JJNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINE ?w% il fi^ê*îMAY/JUNE 1972Consider me, I pray youConsider me, I pray you. Consider that I — I, and no other — loved Helen and lo and Hecubaand created the Brandenburg concerti and the Oresteian trilogy and the Sistinê ceilingand the pyramids that never perish.Yes, and salted Carthage and buried Troy and burned Berlin and Indochina, and eut downcontinents and paved them, and planted my feet on the moon.And installed another man's heart into a breathing man, and found the miracle drugs andthe neutron and the secret of life in DNA.Only consider, I pray you, and then judge between me and fleshless sneakthief Death,and tell me if I am to be done down by a shadow and become the dirt from which mymarvelous carpetmakers with their deathless dyes protected my powdered and perfumedfeet.I tell you that I am Man and there is none like me.I tell you that I will not take death lying down.I will not — but I shall. I shall die like the first and last ant and not even know what it is todie — like Alexander, who first shook the whole world, and Galileo, who first saw it whole,and like Plato and Plato's disciple and Plato's master: "Ail men are mortal. Socrates isa man. Therefore Socrates is mortal."Let me hâve but my lawyer, though I be a fool, and I can break the closest contract.Let me hâve but my accountant and I can dodge my taxes.Death, and death alone, I shall not escape — the one contract I hâve that is more honored in -the observance than it is in the breach, the tax I shall pay when I am most embarrassedto do so.Inexorable insuit, and its whimsy adds in jury to insuit.It cornes at its random pleasure and interrupts me in the middle of the banquet and pullsme away with it.I am hère today— and gone today.I turn a carefree freeway curve (or a corner in Dallas, the best-guarded man on earth) and Iam ambushed, snatched, and finished.Dishonorable, skulking shade, corne out, corne out, I say, and fight like a red-blooded manand I will wipe your Death's-head grin from your insolent visage.I rage, and rage the more against the sweet deceit, "Say Yes to life," as if I might say No todeath and corne home with my shield instead of on it, my prize — the wages of sin and ofsinlessness, of ail virtue, ail vice, ail wisdom, ail wiles — abominate Death.I put it to you: Am I, Odysseus, so sage and so splendid, to be pulled down in the end, tobe one with my puling victims and they with me, and ail of us together in the contemptibledemocracy of the dust?(Not even the gods can help a man then, however they love him, said Athena.)(And she said it of her darling, Odysseus.)From If Men Were Angels (© Milton Mayer, 1972)See "Books," Page 36THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEJourney from common senséWilliam H. McNeill 2Drugs and despair in VietnamRichard A. Ratner 15Keeping PostedJames Lea Cate 24John U. Nef recalls Yves Simon 3734 Quadr angle news35 Letters36 Books39 Alumni news45 Annual indexVolume LXIV Number 5May/June, 1972TheiJniversity of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published nve timespër year for alumni and the faculty ofThe University of Chicago, under the: auspices of the Office of the Vice Président for Public Affairs. Letters andeditorial contributions are welcomed.Don Morris, AB'36EditorJane LightnerEditorial AssistantSecond class postage paid atChicago, Illinois; additionalentry at Madison, Wisconsin.Copyright 1972, The Universityof Chicago. Published inJuly/Oçtober, JMovember/December, January/February,March/April, and May/June. The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312) 753-2175John S. Coulson, '36, PrésidentArthur Nayer, Director, Alumni Affairs* Ruth Halloran, Assistant DirectorJudith Goldstone Landt, '68, MAT' 70Program DirectorRégional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91201(213) 242-8288320 Central Park West, Suite 14ANew York, New York 10025(212) 787-78001000 Chestnut Street, Apt. 7DSan Francisco, California 94109(415) 928-03372721 Ordway Street, N.W.Washington, D.C. 20008(202) 244-8900Cover: Mount Ararat still Zooms over Armenian agricultural workers, though today' sfarmmg is a far cry from that shown in this engraving, taken from a postage stamp.The famous mountain also furnished a backdrop for a scientific conférence, feported byhistorian William H. McNeill; see Page 2.Picture crédits: Page 3, Lloyd Saunders.ïourney fromcommon senséNotes of a conférence on communicationwith extraterre striai intelligence,Byurakan, Armenia, September, 1971William H. McNeillSeptember 4.Arrived Moscow at Sheremetyevo airport about5 P.M.; cleared customs two hours later, after a longwait behind a woman who had brought magnetictapes and other forbidden articles with her "forfriends." The inspector impounded them, to be re-Prof. McNeill (AB'38, AM39) is Robert A. MillikenDistingusihed Service Professor in the Department ofHistory and the Collège. He came to the University in1927 at the âge of 10 (as a student in the LaboratorySchools) and was editor of the Maroon in 37 -'38.After war service and a year with the Twentieth CenturyFund survey team in Greece, he joined the Universitésfaculty in 1947 . He is a former chairman ofthe Department of History. The author of a number of books, heis now working on a study of the little-noted eastwardthrust of the Renaissance, from the time of the crusadesthrough the end of the Venetian republic in 1797. turned when she left the country. Their confrontationwas tense: he remained polite, distant, correct; shewas emotional though not fiercely so.Meanwhile an enormous avalanche of noise: loud-speakers announcing flights in several languages, ailunintelligible; shouting as various tour leaders triedto marshal their flocks for sortie through an adjacentgâte where bags flooded through entirely unchecked;while the crowd of ordinary travelers, ponded backbehind a single gâte, pressed ever closer. Eventuallya second inspector appeared, and began to processindividuals, while the first remained busy registeringeach of the poor woman's impounded articles.Amid the confusion, one of the Russian participants in the conférence, a radio astronomer namedV. I. Slysh, introduced himself. It was a welcomeencounter.He asked whether I had confirmed my flight toErevan for the morrow, and when I admitted that thethought had never crossed my mind, he took myticket back into the melee from which I had justemerged. Long pause. When Dr. Slysh returned, itwas to say that I had no réservation for the flight toErevan, and the plane I was expecting to travel onwas sold out. What to do? He was worried and sowas I.After more waiting, this time for other Americanparticipants in the conférence arriving on laterplanes, we ail drove in a taxi to the Academy ofSciences Hôtel, which turned out to be a very com-fortable place. More palaver about my ticket to Erevan. The upshot was that I should get up early andtry to be first in line at the airport.In the hôtel lobby, the conférence organizer,Professor Cari Sagan of Cornell, whose téléphonecall last May had started me ofF on this whole ad-venture, was on hand, together with other membersof the U.S. contingent. After waiting to settle my Professor McNeill and the gênerai formula for the likeli-hood of communicating with extraterrestrial intelligence.ticket problem, and a swift visit to the room, I camedown to see about food. Did not manage a meal, butdid get some bread and tea, together with conversation, mainly with Professor Frank Drake, a radioastronomer also from Cornell, who manages a biginstallation at Arecibo, Puerto Rico. He told me thatno sending from earth has been attempted. He didconduct a search for signs of high technology civiliza-tions on other planets about ten years ago, with nopositive resuit.I was told that he has worked out a scheme forsending pictures by radio impulse, which. is one ofthe leading proposais as to how to try to communi-cate with extraterrestrial intelligences, if any areever found. I failed to understand the "simple" pat-tern whereby radio waves would carry pictures, butmay learn more in future.About 10 1 went to bed and promptly slept, wakingrefreshed about ll:30,againat 12:00. At l:25,havingwakened for a third time, I got up, misreading mywatch as saying 5:05, i.e., just half an hour before Iwas supposed to be up and doing. Completed dress-ing before I noticed the mistake, and by then, beingfully awake and ready to start a new day, decided totake advantage of my wakefulness and record yester-day's events in this diary.September 5, Byurakan ObservatoryThe floor attendant knocked on my door at 4:30,instead of at 5:30, not long after I had returned tobed to try to get back into rhythm with the sun. WhenI appeared in the hall a little after 5, she was abashed.I asked about tea, and she eagerly set out to brewme some in an electric samovar that sat beside herdesk. When it was ready my "khleb" produced asésame bun of enormous proportions and butter.I eut it in half and offered her part, so we had a cheer-ful breakfast together in the third floor lobby.About 5:30 a call came through giving the numberof the cab I should look for. It came ten minutesearly, and ofF we went, arriving at Demidedovo air-port before the queue for Erevan had even begunto form. Dr. Slysh showed up almost at once, and wegot on the airplane an hour and a half later withoutdifficulty. There actually were empty seats.The flight to Erevan took three hours, passing overthe Caucasus toward the end; from the air the moun-tains much resemble the Rockies. It was hot anddusty on the ground. A long wait for baggage, fol-lowed by a long wait for a représentative of theArmenian Academy of Sciences, followed by confusion about where I should stay. The upshot was adécision to send me to the observatory at Byurakan,3,000 or so feet above the town.My room looks down on the broad valley of theAraxes, and across the Turkish border at the snowcapped volcanic cône of Mt. Ararat. The air is verystill, and the landscape alternâtes between vivid4 green where irrigation sustains the végétation and aburnt ofF brown, through which black and grey volcanic rocks obtrude.Computer conversationI slept for a while, then went down into the heatagain for a réception in the Hôtel Armenia, wherethe majority of the American participants in theconférence are staying. At the réception I met Professor Kent Flannery from Michigan, an expert onthe beginnings of civilisation. I saw Francis Crickof DNA famé across the room. Then had a frag-mentary encounter with Professor Marvin Minskyof MIT, who has worked up a computer programthat, he says, achieves a kind of artificial intelligence.He can make his computer respond to ordinaryEnglish at the level of a seven-year-old, thereby(he declared) rendering Chomsky obsolète, andmaking more progress in linguistic analysis than hasbeen made in ail earlier times put together.I later learned that his computer program takesaccount of word and phrase contexts, instead oftreating verbal units as fixed quantities. In this wayhe has achieved a close mimicry of real dialogue, forhis computer can answer questions, and does so inproperly spelled English language printout. As yet,however, the vocabulary is an extremely restrictedone.On the bus back to the observatory had a longtalk about Armenian history with a local astrophys-icist, G. M. Tovmasyan, followed by a discussion ofradio astronomy with Kenneth Kellerman of theNational Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia.From him I learned that some galaxies émit onlyweak radio waves whereas others generate compara-tively vast énergies in ways not understood. Stillother powerful radio sources do not correspond toanything visible and are believed to corne fromgalaxies too far away for visible light to reach us.In addition, récent observation from above theatmosphère shows X-ray, infra-red and ultra-violetsources in the sky, too, some corresponding withvisible light or radio sources, and others apparently*not. But mapping the heavens at thèse frequencieshas been spotty so far. Data are pouring in, fasterthan they can be digested.September 6.Sessions began at 11 A.M. After cérémonial remarks by our host, Academician V. A. Ambarzumian,a world famous astronomer and a man of enormouslocal prestige, Cari Sagan got up and wrote thisformula on the board:N = RxfpnJJJcLThis, it turns out, is the master formula around whichthe entire conférence has been designed, at leastfrom the American side. It was generated initiallyI think by Professor Drake and expressed withcharacteristic conciseness the point of view of whatI will call the Cornell group, i.e., the American circleof enthusiasts who feel that extraterrestrial intelligence probably does exist and can communicatewith us — given a few hundred or thousand years ofintelligent effort on earth's part to tune in.The symbols of the formula, Sagan explained,mean the following:N = number of high technology çivilizationsRx = rate of star formationfp = rate of planetary formationne = number of planets with température andchemical conditions suitable for lifef = appearance of lifef = appearance of intelligencefc — appearance of high technology civilizationcapable of controlling electrqmagneticradiation and therefore of communicatingacross stellar spaceL = mean duration of such high technologyçivilizations.The task of the conférence is to examine probablemagnitudes of each term in the formula. If, in theend, when each term is multiplied by ail the rest, a reasonable possibility of communication with otherçivilizations seems to émerge, then the conférencewill be expected to say what mankirid ought to doabout it.The rest of the morning was devoted to a talk byanother of the Cornell group, Thomas Gold, déalingwith the first three terms of the formula. The burdenof his story was that récent calculations show planetary Systems to be very common, and that mostplanetary Systems hâve one or two planets on whichchemical conditions and température might be moreor less like those of earth. Gold did emphasize thatsome aspects of the presumed process of st&r-cum-planet formation hâve not been satisfactorily explained. In particular, existing theory cannot accountfor how the sun lost a massive amount of hydrogenfrom the gaseous envelope which is presumed tohâve surrounded it before the planets condensed.Equally, our moon and the moons of other planetsremain unexplained. Under thèse circumstances,surely, some new mathematical model of stellarévolution may yet be invented that will account forwhat is explained already and accommodate thèseother phenomena as well. (Such a model, moreover,might make the formation of planetary Systems rareevents, as astronomers formerly believed.)A mat ter of oddsBut with a confidence that is common among menwho think mathematically, Gold and ail the otherastrophysicists présent — a distinguished companyindeed — accept their current reasoning as compelling.They are sure that most stars of the size of the sunand smaller hâve planets, since only so can they shedsufïicient angular momentum to achieve stability.The vast majority of the stars in the sky fit thisspécification, which means that millions upon millionsof planets suitable for the support of life ought toexist.. There is even a shred of expérimental évidenceto support this view: slight wobbles in the positionof one of the nearer stars can be explained on thehypothesis that two or three large planets are orbit-ing around it.This is the vision of the universe that fundamentallyunderpins - the faith of the Cornell group in thepossibility of extraterrestrial communication. Forif the numbers at the beginning of the master formulaare very large, it does not matter if the probabilitiesat its right hand end are very small. As long as thepossibility exists at ail, and as long as the entireevolutionary process, as exemplified on earth, is anormal response to prior conditions, then among sovery many suitable planets, life, intelligence andçivilizations technically comparable — indeed su-perior — to our own ought to hâve arisen, over andover again.The key man who developed this whole line ofthought on the U.S. side is Philip Morrison, professorof physics at MIT, but until recently at Cornell. Hebecame interested in the problem in i960, and wasthe main sparkplug who set Drake, Gold and Saganoff on this quest. It was he, also, who decided thatthe U.S. délégation to this conférence should includepresumed experts in the terms at the tail end of themaster formula: an anthropologist, an, archaeologistand me, a historian.A heavenly choirMorrison is a man of extraordinary versatility andclearly has a first class mind. He firmly believes inthe possibility of joining a heavenly choir of inter-communicating high technology çivilizations, thereby— as he likes to say — adding to human expériencein the same way that renaissance scholars added toEuropean men's expérience by the discovery ofGreek antiquity.From the Russian side, too, there is an inner circleof believers in the imminent possibility of communication with extraterrestrial intelligence (CETI forshort). The most active appears to be a youthfullooking radio astronomer named N. S. Kardashëv. His approach is more narrowly technical, but faithand energy are there, as well as a désire to do some-thing about it by building new equipment and settingout systematically to search the skies for signs ofhigh technology, i.e., for electromagnetic wave pat-terns that cannot be explained as generated in anyother way.Suh-molecular lifeIn the afternoon, the probability of life was up forconsidération. Sagan again started off by warningagainst too narrow a conception of the conditionsnecessary for life. Carbon, for instance, may not bethe only élément upon which enormously complexchains of self-replicating living molécules might beconstructed. Crick remarked that one obvious alternative to earth patterns would be to reverse the"handedness" of complex organic molécules — withDNA and related forms twisting in the oppositedirection.He refused, however, to estimate the probabilityof life arising elsewhere, and declared that in hisopinion life would hâve to be molecular, avail itselfof énergies released by visible light, and operate inthe fluid, rather than in the solid or gaseous state ofmatter. This was meant to rule out some fancifulsuggestions, arising mainly from Russian speakers,about sub-molecular life amongst primary particlesflourishing, perhaps, amidst a high energy plasma.Ail who spoke took for granted that chemicalSystems other than that which life on earth availsitself of might exhibit ail the critical characteristicsof living matter. The particular combinations ofamino acids, sugars etc. used on earth seemed to thebiochemists présent to be only one of many con-ceivable Systems.Consensus was that exact duplication of earth'sDNA mechanisms would be ail but inconceivableelsewhere, unless life is propagated from planet toplanet by some sort of seeding, e.g., by means ofinterstellar cornets. This so called "pan-spermia"6hypothesis is an old one apparently, but to my surprise some of the men at this conférence were in-clined to take it seriously as one possible explanationof how such a complex structure as DNA could arisein the earth's océans at what was a comparativelyearly stage of terrestrial évolution. Organic com-pounds of some complexity — not, however, "life"— hâve recently been found in météorites, and this,presumably, lends greater plausibility to such ideas.Indeed, one of the speakers, F. Dyson, a mathe-matician of the Institute for Advanced Study atPrinceton, proposed that cornets might be the majorlocus of life, taking the universe as a whole. Yet mostof the experts held back from this notion, supposingthat life originated on earth from a soup of aminoacids that formed in the océans as a resuit of ordinarychemical synthèses. Life on other planets, this viewassumes, would originate independently throughsimilar processes, using différent — perhaps verydifférent — chemical structures.September 7.Morning session was divided into two: neurophysi-ology, which turned out to be dull, and a second halfon the rise of intelligence and the beginnings ofcivilization. Richard Lee of Rutgers gave a first ratesummary of current ideas of human évolution, andFlannery's account of the shift from hunting andgathering to agriculture and early civilization was amodel of clarity and comprehensiveness. Each papertook about forty minutes, however, leaving no timefor discussion.Moreover, most of the Russians and many of theAmericans présent were not really interested. Fromtheir point of view, once multi-cellular nervous Systems developed, or once vertebrates developed, oronce symbolic communication developed (the horizon point varied from man to man) then ail thatfollowed in the human adventure on earth was auto-matic. Besides, since human development took onlya brief period in comparison with the earlier stagesof the process they were surveying, détails of sé quence and timing, even within hundreds of thou-sands of years, did not really matter.A Unie prehistoryWhat did I learn? From Lee came the suggestionthat language developed far beyond any practicalvalue in çoordinating the hunt, probably for amusement — story telling, making jokes, etc. He failed topoint out, however, that playful use of language couldbe a powerful means of social control, distributingpraise and blâme, inculcating norms of inter-personalbehavior, and thus presumably did hâve adaptivevalue for early human communities by increasingtheir cohésion.Flannery perhaps read the présent back into thepast by making récurrent population crises the keysto human development. About 10,000 B.C., for example, he argued that the earth had become fullyoccupied by human hunters, so that populationgrowth could not be taken care of by migration intonew territory, save at the cost of driving out anotherhuman band. This, he suggested, forced men tointenser use of a wider range of food resources thanbefore. Along tidal estuaries, some human communities began to live on shellfish; in the MiddleEast systematic gathering of seeds of wild grasses— wheat and barley — provided another surprisinglyrich food supply. Such life patterns put children'shands to work early, and made them no longer, asin a hunting society, a severe drag on their parents.Fixed settlements and, probably, a higher birth rateresulted among such communities.The wild grain gatherers of the Middle East in dueseason developed agriculture; similar food gatheringcommunities in other parts of the world also beganto cultivate plants at more or less the same time. Theadvantage Middle Easterners had was in the botanicalflexibility and high nutritive quality of the wild plantsthey started from. By contrast, it took several thou-sand years for New World farmçrs to develop maizeby sélection of wild crosses and variations.7Flannery went on to suggest that the rise of citiesand differentiation of social classes in the MiddleEast also resulted from a second population squeeze,when ail suitable agricultural land in the région hadbeen brought under cultivation. Land shortage presumably generated war and rapine, which in turncompelled farmers to gather into larger walled cen-ters. There they fell under the control of a rulingclass of what Flannery called "data processors," thatis, of men who coordinated the efforts of the com-munity by having spécial access to information aboutits members — gods as well as men.The analogy between the development of a centralnervous System in multi-celled animais, as discussedthis morning, and the rise of Flannery's data process-ing ruling class seems very close, as he was eager topoint out. He went even further to suggest that thecontrol élément seems liable in both instances to akind of hypertrophy, dominating rather than simplyserving the other éléments of the cellular and/orsocial body.I am not sure in what sensé the brain consumessurplus bodily resources, but it is surely so that inancient Sumer and similar çivilizations the managerialélite became the consumers of surplus commoditiesof ail kinds, in collaboration with the gods. Flannerysaid privately afterward that dominance patternsassert themselves among herds in response to population pressures — another parallel to the humanprocess he described so persuasively.September 8.The planned schedule of the meetings has beenmodifïed to permit a day of sightseeing tomorrow.Armenian pride in their country. Also a widespreadsensé among the hard scientists hère that the masterformula is ail very well, but what matters is equip-ment and technique. Accordingly, the scheduleddiscussion of fc — the rise of technical çivilizations— and of L — the average lifetime of such çivilizations— will be abbreviated or passed over entirely. This8 is quite ail right with me, for though I am supposedto be expert on fc, there is nothing really helpful Ican say. Still a third reason for the change is that theRussians wish to be sure of ending with a communique for the press, and time must be allotted forachieving a text and agreeing upon it.Shift in plansWith ail thèse pressures, then, the original structure of the meetings was scrapped, two extra eveningsessions hâve been scheduled, and tomorrow freedfor joyriding.Perhaps because of the change of plans, today'sdiscussions were diffuse and unsatisfactory. A number of spécial interests asserted themselves. In par-ticular, Soviet représentatives from historical andphilosophical circles (who had been recruited,obviously, to counterbalance the social science délégation from the U.S.) had their say. The philosopherwas wordy, arguing that the conférence logicallymust first agrée upon a définition of civilizationbefore knowing what to look for elsewhere.The "historian" (in fact a journalist, I was told)explained that Russian folk tradition should beexamined for records of extraterrestrial visitations,and offered several examples of this sort of miraclefrom Russian monastic chronicles. Most striking wasthe disdain with which the Soviet hard scientistsregarded thèse men. There was no fraternization,no mutual respect; only snide remarks made privatelyto us.In the evening, Professor Morrison addressedhimself to the question of what CETI, if achieved,might mean for mankind. He explained in somedétail how another civilization might send a codedradio message to earth. Years, perhaps centuries,might be required for men to learn how to deciphersuch a code. But because he was sure that any otherhigh technology civilization would hâve to sharesome important characteristics with us, he arguedthat decipherment would remain a real possibility.The shared characteristics: light sensitivity, leadingto three dimensional perception, and numbers. Withthis much in common, Morrison and his followersbelieve, a sufïicient community of meanings shouldbe attainable. Sending pictures — Drake's idea—would be one possibility, followed by lessons inelementary math, until, by degrees, more fully intelligible communication opens out.Morrison assumes, incidentally, that Planet X orperhaps a network of such planets that hâve alreadyestablished communication amongst themselves willdeliberatelyv design a message and means of beàmingit towards ahy promising new seat of high technologythat shows itself to their sensors by beginning to émitmiscellaneous electromagnetic radiation — some-thing the earth has indeed begun to do in the pastfifty years or so with first radio and now TV spillingoff into space. Such a message would be carefullyworked out to be easy to décode for çivilizations likeour own, just emerging towards the possibility ofCETI.Why cosmic beneficence?I was asked to comment formally on this scénarioof time to corne. I agreed with Morrison that if CETItook the form he envisaged it could only mean gainfor mankind, since we would only act upon new dataat our own choice. But I expressed doubt: How canwe expect to decipher messages from beings withdifférent life chemistry and différent sensoria fromours? Why assume cosmic beneficence? Should wenot expect cosmic invasion instead? I closed by com-paring the faith of those convinced of CETI with thefaith of traditional western religions, and took refugein agnosticism with respect to both.I hâve since wondered whether I am so bound toearth and to mankind as an object of study as to beunduly skeptical of the probability of life elsewhere,and of the readiness of such life to be eager and ableto communicate with earth. The scientists* casualassumption that once their cosmic process reached some critical horizon, then civilization as we knowit on earth was inévitable, plus or minus a few thou-sand years or so, runs counter to my abiding senséof historical contingency and the fragility of humanachievement.A long perspectiveWhat thèse astrophysicists are attempting is toengage history as a unique human expérience in aprocess so vast and with so much time available toit that whatever occurs in détail amounts only totrifling perturbations of the process as a whole. Andthis process, they firmly believe, pushes toward theintégration of one planetary civilization into a network of communicating çivilizations whose powersand resources may be vastly enlarged by such sharedexpertise. One of the Russians, in fact, suggested ina récent book that we on earth are only enteringupon the initial phase of what he called Type Itechnical civilization, and are headed, with the- helpof CETI, toward Types II and III, when first stellarand then galactic énergies will become available, justas chemical and nuclear énergies are available to usnow.Time being so vast for the astronomers meansthat any lack of confirmation of such visions remainsinconclusive. Ten years ago, without lasers, the prospect of really long' distance beamed communicationseemed nil. Already there is talk of particles exceed-ing the speed of light. Such entities, focused, wouldmake CETI really efficient.If they exist, çivilizations with technology higherthan our own would obviously resort to particlesthat surpass the speed of light for inter-communica-tion, rejecting earth's electromagnetic wave lengthsas too inefficient to be put up with.(A problem with Morrison's radio communicationis that two-wdy conversation across the light yearswould involve waiting years, décades or centuriesfor a reply, even if mutual intelligibility were complète!)9Ah well, I hâve only one and a half more days tolisten, and then the journey back to common sensébegins.September 9.This day we spent sightseeing. The landscape iseverywhere volcanic, eut by deep gorges whereverrunning water has worked its will upon the soft stone.It is a dry land, rain coming in November and endingin February. Barely enough moisture to allow dryfarming of wheat. But with irrigation, fruit trees andvines, melons, tomatoes and ail other vegetablesflourish. Soviet canal building, which has gone quitefar, has borne rich results. The Armenian peasantsalready had ail the skills required, so that the statefarms, which hâve entirely replaced collectives in thiscountry, probably function pretty well.Armenian energy and pride are very great, andthey take keen satisfaction in their national achieve-ments since 1915, when the population hère wassuddenly more than doubled by refugees fleeing fromTurkey. Starting in a barren and almost empty land— Erevan, now a city of 800,000, was then no morethan a village — progress has indeed been remarkable.The easy availability of new land for irrigation probably meant that the hostility of the peasantry to theSoviet régime never reached the levels that prevailedelsewhere in the U.S.S.R. They had the Turkish en-emy ever at hand, and almost from the beginning,new dams and canals brought tangible benefits. Or soI would guess.We passed several newly built state farms, eachwith a cluster of tall apartment buildings standingamidst machinery parks, strawstacks, etc. The shabbylook that prevailed does not necessarily mean badfarming. Orchards and vineyards seemed well tended,so far as I could tell. Marginal cultivation of dry soil— certain to erode very fast if it ever does rain —seemed a more serious problem for the future.Indeed, a rather wasteful use of resources in in-dustry and in construction, without much thoughtfor long term costs, strikes me as the greatest weak- ness of the System — always in comparison with ourown behavior in such matters, which was more wasteful some years ago than now.The first stop was at a place called Garni. Tigranesof Armenia, Nero's contemporary, had a summerrésidence atop a jutting promontory there. A smalland undistinguished Roman-style temple adornedhis palace grounds. It was being rebuilt when wewere there as an attraction for tourists. Nearby is astèle from Urartu (ninth-seventh centuries B.C.)bearing a weathered cuneiform inscription on itsface. The place was some kind of fortress in thosetimes as, indeed, its almost vertical sides and the nar-row neck Connecting it with the mountainside makeobvious. Below runs a fine stream which was respon-sible for carving the cliffs.About a quarter of a mile downstream from wherewe stood is a cave, facing south and with ail the lookof a likely paleolithic site. Upstream on another flattopped rock promontory, archaeologists hâve dis-covered the remains of a neolithic village, whosetraces were clearly visible to us from Tigranes'stronghold. Today's village lies immediately adjacenton the mountainside.Spatially compressed historySo four âges of man are dramatically representedhère, and if the cave was in fact inhabited in paleolithic times, then a single panorama from the dustypromontory at Garni would comprehend the wholespan of human time on earth, ail marvelously con-centrated within a distance of not more than half amile up and down stream. It would, however, takemuch scrambling to get from one spot to the other,for the cliff walls are jagged and the stream bed runsseveral hundred feet below the spot where we stood.Further up the road we arrived at Geghart mon-astery, built between the ninth and thirteenth centuries, partly in the usual way out of eut stone, partlycarved into the rock of the canyon walls. On theexterior one sees a fine example of Armenian churchioarchitecture, skilfully built as ail the surviving earlychurches are. The hollowed out portions of thestructure were shaped to resemble standard churchinteriors, and echoed magnifkently to chant. Lightfiltered through from air holes at the top and createda delightfully cool, crepuscular contrast to the hotsunlight outside.A priest was présent at the monastery and weintruded upon a small group of elderly worshippers,who after reverently kissing the icons inside pro-ceeded to slaughter a chicken ceremoniously at thefountain that flowed outside the monastery and werepreparing to cook it as we left. This, surely, was aThe Geghart monastery is partly eut into the rockyhillside behind it. modem reenactment of a form of piety that wasalready old when Socrates lay dying and asked hisfriends to honor his promise of "A cock to Aes-culapius."The bus then returned to the bustling modernityof Erevan to start off northeastward to Lake Sevan.This is a high body of water (about 7,000 feet abovesea level) and in its longest dimension extends fartherthan eye can see, even from a perch fifty feet or moreabove the water.About 5 P.M. we arrived at a tourist hôtel that risesin grandiose ugliness beside the lake. There we satdown to a magnificent banquet, guests of Academi-cian Ambarzumian once again. He presided amidsta torrent of toasts, excellent food and gênerai goodspirits. Afterward came music and dancing, partlywestern, partly Armenian.Armenian music and dancing are quite like theirGreek and Turkish counterparts. We had been intro-duced to them earlier in the day when the busstopped briefly to allow a look at the landscape,whereupon two trucks, loaded with what may hâvebeen a holiday crowd, stopped behind us and every-one piled out. Three rather bedraggled instrumentsemerged — drum, accordion and pipe — and musicsoon broke out. Presently a group of women weredancing in the familiar Near Eastern circle, followinga maie leader. The performance seemed genuinelyspontaneous, generating great good humor and withabsolutely no effort to extract money.Trading slightly inhibitedOn the other hand, when we bought some fruit atGarni, the sellers gouged the silly tourists withoutmercy. Thus the traits that make Armenians so suc-cessful in trade are by no means lacking hère, thoughsocialism of course inhibits their full development.But as I was repeatedly informed, socialism doesnot prevent Armenians from running their owncountry while also occupying a disproportionateshare of professional and managerial positions inthe U.S.S.R. as a whole.September 10.Today's sessions were technical: how to search theskies, the advantages and disadvantages of radio asagainst other electro-magnetic wave lengths, optimalconditions for noticing CETI, etc. Détails were un-intelligible to me, but clearly a group of highly compétent technicians, both Russian and American,were taking the matter seriously. So far, only tenstars hâve been monitored, two by the U.S., eightby the U.S.S.R. The American effort was made in1963 by Drake at Arecibo; the Russians' effort —previously unknown to the Americans présent — wasmade 1968-70 at several stations and with some-what more elaborate equipment. No positive re-sults.The critical expectationThere is, indeed, no clear principle to follow indeciding where to look, what wave lengths to prefer,and exactly what sort of equipment to use. Ail thesame, one of Professor Drake.'s remarks goes far toexplain the sensé of expectation some of the expertsbetrayed, for he dçclared that something like 80%of our galaxy is in reach of existing receptors forpicking up a beamed message. This opens up an enor-mous range.Without a beaméd message, the situation changesdrastically. Eavesdropping on another high technology civilization that uses electromagnetic wavesfor its own purposes requires very much moire sensi-tive receivers, and background noise becomes ex-ceedingly troublesome. The range of existing equipment for this kind of CETI extends only to régionsvery close by. This is unpromising, it appears, sincemost of the stars close to the sun are relatively young,so that evolutionary processes on their planets canbe assumed to be behind earth's development.It follows that for eavesdropping on another hightechnology civilization new equipment will be needed. Kardeshëv said that about $1,000,000 wouldallow the design and construction of a suitably im-proved instrument; the Americans, I thought, seemedskeptical that so small a sum would suffice.A communique is to be prepared this evening bythe directing committee. It will be discussed tomorrow, and if agreement is reached will presumably bepublished to the world. Obviously almost everyonehère is in favor of launching a search, and the onlyquestion is on what scale and by what methods itshould be done. Given astronomie space and time,results cannot reasonably be expected for décades,even for centuries — anything less would be a statisti-cal fluke.I do not expect to live to hear of positive results,no matter what effort men décide to put into it.,Indeed, I do not really see how support for such anenterprise can be mobilized for year after year unlessat least a peep is heard out of the enigmatic empti-ness out there. As several radio astronomers saidprivately, chances are that if ever CETI should occurit will start by accident, i.e. when someoae noticesotherwise unaccountable patterns of réception whilelooking for something else. But since radio astron-omy is itself the resuit of just such an accident — aby-product of wartime radar research — and is onlytwenty-one years old, there remains lots of time forserendipity.September 11.Visiting the observatory and looking through thetélescope at Mars, I saw the polar cap dimly and agray green région below. The focus was not reallyclear, perhaps because of air turbulence. Then ElmaParsamian, the vivacious local astronomer who hadinvited me to her castle, turned the télescope onVega, and to my surprise I saw brilliant blue raysextending from the star, just as on a Chris tmas card.Chromatic aberration (or something of the sort), sheexplained; but it made a splendid show ail the same.The dim présence of the vast télescope was certainlymémorable. ,Hère, after ail, crouched one of the world's largest12and most délicate pièces of machinery, used to probegalaxies and other mysteries beyond everyday con-cerns, just as this entire conférence has been. Sucha présence provokes a jkind of reVerence, evenamong those who use it regularly. The cellas ofancient temples must hâve been very similar, andMiss Parsamian, who is also an archaeologist and hasdescribed an ancient astronomical observatory lo-cated not far from this modem one, is aware of thecontinuity.Consensus soughtThe directing committee worked late at drafting acommunique. I will be interested to see what is said.Also how agreement can be achieved among so manyloquacious experts. In gênerai the conférence hasbeen open and easy, with very little trace of thejockeying for possession of the microphone that sodisfigured the XIII International Historical Conférence in Moscow last year.Among the technicians and specialists some realcommunication has taken place. A brand new photo-graph of radio réception from a nebula wàs circulatedamong the radio astronomers for instance, showingnew features and the possibilités of a new technique.Rumor has it that Crick entertained a bright new*ideaabout the origin of life as a resuit of the discussionof the pan-spermia hypothesis; and Dr. David Hubel,a brain specialist from Harvard, noticed while con-sorting with so many astronomers, that maximumsensitivity of human night vision matches the peakof moon radiation, just as our day vision is preciselytuned to the peak of solar radiation."Worth a small paper" he remarked, "if no oneelse has noticed it before."For myself, the real challenge to accustomed waysof thought lies in the astronomical time scale asbrought to bear on human affairs. The idea that if agiven discovery or technical invention does not occurhère and now it will nevertheless take place some-where else sooner or later is hard to rebut. And, as the scientists are much aware, parallel discoveriesand convergences of scientific thought often happenin the modem world, so that deciding exactly whoshould hâve crédit for a given achievement is oftendifficult. This corivinces the men I hâve talked withhère that their truth is absolute in the sensé that itwas latent in the nature of things, waiting from thebeginning of the universe for men to discover it.But it is important to notice that ail thèse convergences took place within a single cultural com-munity, where shared symbolic meanings set theproblem and offered the éléments with which it couldbe solved. It still strains my credulity and boggies myimagination to think that Newton's laws of motion',for instance, might hâve been enunciated by some-one else, heir to a quite différent cultural tradition.Suppose that the Counter Reformation had beensolidly successful in Europe, and halted modemscience in its tracks at the time of Newton's birth.What then? Their answer would be, I suppose, thatin Japan, or, if necessary, among the natives of Pata-gonia, sooner or later proper conditions would hâveallowed men to take up the thread of truth oncemore, so that some other Newton would hâve dis-covered the laws of motion and gravitation. This iswhat I cannot easily concède.But of course a faith that Newton's laws and therest of modem science had to émerge is part andparcel of their confidence in the possibility of CETI.For unless other planets hâve discovered thèse samelaws, the likelihood of communication becomesvery remote.Nominalist confronts realistsWhat is ultimately at stake, I think, is a différencein epistemology. In the language of médiéval scholas-ticism, they are realists and I am a nominalist. Theybelieve that words and ideas, especially when ex-pressed in mathematical symbols, conform to thenature of things "out there" in some close and exactfashion. I am more impressed by the autonomy ofhuman symbolic Systems, believing that they put anorder upon things by an act of arbitrary choice andconform only loosely to any sort of fixed nature "outthere."The scientists can obviously point to the, successof modem technology, but I wonder whether a différent mathematics and a différent physics could notalso explain observed phenomena — supposing some-one could pry himself loose from the all-envelopingnet of inherited terms to be able to invent such aSystem?I do not know of course, but neither do the scientists. Perhaps, given our eyes, hands, neural patterns,speech organs, etc., the mathematics of modemscience remains unique, necessary, inescapable.Crick and others earnestly assured me that this wasso, and that my doubts simply reflected my ignoranceof higher mathematics. But what if life started froma différent chemistry and developed a différentsensorium, offering différent paths to reality "outthere?"Octopus-eye viewAt dinner I listened to Morrison on the octopusand its eyes. An octopus, he said, can recognize anindividual human being even from across a room. Itcan distinguish shapes by feel, but can be misled bysurface irregularities unless the object is withinvisual as well as tactile range.This was ail élaboration upon the remarkableconvergences that appear to exist between vertebrateand cephalopod eyes — the kind of phenomenon onearth that gives Morrison ground for thinking thaton other planets seeing créatures also may hâveevolved whose vision and ours would somehowmatch up. No doubt the resemblance of our visionto that of an octopus is remarkable, since it springsfrom entirely différent evolutionary paths.Ail the same, an octopus is not a man, and, evenafter a few hundred million years, might not muchnarrow the gap, supposing that the destruction of ail14 vertebrates were to open up an ecological niche forseeing intelligence on earth once more.Walking back to our rooms, Morrison and a groupof other physicists blithely agreed that even if ailexisting nuclear warheads were to go off tomorrow,something like 20% of mankind would survive. Iwonder what basis they hâve for this?September 12.The final session was entirely devoted to toningdown the optimism of the document agreed to thenight before by the directing committee. Apparentlysome of the U.S.S.R. members of the committee hadhoped for a text virtually promising CETI if an effortlike the effort to reach the moon is undertaken. TheU.S. members were more conservative. The resuitis a document very cool in tone. It says that there is achance of CETI and efforts should therefore be madeon an international basis to search the skies sys-tematically with equipment designed for the purpose.Leavetaking followed at once for the party of six-teen who were taking the evening plane back toMoscow. At the airport, however, the plane turnedout to be about three hours late. In Moscow, afteran hour of heated debate at the hôtel, somehow bedswere found for e very one, and by about 2:30 A. M.I had a place to stretch out.Up at 6 to allow enough time for standing in Uneat Sheremetyevo airport. I had to pay eleven rubleson excess baggage — more than I had left — so waitedthrough three différent bank Unes before finding theright one, where I could change ten dollars intorubles and settle my account.More confusion when I failed to check in at cus-toms (my bags had already gone to the plane by then)before waiting through the line at passport control;so back to customs to explain and collect a stamp, andthen through the passport control line again. I cleared,the last barrier with about ten minutes to sparebefore flight time, feeling like a damp rag that hasbeen run back and forth through a wringer for twôsolid hours.The plane left punctually.Drugs and despair in VietnamRichard A. RatnerHe is a specialist fourth class in the world's mightiestarmy who has gotten strung out on heroin. Theolive drab uniform of the liberator hangs listlesslyupon him, a weak, cachectic, sallow and sickly looking young man whose adolescent acné stands indreary relief to his pasty coloration and sunkenDr. Ratner received his A.B. (with gênerai honors)from the University in 1962 and his médical éducation at the University of Pennsylvania and the AlbertEinstein Collège of Medicine. He spent a year in Vietnam as an Army psychiatrist. Since his return lastyear he has been completing his military service at anArmy post in the Washington area. He plans to continueworking with the problems of drug abuse following hisrestoration to civilian life in July. cheeks. He has lost thirty pounds; he is unkemptand dirty. "Flaky," in his buddies words. Nowherehas a drug traditionally so reviled and feared ap-peared in such épidémie amounts as among thesoldiers of Vietnam.Any visitor in Vietnam after the middle of 1970would hâve seen soldiers intoxicated on "skag" andheard the crunch of empty plastic vials splinteringbeneath his feet. But to me, an Army psychiatristwho spent a year in Vietnam, the problem was morepressing. Between January and July of 1971, over athousand men passed through the Army AmnestyCenter that we established and operated. In that sixmonths, we questioned, listened, and observed inan attempt to understand the causes and find theremédies for the sudden épidémie of drug abuse. Farfrom their families and the niceties of home, havingcome voluntarily into our program with elaborateassurances of exemption from prosecution andidentification, the men repaid our concern with franktalk about themselves and the habit, not only inVietnam but, in many cases, at home. At the end ofour tours of duty we had begun to understand whatthe use of heroin is ail about in Vietnam.Needless to say, the drug problem is not confinedto the Army in Vietnam. While it may crystallizemany of the conditions leading to drug abuse andmay constitute our largest aggregation of drug-usingindividuals, it clearly has no monopoly on the use ofdrugs in its ranks. In my current stateside assignmentI see soldiers who hâve never been to Vietnampsychologically dépendent on LSD, amphétamines,barbiturates and, in a pinch, whatever else is available that can offer hope of altering their states ofconsciousness. More and more, drugs are catchingon in collèges and high schools, at chic cocktailparties, on industrial assembly lines, and in smallcities not generally associated with sophisticatedfads. And in so saying, I hâve not included the tech-nically légal addictions to pain killers like Darvon;sleeping pills like Doriden; tranquilizers, now thelargest category of drug prescribed in America; orthe widespread problem of alcoholism.15My expériences hâve led me to believe that druguse in Vietnam, among soldiers at stateside posts,arld among civilians of both sexes and ail âges isfundamentally the same phenomenon. Heroin useis the visible tip of an iceberg of despair.This is equally the case among the troops in Ger-many and among the gênerai population as it isamong soldiers in Vietnam. That there is significantlymore drug use in the military, proportionately, meansthat there is more despair; more in Vietnam than inVirginia. For some, despair begins and ends withVietnam; for them, drug abuse is likely to be a tran-sient phenomenon. For others, despair neither beginsnor ends with Vietnam' but is a chronic state. I doubtthat we can rid ourselves of heroin unless we canmelt the iceberg of despair.Despair is the absence of hope. It is a feeling ofhelplessness, of impotence — a giving up on one'sexistence. It is a feeling that iiothing matters ormeans anything, because nothing can be improvedor even changed. It is a capitulation to adversity.Boredom and haras smentIn the words of nearly every soldier I spoke to, "Icouldn't take the boredom and harassment anymore." Typical of their feelings are the commentsof one soldier about to be discharged from ourprogram:You send me back to that company and Fil be ondrugs again in five minutes. The captain, he's alwayson my back. Hell start calling me junkie any way, andinstead of my old job he'll hâve me raking leaves ailday, and cleaning the latrine. When Fm stoned, itdoesn't bother me; I just laugh at him.Another talked about the emptiness of his existence:Man, they say you're defending your country, but,like, what are you defending, sitting on your butt1 1,000 miles away? If the U.S. is attacked, it'll be missiles an y way, so what am I doing hère? Thèse peopletell you thèse things — they're crazy, man!When despair becomes overwhelming, a high proportion of men will attempt to escape from it byany means possible. Drug use is a highly practicalescape route in the short run, since it provides aréduction of tension without, if undetected, anyoneknowing the soldier has "escaped."From previous despairOther, more literal, forms of escape were pre-dictably commonplace in a high proportion of menusing drugs. For many, coming into the Army itselfwas an attempt to escape from conditions of despairin their previous lives.The Army has a lot to do with it my taking drugs. Iwasn't taking as much drugs until I joined and theonly reason I joined was to get away from every body. . . When I was home I used to like to be alone withnobody to bother me just to sit down the beach andwatch the océan. Sometimes I thought of taking mylife to get away from it ail, I didn't ask to be born andI still think that way ... I don't care about anyoneor anything, not even my parents, and the only reasonthat I hâve to take drugs is to get into anotherworld . . .In a surprising number of cases, my patients hadvolunteered for Vietnam to escape from the stiflingemptiness of their assignments in Germany, to whichmany had been assigned right after basic training.I quote from a letter by a colleague assigned toGermany:Actually, there's little you can do around hère without a car and few of the enlisted men can afford one.Those men who bring their wives hère . . . tend tolead a much better life. By having your wife you canescape living in the barracks, you can get separaterations, you can save a fortune on . . . German wom-en and so forth. Dope use is a lot iess among themarrieds but pretty high among those whose wiveshâve split ...Almost 100% of the facilities hère ... are left overfrom Adolf or even Wilhelm. The single EM live inratty barracks that even . . . officiais admit are inadéquate . . . Housing is extremely difficult to find.This is especially true if you're black or an EM . . .So the men end up living in overpriced tiny slums16scattered through the outskirts of the city. Theirwives can't work and they can't moonlight becauseour Army will by and large hire only GermansHeroin has corne to Europe and is beginning to spreadlike crazy ... I expect that in the year to corne, wewill be recapitulating the expérience you hâve beenhaving ...Once in Vietnam, many express the désire to goout "to the field" for combat duty, rather than remain at base camps and supply dépôts. They arewilling to risk their lives rather than endure theboredom and harassment of garrison life. In "thefield" there is stimulation and anticipation, and akind of raison d'être— to stay alive. There is also aréduction in the "Mickey Mouse" aspects of Armylife, like having to keep one's hair eut and bootspolished.That thèse environmental shifts usually do notchange states of mind leads, in the field, to paradoxi-cal behavior. The nation was shocked when a Medalof Honor winner revealed that he had been high onmarijuana when he rushed a machine gun nest.Heroism and suicide /It is ironie that men can simultaneously scale theheights of heroism and sink to the depths of addic-tion, but it is not inconsistent. For the final and ulti-mate escape from despair, as well as the end ofdespair itself, is suicide, and none who sees manydrug addicts or réads the exploits of some of ourheroes can ignore the suicidai nature of both. Thisis not to deny our debt to heroes or to equate themwith addicts. It is to say, however, that the sacrificeof life, in or out of the line of duty, is in either casea casualty of the human spirit.The Army, our institutionalization of the impulseto destroy, attracts men in despair. Others, obligedto serve, fall into it while serving. The Army maycreate despair, but it is also despair that populatesthe Army.It is frightening to hear a young, healthy man say,offhandedly and with little émotion, "If the world ended tomorrow, Fd clap." When such questionsas, "Hâve you plans for the future?", "Hâve you everdone something you are really proud of?", and, "Isthere anyone you hâve ever really loved?" drawnégative responses, there seems no place for a psychiatrist to begin. One man was explaining whyefforts to scare men out of drug use by dramatizingits dire conséquences are so ineffective: "Since Fvebeen in the Army, I just don't care about myself anymore . . . It was différent before ... I cared whathappened to me, but now I just don't."Injection of anythingIt is an expression of how intolérable is the feelingof despair that men will do nearly anything to altertheir consciousness of it. When heroin was not available, men would often resort to whatever they foundthat had the faintest chance of blunting their aware-ness, taking or stealing and "popping" unknown pillswith impunity. Unless my non-drug-dependentpatients who were taking médication locked it up,it would typically disappear in the barracks withinone day. Shooters of heroin, in line with what Iconsider the greater intensity of their despair, hâvebeen known to inject peanut butter or mayonnaiseinto their veins when the end of the month — andthe exhaustion of their pay — was at hand, and whenmama-san would not advance them a few vials.That heroin is the drug of choice to alter consciousness in Vietnam results in large measure fromits potency, availability, and difficulty of détection.On the average, heroin in Vietnam is at least tentimes more potent than the repeatedly eut domesticproduct, and consistently so, as well. A single plasticvial contains approximately 250 milligrams of thepure substance, which is three times more potentthan morphine. Keeping in mind that an injectionof 15 milligrams of morphine is considered a hightherapeutic dose, one can begin to appreciate thepotency of a single vial of "skag." More than oneman's habit was exposed when he suddenly requiredemergency surgery and the surprised hospital staff17found that large doses of postoperative morphinedidn't touch him.Epidémie marijuana use began to give way toépidémie heroin use in mid-1970 as the easy avail-ability of the latter drug approached, and in timesurpassed, that of "weed." It has become possible topurchase skag from nearly any Vietnamese a soldieris likely to meet. Surfacing first among troops sta-tioned near large Vietnamese population centerslike Saigon and Hué, the now-ubiquitous vials movedsteadily farther and farther afield, following illicitdistribution Systems established by enterprisingVietnamese. Nearly every barracks maid and taxidriver can now furnish a hit, and Vietnamese childrenbarely out of infancy loll along the truck routes andmajor high way s to make quick fortunes as longconvoys lumber by.Before the heroin explosion, marijuana use wasthe principal concern of Army authorities. Manypeople feel that the ruthless suppression of thismilder and less addictive drug has backfired into theuse of heroin, since heroin is considerably easierto transport and harder to detect. The odor of marijuana being smoked is unmistakable, whereas theodor given off by heroin being smoked in a regularcigarette can be detected, according to them, onlyby other users. The specially-trained dogs let loosein a barracks or an Army Post Office, can detectmarijuana but are unable to sniff out the carefullysealed vials of heroin.Alcoholic parallelCo-existing with both drugs has been the con-tinuing problem of legalized dependency uponalcohol. One enlisted man commented that whatheroin is for him and his contemporaries, béer is forthe sergeants and hard liquor is for the officers. Itwould be difficult for me to document this for theofficers, I, think, because most officers would ratherbe dead than corne to see a psychiatrist. Such a visitis considered the kiss of death to an officer's careerin the military, should it become known, and officers18 thus prefer to keep their problems to themselves.Jim Beam is often their psychiatrist.Divergent attitudesWhile until recently the Army has refîected so-ciety's vindictive treatment of drug users, it is tolérant and even subtly encouraging of alcoholism,unless a man's work becomes severely affected. Inthe PXs of Vietnam, one could purchase a quart ofvodka for $1.30 and the same amount of Beefeatergin for $2.80.In the eyes of the troops, the distinction betweenalcoholism and addiction to heroin is purely a légalone; indeed, they point to the rowdiness and de-structiveness of many drunks as far less sociallyacceptable than the léthargie half-sleep induced byskag. The sight of a bleary-eyed, beer-bellied firstsergeant denouncing heroin as he tries to fight off hismorning hangover is accepted as another of theabsurdities of Army life.Nearly everyone who has been to Vietnam, in-cluding a large proportion of quickie visitors, hascommented on the extent of the heroin problem.Rumors of the size of the problem, rather than themère existence of one, were responsible for theflurry of interest in drugs in mid-1971, though sinceDr. Jaffe of the President's Spécial Action Officeon Drug Abuse said that only 5% of Gis cameup positive on the tests given when men leavefor home, much of the public concern has died down.While Dr. Jaffe's figures are unimpeachable, theysay nothing about men who discontinue using heroinfive or more days prior to giving their urine spécimens. That is to say that it is possible to use heroinin Vietnam for eleven months and twenty-two daysand still corne up négative. Not only is it possible,but I believe it is the case in the vast majority ofmen who hâve been using drugs in Vietnam. Iwould estimate, on the basis of my expérience, that30% of the lower ranking (younger) enlisted menare engaged in regular heroin use.The fact that relatively few of thèse users arepicked up on testing is no surprise when one con-siders how anxious the men are to prevent the Armyfrom finding out about their drug use. Part of thisanxiety stems from the men's deep distrust of theArmy and its motives, made realistic by the recordof harsh punishments for drug users that the serviceshâve until recently meted out. Most of it, however,is due to the fact that most soldiers hâve grown upin a moral universe where being a "junkie" repre-sents a kind of nadir of disgrâce.Moral considérations do not weigh heavily on aman who is facing the necessity of surviving a one-year tour in Vietnam, but they become increas-ingly important as he prépares to corne back home.From the day of arrivai in Vietnam, most men liveonly for their return home. Each morning, a hundredthousand pens cross off another day on a hundredthousand "short-timer'-s" calendars, which descendfrom 365 to 0. Work stops and men gaze skyward insilence as a majestic "freedom bird" crosses thehorizon toward home.The prospect of return "to the world" with theimminent end of the séparation from home andfamily rekindles hope. And for a large majority ofthe men it is at this time that their heroin dependencyends. The individual soldier, but not the Army, thecivil authorities, or his family and friends, can appre-ciate the distinction between heroin use exclusivelyin Vietnam and being a junkie. A junkie is a heroinaddict at home — someone who cannot claim that hisuse of the drug is related to Vietnam. The junkie'slife involves crime^ the ghetto, disease and deviancy,and he is a permanent outsider, not to be xtrusted orbefriended.'Straight' distrustedIronically, in Vietnam it is more often the non-userwho is an outsider, distrusted as a possible "narc"and denied what little comfort men can obtain fromsharing a secret. Most of the users in Vietnam do notfeel that they will become junkies, and they do notcare to be identified as such at home. Ail of this is to show how little it is in the interestof the individual soldier to become identified as adrug abuser by the Army and how strong his incentive is to avoid détection. Thus, most men simplywithdraw themselves, suffering the aches and painswith a little help from their friends, unassisted butundetected by the Army.'Coldturkey' motivationThat men can accomplish this feat with such apparent ease doubtless seems strange to the readerwho has always been told, as I had, that tremendousagonies were part and parcel of "cold turkey." But Ifound that the withdrawal syndrome, known as"Jonesing" to the troops, was far milder than I hadexpected when undergone in our Amnesty Center.The "hard" symptoms of cramps, muscle pains, re^st-lessness, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating with runningnose and tearing, nausea, and somewhat paranoidideation almost never took more than five days toclear up. We attributed this to the psychologicalclimate of the^ center, in which perhaps twenty-five men were simultaneously withdrawing under thesupervision of a trained and experienced staff. Forone thing, most men were reluctant to suggest thatthey were less able to withstand pain than theirneighbors who were suffering the same discomfortwith good grâce. But even more important was thatnearly everyone was strongly motivated to get offdrugs, since a majority of our patients had threemonths or less to go before returning home.There are, however, men for whom returninghome does not lift their despair. Most of thèse menhâve enlisted in the Army precisely to alleviate thedespair and unhappiness of their civilian lives. Mostare from broken homes, hâve failed to graduate highschool, and hâve been unable to succeed in jobs orrelationships with other people at home. Feelings ofinadequacy are often severe, and despair has usuallylong since driven them at least to expérimentationwith drugs at home. The more unhappy such menare with themselves, the greater the likelihood of19their yielding to the seductive powers of drugs. Themore they get into drug use, the greater is their un-happiness with themselves.For thèse men, to be high on heroin is, for lack ofsomething better, the best they hâve ever felt and,feeling well, they are motivated to stay that wayindefinitely. The feelings about themselves thatémerge as the effects of the drug wear off are so badthat they make the prospect of withdrawal intolérable. Thèse Gis are less able to control the size oftheir habits, and move up from one to four vials perday — a level that we found common — to eight, totwelve vials per day. At this point, économie considérations dictate either that one supplément one'sincome to afford the habit, or go to a more efficientuse of what one has. Injection into the veins is themost efficient way to use heroin; stealing, playing theblack market and pushing are the commonest waysof supplementing one's income.There's this mama-san in Saigon — she has wholestacks of blank ration cards. She gives you one andplenty of MPC (the scrip used as cash by the Army)and you go into a couple of PXs and buy stéréos,typewriters, cigarettes, and other shit. You bring itail back to her and she pays you . . . Man, she musthâve haif of Saigon working for her . . .A fair number of Gis get into pushing as well, butseem always to be assuaging their guilt with elaboraterationaiizations of their behavior. One man said hewould ne ver sell to anyone who was just startingout.Another claimed that he didn't really push; he wouldsell stuff if people came begging for a hit only.Involvement and reenlistmentIronically, in view of their feelings about the mili--tary, a number of thèse men actually extend theirservice time in Vietnam for six months or more.Others make attempts, often ingénions, to mailheroin home to themselves. The Army has had toresort to opening the small plastic cassettes contain-ing voice tapes because they can contain at least avial's worth of heroin. Broken crockeryA woman in Saigon was noted, I am told, for fillingwith heroin those large porcelain éléphants whichare a popular souvenir among Gis. Postal authoritiesare confronted with the necessity of destroying thefigure in order to ascertain whether it is filled withheroin, a procédure that could shortly bury them inbroken crockery.It is this group of soldiers who are caught by theurine test, usually because they are unable to stopdrugs for the necessary five or six day period. Insome cases, the old American resourcefulness makesan appearance in the methods men use to attempt toconfound the test. Some buy the urine of "straights"in hopes of substituting it for their own. The currentjoke when I left Vietnam was at the expense of aman who bought urine from someone just arrivingin the country and successfully substituted it for hisown, but came up positive anyway.In order to prevent substitution, the Army hasrigged up a System of mirrors directly over urinaiswith a military policeman standing directly behindthe soldiers giving spécimens. Even hère the Systemwas almost outwitted by one GI who had taped aplastic bag of "clean" urine under his arm and hadrun a tube from the bag beneath his shirt and pantswhich he could unclamp when he unbuttoned his fly.He was caught when the MP noticed him squeezinghis arm against his side in an attempt to express theurine into the sample container.In spite of attempts to seal loopholes, men continue to slip through. It was finally discovered that atechnician who had been running ail the urine testsat one installation was a pusher, who guaranteedsoldiers buying from him that their urines wouldalways be négative. Had he not been caught quiteby chance, he would be doing business still.I feel that the despair which causes drug abuse hasresulted from a loss of faith on the part of manyAmericans in their institutions. I ascribe this disil-lusionment to a dawning consciousness that thèse20institutions are no longer our servants but our mas-ters, and dangerous masters at that. The increase insize, centralization, and computerization of ail aspects of government, health care and educationalinstitutions, with an accompanying diminution ofhuman contact, has reached a point where individualsfeel thèse institutions are no longer responsive totheir needs and often deaf to them. Kafka begins toémerge as the patron saint of our âge.Lack of identificationThe relationship of the Army to the enlisted manis a paradigm of this loss of faith occurring through-out our sociëty. It can be seen very clearly in thecontrasting attitudes of younger enlisted men andolder non-commissioned officers toward the Army,and the difficulties each group has in understandingthe other.The NCOs, men holding the ranks of E-6 (staffsergeant) through E-9 (sergeant major), hâve beenin the Army for at least five years, and hâve generallyaccepted the Army as a career. I cannot claim anyexhaustive sociological analysis of thèse men thatyounger soldiers often call "lifers," but I hâve noreason to believe that they are significantly différentfrom their young subordinates in terms of socio-economic groups, géographie origins, éducation, orfamily background.What distinguishes them from the men they nowcommand is that they trust in and believe in the Armyas an institution. They see themselves as the de-fenders of their country and take pride in their uni-forms and rank. They accept what is disagreeableabout Army life philosophically, and hâve learnedto exert influence without ever questioning orrebelling against an order.The NCOs believe in what we think of as old-fashioned virtues. They are honest. They go to church.The flag being raised in the morning still causeshearts among them to skip a beat. They hâte com-munism, fly American flags, and are, to a man, deeplynostalgie for the days when boots were polished, hair was short, God was in headquarters, and ail wasright with the world.The NCO expériences the Army as a provider ofgood things. It has allowed him to see the world andhas attended to him at home with housing, médicalcare, légal and financial services, a social life, and thecornucopial PX. It is a mother, and a good mother:if her son does his part to help out the family, shewill care for him.He is not a political man, and he does not see theArmy as a political institution. He sees it as an instrument, rather than an originator, of nationalpolicy. He does not question orders, because hetrusts the motives of the system that filters thoseorders down to him.Trust, faith, belief in the system. Thèse no longerrepresent the mood of the people, if young soldiersare any example. Fear, mistrust, and cynicism hâvereplaced more sanguine feelings in the younger man.To him the Army is not a human institution at ail;,it is, in a phrase Kafka would be proud of, the GreenMachine.When men enter the service today I feel that they^very rapidly develop a sensé of victimization by apowerful, impersonal, and even hostile organization,easy to visualize as a machine with human cogs. Andshorn of the belief in the ultimate worth of the System that might make it bearable, this picture of theArmy is most persuasive to the young enlisted man.'Government property'Few men who hâve ever been in the Army woulddeny that it makes systematic assaults upon the self-respect, self-esteem, andv self-distinction of individuals in its lower ranks and that it stimulâtes feelingsof impotence, rage, and humiliation as well. Drillsergeants hâve stated that their aim in basic trainingis to take a man apart so they can put him back together the Army way. But if there is no receptivityto the rééducation, the net effect is destructive.Even the daily workings ôf Army life grate on aman. In its quest for efficiency, the Army has brokendown tasks into small components that are withinthe capabilities of the lowest common denominatorof intelligence. Thèse tasks, meaningless in themselves, far from giving satisfaction to the worker, faileven to occupy his time.A not-so-funny story should highlight the way menget to feel about themselves. An agitated private, whohad been sent to me for various behavior problems,showed me an innocuous tattoo he had placed onhis hand and said he had been threatened with punitive action by his first sergeant. I could not understand what the infraction was but the private explained, with no trace of a smile, "He says Fvemutilated government property."Of course, the Army has been the Army sincetime immémorial, so that the chronic dégradationand humiliation are not sufficient to explain thechange in attitude I postuiate. Rather, I feel it isthrough the Vietnam war that the attitudes of soldiers hâve altered fundamentally from trust to distrust, belief to cynicism, and confidence in our systemto a sensé of victimization by it. Among my patientsthèse feelings extend not infrequently to otheraspects of the establishment as well as the Army.And, if I am correct, such feelings predominateamong large segments of the civilian population aswell. In response, movements for libération forblacks and women hâve begun among those withhope; among those who hâve no hope, we see thedestructiveness and self-destructiveness of theWeatherman and the addict.It has been in the course of this war that civiliansas well as soldiers hâve lost their faith, because it hasbeen through this war that men hâve first perceivedtheir own society acting to destroy them.Hostility relocatedIt has been charàcteristic of nations throughouthistory to prefer that aggression be dispiaced fromtheir own soil to that of other proxy states. This isévident in international conflicts where, for example,Pakistan and India act out the hostile feelings of China and Russia. It seems plausible to me that anintranational conflict between segments of onecountry could also be dispiaced to another locale.In this sensé, the issue of Vietnam wandered ontothe stage of American politics at just the right time.Among many other things, this war may hâve beenthe very opportunity needed to displace from ourown shores the growing tensions created by the civilrights movement. Vietnam was far away from us but,more importantiy, it featured the opportunity tofight men of another race. What better way to cooltensions between blacks and whites than to unitéthem against yellows?Destructive resuitI do not mean to suggest that anyone was eithercynical or farsighted enough to think such thoughtsin advance. I am only suggesting that the attitudes,émotions, and states of mind of those who led us intothe war could not but be affected by the domestichopes, fears and tensions of the nation as it was.Thus the men who fought and died in Vietnam didnot do so as much to défend us from the Vietcongas to défend our institutions and our people fromourselves. Deposited at a safe distance from Newarkand Chicago, young soldiers, both black and white,destroyed themselves and their adversaries beforeuncounted government and média journalists whobeamed the action back to millions of viewers indying color.What, then, is to be done? How to melt the icebergof despair with the fiame of hope? ï think the implications on a national level are obvions and sweeping:we must remold institutions, improve lives, beginto live what we supposedly believe. I should like toconfine myself to some spécifie thoughts about theArmy, keeping in mind the expectation that Armyreform will only happen in the context of nationalchange.First I believe we must prevent a voluntary armyfrom corning about. Such an army would be evenmore dramatically isolated and polarized from the22citizenry than this one, from which so many citizenshâve selected themselves out. Such an army can besent to kill and die anywhere with moral obligationsdischarged through a pay voucher. I hâve the feelingthat a war worth fighting must involve an arousedcitizenry, to whom the fighting and the objectiveshâve immediacy and relevance. In any case, a manfighting for money is no match for a man fighting forprinciple.Second, the Army must be made more humane.Window dressing changes are in the works, but thefundamental problems of power and communicationare likely to remain. The soldier must be grantedmore control over himself with less arbitrary powerin the hands of superior officers. And feedback fromprivate to gênerai must be facilitated, so that theresidual power exerted by the latter over the formerneed not be so capricious. Thèse ideas are alreadyimplicit in Army writings on leadership and oftenobtain in company-sized units between private andcaptain. Ways must be found, however, to bridgethe tremendous inertial and self-seeking bureaucracythat isolâtes a gênerai from his men and their needs.Whatever the individual context, I feel there hasbeen a move towards aliénation of our civilian population from institutions that crush rather than assist.The shift in attitude of the young toward the Armyis only a reflection of this larger civilian event. Forthose who react with despair to the circumstancesof their lives, drug abuse will be a likely alternative.New rôle for the ArmyFinally, the Army must décide to dévote more ofits resources to the welfare of its men. So manyyouths enter service with the burden of despairalready on their shoulders that the Army is a naturalgathering place for some of society's most con-spicuous failures. The Army must prépare itself tomake the sacrifices necessary to educate thèse men,vocationally and emotionally. Rather than weedingout the "bad apples" and tossing them back to themisery which made them spoil, the Army ought to A ward in the Army Amnesty Center.accept the challenge of integrating thèse men intocivilian or military life. For most of them the Armyis simply the last chance; it must do again, and betterthan before, what it has done in the past for disen-franchised men. However, the very existence ofsuch programs is a measure of the dawning aware-ness that drug abuse cannot be remedied by suppression and punishment. Such programs are at least ahopeful beginning of an era when the drug user isremembered to be a thing of feelings, thoughts, and,if they survive, hopes. The fallout from such a récognition is bound to be good because it can only leadto a greater attention to and concern with the dignityand aspirations of each individual man. If we cansurvive the insults to the pathological aspects of oursocial structure, we should be significantly betteroff in the end — blacks, whites; soldiers, civilians. Weshall know we hâve succeeded if our drug abuserscan once again be induced to throw in their lot withthe forces of life.23James Lea CateSome years ago I had occasion to write to anex-President of the United States. Up to that timeour correspondence had been one-sided and formai,consisting of an embossed letter of thanks from himon the occasion of my discharge from the ArmyAir Forces. On the basis of this one letter and myvote in 1948, I did not feel justified in commencing"Dear Harry." But on the other hand I did not likethe sound of "Dear Mr. ex-President" or "HonoredSometime Président" or "Revered ci-devant Président"Stumped for the moment, I turned to my favoriteauthority on such matter, the University of ChicagoPress' Manual of Style; but in vain. The book wasstrong on protocol for Présidents and even for Vice-Présidents, but once a chief executive had movedhis private papers from 1600 Pennsylvania Avenueand had started on his memoirs the editors of theManual lost ail interes.t.In a moment of desperation and inspiration Itook a quick look at Emily Post's Etiquette and thereit was: "A senator is always introduced as senator,whether he is still in office or not. But the Présidentof the United States, once he is out of office, is merely"'Mr.' and not 'Ex-President.'" I by-passed the gra-tuitous information relevant to my friend's earliercareer as senator from Missouri and wrote the salutation, "Dear Mr. Truman."The édition of Etiquette I used was dated July,1925. At that time Warren Gameliel Harding andWoodrow Wilson had passed on to their respectiverewards; everyone had forgotten William HowardJames Cate, professor emeritus of médiéval history atthe University, is known professionally for his workon those high and far-off times, but in this issue of theMagazine he gives readers a glimpse of a phenomenonof considerably more récent vintage. Known with affectionby générations of Midway students, Professor Catejoined the University in 1930; he received his Ph.D.in 1935. Taft, and Cal Coolidge had not yet made his Orphiedéclaration about not choosing to run again, so that aless conscientious author might hâve overlookedthe ex-President just as we ail overlooked the Vice-Président in those days. But not Mrs. Post, and itwas that sort of dependability that had run her bookinto eighty-nine printings by the time of her deathon September 26, i960.In other instances, particularly during some absence of my wife, I had turned to Emily Post tosettle some small punctilio in the setting of a table,and, being cursed with the sort of wandering mindthat gets lost among the illustrations while lookingup a word in a dictionary, I had browsed ¦ throughher book with wonder and admiration. So wide washer knowledge and so final her judgments that Mrs.Post seemed less like a real person than a minordeity or démiurge, such as the Guinness Book ofWorld Records or the voice on Cathedral 8-8000 thatpronounces the exact time.One can imagine that since her passing heavenhas been run in a more décorons fashion, with due/ regard for protocol among the angelic hierarchy,with élégant manners in the serving of milk andhoney, and no further revolt of the angels.Since Mrs. Post did so much to control and im-prove the form and substance of the social life ofher time, it seems not inappropriate to make a fewrandom remarks about her and other authors in-terested in the improvements of manners. It mighteven be of interest to the current génération ofcollège students to learn that such a literary genreexists.Of her mortal life the New York Times gave a fuilaccount in one of those classic obits they do forVIPs of ail walks of life, spilling over from thefront page into the interior and followed on subséquent days by editorials, comments and a blow-by-blow account of the obsequies. It must be one of24the few solid comforts in dying, to hâve the super deluxe post mortem treatment in the New York Times.Friends hâve told me that the New Yorker publishedan excellent profile on Emily Post, but since mybarbershop subscribes only to past issues of LookI hâve not seen that pièce.Bût within a year her son Edwin M. Post, Jr.,published a biography, compounded of filial pietyand anecdotes about Society (with a capital S).Some of the s tories are useful, but the author begins his mothers biography with his own birth andworks back ^nd forth in a style as confusing asTris tram Shandy. The title, Truly Emily Post, shouldallay any fears about the accuracy of the book, butsince the author dévotes only one chapter out ofeighteen to Emily's masterpiece, one may questionhis sensé of proportion. I felt, too, a certain lack ofprécision in the chronology of the heroine's life,her son being given to such références as "a fewyears later" or "it was sometime before this." Butthis is only a passing objection from an unimaginativehistorian.Edwin's mother was born Emily Price, in Baltimore in 1873. A few years later her family mpved toNew York. Her father, Bruce Price, was a success-ful architect. One of his créations was that upstatehaven of New York society, Tuxedo Park, whichhe designed and built. You will recognize this asthe place that gave the popular name to the dinnerjacket for wear with a black tie — and will realizethat no inhabitant thereof ever refered to the gar-ment as a "tux."Emily was educated after a fashion by governessesand was topped off at Miss Graham's finishing schoolon 12th Street. No less an authority than WardMcAUister said she was one of only three girls inNew York who could walk across a ballroom prop-erly. Emily's family moved in the best of conser-vative society, and as a beautiful and popular débutante she seemed content with that life. In 1892she married Edwin M. Post, a promising young busi ness man who was interested in the stock market,in good living, and in sports. Two sons were born tothat union, Edwin, Jr., and Bruce.The couple started out modestly in a house onStaten Island, but they maintained the position ex-pected of both their families. Emily learned the artsof entertainment, leaving the wines to her husband'sexpert and tender care, but herself superintendingthe more solid nourishment.An early example of her taste was the christeningdinner for her first born, done with recipes culledfrom a $15 book by Delmonico's chef, AlessandroFilippini, The Table, How to Buy Food, How to CookIt, How to Serve It. She served:Doxie Rockaway OystersConsomme ImpérialOlives CeleryBraised SweetbreadsSauce DuxellesSpinachRoast Canvasback Duckwith HominyCelery SaladApple FrittersCoffeeiEmily's southern background may explain thehominy but not the accent on celery. We are nottold what Edwin, Sr., did for his guests in the way ofwine, but I hâve an idea it was not Mogen David orRipple.Their life was divided between Staten Island,Tuxedo Park, New York and Europe. In Europethey spent a leisurely honeymoon, and thitherEmily returned summer after summer with the boys.Time showed that the couple shared few commoninterests beyond a love for dancing, some mutualfriends, and the boys. Edwin, Sr., liked hunting, fastcars and fast boats, eventually owning a steam yacht,Tdro, which he skippered with a crew of eight sea-men, two stewards and a cook. Emily was a bad sailorand had some literary and artistic interests. Shebecame a yacht widow.She was a brilliant conversationalist and a correspondent whose letters were witty and charming,so much so that her mother-in-law, not given tofulsôme praise of Emily, thought them better read-ing than Elinor Glyn's latest novel. I hâve seen onlya few spécimens of Emily's letters, but when I wasin high school I read Miss Glyn's Three Weeks outbehind our barn, and I am inclined to agrée withMrs. Post, Sr.So was the novelist F. Hopkinson Smith, a sortof honorary uncle to Emily, who showed sampleletters to the editor of Ainslie's Magazine, who inturn commissioned her to do a novel for his then-popular monthly. This she did, turning in a storyabout a lively American widow in European societywhich appeared serially in Ainslie's and in book formin 1904. It was called The F light of a Mot h.Between Emily's writing and Edwin's boating —both innocent amusements if not carried too far,but potentially lethal — the Post marriage began tocrumble. He found more and more occasions tostay overnight at his club or on board the Taro, andit now became évident that he had added to hisfast boats and fast cars a tas te for fast ladies, some ofthe theatrical calling. In the summer of 1905 theeditor of a scandai sheet called Town Topics, a personnamed Col. William D. Mann, tried to blackmailhim for $500 on the basis of a showgirl's jealouscharges and maybe a friendly letter or two.The colonel had been levying on the rich and in-discreet for much heavier sums, and perhaps theniggardly assessment of Edwin's love balm hurt hispride. At any rate, he showed great moral couragein helping trap, not the colonel, but a go-between,and incidentally he came to figure as défense witnessin a libel suit the colonel was conducting againstCollier's Magazine.But soon thereafter his wife secured a divorce,with custody of the two boys, and the father beingthen in a financial slump — even without the loss ofthe $500 charge — Emily was faced with the, needfor économies and gainful employment.The économies did not interrupt her yearly visitsto Europe nor deprive her of other customary neces-sities; and indeed since her livelihood, outside someinherited income, came from her writing, thèse coststoday would certainly be considered tax déductible,for her stories and novels done for Ainslie's, Every-body's and other popular magazines, dealt with Society, both American and European. Her son is not the most précise of bibliographers, but a little re-search in Books in Print found thèse titles: Purpleand Fine Linen (1905); Woven in the Tapestry (1908);The Title Market (1909); The Eagle's Feather (1910);and much later, Parade (1925).I blush to confess I hâve not read ail thèse. Re-genstein Library with ail its virtues has a stodgydistaste for popular fiction unless it is either too oldto be interesting or written in some language un-familiar to undergraduates, and none of Emily'snovels appear in the card index. Indeed, we do noteven hâve a file oî Ainslie's, once a lively periodical, orEdwin's, Truly Emily Post. Happily one of my students found a couple of Emily's novels and gavethem to me. After a rapid scanning of them I came toa conclusion rare enough in my case— that hère thelibrary 's economy was justified.In Mrs. Post's favor one may say that when shespeaks of a man making love to her heroine, ail shemeans is that he is sending her flowers and whisper-ing dainty compliments into her shell-like ear —and nothing more. Her situations and charactersprovide examples of good étiquette, but none ofher books will make the best ten pornographienovels.In August, 1914, Mrs. Post and the boys werecaught while touring in France by the outbreak ofWorld War I, but escaped with their car. The fol-lowing summer she was hired by the editor ofMunsey's Magazine to motor from New York to>the twin world fairs at San Diego and San Franciscoto publieize the newly planned but as yet unbuiltLincoln Highway. This trip she and Edwin accom-plished with many adventures, related in the magazine, then in a book, By Motor to the Golden Gâte(1916). Later she put another hobby to advantage inwhat may be called literally "homemaking" — work-ing over old houses or planning new ones, and de-signing the furnishings — a profession somewherebetween that of the architect and that of the interiordecorator. Something of her methods may be seenlater in her book, The Personality of a House: theBlue Book ofHome Design and Décoration (1930).Mrs. Post was almost at her half-century markwhen her great opportunity came, and, if we maybelieve the story as her son tells it, she did her best26to discourage the man who came offering her faméand fortune. According to Edwin, she was workingon a house design when her maid reported a Mr.Duffy on the phone who wanted to corne to talkto her about an encyclopedia. You and I who hâveto double-bar our doors to discourage the high-pressure salesmen for Encyclopaedia Britannica cansympathize with Mrs. Post's firm refusai to see Mr.Duffy. Her son says she did not know the name,though Duffy had been recently on the staff ofAinslie's. At any rate, it took great persévérance onMr. Duffy's part to gain an interview. He had notcorne to sell but to buy. He wanted her to do abook on étiquette for Funk and Wagnalls.Mrs. Post demurred. Her expérience with that.sort of book had been confined to Manners and SocialUsage (1884) by Mrs. John Sherwood, a prolificwriter in the field, who had produced also for Harper'sBazaar such companion pièces as Amenities ofHome(1881) and The Art of Entertaining (1892). Mrs.Sherwood apparently had the art of entertaininginadvertently as well as consciously, for Edwin saysthat her manners book "had been a laughing stock"among Emily's débutante friends. I find it amusingin spots myself, but if I may offer one Personal comment on étiquette, I question Emily's good tastein ridiculing a successful professional in a field shewas to enter as a novice. I wonder if she laughedlater when the great Will Rogers poked mild fun ather own Etiquette.Anyhow she was eventually won over by an in-genious device of another editor-friend, FrankCrowninshield. He sent her for inspection anothercurrent étiquette book with some clippings of itsadvertisements. Thèse were ail based on fear —the embarrassment and ridicule which resuit fromignorance of accepted norms of social behavior.The ads and the condescending tone of the bookdisgusted Emily and offered a challenge. She acceptedMr. Duffy's offer, s^ying she would write "a sensiblebook ... a small book . . . the whole subject can bereduced to a few simple rules." That's what shethought!Her small book, numbering 627 pages, was pub lished in July, 1922, under the title, Etiquette inSociety, in Business, in Politics and at Home.This at any rate is Edwin's story. As usual he givesno dates and he omits the name of the rival manualof étiquette. After looking over the field I judge thebook must hâve been the Book of Etiquette by LillianEichler (Mrs. Lillian Eichler Watson), copyrighted in1921 by Nelson Doubleday. This was the leadingbook of the sort at the time, and the ads for it wereof the sort Edwin described: for instance, the NewYork Times book section carried, from July, 1921, on,at intervais, a whole-page ad in which Nelson Doubleday frightened people into buying Eichler.There are some curious problems which I hâvenot had time to investigate, but which throw somedoubt on Edwin's account. If Eichler's book was notpublished until 1921 and the advertisement cam-paign began the same year, how did Emily get timeto do a long book which was announced in the Pub-lisher's Weekly as a spring book and actually appearedbyjuly, 1922?Even more interesting is Eichler herself. She wasborn in 1902; her Etiquette, then, was published whenshe was nineteen, written earlier. Maybe this hadmore to do with Mrs. Post's annoyance than theadvertisements.I haven't had time to find out much about laEichler. Her Etiquette isn't much good, though itsold well. But imagine a Chicago undergraduatewriting such a two- volume work!The famous ads say that she gives not only rulesfor conduct, but also some account of their origins.This is a vast exaggeration, but later Lillian Eichlerdid publish The Customs of Mankind (London;William Heineman, 1924), in which she does attemjptto trace origins and development of the mores whichwe hâve inherited in our social structure.The introduction is one of the most pretentiousbits of self-advertisement I hâve seen; the gai isstill, say, twenty-three and she talks about her original discoveries in behavior patterns that go back500,000 years. Also she refers often to her Etiquetteand once to the advertisement campaign. Herbibliography is less learned than her boasts aboutit, and what she has to say about the Middle Ages27is absurdly bad for an undergraduate. But let's getback to Emily.Published under the title, Etiquette in Society,in Business, in Politics and at Home, the modestédition of 5,000 copies was soon sold out. With-in a year seven more printings had been issuedand, tothe surprise and delight of Funk and Wagnalls,Etiquette had supplanted such well-known bôoks asH. <G. Wells' Outline of History and Papini's Lifeof Christ at the top of the best-seller list in non-fiction. Sometimes thèse reissues are called "éditions," but I believe the first serious revision was inNovember, 1927, which would be the second éditionand the l4th printing. The i960 copy, Emily's last,is the lOth édition and 89th printing.The title was simplified, partly by popular habit.It became Etiquette, the Blue Book of Social Usage,reminiscent of médiéval times when color was alegitimate factor in identifying a book, as in TheRed Book of the Exchecquer, or the Black Book of theAdmiralty.Edwin rates this with the sélect list of books whichhâve profoundly influenced the social structure whilechanging radically the pattern of the author's life.Of that first claim I shall speak directly, but hère itis useful to show what happened to the author. Mrs.Price Post, a writer for a limited public and one whovalued her privacy, became Emily Post, a publicfigure. For a long génération she was the unofficialsuprême court of things mannerly, her advice soughtby total strangers who wrote or wired her as todayone might communicate with one's congressman orAnn Landers.Her book sold well and steadily, but not fan-tastically. Alice P. Hackett, in Fifty Years of BestSellers, 1895-1945, estimated her sales by that latteryear at 660,000; those of her chief competitor, stillLillian Eichler's Book of Etiquette, at 1,000,000. Inher édition of 1955, Miss Hackett reverses herstatistics: Post leads with 1,000,000, and, in someunaccountable fashion, Eichler has dropped from1,000,000 to the précise number of 756,432 copies.However one interprets thèse confusing figures, the'point is that they are of the same order of magni tude; Eichler was either somewhat more popularor somewhat less popular for a while than Post, butwho of you ever heard of Eichler? I hadn't.Anyhow, it was inévitable that Mrs. Post shouldbe asked to do a column on manners, which she didfirst for McCall's Magazine, then in syndicated formfor some 200 newspapers. It was a surprise for me,not too pleasant, to learn that Mrs. Post was a de-voted patron of the radio, with spécial référence,as we say in our thesis titles, to Charlie McCarthyand Amos and Andy. So when, again inevitably, shewas invited to do a radio program, she accepted.She asked for the same wage scale as Amos andAndy, but settled for something less. When youngshe had dreamed of being an actress but had beenfrustrated by family préjudice; the radio opportunity,by sublimating this early wish, gave her great satisfaction.But she never quit writing. To those books andarticles I hâve named should be added several important items. In 1928, again at the instance ofCrowninshield, she wrote for Vanity Fair a sériesof sketches that appeared anonymously, but werelater published under her name in a book calledHow to Behave Though a Débutante. The illustrationsby John Held, Jr., of fiapper famé, enhanced thevalue of the book without dominating Mrs. Post'slively style.In- 1940 she published Children Are People and IdéalParents Are Comrades, drawing on her own expérience as child, parent and grandparent. There arepersons who deny both the propositions containedin this title, but thèse cynics lack Emily Post'sauthority.The cookbook that bears her name (and herdistinctive blue color) was edited, whatever thatmeans, by her son. She did some other books notunconnected with the problems of conduct —Bridai Silver and Wedding Customs (1929); Lettersof a Worldly Godmother (19??); and The Secret ofKeeping Friends (1938). In 1959 she published aséries of articles on motoring manners which musthâve tested her every skill, for there is nothingthat brings out the worst in a man quicker than liquorexcept a new car on a crowded freeway. A combina-28tion of the two is very likely to be fatal.Probably I hâve missed some items, but even sohers was a bibliography that would demand serionsattention on the university campus had she beennominated for a distinguished service professorshipor to head a research institute on human relations.Indeed, in 1946 she did found the Emily Post Institute, dedicated to the study of gracious living.But long before that she herself had become anAmerican institution, and she remained one untilher death.In sheer bulk her writings are impressive, and be-speak both a hard and efficient worker. She did mostof her writing in bed in the early morning hours; butI do not know where or when she did hèr research.But some she did. I had originally thought that ailher Etiquette came spontaneously from her intuitivegraciousness and wide social expérience, and indeedthèse were the factors that helped make her workdifférent. But Edwin says, "Seven-eights of whatultimately went into the book {Etiquette] was information she had to gather from other sources."At worst, this method might hâve been plagiarism,at best créative scholarship. Certainly Emily bor-rowed from her own works — one has only to checkthe chapter headings in successive éditions v>{ theEtiquette agàinst the titles of her books to see that —and if one checks those chapter headings againstthe table of contents in a rival work one may readilysee a likeness in the formai structure of the book.What she did was to lend both dignity and a senséof the value of simplicity and unaffectedness to aform of advice that might easily hâve becomebombastic. With rigid standards in matters of prin-ciple, she showed a spirit of compromise in unes-sentials; the successive éditions of her book revealhow aware she was of the changing scène in Americaand how she sought to accommodate herself to thechanges. But perhaps the test of her significance isthe degree to which she herself was responsible forthèse changes in the mores.It would be an interesting task to investigate heruse of sources, and not too difficult, I'd wager, forI doubt that her own researches were very profound. Yet indirectly she shared with us ail a long tradition,deeply rooted in every literate culture — that of theconduct or courtesy book. For ultimate origins Isuppose my colleagues in Far Eastern studies couldshow Chinese rules about the polite burp in praiseof a well-cooked meal that go back several millennia.But I need go no farther than the early cultures ofthe Mediterranean to cite the precepts of Ptahhotepof fifth dynasty in Egypt, the Greek gnomic poetryand the later and more sophisticated writings ofthe Greek philosophers, or the wisdom literatureof the Old Testament, or the writings of such Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Quintillian or the satirists.The early Middle Ages were dominated by the Dis-ticho Catonis, a vastly popular little schoolbookthat aspired to teach reading and inculcate goodbehavior.Much of this early literature is in the nature ofprecepts, much of it directed toward the young. Ingênerai its content does not differ radically from timeto time or culture to culture: Moses said, "Honorthy father and thy mother," and Cato said, "Lovethy parents." And other old folks hâve been urgingthe same, from the time of Methuselah to Medicare,though of late with little success, if we can believesome of the graffiti of the young.During the high and late Middle Ages there was aflourishing body of so-called facetus literature, hand-books on urbanity that drew alike from the classi-cal tradition and Christian teachings. Many are ad-dressed to the young — "How the Good Wife TaughtHer Daughter," "The Babees Boke," "Stans Puer adMensam" — short on theory but strong on pragmaticrules of how to behave at table without gettingclouted by some adult: be silent and tell no nastystories; eat your broth with a spoon, don't slurpit up; don't lean on the table or dirty the cloth;don't eat with a full mouth or pick your nose orteeth or nails; don't stuff your mouth so you can'tspeak; don't spit over or on the table or belch as ifyou had a bean in your throat; don't throw bones onthe floor; break wind quietly.Other treatises addressed to adults are somewhatfuller, though the same sound items of advice areincluded, along with directions for running a house-hold, with much learned discussion on diet andmenus for ail occasions.As a sample I give, in abbreviated form, a menucalled "A Dinner of Flesh" from John Russell'sBoke of Nurture (ca. 1440 — '50). First course: Brawnof boar with mustard; potage du jour; beef, mutton,stewed pheasant, swan, capon, pig, lèche Lombard(a terrible . concoction cooked in a bladder like aScotch haggis), méat fritters. Second course: twopotages, blanc manger, jelly; roast venison, kid,fawn or cony; bustard, stork, crâne, peacock withfeathers on, bittern, partridge, woodcock, plover,egret, rabbit suckers, larks, bream; doucet (custard),payne puff (pie), poached fritters. Third course:cream of almonds and mawmeny; curlew, brewe,snipes, quail, sparrows, martins; perch in jelly,crayfish, pety perveis (fish pies?); baked quinces,sage fritters. Dessert; white apples, caraway cakeswith hippocras to drink. I omit the elaborate décorations with each course, and some of the dishes Icannot identify, but this should keep you going untilthe next coffee break.In the 15th and l6th centuries the vogue for suchbooks increased tremendously. One might hazardthe opinion that the need for such référence worksbecomes more acute with a rapidly changing society,wrhere persons moving from one class to anotherlack cognizance of the social norms the older societyhad known almost instinctively. What Huizinga calledthe "Waning of the Middle Ages" saw the passing ofthe old ideals of feudalism and of functional chivalry;the new ideals of the Renaissance were to be foundin the concept of the gentleman. The newly literateclasses furnished a wider audience, the invention ofprinting a technological means of catering to thosereaders.A quarter-century ago Virgil B. Heltzel publisheda Checklist of Courtesy Books in the Newberry Library,including only books published before the appearance of Lord Chesterfield's Letters to His Son in 1774,which started a new vogue. The list contains 1,471 numbers. Some works are on conduct or religion,rather than courtesy in a narrow sensé — such asVegetius, De re militari, or the Pseudo-Bernard,Method of living well in the Christian Religion. Othertitles sound more promising, as William Prynne,Healthes Sicknesse. Or, a Compendious and briefeDiscourse; Proving, the drinking and pledging ofhealthes, to be sinfull, andutterly unlawfull unto Chris t-ians (London, 1628); another, The amorous gallant'stongue tipp'd with golden expressions; or, The art ofcourtship refined, being the best and newest academy.(13th éd.; London, 1741).It is not without interest that two of England'smost famous early printers, William Caxton andWynkyn de Worde, wrote and printed such works.Gertrude E. Noyés lists some 477 courtesy andconduct books published in England in the 17thcentury alone. To repeat, I doubt that Mrs. Postread much of this vast literature, but there was athand an impressive body of lore native to her owncountry.Arthur M. Schlesinger, père, not fils, once reviewedthis literature in America from the earliest colonialdays until 1947, showing how such spécial factorsas the lack of a hereditary aristocracy, the constantfrontier, the repeated waves of immigrants, and thescarcity of women in new settlements ail made dif-ficult the establishment of a high standard of civildeportment; and how the American became both auser and a producer of courtesy books. Thèse reflectrégional différences and successive changes in oursociety. lIt was Emily Post's fate to be born in the Americanéquivalent of the Victorian era, but to hâve doneher most important work in a period of rapid flux,of post- World War I disillusion, of new wealth, ofProhibition, of new standards of morality. How shemet the changes we may see in a brief look at herEtiquette. But certainly she had help from her prede-cessors in the field of manners, and as a proudmember of the University of Chicago and friend ofits récent Président I like to think that she mightoften hâve had occasion to consult Beadle's DimeBook of Etiquette, a Practical Guide to Good Breeding,first published in 1859 and often reprinted.It is needless to remark that breeding hère has noréférence to George W. Beadle's studies of genetics.Mrs. Post's book has an introduction by Mr. Duffy,defining étiquette and offering this interesting bitof etymology:To the French we owe the word étiquette, and it isamusing to discover its origin in the commonplacefamiliar warning — "Keep off the grass." It happenedin the reign of Louis XIV, when the gardens of Versailles were being laid out, that the master gardener,an old Scotsman, was sorely tried because his newlyseeded lawns were being continually trampled on. Tokeep trespassers off, he put up warning signs or tickets — étiquettes — on which was indicated the pathalong which to pass. But the courtiers paid no attention to thèse directions and so the determined Scotcomplained to the King in such convincing mannerthat His Majesty issued an edict commanding every-one at Court to "keep within the étiquettes. ," Graduallythe term came to cover ail rules for correct demeanorand deportment in court circles; and thus through thecenturies it has grown into use to describe the conventions sanctioned for the purpose of smoothingPersonal contacts and developing tact and good manners in social intercourse.It is embarrassing to admit that I hâve not checkedthe accuracy of this dérivation, but I am sure itwould take more power than that of Louis XIVto protect the lawns on our campus.Mrs. Post dedicated her volume "To you, myfriends whose identity in thèse pages is veiled infictional disguise." The fictional names are thoseof stock characters, drawn as it were from some 15thcentury morality play. There are Joneses, Smithsand Browns; evidently members of the chorus, butthe friends who act the principal rôles are Mr. andMrs. Worldly, Mr. Bachelor, Mrs. Younger, Constance Style, Mrs. Bobo Gilding, Mr. and Mrs. Lit-tlehouse, the Kindharts and, unbelievably, theTitherington de Puysters.Régional trade is not frowned on — for the Old South there are Mr. and Mrs. Davis Jefferson ofMt. Vernon Square and for the Midwest, the JamesonGreatlakes, with the implausible home address of24 Michigan Avenue, Chicago, with no N. or S. désignation. Emily evidently did not know our city. Oftenshe speaks in abstract generalizations — one alwaysdoes this, one never does that— but in importantmatters she tells a little story, and thèse folk are theactors in it.Those "never" and "always" dicta bother me. Earlyin her treatise Mrs. Post déclares that "few rules ofétiquette are inelastic." Then she proceeds to lardher book with such rules, only to contradict her ownlaws of the Medes and Persians with charming féminine inconsistency. ilNever speak of your husband as'Mr.' except to an inferior . . . Mr. Worldly speaks ofMrs. Worldly as 'my wife' to a gentleman, or 'Edith'in speaking to a lady. Always."No gentleman walks along the street chewing gum,or, if with a lady, smoking a cigar or cigaret. Emilymakes no spécial mention of bubble gum or chewingtobacco or smoking pot, which would suggest thatthe United States was more civilized in her daysthan in 1972 or 1852. A lady never sits on the leftside of a gentleman in a carriage."It is unheard of for a gentleman to 'take' a younggirl alone to a dance or to dine or to parties of anydescription. . ." This was written in a year in which Iwas industriously attempting to do each of thoseforbidden acts, and her interdiction ended any illusions I may hâve had about my being a gentleman,but in old âge I hâve begun to see, without approving,Emily's point of view, which is a comfortable onefor the parent or grandparent.May I put it this way? Some of Emily's "nevers"I do not like, as for instance her rule that "roast beefis never served at a dinner party". But as a staunch,conservative in everything except political and économie and social (with a little "s") matters, I sharemany of her distastes.She does not like the pretentious nor the pompous,either in persons or their diction. She speaks dis-paragingly of "the omniscience of the very rich,"illustrating her point with an example. "A professorwho has devoted his life to a subject modestly makes3ia statement. 'You are ail wrong' says the man ofmillions, 'it is this way. . ."' And in the story theprofessor lets him get away with it. Mrs. Post cer-tainly knew the very rich better than I do, but thisstory would suggest she did not know the Chicagotype of professor — or instructor or student!Yet she shows some sensé when she advises againstseating an octogenarian professor next to "anespecially attractive young woman," perhaps underthe shrewd assumption that he might make passesthat had nothing to do with a "C" grade in history.Mrs. Post has a list of words and phrases under"never say" and "correct form" that I agrée withpretty well, being a believer in the direct approach,calling a spade a spade if not indeed a goddam shovel.But when she rejects "lovely food" and accepts"lovely clothes" I part with her. Lovely is for a girlonly.Emily's list of flowery statements to avoid, begin-ning with, "Pray accept my thanks for the flatteringovation you hâve tendered me," could hâve servedas a handbook for the late Senator Dirksen. But shegets a little out of her depth when she enters thefield of literary criticism. "None of the words andexpressions which are taboo in good society," shesays, "will be found in books of proved literary standing." I hâve a long list of classics I would like to hâvetried out on Mrs. Post had I ever been invited to aformai dinner at Mrs. Worldly's, beginning say withAristophanes and ending with Rabelais or Lady Chat-terly's Lover or Ulysses (like Emily, I do not considerPortnoy's Complaint a classic).I hâve spoken of Mrs. Post's spirit of accommodation to the needs of a changing society. This may befound in such small matters as the removal of a gen-tleman's hat in an elevator or in such important matters as the chaperon. In the early éditions the chaperon is spoken of as a very necessary evil, with somefacesaving stuff about the only girl who is reallyfree is she whose chaperon is never far away.In subséquent éditions the chapter once called"The Chaperon and Other Conventions" becomes"The Vanished Chaperon and Other Lost Conven tions" and one may wonder if Emily had in mind aconvention of the DAR. She finally cornes to theradical conclusion in her last édition that "a girlis her own best chaperon." This I must remind youwas years before heterosexual occupancy of collègedormitories or the widespread knowledge of the Pill.Other additions or modifications show how Emilychanged with the times. In the early éditions, forinstance, there is no mention of hospitals. Peoplein those primitive days were born, were sick and diedin the privacy of their own homes, and Emily tellshow the visitor there should act. But in her lastédition there is a section entitled "At the Hospital,"done, I suspect, in collaboration with the AMA orBlue Shield, for it goes right down the party line withsuch sentiments as, "Visitors kill more patients thando opérations" and "Doctors and nurses are people,too." Maybe Emily had never been a patient in ahospital, waiting anxiously for a bed pan.Or take so simple a matter as a dinner date. In herfirst édition Mrs. Post wrote about customs in NewYork City: "Absolutely no lady (unless middle-aged — and even then she would be defying convention) can go to dinner or supper in a restaurantalone with a gentleman ... A very young girl maymotor around the country alone with a man, withher father's consent, or sit with him on the rocksby the sea or on a log in the woods; but she mustnot sit with him in a restaurant." Before you getscornful of Emily I hasten to remark that she wrotethis because she objected to this rule as silly, just asyou and I do. And in time she made amends, for thelast édition has a whole chapter on "Entertaining ata Restaurant" with a spécial section on "A Girl anda Man Dining Alone" without undue moralizingbut with some sage advice to the girl about goingeasy on her date's pocketbook — an obvions ployfor the maie trade.Similarly, her views of traveling and of hôtelssoftened. In 1922 the young girl traveling alone wasbeset with dangers: "She should never — above ailin a strange city . . . take a taxi on the street." ButEmily, who with her son had pioneered U.S. 30before there was a ladies' rest room along the route,says to her lady readers, if "you are of sufficientyears, well behaved and dignified in appearance, youneed hâve no fear as to the treatment you will re-ceiv'e." (Provided you tip well.)But, "A lady traveling alone with her maid [orwithout one — can you imagine that?} has her mealsalone in her own sitting-room, if she has one."By i960 Emily has loosened her stays: "There isnot the slightest reason why a woman — even thoughshe be very young and very pretty — may not stay ina hôtel by herself and hâve men corne and see herand be invited by her to lunch or dine." This is ailtoo true and is why most hôtels hâve house dicks.Emily raises one difficult problem. "In some hôtels,"she comments, "they send a maid as well as a bellboyupstairs with each woman guest. Whether the guestis to be protected from ... a bellboy, or the bellboyprotected from . . . the guest, has never been explained." Like Emily, I still am confused.It is strange that Mrs. Post, even in i960, hasnothing to say about the motel, which by that yearhad certainly found its way to the eastern seaboardshe inhabited. I do not believe that was from squeam-ishness. She handled forthrightly other morals questions, and after ail, lots of people stay ail night inmotels.The later éditions do deal with other currentproblems unheard of or unimportant in the roaringtwenties, with sections on "Travel by Airplane,""Going Steady," "At the United Nations" and thelike. One good example may be seen in the eighthédition (1945). It contains a chapter "ConcerningMilitary and Post-War Etiquette," some of thecontents being similar to the longer treatment inthe Officer's Guide that was the bible of the civilianturned soldier during World War ILBut the post- war climate is shown best by onepièce of advice: "If someone does or says somethingdefinitely threatening to our government, write aletter to the FBI or the governor of your state, orthe mayor, or to the sheriff of your township [sic/].Or if you prefer you can téléphone. In any casemake your évidence definite and brief. For example, say 'A group called the Junior Revolutionists whomeet regularly Monday evenings at 40 X Street isdistributing handbills (enclose samples).' This canhurt no one, and may help an innocent pèrson."This was five years before Joe McCarthy inaugu-rated a new era in political witch burning. Thatera has passed, and it is perhaps significant that theadvice about what to do with the Junior Revolutionists was lacking in the last (i960) édition of Etiquette.What she would say about the current équivalentsof the Junior Revolutionists one can only guess.Perhaps in light of Mr. Hoover's death she wouldadvise the patriotic citizen to check with the CIAbefore calling the FBI. But I hâve an idea that Emilywould be less concerned with their regular meetingson Monday nights or the content of their handbillsthan with their slovenly appearance and their boorishmanners.But the most important différences in the 1945édition are those describing and condoning a moreinformai pattern of social behavior and entertain-ment. Thus there is a chapter on "NeighborhoodSocial Customs" with sound counsel about Showers,the Surprise Party and the Golden Anniversary Party;a section on "Society Moves ihto the Kitchen," withsome restrained comments on "Chef-Hosts Cook,the Ladies Look On"; and a chapter on "SimpleParty-Giving" which ends with the equivocal admonition, "If you want to go to bed, don't begin games."Mrs. Post is fully aware in i960 of thèse changesin behavior and in her attitude, and of the possibledangers therefrom. She introduces Chapter 28 inthis fashion:Although today the formai dinner — or dinnerof ceremony — has almost ceased to exist andthe rrend is toward the informai or friendlydinner, it is necessary that this chapter be leftnearly as it was originally written because itsevery détail is a definite part of the complèteset of patterns from which ail détails of eventhe simplest dinner giving are chosen.So she goes on'to describe in détail a "Dinner in33a Great House," that of Mrs. Worldly. We get thefull red-carpet treatment, with butler (under nocircumstances may he sport a mustache); footmen;silver and fine linen; a six-course dinner (and JVjxs.Worldly has a heavenly chef); distinguished guestsseated with due regard for rank, présent maritalstatus and serious feuds; and conversation thatsparkles like the crystal ware. Professor Bugge wasinvited, though the hostess thought him somethingof a bore; after reading the menu I can only wish ithad been Professor Cate.Mrs. Post is right; the chapter on formai dinnersin the édition of i960 does seem very familiar toan avid reader of the earlier éditions. But in at leastone respect the more récent version shows a vastimprovement, the resuit equally of a change in thenational constitution and of Emily's continuing éducation. You will remember that during her marriedlife she had been in charge of the solid refresh-ments, her husband of the liquid. When she firstwrote Etiquette our nation had begun its noble experi-ment with Prohibition and from her account onewould guess that the bootleg industry had not yetbeen efficiently organized. So she writes in the 1925édition: "But the température and service of wines,which used to be an essential détail of every dinner,hâve now no place at ail. Whether people will offerfrappéd cider or some other iced drink in the middleof dinner, and a warmed something else to take theplace of claret with the fish, remains to be seen."Her husband Edwin would hâve been shocked thatEmily could conceive of serving warmed claret withfish, or that "most people put on at least two wineglasses, sherry and Champagne, or claret and sherry,and pour something pinkish or yellowish into them."What folio ws shows even worse taste. She writes:"Those few who still hâve cellars, serve wines exactlyas they used to, white wine, claret, sherry and bur-gundy warm, Champagne ice cold. . ." Perhaps by"warm" Mrs. Post meant room température or cavetempérature, and perhaps her préférence for warmedwhite wine was a slip of the pen, but she certainlymust hâve wasted a lot of time in France if this pas sage is the sum of her lore about wines.By contrast, the comparable section in the i960édition is sensible, though with too much attentionto Champagne. In one détail the two accounts agrée.The gentleman should be given his choice ofwhisky — scotch, bourbon, rye — which should beserved in a tall glass with only one pièce of içe.Then, she says, "The whisky is poured by the servant until the guest makes a gesture to stop." Onehopes that the gentleman had read the whole ofEtiquette before confronting this challenge.The latest édition of Etiquette (12th) was done byElizabeth L. Post, Emily's granddaughter-in-law,in 1969. It includes some changes from its prede-cessor — for instance she includes the rules for abar mitzvah as well as a christening. The référencelibrarians at Regenstein tell me there is about equalcall for Post and Amy Vanderbilt, who is somewhatmore libéral.I read Elizabeth's chapter on collège life. On ourcampus I think student manners hâve improvedsince 1969, but not from her influence. She givesno rules for conducting a sit-in or what terms maybe used in addressing a policeman. And she thinksclothes may be casual but "should always be neatand clean." What collège did she visit, and when?In her chapter on formai dinners Emily ends with asection on public dinners or luncheons — a very use-ful item in this year of political campaigns with$100 (or plus) dinners— with a diagram of the seat-ing at the speakers table. With Président Nixon'svisit to China and his trip to the U.S.S.R. in progressas I write this, I can hope he consulted Emily'sbook as well as Kissinger. Toasts seem to be of vastpolitical importance at the summit dinners and Ifind Emily's discussion of toasts most enlightening.One of the examples she cites is of no use to thePrésident, but I should like to quote it in closing:"To the Professor! May he live to be a hundred andhis teaching endure a thousand years." I can onlyadd, "Hear, hear!"34Quadrangle IN^wsTwo Chicago men in CabinetIn the spring of 1972 the Universityfound itself, almost suddenly, with twoof its own in the Cabinet, a situationold University hands could not recallhaving occurred before.In February Peter G. Peterson(MBA '51) moved up to becomeSecretary of Commerce. In May ,George P. Shultz, former dean ofthe School of Business, who had beensuccessively Secretary of Labor andhead of the then-new Office ofManagement and Budget, movedacross Pennsylvania Avenue to beSecretary of the Treasury.A Northwestern University graduate,Pete Peterson moved from MarketFacts, a Chicago market researchorganization, to McCann-Erickson,where he became a vice-président atthe âge of 27; and thence to one ofthat advertising agency's major clients,Bell and Howell, where he becameprésident at âge 34. In 1971 he leftthe company 's chairmanship to joinPrésident Nixon's White House staff.George Shultz, a Princeton man,received his Ph.D. from MassachusettsInstitute of Technology and taughtthere for ten years before coming to theUniversity of Chicago in 1957 asprofessor of industrial relations in theGraduate School of Business. In 1962he became dean of the business schooland served in that position until hejoined Président Nixon's cabinet in1969.Torrïado spawner to the worldUp to ninety percent of the world's tor-nadoes are spawned within 2,000 milesof Chicago, Tetsuya T. Fujita, professorin the Department of the GeophysicalSciences and in the Collège, told acampus audience this spring, as theMay-July tornado season a^proached.The 879 tornadoes that swept theworld m 1971 made it the third biggest tornado year in history, exceeded onlyby the 912 in 1967 and the 899 in1965, he said.Professor Fujita has intensivelystudied storms for twenty years, andhas become known to his colleaguesas "Mr. Tornado." He hopes ultimatelyto learn how to predict and perhapsto modify the violent storms throughresearch with a machine which he de-signed and built to create miniaturetornadoes in his laboratory.The second participant in the discussion, David Atlas, professor in theDepartment of the Geophysical Sciences and in the Collège, is a specialistin clear-air turbulence and the use ofradar for weather observation. Atlasmade the first radar picture of a hurri-cane for the Air Force twenty-sevenyears ago. He is currently probingnovel methods of pinpointing hail andsevere turbulence in storms, a particularhazard to aircraft.Atlas received a 1972 patent for anew radar technique which, he says,holds promise in detecting turbulenceand appears to hâve applicabiiity indetecting the birth and intensity oftornadoes with greater accuracy thanever before.Brinkman succeeds HughesJohn A. Brinkman (PhD'62) has beennamed director of the Oriental Institute for a three-year term, effectiveJuly 1. He succeeds George R. Flughes(PhD'39), who was appointed directorin 1968, and will continue as professorof Egyptology. Hughes joined the fac-ulty of the Oriental Institute in 1934and has been associated with it eversince, except for a four-year period(1942-46) duringthe second World War.Hughes served as field director ofthe Epigraphic Survey at the Institute 'sLuxor headquarters from 1949 until1964.Brinkman, professor of Mesopo- tamian history and chairman of theDepartment of Near Eastern Languagesand Çivilizations, is an authority onthe political and social history ofBabylonia and Assyria. He joined theUniversity faculty in 1964.Dr. Bloom die s at 72Dr. William Bloom, the Charles H.Swift Distinguished Service ProfessorEmeritus in the Departments of Anat-omy and Biophysics, who had been amember of the University's scientificcommunity since 1926, died May 11at the âge of 72. An internationallyknown scientist, whose work includedcontributions to the knowledge of theprocesses of bone formation and therôle of blood forming cells in im-munology, Dr. Bloom published hismost récent paper in 1971, reportingan électron microscope study of theprocess of cell division.Gutmann fund uses approvedThé Roy Gutmann Mémorial Fund,established to honor the memory ofRoy Gutmann, a student in the Collège, who was killed near the campusmore than four years ago, has beendesignated to support, and, it is hoped,to endow (1) the Chicago ReviewSpeakers Séries, whose aim is to bringunpublished poets to the Midway forreadings, and (2) the informai concertsin Harper Library. Thèse purposes,which are in harmony with Roy Gut-mann's own activities and interests,were chosen as being appropriate underthe goal established for gifts to thefund — the improvement of the qualityof student life in the Collège. HermanL. Sinaiko, associate professor of thehumanities and new Collegiate divisions, is chairman of the fund committee. Gifts should be addressed tothe Roy Gutmann Mémorial Fund,The University of Chicago, 5801 EllisAve., Chicago, 111. 60637.35'BooksIf Men Were AngelsMilton MayerMany years ago the Lord commissionedJeremiah to go forth and read the riotact to the faithless. It has never beenestablished who it was that commissioned Milton Mayer (X'32) to do iîke-wise, but he has been doing it for atleast forty years, with growing conviction and éloquence. In his newestbook, If Men Were Angels (Atheneum:New York, 1972. $12.50. Copyright ©1970, 1972 by Milton Mayer.), hedévotes ninety or so pages to each offour topics: "The New Man," "Man vs.the State," "The Theory and Practiceof Death," and "The Young: TheirCause and Cure." (Portions of thèseessays hâve been separately publishedpreviously.) Mayer is professor ofEnglish at the University of Massachusetts and professor of the humanities atWindham Collège. He is also rovingeditor of The Progressive and consultant to the Center for the Study ofDémocratie Institutions and GreatBooks Foundation.Perhaps the simplest way to conveythe flavor of Mayer's thinking and thetrenchant informality (or informaitrenchancy?) of his prose is to offersome Mayerisms from the book (whichare in addition to his poetic passage onthe perishability of mankind, whichfaces Page 1 of this issue):Does the law set the limits of liberty?What is there to keep the law fromsetting the iimit at no liberty at ail?Does the individual hâve rights thatthe law invades at its péril and not his?And if not, is not every state totalitar-ian in nature, however limited theactualization of its totalitarian natureunder prevailing conditions?You hâve but to turn to the rightpage in the right édition of Dr.Benjamin Spock's baby bible to discover that Dr. Benjamin Spock, aman and a hero, did not know howone makes a man of a child or ahero of a pediatrician. . . .©Permissiveness doesn't hâve to beparental. Our génération achieved iton its own, having granted ourselvesthe great permission to kill as manypeople as we could of every âgeand condition. After the saturationbombing of open Dresden — to notifythe Russians that thafs how far eastwe could do it — why not Hiroshima?After Hiroshima, why not My Lai?After My Lai, why not?©.It is the prospect of death that giveslife its form and its meaning, that giveslove its poignancy, that occasionsconcern and kindness and consolation. And time; as Heidegger pointsout, we really know time because weknow we are going to die. Without thispassionate realization of our mortality,time would simply be a meaninglesscircle of the clock. For man is not intime, but time in man. It is not timethat marches on, but we.©If their war cry were "Ail Power to theSoviets" and they established theirsoviets, something half serious mightbe made of it. But what can be madeof that beat-up banality, "Ail Powerto the People"? What do they mean,long of nothing at ail? The peopleunder thirty (and over what?)? Thewhite people under thirty? The maiesunder thirty? The white maies underthirty? The while maie collegians? Thedropouts, the pushed-outs, the flunk-outs, the fall-outs, the goof-offs? Theascetics, the acid-heads, the deadheads,the God-is-dead-heads, the Buddhists?The meditationists, the rappists? Themacrobioticians, the doughnuticians?The solitaries, the communitarians,the fists, the pacifists, the resisters, thedeserters, the dodgers? The drones, thesoldiers, the queens, the staliions, the eestatics, the social workers, the antisocial nonworkers? Are some of thePeople-— such as the hard-hats and skinheads and rednecks— to hâve some ofthe power? (They are people, too,aren't they?) The police, or pigs? (Oraren't they people?) And how are thePeople, when they hâve the power, toexercise it. differently from the way itis exercised in the nonparticipatorydemocracy of the présent arrangement?Straight-line reasoning — out with it, andup the mummery.®Peacetime conscription, said WoodrowWilsofl at Versailles, was "the rootevil of Prussianism." In 1948, afterPrussianism had been destroyed notonce but twice, the American peoplefastened its root evil on their newbornbabes; and its opponents.were ridiculedwhen they predicted that it wouldchange the very character of Americansociety and would never corne un-fastened.eThey are wrong, too; but their wrongsare ail ours. They are wrong to spurnwhat Spiro Agnew calls the enduringvalues. Common honesty and industry,rainy-day t'hrift, the préservation ofproper property (I lock up my fiddleand my annotated books against them),the respect for the authority of excellence (and the cultivation of its récognition), self-denial, restraint, reserve(in thought and feeling, and not just inlanguage), piety, filial piety, solitude,study, sanitation as a bulwark of publicno less than private health — thèse areenduring values, even though SpiroAgnew says they are.®I love them not. Lovelessly I love themnot. I love them not, because theirinsolent feet are dirty. I love them not,because they love not the loveless. Ilove them not, because they are right.I love them not, because I forgivethem not, and I forgive them not fortheir reminding me that I was young.36She Lives!Paul G. NewmarkShe Lives! (Nash Publishing: Los Angeles, 1972) is a first novel about twoeighteen-year-olds, Andy and Pam, whono sooner begin to enjoy the delightsof first love than they find themselvesin a desperate struggle against deathin the form of Pam's cancer. The storyemploys an ingenious scientific deus exmachina for its solution; its dialogueand action add up to a painfully faithfuldelineation of the ways of at least onesegment of the rebellions young. Alarge portion of the book has a University of Chicago setting.Mr. Neimark (X'54) has collaboratedwith Jesse Owens on the latter'sBlackthink (Morrow: New York, 1970)and with Chicago' s famed and irrépres sible police officer, Jack Muller, on /,Pig (Morrow: New York, 1971).Work, Society and CultureYves SimonA conscientious exploration of thethree concepts making up its title,Work, Society and Culture (FordhamUniversity Press: New York, 1971)is the sixth volume of Professor Si-mon's work to be published post-humously. The text has been edited byVukan Kuic, professor of politicalscience at the University of SouthCarolina.Professor Simon, who taught at theUniversity of Chicago during the lastthirteen years of his life (note commèn-tary below), keeps his discussion on anabstract level, but in his examination of the concepts of work and culture,and of the place of each in society,he créâtes définirions which call for theacceptance in culture of the contribution of the worker and the réévaluation by society of the worker's rôle."It is my feeling," Simon writes, "thatour best immédiate chances to begin todevelop the culture with a contemplative idéal may lie in promotingcollaboration between ail kinds oftechnical work and the fine arts."Referring to the rapid growth of tech-nological development and its capacityto enhance creativity, he says, "I believe that once thèse créative possibilités are fully recognized, modemtechnology, traditionally held to behostile to culture, could become animportant contributing factor to thedevelopment of a truly humanisticculture."John U. Nef recalls Yves SimonYves R. Simon was professor of philosophy in theCommittee on Social Thought of the University ofChicago from 1948 until his death in 1961. A nativeof France, he was educated at the Sorbonne and theCatholic University of Paris. In 1938, after eightyears of teaching at Paris and at Lille, he came to theUnited States, where he joined the faculty of theUniversity of Notre Dame. A décade later he came toChicago.A non-specialized philosopher by principle, hewrote on a variety of subjects, including ethics, meta-physics, political and social philosophy, logic, and therelationship of science and philosophy. He also wasan out standtng teacher; his clarity and his àbilityto relate complex problems to everyday events left anWhat characterized Yves Simon, as we knew himin the Committee on Social Thought, was dévotionto his créative work both as a philosopher and asa teacher. He joined us in 1948 after some yearswith the faculty of Notre Dame University. Untilhis death, he was a necessary part of this uniqueenterprise in the higher learning which cuts acrossail depàrtmentàl and divisional lines.Fpr him the writing and the teaching of phi- indelible stamp on his students.At the time of his death, Professor Simon was com-pleting a set of twenty-one books to be published asPhilosophical Inquiries. Six of thèse volumes hâvenow been published posthumously: A General Theoryof Authority (1962), The Tradition of NaturalLaw (1965), Freedom and Community (1968),Freedom of Choice (1969), The Great Dialogueof Nature and Space (1970) and Work, Societyand Culture (1971), which contains a complèteYves Simon bibliography.Follpwing is a tribu te to Professor Simon by JohnU. Nef, professor emeritus and founder of the Committee on Social Thought and chairman emeritus ofthe Center for Human Understanding.losophy were inséparable. One neyër got in theway of the other. Both were the bread of his life,nourishment* without which he would hâvestarved.I do not know just when his extraordinary loveof the calling was born in him. Like ail intense anddeep expériences it must hâve corne early, longbefore I first met him forty-five years ago. Butfrom a conversation I had with him some years37before his illness, in the grubby PennsylvaniaRailroad shelter of the Englewood Station at63rd Street (when we were both seeing JacquesMaritain off to Princeton after his annual visit tothe Committee on Social Thought), I feel certainthat he owed much to Maritain. Maritain's influence as a teacher was very différent from thatof most other great teachers. It was an inspiredintuitive influence. That evening Yves told usboth how his dévotion had caught fire in one ofMaritain's lectures when he was an adolescentstudent in the Institut Catholique in Paris duringthe early 1920s. From that day Yves Simon wasnever able to separate his life from his work.This association with Maritain's flame is themore impressive because temperamentally, asstudent, writer, teacher, Simon hardly resembledMaritain save for the fact that they were both bredin Thomistic philosophy and Simon got his introduction to that philosophy from Maritain.What were Simon's relations to the intentionsand the purposes of the Committee on SocialThought? Simon gave it the last fifteen years ofwhat is now considered a relatively short life. Inthis new, mid-twentieth century world of abundantlife, the only alternative to a settlement of themost serions issues by force is their settlement onthe basis of principles which need to be recognizedeverywhere as having validity. How shall thèseprinciples be discovered and this validity be recog-nized? This is a fundamental problem which ledme to take the initiative in founding and maintain-ing the Committee on Social Thought, which wasestablished in 1942.The unprecedented need for universal under-standing and love that confronts men and womeneverywhere today calls for new kinds of effortsin every phase of human endeavor. In the effortswe are making in higher learning two things arealso essential, and in both Yves Simon proved aforce beyond our expectations when he wasappointed professor in the Committee on SocialThought. One of thèse is a belief in the reality of !truth, in the realm of being and the capacity, byresearch in philosophy, to edge a little closer to it. Simon had this belief and this capacity.The other essential thing for our instructionin the committee is the inculcation in our studentsof the most rigorous and most disciplined thought.And hère as a teacher, Yves Simon's gifts anddedication were perhaps unequaled; they wereprobably greater even than those considérableones he possessed in the realm of créative philosophy.I remember an evening, long ago, when I wasgiving a lecture at St. Mary's Collège in SouthBend. Simon was among the guests whom SisterMadeleva, then the président of St. Mary's, hadinvited to dine with me. In the course of the dinnerI asked Yves about a point in philosophy I hadnever understood. I was astonished by his amazinglucidity in leading another mind (in this case mine)to the heart of the matter. He loved this Personalinstruction to a point where it became a part ofhis own créative thought. For the fifteen years hewas with us, he worked with his students in hislittle office in the social sciences building of theUniversity of Chicago often for eleven or twelvehours a day in that direct discourse of the kind thathe offered me that evening.Unity in variety of outlook is essential to thepurpose of the Committee on Social Thought.What Yves gave the students was the capacityto search for it themselves seriously, carefully,disinterestedly and with confidence. He neversought to impose his own views or beliefs in connection with this kind of teaching. And so hiswork as a teacher was indispensible in buildingup the common uni verse of discourse which existsamong our students as well as our faculty, in spiteof their many beliefs and tongues.So Simon's double dedication, in which researchand teaching were inséparable, has been essentialto this institute of ours. He has played a necessarypart in this experiment, which has aroused hopein the hearts of many promising young Americansand at the same time in the hearts of other personsail over the globe.JOHN U. NEFWashington, D.C.alumni Zh(ewsClub events Class notesCHICAGO: Friday, May 5, was openingnight for Blackfriars' revival of "TheDeceitful Dean," first performed bythe University of Chicago MusicalSociety in 1899. The show attractedover 1,200 people— students andalumni — to its three performances. Theopening was followed by a wine andcheese party for alumni and east.The Emeritus Club met for itsannual day on campus on May 6. Thegroup participated in an estate planningseminar given by Linda J. Thoren(AB'64, jd'67), assistant vice-présidentfor development; then they toured thenew Pick Hall for International Studiesand heard Chauncy Harris, the SamuelN. Harper professor of geography anddirector of the Center for InternationalStudies, talk about the University'sinternational relations programs. Acampus bus tour and lunch at theQuadrangle Club followed; the newCollège film was also shown. ArthurBaer (PhB'18) is the Emeritus Club'snew président, succeeding AlbertPick (phB'17).The third in a séries of "Mass Media72" programs was co-sponsored by theAlumni Association and the Center forPolicy Study on May 15. Entitled "TheDollar and the Vote: Nixonomics andElection Year Politics," the symposiumfèatured Arnold Weber, the Isidoreand Gladys J. Brown professor ofurban and labor économies and formerexecutive director of Président Nixon'sCost of Living Council; Hobart Rowen,assistant managing editor for businessand finance on the Washington Post;Béryl Sprinkel, senior yice-presidentand economist for the Harris Trust andSavings Bank of Chicago; and WalterFackler, professor of business économies and director of managementprograms, moderator.DENVER: "Children of the Dream" was the title of Bruno Bettelheim's addressto Denver alumni on May 10. JoyceKligerman Newman (PhD'55) is président of the Denver club.LOS ANGELES: "Election 72" was thesubject of a symposium sponsored bythe Los Angeles club on June 13. Participants were William P. Gerberding(AM'56, PhD'59), chairman of thepolitical science department at UCLA;Howard Miller (JD'60), professor oflaw at the University of SouthernCalifornia and regular participant inthe télévision séries, "The Advocates";and Richard C. Bergholz, politicalwriter for the Los Angeles Times. Theclub's distinguished alumnus award waspresented to Norman Barker, Jr.(ab'44, mba'53)./ .NORTHWEST INDIANA: Norval Morrisspoke on ' Attica Revisited" to thenew Northwest Indiana club June 15.PROVIDENCE: The spring dinner of theUniversity of Chicago Club of Providence was held on May 24. ArthurNayer, director of alumni affairs, spoketo the group and answered questions,and the film, The Collège — The University of Chicago, was shown.SEATTLE: Bruno Bettelheim addressedSeattle alumni and guests on May 22.His talk, entitled "Children of theDream," dealt with child rearing on theIsraeli kibbutzim. Richard C. Reed(ab'43, jd'48) served as chairman.WESTERN SUBURBS, CHICAGO: Alumniof Hinsdale, Downers Grove andvicinity had the opportunity to take asociological bus tour of the city ofChicago on April 30. The tour is along-standing tradition of the Univer-sity's sociology department; it was thefirst such opportunity ofïered to alumni. ^ IN MEMORIAM: Fred L. Adair>vl MD'01, the Mary Campau Ryersonprofessor emeritus of obstetrics andgynecology at the University of Chicago; Ernest L. Talbert, ab'01, phD'09;Mabel Hauk Thundere, PhB'01.^^ HARVEY M. SOLENBERGER,XjJm PhB'02, was one of three chartermembers of the Springfield (111.) Ki-wanis Club profiled recently in the(Springfield) Illinois State Journal. Theoldest retired general-agent of theMutual Benefit Life Insurance Company, Mr. Solenberger was active inMasonic work for many years. A pasjtpresiding officer (and a fifty-yèar mem-ber) of his lodge, he was honored withthe thirty-third degree in Masonry in1920 and is now the oldest thirty-thirddegree Mason in point of service in thestate of Illinois.IN MEMORIAM: Sylvanus G. Lee,PhB'02.. \ !Q RAYNA SIMONS WALLBRUNN,^ AB'04, am'06, who turned ninetyon May 17, was feted at the Winnetka(111.) home of her daughter, JANEWALLBRUNN SECTER, SB'33, and son-in-law in honor of the occasion.Ar IN MEMORIAM: Alice Seton<y Thompson Berens, AB'Q5; EmmaPerry Carr, SB'05, PhD' 10; WaylandW. Magee, SB'05.QIN MEMORIAM: John CarltonUOBurton, phB'08; George AngusGarrett, x'08; Ruth Porter Scholfield,PhB'08; Joshua C. Witt, SB'08.tht IN MEMORIAM: George R.RJ Johnstone, SM'17, PhD'24; DonaldE. Nichols, x'17;Edwin L. Weisl,PhB'17, JD' 19.Q IN MEMORIAM: Gordon G.ÎO Allison, Sr., SB'18; Edwin Bow-man Cunningham, AM'18; RobertMcKnight, PhB'18.39|A in MEMORIAM: Alvia Brockway,y SB5 19, MD'21; John W. Fréy,SB'19; Miriam H. Steinmiiler, PhB'19.2^ WALTER L. SHIRLEY, PtlB'23,3 Indianapolis, because of his rôlein founding and directing the LionsCancer Control Fund of Indiana, wasgiven prominent mention in the Janu-ary, 1972, Lion, officiai publication ofLions International. Mr. Shirley isprésident of Shirley Brothers Company,multiple mortuaries, and of Chamberlin-Shirley, Inc., engravers and thermog-raphers.^ ^HAROLD A. ANDERSON, Phfi'24,TTAM'26, member of the éducationfaculty at North Park Collège inChicago for the last five years, is retir-ing after a forty-eight year teachingcareer. Mr. Anderson taught Englishat the University of Chicago HighSchool beginning in the fall of 1924.He later joined UC's department oféducation faculty where he served untilhis retirement from the University in1967 after forty-three years on thatfaculty including four years in Pakistanon a Ford Foundation-University ofChicago éducation project. Upon hisreturn from Pakistan, he began teaching at North Park Collège which, in1964, conferred upon him the honorarydegree of doctor of humane letters.IN MEMORIAM: Edwin H. Forkel,SB'24; James H. Taylor, PhD'24.^jr MARY WINGFIELD SCOTT, AM'25,3 PhD'36, was guest of honorrecently at a réception given for her bythe Valentine Muséum, Richmond, Va.,which in February reissued her book,Old Houses of Richmond, by populardemand. Copies of the first édition,published by the muséum in 1941, hâvebecome collectors' items due to arécent revival of interest in the town'shistoric buildings. The book, which themuséum sells for $4.95, is arrangedchronologically, with photographsand descriptions of more than a hundred houses. Also the author of Old Richmond Neighborhoods, Miss Scott hasbeen a moving force in historic préservation in Richmond.f WILLIAM J. DAVIS, PhD'26, formerZO gênerai manager and secretary ofthe Trade Association, addressed theTryon (N.C.) Rotary Club recently onthe topic, ''Crime on Wheels." TheTrade Association, which Mr. Davisserved for twenty years until his retirement to Tryon, represented some 470insurance companies and assisted inlaw enforcement dealing with stolencars.IN MEMORIAM: Anne L. Bohning,md'26; Esther Flexner Classer, PhB'26.21 PAUL E. MATHIAS, LLB'27,J Bloomington, 111., has beennamed by the American Cancer Societyto head the residential crusade for hiscounty.2Q STANLEY A. FERGUSON, PhB'29,y executive director, UniversityHospitals of Cleveland, has been namedto receive the American HospitalAssociation^ distinguished serviceaward, presented annually for outstand-ing service in the hospital field. Mr.Ferguson, at one time superintendentand business manager at ChicagoLying-In Hospital, University of Chicago Hospitals and Clinics, has servedon the AHA's board of trustées andwas président of the group in 1964.MELANIE LOEWENTHAL PFLAUM,PhB'29, has had her sixth novel, SecondConquest, published by Univers Press,Christchurch, New Zealand. The storyis set in Puerto Rico, where she andher husband lived for ten years whileboth were on the teaching staff ofInter- American University. Not longago, while Mrs. Pflaum was promotingthe French translation of an earlierwork, Gentle Tyrants, the Pflaumspurchased a house in Spain, the ful-fillment of a dream they hâve had sinceliving in that country many years agoprior to World War II, when sherepresented the Scripps-Howard Syn- didate and he was a United Presscorrespondent. Mrs. Pflaum is currentlyfinishing up a novel set in NewZealand.3J ALICE L. EBEL, AM'31, a Repub-s) lican, held her seat on the McLeanCounty (111.) board in this spring sélection. Retired head of the politicalscience department at Illinois StateUniversity, Miss Ebel, a résident ofNormal, 111., has been assistant NormalTownship supervisor since 1961.IN MEMORIAM: Théodore Robinson,JD'31.O^ BRUNSWICK A. BAGDON, PhB'32,3 régional director of the govern-ment's Bureau of Labor Statistics, waspresented with a Distinguished CareerService Award by Secretary of LaborJames D. Hodgson. A résident ofAtlanta, Mr. Bagdon's fédéral servicespans a period of thirty years.^% ^% ervin E. BEISEL, PhB'33, has been3 3 elected chairman of the board ofPepsi-Cola General Bottiers, Inc.,headquartered in Chicago. A directorof the National Soft Drink Association,Mr. Beisel is also active in the NationalPepsi-Cola Bottiers Association, theIllinois Soft Drink Association andthe Illinois Pepsi-Cola Bottiers Association.ANNA L. KEATON, PnD'33, dean ofwomen emerita, Illinois State University, recently gave a slide présentation,"Engiand and Its Cathedrals," at theWithers Public Library, Bloomington,I1L, as part of a community adultéducation program.IN MEMORIAM: Samuel S. Platt,SB'33, md'37; James Daniel Powell,am'33, PhD'39; Austin B. Wilder,PhD'33.3» A LYNTON K. CALDWELL, PhB'34,^3 ¦ PhD'43, Arthur F. Bentley professor of political science at IndianaUniversity, has authored another bookon the environment and environmentalpolicy, In Défense of Earth: International40Protection of the Biosphère, publishedMay 22 by Indiana University Press.In the book Professor Caldwell présents a program for safeguarding thebiosphère. He relates what has beendone to date and indicates how thework of the existing network of ecologyorganizations can be strengthened andextended to moderate the environ-mental crisis. Recently appointed byPrésident Nixon to a national board onrecycling policy, Professor Caldwellhas also written Environment: A Challenge to Modem Society, selected by theIndiana Writers Conférence as one ofthe outstanding books of 1970, andMan and Environment: Public Policyand Administration."J f" JEROME STOWELL, PnB'35, au-3 J ditioned and accepted by theChicago Symphony Orchestra — at thetime conducted by Frederick A. Stock— back in 1936, has obviously becomea mainstay of the woodwind section,since he is still with the famed musicalorganization as associate first clari-netist and E-flat clarinetist. In additionto his orchestral activities, Mr. Stowellteaches clarinet at both Northwesternand DePaul Universities and, until ayear ago, performed with the ChicagoSymphony Woodwind Quintet. He andhis wife live in Oak Park and hâve twochildren, both married.IN MEMORIAM: Marie C. Berger,AB'35, JD'38; Sylvia Gross Hauser,PhB'35, am'38; Maurice Kliers, AB'35.QiTruth mandeville leverton,3J PhD'37, science ad viser (nutrition)for the U. S. Department of Agriculture^ agricultural research service, isone of six fédéral employées chosento receive this year's Fédéral Woman'sAward. Dr. Leverton planned and di-rected the most extensive survey offood consumption and dietary levelsever attempted in this country, asurvey which was the first to yield dataon both individual and family eatinghabits.IN MEMORIAM: Lois Ross Lowe,AB'37. OQHAROLD M. BREZ, SB'38, El3 Cerrito, Califi, West Coast gêneraimanager for International Chemical, Corporation, has been elected a fellowof the American Institute of Chemists.IN MEMORIAM: Warren C Wright,AM'38.Q QA sélection of the portraits and3 >^paintings in oil and watercolorof PHYLLIS SILVERTRUST SANDOCK,AB'39, were put on exhibition earlierthis year at the YWCA Art Galleryin South Bend, Ind. Mrs. Sandock hasexhibited her work previously in theMichiana Show, at St. Mary's Collège,and won a first prize in the IndianaState Médical Association Art Show.^QBUNDHIT KANTABUTRA, MBA'40,¦ Bangkok, Thailand, writes that heresigned from government service inSeptember, 1970, and has establishedhis own consulting actuary firm, Kan-tabutra and Associates (Bangkok).Professor Kantabutra was elected tofellowship in the American StatisticalAssociation this April.RUSSELL J. PARSONS, AB'40, JD'42,has been elected vice-président andgênerai counsel of the Borg-WarnerCorporation, Chicago. Mr. Parsons, amember of UC's Alumni Cabinet, willcontinue to serve as secretary of thecorporation, a position he assumed in1965. He, his wife and three childrenlive in Hinsdale.A T JOHN PAUL JONES, AM'4l, actingT" président of Jarvis ChristianCollège (Hawkins, Tex.) since August,1971, was elected président of theschool by unanimous vote of the boardon March 8. At Columbia University,where he studied for three years fol-lowing graduation from the Universityof Chicago, Président Jones was a fellowof the General Education Board, afellow of the Southern FellowshipsFund, and a fellow of the United NegroCollège Fund. He has been listed inWho' s Who in the South and Southwest,and is a member of Phi Delta Kappa and Kappa Delta Pi.4^MIKE ALEXANDROFF, X'42, sincethe late 1950s président ofColumbia Collège in Chicago, a schoolof the communicative arts, "may bethe only collège président in thecountry" who carries around a vintage1954 Willie May s bubble gum card."To me," he confided to the ChicagoSun-Times' Tom Fitzpatrick, "baseballis still the greatest American game."A f-ROBERT J. GNAEDINGER, JR.,HT Jsb'45, SM'50, PhD'51, HighlandPark, 111., has been issued a patent fora device which should implement theconstruction of structurally sounderbuildings. The patent covers a methôdand apparatus for embedment in thebottom of concrète caisson foundationsfor major structures which, after settingof the concrète, can be used to indicatethe possible présence of voids orzones of weakness in the caisson bydirect measurement of the amplitude,frequency, and velocity of sonic wavestransmitted to the surface of the caisson from the buried apparatus. It isanticipated that the device will increasethe level of assurance that builders andowners of major structures will hâvethat caisson foundations hâve in factbeen properly constructed.IN MEMORIAM: Jane Barber Apple-man, PhB'45.A /^B. EVERARD BLANCHARD, AM'46,T" director of educational fieldservices at DePaul University, Chicago,had an article published in the winter,1972, issue of Illinois School Research,a publication of the Illinois Associationof Supervision and Curriculum Development, entitled "Improving TeacherEffectiveness." The substance of thepièce was a research project preparedfor and presented at a Keene (N.H.)State Teachers Collège educationalconférence.IN MEMORIAM: James H. Cheney,MBA'46.41A^I ROBERT W. MURPHY, MBA'47, has%J been elected executive vice-président of the Borg-Warner Corporation, Chicago, and will continuein his présent capacity as chairmanof the executive committee of theboard of directors. Mr. Murphy, whojoined Borg-Warner as an attorneyin 1937, was appointed in 1970 byGovernor Ogilvie to the post of vicechairman of the Illinois EducationalFacilities Authority, which is authorizedto issue revenue bonds to assist accred-ited private collèges in the rénovationand construction of school buildings.^Qmelvene draheim hardee,Tr PhD'48, was one of fourteeneducators invited by the director-general for éducation of the UnitedNations Educational, Scientific, andCultural Organization (UNESCO) toparticipate in a round table on the rôleand nature of higher éducation whichconvened in Manila in April. Mrs.Hardee, professor of higher éducationat Florida State University, Tallahassee,contributed from her study of the rôleof students in governance of higheréducation in the United States.iQ NEWELL A. JOHNSON, MD'49,nry Covina, Calif., pediatrician, left inApril for a two-month tour of serviceaboard the medical-teaching ship S. S.Hope in Natal, Brazil. A staff memberat Magan Médical Clinic in Covina anda clinical associate professor of pedi-atrics at the University of SouthernCalifornia School of Medicine, Dr.Johnson served aboard the hospital shipin 1964 during its health and médicaltraining program in Ecuador.r"QHARRY fisher, ab'50, jd'53,3 public relations director of a St.Louis advertising agency, wrote thetext for "Listen, Corinth," a new inter-denominational Easter hymn which,within one month following its com-pletion on February 24 of this year,had been sung on four continents. Firstsung publicly by the adult Bible class of Bethel Lutheran Church (UniversityCity, Mo.) of which Mr. Fisher is amember, the hymn was quickly for-warded by class members to variousfriends and relatives in Europe andAsia, and then on March 22 was trans-mitted personally by the author at ahospital in Nairobi, Kenya, to Christianmissionaries stationed in East Africa.£¦ J VIRGINIA B. LONGEST, AM'51,3 as new director of nursing servicefor the Vétérans Administration, willsupervise the more than 47,000 nursing personnel in hospitals and out-patient clinics. Miss Longest has beenassistant director of nursing servicefor the VA since 1964.|"^> EDWARD N. KOENIG, MBA'53,3 3 has been elected to the board ofdirectors of Glenview State Bank. Président of Koenig & Strey, Inc., realtorswith offices in the suburban Chicagotowns of Glenview, Wilmette, North-brook and Deerfield, Mr. Koenig isalso the principal of Koenig & StreyInvestment Properties, Inc., andSecurities, Inc. of Glenview.JT|"STANTON T. FRIEDMAN, SB'55,33 sm'56, who spent fourteen yearsin industry working on nuclear aircraft,nuclear rockets, fusion rockets, andnuclear powerplants for space andearthbound applications, has beenlecturing widely, guesting on nationallytelevised talk shows, and writing pro-lifically to publicize his firm convictionthat flying saucers are 'real'. Nowdirector of the California UFO (uniden-tified flying object) Research Institutein Lawndale, Calif, which acts as aclearing house for UFO sightings andconducts on-the-spot investigations ofsightings occurring within a 150-mileradius of Los Angeles, Friedman saysthat despite kooks and frauds, sightingsare quite common, but many people,fearing ridicule, are afraid to talkabout them. Friedman, whose belief isbased on thirteen years of study andinvestigation, blâmes the Air Force, the principal governmental UFO in-vestigative body, for deceiving thepublic about ÙFOs. "In case aftercase," he says, "eyewitness testimonyand officiai explanations don't match."Although sightings differ, most UFOs,according to Friedman, are described asrounded, symmetric, wingless metallicobjects from fifteen to more than ahundred feet in diameter, able tohover, to fly vertically and horizontallyat very high speeds, and to makealmost right-angle turns, usually noise-lessly. He has been with the GeneralElectric aircraft nuclear propulsiondepartment in Cincinnati, AerojetGeneral Nucleonics near San Francisco,the Westinghouse Astronuclear Labora-tory in Pittsburgh and, most recently,with TRW Systems in Redondo Beach,Calif.T^WILLIAM P. GERBERDING, AM'56,3 PhD'59, will be leaving UCLA onJuly 1 to become dean of the faculty,vice-président for académie affairs, andprofessor of political science at Occidental Collège (Los Angeles). Aspecialist in American politics andforeign policy, Dr. Gerberding haspublished two books: United StatesForeign Policy: Perspectives and Analysis(McGraw-Hill, 1966), and The RadicalLeft: The Abuse of Discontent edited withDuane E. Smith (Houghton-Mifïlin,1970). Also active in governmentwork, he worked as research assistantto Senator Eugène McCarthy in i960.f-'-JJEAN CRAVEN MICKEY, AM'57,J J teaches at Emma Willard School,a private girls' school located in Troy,N.Y.£-QTHEODORE S. WEYMOUTH,3 >7mba'59, has been elected financialvice-président and chief financial officerof Marlennan Corporation. Mr. Wey-mouth joined the firm in the fall of1970 after serving eleven years in theChicago office of Arthur Anderson &Company. During his student days onthe Midway, along with other distinctions, he was bookkeeper for the42Alumni Association.IN MEMORIAM: George K. McGuire,PhD'59; Donald N. Pritzker, JD'59.S ^CLAUDE H. GIANETTO, MD'60,Ov/his wife and three sons, hâvemoved from Alton, 111., to Longmont,Colo. A specialist in internai medicine,Dr. Gianetto will be sharing office spacewith two other doctors for the timebeing.TERENCE M. O'NEIL, MBA'60, hasbeen appointed manage of industrialsales for Peter Eckrich and Sons, méatspecialty firm with headquarters inFort Wayne, Ind., which producessome 150 kinds of sausages and otherproducts.IN MEMORIAM: Léonard S. Rhynus,MBA'60. lf DAVID F. GREENBERG, SB'62,v)2sm'63, PhD'69, formerly researchphysicist at Carnegie-Mellôn Universityand social science instructor at Columbia Collège, has been appointedsenior fellow of the Committee forthe Study of Incarcération, Washington, D.C. Struggle for Justice: AReport on Crime and Punishment inAmerica, a book on which he collabo-rated, has just been published by Hilland Wang.A^> BENJAMIN C. RAY, AM'63, AM'67,3 PhD'71, assistant professor ofreligion at Princeton University, is inUganda, where he is visiting professorof religious studies and sociology atMakarçre University in Kampala,thanks to an American Council ofLearned Societies study fellowshipgrant for interdisciplinary research inthe history of religions and Africanstudies. Dr. Ray plans to do additionalwork at the University of Idadan. Hiswife, MARUTA LIETINS RAY, doctoralcandidate in Germanie studies at theUniversity of Chicago, will teachat Rider Collège, near Princeton, nextfall.RAYMOND B. WILLIAMS, AM'63,PhD'66, associate professor of religionat Wabash Collège, Crawfords ville, Ind., will spend the 1972-73 académie yearat Cambridge University in Englandcontinuing his research on the formand function of oral religious traditionson a fellowship for cross-disciplinarystudy awarded by the Society forReligion in Higher Education. Grantedto eleven académies including Dr.Williams, the postdoctoral fellowshipsare funded by the Danforth Foundation.f\A MICHAEL D. GORDON, AB'64,HTam'65, PhD'72, assistant professor of history at Denison University,Granville, O., has been elected to athree-year term on the school's university senate. Composed of students,faculty and administrators, the senateis the campus governing body of theuniversity.C^jT BARBARA J. KATZ, AB'65, AM'69,3 has joined the National Observer,national weekly newspaper, as a staffwriter in Silver Spring, Md. Miss Katz,who holds a master's degree injournalism from Columbia University,was previously a reporter with UnitedPress International in Boston. Beforethat she spent two years as a speechwriter for Senator Birch Bayh ofIndiana.^/^DENNIS M. DeLEO, JD'66, patentOOattorney with Eastman KodakCompany, has been promoted to theposition of administrative assistant withresponsibility for submitted ideas in thefirm's patent department. He, his wifeand son, réside in Webster, N.Y.I^HIGEORGE BURMAN, MBA'67,J Washington Redskins' center, wasone of several pro football players whotestified recently before the Houselabor subcommittee in favor of a billthat would speed up players' grievanceprocédures. Burman, a doctoral studentat UC, who last spring did some damage on the side playing second rowfor the UC rugby team, pointed out tothe subcommittee that NFL owners hâve never opened their books to theplayers. "We ve never been abie tofind out what their profits are," saidBurman. "But their refusai to showtheir books would indicate they'redoing pretty well."ROBERT MITCHELL VARE, AB'67,AM'70, reporter for the New York Post,was married in New York in May toSusan Loel Richardson, free-lancewriter, actress and model who, untilrecently, was editor of Our DailyPlanet, an urban environmental newspaper published by the Council on theEnvironment of New York City.f QIRENE S. FARKAS, AM'68, pre-OOviously assistant professor in theextension division at the Universityof Illinois, is now at Chicago StateUniversity where she is assistant professor of library science and Systemslibrarian in the school's libraries. Ms.Farkas is a member and Chicagochapter président of the AmericanSociety for Information Science.^QBETTY LOVELL DEIMEL, AB'69,>^has been named référence librarianin the Robert W. Woodruff Library ofEmory University, Atlanta. Mrs. Deimelreceived her master of library sciencedegree from the University of Hawaiiin 1971.HANS J. KUSTER, MBA'69, has beenappointed gênerai manager of UnitedCigarettes Company, Geneva, Switzer-land, a subsidiary of Liggett ànd Myers,Inc. Formerly with Colgate-PalmoliveBénélux, Mr. Kuster joined Unitedlast August.knud George pedersen, PhD'69,will be leaving his associate directorshipof UC's Midwest Administration Centerto become dean of the faculty oféducation at the University of Victoria,B.C., effective July 15.TT larry L. BECK, MBA'71, has beenJ promoted from the rank of instructor to assistant professor ofarchitectural technology at PurdueUniversity Calumet Campus.43JÇettersProblem of legibilityTO THE EDITOR: For years my husbandand I hâve been receiving the Magazine. Often there are articles we wouldlike to read. But the brown paper andinvisible ink keeps putting us off.Neither of us has ever read more thana bit hère and there. It is too frustrat-ing to try to focus on type just barelydistinguishable from the gloom sur-rounding it.Unless lighter paper and larger typewould be much more expensive, perhaps your budget could provide for alegible as well as an economical magazine. Any hope?ISABELLA MCLAUGHLIN STEPHENS,AM '41South Woodstock, VermontMany readers will be pleased{other s, of course, may be sorrowful)to learn that the Magazine willsoon exhaust its stock of the paperon which it has been printed since1 969, and will replace it withsomething not quite so fuzzy.The University really existsTO THE EDITOR: While at Chicago, Isometimes believed the Chicago version of what goes on at state schools,encouraged by such folks as WayneBooth {George M. Pullman Professor,Department of English and the Collège], who says, "In that case, we mayas well fold up and turn it ail over tothe state schools," in order to horrifypeople. ...After a year and some of stateschools I hâve found a certain différence between my expérience and whatseems to be the officiai U. of C. version. One Chicago teacher, though, warned me that I might get by, foolingmyself, for a year or two, then bestranded with no research facilities fora dissertation. So, it may ail catch upwith me yet, but so far it's been emi- .nently survivable.It is true students at state schoolscan say many profoundly ignorantthings. On the other hand, a lot ofwhat you say sounds silly to them. Forexample, they can ail see, logically, thatChicago is an eastern collège, becauseit's 2,000 miles to Chicago and only900 more to the Atlantic. It's also sillyto use U. of C. for anything exceptthe California system, which has thou-sands and thousands of students and isthe source of ail true thinking. Also,people in that system do not needconscious thought, because Californiais so full of fresh exciting thoughts thatail the students and faculty just breathethem in. After awhile, you get usedto thèse new dogmas and learn tospeak sensibly. You say, "Believe it ornot, I'm a hopeless intellectual." If youconfess it freely, I think, people aremore willing to extend forgiveness."Elephantshit" is their word foraddictive brainwork. But it's ratherinteresting to meet, like the Possessed,in a basement with noisy air condition-ing to hear Ted Berrigan read to astrange little band. He asks how manyare from New York and more thanhalf raise their hands. Outside agitatorswe must be, mind-masturbating in thehealthy West.There are real true advantages tonot being at Chicago, weather aside.In Chicago, whatever you say or do,someone can say it or do it better.Away, hardly anyone can outdo you,nor would they care to. As if releasedfrom a bad spell, I started writing almost at the moment I left Chicago. The suspicion Hyde Parkis in agloomy hole has considérable basis infact. I hâve met nobody as gloomy asa Chicago student. It's as though Chicago people are missing some sort ofequilibrium device to keep them fromfalling headlong into terrible broodings.Once in a while it seems as thoughChicago was just something I made upin an extended daydream, over aperiod of years, instead of somethingthat really happened. Really I wasalways in a warm, anti-intellectualplace, and Reagan was always trying todivert funds before they got to mydepartment, and I was always part of aminority of elephantshit eggheads. Thatway, it would make more sensé. ThenI made up this grey place full of bril-liant tormented people out of SaulBellow novels, Sunday NYTs, and myown imaginings. But I am convincedenough you exist to write to you. I canonly disbelieve it for, say, forty-fiveseconds at a time.NAOMI LINDSTROM, AB 7 1Del Mar, CaliforniaWyllie article draws praise -,TO THE EDITOR: The article "Earth-quakes and Continental Drift" by Peter J. Wyllie was in my opinion thebest article of its kind to reach thepublic. He has stated very clearly andaccurately the facts, as far as we knowthem, and carefully pointed out wherewe need more study. I just wish thiscould be published in another magazine where more people could readand appreciate it. Since we teach ge-ology within sight of the San AndréasFault, this is in part, "backyard" geolo-gy to us.JOHN ZIMMERMAN, JR.Prof, of Geology, Bakersfield, Collège,Bakersfield, Calif.44Nestled between représentations of Billings Hospital (left) and Abbott MémorialHall (right) is an architect's rendering of the proposed Surgery-Brain ResearchBuilding, construction of which is expected to begin in 1973. The $18,000,000building will house a new Brain Research Institute. Its construction is a majorpart of a $50,000,000 spécial campaign, "Advancement in Médical Science"(AIMS) which opened in May. Objectives of the two-year effort, on behalf of theDivision of the Biological Sciences and the Pritzker School of Medicine, include,in addition to the Surgery-Brain Research Building and two others, new equipment for médical research labs, modernization of présent buildings and facilities,and a fund for new endowed professorships in the biological sciences.The University of Chicago Magazine Volume LXIVMar/Apr 72 Anastaplo, GeorgeThe Pentagon Papers and the Rule of 'NoPrior Restraints'jan/Feb 72 Anastaplo, GeorgePreliminary Réfections on the Pentagon PapersJul/Oct 7 1 Booth, Wayne C.Why Don't You Do It My Way?May/Jun 72 Cate, James L.Keeping PostedNov/Dec 71 Draznin, YaffaThe Gypsy and the CityMar/Apr 72 Greeley, Andrew M.ConferencemanshipJul/Oct 71 June Reunion 1971 (a sociological recap ofevents)Mar/Apr 72 Knight, Frank H., 1885-1972Nov/Dec 7 1 Kogan, HermanThe Great F ire: Chicago 1871Jul/Oct 7 1 Maddi, Salvatore R.Existential Sickness and Health May/Jun 72 Mayer, MiltonConsider Me, I Pray YouMay/Jun 72 McNeill, William H.Journey from Common SenséJul/Oct 71 Ping-Pong (four views of a game by photog-rapher David Windsor)Mar/Apr 72 Politically, the Midway Student Is Différent(annual Alumni Cabinet meeting, February,1972)May/Jun 72 Ratner, Richard A.Drugs and Despair in VietnamMar/Apr 72 Ravin, Arnold W.Human Guidance of Human EvolutionNov/Dec 7 1 Sowell, ThomasViolence and the Pay off SocietyNov/Dec 71 Wilson, John T.The University BudgetJan/Feb 72 Wyllie, Peter J.Earthquakes and Continental Driftc«a>*«.KS'crH*,r¦CCcc?u.CfcOr¦fcc*h:rSenQ.CF-5G<ÀesOs