^^H 1 ¦1 1 ^Ê m *.1 ¦ Lm |THF ?, k mm 1 ^ ^Ê kv^ ¦ 1M^^W ^MAGAZINE ^L. iiH%> ;\^JULY, *oTHEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOLIBRARYTHEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEIntellectuals and the center of societyEdward ShilsThe American industrial revolution-its third (and final?) phaseSidney R. Bernstein 13Early Albright work cornes to the University 15Frozen traffic19 Quadrangle news20 Books22 Letters23 People25 Alumni newsVolume LXV Number 1July/August, 1972The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published six timesper year for alumni and the faculty ofThe University of Chicago, under theauspices of the Office of the Vice Président for Public Affairs. Letters andeditorial contributions are welcomed.Don Morris, AB'36EditorJane LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois; additional entry at Madison,Wisconsin. Copyright 1972, The University of Chicago. Published in July/August, September/October, Novem-ber/December, January/February,March/April, and May/June. The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312) 753-2175John S. Coulson, '36, PrésidentArthur Nayer, Director, AlumniAffairsRuth Halloran, Assistant DirectorJudith Goldstone Landt, '68, MAT'70Program DirectorRégional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91201(213) 242-8288320 Central Park West, Suite 14ANew York, New York 10025(212) 787-78001000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415) 928-03372721 Ordway Street, N.W.Washington, D.C. 20008(202) 244-8900Cover: A stained glass window symbolizing fire is the first of ten which are being made forRockefeller Mémorial Chapel by a dedicated group of University folk; see "People" on Page23.Picture crédits: Pages 15, 19, 23, 24, Lloyd Saunder; Page 16, Photopress; Page 17,Archie Lieberman.IS s0 il $Intellectuals and the center of societyCaught up, to some extent, in the "mounting lunacy/they bear a responsibility for restoring stabilityEdward ShilsSince the middle of the 1960s a pronounced change in therelations of American intellectuals to the center of theirsociety has occurred. The tiny rivulets of twenty yearsearlier hâve turned into a broad and shallow river whichseems to hâve no banks and which has inundated nearlyail the reclaimed intellectual terrain, turning it into amuddy marshland.The author (x 37) is distinguished service professor in theUniversity 's Committee on Social Thought and in theDepartment of Sociology. He also is a fellow of Peter-house, Cambridge University, and founder-editor of M\-nerva, A Review of Science, Learning and Policy. Thearticle is an excerpt from his new book, The Intellectualsand the Powers (New York and London: The Universityof Chicago Press, © 1972 by the University of Chicago.$12.50), which in addition to "The Intellectuals and the The change set in shortly after the accession to powerof Président Lyndon Johnson. The first triumphs of theNegro civil rights movement had raised hopes and thèseled to frustrations. The "poor" were discovered — not theworking classes, who remained written ofï as the brutishenjoyers of mass culture and who were now regarded asgross, unthinking supports of the existing order — but theCenter of Society in the United States," of which this isthe final portion, includes more than a score of Mr. Shils9previously published essays on this interesting segment ofthe population.The discussion follows an account of how the intellectuals' disdain for and exclusion from the political andéconomie establishment in the nineteenth and early twen-tieth centuries was overcome in the years bracketed by theF. D. Roosevelt and Kennedy administrations.LVV.-ALumpenproletariat, who had never erîjoyed such a goodpress as in the past five years.The flowery rhetoric and ill-natured bearing of Président Johnson reawakened the dormant animosities ofthe American intellectuals toward the plebeian profes-sional politician. The failure of the military leadership ofthe country to bring the war in Vietnam to a successfulconclusion broke the attachment to authority which hadgrown up among American intellectuals when Americanpower appeared suprême in the world.The joy of saying noThe withdrawal from the center was symbolized by theagitated euphoria of certain circles of literary and pub-licistic intellectuals in refusing the invitation of PrésidentJohnson to attend a séries of cérémonial f estivities at theWhite House in 1965.Under Président Kennedy, when such festivities hadbeen inaugurated, the invitation to the company of themighty of the earth was the final seal on the union ofpower and intellect. The seal was a very fragile one andof very brief duration.The affirmative attitude which had been so common inthe period just preceding was not solely a product of theperception in American society of values — moral, esthel-ic and political — which were part of the intellectuals'internai traditions. It had also been the resuit of theattraction of strong and effective power which has al-ways been characteristic of intellectuals. At a time whenAmerica was only a province of the great Europeanworld and when the political and économie élites wereindiffèrent and even sometimes hostile toward literaryand humanistic intellectuals, American intellectuals sawno merit in those who ruled American society.When, however, they were taken to the bosom of thosewho exercised power and when the latter seemed to bethe most powerful élite the world had known, Americanintellectuals found much to be pleased with in theirsituation and in the situation of their country.Once the power began to falter, however, to be notmerely unsuccessful in action but perplexed and lackingin decisiveness and self -confidence, large numbers ofintellectuals— literary publicistic, scientific, and humanistic — decided that the American political élites were nolonger worthy of their affection. No condemnation couldbe strong enough. It was not simply the older accusationsof vulgarity and venality and indifférence to "life's finer4 things." The accusations were more bitter. The accusation of "génocide" became the coin of the intellectuals'realm — "génocide" at home and abroad. In its moreextrême forms, in the view of Noam Chomsky forexample, any performance of a governmental servicewas culpable.What was striking about the hyperboliçally acrimoni-ous and embittered criticism of the post-1965 aliénationwas its relationship to the older traditions of intellectualaliénation. The first initiators of the new aliénation hadbeen either socialists of the tradition who had abstainedfrom the incorporation into and affirmation of the center — Dissent and Michael Harrington — or Stalinoids likePaul Sweezy, the late Léo Huberman, and I. F. Stone,who had survived the hard times of the late 1940s and the1960s.The new aliénation in contrast, once it was in fullspate, found many of its main bearers among those whohad little connection with the older tradition of aliénation. No less striking was the durability and toughness ofthe non-Marxist tradition of aliénation, which came backinto a strength fuller than ever af ter a period of attritionwhich had lasted for more than a quarter of a century.It is true that there had been a small revival ofMarxism, but that has corne in a roundabout way ratherthan through the direct filiation of tradition. It is in part aconséquence of revival to half-life of the CommunistParty which has made the writings of Marx and Engelsavailable through its publishing house and partly as aresuit of the diversity and intellectual randomness of theyounger left. It is also a product of the élévation to faméof Professor Marcuse, whose sexual doctrines seemmore attractive than his Marxism.Recruits from the esthetic vanguardBohemianism has long been associated with révolution. The récent advance of esthetic sensibility hasgreatly extended and modified the social sources ofaffiliation to the movement of aliénation. Jazz com-mentators, mod journalists, télévision comedians, pack-agers of fun goods, specialists in pornography, cartoon-ists, interior decorators, "young people" in publishing,advertising executives — ail thèse so responsive to fluctuations in style — are new recruits to aliénation. To thèseare joined the "new class" of collège and universityteachers, clergymen, black intellectuals, liberating wo-men, and the university and collège students — the veryvanguard of the whole thing.The clergy in the United States, leaving out the self-designated preachers in store-front churches and thosewho bash the Bible and froth at the mouth in berating theDevil, form an important component in the present-daydisorder of the intellectuals. Having, with the aid ofDeweyan naturalism, "demythologization" and existen-tialism, disposed of their deity or at least placedhim in a weak position, Protestant clergy men in theUnited States hâve been suffering from the intellectualéquivalent of technological unemployment. Superior inattitude toward their beîiighted flocks, displaced by athe-ism and psychiatry from the cure of soûls, they were fora long time at loose ends.Mutually reinforcing animosityThe tradition of "social Christianity" did not arousetheir enthusiasm. With the Negro civil rights movement,however, they found something to do; with the war inVietnam they found much else to do. Reinforced byrestless Roman Catholic priests from whom the hand ofauthority had been lif ted and by a rabbinate of doubtingpiety — ail f earful of not being in tune with the times — theclergy has reentered the public life of the intellectualclasses. They hâve not been a steadying élément.Negro intellectuals for the first time in Americanhistory hâve gained the attention of the white intellectuals. In the past, worthy Negro intellectuals knocked invain at the doors of American intellectual life but, outsidesocialist and communist circles, few attended to them.Then in a short time a handful of Negro intellectuals— a few of them M some genuine talent, most of them oflittle talent and the beneficiaries of a forced levy — ap-peared on the scène. Their passionate abuse of Americansociety could not hâve corne at a luckier time; withoutthe audience of white intellectuals they could not hâvebeen so encouraged.Finally, the students in higher educational institutionsshould be mentioned. In an âge which praises youthful-ness with fewer qualifications than devout Marxists usedto praise the working classes, and in a situation in whichintellectuals had become convinced of their indispens-ability, university and collège students got whateverbenefits there were in being both youthf ul and intellectuals. The students' hostility against authority — character-istic of adolescence, and in America adolescence isprolonged — was reinforced by their elders' chorus of denunciation of authority, including their own, and by thesupineness of authority, académie and governmental.When one looks over the various kinds of radicalactivists, one finds that many of them share one majorcharacteristic of the amateur politician pointed out byMax Weber, namely, they are "wirtschaftlich abkôm-mlich " [economically at liberty]. Many are notemployedat ail, or employed irregularly. They hâve no fixed hoursof work in gênerai; they corne and go as they please.They are more prosperous than the lawyers withoutbriefs and physicians without patients whom Marx sawas the supporters of his rivais. They hâve much leisureand much flexibility in their work schedules, where theywork at ail. They belong to the free as over against theworkaday sector of society. From this cornes some oftheir sensé of affinity with the Lumpenproletariat. It alsorenders them easily available for their characteristicpolitical techniques, the démonstration and the massmeeting.The conséquence of ail this is a spiral of mutuallyreinforcing animosity against their own society, combin-ing withdrawal and aggressiveness.Thèse new recruits to the espousal of the intellectuals'traditions of aliénation, diverse and novel though theymight be, hâve only a loose connection with the intellec-tually substantial parts of that tradition. Bohemianismnever had much intellectual substance, and that is thepart of the tradition to which many of the new recruitsgive their allegiance. The very looseness of their connection with a définitive and elaborate doctrine such asMarxism is part of the larger paradox of their outlook.Despite their hostility toward the intellectuals who werein the forefront during the period of incorporation andaffirmation, the new recruits to the movement of aliénation continue some of the culture of those they revile.Conviction of indispensabilityThe period of incorporation and affirmation generatedtwo convictions among the intellectuals who participatedin it. The first of thèse — bred by expérience and propa-ganda — was that intellectuals were indispensable toAmerica's functioning. The second, based on this, wasthat intellectuals were in a crucial position because in avariety of ways the authorities of society were dépendenton them. From having felt unwanted and unused, intellectuals moved to the opposite extrême of a conviction ofindispensability. The conviction of indispensability has5been fully compatible with hostility toward those whoseem to deny the rights which corne with indispensability.The movement from a sensé of nullity in makingdécisions to a sensé of weightiness has not been undoneby the movement from déniai to affirmation and back todéniai. Civility has made progress even though its nameis momentarily darkened. For one thing, a great manyintellectuals hâve not made the return journey to déniai;many hâve remained in the positions of authority indécision making at or connected with the institutionalcenters of American society. Economists and scientificadvisers are firmly entrenched and they cannot be doneaway with. They are, however, simply continuations ofpositions and outlooks Consolidated during the yearsbetween 1933 and 1965.The persistence of the civil attitude is also évident inits déformation. The déniai of the legitimacy of authorityshows traces of the period of civility through which it haspassed in the last third of a century. Those who hâteauthority and deny its legitimacy now think that it isplausible to require that authority should yield to theirdemands. The new relationship of the deniers to theauthority which they deny includes their giving orders toit which they think they can force it to implement andwhich it should implement. The passionate deniers thinkthat they should be part of -the existing central institutional System.This is unique in the history of the critique of authority. Furthermore, the expectations of the deniers arerendered plausible by the fact that they hâve in factbenefited by some partial success in establishing theirown view of the matter at the center where the authorityis exercised. (I cite at random the récent opinion of JudgeWyzanski on conscientious objection and the numerouspronouncements of Mr. Justice W. O. Douglas.)Embarrassed rulersAn "intellectualization" of public life has taken placein the United States. Some of the values of the alienatedintellectuals hâve bècome established in the circles ofauthority. The centuries-long process of the "civiliza-tion" of authority, which entailed authority's becomingmodest in its self-legitimation, restrained in its publicdéclaration of its claims, responsive in its sensibility tothe demands of those it ruled, has now gone a stepfurther. Elites now quail before the charges of "elitism."6 The exercise of authority and the management of affairsare now disguised as "décision making." The maintenance of law and order and the enf orcement of law whichpolitical and administrative élites hâve always in the pasttaken as their first charge, and which are indeed inséparable from the maintenance of society and theprotection of its members, hâve become matters aboutwhich those who rule hâve become shamefaced.The prévention of riots or their restraint, suppression,and dispersai when they do occur, hâve become thoughtof as inadmissible — although in practice they remaindrastic and sometimes harsh. Judges and publicistsacknowledge a right of violent démonstration as part ofthe freedom of expression and as a legitimate procédurewhen constitutionally provided procédures are unsatis-factory or not immediately effective.In principle — and to a great extent, in fact— the legitimacy of dissent, derived from the freedom of expression,is granted even where it involves coercive action and thedisruption of institutions.Pénétration of the aggrievedThe pénétration of the aggrieved intellectuals' outlookoccurs in a twofold process. The first, the recruitment ofintellectuals of alienated outlook, is part of the gêneraiprocess of the increased recruitment into intellectual-executive rôles. Since the alienated anti-authoritarianoutlook is so widespread among the younger générationof intellectuals and those in humanistic and socialsciences from which the recruits were drawn, it is only tobe expected that in the mass communications, in theuniversities, and in government too, despite the persistence of the practice of "security clearance," the newrecruits bear with them some influence of the alienatedoutlook. Through their influence as speech writers and as"idea men," as research workers and as staff members ofspécial investigative commissions, authority has corneoften to speak — if not equally often to act — in ac-cordance with the voice of the aggrieved intellectual.But the pénétration goes further than the incumbencyof the bearers of the outlook in the rôles of greaterfunctional importance and of greater numbers. There hasalso been a pénétration into the outlook of incumbents oftraditionally authoritative rôles who themselves are notintellectuals or who, even if intellectuals, hâve up untilrecently espoused outlooks conventional to those inauthority, the crucial élément of which is the belief in thelegitimacy of their own authority.For one thing, the sociological sciences hâve cornesince the 1950s to dominate this idiom of discourse onpublic e vents, not only the terminology but the conceptions of causation and motivation as well as the implicitpolitical outlook of workers in thèse fields. In addition tothis, intellectuals in the United States hâve becomedemonstrators, not by rational argument, but by standingin public places, by covering themselves in buttons andbadges, by signing pétitions and public déclarations.They hâve corne to fill the air and the press.Politicians accord growing déférencePoliticians hâve been in some measure responsive tothis clamor. They hâve been increasingly deferential tointellectuals ever since the end of the war and the atomicscientists' movement. It was noticeable ever since thesecond World War in the déférence accorded scientistswhen they testified before congressional commit-tees — the McCarthy procédures were rearguard actionsin this respect. Social scientists hâve now slipped intoplace alongside scientists. The American politicians' attribution of greater importance to clamorous demandthan to reasoned argument and the quiet préférences ofthe mass of the population, the fear of the politicians ofbeing out of step with the view which they think to beprévalent, gives résonance to the demands of the aggrieved intellectuals.Since the alienated intellectuals, like ideologists andradicals everywhere, cannot be completely alienated,their claims take the form of the intensification andunderscoring of certain éléments already présent in thecentral value System of American society. The values ofsubstantive equality are intensified at the expense of thevalue of an équivalence between reward and exertion.The value of majority rule has long been transformed, bya clamorous insistence, into the supremacy of the un-criticizably virtuous "people" (meaning, in the vocabu-lary of those who clamor, a number of Negroes, PuertoRicans, discontented females, and rebellious universitystudents).The value of individuality has been intensified into thevalue of immédiate gratification of spontaneous impulse.Because of this affinity between the central value Systemand the ideologically exacerbated interprétation of certain éléments of this System, the political and publicisticélites who are often not very subtle, and who are sometimes easily disoriented, regard thèse claims asplausible and consistent with what they believed before.There is more to it than this. Many politicians — omit-ting the cavemen — feel inferior to intellectuals. Theymight behave rudely toward them as Président Johnsonoften did, but the same Président Johnson, following hisretirement, said that he had not felt qualified to lead thecountry effectively because he had not gone to one of themajor universities. He implied that because of this hecould not command the respect of those who had doneso.The mass communications show a similar success fortheir intellectuals. Although aggrieved radicals in ailcountries in the twentieth century hâve criticized theconduct of the média of communication — whether pri-vately or governmentally owned — where they hâve hadthe freedom to express their views, the situation nowa-days is much différent from what it was before thesecond World War. Although there is still much criticismof the privately owned press in the United States, there isalso a very strong représentation of aggrieved intellectuals within the institutions of public opinion.In télévision there is a similar situation. The profes-sional tradition of muckraking, the tradition of re-portorial vigor, the tradition of sensationalism and of themaxim that "good news is no news" ail mean thatdisorder, failure, catastrophe are given the greatestprominence. Delight in disorder, occasional sympathywith its perpetrators and the cause which it purportedlyserves, cause the disorder to be much attended to in themass média.(It is in the nature of the présent movement of hostilityagainst the center of society that it is driven by hungerfor publicity. Its violence is in part propaganda of thedeed: its main political actions are extra-institutional aswell as anti-institutional. The brief civility of the or-ganizations for Senators Robert Kennedy and EugèneMcCarthy quickly exhausted their resources. Démonstrative politics, intended to gain attention rather than tomodify institutions, hâve replaced it.)A need to be 'with iVIn book publishing, which is centered mainly in NewYork, practically ail publishers and editors and otherintellectuals who are members of the industry are per-meated by the aggrieved outlook either from convictionor from the désire to be stylish or because of the belief7that that is what the spirit of the âge requires. Thef ar-reaching relaxation of censorship and the inclusion ofsexual polymorphousness and publicity as part of theculture of the new strata of the alienated intellectuals aswell as some of their older outriders and followers, givethe intellectuals in the publishing industry a commercialinterest as well as a cultural one in being "with it."Many are reluctant to publish any book which iscritical of the aggrieved view of American society, againout of conviction or out of fear of being out of fashion.(Professor Mathew Hodgart's Swiftian parable of thee vents at Coriiell University in 1969 was refused bytwelve American publishers before it was finally ac-cepted. The book had already been accepted for publication in Great Britain. Professor Hodgart is a very reput-able scholar, but his letter to the Times (London) describ-ing and passing reasoned judgment on the Cornell eventsaroused the disapprobation of the bien pensant aggrievedintellectuals in the American publishing industry. This isnot the only instance.)Weather vane universitiesThe universities, as has been indicated, hâve becomethe scène and seedbed of the intellectual life in theUnited States. Not only do they carry on the traditionalfunctions of the universities of training for the learned,practical-intellectual professions and conducting pureresearch, but they hâve accepted the burdens of appliedresearch for government, trained for numerous not solearned occupations, performed numerous tasks whichgovernments should properly hâve performed them-selves, provided the support for little magazines and forother activities which in the past were in the sphère ofbohemia.Ail thèse rniscellaneous actions, encouraged and ap-plauded on the outside, led to and fed on a form ofGrôssenwahn [megalomania] among university authori-ties. Ail this expansion should, one might hâve thought,hâve been the work of strong characters. Nothing couldhâve been more erroneous. Many of the great universityand collège administrators who presided over the vastexpansion of universities in the indiscriminate service ofAmerican society hâve turned out to be characterlessweather vanes, facing whichever way the wind blew.The release of animosity against authority, beginningwith the murder of John F. Kennedy, first manifesteditself on a trivial issue at the University of California in Berkeley. The University of California, after its recoveryfrom the ravages of the loyalty oath controversy, hadbeen one of the major pillars of the new structure ofcoopération of authority and the intellectuals. Its administrators and teachers were full of pride, justifiedpride over their accomplishments.Yet, with the first onslaught it fell into disorder. Theteachers fell out with each other, the présidents anddeans were thrown into confusion. The "rightfulness" ofthe students' cause called forth much support, and thosewho denied it could not bring the university back towhere it was. Similar events occurred, with increasingfrequency over the ensuing half -décade.Finally, even Harvard, which had rebuffed McCarthy,fell before its students. ,>It was only to be expected that the universities whichhad helped to generate so much of the new culture shouldbe so riddled by it. Présidents, deans, prof essors, fromconviction or cowardice, fell for obviously nonsensicalarguments. No authorities under attack had ever gone sofar in flattering and beslavering their insatiable antago-nists and attempting to placate them.The new renunciation of civil collaboration by theAmerican intellectuals began even before the failure ofeffective power in Vietnam, although much of the weak-ening of belief in the effectiveness of the Americanpolitical and military élites is attributable to that. Thecivility of the American intellectual would hâve had ahard row to hoe even if things had gone more favorablyfor the United States in Vietnam and if Président Kennedy had not been assassinated, both of which eventsshowed the vulnerability of power.Enchantment and disenchantmentAmerican intellectuals, even more than most intellectuals in most other countries, hâve inherited an anti-polit-ical tradition. What they hâve received from their intellectual forebears and what they themselves teach andbelieve outside scientific research fosters an anti-politi-cal, anticivil outlook. The very favorable structural cir-cumstances of three décades — indulgence by the center,occupational opportunities at the center, and centrality inthe world — had put this tradition into the margins of themind.The first and the third of thèse circumstances weremodified by the détérioration of Président Johnson 'sdemeanor in conséquence of the resultlessness of the war8in Vietnam. The tradition reasserted itself when themajor politician of the country was rude in tone andineffective in action.But whereas the older tradition was one of anti-political withdrawal, the new disposition, while remain-ing anti-political, has been far more active. One variant ofit resembled, after the outburst of civil political energy onbehalf of Robert Kennedy and then Eugène McCarthy,the new politics of the intellectuals under FranklinRoosevelt. The politics of the intellectuals under the NewDeal were not électoral or party politics but ratherpolitical activity carried on in advisory and counselingcapacities under the auspices of a powerful politicalpersonage.Subsidized dissentPolitical activists among intellectuals do not now seekélectoral office any more now than they did then. Theyseek programs and grants paid for by the public treasuryto work against the government. (Compare the rôle bf themost brilliant young graduâtes of the major law schoolsnowadays with those of the period of the New Deal andits successors!)This paradoxical anti-political civility is a novelty,although it has superficial resemblances to the com-munist technique of "boring from within."Another variant of the new anti-political politics is partof an older tradition: namely démonstration. The technique of démonstration was not an intellectual's de viceuntil the intellectuals and the communists came togetherunder the auspices of Willi Munzenberg. Démonstrationshâve now been given up by the working classes, sincethey hâve trade unions to represent their interests;démonstrations hâve become once more part of thetechnique of those who regard themselves as outside thecentral institutional System in which interests are repre-sented and compromised.The activist élément is at its most extrême in violent,disruptive démonstrations, where the aim is to prevent aninstitution, usually a defenseless one like a university or achurch, from functioning in a normal manner.Although there is much talk of power in intellectualcircles, the new politics of the intellectuals does not seemto aim to accède to positions of authority in the existingSystem or in a new revolutionarily established System.Hating it and denying its legitimacy as they do, they stillseem to acquiesce to its factuality. They seem to count on its continued existence, and they anticipate its respon-siveness to abusive influence, rather than to influencewithin consensus. In that sensé, the new revolutionaryintellectuals — there are some exceptions of course —seem themselves to be the victims of the tentacularpowers of the center.Can a modem society maintain a stable and orderlystructure when the political élites and those other sectorsof the élite who share power with them hâve lost theirself -confidence and are dominated by a clamorous hostility against that society and those who rule it?- An élite which wavers and abdicates the responsibilitywhich is inhérent in the rôles which it fills becomesuncertain of its entitlement to legitimacy. If it cannotclaim legitimacy for the actions it undertakes, its actionswill be ineffective. Ineffectiveness on the part of an élitebreeds disrespect and the refusai of legitimacy.No society, least of ail one as complicated as present-day American society, and so difficult to govern underthe best of circumstances, can survive in its on-goingform, nor can it develop peacefully from that form if itscentral institutional System has lost its legitimacy. American society is a noisy and a violent society, even in goodtimes. In bad times like the présent, it strains the capacities of even the best of governments.Erosion of legitimacyThe containment of conflict in a culture so consecratedto the gratification of demands has always been difficult.The institutionalization of class conflict — a by no meansperfect institutionalization — was one of the great accom-plishments of the Roosevelt and subséquent administrations. Its continuation dépends on the continued legitimacy of authority in government, business enterprises,and trade unions.The evaporation of legitimacy renders the continuedinstitutionalization more problematic than it has been forabout a third of a century. Inflation and the demonstra-tion-effect of the successf ul pursuit of expanded demands places the machinery of collaboration of classesunder a heavy burden. The sight of successfully af-fronted authority is a great stimulant to antinomianimpulses.The ineptitude of governmental institutions in the faceof ethnie conflicts — an ineptitude arising from seriousdisagreements within the government on the merits of theclaims and how to treat them, diminished self -confidence9in dealing with violence, particularly violence by somethousands of university students and by à section of theNegro population, the legitimate moral claims of whichhâve been usurped and exaggerated by a small, violentlyinclined group — has further eroded legitimacy.Damaging effect of the war in VietnamThe inconclusiveness of the war in Vietnam has dam-aged the legitimacy of the fédéral government more thanany other factor.The Russian czarist government, incompétent andineffective though it was in a time of peace, was shakenby révolution (in 1905) only after military defeat at thehands of the Japanese. It was finally overthrown follow-ing its disasters on the battlefield in the first two and ahalf years of the first World War. The agitations and theterroristic activities of a small group of conspiratorialintellectuals from 1825 onward would undoubtedly hâvecorne to nothing had the czarist government not expe-rienced those two shattering military def eats in little morethan a décade.The Habsburg monarchy was a ramshackle politicalSystem but it decomposed only after defeat in the firstWorld War.The Hohenzollern régime in Germany was one of themost stable in the world until its defeat by the Allies inthe first World War. The German revolutionaries werefeeble indeed — witness the weakness of their création,the Weimar republic — but the ancien régime had lost itslegitimacy.Similarly the legitimacy of the National Socialist régime, which had been so firm in 1943, began to falterwhen the German armies suffered their first great reverses at Stalingrad and in North Africa. Thereafter, asdefeat followed defeat, the Nazi régime which hadexterminated or paralyzed ail opposition began to crum-ble within, and, when it was totally defeated in 1945, itlost practically ail domestic support.In short, governments which lose wars are govern-ments which hâve undertaken to do more than they can.A war is an undertaking which involves national identityand, as such, it touches on the deepest roots of theacknowledgment of legitimacy. The loss of a war en-dangers the real and the symbolic existences of the entirenational community, and it thereby weakens the readi-ness to acknowledge the right to rule of those who hâve taken to themselves the care of the name and safety ofthat national community. Among those whose inclinationto acknowledge the legitimacy of rulers is — for ail sortsof reasons and motives — already weak, such failure is afurther ground for déniai.The situation of the American government is différent.It has not lost the war. It has, however, not won it, andthat is almost as bad in some respects because it hasdragged on and brought with it an inflation which injuresmost classes of the population and above ail those whoare otherwise the most f aithf ul devotees of the legitimacyof government. It also exacerbated class conflict throughthe continuous demand for higher wages, resulting instrikes and the disruption of services. Ail this has weak-ened the legitimacy of government by further revealingand emphasizing its ineffectiveness.In this situation of weakened legitimacy, the aliénationof the now pervasive intellectual classes is of conséquence. Had intellectuals continued to be as marginal asthey were forty years ago both in their functional rôlesand in their symbolic prominence and appréciation, theiraliénation would not concern any one but themselves andstudents of their attitudes. As it is, however, the questionmerits further scrutiny.Effect of the intellectuals' aliénationThe first thing to be said is that the aliénation inquestion hère is not universal among intellectuals. Largesections of the intellectual classes do not share in it.Those in the practical-intellectual professions are lessalienated than those in the primarily intellectual professions. Those in the scientific and technological professions are less alienated than those in the social science,literary, and humanistic professions.Even in the latter professions, among the social scientists, for example, the economists and the political scientists are less alienated than the sociologists (and anthro-pologists); in the humanistic subjects it is those con-cerned with English and American literary studies whoare most alienated.Certain Negro intellectuals are among the most voci-ferous, but there are many who do not receive publicityand who are less alienated although no less critical of thetraditional treatment and position of the Negro in American society. The younger générations, especially studentsin higher educational institutions, are more alienated thanthe older générations, although there is a wide spread of10opinion among them also. In each of thèse sectors of theintellectual classes, the tide of aggressive aliénationseems to hâve ebbed, and the more aggressive areseparating themselves from the rest.The volume of écho which white intellectuals give tothe most radical Negroes is likely to diminish, partlybecause those who do the echoing are créatures offashion and do not sustain any fashion for long. If thisoccurs, the more radical Negro intellectuals will hâve lessrésonance, and their pressure on the more moderate oneswill decrease. Their isolation will hâve the same effect onthe whites that the isolation of the white extremistintellectuals will hâve on their Negro counterparts. Theywill shrink into conspiratorial circles and will be subjectnot to the laws of movement of intellectual opinion but tothose of the security services.Thèse developments dépend in part on the capacity ofthe political and administrative élites to regain control oftheir nerves and to discriminate between destructiveactions and reasonable demands for improvement. Theydépend on the avoidance of exciting rhetoric. Theydépend most of ail on the restoration of effectiveness andon the image of effectiveness on the part of the government. They dépend very much on bringing the war inVietnam to an end, and in managing this without generat-ing in sectors of the political élite and in the society atlarge a "stab-in-the-back" legend.The intellectuals, sensitive as they are to power, wouldrespond by a renewal of their sensé of affinity, as they didunder Franklin Roosevelt, even though there is a strongpréjudice against any Republican administration. In addition to this it should be pointed out that at présent, in theranks of the alienated intellectuals, the most alienated areprimarily concentrated in the functionally most marginalrôles. Economists and engineers are more important tosociety than students and teachers and research workersin sociology and English and American literature. Theirdanger to social stability arises more from their rôle inthe mass communications than from any "direct action"they can take from the inside as incumbents of executiverôles or from the outside as demonstrators and bombthrowers.Responsibility for rattled élitesNonetheless, in the présent period when intellectualspossess so much prestige and many politicians are in-clined to listen to them so deferentially, the most vocifer- ous and most démonstrative — especially in the Negro-white collaboration — are capable of making demands andaccusations which rattle the established political andadministrative élites and cause them either to lose self-confidence or to react in an extremely aggressive andrépressive manner.Either of thèse responses threatens to weaken thelegitimacy of the established élite among those intellectuals who are inclined to give it the benefit of the doubt; itneutralizes them, weakens their civility, or makes themmore sympathetic with the more extremely alienated.Yet, the fact renlains that the American econo-my — despite the burden of inflation — continues to oper-ate with a most impressive effectiveness. The businessélite, despite concessions hère and there to the mountinglunacy, is more archaic in its sentiment and ethos. Theleaders of the trade unions continue with an unruffled"business as usual" demeanor.'The people' vs. 'people'It cornes down therefore to the question whether thepolitical élites in the fédéral government and in the bigcities can reequilibrate themselves, regain their equanim-ity, reassert themselves by placing confidence in thosesections of the population which support them, showinitiative in bringing about some noticeable improvement, and in so doing, résume a steady course.It is a far from easy task. It is encumbered on one sideby an alliance with politicians of an irreconcilable outlook, particularly regarding ethnie questions; it is encumbered on the other by many within its own ranks whohâve been overrun by extremely alienated intellectuals — not as extremely alienated as the bomb throwers butextremely alienated nonetheless — who claim to speak onbehalf of "people." What is called for is the reestablishment of a sovereignty deriving ultimately and throughreprésentative institutions from "the people" and theréduction of the direct ascendancy of "people," i.e. the"plebiscitary" democracy of a small minority. But thatsovereignty cannot be reasserted unless it is done bythose who hâve accepted the rewards and responsibilitiesof leadership in représentative institutions.The growth to prominence of the intellectual classes inAmerican society has -been a f unction of changes in thefunction of the political and administrative élites and thechanges in the character of physical and social technolo-gy from empirical to "scientific." Intellectuals became11more prominent in the minds of the nonintellectual sectors of the élite as the technological procédures inAmerican society came to require systematic study fortheir practice and development. In conséquence, thenumber of intellectual rôles in the society increasedgreatly, the number of intellectual institutions for trainingincumbents for those rôles increased, and the number ofpersons filling the rôles — practical-intellectual and intellectual — involved in the practice of the technology andtraining for it grew disproportionately.The political, administrative, économie, and militaryélites, who had in the past not been notably appréciativeof intellectual works and intellectuals, thus came to takean active part in the promotion of the institutions wheresuch intellectuals were to be trained and in the recruitment of intellectuals so trained into their own institutions.In the past the distance which the nonintellectual éliteshad maintained with respect to intellectuals was recipro-cated. American intellectuals, particularly those con-cerned with the production and cultivation of literary andhumanistic works, were hostile toward those in positionsof authority in American society. They believed themselves to be disesteemed by them, and they avoided entryinto rôles which entailed service and close associationwith the authoritative élites of their society.The intellectuals developed a penumbral tradition,which is seldom far from the surface of intellectualactivities in gênerai and was perhaps even stronger in theUnited States than in any other advanced country of thenineteenth century. This penumbral tradition prescribeddistance from and disparagement of those in authoritative rôles. Although the tradition was not developed in anequally extrême form among scientific and technologicalintellectuals in the nineteenth century, of whom therewere not so many, they too shared in it.Conflicting rôles and attitudesThe intellectuals in the last two-thirds of the nineteenthcentury had practically no positive influence in Americansociety. Even if their sensé of aliénation was caused inpart by this exclusion from influence and authority, theirhostility made little différence because of their lack ofinfluence.The transformation of American society in whichauthoritative rôles came to be linked more intimatelywith intellectual rôles had two major conséquences: it brought about the partial suspension of the hostility ofthe intellectual élites toward the nonintellectual orauthority-exercising élites, Le. toward the executiveélites in the broadest sensé of the term. It also broughtabout the incorporation of the intellectuals into a closer,more collaborative relationship with the executive élites.In the course of this, intellectuals came in a variety ofways to hâve great influence on American culture andsocial structure.The incorporation of the intellectuals into the centralinstitutional System is now intégral to the structure ofAmerican society. The penumbral traditions of the intellectuals hâve, however, retained their vitality despitetheir several décades of submergence, and in the récenttroubles of the political, administrative, and militaryélites, the tradition of aliénation has been reactivated.This time, however, as a resuit of the structuralincorporation of the intellectuals into the center ofAmerican society, their cultural influence has been great.As a resuit, the legitimacy of the executive élites — acultural phenomenon — has been impaired, and the effectiveness of thèse élites has been further damaged with arésultant further détérioration of their legitimacy.Discipline in academeThe stability of American society has thus corne todépend upon a sector of the society which lives in. atradition of aliénation, part of which, in its extrême form,is historically contingent and part of which is almostself-generating in the primary culture of the intellectualrôle.At the same time, it should be observed that theprimary culture of the intellectuals is increasingly gener-ated in académie institutions, where there is a delicatelypoised and not al ways equally stable balance between, onthe one hand, a discipline which acknowledges at leastthe authority of its own traditions and of the institutionswhich sustain them and, on the other, a more antinômianand expressive culture. The latter has a long and deeptradition, which developed before it came within académie confines.The stability of the larger society dépends, therefore,on the maintenance, within the culture and the institutional System of the intellectuals, of the prédominance ofthat élément which accepts an objective discipline andthe intégration of académie institutions into the centralinstitutional System of American society.12The American industrial révolution —its third (and final?) phaseS. R. BernsteînIn the last few years, in one respect at least, Americanbusiness seems to hâve gone f ull circle — back to the daysof the robber barons and the trusts and Teddy Roose-velt's "malefactors of great wealth." American industryled the way in developing the enormous économies ofmass production and it was smart enough to know thatmass production and mass consumption were two sidesof the same coin, and that it wasn't possible to hâve onewithout the other. And so, as World War II was thrustupon us, the production man was king — the people, likeHenry Kaiser, who could make two ships bloom whereonly one had bloomed before. But as we came out of thewar with an industrial plant which could almost literallyproduce any desired quantity of any desired commodity. . . it quickly became apparent that the indispensableman of the postwar period was not so much the production man, but the sales and marketing man. We couldmake the stuff ail right; the question was, could we sell it?And so marketing men began to replace productionmen at top échelons in business. Salesmen and salesmanagers and marketing strategists and advertising menbecame really important for the first time in manybusinesses; and the battle cry of enlightened businessbecame the total marketing concept— -the notion thatevery function of business — every fiber in a businessorganization — must be pointed toward marketing. Nolonger could any company afford to do what it felt likedoing, in product development or design, in pricing, instyling, or in anything else. The company 's successdepended, we were told, on its ability to turn out thegoods or services that made sensé to its customers, nomatter how much this might annoy the engineers or theMr. Bernstein (mb a '56) is one of the nation 's mostrespected leaders in the field of business publishing. Nowprésident of Crain Communications Inc., which publishesAdvertising Age and half a dozen other publications inthe marketing, Insurance, automotive and other areas, hewas editor of Advertising Age through most of its forma-tive years. production people or even the cost experts in the ac-counting department.But now both production man and marketing man hâvelargely been shouldered aside by the financial man. Notthe expert on costs, nor the expert on taxes, nor theefficiency expert who can maximize returns, but by anentirely différent breed. A member of this breed is in fact,or acts remarkably like, the investment banker of the1880s and 1890s. His job is only secondarily to increasesales or profits, or maximize return on investment. Hisprime job is to increase the value — or perhaps I shouldsay, the price — of the company 's stock.Stock price becomes ultimate goalThe most important question anyone could ask of acompany twenty years ago was, "How's business?". Buttoday the most important question in thousands of com-panies — and the only really important question — is,"How's the stock market?"The production genius who can shave a nickel per unitin costs is appreciated, of course; the marketing directorwho can steal an extra two percent of market share mayget a raise or a bonus. But in today's terms, what caneither one of thèse people do that is half as important totheir company as the financial genius who can make agood impression in his présentation at the securitiesanalysts' meeting, and thereby raise the price-earningsratio of his company's stock a point or two? What can aproduction man or a marketing authority do that's one-tenth as important as negotiating a merger or a takeoverthat jumps the price of the stock five points, or tenpoints?Is this bad? I believe it is, and I believe it is potentiallyfull of danger for our social and business structure. It hasreversed the natural order of things as we hâve corne sopainfully and so slowly to recognize them. Granted — theultimate objective of business is to make money; but inthe common sensé world of the production man, andeven more so in the thinking of the marketing man,making money is a natural resuit of filling a need or13satisfying a want. You supplied something people neededor wanted, and you did it better or more cheaply or moreconveniently than your competitors. Hence you soldmore of whatever you were selling; hence, you madebigger profits, and almost automatically, your businessbecame more valuable.In theory, this is still supposed to be the way theSystem works. But in practice it becomes less and lesstrue. The ultimate objective of business owners andmanagers used to be to sell the products or services oftheir company; now the objective is to sell the company — in whole or in part. And this is quite a différentkind of bail game, played under quite différent rules.Even in the 1880s and '90s, when so many of the hugetrusts were put together, the ultimate objective of themanipulators was what might be called an operatingobjective. Almost without exception, they sought tocontrol and, if possible, to monopolize a spécifie, identifiable market, with the objective of controlling supply andprice, and thereby increasing the operating income of thetrust.Along with the formation of trusts there were lessspectacular and perfectly sensible mergers, designed toproduce more efficient manufacturing and/or selling opérations, or to reduce costs by spreading overhead overlarger units. Provided no élément of monopoly enters in,such mergers and consolidations are perfectly sensible,and I hâve no quarrel with them.But currently we are faced with a wonderful newbusiness entity called the conglomerate, which grew upconveniently in the shadow of a new business star of thefirst magnitude called Diversification. And I do hâve aquarrel, or at least an incipient quarrel, with many ofthèse. And my quarrel is precisely that in many casesthey are really not business entities at ail, but merelyfinancial entitizs, whose sole function and purpose is themanipulation of corporate values in terms of stockpriées.I am not an economist. And I can quickly prove, to anyinterested person, that I know very little about the stockmarket. But I raise this important question of who isrunning American business, and what is the primaryfunction of business management thèse days, because Ithink it has an almost overriding relationship to thesuccessful survival of our entire business System.Misdeûned 'growth'What disturbs me most is that too much time and toomuch attention are being distracted from operating business profitably and sensibly and with greater regard forthe legitimate demands of consumers and society. Toomuch management time, and too much business activity,is concerned with purely financial matters, and too littletime and attention are being given, therefore, to the fundamental demands of business opération. In the finalanalysis, the kind of "growth" that stock market inves-tors are looking for cornes not from financial manipulation or mergers, but from product development, marketing skill, and ability to meet the changing needs of achanging society.Business is under fire right now on a variety of fronts.The worthiness of products is being more and more putinto question. The value of warranties and guarantees isbeing debated. The honesty of marketing and advertisingpolicies is under fire. A gênerai contempt for the ways ofbusiness is évident ail through our society; the writhingmasses in our social structure are impatiently demandingmore involvement of business in social problems, moreawareness of unpleasant realities in American life andmore positive action to help alleviate them.Business has more important work to doWe need the best brains and the broadest possiblethrust in thèse essential areas if we are to survive. It is ashame to see them diverted from thèse real areas ofconcern, even momentarily, by essentially frivolousstock market considérations.The very first concern of any business should alwaysbe, it seems to me, what is good for the long-term welfareof that business, with the happy but natural resuit that thevalue of the business thereupon increases. In this kind ofcircumstance, everybody benefits — owners, workers,customers, the gênerai public, the economy and thecountry. And this is supposed to be one of the greatvalues of the corporation as an entity — its ability tosurvive "forever," and hence to disregard temporary upsand downs in favor of long-term planning.But in the stock manipulating era in which we are ailnow so heartily engaged, it is difficult to see exactly whatbenefits accrue to any one, except to the more astuteplayers in this giant poker game.Long-term advantage is ail too frequently disregardedin favor of bolstering the record for the very nextquarter. Purchases and sales are ail too often madewithout a thought of their ultimate resuit, just so theylook good to today's investors. And simplicity and honesty in corporate structure and accounting methods areail too often sacrificed for complicated, highly debatablemanipulations that can be made to look better to stocktipsters, brokers and their patrons.The American economy became great because it har-nessed mass production to mass marketing, and thus overthe years made more goods and more services availableto more and more people at constantly reduced prices interms of the amount of effort needed to acquire them. Ifpréoccupation with mergers and the price of companystock on the market contributes to this beneficent process, I am ail for it. But I hâve grave fears that it does not.14Senator Benton, Ivan Albright, and Président Edward Levi chat at the réception opening the exhibition. Behindthem isan early self portrait of the artist.Early Albright work cornes to the UniversityThe University in June celebrated the gift by SenatorWilliam B. Benton, life trustée, of his collection of 46World War I médical watercolors by Ivan LeLorraineAlbright, early créations by a painter now recognized as aunique phenomenon in art. The collection, valued at$100,000, will be moved to its permanent location in thePritzker School of Medicine following its inauguralshowing in the Renaissance Society's gallery in Good-speed Hall.For most of his life a résident of the Chicago area, where he developed his highly individual approach andtechnique, Albright now lives in Woodstock, Vermontand still, at 75, is painting works of such extrêmeliteralness (not fidelity) that they achieve abstractness.Albright "is, paradoxically, an abstract artist whodeals with reality only to destroy it by bending ail images tohis unique metaphysical bias," wrote Katharine Kuh(am'35) in an interview a few years ago. "Projecting hisown kind of ambiguous space," she wrote, "his ownlabyrinthian perspective, his own irrational light, he15This watercolor of a soldier's leg being treated for a gas infection is one ofthe collection of Ivan Albright's World War Imédical drawings.créâtes a jungle of insecurity."The World War I watercolors are, from the art stand-point, primarily interesting as early developmental mile-posts along the road to Albright's mature work."That was over half a century ago," he told themagazine in a phone interview. "I wasn't really an artistat that time. I thought I was, but I wasn't. My brother[Malvin (Zsissly) Albright] and I had been drawing frommodels since we were six or seven [their father, AdamAlbright, was a painter], and I thought I was an artist. ButI wasn't."How did you get involved in making médical drawings ?"Well, I was a private. This was in 1918. It was peelpotatoes or dig ditches — or this. A Dr. Flannery asked meif I would draw a neck opération he was going to do — foran aneurism. I did."After I'd got into it, I would just go from ward toward. This was at Nantes, in what they called a zone ofsafety. There were twenty wards in the hospital. "I would just go from ward to ward. The patients wereglad to hâve the distraction. They were bored. I wouldjust hâve the leg or shoulder, or whatever it was,unwrapped. It would take me an hour and a half or so tomake the drawing."I was the chief, if not the only, médical drawer withthe AEF."The soldiers healed very fast from wounds they gotfrom shrapnel, but the infections they got from mustardgas were bad. They would break the stitches."What did you learn from this expérience that mighthâve been part of your later artistic development?"I think I learned to hâve more sympathy,for people,working with people who were hurt."Albright said he was pleased to hâve his youthfulefforts shown at the University."I probably couldn't get in as a student," he said, "soit's wonderful to be in the University because of mywork."16Ivan Albright is probably best known fortwo of his paintings, That Which IShould Hâve Done I Did Not Do (TheDoor) and Poor Room — There is noTime, no Today, no Yesterday, no To-morrow, only the Forever, and Foreverand Forever Without End (The Window).But he is also familiar to many Chi-cagoans for the painting at right, whichhangs in Riccardo's restaurant on theNear North Side. One of a heptaptychcelebrating the arts, the Ivan Albrightwork, symbolizing the drama, portrayshis friend, the late Riccardo Riccardo(father of the présent proprietor, whobears the same name) in the guise of thedevil. Another painting in the groupcommissioned by the elder Riccardo isby Ivan's twin brother Malvin (Zsissly). ?Y ' ! Xï W -¦V /../.t. ;; , '-L ^i \WJro Y jh ^ *£ 1y iv. I «\S H \ ¦fi!'¦ p*1 £ Vit ' ' "y ""¦y \r ? £9*r /- f$Jk ' ¦.» > h > - ¦ ! ' "> r('' > -;.v ( *v, Lt -'17THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION andthe DEPARTMENT of MUSICTheir first concert this season atTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOVERMEER QUARTET ^^^Shmuel Ashkenasi vidinPierre Menard violinScott Nickrenz violaRonald Léonard celloQuartett-satz in C min. (D.703) SchubertQuartet in D maj. K.575 MozartQuartet in C-sharp min., Op. 131 BeethovenFriday • October 6, 1972 . 8:30 P.M.Mandel Hall • 57th Street and University AvenueFor your convenience in ordering tickets, please useorder form below.Concert Office5835 University AvenueChicago 60637S enclosedPlease send tickets for Vermeer Quartetconcert in Mandel Hall on October 6, 1972 asfollows: S4; S2.UC Alumni or CMS subscribers (SI discount applicable)Name Address ZipCheck made payable to The University of Chicagoshould accompany your order.Please enclose a self-addressed stamped envelope. TICKET INFORMATION$4 General AdmissionS2 Student (upon présentation of ID card)(SI discount to ail UC Alumni and CMS subscribers)Tickets and information available only at the Department of MusicConcert Office, 5835 S. University Avenue, Chicago 6063";phone, 753-2612. Mandel Hall Box Office will be open on theevening of the performance. Ail seats reserved.18Quadrangle V^{ewsAlumni, future alumni are honoredWith words of praise for the emphasison interdisciplinary activity at theUniversity, Harold D. Lasswell(PhB'22,PhD'26), formerly professorof political science on the Midwayand now a member of the Yale LawSchool faculty (though in 72-73 atTemple University as distinguishedvisiting professor of history and law)received the alumni medal at theawards ceremony which capped thisyear's reunion.Recalling the days of Charles E.rvlerriam, Robert E. Park, EdwardSapir and other scholars, he said, "Wehad networks where the play of themind was also stimulated by ap-propriate chemicals. It is not al-together irrelevant that one of ourmore important interdisciplinarygroups of serious thinkers was irrev-erently called the serious drinkers —of tea, naturally."The tone of the University inthe 1920s and 1930s, he said, was setby scholars "who were too devoted tothe task to find the petty gamesman-ship of campus politics either reward-ing or interesting."Alumni citations went to WarrenBacon (MBA'51), a member of theChicago Board of Education; KermitColeman (AB'59) director of theACLU's Ghetto Project; Léon M.Despres (PhB'27, JD'29), the "conscience of the Chicago city council";Vera Chandler Foster (AM'50), out-standing social worker; Ethel FrankGoldsmith (AB'40) a pioneer in theliaison between volunteer lay workersand psychiatrie specialists; MalcolmS. Kamin (JD'64) labor attorney; andDorothy Walker Runner (AM'53), aChicago leader in welfare and civic Harold D. Lasswellcauses.Professional achievement awardswent to Robert Ardrey (PhB'30), wellknown writer; Dr. Lauretta Bender(SB'22, SM'23), child psychiatrist;Donald C. Bergus (AB'42), vétéranforeign service offlcer; Waverly B.Clanton, Jr., (JD'61), Chicago attorneyand community leader; Kenneth S.Tollett (AB'52, JD'55, AM'58) HowardUniversity faculty member; andDarwin T. Turner (PhD'58) Universityof Iowa faculty member.The Howell Murray awards werepresented to thirteen outstanding students: David Affelder, GregoryBalbierz, Paul Bernstein, CornishHitchcock, Judith Brophy, JérômeCulp, Jr., Judson Hixson, RobertHopkins, Walters Kroemer, GérardLevai, Wayne Ming-Chen Liao,Margaret Ryan and Fran Solmor. Bruckner succeeds WilliamsD. J. R. Bruckner, a nationally syndi-cated columnist for the Los AngelesTimes, has been named vice-présidentof the University for public affairs.He succeeds Eddie N. Williams, whoresigned to aecept the presidency ofthe Joint Center for Political Studies,Washington, D.C.A Rhodes scholar in 195.V57,Bruckner joined the Chicago Sun-Times as a reporter in 1960 andcovered labor news for that news-paper from 1961 to 1966, when hemoved to the Los Angeles Times. Inhis years with the Sun-Times,Bruckner was a regular panelist on"Press International" on the ABC-TVstation in Chicago and in 1963-'64moderated "The Brain Trust" onWTTW, Chicago public télévision station.A native of Platte Center, Neb.,Bruckner received his bachelor's de-gree from Creighton University andhis master's from Oxford, in thecourse of his tenure as a Rhodesscholar.Berry named to Harris profes-sorshipBrian L. Berry, professor of ge-ography and chairman of the trainingprogram of the University's Centerfor Urban Studies, has been appointedIrving B. Harris Professor of UrbanGeography, a new chair establishedby a gift from Irving B. Harris, who,among other posts, is président ofStandard Shares Inc. and of R. J.Levy, Harris Inc; chairman of PittwayCorp.; and président of Chicago Edu-cational Télévision Association andthe Chicago Institute for Psychoanal-ysis. The gift was made under theterms of a matching grant from theFord Foundation.The new professorship is the fourthof six in the field of urban studies tobe financed in part by the Ford Foundation. Previously Edgar Epps wasnamed Marshall Field IV Professor ofUrban Education; Allison Dunham19became Arnold I. Shure Professor ofUrban Law; and Arnold Weber(ab'52) was appointed Isidore Brownand Gladys J. Brown Professor ofUrban and Labor Economies.The remaining two named professor-ships in the program are to be an-nounced later.Chairmanships go toMarriott, Greenstone, KitagawaThree departments in the Division ofthe Social Sciences got new chairmenJuly 1, as McKim Marriott (am'49,phD'55), professor in the Departmentof Anthropology and in the Collège,was named chairman of the Department of Anthropology; J. DavidGreenstone (am'60, phD'63), associateprofessor, was appointed chairman ofthe Department of Political Science;and Evelyn M. Kitagawa (phD'51) became chairman of the Department ofSociology.Polish scholar joins facultySamuel Sandler, has been namedprofessor of Polish literature in theUniversity's Department of SlavicLanguages and Literatures. He hasbeen on the faculty of the Universityof Illinois at Chicago Circle since1970.Sandler was born in Lodz, in 1926.He studied at the University of Lodzand received an ma in 1950 and a phoin 1951 from the University of Wro-claw.In 1954 Sandler was named asassistant professor of Polish literaturein the journalism department at theUniversity of Warsaw. In 1955 hejoined the Department of Polish Phil-ology at the University of Lodz andbecame head of a departmental work-shop on 20th century literature.Sandler, with his wife and theirdaughter, left Poland in the autumn of1969 to become an associate professorat the University of Tel Aviv. In 1970he came to the United States as avisiting associate professor at theUniversity of Illinois, Chicago Circle. ïïooksIn The Fullness of TimePaul H. DouglasIn a récent télévision broadeast SenatorHubert Humphrey was asked by a cyn-ical interrogator if he could give anexample of the honest man in publiclife eminently devoted to the publicinterest. Without hésitation the Senatorreplied: "Paul Douglas." This opinioncan be verified by any who knew theformer Senator from Illinois. For-tunately, we now hâve an extensiveaccount of Douglas's life and activitiesfrom his own pen (In the Fullness ofTime, the Memoirs of Paul H. Douglas.New York: Harcourt Brace Jova-novich, 1972. $13.50.)The book is by no means a work ofself-praise or an attempt to gloss overfailures or to claim undue crédit forsuccesses. Over six hundred pages aredevoted to a life so full of activity, sodedicated to the removal of injusticesthat the ordinary citizen feels a certainsensé of guilt in looking back on hisown minimal contribution to the publicwelfare. While the Senator's concernwas always for the distressed, the pov-erty-stricken, the people at the lowerlevel of the économie and social scale,he never lost sight of the fact that therewas a common good shared by ailmembers of the commonwealth.Despite struggles with unyielding opposition, the Senator remains funda-mentally an optimist. Throughout hiscareer he faced Systems of entrenchedprivilège and power. Never was thismore the case than during his years inWashington. In the Senate the old bi-partisan coalition of Republicans andsouthern Democrats held the reins ofauthority. Even the majority leader ofhis own party frequently ignored him. In addition he had to contend with thewell-mannered arrogance of bureau-crats, the powerful pressures of the oiland banking interests, his colleagues'lack of interest in the field of économies, and finally, in his last campaign, thedésertion from the ranks of his supporters by the people he had served sowell. Ail thèse expériences would hâvesoured most men.At no time, however, does he despairof the value and usefulness of govern-mental institutions, although his hopelies in men rather than in institutions.He feels that there is always hope ofyounger men coming to the Congress— young men of vision devoted to thepublic welfare. As a legislator he can-not bring himself to favor a parlia-mentary system wherein the executivebranch dominâtes the législative. Hedoes not believe that a fundamentalweakness exists in a check-and-balanceSystem — which so frequently checksbut does not balance. It would appearthat he would not be discouraged by thefrustration of a large majority of thepeople in their efforts to get a nationalhealth plan, tax reform or gun controllégislation. The Congress will indeedact with ail due dispatch in a crisis, butis this the best System of orderly prog-ress?The Senator's expériences in dealingwith the civil service leads him to question some of the pet théories of theteachers of public administration. Mayit not be that thèse gentlemen believe inthe Platonic notion that there must always be an idéal toward which theirreforms are aimed — not always attain-able, but offering a standard to whichthe wise may repair? But is there notinvolved hère the problem of the expertin his field, necessary but often domi-20neering in his dealings with the unin-structed and the outsider?Douglas's two most admired legis-lators are the late Senator George Nor-ris and the late Senator Robert LaFollette. He tells us that when hangingtheir pictures: "Both were men of andfor the people. I hung Norris above LaFollette because he was less theatricaland had a homespun sensé of humor."There can be little doubt that Douglastried valiantly and successfully to fol-low the difficult trail blazed by thèsetwo men. He espoused with enthusiasmthe rôle of the maverick, but he alwaysremained the hopeful maverick, neverdiscouraged by reverses and never f all-ing into the state of bitterness which sooften characterizes the maverick breed.Like Norris and La Follette, Douglashad a tough conscience. And with thetough conscience went a frank andopen manner — he did not hesitate totell Mayor Edward Kelly of Chicagothat despite the mayor's support inDouglas's aldermanic campaign he wasas likely to oppose the mayor in thefuture as he had in the past.Douglas never ceases to wrestle withhis conscience. He realizes that in public affairs, as Aristotle taught centuriesago, solutions to complex problems donot appear absolutely négative or ab-solutely affirmative. There are greatergoods and lesser goods, greater evilsand lesser evils. Conclusions are ar-rived at on a basis of moral norms andthe teachings of expérience. Because ofthis, the Senator often appears exces-sively scrupulous — as in the case ofwhat to do with a pension to which hewas entitled as a former Marinewounded in action. The hidden pitfallsthat lie in the path of every public officiai can be appreciated fully only bythe conscientious.Of his days in the académie life at theUniversity of Chicago, Douglas has adeep appréciation of his associationwith his colleagues. He notes, however,that his retirement came at an ap-propriate time: he would hâve beenquite unhappy as his department trav-eled back along the road to AdamSmith. Nevertheless, it should be notedthat as a teacher Douglas had fewequals. Dynamic and effective in theclassroom, he will long be rememberedby those fortunate enough to be hisstudents.This work is of spécial importance inthe field of political science. Todaymany political scientists suff er from anincredible inferiority complex as theynote the supposed exactitude of thenatural sciences. Every effort, they appear to believe, must be made to makethe social sciences akin to mathematicsand physics, and above ail, the socialsciences must be value-free and ethi-cally neutral. Senator Douglas has writ-ten an excellent work in politicalscience, and yet how value-free andethically neutral is it? The politicalscience of Paul Douglas (set forth inEnglish, rather than social-science jargon) is a distinctly human and humanediscipline — a study of man in his nobleefforts to attain the highest goals ofliving in community with his fellowmen.JEROME G. KERWINProfessr Emeritus of Political ScienceMr. Kerwin, who joined the Universi-ty's political science faculty in 1921,served, among many other functions,as Paul Douglas ' campaign managerat the start of his political career. Emeritus since 1961, he now lives inSanta Clara, California.America Can Make It!Abraham RibicoffSenator Ribicoff (jd'33) ofîers somehighly readable analyses and prescriptions for a number of the nation'smore pressing ills, including its failureto engage in meaningful planning andits colossal waste of brainpower.America Can Make Jf/(New York:Atheneum, 1972. $6.95) covers a widespectrum of problems, includingschool intégration, housing, the in-dividual in society, welfare, and theeconomy.Ask an Indian About IndiaBiaise LevaiA 15-year résident of India, BiaiseLevai (am'64) puts together in thisbook (New York: Friendship Press,1972. $1.75) a séries of informed andinformative interviews with a widevariety of Indian authorities, coveringthe nation's governmental, économie,social and religious progress and, despite the progress, its staggering andoften heartbreaking burden of residualdifficultés.CorrectionIn the heading of the review ofPaul Neimark's book, She Lives!in the May/June issue Mr. Nei-mark's name was, regrettably,misspelled; it was correct in thetext.cÇettersSuburbanites pay, tooTO THE EDITOR: Re "City vs. Sub-urb" (Letters, March/April, 1972) byHerbert J. Erfurth x'50, I supposesomeone ought to comment on the fal-sity of what seems to be an unchal-lenged assumption — namely that subur-ban home ownership is subsidized.First, the highway program. Balancethe benefits a suburbanite might re-ceive from a highway against the benefits the city dweller receives from thesubsidized bus, subway, and inner cityrail transport and f reeways- -also pavedstreets and alleys. The suburban homeowner pays for the installation of• thèse, frequently by spécial assessmentand always at least by gênerai taxation.Second, government insured loans.They are made to city dwellers inhomes, and indirectly to apartmentrenters by enabling owners to chargeless rent in the compétitive rental market by reason of government insuredloans on the buildings — frequently atsubsidized low interest.Third, "benign income tax treat-ment." I suppose what is referred to isthe deductibility of taxes and interest.But the apartment renter gets the samebenefits indirectly in the compétitiverental market, because his landlord de-ducts thèse items as part of operatingexpenses, plus fast dépréciation write-offs; also heating costs, repairs andmaintenance, none of which are avail-able to the home owner and ail ofwhich, économies being what it is, arereflected in lower rent. The homeowner is allowed no déduction for repairs or additions, and if he sells at aprofit he is taxed on the gain, if at a loss he cannot deduct the loss. If thisis "benign" please include me out ofthe benignity.Just in case someone says "Aha!, heforgot that the renter pays enough tomake the landlord a profit" — not ailapartments are operated at a profit,and of those that are, is the profitmore than a reasonable return on thecapital investment? Remember thehome owner gets no return on his investment, except a place to live, whichis what the apartment dweller gets forhis rent. Also to forestall comments onunusual situations, let's leave out ofthe discussion slum dwellings and avar-icious slum landlords — a subject in it-self.LESTER G. BRITTON, JD'24Chicago, Illinois'Conferencemanship' strikes chordTO THE EDITOR: I must confess, Inever thought that I would live to seethe day that an officiai or semi-ofïicialjournal of my aima mater would everpublish such a humorous, almost hilari-ous, yet knowledgeable burlesque asFather Greeley' s "Conferenceman-ship" (March/April 1972). The imagethat I hâve of the good Dr. Harperrequires that he must be turning overin his grave at a rapid rate. This articlehas given me, after 42 years, a newslant on the University.Your journal, or Father Greeley,should submit the article to (say) theNew Yorker. The pièce deserves widedistribution in appropriate circles.Does not a tense society (like a tenseindividual) dérive some benefit fromlaughing at itself (or himself)?I hope that reprints will be madeavailable; I would like to distribute about a half dozen to "confer-encemen" that I know.W. JAMES LYONS, PnB'30Princeton, N. J.And a dissentTO THE EDITOR: I wish to refer toparagraph six on Page 6 of AndrewGreeley' s article. The author, with onebold sentence after another sum-marizes: (1) Protestants, (2) Catholics,(3) Jews.His conclusions reached are veryunacademic; I do not believe that agrammar school student would writealong thèse lines, and therefore it iswith regret that I see it printed in amagazine of such high quality. The balance of the article is not subject to mycriticism because I found it very inter-esting.SAMUEL N. LEVIN, PnB'29, JD'31Highwood, 111.Joy through TMTO THE EDITOR: Since Oct. 71, I hâvebeen enrolled at MIU (Maharishi International University), studying theScience of Creative Intelligence (SCI).Upon completion ôf my work in Juneof this year, I will hâve earned myBachelor's in the Science of CreativeIntelligence (BSCI) and will be return-ing to the States as a qualified teacherof Transcendental Méditation (TM)and SCI to work in that capacity.For those few who haven't as yetinvestigated TM or SCI, I urge themto do so. Life constantly becomes moreand more fulfilling and joyful whenone practices TM.DIANE J. TRIAL, MAT '69Fiuggi Fonte, Italy22Terryle Lee Tenney (left) fits a fragment of glass into the design(a template of the completed window is underneath the frame), as Charlotte Walker applies solder to a lead junction. Both arestudents in the School of Social Service Administration.Brightening the cornerLast January twenty-two members ofthe University community — faculty,students, and staff, plus, in some cases,neighbors, friends, children — begantaking an unusual non-credit course inthe antique art of making stained glasswindows. Since then, every Wednes-day night (sometimes on weekends,too) the group has assembled in itswork space among the ventilating ductsin the basement of Rockefeller Mémorial Chapel to labor over the class project: the fabrication of ten new nar-row windows for the chapel.The project was in large measure aresponse to the feeling of E. SpencerAt right, Harold Haydon, knife in hand,supplies advice on a lead junction to GeorgeAnastaplo, lecturer in the libéral arts.Beyond Haydon, Sara Maria Anastaploexamines a pièce of glass; at left GrâceTress, a Hyde Park neighbor, observes theinstruction.Doris Bostrom, whose husband, Harry, isa staff member of the University 's plantdepartment, wields a soldering iron as sheworks on the window representing "earth. "Parsons, dean of the chapel and associate professor in the DivinitySchool, that the interior of the chapelwas, despite its austère beauty, a littlecold. The windows, for example, werein cool yellows and pale blues (see backcover). Perhaps, he felt, although itwould be virtually impossible to effecta change in the large windows, the slitwindows, closer to eye level, couldachieve the desired increase in warmth.At this point Harold Haydon, associate professor of art in the Collègeand director of the Midway Studios,agreed to design the substitute Windows and superintend their création.Each window is a symbolic représentation. The subjects are earth, air,fire and water; flora, fauna and hu-manity; and the cosmos, the galaxiesand creativity. (The représentation offire, one of two installed thus far, is onthe cover of this issue.)Stained glass (most of it imported) isnot easy to work with, and each window contains about one hundred vari-ously shaped glass fragments. When as-sembled, separated by slotted lead strips, each glass mosaic involves some480 soldering opérations.If ail goes well, the remaining eightwindows will be completed and in place some time next fall, and thechapel will gleam with color — and withthe added luster which results from ahomegrown effort.Dean Parsons stands before one of the new slit windows, which brightens its corner ofthe chapel.24alumni V\(ewsClass notesJO Many. Lives, One Love, the mem-oirs of fanny BUTCHER(BOKUM), AB'10, was published by .Harper & Row on June 13. Followinggraduation from UC and a brief butrugged initiation into public schoolteaching, Miss Butcher got a job as assistant to the woman's editor of theChicago Tribune, and worked her wayto the position of literary editor. Dur-ing her nearly fifty years with theTribune, shetook an active part in theliterary life of her times — not only as abook reviewer, but as a bookshop pro-prietor. She was an advocate of suchcauses as women's suffrage and freedom of expression for the writer, andwas secretary of the first little theatermovement in the country. She wasnamed Communicator of the Year bythe University of Chicago in 1964.IN MEMORIAM: Eloise Kellogg For-singer, PhB'10; Charles G. Mason,AB'10II EMORY S. BOGARDUS, PhD' 11,dean emeritus of the graduateschool at the University of SouthernCalifornia and founder of both USC'ssociology department and school of social work, was given a dinner thisspring by colleagues and former students in honor of his 90th birthday andalso to mark the naming after him ofthe fountain courtyard in front ofUSC's social sciences building. Dr.Bogardus, founder and editor emeritusof the Journal of Sociology and Social Research, still maintains an office at USCand visits the campus at least weekly.IN MEMORIAM: Bernard H. Schock-el, SB' 11, SM'14, PhD'47; Harry H.Peckham, AM'll. 12 in memoriam: Michael J. Kane,ab'12; Charles M. Rademacher,sbT2.I A CHARLOTTE VIAL WISER, PhB'l4,¦ will be returning stateside duringthe summer from Karimganj, the smallvillage in India where she lived formany years. Mrs. Wiser will especiallymiss what she calls her 'Village fami-ly," who had been sharing her housesince 1964 when theirs, next door atthe time, threatened to collapse duringthe rains. She knew they had corne tostay when Jia, grandmother and ma-triarch of the family — numbering fromfifteen to twenty and ranging in âgefrom two to sixty — shaped a newhearth of clay, her chulha, in a cornerof Mrs. Wiser' s courtyard.2 A PAUL J. BRESLICH, SB'24, MD'28,¦ has ended nearly forty years ofmédical practice in Minot, N. D. , andplans to move to San Francisco soonwith his wife, GRACE CHANGSTROM,PhB'29. Dr. Breslich gave his wife' shealth and the fact that a daughter livesin nearby Berkeley as key factors in-fluencing his décision.IRWIN FISCHER, PhB'24, spoke tothe West Suburban (Chicago) Orchestral Association on the occasion of itstwenty-fifth anniversary banquet. Con-ductor-director of the West SuburbanSymphony Orchestra since 1955 andorganist for the Chicago SymphonyOrchestra for more than twenty years,Mr. Fischer is also connected with theAmerican Conservatory of Music .WALTER G. MacPEEK, PhB'24, nowof Seminole, Fia., has completed his eighth book, Resourceful Scouts in Action, slated for publication this Augustby Abingdon Press. Retired in 1967from the national staff of the BoyScouts of America, Mr. MacPeek hassince written a séries of Scouting-inAction books, based on his 43-yearcareer in Scouting leadership. He hasalso written on historical subjects andon postage stamps for collectors. He isa member of the Postal Service' s ten-man Citizens Stamp Advisory Commit-tee.IN MEMORIAM: Alexander JohnJavois, SM'24; Peter G. Korn, PhB'24.2ÇC RUFUS ROREM, am'25,^ PhD' 29, retired New York Cityhospital planning consultant, was honor ed recently by the Hospital FinancialManagement Association, convening inBoulder, Colo., when he was présent ed with a still-life painting depict-ing his many contributions to the hospital field.2^7 RALPH W. TYLER, PnD'27, direc-J tor emeritus of the Center forAdvanced Study in the BehavioralSciences at Stanford, Calif., has beenreelected to a third one-year term aschairman of the board of the AmericanCollège Testing Program, a nonprofitand independent educational organiza-tion that provides guidance-orientedassessment and research services tostudents and educational institutions.Dr. Tyler was on the University ofChicago faculty for over ten years asprofessor and chairman of the Department of Education, university examiner, and dean of the Division ofthe Social Sciences.IN MEMORIAM: Andria Taylor Hour-wich, PhB'27; Ernest L. Mackie,PhD' 27; Erwin L. Meyer, AM'27.2Q ELEANOR METHENY, SB' 28, pro-^ f essor emeritus of physical éducation at the University of SouthernCalifornia, has been made an honorary25life member of the California Association for Health, Physical Education andRécréation and was cited as "truly oneof America' s outstanding physical edu-cators." During the spring Dr.Metheny served as the Walker Amesvisiting professor at the University ofWashington.IN MEMORIAM: Harwood L. Childs,PhD'28; John W. Hudson, SM'28.^Q RUTH,McNElL, PhB'29, professor>7 of music at Mary Baldwin Collège, Staunton, Va. , and a facultymember there since 1944, retired atthe end of the 197 1-' 72 académie year.IN MEMORIAM: Jennie Mary Butler,PhB'29, AM'36; John H. Fotos, AM'29,PhD' 45.^ Q DAVID N. HOWELL, PhB'30,3 Monrovia, Libéria, retired onMarch 31 after 47 years as a YMCAdirector, more than 22 of which hâvebeen spent in Libéria as fraternal secre-tary representing the InternationalCommittee of the YMCAs of theU. S. and Canada. "In récognition ofour services to the youth of Libéria,"writes Mr. Howell, "the président ofLibéria, Dr. W. R. Tolbert, decoratedus with the Knight Great Band of theHumane Order of African Rédemption, one of the country 's highest décorations."IN MEMORIAM: Saul David Alinsky,PhB'30; Thelma Vogt Taylor, AM'30.s\T JOHN C. McCURRY, PhB'31,^3 Birmingham, Mich., steppeddown in May after twenty years asmanager and secretary of the MichiganManufacturer' Association. He willremain as a consultant to the group.^ysy HAROLD A. BOSLEY, DB'32,5 PhD' 33, senior minister of ChristChurch United Methodist in NewYork, was awarded an honorary doc-torate in divinity this spring by Buck-nell University. ^ <3 RAPHAËL BLOCK, PhB'33, mem-33 ber of the English faculty at theUniversity of South Dakota, received aPhD from the University of DenverJune 3. "While I don't imagine thatthis establishes any new record forlength of interval between degrees,"comments Dr. Block, "it would be in-teresting to know how close it cornes."KATHRYN ROGERS CHAMBERLIN,AM'33, PhD' 37, has retired as executive secretary of the committee ongraduate fellowships, Dartmouth Collège, Hanover, N. H.IN MEMORIAM: Joseph W. Haw-thorne, PhD' 33.^ A IRENE MILLIKEN JOSSELYN,Jt" MD'34, was named in May to re-ceive the Agnes Purcell McGavinaward which is presented by the American Psychiatrie Association for outstanding contributions to the prévention of mental disorders in children.STANLEY L. MAYO, AB'34, directorof purchases for the Freeport SulphurCompany, was gênerai program chairman for the International PurchasingConférence and Inform- A-Show, heldin New Orléans in May.1 TE JACKSON BAUR, AB'35,JJ AM'38, PhD' 42, has been appointed résident scholar for the Boardof Engineers for Rivers and Harbors,Department of the Army, Washington,for the year July, 1972, to June, 1973.Dr. Baur, professor and chairman ofthe sociology department, Universityof Kansas, will be on a leave of absence during his tour of duty in Washington.IN MEMORIAM: Lynn A. Stiles,AB'35./^ THELMA GOLDMAN BAILEN,j^ PhB'36, as chairman of theMcLean County (111.) chapter of theUnited Nations Association, has beenquite busy selling year-' round Unicef cards. Previously Unicef cards weredesign ed for Christmas only.An honorary degree of doctor oflaws was conferred upon EWALD B.NYQUIST, SB' 49, by St. Lawrence University, Canton, N. Y., on May 28.Mr. Nyquist is commissioner of éducation and président of the University ofthe State of New York.^JT ROBERT P. ADAMS, PhD' 37, who3 J has been studying Elizabethantragedy during 1971-72 as a senior fel-low of the Folger Shakespeare library,will be returning shortly to the University of Washington, Seattle, where heis professor of English. ProfessorAdams, in 1964-'65, was the first senior fellow of the Newberry Library.DONALD M. MACKENZIE, AM'37,PhD' 55, has resigned as président ofPark Collège, Parkville, Mo., a post hehas held since 1966.CLARENCE A. METER, JD'37, a National Labor Relations Board attorneyand administrator for 30 years andNLRB régional director in Minneapolissince 1966, retired this spring.Q HUGH M. DAVIDSON, AB'38,-^O PhD' 46, an Ohio State facultymember since 1962, has accepted anappointment at the University of Virginia as professor of French literature.GERTRUDE HEIDENTHAL, PhD' 38,biology faculty member at Russell SageCollège, Troy, N. Y., since 1945, wasgranted emeritus status at the schoolupon her retirement this spring.^QMITCHELL S. SEIDLER, AB'39,3 ^ became pastor of Gratiot BaptistChurch, Détroit, earlier this year. Dr.Seidler has served pastorates in Cincinnati, O., and Danville, 111., and for twoyears was youth director at Lo rimerMémorial Baptist Church in Chicago.ARTHUR STARK, AB'39, AM'4l, NewYork City, has been named by GeneralMotors and the international union ofUnited Auto Workers as associateumpire under the terms of the GM-UAW 1970 national labor agreement.A AN HOMER L. SAMUELS, AM'40, re-T" tired school administrator, andhis wife celebrated thèir golden wed-ding anniversary on June 4 in Oxford,Miss. Mr. Samuels, who retired afterthirty-six years in school administration, went on to serve in the Mississippi state senate from i960 to 1964.For the past several years he has repre-sented the Grolier Publishing Company in serving high school référencelibraries in the state. The Samuels hâvetwo sons and seven grandchildren.AT EUGENE F. KLUG, AM'4l, pro-m fessor of systematic theology atConcordia Theological Seminary,Springfield, 111., has completed ail therequirements and disputation for thedoctorate in theology at Vrije Univer-siteit (Amsterdam, the Netherlands)and informs us that his dissertation,From Luther to Chemnitz: On Scriptureand the Word, is available in print fromthe William B. Eerdmans PublishingCompany, Grand Rapids, Mich.i 2F DAVID MARTIN, AB'42,¦ PhD' 49, professor and chairmanof the philosophy department at Buck-nell University, Lewisburg, Pa., is oneof ten U. S. philosophers invited toprésent a paper at the Seventh International Congress on Aesthetics, conven-ing in Bucharest in late August. Thepaper will be drawn from Dr. Martin' sbook, Art and the Religious Expérience:The Language of the Sacred, just published by the Bucknell UniversityPress.A^\ SYLVIA E. BOWMAN, AM'43,¦ 3 chancellor of Indiana University,has been named 'woman of the year' 'by Thêta Sigma Phi, professional fra-ternity for women in communications.Named to the chancellorship of the six Indiana-Purdue University campus eslast fall, Dr. Bowman is the firstwoman to hold the top post in any ofthe larger state universities in the nation. She is an authority on the American author Edward Bellamy and editedTwayne's American authors séries ofwhich 200 of the 300 planned volumesare now in print. In addition, sheedited Twayne's English authors sériesand the 32-volume world authorsséries.PHILIP D. THOMPSON, SB' 43, associate director of the National Center forAtmospheric Research, Boulder,Colo., and his wife were briefly hos-pitalized in May, the victims of allegedpolice brutality. The incident as re-ported in the Boulder Caméra, beganwhen the three Thompson children,the youngest 19, who were sitting outside nearby the Thompson résidence,were approached by about eight totwelve Boulder County sheriff's of-ficers. Apparently enraged by some ad-mitted harassment by the youths, theofficers set upon them, nightclubsswinging. Dr. and Mrs. Thompsonwere attacked by the police as theyrushed out of the house to the aid oftheir children. He suffered two frac-tured ribs and a punctured lung andshe had five broken teeth and "largemouth lacérations." The Thompsondaughter, Sarah (19), was arrested for"unlawful assembly." Charges hâvebeen filed against the officers with theBoulder police department, which will' 'make an investigation.IN MEMORIAM: John B. McCon-aughy, PhD' 43.A A RUTH EMERSON, BLS' 44, recently¦ ¦" celebrated her 25th anniversaryas head librarian at the American Insti-tute of Baking's Louis Livingston Library in Chicago.Ar EDITH NASH LEBED, SB'45,r J AM' 66, English instructor atThornton Community Collège (South Holland, 111.), will be taking courses atthe University of Chicago during the1972- '73 académie year on a NationalEndowment for the Humanities fellow-ship for junior collège teachers.A /^JOHN C' BELLAMY, PhD' 46, di-4"rector oi the Natural ResourcesResearch Institute at the University ofWyoming and former University ofChicago faculty member, has beenelected a fellow of the American Mete-orological Society, an honor accordedto only twenty-one scientists this year.Bellamy, récipient of an Institute ofAeronautical Science award for out-standing meteorological contribution tonavigation, holds a number of patents,including one for a sonic anemometer.A ^J HAROLD H. BENOWITZ, AM'47,T^/ has moved to Orlando, Fia., toassume the executive directorship ofthe Central Florida Jewish CommunityCouncil and the Combined Jewish Ap-peal.ROZELLA M. SCHLOTFELDT, SM'47,PhD' 56, who retired on June 30 asdean of the Frances Payne Boltonnursing school at Case Western Reserve University, was awarded anhonorary doctor of science degree byGeorgetown University, Washington,in May. Dr, Schlotfeldt, 1970 récipientof the honorary récognition award ofthe American Nurses' Association,taught nursing at the State Universityof Iowa, University of Colorado, andWayne State University before her appointaient to the Case Western Reserve faculty in i960.IN MEMORIAM: John D. Binkley,MBA' 47.. O ROBERT H. BORK, AB'48, JD'53,4 has been at work formulating anew redistricting plan for Connecticutthat conforms to constitutional requirements. Bork, professor of law at Yale,27who has taught both constitutional andanti-trust law there since 1962, wasgiven the task by a three-judge fédéralpanel after an earlier redistricting planfor the state had been rejected by thejudges as creating districts with "highlyirregular and bizarre outlines." Borkhas been on sabbatical leave from Yalewriting a book on anti-trust law but ex-pects to be back teaching in Septem-ber.EDWARD L. HENRY, AM'48, MBAJ48, PhD' 55, vétéran educator and ad-ministrator, political figure in Minnesota, and author, has been electedprésident, effective July 1, of St. Mary 's Collège (South Bend, Ind) and isthe first layman named to the office inthe school' s 127 years. Dr. Henry wason the staff of St. John' s Collège inCollegeville, Minn., in both académieand administrative capacities, until1964, when he was elected mayor ofSt. Cloud, Minn., an office he helduntil 1970. He has written two bookson government — Metropolis, 1968 andMicropolis in Transition. He and hiswife, Elizabeth, hâve nine children.HALDOR L. HOVE, AM'48, PhD'62,has been promoted by St. Olaf Collège(Northfield, Minn.) to the rank of fullprofessor of English.AGk JARLATH J. GRAHAM, AB'49,m S spoke on the rôle of advertisingas mass persuasion this spring duringthe 63rd annual Journalism Week atthe University of Missouri-Columbia.During the conférence, the School ofJournalism presented Advertising Age,of which Graham is editor, with anhonor medal for distinguished serviceas one of the best business publicationsin the country today. Accepting theaward was SIDNEY R. BERNSTEIN,MBA' 56, président of Crain Communications, Inc., which publishes Advertising Age (see Mr. Bernstein 's article onPage 13).ROBERT W. PEACH, MBA'49, hasbeen reelected to a one-year term as a vice-président of the American Societyfor Quality Control. Mr. Peach is manager of the quality assurance department, which he organized in 1954, forSears, Roebuck and Company.rQ CHARLES E. COHN, AB'50,3 SM'53, PhD' 57, and a colleagueat Argonne National Laboratory, werenamed to receive the outstandingpaper citation of the American NuclearSociety' s isotopes and radiation division for the best paper presented atthat division' s sessions of the nationalANS meeting, held in Miami Beach.Their prize-winning paper, "Analysisof Automatic Fission Track Scanning,was one of seventy-three presentedduring the sessions. The paper de-scribes an automated method of mea-suring fission tracks using a computer-controlled microscope. The tracks,formed when fission fragments ir-radiate transparent materials calledsolid state track recorders, hâve here-tofore been counted manually, a tedi-ous and time-consuming human task.The automated technique saves timeand money but also permits a rigoroustreatment of the scanning data.ROBERT A. STEIN, AB'50, MBA'53,Livingston, N. J., has been elected avice-président of the Lionel Corporation. Since 1967 he has been Lionel' streasurer, a post included under hisnew tkle.r\ WILLIAM A. BEARDSLEE, PhD' 51,3 professor of religion at EmoryUniversity, Atlanta, is author of a newbook, A House for Hope: a Study in Process and Biblical Thought, published byWestminster Press.ESTHER MILLMAN SPARKS, AB'51,curatorial assistant in the prints anddrawing department of the Art Institute of Chicago, is currently complet-ing work for her PhD degree atNorthwestern. £"2 JOHN W. HUNT, DB'52, PnD'6l,3 has left Earlham Collège (Rich-mond, Ind.) where he was associatedean and professor of English, to assume the deanship of the collège ofarts and science at Lehigh University,Bethlehem, Pa. Winner of the Dan-forth Foundation' s E. Harris Harbisonaward for distinguished teaching in1965 and of a Lilly post-doctoral fel-lowship in 1964- '65, under which hestudied the contemporary British novelin England, Dean Hunt has been published on such contemporary authors asIvan Gold, Wright Morris, JosephHeller, William Faulkner and ThomasPynchon. He is currently at work onan article entitled "History's Rags andStraws: Faulkner' s Absalom, Absalom,"and on a casebook project on theMay-June, 1968, student uprisings inParis.MORTON ISAACS, AB'52, assistantprofessor of social science at Rochester(N.Y.) Institute of Technology, wasnamed to receive this year' s distinguished young teacher award.HAROLD WIDOM, SM'52, PhD'55,professor of mathematics at the University of California, Santa Cruz, winner of a 1972 Guggenheini fellowship,will continue his studies, begun on aprevious Guggenheim, on orthogonalpolynomials and related topics. Professor Widom is a former University ofChicago faculty member.r^J SAMUEL C. ADAMS, PhD' 53, as-3 3 sistant administrator for Af rica ofthe Agency for International Development, has been named to receive theannual Ralph Bunche award, sponsoredby Opportunities Industrialization Cen-ters of America, for his contributionsto developing nations. Dr. Adams,U. S. ambassador to the Republic ofNiger in 1968- '69, also has served for-eign aid posts in Nigeria, Mali andMorocco. Prior to government service,he was a research assistant in socialscience at the University.28r A EZAT O. NEGAHBAN, AM'54,3 ^professor and chairman of thearcheology department at the University of Tehran, Iran, has been lecturingin this country during the year as the1971-'72 Norton lecturer of the Arche-ological Institute of America.IN MEMORIAM: Martha Eli en Bolt-inghouse, AM'54.rr ROBERT GINSBERG, AB'55,J3 am'58, assistant professor of phi-losophy, Pennsylvania State University(Delaware County campus), has beennamed first director of the Institute forSocial Philosophy, to be established atthat campus in the fall.BILL McCOLL, MD'55, orthopédiesurgeon, former tight end with theChicago Bears, is running on the Re-publican ticket for the twentieth district congressional seat in California.«-/"DEAN E. DALRYMPLE, DB'56, hasj" been leading a séries of "role-playing retreats," sponsored by theFirst Congregational Church of Elgin,111., of which he is minister.TOM R. OBERBECK, MBA' 56, hasbeen appointed vice-président of finance for Universal-Rundle Corporation, New Castle, Pa.r*n DANIEL OFFER, MD'57, associate3 J director of the institute for psy-chosomatic and psychiatrie researchand training at Chicago' s MichaelReese Hospital and associate professorof psychiatry in UC's Pritzker Schoolof Medicine, has been installed asprésident of the American Society forAdolescent Psychiatry. Dr. Offer is ed-itor-in-chief of the Journal of Youth andAdolescence and recently authored abook, The Psychological World of theTeen-ager.— O ROBERT GERWIG, MBA' 58,j ^J PhD' 63, is now vice-président incharge of Conoco Chemicals (SaddleBrook, N. J.), a new unit of Continental Oil. SEYMOUR M. HERSH, AB'58, who ex-posed the détails of the MyLai 4 massacre in Vietnam two years ago andwon a Pulitzer Prize for internationalreporting, is continuing to disclosePentagon secrets as a member of theNew York Times staff. Mr. Hersh wonan Alumni Citation from the University of Chicago in 1971.PHILIP KAUFMAN, AB'58, wrote anddirected the Universal-Robertson andAssociates technicolor production, TheGreat Northfield, Minnesota, Raid, nowcirculating. The film, which aims for adocumentary-style realism, is based onexhaustive research by Kaufman of thetwo outlaws. In this film Cole Youngerand Jesse James are portrayed aspeaceful farmers driven from theirlands by powerful interests who seekto redress the wrongs through bandi-try.r'QLEE GUEMPLE, AB'59, AM'6l,3 ^xphD'66, has received a five-yearappointment as chairman of the anthropology department at the University of Western Ontario, London.Guemple has been an associate professor there since 1970./^THOMAS L. BOHAN, SB'60, mem-OU ber of the physics and astronomyfaculty at Bowdoin Collège, Brunswick, Me., has been awarded a Ful-bright grant to lecture at two Peruvianuniversities and help establish a solidstate physics laboratory at one ofthem — the University of San Marcos,Lima, the oldest university in the western hémisphère.LELAND G. HAWKINS, MD'60, chiefof orthopédie surgery at Denver General Hospital, has been promoted toassociate professor of orthopédie surgery in the University of ColoradoSchool of Medicine. Dr. Hawkins performed his internship at Los AngelesCounty General Hospital (i960-' 61)and his spécial ty residencies in gênerai and orthopédie surgery at the University of Iowa (1961-65).Ç^w ELOISE FIELD, PhD' 61, was one"* of two members of the médicalprofession honored recently as alumniof the year by Wheaton (111.) Collège.Dr. Field was credited as the individualmost responsible for the growth of thenursing program at Arkansas University (Little Rock), where she is dean ofthe school of nursing.r CHARLES H. GUSTAFSON, JD'62,O Im associated with the Washingtonlaw firm of Surrey, Karasik & Greeneand a former adviser-attorney with theDepartment of State, has joined thefull-time faculty at Georgetown University Law Center, Washington,D. C, as an associate professor.MICHAEL c. KOTZIN, AB'62, lecturerin English literature at Tel-Aviv University since the fall of 1968, will bespending a sabbatical leave during thefall of 1972 doing research on the University of Chicago campus. BowlingGreen University Popular Press hasjust released his book, Dickens and theFairy Taie.CONRAD KULAWAS, AB'62, bringskudos with him wherever he goes, thistime to Brown University, where he isdirector of university publications. Duein large part to his efforts, Brown wasone of nine institutions of higherlearning in the country to be recog-nized for excellence in its total publications program in the 1972 AmericanCollège Public Relations Association(ACPRA) compétition. In addition,Brown gained individual awards forfour spécifie publications, ail designedby Mr. Kulawas. Before joining thestaff at Brown in October, 1969, hepresided for four glory-packed years aseditor of the University of Chicago Magazine.63 ENRIQUE GALLEGO BLANCO,AM'63, PhD' 67, assistant profes-29sor of history and philosophy at AdamsState Collège, Alamosa, Colo., hasauthored a book, published late in1971 by E. J. Brill, Leiden, theNetherlands, entitled The Rule of theSpanish Military Order of St. James,1179-1493.According to ROBERT J. DULSKY,MBA' 63, the nation's poor may be los-ing as much as $50,000,000 in fédéralincome tax rebates because they fail tofile tax returns. In a UPI interviewDulsky, président of the Tax Corporation of America, urged that the government or some citizen group step inand provide income tax service toinner city people who don't file "because they don't know how and areafraid. . . .' 'They could go to the Internai Revenue Service," he added, "but that islike asking the mice to corne to thecats."/T a WILLIAM R. BRAITHWAITE,^T" AB'64, MD'68, médical researchofficer at the expérimental diving unit,Washington, D. C, Navy Yard, hasbeen elected to membership in theUndersea Médical Society, a profes-sional organization dedicated to the acquisition of knowledge to insure man' ssafety under the sea.STEVEN M. SCHILDCROUT, SB'64,has been nominated as ChemistryTeacher of the Year by the student af-filiate chapter of the American Chemical Society at Youngstown (O.) StateUniversity, where he is assistant professor of chemistry./" MONICA BOYD, AB'65, was mar-vM| ried to John Francis Myles onMay 6 in Oak Ridge, Tenn.JEANNE M. LYNCH, MBA' 65, insur-ance company executive in Hartford,Conn. , has successfully launched her-self as an entrepreneur by designing aslogan lapel button and setting up herown firm, Lynch International Ltd., tomarket the product. A second génération Irish- American, Miss Lynch hasdesigned a "fisted shamrock" buttonin which each of the three foils of thefamous Irish rallying emblem areclenched into fists — meant to conveydétermination not militancy, she says — and below which is printed the slogan "free the Irish." Distributed so farin Hartford, New York, Buffalo andChicago, the buttons — which sell for$1 for the large size and 50 cents forthe small size — hâve been selling likehot cakes. A portion of each sale, asstipulated by Miss Lynch, goes to Irishrelief.DONALD C. RHOADS, PhD' 65, hasbeen granted tenure on the geologyfaculty, Yale University./^/^MARCIA KLINGER, AM'66, SM'68,OD is currently working for thePeace Corps as a librarian and libraryscience teacher at a teacher trainingcollège in Kota Kinabalu, capital of theMalaysian state of Sabah. Before join-ing the Peace Corps, Miss Klinger wasa librarian at the Chicago Public Library and UCLA biomédical library.a< _ PETER R. BECKMAN, AM'67,™ J former research fellow at Brook-ings Institution in Washington, has accepted a post at Hobart and WilliamSmith Collèges, Geneva, N. Y., as in-structor in political science. Mr. Beck-man previously held a teaching assis-tantship and lecturer' s post at the University of Wisconsin.SO JAMES E. DEPIES, MBA'68,OONorthbrook, 111., has been ad-vanced to the position of vice-président, asset management section ofthe trust department, First NationalBank of Chicago.JOAN STOLOWICH GESTRIN, AB' 68,who received her JD degree magnacum laude and was elected to theOrder of the Coif at NorthwesternUniversity Law School in June, 1971,is presently on the staff of the midwestrégional solicitor's office of the U.S.Department of Labor. She and herhusband, JULIAN A. GESTRIN, SB'65,MAT' 67, live in Chicago.UOSIS JUODVALKIS, X'68, has endedhis "short but fruitful" career asphotographer for Brown University,Providence, R. L, to concentrate onhis own business. Mr. Juodvalkis,whose work has appeared in the University of Chicago Magazine, has, withassociâtes, opened a color printing andfilm processing laboratory in Pro vidence, Colorlab Ltd..ANTHONY D. VOLPE, MBA'68, hasbeen promoted to national marketingmanager for the folding carton division, Container Corporation of America, and will hold forth at the division' smarketing, and research and develop-ment center in Oaks, Pa.FREDRICK M. WIGLEY, SB '68, hasgraduated with honors in medicinefrom the University of Florida and willbe doing his internship at John Hop-kins University.£\{\ J°SEPH BRISBEN, AB'69, writes"y that he is the "anonymousauthor" of a new book, Higher Education in the Critical Balance: A Report bythe Intérim Committee of Drake University.The book was published by Drake' soffice of university relations, of whichBrisben is assistant director in chargeof press and média relations.JAMES YERKES, AM'69, is moving toRichmond, Ind., August 1 to assumehis new appointment as assistant professor of theology at Carlham Schoolof Religion.TO JOHN P. CHAMALES, MBA'70,J Glenview, 111., has been promoted to second vice-président in thebond department, Continental IllinoisNational Bank and Trust Company ofChicago.JOHN A. GUEGUEN, PhD' 70, whohas been a member of the advisingstaff of the dean of undergraduate students in the Collège, University ofChicago, has received an appointmentat Illinois State University, Normal, asassistant professor of political science.lï MIGNONETTE SANDS KELLER,J AM'71, has been since last sum-mer a prof essional coutiselor with theAlexandria office of Northern VirginiaFamily Service.RANDELL W. MAGEE, AM'71, hasbeen advanced to assistant professor ofRussian at Grinnell (la.) Collège.*72 LAWRENCE P. BERENS, MBA' 72,* former administrative assistant inthe University of Chicago Hospitalsand Clinics, has been appointed administrative assistant of Christ Community Hospital, Palos Park, 111.30Fro^ein\ traffi©Wolf Vostell's sculpture, "Concrète Traffic 1970," origi-nally created in a parking lot in the Near North Side ofChicago out of the remains of a 1957 Cadillac DeVillesedan and sixteen tons of concrète, reached its newestresting place in June, on the grounds of the University'sMidway Studios, the old Lorado Taft studios on thesouth side of the Midway. Vostell, a German exponent ofthe "happening" in art, planned the work for the ChicagoMuséum of Contemporary Art, which last year donated itto the University. The actual forms were built under thesupervision of James O'Hara, a Chicago sculptor.Unlike a functioning DeVille, which could hâve purredfrom Ontario Street to the Midway in a matter of minutes, the concrète car's moving, under the direction ofHarold Haydon, associate professor in the Departmentof Art and the Collège and director of the MidwayStudios, was an opération of some magnitude. With thehelp of Ernest Bederman of Arcole Midwest Corpora tion, assisted by William Martin, président of the HeavyConstruction Workers Union and the Hoisting EngineersUnion, the encased automobile was moveVJ to within sixfeet of its présent location last year. A second, andconsiderably shorter move last month was necessitatedby new building plans for the Midway Studios, whichoverlapped the concrète vehicle's original site.The sculpture itself? According to Jan van der Marck,director of the Muséum of Contemporary Art at the timethe work was undertaken: "Vostell has always beeninterested in confronting us with the urgent realities ofour day. For years he has attacked the violence of warand the human suffering it causes. He is now involvedwith environmental problems, and the concrète car givesus a glimpse of the fantastic traffic jam in which the worldsome day may corne to a standstill."Estimâtes of the sculpture's value go as high as$10,000."LÏ909 II OOVOIHO139W1S H16S '3 9TTTld3G 0*003* 1V1«3S *AyV«9ll00V3IH3 dO AllSU3AINn1W M >3O1 — inQO»¦-.^>C!C!O5nooo