.. \ ï THEUNIVERS! r Y>F CHKMAG, »*.*sà *,&&' yER/DECEMBER ' Jl-*PGF2c* and ail thatJoseph R. Swartwout, M.D.Irony and insuit: the matchless ploys of YiddishLéo Rosten 8Photo portfolio: XVI international conférence onhigh energy physics 12America' s Manichean approach to militarism: the case forlégal action on war crimes 17Marcus G. RaskinAdmission applications at Chicago: rising in a bear market 33New facts about an unusual alumni body 3436 Quadrangle news38 Books 39 Letters41 Alumni newsVolume LXV Number 3November/Deçember, 1972The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published six timesper year for alumni and the faculty ofThe University of Chicago, under theauspices of the Office of the Vice Président for Public Affairs. Letters andeditorial contributions are welcomed.Don Morris, AB'36EditorJane LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois; additional entry at Madison,Wisconsin. Copyright 1972, The University of Chicago. Published in July/August, September/October, November/Deçember, January/February,March/April, and May/June. The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312) 753-2175John S. Coulson, '36, PrésidentArthur Nayer, Director, AlumniAffairsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorLisa Wally, AM'68Program DirectorRégional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91201(213) 242-8288320 Central Park West, Suite 14ANew York, New York 10025(212) 787-78001000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415) 928-03375850 Cameron Run TerraceAlexandria, Va. 22303(703) 768-7220COVER: James W. Cronin, University professor in the Department of Physics and the EnricoFermi Institute (left), parries a question from David R. Nygren of Columbia University(back to caméra) at the XVI International Conférence on High Energy Physics held thisyearat the University and the National Accelerator Lab (pictures on Pages 12-16), as P. Lindsey,University of Chicago, audits the exchange. Also looking on, on back cover, are (left to right)R. J. Abrams, University of Illinois (Circle); unidentified man, back to caméra; Ch.Rubbia, CERN, Geneva; and Eli Rosenberg, Mel Shochet and H. J. Frisch, University ofChicago.PICTURE CREDITS: Pages 1, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 48, H. Anne Plettinger; Page 3, SandraKronquist; Page 8, Karsh of Ottawa; Pages 20, 21, 22, 29, United Press International.PGF 2*. COOHVÇF2A4U M tUtJoseph R. Swartwout, M.D.Within the next few years — the exact date depending,first, on the progress of on-going research and, second,on the outcome of the exercise of its good offices by theU.S. Food and Drug Administration — Americans canexpect to begin encountering the prostaglandins. Theyare already receiving much attention in the lay press.(Americans confronted by certain médical problemswhile traveling in Europe may possibly encounter theprostaglandins sooner, since clinical use there is notsubject to FDA's stringent testing requirements.)Wherever and whenever the citizen may meet theprostaglandins on a clinical basis, thèse compoundswhich are creating so much excitement in biomédicalresearch, are expected ultimately to produce resultsimportant for health, including reproduction and otherphysiological manifestations.Prostaglandin, or more properly the prostaglandins,therefore represent a subject of vast potential signifi-cance, about which the citizen should be informed.Dr. Swartwout, associate professor in the Department ofObstetrics and Gynecology, received his médical degree atTulane. He joined the University of Chicago faculty in1967. In 1970 he received the Dorothy Wrigley OffieldAward for Distinguished Leadership in Planned Parent-hood. His interest in the prostaglandins stems from theirimportance in a variety of human reproductive functions.Portions of the article were reported at a seminar spon-sored by the Barren Foundation. Actually, the citizenrycurrently are already inti-mately involved with theactivities of the prostaglandins, since thèse substances are manufacturedin the body and hâve beenfunctioning in importantand widely diversifiedways — undiscovered untilrécent years. Even nowour state of knowledge isincomplète, and muchmore research is neededbefore the rôle of prostaglandin (hereinafter alsoreferred to as PG) is com-pletely understood. Sincethe identification of PG inthe 1930s and the isolationof two varieties of thecompound in 1960, theimaginations of scientistsail over the world hâvebeen stimulated by PG'sastonishing characteristics. From a mère trickle (therewere thirty published between 1935 and 1965), the volume of research reports has grown to a flood; by earlythis year more than a thousand had appeared, and thestudies hâve continued to multiply. The field of prostaglandins even has its own journal now.f jjDr. Swartwout3The most promising possibilities for clinical use of PGseem to be in the treatment of peptic ulcer and hypertension, and in obstetrics and gynecology. However, ourknowledge about thèse compounds is comparable to thatwhich prevailed regarding steroids fifteen years ago. Newknowledge may expand PG's promise — or restrict it.PG is found throughout the tissues of the body. A manproduces from 109 to 226 micrograms in twenty-fourhours, a woman from 23 to 48 micrograms. Thèse aresmall amounts, but PG is powerful stuff . Reaction to PGin the cell is triggered by the présence of less than a singlenanogram (one-billionth of a gram) per milliliter. Theprostaglandins are created rapidly, and they are rapidlydestroyed — the time is in the range of fractions of asecond.Multiplicity of actionsWhat do thèse tremendously active compounds do inthe body? The list is impressive.• On the heart, one effect is an increase in cardiacoutput.• On heart musculature, there's an increase in myo-cardial contractility.• The E compound of PG reduces tension in the bloodvessels. This effect is accompanied by dilation of theblood vessels, and the vascular walls also become moreperméable.• The F form of PG, on the other hand, can causehypertension, constriction of the blood vessels and de-crease the permeability of the blood vessel walls.• In the blood, the E form of PG inhibits the aggregationof blood platelets.• In the kidney, two PG types, A and E, increase plasmaflow and stimulate the excrétion of sodium.• In the utérus, the E form of PG causes decreasedperistaltic action, but in higher doses E and F causecontractions.• In the lungs, PGE causes relaxation of the bronchialmuscles, whereas the F form of PG causes thèse musclesto contract.• In the stomach, PGE inhibits gastric sécrétions; PGFcauses nausea and vomiting.• In the intestines, both the E and F forms of PG bring about increased peristaltic action and decrease transittime accordingly.• In fatty tissue, PGE opposes the breakdown of fatcells.• In the hypophysis (pituitary), PGE releases the growthhormone.• In the cortex of the adrenal glands, PGE causes thecréation of steroids.• In the ovary and the testis, both PGE and PGFincrease the production of steroids.• In the thyroid, PGE mimics the action of the thyro-tropic hormone, TSH.• In the peripheral tissues, the E compound has aninsulin-like activity.• In the cérébral cortex of the brain, PGE acts as aseïïative.• In the medulla, both the E and F forms may causeeither excitation or inhibition.• In the spinal cord, both E and F inhibit spinal réflexes.• In the eye, E and F constrict the pupils and causeelevated intraocular pressure.• In the skin, PGE causes altered rate of growth of theepithelium.From this list it is clear that thèse compounds do agreat number of things. It is also clear that they do somesurprisingly contrasting things.Further complicating the picture of how the prostaglandins f unction is the f act that thèse compoundsdon't always work the same way in humans as they do inanimais, and much of the research to date has been onanimal subjects.The prostate was only the startAnother basic problem is trying to décide, from theresearch and the research approaches that we hâvetoday, how much of PG's effect is basic physiology, andhow much is pharmacologie action; separating thèse twois most difficult.Although researchers as long ago as 1913 had madeobservations on the pharmacological eff ects produced bysemen and prostate extract, it was not until 1934 andsucceeding years, under the leadership of Ulf S. von4Sites of some actions of various prostaglandinsCortex(sedation — E)Eye(constrict pupils,î pressure — E, F)Adrenal cortex(steroidogenesis — E)Thyroid(mimics TSH—E)Hypophysis(Release growthhormone — E)Stomach(inhibits gastric sécrétion — E)(nausea, vomiting — E, F)Intestinal tractCf persitalsis)Peripheral tissues(insulin-like activity — E) Spinal cord(inhibit réflexes,potentiate decerebraterigidity — E, F)Lungs(relaxes bronchial muscle — E)(contracts bronchial muscle — F)Heart( t output,f contractility — E, F)Kidney(natriuresis. \ plasmaflow—A, E)Testis and ovary(steroidogenesis — E, F)Ureter(decrease peristalsis — E)Blood(inhibits plateletaggregation—E)Vascular(hypotension, vasodilatation,î permeability — E)(hypertension, venoconstriction,i permeability — F)Euler, who gave the compounds their name, that theprostaglandins began to émerge as a unique and signifi-cant entity.Von Euler noted that semen and prostate extractlowered arterial blood pressure on intravenous injectionand acted to stimulate a number of isolated intestinal andutérine smooth muscle préparations. The active princi-ple, he indicated, was a fat soluble acid, differing, on thisbasis, from other substances characterized by similaractivity, such as the histamines.Von Euler's work led to a vast Worldwide effort toaccumulate the prostate glands of sheep. Working in vonEuler's lab in Sweden, R. Eliasson and a number ofcolleagues further refined understanding of the proper- ties of PG, including the fact that its name constituted amisnomer (but it was too late to change).More than two décades later, at the Karolinska Insti-tute in Stockholm, Sune Bergstrbm and others succeededin insolating PG and working out the chemical structureof its varying forms.Since then scientists — in the pharmaceutical industryas well as in the universities — hâve been vigorouslypursuing knowledge of the prostaglandins and their activités, and developing, in the process, hundreds of variantforms of the naturally occurring substance.The prostaglandin molécule is a fatty acid molécule.Each PG unit incorporâtes twenty carbon atoms, afive-member ring in the middle of the molécule and5various oxy and hydroxy side chains. Each molécule isunsaturated, having been made by the body from polyun-saturated fats. The principal naturally occurring compounds are the E and F varie ties, and, secondarily, the Aand B varieties. The E form was originally so designatedbecause it is more soluble in ether. PGF was so calledbecause it is more soluble in phosphate bufïer solution(phosphate being spelled with an "f " in Sweden, wherethe cliscovery was made).The letter désignation of each PG type indicates thestructure of the included five-member ring, and eachlabel is accompanied by a number representing thedouble bonds in the remainder of the molécule — one, twoor three (degree of unsaturation).The A and B prostaglandins are dégradation productsof the more active E and F varieties.Regulatory capacitiesThe body manufactures PG out of highly unsaturatedfatty acids (the essential fatty acids, linolenic and arachi-donic acid) by means of an enzyme System —prostaglandin synthetase. The synthetase is found inmost of the organs of the body, so PG likewise has awidely distributed bodily origin.The enzymes which destroy the activity of PG are alsofound throughout the body; thèse enzymes are a reduc-tase and a 15-hydroxydehydrogenase. In the normalsituation PGs are rapidly created and rapidly destroy éd.This keeps the levels low, which is appropriate forcompounds which are so active that cells respond toextremely minute (nanogram) amounts.(Prostaglandins are also turned ofî by the action ofaspirin, so that at long last we may be getting a clue tohow aspirin works. Assuming that one function in whichPG is involved is the création of inflammation as atherapeutic step, the aspirin, by deactivating PG, makesthe individual feel better, even though the inflammationitself may be serving a useful function so far as the bodyis concerned.)Prostaglandins are non-specific in their ability tochange cell activity in many différent types of cells whichrespond to them. The mode of action is the same as that of cell-specific hormones, such as thyrotropic hormoneor lutienizing hormone. The prostaglandins operate bymeans of the mechanism discovered by Dr. Earl Suther-land in his work which won last year's Nobel Prize.Prostaglandins key the "on-off " action of adenyl cyclasewhich, when "on," produces a denosine-3', 5'-monophosphate (commonly known as cyclic AMP),which in turn causes cell function to occur. But incontrast to other cellularly active compounds, prostaglandins hâve the ability to turn cell function on or off ,according to the degree of concentration, or to theidentity of the particular prostaglandin involved.It is very fitting that most of the research activity withprostaglandins is in the area of gynecology and obstet-rics, since the first observation was of the utérus bygynecologists. In gynecology and obstetrics the threeprincipal areas of study are fertility control, abortion, andinduction of labor.Research in fertility control has indicated that prostaglandins may provide a means to inhibit, as well as ameans to enhance, fertility. The ratio between E and Fcompounds may be critical in the fertilization process. Ifso, this would mean that increasing one or the otherwould change the ratio, making it more normal, or moreabnormal, and accomplishing the desired resuit. Anotherfertility control method is the vaginal use of PGE2 orPGF2a at the time of the first missed period to inducebleeding. This method, which is early abortion, may beacceptable in some countries and cultures.Réduction of side effectsFor inducing abortion the question is not, "Will it?",but what is the best mode of administration. The Fcompounds and E compounds will induce expulsiveutérine contractions in any trimester. The sensitivity ofthe utérus seems to be less in the mid-trimester and earlypart of the last trimester. The original mode of administration was intravenous, but systemic reactions, particu-larly nausea and vomiting, made researchers look forother modes of administration. At the présent timestudies center on various methods of utérine or vaginaladministration.6In the induction of labor, prostaglandins may hâve auseful place. It is still too early to be certain. The actionon the utérus is a delayed type, which may represent adisadvantage. On the other hand it produces a good laborpattern.The huge amount of research currently being done onail phases of prostaglandin activity is a reflection of boththe potential and the unknown of prostaglandins. It is toosoon to make firm prédictions about the clinical uses ofthèse compounds but, barring the discovery of severecomplications, they will be useful in obstetrics andgynecology. In the ordinary course of events one wouldexpect that thèse compounds would be approved forsome uses in about two years.A two-way master keyWell, how do y ou put ail of this together to makesensé — at least sensé out of the knowledge that we hâveto date?If we consider PG to be sort of a master key amongsthormones, and difîerentiate it from the spécifie keys suchas thyrotropic hormone, which turns on only the thyroidgland, and other spécifie hormones that turn on onlyparticular cells; if we consider prostaglandins sort of amaster key that will fit almost any cell, and turn on theactivity of that cell, then we can begin to get some sort offeeling for the activity of thèse compounds.Perhaps, if you will allow me to speculate further,perhaps this master key that fits the lock of manydifférent cells also has the ability to turn in eitherdirection. I mean by this that, depending upon whichprostaglandin it is (and in some cases, depending uponconcentration, because we know that in certain cases,with low concentration, the activity of the cells is turnedoff , and with higher concentration it's turned on, whereaswith other prostaglandins and other cells, low concentra-^t j-r-^i ADENYL tions may turn it on and higher concentrations turn it off)PG is not only like a master key that unlocks many cells,but also a key that will turn in either direction, either toturn on or turn off the activity of the cell. Probably inmost cases adenyl cyclase is the switch that this keyactivâtes, which in turn activâtes cyclic AMP, which thenin turn promotes the function of that particular cell.Steady state regulator?I think this figure of speech can give us some sort ofbroad feel for the rather non-specific and apparentlycontradictory actions that we see, and perhaps for therôles that they play in total body metabolism.Putting ail of this together, is it possible to arrive at anoverview of what this molecular mighty mite means tothe functioning of the human body? One unifying theory,the facts suggest to me — one unifying theory that can fitpresent-day knowledge about prostaglandin activity —might be that PG is a steady state regulator for mam-malian tissues. This would mean that PG is not a simpleon-off regulator, like the thyrotropic hormone, which actsto increase activity on almost a linear basis and then fallsoff. It would mean that PG acts in a manner somethinglike a hypothetical thermostat which would not only turnon the furnace if activated by a low room température,but would turn off the furnace and turn on the airconditioner if room warmth rose above a stipulated level.This would tend to explain some of the oppositereactions produced by variations in concentration, andby différences in the number of double bonds. It wouldalso help to explain the extrême rapidity of productionand réduction of thèse compounds.Whatever proves to be the case, as our knowledge ofthèse molecular-level regulators grows, of this you maybe sure: the citizenry will be hearing more and more ofthe prostaglandins.» CYCLIC AMP v CELLFUNCTIONaactùucdtLéo RostenVtôrtuWhat is a language? It is more than a garment of soundsin which to dress our sensations, or a horn through whichto express our ideas. A language is the articulation of aculture, of a certain way of living; and any way of livingis jammed with spécial values and hidden subtleties,assumptions, préférences, implicit judgments.Even the "simplest" tongue of the most primitivepeople is an intricate web, woven of words rooted in adistinctive psychological style and philosophical stance.Each of the nearly 3,000 dialects developed by pian is apattern of verbal conventions through which men try toenunciate the swarming sensations of their lives: the lifeof the skin, the self, the heart, the mind. (Music, painting,dance, mathematics are other way s.) Through what I canonly call the sorcery of words, we try to express themeasureless reach of our émotions, our mentation andour imagination.Is it surprising that so complex a task is complex —This sample of the joys of Rosten is adapted from thepréface to A Treasury of Jewish Quotations (© LéoRosten; New York, McGraw-Hill, 1972. $10.95). Mr.Rosten (PhB930, PhD 37) first achieved famé in the 30sfor his Hyman Kaplan stories, published under the byline,Léonard Ross. Laterhe was deputy director of the Office ofWar Information and organized the social sciences section of RAND Corp. Also author of People I HâveLoved, Known or Admired and A Trumpet for Reason,he was honored by the University with a professionalachievement award in 1969. His new Treasury encompas-ses 4,000 years of folk sayings, proverbs, maxims andmoralisms, somefunny, some profound; always arresting. éloquent, revealing, deceptive, often self-deceiving? Forwe ail carry concepts in an always inadéquate basket ofwords: profound and elusive concepts — about need anddésire, intuition and thought, fear, pleasure, amusement,pain; confusion and contempt, ecstasy and horror; theclamorings of hope and the admissions of despair; inshort, ail of the fragile parameters of our convictionsabout proof , faith, beauty, truth, virtue, sin, glory, guilt.Language is a miraculous achievement, the greatestsingle invention of the human race. Is this hyperbole?Then consider for a moment the astonishing range ofmeaning encompassed by two simple ("simple?" explosive!) words: "Marna" and "infinity."I hâve elsewhere pointed out how hard it is for us torealize that a language teaches its users how to think,how to feel, what to see, what to hear. We ail assume weare experiencing "reality" when we are only experienc-ing the life-long conditioning and limitations of thatprison of words, that enclosure of grammar, by which ourconsciousness is bounded.Some languages hâve no word for "north," some noword for "sin," some no word for "bully." Some men donot "see red" when they are angry. Neither Hebrew norYiddish has a word for "charity" — because charity is aconcept foreign to a culture that magnifies the duty toprovide for the poor, the ailing, the old.When I first went to England, in my twenties, I wasrepelled by Albion's "coldness." Within a month Ilearned, from countless small and subtle responses, howvery warm — and shy — the English really are.When I first saw a traffic accident in Tokyo, I wasappalled by the conspicuous refusai of Japanese specta-tors to help the injured. Only later did I learn that to do sowould hâve been to assume a very grave, ingrainedresponsibility : to get the injured one to a hospital, engagea doctor, make daily visits, bring daily flowers, if need bet^tyidcUâApay the bills, even make sure that the victim becamereemployed, or the victim 's dependents cared for, afterdischarge from the hospital.Take a much simpler example: Englishmen think thatItalians, Arabs, Greeks, or Jews are "overly emotional."And they think that Englishmen are frozen in feeling.Englishmen treat a riot as "rather unfortunate"; Jewsconsider a bunion a cosmic injustice. Where Egyptianswail, Englishmen sniff. Where Hindu women shriek,English women frown. Italians explode in invective;Englishmen murmur dubieties. The Russians thunder;the English demur. Where Englishmen sigh, "What apity," Jews cry "What a disaster!"The English understate; Mediterraneans exaggerate.The English respect a stiff upper lip; Latins are baffled bysuch peculiar repression of appropriate émotion. TheEnglish fiée from confidences; the Jews rush to share andmatch them ("A man has to be a mentch"). Englishmenexpress sympathy with a diffidence that is de rigeur;Italians display compassion with a flamboyance that isobligatory.The crucial point is simply this: Where the Englishfrown upon the display of émotions, Italians and Moroc-cans and Jews act out their "natural" conviction thatémotions are meant to be verbalized, embroidered, andshared.In the light of such acculturated expectations, it beginsto dawn on one how difficult it is truly to translate apassage from one matrix of language into another. Fortranslation is not merely a matter of skill with synonyms;translation does not deal with words but with modalitiesof évaluation. To translate is to décode — and encode; toconvert one pattern of ethos and expérience and ap-praisal into another. No language can be skinned of itshistory or its psychology, stripped of its sociologicalvectors or philosophical posture. A language packages Léo Rostenthe mind, heart and soûl of those who use it — accordingto the ways in which they were shaped by it.Americans think "tyrants" were tyrannical in ancientGreece; but tyrannos only described men who hadgrabbed power, and were often beloved and libéral. TheFrench conscience bears no relationship to the English"conscience" (the French word means "consciousness"),just as mal a propos means "not appropriate" in French,but "malaprop " désignâtes a f unny misuse of languageto us.Not long ago, I tried to pin down the spécial character-istics of one tongue, a lingua franca, Yiddish, that isinfluencing English in more ways (and words) than mostof us realize. I wrote, in The Joys of Yiddish:Steeped in sentiment, it is sluiced with sarcasm. It lovesthe ruminative, because it rests on a rueful past; it favoursparadox, because it knows that only paradox can do justiceto the injustices of life; it adores irony, because the onlyway the Jews could retain their sanity was to view adreadful world with sardonic, astringent eyes. In its in-nermost heart, Yiddish swings between schmaltz and dérision. It is a tongue that never takes its tongue out of itscheek.Yiddish is the Robin Hood of languages. It steals fromthe linguistically rich to give to the fledgling poor.I think Yiddish a language of exceptional charm. Likeany street gamin who has survived unnamable adversities,it is bright, audacious, mischievous. It has displayed immense resourcefulness, immenser resilience, and immen-sest determination-not-to-die — properties whose absencehas proved fatal to more genteel and languid languages.Now, to translate Yiddish into English is quite différent from translating, say, German into English, or Frenchinto Italian; for English, German, French, Italian share acommon (or very close) inventory of expérience: acommon religion (Christianity), parallel historiés of state-hood, shared political ideas and whilom sovereigns,common codes of étiquette, models of masculinity, idealsof femininity, assumptions about salvation, hunting,drinking, passions — and ail of thèse are worlds andworlds removed from Jewish expérience and ideology.The translator of Yiddish is theref ore compelled to buildcultural-psychological bridges across chasms that do notseparate other peoples from one another — or do notseparate them so widely.For example: there just is no one-word équivalent inEnglish or French or Italian or German for certaindélectable Yiddish words. Consider thèse hallowed few:• chutzpa: monumental gall, colossal effrontery.• meshpoche: a family unit that embraces relativesfar, near, remote and numerous.• kvell: a beaming pride in a child's achievements, orgloating over an enemy's humiliation.• tchotchke or tsatske: a toy, a trinket; but also amistress, a playgirl, a pretty, brainless young thing —whether wife or girl-friend.• paskudnyak: a gro^s, greedy, contemptible man orwoman.• shlemiel: a simpleton in spades, a maladroit pip-squeak ("A shlemiel falls on his back and breaks hisnose").• shlimazl: a born loser, a football to fate, a man whobuys a suit with two pair of pants and promptly burns ahole in the jacket.Or take the Slavic particle zhe, which is used in Yiddishto add a note of needling, in impatience or accusation, tothe commonplace. If you want to say, "For heaven'ssake, when will you be ready?" you say "Ven zhe vest dizein grayf ?"("When already will you be ready?"). If youwant to end a conversation with a courteous but unmis-takable hint, you say "Zeit zhe mir gezunt," whichEnglishes abominably as "Be already to me well . . ." butmeans: "Enough palaver, go already — in good health."If Yiddish words can perplex a translator, their ar-10 rangement can dérange their substance:"He should live so long" is not an amiable hope but acreamy curse."From this he makes a ïivingl" is not a question; it is aput-down."This I need?" is a contemptuous rejection of what itappears to be asking, for it means "Of ail the things in theworld I do not need, this leads the list.""Do you want it to sing, too?", when asked of acustomer who returns a canary because it is mute, turns areasonable expectation upside down, and means: "Howcarping of you to expect this beautiful bird, which has sosplendid an array of non-vocal attributes, to sing, too."Above ail, unique overtones of mockery, and searingnuances of ridicule, distinguish the style of Yiddish witfrom that of any language I hâve run across. The mostcrushing ripostes, the most taunting acerbities bloom inthis delightful tongue, which seems limitless in devicesfor sowing seeds of sarcasm in the soil of casual discourse. Consider thèse run-of-the-mill malédictions:"May his insides sound like a music box!""May ail his teeth fall out, save one" (so that he mayhâve a permanent toothache)."I would like to treat him like a treasure — bury him inthe ground with loving care."Let me sketch the symphony of insuit and irony inwhich Yiddish excels:• Emphasis by transplanting a predicate adjective:"Funny, he isn't." ("He isn't funny" is not funny;but "Funny, he isn't," is — for it means "There aremany things you can say about him, even fine, flatter-ing things, but the one thing you can not say is that heis funny.")• Démolition of a virtue through répétition with aprefatory "shm":"Good-shmood, he eats like a horse."• Emphasizing a defect by repeating a word with the"shm" gambit:"Fat-shmat, she has to dance the Watusi!"• Stressing an asset through "shm"-prefaced réitération:"Poor-shmoor, he'd give his shirt to a beggar."• Dismissing an idea out-of-hand by framing it as aquestion:"I should invite him to my son's Bar Mitzva?"(When a question is framed "I should . . .?" instead of"Should I . . .?" you are being told, not asked.)• Sarcasm via the addition to a straightforward sentence of "only," "just" or "merely" (This transformsthe forthright into the murderous):"Why did he leave her? She only tried to poisonhim — once a week.""She was an angel about the divorce; she justwanted his seven gold teeth.""We were merely three hours late — on a two-hourflight."• Inferential aspersion through innocent interrogation:"Already he's not satisfied?""For that you blâme me?""For that you blâme me?"• Scathing disdain by placing the object before thesubject:"Thanks she expected for arriving so late?"• Maximizing indignation by repeating a question in theexact form in which it was asked. (In this ploy, myusing Question B as a reply to your Question A [Bbeing identical to A] indicates that the answer to yourquestion is so obvious that its use by you constitutedan affront to me — an affront best erased by umbragevia écho.) Note three variations:IQ. "Did you send flowers to the hospital?"A. "Did /send flowers to the hospital?" (Meaning:"How can you insuit me by doubting it?")IIQ. "Did you send flowers to the hospital?"A. "Did I send flowers to the hospital!" (Thisconverts a boorish question into an aggrievedaffirmation, meaning, "I practically bought out theflorist.")IIIQ. "Did you send flowers to the hospital?"A. "Did I send flowers to the hospital?!" (Meaning:"How could any décent human being not send flowersto someone in a hospital?")• Imputing stupidity through sardonic reprise:Q. "Would you like some cheesecake?"A. "Would I like some cheesecake?" (Short-handfor "Who in his right mind would not jump at thechance to eat some cheesecake?")• Rejection by répétition in which ridicule is implied:Q. "Will you take twenty dollars for it?"A. "Will J take twenty dollars for it?" (This expresses incredulity at so ridiculous an offer.) • Noble forbearance by repeating a question withoutcomment on it:Q. "Will you take twenty dollars for it?"A. (Sighing) "Will I take twenty dollars for it?"(This calls attention to my reasonable character —despite your cheap offer.)• Tactical acquiescence without binding acceptance:Q. "Will you take fifty dollars for it?"A. "Will I take fifty dollars for it?" (This hedgestoo-prompt acceptance, which might lead you to won-der whether you had been too generous.)• Underlining asininity by holding up a mirror to it:Q. "Don't you want to get well and spend thewinter in Palm Beach?"A. "No, I don't want to get well and spend thewinter in Palm Beach."• Underlining asininity by holding a contrary mirrorbefore it:Q. "How would you like a free week in the VirginIslands?"A. "Fd rather rent a basement in a home for theaged."• Contempt by concurrence:Q. "But won't you die if they don't operate?"A. "Yes, PU die if they don't operate." (Meaning:"Only an idiot asks such a question.")• Déflation by magnified concurrence:Q. "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush, soaccept the offer."A. "Any bird in the hand is worth two in the bush."(Meaning: "According to that reasoning, I shouldaccept any offer.")• Scorn through stressing one word:"Her he lovesl" (This casts doubt on the sanity ofthe lover.)• Criticism by stressing another word in the samesentence:"Her he loves?" (This suggests that the loved onelacks any semblance of those qualities that might makea sane man love her.)• Relieving guilt by linking a curse to instant but-only-nominal cancelation:"May darkness invade his eyes, God forbid!""May a fire rage in his bowels, let God prevent that!""May God avoid driving her crazy with shingles!"I ask you: Can you match (much less, top) thèsecérébral minuets in any other tongue?11high energv physics?"^§ÉBernard Hildebrand, Atomic Energy Commission (left) with Tai T. Wu, Harvard University.Valentine L. Telegdi, University of Chicago (left); Sam Berman, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Ch. Rubbia,CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), Geneva (right).High energyThe University this fall played host to more than 800 ofthe world's leading scientists in the field of high energyphysics, attending the XVI International Conférence onHigh Energy Physics. The visitors and their hosts spentAve days on campus and another three at the NationalAccelerator Lab.Representing some forty countries — ail of those pos-sessing high energy capability, plus other lands where thework must by necessity be confined to the theoretical —they inspectée! hardware , listened to research papers and,between sessions, endlessly discussed the reported stepstoward an understanding of the ultimate nature of matter.Photos of the scientists appear on the covers of this issueand on succeeding pages.The steps are intimately related to increasingly sophis-ticated technology. High energy physics has seen the10,000,000 électron volt cyclotron yield to apparatus ofsuccessively higher énergies: Brookhaven's three billionvolt Cosmotron; Berkeley's six billion volt Bevatron; andthirty billion volt accelerators at Brookhaven and theEuropeans' coopérative CERN lab near Geneva. Thelatter laboratory now also has intersecting storage rings to send fast-moving particles into head-on collisions,increasing the effective impact by a large factor (forreasons having to do with relativity theory). Researchfrom thèse and other labs was reported, along with evenhigher-energy results from the Soviets' 76 Gev ("gega"having replaced "billion") machine at Serpukhov and theNAL's 300-400 Gev apparatus at Weston, 111. This equip-V.P. Dzhelepov, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,Dubna, USSR, makes a point.13*^^vy> "^ t.•*»» "il*.*-, sp. « . V» s, '/ Y 4 v «fl Pi 1 '» " *l Vf i -* r-* « •"¦\ y*: . ^ ¦.« MLawrence W. Jones, University of Michigan (left), with S.C.C.Ting, Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, Hamburg,and Rodney L. Cool, Rockefeller University (right).ment is only beginning to reveal its eventual capability.What are the problems with which thèse powerful newdevices are involved? (The term "atom smasher" is reallyobsolète; "proton smasher" might be more apt now-adays.) One major area they deal with is the internaiworkings of the proton. Is there a generalized but verymassive photon-like particle? Is there a magnetic unit (amonopole) which responds to magnetic fields in the waythat electric charges respond to electric fields? Does thepostulated quark (named from the cry of seagulls inFinnegan's Wake, but possibly also from the cablesecontraction of "question mark") exist? Since the compo-nents of the proton are large in mass, the énergies required to bring them out of hiding must be correspond-ingly large.And even more abstruse problems are at stake — somewhose very nomenclature baffles the layman, like the"symmetry of time"; the "strange particles," like the Kmesons; short-lived particles called résonances.The search for the ultimate particle — for gênerai principes which will offer simplicity within the complexgalaxy of the proton — continues. The next high energyphysics meeting, again under the auspices of the Particlesand Fields Commission of the loosely organized International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, is scheduledfor 1974 in London.At left: V. A. Mescheryakov, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. At right: Owen O. Chamberlain,Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California.j/ff y^jg^—^pr ^P" HV9V w^ *^^^,^^A. H. Rosenfeld, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, and Christoph Schmid, of the University ofZurich, don 't let Mayor Daley 's cocktail réception interfère with technical discussion.A high point in the conférence was a cocktail réceptiongiven for the physicists in McCormick place by Chicago'sMayor Richard J. Daley. To entertain the delegatesMayor Daley ordered out a pair of the city's fireboats,which put on a striking (though not subatomic) display.Below: Robert G. Sachs, University of Chicago (left), chats with Mayor Richard J. Daley, George W. Beadle, présidentemeritus of the University, and Edwin Goldwasser, National Accelerator Laboratory. Messrs. Sachs and Goldwasserserved as conférence organizers-\*k*m*"'16America's Manichean approach to militarismThe case forlégal action onwar crimesMarcus G. RaskinThe war in Vietnam was the product of individualdécisions of identifiable men. It was more than thework of a faceless "system" ox inexorable bureau-Mr. Raskin (AB 54, JD57) has adaptedfor the Magazinea portion of the book, Washington Plans an AggressiveWar by Ralph Stavins, Richard J. Barnet and Marcus G.Raskin. Copyright © 1971 by Ralph Stavins, Richard J.Barnet, Marcus G. Raskin. Reprinted by permission ofRandom House Inc. A second volume of the work isscheduled for publication this fall.Mr. Raskin, originally trained as a pianist, entered thefield of public affairs in 1958 as législative counsel îo agroup of Démocratie congressmen. After service in theexecutive branch in 1961 and 1962, including a stint on thespécial staff of the National Security Council, he resignedin 1963, but continued in government service as a consultant to the Office of Science and Technology onEducation. In 1965 he resigned because of opposition tothe war and the militarization of the universities andbecame a co-founder of the Institute for Policy Studies inWashington; he remains co-director ofthat organization.He is a trustée of Antioch Collège. In 1971 the Universityhonored him with an alumni citation. cratic process. Much less can it be ascribed to thecollective guilt of the American people, less thanone percent of whom knew the facts. Under thenational security System as it now exists, even thepeople's représentatives in the Congress appearpowerless to oppose an Executive bent on makingwar abroad whenever he is prepared to mislead thepublic to gain support for the effort.The basic question raised by this horrendouschapter in our history, however, is not déception.Had the Congress been fully informed or had thepeople been told the truth, the destruction of Vietnam under the circumstances now on the recordwould still hâve been a crime. Many of the men whohâve persisted for more than a décade in destroyingIndo-China thought — at least when they started —that they were justified in what they were doing. Butthe judgment by the American people of what theplanners of the war did in their name must be basednot on the war managers' own rationalizations buton their acts. The world cannot afford to counte-nance acts of mass destruction because the men whogive the orders claim to be sincère and upright men.The record establishes that the top civilian leader-17ship of our country planned and carried out anaggressive war against a people who did nbt andcould not hurt the United States. Under précédentsestablished by the United States and imposed uponother countries, this pattern of conduct constitutes awar crime.The assignment of guiltThe people are told that responsibility for theIndo-China war cannot be assigned and that wemust take care not to search for scapegoats. Mem-bers of both political parties insist that everyohe isresponsible — that anyone in a position of responsibility in the government would hâve done thesame. Libéral Americans who think of problemsolving — that is, technical solutions to questionsthat one would rather not regard as having moralconséquences — find it difficult to think of guilt andinnocence, right and wrong. It is rarely up to acitizen to décide under what form of government hewill live. Yet with modem weapons the question ofresponsibility to décide moral questions becomeseven more crucial. It becomes a citizen's responsibility to alter the conséquences of despotism. Andwhere he fails it may be said that he shares ageneralized form of guilt — the guilt of nonfeasance.But this form of guilt and responsibility is hardly thesame as the kind of guilt shared by those who holdoperating power and use it to destroy others. Theyhâve more than a "metaphysical" guilt; it is légaland criminal. When a society averts its eyes andrefuses to understand why such men are specificallyguilty, so that such deeds can happen again almostimmediately, the guilt of the society becomes collective. Whether one is the senator from Mississippion the armed services committee, the Président, agênerai, a tenant f armer, a spécial assistant to thePrésident, a soldier, or a taxpayer, he is responsible.Some say the policies of the Indo-China war are anatural extension of American f oreign policies since1940; others say, since the beginning of the UnitedStates. And to some extent such statements aretrue.Yet we know that the leaders who directed thestate did not see Americans as either wanting to beinvolved in Indo-China or wanting to develop asituation which would resuit in colossal moral and18 political failure. Dean Rusk has made clear that theresponsibility did not rest with the Georgia tenantf armer or, for that matter, even with the racistax-handle wielder:Scratch the skin of any American and you findhe wants to take care of his own affairs and notget involved. . . . There is no imperium inAmericans — at least not in the post-warperiod. . . . Acts of will since World War IIhâve not erased the institution of isolationism.Rusk is correct, of course. The imperium wasbuilt into the structure by its governing leaders. Tomake the "internationalisa (read "imperialist") re-sponse automatic, leaders knew they would hâve to"scare hell" out of Americans and build a bureaucratie apparatus which, by its nature, would beengaged ail over the world. The apparatus createdthe day-to-day commitments and interests that people felt they had to maintain and protect. The "actsof will" to which Rusk referred were actions andpolicies taken by men operating as a governmentbehind the shield of state necessity.It should be noted that the state is made ofpapier-mâché when it cornes to absolving an in-dividual of acts performed in the state's name. AsQuincy Wright has said, "The state cannot protectits agent from the conséquences of his act if heacted outside the state's compétence under international law." There is no légal compétence to commitwars of aggression.Ersatz legalityIt was no longer possible to advocate the law ofimperialism in the âge of decolonization. And sinceno moral or légal case for imperium could be made,American impérial leaders resorted to ersatz lawand morality as the cover for their actions. Para-lawand pseudomorality became important ingrédientsin their attempts at "educating" others to their viewof impérial responsibility. Law became a shield injustifying action, since people would not con-sciously believe they were performing illégal andimmoral actions — for whatever cause. People andpower crave legitimacy.Armed with para-law, the leaders took the peopleto places they did not want to go and caused them toperform acts from which they will not easily re-cover. Yet it would be wrong to think that the menwho decided did so hoping for disaster and evilresults, at least as they related to the United States.The uses of 'little9 warsThe actions of American leaders and the structures they maintained were designed to rationalizemilitary and économie requirements to ensureAmerican impérial "responsibility" and dominance.Attempts were made to arrange governing so thatthe state's wars would not impinge on the rest of thegovernment or on the people and their ways of life.American foreign policy has sought to avoid waramong the great powers, if possible, without yield-ing the position of American dominance. Fightingcontinuous war in the lands of the poor and wretch-ed was acceptable, and to some extent was the waythe ruling élite thought American dominance wouldbe maintained. The nagging policy problem was tofind a légal rationale for such behavior. By JohnKennedy 's term it was decreed that to prevent thebig war the American imperium would hâve to fighta séries of "little" wars. It was not expected thatsuch wars would be harmf ul to the American society; indeed, they would be useful economically andsocially — even prestigious.Johnson also adhered to the idea of continuouslimited war. According to Eugène Rostow, Johnsonwas impressed by the example of the British, whofor so long were able to fight wars at the edge oftheir empire."We hâve to get used to the idea," he said. He didnot want to make war total; to hâve "parades orbond drives." For Johnson and his advisers5 as forKennedy, it was to be a hip-pocket war in which theprivileged would maintain their privilège and thçpoor would find advantage and opportunity byfighting in Vietnam.As Secretary McNamara assured one historian,the American escalation was "an automatic re-sponse to North Vietnam's counter efforts toachieve its objectives." There is no escape, asEugène Rostow has said; there is no easy escapefrom the kind of policy we hâve pursued since 1947.The para-legal rationale for the policy would befound some where in the propaganda sections ofUSIA, the Défense Department, and the CIA. The blacks would achieve equality of opportunitythrough joining the armed forces — learning to strut,as Daniel Moynihan suggested. For the middleclass, sacrifice was not to be "real" but merelyrhetorical, and the entrepreneurial-minded mightfind a way to make money, whether in leasing slotmachines in Vietnam or in making spécial flood-lights for jungle lighting. The war itself would be asport, a diversion at most. And it would be pre-sented to the people as a daily télévision "news"spectacular.The frolic of the leadership, with its talk of"freedom" and "self -détermination" and "fighting tomaintain justice and freedom in Southeast Asia,"was to be shored up by an ever-ready brush-fire wararmed force. The droning of everyday life would berelie ved with the purpose and détermination of theleaders. The will of the leaders would remove theprivate tedium of a society which, many privilegedmandarins thought, was too caught up in personalpursuits.The national purpose, which the ruling mandarinswrote about in the pages of Life magazine (1959)and William Bundy sought as the secretary of theEisenhower national goals commission, was to befound in the rice paddies of Vietnam and the bawdyhouses of Saigon.Résurgence of realityWar, however, has a way of getting out of control,especially when it is institutionalized through "fire-power," high technology, and.orders issued in language which obscures the conséquences. The people who were the objects and instruments of thepolicy found that ail of their petty but somewhatrational compulsions, desires, and interests wereturned inside out in the name of a purpose andrhetoric which had only mystical meaning. Thebubble burst and that primary taskmaster, reality,interf ered with the dream séquence sold by anAmerican ruling élite.It is at such a point that people who favortraditions grounded in everyday life reality attemptto set the framework of political and légal discussion. The logical and moral search for generality andsymmetry is not easily denied. What might hâvebeen described as an heroic war is reevaluated inthe light of the stubborn judgments which Americans made upon others a génération ago.Thus, even American war makers become mur-derers, and heroes become villains. As the American prosecutor at the Tokyo trials, Joseph B.Keenan, said,It may seem strange to include charges ofmurder in an indictment before an internationaltribunal. But it is high time, and indeed was sobefore this war began, that the promoters ofaggressive, ruthless war and treaty breakersshould be stripped of the glamour of nationalheroes, and exposed as what they really are —plain, ordinary murderers.We should not fear such a reality principle, sincewithout it there is ever-greater likelihood of violentdegeneration in American society.The problem of America's impérial structure andits présent propensity for continuous war makingcan only be resolved if the United States provesable to develop public conscience and power whichbuild on positive aspects of American life. Radicalchanges in national security policy and structure donot require an overwhelming, convulsive change inAmerican domestic life, since the national securitystate itself has few roots in the society. It is of novalue to the blacks in Harlem, the Chicanos of theSouthwest, or the upper middle class in WestchesterJohn Dewey Sen. William Borah20 County that the United States has a CIA, TAC,SAC, and MIRV. The business élite now doubts thatthe national security apparatus is "responsible" —that is, that it has a business consciousness.Vokes of dissentIn his testimony before the Senate foreign relations committee, Thomas Watson, the head of IBM,on the effects of the Indo-China war on business,stated: "Let me illustrate the point concretely bygiving you a rundown of actions against IBMproperties in various parts of the world during thelast six weeks. In West Berlin, nearly ail the Windows in one of our buildings were broken by youngrioters. Then gasoline was poured about it and itwas sét on fire. The Windows in one of our Dutchfacilities were broken by students. Our branchoffice in Cologne was attacked by protesters againstthe Vietnam war and the Windows smashed. Apowerful bomb was discovered just before it wastimed to explode in an IBM Argentina office. Just afew days ago, we received bomb threats at ourAmsterdam and Paris data centers. And hère athome we've had many bomb threats and one actualbombing at 425 Park Avenue in New York City —our eastern régional headquarters."As Governor Pat Lucey of Wisconsin said, ifMelvin Laird had to get the défense budget throughthe people of Wisconsin, he would most probablyfail. To democratize défense and security functionswhich hâve been viewed as mystical, "too complex," and beyond the compréhension of the people,would hâve the effect of breaking the power of thenational security apparatus. The dismantling of thisapparatus could be accomplished through politicaland légal means. Perhaps thelndo-China war can bethe basis of a citizen-initiated corrective processwhich stems from the kind of power and consciencethat is crucial to reconstructive change.Thèse are not new concerns for American society. At the end of World War I leading Americanpragmatists in politics and philosophy sought waysof holding élites personally responsible for theiractions. John Dewey argued that people shouldoutlaw war and eliminate the government's powerto wage it. Senator William Borah, as chairman ofthe Senate foreign relations committee, proposed aresolution in the Senate. . . that it is the view of the Senate of theUnited States that war between nations shouldbe outlawed as an institution or means for theseulement of international controversies bymaking it a public crime under the law ofnations, and that every nation should be en-couraged by solemn agreement of treaty to binditself to indict and punish its own internationalwar-breeders or instigators and war profiteersunder powers similar to those conferred uponour Congress under Article I, Section 8 of ourfédéral Constitution, which clothes the Congress with the power to define and punishoffenses against the law of nations. . . .It was this resolution which led to the Kellogg-Briand Pact (also known as the "Pact of Paris" of1928), the treaty that sealed the fate of the défendants at Nuremberg. One of the counts against theGerman leaders was planning an aggressive war, anaction specifically prohibited under the "Pact ofParis." War was outlawed as an "instrument ofnational policy," and the treaty specified "that sucha war is illégal in international law and that thosewho plan and wage such a war, with its inévitableand terrible conséquences, are committing a crimein so doing."Président Coolidge and Secretary KelloggThe pact categorically outlawed ail forms of war.The American secretary of state, Frank Kellogg,refused to accept a French proposai which wouldhâve limited the pact to wars of aggression. He said that if the pact "were accompanied by définitions ofthe word 'aggressor' and by expressions and qualifications stipulating when nations would be justifiedin going to war, its effect would be very greatlyweakened and its positive value as a guaranty ofpeace virtually destroyed."The Allied and especially the American positionat Nuremberg was that "any resort to war — to anykind of war — is a resort to means that are inherentlycriminal." As Justice Robert Jackson said, war byits nature leads to killings, deprivations and destruction, although "honestly défensive war is, of course,légal and saves those lawfully conducting it fromcriminality."The principle of personal responsibilityBy World War II, American leaders attempted todefine war crimes and responsibility for war making. Yet they were caught in the contradiction ofnation-states: that of making war to stop war, thatof fighting militarism with incipient militarism. Re-visionist historians hâve seen in World War II rootsof American efforts to exert impérial control overthe world's falling empires and those vanquished inthat war. But such a reading is not sufficient tounderstand the positive aspects of American socialthought and action.There was another impulse in American statecraftat the end of World War II — an impulse whichcarried forward the populist, anti-militarism strainin American public life. War was still viewed as acrime in the United States. This ethic, this sensibili-ty, found its way into expressions on war crimesand the need to end militarism which, until the ColdWar began, dominated American thought. The international law espoused by the United States at theend of World War II meant that war was proscribedas a method of settling disputes. And by incorporation, leaders and bureaucrats were to be held instrict account.In 1945-1946 American leaders argued that it wasonly through personal responsibility, through theacceptance of objective légal and political standards, that leaders could be held responsible. Im-perialism was not seen as the fundamental purposeof American statecraft, and tests were to be appliedthat would assure an anti-imperialist mode. Whenhe signed the charter establishing the Nuremberg21Justice Robert Jackson Attorney General Biddletribunal, Justice Jackson used striking language inthis regard:The légal posture which the United States willmaintain, being thus based on the commonsensé of justice, is relatively simple and non-technical. We must not permit it to be compli-cated or obscured by stérile legalisms devel-oped in the âge of imperialism to make warrespectable.Francis Biddle, the American member of theNuremberg tribunal, in late fall of 1946 proposed toPrésident Truman that the time had corne for thedrafting of a code of international law which wouldaffirm the principles of the Nuremberg charter.Biddle told the Président that although war is notoutlawed by "such pronouncements," men learn todetest war more than they otherwise might becausethey see its criminal character."Aggressive war was once romantic; now it iscriminal," he said. "For nations hâve corne torealize that it means the death not only of individualhuman beings, but of whole nations, not only withdefeat, but in the slow dégradation and decay ofcivilized life that follows defeat," he said adding:I hope that the United Nations, in line with yourproposai, will reaffirm developing the principlesof the Nuremberg charter in the context of acodification of offenses against the peace andsecurity of mankind. In December, 1946, the U.S. délégation proposedto the United Nations General Assembly the principles of international law recognized by the charterof the Nuremberg tribunal and its judgment:The Committee on the Codification of International Law established by the resolution of theGeneral Assembly of December 1946 to treat asa matter of primary importance plans for theformulation, in the context of gênerai codification of offenses against the peace and securityof mankind or of an international CriminalCode, of the principles recognized in the Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal and in the judgment of the Tribunal.This remains unfinished business.Renunciation of militarismThe Cold War interrupted the development of thelaw of personal responsibility for leaders. The end-ing of the Cold War could point to the reassertion ofthat interrupted direction in international anddomestic affairs. A new génération seems to hâveturned totally against the militaristic ethic andcraves a définition of personal responsibility. Theend of militarist values leaves a clear void inAmerican public life which could be filled by theethic of personal and group responsibility.After World War II, members of the Americangovernment persuaded (or forced) the Japanese andGermans to do more than punish the guilty for warcrimes. They attempted to move thèse societies —including Austria — to renounce militarism and ul-tra-nationalism as their dominant mode of life.Militarism and ultra-nationalism were seen as theconditions which created war and war crimes. Various officiais were purged or retired from areas ofresponsibility.Unless means are found within the United Statesto do the same, without bloodshed and with anunderstanding of why this is required, we will find asociety in which the values will so greatly divergeand the practice of morality will be so clearlyvitiated as to lead to the kind of total degenerationand decay which Biddle said was the inévitableresuit of war treated as an instrument of nationalpolicy.22It is useful to review some of the standards whichthe U.S. government applied to both Germans andJapanese to build a society which would be freefrom militarism and ultra-nationalism. I wilî refer toonly a few of those raies, iaws, and directives whichcould help in examining the présent condition withinthe United States. Some of those standards (inspirée and insisted upon by Americans) should beappîied internally as our own society finds itself inthe hands of a militarized governing élite whosemajor response to the problems of the world seemsto be a continuous violent engagement with it.The entire American governmental System em-braced the standards of war crimes which werepromulgated at the end of World War II. As TelfordTaylor put it,. . . the United States Government stood legaî-ïy, politicaliy and moraîîy committed to theprinciples enunciated ïn the charters and judg-ments of the tribunals. The Président of theUnited States, on the recommendation of theDepartments of State, War and Justice, ap-proved the war crimes program. Thirty or moreAmerican judges drawn from appellate benchesof the states . . . conducted the îater Nuremberg trials ànd wrote the opinions.Americans believed that only through the imposition of war-crime standards would it be possible tostop statesmen who embarked on war for whatevermotive or purpose. "But the ultimate step in avoid-ing periodic wars, which are inévitable in a Systemof international lawîessness, is to make statesmenresponsible to law," as Robert Jackson said in hisopening statement at Nuremberg.Judges under judgmentThe Yamashita case contemplated that such personal responsibility would apply internally to American officiais. Whatever the wartime leaders of theUnited States were, they were not fools. As JusticeJackson said, "While this law is first applied againstGerman aggressors, the law incîudes — and if it is toserve a useful purpose it must condemn —aggression by any other nations, including thosewhich sit hère now in judgment." But most. important, as it applies to the présent internai domestic situation, lie noted that "We are able to do awaywith domestic iyranny and violence and aggressionby those in power against the rights of their ownpeople only when we make ail men answerable to thetow."(Emphasis added.)The avowed purpose of the occupation of Ger-many was to destroy Nazism and German militarism. Président Roosevelt outlined the Americanpoîicy in a séries of wartime addresses, declaringthat the militari sts who bred war would hâve to beremoved from public life:We shall not be able to claim that we hâvegained total victory in this war if any vestige ofFascism in any of its malignant forms is permit-ted to survive anywhere in the world.DeÊnitions of responsibilityIn one of his last speeches, Roosevelt outlined theneed for the "eradication of militaristic influencefrom public, private, and cultural life." This policyincluded war-crime trials, the dismemberment -ofthe military, and the transformation of the laws andinstitutions of Germany, Japan, and Austria. Therewas a strict proscription of militarism, whether itcame in uniform or mufti.The concern at Potsdam was the same on July 26,1945:There must be eîiminated for ail time the au-thority and influence of those who hâve deceiv-ed and misled the people of Japan into embark-ing on world conquest, for we insist that a neworder of peace, security, and justice wilî beimpossible until irresponsible militarism is driv-en from the world.Thèse were not, açcording to John Montgomery,"partisan déclarations" or "inspirational readings."Militarism and Nazism were defined, and there wasa concerted attempt to develop a concept of justiceand a political theory.The fundamental directive by which the UnitedStates attempted the transformation of Germanywas JCS 1067, which outlined a plan and gêneraiobjectives for a non-Nazi, nonmilitaristic Germany:Essential steps in the accomplishment of thisobjective are the élimination of Nazism andmilitarism in ail their forms, the immédiateappréhension of war criminals for punishment,the industrial disarmament and demilitarizationof Germany, with continuing control over Germany 's capacity to make war, and the préparation for an eventual reconstruction of Germanpolitical life on a démocratie basis.In Japan, directives were issued with the samepurpose:. . . Persons who hâve been active exponents ofmilitarism and nationalism will be removed andexcluded from public office and from any position of public and substantial private responsibility.The Joint Chiefs of Staff directive noted:Any persons who held key positions of highresponsibility since 1937 in industry, finance,commerce or agriculture . . . [were assumed tobe] . . . active exponents of militant nationalism and aggression.In effect, the military government was to bringwith it as représentatives of the victorious nations asocial transformation which would replace the war-making élites.Déniai of aggression"No élite will admit to aggressive war. Each willinvent a threat that has to be dealt with throughmilitary means which leads to great war. For example, it is entirely likely that the executive committeeof the National Security Council at the time of theGulf of Tonkin will reply that they were reacting toaggression. But such a view can be disproved. Moreimportant, we begin to understand aggression whenwe note the relations between Germany and Polandat the time of the outbreak of war in 1939," asQuincy Wright wrote in A Study of War, ILU.S. occupation authorities prepared a six-pagequestionnaire covering the public and private livesof Germans under investigation. Any falsificationwas held to be grounds for prosecution by theAmerican military government court, and could bepunished with sentences of two to five years' im-prisonment. By June 1, 1946, more than 1,600,000Germans — one out of ten in the American Zone —were processed. According to the original author ofthe denazification program, Elmer Plischke, some24 23 % of those who filled out the questionnaires wereremoved or excluded from office.On March 5, 1946, the uniform "Law for Liberation from National Socialism and Militarism" wasset forth by the German leaders in the AmericanZone. It had the full support of the Americanmilitary government. The purpose of this programwas to develop the légal and social processes need-ed to transfer authority from those who had beenpart of the German régime between 1933 and 1945 to. . . those who will establish a free, peacefuland démocratie society. . . . The only way todevelop the roots of a free society was todestroy the influence and authority of thosewho favored Nazism and militarism.The first article called for libération from nationalsocialism and militarism so that a "lasting base ofGerman démocratie life could be initiated." According to this article, this could only be accomplishedby. . . excluding from public life ail those who areguilty of having violated the principles of justice and humanity, or having selfishly exploitedthe conditions thus created.According to the principles laid out in the March5, 1946, law, the Allied purpose was to eliminatemilitarism, its conduct and ideas, from the publicéconomie and cultural life of the people (Article II).Five catégories were established under Article IV:(1) major offenders (2) offenders (activists, milita-rists, and profiteers), (3) lesser offenders, (4) fol-lowers, and (5) persons exonerated. The October 12,1946,' directive of the Allied Control Council order-ed the. . . punishment of war criminals, Nazis, mili-tarists and industrialists who encouraged andsupported the Nazi régime. Their internment,imprisonment, or restriction of their activities.Criteria applicable generallyIn examining the criteria used to identify offenders, one finds that the strict standards appliedby Americans to other societies are fully applicableto American conduct in Asia. In other words, theidea that standards of international legality or mo-rality do not exist within the bureaucratie or légalcontext turns ôut to be patently false.Under Part 2, Article II, of Control CouncilDirective No. 38, ten criteria were used to define amajor offender. A major offender was one whocould be charged with war crimes of the mostserious nature. Several of thèse criteria seem direct-ly applicable to our présent situation. Any one who... in the occupied areas treated fdreign civil-ians or prisoners of war contrary to international law; any one who is responsible for outrages,pillaging, déportations, or other acts of brutali-ty, even if committed in fighting against résistance movements. (Emphasis added.)Pestilence? brutality? proûteeringThis clause is of importance since some com-mentators hâve attempted to justify an all-is-fairphilosophy against résistance movements, whosecombatants do not identify themselves as such. TheAmericans promulgated a view in Germany thatrésistance movements had to be treated with thesame attention to rules of war as armies in "proper"insignia and badge. The callous idea that the NLFcould be destroyed through the Phoenix program bymurder of the infrastructure, by direct assassina-tion, burnings, etc., could not be countenancedunder America's own standards as applied to theGermans. Under Section 8 of the Major Offendersclause:Anyone who in any form whatever, participatedin killings, tortures or other crueîties in a concentration camp, a labor camp or a médicalinstitution of asylum, . . .qualified as a major offender. As of May, 1971, theU.S. government had admitted to between five andsix million refugees in a country of seventeenmillion people as a resuit of its own policies inVietnam.In October, 1967, the New England Journal ofMedicine carried an article saying:The destruction of villages, the uncontrolledmovement of groups of people and the squalidconditions in the camps hâve broken the naturalbarriers to the spread of disease ... a risingincidence of under-nutrition, especially amongchildren . . . tuberculosis . . . intestinal para sites, leprosy . . . malaria hâve been majorcauses of morbidity . . .; plague . . . choieraalso hâve grown greatly in number.Under Article III, Number 2, a war crimes offender was deemed to be "anyone who exploited hisposition, his influence or his connections to imposeforce and utter threats, to act with brutality and tocarry out oppressions or otherwise unjust mea-sures." The national security managers saw threat,force, and brutality as their primary means ofcarrying out their purposes in Vietnam. It is notpossible to conclude otherwise from such memo-randa as those which passed between staff andcabinet officers in the White House, Department ofDéfense, CIA, and State Department.Militarists were viewed as offenders who causedand made war. The Control attempted to establish... a common policy covering . . . the complète and lasting destruction of Nazism andmilitarism by imprisoning and restricting theactivities of important participants or adhérentsto thèse creeds. (Emphasis added.)Militarists were those who "sought to bring thelife of the German people into line with a policy ofmilitaristic force." They included "anyone whoadvocated or is responsible for the domination offoreign peoples, their exploitation or displacement"as well as those who "promoted armament" forthèse purposes. They also included those who "dis-seminated militaristic programs . . . serving the ad-vancement of militaristic ideas." Profiteers whopresented minorities or made "disproportionatelyhigh profits in armament or war transactions" werealso viewed as offenders.Burden of proofIn each of the catégories (major offenders, minoroffenders, lesser offenders, and followers) the sanctions were stringent, ranging from death, imprison-ment for life, and fifteen years at hard labor formajor offenders to probation, jail terms, afid loss ofpublic employment for the lesser catégories. To be"exonerated" it was necessary for those who hadbeen in power or in the Nazi party to show that they"actively resisted . . . and thereby suffered dis-advantages." The civil service was to be patterned25on basic American démocratie models, which meantthat "the new civil service System will prohibït themaintaining of secret personnel files."In Germany, the United States insisted on adenazification process which resulted in 50,000cases a month being heard by about 545 tribunals inthe American Zone. Thèse were basically kangarooadministrative courts which offered little, if any,chance for response, although a "défendant" whowas not cleared by such tribunals was unable tooccupy any position of importance. As of June,1949, some 947,000 cases had been processed in theAmerican Zone. John Montgomery in Forced to BeFree suggests that the denazification System was a"gentler means" than would hâve been used if anatural révolution had taken place in Germany. Hepoints out that... in a genuine révolution, the victims oftribunals hâve to be buried; in Germany theymerely suffered fines or temporary employmentrestrictions or, at worst, a brief internment.The State-War-Navy directives to General MarkClark pertaining to Austria followéd the anti-militarist, anti-ultranational and anti-Nazi directionsapplied to Germany and Japan. The basic Americanobjective was to develop a "free, independent anddémocratie state," which meant the élimination of"Nazism, Pan-Germanism, militarism, and otherforces opposed to the démocratie reconstitution ofAustria." It was concluded that war criminals wouldhâve to be apprehended and that ail political andsocial service organisations which were Nazi- ormilitarist-inspired would hâve to be dissolved.Swords into plowsharesThose who actively supported "organizationsprômoting militarism or who hâve been active pro-ponents of militaristic doctrines" were to be excluded or removed from government service. In thistask the American occupyfng force was to effectu-ate "the total dissolution of ail military and para-military organizations together with ail associationswhich might serve to keep militarism alive in Austria."The purge extended to those who "took an activeand prominent part in the ùndemocratic measures of the pre-Nazi régime." Procédures were set up to"facilitate the conversion of industrial facilities tonon-military production" and to abolish "ail semi-official or quasi-public business and trade organizations of an authoritarian character." This directivealso called for a "policy prohibiting cartels or otherprivate business arrangements" which controlledthe eçonomy.A White House press release on September 22,1945, stated the policy which the United Statesgovernment intended to adopt toward Japan:Japan will be completely disafmed and demili-tarized. The authority of the militarists and theinfluence of militarism will be totally eliminatedfrom her political, économie and social life.Institutions expressive of the spirit of militarism and aggression will be vigorously sup-pressed . . . The Japanese people shall be af-forded opportunity to develop for themselvesan economy which will permit the peacetimerequirements of the population to be met.Préventive? not punitiveThe demilitarization policy f ollowed by theAmericans in Japan was more benign than the onef ollowed in Germany. In the first post-surrenderdirectives it appeared that the United States wouldimprison various Japanese who would hâve quali-fied as militarists and ultranationalists, if not as warcriminals, but this approach was rejected ongrounds that the changes the United States wasinterested in making in Japan f ell within the préventive rather than the punitive category. The majorpurpose as Hans Baerwald wrote, was "the removalof leadership tainted with war responsibility fromthe political, économie, and social life of Japan —that under a new leadership not so tainted, démocratie growth might be possible." Seven catégorieswere established. In the major directive laid downby the American military government in Japan, theJapanese government was required to removeofficiais of the national government andBar from reappointment and from élection tothe coming Diet, anyone who falls within thefollowing catégories . . .:A. War criminals.B. Career and spécial service military person-26nel; and spécial police officiais; officiais ofwar ministries.C. Influential members of ultranationaliste,terroristic or secret patriotic societies.D. Persons influential in Impérial Rule Assistance Association, Impérial Rule AssistancePolitical Society, etc.E. Officers of financial and business concernsInvolved in Japanese expansion.F. Governors of occupied territory.G. Other militarists and ultra-nationalists.The immédiate resuit was great consternationamong the "old reactionary hierarchy." GeneralWhitney, chief of the Government Section in Japan,described the directive (SCAPIN 550):. . . blasting from their entrenched positions inthe command posts of the government ail thosewho planned, started and directed the war, andthose who enslaved and beat the Japanesepeople into 'abject submission and hoped to dothe same with ail the world.The American directive and SCAPIN 448, whichordered the closing of ail ultranationaliste societiesand forbade the establishment of new ones, pro-duced a Cabinet crisis in Japan. Since the militarygovernment's order was meant to provide removalby catégories of individuals, the Japanese government proposed to appoint an "Executive Commission of Inquiry to détermine upon prima facieévidence whether the careers and activities of thepersons in question deserved their removal andexclusion from office" within the meaning of thedirective. The Shidehara government asserted thatit would move quickly in such cases:As the examination of each case cornes to anend, the government will at once notify theperson charged to the findings of the committeeand if they are satisfied of his guilt, they willproceed f orthwith to his removal and exclusionfrom office as directed, if he has not by thattime spontaneously resigned.Administrative? not judicialThe report of the Government Section of theSuprême Commander of the Allied Powers notedthat the Japanese proposai sought to change the administrative process of removal and exclusion toa judicial one. The resuit would hâve been to requirea légal case "against each individual and trying itbefore a quasi-judicial body. . . ." The response ofthe Government Section of the Allied Commanderwas that the directive itself was not. . . punitive (as the Japanese proposai implied)but, on the contrary, it is préventive. It is a. necessary précaution against the résurgence ofJapanese expansionist tendencies; therefore,until after the directive has been complied with,"individual guilt" (which requires inquiries intointent as distinguished from act) is irrelevant.Premiership blockedThe American government did not object to theestablishment of a commission of inquiry whichwould make recommendations to the Japanese government, provided that the individual was first removed from public office. One case shows theextent to which the American government in Japanintended to hold to account leaders who were notviewed as war criminals. In April, 1946, HatoyamaIchiro won an élection to the Diet and was thoughtto be the bbvious choice for Premier. The Americans objected, claiming he should be excluded frompublic office on the following grounds:a. As Chief Secretary of the Tanaka Cabinetfrom 1927 to 1929, he necessarily sharesresponsibility for the formulation and promulgation without Diet approval of amendments tothe so-called Peace Préservation Law whichmade that law the government's chief légalinstrument for the suppression of freedom ofspeech and freedom of assembly, and madepossible the denunciation, terrorization, seiz-ure, and imprisonment of tens of thousands ofadhérents to minority doctrines advocating political, économie, and social reform, therebypreventing the development of effective opposition to the Japanese militaristic régime.b. As Minister of Education from December,1931, to March, 1934, he was responsible forstifling freedom of speech in the schools bymeans of mass dismissals and arrests of teach-ers suspected of "leftist" leanings or "danger-ous thoughts." The dismissal in May, 1933, ofProfessor Takigawa from the faculty of Kyoto27University on Hatoyama's personal order is aflagrant illustration of his contempt for thelibéral tradition of académie freedom and gavemomentum to the spiritual mobilization ofJapan which, under the aegis of the military andéconomie cliques, led the nation eventually intowar.c. Not only did Hatoyama participate in thusweaving the pattern of ruthless suppression offreedom of speech, freedom of assembly, andfreedom of thought, but he also participated inthe forced dissolution of farmer-labor bodies.In addition, his endorsemqnt of totalitarianism,specifically in its application to the regimenta-tion and control of labor, is a matter of record.His recommendation that "it would be well" totransplant Hitlerite anti-labor devices to Japanreveals his innate antipathy to the démocratieprinciple of the right of labor f reely to organizeand to bargain collectively through représentatives of its own choice. It is a familiar techniqueof the totalitarian dictatorship, wherever situat-ed, whatever be its formai name, and howeverbe it disguised, first to weaken and then tosuppress the freedom of individuals to organizefor mu tuai benefit. Whatever lip service Hatoyama may hâve rendered to the cause of parlia-mentarianism, his sponsorship of the doctrineof regimentation of labor identifies him a,s a toolof the ultra-nationalistic interests which en-gineered the reorganization of Japan on a totalitarian économie basis as a prerequisite to itswars of aggression.Duplicity chargead. By words and deeds he has consistentlysupported Japan's acts of aggression. In July,1937, he traveled to America and Western Europe as personal emissary of the then PrimeMinister Konoye to justify Japan's expansionistprogram. While abroad he negotiated économiearrangements for supporting the war againstChina and the subséquent exploitation of thatcountry after subjugation. With duplicity, Hatoyama told the British Prime Minister in 1937 that"China cannot survive unless controlled byJapan," and that the primary motive behindJapan's intervention in China involved the"happinèss of the Chinese people." e. Hatoyama has posed as an anti-militarist.But in a formai address mailed to his constituées during the 1942 élection in which heset forth his political credo, Hatoyama upheldthe doctrine of territorial expansion by meansof war, referred to the attack on Pearl Harboras "fortunatqly ... a great victory," stated as afact that the true cause of the Manchuria andChina "incidents" was the anti- Japanese sentiment ( in China) instigated by England andAmerica, ridiculed those who in 1928 and 1929had critieized the Tanaka cabinet, boasted thatthe cabinet had "liquidated the (previous)weak-kneed diplomacy toward England andAmerica," and gloated that "today the worldpolicy drafted by the Tanaka cabinet is steadilybeing realized." This identification of himselfwith the notorious Tanaka policy of worldconquest, whether genuine or merely opportunisme, in and of itself brands Hatoyama asone of those who deceived and misled thepeople of Japan into militaristic misadventure.Accordingly, in view of thèse and otfyer considérations not herein recited, the ImpérialJapanese Government is directed to bar IchiroHatoyama from membership in the Diet and toexclude him from government service pursuantto SCAPIN 550.The Japanese position seemed designed to protectindividual rights but also to destroy militarism andultra-natiorialism. Justice Minister Yoshio Suzukisaid:It is our solemn duty to purge those who led thepeople into waging war. Needless to say, wemust do so voluntarily. If anyone disapproves' of this, he does not know the présent position ofJapan. It is regrettable that there are people inthis country who do not consider the purgequestion sternly enough. In Germany 100,000people hâve been thrown into jair and onemillion fined, sentenced to menial labor, theirproperty confiscated, deprived of their civilrights or sentenced to hard labor. In our country, however, those who precipitated the nationinto war are only barred from public office,which, we must explicitly beàr in mind, is due toGeneral MacArthur's generous occupation policy. For this reason, although we are sorry forthem, those who fall under the purge directivemust be brave enough and hâve enough sensé28General Douglas MacArthurof honor voluntarily to assume the moral responsibility. There is no other means, I amconvinced, to restore international confidencein our country.In Japan, only 210,287 persons were removed andexcluded from office, as opposed to 418,037 in theU.S. zone in Germany.As can be seen from the number of peopleexcluded from office, the American governmentwent to great lengths to purge other countries ofmilitarism. American leaders believed that certainélite groups, namely the militarists and ultra-nationalists, were responsible for warmaking, andthat unless modes of exclusion from the political lifeof the nation occurred, there was no way that ameaningful transformation of the society couldoccur which would allow for more humane andpacifie impulses to achieve any support in thegovernment.One may disagree with the négative and simplisticview of the transformation of society embodied inthèse postwar measures, but such disagreementdoes not connote that in America no penalties needattach to people who make and threaten war. Onecan object, too, to the cynicism of the victor whoforces his way on the vanquished and attempts toset the terms of life for him. Indeed, wars and révolutions are not usually instruments of justice. Inwar and révolution, people, justice, and publicmoral virtue are the casualties. As Hans Baerwaldhas pointed out,The key has not been found which might openthe secrets to the manner in which the libéraldémocratie way of life (and its political, social,and économie institutions) might be transferredto societies in which it did not émerge as part ofan indigenous process.Fortunately, we are not concerned with thatquestion here.VVe are, rather, concerned with howcitizens within their own society, of their own freewill, undertake the transformation of their own élitegroups and set rules of punishment and restitutionwhen their élites operate outside the law.Democracy dégénérâtes when its leaders andbureaucratie élites are drawn continuously from apool of people who hâve been consistently wrong,politically and morally, about their values and pur-poses. A society which consistently draws on suchleaders invariably deprecates — and punishes —those who hâve made correct judgments from thebeginning. Opponents of America's war in Indo-China hâve paid heavily for their opposition withtrials, jail sentences, police surveillance, détention,and black-listing. As the war continued, the government escalated its repression of critics, includingthose in the military who rebelled against insaneorders and requests — until it became impossible to'order them about. The fédéral employées who nowopenly oppose the war and American imperialismare invariably on the edges of the government, evenas their position proves correct in an assessment ofthe American relationship to the world, and even asthe Senate itself favors a non-imperialist turn andattempts to end the war through cutting off appropriations.New public policy neededRepression directed against those who hâve beencorrect in their instincts and views on the war islikely to continue and cause greater conflict between large segments of the people and the govern-ing structures, unless a new public policy results inpromulgation of a séries of laws for civilians, gov-29ernment workers, and policy makers which reassertthe proposition that governments must not becomecriminal enterprises.America must publicly and legally affirm theprinciple that those who were morally and legallywrong were those who generated and prosecutedthe war— not those who struggled against it. Fromthis point of view, it would be intolérable to permitcriminal wrongdoers to benefit from their actionsand continue their control over governmental life.Deprivation of powerIn the Constitution of Athens, Aristotle pointedout that the friends of the tyrants, "with the usualleniency of a democracy," allowed them to remainin the city of Athens. But even there they werenot rewarded with continued control over the democracy.The présent war in Indo-China will not end untilforces within the United States are able to over-come the élite groups and institutions which assumecontinuation of the war in one form or another andthe established habit of mind which assumes thataggressive war making is a legally accepted way ofconducting foreign policy. The présent war (and itsoff shoots, Laos and Cambodia) will not end withoutthe transformation of those institutions that allowedthe war to be made, and the déposition of thoseélites who manned the institutions. Conversely, ifthe war does end, American society will be fardifférent from what it is today. The élite groupswhich made the war and benefited from it cannot beexpected to émerge from such a ten-year conflagration with their power intact. New groupings inAmerican society will bring forward their ownleadership and values, pushing aside, at least for atime, présent élite groups. It is only natural thatsuch changes should occur. In part, some of thegroup which supported McGovern's càmpaign forthe Presidency reflected this impulse.Elites which control societies can be expected tosuffer punishment if they lose at war or révolution.The question American society now has to face iswhether it is possible to move aside an élite groupthat enforced institutions of war-making on theAmerican people, without resorfing to totalitarianrévolution.30 An important légal step to be taken is the de-velopment of a System of enforceable standardswhich can be applied to bureaucrats and men ofpower. In the literature of révolution, it is taken forgranted that when élites lose the will to rule, theycan be overthrown. But démocratie reconstructionrequires différent standards. When élites rule badly,without , moral purpose or wisdom, without anysensé of understanding of what they are doing, theymust be compelled by popular and légal means tostand aside.The first step in creating a revitalized démocratiesociety must be the development of a System oflaws which sets the limits of action for leaders ofthe state. Such rules must be clearly stated andunderstood as having real meaning; they must besupported by a System of enfôrcement procédures.The second must be the adoption of procédures forremoving from office those who breach that Systemof laws.In the proposed code for discussion I am suggest-ing a standard for prospective behavior. It is basedon American law and directives applied to othersocieties. The sanctions, however, might be seen asreflective of an older "American" culture.The question of what is to be done with thisleadership will be a test of whether or not Americansociety is créative and humane and whether thosegroups which were denied justice can do justice toothers while they dismantle those institutionalstructures which developed war and génocide to thepoint that they hâve reached in the world culture.Indians9 humane approachLévi-Strauss, in his remarkable book, TristesTropiques, talks about the North Plains Indians whowere known as the most cruel of societies. Never-theless, they developed a humane form of punishment which did not sever the social links of theindividual. An Indian who broke the laws of histribe was sentenced to the destruction of his be-longings, his tent and his horses. Yet, when thatoccurred, the police were indebted to the lawbreaker. They were required to compensate him forthe harm he had been made to suffer. In this way,the criminal was put back in debt to the group andhe was obliged to . acknowledge the way the com-munity undertook to help him.Thèse reciprocities continued, by way of giftsand counter gifts, until the initial disorder crea-ted by the crime and its punishment had beensmoothed over and order was once again complète.After World War II, the American governmentforced and persuaded the Japanese and Germans torenounce militarism and ultra-nationalism as theirdominant way of life. To this end, hundreds ofthousands of persons were purged or retired fromareas of responsibility in the Japanese and Germangovernments.Toward a future accountingThe United States now finds itself in a similarposition. It now must find the means, within strictlégal limits, to retire from public life bureaucratsand policy makers who see violence as the primarymeans of American policy-making. Unless suchmeans are found, we will find that American societyis one in which there are no communal values thattie the society together. The values will be sodifférent among groups and the practice of moralityso personal as to clearly vitiate the chance for apeaceful society. Instead, the chances for totaldegeneration will geometrically increase.New standards must be found to deal not so muchwith what has happened, as with what will happen inthe future. We may reject laws which hâve ah expost facto quality, or which become bills of at-tainder. There is no need for such purge tacticsin the United States. It is crucial, however, thatwe devise standards which tell officiais in reason-ably précise terms what they can and cannot do.The Uniform Code of Military Justice and thefield manuals define such limits for the military.Civilian officers of the government who deal withforeign policy and national security must not be leftwithout standards to which they are held.As a political matter, officiais of the governmentwho served in high positions during previous administrations, who acted to fan the fiâmes of warand disaster, and who developed bureaucratie structures which allowed for such a situation to develop,need not be reappointed. Indeed, any political partyplatf orm should now include a clear statement that it will not appoint those who pursued a policy of warin Southeast Asia to any future cabinet, subcabinet,or pôlicy-making position. The Senate foreign relations committee could begin to serve notice on anyPresidential aspirant or Président that there is littlelikelihood that any person directly involved in theIndo-China war will be recommended by that committee for Senate confirmation.The issue is not a partisan issue. It is a question ofthe standards of citizenship within the body politic.During the occupation of Germany after World WarII the United States insisted that the various partiesof Germany — and then the Germans themselves —develop a code of behavior which would be applicable to ail Germans as citizens of Germany. TheGerman représentatives of the various political parties — Christian Social Union, Social DémocratieParty, Communist Party, Economie ReconstructionParty, and Free Démocratie Party — ail joined withthe German government to support the Law forLiberation from National Socialism and Militarism.They drew a proclamation which developed à définition of citizenship that separated itself from thenational socialist and militarist period of Germanlife. It is this lesson upon which we can draw.The power to déclare war and the power to defineoffenses against the Law of Nations is left, constitu-tionally speaking, with the Congress. In 1947, whenthe public debated the meaning of war crimes,international lawyers argued for the developmentof laws which would make such crimes punish-able within national courts. As one commentator,George Finch, wrote, the government of the UnitedStates "should not allow the slow processes ofinternational agreement to defeat its sincerity ofpurpose." Now, in the 1970s, the question of such acode cannot remain an item of unfinished business.Realm of possibilitySome hâve argued that states are incapable, bydéfinition, of keeping the peace, and that citizensmust find a means for doing so. John Dewey con-tended that the institutions of the state are sosaturatéd with the war mentality that to regard thestate as a major instrument for maintaining peace isa contradiction which can never be resolved inpractice. But, as we hâve seen, there was an anti-31militarist mood within the American governmentafter World War IL Many officiais were convincedthen that another war had to be aVoided, and thatleaders had to be controlled. But those who tookthat position either resigned or were drïven out bythe new militarism which mushroômed during theCold War years.In 1947, with the National Security Act, theAmerican government blurred the distinction between, civilian and military opérations in nationalsecurity and foreign policy. Foreign policy becamean instrument of conflict, and national security wasjudged in terms of military and paramilitary strengthand the government's willingness to engage in theiruse.The fédéral government became an instrument ofthe national security state as the militarized civiliansemployed the resources of the society for covertopérations, forced refugee programs, bomtiing missions, and nuclear war tactics. The militarized civilians escaped any code of law under which theycould be held accountable by the citizenry or theCongress. Americans found that their leaders tookthe f ork in the road which was marked by the flag ôfimperialism and paved with sign-posts which saidthat raw power was law.Law is people9s recourseSince 1963 the transformation of values withinthe American society has meant that there is aconscious wish on the part of an active public toretrace those steps, because of its own héritage andhopes and because of what has become obvious toail: that war is a crime in itself, that murder ororganizing for it on a small or grand scale can nolonger pass as high policy.The people are concerned with how the state is tobe held in cheçk and how power is to be heldaccountable. Those who hâve argued that the na-tion-state System is obsolète, and by its natureimmoral, may be theoretically correct. But there isnothing to suggest that in the présent there is abelievable alternative.The question remains as to how the severalbranches of government within the United States,andthe people, are able to end crijninality masking32 as government. This can and should be donethrough lawful means. What recourse do the peoplehâve against élites other than law?Since 1970, members ôf Congress (including theUniversity's congressman, Abner Mikva) hâve helddiscussions on the ticklish question of personalresponsibility for government officiais in nationalsecurity and foreign policy. Such discussions nowseem to hâve moved to a new stage. Some membersof the Senate, while recognizing the difficulty indrafting a code of personal responsibility, nowbelieve that a code which clearly makes theNuremburg obligations and other internationaltreaty obligations part of domestic law may be theonly way to control the penchant of 20th cehturygovernment officiais to use nuclear war, assassina-tion, génocide, population removal, etc., as instruments of statecraft.Ail décent opinion has been shocked at the terrorisai of the Black September group against the Israeliathlètes. This sensé of shock and outrage must nowbe carried by citizens against the behavior of government officiais who operate under the color oflegitimacy but whose activities in fact are no lessshocking and illégal.This consciousness, as I hâve suggested, is notforeign to modem political thought. Consciousnessof accountability and responsibility has alsoemerged in work which Ralph Nader has un-dertaken in his attempts to hold corporations andtheir officiais and government officiais in domesticpolicy to new standards of responsibility.In the area of national security, members ofCongress are profoundly awàre of their impotence,having given away so much of their power to theExecutive and its manifold agençies in the last fewyears. Politically some members of Congress see acode of responsibility as a means of restoringcivilian and congressional control over war making.The 20th century emerged witfy a dual doctrine ofstatecraft. One was a Dostoevskian sênse that forgovernments e very thing is permitted, and the otherview that governments are limited in what they cando to their own citizenry and to the people of theworld. The consciousness of the time suggests thatpeople are now prepared to folio w the latter view.One hopes so, if for no other reason than for thesake of his children.New facts aboutan umsual alumni bodyHardy FreemanEveryone knows that alumni of the University of Chicago are an unusual lot. A Cabinet officer hère. A poet (orseveral) there. A long-distance hiker. A TranscendentalMeditator. Nobel lauréates. A new survey by the University gives some positive indications of the degree anddirection of the unusualness:* More than one-third of the University's alumni (35%)are currently working in the field of éducation. (Thefigure increases to 38.4% if persons now retired areincluded.) One-fourth of the alumni are in higher éducation.Mr. Freeman (am '64) is assistant director of develop-ment ofthe University and régional director ofthe AlumniFund. * One alumnus in four (26%) works in a corporation. Ifother forms of business are included, the figure risesabove 30%.* Another 8% of the alumni are in government service — national (including foreign service), state or local.* Further, 11% of the alumni are either engaged in theprivate practice of medicine or are employed in hospitalsor clinics.* Seven percent are lawyers.Thèse groups comprise approximately 89% of theUniversity's alumni body, according to a new survey.The other 11% are divided among the arts, associationsand foundations, private social and welfare agencies, andinternational organizations.More than 55% of the alumni responding reportedArtsAssociations and foundationsCorporations, business concernsHigher éducationElementary, secondary éducationElected officiaisGovernment service — foreignGovernment service — fédéralGovernment service — stateGovernment service — localInternationa] organisationsHospitals and clinicsLawMédical (independent)Proprietorships and partnershipsOther self-employedPrivate social and welfare agencies Principal occupations of alumnii¦iZZ—33occupations in the non-profit, public service sector of theeconomy. Included are alumni working for associationsor foundations, in the arts, éducation, some form ofgovernment service, hospitals, clinics, or social welfareagencies.Working for private corporations are 26% of thealumni reporting. Entrepreneurs and members of proprie torships or partnerships such as accounting firms,consulting companies, etc., constitute 4.1%. Altogether,approximately 30.2% of survey respondents work in the"private sector."The survey, conducted by the Development Office inlate 71 and early 72, started with 68,209 alumni withknown addresses. Responses were received from 43,378alumni, and, of thèse, 72% (31,233) supplied occupationalinformation. (Alumni reporting "housewife" or "stu-dent" were ommitted from the occupation totals.Approximately 3.9% indicated they were housewives;1.6% students.)Multiplier effectSurvey results strongly support Chicago's réputationfor producing many persons who work in higher éducation — teaching, doing research, or administration. Ex-cluding retired persons, 9,916 indicated occupations pres-ently in the field of éducation. (Including the retired, thetotal is 11,695.) Most of the alumni in the field oféducation work at the college-university level — 26.8% or7,609 alumni.Perhaps the single most impressive finding, underliningthe extent of the "multiplier effect" of éducation atChicago, is the discovery that nearly 12% of our respondents presently occupy positions as high as full profes-sor. Equally impressive is the fact that 42.5% of thoseworking in higher éducation are employed at a level offull prof essor or higher. Thèse include 88 with the title ofprésident or chancellor, 9 provosts, 198 deans, 387 de-partment chairmen and 2,663 full professors.Of alumni reporting occupations in elementary andsecondary éducation, nearly one-third indicated they arepresently retired. This is largely attributable to the smallnumber of undergraduate degrees granted in éducationsince the late 1920s. Still, excluding retired alumni, nearly10% (221) reported working at elementary and secondary levels presently occupy positions as principals, headmas-ters, or superintendents. Leadership is a distinguishingcharacteristic of Chicago alumni, regardless of the set-ting.Social workers employed by government or privateagencies comprise 6.9% (1,951) of alumni reporting occupations. This is a conservative figure which does notinclude school or hospital social workers. Unfortunately,the coding procédure precluded identifying thèse persons. Individuals working for government agencies, suchas the Department of Health, Education and Welfare orthe Department of Housing and Urban Development,were not classified as social workers except when theysupplied "social worker" as an occupational title.Alumni employed in state and local government positions, exclusive of éducation but including social workers, comprise 8.6% (2,434) of the total reporting occupations.Examining levels of responsibility at which respondents are employed, we discovered that approximatelyone-seventh (13.9%) are in top management positions. Ofrespondents in private corporations and in hospitals orclinics — nearly 30% are chief executives. Another one-seventh are independent professionals — almost entirelydoctors or lawyers in private practice. Salaried professionals constitute one-third of the respondents, most ofthem in higher éducation.The single largest group of alumni in the employ of thefédéral government consists of military officers (241, or19.3%). The others' posts vary widely. At the top,organizationally, are five of cabinet level (secretary ordeputy or assistant secretary). Another 90 alumni arechairmen or members of major commissions or regu-latory bodies, and 29 are régional directors. Sixty-threeare heads of agencies. Three are delegates to the UN orother international bodies, and 39 are foreign serviceofficers.The other alumni in government are scattered acrossdozens of compétences ranging from geologists, ocea-nologists and oceanographers to mathematicians andresearch analysts. There are 46 attorneys, nine historians,22 economists, 21 meteorologists and ten in botany orother biological sciences disciplines.And if an alumnus doesn't fall into any of the catégories tabulated? It just goes to shaw that he or she is atruly egregious alumnus within an unusual alumni body.34Risir\g ù\ a beap rnapkgt^<^ri]j.ssioi\ ajplicationsat ^QiicagoIn the face of a nationwide décline in applications for collège enrolment, and despite an increase in tuition, the numberof applications for undergraduate admission to the University this fall increased by 35%. The Magazine asked fourmembers of the university concerned with this astonishing situation to explain briefly why they felt it had taken place.Hère are their replies:There is nothing more dangerous than to play the game ofanalyzing one-time phenomena; however, since gamesare fun, I shall try my hand at explaining why ourapplications for undergraduate admission increased sub-stantially in the face of a national décline.As with ail phenomena involving students (or humanbeings) no single f actor can account for this year's resultsin recruiting. I think that the institution of a simplifiedpreliminary application attracted a certain number ofstudents who might not hâve applied. We ail hâve atendency to forget the tremendous burden which highschool seniors face in making applications for admissionto collèges, for dormitory space, for the privilège ofsitting for national, state and régional examinations, andfor financial aid.Our financial aid policies certainly helped, and so didour continuing personal attention to prospective appli-cants. The University of Chicago faculty is very gener-ous of its time in helping with first-class recruiting procédures.Finally, I am convinced that we enjoyed an advantageover many others, for our curriculum has remainedrelatively structured. In the récent past, many schoolshâve made capital of offering totally unstructured pro-grams. I sensé in the current wave of entering students adistrust of permissive curriculums. Since we hâve neverjoined those who were inclined to throw out the babywith the bath water, we were the beneficiaries of a returnto a search for rigor and seriousness.GEORGE L. PLAYEProfessor in the Department of Romance Languages,Chairman, Faculty Committee on UndergraduateAdmissionsChicago has never "f ollowed the trend." Ten years inAdmissions persuaded me that studies of the nationalbirth rate, the number of high school students expectedto graduate across the country in any given year, or even35the proportion of those students expected to sélectprivate higher éducation as contrasted with public, hadany discernible effect on applications to our Collège.More than any collège I knew, ours had the advantage of(or suffered from) a strong degree of "self-selection"among our applicants.I would like to think, then, that the welcome surge inapplications to the Class of 1976 is not the resuit ofaccident or even of exceptionally ingenious recruiting —although both may to a degree be true. Rather, it is arécognition among an increasing number of high schoolseniors that the Collège of the University of Chicagoknows what it is about, that it has educational convictions, that it actively resists educational fads. My onlyévidence that this might indeed be the explanation is therepeated observation by an increasing number of students, and particularly transfer students, that it's "good"to be at a place where the faculty are presumed to knowmore than the students about what constitutes a genuine-ly libéral éducation.CHARLES D. O'CONNELLDean of StudentsThere is no mystery about the good students applying foradmission. They hâve discovered that Chicago is amongthe few places where scholarship has not disappeared.Perhaps it is the alumni who are responsible for thediscovery. They see the gulf between their own studieshère and what has corne to pass for higher éducationwhere scholarship is in retreat. The new students say thatour alumni hâve talked to them about prof essors, books,experiments, and ideas (things we do hâve); not aboutteaching assistants, encounter groups, governance, orformulas for counting units of crédit for non-academicwork (things we don't hâve — no, not even governance ifwe are to judge by the Collège dean's office). They alsosay that the alumni speak of Chicago with pride andenthusiasm. Believe it or not, that is not out of fashion.There are plenty of intelligent young students in theworld. We accept only about 600 a year, since we want tokeep the Collège small enough so that we will know eachother. But because we are small, we can give individualattention to each application. There is no computer in theAdmissions Office.ROGER H. HILDEBRANDDean of the Collège It is very difficult to explain why applications for admission to the Collège increased substantially in 1971-1972.There are a number of factors which might explain theincrease; however, they may also hâve little to do with it.1. A décision was made three years ago, when we firstnoticed a décline in freshmen applications, to concen-trate our recruitment efforts in population centers. Itappears that those efforts did pay off.2. The work of our relatively new Alumni SchoolsCommittee program may be beginning to bear fruit. Wehâve schools committees serving twenty-f our géographieareas and the number of alumni involved has increasedtwelvefold in the last three years. Schools committeemembers visit with students and encourage their interestin the Collège. They also conduct interviews for us andsponsor social gatherings for interested students. I amsure that this personal attention has had some influenceon a number of prospective students.3. For many years we hâve lacked a publication on theCollège that could be sent to students first class im-mediately upon receipt of their inquiry. The new brochure on undergraduate student life was introduced inthe fall of 1971 and has been well received.4. In 1971 we introduced a new preliminary application, which students must file before they receive supple-mentary application papers. As this is a relatively simpleform to complète, the high school students hâve returnedit promptly. This has given us the opportunity to notifythe Alumni Schools Committees early of the students'interest in the Collège and has also enabled us to sche-dule the interviews earlier. In other words instead ofhaving two or three weeks to work with the students, wehâve had several months.5. During the 1971-1972 académie year, the Collège, incoopération with the local schools committees, spon-sored conference-workshops for high school counselorsand schools committee members in nine cities. I am surethat, while not uniformly successful, they had someeffect.6. From our conversations it appears that students areless interested in educational faddism today than theywere a year and two years ago. The students seem to beapproaching the sélection of a collège with more care.They seem to be more interested in the traditional libéralarts approach.ANTHONY T. G. PALLETTDirector, Collège Admissions and Aid36JÇettersShades of '29to the editor: The two articles in theJuly/August issue, by Edward Shils ["In-tellectuals and the Center of Society"] andS. R. Bernstein ['The American IndustrialRévolution— Its Third (and Final?)Phase"], are most fascinating. I am humanenough to admit that much of my admiration is due to my agreeing with them. I amold enough to hâve a long memory, andfortunately still clear-headed enough tosee many relationships between the pastand the présent.I was three years old when Bryan ranfor Président in 1896. 1 hâve a keen recollection that my father felt that if Bryanwon, our economy, if not our whole country, would collapse. Bryan was a rawidealist, not unlike McGovern. He wasalso a windbag, as I heard him speak oncewhen I was a young man. He would puthis hand to any thing, from selling Floridareal estate to defending fundamentalism.McGovern picked his first running-matewithout even knowing him. He has flip-flopped several times in his various stands.Mr. Shils comments very effectively on in-tellectuals in and around government.Idealists might be a better word, if notvisionaries.I agrée even more heartily with Mr.Bernstein. I was 36 years old in 1929. 1saw the tornado coming. No one wouldagrée with me, and many called me ailsorts of uncomplimentary names for myremarks or opinions. Before 1929, we hadinvestment trusts, now we hâve mutualfunds, and recently, conglomérâtes. Nei-ther produces anything! They are only in-flators of egos and estimations. They ailcorne to the same ignominious ends!Shades of 1929 are hanging over us.ALAN D. WHITNEY, PhB'13Winnetka, 111.Mémorial to support fellowshipto the editor: A year ago Dr. Faith S.Miller, who received her PhD degree in zo-ology in 1935, died suddenly the day afterreaching Woods Hole where she and I had been planning to spend the summer in research. As a mémorial in her honor, thegraduate students at Tulane and the phDswhom she had helped to train hâve estab-lished a fund, the income from which willbe used to support a graduate student during a summer of research at the MarineBiological Laboratory at Woods Hole.The students will be selected by a committee of at least five scientists, on thebasis of scholarship (as attested by académie record), aptitude (as evidenced byresearch publications) and recommenda-tions (at least 3 required).On the first anniversary of its inceptionthe fund stood at nearly $3,500, but sincethere hâve been no public announcementsregarding the fund, it is thought that manypotential contributors hâve not known ofits existence. The goal, which has been setis for $10,000, will permit the purchase ofa guaranteed income policy which willprovide $1,200 each year for anawardee — $300 per month for living ex-penses at Woods Hole and $150 each wayfor transportation to and from the MarineBiological Laboratory.Anyone wishing to make a tax déductible contribution to this worthy causeshould make out a check to the FaithStone Miller Mémorial Fund and send it toMr. Homer Smith, General Manager,Marine Biological Laboratory, WoodsHole, Mass., 02543.JAMES A. MILLER, PhD'35Tulane UniversityNew OrléansBuilding found 'unsuitable'to the editor: The lack of creativity onthe part of the architects and universityofficiais responsible for the design of theBrain Research Building depicted in yourMay-June number is rivaled only by theimagination of the writer who describedthat depressing édifice as "nestled" between its two neighbors. That the University, erstwhile bastion of invention, has seenfit to construct itself in the flaccid imageof the American Corporate Vernacular is asad, if fitting, commentary on its présent position in society. Even the Ivory Towerwas better. But perhaps most distressingof ail is the failure of the académie congrégation to note that what is being thrustinto its midst is not simply architecturallyunsuitable but doctrinally unsuitable aswell. . .MICHAEL SORKIN, AB'69Cambridge, Mass.Likes Cate's lack of hâteto the editor: Hurrah for James LeaCate's article "Keeping Posted"! What awelcome relief from historians who hâte,mountain climbers interested mostly inhardware and sociologists who see littlegood in the best society that man hasevolved !JOHN HULING, JR., PhB'17Elkhorn, Wis.to the editor: May I express my admiration of the mix in the May/June issueof the University of Chicago Magazine.There was something for everybody.You got for free, four pièces thatNorman Cousins would hâve been glad topay good money for as he launches hisnew publication World.I reveled in Jimmy Cate's pièce onEmily Post. His pixie-sober appraisal ofthe lady's strictures on manners was sheerdelight.JAMES brown iv, am'37, pIid'39Chicago, 111.McNeill journal praisedto the editor: I am passing on Prof essorWilliam H. McNeill's article ["Journeyfrom Common Sensé," May/June, 1972] totwo colleagues with whom I hâve taught"Science in Civilization." One is in bi-ology the other in English. I am also shar-ing it with our Russian historian. Prof.McNeill is to be congratulated indeed onhis thoughtful and charming journal.EDWARD COOMESNorth Texas State UniversityDenton, Tex.37Quadrangle ÏS(ewsNew test guides breastcancer treatmentWidely-diffused breast cancers that willrespond favorably to removal of the ad-renal or pituitary gland — about 25% of ailmetastatic breast cancers — can now be ac-curately identified, Elwood V. Jensen(phD'44), director of the University's BenMay Laboratory for Cancer Research, reported earlier this year.Jensen has announced success in clinical use of a diagnostic test developed forvictims of advanced breast cancer. Thetest was developed in the Ben May Laboratory. Jensen is also prof essor in the Department of Physiology.The test détermines whether the breastcancer cells contain characteristic steroid-binding proteins known as hormone re-ceptors. The receptors chemically bind fe-male sex hormones to the cells that makeup hormone-dependent tissues.In about one in four breast cancer patients the breast cancer cells appear to re-quire female sex hormone, estrogen, togrow. In thèse patients the receptor pro-tein is présent in the cancer cells.In premenopausal women, it has beenknown for some 75 years, certain breastcancers will cease growing if the ovariesare removed. In 1952, Nobel Lauréate Dr.Charles B. Huggins of the University reported that removal of the adrenal glands,which in postmenopausal women appearto produce sex hormones, will bring aboutremission in some cases of breast cancer.Working with Dr. George E. Block, pro-fessor in the Department of Surgery in theDivision of the Biological Sciences andthe Pritzker School of Medicine, Jensenfound that only one out of twenty-nine patients whose cancers lacked the receptorprotein received benefit from endocrinesurgery in contrast to the remissions seenin ten of twelve patients with receptor-containing tumors."If the test is négative," Jensen reported, "there is very little probability thatadrenal or pituitary surgery will bring about a remission, and the patient can bespared the trauma of useless surgery."The discovery of androgen receptorsand their rôle was made by Jensen and hiscolleagues in 1958, and human clinical trials of the test began in 1966.The test, which is now being routinelyperformed at the University of ChicagoMédical Center and several other hospitals, can be carried out overnight. TheBen May Laboratory is now developing asimplified version of the test.Horton professorships establishedTwo professorships in memory of HoraceB. and Phyllis Fay Horton, prominent Chi-cagoans and alumni, hâve been establishedby the University. Mr. Horton (sb'07) waschairman of the Chicago Bridge and IronCompany.The new professorships are the HoraceB. Horton Professorship in the PhysicalSciences and the Phyllis Fay Horton Professorship in the Humanities. They weremade possible by an unrestricted gift of$1,500,000 from Mrs. Horton, who established a trust agreement with the University prior to her death last year.Léonard B. Meyer, prof essor in theDepartment of Music and in the Collège,was named the first holder of the PhyllisFay Horton chair."I am particularly pleased to announcethe establishment of the Horton Professorships," said Edward H. Levi, présidentof the University. "Mr. and Mrs. Hortonwere devoted alumni and good friends ofthe University for many years. The use ofthis wonderful gift in this way will be ofenormous help to the University in the effort to maintain that kind of facultystrength which has always distinguishedthis institution."Mrs. Horton (ab'15), prior to her hus-band's death in 1959, joined him in makinggifts to the University totaling more than$100,000. As a resuit of her support in itsrénovation, a portion of Cobb LectureHall is designated the Horace B. Horton Mémorial Wing.The Hortons' two children hâve alsobeen active in University affairs. John TodHorton (phB'46), a director of ChicagoBridge and Iron, is a member of the University's Citizens Board, and has been active in numerous University fund-raisingcampaigns. Fay Horton (ab'44, PhD '64)was a member of the Alumni AssociationCabinet from 1962 to 1970, and was theassociation's président from 1967 to 1969.She is currently a lecturer in its School ofSocial Service Administration. Her hus-band is Calvin P. Sawyier (ab'42, am'42).The University currently has 63 professorships which are partially or fully en-dowed. Seventeeji of them are distinguished service professorships (awardedto eminent scholars of long service without restriction to a particular field), and 46are named chairs (in most cases restrictedto fields specified by the individual donor).Rehage gets added assignaientKenneth J. Rehage (am'35, PhD '48), pro-fessor of éducation, has been appointeddean of students in the University's graduate Division of the Social Sciences.Rehage will continue to serve as deanof students in the Graduate School ofEducation. As dean of students in the Division of the Social Sciences he succeedsReuben W. Smith, who has left the University.Rehage has been a University facultymember since 1948. For eight previousyears he had been on the staff of the University's Laboratory Schools. He wasnamed a prof essor in 1957.Bettelheim again director ofShankman Orthogenic SchoolBruno Bettelheim, Stella M. Rowley distinguished service professor of éducationand professor of psychology and psychia-try at the University, has been named director of the Sonia Shankman OrthogenicSchool.38Jacquelyn Sanders (am'64), assistantprofessor at the Center for Early Education, Los Angeles, was appointed as-sociate director of the school and lecturerin éducation at the University.Bertram Cohler (ab'61), who served asthe school's director from October, 1970,to September, 1972, has resigned to dévotemore time to teaching and research. He isassistant professor of éducation and in theCommittee on Human Development.Bettelheim previously directed the Orthogenic School from 1944 to 1970. Duringthis period, he gained Worldwide récognition for his success in treating severelydisturbed children.Spencer grant aids young facultyThe University has received a grant of$1,976,004 from the Spencer Foundationto appoint young faculty to study the wayhuman behavior is affected by éducation.The grant, largest ever awarded by thefoundation in its 10-year history, will en-able the University to recruit from a vari-ety of disciplines young scholars whooften find it difficult to attract researchsupport because they are just starting theircareers. The grant covers a seven-yearperiod.Appointments may be made in sociolo-gy, psychology, biology, human develop-ment, business, and other fields, as well asin éducation.The grant will be administered by aseven-member committee headed by J.Alan Thomas, professor and chairman ofthe Department of Education and dean ofthe Graduate School of Education.Grant named chairman ofHumanities' New Testament unitRobert M. Grant, professor in the DivinitySchool, has been named chairman of theDepartment of New Testament and EarlyChristian Literature in the University's Division of the Humanities. Grant succeedsAllen P. Wikgren (ab'28, AM'29,phD'32), also a professor in the Divinity School.Grant, a graduate of Northwestern University in '38 and of Union TheologicalSeminary in '41, has professional degreesfrom Harvard University and Seabury-Western Theological Seminary.Before coming to the University in 1952as a research asspciate, Grant was on thefaculty of the School of Theology at theUniversity of the South from 1944 to 1953.New center aims to improveradiological, nuclear diagnosisThe University has received a grant for$496,660 to establish a Center of Radiologie Image Research to increase diagnos-Yerkes Observatory marks its seventy-fifthbirthday this fall; hère the viewer looks (indaylight) up the long barrel ofthe observatory 's vénérable 40-inch refracting télescope.Outmoded for many of the uses of today'sastronomy, the refractor still is distinctlyfunctional in others. And it is still theworld 's largest of its type. tic accuracy in radiology and nuclear med-icine.The grant, from the National Institute ofGeneral Médical Sciences, will support thecenter for one year. The institute has indicated that support will be available forfive years, the yearly level depending onthe amount of fédéral research fundsavailable.Kurt Rossmann, professor and directorof the section of radiological sciences inthe Department of Radiology of the Division of the Biological Sciences and thePritzker School of Medicine, and also ofthe Argonne Cancer Research Hospital, isdirector of the center.The center is one of two federallyfunded radiological research centers. Theother, located at the Harvard MédicalSchool, was activated in February, 1972.Marshall headsMusic DepartmentRobert L. Marshall, a Bach scholar, hasbeen appointed chairman of the University's Department of Music. He succeedsHoward M. Brown, who is on a two-yearleave of absence at King's Collège,London University.Marshall, 32, joined the faculty in 1966as an instructor of music and the humanities. He was named an assistant professorin 1968 and an associate professor in 1971.Marshall is particularly interested in thestudy of the créative process of JohannSébastian Bach as revealed in originalautograph manuscripts of his works. Hehas written articles on Bach for scholarlyjournals and is the author of a two-volumework, The Compositional Process ofJohann Sébastian Bach.Marshall received a Fulbright fellowshipfrom 1962 to 1964 and a grant-in-aid fromthe Martha Baird Rockefeller Fund forMusic from 1964 to 1966. In 1971-72, hewas the George W. Perkins FoundationFellow of the Council of Humanities andvisiting associate professor of music atPrinceton University.39'BooksA Club OpportunityUniversity of Chicago alumni areinvited to become guest members ofthe Williams Collège Club, at 24 E.39th St., New York City, 10016.Membership privilèges includeroom réservations, dining facilities,conférence rooms, theater ticketservice, squash courts, etc. Semi-annual rates range from $18 to $90,depending on place of résidence andyear of undergraduate degree fromChicago or other collège. For application and brochure or further information, write to Mrs. DorisHumphrey at the Williams Club.The View from the Peacock's TailM.L. RosenthalThe Homeric HymnsDaryl HineThe Witch and the Weather ReportSusan Fromberg SchaefferThe falling leaves of autumn hâve broughtforth three books of verse by alumni. TheView from the Peacock's Tail by M.L.Rosenthal (ab'37, am'38) uses intenselywarm and personal expériences to il-luminate society's foibles (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972. $5.95). Mr.Rosenthal is professor of English at NewYork University.The Homeric Hymns and the Battle ofthe Frogs and Mice is a compilation ofnew translations (New York: Atheneum,1972. $7.95) by Daryl Hine (am'65,PhD '69), himself a poet and editor of Poet-ry as well as a former UC faculty member. The book holds thirty-three paeans tothe gods, plus the saga of conflict betweenthe forces of Swellcheek and Crumbgrub-ber.In The Witch and the Weather Report(New York: Seven Woods Press, 1972.$2.75) Susan Fromberg Schaeffer (ab'61,am'63, PhD '66) writes of life and death aswell as more mundane matters such asbombing and domestic relationships. Sheteaches English at Brooklyn Collège.The Bike BookBibs Mclntyre"Everything you need to know aboutowning and riding a bike," say s the sub-title of this useful compendium of information by Mrs. Mclntyre (phB'45).Most of the book (New York: Harper andRow, 1972. $6.95) is aimed at the urbancyclist, though there's plenty for the cy-clist who wants to venture into crosscountry travel, including lists of bike trailsand bicycle clubs. Where Has All the Ivy Gone?Muriel BeadleWhere Has All the Ivy Gone? (New York:Doubleday and Co., 1972. $8.95) is MurielBeadle's story of her seven years as wifeof the président of the University. Actual-ly it is not one story, but hundreds, for itruns heavily to anecdotes, plus her ownoutspoken and lively observations on theevents of those years, which included thepangs of student unrest, racial unrest, theeffort to establish a business center, andthe perennial flux of controversy that isthe University.Try one sample paragraph (a non-anecdotal one) about Hyde Park:"The community is overorganized. Fdsometimes get fed to the teeth with thefrequency of meetings, the inevitability ofsomeone's disputing almost any proposedcourse of action, the perennial sproutingof new committees in behalf of this orthat cause. And yet . . . how splendid it isto feel the juices rise, not with the fore-knowledge of success but because itseems right to try."The Design of EducationCyril O. HouleIn The Design of Education, Mr. Houle(phD'40) has created a well-marked path-way to be followed by anyone who findshimself or herself playing a rôle in a cur-rent or projected adult éducation program — whatever its subject matter, itsclientèle or its sponsor. This is not to saythat The Design of Education (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1972. $9.75) is inthe nature of a handbook. It is much morea book on how to think about undertakingan adult éducation program than a how-to-do-it book of instructions.Houle, professor of éducation at theUniversity (he was writing on adult éducation in thèse pages two décades ago)breaks down the planning or analysis of an adult éducation program into two principal steps. The first is to détermine thecategory into which the situation falls —among eleven principal catégories he setsforth. The second step consists of the application to this situation of a systematicf rame work he proposes, the frameworkrepresenting the objectives, the format,the required adjustments to the particularsituation and the appraisal of results.Democratic Humanism and American LlTERATUREHarold KaplanIn Democratic Humanism and AmericanLiterature (Chicago: University of ChicagoPress, 1972. $12) Mr. Kaplan (ab'37,am'38) examines the works of a group ofAmerican writers — Emerson, Thoreau,Cooper, Poe, Lawrence, Hawthorne, Mel-ville, Whitman, Clemens and James — inthe light of their relationship to the na-tion's democratic-humanistic cultural tradition. Mr. Kaplan is a member of the faculty at Bennington Collège.40alumni D^ewsClass notesQQ pearl HUNTER WEBER, PhB'99,S S AM'20, one of the first women at theUniversity of Chicago to be elected to PhiBeta Kappa, former student and assistant ofthe late John Dewey, retired philosophyteacher at the University of Omaha (nowthe University of Nebraska at Omaha),died last April in La Jolla, Calif .A^ IN MEMORIAM: Robert Fry Clark,^^ AM'06, in Camp Hill, Pa.; LillianPool, SB' 06.1 / ERLING H. LUNDE, PhB'l4, as unof-•*" ficial ambassador of good will actingon behalf of Governor Ogilvie, presentedthe new state of Illinois flag at In-dependence Day célébrations in Ribild,Denmark, on July 4. The célébration, a national observance in Denmark intended tofoster good relations between that countryand the United States, is highlighted by theraising of both national flags and those ofthe fifty U. S. states on the Avenue ofFlags in Ribild, near Aalborg. Mr. Lunde,who is of Norwegian and Danish descent,is currently volunteer administrator of theCitizens of Greater Chicago and a memberof the Citizenship Council of MetropolitanChicago, which sponsors weekly eventshonoring and welcoming new citizens intothe American community.IN MEMORIAM: Charles N. Curtis,AM'l4, DB'18; Sarah Van Hoosen Jones,PhB'14.1 Q KATHARINE BURR BLODGETT,"^^ SM'18, retired General Electric research scientist, has won the PhotographieSociety of America' s Progress Medal for1972 and is the first woman ever to be se-lected for the award. Dr. Blodgett wascited for her invention, back in the 1930s,of a device that can measure the thicknessof films within one-millionth of an inch and for her development of non-reflecting ' 'invisible" glass. Today, virtually all caméralenses and optical devices hâve non-reflec-tive coatings on their surfaces, permittingefficient passage of light.IN MEMORIAM: Kirk H. Porter, PhD' 18.1 Q JEANNETTE RIDLON PICCARD,S SM'19, record-setting, pioneeringballoonist, entered an Episcopal seminarythis fall, at the âge of 78, after years ofbeing turned down as a candidate for thepriesthood because she is a woman. Theonly internationally-licensed Americanwoman balloonist, Dr. Piccard piloted theballoon which set the still unbroken strato-spheric altitude record of 57,579 feet backin the 1930s. Still out to smash précèdent,she now intends to become the first womanEpiscopal bishop.O A FLORENCE EDLER DE ROOVER,^"" PhB'20, AM'24, PhB'30, moved inSeptember from Brooklyn to Florence torésume research on the Tuscan silk indus-try during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. She plans to publish a volume onthe médiéval silk industry in Lucca and another on the Florentine silk industry of theRenaissance period. The Magazine is sorryto report the death of her husband onMarch 14 (see Class of '43: In Memoriam).BERNARD RAYMUND, PhD'20, SafetyHarbor, Fia., told the St. Petersburg (Fia.)Times recently that there has been a changeover the last few years in the local birdpopulation. "There' s been an invasion ofwestern birds hère, birds which hâve neverbeen seen in the East before. There' s ap-parently been a convergence of migratoryflight patterns," he said. A retired OhioState University English teacher and vétéran bird watcher — he's been tracking birdssince before the turn of the century — Dr.Raymund is quite active in the St. Petersburg Audubon Society, currently as theirdirector of field trips. J 1 EUGENE ZISKIND, SB'21, MD'25, re-~ -*- search psychiatrist and head of theresearch center for sociopathic behavior atGateways Hospital, Los Angeles, was oneof fifteen experts in sociopathic behaviorwho participated recently in a workshop on"Crime Prévention Through EnvironmentalDesign," held at Ohio State University'sCenter for Tomorrow.IN MEMORIAM: Ruth Miriam Harris,PhB'21.^ 2 LANGSTON F. BATE, AM'23, PhD'26,** J professor of chemistry at Huston-Tillotson Collège, Austin, Tex., spent partof the summer as one of three faculty re-searchers at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley.During the research, which involved transuranium and super heavy éléments, Professor Bâte worked with the team of scientistswho produced chemical éléments 104 and105.NORMAN BECK, AB'23, PhD '41, retiredin June from the faculty of Jersey CityState Collège, ending a forty-seven-yearteaching career. At JCSC Dr. Beck hadbeen chairman of the political science de-partment since 1963 and was founder ini960 of the highly successful Practicum inPractical Politics, a course which involvesjuniors and seniors actively working inevery phase of élections.0 A. CONSTANCE ENDICOTT HARTT,~ * SM'24, PhD' 28, authority on thesugar cane plant, has received an honorarydoctorate from Mount Holyoke Collège,South Hadley, Mass. Dr. Hartt, who retired in 1963 as senior physiologist for theHawaiian Sugar Planters Association, stillhas an office with the company, where sheis writing the results of her research ontranslocation and photosynthesis in sugarcane.SIDNEY A. SHERIDAN, SB'24, after working four years on the installation and opération of a large forging facility in central41Argentina, returned stateside in 1964 tobegin the work of writing and compilingthe first comprehensive volume on designof high performance forgings. Sponsoredby the Air Force and contributed to byreprésentatives of many of the larger aero-space firms, the work, Forging DesignHandbook, was published during the summer by the American Society for Metals,Metals Park, Ohio 44073.J/l VERA STELLWAGEN SMITH, PhB'26,^ has retired as director of admissionsand records at Joliet (111.) Junior Collège.Mrs. Smith joined the JJC staff in 1956 asan adviser and instructor in English.0"7 ELENA BODER, SB'27, MD'32, clinical' professor of pediatrics at the UCLAmédical school, spoke recently to the Mer-cer County (Pa.) Association for Childrenwith Learning Disabilities on ' 'Reading as aNeurological Problem." Dr. Boder also isneuropediatrician in charge of the PédiatrieNeurology Clinic, Cedars-Sinai MédicalCenter, Los Angeles; is consultant in thedivision of neurology, Childrens Hospitalof Los Angeles, and has a private consultation practice. Dr. Boder, who received herelementary and secondary éducation inMexico City, is a fréquent guest speaker inSpanish at Pan American and Latin American professional meetings.F. WILBUR GINGRICH, AM'27, PhD'32,has retired as professor of Greek at Al-bright Collège, Reading, Pa.IN MEMORIAM: Charles Ross Dean,AM'27; George Ernest Wickens, JD'27.^O HARRIET GEORGE BARCLAY, PhD'28,*** professor of botany at the Universityof Tulsa and a faculty member there forforty-three years, has reached that university's mandatory retirement âge and isspending the 1972-73 académie year atNorth Carolina State University, Raleigh.Dr. Barclay has been the leading voice inrécent years for the préservation of RedbudValley, an ecologically unique area east ofTulsa. She has done extensive botanical research in the Andes and is listed in bothWho 's Who in America and American Men ofScience.NORMAN REID, PhB'28, AM'32, has retired from the faculty of Bridgeport(Conn.) Collège where he was chairman ofspeech and theater arts for fifteen years.H. j. SACHS, PhB'28, AM'29, has retiredas professor of English at Louisiana Tech,Ruston.IN MEMORIAM: Carol Hess Saphir,SB'28, sm'31. 'IQ sophia malenski hill, PhB'29, re-**' tired in June as a social worker inthe Gary (Ind.) public schools after twentyyears of service.HAROLD C. VORIS, PhD'29, MD'30, clinical professor of neurological surgery atAbraham Lincoln School of Medicine, University of Illinois Médical Center in Chicago, recently completed two months ofvolunteer service aboard the hospital ship,S. S. Hope, off n'ortheastern Brazil.IN MEMORIAM: Romald F. Lee, AM'29;Forrest E. Wimbish, x'29.2 A JOHN F. MCCARTHY, PhB'30, JD'32,J ^ partner in the law firm of McCarthyand Levin, has been reelected secretary ofthe Chicago Bar Association.2 1 RUSSELL P. MacFALL, AM'31, hasJ **¦ co-authored with Jay C. Wollin Fos-sils for Amateurs, a practical guide to col-lecting and preparing invertebrate fossils.Paleontology is one science to which amateurs can make important contributions,stresses Mr. MacFall who has been collect-ing minerais and fossils for more than fiftyyears. A journalist who recently retiredafter thirty-two years with the Chicago Tribune, he has written several other books, including The Gem Hunter's Guide.ETHEL goldberg mullison, sm'31,SM'35, PhD' 38, writes a weekly gardeningcolumn for five Michigan newspapers. Afréquent contributor to garden periodicals,she wrote a pièce on hemerocallis, morecommonly known as the day lily, which waspublished in Flower and Garden.IN MEMORIAM: Charles H. Sevin,PhB'31, MBA'41.20 DONALD C. LOWRIE, SB'32, PhD'42,J former biology department head anda faculty member for the past sixteen yearsat California State University at Los Angeles, retired last spring and was grantedemeritus status. Professor Lowrie, who alsotaught at New Mexico Highlands University and the University of Idaho, is now living in Santa Fe, N. M.EDWARD G. RIETZ, SB'32, SM'35,PhD' 38, professor of physical sciences atWilbur Wright Campus, Chicago City Collèges, has been elected chairman of theChicago section, American Chemical Society, for the 1973-74 term. A music buff,Dr. Rietz is a supporter of the ChicagoSymphony Orchestra and was cymbal solo-ist at a récent party of the Chicago chapterof ACS.IN MEMORIAM: Arthur E. Arnesen,AM'32. 2 2 JEROME M. JONTRY, PhB'33, sen-J J- ior vice-président of Esquire, Inc.,N. Y., and président of Esquire' s Publish-ing Group, has been elected to the Company' s board of directors.DETLEV E. MACKELMANN, PhB'33,AM'36, was decorated by the Fédéral Republic of Germany on the occasion of hisretirement as deputy commissioner of thedepartment of development and planningof the city of Chicago. Mr. Mackelmann,who has often hosted German visitors toChicago, was awarded the Commander' sCross of the German Order of Merit. He isnow lecturing in housing and urban renewalat Illinois Institute of Technology.IN MEMORIAM: Gustav E. Johnson,PhB'33, PhB'40.2 / LAURA EPSTEIN, SB' 34, AM'36, assis-«^ * tant professor in UC's School of Social Service Administration, and her col-league at SSA, Professor WILLIAM j. REID,are the co-authors of a new book, published by Columbia University Press, en-titled Task-Centered Casework. Epstein andReid hâve formulated a theory for short-term treatment in social casework in whichthe practitioner concentrâtes on helping clients achieve spécifie and limited goals oftheir own choosing within brief periods.CAROLYN ROYALL JUST, PhB'34, a trialattorney in the tax division of the Department of Justice, has been awarded the goldmedal of the Inter-American Bar Association for her contributions to that organiza-tion as reporter gênerai from 1951 to 1972and ' 'for many years of kind and valuableassistance to accomplish the Association' sobjectives and as a tribute — for the firsttime in the history of IABA — -to the activity of women in support of the légal profession."MASON TOLMAN, AB'34, was ordained adeacon in the Episcopal Church in a cer-emony which took place in Albany, N. Y.The Rev. Mr. Tolman was formerly director of the New York State Library.2C FRED FORTESS, SB'35, is taking earlyJ -s retirement from Celanese FibersMarketing Company, where he has beeninvolved in fibers research and fabric development for over thirty years, and will bejoining the Philadelphia Collège of Textilesand Science in January as chairman of thetextiles department.IN MEMORIAM: Gifford M. Mast, SB'35.2^ THELMA GOLDMAN BAILEN, PhB'36,»J ^ was chairman of this year' s JewishFood Fair, the major fund raising activity of42the Bloomington-Normal (111.) Jewish Sis-terhood.HERBERT C. BROWN, SB' 36, PhD' 38, hasbeen elected to the board of AldrichChemical Company, Milwaukee. A PurdueUniversity chemist, Dr. Brown developedthe so-called boron chemistry process,which has applications in the pharmaceuti-cal, cosmetic and petrochemical areas.BERNARD L. HORECKER, SB' 36, PhD' 39,has been made a full member of the RocheInstitute of Molecular Biology (Nutley,N.J.). Formerly professor and chairman ofthe molecular biology department at AlbertEinstein Collège of Medicine, Dr. Horeck-er will continue to serve the school as avisiting professor.FERNANDO A. LAXAMANA, AM'36, past-or of the Southlawn United MethodistChurch in Chicago for the past four years,has been named to the pastorate of theEarlville (111.) United Methodist Church.IN MEMORIAM: George Thomas Wallace,SB' 36, md'38.2 "7 ROBERT C. BARR, AB'37, is now ad-J ' vertising sales director, worldwide,for Time.Practical Navigation for the Yachtsman, byFREDERICK L. DEVEREUX, X'37, publishedin September by W. W. Norton & Company, New York, provides all of the navi-gational methods and techniques that theamateur yachtsman needs to know to takehis boat anywhere — from a day's sail onLong Island Sound to a solo circumnavigation of the globe. A lifelong yachtsman,Mr. Devereux teaches navigation for theU. S. Power Squadron. He is also a prominent horse-show judge and polo player.OMAR j. FAREED, SB'37, md'40, privateinternist in Los Angeles and Beverly Hills,Calif., has received the exceptional serviceaward, the highest décoration the Air Forcemay bestow on a civilian not employed bythe government, for his outstanding publicrelations endeavors on behalf of the Stratégie Air Command and the Air Force inSouthern California. Among the promo-tional activities cited were his efforts in in-teresting the producers of the "Lassie"télévision program in presenting a séries ofépisodes involving the SAC and its mission.Formerly a lecturer in tropical medicine atthe University of Chicago, Dr. Fareed wasfounder, in 1953, of the Carr Foundation.As président and médical director of thefoundation, he has worked with AlbertSchweitzer hospitals in Africa, India, HongKong, the Philippines, South America, andVietnam. He is on the board of the TomDooley Foundation, Meals for Millions Foundation and Médical and NutritionalAdvisory Board and is a médical memberof the educational board of Science andMind magazine.CHARLES A. MEYER, AB'37, an engineerwith RCA, has been reelected to the boardpresidency of the South Orange-Maple-wood (N.J.) Adult School.JOSEPH EDWARD MOSELEY, AM'37,Indianapolis, is a feature writer for the National Benevolent Association, Division ofSocial and Health Services of the ChristianChurch (Disciples of Christ). He is theauthor of several books, including UsingDrama in the Church, in print since 1939.THEODORE T. PUCK, SB'37, PhD'40,director of the cancer research institute atthe University of Colorado Médical Centerin Denver, is author of a graduate text, TheMammalian Cell as a Microorganism: Geneticand Biochemical Studies in Vitro, publishedAugust 31 by Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco.LETTY GROSSBERG ZANDER, AB'37,AM'40, has joined the staff of the JennieClarkson Home for Children, a residentialestablishment for dépendent and neglectedchildren in Valhalla, N.Y. Formerly a psychiatrie social worker at New York Hospital, Westchester division, Mrs. Zanderwill act as team coordinator for one cottageof girls as well as carry a caseload of herown.2Q NADREEN BURNIE, AB'38, AM'39, isJ ^ now director of development andpublic relations at Western Collège, Oxford, O.STANFORD MILLER, JD'38, président andchief executive officer of Employers Rein-surance Corp., has been elected chairmanof the Reinsurance Association.CECIL H. PATTERSON, AB'38, Urbana,111., is spending the year at the Universityof Aston, Birmingham, England, on a Ful-bright-Hayes lectureship.IN MEMORIAM: Leona Becker Summers,AM'38.2Q LUCILLE JACOBSON CONNELLY,J * AB'39, is the director of science inthe curriculum department for the Chicagopublic schools, a position she has held sinceMay, 1970.ALFRED T. DeGROOT, PhD'39, has beenappointed to the Colorado Centennial-Bi-centennial Commission (1976) with spécialresponsibility for preparing history of religion sketches. The chairman of the commission, formerly his student, "now hasthe opportunity of grading his professor' swork," writes Mr. DeGroot. "At least once in a while life does work out somereal equities."JOHN S. EVANS, PhD'39, is one of sever-al scientists employed by the Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Mich., to be cited recently for outstanding contributions to thefirm's research and development programs.A biochemist-physiologist, Dr. Evans iscurrently engaged in the study of tumor antigens and their application to the earlydiagnosis and treatment of cancer.MILDRED HAWKSWORTH LOWELL,AM'39, PhD' 57, professor in the graduatelibrary school, Indiana University, has retired.JUDITH GRAHAM POOL, SB'39, PhD'46,professor of medicine at Stanford University Médical Center, and Dr. Maurice Soko-low, professor of medicine and chief of car-diology at the University of CaliforniaMédical Center, were married in August inStanford, Calif. Dr. Pool" led the landmarkresearch effort responsible for isolating acomplex protein used to treat hemophil-iacs.IRVING B. SLUTSKY, SB'39, SM'4l, hasbeen named associate vice-chancellor foroperational services and building planningfor the City Collèges of Chicago.IN MEMORIAM: Harold S. Levin, AB'39,MBA'40./A DANIEL BURTON, SM'40, PhD'47,*" professor of biology at Mankato(Minn.) State Collège, has been elected toa one-year term as président of the stateboard of éducation.IN MEMORIAM: Hampton Hill Trayner,SB'40, md'42./ 1 THOMAS J. BLAKLEY, AB'4l, has•* -*• moved up to the position of assistantto the chancellor for university relations atIndiana University Northwest.EDMUND DE CHASCA, PhD'4l, retiredprofessor of Spanish literature at the University of Iowa, has had a spécial issue ofPhilological Quarterly published in his ho-nor. The January 1972 (Vol. 51, No.l)issue of the scholarly journal was devotedentirely to studies in Spanish literature,language and stylistics, written for Professor de Chasca, former head of the romancelanguages department at Iowa and an associate professor of Spanish literature atthe University of Chicago from* 1950-' 53.The professor, who is currently doing comparative studies of the Cid ballads on aGuggenheim fellowship, has a son at UC,EDMUND SEXTON DE CHASCA, who iscompleting requirements for the PhD inEnglish.43ARTHUR EHRLICH, SB'4l, has beennamed business development manager forthe real estate firm of Walker & Lee, Inc.,Tustin, Calif.WALTER J. HIPPLE, JR., AB'4l, AM'48,PhD' 54, has left Indiana State University,where he was chairman of the humanitiesdivision, to become dean of Shimer Collège, Mount Carroll, 111.SOL W. WELLER, PhD'4l, is on a one-year appointment as acting chairman of thechemical engineering department, StateUniversity of New York at Buffalo. Anauthority on catalysis, Dr. Weller joinedthe Buffalo faculty in 1965 as professor ofchemical engineering after seven years ofemployment with the aeronutronic divisionof Ford Motor Company. He holds four-teen patents.IN MEMORIAM: John Hibbard Stell-wagen, PhD'4l.A^y MARY SCHUTZ, ab'42, bls'48, for^ the past eight years référence coor-dinator for the Mid-Hudson Library Association, Poughkeepsie, N.Y., runs whatamounts to a court of last resort for otherlibraries. Requests for bizarre informationand obscure référence titles are fielded toMiss Schutz and her three-member staff bylibraries which hâve exhausted their ownresources. She has been asked to investi-gate everything from the origin of the concept of angels as forces of good, to theamount of kosher méat marketed in NewYork City.GEORGE H. WATSON, PhD' 42, has leftRoosevelt University in Chicago for an executive post at the Friends World Collège,Long Island, N.Y. At the private and non-sectarian, but Quaker affiliated school, Professor Watson has the dual position ofmoderator, or chairman, of the presidentialtroika and educational head of the institution.X 2 DAVID M. hume, md'43, professor•^ of surgery at the Médical Collège ofVirginia, is one of ten médical men whohâve received 1972 distinguished achievement awards from the national médicaljournal, Modem Medicine. Cited for "in-novative approaches to safe and ethicalorgan transplantations," Dr. Hume per-formed the first functioning rénal homo-transplant in man twenty years ago.harry t. mcmahon, ab'43, présidentof W. W. Vincent General InsuranceAgency, has been elected to the board ofdirectors of the Wilmette (111.) Bank.IN MEMORIAM: Raymond de Roover,PhD'43. // PAUL C. REINERT, PhD'44, the COun-*^ try 's longest-tenured collège président with twenty-three years behind himas head of St. Louis University, has a newbook, To Turn the Tide, published by Pren-tice-Hall. The work is based on findingsfrom Project SEARCH, a national conférence séries which brought together leadersin many fields in an attempt to détermine apractical strategy that could be immediatelyimplemented for the rescue and renewal ofthe private sector of higher éducation.NANCY E. WARNER, SB'44, MD'49, wasthe unanimous choice of a nine-membersearch committee which has been deliberat-ing since July, 1971, to succeed to thechairmanship of the pathology department,University of Southern California School ofMedicine. As such, she heads the largestbasic science department of the USC médical school and directs all laboratory opérations of the Los Angeles County-USCMédical Center. Dr. Warner is one of thefirst two women to be elected to the previ-ously all-male Los Angeles Academy ofMedicine, an organization limited to 500members./ C JOHN SAMUEL RUEF, AB'45, hasJ been named to direct a new programunder which college-level courses in religion, and training in new forms of lay min-istry will be available to Episcopalians inwestern New York. Dr. Ruef has been involved in similar lay éducation programsfor Episcopalians and Roman Catholics inConnecticut. From i960 until 1971, hetaught at Berkeley Divinity School, anEpiscopal seminary in New Haven.A/1 B. EVERARD BLANCHARD, AM'46,^ DePaul University School of Education, Chicago, presented a paper, "A Proposed Theory of Learning," at the scien-tific congress held in conjunction with theOlympic Games in August in Munich.JESSIE ERNST, AM'46, retired in Junewith forty-six years as a public school edu-cator to her crédit. During her career shehas taught every grade, one through eight,and has been a principal in the Joliet (111.)public grade school System for more thanforty years.BYRON S. MARTIN, AB'46, AM'47, has received a biographical entry in the currentissue of The International Yearbook andStatesmens Who' s Who, British publicationwhich carries approximately 9,000 listingsof distinguished personages in internationalaffairs. Mr. Martin, who was Mid-HudsonValley campaign coordinator for SenatorHenry M. Jackson last spring, serves on the boards of directors of Combined Agencies Corp., international financial and économie consulting and export marketingfirm, and IB Securities Corp., a Washington, D.C. brokerage company. He andhis wife live in a cottage in the CatskillForest Préserve in upstate New York.IN MEMORIAM: Charlotte Block Diamant, PhB'46.A~J THOMAS MEADE HARWELL, JR.,* ' AM'47, Arkansas State University, isthe author of Keats and the Critics, 1848-1900, published in July by the UniversitatSalzburg, in Austria. Continuations of thisstudy — now in progress for the periods1900-'21 and 1921-50 — are set to appearin 1974 and 1975. In January, 1971, Dr.Harwell received an assistance researchgrant from the Arkansas State Universityfor his study, South Texas Folklore. As amember of the American literary landmarkscommittee of the National Council of theTeachers of English, a more récent appointment, he will record the literary landmarks of Arkansas.JOHN HOVING, AB'47, Washington management consultant since 1964, has movedto Cincinnati to become senior vice-président for public affairs and public relationsof Federated Department Stores. Mr. Hov-ing once served as assistant to the chairmanof the Democratic National Committee andwas a radio news editor and newspaper reporter in Wisconsin for several years forboth the Milwaukee Journal and the MadisonCapital Times. In 1962, he spent six monthson spécial assignment at the White Houseas assistant to Howard Petersen, PrésidentKennedy' s spécial assistant for trade policy,to develop support for the Trade ExpansionAct of 1962.CORA JANE LAWRENCE, SB'47, received aPhD in higher éducation with minors innursing and biomédical history in Junefrom the University of Washington, Seattle, and is now at the Collège of Saint Ter-esa, Winona, Minn., where she is chairmanand associate professor in the nursingdepartment.THEODORE RADAMAKER, AB'47, hasbeen appointed administrator of Santa FeMémorial Hospital, Los Angeles. Mr.Radamaker has been active in health andsocial services consulting work as présidentof Human Services Research, Ontario,Calif.IN MEMORIAM: Raymond F. Shannon,Jr., AB'47.48 RUTH KINGSLEY FULLWOOD, AM'48,has retired from the Cook County44department of public aid after thirty-sevenyears in the field of public welfare.JOHN N. HARSMA, AB'48, MBA'50, hasbeen promoted to the position of salesmanager, aluminum industry, metalworkingchemicals division of Amchem Products,Inc., Ambler, Pa.JULIET ZION SALTMAN, AM'48, associatesociology professor at Kent State University, is the author of Open Housing as a SocialMovement: Challenge, Conflict and Change,published by D. C. Heath & Company.Originally written as Dr. Saltman's doctoraldissertation in sociology at Case WesternReserve University, the book examines thetwenty year struggle for open housing inthe U.S. as an outgrowth of urbanizationand the civil rights movement. On thecommunity level, it provides a comparativeanalysis of the movement in five cities, including an intensive case study of Akron(O.). In Akron, where she lives with hus-band WILLIAM M. SALTMAN, PhD'49, Dr.(Mrs.) Saltman was a founder of the FairHousing Contact Service, a non-profit vol-untary organization dedicated to providingequal opportunities in housing for minori-ties, and of West Side Neighbors, or-ganized to promote stabilization and toprovide a démonstration model of integrat-ed living.ÂÇk EMMON BACH, AB'49, AM'54,*-' PhD' 59, has left the University ofTexas to accept an appointment at Queen'sCollège, City University of New York, asprofessor of linguistics.WILLIAM H. HALE, PhD'49, sociologyprofessor at Utah State University, hasbeen appointed to the Utah State Board ofHealth.RAYMOND J. NELSON, PhD'49, is nowthe Truman P. Handy Professor of Philo-sophy at Case Western Reserve University.IN MEMORIAM: Harry L. Williams,SB'49, MD'52.C A GUY D. POTTER, AB'50, SB' 57,-^" MD'60, attending radiologist at theColumbia-Presbyterian Médical Center inNew York City, has been promoted toprofessor of clinical radiology at the Collège of Physicians and Surgeons, ColumbiaUniversity. His book, Sectional Anatomy andTomography of the Head, has been publishedby Grune & Stratton, New York City.C 1 CHARLES GARVIN, AM'51, PhD'68,^ has returned to the University ofMichigan as professor of social work afterspending a one-year sabbatical leave inLondon. While in England, he was a visit- ing faculty member of the National Institute for Social Work Training in London,was involved in a research study of theSeebohm reorganization of the British Social Services, and lectured at universities inEdinburgh, Cardiff, Canterbury, Leicesterand Bristol.BURTON M. LEISER, AB'51, has left SirGeorge Williams University, Montréal, tojoin the faculty of Drake University, DesMoines, la., as professor and chairman ofthe philosophy department. He is the author of Custom, Law, and Morality: Conflictand Continuity in Social Behavior (1969) andLiberty, Justice, and Morals: ContemporaryValue Conflicts, to be published in Januaryby the Macmillan Co.ROBERT H. MYERS, AM'51, PhD'55, iseditor of a commemorative volume published by Bail State University (Muncie,Ind.) on the thirty-fifth anniversary of thededication of Beneficence, a statue on theBail State campus. Created by DanielChester French, the sculptor who is bestknown for his heroic statue of AbrahamLincoln in Washington' s Lincoln Mémorial,HAROLD j. SEIGLE, MBA' 51, has been appointed président of King-Seeley's Thermos Company, Norwich, Conn., manufacturer of vacuum bottles, ice making machines, refrigerated water coolers, andother outdoor living products.C^ NATHAN KEYFITZ, PhD' 52, once-^ chairman of the sociology department and co-director of the Population Research and Training Center at the University of Chicago, has left the University ofCalifornia, Berkeley, where he had beenprofessor of demography since 1968, to become the first Andelot professor of demography at Harvard University. ProfessorKeyfitz, long interested in population problems in Southeast Asia, especially Indone-sia, has advised on population and planningin Ceylon, Argentina, and Indonesia, andhas lectured at the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta, at the University of Buenos Aires and in German universities. Healso has advised the Bureau of the Censusand the Social Security Administration.C 2 ARTHUR C. GENTILE, PnD'53, sinceJ J 1968 an associate dean of the graduate school at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, has taken over asdean of the graduate collège and vice-provost for research administration, University of Oklahoma. His appointment wasthe culmination of a three-month search bya ten-man faculty committee. He will alsohold the rank of professor of botany. Alumni ReunionJune 1 and 2, 1973HELEN E. SIMPSON, X'53, advertising,promotion and publicity director forWKYC-TV, the NBC-owned station inCleveland, was shot and killed on August14 while driving home from work, in a tra-gedy that has baffled local police andshocked her wide circle of friends and ac-quaintances. Extremely popular and activewithin média circles, she was nominatedlast May for the board of trustées of theCleveland Advertising Club, the firstwoman and the first black woman candidateever put up for the post. An exceptionalstudent who entered UC after completingthe tenth grade, she became an enthusiasticand tireless alumna, serving the Universityin many capacities, most recently as amember of the schools committee. Shesomehow managed to return to campusevery year for Reunion with her mother,HELEN MCWORTER SIMPSON, PhB'18."Helen Simpson was an exceptionally fineperson, that rare breed of human who ishighly intelligent and talented, yet over-flowing with good humor and compassionfor those less gifted," wrote William Hick-ey, tele vision-radio editor for the ClevelandPlain Dealer. "No matter how one ap-proached her, she reacted with grâce andkindness."IN MEMORIAM: Paul F. Tevis, MBA'53.C / TIMUEL D. BLACK, AM'54, is nowJ vice-president for académie affairs atChicago' s Olive-Harvey Collège. A formerpublic school teacher, Black had been deanof transfer and gênerai studies at WrightCollège in Chicago since 1969, and is sup-ervisor and coordinator of community affairs for the Chicago Teacher Corps.CC EDWARD J. ROUBIK, MBA' 55, Clar--^ -^ endon Hills, 111., has moved up tothe post of manager-trustee and secretaryof the Walgreen Employée Profit-SharingRetirement Trust.C/^D. GARRON BRIAN, PhD' 56, has-^ ^ gained a listing in the 1972 édition ofLeaders in American Secondary Education. Ateacher of psychology, American historyand black history at West High School inSait Lake City, Mr. Brian has been activein the Boy Scouts, boys baseball, and inhuman relations training for executives inindustry. He is a member of the state ad-visory committee for social studies.45SHELDON K. SCHIFF, MD'56, since leav-ing UC's psychiatry faculty, has been président of the Children' s Center for Learn-ing Capacities in Hyde Park. A formercontributor to the Magazine ("Training theProfessional," January/February, 1970),Dr. Schiff continues to publish his professional insights; his article, "The WoodlawnSchool Mental Health Training Program: ACommunity-Based University GraduateSchool Course," was carried recently in theJournal of School Psychology; his first book,The Estate of Childhood, is to be releasedafter the new year by Charles C. Thomas.C -7 DALAI BRENES, AM'57, retired as of^ ' July 1, has been awarded the title ofprofessor of romance studies emeritus byCornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. A special-ist in I6th and 17th century Spanish literature, Professor Brenes was one of thirty-five educators who founded Roosevelt University in Chicago in 1946.CO JOHN D. BREWER, AM'58, AM'63,J™ PhD' 69, recently associate professorof sociology at Wesleyan University, is nowassociate professor and acting chairman ofthe sociology department at Trinity Collège, Hartford, Conn. A specialist in theway formai organizations operate and in thesociology of small groups, Dr. Brewer is aformer executive committee member andco-president of UC's Society for Social Research, has served as a référée for theAmerican Journal of Sociology and as a re-viewer for the National Science Foundation.CQ JOAN SAMSON CARBERG, AB'59, isJ ' studying at the Radcliffe Institutethis year on an independent study fellow-ship. Her field is créative writing.SUSAN RUPP NANNEY, SB' 59, SM'62, isteaching high school biology in EastOrange, N.J.IN MEMORIAM: Claude Michael Lightner,AM'59./Ifi BEATRICE HILL GUSTAFSON, AM'60,"*J has been director of pupil personnelservice for the Fairfax County (Va.)Schools for the past year. She and husband,CHARLES H. GUSTAFSON, JD'62, hâve ason, Erik.JAMES NELSON, MFA'60, has been namedexecutive director of the Alabama HighSchool of the Fine Arts.^1 PETER S. ROSI, MD'6l, has opened^ "^ an office for the private practice ofmedicine in Petersburg, Alaska. £/} TED COHEN, AB'62, assistant profes-^^ sor of philosophy at the Universityof Chicago, received his doctorate lastspring from Harvard. His thesis was en-titled "The Grammar of Taste."DAVID P. EARLE, III, JD'62, MCL'64, hasbeen promoted to senior attorney, law division, First National Bank of Chicago.RICHARD SCHNEIDER, SM'62, as the newdirector of spécial programs at Franklin andMarshall Collège, Lancaster. Pa., has administrative responsibility for evening division and summer sessions, interdisciplinarystudies projects, various student exchangeprograms, the accelerated program for localhigh school seniors, and the collège' s Up-ward Bound and Model Cities activities./^2 DIANE HALAS ROUTT, AB'63, is en-^•^ rolled in the master' s program of theMédiéval Institute at Western MichiganUniversity, Kalamazoo, on a Danforthgraduate fellowship for doctoral work inmédiéval studies./! A Sister M. IRENAEUS CHEKOURAS,"^* PhD' 64, has been elected tenth président of St. Xavier Collège in Chicago.RICHARD K. HELMBRECHT, AM'64, became director of the department of commerce for the state of Michigan during thesummer. Helmbrecht, who had most recently been deputy state commerce directorand spécial assistant to the governor for économie expansion, began working for thestate in 1966 as an intern in the office ofGovernor George Romney on a FordFoundation fellowship from the NationalCenter for Education in Politics.^C ARTHUR DORF, SB'65, has won the"J annual J. D. Lane Award of the National Institutes of Health as the "outstanding junior investigator for the mostsignificant contribution of original research" for his investigation of the epi-demiology of retinopathy among Arizona' sPima Indians, who hâve the world' s highestfrequency of diabètes. Dr. Dorf did his research while he was staff associate of theNational Institute ofArthritis, Metabolism,and Digestive Diseases in Phoenix, fieldheadquarters for the NIH's epidemiologicaland clinical studies of certain disordersamong American Indians. His findings sug-gest that mildly elevated blood pressure,long regarded as an unexplained or in-cidental symptom, may be a factor in thedevelopment of retinopathy among diabet-ics. Dr. Dorf is now in his residency at theUniversity of Wisconsin Hospitals. /l/l CHRISTOPHER JOHN BRUELL, AM'66,"" PhD' 69, has been elected a postdoctoral fellow of the Society for the Humanities at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., for1972-73. Bruell is an assistant professor ofpolitical science at Cornell, specializing inpolitical theory.BRUCE F. freed, ab'66, reporter for theBaltimore Evening Sun, has been movedfrom covering Anne Arundel county tokeeping tabs on the Maryland state government. "In my new job," he writes, "Fmkeeping a sharp eye on the state agencies,Governor Mandel and the législature. F 11most likely move to Annapolis for part ofthe winter to cover the gênerai assembly' sannual three-month session." Last May, hewon first prize in the Washington-Baltimore Newspaper Guîld contest in humaninterest reporting for a séries he did onnewly naturalized Americans. He, his wife,and their first child — Joshua Seth, bornAugust 14 — are now living in the new cityof Columbia, Md.Club eventsdenver: On October 12, Philip M.Hauser, professor of sociology and director of the Population Research Center atthe University, spoke at the Lawrence C.Phipps Mémorial Conférence Center aboutthe "Implications of the Population Explosion, Implosion, and Displosion." The program was co-sponsored by the Universityof Chicago Club of Denver and the sociology department of the University ofDenver. Chairman for the event was JoyceKligerman Newman (phD'55).new york: The New York alumni clubsponsored an afternoon outing on Septem-ber 30 to railroad tycoon Jay Gould's summer estate, Lyndhurst, in Tarrytown, N.Y. The program included a box lunch, atour of the mansion, and a lecture by Joseph Butler, curator of the Sleepy HollowRestoration, on 19th-century American architecture and décorative arts.Washington, d.c: An October 4 programof the Washington club featured Joshua C.Taylor, director of the National Collectionof Fine Arts and William Rainey Harperprofessor of the humanities and professorof art at the University, speaking on"Where Is Art?" Professor Taylor, notedspecialist on 19th and 20th-century art,discussed the various contemporaryschools and the directions in which modem art is going.46mte df tfe rfd West StaM sqtuiasfe, wasr\ */Z£9D9 II OOV3IH0133H1S H16S '3 9IT1id30 oyoo3y iviy3s «Ayvyen09V01HD 30 AllSb3A 1NH1HTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINES-1753 UNIVERSITY AVENUE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 6063':.¦c„ : •