THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEThe State of the UniversityEdward H. Levi 28What Does It Mean, Number Three?D. Gale JohnsonCall Back Yesterday-AgainA Ferris Wheel/Reunion '70 Reprise 1214Peaceful Expansionism in JapanAkira Iriye20Danny Lyon PhotographsFrom a recent one-man show in Cobb Hall's Bergman GalleryCabinet Meeting in ChicagoA report of -the fourth annual gathering in February 2830 People32 Profile: Joyce Newman35 'Letters38 AlumniNewsVolume LXIII Number 4March/April I97 I IThe University of Chicago Magazine,founded in I 907, is published five timesper year for alumni and the faculty ofThe University of Chicago, under theauspices of the Office of the Vice Presi­dent for Public Affairs. Letters andeditorial contributions are welcomed.The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(3I2) 753-2I75John S. Coulson, '3 6, PresidentArthur R. NayerDirector of Alumni AffairsGabriell� Azrael, EditorJane Lightner, Editorial Assistant Regional OfficesI542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 9 I 20 I(2 I 3) _242-8288320 Central Park West, Suite I4ANew York, New York I0025(2I2) 787-780030 Miller PlaceSan Francisco, California 94I08(4I5) 433-4050I 8205 Lost Knife CircleGaithersburg, Maryland 20760(30I) 948-I4482 nd class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois; additional entry atMadison, Wisconsin. © I 97 I, TheUniversity of Chicago. Publishedin July /Octoher, November/ .December, January/February,March/April, and May/June.Cover: William Rainey Harper (I856-I906), founder and first President of TheUniversity of Chicago.Edward H. LeviIn the report to this Senate on November 4, 1969, I felt com­pelled to emphasize economic problems which our Universityand similar private uni versiries faced. Academic budgets at ourinstitution over the prior ten years showed a planned, consider­able increase. Total budgets had gone up 168 percent; studentfee income, iS9 percent; student aid, 394 percent; total facultycompensation, 174 percent; average faculty compensation, 91percent, with the greatest percentage increase at the instructor­ship level.The increases in expenditures were iess than we thoughtcould have been used to good effect. In part, the increases onlymirrored changes in the measures of the economy. Yet in totalthe budgets reflected the strong attempt of the University toenhance irs academic excellence-an effort, I believe, we canjudge to have been generally successful. The flow of incomemaking these budgets possible was dependent, in part, upon thesupport of the Federal Government, in the main, for individualfaculty research and student support. But because we are � pri­vate university, the flow depended, to a large extent, uponprivate funds in the form of gifts, endowment and endowment­like revenue, and on tuition receipts against which student aid have been the hardest hit by changes in Federal funding pat­terns. We were then in the midst of what has turned out to be acontinuing precipitous decline in Federal support for graduatestudents. Approximately 1,030 of our graduate students in1968-69 were supported through Federally-financed fellowships,traineeships and assistantships. This number declined to be­tween 850 and 900 in 1969-70 and to 680/this year.A special Deans' Committee, appointed in July, 1969, toreview our situation and to make recommendations for the1970-71 budget, suggested that the regular University budgetsbe held to a 3 percent increase, and the faculty be limited in sizeto not more and perhaps less than the number of faculty in1969-70. The Deans' Committee concluded it was essentialthere be a tuition increase of $225 for all students in the 1970-71academic year, and $ 150 per year in each year until furthernotice. When the 1970-71 budget was adopted, it contained anincrease of 3.1 percent for the academic areas, and relied uponthe recommended change for that year for tuition charges. Butthe overall increase for general funds was 6.7 percent, in partbecause of the greater cost of expanding physical plant operations.Faculty size, limited by this budget, declined by fourteenpositions as of this January. The budget, when adopted, didmake possible a 4.3 percent increase in average faculty salaries,plus fringe benefits. Underlining our concern to maintain theof a variety of kinds has to be offset. Moreover, the viability ofthe enterprise was contingent upon the successful operation incertain segments of the University's life of intricate arrange­ments intended to achieve self-balancing or at least manageableand limited subsidies. An overview of the sources of incomewhich made possible the University's total budget was as fol­lows: Government and overhead, 33-45 percent; gifts, endow­ment and sundry, mainly endowment-like income, 29.19 per-cent; tuition, 18.70 percent; patient fees, 18.66 percent. ,The University had been greatly assisted, and still is, by th'esuccessful completion of its effort to raise $160 million for cur­rent operations, endowment and capital expenditures. Thissearch for special funds was the first leg of a plan to raise $360million over a ten-year period. It is unthinkable that we will notachieve or surpass this result. Nevertheless, there were obviouscauses for concern. One was the University's budget relianceupon what was left of the Ford Foundation challenge grant. Atthe level of its then current use, substitute funds would have tobe found to replace approximately $5,690,000 annually-anamount then equal to 20 percent of the combined regular bud­gets of the College, the Divisions, the Schools and the Library.There were other reasons for anxiety. Costs were continuing torise. Some major sources of hoped-for income were, at best, un­certain. In general the private institutions of higher learning2 University's quality, and to respond as wisely as we could to achanging situation, Provost Wilson (following a special reporton the University's budget published in the University Recordin December, 1969), in July, 1970, sent a memorandum to eachmember of the faculty explaining the course we were following.Because the uncertainties were greater than usual in planningthis 1970-71 budget, our recommendation to the Trustees tookthe unusual form of disclosing a pessimistic and an optimisticversion, with a spread of approximately $10,5°0,000 for theyear-end result of deficit or surplus. Lest you decide this exerciseI) in candor stamps us as even more incompetent than usual, let meremind you of the variable factors of endowment income, giftswhich mayor may not be restricted for particular purposes, en­rollment figures and Federal funding, among others, which hadto be taken into account, as well as contingencies in cost, in aconsolidated budget of more than $ 151 million. Our pessimisticthought-the harrowing nature of which was relieved onlyslightly by the pressure of other distractions-was that the deficitmight be as high as $9,535,000. Our stated conclusion was thatwe believed the deficit would amount to $4,195,000. This figurerepresented an opportunity for friends of the University foradded help in fund-raising, and a commitment somehow to findthis sum properly within the resources of the University if thisshould be necessary. In terms of its relationship to total regularexpenditures, the only deficit to which I can compare this figurein the not so recentU niversity history is the deficit of $9 I 7,000of 1947-48. The willingness of the Trustees to accept a budgetwith this kind of stated deficit and uncertainties speaks elo­quently of their determination not only to see the Universitythrough this .difficulr period, but in such a way as to help theUniversity maintain its academic strength.At the beginning of the autumn quarter we discovered thatone justification for the 1970-71 budget was incorrect. Thebudget had been constructed on the basis of an estimated stu­dent enrollment of 8,240. The actual enrollment turned out tobe 614 .1f;SS. The drop from the estimate was largely in the fourgraduate divisions, and somewhat in three of the professionalschools. This decline resulted by itself in an upward revision ofthe deficit by $1,200,000. As the year progressed, it became in­creasingly apparent that the Division of the Biological Sciencesand The Pritzker School of Medicine probably would fail tomeet the budget requirements, and would increase the deficitgap by another million dollars. Capital expenditures not nor­mally carried on the current budget, but which had to be made,for the rehousing of the Bookstore in what had been the PressBuilding, and the consequent rehousing of the Press, were addedfactors contributing to a more dismal picture. The stated deficitwas revised to approximately $6,500,000. This deficit, whatever periods. If one takes the totals for the academic areas, but doesnot include student aid (because this changes in terms of thelevels of tuition charges), the increase in these area budgets­regular, restricted and Governmentally funded-was 84 percentfor the five years starting with 1956-57. It was 70 percent start­ing with 1961.In making our plan in 1965� we estimated that the five yearsbetween 1966 and 1971 would show an increase of 26.5 percent.But it is now expected to be only between 16-4 percent and 19.9percent. Obviously, we have not made our goal. We estimatedthat for the ten-year period from 1961, the growth would beII 5 percent. It now appears that this increase, in fact, will beslightly less than 104 percent. It is apparent that in planning theUniversity's pace, we realize that there would be. a leveling-offduring this period. The leveling-off has had to be considerablymore drastic than we predicted. But we must remind ourselvesthat in this we are not alone. And, of course, while there is arelationship, we must not assume that the greater the expendi­ture, the greater the academic strength.I am sure I need not remind you that faculty -student ratioshave an economic significance. Overall the University movedfrom a faculty-student ratio of I to 7.1 in 1961-62, to a ratio ofI to 8.3 in 1965-66, to a ratio of I to 6.7 for 1970-71. A changefrom our present situation to the 1965-66 level, without includ-it turns out to be, will have to be met. In addition, to meet boththe deficit for this year and the needs for the budget next year,the University has changed its investment policy to place greateremphasis on current income, and also to payout a higher per­centage, where permitted, of capital gains. The result can be readas using as current income between 6.3 percent and 6.5 percentof the average market value of the endowment.Further, steps have been taken to phase the use of the remain­ing amounts of the Ford challenge grant over this year and next.The program has been arrived at after a good deal of thoughtand soul-searching. It seems to us the best possible response toour present problem. It does take somewhat from the future topay for the present,' and perhaps more so because of the condi­tions under which this shift had to be made. But it is not carelessabout the future. The curtailment of academic budgets is alwayspainful-and I do not welcome this curtailment, although thisis one of the things one says on such occasions, as bringing uscloser to the reality of choice. But the increased amounts ofusable income made available for next year should help us main­tain, if we are wise, the academic excellence which is our mainasset.In the face of this changing economic situation, it is impor­tant we have as much perspective as possible on our presentcondition. One can look at the growth in terms of five-year ing the clinical area, could result either in the reduction offaculty by the number of 169, or an increase in students by thenumber of 1,774. I am sure that you and I cannot help but beinterested in the observation that such a decrease in the numberof faculty on an ave.r.:age salary basis would amount to $3,235,336.The larger number of students would increase net tuition byonly $2,845,161.The enrollment in the College is about 1,000 less than waspredicted in the ten-year plan. In 1969, in part because of theeffort to upgrade living conditions in the residence halls, therewas an intentional reduction in the number of entering first­year students in the College from 730 to 500 students. This yearthe faculty recommended a slight increase to 560; the numberactually went to. 608. But we are below the ten-year plannedenrollments in the four Divisions as well, and all of theseDivisions are significantly down from 1967 leveis. These de­clines reflect a variety of factors ranging from simple decisionsby Departments to admit fewer students, to the inability ofstudents to afford the costs and to changes in career plans,It is well known that faculty -student ratios cannot be used toThe annual State of the University address, as delivered to theUniversity Senate by Edward H. Levi, President of the Univer ...sity of Chicago, on Wednesday, February 24, 197 I.characterize the operations 'af some of the areas of the U niver­sity. A small ratio of students to faculty has a good deal to be saidfor it. It has been, in many ways, an enormous advantage to thestudent. Unless, however, there are countervailing circumstances-and there may be-eventually it has an effect on the limits ofthe budgets. We have tested those limits.This description of financing would be most incomplete ifreference were not made to the continuing, and on the wholesuccessful, efforts of Trustees, alumni, friends and other public­spirited citizens 'to find and to give the funds necessary to sup­port the operations of the University. In 1969-70, the Universityreceived in current gifts and new pledges $31,192,994. This was$259,000 more than was received in the prior year. Excludingbequests, $12,975,128 of the amount received last year came tothe University in the period from July through Decemb�r. Thecomparable figure for the first half of this year is $14,855,600. Itdoes not lessen in any way the importance of these funds topoint out that they do not, by themselves, directly solve theparticular budget problems we have been discussing; much ofthe funds are for special purposes or off-the-budget capital ex­penditures. The support is most encouraging, most needed.Alumni giving is slightly higher than a year ago. There appearsto be a general recognition of the importance of this Universityand its role, and a growing awareness of the difficulties facedduring this period by private institutions of higher learning.In addition to the gifts which have already been announced,I should mention the bequest of $2 million for medical researchpurposes exclusively from the estate of Miss Muriel Forsland.Miss Forsland, a graduate of the University of the class of 1922,was a retired school teacher who had taught at Senn High Schoolfor 46 years. I should mention also, because of its continuingimportance and its insatiable appetite, the special President'sFund, created some years ago by the Trustees when Mr. Beadlewas appointed, to enable the University to make faculty appoint­ments of exceptional merit. This fund continues to be successfulin achieving its purpose.I have spent this much time on our budget problems, contraryto the advice which I have received from some faculty colleaguesI greatly admire. They perhaps feared the recital would be toogloomy, and, that the emphasis, in any event, would give a dis­torted picture of what this University is all about. But I believeit is important we understand, as best we can; the changing4 conditions which affect private education generally, and thisUniversity in particular ..This is a time of opportunity; at least it is a time for choicesas well as a period of pressures. With this in mind, I suggestedlast year the creation of an Economics Study Commission, com­posed of an equal number of Trustees, faculty and outside ex­perts, to initiate a series of studies on various economic aspectsof the University. The staff director of the Commission is Wil­liam B. Cannon, Vice-President for Programs and Projects. Thestudies have begun, and in one form or another, they shouldbecome available to enlighten us. The aim of the Commissionis to help us identify the economic factors and the possiblearrang��ments we can make with respect to them so that theeconomics will work better for the academic well-being of theenterprise.TiS fall the Educational Review Commission was ap­pointed with twenty-four faculty members and Chauncy Harrisas chairman. Its mandate is to look at the University as a whole,and the interrelationship among its parts, to suggest new direc­tions which might be taken, rand the accustomed ways whichmight be better abandoned.If these commissions are effective, they will be so because oftheir insights and persuasiveness. They are protected by havingno legislative, administrative or ruling body authority. The workof these commissions is difficult, perhap� impossible, butimportant.This kind of recurring inquiry is much in the tradition of ourUniversity. I am reminded of the elaborate University of Chi­cago survey which received funds in 1923, began Its work inearnest in 1929, and published its reports in 1933. There is, infact, much of interest in those reports for us today, but I hopewe will not have to wait for a similar time span for the on-goingcritical essays which these commissions will spawn. In the mean­time, the existence of these commissions is, of course, no sub­stitute for the kinds of discussions, inquiries and decisions whichmust go on within the University. There are a great many prob­lems requiring immediate attention.As I have indicated, we followed the recommendations of theDeans' Committee that tuition in the College be, raised for thisyear from $2,100 to $2,325, and in the graduate and professionalschools from $2,250 to $2,475: For next year, the tuition goes upan additional $150. I am sure we find some comfort that thisupward movement is slightly less than that which appears to betaking place at most comparable private institutions. N everthe­less, low tuition is one of the principal reasons why privateinstitutions are in serious financial difficulty and, not paradoxi­cally, it is also one of the reasons why the actual costs of educa­tion, both public and private, are so high. The tuition chargesare substantially below the cost to the institution of the student'seducation; this is particularly true for the graduate and profes­sional schools. The levels set give deceptive signals as to thecosts and, therefore, as to the distribution of the costs, and theyconfer hidden and unknown scholarships upon the rich and thepoor alike, and upon the less talented and the talented. Thereare, of course, obvious desires; which we all share, to keep tui­tion low.For many -years there have been discussions concerning avariety of programs, private and Governmental, which mightresult in a more adequate coverage of the costs of the student'seducation. A recurring proposal has urged the efficacy of loanprograms tied to the student's future earnings. The plan has beenin considerable controversy, and I must confess I share the con­cern of those who do not believe the value of the pursuit ofknowledge, understanding and appreciation is to be set solelyby the economic benefits this brings to those who engage in it. Apioneering step has now been taken by Yale University to tryout a loan-earnings program. Yale has announced a $350 tuitionincrease for next year, together with a $150 increase in boardand room charges. It has stated it intends to raise tuition chargesan additional $300 each year for the following four years. Thestudent will be permitted to borrow to pay for theseincreases,and up to an additional � 300 per year; the amount is to be repaidon the basis of 4/10 of I percent of his adjusted gross incomefor each $ I ,000 borrowed for each year for 35 years, commenc­ing with the time after he has ceased to be a full-time candidatefor a degree. This is not a full statement of the plan, but it givesthe direction of the effort. Yale has announced it will not makeavailable any form of traditional aid to cover these increasesin university charges.rre Yale plan is an interesting and important exper:ment;it is a creative venture, long due, which may turn out to be mostimportant for private higher education. It has features whichmake it somewhat comparable to a binding commitment bystudents to be alumni contributors. Indeed, if a sufficient num- ber of contributors gave sufficient scholarship aid, tuitioncharges could be advanced to more realistic levels without allthe enforcement mechanism which the loan-income plan re­quires. An argument for the plan is that students who achieve agreater earning power will assist in paying for the education ofthose whose income, for whatever reason, turns out to be low.The surgeon in private practice will pay for the classicist in thelibrary. Thus, the plan is based upon arid contains a kind ofunifying view of the joint responsibilities of interrelated, butdifferent, segments of the educational enterprise. The greatdanger is that the, Yale plan might be regarded as a substitutefor other essential forms of financial aid and support to the stu­dent and to the institution. But in its present form it is an addedincrement. Perhaps I should mention that among the 'well­known authors of the idea behind the income-loan plan is a pro­fessor of economics at The University of Chicago.HaVing stated my admiration and interest in the Yaleprogram, as an added increment which may make possible, atthe least, more adequate knowledge of the costs of education andinstruction, let me state a cautionary concern. There is a decep­tive entrepreneurial quality about such arrangements which,in further or future developments, may lead to unintended or, inany event, in my view, harmful results. The mechanism of theseprograms may further compartmentalize the universities, 'm�k­ing interdisciplinary arrangements more difficult. This is not in­evitable, but if it happens, the economics will be workingagainst and not for the intellectual purposes of the institution.And the unifying view of the combined strength of joint re­sponsibilities will disappear into a struggle for separate advan­rage. The program is necessarily based on an idea of cost alloca­tions, and this may lead, and perhaps it should, to a proliferationof separate tuition charges throughout the institution. Somecurrent discussions involving- one of the schools of our Univer­sity have included the suggestion that along with the increasedtuition and loan income features, the increased revenues shouldbe allocated to the particular teaching area involved. Thus theincome-loan plan becomes an incentive program to induce orreward particular areas of the University for taking on morestudents. As we all know, all kinds of incentives could becomeimportant to faculty and to units within the University.Comparable arguments for goals and advantages for otherareas of the University. might be built, for example, upon the5Federal financing of contracts and grants through individualprofessors, or upon the special demands of service functionsmade upon some of the faculty, as in the clinical areas. Thesestrains and arguments are not unknown. This kind of compart­mentalization may make less difference in a multi-universitywhere there is little alternative. For our kind of institution, eachseparate arrangement of this kind requires the invention ofother devices, as well as a strong spirit to keep us together, be­cause this is important to us. We should remember, if I maymisquote a recent faculty report, that when a university fliesapart, the whole will no longer amount to more than the sumof its parts, and the parts will diminish. This should be a matterof particular significance to our University, because more thanany other in the United States, we have gained strength fromcohesion.The University of Chicago is a research university. For some,these may be fighting words. I believe the antagonism is mis­placed. We are interested in new knowledge. We wish to be ableto state what is true and to share this recognition. More thanthat, we want to give training to others in the means of findingout so that this process will be kept going, our errors corrected,our ignorance diminished. The research ranges across the fieldsof inquiry: from the treatment of arteriosclerosis to studies oninsulin, the development of the scanning electron microscope,the analysis of molecular and atomic structures, the further com­prehension of the physics and chemistry of the deep universe,the discovery of effects in the conditions of learning, the inven­tion of the cadre system for the preparation of teachers, theanalysis of the economic productivity of education, a betterawareness of the nature and meaning of stories-imaginative,mythical, religious-a greater understanding of the history 'af\the Far East and the nature of the revolution in China and, ofcourse, the always continuing work on the great Chicago Assy­rian Dictionary, begun in �921 and now in the hands of its thirdgeneration of scholars.I have kept this list short to make the point that it is onlysuggestive. The research not only follows the disciplines; itcreates them. In a sense the research is highly professional. Itinvolves the ability to find a problem and to work with thatproblem with an appropriate accuracy and craftsmanship. Be­cause we are interested in reseach, in problem finding andsolving, in craftsmanship and the ability to do, in the personal6 act of the recognition of knowledge, which is in itself a creationand a discovery, this environment should have special advan­tages, if properly organized, for the instruction of students; in­eluding undergraduates. I do not suggest for a moment that ifwe concentrate on research, the teaching at all levels will takecare of itself. I do not believe that if each faculty member doeswhat he prefers to do this makes a good, curriculum. I am sug­gesting that research and undergraduate instruction are notnatural enemies, that the attempt to explain can be a helpfulcontribution to the scholar's own understanding and, itself be acontribution to knowledge, and that this University, in part be­cause of its size and balance, provides a favorable setting inwhich to share with graduates and undergraduates the crafts­manshi p of discovery and recognition.Some time during the last summer, the three millionth bookwas added to the collection of the University Library: On Octo­ber 31 the Joseph Regenstein Library was dedicated. It has 253faculty studies, 19 seminar rooms, 3,700 sets of locking shelvesfor student books, and over 1,000 carrels. It has an ultimatecapacity for shelving between 3,800,000 and 4,200,000 vol­umes, At the time it was built, it was probably the largest singlelibrary facility, taking all factors into account, in the UnitedStates. There is no doubt that in size it will be surpassed, if it hasnot already been. But it is probably the greatest library of itskind in the world. Such greatness is perhaps always an accident,a coming together of fortunate events, the consummation ofplans and designs which turn out to fit perfectly with the needsto be met.But the accident could have not occurred, and such goodfortune could not have been ours, without the perceptive andinformed planning by Herman FussIer, the Director of the Uni­versity Libraries, the creative responsiveness of Walter N ersch,the architect, the munificent and understanding generosity ofthe Joseph Regenstein family, and the help of the Harriett Pull­man Schermerhorn Charitable Trust which made the initialgrant. Those who worked to make this library possiple-andthere are many-have the satisfaction of knowing that they havecreated a working facility which, in the perspective of time,will be recognized as having assured the enduring quality ofthis University. The opening of the Joseph Regenstein Libraryhas permitted the remodeling.of the Harper-Wieboldt area forthe purposes of an undergraduate reading room and book co1-lection, and eventually as a College center with study areas,lounges, seminar and classrooms, and faculty studies.The Albert Pick Hall for International Studies, the Cum­mings Life Science Center and the Ben May Cancer ResearchLaboratory are all nearing completion. Each of these structures,made possible by extraordinary gifts, is an expression of con-fidence in the work of our faculty. 'This is, of course, a time when many doubts are being ex­pressed about the general system of higher education in theUnited States. We must ask ourselves whether these doubts ap­ply to what we are doing. The criticisms concern.many aspectsof education. There are doubts about the time requirements fordegree programs, the lack of coordination among undergraduateand graduate programs, and concerning the purposefulness ofgeneral education. These questions probably would not havearisen if the student population was not so large a proportion oftheir age group. The prestige rewards of mere attendance havedeclined. We should welcome this change, for it produces morequestions as to what education is about. Many of us would insistthese questions always have been asked at The University ofChicago. The frequent changes in the College, and possiblysomewhat less frequent revisions in the Divisions and Schools,are some evidence of this, In our view, a critical student body isa mark of our success. In this we seem to have succeeded mostor all of the time.It was not true 25 or 30 years ago that 75 percent of theCollege students at The University of Chicago assumed theywould go on to graduate or professional schools. Not so longago, the number was around 20 percent or 30 percent. At a priortime the Doctor's degree was not nearly the requirement forcollege teaching it has become. The University of Chicago hasalways been proud of its tradition that particular degrees werenot prerequisites for faculty appointments, but I doubt whetherour position is well known, and whether it is really honored inmany of the Departments. The University of Chicago, at anearlier period, placed great emphasis on the Master's degree. Ithad coordinated work with undergraduate programs with theMaster's degree, and not only with our College, but other under­graduate institutions as well. It also sought, as we know, to pro­vide greater freedom to the students by shortening the periodfor baccalaureate, At an earlier time the professional schoolsplayed more of a role in undergraduate education. The Graduate School of Business, for example, was first known as the Collegeof Commerce and Politics. Its withdrawal from the undergradu­ate curriculum began in 1942. As late as 1922, I tremble to re­port, it was still "theoretically possible" to enter the Law Schoolwith only a high school certificate. When the Flexner Reporturged the academization of medical schools, it would have beenhard to imagine that eventually the course from the beginningof college to the end .of a average residency would take elevenyears, and that further and customary specialization would takemuch longer.Te consequences of the lengthening of time are numerous.We must ask ourselves whether the withdrawal of the disci­plines from the undergraduate curriculum and their emergenceand proliferation as primarily graduate departments have re­moved much of the challenge of mastery from the undergrad­uate work. It is one thing to deny that the undergraduate cur­riculum must find its relevance as a running commentary onrecent events. It is much more difficult to say that it can be onlypreparatory and one stage removed from the intellectual disci­plines as they are now practiced. If our strength lies in theposing of problems and the disciplined search for solutions andnew knowledge, do we adequately share this intensity and pur­posefulness as part of the educational process? It is too easy tosay this sharing must come after scholars are enlightened andtrained. How does this separation cause enlightenment or train­ing? One can challenge also whether the proliferation of De­partments within our Divisional structure is now .appropriarefor these disciplines.These matters have been central in the attention of many ofthe faculties, and I know that considerable progress has beenmade in particular programs. This University is a symbol andcustodian of a long tradition: That tradition includes a willing­ness to experiment as well as a refusal to bow to the tastes ofthe moment. There is no reason to hide from our shortcomings.Recognizing them, we still must know this is one of the pre­eminent universities of the world. It is a university's university.The accomplishments of the Departments, Divisions, Schools,and College have been many. There is every reason not to becareless about them. Because this is a time of transition, it is atime of opportunity and choice. The course which you set shouldbe in terms of the unique values which are here. I know all ofus will do what we can to accomplish this result.7Recently the American Council of Education released the resultsof a survey of the quality of graduate programs in the UnitedStates in which the University of Chicago rated third in thenation, after Berkeley and Harvard. While this survey, like allsurveys, is subject to criticism, it has received a considerableamount of attention in the press and is undoubtedly being closelystudied by facult� members and administrators in many uni­versities.How was the survey conducted? Very briefly, a selected groupof departmental chairmen and faculty members of universitieswith graduate programs were sent questionnaires, with eachindividual receiving a single questionnaire for his particulardiscipline. A total of somewhat more than 8,000 individualsreceived questionnaires in thirty-two disciplines, and a littlemore than 6,000 returned usable answers. The published resultsfor each discipline are based on an average of about 170 re­sponses, with a range from a low of 64 for Russian and a highof 260 for psychology.With respect to the quality of the graduate faculty, two ques­tions were asked for each discipline. In one the respondent wasasked if, in his opinion, the quality of the graduate faculty asindicated by the scholarly competence and achievement of thepresent faculty was Distinguished, Strong, Good, Adequate,Marginal, or Not Sufficient for doctoral training. In a givendiscipline, not more than five departments were to be rankedas Distinguished. The second question asked the respondent toindicate if he thought the quality of the graduate faculty wasbetter than five years ago, was about the same, or was worse thanfive years ago. The response to the first of these questions wasused to provide a ranking of departments within a discipline.A score of 5 was given for a response of Distinguished, 4 for aresponse of Strong, and on down to no score for a rating of NotSufficient for doctoral training. Then, if 80 percent of the re­spondents said that a given department was Distinguished and20 percent sa.d that it was Strong, the score for that departmentwould have been 4.80. If this were the highest score for thedepartment in that discipline, that department would be given afirst ranking in the discipline.The respondent was permitted to indicate that he did nothave sufficient information to judge the quality of the faculty ina given department, and one of the weaknesses of the survey isThe author, Professor of Economics at the University of Chicagoand a specialist in agricultural economics, was for ten years theDean of the Division of S ocial Sciences.8 in fact that a rather large fraction of the respondents in somedisciplines indicated that they lacked the necessary informationto rate a department. For example, 49 percent of those whoresponded in physiology claimed Insufficient Information onRockefeller University's department of physiology; yet thosewho did rate it brought that department to a score which tied forfirst with Harvard. That was, admittedly, an extreme case. Inother cases, such as anthropology and economics, only about 5percent of the respondents indicated a lack of sufficient informa­tion about the highly rated departments.Thi� most recent survey was undertaken in the spring of 1969.Because information about changes in departmental faculties isonly gradually transmitted, it is uncertain what particular timeis reflected in the responses. The quality of a graduate facultycan be significantly affected bya couple of retirements or resig­nations or by two new appointments. The respondents are notlikely to be equally well informed about such changes at everyuniversity. Thus it is probable that the 'responses may oftenreflect circumstances as of 1967 or 1968, as much as conditionsthat actually existed in 1969.Despite the limitations of the methods used, the results mustbe taken with some seriousness. The survey is one of the sourcesof information available to prospective graduate students inmaking decisions concerning their plans for attending a giveninstitution. Prospective faculty members may also be influencedby the evaluations of a given department. It is not unreasonablethat alumni and others interested in a particular university lookto such a survey as an indication of whether the quality andreputation of a university is changing in a positive direction ..There are a number of differences in presentation of the resultsof a similar survey also conducted by the American Council ofEducation in 1964. In 1964 the number of arts and science dis­ciplines surveyed was twenty-five; in I 969 the number of disci­plines included was thirty-two. Major changes in disciplines hadbeen made in the humanities and biological sciences. For ex­ample, psychology was categorized as a biological science in1964 and as a social science in 1969.My purpose in preparing this note is primarily to give someperspectives on the changes in evaluations of graduate programsover the period from 1964 to 1969, with special attention to theUniversity of Chicago. (The two surveys include ratings of en­gineering departments but do not include ratings of other pro­fessional schools. All of the comments in this paper refer onlyto the arts and science disciplines.) While it is possible to makecomparisons of relative standings of the graduate programs inthe arts and sciences among the top universities-and some arepresented later-the indications of changes in the evaluations areprobably subject to less error than are the relative rankings ofthe various universities.What can we learn from this survey about the graduate de­partments of the University of Chicago? Even if we recognizethat the results from such a survey are subject to a number ofinrerpretarions and that the results and rankings are not veryprecise, there are several implications that are of interest, for thesurvey results represent the opinion of scholars in all majorAmerican universities concerning the relative standings of Uni­versity of Chicago departments in each of the disciplines.Changes in Evaluations of Departmentsat the University of Chicago, 1964 to 1969Though departmental scores were not published, each universityincluded in the ratings was provided with the average scores forits departments. Based on this information as well as the pub­lished data, some of the changes in the evaluation of departmentsat the University of Chicago between 1964 and 1969 can beshown.Number of departments ranked as Distinguished: In 1964there were seven departments ranked as Distinguished; in 1969five additional departments were so ranked, and each of theseven so ranked in 1964 retained that ranking.Changes in departmental scores.' Of the twenty-five depart­ments that were included in both surveys, thirteen departmentsreceived higher scores, seven the same score, and four had lowerscores in the 1969 survey. ,Number of departments in the top five and top ten.' In 1964,of the twenty-five departments included in the survey, Chicagohad seven departments rated in the �op five and thirteen in thetop ten. In 1969, of the thirty-two departments included in thesurvey, Chicago had fourteen departments in the top five andtwenty-two in the top ten. In both cases the increases in numberof top ranked departments was substantially greater than wouldhave been expected due to the increase in the number of depart­ments included in the survey.Comparisons of the Numbef of TopRanked Departments, 1964 and 1969Restricting our comparisons to the arts and science disciplines(excluding engineering), the University of Chicago rankedthird in 1969 and tied for fifth with two other universities in1964 (see Table 1). But there is no particular magic to the top D. GALE JOHNSONfive departments, for according to the top ten ranked depart­ments in the arts and sciences" Chicago tied for third with Yalein 1969 and was ninth in 1964.Because of the difference in the number of departments in­cluded in the t964 and 1969 surveys, a direct comparison of thechange in the number of departments in the top five or top ten issomewhat difficult to interpret. Twenty-five disciplines were sur­veyed in 1964 and thirty-two in 1969. Only two of the highranking universities (Chicago and Stanford) had an increase ofseven in the number of top five departments between 1 964 and1969; Berkeley and Harvard each had an increase of five. Chi­cago had the largest increase in the number of departments inthe top ten-ten, followed by Cornell with eight, Berkeley andStanford with six, and Harvard with five.Changes in Rankings, 1964 to 1969Total scores for the departments (1964, 1969) can be made, butthere are two problems in such comparisons. One is that thenumber of disciplines surveyed within the broad divisions ofthe arts and sciences is a function of the extent to which speciali­zation has resulted in the creation of separate fields for the PhD.Thus the physical sciences are represented by only five disci­plines, while there are ten each in the humanities and biologicalsciences. Thus, to total the scores for a university as a whole is, ineffect, giving twice as much weight to the humanities as to thephysical sciences.A more appropriate guide might be the distribution of doc­torates awarded. In 1966 the approximate number of doctoratesawarded nationwide were: physical sciences, 3,800; social sci­ences (including history), 3,300; humanities, 1,800; and bio­logical sciences (excluding agriculture), 2,300. Thus in termsof relative emphasis in graduate education, the physical andsocial sciences should have significantly greater weight than thehumanities or-biological sciences. The calculations presented inTables z.and 3 however weigh the four divisions equally.The averages of the scores based on the rankings of the topten departments (Table 2) indicate that six universities suf­fered declines, with the largest declines being for Harvard andColumbia. A decline of 1.00 implies an average decline in de­partmental ranking of one position. Chicago and Stanford in­creased their average departmental ranking by 1.00, based on thetop ten ranked departments.The averages of scores based on the rankings of the top fifteendepartments (Table 3) show much the same picture. Four uni­versities had a decline in average departmental rankings, with9Harvard having the largest decline and Wisconsin the secondlargest. Princeton had a small increase in score between 1964and 1969 based on the top fifteen departments in contrast to asmall decline when scores were based on the top ten depart­ments. Chicago and Stanford had substantial increases in aver­age scores, Chicago having -the largest increase when the topfifteen departments are included.'Clearly the distance between the top two universities (Berke­ley and Harvard) and the next four (Yale, Chicago, Stanford,and Princeton) was diminished over the five-year period.How Do�s the University of Chicago Rank?Most' of this article has emphasized change in evaluation be­tween 1964 and 1969 for nine major graduate institutions.While the authors of the survey made no attempt to compareone university with another, the temptation for others to do sois obviously very great as evidenced by the number of articlesand stories that have been published at numerous universities,including such institutions as Harvard, Yale, Wisconsin, andChicago. A certain amount of ingenuity has been used in theway particular universities have presented the results of thesurvey, and the universities would have been less than humanhad they not done so.I have already said there are serious problems in combiningthe rankings of the individual disciplines into rankings for uni­versities. For example one university, using the information pro-TABLE l- Number of High Ranking Departments in the Arts and SciencesNumber of DepartmentsTop Five Top TenU nive1'Sity 1969 1964 1969 1964U. of California, Berkeley 28 23 30 24Harvard 27 22 29 24Chicago 14 7 22 12Yale 13 9 22 14Stanford 12 5 21 15Princeton 12 8 17 14Michigan 10 7 19 16MIT 8 3 13 7California lnst. of Tech. 8 5 9 8Wisconsin 8 7 19 17Columbia 5 6 13 15Rockefeller University 5 4 5 410 vided by Table 1, chose to base its comparisons on only topseven, rather than on the top ten or fifteen. It was perhaps noaccident that the particular university had five departmentsranked seventh and none ranked eighth. Another top-rankeduniversity could well have chosen the number of departmentsranked sixth or higher since this would put it into a tie for thirdin the arts and sciences.TABLE 2Average Scores for Arts and Sciences Departments Based on TopTen Ranked Departments, 1964 and 1969Average Score Change1964 toUniversity 1969 1964 1969Berkeley 7.63 8.20 -0.63Harvard 7.48 8.50 -1.02Yale 3.94 4.03 -0.09Chicago 3.86 2.86 +1.00Stanford 3.64 2.66 +0.98Princeton 3.44 3.72 -0.28Michigan 3.01 2.47 +0.5'4Wisconsin 2.68 3.10 _;,_0.32Columbia 1.82 2.88 -1.08In addition, as I have suggested, these tables give equal weightto the four major divisions of the arts and sciences rather thanequal weight for each discipline within the divisions, and thereis considerable arbitrariness in the extent of specialization with­in the divisions. Graduate students, as measured by the ri�berof PhD degrees awarded, do not divide themselves equallyamong the divisions. In 1966 approximately 34 percent of PhDdegrees were in the physical sciences, 30 percent in the socialsciences, 20 percent in the humanities, and 16 percent in biology(excluding agriculture). If the average divisional scores basedon ranks had been weighted by the proportion of degreesawarded nationally in 1966, the relative positions of Chicagoand Yale would have to be changed from those given in Tables2 and 3. Since Chicago ranks higher than Yale in the social sci­ences and the physical sciences (64 percent of the doctoratesawarded) and lower than Y ale in humanities and biology (36percent), weighting by the number of degrees would give Chi­cago a higher score than Yale. The Chicago score would be 4.20compared to 3.83 for Yale in the top ten, 8.21 to 7.84 in the topfifteen. These calculations imply that Chicago ranks third in thequality of its graduate programs rather than fourth as indicatedin Tables 2 and 3.After extensive study of the survey material; I conclude that itis reasonable to say that in the arts and sciences Chicago ranksthird, or fourth, or in a tie for third. But if Chicago and Yalewere to stagnate over the next five years and Stanford were toshow the same improvement during the rrext five years as it hasduring the last five, Stanford could move into third in the artsand sciences if a similar survey were to be taken in I 974. In fact,if the scholarly opinion of Chicago had not improved so signifi­cantly during the past five years, Chicago's relative standingmight have deteriorated between I964 and I969. Thus what­ever Chicago's present ranking is, improving it will require sub­stantial efforts on the part of everyone who has pride in andconcern for this university.While the scores based on the average of the respondents'ratings were not published in I 969� for disciplines surveyed inboth I964 and I969 the change in scores was given. In generalthe Chicago departments that were highly rated in I964 re­ceived higher or equal scores in I969. Of the twelve depart­ments with the highest average scores in I964, nine had im­provements in scores (English, anthropology, economics, geo­graphy, history, sociology, zoology, chemistry, and physics);three had the same scores ( astronomy, political science, andmathematics) .Only one other university ( Yale) had a larger number of de­partments with a higher score in the I969 than in the I964 sur­vey-fifteen Yale departments had higher scores. Stanford andMichigan had the same number as Chicago (thirteen), andPrinceton had nine. Harvard had seven departments with higherscores, and Berkeley only five.Some General CommentsThere can be no doubt that our colleagues across the nation be­lieved that graduate programs at Chicago improved significantlyover the five-year period. Yet the survey does not provide anysupport for complacency on the part of the faculty, administra­tion, or alumni of the University. A reasonable reading of theresults indicates that there are four universities (Chicago, Yale,Stanford, and Princeton) that are very close together-and someconsiderable distance behind Berkeley and Harvard. Either amodest deterioration in our colleagues' appraisal of us or amodest improvement in the evaluation of Yale, Stanford, andPrinceton could move us to sixth position. In addition, Michiganhas clearly improved its position in the last five years, and if it suffers less from financial reverses in the next five years than dothe major private universities, it could move into third place.In the past two decades the fraction of th� PhD degreesawarded by the private universities has declined significantly.Yet it is still true that six of the top nine universities accordingto the I969 survey are private universities. In the case of thephysical sciences, the concentration of the top quality graduateprograms in the private universities is even more striking. Ofthe top nine physical science divisions in the nation only one isin a state university; this is Berkeley which ranks at the top in avirtual tie with Harvard. After Berkeley one must go down totenth ranking before another state university (Wisconsin) ap­pears.Another point that emerges from the survey is that graduateeducation is strong in the Midwest not only in scale but also inquality. Of the probable top eighteen graduate institutions, sixare in the Midwest-Chicago, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois,Indiana, and Minnesota. It is also true that three of the top nineare in the Midwest-Chicago, Michigan, and Wisconsin.According to this type of popularity poll our two strongestdivisions are the social sciences and the physical sciences, fol­lowed by humanities and then by the biological sciences. Whilestill lagging behind the other three divisions in terms of relativenational position, the ranking of the biological sciences in­creased significantly between I964 and I969 because of sub­stantial improvements in zoology, the excellent rating of popu­lation biology (tied for first), and the reasonably good ratingsof developmental biology and molecular biology.TABLE 3Average Scores for Arts and Sciences Departments Based on TopFifteen Ranked Departments, 1964 and 1969Average Score Change1964 toUniversity 1969 1964 1969Berkeley 12.50 13.19 -0.69Harvard 11.93 13.22 -1.29Yale 7.93 7.75 +0.18Chicago 7.59 5.80 +1.79Stanford 7.41 6.06 +1.35Princeton 6.74 6.41 +0.33Wisconsin 6.()8 7.33 -0.65Michigan 6.37 6.01 +0.36Columbia 5.35 6.18 -0.83II� In the July/October issue we pub­� lished a memory album of picturestaken from the University's archives,thinking to raise a slight wave of nostalgia,but that is not what happened at all. Weraised instead a flood of queries. Few ofwhich could be answered, unfortunately.12 � Many of the queries had to do with* specific identities of the individualspictured. Queries such as "Could that bemy mother?" and "The one on the right,is it my father?" Without getting into thephilosophical profundities and oedipalovertones of those questions, we answeredmerely that no, we were sorry, but wecould not help as the original archivesphotos were unidentified. So we are send­ing out a general query: can anyonepositively identify anyone of the Men ofSnell Hall or the ladies in the gym? If so,please write. It will be comforting to thoselost progeny out there. � Of the queries we can answer, one� was from an irate senior alumnuswho wished to know how on earth wecould refer to Zonia Baber, the young andlovely geologist pictured at Mazon Creek,as having "died at a grand old age inI 936"?? That of course was a typographi­cal error. She died in fact in 1956, at anage you can decide for yourself whetheror not it be "old." Old, according to some,is always just ten years older than yourself.� Then there was the wheel. George, � Washington Gale Ferris' FerrisWheel that appeared on the cover. Whilewe were rich with information of thetonnage and cost variety, we did not say,because we did not know, whatever hap­pened to the Wheel, despite the fact thatit was originally intended as a lastingmonument, to stand, like the Eiffel Towerin Paris, forever on the Midway.� Several hypotheses were suggested� by our readers. The most fancifuland entertaining of these was that theWheel had rolled out of Chicago, acrossthe seas to Vienna, to the world's fairthere, had remained, and become one ofthe main stars in the vertiginous conclu­sian of Graham Greene's famous movieT he Third Man.� Not so, the much drearier conclusion� is difficult to relate. The Wheelbegan running in June, 1893, and ranwithout the slightest difficulty until No­vember, 1893. On a clear day Wheel riderscould see for miles and miles out ontoLake Michigan and the states of Michigan,Indiana, and Wisconsin. The Wheel at­tracted sensationalist types, such as thecouples who wished to be married in thehighest car. Some couples even had invi­tations printed, inviting friends to seethem married on the Ferris Wheel, butwere forced to accept the alternative ofbeing married down, down below incompany offices, not up, up and away inthe Wheel.�. The Columbian Exposition closed� on November 1., 1893, and theWheel stood idle until May, 1894, whencrews started dismantling it. Eighteenmonths and nearly $ 15,000 later theWheel was whirling again in Chicago in anew site, adjacent to Lincoln Park, wherea gala recreation spot was planned, butwhen the Wheel began to lose moneyrapidly, and George Washington GaleFerris died at age thirty-seven in No­vember, 1896, the Wheel was sold again,sold as junk.� According to the Chicago Tribune,� in June, 1903, "there is an openingin Chicago for a bright young executionerwho will undertake to put the FerrisWheel out of existence and dispose of itsremains .... The Wheel passed under thehammer for $1,800 [on the Midway ithad been making $1,500 a day], andthereby sank to the category of junk. ...The auction was a touching scene, markedwith the usual reminiscences of past glory.Judge Chytraus called for the chief mourn­er, who appeared in the person of ReceiverRice, accompanied by his aide in the hourof need, Master in Chancery Victor Elting.The judge called for bids from anyonepresent. A representative of the ChicagoHouse Wrecking Company, after glancingall about, offered $800, bidding in cautioustones as if awed at his own temerity. There was another long silence and then a bidfor $1,800. Receiver Rice drew a longface and exclaimed It's a shame, a terribleshame'."� However, some months after the� Wheel Was sold for junk, it was sentto St. Louis where its new owners had ob­tained a concession from the LouisianaPurchase Exposition of 1904. We do notknow the details of the Wheel's per­formance there, but evidently it was with­out the expected financial rewards, andthe Wheel was left standing idle. By 1906the St. Louis citizens who considered theWheel an eyesore were rampant and theWheel's end was near.� On the morning of May 11,1906,� the Chicago Tribune reported up errisWheel Blown U:P. Blown to pieces by amonster charge of dynamite, the FerrisWheel came to an ignominious end yes­terday in St. Louis, after a varied career ofthirteen years. At its ending it was unweptand unsung .... The old Wheel died hard.It required 200 pounds of dynamite toput it out of business. The first charge wasexploded under the structure at the north. side, wrecking its foundation and per­mitting the Wheel to drop to the ground.As the Wheel settled, it slowly turned and then after tottering a moment like ahuge giant in distress, it collapsed slowly.It did not fall to one side as the wreckershad planned. It merely crumpled. Withina few minutes it was a tangled inass ofsteel and iron thirty or forty feet high."� Now there, surely, is a description� to rival anything Melville, Faulkneror Hemingway ever did to their giantanimals and fish. The Tribune must reallyhave had some writers in those days.� So that was the inglorious finish to� the great Wheel, Chicago's answerto the Eiffel Tower, Which leaves onlyone question unanswered. Perhaps some­one knows. Why, why was the Wheel evermoved from the Midway in the first place?I3PEACEFUL EXPANSIONISM IN JAPANAKI RA I RIYEMuch has been written about Japan's search for national identityin a changing world. Today, as the Japanese brace themselvesfor the 197os, there is understandable concern with the directionthat 'the country should take in its foreign relations. They havenot really had to think hard about the problem because, sinceWorld War II, Japanese foreign affairs have to a large extentbeen determined by external factors such as the American occu­pation, the cold war in Europe and in Asia, and the developmentof China as a nuclear power. Added to such a situation has beenthe fact that each generation in Japan has had radically differentexperiences in their dealings with the rest of the world. Sixtypercent of the population belongs to the "Showa generation,"born after -1926, of whom another 60 percent has been bornsince 1945. This last group comprises the genuine postwar gen­eration, totally ignorant of the war and the domestic crises beforethe war. But even among those born between 1926 and 194514 there are gradations of involvement in these events, and there isa distinct difference between those who had firsthand combatexperience 'and those who were too young to be drafted andwhose educational process was affected by the American occu­pation. It is little to be wondered, then, that no consensus hasemerged on the future of Japanese diplomacy, and no sharedvision of the role Japan should play in the world of the seventies.Visions of the future are related to images of the past. As apeople grope for definitions, concepts, and principles for theircountry's behavior, they are apt to turn to the past to draw les ...sons from what they see in it. Because of the cataclysmic experi­ences of the 1930S and the 1940s, the Japanese have succeededonly superficially in relating the past to the present and future.Most of them would not want to repeat the same experiences,but what is there in their past record to help them formulatetheir approach for the coming years? Those who see in the pastlittle else than a history of the rise and fall of Japanese im perial­ism would find it difficult to propose anything more specific andpositive than anti-imperialism and anti-militarism as new guidesfor action. On the other hand, those who look back on the glorythat was Meiji Japan before the disasters of the Showa periodmight wish to see the nation once again behaving as a respect­able power in international society, with an adequate armamentand pursuing an independent policy instead / of seeking shelterin the protection of another country. Some others have arguedthat the greatest error 'and tragedy of prewar Japanese diplomacywas the policy of alienating other Asians, especially the Chinese,and that Asian solidarity, in particular close ties with' China,should now be the basic principle for Japan.Such proposals for the future seem to be of limited value be­cause they are derived from limited perspectives on the past. Itis my view that the history of modern Japan reveals a traditionwhich has hardly been noted by writers but which seems to pro­vide a useful intellectual tool as one ponders the country's future.I refer to the tradition of peaceful expansionism. It always ex­isted simultaneously with such other themes as militarism, ter­ritorial expansionism, and imperialist power politics. To identifythe more peaceful aspect of expansionism is to help bridge thegap between the past and the present and to add an historicaldimension to the current debate on Japanese foreign policy.That, then, is the purpose of this essay, in the hope that one mayhave some confidence in the continuity of certain themes inJapanese foreign relations. It is my belief that the concept ofpeaceful expansion is still useful today, and that it is a far moreviable alternative to nuclear armament, pan-Asianism, or uni­lateral disarmament and neutrality, concepts around which muchof the debate on japan's foreign policy has been conducted.The PastFirst of all, let us go back to the period before the first Sino­Japanese War of 1894-1895. Historians almost without excep­tion write that two fundamental issues preoccupied Japan'sleaders at that time: treaty revision and Korea. It was believedthat the treaties which the Western countries had forced onJapan in the mid-nineteenth century had to be revised, and thatno strong power could be allowed to entrench itself in theKorean peninsula to menace Japanese security. These were, soit is argued, "realistic" goals that had to be attained with single­minded devotion.A glance at Japanese writings of the 1880s and the 1890Smakes it clear, however, that there were other matters that en- gaged the people's attention just as strongly. There was, forexample, emigration to Hawaii, Borneo, or South America, andthe expansion. of the tea trade with the United States. In fact,to numerous writers these were of fundamental importance tothe nation as it emerged from the chaos and uncertainty of themid-century. HIn what. way should our nation compete with thewealth, power, and civilization of the European countries?"asked a man in 1892 on his return from abroad. HOur statesmen,"wrote another, "must now look carefully at the situation inEurope and Asia, consider domestic conditions, and decide upona long-range policy for our country." The policy, it was thought,ought to be one of "peacetime war" or "war without armed con­flict," terms used to describe economic and other kinds of com­petition short of open warfare in which the advanced nations ofthe West seemed to be engaged. According to one writer, thepeacetime war of commercial struggle among nations was en­veloping the entire world and was about to engulf Asia. Theyellow race, the object of such competition among white peo­ples, appeared in danger of atrophy ana extinction as Westerncountries energetically expanded into Asia and liberally em­ployed their superior wealth, ability, and experience to exploitthe land. If Japan was to survive, then, the utmost necessity wasto participate in the peacetime warfare, to engage in peacefulexpansionism.How wa� this to be done specifically? Japan was in no shapeto compete with Western nations in the peacetime war for ex­pansion. There was hardly any industry in the country, agricul­ture was still the main pursuit of the people, the population wasincreasing to such an extent that the narrow land was filled withthe unemployed, and the total national wealth did not evenamount to 10 percent of any Western country. The sense ofdesperation and urgency the Japanese had at this time becomesintelligible only in such a context. Under the circumstances, theonly way to break the vicious cycle of underdevelopment, stag­nation, and further foreign _ encroachment was to take a boldinitative to expand. As a first step, it was imperative to encour­age the people to go abroad and create communities overseas.If Japan was to emerge as a 'strong and rich nation, the peopleThis article, which received the Yoshino Sakuzo Prize for theU best magazine article on public affairs," originally appeared inthe Japanese review Chuokoron. The author is an Associate Pro­fessor of History at the University of Chicago, and his wifeMitsuko did the translation.ISI.must make up their minds to emulate Westerners, broaden theirhorizons, go out of the country, create communities abroad, andvastly expand foreign trade. If Japan was to be as rich as theUnited States, wrote one writer, it must develop as an expansivecountry like the latter.And so emigration began. Observers began to notice "littleJapans" springing up in Hawaii and the Pacific coast of theUnited States and Japanese groups settling the vacant spaces ofthe South Seas and Latin America.On the eve of the Sino-Japanese War there was a widespreadvision of Japanese expansion into Borneo, the Philippines, orMalaya, but since these regions were already under Europeanrule, the question naturally arose whether the Japanese couldsucceed in peaceful expansionism without military support andterritorial control of its own. Some writers argued that Japanshould expand no matter what the means employed=purchase,invasion, as well as non-forceful settlement. The Japanese neednot be idealistic and moralistic, it was argued, when the greatpowers were frankly imperialistic. But even so, there was noconsensus on the use of force before the Sino-Japanese War.A Turn toward Imperialism1£ the Sino-Japanese War had not brought about the acquisitionof Taiwan and involvement in Asian continental affairs, J ap­anese expansion might have continued to retain its southernorientation and its essentially peaceful, commercial character.As it was, Japan's expansionism became now much more im­perialistic than in the past. The use of force to take, retain, andcontrol alien territory was reflected in the phenomenal growthof military expenditures after 1894 and in the participation inimperialistic power politics designed to uphold Japan's statusas a power and confirm its special interests in East Asia.The war and its aftermath affected Japanese thinking on over­seas expansion in a number of ways. For one thing it gave theJapanese self-confidence. As Tokutorni Soho, a leading journal­ist, noted during the war, "we are fighting in order to constructan expansive nation and to gain the self-confidence that is neces­sary for the task." Before the war many, including Soho, hadlooked admiringly and enviously at overseas Chinese whoseemed far more capable than the Japanese of penetrating everycorner of the world and accumulating wealth. Once the war be­gan, however, the Japanese found how easy it was to beat theChinese. It was not overseas Chinese, of course, but Ch'ingChina's corrupt officials and inefficient generals and admiralsthat suffered the humiliating defeat. Nevertheless, it is not sur­prising that-the Japanese should now have come to feel superiorto their continental neighbors and gained confidence in theirability to expand. This expansion, to be sure, now took a terri­torial form,' as Japan obtained Taiwan as her first overseascolony, and many shared Soho's sentiment that Taiwan wouldserve as a springboard tor further penetration of the South Seas."Taiwan is the gate to the southern Pacific," he wrote. HIt is in aposition to compete with Hong Kong for supremacy in theregion. If we go farther south, we will be able to expand towardI6 the Philippines and Sumatra."This was frank imperialism, and the term "imperialism"gained currency in the years after the Sino-Japanese War. AsKoroku Shiisui asserted in his famous booklet, Imperialism} theMonster of the Twentieth Centu.ry (1901), "the so-called im­perialism is now spreading like a prairie fire." While he wasemerging as a leading critic of imperialism, most writers ac­cepted it as a justifiable course of action for Japan. The nationwas merely doing what others had long been engaged in, and itwas "unpatriotic to talk as if national expansion were a foolishpolicy that only invited armament competition and retaliation,"as one author noted in 190 I. Such criticism, he argued, merelyrevealed ignorance of the realities of international, relations. An­other book published in 1901, Ukita Kazutami's Imperialismand Education} asserted, "it is a' natural outcome of the strugglefor survival among nations that imperialism often tends to beaggressive. It only reflects the existence of half civilized racesand countries that do not deserve to be sovereign states, whichinvites the extension of power on the part of the imperialistnations." Such language revealed that the Japanese were fullyidentifying their imperialistic foreign policy with that of otherpowers.Nevertheless, the emergence of Japanese imperialism did notmean that it alone characterized Japan's foreign relations. His­torians often write as if all aspects of these relations were bydefinition imperialistic, but facts were far otherwise. For in­stance, one of the most important developments after the Si1!0-Japanese War was the growth of Japanese trade with the UnitedStates. This certainly was not an imperialistic relationship.Similarly, the Japanese continued to migrate to Hawaii, andtheir number increased tremendously after '1895. They were nomore agents of Japanese imperialism than they had been beforethe war. During this period there was a self-conscious affirma­tion of peaceful expansionism. Tokutomi Soho repeatedly calledon his countrymen not to forget that "peacetime war" com­menced when the Chinese war ended and that "the expansion ofJapan must be undertaken not only by force but also througheconomic means." Kayahara Kazan asserted that the Japanesemust enter "the battlefield of the world in the war of intelligenceand commerce." Ukita Kazutami, in the above cited book, in­sisted that the only kind of imperialism Japan could pursue wasone in which "the nation asserts its rights vis-a-vis the Westerncountries according to international law, and promotes reformof Asian countries so as to help them achieve independence."This was the essence of what he termed "ethical imperialism."It is easy to dismiss such ideas as mere .rhetoric to concealaggressive, acquisitive designs of Japanese imperialism. It is alsopossible to argue that peaceful expansionism was merely anotheraspect of imperialism. It all boils down to the question of defini­tion. No matter how one defines imperialism, it seems to makemore sense to speak of different shades and themes of expansionrather than to blanket all aspects of foreign relations under theterm imperialism, Trade and emigration, in fact, remained thecardinal concerti of some writers at the turn of the century.Books on emigration to, and settlement in America, for instance,seem to have far outnumbered guide books on Taiwan or Korea.This type of peaceful expansionism remained just as strong asthe preoccupation with the Korean question or strategy towardRussia.In the end this preoccupation proved decisive in determiningJapanese foreign policy. After the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) Japan extended its formal empire to include Korea, southManchuria, and south Sakhalin, and the nation came to be rec­ognized as a great power, militarily as well as territorially. Thenew colonies and leases also served economic purposes as mar­kets and suppliers of raw materials, and the Japanese could nowcongratulate themselves that they had finally obtained the typeof empire of which they had envied the Western countries inthe nineteenth century. The Japanese no longer needed to feelinferior to Westerners because of lack of an empire, and volumesbegan to be written on the 'subject of colonialism, justifying thenew imperialism as an inevitable necessity for national survivaland expansion. The Japanese imagination was captured by thefact that there were already 100,000 Japanese in Manchuria,± 50,000 in Korea, and '5,000 in Sakhalin (Karafuto ), They werean Jmbodiment of the new empire and an indication of the pos­sibility of infinite future expansion. Magazines such as theWorld of Colonialism, Japan Overseas, and Japan in the Worldwere initiated in the years shortly after the Russo-Japanese Warand helped spread enthusiasm for overseas living and coloniallife.Once again, however, the growth of colonialism did not dis­place the earlier strain of peaceful expansionism. In launchingthe magazine Shokumin sekai (World of Colonialism), theeditors called on readers to "look around you and see that Man­churia, Korea, South America, Karafuto, Taiwan, all are waitingfor our countrymen to come and settle. Other lands such asChina, the South Sea Islands, and Australia are also hoping thatour people will come and engage in trade." Furthermore, thepurpose of the new publication was declared to lie in "helpingour country attain the same level of wealth as achieved by theWestern powers, not through armed conflict but through peace­ful competition." Of course, such peaceful expansionism was notan alternative but an adjunct of the existing territorial empire,but the idea was that instead of further adding to its formalcolonial establishment, Japan should now concentrate on emi­gration, trade, and other nonmilitaristic pursuits. As the state­man Okuma Shigenobu said in I91 I, "colonization does notnecessarily require colonies. I hope our people will go and settleabroad without the territorial control of the homeland.'The continued interest in emigration to areas beyond thelimits of the Japanese empire was closely related to a renewedsense of urgency about economic expansion. The Russo-JapaneseWar had demonstrated japan's martial spirit and militaryprowess, and it had brought about a vastly extended network ofcolonial establishments. For this very reason the country wasbecoming economically bankrupt; foreign borrowing became Inecessary .in order to maintain the empire, and taxes had to beincreased to pay for policies and objectives that were not directlyrelated to the augmentation of national wealth. The sentiment was strong, therefore, that the new empire would face a seriouscrisis unless it was supported by a broader policy of peaceful,economic expansion. Emigration and trade, as in the past, weresingled out as two most important examples. The term "peacefulexpansionism" itself seems to have gained currency at this time.Kayahara Kazan, who used it on frequent occasions, said in 1912after returning from a five-year trip to the United States andEurope, "japan cannot go on fighting wars forever. It must be­come peaceful. Its strength must be based on cominerce, in­dustry, and agriculture."But obstacles to peaceful expansion, warned Kayahara, wereeven more numerous than those to territorial aggrandizement.But 'the obstacles; it was felt, were internal rather than external.Time and again observers harped on the theme that what im­peded Japanese expansion was the character of the people them­selves. They were still too home-bound and too passive, notsufficiently endowed with an independent spirit and adven­turousness to go abroad and engage in business in all parts of theworld. But it was felt that as the Japanese became more andmore cosmopolitan and less and less provincial, they would ern­bark on an ambitious career of expansion, spreading themselvesas well as Japanese goods and capital throughout the world. Thiswas the vision entertained by the Japanese in the years just priorto the outbreak of World War I. In Kayahara's words, they wereto engage "not in the old-fashioned imperialism to enhancenational prestige, but in the new imperialism that is nothingless than the expansion of the people as a manifestation of na­tional energy."Peaceful ExpansionismWorld War I and its aftermath gave an opportunity to peacefulexpansionism to emerge on the surface and be accepted as officialJapanese policy. There were, to be sure, continuations of im­perialistic policy such as the wartime encroachment on China,the intervention in Siberia, and the acquisition of the Germanislands in the Pacific. But with the coming of the peace, mili­taristic expansionism temporarily disappeared and wasreplacedby a more peaceful approach. Japan's "new diplomacy" guidedofficial policy for several years after the Versailles peace con­ference. As Makinq Shinken, a plenipotentiary at the peace con­ference, said just before he left for Paris, "today it is the trend in'. the world to honor peace and rej ect the policy of force and ag­gression. The so-called Americanism is everywhere assertingitself." According to him, the new diplomacy was based on theconcept of fairness and guided by the principles of justice andhumanism. In essence this was identical with the idea of peacefulexpansion; it was designed as a formulation to substitute fairplay and peaceful competition for militaristic aggression andimperialistic power politics.What distinguished the postwar peaceful expansionism fromits predecessor was the shared conviction that it was the onlyviable alternative in the new international environment. Condi­tions in the world were seen to favor a peaceful and free move­ment of goods and men. What Makino referred to as American-17ism, namely President Woodrow Wilson's new diplomacy, wasconsidered a product of the world-wide demand for an open,democratic, and economically interdependent relationshipamong peoples. It was also assurance that Japan would have thebacking of the United States as well as other countries in follow­ing the trend. The diplomacy of the 1920S was carried on in suchan intellectual milieu. Empires remained, including the Japaneseempire. But it appeared unlikely that their territorial limitswould extend. Rather, it was the general feeling that nationalinterests could be sought without recourse to force. Japanwould try to expand its interests peacefully and reasonably.According to Shidehara Kijiiro, Prime Minister of Japan,the goal of foreign policy was to create opportunities for na­tionals to engage in business abroad. Japan would work harderthan ever before to expand economically through foreign trade,investment, and emigration. Given an ever-increasing popula­tion, it was absolutely essential to find vacant spaces for settle­ment overseas. Since the existing colonies were not consideredsufficient for the purpose, the only possibility was massive settle­ment in areas beyond the empire. This, of course, presupposed aworld-wide freedom of movement. It was natural that theJapanese, in accepting the new world order, never neglected tostress such freedom as a crucial aspect of the postwar era. With­out the freedom to migrate, there could be no peaceful expan­sion and no permanent peace.The gap between ideal and reality was too evident to enableJapan's postwar peaceful expansionists to indulge long in theirdream. Despite their image of the new world order, the coldand cruel facts were that their assertion of racial equality was �otaccepted at the Versailles conference, their land ownership wasdenied in California, and total Japanese exclusion was enactedby Congress in 1924. In China too Shidehara's concil iatorypolicy of economic expansion was met with an increasinglyradical nationalism, assaulting Japanese business establishmentsin China and questioning the Japanese presence in Manchuria.When one talked of the infinite possibility of overseas emigra­tion and settlement, one could in reality point to only Brazil as acountry that still welcomed Japanese immigrants.The second half of the 1920S saw peaceful expansionismcoming under attack. Japanese exclusion in America, for in­stance, led the critics of peaceful expansionism to question thevery basis of the postwar new diplomacy. They attacked it as afoolish illusion and insisted that national power and not rhetoricwas still the most reliable means for protecting and extendingnational interests. Unless the Japanese were willing to abandontheir unrealistic slogans and were unhesitating about the use offorce, they would continue to be rejected in China and in theWest. This was the psychological background of the Manchuriancrisis of the 1930s. Matsuoka Y oseki, one of the most articulatespokesmen of this current of thought, attacked Shidehara for hisfailure to achieve anything specific. Since the essence of foreignpolicy was to safeguard the nation's essential interests, declaredMatsuoka on the eve of the Manchurian incident of 1931, force­ful measures should be adopted to solve disputes with China.His sentiment was shared by an increasing number of japanese,18 so that the military enjoyed widespread popular support whenthey resorted to action in Manchuria and the nation reverted toimperialism.One cannot comprehend this phenomenon unless it is relatedto the contrary trends of the 1920S. The stronger the convictionin the immediate postwar years that the world was entering anew phase of history, the more violent was the reaction againstit when the people discovered to their dismay that they had puttheir faith in an unrealistic dream. Kayahara Kazan, for overtwenty years an exponent of peaceful expansionism, unabash­edly carne to the support of the new militaristic doctrine in the1930s. "Only war," he said, "can bring about progress andchange. Only war has successfully altered the world status quo."He now admitted that Japan's population problem could not besolved by peaceful emigration, especially when the Japanesewere everywhere being ejected. Japan should consider its owninterests and not identify itself with a world order created bythe self-interests of Western powers. HI have always sought to bea world citizen," he confided in 1933, Hand as a result I havebecome 100 percent Japanese." Such an emotional outburst,which he lived to regret, vividly illustrated the depth of disil­lusionment felt by Japan's peaceful expansionists with the worldas it was. All the same, the militaristic, pan-Asianist, particu­laristic, xenophobic orientation of Japanese policy and thinkingin the 1930S provides the best testimony to the strength of thepeaceful expansionist sentiment of the 1920S. The militaristicexpansionists of the thirties were convinced that they were muchmore realistic, that the international environment was such asto enable their doctrine to succeed. Here again, they weredoomed to failure. After a series of initial successes, the newcourse came to a disastrous end in 1945.Post World War PolicyAs a result of defeat in World War II, Japan lost all its colonies.Its dream of expansion was shattered. The nation had sought toexpand by force and through peaceful means. It had failed inboth. Modern Japanese history seemed to have been a caricatureof what the novelist, N atsume Soseki, had in 1909 referred to as"expansion in poverty" and "expansion leading to defeat." Hav­ing tried to emulate the West, the Japanese found themselvesbankrupt economically and intellectually.Just as dramatically, postwar Japan staged an economic come­back. To an extent not even dreamed of by earlier expansionists,the J a panese in the 195 os and 1960s were found penetrating allregions of the globe, multiplying their trade opportunities, andbringing riches to the homeland. How can this be explained?It is obvious that external conditions were extremely favorable.Japanese immigrants and goods were no longer subjected to thekind of discrimination that was prevalent before the war. Thecold war enabled Japan to minimize military expenditures andconcentrate on economic growth. While China as a market lostits importance, it was replaced by other parts of Asia. The warsin Korea and Vietnam increased demands for Japanese com­modities, and most frequently they were paid for by Americanaid money to these governments. The United States maintaineda multilateral liberal trade policy and provided the sinew of thepostwar capitalist world economy, ensuring the stability andexpansion of the Japanese economy.These external factors, however, were not the only reason forJapan's economic expansion. Postwar Japanese foreign policywas not entirely a product of such factors. It was also conditionedby the policy makers' perception of national needs. They con­sciously adopted an economically oriented foreign policy 'andheld their own even when the United States government insistedthat Japan spend more on armament, For instance, after the out­break of the Korean War (1950), the United States sought toisolate and contain Communist China through a network ofalliances and �utual security pacts. Japanese rearmament was a �vital part of such a strategy. During 1953"-1954, when the twogovernments negotiated for the extension of the Mutual SecurityAct to Japan, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles urged theJapanese to have a defense system consisting of 350,000 troops,450,000 tons of ships, and 12,000 aircraft. The Japanese govern­ment, however, countered with a proposal for 200,000 troops,150,000 tons of ships, and only 1,000 aircraft. Their argumentwas that Japan's ability to defend itself was contingent upon itseconomic strength, and that the first priority was economicrehabilitation and stability. Excessive armament would onlyundermine the effort, and Japan would participate in the MutualSecurity Act program only if "it contributed to the nation's eco­nomic stability," as Foreign Minister Okazaki Katsuo put it. TheTokyo government also sought to benefit from America's "off­shore procurement" (purchases of goods in Japan for use inthird countries) rather than to playa positive role in the Asiancollective security system. Just as the Japanese leaders expected,the United States began pouring millions of dollars of aid intoKorea and southeast Asia, all of which rebounded to the interestof Japan.Economic rationalism, however, was not a sudden creation ofpostwar Japan. As we have seen, there had always been a tradi­tion of peaceful expansionism, which postwar policy makerswere determined to resurrect.It is very important to note such historical trends, as one con­fronts the complex world of the 1970s, for some analysts havebegun to argue that Japan's economic foreign policy was merelythe product of the extremely favorable, exceptional circum­stances of the postwar era and are ready to discard it along withother peculiarities of postwar Japan such as "the peace constitu­tion," "democracy," and the "nuclear allergy." But such a viewis derived from a distorted image of the past. Peaceful expan­sionism was not merely the opportunistic doctrine of a defeatednation. It had a weight of tradition behind it.I think it makes much more sense to hold on to this traditionthan to depart from the economic orientation of Japanese for­eign policy. Once again to seek enhanced national prestigethrough armament or territorial extension might serve the emo-e tional needs of an aroused nationalism, but it would be at toohigh a price.If Japan is to persist in upholding the tradition of peaceful expansion, it will be necessary first of all to refrain from the useof force, no matter what the pretext. Expansion supported bymilitary force will not only arouse nationalistic reaction abroad,but will also give the impression that Japanese militarism isreviving. The result will be disastrous to the cause of expansionitself.Secondly, Japan should engage in peaceful expansion in allparts of the world, not just in certain regions. It seems particu­larly desirable to avoid concentrating on Asia, on the naiveground that Japan is an Asian country. The same illusion hadbrought about the pan-Asianist foreign policy of the prewaryears, and could again give rise to the suspicion that Japan wasscheming to reestablish an East Asian coprosperity sphere. Ex­pansion is essentially a universalistic endeavor and should nottake shelter in the self-defeating particularism of pan-Asianism,Third, peaceful expansion is a multilateral process. J list asJapan expands, it must be tolerant of the peaceful expansion ofothers. It is a gross contradiction to promote Japan's own tradeand investment overseas while maintaining a protectionistpolicy toward foreign imports and investment in Japan. For­eigners will want to invest in Japan, and the Japanese shouldnot put obstacles in their way. Together, they should diversifyeconomic activities and contribute to the well-being of mankind.Fourth, there is the extremely difficult question of how toconduct oneself abroad. Much has been written about "The UglyJapanese," who go overseas to make money with little heed ofthe sensitivity of the local population. Former AmbassadorKawasaki Ich iro , in his best-selling Japan Unmasked, has se­verely criticized overseas Japanese. They go abroad, he says,merely to satisfy their curiosity. They are poor linguists, they donot associate socially with other nationals, they tend to mix onlywith their countrymen; they do not contribute much to theexpansion of Japan.A far greater number of Japanese have seen foreign countriessince the war than ever before. Most of them are transienttravelers more interested in taking pictures than in experiencingnew life styles. But more and more they have come to develop asophisticated sense of international living. Some have lived inisolated villages of Africa, South America, - and southeast Asia,while others have worked in cities building hotels and depart­ment stores. This is at least a beginning, a far more significantaspect of postwar Japanese foreign relations than official rela­tions with the powers. If the movement continues, Japan mayhope to contribute an interesting and constructive chapter tothe history of international affairs by its persistence in peacefulexpansion which is nothing but a sum total of individual en­deavors overseas-not only commercial activities but also cul­tural and educational enterprises.That, finally, indicates that peaceful expansionism must beviewed as a cultural as well as economic movement, and theJapanese people must interest themselves in cultural interchangeand mutual understanding among peoples. To this end it be­comes of vi tal importance to learn to overcome parochialismand narrow nationalism, and to part with both arrogance andself-debasement in dealing with other countries.19DANNY LYON PHOTOGRAPHSBack in the early sixties a hungry young University of Chicago undergraduate kept lopinginto the offices of The, University of Chicago Magazine peddling pictures of snow on gar-, Igoyles and such. The editors of the Magazine, perspicacious as they were, and the younghopeful, being who he was, many such photographs did appear. Today Danny Lyon ('63)comes back to the Magazine a highly honored professional. His pictures hang in the Mu­seum of Modern Art in New York and he had a one-man .show at the Art Institute of Chicagocomposed mainly of photographs he took while working with the civil rights movement inthe South. His book, The Bikeriders, is a collection of photographs, and interviews he tookwhile riding with a Chicago motorcycle gang. Another book, The Destruction of Lo�erManhattan, details the razing of the waterfront area. His latest book, Conversations with theDead, to be published this year, documents the Texas Penitentiary System, as photographedduring a fourteen-month period at six different jails. Danny Lyon now hvesIn New Mexicoworking on a motion picture study of life in a small town to be called The Children of Coro­nado. He is so interested in motion picture work (he has already completed several films,including Qne set in a Houston tattoo parlor) he says, that the pictures you see here may behis last stills. But they are not still.CABINET _EETWell if you will schedule your meetings in Chicago in the last ,weekend in February, you'll deserve what you get. The AlumniAssociation tried to blame it on the Buildings and Grounds de­partment, and we all laughed. W e all knew why it was raining.The fourth annual national alumni cabinet meeting openedwith a breakfast meeting on Friday, February 26, at the Centerfor Continuing Education. There were already eighty peoplethere, fortifying themselves with eggs and bacon and coffee.((What does a cabinet member do?" asked a first-term cabinetmember. In other words, what am I doing here? Cabinet mem­bers come here once a year to have a ball for the weekend,some answered roguishly. The real answer, however, is thatcabinet members are people who have worked hard in their localcommunities on the schools committees, or the program com­mittees, or the fund-raising committees, and they are here tocompare notes, discuss and learn what is new at the University.President Levi, who spoke briefly at the breakfast meeting,told them what was new. To begin ,with, there was the $6.5million deficit, that he had reported to the University Senatein his "State of the University" address [see "The State of theUniversity," reproduced in full in this issue] two days before.He explained however that he very much didn't wish to playCassandra; he felt the University had met the budget crisishead -on and was satisfied that it had effected reasonable andviable cuts. But the University of Chicago, recently rated thirdin the nation (after Berkeley and Harvard) by the AmericanCouncil on Education, cannot of course afford not to spendmoney. uWe have just made," President Levi said with a twinkle,"one of the-greatest appointments ever made by this Univer-sity."After breakfast the alumni hustled by bu� across the Midwayto classes. They had a wide range of subjects to choose from:from a physics �ourse on the mechanics of particles and continua,to a course on Catullus, to a course on the modern city. Onealumnus who attended a lecture on Islamic civilization was soimpressed with the lecturer's erudition and delivery that healmost failed to notice the unexplained presence in the class­room of a large black dog.After classes, the alumni gathered in the apartments of thethree resident masters in Burton- judson Courts, Pierce Hall, andWoodward Court for another kind of refreshment. As theysipped preprandial sherries, they had the chance to chat. with the masters and see firsthand the house master system in action.(See "The New Masters" in the November/December issue.)Then they went on to the dormitory dining rooms for lunch.The afternoon business meeting was opened by John S. Coul­son, president of the Association, with solemn promises that themeeting would be exquisitely dull. It was not, in fact. Directorof Alumni Affairs Arthur R. Nayer gave a brisk report, coveringall the Association's many activities and citing its many triumphsduring the past year, after which the meeting proceeded to legalmatters. With a prefatory warning that this might be a "retreatfrom democracy," Mr. Coulson suggested that the selection pro­cess for cabinet members be changed. By pointing out that aballot distributed to the whole alumni body (only 2 percent ofwhom responded) that contains �cores of names most of whomare quite unknown to the other alumni does not in fact producea vote but a "nonvote." As an example of his own irresponsiblevoting behavior Mr. Coulson said that, as a "flaming feminist"he had voted automatically for every woman on the ballot re­gardless, a policy that met with approval from only a certain(large) segment of the cabinet members. After som� amend­ments and quick exchanges from the floor, a motion that theselection of cabinet members be left in the hands of the execu­tive committee was passed and the business meeting adjourned.For the remainder of the afternoon the cabinet members splitup into workshops on the work the alumni cabinet membershave been so much- involved in: the development workshopwhich concluded that its members ought to return to their re­spective communities and work harder; the schools committeeworkshop was addressed by Tony Pallett, the director of admis­sions and aid, who discussed the cuts his office is taking, a factwhich led to the same conclusion reached by the developmentworkshop; in addition to which, as the workshop spokesmansaid, Hit's fun, interviewing and recruiting students"; the pro­gram committee discussed ways for increasing the turnout forthe UC; programs in their respective cities; the fourth group,known variously as the women's lib workshop and an Inquiryinto the Status of Women at the University, was addressed byfour fairly vehement women graduate students who conveyeda fine sense of outrage, but who when pressed as to whetherthere was "overt discrimination at this university" retreated tothe position "well, but there is a pattern of sexism." Whateverthat may have meant, the workshop then concluded that "we 'IMa 1M CHICAaourge the University to view sensitively the subtle acts of dis­crimination which impede the progress of women in theircareers.... We request that the executive committee of thealumni cabinet schedule a review of progress in the status ofwomen in the University at the 1972 meeting of the alumnicabinet." [Two weeks later, the executive committee, in review­ing that proposal, recognized the fact the proposal did not rep­resent the consensus of the meeting, but agreed to a review ofprogress.]After cocktails and prime ribs at the Quadrangle Club, thealumni and University guests (about one hundred) attendedan ambitious production of Ibsen's Peer Gynt at Mandel Hall.Saturday morning (February 27) the tour of the RegensteinLibrary ran late, and so, of course, did everything else. But byeleven the panel discussion HWhat's New on Campus" wasunder way. Arthur Nayer opened things up by pointing out thefact that this privileged audience was getting a bonus from thepanelists: a hair' fashion show. HWhat you see here before you,"he said, Hare all the beard styles au courant' at the University."Nayer himself sports a modified vandyke decidedly reddish intone. Wayne C. Booth has added a whitish mustache to hissimilarly modified vandyke. Kenneth Northcott has chosen long­ish (brownish) sideburns to go with his mutton chop mustachewhich in turn complement his clipped King's English, whileWalter Walker has opted for the full farouche effect-a full(blackish, very) beard, mustache, everything.In starting off the discussion of the resident masters program,Mr. Booth made another reference to the hirsute issue, by sug­gesting that he and his colleagues had in fact been chosen asmasters for precisely that reason: their hair showed they were"closely in touch with student mores." What emerged howeverfrom the subsequent discussion was the real reason for the threemen's success as masters: a very real sympathy for and identifica- -,tion with the students that in all three men ranged from fatherlyand thoughtful to playful. ,In his remarks Booth emphasized that he felt the mastersprogram was the University's answer to a problem very much apart of the American scene in general: "a hunger for commu­nity" among youth, a huriger that has expressed itself in therapidly growing number of youth communes for example. Acoeducational dormitory with resident heads and a master is notof course a commune, or anything close, but it does supply some of that sense of closeness and warmth that the traditional insti­tutional dormitory has so obviously lacked. Northcott andWalker too laid emphasis on the fact that students are in factadolescents who, much as they would hate to admit it, feel youngand lonely and homesick much of the time, without adultsaround to talk to them, and help them cope with their experi­ences and problems. Though it became clear that all threemasters had spent much of their time entertaining the studentsin their apartments, "rapping with them," even that wasn'talways necessary. Northcott told of one student who was said tohave said: �1 don't really want to talk to Mr. Northcott; I'm justterribly glad to know he's there."In short, all three men gave off a sense of satisfaction, verymuch shy of complacence, that they, their wives, families, andresident heads, had significantly improved the quality of life asexperienced by those students fortunate enough to live in Wood­ward Court, Pierce Hall, and Burton-Judson Courts.After sherry and luncheon the cabinet was addressed by Pro­vost of the University John T. Wilson on "The State of theUniversity." He too mentioned the $6.5 million deficit, butagain, with cautious optimism. HWe're going to make it," hesaid "but you have my permission to raise as much money asyou wish."After a showing of the development film, HA Very SpecialPlace" (one need not ask which), the fourth national alumnicabinet meeting adjourned and the members dispersed for theirhomes around the country.A week later the following letter came from an older alumnuswhich might serve as an answer to the young cabinet member'squestion. "The polished performances of the bearded panelSaturday morning, Mr. Wilson's talk and the film a7 luncheon,sent most of us back to our homes well satisfied that the Uni­versity is in good hands. On the plane I could not help thinkingwhat a special place the University is; how like the Greek poliswith its undeviating devotion to .high ideals of physical andmental achievement.... Communication in all directions withthose who can see the value of preserving places like the U ni­versity -and helping recruit new students and perhaps evenfaculty seem to me to be areas where the alumni call: playa usefulpart. Although we are no longer a daily part of the Chicagoscene, most of us carry untarnished memories of it with uswherever we go, and may be able to pass them on."29PeopleX IRVING PALEY, a 1947 alumnus of theUniversity of Chicago, has been named theUniversity's new director of the Office of Pub­lic Information.Paley, a native Chicagoan, returned to thecity from New York where he was presidentof his own public relations firm, handling bothcorporate and financial accounts.He is married to the former VIVIAN R. GUS­SIN (AB' 4 7 ) , also a native Chicagoan, and hastwo children, including a son David, now inhis third year at the University,X Four Appointments in Physics: YOICHIRONAMBU, professor in the department of physicsand in the Enrico Fermi Institute at UC, hasbeen named a distinguished service professor.Nambu is a pioneer in studies related to'the regularities in the relationships betweenstrange particles. "Strange'lparticles are short­lived sub-atomic particles with unusual or"strange" characteristics.He was one of the first to suggest the exis­tence of the omega vector meson, a particlewhich is important to understanding the be­havior of light at high energies. N ambu hasalso made significant contributions to thetheory of superconductivity.Nambu was awarded the Dannie HeinemanPrize for Mathematical Physics for 197 ° bythe American Physical Society and the Ameri­can Institute of Physics.DAVID R. PENN, assistant professor of phys­ics at Brown University, has been named visit­ing assistant professor in the James FranckInstitute at Uc. Penn is a native Chicagoan,born in 1937, who attended the University ofChicago. He earned the S.B. degree in 1958,the S.M. degree in 1959, and the ph.D. degreein 1965, all from the University.In the short time that Penn has been at theUniversity, said Morrel H. Cohen, director ofthe James Franck Institute, Penn has alreadymade a major co�tribution, explaining the ef­fect of atoms absorbed on the surface in thefield-emission process.Penn was a research fellow at the ArgonneNationai Laboratory for a year (I965�66)following his graduation from the Universityand served a year (1966-67) as a National30 Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow at theAtomic Energy Research Establishment inHarwell, England.VALENTINE L. TELEGDI, experimentalphysicist and professor in the department ofphysics, in the Enrico Fermi Institute, and inthe College at UC, has been named a distin­guished service professor at the University.T elegdi was a member of one of three teamsto have experimentally proved the nonconser­vation of parity theory for which two formerUC students (Chen Ning Yang and TsungDao Lee) won the Nobel Prize. Por this, andfor his studies on the properties of the weakinteractions in radioactive decay, Telegdi waselected to membership in the National Acad­emy of Sciences in 1968.Telegdi was born in Budapest, Hungary inI 922, and became a U ni ted States citizen in1958. He has been at the University since1951.ANDRZEJ TRAUTMAN has been named- visiting professor in the department of physicsand in the Enrico Fermi Institute at Uc.A theoretical physicist, Trautman is con­sidered an authority on general relativity andis a former student of Leopold Infeld, whoworked at one time with Albert Einstein.Trautman is on leave from the Institute ofTheoretical Physics of the University of War­saw, Poland, where he holds the title profes­sor of physics.He has authored more than thirty profes­sional articles on the theory of gravitation andrelativity._X ERIKA FROMM, professor of psychology atthe University, has received the 1970 MortonPrince A ward from the American Board ofExaminers in Psychological Hypnosis.The award is given to one outstanding psy­chologist each year for having made the great­est contribution to the science ana knowledgeof hypnosis in the field of psychology.X On Tuesday, March 2, the National BookAward was for the third time given to SAULBELLOW, professor and chairman of the com­mittee on social thought at Uc. The award,which carries a prize of $ I ,OGO, was unprece- dented, for no writer has ever before receivedthe prize twice, never mind thrice.The fiction award was given to Bellow forMr. Semmler's Planet (Viking, 1970), a«picaresque" novel about an exhausted andextraordinary old man.Bellow's earlier National Book Awards werefor The Adventures of Augie March (1954)and Herzog (1964).X One of the world's leading high energynuclear physicists, JAMES W. CRONIN, hasbeen appointed university professor in thedepartment of physics and in the Enrico FermiInstitute at the University of Chicago. He isan alumnus of the University.Cronin was a senior member of the teamof Princeton physicists who in 1964 conductedthe experiment which upset the formerly fun­damental concept of time reversal invariance,which held that physical laws remain un­changed when the direction of time is reversed.The results of the experiment, now knownas the Fitch-Cronin effect, suggested. that insoine cases some physical laws are violatedwhen the direction of time is reversed.X A University of Chicago security patrol­man, formerly a military policeman in Viet­nam where he once saved the lives of fifteenvillagers, rescued seven people from two burn­ing buildings on his way home from the Uni­versity, the morning after Christmas.TYRONNE GARRETT was driving west on55th Street on the morning of December 26when he saw a man in his night-clothes, run­ning down the street and smoke rolling out ofa two-story apartment building on SouthLaSalle Street. The man, running for the firealarm box, yelled that there were two people inthe burning building-his blind mother and abrother.Garrett, twenty-two years old, dashed intothe building and found the blind woman, -,about sixty-five, and ler her and her twenty­six -old son to safety through dense smoke. Therear of the first floor and the second floor wereon fire. As the flames began to threaten theadjacent building, Garrett, choking from thesmoke in the first building, entered the secondbuilding and began yelling and pounding ondoors. His efforts awakened two couples sleep­ing so soundly on the second floor that he hadto practically drag them out, just as firemenand the police arrived.X SUZANNE KIFER, program director for theAlumni Association until this January andcurrently a resident head with her husband inthe University dormitory system, "hit the bigmoney" when she appeared in March as acontestant on "jeopardy," the morning TVquiz prog.ram, and by a dazzling combinationof erudition and sheer daring, walked awaywith $1,190. It gives us a whole new feelingabout her lamented resignation,X The election of four new members to theBoard of Trustees at the University of Chicagohas been announced by Gaylord Donnelley,chairman of the Board.The four are: MARSHALL FIELD, publisherof the Chicago Sun-Times and the ChicagoDaily News, elected a trustee; GEORGE W.BEADLE, president emeritus and the WilliamE. Wrather Distinguished Service Professor ofBiology and in the College at the University,elected an honorary trustee; ROBERT M. HUT­CHINS, chairman of the board of directors ofthe Fund for the Republic, Inc., and the Centerfor the Study of Democratic Ins�itutions, andformer president of the University, elected anhonorary trustee; and LAWRENCE A. KIMP­TON, assistant to the chairman and a directorof the Standard Oil Company (Indiana) andformer president of the University, elected anhonorary trustee,Marshall Field was twenty -eight years oldwhen he became publisher of the Sun-Times"and Daily News and is still the youngest pub­lisher of any major newspaper in the UnitedStates. During his first year as publisher, bothnewspapers won Pulitzer Prizes.George W. Be�dle received the Nobel Prizein 1958 for his research on the relation ofgenes to specific biochemical reactions. Heserved as president of the University of Chi­cago from 1961 until his retirement in No­vember, 1968. During his tenure the Univer­sity conducted a successful $ I 60 million development campaign. Since 1968, he hasbeen a member of the University's faculty andhas also served as director of the Institute forBiomedical Research of the American MedicalAssociation.Robert M. Hutchins served as president ofthe University from 1929 to 1951. He wasonly thirty years old when he was first namedto the position. Prior to joining the University,he served as dean of the Law School at YaleUniversity. After his twenty-two-year tenure atthe University of Chicago, Hutchins becameassociate director of the Ford Foundation. In1954 he became president of the Center for theStudy of Democratic Institutions, in SantaBarbara, California.Lawrence A. Kimpton served as presidentof the University of Chicago from 195 I to1960. During his tenure the University raised$ 100 million in endowment funds. His firstassociation with the University was in 1943when he was named chief administrative officerof the Manhattan District's MetallurgicalLaboratory at the University. In 1944 he wasnamed dean of students and professor ofphilosophy and education at the University.In 1946 he was named vice president and deanof faculties.X DR. LEON O. JACOBSON, fifty-nine, hasbeen reappointed dean of the division of thebiological sciences and the Pritzker School ofMedicine at the University of Chicago for afive-year term. Dr. Jacobson is also the JosephRegenstein Professor of Biological and Medi­cal Sciences at the University.Dr. Jacobson first was appointed dean of thedivision on January I, 1966. He is the firstalumnus of the University's school of medicineto serve as dean of the division.Dr. Jacobson's tenure has been marked bya considerable expansion of facilities.X A University of Chicago authority on civil­military telations urges new legislative controlto relieve the armed forces of civilian sur­veillance-an activity "which some of its bestprofessional officers resist and which violatesAmerican traditions of civilian-military rela­tions." In a statement prepared for a U. S. Senatesubcommittee hearing in February, MORRISJANOWITZ, professor and chairman of the de­partment of sociology, charged that militarysurveillance of civilians only weakens the legit­imacy of the armed service.In his statement Janowitz further charged"much of our present difficulties derive notfrom anti-democratic goals of the military butfrom the mentality of an intelligence com­munity which has become detached from therealities and traditions of American society."I t has only been during the last half of thecentury that there has been a "persistent andlong-term intrusion of military personnel intodomestic surveillance and police work," hesaid. Janowitz placed the blame for this intru­sion on the absence of clear Presidential orCongressional directives to the military to dootherwise. (The armed forces have sought tojustify this trend as a response to new politico­military tactics of foreign adversaries," headded. "However, even within the ranks of thearmed forces there is considerable doubt, re­sistance, and even opposition to this develop­ment."X KARL F. MORRISON, professor of history,has been named chairman of the departmentof history at the University of Chicago.An authority on medieval history, Morrisonjoined the faculty as an associate professor ofhistory in July, 1965, and was appointed a fullprofessor in 1968. He succeeds John HopeFranklin, the John Matthews Manly Distin­guished Service Professor of History, whoserved as chairman for three years. Franklinwill continue to serve as a faculty member ofthe U niversi ty.Morrison, thirty-four, was born in Birming­ham, Alabama. He received his B.A. degreefrom the University of Mississippi, and hisM.A. and ph.D. from Cornell University. He isa member of the Medieval Academy of Amer­ica, Phi Beta Kappa, and other scholar! ysocieties.Morrison is author of Rome and the C,ity 0/God, The Two Kingdoms, Carolingian Coin­age, and Europe's Middle Ages: One or Many?31ProfileDenver is a city of such great natural beautythat the occasional visitor from the congestionof the great eastern and midwestern cities isreduced to wonderment and silence. For theartist, it is a challenge to pi t oneself againstand master. For Joyce Kligerman Newman itmust have been this challenge which broughtabout the flowering of her artistic talent whenshe moved to Denver with her family in 1959.Just twenty miles south of the "queen" city,beyond the smog settling on the neighboringRocky Mountain range, is the rural suburb ofCastle Rock. At its northern boundary, the rockafter which the township was named sits atopa hill, an antenna incongruously jutting out ofits crest. In the courtyard of Castle Rock'sDouglas Public Library stands a ceramic sculp­ture by Joyce Newman called "Circle Game."It is a five-by-seven-foot oval of clay shapesthat stands about three feet high and weighsalmost half a ton. The sculpture might repre­sent «cliff dwellings," as one reviewer sug­gested, or a friendly gathering of tribal-likefigures, humming a chant of unity and content­men t. It is a statement of our need to defineourselves not only through inner struggle butthrough membership in a group. The workwas purchased by Lee Stubblefield, a land de­veloper, for the people of the township sincethe outdoor quality of her unglazed materialsappears to express the nature of the people'srelationship with the land around them. Thefrequent snows which are a part of the unpre­dictable climate of the area fall on "CircleGame" there in the library courtyard, addingodd looking hats, shoulder pieces, and whimsyto figures born of fire in a giant kiln.In November of last year Joyce presented aone-woman show at the University of Colo­rado's Memorial Center Gallery in Boulder.Created between the years 1966 and 1970, theseventeen major works she displayed expressedthe breadth of her recent artistic efforts. Theyranged from a monumental five-foot-Iong re­clining woman to carefully fashioned mini­scul ptures of hand -sized chess pieces. Notablewas a ceramic gull frozen in mid-takeoff whiletrying to free/itself from a quagmire mixtureof inky-black glaze (unusual, since she rarelyuses glaze) ; its title is "Santa Barbara." Look-32 ing at her show, one critic commented "on thewhole, her work explores the environmentalpossibilities for outdoor sculpture." Within theconfines of the exhibit hall the artificial lightrobs her work of the subtle textures and mod­eled planes so striking in the diffused naturallight of a garden or terrace.Born in Atlantic City in 1927, Joyce beganpainting wi th oils as a child, but in early ado­lescence a frustrating sense of perfection com­bined with her natural abilities in other areaswith calamitous results for her art: she quitpainting altogether.At Cornell University she majored in chem­istry, and in 1948 she came to do graduatework in biochemistry at Chicago with Dr. Al­bert Dorfman as her preceptor. There she metMelvin Newman, ,then a resident in surgery.They were married the following year. Withthe exacting pressures and pleasures of herscientific work and her new role as the wife ofa young academic surgeon, the paints and can­vases of her youth continued to lie untouched.But during the, Newrnans' New York period( 1952 to 1959 while Melvin completed a sec­ond tour in the Navy Medical Corps and taughtat the State University of New York at Brook­lyn) Joyce returned to painting again. Withher doctorate in biochemistry completed( 1955) and their children (Rebecca and Mor­ris) past the diaper stage, Joyce, prompted byher husband, found that she had the time andthe desire to study art seriously this time, andshe did. By chance, a friend also enjoined Joyceto enroll in an art course at Queens College,and in a short time her rekindled interest in artled her to study drawing and painting at theArt Students League with Elias Friedensohn,a well-known figurative painter in New York.Her early canvases reflect the quality of herlife during those days: they are representa­tional portraits of her children and nude stud­ies based on her drawings of livemodel studiesdone at the Art Students League. As her can­vases developed, however, there was less con­cern with color and detail. The figures becamemore abstract, with more attention to mass.Her interest in composition changed so mark­edly that her figures seem almost ready to stepout of the canvas and onto pedestals of their own. It was through clay that this interest inscul pture found expression.In 1959 the Newmans moved 'to Denverwhen Melvin was invited to become chief ofsurgery and later chief of staff at Denver's Na­tional Jewish Hospital. At this time Joycemade the slow artistic transition from the twoto the three-dimensional world. Workingwith the sculptor Akiba Emanuel, she beganto develop her technique for working withclay although painting was still her principalmedi um. She also had to develop physicalstrength. Joyce is a small, slender woman, five- -foot two, with a gamin face and large aqua­marine eyes. Rolling coils of clay into theshapes of her imagination required no physicalforce, but wedging clay is another matter. Toavoid explosions in the kiln caused by trappedair bubbles, the artist must pound-wedge-theclay before coiling or carving. Joyce had to de­velop a certain amount of brute force using herforearms to wedge the hundreds of pounds ofclay into her monumental pieces.But even as Joyce began exhibiting her earlyclay pieces at invitational and juried showingsin Denver and the southwest, she donned againher other hat. She accepted a part-time job asresearch associate in biochemistry at the Webb­Waring Institute for Medical Research at theUniversity of Colorado Medical Center in De1).­ver. Her research specialty is enzymes of thelung, and she has published results of her re­search in Archives of Environmental Health,the J ourrial of Cell Biology, SpectrocbimicaActa, and Lipids.Until recently Joyce spent half her workingweek bonking away (a bonker is the crudelyshaped clay hammer used to compact the wet,clay) at her clay figures and commuting toCastle Rock where she fires them in her friendHenry Mead's kiln, and the other half atW ebb- Waring.But this February Joyce made the decision toleave her part-time research career as a bio­chemist to devote full time to sculpting. "It isa good time to build up a body of work," shecommented somewhat hesitantly, aware thatwith her excellent credentials the professionalworld of scientific research was securer than themore loosely defined merit system of "recogni-tion" in the art world.The Newmans' home is a comfortable gar­ment, well and easily lived in. A ranch housenot uncommon in the suburbs of many westernci ties, the brick and wood construction blendswell with the surrounding mountain scenery.The sable-toned wood paneling inside thehouse somehow enhances the friendly atmos­phere created) by the N ewrnans' conversationand cuisine.The kitchen and the adjoining breakfastroom are lined with much used cook books, in­spiration for Joyce's peerless pastries and en­trees that rival Julia Child's epicurean extrava­gances. Her creative acts are certainly not con­fined merely to the laboratory or to her studio.The Ii ving room and dining room walls arecovered with many of Joyce's own oils as wellas those of other artists and printmakers shehas admired. In the living room near the fire­place is an exquisite collection of Eskimo soap­stone sculpture that she and Melvin have col­lected over the years. Her answer to an admir­ing comment which harbored unmistakablypecuniary overtones concerning the Eskimopieces, was "if you want a successful collection,get your husband or wife to share the samehobby."The soapstone collection is but one overlapin Joyce's and Melvin's shared interests, for thegood doctor ranges far and wide pursuingenough vocational and avocational interests tofill the waking hours of several men. MelvinNewman is a distinguished thoracic surgeonwho at present is concentrating his research inlung circulation diseases. He is also a peripate­tic amateur tinkerer, carpenter, instrumentmaker, and student of the arcane in all mannerof crafts and curios. In the basement of theNewman home stands a lovely walnut harpsi­chord that Melvin assembled virtually fromscratch as he did all the furniture in the workarea in the adjoining two-car garage. The longwall of the workshop displays a beloved col­lection of hand and power tools that sit overseveral inches of sawdust on a principle oforder in disorder. What room is left over istaken up by lumber from past and future furni­ture projects, lawn tools, ski equipment, andwindow screens. Joyce at one time thought of setting up her studio in half the garage, butMelvin's gradual hegemony forced her to renta downtown studio instead. The workshop inthe garage is Melvin's place to relax and re­flect, and escape from the super-hygienic order­liness of the operating room. «1' m the straight­ener-outer," Joyce confesses good-naturedly,"because I like things in order. Melvin at homeis the opposite, but every family should havethat sort of balance."Mise en scene: Melvin calls home from hisoffice. Joyce has just rushed back from the labto prepare for a small dinner party and isbuilding an exotic piece of bakery goods in thekitchen. Apparently a threatening rainstormhas placed one of Melvin's experiments in in­strument-making in jeopardy. One of his re­cently assembled violins has been baking onthe roof of their home in an experiment to seewhether the sunlight would polymerize thevarnish molecules. Somewhere he had read thatthe Italian violin-making secret was to com­bine sunlight and varnish to wed the mysticaltone into the instrument's sounding board. Butnow, with rain on the way, he enjoins her"dear, please remove the fiddle from the roof."Only one of the Newman children now livesat home. Their son Morris is a high schooljunior who at sixteen is showing a strong in­terest in, and a growing talent for art and poe­try and fiction writing. He shares his nocturnalworld of ideas and pure reason with a shaggy­haired contemporary whose intellectual inter­ests match his own.Becky, their nineteen-year-old daughter, lefther book-lined room in September, 1970, toenter college. A National Merit finalist fromColorado, she had many colleges to choosefrom (one of them being the University ofChicago), but she chose to enter the first coedclass at Yale. The temptation to enter the doors "­of an erstwhile all-male enclave might havehad an undefined but irresistible appeal.Ceramic pieces intended for an exhibit orfavorites that Joyce will not sell perch on vari­ous shelves and table tops around the house.A charming group of three hooded figures, thelargest of which is two feet tall, sits beyond theglass doors of the patio outside the breakfastroom. Behind the figures are various native plants and the family collection of rocks:jasper and shale specimens found in oceantidal pools and mountain streams where thewater has lapped them into flawlessly smoothovoids. .Joyce does most of her sculpturing in herrented studio, a ground-floor storefront nearher home. The front part of the studio has asink, a few tables and a chest-high work ped­estal dominating the center of the room. Par­tially dried clay pieces, modeling tools, and asmall radio that pipes out music from the localfine arts station fill the available counter spaces.In the back room there is a hot plate and coffeepot, a small john, and wrapped bundles ofdamp clay. A few of Joyce's early nonrepre­sentational oils and an excellent nude studyhang on the walls in no particular order orscheme."Chance has affected many of my importantdecisions," Joyc� claims modestly, includingher decision to become a full-time ceramicartist. In 1968 her first studio was burglarized,and all of her canvases and oils and easels werestolen. It was during the time when she hadbeen working schizophrenically as a painter/sculptor, not devoting enough time to eithermedium to work out her ideas. She was readyfor an artistic leap, and the loss encouraged herto take it. Rather than replace the canvases andoils, she purchased a few hundred pounds ofclay and began to devote her time entirely tothe ceramic medium. It was a turning point, animportant decision, because, as Joyce puts it,"you are putting yourself on the line. You cangrind out trite pieces or you can try to make itwith your own artistic ideas and forms of ex­pression." As a full-time sculptor there is a ter­rible pressure to achieve a national reputation."That is when you test your self -confidence andartistic honesty," Joyce reflected.For Jo�ce Newman, throughout her adult'life, the choice between a professional pursuitand her family role has never been a worry oran issue. Her warning to the interviewer earlyon was enough: HI am a scuptor." She reflectsin her own way the comment of the sage whosuggested: if you've never been captured, thenyou never have to be liberated. A.R.N.33Every vearDad gets a lot ofties he doesn't want.Why not give us, a book instead?Next time you're trying to decide be­tween a tie he won't like and a shirtthat won't fit, think about The Univer­sity of Chicago Fund of Books.The Fund lets you give the Univer­sity a book in honor of a friend or re­lative. Ten dollars buys one book. $100,ten books. And you're buying morethan just a book. You're buying part ofa great working library-includingthe new Joseph Regenstein Library.Each book you buy will get a book- plate with your name and the name ofthe person you want to r.emember,perhaps for a graduation, birthday, oranniversary. The Fund also offers ameaningful way to honor the memoryof a loved one. Copies of the bookplateare mailed to you and the person - orfamily of the person-being honored.Give the University a book. Andgive yourself the satisfaction of helpingto build one of the nation's great uni­versity libraries.The Fundof BooksThe Universityof ChicagoLibraryr------------------------,Enclosed is $ for the purchase ofo 1 book 0 10 bookso 2 books _ bookso 5 booksChecks should be payable to The University of Chicago.Please mail coupon to:The Fund of BooksDirector.Unicersitq of Chicago Library1100 East 57th StreetChicago, Illinois 60637(name)On the Occasion' ofYour AddressPlease informl (add"'''�o Please send me gift envelopes for use on future occasions.---------------------J:EttersTO THE EDITOR: The article "The (Available'University" by Thomas Sowell is excellent andshould be in the hands of every college presi­dent and administrator in this country. I trustyou will find ways and means to have repro­ductions of this article made and widely dis­tributed in the educational world.JAMES O. MURDOCK, phB'r6Washington, D.C.TO THE EDITOR: I am deeply impressed with'The (Available' University" by ProfessorSowell. In my judgment it is the best analysisof the plight of the university that has ap­peared since our present troubles began in thesixties. He is the first author that has had thecourage to say to us frankly and clearly whatwe need to hear.EARL V. PULLIAS, AM'3rProfessor of Higher EducationUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles, CaliforniaTO THE EDITOR: Your November/Decemberissue featuring Thomas Sowell's (The (Avail­able' University" sufficed to restore, for a timeat least, the loyalty of one Chicago alumnus,after it had slipped into reverse for the secondor third time recently. Perhaps Sowell couldmake even Economics come alive.AUSTIN HERSCHEL, AB' 4 I, AM' 5 rChicago, IllinoisTO MR. SOWELL: When I read your tough­minded but good-spirited essay on «The'Available' University" this evening, I felt justlike the New England farmer reading RalphWaIdo Emerson: (That man has a lot of myideas!" The only difference is that you ex­pressed them with greater force and felicitythan I could have done. Please accept a salutefrom a fellow alumnus of the Universityof Chicago.JOHN A. VIEG, phD'37Department of Social ScienceCalifornia State Polytechnic CollegePomona, dliforniaTO THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRE­SENTATIVES: Mr. Speaker, I urge all my col- leagues who are seriously concerned about thefuture of higher education in the United Statesto read the article by Thomas Sowell whichfollows. It is a wise analysis of the nature ofone of our most important institutions ... (Theentire text of "The 'Available' University" wasthen read into the Congressional Record ofFebruary 3, 1971.)THE HONORABLE RICHARD BOLLINGOF MISSOURIThe House of RepresentativesCongress of the U ni ted StatesWashington, D.C.TO THE EDITOR: I wonder if you could pro­vide me with 300 reprints of "The 'Avail­able' University."JOHN X. JAMRICH, SB'43President, Northern Michigan UniversityMarquette, MichiganTO THE EDITOR: The argument over whattype of studies or courses or programs is most"relevant" to the ghetto and other social illsmisses the point. Both dimensions are needed-both knowledge and skills and awarenessand an active concern. What "the relevancepeople" are against is not so much the teachingof the necessary studies as the seeming lack ofawareness or else of concern on the part ofthose who possess these needed skills andknowledge. It speaks eloquently against us inacademia that it took acts of violence or out­rage before many would even reluctantlyacknowledge that perhaps we are our brother'skeeper. Mr. Sowell is correct in stating that"there is ample reason for the university's lossof confidence in its moral position," for wecannot claim duty done no matter what ourcontribution to Hall the graphs in economicsand all the elaborate equations of probabilityin statistics."It seems to me that ever since Adam blamedEve and Eve the serpent, man has been sin­gularly capable of pointing fingers at othersinstead of first removing the beams in theirown eyes.BEE-LAN CHANGraduate Student, Department of EducationThe University of Chicago TO MR. SOWELL: I question your analogy.What is expected of a university?To be "relevanr't=education aswe all knowdoesn't merely serve the intrinsic purpose.Many facts must be memorized, true. But whenyou take an introductory microbiology finaland have no opportunity to even attempt toconvey your intelligence because you are toobusy.regurgitating the bacterial morphologyof forty-seven specific species, something isWRONG.To be "responsive'l=to any demand what­soever? Really, Dr. Sowell. I believe even you,upon examination of this statement, will findit somewhat short of truth. You only hear of "the radical left' s demands for absurd things.You should have been here at the Universityof Maryland last spring when 38,000 youngpeople wanted just to talk to their administra­tors. They were not anywhere to be found.Then, my friend, is when the damage began.A well-liked professor is given the highestaward for teaching by his colleagues. One yearlater he loses tenure because he was busy talk­ing and teaching students instead of writingand publishing. The one statement that reallybrought your article to a climax was "If wecannot convince students that they must dowhat is necessary rather than what turns themon, ... " You people have taught us to question.We question your Idea of necessary. Is the warnecessary?What I am really trying to get at is that notjust you but all of us must question the trueworld around us. (Especially men like you in aposition to do something about it.) Questionthe very government itself. That is what hasmade it so great. As for my generation, wemust not reject so hastily that which we dis­approve of at first glance. If these two diffi­culties can be overcome, we are well on the wayto true communication between the genera- <,tions as well as a better, more intellectuallystimulating world to grow, live, and learn in.RODNEY H. GLOVERUniversity of MarylandCollege Park, Maryland35An advertisement for Chicagochai rs, with some little-known factson the bi rch tree, from theRoman Empire to the University.In the a�hletic contests of ancientRome, trophies of birch branches wereawarded to the victors, a practice whichlater spread to recognition of achieve­ment in other areas. I n time, the "fasces"-a bundle of birch rods, sometimeswith a protruding axe -became a sym­bol of authority. carried through thestreets on civic occasions by lictors,the sheriffs of their day.In the New World, the birch had beenused extensively by Indians, notablyfor wigwam poles and the bark canoe.But the earliest settlers largely ignoredthe tree in favor of softer woods whichlent themselves more easily to con­struction in primitive circumstances.Woodsmen often were discouraged bythe labor needed to hew down a birch,especially when they felled a treewhose toughness had kept it uprightlong past its useful .aqe for lumber.Most observers, deceived by thebirch's graceful appearance, were un­aware of its great strength. JamesRussell Lowell called it "the most shyand ladylike of trees."The sap and leaves of the birch yieldan oil similar in fragrance to winter­green, and one of the tree's early useswas irl the flavoring of a soft drinkknown as birch beer. As the characterof its wood became apparent, the birchbegan to be used in the manufacture ofproducts where durability was im­portant: tool handles, wagon-wheel hubs, ox yokes, barrel hoops, wooden­ware. Challenging oak and hickory forstrength, and excelling them in beauty,birch soon came to be favored by themakers of sleighs and carriages. And,finally, cabinetmakers adopted thewood for the finest furniture.Some of the first railroad tracks werespiked to birch crossties. In the earlydays of the automobile, birch was usedby some coach makers for the mainframe and other structural members.During the metal shortages of WorldWar II the British used the wood in themanufacture of airplanes -especiallyin the well-known mosquito bomber,constructed almost entirely of birchplywood. Tennis rackets and skis arestill made of birch.Some years a99, the Alumni Associ­ation found a century-old New Englandfurniture manufacturer who continuesto employ hand craftsmanship in theproduction of early American birchchairs. The firm, S. Bent & Brothers ofGardner, Mass., is still operated bythird and fourth generation descendentsof its founders. Hundreds of their piecesare now in the homes and offices ofalumni and -especially the sturdy arm­chairs-are found everywhere on cam­pus, from the President's office to theQuadrangle Club.At least one United States President,while in the White House, owned aBent & Brothers armchair, identical incolor, design, and construct on to the model available through the AlumniAssociation.The designs for the Chicago chairsoriginated in colonial times and reachedtheir present form in the period from1820 to 1850. The selected yellowbirch lumber comes from New Bruns­wick, Canada, and from Vermont andNew Hampshire. Except for modern­day improvements in the adhesives andthe satin black finish, the chairs arefaithfully traditional.Identification with the University isachieved by a silk-screened goldChicago coat of arms on the backrest,complementing the antique gold de­tail stripings on the turnings. The arm­chair is available either with black ornatural cherry arms. All chairs areproduced on special order, requiring aminimum of four weeks for delivery,and are shipped express collect fromthe 'factory in Massachusetts..--:---------------,I The University of Chicago I1 Alumni Association II 5733 University AvenueI Chicago, Illinois 60637 II Enclosed is my check for $ , payable to 1I The University of Chicago Alumni Associ­I ation, for the following Chicago chair(s): II - Armchairs (cherry arms) at $44 each II _ Armchairs (black arms) at $42 each I1- Boston rockers at $35 each II _. Side chairs at $26 each 1I II Name 'II (please print) II II Address II II. I!---------------'AMid,ummel"1 ightsJ)·mThis SlI11� .get away·,from it all. Break into something �ew this summer.Take a non-credit course at the Univer­sity of Chicago Downtown Center.Pick your field. Courses range from filmto philosophy, from the arts to archeol­ogy, and include chamber music, jazz,Shakespeare, politics, and lots more. '.The classes are full of interesting peo­ple, and discussions are lively.The teachers are University of Chicagofaculty and other experts. All have ilU­perter training and active minds that willlead you away from the ordinary.Who can take courses at the DowntownCenter? Almost anybody. Mechanics,students, housewives, clerks, execu­tives-and even teachers. Anybody whowants to learn something new is wel­come at the Downtown Center. Classes usually meet once a week. . :Day and evening coyrses are avallable.The summer session starts June 21 ..Write for the booklet with full detailstoday. We're at 65 East South WaterStreet, near the loop.Or better yet, give us a call. We'll helpyou get into something new.The Universityof ChicagoDOwntown Center. Fi68300�/umni�wsClub EventsCHICAGO: An elegant cocktail party-receptionfor department of art alumni was held Jan­uary 29 at the Conrad Hilton Hotel. The re­ception was planned in conjunction with thenational College Art Association meeting.The Contemporary Jazz and ImprovisationEnsemble presented «An Evening of Jazz" toalumni and other members of the Universitycommunity on February 2. A symposium ledby W. Thomas McKinley, assistant professorof music at the University and director of theensemble, preceded the concert. Dinner wasavailable in the C-Shop, giving many alumnitheir first opportuni ty to admire the new decorthere.Over fourteen hundred Chicago area alum­ni attended a special showing of the filmI Never Sang for My Father on March 18.Roger Ebert, film critic for the Chicago Sun­Times} spoke about the film from behind apodium which had traveled over twenty milesto the theater from Ida Noyes Hall.ELKHART: Larry Hawkins, director of specialprograms at the University and basketballcoach at Chicago's Carver High School, spoketo alumni of Elkhart/South Bend (Ind.) andtheir guests on February 2. The program wasplanned in cooperation with the AmericanAssociation of University Women. Mrs.Charles Boynton served as chairman.NEW ORLEANS: Kenneth Northcott, chair­man of the department of Germanic languagesand literatures and resident master in PierceHall, spoke to alumni about {The Under­graduate on the Midway in 197 I" on March 5at the home of Dr. Trina Frankel.PHILADELPHIA: "Children of the Dream,"also the title of his latest book, was the subjectof Bruno Bettelheim's talk to alumni on Feb­ruary 2. He is the Stella M. Rowley Professorof Education, professor of psychology andpsychiatry, and director of the Sonia Shank­man Orthogenic School at the University.William C. Musham was chairman for theevent. Class Notes03 LORENA KING FAIRB.ANK, phB'o3, hashad a fellowship award of the SouthDakota division of the American Associationof University Women named in her honor.Mrs. Fairbank, who was the first president ofthe South Dakota AAUW, has resided in Wash­ington, D.C. for the last twenty-five years.Her son John King Fairbank is professor ofhistory and chairman of Far Eastern studies atHarvard. The Magazine's recent "magnificent"picture of the 1903-donated {'C" bench (No­vember /December r 97 ° ) , Mrs. Fairbankwrites, "awakens the nightmare, as first alumnisecretary, in paying for it!"IN MEMORIAM: Frank Loxley Griffin,SB'o3, SM'o4, phD'o6; Amy Hewes, phD'o3;John B. Matthews, MD'o3.10 CONRADO BENITEZ, phB'ro, AM'r�,member of the Committee of Seven forthe first Philippine Constitutional Conventionin 1934, first editor of the Philippines Herald}journalist, historian, statesman selected byFranklin D. Roosevelt as a member of the jointcommittee to prepare the Philippines for eco­nomic independence in 1937, winner of theUC Alumni Medal in r957 ,-died on January 4,197 I, at his residence in Quezon City at theage of eighty-one, and was deeply mournedboth by his countrymen and many friends andclassmates in the U ni ted States.IN MEMORIAM: Renton K. Brodie, AB'IO;Russell B. Brown, X'IO; Libbie H. Hyman,sn'r o, rhn, I 5; Adelaide Kleiminger Ohlen­dorf, SB'IO; Laura Hayes Pricer, phM'IO;George N. Simpson, X'IO; M. Lyle Spencer,phD'ro.I 8 MIRIAM E. LOWENBERG, phB'I8, nutri-tionist, educator, and author, has beenpresented the Marjorie Hulsizer Copher award,the highest honor of the American DieteticAssociation. Formerly consultarrt and chiefnutritionist in the department of pediatricsand clinical training at the U niversi ty ofWashington and collaborator with Dr. Benja­min Spock on the book Feeding Your Babyand Child} Dr. Lowenberg is retired now, butkeeps busy lecturing, writing and traveling.She is known to neighborhood children as the lady who, instead of candy, gives themfruit and tomatoes.IN MEMORIAM: Louis Mantynband, phB'I8,JD'20; Harry B. Van Dyke, SB'I8} phD'2I,MD'22.22 ALFRED W. BRICKMAN, phB'22, one-time president of the Illinois MeatCompany, while traveling in Florida duringthe past year following the death of his wife,renewed friendship with one Marie Sheehy,widowed nine years ago. "Childhood sweet­hearts," they dated all through their teens, at­tending many UC fraternity parties beforegoing their separate ways after Mr. Brickman'sgraduation. Evidently the spark was still there,because after a whirlwind courtship, they weremarried on March 6 at a ceremony in PalmBeach, Fla. The newlyweds, who according toeyewitness reports can outdance any of theyoungsters around them, are li ving in DelrayBeach, Fla.JAMES W. HUFFMAN, LLB'22, has retiredas chairman of the board and director of Mo­torists Insurance Companies, Columbus, Ohio,following twenty -four years of service. Anattorney, Mr. Huffman was a U. S. senator­from Ohio.IN MEMORIAM: Leonard P. Dove, SM'22;Miles Mark Fisher, AM'22, phD'48; RichardB. Richter, SB'22, MD'24; Jack Rose, phB'22;Paul Vining West, phD'22.23 N. ARNOLD TOLLES, phB'23, AM'24,phD}32, former Ithaca (N.Y.) alder­man and 1969 Democratic mayoral candidate,has been elected by a council of the countygovernment to finish one year of the remainingthree-year term of the Seventh Ward countyrepresentative who resigned. Mr. Tolles is aformer educator and employee of the U. S�Department of Labor.IN MEMORIAM: John G. Woodruff, X'23.25 BENJAMIN E. MAYS, AM'25, phD'35,president emeritus of Morehouse Col­lege and one of the most distinguished blackleaders of this century, has been unanimouslyre-elected by his nine colleagues to the presi­dency of the Atlanta (Ga.) Board of Educa-tion. He was elected by Atlanta voters to aschool board seat in January, 1970, and wasfirst elected to the presidency shortly there­after. His autobiography, Born to Rebel, hasjust been released by Charles Scribner's Sons,N.Y. Julian Bond has called the book "a blackAmerican success story .... A testimony to oneman's determination to lift himself and hispeople from poverty through education."IN MEMORIAM: Abba Abrams, phB'25,JD'25; Lambert]. Case, AB'25, AM'27; HomerR Dubs, phD' 25; Robert Lambert, A¥' 25;Joseph Eldridge Markee, SB'25, phD'29; JohnR. Montgomery, JD' 25; John Wheaton Sar­gent, SB' 25; Lucile Evans Swendsen, SM' 25.2 6 WALTER VINCENT SCHAEFER, phB' 26,JD' 2 8, a Supreme Court of Illinoisjustice, has been named to the Department ofState's twenty-one-member Advisory Panelon International Law.27 T. FREEMAN COPE, phD'27, retired inSeptember as professor emeri tus ofmathematics at Queens College of the CityUniversity of New York, where he has beensince 1937.ALLEN S. WELLER, phB'27, phD'42, willstep down next August as dean of the Collegeof Fine and Applied Arts and senior academicdean of the University of Illinois, a post hehas held for seventeen years. Mr. Weller'smost recent book is The Joys and Sorrows 0/Recent American Art (University of IllinoisPress, 1968).IN MEMORIAM: Mary Foster, AM'27; EarlBarton Howe, phD'27; Sylvia Sack Miller,phB'27; Jane Linn Rogers, X'27.2 8 NORTON CLAPP, phB' 28, JD' 29, chair-man of the board of the WeyerhaeuserCompany, Seattle, a trustee of UC, and presi­dent of the Seattle Chamber of Commerce,has received the «First Citizen" award of theSeattle- King County Bo�rd of Realtors. Mr.Clapp holds the Cross of Officer in the Orderof Leopold II, awarded to him for industrialmerit by the Belgian government.HERMAN REINSTEIN, phB'28, retired sec:'ondary school teacher whose first book of poetry Itinerant Being was published in 1964,is busy writing poetry, fiction, and nonfiction,and is trying his hand at etching prints toillustrate the poems. He resides with hisdaughter now in Chevy Chase, Md.IN MEMORIAM: Frederick M. Derwacter,phD'28; Paul P. Kies, phn'28.29 JOHN LIGTENBEE.G, phB'29, JD)I,partner in the Chicago law firm ofLigtenberg, Dejong & Leahy, was knightedby the Order of Orange-Nassau on March 20,the fortieth anniversary of his admission tothe bar, in a brief ceremony presided over bythe Chicago consul general of the Netherlands.Legal counsel for the Chicago consulate forover thirty years, Mr. Ligtenberg received thepresentation pursuant to a decree issued byQueen Juliana, grand master of the Order, forservices to Holland people in need of legalassistance.IN MEMORIAM: Emma]. Bielenberg,phB'29.30 EDWARD J. LAWLER� phB'30, partnerin the Memphis law firm of Lawler,Humphreys & Dunlap, has been named to theDepartment of State's twenty-one- memberAdvisory Panel on International Law.Among the paintings and drawings ofROSALIND GREEN SALZMAN, AB'30, MFA'69,on exhibit during February in the art galleryof Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital in Chicago,was a large oil, «Calligraphy of Peace." Re­quiring painstaking pre-studio research, thework is a graphic presentation of as many ver­sions of the word Peace as Mrs. Salzmancould compile, written in languages datingfrom as far back as early Sumerian and Egyp­tian hieroglyphics and proceeding chronolog­ically to the present to include the "fortran"( computer) version. Mrs. Salzman has alsoworked as assistant to the business manager ofTime magazine and devoted several years tosocial work as a juvenile clerk, raising a familyin the meantime. Her art work can be seenin the art rental and sales department of theArt Institute of Chicago.LEO R. WERTS, phB'30, who retired De­cember 3 I as assistant secretary for administra- tion and was the top-ranking career officialat the U. S. Department of Labor, has receivedthe Department's Distinguished Career Ser­vice Award. Mr. Werts resides with his wifein Chevy Chase, Md.3 I E. O. THEDINGA, AM' 3 I, vice presidentof student affairs at Wisconsin StateUniversity-Oshkosh, has announced his re­tirement from the staff effective September I.Dr. Thedinga, who joined the WSU-O facultythirty - five years ago as an instructor of historyand political science, currently holds theacademic rank of professor of history.IN MEMORIAM: Clare Frances Cox, phn'3I;James J. Lutz, MD'3I; John T. Scopes, X'3I;Errett Van Nice, phB'3I; Benjamin Wein­troub, phB'3I.33 E. E. BElSEL, phB'33, president of thePepsi-Cola General Bottlers, Inc., inChicago, has been elected chief executive officerof the firm.IN MEMORIAM: Henry Thearle Sulcer,phB'33, JD�36.3 4 CHRISTIAN C. CROSSMAN, SM'34,chief of the Reservoir ManagementBranch, Nashville District Corps of Engineers,announced his retirement from the positiononly a few hours before being presented withthe highest award given a civilian employeeof the Department of Defense, the MeritoriousCivilian Service Award. Named ((Water Con­servationist of the Year" in 1969 by the Ten­nessee Conservation League, Mr. Crossmanhas since 1947 directed the management oflands and facilities at seven Corps projects inthe Cumberland River Basin.3 5 CHARLES A. BANE, AB' 35, senior part­ner in the Chicago law firm of Isham,Lincoln & Beale, has been elected chairman ofthe board of editors, American Bar Associationlournal. Formerly president of United Char­ities of Chicago, Mr. Bane has recently beenelected to the board of directors of the Com- �munity Fund of Chicago.F. GLENN BREEN, phB'35, president of theTrenton (N.].) Saving Fund Society, has39.�How long has it been since you've beenon campus? Reunion weekend has beenmoved to an earlier date this year toenable alumni to enjoy the campus while. the academic quarter is still in session. Itshould be a time not only to renew oldfriendships, but to see the changes...oncampus and to develop a new sense ofwhat life on the Midway is like in 1971.The Hyde Park Art Fair, a much­anticipated annual event which bringswe1l-known artists to 57th Street to displayand sell their jewelry, pottery, paintings,and sculpture, will be held Saturday andSunday, June 5 and 6, between 9: 00 a.m.and 10:00 p.m. It should not be missed.There will be a hospitality center atAlumni House, 5733 University Avenue,and free parking will be available at5555 Ellis Avenue all day June 5. ForSouth-campus accommodations, write toReservations, Center for ContinuingEducation, 1307 E. 60th Street,Chicago, Illinois 60637. Tour 2: Campus by bus; 3:00 p.m.departing from the corner of 57th Streetand University Avenue. (Reservationsrequired.)Tour 3: Robie House; 3:00 p.m. A guidedtour of Frank Lloyd Wright's "prairiehouse." (Reservations required.)Tour 4: University Glass Shop; 3 :00 p.m.A demonstration by Christian van Hespen,Leyden University trained glass blower.(Reservations required.).Reunion Dinners: Class of '1916, Class of1918, Class of 1931.Communications Dinner: QuadrangleClub; cocktails at 5:30 p.m., dinner at6:30 p.m. Saul Bellow, speaker. Alumniin the fields of advertising, the arts; andmedia are welcome. $10.00 per person. ,(Reservations required.)Evening Program: Coffee house, IdaNoyes Library, 8:30 p.m. Folksingersand homemade goodies. ' Presentation of the Howell MurrayStudent Awards, The Alumni Citations,The Alumni Professional AchievementAwards and the Alumni Medal. Luncheonis $6.50 per person. (Reservationsrequired.)President's Reception: 2:30 to .4:30 p.m.,at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward H.Levi. (Reservations required.)Tour 7: Campus by bus; 3:00 p.m.. Departing from the corner of 57th Street ./and University Avenue. (Reservation�required.) .Tour 8: Regenstein Library; 3 :00 p.m.(Reservations required.). Tour 9: Robie House; 3 :00 p.m. A guidedtour of Frank Lloyd Wright's "prairiehouse." (Reservations required.)Tour 10: Oriental Institute; 3:00 p.m. Aguided tour of the outstanding NearEastern art collection. (Reservationsrequired.)Most reunion events require reservations.The coupon below is provided for yourconvenience. Further details will be sentto members of each class holding areunion.THURSDAY, JUNE 3Dinner: Order of the "C".FRIDAY, JUNE 4Tour 1: Regenstein Library; 3:00 p.m.(Reservations required.) . SATURDAY, JUNE 5Alumnae Breakfasl: Quadrangle Club;9:00 a.m.Tour 5: Hinds Geophysical SciencesBuilding; 11 :00 a.m. (Reservationsrequired.)Tour 6: University Glass Shop; II :00 a.m.(Reservations required.) \Luncheon and Awards Ceremony:Hutchinson Commons; 12 noon. Specialtables can be reserved for reunion classes, Reunion Dinners: The Emeritus Club,Class of 1921, Class of 1941, Classof 1946.Evening Program: Brass band concert­Interfraternity Sing, Hutchinson Court;8:30 p.m. Fireworks Display, 58th andWoodlawn Avenue; 10:00 p.m. Fraternityhouses will hold Open House for allalumni after the Sing.Exhibit: "Chinese Painting at Mid-:Century.'; June 4 and 5, 10 a.m.-5 p.m.Renaissance Society, Goodspeed Hall.To make reservations for reunion events, please return �" "'" � � 'g � � ("')o � '<:'<: = 0this coupon no later than May 28,1971. Mail to: S � S; �, 1=1) (') � 51Reunion: The University of Chicago Alumni Association � � � � � g- ::: �ccc _ ..... o � =5733 University Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 ;; ;; ;; '1]'" 0 � >;:;'0'1 til .1:1. ,,""8' =- �Vl"Vl"Vl"Vl� g-'" a 0(1;l�(1;lJ-lotHon _� �=�51::l.l:l."::II-l!:l'::l"CI '-0 "::1-'';:10.. o..Q:lo...I:I.o..::', ';:I 0..>0..0/ I � I ; I '? � ��. 3 � � §'Name Class Year ':z ?I I C �L I" a.1 II(please print), c. 9 c. 0 =. (') g -< � �- (") 0 (") 0 (") ::r 0 _. ..... c:� o· � ? � 2. o � H-, Vl C..... :::l..... (0 _ _ (") 0 (') I'D _::I _. (0Address Vl0 Vl O Vl I'D 8 e- � o· I'D � �0' ..,., 0' 5" 0' g, 'E. s: 5' @..._,� � , ..., :tt .., _ . .., 8' 1=1)- Vl ..... Vl...,-...]...,f;l...,*I'D �a.: �O�O 0_0 .� ...... coococ� _ �Clty & State .., � -I ..,., .., tv 1=1) �::ij:\C:tt::ij:::ij:�":; ?" s>Igl�I�� � �.., .., (0 1=1) 1=1)Zip Telephone 0 0\ � Vi g. g._' .. _'IIbeen elected to the board of directors of theReliance Insurance Co. He is also a director, for the Port Reading Railroad and the NewJersey National Bank.3 6 JAMES MARKHAM, AB' 3 6, has beennamed vice president-sales of KolmarLaboratories, Port Jervis, N. Y., with whomhe has been associated since 1946. Mr. Mark­ham and his wife reside at Hemlock Farms,Hawley, Pa.A. R. MORTIMER, phB'36, an attorney whomakes his home in Rosemead, Calif., wasadmitted in February to practice before theSupreme Court of the United States.38 TAYLOR R. ALEXANDER, SM'38,. phD'4I, on the biology faculty, Uni-versity of Miami, is co-author of a GoldenScience Guide Book, Botany, published inOctober, 1970, by Golden Press, N. Y.ELLIS B. KOHS, AM' 38, on a year-long sab­batical from the University of Southern Cali­fornia where he is a chairman of the musictheory department, recently completed anopera based on the Franz Kafka novel Amer­ika. Concerned with the frustrations and de­spair of a young immigrant, the opera waspresented last May by the Western OperaTheater in Los Angeles and San Francisco.Among Mr. Kohs' other compositions are twosymphonies, "Passacaglia for Organ andStrings," "Chamber Concerto for Viola andString Nonet," and "Lord of the Ascendant,"a two-hour soloist-chorus-orchestra epic basedon the Sumerian Gilgamesh legend.SIMON RODBARD, SB'38, phD'4I, on Au­gust 31, 1970, in Brussels, Belgium, wasawarded the first international prize of theInternational Society of Lymphology, for hisresearch on the capsular barrier between theinterstitial fluid and the source of the lymph.3 9 JAMES W. BUTTON, AB' 3 9, senior vicepresident of merchandising for Sears,Roebuck and Company, Chicago, has beennamed "Marketing Man of the Year" by theChicago chapter of the American MarketingAssociation ..ROBERT BARTLETT HAAS, AM'39, has been42 elected to the board of trustees of the Pasadena( Calif.) Art Museum. Director of UCLAExtension's division of arts and humanities,he recently completed three years of post­doctoral study in art history at UCLA and theUniversity of Delaware.EVELYN HODGES LEWIS, AM'39, has beengiven the rank of emeritus associate professorof sociology and social work at the Utah StateUniversity.LAVERNE LISSY, SB'39, AM'59, has beenappointed assistant administrator of nursingpractice at St. Francis Hospital, Evanston, Ill.JUDITH GRAHAM POOL, SB'39, phD'46,senior scientist at the Stanford UniversitySchool of Medicine, has discovered "a simpleway" to produce a powerful concentrate of theclotting factor that is missing from a hemo­philiac's blood. It is called antihemophilicglobulin or AHG, also known as Factor VIII.Now, after the first successful open heartsurgery on a hemophiliac, doctors say thathemophilia victims can undergo the boldestof operations, including a heart transplant.But the greatest boon of Dr. Pool's find is thatit can prevent, through a self-treatment plan,the acutely painful crippling of the joints thatis a threat to almost every hemophiliac.40 RAYMOND G. COLVERT, JR., AB' 40,general manager and secretary-treasurerof Colvert Dairy Products Co., Ardmore,Okla., has been elected president of theInternational Association of Ice Cream Manu­facturers, the "highest honor possible in theice cream industry." He is a director of theDixie Dairy Products Association and a mem­ber of the Oklahoma State University DairyHall of Fame.BERTHA KLAUSER, SB'40, has retired asdirector of nursing at Augustana Hospital inChicago, bringing to a close her nearly forty­year association with the hospital. During herstudent nursing days, Miss Klauser recalls, oneof her patients was a "henchman" of Al Ca­pone. A real trooper, she chose to remain onthe case even after the patient's brother threat­ened her with a gun to ensure good nursingcare for his brother.EILEEN JACKSON SOUTHERN, AB'40, AM' 4 I , lectured at Oberlin College on "Afro­American Pioneers in Music from NewportGardner to William Grant Still" during festiv­ities honoring the seventy-fifth birthday ofStill, regarded the dean of Afro-Americancomposers. An associate professor of music atYork College, City University of New York,Dr. Southern is currently writing a history ofblack American music.IN MEMORIAM: Frank B. Blumenfield,phB'40; Elbert C. Flora, MBA'40; Pearl FisherHarlan, AB'40; Esther Kirchhoefer.Asr'ao;Kent V. Lukingbeal, AB'40, LLB'42; Elvin D.Sukys, AB' 40.41 CARL Q. CHRISTOL, phD'4I,professorof international law and political scienceat the University of Southern California, haswon the school's $ 2 ,000 Dart A ward for aca­demic innovation in the field of AmericanConstitutional Law.PAUL R. GLENISTER, SM'4I, phD'43, hasbeen promoted to director of research for the]. E. Siebel Sons' Company, Inc., Chicago. Mr.Glenister has been published on many topics,including beer foam, chillproof enzymes inbeer, beer sediments and calcium oxalate inbeer.44 WILLIAM A. HALL, MD' 44, psychiatristat the Veterans Hospital in Palo Alto,the Santa Clara County (Calif.) Mental Hy­giene Center, and on the clinical teaching staffat Stanford University, has married CynthiaB. Richards, former head nurse at the VAHospital.LEWIS P. JOHNSON, AB'44, recently fea­tured under "Personalities in Business" inthe Camden N.]. Courier-Post, is president ofLynch Industries, Inc., Pennsauken, N. ]., afirm which designs and manufactures exhibitsand mobile audio-visual units for industry andmuseums, a firm which for example in � 966,in a display for Sports Illustrated,'pioneeredthe use of psychedelic lighting.VINCENT E. LALLY, SB' 44, a staff scientistat the National Center for Atmospheric Re­search (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo., has beenelected a fellow of the American Meteorolog­ical Society. Mr. Lally, who heads the NCARGlobal Atmospheric Measurements Program,is a pioneer in the development of superpres­sure balloons designed to remain aloft for longperiods of time to collect atmospheric dataover oceans and underdeveloped land regionsof the earth.46 BESSIE L. BULLOCK, AM'46, veteranlibrarian who was recently appointedcoordinator of services to the disadvantagedfor the Brooklyn (N.Y.) Public Library, in­dictated the extent to which some people areunaware of the existence of public library ser­vices by recalling the comment of a womanoutside the Brooklyn Public Library building,who said she had never been inside the library."I thought you had to have a college degree togo in," said the surprised woman. Through herprogram for the disadvantaged, Miss Bullocktries to make people aware that "through-us­ing the resources of the library, they can de­velop their skills and potentials."48 RAY FOLEY, AB' 48, assumed office inJanuary as executive vice president andchief executive officer of the National CandyWholesalers Association. He joined the or­ganization in 195 I as editor of their publica­tion, National Candy Wholesaler.CHARLES L. JORDAN, phB'48, SB'49, SM'51,phD' 5 6, on the meteorology faculty at FloridaState University, has been elected a fellow ofthe American Meteorological Society.BEVERLY SIMELS WENDT, AB' 48, has beenelected as one of the thirteen directors on theIntermediate Unit, a greatly revamped organreplacing the Allegheny County (Pa.) SchoolBoard. The only woman ever to be elected tothe old County Board, Mrs. Wendt lives inEdgewood, Pa., with her husband and twohigh-school-age sons.MYRON H. WILK, X' 48, has joined T. J.Kearns Associates, Inc., commercial collectionsconsultants in Westfield, N. ]., as executivevice president. Formerly sales manager forStanley Tulchin Associates, New York, Mikemakes his, home in Eaton's Neck, on the northshore of Long Island, .. with my wife, threedogs and six cats."IN MEMORIAM: Z. T. Ossefort.ssr'aa, 4 9 THOMAS FAGLEY, phD' 49, professor of. chemistry at Tulane University, haswon the 197 I Honor Scroll Award of theLouisiana chapter of the American School ofChemists.ROBERT KASANOF, AB'49, JD'52, partner inthe New York law firm of Kasanof & Sandler,has been appointed attorney-in-charge of theLegal Aid Society's Criminal Courts Branchwhich provides defender services for personscharged with crimes who are unable to pay forprivate counsel.IN MEMORIAM: Hubert Bonner, phD' 49;E. H. Marhoefer, Jr., MBA' 49.5. I ERIK K. BONDE, phD' 5 I, a University ofColorado biologist, is one of two Colo­rado biologists to have received a $ I 6,43 INational Science Foundation grant to conducta study of the growth and development ofplants common to the 'Rocky Mountain tundraregions of Boulder County and to various arcticregions of the world.JACK KINNEY, AM' 5 I, is directing a police­community relations project in Cambridge,Mass., for Arthur D. Little, Inc. (research, en­gineering, management consulting firm) ,where he is a senior staff associate. The projectbrings men and women representing widelydiverse elements of the community to seminarswith Cambridge policemen during which aspecific situation demanding police interfer­ence is given in-depth treatment, all the op­tions of police behavior in that situation beingevaluated and compared as thoroughly aspossible.C. SUMNER STONE, JR., AM'51, the subjectof a recent Trenton Sunday Times Advertiserarticle, was a press representative for the JoeFrazier-Muhammad Ali fight. He mentionsFrazier's tremendous receptiveness to thegroups of kids (rom Trenton, New York, andPhiladelphia whom he took down to visit theFrazier camp on weekends prior to the fight.Mr. Stone has authored three books, the mostrecent of which, King Strut, published lastOctober, is a novel about a black congressman."Quite frankly, I wrote it because I didn'twant a white man to do it .... It seems as if wealways let the white man document us." Mr. Stone has been a commentator on the "Today"show, special assistant to Adam ClaytonPowell, editor of three of the country's biggestblack newspapers, and a founding meinber ofthe Black Academy of Arts and Letters.. He is .currently director of the Educational TestingService in Princeton, N. J. One of his threechildren, Krishna (twelve), is named forNehru's sister who became a close friend dur­ing his term as assistant mission chieffor.CARE in Egypt and India.52 WILLIAM T. KEETON, AB'52, SB'54,professor of biology at the N. Y. StateCollege of Agriculture, Cornell University,and chairman of the section of neurobiologyand behavior for the University'S division ofbiological sciences, was honored in March withassociate membership in Alpha Zeta, the na­tional agricultural honorary fraternity. Authorof the widely used text Biological Sciences anda noted authority on systematic, evolutionaryand behavioral biology, Professor Keeton iscurrently researching the orientation and hom­ing behavior of pigeons.53 STANLEY MANDELES, phD'53, hasbeen appointed professor and chairmanof the department of chemistry, Douglass Col­lege, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J., effective July. During the past nine years hehas been 'a member of the chemistry and spacesciences laboratory faculty at the University ofCalifornia, Berkeley.MILLER B. SPANGLER, AM'53, phD'56, isthe author of New Technology and Marine'Resource Development: A Study of Govern­ment-Business Cooperation, published in 1970by Praeger Publishers, Inc. The book recordsthe findings of a National Science Foundationand National Council on Marine ResourcesDevelopment contract study, performed by theCenter for Techno-Economic Studies of theNational Planning Association, Washington,D. c., of which Dr. Spangler is director.5 6 PHILIP E. CARY, MBA' 56, is retiringfrom International Harvester and willbe conducting a metallurgical consultingser­vice from his home in Plainfield, Ill.43ALBERT H. MILLER, AM' 56, associate pro­fessor of political science at Mundelein Collegein Chicago, spoke to a Fort Carson, in February on "Student, Anti-War andBlack Protest-What Do They Mean?" Anauthority on minority problems, ProfessorMiller is a contributing reviewer for TheCritic and is on the board of directors of theNational Catholic Council on InterracialJustice.5 7 JOHN K. GREEN, AB' 5 7 , was convictedof unlawful assembly and conspiracythereof (in connection with a nonviolent in­come tax day protest) and spent a week in theDenver County Jail, while IRIS DEMPSTERGREEN, AB' 57, attended a Hiroshima Day treeplanting ceremony in Los Alamos, N. M. Mr.Green's footnote: (Jail is very educational+Irecommend it."CHARLES V. HAMILTON, AM'57, phD'64,professor of urban studies at Columbia Uni­versity who collaborated with Stokely Car­michael on Black Power.' The Politics 0/Liberation in America, author of The Politics0/ Black America and Political Thought 0/Black America, and winner of a 1970 AlumniAssociation Professional Achievement Award,spoke in December at St. Lawrence University,Canton, N. Y., on "Urban Crisis and BlackPolitical Change."IN MEMORIAM: Robert 1. Mayhew, SB' 57.60 GERALD L. IPPEL, MBA'6o, attorney,has been elected president of the TitleGuarantee Company, New York. As chiefexecutive officer of the firm, which is a wholly­owned subsidiary of Pioneer National TitleInsurance Company, he will also, as senior vicepresident of the latter firm, direct its opera­tions in the Northeastern U ni ted States.REATHA CLARKE KING, SM'6o, phD'63,assistant professor of chemistry at York Col­lege of the City University of New York, hasbeen named assistant dean for the division ofnatural sciences and mathematics at the school.Previously a research thermochemist for theNational Bureau of Standards and the 1967recipient of their Outstanding PerformanceAward, Professor King is the first black woman44 to hold a deanship in the City Universitysystem.HOWARD B. MILLER, JD'60, currently on aleave of absence from usc where he is a pro­fessor of law, is in his second season on theweekly PBS television show "The Advocates,"during which he and his opponent, WilliamRusher, advance opposing points of view onan important issue of national interest.DAVID F. PASKAUSKY, sB'60, assistant pro­fessor of geology at the University of Con­necticut and a member of the Marine SciencesInstitute, Groton, Conn., has developed amathematical model which he hopes mightlead to ocean current forecasts much likeweather forecasts.6 I HERBERT J. STERN, JD'6r, formerly atrial attorney in the organized crimeand racketeering section of the Department ofJustice, has been appointed to fill a vacancy asU. S. attorney for the District of New Jersey, atleast until President Nixon appoints a suc­cessor who is confirmed by the Senate. Anassistant district attorney of New York Countyfrom 1962 to 1965, Mr. Stern conducted thegrand jury investigation into the death ofMalcolm X which resulted in the arrest ofthree individuals who were later convicted ofmurder in the first degree.6 2 .1,ANET_ELAINE KASTEL, BFA'62, freshfrom completing her master's in Eng­lish at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem,has turned to avocados and pecans which sheraises at her new home, "a beautiful moshavnear the sea," in Doar N a Oshrat, Israel. Soonshe will be teaching at the Technion in -Haifa.MARY ANNEKRUPSAK, JD'62, elected inNovember to her second two-year term on theN ew York state legislature and youngest of thethree state assemblywomen, is serving on threestanding committees-education, conservation,and agriculture-and is ranking minoritymember on the joint legislative committee ofmetropolitan and regional area studies. ADemocrat, she calls herself «a woman who ischallenging the system," and has been in theforefront of a drive to have the state assumemore responsibility for financial support of education to relieve local real property tax­payers. She has established a reputation as arelentless fighter for the rights of the con­sumer, particular! y against the practices ofcertain large food store chains and has spon­sored clear packaging legislation. Miss Krup­sak, who lives in Amsterdam, N. Y. with herhusband Edwin Margolis, is joining her fellowassembl ywomen in backing a bill to establisha joint legislative committee on women.ROBIN BOGEAUS SEIDENBERG, AB'62,AM'63, writing from Grayslake, Ill., has yet torid her swimming pool of all the frogs andtoads in residence, but all the news is not bad,she adds. HOne of our hens finally laid an egg."MICHAEL SHAKMAN, AB'62, AM'64, jD'66,Chicago attorney who was disappointed in hisbid last year for selection as a delegate to theIllinois Constitutional Convention, has won adecision from the U. S. Circuit Court of Ap­peals that strikes a blow against importantaspects of the political patronage system. Hissuit against the Democratic Party of CookCounty, the mayor, and others high in theparty to enjoin them from compelling em­ployees to work for Democratic candidates,was initially dismissed by U. S. District CourtJudge Marovitz on the grounds that only pa­tronage workers themselves had the right tobring such a case. The Court of Appeals, in atwo-to-one decision, disagreed and orderedMarovi tz to hold a trial to determine thevalidity of the facts alleged in the complaint.Shakman requested a rehearing, however, andthe case concei vabl y could be heard by theU. S. Supreme Court and applied nationally.(The real beneficiary of the decision," saidShakman, "is the patronage worker himself"who need not do political work if he doesn'twant to.Picture CreditsDavid Windsor: cover, 45Danny Lyon: 20-27Lynn Martin: art direction and designTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 5733 UNIVERSITY AVENUE CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60637r-; t.u� �:t: �� �<."4o- .. q r-"" C:; l>-�nO"1;,1<��; rn �;; �nc:",. :< Vi• 1-1\....n «·"1... .!) (11 .<""�i rr:r: fij CJ..... 't OilV"! t>�r" n'N :r:fTI on �IT in ()-4 0 J:;,'goCJC)�x; 0�� c:;r-c:n0" "'0�i r-o-\.)J -n• ...,J