnecessary, to examine the many issues now beingcontested. Whether they concern our policiestoward Southeast Asia, stratégie weapons pro-grams, the extent and purpose of foreign aid, military withdrawal from Europe, the future of ouralliances, our relations with China or a dozen othersalient problems, ail such issues relate to a morebasic question — whether we should continue in protracted conflict with the communist world or seek adeep stabilization.Concerning such stabilization of the internationalorder there is a subsidiary but still crucial issue:whether it is to be sought through conventionalbalance-of-power seulement or through a dimin-ished American involvement in the world and ac-ceptance of changes in the international System.Among thèse are trends toward polycentrism, toward régional groupings and toward the growth of"functional" intergovernmental institutions throughwhich separate sovereignties may gradually bepooled, thus reducing the importance of nations inthe processing of the world's business and problems.In the light of the Moscow agreements, one isentitled at least to the tentatively hopeful judgmentthat the two great powers hâve begun, at last, toprobe beyond the simple, rigid limits of the ColdWar game. However, each of the ruling groupsundoubtedly still retains a finely pointed interest inthe pursuit of national advantage.The main purpose of this article has been to evaluate policy scholarship and to examine its rela-tionship to the policy establishment. If I am notgrossly mistaken in seeing the latter as, at présent,in some disarray and thus capable of change, it thenbecomes necessary to pose one last question. It isone toward which we are compelled by the hopethat the long frustration, the embittered déferrai ofhope that gave the Cold War years their especiallypainful quality, may yet be redeemed.The question is: how can the social sciences,particularly in their policy study aspects, contributetoward a more bearable, a more promising andproductive restructuring of the relations betweenstates?There will be no great surprise in the answers Ioffer. They follow rather directly from my critiqueof the standard brand of policy scholarship thatprevailed during the Cold War epoch.Obviously, the first part of the answer has alreadybeen given: policy scholarship will be more con-ducive to the formulation of wise and humane policy, the more adéquate it is as scholarship. Andincreased adequacy, as I hâve suggested, will re-quire, among other things, ail of the following:• Attention to the non-proximate effects ôf policy innovations.• Awareness of the spécial social rôle of thepolicy scientist, of his myth-providing function.• Awareness of the ever-present danger that therôle will be too narrowly defined through its linkagewith sectors of the élite committed to maintainingprotracted conflict. *• Participation in policy studies by relevant disciplines that hâve, so far, been grossly under-represented.But something more is needed — something thatcornes closer to rectif ying an underlying malaise orweakness of spirit in conventional policy scienceapproaches.Prophétie styleBy that I mean the recovery of some sensé of the"prophétie style" that I alluded to earlier. In essence this involves the aspiration to use social in-quiry so as to advance human welfare directly, toredress the discrepancy between guiding values andprésent realities. The other basic component of theprophétie style is- — to invoke the Quaker injunctionsometimes quoted by advocates of the new approach in policy studies — that one must "speak23truth to power."At its minimum level this means that values andmoral concern cannot be put aside as one takes onscientific work; that social intellectuals are obligedto evaluate policies and programs in terms of theirprobable humane or inhumane effects.Désire to exert influenceAt another level this injunction suggests that thescholar 's basic obligation to the society he serves,and his obligation to mankind's hope for peace, is tomaintain a position of critical independence. For thesocial scholar the temptation to confirm his intellectual identity by gaining access to, and influenceupon, the policy process is well nigh universal.However, the related danger is also well knownand often experienced. One may be gradually andinadvertently drawn into a kind of scholarly func-tioning in which the ambition to "tell it like it is" issubverted by anxiety over whether anyone in aposition to act upon the message will listen and, ifhe does listen, whether he will be motivated by whathe hears.The proper response to this dilemma is not foundin the facile insistence that scientific accuracy andultimate social good cannot be served from withingovernment or through govermental sppnsorship. Ifpower tends to corrupt, it does not folio w thataccess to the wielders of power need do so. If it isnot debased by yielding to grandiosity , by confusionof one 's partial truth with eternal and total verity,the prophétie stance can sometimes to taken andheld even within establishment circles and institutions.Yet government is not the only or the ultimatesource of policy. However muddled and sluggishthe institutions of modem political democraey maybe, they do continue to makê influence over policyavailable, both to competing sub-elites and to broadsocial interest groups as they engage in advocacyand compétition, as they use the political processitself.This leads me to my last point — and it is the onethat I feel most urgently and would watit to urgeupon those engaged in policy studies. The prophétiestyle now emerging in the new, post-Cold Warapproach to policy studies has yet another outlet,another exciting opportunity. It can and shouldaddress the gênerai public.In our country attentive publics do exist, but the gênerai public remains distressingly inattentivè toproblems of foreign and military policy. Any in-crease in its sophistication, and any élévation of themotive to achieve sophistication, is bound to im-proye the quality of policy design — if only by forcing policy makers toward greater differentiation andalso toward greater responsiveness to the humaneaspirations of ordinary citizens.Public éducation on the complexities of issues ofmilitary and foreign policy is, then, a task thatpolicy scholars themselves can advance. In attempt-ing to do this they must remember that ours is adifferentiated public, a truly plural society, not onlyas regards économie interests and the divergence ofethnie traditions, but also as regards claims andinfluences upon the making of basic policy décisions.If the policy scholar has corne to the point wherehe feels strongly and clearly that policy ought to bemoved in a particular direction, he has the opportunity, if not the obligation, to assist that movement.He can do so by putting his knowledge and his skillsdirectly to work in the building of attentive publicsthat will struggle politically for change.In the présent era that has been the turn taken bymany policy scholars who hâve lent their analyticabilities and their specialized knowledge to the"peace movement." With some limited success thatmovement has been working to build a large, attentive public that might, through political action andorganization, strengthen the influence over foreignpolicy of the sizable group of American legislatorswho are now attempting to end the Cold War.Activism and truthThough it might go without saying, I shall risk theobvious to make one last cautionary point: there isin this sort of activist rôle just as much danger thatone will inadvertently be drawn away from hisprimary obligation of "telling it like it is" as thereis in the rôle of the policy scientist employed orfavored by governmental agencies.But truth, partial or otherwise, is there for thegràsping, if one relies upôn those methods of policyscience that are already in hand. If one guardsagainst the failure of nerve, and against its défensive false face — the presumption of ultimate,grandiose certainty — one c^n, within the realmof policy studies, serve both scholarship and pro-foundly humane purpose.24Reflectionson thenew westepn films Mr. Cawelti as he appearedon the University 's télévisiondiscussion program, "Perspectives. "The ^ewish cowboy^ the Black avengep, ancf thepetupn of the v^anishing <Air|epicanJohn G. CaweltiAnyone who looked at TV screens, movie theaters,and paperback book racks in the late 1950s or early1960s could hardly be blamed for concluding thatthe western was America's prédominant art form.This was the period when eight of the top ten showsin the Nielsen ratings were westerns; when aboutone-fourth the output of American movie studiosand nearly 1% of the total of both fiction andnon-fiction books issued by American publisherscentered around the exploits of men with horses,guns, and ten-gallon hats.At this time, the western was not only for domes-tic enjoyment, but one of America's most importantcultural exports. Western films and TV programswere widely distributed across the world from theélégant cinémas of Paris to open-air movies shownfrom the backs of trucks in Indian and Africanvillages. Just as America had perhaps been mostwidely known for its gangsters in the 1930s andearly 1940s, the post World War II cultural scèneseemed to be dominated by cowboys, marshals andoutlaws.Since the high water mark of the late 1950s, thecultural significance of the western seems to hâveshifted perceptibly. Westerns are still enormouslypopular; some of the TV programs which werelaunched in the 1950s, like Gunsmoke, are amongthe longest running video séries (as was Bonanza before its cancellation after fourteen seasons). Asubstantial proportion of the biggest movie hits ofthe last few years — Leone 's Clint Eastwood séries,George Roy Hill's Butch Cassidy and the SundanceKid, Peckinpah's The Wild Bunch, Hathaway's TrueGrit and Arthur Penn's Little Big Man, to name afew — hâve been westerns.The création of westerns continues to be a significant part of American movie production, eventhough it seems clear that the western no longerMr. Cawelti is professor of English and the humani-ties at the University and chairman of the Commit-tee on General Studies in the Humanities. He isauthor of Apostles of the Self-Made Man, TheSix-Gun Mystique, Focus on Bonnie and Clyde andvarions other studies of American literature, culturalhistory and popular culture. The présent essay ispart of a book he is currently working on which willstudy popular narrative formulas in literature andfilm, including such types as the western, the détective story, the spy story, and the varions forms ofpopular romance. The tentative title is The Varietiesof Escape. Mr. Cawelti's most récent appearance inthèse pages was with "The Spillane Phenomenon, "March/April, 1969.25holds the prédominant position it did twenty yearsago. The number of new TV western séries hasslowed to a trickle. The enormous output of low-budget westerns — once a mainstay of the Americanfilm industry — has dwindled to npthing, Directorsand stars are no longer largely identified with theirwork in westerns as John Ford, Anthony Mann,Raoul Walsh, John Wayne, Henry Fonda and JamesStewart were in the period between 1950 and 1965.Only one major new American western director — Sam Peckinpah — has emerged since 1960, andafter a remarkable séries of westerns, he seems tohâve moved away from the genre. Similarly, onlyone new western superstar — Clint Eastwood— hascorne up during the same time and he, too, hasturned, in the past three years, from the western tothe crime story and the thriller.Eastern hémisphère westernsEven more surprising, the most successful western séries of the period, the group of films producedby the Italian Sergio Leone, hâve been internationalproductions, largely filmed in other coun trie s andimported into the United States in a curiously ironiecultural return.Some of thèse changes probably reflect on thecultural significance and popularity of the westernonly indirectly, if at ail. The décline of the majorHollywood studios and the rise of independent production has inevitably affected the flow of westernsby breaking up the teams of actors, directors, cameramen and stunt men who used to turn out aregular quota of westerns every year.However* even if we recognize the impact ofchanges in the film industry as an important influence on contemporary production there are stilllarge enough différences in the f prm and content ofcurrent western films to suggest that the westernthèmes and pattérns of action which so deeplyengaged American film makers and audiences forsome twenty years after World War II hâve lpstmuch of their interest.It seems tome that the diversity of contemporarywesterns reflects a quest for new thèmes and mean-ings to revitalize the traditional western formulas. In this paper, I plan to explore some of thèsedepartures from the major western formula of the1940s and 1950s in order to see what new culturalmotives, attitudes and thèmes they reveal.Régénération, rédemptionThe central thèmes of the post World War IIwestern were régénération, rédemption, purification, purgation. Thèse thèmes hâve been importantto the western since James Fenimore Cooper firstdefined the f orm in 1823, but at times thèse dominant motifs hâve become subordinate to a varie ty ofother interests, such as conflicts between white menand Indians, the épie struggle with nature, or simplythe various forms of violent action which the western can represent so effectively.In the early twentieth century the westerns ofOwen Wister, Zane Grey, Harold Bell Wright andWilliam S. Hart, ail of whom stressed régénérationthèmes, were enormously popular. However, in thelater 1920s, 1930s and early 1940s, the western ofaction and spectacle became dominant. This was theperiod of the pulp adventure novel and the B actionfilm on the one hand, and of the historical spectacleon the other. Many of the most successful writersand film makers of the earlier period found theirpopularity waning or turned to other subjects.Since the middle 1960s, it has been difficult tospeak of a single western formula. As Jack Nachbarputs it in an excellent essay on the récent western,the classic formula of régénération has been scattered in several différent directions.* The only single trend that seems to mark the many différentsorts of western is an emphasis on the graphieportrâyal pf violence, as opposed to the more blood-less and acrobatie deaths of the preceding period,together with a more explicit indication of the rôleof sex in the stories. This is hardly surprising since itreflects à gênerai trend in American culture and isnot by any means unique to the western.*Jack Nachbar, "Riding Shotgun: The Scattered Formula inContemporary Western Movies"— a paper présentée! at the1972 convention of the Popular Culture Association.26Indeed, as Robert Warshow pointed out in hissuperb essay on the classic western, one importantaspect of the western is that it is one of the few artforms in our culture that has consistently attempteda serious treatment of violence. This current inter-est on the part of film makers in a more intenseportrayal of violence, and the audience response tothat représentation, may be in part a catering tojaded and corrupted taste; but, more importantly, Ifeel, this emphasis grows out of a need to arrive atsome understanding of the new and terrif ying moodof destructiveness and hâte, not only in America,but in the world as a whole.The classic westerns of the 1940s and 1950s de-pended on and reaffirmed for us the traditionalAmerican view that violence was the fault of eviland corrupt men; good men might be forced to use itin purging society of corruption, but this would leadto a regenerated social order. With the fading of thishope and the growing sensé of danger from personaland collective violence in our society, Americanshâve had to corne to some kind of emotional termswith an unregenerate world. By looking at some ofthe diverse trends in the westerns of today we candefine some of the new attitudes toward violencewhich are emerging.The most widely successful and imitated of thenew western formulas was created by the Italiandirector Sergio Leone in a tremendously popularséries of films mainly starring Clint Eastwood — AFistful of Dollars (1966); For a Few Dollars More(1966); The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1967);Once Upon a Time in the West (1969) and manyothers.The amoral heroThe films of Leone and his imitators are full ofviolent action like the traditional B westerns, but inother respects they represent a major departure inthème, story and style from the tradition. Theirplots resemble Jacobean or Spanish Renaissancetragedy more than they do the traditional western,and so does their vision of a dark, corrupt, andtreacherous world. Their ostensible heroes aremarked not by moral purpose and righteous cour- Clint Eastwood in Sergio Leone 's "The Good, the Badand the Ugly. " United Artists.âge, but by superior stratagems, unscrupulousnessand skill in violence. Their style, embodied in lead-ing actors like Clint Eastwood and Lee Van Cleef , isone of suprême detachment and coolness.Eastwood as "the man with no name" — an ano-nymity which underlines his lack of human feelingand motive — performs his most violent deeds without a quiver of his characteristic cigarillo or a rippleof his serape. His rôle in a number of the films isthat of bounty hunter, the man who kills with noPersonal interest but the monetary reward — a de-spicable occupation in the moral universe of thetraditional western.If the hero has any motive beyond money, it isusually to perform some terrible revenge for a longpast deed, a re venge which commonly seems morelike a dehumanizing obsession than a justifiablemoral purpose.In many cases, the object of the hero 's revenge isas interesting and sympathetic a character as he is,if not more so. In Once Upon a Time in the West, forexample, the "villain" is played by Henry Fonda,the hero of many traditional westerns, and the27"hero" by Charles Bronson who had earlier made aspecialty of villains. With such heroes, one asks,who needs villains? Yet the Leone films do success-fully arouse our interest in the hero 's actions, de-spite his morally ambiguous character, by showingus a world that seems to deserve whatever violencecan be wreaked upon it.The moral: Be effectiveLeone 's western towns are f ull of grotesque andugly people, in striking contrast to the décent, respectable, mildly comic townspeople of the classicwestern. But even more striking than the grotesque,bitterly sardonic way in which he represents hisminor characters, Leone stresses their weaknessand helplessness against the grasping tyrants andmanie outlaws who bedevil them. Thèse townspeople sometimes employ a vapid and impotent moral-ity as a justification for not doing anything about thefrustrated and misérable conditions of their lives,but the amoral hero has no moral pretensions — hesays even less than the traditional western hero.Instead, he works smoothly and effectively againstthe men of power. The fact that a number of minorand relatively helpless bystanders are destroyed inthe process seems more advantageous than other-wise.Becausë the world is violent, treacherous, andcorrupt, the moral man is the one who can useviolence, treachery and corruption most effectively.The chief thing that differentiates hero from villainis the hero's coolness and lack of violent émotion;the villain is typically given to rages of greed, lust,or hatred which prevent him from effectively usingthe tools of power.Public enthusiasm for the Leone films has com-monly been interpreted as a simple response ofsalacious sadism, the cruder masses of the publictaking lip-licking delight in the vivid portrayal ofwounding and death.No doubt there are such appeals in the Leonefilms. Anyone who has attended one of thèse filmsin company with a large and varied audience cantestif y to what seems at first a shocking ghoulish-ness of response— applause when an innocent person is destroyed on screen, laughter at the most horrible kind of maiming and killing. One couldeasily become convinced that such films are creat-ing a bloodthirsty public who will eventually turnfrom fantasy to reality to satisfy their cravings. Yet,the fact is that few Clint Eastwood fans, if any,become mass murderers.Despite almost two décades of research of vari-ous kinds, it has not been possible to demonstrateconvincingly that violence in films incites people toviolent actions in real life. This should lead us towonder if the orientation toward violence in theLeone films is as simple as it seems on the surface.On closer examination I should say that thèsefilms perhaps appeal as much to a sensé of passivityas to violence. Their grotesque humor may well bemore an invitation to laugh at our own sensé ofhelplessness and victimization than an incitement tostrike out against it. Their moral ambiguity, theirrejection of clear distinctions between hero andvillain, and their effects of grotesque horror mightjust as well be interpreted as an attempt to trans-f orm our sensé of moral paralysis and impotence inthe face of Worldwide violence into mockery andbitter comedy.If this is the case, we hâve hère one new kind ofthematic portrayal of violence, together with animplicit psychological strategy toward it. Violenceis innate in human life, and the only défense againstit is detached mockery. By avoiding emotional andmoral involvement, we develop a capacity to gainpleasure from horror and outrage through identification with victimizer as well as victim.A différent orientationThis attitude is close to the one implicit in thecontemporary horror film — the current crop of Dra-culas, Blaculas, Frankensteins and Wolfmen—where we are invited to identif y with the monster aswell as with those he victimizes, in contrast to thetraditional horror story, where the monster repre-sented an outside evil that had to be purged to savethe world. Like the Italian western, which it resem-bles in its grotesque tone and its cultivation ofhorrifie incident, the new style horror film has beenone of the great popular successes of the past twodécades.28Paul Newman (left) and Robert Redford in Twen-tieth Century-Fox's "Butch Cassidy and the Sun-dance Kid."The distinctive quality of the Leone westernémerges in another way when we compare it withanother type of contemporary western, a formulathat might be called the return of the rugged individual. Thèse films, dominantly starring JohnWay ne, hâve been strongly influenced by certainaspects of the Italian western, but are generallyattempts to restate the traditional western thèmes ina slightly new fashion. Notably, they hâve failed todo so, and, despite the enormous appeal of JohnWayne, plus fairly high production values and pub-licity campaigns, hâve generally failed to achievethe popular success of either the Italian westerns orthose of a third type which I will discuss in a fewmoments.Typically, this second type of contemporarywestern deals with an aging hero, whose great daysseem over but who embarks upon one more heroicquest or battle. Unlike the Italian western, thisAmerican type portrays the hero's quest as thepur suit of a clearly moral purpose. In True Grit, thehero is a marshal who has been employed by ayoung lady to bring in the murderer of her father. In Big Jake, his grandson has been kidnapped by aband of outlaws and he is out to recover the child; inChisum, corrupt and lawless men threaten to de-stroy the peaceful cattle empire which John Chisumhas built up through hard work and honest dealing.Similar plot devices ensure that the deeds of theprotagonists of Rio Lobo and The Cowboys arecovered with the mantle of morality.But in many ways this air of morality seems morelike a ritual than a reality, a cloak for naked aggres-sion, rather than the reluctant violence of the heroesof My Darling Clémentine, High Noon and Shane.The leading figure in thèse rugged individualist westerns is very différent in his qualities from the lyricalor stoic heroes of the 1940s and 1950s. In fact, heresembles the officiai villains of the earlier westernsas much as he does the heroes.John Chisum is an overbearing cattle baron, likeStryker, the villain of Shane. Big Jake has the sameruthlessness and love-hate relationship with hissons as the maniacal Dock Tobin of AnthonyMann 's Man of the West, while the Wild Bunch ofSam Peckinpah's film bears more resemblance tothe vicious Clanton gang than to the gentle WyattEarp of My Darling Clémentine.In a context of violenceYet, in thèse more récent films, the ruthless ag-gressiveness, concern with power, and penchant forviolence, which were seen as dangerous and evenevil in the classic westerns, are portrayed as positive values or moral necessities in thèse newerromances of rugged individualism in the West. Tomake the contrast more précise, we might compareHoward Hawks' Red River (1948) and the récentChisum. Thèse two films hâve basic plot similaritiesand in both the central figure is played by JohnWayne. However, in Red River Wayne 's overbearing individualism, his tyrannical authority and hisruthless appeals to violence nearly bring about destruction of the cattle drive. It is only the rejectionof violence and the concern for the welfare ofothers embodied in the secondary hero figure ofWayne 's adopted son, played by Montgomery Clift,that finally résolves the difficulties.But in Chisum thèse very aggressive qualities29make the hero successful, while the more pacifieand less domineering tempéraments of younger menare shown to be inadéquate to the overcoming ofevil.In none of thèse films is there much question ofgroup régénération associated with the hero 's purg-ing action. On the contrary, society is usually repre-sented as weak and corrupt; its agencies, like possesand armed forces, are given to impulsive and inefficient violence which is more likely to bring onfurther innocent suffering than to establish truejustice. Because society is violent and corrupt, theonly solution lies in the private action of a goodleader who is able to overcome the outlaw 's evilaggression and society's own endémie violence andcorruption by superior ruthlessness and power ofhis own.In this emphasis on the failure of society toprotect the innocent and on the need for the privateleader and avenger, thèse new westerns clearlyresemble the new gangster film and novel exempli-fied in The Godfather. I should say that the orientation toward violence and society is almost identicalin thèse works. Because society has failed to extendits protection and order to an adéquate extent, thelittle man is constantly thréatened by violenceagainst which he cannot protect himself .The fantasied solution is to 'fait back on theGodfather— or, in the case of the western, on thegrandfather, Big Jake — and to create under his ab-solute authority a close-knit small group, like afamily, which in return for absolute loyalty willprotect its members.Resemblance is superffcialIt is interesting that no western constructed alongthèse lines has achieved anything like the success ofThe Godfather. Perhaps because this fantasy is soimmédiate a response to the tensions of modemur^an life, its embodiment in a relatively con-temporaneous urban setting, as in the gangsterstory, is more compelling than its displacement to aheroic past.It is also interesting to note that the rugged in-dividualist western has achieved its greatest success in the TV screens in thé much milder and moreaseptic form of the ever-popular Bonanza, whichhas its own cleaned-up version of the Godfather,Ben Cartwright, and his family.The westerns embodying the fantasied return ofthe rugged individualist bear a greater superficialresemblance to the traditional western than mostother types being produced today , but I would guessthe more créative potentialities for the western'sfuture lie in a third type, which suggested the title ofthis paper.Actually, this groûping is itself a grab bag ofseveral différent tendencies which hâve in commonan interest in representing the western expériencefrom perspectives différent from those in which/ithas been seen in the past — in other words , thecréation of a new western myth.New forms of the western mythIn its simplest and least interesting form, the newwestern myth is simply the old formula with anethnie hero at the center. Thus, black westerns likeThe Legend of Nigger Charley, Buck and thePreacher, and Soûl Soldier are more or less traditional westerns with black heroes and plots whichhâve some of their conflicts generated by racialtension. Because of this, the black western hasheretof ore been in only a minimal sensé a créativetransformation of the western. Like the new blackpolice, détective, and gangster films, the black westerns are culturally important in that they representa capturing of traditionally white legends and herofigures for black audiences.Certainly this development reflects some break-down of traditional stéréotypes. With a few notableexceptions like John Ford 's unduly neglected Ser-geant Rutledge (i960), black characters almostnever appeared in earlier westerns, and when theydid it was in the traditional comic minor rôles. A fewall-black westerns were made for limited distribution, but thèse had no significance as far as the whitepublic was concerned for they were never exhibitedin other than totally black theaters.The new black westerns, however, import theirblack heroes into the context of a largely white30western society and are made with fair-sized budgets. Though they are particularly aimed at blackurban audiences, they are seen by substantial segments of the white public as well. Doubtlèss itreflects some transformation of racial attitudes foraudiences to accept a black man playing a f ormerlywhite heroic rôle and in the process saving innocentwhites and avenging himself on white villains.But aside from this substitution of a black for awhite hero, the new black westerns hâve not as yetinvolved any major departures from traditionalwestern formulas. Thus it is not too surprising tofind critics like Clayton Riley speaking ratheracerbically about them: "The new black movies. . . hâve accomplished little more than a restate-ment of those thèmes the American cinéma hastraditionally bled dry and then discarded. Like thestepchild we get the leftover, in this case a celluloïdhand-me-down. Black movies bringing color to theold movie industry Triple-S stamp: Slapstick, Sa-dism and Saf ety — from any thing that might disturbthe Republic's peace of mind" (New York Times,August 13, 1972. D9).The black perspective may well become a sourceof créative transformation in the western if filmmakers begin to work the rich and fascinating veinof the actual rôle of black people in the history ofthe West. Certainly some of the black charactersdescribed by Durham and Jones in The Negro Cow-boy could be the basis for a rich new version of thewestern myth.Identification with the IndianAt the présent time, however, the émergence of anew attitude toward the Indian in films like A ManCalled Horse, Soldier Blue and Little Big Manseems more important as the impetus behind a newvision of the meaning of the western expérience.Since the time of James Fenimore Cooper, theserious western has often manif ested a sympatheticattitude toward the Indian and has at times beenopènly critical of the way in which Americans hâvetreated him. But, until recently, this sympathy hasusually been focused for dramatic purposes on thetragedy of individuals. Two main story formulas would probably covermost of the serious représentations of Indians in thewestern until the past décade or so: the elegy of theVanishing American, or the Last of the Mohicans,and the tragedy of the white man who loved anIndian maiden or vice versa.In both thèse stories the central point of sympathy was the plight of an individual caught in alarger clash between groups. The striking thingabout the more récent Indian westerns is that theymove beyond sympathy for the plight of individualstoward an attempt at a reconstruction of the Indianexpérience itself . Their central plot device has beenthe story of the white man who becomes an Indianor who, through his expériences, becomes identifiedwith the Indian perspective in the clash betweenwhite and Indian.The pioneer as 'bad guy'In effect, this amounts to an almost complètereversai of some of the symbolic meanings ascribedto major groups in the western. The pioneers become a symbol of fanâticism, avarice,. and aggres-sive violence, while the Indians represent a goodgroup with a way of life in harmony with nature andtruly fufilling to the individual. It is through hisinvolvement with the Indians and their way of lifethat the hero is regenerated. The cavalry, symbol oflaw and order, becomes the instrument of brutalmassacre until, at the end of Little Big Man, onecheers for the Indians to destroy Custer and his menbecause we hâve seen incident after incident inwhich the cavalry callously and needlessly slaught-ered women and children.This new Indian western is clearly a response tothat complex new fascination, particularly amongthe young, with traditional Indian culture, that Les-lie Fiedler analyzes in The Return of the VanishingAmerican.In its treatment of violence as an expression ofaggressive drives toward destruction in the pioneerspirit, in its négative and guilt-ridden assessment ofthe winning of the West and its reversai of traditional valuations of the symbolic figures and groupsof the western story, this new formula has a great31deal in common with another récent form which Ihâve labeled, rather facetiously, the legend of theJewish cowboy. The hero of this type of western isnot literally Jewish, though often played by Jewishactors like Paul Newman. Actually, I suspect thatJews are likely to be the last of the ethnie groups toinsist on donning the mantle of the cowboy hero.However, the heroes of Butch Cassidy and theSundance Kid and McCabe and Mrs. Miller behavemore like characters transported from the pages of anovel by Saul Bellow or Bernard Malamud into thelegendary West than they do like the traditionalwestern hero. They win our interest and sympathynot by courage and heroic deeds but by bemusedincompétence, génial cowardice, and the ability toface the worst with buoyancy and wit. They aresix-gun schlemiels and existentialists in cowboyboots. The West they inhabit is rapidly becomingthe modem industrial world and they are hopelesslyout of place in the new society.Their real enemy is not the Indian or the outlawbut the corporation. They stand for a leisurely traditional way of life which is giving way to the ruthlessmechanical efficiency of the corporate society.Butch Cassidy is an outlaw who is finally drivenfrom the country by the irrésistible force of or-ganization in the f orm of a superposse hired by theUnion Pacific Railroad. McCabe is a small timegambler and brothel keeper, who is eventually killedby a gang of thugs hired by a mining company whichwants to take over his property.The corporate villainThe new myth implicit in thèse westerns contraststhe individualistic violence of the outlaw or Indianwith the brutal streamlined force of organized society and expresses the view that the corporate violence of modem society is more dangerous andevil than the acts of individual aggression implicit inthe Indian or outlaw 's way of life. Thus many of thetraditional meanings of the western are reversed —society cannot be purged or regenerated by heroicacts because progress means destruction of humanevalues. The good groups are the simpler traditionalsocieties of outlaws and Indians, but thèse, and thevalues they rejpresent, are doomed to extinction.The true hero is not the man who brings law and order but the alienated and absurd individual whocannot fit into the new society.Projection of tensionsAH three of the new western types I hâve dis-cussed — the Italian western, the western Godfather,and the search for a new myth — share a disillu-sioned and pessimistic view of society and an obsession with the place of violence in it. As thewestern has always done, thèse new formulas Project the tensions and concerns of the présent intothe legendary past in order to seek in the imagination sonie kind of resolution or acceptance of con-flicts of value and f eeling which cannot be solved inthe présent.The westerns of the post World War II periodseemed to reflect a gênerai consensus of affirmationthat the country, having survived the périls of de-pression and war, might now go f orward toward thecréation of a better social order. The westerns oftoday, however, suggest no such consensus. Insteadthey seem to reflect a considérable varie ty of différent emotional and ideological accommodations tothe pessimism about society which they ail share.Three major kinds of attitude seem to hâveemerged: first, a sensé of human depravity andcorruption which seems almost to take delight in thedestructiveness of violence by accepting it as aninévitable expression of man's nature; second, thef antasy of a superior f ather-figure who can protectthe innocent and wrpak vengeance on the guilty, af antasy which reflects a prof ound disbelief in themodem agencies of law and justice to serve theirproper function (in this context, Violence is theproduct of morally purposeful individual action indéfense of the good group against the threats of-fered by the rest of society); and finally, the searchfor a new western myth expresses the view thatviolence has been the underlying force in the devel-opment of American society and that ail modemwhite Americans are implicated in guilt for theiraggressive destruction of other way s of life.The contemporary western reflects the conflictbetween thèse differing views of our past and présent. Whether any of them will eventually serve asthe basis of a new consensus about our society onlythe further course of history can détermine.32imall crimes and afterthou1. Perjury: Andy Ruffano, where are you?2. Forgery: Thou shalt not take my Nome-3. Treason: peach pits and silver paperHelen Harris Perlman1 Sometimes I wake up in the middle of the night andfind myself crying out silently, anxiously, "AndyRuffano, what has become of you? Where can I findyou so that I can right the wrong I did you?" I amhaunted, you see, by what I did to Andy in Miss Young'sfourth grade in Lincoln School in St. Paul, Minnesota.The brand new pencil sharpener was fastened to a wallin our cloakroom. Most of us used it often, sometimesbecause it gave us the excuse to get up from our tightseat-desks and take a walk, and sometimes because, aswe whirred the handle and honed the stub to a perfectpoint, ready to make its fine mark on paper, there wasMrs. Perlman (x'31) is Samuel Deutsch DistinguishedService Professor Emeritus of Social Service Administration ("Read vertically, " she says, "the title is taller than Iam"). SJie joined the University 's faculty in 1945. Astudent of human personality and behavior, she observes:"Because one cannot know in another what one has neverknown in oneself, I occasionally scrutinize myself as aclinical spécimen. " some feeling that one's brain was being sharpened too.(To this day I know scholars and writers who cannotbegin a sentence until they hâve sharpened a fistful ofpencils.)One weekend the painters came, and on Mondaymorning the walls of the cloakroom gleamed with thick,freshly laid-on schoolroom tan enamel. Miss Young wasvery glad and she said we should ail be glad too, andcaref ul . When shortly thereaf ter I went to sharpen my pencils there was the sharpener in its proper place, but sur-rounded now by a pure, viscous surface that held someirrésistible pull for me. With three impetuous strokesof a finely honed lead I carved into that still-moist,unmarred wall a large letter A. A was simply the firstletter of the alphabet. I can think of no other reason forhaving chosen it. Then I went happily back to my seat.Now about Andy Ruffano. He was an Eyetalian. Mostof us had never seen an Eyetalian before Andy transfer-red into our class from another district. In our class,mostly Scandinavian, where the children's faces werelike wintry moons, and their braids and rag curls orslick-parted hair grew from their scalps like pale gold33silk, Andy's dark aquiline features and his coarse blackhair that sprouted up from his temples like small Pan-horns set him apart.He was a wild boy, we said, because he was restive inhis too-small seat, and he sometimes made funny noises,and then, when Miss Young would call his name, sharply,he would flash a dazzling grin, as if he were laughinginside himself instead of being ashamed.He was full of small mischiefs. Once during silentreading time he dropped five marbles, one by one,lettingthem bang and bounce and roll over the floor, and then hescrambled about for them in mock panic, like a monkey.Once he put a long pièce of chalk in his mouth andpretended to smoke it. There was between him and therest of us one bond, a scarcely conscious one, but a tacitcontract: he would do what the rest of us would not dare,and we would reward him with our feigned shock andfurtive laughter.In the early afternoon someone went to the pencilsharpener — I remember now, it was Hilda Peter sen,whose thick braids shone like freshly polished brass —and, with a sharp intake of breath she hurried out of thecloakroom to whisper in Miss Young's ear. She had seenthe A. Miss Young leaped up to see it with her own eyes,and then abruptly stopped our lesson. Who had done thisthing?Now about me. I was a good girl, I loved school, Iloved my teachers, I did my lessons quickly and correct-ly. If I found things slow and endlessly repetitious I hadmy own inside-my-head games to play that no one knewabout. I was — I may as well say it — teacher's pet.It was only when Miss Young stopped us, splam in themiddle of our multiplication tables and faced us with thequestion of guilt that I first fully took in the enormity ofmy act. Sickness washed over me. When it ebbed I knewfor sure that I had not done it. I could not hâve done it. Itwas too heinous an act. If my parents thought I had doneit they would die of shame. Miss Young would nevertrust me again. I could not even like myself any more, soI could not believe it of myself. I sat stiff and righteous atmy desk, with my hands folded, as we were supposed todo when we were idle. I felt an urgent need to go to thebasement, but I did not dare ask permission. Miss Youngwas saying that everyone would stay where he was untilthe culprit who had been a bad citizen, who had defacedthe property of ail of us, had confessed.Out of the side of one eye I saw Andy Ruffano's grin.Why was he laughing, I wondered. Did he know? Had he seen me with those smoky black-olive eyes of his? Orwas he covering over his fear because he already knewthat he was the inévitable scapegoat?Miss Young said, 'Andy Ruffano, just why are yousmiling?" He didn't know. She asked if he had gone tothe pencil sharpener that day. He said, "Yes, raa'am."She said, slowly now, did he realize that he was the onlyperson in the room whose name began with A. Andy saidhonest-to-God, he didn't do it. Miss Young said he musthâve done it. I thought, he must hâve. He was a wildboy — everybody knew that. I felt sick again, and mybowels churned perilously as* we ail sat still in the thun-dering silence. Then Andy was told to stay after shcoolwhen the class was dismissed.Whatever happened between him and Miss Young Idon't know. Next day, when I searched his face for someclue he seemed to be quite unchanged — not shattered,nor ashamed, not angry — just the same. So I put thewhole thing firmly out of my mind. Except that now andagain — more than a half century later — I awake fromchildish, sorrowing dreams and find myself wonderingabout Andy Ruffano.What has become of him, I wonder? What did he makeof being accused and punished for an act of which he wasutterly innocent? And of the good girl or good boy in thatroomful of strangers who let him take the rap? Or of ateacher who would not believe his honest, earnest déniais? How did it warp and uglify your view of this world,Andy, I wonder? How can I ever make it up to you?Intrigued and amused as I was by the most récentforgery-plagiarism scandai in the publishingworld, it reminded me, suddenly, that I too hadonce perpetrated a literary forgery. Had it not been formy brother's invoking the Third Commandment againstme, and for the parenta instruction and punishment thatfollowed I might hâve remained conscience-free andhâve committed who knows what further félonies.In the St. Paul Sunday Pioneer Press & Dispatch therewas a children's page. I was a constant reader andcontributor. (Whatever has become of children's pages inmodern-day newspapers — where you could connectnumbers with a pencil and corne out with a picture, andfind riddles and jokes to tell your parents, and enter storyor poetry contests and win two dollars?)It was in this contest category that I excelled. As Ithink of it the hapless editor of the children's page must34hâve corne to it Saturday evenings three sheets to thewind, because he seemed oblivious of the fact that he hadawarded me three prizes within a very short span of time,and this, as any schoolboy knows, is hardly the way tosell newspapers.Heady with having found my métier, I dashed off afourth story. But when I reread it I felt it was not up tomy standards. So I decided to sign it with my brother'sname. I forged his signature in jagged, shaky letters in thebest imitation I could manage of his seven-year-old,second grade script and mailed it off. Having disowned itI forgot about the whole thing.It is a peaceable Sunday morning, and because it isblizzarding my father has decided he will not drive us toSunday School. My brother Sonny has gotten up earlierthan I, so he has first dibs on the children's page. "Hey !"he calls out from his bedroom. "I won a prize!""You did!" calls my mother from the kitchen. "Forwhat?""For a story hère in the children's page," says he."Sonny !" cries my mother proudly . "I didn't know youwrote a story!" She is very happy because Sonny hasbeen reading Little Black Sambo for weeks, and myparents fear for his future."I didn't," says Sonny. "But it says hère, my name andseven years old and 632 Otsego Street and two dollars."Suddenly I remember, and I hitch my flannel bathrobeover my Doctor Denton's sleepers and pad into thekitchen where my parents are at breakfast. "That's mystory," I say, and I explain why I had signed Sonny 'sname."But you didn't ask me!" Sonny cries, rushing in. I amdumbfounded. I cannot see his point. Why should I askhim? He should be proud to hâve his rotten old name inthe newspaper."I don't even like that story!" Sonny shouts.This is calculated to leave me speechless. "You don'tlike that story!" I jeer. "You probably can't even readit!""Anyhow," Sonny goes on, stubbornly, "you hâve toask permission." His face is bright pink with indignation."Besides," he says, measuring his words now, becausehe knows he is coming in for the kill, "you hâve broken aTen Commandment: Thou shalt not take my name invain.'"Make no mistake. In those days, in our Sunday Schoolthere was no hanky-panky about easing a child intoreligion via charming legends and myths. Right off, first grade, you were taught and regularly chanted the TenCommandments, and if you didn't know what covetingand committing adultery was, don't worry, you wouldsome day."Marna!" I am screaming now. "He's crazy ! He thinkshe's God or somebody!"My father now rises from the table and hustles meback to my room, saying that if I don't quiet down prettyfast he'll give me something to yell about.When I had finished weeping and raging I rejoined thefamily. It was clear that the tribunal had sat in judgmentupon me. I was told that a person's name is as much hisown as any thing else that belongs to him. To use itwithout asking him or even telling him was very wrong.As a matter of fact, they said, signing another person'sname is considered a crime. I may not hâve known that,but I knew it now, they said, and so at least one half myprize should be paid to Sonny.Somehow — unreasonably, I know — I still feel thatSonny owes me a dollar. But I suppose it was a goodthing it ail happened when and where it did.31 hâve never loved my country more passionatelythan during the First World War. We were soright, so true, so red-white-and-blue, sending ourboys to make the world safe for democracy over thereover there by the rocket 's red glare, the bombs burstingin air, while we kept the home lires burning and packedup our troubles in our old kit bags and smiled. So I dideverything in my power to help Uncle Sam, who wantedme, too — everything from being a Minute Man (goingfrom first to eighth grade classes to urge the kids to buytwenty-five cent Thrift Stamps that, as they accrued invalue, would buy Baby Bonds and, in apotheosis, LibertyBonds — choking up the while with my own éloquence) tosaving peach pits and silver paper.The peach pits and silver paper bit came from my bestfriend, Dolly. Dolly had two older brother s who were inthe war, so she was considerably more knowledgeablethan I about what when on. One brother was in the warsomewhere in Texas; the other was in No-Man's Land(where, in the war 's great curse, stood the Red CrossNurse) and he knew everything. He had seen the Huns,Dolly said, tearing the dresses off ladies and kicking themin the stomach, and bayoneting Belgian babies.What he told her I knew was true, because not longafterwards I saw a newsreel movie and there they were,35doing just those hideous things. "German Kultur" thecaption said it was.About peach pits: the inside of them, Dolly said, wasused by our government to make poison gas which wasbadly needed. As for silver paper — it was obviously akind of métal, so —. My family were slackers aboutpeaches that summer, so after saving sixteen pits (two ofwhich were no good because I had cracked them open totaste the poison, which was pretty bitter but not lethal) Iturned them over to Dolly to add to her collection.On silver paper though I was lucky. Both my fatherand grandfather were heavy smokers, and every day atleast two pièces of silver wrapper came off their cigarettepacks. Those, plus donations from other relatives andfriends became a small packet that, over the weeks, grewinto a well-packed and patted silver brick. When thebrick got big enough, Dolly said, you could go to the junkman who would pay you by the pound, and he, in turn,would turn it over to our country. If it was big enough,Dolly said, you could get a lot of money for it.That was what planted the seed of treason in my f ervidpatriotic soûl. I hâve pondered on like situations manytimes.After a while my silver brick did not grow fast enough.It was as if, as with living things, it had reached a plateauwhere it stood still, consolidating its powers for somelater growth spurt. But I was impatient for that moneythe junk man would pay. I would, I thought, buy aLiberty Bond and thus I would be doing two things formy country 'tis of thee — giving it a silver brick andmoney besides. It was a delicious prospect.What I did was simply this: I added hairpins to increaseits weight. My mother's hairpins were to be found every-where, not only in the box in her top drawer but on thebathroom floor and under chair and sofa pillows whereshe sat. Over days I collected them surreptitiously andthen took my silver pack to a corner of our attic, un-folded the silver petals of my brick carefully , and from itscore on out I put hairpins in each layer. The brick lookedfar more substantial when it was put together again andseemed to me to be considerably heavier.Now, I must hâve known I was doing wrong, else whywould I hâve kept the brick in the attic from that day on?Why would I continue to add hairpins and foil where no one would see me? Yet, so self-delusive is corruptionthat the end of buying that big Liberty Bond seemed tojustify any means. My country 'tis!I was saved by a fluke, by, in fact, a treasonable act ofmy mother. Her brother came to see us before he was tobe sent overseas. I called Dolly over to see him, myuncle, a captain, candescent in khaki! We had lunch.When my mother set out the coffee she put the cream andsugar in front of my uncle. "No thank you," he said,severely. "I don't take sugar. It's strictly rationed.""I know it," said my mother. And to my acute embar-rassment she dumped two extra large spoonfuls into hercup."The country is short on sugar," said my uncle."I don't believe in the war," said my mother flatly. "Orany war. I'm against war."I sat trying to take in the nature of this stranger whohad been my mother. She had encouraged me to buyThrift Stamps and Baby Bonds; she approved of myMinute Man speeches; she had let me paste a big LibertyBond poster on our front window; she had bought me thesheet music for "Over There" and "There's a Rose thatGrows in No-Man's Land." And hère she sat with herbrother, my uncle, my captain, drinking rationed sugarand saying she was against the war to make the worldsafe for democracy, to crush the spike-helmeted Bocheswho practiced "Kultur."Then it came to me. My mother was a kind of hypocrite. And so was I. When Dolly had gone I ran up to theattic and feverishly broke apart my silver brick. Everyhairpin came out. I shivered when I thought of what I hadalmost caused to happen. What if my government hadused this brick to make bullets or cannon balls or somesecret chemical or whatever it had to do? And thehairpins had ruined the whole effort? Had caused some-one, maybe, to lose a battle, or get killed? I realized,trembling, that I had almost been a traitor.Not too long afterwards the Armistice was declared.My mother wept a little and said she was overjoyed. Isaid I was overjoyed too, partly because I knew I haddone nothing bad to hurt my country or democracy. Bellsrang and whistles tooted, and I ran out into our backyardand flung my paltry silver brick into the garbage can,because I knew there would never be another war again.36Quadrangle J^ewsUniversity produces top execsThe University ranks No. 13 nationallyamong undergraduate and graduateschools whose alumni hâve become présidents of large corporations, according to anew study.The study also found that the typicalprésident of a major corporation earnedhis bachelor's degree in libéral arts or engineering and science at a private easternschool, and continued his éducation byobtaining a law degree or MBA, most likely from Harvard.Thèse findings are based on a survey ofprésidents of the nation's 500 largest in-dustrial companies and 50 largest merchandising, transportation, life insurance,financial and utility organizations. The survey was conducted by the managementconsulting firm of Heidrick and Struggles.Respondents represented 64% of thosequeried. Two women présidents areamong the group of leaders, according toHeidrick and Struggles. Five out of sixcorporate présidents hold at least a bachelor's degree, and the level of éducation ofprésidents is advancing rapidly. Ten yearsago a similar study found that just one infour présidents possessed a graduate degree. Now, almost 38% of the présidentsof the nation's largest corporations hâveearned a degree beyond the level of thebachelor's.Institutions awarding most degrees toprésidents of America's business giantsare, in descending order, Harvard, Yale,Michigan, Stanford, Princeton, MIT, Illinois, Northwestern, Minnesota, Penn-sylvania, Columbia, Carnegie-Mellon, Chicago, NYU, Virginia, Purdue, Cornell,Iowa, Texas, and Penn State.J, L. Adams returns to MidwayJames Luther Adams (phD'45) has beenappointed professor of theology and re-ligious ethics in the Divinity School. Adams, formerly the Edward Mal-linckrodt, Jr., professor of divinity at Harvard, will also serve as distinguished scho-lar-in-residence at Meadville/LombardTheological School.The appointment marks a homecomingfor the Harvard emeritus professor, sincehe taught in the Federated TheologicalFaculty of the University until 1956. From1968 to 1972 Adams was distinguishedprofessor of social ethics at AndoverNewton Theological School. He was atHarvard from 1956 to 1968.Adams' work was first brought to national attention when he came to be recog-nized as the chief interpréter to Americaof the thought of the late Paul Tillich.Eleemosynary managementunit is establishedA new académie and research unit, theCenter for the Management of Public andNon-profit Enterprise, has been established at the Graduate School of Business.Arnold R. Weber, the Isidore andGladys J. Brown professor of urban andlabor économies, is the center 's intérim director.The center is designed to serve as afocus for work done in the GraduateSchool of Business in the management ofgovernmental and non-profit private organizations. Its création was approved bythe school's faculty in October, 1972; itwas made possible by a $1,000,000 gift tothe school in April, 1972, from the CharlesE. Merrill Trust, established by a foundingpartner of the brokerage firm of MerrillLynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith.Weber returned to the University re-cently after varied service in Washington,D.C. In January, 1969, he was named Assistant Secretary of Labor for manpower;the following year he became AssociateDirector of the Office of Management andBudget, and in 1971, at the outset of Président Nixon's new économie plan, he became Director of the Cost of Living Council. More recently he has been serv-ing as a part-time member of the U.S. PayBoard, commuting between Washingtonand Chicago.Five win Quantrell awardsFive members of the faculty were honoredfor excellence in teaching as 1972récipients of the Llewellyn John andHarriet Manchester Quantrell Awards,each for $1,000. The five: Richard W.Beals, professor of mathematics; WayneC. Booth (am'47, phD'50), George M.Pullman professor of English; Robert D.Hummel, instructor in German; H. GreggLewis (ab'36, p1id'47), professor oféconomies; and Richard W. Mintel (sb'50,phD '65), assistant professor biochemistry.The Quantrell awards are a mémorial tothe parents of Ernest E. Quantrell,longtime member of the board of trustées,who established the honors in 1938.Atherosclerosis center setThe University has received a $679,611grant for the establishment of a Special-ized Center of Research on Atherosclerosis. Principal investigator for the projectis Dr. Robert W. Wissler (sm'43, phD'46,md'48), Donald N. Pritzker professor ofpathology in the Division of the BiologicalSciences and the Pritzker School of Medi-cine.The grant was awarded by the NationalHeart and Lung Institute of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Itwill allow University researchers to beginwork on a "Study of Lipoproteins, theArtery Wall and Atherosclerosis" project.The major focus of the research pro-gram will be on lipoproteins, the carriersof cholestérol and other fatty substancesin blood, and on the manner in which theydeposit on the artery wall to produceatherosclerotic deposits.Dr. Wissler joined the University's37Quadrangle V^(ewsfaculty in 1943. He was named professorin 1957 and served as chairman of the Department of Pathology from 1957 to 1972.Donald N. Pritzker (jd'59) died at theâge of 39 last May. He was président ofthe Hyatt Corporation. The Pritzker family is noted for its many philanthropies; in1968 the University's médical school wasnamed the Pritzker School of Medicine.Donald N. Pritzker's brother, Jay Pritzker, is a trustée of the University, and hisfather, A.N. Pritzker, is a noted Chicagobusiness leader.NSF backs pollution studyThe University has received a $314,700 research grant from the National ScienceFoundation to study environmental pollution and its relation to the urban economy.Squirrel (at right) hastily départs following John Fox's ministrations .Research on the runWhite oak acorns, unlike those of redoaks, germinate in the fall. If a squirrelbites deeply into a white oak acorn before germination begins, it won't germinate. For the squirrel this is good, sincethe aborted acorn will provide a snack atany time through the winter. If the acorngerminates, much of the nourishmentgoes into the taproot of the seedling.But even in the présence of squirrels,some acorns do germinate. Does thismean that some squirrels make theirmove too late? That squirrels lose trackof how the acorn population is doing?That squirrels follow a sustained yieldpolicy with regard to white oaks?To find out, John Fox (sm'69), a PhD candidate in biology, is marking some ofthe squirrels on campus with a harmlessblack dye and then feeding them whiteoak acorns. If some of the squirrels killthe acorn embryos and other squirrelsdon't, he'll learn that there are squirrelswhich aren't hip to the germinationprocess. If ail the squirrels treat theacorns the same way, killing the embryosin some acorns but not in others, this willtell Fox something about squirrels' attitude toward ecology.Luckily the quadrangles hâve bothsquirrels and acorns aplenty. And Fox'spursuit of learning is the reason why,when visiting the campus, you '11 seesquirrels wearing black fur collars. The research will be centered in économies, with contributions from geography,public administration and law."It is hoped that the research un-dertaken by both natural scientists andsocial scientists will demonstrate howinterdisciplinary research can improve environmental policies in the Chicago metro-politan area," said Robert McC. Adams,dean of the Division of the SocialSciences.Theater off to good startThe University of Chicago Theaterinaugurated its 1972-1973 season withBertolt Brecht's The Good Woman ofSetzuan, presented in Mandel HallNovember 16-21. It was the first of threeofferings of classic contemporary theaterunder the stewardship of Nicholas D.Rudall, the recently appointed director ofthe University Theater, who also isassociate professor in the Department ofClassical Languages and Literatures andin the Committee of General Studies inthe Humanities.Mr. Rudall took over the challengingtask of revitalizing the University Theaterduring the 1971-72 season, bringing withhim the combined talents of a workingprofessional in the theater arts and thedepth and sensitivity of a scholar of thehistory of the drama. The resuit of histutelary rôle has been gratifying.The next University Theater productionis Joan Littlewood's Oh What a LovelyWar, which will be presented in MandelHall February 15-20. This will be followedby Harold Pinter's The Caretaker, May10-13. The word is out that excellenttheater is available, so we suggest youbook your tickets early. You may write to:The University of Chicago Theater, 5706University Avenue, Chicago 60637; ortéléphone 753-3581. Tickets for singleperformances are $2.50, $2.00 for students.Make checks payable to: The Universityof Chicago.38JÇettersShils' views seen warpedTo the editor: Although Shils' article(July/Aug., 1972) poses an invidious contrast between "reasoned argument" and"clamor," the article itself is written in amode of summary judgment such that thereader's response is not in terms ofwhether or not his arguments hold, butrather, "Well, ail those factors are certainly présent; but is that a soundly balancedaccount of the matter?"Aside from his référence to I. F. Stoneas "Stalinoid," which would certainly notbe an intellectually compétent judgmentfor the last décade or so (I can't speak forbefore), I note that Shils persistently refers to the effects of Vietnam on theAmerican intellectual climate in terms ofits persistent lack of success. Now, oneought to be chary of drawing conclusionsfrom what is not said; however, his summary of the war's effects (in terms such as"ineffectiveness," "inconclusiveness,"etc.) is repeated frequently and emphati-cally enough to make clear how frivoloushe considers the arguments that the war isunwise, unjustified, immoral, a greater evilthan the alternatives, etc. Evidently he regards the case against the war as so lack-ing in intellectual validity that not onlydoes he not himself believe it, but itsplausibility need not even enter into an account of the process of estrangement ofAmerican intellectuals from authority inthe late '60s. Hence he feels no need foreven a perfunctory bow toward the proposition that the pursuit of an unjust wartends to weaken the social contract, withail that proposition implies about the de-leterious social conséquences of such apolicy when persisted in by the politicalleadership of a relatively open society.I submit that a soundly balanced account of what happened would include thefollowing factors, well known to everyreader of this magazine: The politicalélites responsibile for the war had hadtheir central ideas formed by the period from the late '30s to the early '50s; operat-ing out of a history book with but one setof lessons in it, they came at last to areductio ad absurdum of thèse ideas (a related reductio ad absurdum having beenmore wisely turned away from in 1963),insisting, for at best dubious benefits tous, that Southeast Asia be a much blood-ier charnel house than it would be if weleft; by their stubborn refusai to listen toreason, they succeeded in discreditingthemselves and authority in gênerai, sup-plying a strong trigger and impetus to thefactors latent to aliénation that Shils re-counts.Finally, I must remark that I do not finda high degree of decency, civility, or ra-tionality in this condescending concernover the health of American society cou-pied with utter indifférence to the destruction of Vietnamese society.VIRGIL E. VICKERS, AB'52Newton, Mass.Mr. Vickers was one of two readers whofound fault with Mr. Shils ' analysis; mostpraised it as masterful and incisive.McNeill view not without hopeto the editor: Thank you for putting outa magazine which does not go immediatelyout of date. I hâve just gotten around toreading your May/June issue, with Professor William McNeiïTs very enjoyable andprovocative "Journey from CommonSensé." Two points in this article I foundespecially intriguing.The first was Professor McNeill's unex-panded comment that he compared "thefaith of those convinced of CETI [communication with extraterrestrial intelligence] with the faith of traditional western religions." Indeed it seems to me thatthere is a common essence: the désire notto be alone in a world of matter, but tofind voices and personality in the reachesof the sky — a face behind the stars. Tolisten for, interpret and hold communion with CETI voices will require a "pries-thood" of some of the most intelligent andlearned men of every génération, and theconstruction of elaborate, and no doubt intheir own way beautiful, temples. Thedream of CETI, of a galactic or universal"noosphere" of communicating civiliza-tions — especially because the communication might be between beings whosethoughts arise from radically différentchemical and biological constitutions —would be a triumph of spirit over matterand the separating void.The second point was Professor McNeill's "abiding sensé of historical con-tingency and the fragility of the humanachievement" in contrast to the confidentf eeling that if only the probable number ofplanet-bearing stars is huge enough, CETIfollows.In terms of the CETI formula —N=RxfpneflfifcL—ihe confidence is that "ifthe numbers at the beginning of the mas-ter formula are very large, it does notmatter if the probabilities at its right handend are very small." And so the conférence involved skipped over discussion offc — the frequency of high-technologycivilizations— and L— the average life ofsuch civilizations. Now ProfessorMcNeill's abiding sensé seems to arguethat for civilizations with which we couldever communicate fc may be very smallindeed, and what if L is extremely short?Could it not with equal plausibility bemaintained that if the numbers on theright hand side of the formula are smallenough, it does not matter how large thenumbers at the beginning are?To turn to L — out of the infinité timebehind us and the few billion years of theearth, how long has high technology civili-zation so far endured? Less than a centu-ry. How long will it last? We are only toofamiliar with the destructive power whichis correlated with the fruitfulness of thatcivilization. In addition to nuclear weapons, which could certainly end high technology civilization even while sparing39much of mankind, there are the ecologicalproblems which it is suggested will engulfus within the next hundred years. On perhaps a subtler level, there are sociologicaldoubts about L — Professor Marion Levysuggests, for example, that the ever-increasing rate of change of social structures in such civilizations may become un-bearable and productive of calamitous in-stability. Since the radio waves carrying aCETI message may take centuries or mil-lenia to travel the astronomical distancesinvolved, it may be that the required communication time is longer than the civilizations will last. The return message would find no one able or willing to listen.Thèse considérations apply primarily tothe possibility of communication withother civilizations, not to the probabilitythat somewhere in the universe thèse civilizations hâve or do or will exist. The picture suggested then is life, mind and hightechnology appearing, flourishing and vanishing in isolated planetary strivings, eachwithout inheritance from a former, legacyto a later, or communication with a contemporary adventure.It is undeniable that the vision ofCETI — of minds and civilizations inter-connecting across the light-years — is more inspiring. As G. K. Chesterton said,"There are no words to express the abyssbetween isolation and having one ally."Isolation may be the fate of our earthlyenterprise if the proponents of CETI arewrong.Who cannot hope they are right?ALEXANDER J. POLLOCK, AM'66St. Genèse, BelgiumPostscriptum: "Journey from CommonSensé" has reminded me of a belief Iformed as an undergraduate: that in a libéral éducation astronomy should be a required course."BooksThe Gambler, with the Diary ofpolina suslovaFyodor Dostoevsky; translated by Victor Terras; edited by Edward WasiolekThis publication of The Gambler (Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 1972. $7.95)contains not only this relatively brief Dostoevsky novel, but also more than onehundred pages of excerpts from the diaryof Polina Suslova (Polina in The Gambler)', The Stranger and Her Lover, a fic-tionalized account of the Dostoevsky-Suslova relationship by Miss Suslova; asélection of correspondence by the pair toeach other and to an assortment of otherpeople; and an interpretive introduction byMr. Wasiolek, Avalon Foundation professor and chairman of the Department ofSlavic Languages and Literatures, professor in the Collège and chairman of theCommittee on Comparative Studies inLiterature.(Mr. Wasiolek in November receivedthe Press' Gordon Jennings Laing awardfor 1972 for his multi-volume work on thenotebooks of Dostoevsky.)Mr. Wasiolek's arrangement of the ma-terial, illuminating it from the front, theside, the back and above, gives a fascinat-ing degree of perspective to this intervaland aspect of Dostoevsky 's life. The Gambler was written between Octo-ber 4 and October 29, 1866, under extrêmepressure from a viciously unscrupulouspublisher and while he was still engaged inwriting Crime and Punishment in instal-ments for periodical publication. It wasdictated to a girl of 20 whom Dostoevsky(then 44) subsequently married."Except for The House of the Dead"Mr. Wasiolek writes, "nowhere else is hisown life brought in as directly [as in TheGambler] and nowhere else are the passions of gambling and love used with solittle artistic distance. Indeed it is astound-ing, considering how much his gamblingcost him in shame and misery, that theroulette table appears so seldom in hisworks. And nowhere else do we get withany directness a reflection of the threewomen he loved in his life."Money MattersA. James MeigsJudging from its title, this book, by avice-président of Argus Research Corp.and a former researcher for the FédéralReserve Bank of St. Louis and economistfor the New York Stock Exchange andFirst National City Bank of New York, would appear to deal with matters ofmoney. More importantly, however,Money Matters (New York: Harper &Row, 1972. $12.50) is an assertion thatmoney does matter. Meigs (phD'60) haswritten an éloquent statement of themonetarist position — drawing on IrvingFisher and drawing even more so on theUniversity 's Milton Friedman — in today'spolitico-économie setting. By définition itis also a criticism of the fiscal position ofthe Keynesian school."A bolder, more imaginative, fiscalpolicy earlier [in 1971] might well hâveenabled the Administration to avoid itsdistasteful, and dangerous, resort to directcontrols," Meigs says. For the future, headds, "We need to blend monetary andfiscal policies in a new way. Neither fiscalnor monetary policy is suitable forshort-run stabilizing opérations, despitethe many recommendations that either orboth be made more flexible. The idéalpolicy blend of the future should be madeup of three main strands, ail three ofwhich had a partial trial in the UnitedStates during 1969 and 1970. The threeare: a self-stabilizing budget, a policy ofkeeping the money supply growingsteadily at a non-inflationary rate, and theavoidance of controls or otherinterférence with market processes."40alumni ïh(ewsClass notesA^ in memoriam: Mary Roth, ab'02,U^ English teacher at Hyde Park HighSchool from 1902 to 1946, died on No-vember 6 in Highland Park, 111.; DouglasSutherland, ab'02, retired executive secre-tary of Chicago Civic Fédération, died inJuly in Evanston.AC in memoriam: Ada M. Hoebeke,*J J ab '05, emeritus professor of lan-guages at Western Michigan University,died in Kalamazoo, Mich., November 5.A "7 FREDERICK W. LUEHRING, PhM'07,"' added considérable yardage to hislifetime marathon walking total recentlywhen he participated in the annual JusticeWilliam O. Douglas reunion hike along theC & O Canal in Maryland. Of the nearly500 who trekked the 12 miles from Wil-liamsport to Fort Frederick, he ran awaywith top honors for being the oldest hiker,his nearest rival being none other than theeminent Suprême Court Justice Douglashimself who, a mère upstart of 73, washardly a serious threat to 90-year-old Dr.Luehring. Furthermore, Mr. Douglasdropped out of the hike after nine miles.Mr. Luehring went ail the way, finishingwell ahead of hundreds of younger hikers.Justice Douglas first led a contingent ofhikers along the canal towpath in 1954 tobring attention to plans that would hâvebuilt a fédéral highway along the canalright-of-way instead of the national parkwhich the Douglas group was pushing.The Douglas side eventually prevailed.At his professional retirement in 1953,Dr. Luehring had a 43-year career in high-er éducation to his crédit which began in1906 at Ripon Collège, where he was a fullsociology professor, and continued, mostlyin physical éducation and athletics, atPrinceton, Nebraska, Minnesota, and finally at the University of Pennsylvania.Holder of an Olympian certificate for hisrôle in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin,only living member of the first NCAArules committee in swimming and watersports, pioneer in lifesaving instructionand in the establishment of water safety and swimming pool standards, Dr. Luehring was inducted into the InternationalSwimming Hall of Famé last January.in memoriam: Georganna Youngs Bo-nita, ab'07.AQ in memoriam: Louise LassfolkU>/ Finch, sb'09, died last May in Ver-ona, Wisc.1 2 in memoriam: Kent Chandler,±D sb'13; Edith M. Evans, phB'13;Aima Ogden Plumb, ab'13.1 C For many years george cald--*¦ J well, phB'15, has had to settle fora "weekend marriage." During the week,he writes, Mrs. Caldwell has been living inBrunswick, Ga., where she has been a ci-vilian employée at the Navy base for fif-teen years. Every Friday evening she'73: year of the directoryThe University is planning to publishin 1973 its first national alumni directory since 1919.The directory will include bi-ographical information on the Uni-versity's 76,000 living alumni. (Thiscompares with the 11,600 alumni lis-ted in the directory of five décadesago.)Beginning in January, questionnaires will be mailed to alumni. Thequestionnaires will include individualbiographical information as it will ap-pear in the directory. Alumni will beasked to verif y the data and to fill inthe blanks if the University 's recordsare incomplète.The directory will contain both al-phabetical and geographical listings.Biographical information will includeschool year and degree, home ad-dress, maiden name, business titleand employer 's name. would drive down to Jacksonville Beach,Fia., to spend the few hours until earlyMonday morning with her husband. De-ciding this autumn that the situation wasno longer acceptable, the Caldwells soldtheir beach apartment and are now spend-ing seven happy days a week together intheir apartment in Brunswick.1 /l in memoriam: Elsie B. Johns,-*-^ phB'16; Frieda Hildebrandt Latimer,phB'16; Lloyd K. Riggs, sm'16, phD'18.1 Q Ray q. brewster, p1id'19, emeritus*~s professor and former departmentchairman, was honored by the Universityof Kansas chemistry department at a testimonial luncheon October 26. The eventreviewed some of his achievements as achemist and teacher in his forty-four-yeartenure at KU.The will of george ross robertson,sm'19, pIid'21, provided for a bequest of aportion of his residuary estate to the University. The bequest is to be added to theUniversity 's endowment funds.in memoriam: Mary E. Buell, phB'19;Kenneth C. Macpherson, sb'19; Cecil L.Rew, phB'19; Matthew Spinka, am'19,PhD '23.OA MABEL NAYLOR DANALIS, PlîB'20,^*V am'37, received a citation for "out-standing service to society" on October25, the occasion of the annual alumniawards dinner of UC's School of SocialService Administration. An active retirée,Mrs. Danalis organized a protest walk inSan Diego in 1970 to raise funds to fighthunger, poverty and malnutrition.hans kurath, phD'20, professor emeritus of English, University of Michigan,has autliored a new book, Studies in AreaLinguistics (Indiana University Press), abroad survey of the techniques and resultsof research in linguistic geography in thewestern world. A major final section ofthe work considers the social dimension ofarea linguistics, with spécial attention toblack speech in New York, Washingtonand Chicago.in memoriam: Arthur Bradley Sperry,SB '20.41Ol LEONARD J. BEZARK, PhB '21, and** -¦- HARRIET ROLFE BEZARK, PllB'35,celebrated their golden wedding anniversa-ry on January 2. "They met as students atChicago," writes daughter Barbara be-zark friedberg, ab'44. "Harriet inter-rupted her studies for several years, thenreturned for her degree after her thirdchild was born — more of a novelty in the'30s than today." A gathering of the Be-zark clan might look like a UC reunion inminiature. Barbara is married to leefriedberg, ab'46, while the other daughter, janet bezark freed, am'58, marriedmerrill freed, ab'49, jd'53. "Sorry,"quips Barbara. "Léonard Jr. went to MITand married a Northwestern graduate."Léonard Sr. is in the field of industrial realestate with the Chicago firm of Draper andKramer.The University has received a bequestof $33,198.48 from the estate of jeanhamilton cushman, who attended theUniversity in the autumn of 1921.in memoriam: William Drumm John-ston, Jr., sb'21. O'I in memoriam: Ariel Parke Murphy,**** phB'22, died on August 20 in Grin-nell, Iowa.'l 2 FREDERICK. P. PURDUM, SB '23,^ J md'26, retired East Brady (Pa.)physician, was one of two médical men tobe specially feted at a banquet November2 for long and dedicated service to thecommunity. A surprise guest at the dinner,given by the Clarion County (Pa.) Histori-cal Society, was a collège professor fromGrove City, Pa., who turned out to be thefirst baby ever delivered by Dr. Purdum.Since his retirement in 1966, Dr. and Mrs.Purdum, carmel hayes, phB'24, hâvespent considérable time traveling, particularly in the Southwest and Mexico.in memoriam: Beulah Berolzheimer,am'23; John D. Wild, phB'23, phD'26.O / EDMUND H. DROEGEMUELLER,*** sb'24, sm'25, md'28, who passedaway on November 3, provided in his willfor an unrestricted bequest of $3,000 tothe University. *} C AUGUSTA HEWLETT, SB '25, is taking** J a leave of absence, her first real restin twenty years, from her job as truantofïicer for two public schools in Chicago'sUptown area. Attendance at both herschools is "below average" compared tothe rest of the city, she said in a ChicagoSun-Times profile. "I hâve eight or ninefamilies that could keep me busy full-time." But twenty years of work hâveconvinced her the word truant is a mis-nomer. "Few children miss school becausethey want to," she said. "Many are chron-ically under par physically, more hâvefailed to get the necessary skills to do theschoolwork of their grade, and some areso battered by the problems confrontingthem, they hâve no choice but to hide."paul l. moore, am'25, head of the nurs-ing home administrators program of thecontinuing éducation service, MichiganState University, from 1963 until last July,has been dubbed "educator of the year"by the Michigan Nursing Home Administrators Association.j. harley waldron, am'25, providedRobert H. Murray, 1881-1972ROBERT heffron murray, sb'04, diedOctober 28, 1972, at Valparaiso, Ind., tendays after his ninety-first birthday.On graduation from the University, hewas offered a graduate fellowship in phi-losophy, a subject in which he retained alifelong interest. But in order to be ableto support a wife (whom he had alreadypicked out) he accepted a position asassistant manager, and shortly thereaftermanager, of a small textile mill in SouthBoston, Va. In 1905, he married SueHorton of Chicago.Having earned an engineering degreeby studying at night, he returned to Chicago in 1909 and became constructionmanager for the Chicago Bridge and IronCompany, which his wife's grandfatherhad founded. He left the company in1917 to serve in World War I, havingorganized a company of volunteers inthe Beverly area. He served in Europeas commanding ofïicer of the 31 lth En-gineers and the 21st Engineers, and wascited by the chief engineer of the American Expeditionary Forces.In 1921, he went to Laconia, N.H., tomanage the Scott & Williams plant, important builders of knitting machinerystill in opération.While in New Hampshire Colonel Murray was asked to help in the créationof the state 's organized infantry reservesand was assigned as colonel of the as yetnon-existent 387th infantry reserve. Aletter sent to him on his departure by thestate executive officer commended himas "the pattern of what a colonel of areserve régiment should be in character,attitude and activity." He also served asprésident of the New Hampshire Reserve Officers' Association.In 1928, Colonel Murray returned toChicago to be near his own and hiswife's aging parents. He went to workfor Henry Pope, Sr., président of BearBrand hosiery, who had given him hisfirst opportunity in South Boston. Distribution being the principal problem ofBear Brand at the time, he conceived theidea of establishing retail stores special-izing in hosiery, since copied by manyother firms. The project grew from thefirst store in Aurora, 111., to over 132stores throughout the midwestern région,successfully surviving the dépression ofthe 1930s, the shortages of World War IIand later vicissitudes. He remained active in the business first as président andthen as chairman of the board of theNeumode Hosiery Company until hisdeath, driving himself into Chicago from his home near Valparaiso at least once aweek even in the last months of his life.In 1936, he and his wife acquired 100acres of hilly moraine land near Valparaiso. Later he increased his holdings to243 acres. Though the land was de-scribed by a local résident as "not worthraising rabbits on," he made the arableparts of the land productive and plantedthe sandy hills with over 50,000 ever-greens. In coopération with the animalhusbandry department of Purdue University, he developed a dairy herd of mixedbreeds built up by methods of artificialinsémination from proved sires in coopération with Rockefeller Prentice whosefather, Colonel Prentice, originated theidea. He also pioneered in selling milkand eggs through a retail outlet on thefarm which operated successfully forover twenty-five years. The farm opération and land hâve been willed to PurdueUniversity for the benefit of agricultureor éducation.In 1964, two years after the death ofhis first wife, Colonel Murray marriedElizabeth Linn Allen, daughter of JamesWeber Linn, well-loved professor ofEnglish literature and composition at theUniversity of Chicago from 1898 to 1939.She survives him and has submitted thisarticle.ELIZABETH LINN ALLEN MURRAY, x'28Valparaiso, Ind.42in his will for a bequest of $1,000 to theAlumni Fund. Mr. Waldron passed awayon October 10.in memoriam: Robert H. Distelhorst,phB'25.'J/L john a. wilson, phD'26, Andrew£" MacLeish distinguished service professor emeritus in the Oriental Instituteand the department of Near Eastern lan-guages and civilizations, and contributorto the Magazine [see "Nubian Rescue" inthe Sep/Oct issue], is président of theAmerican Research Center in Egypt, "aposition which gives Mrs. Wilson and methe pleasure of an annual winter trip toEgypt." Mr. Wilson was director of theOriental Institute from 1936 to 1946 (not1947 as stated in the Sep/Oct Magazine)and again in 1960- '61.in memoriam: George R. Moon, am'26;Samuel Beard Stratton, p1ib'26.'y'J EDITH RAMBAR GRIMM, PhB'27,** I vice-president in merchandising,Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co., is one of six"outstanding Chicago women" saluted re-cently by the YWCA.lu ELMER GERTZ, PhB'28, jd'30, Chi-«O cago attorney, was honored by theDecalogue Society of Lawyers when hewas awarded their Prime Minister of IsraëlMedal at the annual State of Israël BondTestimonial Dinner, held December 13 inChicago. Former président of the American Jewish Congress and chairman of thebill of rights committee for the IllinoisConstitutional Convention, Mr. Gertz hasa distinguished career in law, having rep-resented such clients as Nathan Leopoldin his successful bid for parole and JackRuby in setting aside the death sentence.He has been the attorney in various cen-sorship litigations, including the case in-volving Tropic of Cancer, and was counselof the Sparling Commission to investigatedisorders in Chicago during the spring andsummer of 1968.TQ HERBERT G. may, am'29, p1id'32, re-**S turned to the active list at OberlinCollège for this semester as distinguishedvisiting professor of religion. An Oberlinfaculty member from 1934 until his retire-ment in 1970, May is one of those primari-ly responsible for the acceptance of theRevised Standard Version of the Bible bythe Catholic Church.in memoriam: Mundy I. Peale, phB'29.2A FREDERICK SASS, JR., PhB'30, JD'32,•7" formerly counsel with the naval airSystems command, Department of theNavy, has joined the law firm of Fried,Frank, Harris, Shriver & Kampelman,Washington, D.C. Harold C. Voris (PhD'29, MD'30) at workaboard the 5.5. Hope in Brazil. Dr. Vorisrecently returned from Natal after complet-ing a two-month teaching-treatment mission.2 "I GLADYS CHAMBERS ROBINSON,D -L sm'31, director of the natural sciences division at George Williams Collège,Downers Grove, 111., has been promoted tothe rank of full professor.in memoriam: Helen Hardy Brunot,x'31; Mabel Blake Cohen, sb'31, p!id'35,md'37.2 0 harold A. bosley, db'32, PhD'33,D^ senior minister at Christ ChurchUnited Methodist in New York City, isthe author of Men Who Build Churches,published by Abingdon, which providesinterprétations of the life of Paul.2 2 ERIK WAHLGREN, PhB'33, PhD'38,DD and WAYLAND D. HAND, PhD'36,both faculty members at UCLA, hâvebeen knighted by Finland for their long-time services in promoting cultural relations between that country and the U. S.Hand is professor of German and folkloreand director of UCLA's Center for theStudy of Folklore and Mythology, whichhe founded. Wahlgren is currently onleave from his professorship in Scandina-vian and Germanie languages at UCLA inorder to direct the University of CaliforniaScandinavian study centers at the Univer-sities of Bergen, Norway, and Lund, Swe-den.in memoriam: Hazel Naylor, am'33;Bertha Irène Tash, phB'33.2 7 JOHN E- sype, ab'37, jd'39, a Rock-D I ford (111.) attorney, has been namedby the Illinois Suprême Court to fill a va- cancy on the Winnebago County circuitbench.Catherine b. cleary, ab'37, présidentof the First Wisconsin Trust Co., Milwau-kee, has been chosen by General Motorsas the first woman on its board of directors.john mûri, phB'37, has been givingtheater pipe-organ concerts ail over thecountry since 1962. Mr. Mûri first beganplaying theater organs for motion picturesat the âge of seventeen. His first job wasat the Temple Theater in Hammond, Ind.,where both the organ pipes and the console were located in the ceiling of thetheater, and he had to watch the picturesfrom several stories above the seatingfloor. He often had dreams of failing offthe bench and plummeting down into theaudience like the chandelier in Phantom ofthe Opéra. A teacher at Wayne State University for the past three years, Mr. Mûrilives in a large home in Détroit housingthe Wurlitzer that used to be in the TivoliTheater in Washington, D. C.2Q JOHN gall, phD'39, professor ofJS chemistry at the Philadelphia Collège of Textiles and Science, has beenelected président of the American Chemical Society, Philadelphia section.in memoriam: Otha L. Clark, phD'39;Oliver W. Robinson, am'39; Kenneth Sa-now, ab'39, am'46; Charlotte Fehlman delSolar, ab'39.Af\ ALFRED G. WARDLEY, AM'40, as ex-"" ecutive vice-president of the foun-dation of Children's Hospital MédicalCenter in Oakland, Calif ., has won theNational Association for Hospital Devel-opment's highest award. Only one entry,in the deferred giving category, was sub-mitted for the hospital, which won the silver first-place award and then went on tocop the top prize in the compétition. Mr.Wardley has headed the San FranciscoBay Area SSA alumni group for some fiveyears./ 1 jean s. fuerst, am'41, specialist in* -*- international housing, has beennamed adjunct professor of urban studiesat Loyola University in Chicago.X'I raoul m. perez, p1id'42, after*¦" twenty-three years at the UnitedNations, where he was senior interpréter,has returned to the teaching profession.He is now professor and chairman of themodem languages department at HostosCommunity Collège of the City Universityof New York. Comments Professor Perez,"This is the first collège in the UnitedStates to be named after a Puerto Rican."olin r. houston, sb'42, meteorologist43at the National Weather Service 's National Meteorological Center in Suitland,Md., has won a Department of Commercesilver medal for his exceptional work inthe improvement of computer-producedweather forecast charts./ 2 JOANNE GEROULD SIMPSON, SB'43,^ J sm'45, phD'49, Coral Gables, Fia.,was decorated by the Commerce Department recently for her contributions toknowledge of man's upper environment.Dr. Simpson, director of the Environ-mental Research Laboratory, received agold medal, the department's highest honor, for her research in tropical weathermodification, including increasing rainfallto alleviate drought. She is married torobert h. simpson, p1id'62, director ofthe National Hurricane Center in Miami.in memoriam: Théodore W. Anderson,ab'43, am'44.A A ARTHUR W. ADAMSON, PUD'44, has* * been named chairman of thechemistry department at the University ofSouthern California. A member of theUSC faculty since 1946, he has madebasic contributions to complex ionchemistry and especially to the photo-chemistry of coordination compounds.in memoriam: Betty Browne Lyon,ab'44, jd'48./C Very Rev. pius j. barth, phD'45,* J has relinquished the positions ofprovost and dean of the graduate schoolwhich he founded in 1967 at the CatholicUniversity of Puerto Rico "to allow capable, well-prepared Puerto Ricans to takeover those responsibilities and activitieswhich continentals came hère to help themperform." Continuing as professor of éducation, Father Barth is currently workingon a text for his course in existentialdimensions of éducation.A/^ JEWEL STRADFORD LAFONTANT,* vJ jd'46, Chicago attorney, as the newdeputy solicitor gênerai in the Justice Department, is the highest female appointéeof the second Nixon administration.JUNE MCCORMACK COLLINS, AM'46,phD'49, and orvis collins, am'61, p1id'64,both faculty members at the State University of New York at Bufïalo, traveled tothe Netherlands and West Germany duringthe summer; she delivered a paper at theInternational Congress of Americanists.Dr. (Mrs.) Collins, chairman of SUNY atBuffalo's anthropology department, hasanother book in the works — this one deal-ing with the Upper Skagit Indians of western Washington.in memoriam: Delbert A. Greenwood,phD'46. AH NANCY OESTREICH LURIE, AM'47,* / fulfilled a lifelong ambition whenshe became curator of anthropology at theMilwaukee Public Muséum in September.She has felt the lure of the muséum eversince, as a six-year-old growing up on thesouth side of Milwaukee, she would checkinto the muséum every Saturday morning,following her drum lesson, and spend therest of the day roaming about, studyingand drawing. To achieve the curator ship,Dr. Lurie was even willing to take a sub-stantial eut in income by quitting her bet-ter-paid faculty post at the University ofWisconsin — Milwaukee .robert b. murray, mba'47, has beenelected gênerai comptroller of the Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y.AQ WILLIAM A. PRYOR, PhB'48, sb'51,±& has been appointed Boyd professorof chemistry at Louisiana State Universityin Bâton Rouge. The author of numeroustechnical articles and five books whichhâve been translated into six languages including Russian and Japanese, Dr. Pryorhas been a Guggenheim fellow, a spécialfellow of the National Institutes of Health,and a distinguished faculty fellow at LSU.elmer l. kline, am'48, playwright andscreenwriter, is the author of a new film,No Deposit — No Return, one of the U. S.entries last summer in the Edinburgh FilmFestival and winner of a gold bronzemedal at the Atlanta Film Festival forbeing the outstanding low budget film.Produced by Golden Union Films in Ven-ice, Calif ., and starring Groucho Marx 'sdaughter, Melinda, the film premiered na-tionally October 26, in Columbus, O.Joseph Conrad: The Making of a Moraliste by john e. saveson, am'48, chairmanof the English department at Mansfield(Pa.) State Collège, has been published byEditions Rodopi (Amsterdam, Holland). Inthe book, parts of which hâve appeared asarticles in scholarly journals, Dr. Savesonexamines Conrad's ethic in the context oflate 19th century English thought.Samuel enoch stumpf, p1id'48, président of Cornell Collège, Mount Vernon,la., has been named a, consultant to thejudicial council of the American MédicalAssociation.in memoriam: Simon B. Friedman,am'48.A(\ Charles o. burgess, am'49, profes-*S sor of English at Old DominionUniversity, Norfolk, Va., was named provost of the school, effective October 1.in memoriam: Helen Peters Blaw,phB'49.50 george kaye, ab'50, jd'57, trialsand appeals attorney in Paxton, 111., has been named by the Illinois SuprêmeCourt to fill a vacancy on the bench of theeleventh judicial circuit.john a. pond, mba'50, former executive director of the Alumni Foundation atthe University of Chicago, has retired asvice-president of business afïairs at William Jewell Collège (Liberty, Mo.), forreasons of health. Mr. Pond, who un-derwent major heart surgery during thesummer, is recuperating in Boulder, Colo.muhammad rahmatullah, sm'50,Karachi, is presently director of space science and research for Pakistan's Spaceand Upper Atmosphère Research Commit-tee.george j. resnikoff, sb'50, becamedean of graduate studies at CaliforniaState University, Hayward, on September1.in memoriam: Ralph R. Shaw, phD'50.C 1 The nomination by Président NixonJ *• Of MARJORIE HOLLOMAN PARKER,am'51, PhD '51, to the Washington, D. C.City Council has been approved by theSenate. Mrs. Parker, a Republican and theonly woman on the nine-member council,will maintain her chairmanship of the éducation and psychology division at D. C.Teaehers Collège on half-time leave. Sheis past national président of the AlphaKappa Alpha sorority and a former ofïicerof the National Council of Negro Women.in memoriam: William H. Reynolds,PhD '51.C ^ martin m. arlook, ab'52, has beenJ ** promoted by the National LaborRelations Board to the position of régionalattorney for Puerto Rico.C 2 BERNARD J. LACHNER, MBA'53, hasJ D resigned as professor of medicineand vice-president for administrative opérations at Ohio State University, to acceptan appointment as président and chief executive officer of the Evanston (111.) Hospital.HAROLD ROSENBAUM, AB'53, MBA'55,has joined the Rabin Research Company,Chicago, as director of client services.CA Paul Neimark, x'54, has beenJ* busy running the promotional cam-paign for his latest book, She L/ves/(NashPublishing), a book which seems to inspireeither very positive or very négative criti-cal responses. Nevertheless, the campaignhas caught on — reviews hâve appeared ineverything from Today 's Health to Lifemagazine to the Paris Herald Tribune —due at least in some measure to Mr. Nei-mark's rather remarkable publicity tactics.His campaign has run from cross-countryspeaking tours to free bumper stickers,44emblazoned simply with the name of thebook, to offbeat ads which he writes him-self , such as the one which appeared inthe Village Voice: "If you dig Esquire,making love in a bed, and Tricia Nixon,then everything you stand for is threa-tened by Paul Neimark's She LivesT Thenovel came out in paperback this fall(Warner Paperback Library) and will soonbe available in four foreign languages, including Japanese.harry neumann, am'54, delivered anaddress on académie freedom recently tothe faculty of Scripps Collège (Claremont,Calif.), where he is a member of the phi-losophy department. Said Professor Neumann: "That end [of académie freedom] isquestioning the value of what the studentor teacher loves most deeply, whatever orwhoever that beloved may be. In mycase, this means questioning the value offree inquiry and académie freedom. Formany contemporary students and teachersit would mean serious doubts about theirpassionate commitment to Women'sLiberation, Black Power, or the Brother-hood of Man. . . . Attachment to prevailing campus orthodoxies sometimes leadsto more or less violent coercion of non-believers — for example, through moratori-ums on classes and other disruptions.Sometimes the coercion is non-violent —for example, when those opposed to thecompetitiveness encouraged by lettergrades and S.A.T. scores eliminate them,thereby eliminating the freedom of students and teachers who consider lettergrades better than written comments. . . ."But thèse are trivial things. The realdelusion is that victory . . . seules any-thing in schools as it obviously does inpolitics. . . . Real students and teachers refuse to be impressed by violent or peace-ful power, for they do not know whethermight makes right. . . ."If we had admitted only students andteachers with this intellectual openness,we would not hâve suffered the violentand peaceful académie threats to académiefreedom which hâve plagued so manyAmerican educational institutions in thelast few years. . . ."CC JAMES w. stockham, am'55, Wes-J J tern Springs, 111., has been namedgênerai superintendent of the Chicago service center of Joseph T. Ryerson & Son,Inc.C "7 GEORGE E. WALRAFEN, SM'57,J I PhD '59, is spending the 1972-73académie year as visiting professor ofchemistry in the Institute of PhysicalChemistry, University of Marburg. He iscurrently teaching a graduate course inraman spectroscopy and conducting high- pressure laser-raman research on aqueoussolutions.CO ERICH KLINGHAMMER, AB'58,J® phD '62, associate professor ofethology in the psychology department atPurdue University, is presently engaged intwo projects. He is the English languagescientific editor for Grimek's Animal LifeEncyclopedia being translated from theGerman (three volumes of the thirteenhâve been published to date). He is alsoprésident of the new North AmericanWildlife Park Foundation whose purposeis to create a wildlife park in central Indi-ana as a showease of animais in closelyapproximated natural habitats. He and hiswife, Suzanne c. vietorisz, ab'57, live inBattle Ground, Ind.WILLIAM harmon, ab'58, am'68, be-came chairman of the English department,University of North Carolina at ChapelHill, this October. A book of his poetry,Légion: Civic Choruses, is scheduled forpublication next spring by Wesleyan University Press.ROBERT H. PUCKETT, AM'58, PhD'61,professor of political science at IndianaState University, is author of a new book,America Faces the World: Isolationist Ide-ology in American Foreign Policy, published by MSS Information Corporation,New York./Tl fred k. grant, jd'61, assistant^J-*- U.S. attorney and assistant statesattorney in Baltimore for the past nineyears, moved to Caldwell, Ida., this summer with his wife and two sons, and isworking as deputy sheriff and administrative assistant to the sheriff of CanyonCounty, Ida.£/) WILLIAM G. SPADY, AB'62, AM'64,"** phD'67, associate professor of soci-ology, Ontario Institute for Studies inEducation, has been appointed senior research associate of the National Instituteof Education, Washington, D. C, effectiveFebruary l . He is currently editor of TheGenerator, a research newsletter of theAmerican Educational Research Association, a research associate of the AmericanCollège Testing Program in Iowa City, andthe Toronto area représentative on theAlumni Fund board.fjl harriet gorov kay, ab'63, as spe-^•s cial activities coordinator for thedean of undergraduate students at Wor-cester (Mass.) Polytechnic Institute, over-sees the administration of Intersession(described by her husband, russell kay,ab'65, director of publications there, as"our January diversion from normality"),summer session, and the coordination ofthe curriculum catalog. /1A PAMELA PROCUNIAR GOLDBERG,^ * ab'64, Cherry Hill, N. J., is servingas chief légal counsel for a project to revise the rules for the Philadelphia prisons.peter a. boysen, mba'64, senior securi-ties analyst, has been appointed administrative assistant of Teachers Insuranceand Annuity Association andCollege Re-tirement Equities Fund, New York.LORRAINE HALL BURGHARDT, AB'64,am'65, PhD '68, as new assistant dean ofthe collège of libéral arts, University ofTennessee (Knoxville), is the only femaleadministrator in the UT System, outside ofthe home économies collèges. She and herhusband, gordon m. burghardt, sb'63,phD'66, associate professor of psychologyat UT, hâve been collaborating in blackbear research in the Great Smoky Moun-tains. Writes Mrs. Burghardt, "We raisedtwo orphaned bear cubs — first in our homeand then in the park. They hâve grown intwo and one-half years from four poundsto about 250 pounds. I contribute to thematernai pattern and the writing, whileGordon deals with the scientific part."/^J h. robert berg, am'67, has been" / promoted to assistant professor ofmodem languages at Marietta (O.) Collège.KAREN CONNORS FUSON, MAT'67, hasbeen appointed lecturer in mathematics inthe collège of éducation, Roosevelt University (Chicago). Mrs. Fuson is currentlycompleting work on her doctorate at UC.kenneth kessin, pIid'67, has beennamed professor and chairman of thesociology-anthropology department atTrenton (N J.) State Collège./lO The nomination of gloria long*^C anderson, pIid'68, by PrésidentNixon to the board of directors of theCorporation for Public Broadcasting, hasbeen confirmed by the Senate. Dr. Anderson, an associate professor and chairmanof the chemistry department at MorrisBrown Collège in Atlanta, has also taughtat South Carolina Collège, MorehouseCollège and the University of Chicago.MORRIE K. BLUMBERG, AM'68, moved tOAccra, Ghana, on September 2 to serve asrégional program ofïicer in AID 's AfricaRégional Population Office, an assignmentwhich has already taken him on officiaivisits to Togo, Zaire, Burundi, Rwanda,and Kenya, to advise those governmentson family planning activities. This assignment follows thirty months of service inWashington during which Mr. Blumbergbackstopped AID's population dynamics-family planning assistance programs to In-dia, Népal, and Ceylon.gène paul strayer, am'68, has joinedthe faculty of the University of Coloradoat Boulder as assistant professor of re-ligious studies. Mr. Strayer, who formerly45taught at Miles Collège in Birmingham,Ala., received an msm degree from UnionTheological Seminary School of SacredMusic in June.^Q AMAR MAHESHWARI, PllD'69,*JS formerly at the University of Tokyo, has joined the Himachal Pradesh University, Simla, India, as an associate professor of physics.dale L. good, ab'69, référence librarianin the music division, New York PublicLibrary at Lincoln Center, has been appointed assistant editor of Notes, quarterlyjournal of the Music Library Association."7 A JOANNE VEAL GABBIN, AM'70, Spe-/ " cialist in black literature, has joinedthe faculty of Chicago State University asassistant professor of English.KATHERINE JANE HORWICH, AM'70, doctoral student in American history at UC, isa lecturer in history at Roosevelt University as of this fall.GEORGE WASHINGTON SINGLETON III,ab'70, and michelle cecelia coleman, ab'72, were married on August 5 in Baltimore.n daniel gray, ab'71, is serving asassistant social work coordinator atthe St. Joseph's Carondelet Child Treat-ment Center in Chicago. Run by the Sis-ters of St. Joseph Carondelet, the centerworks with mentally disturbed boys between the âges of six and thirteen. Mr.Gray reports that there is an on-goingneed for volunteer families of ail races toprovide weekend visits for patients. Families willing to volunteer as "weekend parents" should call Mr. Gray at (312) 624-7443.ELIZABETH PEDERSON KNUTSON,MTh'71, DMn'72, was ordained into theLutheran ministry this summer and will beassistant pastor at Faith Lutheran inHomewood, 111.nancy l. roberts, ab'71, is doing graduate work in educational development atthe Ohio State University. She holds a research assistantship at OSU's Center for Vocational and Technical Education and isworking with a Systems project in highschool vocational guidance.MICHAEL ROMAN WASIELEWSKI, SB'71,sm'72, has been awarded the Fannie andJohn Hertz Foundation fellowship forgraduate studies in UC's chemistry department.mJ/l earl a. turner, jr., ab'72, informs' ** us that he is employed in San Francisco now, where he is also studying to-wards an electrical engineering degree. Heplans to join the Sufism Reoriented SufiOrder, a mystical group dedicated to Avatar Meher Baba.Living with Your Bronchitis and Em-physema, the sixth book by Théodoreberland, am'72, was published on November 22. The third in a séries of fivemédical books Mr. Berland is writingunder contract with St. Martin's Press,New York, the volume "tells its coughing,gasping readers how to survive, and is afiery indictment of smoking and air pollution."Club eventsBaltimore: On November 8 Julian H.Levi, professor of urban studies andexecutive director of the South EastChicago Commission, delivered an addressto Baltimore alumni entitled "They WentThat'a Way." Russell Jalbert, am'47, waschairman for the program.boston: Bruno Bettelheim, the Stella M.Rowley distinguished service professor oféducation, director of the Sonia ShankmanOrthogenic School, and professor ofpsychology and psychiatry, spoke October19 on his most récent book, The Childrenof the Dream. Philip A. Mason, ab'64,jd'67, was program chairman.Cincinnati: "Prisons— 1972" was the titleof Norval R. Morris' talk to local alumnion December 5. Mr. Morris is the JuliusKreeger professor of law and criminologyand director of the Center for Studies inCriminal Justice. Ken Léonard, am'60,mba'66, chaired the event.des moines: Roy P. Mackal, associateprofessor of biochemistry, brought DesMoines area alumni up to date on thecontinuing "Mystery of Loch Ness" at anOctober 24 gathering. Program chairmanwas Steven Blank, mba'69.hartford : Edward A. Maser, professor of art and director, the David and AlfredSmart Gallery of the Cochrane Woods ArtCenter, spoke on November 15 at theWadsworth Atheneum on "Rehabilitatingthe Baroque." Charles A. Edwards, ab'65,chaired the meeting.kansas city: At a meeting on November18 at the Nelson Gallery of Art, the Rev.Harrie A. Vanderstappen, professor of artand Far Eastern languages andcivilizations, gave an illustrated lecture onthe gallery 's outstanding collection ofEarly Chinese paintings. Philip L.Metzger, ab'38, am'39, was chairman.louis ville: Professor of PsychologyMilton J. Rosenberg spoke on the rôle ofpublic opinion in shaping U. S. foreignpolicy at a November 16 gathering,chaired by Mary Williamson Titzl, PhD '68.milwaukee: Professor Roy P. Mackaldiscussed "The Mystery of Loch Ness'with Milwaukee area alumni on December6. Gaar W. Steiner, jd'63, presided.northwest indiana: Arthur E. Wise,associate dean of the Graduate School ofEducation and assistant chairman of theDepartment of Education, explored the"Corning Révolution in School Finance"at a dinner program held October 19. Chairman was Reed Reynolds, mba'55.philadelphia: "They Went That'a Way"was the title of Julian H. Levi's address tolocal alumni on November 9 at a dinnermeeting chaired by Martin Wald, mba'57.phoenix: Allan Rechtschaffen, professorof psychiatry and psychology and directorof the University 's Sleep Laboratory,discussed "Récent Research on Sleep andDreams" with Phoenix alumni onNovember 28. Sophia Fogelson Kruglick,ab'39, is club président.san diego: Alumni gathered at the KonaKai Club on November 20 to hear JulianH. Levi speak on "View from the WhiteHouse: The Urban Crisis and the NextAdministration." James A. Malkus, ab'59,jd'61, served as chairman.tucson: Allan Rechtschaffen reported on"Récent Research on Sleep and Dreams"at a November 29 event, chaired byRobert S. Firch, phiD'63.Washington, d.c: John Hope Franklin,John Matthews Manly distinguishedservice professor of history, discussed"Public Policy Issues and the Historian"with Washington alumni on November 29.John V. Long, ab'49, jd'51, heads the club.46"Dig and discover," says a stone plaque in a niche at thewest door of Rosenwald Hall — advice to générations ofgeologists and geographers for whom the building washome base for more than half a century. As of this year,however, the digging is more likely to be done with acomputer than with a pick-ax, the discoveries more likelyto concern the économie cycle than the epicycle. ForRosenwald has become part of the Graduate School ofBusiness complex, which includes the old Law Schoolbuilding as well as Haskell Hall. (The geologists moved tothe Henry Hinds Laboratory for the Geophysical Sciences in 1969; the geographers are ensconced in AlbertPick Hall for International Studies; the Law School is inits new quarters — the Laird Bell Law Quadrangle — onthe south side of the Midway.)The newest (shown hère) of the numerous gothic arch es scattered about the quadrangles now joins Rosenwald(at left) and the old law building. Rosenwald has beenremodeled, at the relatively economical cost of $2,000,000. The two principal auditoriums hâve been named, inappréciation for contributions to the rénovation by Alfred C. Stepan, Jr., and Oscar G. Mayer, the Alfred C.Stepan, Jr., Hall and the Oscar G. Mayer Mémorial Hall,the latter honoring Mr. Mayer's father. At the rededica-tion ceremony itself, added éclat prevailed as a resuit ofthe présence of Mrs. Max Ascoli, daughter of JuliusRosenwald, and Edgar B. Stern, Jr., a trustée of theUniversity and a grandson of Mr. Rosenwald. An extrahighlight: an insider's views on the Washington économiescène by George Shultz, then Secretary of the Treasury,on leave from his post in the Graduate School of Business.47Even if you9re of the peripatetic school.there are times when you want to sit down**re aiMirmehair philosopher^quarterback) a chair is a sine qua non.Effitootëto gladden your existence.Chicago chairs are sturdily built of northern yellow birch andfinisheii in blaïdE Wetjuer^is availàhie withblaçji ar-ivatural cherry -arins. Th^'^diejÊft'air*."..formerly availaWe^ has-4re<en jdis^nti»%£i{(.34rt^th«-^nn-~-'r-~ — «hair ,.1'fi3'.'ïhe -*ockëET.carry- ôxL iïië ^4»*êkr6St, and -îioïhThe Unïverskyef Chicago Alumni Association5733-tInivaEsity-Ave., Chicago. IH. «Q637., ..........i ..•:j.L..¦.jiîii i ¦— • Ghicajru Alumni Assoêïationî'for "ïïic fnlIouiti^Oi'ict^o rhairjsj^.' ~ Armunairs (cherry arms] at S^O.OOTârlîI ~" w*, .-r : ^BÉJ^ei-spcënti^.oid^fàcbire*,- 6TlÛai:dnejf7-S|as8Please make your check payable— to '1he„..Jiniver«ty~ofChicago Alumni Association.r- jQrdéTSTare -s hippad -expresscollect from the factory inGardner, Mass., and delrfery,ld" ..b^..^.xp'cMe"d3BL_ap-proximately six weeks. Ship-ping charges are payablewhen the chairs are received.Please use the accompanyingcoupon to order yourChicago chair.