THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINETHEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEThe Power to Bea UniversityWayne G Booth 2Mallorca Conquers AlumniClifford G. Massoth 10On a New Domestic FunctionYafïaDraznin 12The Drug ThingPeter Glankoff 1628 Quadrangle News30 People34 Alumni News42 LettersVolume LXlll Number 3January/February 1971The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is published rive timesper year for alumni and the f aculty ofThe University of Chicago, under theauspices of the Office of the Vice Président for Public ArTairs. Letters andeditorial contributions are welcomed.The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312) 753-2175John S. Coulson, '36, PrésidentArthur R. NayerDirector of Alumni AfïairsGabriella Azrael, EditorJane Lightner, Editorial Assistant Régional Offices1 542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91 201(213) 242-8288320 Central Park West, Suite 14ANew York, New York 10025(212) 787-780030 Miller PlaceSan Francisco, California 94108(415) 433-405018205 Lost Knife CircleGaithersburg, Maryland 20760(301) 948-14482nd class postage paid at Chicago,Illinois; additional entry atMadison, Wisconsin. © 197 1 , TheUniversity of Chicago. Publishedin July/October, November/December, January/February,March/April, and May/June.Cover: Drugs are nothing new. A sixteenth century herbal woodcut of the opiumpoppy, taken from Pietro Andréa Mattioli, Neu Kreùterbuch mit den allerschonstenund artlichsten Figuren, Prague, 1363. Courtesy of Spécial Collections, the Universityof Chicago Library.Wayne C. BoothTHE POThere's an old game which some of you may hâve played calledconjugation of adjectives. It goes something like this: I amfirm; you are obstinate; he's pigheaded. I'm neat; you, myfriend, are fussy; he, my enemy, is compulsive about germs. Fmscholarly; you're pedantic, he's dry-as-dust. Tm flexible; you'reflabby; he's wishy-washy. I m bold; you're a bit pushy; he's gothis nerve; and so on. I've noticed that it is a game frequentlyplayed in talk about power and politics on campus. My sideshows shrewd tactics; your side sometimes cuts corners a bit; myenemies are unscrupulous. My side adapts its rhetoric to theneeds of the audience; you cannot quite be relied on to tellthe same story twice; my enemy is a damned liar. As dean, Ihâve sometimes had to exercise with discrétion my legitimateauthority; some of my fellow deans, I regret to say, enjoyedthrowing their weight around too much; and some people Iknow are just plain bullies.But even if we stop kidding and take a serious look at theword power, we find that it means many différent things, andbefore we ask how a power structure works or should work, weought first to hâve some idea of what we are talking about. Idon't need to tell you that many people thèse days are usingthe word loosely— the powers that be, the power élite, thesources of power. "The power of the university is finally thepower to use the state's violence against students," I read in arécent journal. "What is your position en student power?" astudent reporter asked me. And when I say that I am both forit and against it, depending on what it is, the reporter gives methat sneer that student reporters reserve for deans when theythink we're protecting ourselves by equivocation.T3JLFut it's no equivocation to say what everybody ought toknow: if power is the capacity to effect changes in the worldoutside ourselves, power within a university is many différentthings, as many as there are différent ways of effecting changesThe author, a former dean of the Collège, is presently the GeorgeM. Pullman Prof essor of English. "The New Masters," in partby Mr. Booth, appeared in the last issue. This article also ap-peared in Now Don't Try to Reason with Me! (© University ofChicago.)2 VEETOBin other men's minds or deeds. Hannah Arendt wrote a splendidessay last year, delivered first to one of our freshman courses,in which she distinguished true power from violence, violencebeing the kind of ersatz power one turns to when the truepower of legitimate authority has broken down. I think weneed many more such distinctions if we are going to talk to-gether meaningfully about such a word as power, and I hope itwon't seem too pedantic of me, merely "scholarly," if I spend afew moments on them before turning to the collège scène. Ofcourse 111 really be dwelling on that scène surreptitiously ailthe while.AX_M-lthough one coûld easily make a long list of ways we canchange the world or get other men to work for change, I findthatmost of them fall clearly under a three-fold division: force,influence, and persuasion. There is first the way of force, theessence of which is either harm to others or a threat to harmthem, and the effect of which is always that the man who changeshis words or deeds does so against his own true convictions. Weail know the old saying, "The man convinced against his willis of the same opinion still," and of course such a man willrevert to his original beliefs and behavior just as soon as thethreat of harm is removed. The most obvious forms of force onour campuses thèse days are the sit-ins and the guns and thebilly clubs. But the students quite rightly remind us that otherforms hâve not been totally absent in the past. Although Iwouldn't, as some students would, deny the différence betweenphysical force and mental or spiritual force— that is an important line there— I think the students are quite justified inreminding us of how threats of harm of various- kinds can beused and too of ten hâve been used in the running of classes andthe settling of académie disputes. The professor who uses thethreat of a bad grade as his chief pedagogical device, the professor who threatens to leave the university if his chairmandoesn't do whât he asks, the dean or président or board thatadjusts salaries according to political loyalties, the student whothreatens to take his case to the provost or to the SDS chapter,ail thèse and many others are playing the same game as thepolitical activists who said this year to our président, "Eitheryou rehire Marlene Dixon in the sociology department, or we'llE A UNIVERSITYstage a sit-in." [Marlene Dixon, an assistant professor of soci-ology, was not rehired, a fact which eventually led to the Administration Building sit-in of January, 1969. Ed.} I cannot taketime hère to discuss the problem of ends and means that theirthreat of force raised. The président didn't hâve the power tohire Marlene Dixon to the sociology department, and I amquite sure that some of the people who issued that ultimatum,though by no means ail, knew that the président didn't hâvethat power; one had to wonder whether they were really work-ing for the announced end or whether they specifically wantedto be able to put us in a spot where we couldn't move andthere would thus hâve to be some kind of démonstration.(That's my first nonobjective, personal remark; there will nodoubt be others later.)There are clearly degrees of community acceptance of variouslevels of threat and harm. 111 try to show later that there is alsoa great différence between a threat administered by someonewith "legitimate authority"— the very phrase that is questionedby so many people thèse days— and a threat by someone who isusurping authority. Thèse différences, denied by many, areterribly important, but they don't obscure the fact that "for-mally" the mode of enforcement, if it can be called that, is ex-actly the same whether it's "Do what I say or 111 give you an F inmy course" or "Do what I say or 111 kill you" or "Do what I sayor 111 withdraw your tax money or my annual gift" or "Do whatwe say or we'll expel you." In form, I think, they are ail alike,though there are great différences otherwise. Ail of them workdirectly to change a man's action without changing his mind,without changing his belief about how he ought to act, and ailof them are thus, whether legitimate or not, ptoperly felt bywhat we usually call the victim as a violation of rights. He mayor may not be right, but it feels that way to him.A second kind of power available to those who governmight be called influence. I'm a little uncomfortable about someof the connotations of that word. I don't hâve a good word for it,but I am thinking of the kind of influence that some men carryquite independently of what they may say in arguing for oragainst a particular décision, and quite independently ofwhether there is power available of the first kind. The weight of respect or love that they hâve earned over the months oryears carries into the présent situation for them and on thosearound them and thus influences the outcome, sometimes evenif their présent arguments are weak. I think of one member ofour faculty, a man who has never had any position of so-calledpower; he would never accept an administrative position or beoffered one— it would be foolish to offer him a job as dean forreasons 1 won't go into. He is simply a professor and scholar.Nobody ever has to consult him about anything. He is not inthe Une of channels anywhere and, what's more, he is so deeplywedded to Chicago that there is never any threat about hisieaving if he doesn't get his way; he never would think of say-ing, "Do it my way or 111 go somewhere else." And we wouldn'tbelieve him if he did. Yet, again and again, I've noted thatprésidents, provosts, and deans call him to ask his opinionbefore they act. To be able to say in an argument that "Xthinks I am right" carries great weight— not décisive weight;not enough, usually, to settle the matter, but enough to make adifférence. Everybody knows that he is a "power" on the scène,an influence to be reckoned with, and he is that because peoplelove and respect him.Jus"ust as there are degrees of badness and goodness in the firstkind, ranging ail the way from armed assault to the threat ofarrest if you go through a traffic light, so there are degrees hère.The corrupted version of influence is revealed in the old phrase,"It doesn't matter what you know; it only matters who youknow," or in the phrase "influence peddling." I'm sometimesamused— if you will àllow some more biased commentary bythe way— to see how easily members of the new left can hâvetheir minds changed if they are told that such-and-such acampus hero has said this or that; the hero shifts, of course,from month to month. I am equally amused— and hère I ambalancing my bias, you see— to note how some faculty memberscan do back flops if they hear that this or that leader has spoken;it is quite clear that they haven't the slightest fear of harm tothemselves if they disagree; it is simply that they are ready tobe influenced, not to say seduced, by the first words that cornefrom the right man's mouth.Though I think my amusement is sometimes justified, it3remains true that no one can avoid depending to some degreeon the influence of those he respects. Lord David Cecil once saidthat if Tolstoy disapproved of something he did, he wouldn'tlose a single night's sleep over it, but if Jane Austen disapprovedof him, he wouldn't sleep for weeks and weeks. We ail hâve— orought to hâve— moral heroes whose mère judgment, withoutthe reasons given, will cause us this kind of uneasiness. Andwe ail know other people who seem to be equally intelligent,equally good men, who somehow don't carry that kind of influence. Every really successful campus leader, from studentbody président through dean of students to university président, somehow manages to build for himself sufiicient respectconcerning his past behavior to earn the right to influence anyprésent or future crisis. He must do so, because he is not goingto hâve time to give ail the arguments. Any leader must hâveenough crédit to allow him to act in a crisis without having togo back over ail of the reasons with every person for whom heacts. Needless to say, in America thèse days we suffer, as severalof our speakers hâve already said, from a great dearth of leadersin this sensé— like the man in the New Yorker cartoon who said,"Of course, I don't trust anybody under 30; I don't trust any-body over 30 either." But in spite of growing mistrust, influencedoes still work. We see it operating every day.The third kind of power is the power of persuasion. If Ihâve no power to harm you or if I refuse to threaten to harmyou, and if your respect or love for me will not influence you todo as I say, then I must persuade you with reasons or withemotional appeals. Hère again there are important distinctionsto be made— between honest and dishonest forms of persuasion,and between the man who persuades me to do something -£opdfor me and the man who persuades me to do something badfor me and good for him. But in spite of thèse différences, persuasion is the mode that we ail most often praise or at least givelip service to. I hâve heard or read hundreds of statements inthe last year saying that reason is the proper arbiter in universityaffairs; I've even written some of them myself. Students readthèse statements by faculty members, and since they know ofmany instances in which issues hâve been settled by the exerciseof the other two kinds of power, they accuse the faculty of hy-pocrisy. Faculty hear the same kind of statement by adminis-trators; they too laugh up their sleeves. Yet in spite of the factthat we often fail to practice our beliefs, most of us do believethat the proper governance bf the university, old or new, oughtsomehow to be based on reasoning together, on talking together,on working things out. We may or may not embrace the démo cratie model of "one man, one vote" as the proper way to recordand implement the results of our reasoning together, but mostfaculty, students, and administrators (the exceptions are, Ithink, mostly very récent and very few) would still claim thatreasoning together is the way we ought to run our institutionallives.This near unanimity is really sort of surprising, especiallyin an âge when many claim that there is no consensus aboutvalues and that we hâve nothing but incongruence and conflictin our lives. But if we ail believe in it, why is it that most ofus, most of the time, seem to be disappointed by failure to liveup to it? What is the source of the fantastic wave of mistrust anddisillusionment that has swept not only our students but ourfaculties as well?W? Yithout pretending to answer fully such a complicatedquestion— obviously there are many causes that go into a thingof this kind— I think we can see part of the answer by turning toa term I hâve so far avoided, namely authority. For some peoplethèse days, authority is a swear word; for others it is an appealagainst the hordes of barbarians at the gâtes. In actual practiceI would say that most exercise of power of ail three kinds, nomatter who does the exercising, make some sort of explicitclaim to authority, either legitimate because established, tradi-tional— "this is the way we've always done it,y or "this is theway our constitution reads" or "this is the way the faculty coun-cil works"— or legitimate because morally superior to the oldways, legitimated by a superior conscience or a superior senséof justice or whatever. The professor threatening to fail a student or requiring him to do a doctoral dissertation that servesthe professor 's ends and not the student's own (and I know ofsome spécifie cases of that; I am sure there are a lot of exaggera-tions about it, but it is not just a myth) wields his threat of harmin the name of an authority conferred upon him by the university. The committee or dean who tells the young man either toshape up or ship out speaks again in the name of the authorityof the university. The students who occupy a building claim theauthority of a superior morality or sensé of justice, and they usually try for a further legitimacy through a démocratie vote. Thefaculty committee that expels students does so in the name oflegitimacy established in their eyes by tradition, law, and a rea-sonable moral code.Once we begin to think about that word "authority" we cansee that one mark of our présent difficulties is the near collapse4of the whole notion of any kind of authority that can be con-ferred on anybody. Nobody, it seems, can legitimately speak oract for anybody else. More and more faculty and students aremaking the claim that every man must be in on every décisionabout anything that concerns his life. The students write intotheir codes that no student shall be held for any rule or régulation that students hâve not made. In some codes it is evenwritten that a student cannot be held to any code that he has nothimself participated in making. I had an expérience this winterwith a negotiating committee for a sit-in who came to us with aset of formai demands which they announced were nonnego-tiable. As we began to talk about some aspect of them, I couldtell they didn't believe in their own nonnegotiable demands andthat we were really surprisingly close to agreement. After wehad talked for awhile, they caucused briefly and came back tosay, "We can't talk like this; we hâve got to go back to our con-stituency and get further orders" (they didn't use the wordorders, but that is what they meant) . They were not authoritieseven though they had been elected.Similarly faculty members automatically deny to their admin-istrators any right to make décisions and implement them. "Nobody asked me about i^ is the refrain on every campus. "Youmade the décision, now you carry it out." I found recently thatthe same mistrust extends to elected or appointed faculty orfaculty-student committees. Once elected, they are immediatelymistrusted. It was taken as simply antidemocratic to say, as Itfied to say about- a committee that had worked months on aproblem, that they should now be granted the authority of experts because by studying the problem longer than anybody elsethey now knew more about it than any of us. "I was not con-sulted, and therefore the décision doesn't bind me." Our ownelected faculty council has suffered the same fate: "It's true thatwe elected them, but that gives them no right to make décisionsfor us." I hâve also found, I think increasingly over récent years(and I am now getting old enough so that I can say that withsome dignity) that the loyalty of committee members to theirown committee has diminished. When î first began teaching, acommittee would work on a problem, corne to a décision, andthen go before the faculty with confidence that ail committeemembers would défend their décision. Now, gêner ally speaking,at least half of the committee members will prétend they hadnothing to do with it and also claim they never got most of themémos anyway. I don't hâve to tell you that student organisations, both local student governments and national bodies, arehaving exactly the same trouble; they simply cannot find repré sentative persons for themselves. For ten years now, every student government at Chicago, indeed every student governmentofficiai at Chicago, has been rendered ineffectual by student mis-trust. The mère fact of being chosen seems to taint them veryquickly; within a month or two in office, they are rendered suspect and are off by themselves; some of them hâve become verylonely people.This crisis of authority may not be the deepest crisis we facein our society, but it is surely one of the most troubiesome todeal with, especially in light of our démocratie traditions andthe new developments given them by the rise of "participatorydemocracy." If men who believe in democracy cease to believe inthe process of représentation, they are, I believe, doomed ulti-mately to fail into either anarchy or tyranny. (Plato has somegood stuff on that. ) And we seem to be more and more victim-ized by especially vicious forms of so-calied démocratie beliefs,particularly the notion that authority is required only wheremen are evil and must be controlled for their own good: thehonest of heart and the clear of mind don't need to deiegateauthority to anybody. If we were ail as pure as we ought to be,we would need no authorities. After ail, if we only stripped thecorruption produced in us by modem civilization, wouldn'twe find in ail of us a natural capacity for love and generositythat would require no institutional control and hence no in-stitutional hiérarchies of authority?WTt Tell, leaving aside the theoiogicai difficuities in such apicture of man's pre-Adamic glory, I think it can be shown thateven if we were ail good, we would still need to deiegate authority in order to work out our corporate good together. In a récentarticle on authority, Father Buckley, one of the few people whohas spent some time thinking about it, reminds us that theUtopian rejection of authority is not new. "In the Middle Agesa ciassicai conflict was waged, framed in one of the questions towhich Simon adverts fin Philosophy of Démocratie Government] : 'Whether man in the state of innocence would be underhuman authority' "—an old fashioned formulation of exactlyour problem. "The Augustinian answer to this," Buckley goeson, "was No, that human authority only arose because man wasevil or déficient, and that the function of authority was either tocorrect the evil through coercion or to remedy the deficiencythrough instruction and care. Aquinas differed with Augustinehère. .. .There is indeed this remédiai function of authority,. . . [but] authority has essential as well as accidentai uses. Even5among the mature, the developed, and the virtuous— evenamong Angels— authority is needed to achieve united action.Any society is faced with a number of variant possibilities toaccomplish its end. . . . Granted that some of thèse possibilitiesmay equally accomplish the desired good, a décision must bemade among them if the society is to move. Granted that thereare several ways to get to a fire, the fire department must décideupon one in order to get there at ail. . . .The most essential taskof authority is [thus} to understand the common good and, as aconséquence, to coordinate the activities of the society so thatthis good [can] be obtained which is, indeed, the realization ofthe freedom of the members" of that group to act as a group.The group simply is not free to act as a group unless it is orga-niz.ed in such a way as to be able to act. "Authority, then, is theinstrument— the indispensable instrument— of freedom, and ifauthority is destroyed or its practice made impossible, thesociety is no longer free, [because it is} unable to détermineitself. [An individual} man is enslaved who cannot choose because he is too torn apart by internai disorder, unresolved con-ûicts, pathologically dominant passions, and clashing intentions. So a society is simply not free when anarchy, injustice,illiberality, or party passons hâve destroyed its ability to chooseoperational patterns and to obtain its determined purpose,whether that society be a university, a family, or a body politic."Father Buckley goes on to quote Walter Lippmann to theeffect that failures of authority are especially likely in démocratie societies. "With exceptions so rare that they are regardedas miracles and freaks of nature, successful démocratie politi-cians" (and I suppose that there is no question in anybody 'smind that deans and présidents hâve to be politicians to somedegree) "are insecure and intimidated men. They advance po-litically only as they placate, appease, bribe, seduce, bamboozle,or otherwise manage to manipulate the demanding and threat-ening éléments in their constituencies. . . . Politicians rationalizethis servitude by saying that in a democracy public men are theservants of the people. This devitalization of the governingpower is the malady of démocratie states. As the malady grows,the executive become highly susceptible to encroachment andusurpation by elected assemblies; they are pressed and harassedby the haggling of parties, by the agents of organized interests,and by the spokesmen of sectarians and idealogues. The maladycan be fatal. It can be deadly to the very survival of the state asa free society if, when the great and hard issues of war and peace,of security and solvency, of révolution and order are up for décision, the executive and judicial departments, with their civil6 servants and technicians, hâve lost their power to décide." Hewasn't writing about universities— in fact he wrote this beforeanyone suspected that this would be a problem in universitiesto the degree it is— but I think we can translate university issuesimmediately into his terms. A similar list of "great and hardissues" could be constructed for almost any one of our universities or collèges, and I think that thèse days it would be a rareprésident or dean who could honestly claim that he has not, atleast to some degree, lost the power to décide. Whatever theprocess of sélection that chose him, he has not been granted byhis constituents the authority to govern.WT There does authority corne from? Where could it cornefrom? How does one earn it? How does society recover the processes of delegated responsibility once they hâve been lost? Ailthree of the modes of governing, force, influence, and rationaldiscussion, require legitimate authority if they are to work prop-erly, and this means that the authority must be accepted as legitimate by those over whom it is exercised. But what is the legitimate authority of a collège administration or faculty in a timewhen men are widely questioning the validity of any authority?Tonight is hardly the occasion to run through the possiblesources of governing authority, searching desperately for onethat might work for us in this century. Even if this were the timeor place, I don't feel myself qualified to do the kind of profes-sional job that is needed— and I think it might very well callfor a professional job, the job of somebody who had thoughtlonger about it than I hâve done in preparing this talk. Such adiscussion would hâve to begin with tracing the way in whicheach successive idea of authority has broken down over the lastthree centuries. First, the doctrine of divine right or délégation(which by the way I don't even find mentioned in the most récent édition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica as one of the possible modes of authority, so outmoded is the notion of divinedélégation of authority ) ; then the doctrine of the organic societyin which each part receives its greatest good from the organichealth of the whole; then Rousseau's notion of the gênerai willgranting to the leader the right to know better than the followerwhat is good for him ( sounds bad, but if you think about it, thatis really what good universities claim for themselves: that theleaders of the university, namely the faculty, know better thanthe followers, the students, what is good for them education-ally) ; then the rise from this of various démocratie and libéraldoctrines in which the voice of the populace replaces the voiceof God or the gênerai will, or in which was developed the notionof the rule of law rather than the rule of men.What's important at this moment, perhaps more than everbefore in the history of the West, is that many young peopleare denying the legitimacy of ail authority except that of theindividual will, the individual impulse. Some go one stepfurther and refuse to let the individual of today legislate forthe same person's individual will tomorrow for f ear the will maychange by then. At such a time we're forced as never before tolook at our own first principles in the hope that if we pushourselves hard enough about them, they may turn out to beacceptable to other men, if we really get to the first ones andnot the second and the third. Hère I must take a moment tosay how misguided is the reaction of some well-meaning per-sons who are trying to entrench themselves against the bar-barian hordes when they décide that communication with thosehordes as they see them is flatly impossible. Listen just a moment to the "Report on Académie Aliénation: An Outline ofthe Problem and Relevant Action" by three members of theNational Council of Scholars, a group of new conservativesdedicated to thinking through and combating the errors lyingback of our présent académie mess. "An attempt to enter intoa dialogue with the ideologically alienated should be avoided.There is no basis for a rational discussion with them since theyhâve opted for a world of their own making and removed themselves from ourSj so that meanings are not the same to them asto us, and their words conform to the laws of struggle ratherthan to those of discourse. The mère appearance of dialoguewill only provide the activists with a disguise that is useful tothem in obtaining the support of nonalienated or nonideologi-cal followers." Now I hâve to admit that as an ex-dean I under-stand the source and ground for this attitude. I've been bit manya time by someone asking for a "dialogue" only to discover thatwhat he wanted was only évidence that I wouldn't listen to him,since after the dialogue I wouldn't corne to full agreement withhim. But I think it is dreadful to respohd to such expériences,no matter how often they happen, in what amounts to the samespirit. "There is no use talking to you because you are unreach-able." Even if we are bitten seven times seven we must bounceback and try again to probe beyond what Paul Saltman callsthe "license plate slogan level" and get to possible bases forhonest and clear discourse. Because, you see, the only otheralternatives are the use of influence (of which we ain't gotnone) and force, the use of which corrupts the university,changing it into something else. I won't say that we'll never need to use force in the years immediately ahead, against students, against each other, or against raiders from outside thecampus. The latter has already happened at Chicago: we had alittle raid from— well, we never did find out if they were tellingthe truth when they said they were John Birchers or Minute-men, last year; obvipusly when they came in force, they had tobe met with force, but I will say that the use of force againstthose who don't recognize the legitimacy of the authority ofthose who use it is not the mark of a university, but the markof something else— a civil society perhaps, but certainly not auniversity.Is it possible to find, by thought, by discussion, by méditation,by prayer, a set of principles and practices that might legitimatewhat a university does with each of its three kinds of power?At commencement time, our président says to the students, "Bythe authority vested in me by the Board of Trustées and theState of Illinois, I conf er upon you. . . ." Well, if I read the situation right, fewer and fewer of the students and faculty see anymeaning in that formula whatever; the fact was dramatized forus this year when the faculty, by the authority vested in themby the Board of Trustées and the State of Illinois, expelleclsome three-score students. I hâve talked with many studentsabout that action and I can remember only two out of severaldozen who would even agrée that the faculty has the authorityof expulsion, let alone that the authority was exercised properlyin this case. To them it was a case of raw illegitimate force. Tome, it was a case of legitimate force, nonviolent but still force,into the use of which the university had itself been forced,thereby becoming temporarily less of a university but necessarilyso once the thing got started. When I pressed my conversationswith the distressed students, themselves not expelled but bitterbecause the university had, as they saw it, betrayed their peers,I found a surprising agreement with them at one point. Whatwould make a university justified in such an exercise of authority, they said, would be if it were really serving truth and justiceas it prétends to be but is not, and if the expelled students hadbeen really threat ening the service of truth and justice. An institution and its officers earn their authority, we ail agreed, byserving genuine values. But again and again I heard the refrain,"That doesn't go for this university; it's hypocritical; it professesto serve truth; it really serves the self-advancement of the facultyand the Pentagon." Or, "You prétend to believe in reason butyou use force whenever you think it's required. As Paul Goodman says, 'Students are the most exploited slave class in themodem world.' " "What would you say about the expulsions,"I asked in one of thèse conversations, "if the university were inyour view really living up to its ideals? If the sit-in had dis-rupted what you consider an idéal university, would you thinkthe disrupters should be punished and that there was any authority who would hâve the right to do so?" The answer, I think,was significant. "Yes, but that wouldn't happen, because if theuniversity were doing that, there wouldn't be a sit-in."Well, I couldn't be quite so hopeful about that last point.l've seen some young people lately who think that what theywant to do is disrupt at ail costs, and I don't think that^iieywould be stopped, some of them, even by an idéal university.But it was clear that at least for the students I was talking with—and I am sure they are far more représentative than the fewwho are out to destroy— we had found a common basis for exploration of the problem of authority; authority for them andfor me cornes to any institution in its service of the commongood, the good proper to the particular ends of that institution.I was so encouraged by this agreement that I tried to movefurther to show them why I felt that this particular university,on balance and with ail of its faults counted up, was reallyserving éducation in a surprisingly effective way. Improvementswere needed; but surely, I said, you would agrée that éducationof inestimable value does take place hère and that we ought topréserve what is good while trying for the better. As you mightpredict, the dialogue broke down at this point, or at least theagreement did, though I would say that with some of the students it will continue; it broke down on the problem of whodécides on the values. Who décides what is éducation? In otherwords, it broke down again on the question of authority, nowput in a différent form. ((We think that what this place coliséducation is too often irrelevant, stultifying, Mickey Mousestuff." When I asked them where they obtained the authorityto décide on a version of éducation superior to that of this established institution with its traditions, how they had earnedthe authority to make such a statement, they at first quoted someauthorities to me, books and articles they had read by prophetslike Paul Goodman; then they fell back on the relativism ofgénérations: "Our génération defines it one way; your génération defines it another. And since we're the ones who need theéducation now, what right hâve you, what authority hâve youto impose your notion of éducation on our génération?"At such moments I sometimes envy the old Catholic profes-sors who could fail back on the authority of the Church andultimately of the good and learned Lord who surely knows, ifanybody does, what true éducation is. But as it was, we bogged down this time, as I hâve bogged down so many times before, ontheir version of the easy relativism that is to me the chief plagueof our académie lives today. I could hâve asserted to them, butclearly didn't hâve time to prove, that educational values arenot ail that shifty, that they in fact remain surprisingly constant from génération to génération. It is simply not given toeach man to décide how he will be educated or whether he iseducated. Though there must surely be many valid ways of be-ing educated, there are many more ways of remaining hopelesslyand arrogantly miseducated or uneducated, just as there are nodoubt several roads to heaven but an unlimited number of roadsto hell. And the individual person cannot with any kind of se-curity judge which kind of road he is on. I remember a wonder-ful exchange in the Times Literary Supplément once betweenF. R. Leavis and a reviewer who had said that he had a boorishstyle. Leavis wrote the Times Literary Supplément saying, ineffect: "I do not hâve a boorish style." And he tried to give hisreasons for thinking his own style not ail that bad. The reviewer replied that unfortunately for Mr. Leavis, the personwho décides whether your style is boorish is the person readingyou and not you yourself .In short, whether a man is educated or not cannot be left tohis own biased judgment, and whether an institution is servingtrue éducation or not is in one sensé an objective matter not tobe settled by the freshman who happens to corne along prefer-ring something différent. Nor is it settled, of course, by a dean'sdeclaring himself the judge. The point is that subjective préférence is not the test: either éducation is taking place or it isn't.And in passing judgment, each man trusts, in this modem andintensified egalitarianism of ours, his own brand of miseduca-tion. Every student thinks that he can whomp up betweenbreakfast and his ten o'clock class a better curriculum than theprescribed one. He naturally assumes that in prescribing pro-grams of éducation, nobody is an expert. We cater to his as-sumption, we professors, by the way we talk to him about ourmutual ignorance. It has become a national way of life to protest that no one knows any more about anything than anybodyelse, except for some scientific matters in which a few knowevery thing and the rest of us know nothing. The mucker's pose:"Gee, ain't we ail ignorant though! Why don't you just tell menow what you would like to learn because you're the one whoknows most about that." This pose is killing us and it will goon killing us until we find roads to an authority that canorganize our lives, govern our universities, and teach our classes,roads that can lead the ignorant, including ourselves, to recog-8nize the différence between knowledge and opinion. We mustdiscover once again a passion for learning—a. word whichalways implies that there is a différence between knowing andnot knowing. You cannot learn unless there is a truer somethingahead of you somewhere, and the surest way not to learn is toassume that there is nobody who can help you do it. I am notdenying that we are ail ignorant môrtals, but we professorssell ourselves short when we talk of ourselves as having nothingto teach and start taking démocratie votes on what should belearned. If we really hâve nothing to teach, we should take upsome other line of work. Socrates knew how to talk of his ownignorance in such a way as to demonstrate the greater ignoranceof those around him. We might ail begin in our search for lostauthority in éducation by rereading the Socratic Dialogues.aK-/uch talk as I hâve been indulging in hère leads inescapablyto questions about the ultimate commitment to ultimate authority. What is it that we really serve? What or who is oursuprême authority? I would submit that what has corruptedAmerican éducation and its governance in the last décades isthat in the place of God whose suprême truths men like Harperand other founders of our universities worshipped, we hâvesubstituted a set of lesser gods, most noticeably the shabby godsof futurism. We worship a future that can be discovered by vot-ing on what it should be. Universities that worship the future,undefined, nondescript, attained through a "progress" that cannot provide the criteria for distinguishing itself from regress—such universities cannot answer, even if given unlimited timefor discussion, the charges of those serious students who accusethem of "serving the military-industrial complex," to use oneof the slogans. They are serving a military-industrial complexif they allow themselves to climb onto the same spiralling escalator on which the national economy, with the GNP, climbs.Futurism has a natural appeal, since obviously we move towardthe future whether we want to or not, but the gods of futurismare the gods of futility. If I seem to be speaking with unduefeeling about this, it is because I hâve been having to thinkabout the future a great deal lately. My son was just killed bya car a month ago, at the âge of 18. I find, of course, that "thefuture" for him does not exist in any immédiate or obvioussensé, and yet in a very real sensé that fact does not matter. Mygrief matters, to me, but somehow his life is fulfilled at themoment of his death, and the payoff is not to be found somewhere else. What I'm trying to say about éducation is similar: the payoff ought to be now, so that if at the moment of graduation, as I sometimes used to put it long before I had experiencedthis kind of personal grief, the atomic bomb were to fail andeveryone were wiped out— graduated in a différent sensé—everybody in that convocation hall would say to himself,"That's the way I would want to hâve been spending my lastfour years; that was the fulfillment— the way I lived those lastfour years." The gods of futurism on the other hand are thegods of futility because they proclaim at such moments: the pastwas prélude, now the payoff will not corne.The student critique that is best is the attack on the university governance which forgets the service of human values in theprésent, forgets the human needs of this génération right now,this year, this month, this day, and aims the bureaucracy at bothpreserving itself and at building a national réputation of somekind in the future, at raising the average SAT scores of theentering students for the future; at increasing its Nobel prizewinners in the future. This is a governance that cannot com-mand the love and loyalty of either faculty or students, becausewhen it is challenged about its gods, it can find no authoritativereasons for what it is doing, now.On the other hand, where the students go astray is in theirown brand of futurism. Children of America, they naively lookto a glorious day when ail of our sins will be washed away andthe true university shall walk forth onto the fields of light.Like their elders they are too often willing to corrupt and sourthe présent in the name of an abstract dream of an impossiblefuture, which is to say that they lack the éducation in historyand philosophy, in religion and the arts, that could teach themabout their own frailties and make them less confident aboutthe reliability of their pure immédiate impulses and ideas. Ifwe deny them that éducation simply because they ask us to, thatis our crime, not theirs. We keep telling ourselves that we arein a time of great crisis. Some argue that in dealing with thecrisis we need only listen to the young, and they 11 lead us outof it. Others retreat into unlistening and self-righteous battlefor our traditions. What I am trying to say is that if we take ourtalk of crisis seriously, we will undertake a steady, unhurried,but radical critique of where we are, a critique that will befar more radical than anything most of the so-called radicalfaculty or students will be able to manage. If it is radical enough,it will take us, in our quest for a genuine authority to guide andjustify our actions, to the only Author of ail true authority, theAuthor of that single standard which should guide and whichalways judges our gropings in the world.9The travel folders showed Mallorca to be a vacation spot ofboundless skies, vivid colors, dazzling outlines of sea and shore,a virtual paradise. And that is almost exactly what it was dis-covered to be by 180 alumni and members of their families whovisited the little Mediterranean island the week before LaborDay.Some of those who boarded the Big DC-8 at O'Hare onAugust 28 were dubious— could the island be as good as adver-tised— but they discovered what so many hâve discovered beforethem, that Mallorca has everything— delightful weather, varied scenery, fascinating history, and that elusive quality, charm. Al-though the island is less than one-fortieth the size of Illinois,everyone seems to hâve wanted it, to hâve fought over it, treas-ured it. The original Neolithic dwellers who left stone moundsstill, to be seen on the north and east coasts were followed byCelts, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Greeks. Quinto CecilioMetelo conquered the island in the name of Rome in 123 B.C.Roman walls and gâtes are being restored on the north coast atAlcudia, the original capital. With the fail of Rome, GermanVandals seized the island, followed a century and a half later byByzantines of the Eastern Roman Empire. At the end of theeighth century the Arabs came and greatly influenced the devel-opment of agriculture and the building of interior towns. Thenon the last day of 1229, the Arabs fell under the onslaught ofChristian invaders led by King Jaime Primero of Aragon(James I). There followed a great cultural movement, culmi-nating in the brilliance of Roman Llull, one of the great mindsof the Middle Ages. With the reconquest of Spain and thedefeat of the Moors in 1492, Mallorca became part of Spain andhas remained so until the présent.In English the name of the island is Majorca, but in Spanishit is spefled Mallorca and is pronounced by the islanders Mal-YOR-ka. The islanders among themselves speak Mallorquin, alanguage based on the Catalan spoken by the thirteenth centuryconquerors.The arrangements made through the Alumni Associationwere designed to reveal the best features of the storied islandin a single week. The three hôtels occupied by the alumni— theFenix, Nixe Palace, and Victoria— were in the deluxe category,and the rooms, the food, the facilities, the service were ail excellent. One night, however, just to prove that even paradise hasits flaws, there was a power failure late in the evening, and thenthe guests learned that the squat candie in the wrought ironholder on the writing desk was for something more thanornament.Members of the group were free to tour the capital city andthe island on their own if they chose. Most, however, foundtempting the daily tour off erings and the spécial planned events.Saturday evening, the first night on the island, the alumni wentout into the country to a haciendo barbeque. There, standingbehind the walls of a stone corral, they were treated to a displayof Spanish horsemanship as a single rider put three différenthorses through an intricate séries of steps. Later, inside thecentral courtyard, the entertainment continued with guitarmusic and songs full of the passion and pathos that are pecu-liarly Spanish. They feasted on roast chicken and drank Sangria, a sweet heady mixture of brandy and wine poured' in athin stream from the tiny stem of a porron.Sunday morning was given over to a bus tour of the centralcity, including a visit of an eighteenth century palace, the PalacioMorrell, an entrance into Palma's vast Gothic cathedra! duringthe singing of a mass, a tour through grim Bellver Castle on theheights above the city, and the first opportunity to stroll thestreets of Palma. Stores were closed, but the women in the groupused the occasion to reconnoiter the shop Windows for subséquent assaults. That evening there was a night club tour of twoof the best in the city, Tagomago and Tito's.It was up and away early on Monday for the flight to Madrid,The visit to Spains capital city started with an entrance alongthe Royal Road from Barcelona, a drive along the graciousboulevards lined with fountains, trees, and statues, a visit to theroyal palace, a spectacularly good luncheon at the CastellanaHilton, an all-too-short stop at the Prado. Since the end of theCivil War in 1939, the population of Madrid has leapt from700,000 to three million, and there was construction everywhere.The Palacio Real, the royal palace, has not been used byroyalty since 1931. Nothing the group might hâve seen couldmore dramatically hâve demonstrated the power and the maj-esty that once was Spain. The tour included forty-five of theseveral hundred rooms in the palace, and their splendor wasawesome. No short description can do justice to the vast trea-sures of the palace, the richness of the rooms, the giant crystalchandeliers, the élégance of the silk damask covered walls, theallegorical paintings by famous artists on huge ceilings, theenormous gold mirrors, the paintings of kings and queens bygreat artists, and everywhere an exubérance of rococo design.The dining room appeared to be half a city block long, lightedwith fifteen enormous crystal and silver chandeliers along itslength. The Connecting hallways of the palace extend on andon, their walls covered with huge tapestries, each a treasure ofFlemish and Spanish weaving.On our visit to the Prado the guides limited their lectures toa few of the hundreds of masterpieces in the vast reaches of themuséum, to individual paintings of the four Spanish mastersVelasquez, El Greco, Goya, and Murillo, the Flemish greatsRubens and Van Dyke, and the Venetian duo of Titian andTintoretto, giving us some spécifie points of référence andsparing us the usual sensé of bewilderment that afïlicts the casual wanderer through the endless halls and galleries of thePrado.The big moments on that Mallorcan holiday kept surpassingand topping themselves. As we returned to our hôtels, fromlovely Valldemosa or Algiers or the pearl center of Manacoror the Caves of Drach, I would hear someone exclaiming "Ithink this was the best one of ail!"Those of us who made the Algiers trip came back with wideeyes to tell of descending into the rabbit warrens of the AlgerianCasbah, and of having seen devastatingly upsetting living conditions. Yet still, "It was the most interesting thing I ever sawin my lif e! "Palma, behind the old city walls, had no feeling of a slumbecause there was never a scrap of paper or waste material onthe streets, and each passing Mallorcan was always neatly andcleanly dressed. In meeting the Mallorcans, one sees a blend ofGrecian noses, French complexions, Spanish figures, good car-riage, vigorous movement. The Mallorcans are a handsomepeople.Or again, some of us struck out into the countryside on ourown, renting cars to swing up into the mountain range of theSierras on the west coast, searching out small villages with interesting historiés dating back to the days of Moorish rule, orseeing the black-clad farmers, usually a man and a wife team,taking in the almond crop from the nearly eight million treesthat are Mallorca's main economy after tourism. They knockdown the nuts with long pôles and catch them on green clothsspread around the base of the tree.But for ail the sights, ail the shopping, ail the tours, thegreatest pleasure of the Mallorcan week was the stimulation ofmeeting other graduâtes. The group included graduâtes of ailâges, of varying degrees of éducation, with widely différentadult careers. Within a few days, it seems, everyone had at leasta nodding acquaintanceship with everyone else. 'I never sawa group get acquainted so fast," someone remarked. "Speakswell for our old school."With the single misfortune of one broken hip it was a safeand successful vacation from start to stop, and I hope the Mallorcan tour will set the stage for others to follow.Aside from being an ardent and active alumnus, Clifford Mas-soth, PhB'35, is the director of public relations and advertisingfor Illinois Central Railroad.Yaff a DrazninFor a housewife with brainy tendencies, thinking can be themost rewarding activity of her treadmill life. It can give herstatus, stature, and pleasure; and as the only other créative actbesides childbirth that compléments rather than disrupts thedomestic routine, its exercise brings an exhilarating sweep tomarriage that Women's Lib's blandishments haven't a ghost ofa chance of matching.To a charter member of the women's libération movement ofthe forties, this discovery came to me as quite a shock. In myearly married years, sentenced to twenty-four-hour house arrestby a brace of preschool children and sheer penury, I used tobrood moodily on the plight of the Thinking Woman. As far asI could see, possessing a husky IQ was like having an eleven-Bshoe size; as Tevye says in Fiddler on the Roof, while it's nodisgrâce, it's no great honor either.Under the best of circumstances, the housewife of intelligencefinds herself in an anomalous position. On one hand, we likebeing female, being married and having children. Most of usdon't want to grub for forty-five years or so, earning a livinglike our unfortunate husbands, working year in and year outwith the gloomy prospect of two weeks off each fifty for goodbehavior. Nor do we happen to hâve any compelling profes-sional or business aspirations— at least not yet. In other words,we like being kept women.On the other hand, we are cursed with an affliction that interfères greatly with an easy adjustment to matrimony. It's a physi-ological Warp, àcting a bit like an overactive thyroid, exceptthat doctors haven't as yet found the radioactive isotope thatcan tame it; and it becomes most disabling during our earlymiddle years when we're hard at work doing our domestic stint,just when we need it least. It's known as Prédisposition toCérébral Activity.Early in marriage, we find out to our distress that our, rôles ashousewives require a great amount of physical stamina, back ,muscles of steel, agile réflexes, and a subliminally triggeredknack for making appropriate baby-loving, child-soothing, andhusband-comforting noises— but not much brainpower. As a resuit, our thinking apparatus begins to atrophy. In time, thepain of the disintegration becomes so intense that, unless something is done, we end up making life intolérable for thosearound us whom we want most to please.Either by instinct or in a trial-and-error frenzy born of sheerdesperation, I finally devised the two positive corrective mea-sures which can arrest the décomposition and ease the pain. Itake no crédit for inventing them; like pulsars, they were justwaiting around to be discovered. Both fail into the category ofmental gymnastics.The first is a séries of isotonk brain exercises, similar to highschool body callisthenics, aimed at keeping our thinking apparatus in £rm muscular tone. It involves the relentless application of brainpower to the thousand-and-one-activities-of-the-daily-round, whether the job requires it or not. Admittedly, this is a bit like using a steam shovel to clear away an ant hill;still, if one ignores the prodigious waste involved, it certainlyis as effective as the side of the shoe.For example, we make time-and-motion studies of how mostefficiently to make a bed. We work out elaborate schedules forthe allocation of the jobs to be accomplished during the day,giving each its most eSective time slot according to the highsand lows of our daily energy levels. We devise recipe-filingSystems, cross-referenced and coded by source, cost, and appro-priateness, for the thousand-and-one ways of using buckwheatgroats. We construct charts calibrating calorie, vitamin, andminerai requirements, on a daily and per-meal basis, for regu-lating the family diet.As our children grow older, our bending and stretchingbecomes more vigorous as we look for outside activity to keepour brains occupied. We go into scouting, PTA, and churchwork, and we add jogging and weightlifting to our exerciserépertoire. Our committee financial records become indistin-guishable from corporate controller reports. The organizationof the afterschool activities on the playground, using a flexiblemix of professional and volunteer instructors and embracingmultiple âge groups of varying sizes, direction, and inclination,begins to rival that of Disneyland. The fund-raising activitieswith which we are connected compare in complexity with thefiscal activity of the Internai Revenue Service. Then, occasion-ally, we add a bit of embroidery by pretending— just for laughs,of course— that we're incompétent ninnies who need help figur-ing out the sales tax on our grocery bill or in understandingDavid Frost's less obvious allusions.Ail this Martha work is done, you understand, as makeworkactivity. None of it is necessary to the normal running of anormal household or the raising of normal children. We do ailthèse mental gymnastics for purely selfish reasons, as a personalhealth measure to keep from literally and figuratively losingour minds. Also, with a wistful eye on that Utopia of tomorrow,we keep exercising our mental equipment just in case, someday, we find ourselves in the world of business and professionaladults where we are expected to function on a nonsimplisticlevel.There is nothing novel about isotonic brain exercises. I amconvinced that every collège educated woman chances upon thisexpédient, sooner or later, entirely on her own. It is the mostperfect, culturally induced example of independent and simul-taneous invention extant in modem society.The second type of brain exercise is much rarer, and I offerit as my own particular contribution to domestic tranquility.It is an isometric, as opposed to an isotonic, brain exercise.Instead of flailing about in our domestic orbits with our mentalhopping, skipping, and jumping, we stay at home, silently tens-ing and flexing our brain cells, one against the other, insideour drum-tight heads. This is Mary work. Like révélation, itThe author (AB*43) is a thinking woman independently em-ployed in Los Angeles, California.13opens up vistas of miraculous breadth.Isometric thinking in the home is precisely what those mil-lion-dollar-endowed think tanks are fashioned to encourage:the application of sheer brainpower to problems that needsolving in our imperfect world. On the surface, it's a lot likedaydreaming, only instead of seeking pleasure by recapturingmemories of poignant émotions, we get an intellectual chargeby "reasoning through" problems. For sheer exubérance andjoy, it's pink Champagne spiked with cognac.Ordinary isotonic thinking is concerned with practical problems of a child-and-home oriented world; but isometric thinking applies brainpower to Bigger Questions— the bigger, thebetter. While washing dishes, we ponder: what has the slumpin the stock market done to promote the psychology of De-pression; what are the social implications of an increasedinterest in abortion as against préventive contraception; howcan we eliminate the dehumanizing effects of a political bureau-cracy while reaping its efficiency benefits? You can see itsendless possibilities.Although the initial discipline required is enormous, oncewe master the technique, we find ourselves transported back intothe real world of thinking adult human beings again. We findourselves becoming mental political speech writers ( "If I wereNixon and attacked on that issue, l'd say...."); or télévisionanalysts' analysts ("Now that's a non sequitur. What he said,if true, simply points out that...."). We even become politicalphilosophers ("Why does Justice in the abstract always seemto be the product of little, concrète injustices? ...) .The beauty of freewheeling thinking is, of course, that wecan do it anywhere and at any time. It requires only minimalstimuli to initiate (the half-heard radio newscast, a glance atthe morning headlines, a casual conversation with the post-man); it is self-perpetuating; and it requires sustained attention to nothing that would inrerfere with housework. Dependingon how hard we're concentrating on a problem, we might pos-sibly be slowed down a bit in our household chores; but whatdoes it matter? Each day, we hâve eight full hours for boththe house and the thinking; either can be switched off and thenon again without appréciable loss in continuity. Finally, sinceno one except our four-year-old know-it-all is around to con-tradict our brilliant conclusions, it provides the most deliciousego-supporting satisfaction since natural childbirth.At this point, a word of caution. Like its isotonic counter-part, isometric thinking is just fun-and-games, a personal mental health measure taken for preserving sanity and good humor ina skew situation. When cautiously extended to include our hus-bands and even our teen-age children, it may also provide livelyhome entertainment, relegating the télévision set to the out-house. However, that Is where its export must end. It's intendedprimarily for private enjoyment, not public exhibition.Sometimes, swept away by the intoxicating joy of thinkingagain, we get the urge to try our newfound trick in adult com-pany. Then we're in trouble. That's when we learn that thinkingin isolation is related to real, action-linked thinking as tele-phone-pad doodling is to real art: no matter how seeminglyclever the technique, its validity rests squarely on beinggrounded in technical compétence and years of expérience. Inour case (much as we hâte to admit it), the only thing ourfamily-house oriented society gives us in firsthand expérienceis knowledge of families and houses. Everything else is hearsay,fed to us through the news média, books, neighbors, tradesmen,and husbands. Our thinking is pure Ivory Tower reasoning,logically correct but Not Necessarily True.This is not always as self-evident as it ought to be, and webrains usually hâve to learn humility the hard way. We've reliedfor so long on our useful, never-iet-us-down thinking caps forexam-cramming and making flashy impressions that we forgetthat compétence, not pyrotechnies, is a "must" in an activity-grounded working world. (Or at least, if it isn't, we're notobliged to compound the f elony. )When we sally forth to parties, flaunting our rediscoveredthinking powers, we usually end up having our teeth knockedout, socially speaking that is, time after time after time. Howwas that sweet young thing supposed to see the fallacy of herbrillantly constructed, and loudly declaimed, scheme for usingthe power of the NX.R.B. to bring about a settlement of thegrape worker's strike? She was just an English lit major herself ;she wasn't supposed to know the fine print of the Labor-Manage-ment Relations Act of 1947 As Amended to realize that thestatute forbids, in spécifie language, the use of the Board'smachinery in agricultural disputes. Besides, she probably wasrunning the dishwasher during the six o'clock news whenWalter Cronkite explained the problem to the listening audience. It may take years of being beaten over the head until,punch-drunk but game, she finally learns to be more cautious inher choice of conversational gambits.Isometric thinking, however, need not be confined to un-grounded ratiodnation. In our own restricted fields, we house-14wives are the authorities. In many cases our wide ( surprisinglywide) expérience in ordinary people-coping has relevance tothe human condition everywhere. By striving to draw rigorousand logically correct déductions from our spécifie expériences,we can extrapolate the universal from the particular and reachconclusions that, perhaps, are both valid and true.A brief personal example, one not terribly original but true,illustrâtes what I mean. Every woman who has brought herchildren past the preschool stage has had to cope, at least once,with a four-year-old's violent tantrum in a department store-as hâve I. By now, reams hâve been written on the long-termeffects of faulty .early permissiveness; but in the early forties,the rule of reason as a guide to child behavior problems wasinviolable. We were supposed to ignore the child's outburstuntil it passed, thus letting him learn by himself the ineffective-ness of irrational behavior. But I was weak and social embarrass-ment bothered me. So against ail the advice of the experts, Ishamefacedly chose the much simpler and effective method ofcoping. It involved superior brute force (picking up the scream-ing, merchandise-tossing maniac bodily), direct action (gettinghim the hell out of there fast, away from his bug-eyed audience) , and swift appropriate punishment as soon after the scèneas possible. The time for concession was not at the scène but inprivate confrontation, simply to allow him to save face and notas a reward for intimidation. The time for reason was not atthe scène either— but long before or long after the event, whenneither of us were under emotional stress. To my chagrin ( sinceI wanted to believe the experts ) , the resuit was not personality.warp nor deep-seated trauma, but a comparatively uncompli-cated lesson in socialization. The child learned with brilliantswiftness that, in the society in which he was learning to function, certain techniques were legitimate for gaining one's endsand others were not. Physical destruction of other people'sproperty and social blackmail were definitely two that were not.Contemporary parallels are obvious. As some intellectualcommunities in récent years hâve appeared to support the use ofviolence and the social blackmail of obscenity as legitimate instruments for pressing student demands, I hâve pondered thetantrums of our four-year-old. Was it possible that the obvioussimilarities between his behavior and that of the nineteen-year-old student activist were just superfidal; or was the human motivation identical, calling for identical remédies? Were thepsychological insights I displayed ( inadvertently ) to preventrécurrence of the incident, and the educational principles in- voked (inadvertently) to make my parental convictions thechild's internalized ethical standards inappropriate, successfulonly by chance? Or were the contemporary experts on humanbehavior, like thé child-guidance experts of my day, wrong inthis case also?Peripheral ramifications of the question open up the entirematter of intellectual integrity. Was it possible that présent experts on violent behavior, like the child-guidance experts of myday, were allowing their personal biases to color and alter thefact s upon which their conclusions were based? Was I? Was thefear of coming to the same conclusion as those with whom wedisagreed on other issues encouraging an inexcusable intellectualdishonesty in us? I thought long and hard on the matter starting,as I recall, while peeling the ingrédients for a 150-portionpotato salad for a political party potluck. The chore offered me along, uninterrupted period for serious isometric thinking.Now hère is where we can export our goods for adult con-sumption; in fact, if we wish, we can become virtual lions ofsociety. There is nothing so cunningly attention-getting as original thinking on thèmes that everyone thinks hâve been settledforever: the uniqueness of today's génération gap, the originalityof présent day youth, the righteousness of the libéral ethic, tocite just a few planks in the current intellectual platform. Butbe forewarned: while as a social tour de force, the technique isunassailable, it may lose you friends. No one, particularly in thecrowds we move in, cares to hâve his dearly embraced préjudicesstripped down to the flab by the force of an intelligence he wastoo lazy to apply.But public court is just a fringe benefit; it's the basic wageand working conditions that make the contra et so attractive.When we engage in créative thinking our house is no longer aprison. The routine of our work frees us rather than binds us.The exercise of brainpower within such limiting surroundingsilluminâtes anew Albert Einstein's contention that when youthink, it makes no différence where you think; any street corneror bridge— or kitchen— will do.The resulting satisfaction brings contentment, making thedreary day fly and difiicult tasks seem simple. It gives us a reallink to the outside world and so keeps us in shining good temperto greet our husbands in the evenings. It adds so completelynew a dimension to marriage that it seems to invigorate theentire institution of housewifery. Who knows? Thinking maybe the greatest contribution to the domestic scène since theinvention of sex.15^KW\v X w \ #h**<l1^ t y/4y/S/ *IaII«XajJU'V>P *¦ Xvr *.<J j* t'y# V «. v.«.U I»», iy- //xYjff Là,/,*/f" H>^/^4> %&% \*U^*:*,<YvX'f •*«*«+ *»U«ft^WM^*J*^4 S"»!*!(fr**B)'m^mr-. "x*'\ -£* ^ «U ; iXU^'a ai? i .^ <r Xs^ /tMJ 7 h k.rPeter GlankoffThe Illinois Drug Abuse Program hère described is a two million dollar collaboration between the state's Department ofMental Health and the University of Chicago. Our pictures weretaken in two of the program' s residential treatment cent ers. Thefirst picture shows a rare phenomenon: dean graffiti on the wallof the common room of Safari House. The second shows a reg-ular morning get together in the same room, a combinationgripe session and revival meeting. The third picture shows abedroom in Gateway House.The author of the article is the former director of the DrexelMethadone Clinic.The past five years hâve seen a greatly accelerated national con-cern with the problems of drug abuse and drug related socialphenomena. Government agencies, researchers, concerned lay-men, physicians, and many others, directly and peripherally,hâve become involved in what today is an area of major interest,relevance, controversy, and, for some, fun and profit. Still, witha burgeoning drug culture occurring over the last thirtj years,our ability to identify it as such and, furthermore, deal with itscasualties has been at best painfully slow and inadéquate.Perhaps one of the greatest stumbling blocks to a broadbasedunderstanding of our culture's current chemical explosion hasbeen the inappropriate and often dangerous tendency to publi-cize a monolithic drug phenomenon rather than breaking itdown into its correct components. Before proceeding further, letus establish a workable albeit simplified classification for thehost of chemical substances frequently used and abused by man.Alcohol, the most widespread recreational chemical, has beenwith us for several thousand years. When used in excess, alcoholhas been shown to hâve an extremely deleterious effect on bodytissue and human behavior. Cirrhosis of the liver, nervous dis-orders and a host of other physical conséquences are exceeded inseriousness only by the grave emotional effects of alcohol abuseon families, friends, and associâtes, not to mention the alcoholichimself. It is estimated that one out of ten Americans livingtoday has or will hâve an alcohol problem which indicates, perhaps, our most serious source of chemical abuse. Nicotine, oneof several noxious substances found in cigarette tobacco, is anexceptionally powerful stimulant which with each inhalationcauses increased heart rate, blood pressure, and other cardiovas-cular effects as well as excitation of respiration. Cigarette smoking has been repeatedly linked to such afflictions as skin and iungcancer, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and an assortment ofother respiratory and circulatory ailments. Alcohol and tobacco,cornerstones of our society 's chemical intake rituals and of theadvertising business, must be classed among the socially encour-aged lethal substances when abused as both are so frequently.Then, there are the over-the-counter drug store substances.Relevant hère are the many non-prescription stimulants, "sleepaids," and tension relievers ail advertised respectively to induce alertness, combat the rigors of trying to sleep, or help curb one'stemper when tensions imper il one's job or marital bliss. Thèsechemical "aids" are designed principally for the * average"American consumer and the média encourage their purchase anduse. Çnough has already been said of this bit of promotionalhypocrisy.The barbiturate ("downers") and amphétamine ("uppers")compounds are used by most âge groups and are obtained pri-marily through legitimate (médical) channels. It has been estimated that drug companies each year produce roughly fifty barbiturate and amphétamine tablets for each and every individualin the country. We know there are many people who never useeither substance, so who, then, is the consumer? Most prescription sédatives ( sleeping aids ) contain some form of barbituricacid, the essential ingrédient in ail barbiturates. While manyAmericans can't sleep at night, others hâve difficulty stayingsufficiently roused during the day and thus seek depressants tosleep or stimulants to stay alert from the family doctor. Obesity,the bane of a streamlined, youth-obsessed culture, can be com-batted successfully by the overfed and undermotivated with theingestion of amphetamine-based diet pills of which there aremany varieties, ail having appetite-inhibiting properties. Bothbarbiturates and amphétamines frequently find their way intothe hands of youth via the family medicine cabinet. Their widespread use might suggest an insomniac, though exhausted,populace as well as prosperous drug companies.Barbiturates and amphétamines, moreover, can be obtainedalmost anywhere with relative ease through illicit channels.Sustained use of barbiturates can resuit in a physical dependencyfrom which detoxification may be difficult or even dangerousunder certain conditions. Use of amphétamine compounds doesnot create true physical dependency, but sudden abstinence fol-lowing extended use can bring about severe dépression, anxiety,and other side effects. The extent of barbiturate and amphétamine abuse has been variously described as rampant, confinedto certain subcultural groups, and minor, depending, perhaps,upon the individual's point of view. At any rate, the extent ofbarbiturate and amphétamine abuse does not begin to approachthe légal abuse of tobacco and alcohol.The so-called psychedelic ( psychoactive, psychomimetic, hal-lucinogenic, mind-expandiqg, or dangerous, again dependingon your persuasion) drugs that came to the fore in the yearsfollowing Leary and Alpert's experiments with LSD-25 atHarvard hâve since multiplied into a variety of available substances. This group includes LSD aswell as mescaline (organ-ically derived from the peyote cactus and synthesized in underground laboratories ) , psylocibin, STP, DMT, and, tentatively,marijuana in addition to many others. Affkionados hâve attrib-uted mind-expanding properties to marijuana, but récent studiesconducted at Stanford University seem to indicate that tetra-hydracannabinol, the active substance in marijuana, is moreproperly classified as a mild sédative with analgésie qualities.In any case, depending on strength and purity and, perhapsmost importantly, depending on the individual taker's personal-18ity and orientation, thèse substances generally produce hallucinations, distortions and altérations in the sensé of time andspace, and, according to some, religious or mystical insights.The précise physiological effects of the psychedelic drugs hâvebeen a source of continued controversy and research on local,state, and fédéral levels which as yet hâve not produced con-clusive findings although it is expected that some definite re-sults will be forthcoming shortly. It appears that young peopleare the prime users of thèse substances, much to the discomfortof some adults.The opiate drugs include morphine, heroin, dilaudid, codéineand other derivatives of opium. They are central nervous Systemdepressants and are invaluable especially in the form of morphine and codéine to the practice of medicine as pain suppres-sants. AU opiates are addictive when used regularly for asustained period of time, and withdrawal can be very uncom-fortable depending on the strength of the opiate used andlength of time. Heroin addiction, specifically, has become anational concern in récent years, government and ckizens re-sponding in various ways to the problem. Heroin and marijuana use has evolved into cross-cultural phenomena whereashistorically their use was confined mainly to ghetto and otherpoverty areas.Trends and TreatmentsIn the late nineteenth century and early 1900's, morphine compounds were marketed as household remédies for a host ofmédical ills, from tuberculosis to common colds. They weresold and consumed freely. Only later did their addictive properties become apparent at which point a new substance, heroin,was introduced as the new cure-ail and antidote to morphinedependency. Interestingly, addiction to the "household remedy"opiates was far more prévalent among women than men, theonly time this phenomenon has occurred in this or any otherculture.By 1914, it was recognized by some that drug use was spread-ing enough to enact some législation in an effort to control it.The basic anti-drug statute in America, the Harrison Act of19 14, was passed as a tax revenue requiring that the drugspurchased by addicts be obtained from physicians registeredunder the act with the transactions recorded. In 1922^ an actwas passed forbidding export and/or import of narcotic substances. Two years later, the manufacture of heroin was pro-hibited. In the midst of a major heroin épidémie, the BoggsBill of 1951 was passed establishing minimum sentences forheroin possession. The Narcotic Drug Control Act of 1956further strengthened the penalties and distinguished betweenpossession and sale of narcotics, the latter being made a moreserious offense. Minimum sentences and no-parole amendmentswere passed right and left, resulting in lorig-term incarcérationprimarily for the addict himself, with little or no hope forparole and least of ail, treatment.The prospects for treatment during the late forties and fif ties were indeed slim. The prévalent modus operandi of the timewas to get the addict out of town, preferably to one of the fédéral hospitals in Lexington, Kentucky or Fort Worth, Texas.Thèse large, custodial institutions were long on incarcérationand short on treatment, most of the people leaving the institutions and going directly back to narcotics in their local neigh-borhoods.New York City was the first to attempt treating addiction onits own territory. In response to rising addiction-related crimestatistics, New York established several private hospitals withdetoxification facilities, but where treatment was still basicallycustodial. Manhattan General and North Brothers Island weresuch facilities. Cost per bed was usually between forty andseventy dollars a day. The construction and rénovation of thèsefacilities in New York and other states often became sourcesof large kickbacks and other diversions of monies that mightwell hâve gone into treatment development, personnel training,or research.In the late 1950's, an ex-alcoholic named Chuck Dederich anda small group of ex-addicts established a new self-help programin California called Synanon. Synanon was to become the prototype for the many therapeutic communities now in existencethroughout the country. Basically, the Synanon approach involves the admission of highly motivated patients into a long-term iri-patient treatment setting run almost exclusively byex-addicts. Treatment consists of involving the individual in ahighly stratified community with built-in stresses designed toresemble the tension-producing éléments of society-at-large. Hisoutlet for dealing with those tensions is a form of attack-therapycalled the Synanon "game." There is an attempt to bring aboutmajor character changes among which is a hostile attitude to-wards narcotic dependence. The Synanon approach does notencourage return to the home community, but rather placesvalue on becoming a more or less permanent résident of theSynanon "alternate society."Most addicts not willing to enter this type of treatment werestill left to their own devices which in most cases meant a succession of illégal activities, incarcération, perhaps detoxification (a certainty with incarcération), and eventual return todrug dependence. With this reality in mind, Drs. Dole andNyswander began a thorough study in 1963 at the RockefellerUniversity to inyestigate the possibilities of using methadonein the social rehabilitation of heroin addicts. According to Dr.Jérôme Jaffe, présent director of the Illinois Drug Abuse Programin a paper written in 1966 entitled Research on Newer Methodsof Treatment of Drug Dépendent Individuals in the U. S. A.,"Drs. Dole and Nyswander set out to answer one relativelystraightforward question: Is there some medicine that will permit chronic compulsive heroin users to become law abidingproductive members of society? Ideally such médication wouldhavé the following characteristics: it should be orally effective,non-toxic, and safe to give over prolonged periods; it shouldrelieve the chronic préoccupation with the use of heroin, andit should be possible to arrive at a stabilization dose that will19not require fréquent readjustments . . . its duration of actionshould be long enough to give ail doses under direct observation.Most importantly, it must be acceptable to patients." Withthèse points in mind, the Rockefeller University team beganits investigation, much to the often irate consternation ofthe therapeutic community advocates as well as many otherswho, without fully appreciating the investigation's stated goals,passed their effort off as simply "the substitution of one addiction for another." At any rate, the New York City methadoneprogram now has roughly two thousand in treatment with along waiting list. Illégal activities and illicit drug use amongthose in treatment hâve dropped dramatically.Another approach to the treatment of narcotics addiction hasbeen the use of cyclazocine, a long-acting narcotics antagonist.That is, regulated doses of cyclazocine will block the effects ofmorphine-like drugs and will. also slow or inhibit dependenceon morphine-like drugs when the individual is stabilized on aregular dosage of cyclazocine. Simply, if an individual takingcyclazocine usés narcotic substances and expériences no subjective effects, then the complex conditioned and compulsive needfor narcotics will be, so to speak, "conditioned out." Cyclazocineexpérimental projects show great potential under certain cir-cumstances. It was against the background of several approachesbeing tried at différent géographie locations throughout thecountry and abroad that the Illinois Drug Abuse Program wasfounded in January of 1968.Illinois Drug Abuse ProgramBy 1967, the politieizing of treatment types, especially betweenthe proponents of the therapeutic total abstinence communitiesand the advocates of the methadone support model, was at anail time high. Politicians, médical people, clergymen, and othershad entered the debate in an attempt to demonstrate that theirfavorite treatment approach was indeed the only viable, respon-sible, and correct approach to the now obviously widespreadproblems of drug abuse. Unfortunately, as the debate raged andtreatment types became political footballs, many were thecasualties who, as a resuit of the debate and paucity of treatment,never received adéquate help.Such was the national and régional climate when the IllinoisNarcotic Advisory Council designed and approved the imple-mentation of a new approach to the problem of narcotics abuse.The principal architect for this new approach was Dr. JérômeH. Jaffe who still serves as program director. Dr. Jaffe wasbrought to Chicago through the efforts of Dr. Daniel X.Freedman, chairman of the University of Chicago's Departmentof Psychiatry. Both were instrumental in collaborating with theIllinois Department of Mental Health and the National Instituteof Mental Health in initiating the program. Peculiar to thisprogram has been an almosiSsymbiotic relationship between theUniversity and the State. The quality of coopération for mutualbenefit has been one of the major éléments behind the pro-gram's progress and success. Furthermore, this kind of symbiosis has become an inspiration for other University /State collaborative endeavors. The new concept grew out of an awareness thateach established treatment modality had some merit for certainindividuals, but that there was no simple approach whichworked uniformly for ail cases of narcotics dependence. Thecoricept of "différent strokes for différent folks" not only en-visioned several modalities designed for différent personalities,motivations, and capabilities, but it also rendered meaninglessthe politieizing of treatment types, for everything from therapeutic communities to long-term methadone maintenance wereto be contained under the umbrella of a single agency, the Illinois Drug Abuse Program, ail interrelated, interdependent andengaged in a common endeavor. (It should be noted that therehâve been a number of highly skilled and dedicated people suchas Edward Washington, Nevin Fidler, Drs. Senay and Chappel,Matthew Wright, William Offenkrantz, Mickey McCalip, CariCharnett, and others, ail among the country's outstanding experts in their respective areas, without whose efforts the IllinoisDrug Abuse Program would not en joy the international récognition it receives today. )For many years, Chicago had been one of the major urbancent ers where addiction thrived. The major thrust to combataddiction had traditionally been via law enforcement. Duringthe mid-fifties as many as one hundred narcotics violationcases were disposed of in Narcotics Court each day. Courtended at 1 : 00 p.m. As a resuit, the local, state, and fédéral cor-rectional institutions were filled with addicts, some of whommade periodic pilgrimages to the fédéral hospital at Lexingtonto seek help or eut down the size and résultant cost of theirheroin habits. In addition, attempts to control drug traffic hadbecome something of a money game with convictions beingtraded for information, and so forth. By the time the IllinoisDrug Abuse Program opened its doors to the first few patients,the city 's ability to control or deal constructively with its narcotics problems had degenerated to a sorry state.In January, 1968, a methadone support unit opened in aUniversity of Chicago building on Drexel Avenue. As a matterof fact, the entire Drug Abuse Program was originally housedin half of the first floor of this brownstone, administrative officeand ail. As the treatment facility grew, however, and as otherunits evolved, the Drexel Clinic eventually took over the entirefirst floor, and the administrative offices moved first to officesabove the Gateway National Bank on 79m Street and StonyIsland and then on to its présent location in the eastern wingof the Muséum of Science and Industry.Drexjsl Clinic, now in opération for over two years, is one ofthree régional outpatient methadone maintenance clinics eachhaving about one hundred patients. Drexel Clinic, specifically, ismade up mainly of older addicts, the average patient's âge beingin the neighborhood of forty. The usual length of time addictedto heroin is about twenty years. Most of the people at Drexelcame to the Program originally for one simple reason: to restafter years of pursuing heroin. Twenty years of stealing, prosti-tuting, dealing narcotics, constantly dodging the Narcotics20Squad, doing time, and so on, is a tremendous drain, especiallywhere the old saying "once an addict, always an addict" is areality when no viable treatment exists. For most of the long-time heroin addicts, the Illinois Drug Abuse Program was longin coming.Prospective members of Drexel Clinic are first accepted intothe Program through the central intake facility on 79m Streetand Stony Island where the main clinical offices are located.Usually, there is an initial waiting period of about three monthsbefore the individual will be assigned to a unit. Court f eferrals,which make up roughly eight per cent of the Program's population, are taken directly into treatment. Before assignment,however, he will be tested, interviewed, given a complète physical examination and a program number. In some cases, the individual will be placed on a "holding" cycle where he willreceive methadone daily with little other support pending assignment to a regular outpatient unit. Referral to a particularunit hinges on several factors among which is the client's ownpréférence.When the individual is sent to Drexel ( or the 79m Street orNorth Side outpatient clinics) he is first interviewed by thedirector or a clinic counsellor and screened for acceptability. Ifaccepted, he will be seen by the clinic's consulting physician toestablish a proper methadone dosage level. This phase is gen-erally preceded by the clinic's nurse taking a complète médicalhistory and beginning a médical file. One of the clinic's coun-sellors perhaps along with some of the older patients will thenorient the new member as to the clinic's rules, activities, andtherapeutic aspects. 1Drexel Clinic's program, for example, centers around grouptherapy sessions, counselling, vocational guidance, and groupactivities. Médication is relegated to a secondary position andis considered a means to an end rather than an end in itself.The groups are behaviorally oriented and along with counselling are geared toward changing old values and helping theindividual ad just to a new life style. While many of the clinicmembers verbalize intentions of eventually becoming totallydrug-free, others accept the fact rather openly that methadonesupport might very well be a long-term treatment process,much the way a diabetic would require insulin. Whether certain individuals will eventually detoxify and attempt totalabstinence or remain on methadone indefinitely, the Drexelpopulation consists of individuals for whom the prognosis forsuccess in a therapeutic community would be slim.The patient population of the North Side Clinic, however, is- somewhat différent consisting in large part of younger addicts.The chances for success in an abstinence treatment setting forthèse individuals, after a time, are much brighter. Meanwhile,the methadone maintenance clinics are overcoming several major obstacles. First, virtually ail of the patients in treatment inthe three central outpatient clinics gradually abstain from illégaldrug use. Secondly, as the need to procure illicit narcotics isremoved, the individual must face the confrontation of dealingwith huge amounts of idle time. For most, this means obtaining legitimate employment. At Drexel, for instance, approximatelyseventy per cent of the population is gainfully employed, whilefifteen per cent consists of housewives and handicapped individuals. The remaining fifteen per cent is unemployed. Similarfigures apply to the other outpatient facilities. It must be re-membered that a sizeable number of people in treatment hâvenever held a legitimate job, so the task of obtaining employmentfor the first time, especially for older people, is frequently anarduous one.On July 1, 1968, the first residential treatment facility knownas Gateway House was opened. Gateway, modelled after itsSynanon and Daytop predecessors, has kept as one of its majorobjectives retufhihg its graduâtes to productive involvement inthe greater community after the completion of treatment. Thethree Gateway houses, located at 48m Street and Ellis, 69mStreet and Cregier, and now Fox Lake, retain considérable auton-omy from the rest of the Program as they are part of the non-profit Gateway Houses Foundation which opérâtes the houseson a grant from the Drug Abuse Program. While Gateway re-ceives certain funds through its own foundation, opérâtes itsown intake, and retains a degree of clinical independence, itshares some of the central services with the Program's othermodalities.The Gateway treatment program is a.rigorous one. Beforebeing accepted into one of the houses the prospective résidentmust be interviewed by several other house members to détermine whether he is sufficiently motivated toward change. Onceaccepted, he will begin by occupying the lowest rung on thehouse's hierarchical work ladder, probably washing dishes. Hisascension in the work order rs-based primarily on personalgrowth, responsibility, and length of time in treatment. Thejobs consist of duties needed to maintain the facility and certainfunctions linking the house to the greater community. Once ajob level has been attained there is no real security, for irrespon-sible behavior or a poor attitude can resuit in being "shot down,"that is, sliding back down the ladder and starting over againwashing dishes. Discipline is viewed as intrinsic to growth.Groups (also known as "encounters" ) take place three timesa week. They serve as an outlet for tensions that develop dailyin this "pressure cooker" environment. Hère, feelings are dealtwith responsibly in a supportive group setting. Groups are oftenarranged according to peer levels so that individuals can relateto problems that occur at various stages of growth. Strength(i.e. older house résidents) serve as quasi-therapists makingsure that the groups are run responsibly.If an individual exhibits "négative" or irresponsible behaviorat any time during the day, he can be dealt with harshly in a"haircut," a verbal blast of "reality." In the "haircut" severalhouse members usually at différent status levels will confrontthe individual vigorously about his behavior, its implicationsand dangers, during which he is not allowed to respond orreact verbally. Since physical violence is considered a cardinaltaboo, this tongue lashing serves as the powerful and construc-tive équivalent of the proverbial "kick in the pants."21\!Vàfc*41 m*-^ '¦^pï''<*-i- * **: •^lar;4>A ";"The length of treatment at Gateway is roughly betweentwelve and eighteen months. As time and the resident's personal growth progress, he begins moving toward the re-entryphases, first working out and living in, eventually followed byliving out and working out, maintaining loose ties with thehouse.Within the confines of the Illinois Drug Abuse Program, theGateway modality has limited appeal to older addicts since itsrigorous jreatment approach and modified Calvinist fervormake success difficult for some. As a resuit, most of the résidents are younger (twenty to twenty -five) and predominantlywhite as opposed to the greater majority of black South SideDrug Abuse Program members. The Gateway concept, tried andtrue for large numbers of addicts throughout the country, hasalso found a place within the Illinois Program. Hère, however,it is only one of several treatment possibilities for a wide varietyof drug abuse problems.Safari House, formerly located on Kimbark at 62nd Streetand now occupying new quarters at 62 nd Street betweenLaSalle and Wentworth in the old Salvation Army building,became operational in January, 1969. Safari House combinesseveral treatment phases under one roof and is in a real senséa multi-modality facility. It has residential and aftercarè patients, the latter working out and living out while attendinggroup therapy sessions and, as with ail other units, submittingurine spécimens two or three times a week. In addition, thefacility has patients oh methadone maintenance and cyclazocine. At this writing, Safari has opened a satellite methadonemaintenance clinic and is planning a second.Originally planned simply as a halfway re-entry project,Safari has grown into the largest single unit in the Drug AbuseProgram with about one hundred fifty outpatients and résidentseach engaged in one of several phases of treatment. The Safariconcept might well be the prototype for national treatmentcomplexes since virtually total flexibility of treatment modalityis possible within a single unit. To exemplify this, let us takethe case of John X, who was admitted to Safari House forinpatient residential treatment, not unlike that offered at Gateway. After several weeks of treatment, John left the housewithout staff approval and used heroin. Returning a week later,the staff decided to readmit him but this time with low-dosagemethadone support. After several months, John and the staffagreed that detoxification from methadone was in order as Johnwas doing well and had requested the slow detoxification proc-ess. At the end of detoxification John became an aftercarèpatient using cyclazocine as a préventive measure. After findinga job and attending groups regularly for several months, thecyclazocine was stopped and John was, so to speak, on his feet.The case cited above is hypothetical but quite possible, never-theless. Total abstinence without any chemical support is notnecessarily the ultimate objective unless the individual hasstrong motivations (as many do) in that direction. Of thenearly one thousand patients in treatment at this time, there areseveral hundred who are free of illégal drugs, holding legitimate jobs, re-involved with and responsible to their families, andgenerally functioning well with either methadone or cyclazocinesupport.The groundwork for the kind of multimodality approach nowemployed at Safari House was initially begun in July of 1969at the Tinley Park Mental Health Center. The Drug AbuseProgram managed to establish a large residential treatmentfacility in the Mental Health Center's former staff housingbuildings. One of the major objectives of the Tinley Park project was to set up a modified short-term therapeutic communityin which patients on total abstinence, methadone support, and,eventually, cyclazocine would become involved in a commontherapeutic environment. As the Tinley Park facility evolved,it became a major referral pool for ail the other units. Individuals experiencing difficulty in adjusting to an outpatientambulatory facility could be transferred to Tinley Park for moreintensive treatment and might then return to Safari House oran outpatient clinic for aftercarè.The usual eighteen month treatment in the traditional therapeutic community was now reduced to a six month maximumstay at Tinley. Older résidents and those wishing methadonemaintenance could hâve it indefinitely or as temporary support.The most significant accomplishment of the Tinley Park ex-periment, however, was that it totally exposed and underminedthe still prévalent tendency to politicize spécifie treatmentmodes, for hère under one roof were abstinent and methadonemaintenance résidents doing the same work of changing lifestyles, attitudes, and values.Tinley Park became the first facility designed to train anddevelop indigenous staff personnel. So far, about thirty ex-addicts hâve gone through the training program and now oc-cupy responsible clinical positions. The success of the trainingprogram was» due in large part to the efforts of David Deitch,founder and former executive director of Daytop Village inNew York who came to Chicago as director of training andéducation.In collaboration with Dr. Charles R. Schuster, a researchpharmacologist, Mr. Deitch also laid the groundwork for theIllinois Drug Abuse Program's first non-opiate poly-drug clinicknown as Pflash Tire Company ( "blown out minds retreaded" ) .Pflash, located on North Halsted in the former storefront of atire repair company, is a residential and outpatient treatmentcenter for youth culture drug users and misusers. It has becomea Mecca for speed "crashers" and "bum trippers" in addition tomany youngsters who use a variety of drugs with no particularbad expériences. The program at Pflash is considerably différentfrom that of other units. Termed an "expérimental" researchclinic, Pflash serves as a central meeting place for many of theyoung people who inhabit the North Side région where virtuallyevery type of abusable drug can easily be obtained. The goal ofPflash is to help its people get involved in meaningful activitiesand relationships that, if pursued, will présent realistic alternatives to the readily available drug scène. This is accomplishedby providing a supportive environment that encourages the24individual to take concrète steps toward attaining some of hispersonal goals. If, for example, a youngster talks about one daystarting a leather goods shop in California, the staff at Pflashwould endeavor to place the dream into perspective by startingwith certain realities involved in achieving the goal. Simul-taneously, an effort would be made to engage the youngster ingroup therapy sessions and counselling m order to develop abetter understanding of himself and ability to interact withothers. Part of Pflash's expérimental status enables the staff todevelop and create new treatment approaches for dealing withthe relatively new phenomenon of youth culture independentdrug expérimentation and "research." As part of the TinleyPark (far south and suburbs) région, Pflash has access to alarge residential treatment facility for more intensive treatmentor training if necessary.While the Illinois Drug Abuse Program provides a variety oftreatment modalities for différent drug related problems, thereare still some who either leave or are termjnated from treatmentin a particular unit. When this occurs, complète disassociationfrom the Program is not inévitable. In order to provide con-tinued treatment for those who hâve been unsuccessful in theirfirst attempts, a recycle clinic housed in the 79th Street buildinghas been established. Recycle is the catchall for ail the "drop-outs" from other units. So, instead of having no alternativeother than going back to the street and using heroin once again,each discharge or "splitee" (one who has left a unit againststaff advice ) has the option of reapplying to recycle for f urthertreatment. The recycle unit is designed to exact responsibilityand discipline from its patients in an effort to ready them foreventual reassignment to a regular residential or outpatient unit.The recycle unit is only a few months old, but it represents onemore effort to eliminate the recidivism so often the thorn inthe side of most drug abuse programs. The frequency of returnto drugs becomes a problem for which many programs hâvedevised incredible statistical structures in an attempt to camouflage poor success rates.The Illinois Drug Abuse Program began as a research projectto test the multimodality approach and, hopefully, make newinroads into the treatment of addiction and other drug relatedphenomena. Part of the task was to develop and maintain complète research facilities from the beginning. To this end, theProgram' created a Weekly Activity Summary which every patient fills out regularly while in treatment. This subjectiveweekly report contains such information as living arrangements,income (légal and illégal), drug usage, arrest reports, and soforth. The information is fed into computors and has made fortwo and a half years of research data. Urine reports, légal transactions, and ail relevant material hâve become part of a hugebank of information providing continuai objective criteriafor evaluating efficacy of treatment. Extensive epidemiologicalstudies, completed under the supervision of Dr. Patrick Hughes,hâve revealed the shifting patterns of drug abuse and traffickingin the city of Chicago. Research and expérimentation hâvebeen essential ingrédients in the expansion and development of viable treatment.The Drug Abuse Program recently reorganized its géographiestructure according to régional cachement areas. At this writing,the Tinley Park residential facility is the mother clinic for thefar south and suburban régions. This includes the 79m Streetmethadone maintenance clinic, a satellite outpatient clinic inHarvey, Illinois, and Pflash Tire. The North Side région pres-ently consists only of the central methadone maintenance clinicalthough a residential facility is soon to be opened. The mid-south région includes Safari House as the mother clinic, DrexelClinic being its central outpatient methadone maintenance unit.A récent addition is a satellite outpatient clinic in the HydePark area. The régional plan is an attempt to decentralize theProgram and simultaneously provide the means for autonomousexpansion of the spécifie régions. It is hoped this plan willmake possible accelerated though carefully planned growth.Branches of the Program in Rockford and Peoria are signs ofthis much needed expansion.The FutureThe future of the Drug Abuse Program in Illinois is promis-ing although there remain considérable obstacles in overcomingover twenty years of neglect. If addiction in the city of Chicagocan be significantly touched (one thousand of the estimatedten thousand addicts in Chicago are presently in treatment),most of Illinois' addiction problem will hâve been dealt with.However, treatment without attacking the major non-addictsuppliers will be ineffective. Traditionally, the law has relatedlargely to the street addict who has taken the criminal weightfor well organized heroin dealers. We hâve finally- recognizedthe need to deal with the addict on a socio-medical rather thancriminal level. When adéquate treatment becomes available, thetime for cutting off the source of supply will arrive, if it hasn'talready. One response to the existence of the Drug Abuse Program has been an increase in the quality of heroin availablefrom time to time in certain areas. So far, this phenomenonhas not yet become widespread.On the other hand, our drug culture has generated a greatdeal of concern on the part of educators, professionals, andpeople in ail walks of life. How this concern will manifest itself,however, is not yet clear. Learning about drug rituals, subcultures, and the drugs themselves can be profitable if theknowledge is used as a means toward establishing meaningfulcommunication between the générations and other currentlyalienated groups. Knowledge as one more tool to control ormanipulate behavior and attitudes will probably deepen therift that presently exists between disparate éléments in oursociety. If we are to préserve and ultimately improve what oftenappears to be a deteriorating culture, we will somehow hâve totranscend the drug issue, race conflicts, exploitation, and themany other symptoms of a society badly needing to reexamine,restructure and, perhaps, replace many of its outworn institutions.25(^\Quadrangle j^ewsTwo Large GiftsA Chicago manufacturer of kitchen cutleryaids, Samuel J. Popeil, has donated commonstocks valued at$i57,50oto the University ofChicago, to be divided between the LaboratorySchoois, where he has two daughters enrolled,and the Law School, where the money willsupport the Judge Irwin N. Cohen ScholarshipFund.Standard Oil (Indiana) Foundation hasannounced a grant to the University of half amillion dollars, $100,000 of which to bedivided between Chicago Lying-In Hospitaland the Graduate School of Business. According to the président of the Foundation, thegrant was made because of the University'sinternational prééminence as an institution ofhigher learning."Thèse funds are unrestricted as to use," hesaid, "and may be applied to support innovations in teaching and curricuium, research,faculty salaries, libraries, building programs,or any other purposes desired as long as theyare spent currently to improve éducation andare not used for endowment purposes.""Académies for Action" ProposedDavid Easton, the Andrew MacLeish Distin-guished Service Professor in the department ofpolitical science, has proposed an alternative tothe dichotomy of politically active studentsversus the university, and that is what he calls"Académies for Action."Académies would specialize, Easton out-lined. Some examples would be académies forurban action, for ethnie and racial action, foraction on ecological pollution, on the peacefuluses of military forces, for consumer information, for delivery of community médical serves,and for légal services.Easton defined the current dilemma f acingthe university as this: "Neutral, it aliénâtes asignificant part of its own students and faculty;committed to political action, it brings downupon itself the wrath of its external sources ofsupport." He said that in the face of continuedstudent dissatisfactions and unrest, funds foruniversity support could shrink and universities could be "converted into glorified tech- nical schoois, in total and unmistakable sub-servience to the dominant forces in society."While each horn of the dilemma carriesrisks, Easton said that the lesser danger wouldappear to recognize the need for a more positive program in relation to the urgent issues ofthe day. ' At the same time we may offer somesolace to the troubled social conscience ofmany members of the university communityitself and thereby ease the pressures of discontent from within the university," he concluded.Levi Proposes MajorReforms in Higher EducationIn several speeches this fail Président EdwardH. Levi proposed major reforms in higheréducation. Because "the length of time re-quired for training in some of the professionsis a national disgrâce" and because "in the lastanalysis it is only self-education which counts,"he proposed a number of reforms :1 ) A degree for gênerai éducation after twoyears of collège work;2 ) Hence, earlier admission into graduateand professional schoois;3 ) Réduction of time spent in graduate andprofessional work;4 ) A System of national examinations forindividuals who might not be connected withany formai institution;5 ) Development of différent kinds of institutions with more flexible programs.'A more open System has risks," he said,"but it could reassemble to greater advantagethe strength which is there."Research Grant to BiochemistsThe study of a system which may hâve implications for cancer research has been bolsteredat the University of Chicago through a$67,7 52 grant awarded by the John A. Hartford Foundation of New York City. The grantsupports the continuation of research by EarlA. Evans, Jr., professor and chairman of thedepartment of biochemistry, and his researchassociate, Roy P. Mackal, associate professor inthe department.In past work, Evans and his colleagues hâve demonstrated that a double-stranded moléculeof deoxyribonucleic acid, popularly known asDNA, is infectious after being removed fromthe Lambda virus. DNA is the basic, replicatingsubstance of life, and the Lambda virus isknown to infect bacteria.Educational ReviewCommission AppointedAn Educational Review Commission has beennamed to work out major directions and possible changes in direction at the University ofChicago.Twenty-four faculty members hâve agreedto serve on the commission at the request ofUniversity Président Edward H. Levi who saidwhen he made the announcement "the work ofsuch a commission will be difiicult. It has beenasked to look at the University as a whole; tosee the relationships among programs; to express its judgment as to what we should em-phasize, and, perhaps, what to abandon."La Bonne Cuisine of Jennie TourelAnd now, ladies and gentlemen, for a mostsucculent version of Plum Pudding: "first youtake eleven pounds of juicy Concord grapescombined with equal parts of extra fine To-kays. ( Be sure they are juicy ) ," began MissTourel in Mandel Hall during the fourth andfinal installment of her présentation entitled,not "The Art of French Cooking," but "TheArt of the Song— Four Evenings with JennieTourel," And by her flamboyant renderings offour French recipes— for Plum Pudding, Ox-tails, Tavouk Gueunksis, and Rabbit at TopSpeed, set to music by Léonard Bernsteinespecially for Miss Tourel— she left her gasp-ing and mouth-watering audience in no doubtas to her mastery of the interpretive subtletiesof the vocal art.One of the most distinguished and interna-tionally acclaimed mezzo-sopranos of thiscentury, Miss Tourel presided over her fourrécitals in Mandel Hall last November withrégal charm and élégance. The récitals werestructured to show the remarkable depth andbreadth of her vocal virtuosity. A formidable28linguist who can sing in ten languages, sheranged in styles from Beethoven and Liszt(November 8) ; to Schubert, Schumann andDebussy (November 10) ; to music by Russian( "the Russians, even in their happiest moments, are sad," she remarked) and Spanishcomposers ( November 15); and finally to themore modem works of Mahler and of courseBernstein ( November 17).An unusual bonus Miss Tourel gave heraudiences were the informai question and answer sessions with which she wound up eachprogram, and which were always good hum-ored and offhandedly f rank. Comparing liederand operatic singing she remarked that inlieder one did not hâve the option of bodydramatics, such as collapsing in a heap on thefloor to convey utmost despair. She touchedon many subjects: the interprétation of an artsong, collaboration with composers, the contemporary music scène, the current unfashion-ableness of the Romande composers. "ButRomanticism is coming back," Miss Toureldeclared. "After ail," she said triumphantly,"Who can touch even one note of Schubert?"TuitionBecause the University's 1970-7 1 budget willshow a $6.2 million déficit, nextyear's budgetwill be eut six per cent and tuition will rise$50 a quarter, bringing undergraduate tuitionper year to $2,47 5 and graduate tuition to$2,625.Grant for Study of PoliticalParticipation and Social ChangeThe University of Chicago has been awarded a$2 1 9,700 two-year grant from the NationalScience Foundation for research on "Cross-National Studies in Political Participation andSocial Change."Under the direction of Sidney Verba, professor of political science ( see "The SilentMajority: Myth and Reality" in the Nov/Dec1970 issue) , and Norman Nie, assistant professor of political science (see "Hello CentralGive Me Heaven" in the May/June 1970issue) , the Cross-National Program is a study of the rôle of participation in the politicalprocess.According to Verba, "participation is themajor way citizen needs and desires are corn-municated to the government, and governmentresponsiveness to such needs and desires maywell dépend upon the quantity, quality, anddistribution of participation. The topic hasboth crucial social and political importanceand great theoretical relevance for the under-standing of politics."Women, Blacks, EducatedYouths Will Figure inLabor Movement of 1970'sIf corporate rnanagement had labor problemsin the 1960's, it's nothing to what could becoming in the next décade.Women, blacks, and educated youths— ailfréquent cri tics of corporate America— willplay a growing rôle in the labor movement ofthe 1970's, according to Seymour L. Wolfbein,dean of the school of business administrationat Temple University, Philadelphia, keynotespeaker at a récent industrial relations conférence held at UC.Wolfbein predicted that:—The largest increase in the labor force inthe next décade will be women;—One out of seven new workers in the U. S.will be black;—The average "white collar" professionalwill go to school for seventeen yeairs, theéquivalent of a master's degree."You can imagine what is going to happenwhen thèse forces corne together in the1970's," Wolfbein said. "Collective bargainingwill involve itself more and more with socialand public interests, as well as the économieside of wages, hours, working conditions, andfringe benefits."New Method for RecordingCancer Patients' Body ContoursA new optical-electronic System for measuringand recording the body contours of cancerpatients has been developed by UC scientists.Body contours often are necessary for plan ning efficient and accurate radiation therapy,according to Lawrence H. Lanzl, professor ofradiology (médical physics) and in the Ar-gonne Cancer Research Hospital of the University's Hospitals and Clinics.The System consists of an automatic rangefinder and a polar plotter. Together they turnout a graph that represents a cross section ofthe patient's body through the area affected bycancer. The contour is accurate to one milli-meter and can be made in less than a minute.The method now in use involves a semi-flexible métal strip molded to the patient'sbody, then removed to obtain a tracing— amethod both time consuming and often in-accurate."Because the information produced by therange finder is in the form of electric puises,it can be fed directly into a computer," ex-plained Lanzl. "Radiologists and médical phy-sicists now use computers to do the complexcalculations necessary to détermine the correctradiation doses to patients in radiationtherapy."FootballWith a won-lost record of two-five for the1970 football season, as opposed to a won-lostrecord of two-f our last season, it was a giantstep backward for the Maroons, but a smallstep backward for mankind.Collège Présidentsfrom UC Number 150The récent appointment of Léon Botstein(announced in the July/Oct 1970 issue) asthe youngest collège président brought to 1 50the total of University of Chicago alumni,former students, and faculty members nowserving as présidents or chancellors of institutions of higher éducation.Perhaps the most famous of the 150 areHarry Gideonse, S. I. Hayakawa, and of courseEdward H. Levi, but there they are— fromAlston to Zimmer, from New York to Tokyo,150 présidents who hâve at one time been"under the influence" of the University ofChicago.29PeopleH It was at 5 :45 in the morning of October26 when Professor PAUL ANTHONY SAMUEL-SON (AB'35) learned that he had beenawarded the 1970 Nobel Mémorial Prize forEconomies. "It's nice to be recognized for hardwork," he said.But récognition wasn't precisely new forProfessor Samuelson. His textbook Economieshas been studied by générations of collègestudents, been translated into nearly everymodem language, and has sold more than threemillion copies. His students and colleagues ailknew that this récognition of the fifty-five yearold economist's work was merely a matter oftime.The officiai announcement from the Swed-ish Royal Academy of Sciences read: "Professor Samuelson's extensive production, coveringnearly ail areas of économie theory, is char-acterized by an outstanding ability to dériveimportant new theorems and to find new applications for existing ones. By his contributions, Samuelson has done more than any othercontemporary economist to raise the level ofscientific analysis in économie theory."Once considered a radical, he has seen hisviews become established, even Establishment.But libéral. "I'm a libéral," he said, "but not aliber tari an because I cannot agrée that the freedistribution of dollar votes in the marketplacerepresents any kind of ethical optimum, according to any ethical doctrine known to me.A laissez-f aire System is a System of coercion bydollar votes."Once an important adviser to PrésidentsKennedy and Johnson, he is not today warmlywelcomed in the White House. He déploresthe Administration's économie policies oflaissez-faire. "The government cannot abscondfrom its responsibilities. . . . There is plenty todo— look at the smelly air. . . . There is so muchwork to do in this country that the notion thatwe've got to put something down the ratholein Vietnam is ridiculous."}{ RICHARD P. McKEON, the Charles F. GreyDistinguished Service Professor of Philosophyand Classical Languages at the University, isone of eight distinguished philosophers fromaround the world elected to the International Committee of the Fifteenth World Congress ofPhilosophy. The other seven members of thecommittee are philosophers from Great Brit-ain, the Soviet Union, India, Mexico, Greece,Poland, and Bulgaria. The Fifteenth WorldCongress of Philosophy will be held in Varna,Bulgaria, in 1973. The possible thème of theCongress is "Man, Science, and Technology."55 Ten outstanding journalists hâve beennamed urban journalism fellows at the University of Chicago where they will participatein a six month program of urban studies, fromJanuary 4 through June 12, sponsored by theUniversity's Center for Policy Study.The ten fellows, selected from a field ofalmost 200 applicants from around the nation,are: JESSE B. BROWN, twenty-four, field pro-ducer and reporter for WFAA-TV (ABC) inDallas, Texas; BARBARA CASSON, twenty-nine,reporter for The Birmingham (Ala.) PostHerald; ABBOTT COMBES, twenty-six, editorialpage writer and associate editor for TheQuincy (Mass. ) Patriot Ledger; ROBERT D.FAW, JR., twenty-six, spécial assignment reporter and producer for WNAC-TV (ABC) inBoston, Massachusetts; JERRY D. KOHLER,twenty-seven, reporter for The Kansas City(Mo. ) Star; PETER R. NEGRONIDA, thirty-two,reporter for The Chicago (111.) Tribune;JOANNE OMANG, twenty-seven, night NewEngland news editor for United Press International in Boston, Massachusetts; ROBERT A.PETTY, thirty, reporter for KOOL-TV (CBS) inPhoenix, Arizona; VALETTA PRESS, thirty-two,producer and writer for NBC News in Chicago;and ARTHUR H. ROTSTEIN, twenty-five, reporter for The Washington (D. C.) DailyNews.The f ellowship provides full tuition for twoacadémie quarters and a stipend of $4,800 forthe six month period. The program was described in the July /October issue of the Magazine in an article called "The New Newsman"by Paul Gapp, the coordinator of the program.35 SAUL BELLOW, prize-winning author, hasbeen appoïnted chairman of the committee onsocial thought at the University of Chicago.Bellow has been a University faculty mem- ber since 1963. He is the author of eightnovels, the most récent and renowned ofwhich are Herzog ( 1 964 ) and Mr. Sammler'sPlanet (1969).A native of Lachine, Québec, Canada, Bellow received a BS degree in 1937 from Northwestern University.H An internationally-renowned psychologistat the University of Chicago, BRUNO BETTEL-HEIM, received an award as the Most Distinguished Psychologist in Illinois for 1970 fromthe clinical section of the Illinois PsychologicalAssociation on Friday, November 6.Bettelheim has served for many years asdirector of the Sonia Shankman OrthogenicSchool at the University ( a residential treatment center for severely emotionally disturbedchildren ) .Some of his books, such as The Empty For-tress ( 1967), Love Is Not Enough (1950),and T ruants from Life (1955), describe thework of the Orthogenic School in rehabilitat-ing severely disturbed youngsters. His latestbook is Children of the Dream ( 1 969 ) .3{ LEO A. GOODMAN, internationally knownstatistician and sociologist, has been named theCharles L. Hutchinson Distinguished ServiceProfessor at the University of Chicago.Commenting on the appointment, A.ADRIAN ALBERT, dean of the division of thephysical sciences at the University, said: "LéoGoodman is a world famous scholar in statis-tics and its social science applications, particu-larly those in sociology. He richly deserves theappointment as distinguished service professorand I am extremely pleased at this récognitionof his great value to the University."Born in New York City in 1928, Goodmanwas graduated from Syracuse University in1948, summa cum laude and as valedictorian.He joined the faculty of the University in1950 as assistant professor of statistics and ofsociology, becoming associate professor in1953, and professor in 1 9 5 5 , when he wastwenty-seven years old. He has served continu-ously on the University faculty since 1950,except for leaves-of -absence to work at Cambridge University in 1953-54, at both Cam-30bridge University and the London School ofEconomies and Political Science in 1959-60,and at Columbia University as visiting professor of mathematical statistics and sociology in1960-61.His teaching and research hâve been princi-pally concerned with the development ofmathematical models for spécifie areas in sociology and other social sciences, the development and investigation of new statistical meth-ods, and the analysis of problems in theoreticalstatistics.Goodman has authored more than eighty-five professional articles for journals in theUnited States, England, Russia, India, and ,Japan on subjects ranging from human ge-netics to marketing and probability theory. Hisarticles appear in books on social research,mathematical psychology, econometrics, criminal law, mathematical social science, geog-raphy, and décision making.55 WILLIAM H. KRUSKAL, professor and chair-man of the department of statistics at the University, has been named by Président Nixon tohis Presidential Commission on FédéralStatistics.The Commission is undertaking a compre-hensive review of the fédéral statistics program, the first such review in more than twentyyears, and will report its findings to the Près-,ident by September, 1971.The fifteen-member Commission, chairedby W. Allen Wallis, chancellor of the University of Rochester, has been asked to provideanswers to three basic questions:1 ) What are the présent and future require-ments for quantitative information about oursociety? 2 ) How can we minimize the burdenon respondents and insure that personal pri-vacy, and data received in confidence, are pro-tected? 3 ) How can we organize fédéral activities for the most effective compilation andutilization of statistics?X ARNOLD W. RAVIN, forty-nine, has beenreappointed master of the biological sciencescollegiate division, associate dean of the Collège, and associate dean of the division of thebiological sciences at UC for a three-year term. As master of the biological sciences collegiate division, Ravin directs undergraduateéducation in biology and coordinates the rela-tionship between undergraduate and graduatebiology training.He is the author of more than fifty majorpublications, including The Evolution ofGenetics, and is co-editor of volume one ofGenetic Organization.X To most people WILLIE DAVIS may be theformer défensive end for the Green BayPackers, àll-pro and ail that, but to us parochialtypes at the University of Chicago, he is analumnus (MBA' 68 ) , and as such he spoke toUniversity alumni in Los Angeles in January.Subject: "WhatMakes a Super Bowl Champion?" .X WARNER A. WICK, professor of philosophyand former dean of students, has been ap-pointed master of the humanities collegiatedivision, associate dean of the Collège, andassociate dean of the humanities division ofthe University.The humanities collegiate division is one offive divisions in the Collège. Each is directedby a master, under the overall direction of thedean of the Collège.After three years in the business world,Wick joined the faculty at UC in 1 946. In1 948 he received the University's prestigiousQuantrell Award for Excellence in Undergra-uate Teaching. He was named professor ofphilosophy in 1958.X ELMAR ZEITLER, f orty-three, an authorityon électron microscopy, has been appointedprofessor in the departments of physics andbiophysics at UC.The German-born physicist began his teaching career in 1 950 at the University of Wurz-burg, Germany, where three years later heearned his PhD degree in physics. In 1954 hewas named chief of quality control for AGFAX-Ray Film in Cologne, Germany. He servedas assistant chief of biophysics in the ArmedForces Institute of Pathology in Washington,D. G, until he was made visiting professor inthe department of physics and in the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University in the 1969-70 académie year.X BERNARD ROSENBERG, nationally-knownsociologist and social commentator, has beenappointed the Howard L. Willett Visiting Professor in the Collège of UC for the académieyear 1970-71.Rosenberg is a professor of sociology at theCity Collège of the City University of NewYork. The Howard L. Willett Visiting Pro-f essorships, which bring eminent scholars andteachers to the undergraduate Collège of theUniversity, are made possible by a $500,000gift from the Howard L. Willett CharitableFoundation of Chicago.Commenting on Rosenberg's appointment,ARCADIUS KAHAN, master of the social sciences collegiate division and associate dean ofthe Collège, said:"His contribution to the gênerai undergraduate courses in the social sciences and, morespecifically, his teaching in the areas of crim-inology and the sociology of art and mass culture will greatly strengthen the range of offer-ings open to undergraduates."Rosenberg has been a member of the Présidents Committee on Juvénile Delinquency( 1 964-68 ) , and is now on the board of direc-tors of the Marriage Muséum, an anthropo-logical-sociological muséum in New YorkCity.At the présent, he is doing research on "TheFilm Maker," a sociological analysis of anoccupational type.X As a young boy, PEDRO FONTANES was amember of the Junior Crowns street gang inNew York City's West Harlem area.Today, at twenty-two, he is a sophomore inthe undergraduate Collège of the University ofChicago and a member of Président Nixon' sConférence on Youth, which meets in Feb-ruary, 1 97 1. He met with the Président inCalifornia last summer and exchanged viewswith the chief executive on the controversialCulabra Island issue in Puerto Rico. He hadhelped write the bill, recently turned down bythe U. S. Senate, which would hâve stoppedthe U. S. Navy from using Culabra Island as an31aerial bombing range.How does a boy from a Harlem street gangpull himself out of the ghetto and into collège?In Pedro's case, it was the good fortune ofmeeting ANTHONY T. G. PALLETT, director ofadmissions and aid for the Collège, at a meeting in New York arranged with the help ofthe University's New York Alumni SchooisCommittee, which has been especially activein encouraging youngsters from urban, low-income families who hâve collège potential toapply for admission at the University.As a resuit of this talk, Pedro decided toapply for admission, was accepted, and en-rolled. "It was rough at first," he said in recall-ing his early days at the University. "I hadn'thad any préparation for collège in high school.But I always did a lot of reading. After a dis-asterous first quarter, things got better and mygrades came up dramatically."Although a political activist, Pedro (Pete)is not a militant. He believes, for example, thatPuerto Rico's future lies as a state in theUnited States rather than as a separate nation."Intégration has worked in Puerto Rico," hesaid, "and, for that matter, throughout SouthAmerica. Blacks and whites need to appreciateeach other's culture."In addition to playing varsity football atUC, Pete also has to work to help pay his waythrough collège. Each morning from 7 :oo to9:30 a.m. he works in a campus cafétéria. Thenit's off to classes. Football practice f ollows latein the afternoon. This is ail a long way from aghetto street gang.X GÔSTA FRANZÉN, professor and director ofScandinavian studies at UC, was knighted at arécent ceremony in the Quadrangle Club.Franzén was awarded the Knight Cross, FirstClass, of the Royal Order of St. Oiav by Wil-helm Krogh-Fiadmark, Norwegian consul-general in Chicago.Franzén, an authority on Scandinavianphilology, received the knighthood for hiswork in promoting Norwegian studies at theUniversity.A native of Sôderkôping, Sweden, Franzénhas been a faculty member at the University ofChicago since 1944. He previously taught at the University of California at Berkeley andUppsala ( Sweden ) University. He also servedas director of the Swedish Information Bureauin San Francisco from 1942 to 1944.Franzén is the author of more than 100articles and books in his spécial field. He is amember of the Royal Gustavus AdolphusAcademy, the Royal Academy of Sciences atUppsala, the Icelandic Society, the UppsalaPlace Name Society, and the American NameSociety.X JOHN MULLAN, professor of neurosurgeryin the division of the biological sciences andthe Pritzker School of Medicine, has beennamed the first Seely Professor of NeurologicalScience. The professorship was made possiblethrough a grant to the University from theSeely Foundation of Chicago and the effortsand activities of the women's council board ofthe University's Brain Research Foundation.X SHARON MAITLAND is a young womanwhose weekdays are devoted to working as aclinical audiologist; weekends to being a professional model, traveling ail over the countryon assignment; and the rest of the time togoing to class and maintaining an A-minusgrade average in her studies for a PhD degreeatUGThis three-dimensional career will probablyend soon, however, because Sharon hopes toget her PhD in educational psychology fromthe University in 1972. After that she wantsto stay on at the University's Hospitals andClinics as an audiologist. Her modeling careermight then hâve to end.Miss National Root Béer, one of Sharon'stitles, started working as a model while anundergraduate student at Indiana University."In between my freshman and sophomoreyears I came to Chicago looking for summerwork and got a job as a secretary at Play boymagazine. Then, between my junior and senioryears, the Playboy Modeling Agency startedinto business. I signed with them and I'm stillunder contract," Sharon said.With a BA and an MA from Indiana University she started work toward a PhD at the University of Chicago a year ago and has been employed at the University's Billings Hospitalsince 1965.While Sharon looks forward to being a full-time audiologist, she will miss her modeling."Modeling is a great career. Fil always begrateful that I was able to participate in it. It'sbeen a wonderf ul expérience, I've met a lot ofwonderful people, and it's helped pay my waythrough collège."X EUGENE MAXIMILIAN KARL GEILING, firstchairman of the department of pharmacologyat UC, died at six p.m., Tuesday, January 12 inWashington, D. GDr. Geiling, the Frank P. Hixon Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Pharmacology at the University, retired in 1957and had been living in Washington since1958.Born in 1891 in Branford, South Africa, hereceived an AB degree in 191 1 from the University of South Africa. In 19 14 he came to theUnited States as an overseas f ellow from theUnion of South Africa to study in the department of animal husbandry and nutrition at theUniversity of Illinois, where he received a PhDdegree in 1 9 1 7 in physiological chemistry.In 1936a separate department of pharmacology was established at the University ofChicago. Dr. Geiling, who was then on theJohns Hopkins faculty as professor of pharmacology, was invited to become the firstchairman. He organized the department as anacadémie unit devoted to teaching and graduate research.During his early years at Chicago, his research was on the pituitary gland, studyingsuch species as the whale and the armadillo.His work showed clearly that the oxytocic,pressor, and antidiuretic hormones were elabo-rated by the neural lobe of the pituitary andnot by the intermediary lobe, as believed previously. This work is considered by many authorities as his most significant achievement.Among the awards Dr. Geiling received forhis work were the Oscar B. Hunter MémorialAward of the American Therapeutic Societyand the Mendel Medal given by VillanovaUniversity for outstanding research.There are no immédiate survivors.32Every year Dad gets a lot ofties he doesn't want.Why not give usabookinstead?Next time you're trying to décide be- plate with your name and the name oftween a tie he won't like and a shirt the person you want to r.emember,that won't fit, think about The Univer- perhaps for a graduation, birthday, orsity of Chicago Fund of Books. anniversary. The Fund also offers aThe Fund lets you give the Univer- meaningful way to honor the memorysity a book in honor of a friend or re- of a loved one. Copies of the bookplatelative. Ten dollars buys one book. $100, are mailed to you and the person— orten books. And you're buying more family of the person— being honored.than just a book. You're buying part of Give the University a book. Anda great working library— including give yourself the satisfaction of helpingthe new Joseph Regenstein Library. to build one of the nation's great uni-Each book you buy will get a book- versity libraries.alumni V\(ewsClass NotesH FRANK L. BERGER, SB'l4, professoremeritus of physics at Ohio NorthernUniversity, Ada, and chairman of the divisionof natural science there until his retirement in1952, received an honorary doctor of sciencedegree from the school on October 3.M. c. ELMER, PhD'14, professor emeritusand retired head of the sociology and anthro-pology department at the University of Pitts-burgh, may just be the best timber f armer inthe state of Wisconsin. Dr. Elmer, who hasbeen a practising conservationist since 1909when he bought his first eighty acres of farm-land, paid his way through UC by raisingpotatoes. Now a résident of Pittsburgh, he reg-ularly commutes to Wisconsin to oversee thefarming of his 1,500 acres, where he recentlysupervised the planting of 1 5,000 new seed-lings, and enjoyed his beavers whose dams helpprotect his properties from forest fires andwhose antics offer him a most relaxing form ofentertainment.IN MEMORIAM: Hugo Ballantyne Ander-sôn, JD'14; Lilliam MacVean Dannenberg,PhB'14; Ethel May Hilliard, PhB'14; RaymondDavid Mullinix, SB' 14, PhD' 18.T £ JOHN WARREN DAVIS, X' 1 5 ( AB andO AM Morehouse Collège), présidentemeritus of West Virginia State Collège, iscurrently spécial director of teacher information and security programs, NAACP Légal Défense and Educational Fund, Inc., N. Y.IN MEMORIAM : Christine Babcock, AM' 1 5 ;Bertha Davis, AM'i 5 ; Burrell O. Raulston,MD'15.T A JEHIEL S. DAVIS, SB'i6, retired highschool teacher and author of A Teacher' sS tory, an autobiography, has put aside his cornet and bassoon in favor of temporary KPassignment since his wife's récent stroke.Earlier this year the Davises "did" Alaska— viaplane, ship, rail, coach, and small gauge rail.Dr. Davis, who has a real estate operatorslicense in Van Nuys, Calif., "from time to timesells a house for someone."IN MEMORIAM: Herbert Crâne, PhB'16,JD'24; Walter G. Moyle, PhB'16, JD'19; Gif-ford W. Plume, PhB'16; Nancy McNeal Roman, PhB'16; Bertha Monica Stearns,PhB'l6,AM'22.T Q E. R. HUCKLEBERRY, SB' 18, MD'2I, retired physician now living in Sait LakeCity, set out to record "a way of life that hasdisappeared" in The Adventures of Dr. Huckle-berry, recently published by the Oregon His-torical Society. Based on his expériences as acountry doctor in the big timber country ofwestern Oregon, the volume is peopled withmany of the colorf ul and homespun characterswhose ruggedness and détermination went intosettling the early West.IN MEMORIAM: Barbara Hendry Holman,SB' 18; Olive Turner MacArthur, SB' 18.TaA bronze bust of BEATRICE TELLERy SPACHNER, X' 1 9, was dedicated in thefoyer of Chicago's Auditorium Theater onNovember 19, in récognition of her efforts forthe restoration and re-creation of the Auditorium, designed by Louis Sullivan. VirginioFerrari, sculptor in résidence at UC, was thesculptor.IN MEMORIAM: Jessie B. Merry, SB' 19;Ellen Mulroney Peterson, PhB'19, AM'20;Charles B. Schrepel, PhB'19, AM'20; SmartYntema, SB' 1 9, MD'2 1 .rs Çi G. H. WESTBY, PhB'20, retired chairmanof the board of Seismograph ServiceCorp. ( Tulsa, Okla. ) as of November 1 , hasbeen named honorary chairman of the boardand will continue to serve the firm as a consultant. A charter member of the .Society ofExploration Geophysicists, Mr. Westby beganhis field career in the twenties as résident geol-ogist in Algeria for a London firm.r\r\ JOSEPH B. RHINE, SB22, SM'23,PhD' 2 5, who has spent nearly a lifetimeat Duke University making the study of ESPrespectable, told a fail meeting of the American Statistical Society of récent experimentswith mice during which the mice seemed toshow powers of precognition— the ability toforetell events. His research since 1927 hasconvinced Dr. Rhine that humans too possessextrasensory powers. "Please don't try to accept it," he told his audience of statisticians. "It isonly necessary to suspend judgment."HELEN DAVIS SNOW, PhB'22, at her retirement party as educational counselor of Northwestern University's evening school of business, commented on the spécial relationship anight school counselor enjoys with students,many of whom are study ing under severe physical, mental, and économie strain. Studentshâve called me "dreamboat," she laughed, butmore recently I hâve become "mother hen."IN MEMORIAM: Julian Carter Aldrich,PhB'22; William Franklin Edgerton, PhD'22;John Gunther, PhB'22; Frank W. Hayes,JD'22; William V. Houston, SM'22; Lyle LeeRichmond, JD'22; Helen Russell Wright,PhD'22.r> ^> LOUISE VIEHOFF MOLKUP, AB'2 3,J AM' 3 5 , who has taught high school insuch diverse places as Chicago, Central America, Ethiopia, Thailand, and Venezuela, hasbeen installed as président of the Chicagobranch of the American Association of University Women.FRED W. SPARKS, SM'23, PhD' 3 1, professoremeritus of mathematics at Texas Tech, hasbeen awarded a Southwestern University( Georgetown, Texas ) alumni associationcitation for merit. Dr. Sparks, who began histeaching career in rural Texas schoois beforehe had even entereà collège, attained his bach-elor's degree by attending classes part-timeover a span of nine years. Since retirement hehas been living in Claremont, Calif.r% A MABELSTAUDINGER, PhB'24,AM'25,l PhD'46, has retired as assistant professor of Spanish at Wright Collège in Chicagowhere she had been a faculty member since1964.IN MEMORIAM: S. Vernon McCasland,AM'24, PhD'26; Frances M. Taylor, PhB'24;Hélen Wells, PhB'24.r\ A DANIEL CATTON RICH, PhB'26, direc-tor emeritus of Worcester Art Muséumand trustée of the Guggenheim Muséum, wasa juror for the annual fail exhibition of theBerkshire Art Association in Pittsfield, Mass.34Former director of the Art Institute of Chicago,Mr. Rich arranged the first American exhibition Odilon Redon and Eugène Delacroix.IN MEMORIAM: Hervey S. Faris, MD'26;Casper I. Nelson, PhD'26.ry r\ BERT G GOSS, AM'29, chairman of they board and chief executive officer of thepublic relations firm Hill and Knowlton, Inc.,has been named récipient of the first annualGold Anvil Award of the Public RelationsSociety of America, honoring the man whoover the years has contributed the most to thedevelopment of the public relations profession.FRANCES GIBSON McINTYRE, PhB'29, hasbeen awarded the Camp Fire Girls highesthonor for volunteers, the Wohelo Order. Mrs.Mclntyre is a member of their national boardof directors.^ ^2 JERRY JONTRY, PhB' 3 3 , senior vice3j président and advertising director ofEsquire magazine for the past eleven years, hasbeen promoted to the new post of président,Publishing Group, Esquire, Inc.KEITH 1. PARSONS, PfiB'33, JD'37, memberof the Chicago law firm of Ross, Hardies,O'Keefe, McDugald and Parsons, has beenappointed to a vacahcy on the Board of Gover-nors of State Collèges and Universities byIllinois Governor Ogilvie.IN MEMORIAM: Sidney Smith, SB' 3 3,MD'4I,SM'42.^ A AARON M. ALTSCHUL, SB' 3 4, PhD' 37,3 ¦ spécial assistant to the secretary of agriculture for nutrition improvement and cred-ited by colleagues with providing Worldwideleadership in introducing the concept of fortification of cereals, has won one of the five1970 Rockefeller Public Service Awards. Theawards, each carrying a $10,000 cash prize,are presented annually by Princeton's Wood-row Wilson School of Public and InternationalAiïairs.E. STANTON FETCHER, PhD' 3 4, heart dis-ease researcher at the University of Minnesotaduring the last seven years, has been namedcurator for environmental science at the St.Paul (Minn.) Science Muséum. MARGARET ELIZABETH WILLIS NICOLL,PhB' 3 4, wife of the proud creator of pouletmarengo a la guillaume, served homemadefudge to a récent holiday gathering of relatives.IN MEMORIAM: Albert Howard Carter,PhB'34, AM'34, PhD'40; Melvin L. Goldman,PhB'34,JD'35.*2 f) GEORGE KINGSTON, MD'36, has been,3 appointed director gênerai for the fifty-second annual Washington State Apple Blos-som Festival. Now in semi -retirement, Dr.Kingston and his wife, MILDRED ELINORJONES, PhD' 3 3, réside in Wenatchee, Wash.JEAN LOUISE SMITH, AM'36, a lay ministerin Vermont during the past four years, hasmoved back to St. Paul (Minn. ) where shegrew up ànd is pursuing her career as a free-lance religious journalist "with considérablestress on art as it relates to religion/'^M JANE HAMILTON HALL, SB'37, SM'38,J I PhD'42, assistant director of Los Alamos(N. M. j Scientific Laboratory until her retirement last June and a designer of the first f ast-neutron reactor, on October 6 became the firstwoman to receive the Atomic Energy Commission Citation. She and her husband, DAVIDB., SM'38, PhD'42, also a physicist, joined theLos Alamos staff in 1 945.DAVID G. SPEER, AB'37, AM'39, head of thedepartment of f oreign languages and litera-tures at the University of South Carolina, haswritten a book with his wife Marilene, A laBelle Etoile, published this year by McGrawHill.IN MEMORIAM: S. MacLean Gilmour,PhD' 37; Forest Dale Richardson, AB'37,MBA'42.'J Ç\ ROBERT O. ANDERSON, AB'39, chair-J / man of the Atlantic Richfield Co. anda trustée of UC and Cal Tech, has been electeda trustée of the Muséum of Modem Art inNew York.JOHN D. HIND, SM'39, of Richmond Va.,has been named principal scientist— researchcenter at Philip Morris U. S, A. Inventor orco-inventor of fifteen U. S. patents, Mr. Hindreceived the Philip Morris Silver Ring Award in 1967 for his extensive study of tobacco andstem pectins.IN MEMORIAM: Robert R. Brinker, AB'39.A O ROBERT s- MINER, JR., SB'40, assistant\ to the chairman, department of physics,Princeton University, has been appointedtreasurer of the American Institute ofChemists.RUTH NEUENDORFFER, AB'40, alternateobserver at the United Nations for the International Association for Religious Freedom,served recently as chairman of the UnitedNations Day Committee for Tarrytown, N. Y.IN MEMORIAM: Frank B. Blumenfield,PhB'40; Elbert C. Flora, mba'4o; Pearl FisherHarlan, AB'40; Esther Kirchhoefer, AM'46;Elvin D. Sukys, AB'40.A T JOHN PAUL STEVENS, AB41, seniorT member of the Chicago law firm ofRothschild, Stevens, Barry & Myers, has beenappointed by Président Nixon to a fédéraljudgeship in the Seventh United States CircuitCourt of Appeals, subject to Senate approval.Formerly associate counsel for the HouseJudiciary Committee, Judge Stevens' last yearserved as gênerai counsel for a spécial commission of the Illinois Suprême Court whichinvestigated charges of impropriety againsttwo justices who later resigned. fIN MEMORIAM: Annie Bendien dejong,AB'41, AM'43; Leila Bagley Rumble, AM'41.A f> "Smitty's Haven," a short story byT" JOANNEKUPERZIMMERMAN,AB'42,originally published in Western HumanitiesReview, is included in The Best Little Magazine Fiction: 19 yo, an anthology just releasedby New York University Press. Scheduled forpublication this winter by Windfall Press isMrs. Zimmerman's short novel Lilyl LilylA ^ SYLVIA BOWMAN, AM'43, has beenij named chairman of the new division ofarts and sciences at Indiana University, FortWayne. Dr. Bowman holds the Frédéric Bach-man Lieber Mémorial Award for Distinguished Teaching from IU.MARGY LAZARUS MEYERSON, AB'43, does35not worry about the superficial aspects oftoday' s youth culture, such as hair styles. "I ammuch more concerned that my children aregrowing up in an âge when there are no heroes.. . . Even the astronauts hâve not caught thespirit of the young. Literature, the movies andpolitics hâve produced no great figures." Theoversimplified renderings of télévision may beresponsible, she feels. Formerly a worker inhousing and city planning, Mrs. Meyerson isnow employed full-time as wife of the University of Pennsylvania's new président, MartinMeyerson.A r* RUTH MARIE DAVID LEACOCK,T"«3 PhB'45, has been promoted to associateprofessor of history at Central ConnecticutState Collège in New Britain.EILEEN THORNTON, AM'45, librarian atOberlin Collège, Ohio, has announced herrésignation from the post effective June 30,197 1. Also librarian of the Oberlin PublicLibrary and clerk-treasurer of its board, MissThornton has been involved in the planningof a new central library for the collège.A ^ THOMAS E. CONNOLLY,AM'47,l" / PhD' 5 1 , vice chairman of the facultysenate of the State University of New Yorkat Buffalo during the past two years, has beenappointed acting provost of the faculty of artsand letters there.SHELDON FARR, MBA'47, was one of thosespotlighted in a November Seattle Daily Timesarticle showing how people from ail walks oflife hâve been hard-hit by the currént économieslowdown. Mr. Farr, who after fourteen yearsin financial management got the ax in Augustfrom Boeing Aircraft, may hold some sort ofrecord for résumes, according to the article. Hehas contacted 1,049 firms, eliciting about 250responses and "170 good leads." On his interview form, Mr. Farr originally set his minimum acceptable salary at $ 14,000. That hasbeen crossed out now and "anything reason-able" inked in.AL VAN R. FEINSTEIN, SB'47, SM'48, MD'52,chief of the Vétérans Administration EasternResearch Support Center, West Haven, Conn.,and professor of medicine and epidemiology at Yale, for diversion plays the guitar and col-lects folk songs, a hobby begun 'long beforefolk songs became fashionable." He has alsowritten lyrics for several "scurrilous" médicalsongs whose contents he déclines to reveal.DONALD R. GERTH, AB'47, AM'5 I, PfiD'63,is vice président for académie affairs at Chico(Calif.) State Collège for the 1970-71 académie year.GUINEVERE L. GRIEST, AM'47, PhD'6l,has written a book, Mudiës Circulating Library and the Victorian Novel, published inOctober by the Indiana University Press. MissGriest's study centers around the Charles Edward Mudie Select Library, founded in 1842in London, which for half a century was thesingle most important distributor of fiction inEngland, exerting such profound influenceover publishers, readers, and çritics that itsf ounder became a virtual dictator of the London literary world.ROY L. RODMAN, MBA'47, has been appointed to the newly created position of worksmanager of the Kraft Foods complex in Cham-paign, 111., where he will run the salad prod-ucts plant, the soon-to-be-completed distribution center, and the cheese plant which is cur-rently under construction. His wife JUNEHOPE WEATHERBEE, AB'42, has been teachinghome-bound youngsters and directing a daycare center for the mentally handicapped.ELSIE TABER, PhD'47, professor of anatomyat the Médical University of South Carolina,has been selected by the school as one of the"Outstanding Educators of America." Her /name is also listed in American Men of Science, Who' s Who among American Women,and Who' s Who in the South and Southwest.A V CLYDE R. DILLARD, SM'48, PhD'49, pro-1 f essor of chemistry at Brooklyn Collègeof the City University of New York, has beennamed associate dean of the faculties there.HARRIS LLEWELLYN WOFFORD, JR., AB'48,was inaugurated during October as fifth président of Bryn Mawr (Pa. ) Collège. An attor-ney, Président Woiford served on the U. S.Commission on Civil Rights; as chairman ofa sub-cabinet group on civil rights during theKennedy Administration; and as associate di rector of the Peace Corps during the JohnsonAdministration.IN MEMORIAM: George M. Belknap, AM'48,PhD'51; S. Austen Reep, PhD'48; ArthurWhitman, PhB'48.A Ç\ LINDLEY H. CLARK, JR., AM'49, is now1 y associate editor of The Wall StreetJournal, New York City.JOHN R. COLEMAN, AM'49, PhD'50, président of Haverf ord ( Pa. ) Collège, led membersof that student body to Washington, followingthe Cambodian invasion, in protest againstescalation of the Vietnam War.ERWIN NICK HIEBERT, SM'49, has left theUniversity of Wisconsin to accept a professor-ship of the history of science at Harvard.LORRAINE WALLING, AM'49, has retiredfrom the staff of Colorado State Hospital,Pueblo, ending a forty-six year career in socialwork.IN MEMORIAM: Clifford L. Peasley, MD'49;Jack Rosen, SB'49.£ r\ ETHEL TAPPER, PhD'50, librarian andJ chairman of the English department atAurora ( 111. ) Collège, has been selected forlisting in the 1970 édition of OutstandingEducators of America.JAMES ULRICH, AM'50, for sixteen years ateacher of mathematics at Arlington HighSchool, Arlington Hts., 111. , and author of twomath textbooks currently in use there, has beennamed this year's winner of the T. E. RineAward of the Illinois Council of Teachers ofMathematics for his efforts in behalf of mathematics éducation.5T MAX LESNIK-OBERSTEIN, AB'5 1 , AB'54,SB'57, is currently on the staff of theClarke Institute of Psychiatry, University ofToronto. Dr. Lesnik-Oberstein, his wife andtwo daughters are residing at 89 PinewoodTrail, Port Crédit, Ontario.WILLIAM M. SMITH, MD' 5 1 , associate clinical professor of medicine at the University ofCalifornia School of Medicine, San Francisco,has been appointed régional health director forHEW's Health Services and Mental Health Administration for the area including California,36Arizona, Nevada, Hawaii, Guam, AmericanSamoa, and the Pacific trust territories.ESTHER MILLMAN SPARKS, AB' 5 1 , presently a doctoral candidate at Northwestern,has been appointed curatorial assistant in theprints and drawings department of the ArtInstitute of Chicago.£ r\ HERBERT L. CAPLAN, AB'52, JD'57,+J Chicago trial attorney and acting assistant chief of the Air and Water Pollution Control Division, has been appointed an assistantattorney gênerai of the state of Illinois.MARION ETTEN, AM'52, coordinator ofhealth services at Northeastern Illinois StateCollège and président of the Chicago NursesAssociation, recently received an alumni citation award from the Loyola University AlumniAssociation.ALAN FIELLIN, AM'52, a member of thepolitical science faculty at the City Collège ofNew York, has been appointed associate deanof libéral arts and science in which capacity hewill coordinate the school's open admissionsprogram.r1 ^ VERNER E. SUOMI, PhD' 5 3 , director ofv)^ the University of Wisconsin's SpaceScience and Engineering Center, has registeredwith the state of Wisconsin for permission toconduct experiments "intended to influenceprécipitation of atmospheric moisture by arti-ficial means." The point of thèse rain-makingexperiments will be to find out if some of themoisture lost to evaporation from Lake Michi-gan can be put back into the lake, said theformer U. S. Weather Bureau chief scientistwho helped develop some of the délicate instruments which were incorporated into rock-et-launched satellites.f* A LEWIS G BRANSCOMB, PhD'54, director3 l" of libraries at Ohio State University,has been named to the newly established pro-fessorship of Thurber studies at the school.PAUL GOODMAN, PhD'54, a prolific writerknown as "father figure of the New Left" sincethe i960 publication of his book Growing UpAbsurd: Problems of Youth in the OrganizedSystem, delivered an autumn convocation ad- dress at Lock Haven State Collège, Pa., entitled"Education in the Year 2000."MARSHALL J. HARTMAN, AB'54, AM'57,JD'57, was named national director of defenderservices for the National Légal Aid and Defender Association, an affiliate of the American Bar Association, dedicated to expandingthe availability of légal services to the poor.JUSTIN JOHNSON, AB'54, JD'62, solicitorfor the Board of Public Education as of October 1 , is the first black solicitor in the historyof Pittsburgh schoois.£ r\ SYLVIA L. BOYD, AB'56, who has re-O ceived her master's in physics plus alaw degree since leaving UC, has been ad-mitted to the bar in Massachusetts and is currently associated with a patent law firm inBoston.E. P. PANAGOPOULOS, AM'56, professor ofhistory at San José ( Calif. ) State Collège, isauthor of New Smyrna, published by the University of Florida Press. Subtitled "an eigh-teenth century Greek odyssey," the book givesan historical account of the first mass migration of Greeks to this country in 1767 and oftheir colonization of a small area of Floridaknown as New Smyrna.FAY ABRAHAMS STENDER, JD'56, Berkeley,Calif. attorney who has done extensive légalwork in connection with the draft and servedas co-counsel at the trial of Black Pantherleader Huey P. Newton, is currently workingas co-counsel on behalf of George Ja-c kson, oneof the three convicts awaiting trial in California on murder charges in the beating of aguard at Soledad Prison.R. JOYCE WHITLEY, AM'56, a partner withWhitley & Whitley, architects and planners inShaker Hts., Ohio, has been elected to a three-year term on the board of governors of theAmerican Institute of Planners, the nationalprofessional society of urban planners. For-nierly a member of Vice Président Humphrey'sTask Force on Ethnie Minorities and UrbanProblems, Miss Whitley is currently on thenational board of directors of the Black Economie Union, and on the board of directors ofthe Cleveland Community Design Center andthe Cleveland Urban Coalition. £ ^\ JIM GOLD, AB'59, classical guitarist,3 / folk singer, and song writer, is on tourwith his "World of the Guitar," a programduring which he explores varied types of guitarplaying, featuring such composers as Bach,Tarrega, Sor, and Villa-Lobos, interspersedwith some Renaissance music, flamencanguitar, folk songs, and stories.ROGER G SEAGER, PhD' 5 9, spoke on changing trends of éducation in his October inaugural address as président of Jamestown Community Collège, N. Y. "We are no longerengaged in the manufacture of certified gentlemen," he stressed, "but rather in nurturing theémergence of a more humanized human."A r\ HASSAN HADDAD, PhD'6o, who isstudying folklore in the Middle Eastduring his year's leave of absence from SaintXavier Collège, Chicago, where he is professorof history, has been selected for listing in the1970 édition of Outstanding Educators ofAmerica.BEATRICE AITKEN YOUNG, AB'6o, MAT' 64,has been appointed executive director of theIllinois Commission on Human Relations, anunsalaried group of citizens appointed by thegovernor to promote equal opportunity and towork for élimination of racial discrimination.A T JOAN TOAST, X' 6 1, having had it as aplayboy bunny, has officially joinedWomen's Lib. When buttonholed by a rovingreporter, Miss Toast cleared it ail up with aterse, unambiguously uttered "no comment."r\ r\ bonnie BONIFACE, X'62, inner-citydweller and proud possessor of a newtwelve-speed osterizer, a Christmas gift, hasmade it to the ultimate in suburban appliancesbracket.STEVE KARPF, AB'62, producer of the recently released movie Adam at 6 a.m., was inChicago during the fail filming a TV movie,Year 1.JOHN WARWICK MONTGOMERY, PhD' 62,professor of church history at Trinity Evan-gelical Divinity School, Deerfield, 111., anddirector of the school's European program atthe University of Strasbourg, Germany, wasinvolved last summer in Holy Land explorations which uncovered a large object, believedto be Noah's ark.RUPERT L. WENZEL, PhD' 62, curator of in-sects at Chicago' s Field Muséum of NaturalHistory since 1950, has been appointed chairman of the department of zoology there.A ^ LAWRENCE G BECKER, AM'63, PhD'65,J assistant professor of philosophy atHollins Collège, Va., has received a Hollins-Ford Foundation grant for work on a book-length manuscript: Justification in Ethics: anEssay against Moral Skepticism.BERNARDINE DOHRN, AB'63, JD' 67, firstwoman to be admitted to a prominent "topten" list (and we're not referring to AM radio,but more like FBI ) , must hâve moved recently,completely forgetting to inform us of her newaddress, since the postman has been returningher mail to us lately marked "undeliverable."We're sure her gratitude to any classmate whocan furnish us with her current mailing addresswould be unbounded.DAVID R. SEGAL, AM'63, PhD' 67, assistantprofessor of sociology at the University ofMichigan, has received the Ruth M. SinclairMémorial Horiors Program Award from theCollège of Literature, Science and the Arts. Dr.Segal and his wife, MADY HECHSLER, AM'67,will be spending six months in Germany nextyear at the University of Bonn.P. T. THOMAS, AM'63, ordained a Catholicpriest in 1964, has been appointed assistantpastor of St. Theresa Church, Briarcliff, N. Y.A native of Kerala, India, where he was raisedas a member of the extremely an ti -RomanSyrian Orthodox Church, Father Thomas at-tributes his conversion to Roman Catholicism,at least in part, to the influence of several ofhis mentors at UC, "particularly the Lutheranson the faculty."A A STEVEN M. SCHILDCROUT, SB' 64, as-rsistant professor of chemistry atYoungstown ( Ohio ) State University, has received a $7,500 petroleum research grant fromthe American Chemical Society.FREDERICK VAUGHAN, AM'64, PhD'67, as-sociate professor of political science at the Uni versity of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, will bedoing research in political philosophy duringthe winter term of 1 97 1 as a visiting fellow ofWolfson Collège, Oxford University.mark WITKIN, JD'64, is one of the threefounder/commentators for "Sports Huddle,"WBZ ( Boston ) Radio's f our-hour Sunday of -fering, called by Newsweek "the most out-rageously innovative radio sports show in thenation." Originated to needle the professionalsand satirize conventional sports programs,"Sports Huddle" regularly features an utterlypreposterous Rumor of the Week, as well as aQuestion of the Week designed for professional trivia collectors (e.g. "who was FlorenceWishmeyer? Answer: valedictorian of BobFeller's high school class in Van Meter,Iowa" ) .IN MEMORIAM: Armin Charles Hoesch,PhD' 64.6k DAVID MAïNLlNE, X'65, free-lance télévision bufï and buffoon, advises us that"The Storefront Lawyers" has taken the lead inthe 1 970-7 1 TV Relevancy Derby by its dialogue, which rests on a solid f oundation of"right ons," "outasites," "far outs," "hanglooses," and "cool its."VALENCIA N. PROCK, PhD'65, professor ofpublic health nursing at the University ofWisconsin and specialist in the care of theaged, has been named dean of the Madisoncampus' school of nursing.66 enrique arias, am' 66, became deanof Chicago Conservatory Collège lastJune.JOAN HILL FEE, AB' 66, champion photographier and tennis player, in order to dévotemore time to the Jefferson Airplane, a récentdiscovery, has sold her horse Whoa, though shestill has Bonnie.NADA fredricks, AM'66, has joined thestaff of Northwest Mental Health Center,Arlington Hts., 111., as a psychiatrie worker.Miss Fredricks had been employed in thecommunity psychiatry program of IllinoisState Psychiatrie Institute, Chicago.BRUCE F. FREED, ab'66, fresh from com-pleting his master's degree in American his tory at Brandeis, has moved to Baltimore withhis wife Karen, a social worker, to begin workas a reporter with The Evening Sun. Mr. Freedhad been stringing for Newsweek, Time, andScientific Research, a science news magazine.f\ FJ JACQUELINE FALK, AM'67, PhD'70,/ gerontologist now teaching at the Collège of Human Biology, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, says that senility is not agênerai problem of the aged but a disease orgroup of diseases that can occur even beforeold âge. From studies with airline pilots scien-tists hâve discovered that chronological âge isa very poor indicator of physical ability. Inher spare time Dr. Falk plays the recorder andthe crum horn, a fifteenth century instrumentwhich sounds like a bagpipe but does not hâvea sack.RON OFFEN, AM'67, critic,poet, editor, andJay Robert Nash, co-author, spent five yearspainstakingly putting together the pièces thatmake up Dillinger: Dead or AliveP, publishedrecently by Henry Regnery. Backed up by animpressive, sometimes Sherlockian, array ofévidence including new interviews with manyof the principals, the authors contend that,contrary to common belief , the saga of JohnDillinger did not corne to an end in a hail ofbullets outside the Biograph Theater on Chi-cago's north side that July day in 1934, thatthe man killed that day could not hâve beenDillinger who, they claim, may well still bealive.JUNE CARTER PERRY, AM'67, has managedto get around quite a bit since picking up herdegree on the Midway. After a teaching stintas a Woodrow Wilson Intern and NationalTeaching Fellow at A & T State University inGreensboro, N. G, she dashed off to Saipan,Mariana Islands ( Micronesia ) , teaching,sec-ondary school and perf orming the lead rôle inThe Fantasticks while her husband directed theOEO program there. Returning to the University of Maryland in the fail of 1 969, she hadtime to teach some history before her hus-band's appointment as director of the PeaceCorps landed her in Georgetown, Guyana( South America ) , where after doing severalvocalist gigs, she will act as a consultant to the38Club EventsUniversity of Guyana's department of history.ARTHUR R. VELASQUEZ, MBA'67, as président of Azteca Corn Products Corp., is headingone of the largest business ventures ever under-taken by Chicago' s Mexican- American community. The firm, which opened in October,will specialize in the production and distribution of corn and flour tortillas and taco shells,and will import canned goods from Mexico fordistribution to the retail, restaurant and insti-tutional markets.SALVADOR JIMENEZ FAJARDO,PhD' 68, is living with his new bride inLondon, Ontario, where he is assistant professor of French at Brescia Collège, University ofWestern Ontario.The opening of a dental office by LEWIS J.HIRSCH, AB'68, in Schaumburg, 111., washeralded by the local paper in a news item en-titled "Cavities, Beware."ARA A. CHERCHIAN, MBA'69, has beenappointed manager of the JosephSchlitz Brewing Company's can plant, whichis under construction in Oak Creek, Pa.KEITH MOON, X'69, saddened at the treatment handed out to some of his longer -lockedf riends by some London pubs, has struck backby opening an establishment of his own,"House of the Rising Moon," which is operat-ing according to a "no hassles— pay what youcan afford" policy. When asked during a récentinterview with a London daily how he couldafford such a generous undertaking, Keith ad-mitted that it was.all on account of his late(and great) Uncle Ernie who "was décentenough to leave me a little something."harry carey, x'70, believes he is thereincarnation of Philip Bosinney, thebrilliant, ill-starred young architect of TheForsyte Saga.JOHN T, PEARCE, PhD'70, having servedwith the Peace Corps in Chile for two years,has been appointed assistant professor ofFrench at Muhlenberg Collège, Allentown, Pa. ALBANY: The home of Mrs. Raymond Harriswas the setting for an afternoon réceptionhonoring prospective and currently enrolledCollège students on December 27. Francis H.Straus, assistant professor of pathology, andLorna P. Straus, assistant professor of anatomy,were the faculty représentatives in attendance.The réception was sponsored by the AlbanyAlumni Schoois Committee, of which Mrs.Harris serves as chairman.ATLANTA: On December 29 Thomas W.Lyman, chairman of the Atlanta SchooisCommittee, hosted a party for prospectivestudents. On hand from the University to greetstudents and answer questions were VirgilBurnett, associate professor of art and directorof the Bergman Gallery, and his wife Anne P.Burnett, chairman of the department ofclassical languages and literatures.BALTIMORE: Mr. and Mrs. Richard L. Mandelentertained prospective students and theirparents on December 30 at a party held intheir home. Herbert L. Kessler, associate professor of art and Collège humanities, attendedfrom the University.BOSTON: Prospective students in the Bostonarea were honored on December 30 at an afternoon réception hosted by Mr. and Mrs. John J.Iffland, parents of currently enrolled Collègestudent Nancy Iffland. Elliot Lilien of theBoston Schoois Committee served as chairmanof the event.CHICAGO: 1960-70 alumni of the Collègeliving in the Chicago area gathered at SecondCity for a cocktail party and a spécial performance of the improvisational theater's latestmaterial on December 9. Serving on the committee were Linda Thoren, Doug and AnneStudley Petersen, Barry and Mary Ellen GistMurtaugh, Dan and Susan Watkins Parker,and Phil and Aiji Zaigo Blumerifield.CLEVELAND: On December 23 the home ofMr. and Mrs. David B. Goshien was the scèneof a holiday réception for prospective studentsfrom the Cleveland area. James W. Vice, deanof freshmen, attended from the University. DENVER: Prospective students were invited toa réception on December 28 at the home ofDr. and Mrs. Melvin M. Newman. In additionto alumni and vacationing undergraduatesMary L. Fisch, assistant dean of the Collège,was on hand to greet the students. James H.Thompson is chairman of the Denver SchooisCommittee.Aristide Zolberg (PhD' 61 ) , chairman ofthe department of political science, spoke toDenver area alumni on "The Changing Cultureof Politics in America." The program, held onJanuary 28, was followed by a réception. JoyceKligerman Newman is Denver club président.DETROIT: A réception for prospective studentswas held at the home of Schoois Committeechairmen Mr. and Mrs. David R. Segal onDecember 29. Attending from the Universitywas Paul J. Sally, Jr., associate professor ofmathematics.LOS ANGELES: Mrs. Julian D. Weiss washostess and chairman of a" réception for LosAngeles area prospective students on December 29. Members of the Los Angeles SchooisCommittee and undergraduates home for theholidays were on hand to greet the students.Charles D. O'Connell, dean of students, attended from the University.On January 2 1 Willie Davis ( MBA' 68 ) ,former défensive standout for the Grèen BayPackers, spoke to Los Angeles alumni about themaking of a world championship footballteam. Bill McColl (MD'5 5 ) , former end forthe Chicago Bears, introduced the speaker. Theprogram was arranged by Los Angeles clubprésident Alexander H. Pope.LOUISVILLE: An evening réception was heldfor Louisville ( Ky. ) prospective students onDecember 29 at the home of Mrs. William K.Ewing who served as hostess and chairman ofthe event. The University représentative wasKenneth J. Northcott, chairman of the department of Germanie languages and literatures.MIAMI: Dr. and Mrs. Elliott C. Cohen, parentsof currently enrolled Collège student KyleCohen, were hosts for a holiday réception onDecember 30 to honof prospective students inMiami. Joining alumni and vacationing undergraduates were Virgil Burnett, associate professor of art and director of the BergmanGallery, and Anne P. Burnett, chairman of thedepartment of classical languages and literatures. Dr. Francis Haas is chairman of theMiami Schoois Committee.MILWAUKEE : Prospective students were enter-tained at an evening réception on December28 hosted by Mr. and Mrs. Edwin P. Wiley attheir home. Roger W. Weiss, associate mastersocial sciences collegiate division, was theUniversity faculty représentative.MINNEAPOLIS/ST. PAUL: Schoois Committeechairman Dr. Kenath Sponsel hosted a réception for prospective students in his home onDecember 29. Joining alumni and undergraduates to represent the University was Roger W.Weiss, associate master social sciences collegiate division.NEW YORK: On December 14 Jeremy R.Azrael, professor of political science, spoke toalumni on the topic "After the Thaw: Freedomand Coercion in the U.S.S.R." A. David Silveris président of the New York club.David M. Bevington, professor, departmentof English and the Collège, joined alumni andvacationing undergraduates to greet prospective students at a réception on December 29 atthe Lambs Club. Edward L. Anderson, Jr.,chairman of the New York Schoois Committee, served as host and chairman of the event.On January 2 5 New York alumni gatheredat the Lambs Club for a wine tasting party. Theevent raised funds for the New York SchooisCommittee.NORTHERN NEW JERSEY: E. Everett Kline, Jr.served as chairman of a réception for prospective students in northern New Jersey held onDecember 29 at the Hôtel Suburban in Sum-mit. Faculty représentative from the Universitywas J. David Greenstone, associate professorof political science.OMAHA: A holiday réception for prospective students was sponsored by the Omaha SchooisCommittee on December 28 at the BlackstoneHôtel. Butler Shaffer served as chairman andhost. Dean of Students Charles D. O'Connelljoined alumni and current undergraduates togreet the students.PHILADELPHIA: The home of Max Schiff, Jr.was the setting for an evening réception hon-oring prospective students in the Philadelphiaarea. James C. Bruce, associate professor ofGermanie languages and literatures, repre-sented the University.PHOENIX: Dr. and Mrs. John Kruglick hosteda réception for Phoenix area prospective students in their home on December 26. JoiningSchoois Committee members to greet the students were undergraduates home for vacation.Mrs. Kruglick is président of the PhoenixAlumni Club.PITTSBURGH: The annual Christmas tea forprospective students was held on December 30from 2 : 00 until 4 : 00 p.m. at the Collège Club.As in years past Mrs. Richard E. Wendt, Jr.graciously presided over the event with theassistance of Albert W. Demmler, Jr., M.Thomas Murray, Mr. and Mrs. John L. Pazour,Mrs. John L. Pottenger, Mrs. Allen I. Schwartz,and Mrs. Michael L. Weissfield. The University représentative was Kenneth J. Northcott,professor and chairman of the department ofGermanie languages and literatures.PORTLAND : A holiday réception for prospective students in the Portland ( Ore. ) area washeld at the home of Mrs. David E. Lofgren onDecember 28.ROCHESTER: A réception for Rochester (N.Y. ) area prospective students was given onDecember 28 by the Rochester Schoois Committee at the home of Mrs. P. F. Emens. Mrs.Norman Kaplan is chairman of the committee.Attending from the University were Francis H.Straus, assistant professor of pathology, andLorna P. Straus, assistant professor of anatomy.SAN FRANCISCO: The home of Mr. and Mrs. Alan S. Maremont was the scène of a holidayréception for prospective students in the SanFrancisco area on December 28. Roger H.Hildebrand, dean of the Collège, joinedAlumni Schoois Committee members andvacationing undergraduates to greet thestudents.On January 1 5 Bay area alumni had theopportunity to see a visiting exhibit of theworks of van Gogh in a private showing at theDeYoung Mémorial Muséum. The programwas arranged by the club program committeechaired by Dr. Robert B. Gordon.WASHINGTON, D. G: On November 22, 1960-70 alumni of the Collège gathered at the homeof Laura Godofsky Horowitz to renew ac-quaintance and to hear Marvin Zonis, assistantprofessor of political science, talk on the Collège. Alan Bloom, Benjamin and Jane Rosenberg Siegel, Pamela Procuniar Goldberg, andClaudia Lipschultz also served on the committee for the event.Prospective students in the Washington, D.G area were invited to a holiday réception atthe National Press Club on December 29.Herbert L. Kessler, associate professor of art,was the University faculty représentative inattendance. Serving as host was WashingtonAlumni Club président Charles Ephraim.On January 26 alumni heard a talk byJames H. Lorie, professor of business administration, on "Nixon's Economie Policies" followed by a discussion on the topic with AbnerJ. Mikva ( JD'5 1") , congressman from theSecond District, Illinois. Ralph J. Apton( AB' 5 o, MBA' 54) served as moderator.40For University of Chicago Alumni Association Members& their IMMEDIATE families(complète per person double occupancy plus 10% tax and services, via Overseas National Airways)DEPARTXJRE DATE: APRIL 10, 1971; DEPARTTJRE POINT: CHICAGOAS YOU LIKE IT : no regimentation or organized activities for the traveler who pref ers theadventure of loning it. But a hospitality desk and a Carnival staff are at your service to arrangeeverything as you like it, including: BS^ Round trip jet flights with food and beverages servedaloft 113^ Deluxe accommodations at the Royal Lancaster, Royal Garden Hôtel, GrosvenorHouse or comparable hôtel B^Full American breakfasts m^ Gourmet dinners nightly atyour sélection of some of London' s finest restaurants S®^ Hôtel taxes and service chargesFree sightseeing tour of London.PARIS OPTION: One day side trip to the City of Lights $59 additionalRESERVE NOW!To: The University of Chicago Alumni Association; 5733 University Avenue; Chicago, Illinois 60637; Téléphone (312) 753-2175Gentlemen: Enciosed please find $ as deposit ( ), as payment in full ( ), for _number of persons.MAKE CHECK OR MONEY ORDER PAYABLE TO: LONDON CARNIVAL. $389 complète per person double occupancy plus 10%tax and services. $100 minimum deposit per person. If more than one couple, attach separate list with complète information as below.FULL NAME (please print) STREET _PHONE (area code ) CITY STATE ZIP DEPARTURE DATE DEPARTURE CITY ( ) Paris option( ) Single occupancy (if individual, and not a single, name of person sharing room) . Return this réservation immediately to insure space. Réservations limited. Rates based on double occupancy. Single rates $50 additional. Children under 12 sharing room with adults $25 less. AITS reserves the right whenever necessary to substitute comparablehôtel accommodations and aircraft equipment.JÇettersPollutionTO THE EDITOR: We at Commonwealth Edison were very disappointed with the misin-formation in Dennis F. Miller's article "Pollution: Possibly a Solution" in the May/Juneissue of the Magazine. We were also disturbedby the assumptions he makes regarding ourattitudes. As far as we know, Mr. Miller didnot talk to anyone from Edison in the préparation of his material, yet he makes déclarativestatements as though he were an authority onEdison's policies on crucial environmentalissues. We know of no other way to acquaintreaders of the Magazine with the f acts than toask you to print this point-by-point reply inyour "Letters" column.i. "The pollution emitted from the conven-tional plants increased over the years untilpressure from groups at the University andother interested citizens forced a change in thispolicy."This statement is incorrect. The Companyannounced its coal-burning réduction programin January, 1967, long before the formationof most of the pollution activist groups. In fact,from 1966 through 1969, Edison burned lesscoal ( and emitted less pollution ) each year inits Chicago stations than in the preceding year.It is also worth noting that Edison decided af ull décade ago that it would not order anymore coal-fired units for stations in the metro-politan Chicago area.2. "Heralded and accompanied by manyradio and télévision commereials, Commonwealth Edison has in récent years been at-tempting certain piecemeal open-ended meas-ures against pollution."This is also inaccurate. For example, Edison's first radio announcements cpncerningpollution were broadcast on one of Chicago'sFM stations late in December, 1969, just fivemonths before the date of Mr. Miller's article.The first télévision broadcast came early in1 970. The first newspaper advertisement ap-peared in July, 1969. Thèse advertisementsresponded to paid advertising critical of theCompany, by oudining our continuous effortsto make our facilities compatible with theirsurroundings. 3. "[Edison] will construct cooling towers,if forced to, but by then it may be too late forthe lake [Michigan] ; the environment may notbe able to spring back."The environmental damage created by cooling towers could be more serious than that ofthe proposed once-through System. While cooling towers may be a goôd and économie solution for generating units designed for themand located in a sparsely settled area wherethorough meteorological research demon-strates they will not adversely affect the coun-tryside, this is not the situation at Zion. Zionwas designed for once-through cooling; it isclose to a congested area and an airport; it isnear one of the best recreational sites in north-ern Illinois; and they meteorological conditionsare far from idéal. And the application of thevery Systems analysis Mr. Miller recommendsshows very clearly that cooling towers wouldincrease the heat discharged to the environment. Several distinguished biological scien-tists who were consulted are of the opinionthat any adverse e&ects of once-through cooling which might occur would be localized andréversible.Thèse are but a few of the inaccuracies con-tained in the article. Frankly, we feel that in-temperate writing does a grave disservice tothe objectivity William Rainey Harper en-visioned for the University.G. A. TRAVERSExecutive AssistantCommonwealth Edison CompanyChicago, IllinoisTO THE EDITOR : The article by Dennis F.Miller entitled "Pollution: Possibly a Solution" is far below the usual standards of thepublication. Although one may dismiss thearticle as an exercise of a graduate student whohas not done his homework, the subjéct matteris of sufiieient importance to merit the registra-tion of a protest 1. Formai programs dealing with pollutionproblems hâve been in existence at a numberof universities for some years. Most of themhâve a considerably broader base in terms ofthe number of and types of disciplines in volved than does the one described hère.2. The concept of "closed System" is not newand has been utilized for some time where it isusually referred to as "recycle."3. It is deceptive to indict fédéral inactionwithout acknowledging that the water management programs for Muskegon, Michiganare a part of a $2 million dollar grant fromFWQA: $1,083,750 for research and démonstration and $981,650 for construction oftreatment facility. The seven-year project isexpected to cost $30 million. Cursory reviewof the Muskegon project suggests that it ismuch less innovative than other similarly supportée! projects.4. 1 do not hâve firsthand knowledge of theproblems of power génération in the Chicagoarea, nor of Commonwealth Edison Companyin particular. However, in view of various reports including that generated by the NationalAcademy of Sciences' National Academy ofEngineering National Research Council, indi-cating that low sulfur coal is in short supply,one can but challenge the implication that Illinois has sufiieient low sulfur content coal "tomeet their requirements now and in thefuture."FRANCES L. ESTES, SM'48 (PhD)Director, Environmental ChemistryGulf South Research InstituteBâton Rouge, LouisianaMR. MILLER REPLIES: It gives me great plea-sure to answer the allégations laid against meby my critical correspondents. As for my homework, lessons, etc., it should be noted that in -the préparation of my article, I consulted twonationally known authorities on the topics ofwater and air pollution hère at the Universityof Chicago : R. Stephen Berry and John R.Sheaiïer.I am rather amazed, to say the least, thatCommonwealth Edison has the courage to findsuch fault with my rather brief article, sinceCon Ed has done more in the last f orty yearsthan any other industry in the Chicago area topollute the air we breathe with deadly sulphurdioxide and equally deadly hydrocarbons. And,although some ôf its obsolète plants hâve been42shut down and one other has been converted touse oil instead of coal, its output of sulphurdioxide still exceeds 79,000 tons per yearf( 1 969 ) from the Crawford plant, 68,300 tonsper year ( 1 969 ) from the Fisk plant, and142,000 tons per year ( 1 969 ) from the StateLine plant. Thèse are the three power operat-ing stations closest to the University of Chicago. In 1968 Con Ed plants emitted 65.6 percent of ail sulphur dioxide in the Chicago area,i.e., more than 370,000 tons per year, according to "Chicago Air Pollution Systems Model,"First Quart erly Progrès s Report, ArgonneLaboratory, February, 1968. It should be notedalso that the évidence is very compelling thatthis sulphur dioxide is a major component inthe lethal factor during air pollution épisodes,such as that of November, 1969, when, according to the U. S. Public Health Service,about 100 excess deaths occurred as a resuit ofa five-day inversion and its build-up of toxicpollutants.It really is amusing that Mr. Travers wantseveryone to believe that Con Ed got to work onreducing pollution in 1966 and "burned lesscoal ( and emitted less pollution ) each year inits Chicago stations." Perhaps we are to believethat the demand for power has decreased;therefore, Con Ed has to burn less coal? According to Con Ed, power demand over thesame period increased four and five times.From where did the necessary power corne?While saying Con Ed is burning less coal andcreating less pollution makes good publicrelations, his statement that the plants wereburning less coal appears to stem from the factthat they were able to burn low-cost gas in thesummer, when it is available.As for point number 2, when I said in myarticle that Commonwealth Edison has "inrécent years been atterhpting certain piecemealopen-ended measures^gainst pollution," Ihâve to admit I once again was giving Con Edthe benefit of the doubt. I said "récent years."As Mr. Travers notes, Con Ed's "first radioannouncements concerning pollution werebroadcast on one of Chicago's FM stations latein December, 1969, just five months before thedate of Mr. Miller's article." Thus, Con Ed'santipollution public relations effort began only "five months" before my article. I am sorryabout that error. I should hâve been more précise in checking my notes and said "months"instead of "years."I would suggest that my other critic, Dr.Estes, read geolôgical reports when discussingthe availability of coal, instead of engineeringreports. It Was the excellent engineering advice,which was based on short-term solutions andcost-benefit analysis, that got us to the présentsad state of affairs in our environment. AsRaymond F. Dasmann notes in his "An Environment Fit for People," even today the U. S.Army Corps of Engineers considers wild riversto be of no value, when they are making cost-benefit analyses of an area as a possible site fora canal, dam, etc.Also, Dr. Estes, it is very difficult for me tounderstand how one could take such a positionas you hâve in regard to Con Ed if you ad-mittedly "do not hâve firsthand knowledge ofthe problem of power génération in the Chicago area, nor of Commonwealth Edison Company." There is a major air pollution problemin Chicago, Dr. Estes, and Con Ed contributesmuch more, in fact exceedingly more, than itsfair share, in this case.As to another point, I agrée with you thatthe term "closed System" is not new, and it is< referred to as "recycle" by many people. In façt,Dr. SheafFer alone has been talking about thisvery concept for more than fifteen years. Othershâve done work in the field, but Sheaiïer is oneof the first to conceive of it, and to help imple-ment it, on the scale as is being done in Muskegon, Michigan.The comment "it is deceptive to indict fédéral inaction" is, quite frankly, rather ridicu-lous. For example, a report of the GAO,November, 1969, states that because of lowlevels of funding, typical states will requirenow thirty years to fully implement their antipollution efforts and wastewater treatmentlevels, instead of the five years originally established for the program, which was to end in1972. Funding authorization levels may hâvebeen eut back at least seventy-five per cent forthe government's much heralded war on pollution. The Muskegon project only wentthrough because of enlightened political leadership. Dr. Sheafïer has said that it had tobe fought ail the way to the line of final ap-proval. It may turn out to hâve been one of thebigger and bloodier behind-the-scenes battlesin récent times. Besides being the largestfunded project in the history of the FédéralWater Quality Administration, it is one of thêfew new approaches that has shown promiseand which may save us yet in spite of someengineers and some "environmental chemists."In regard to Mr. Travers' point 3, 1 wouldlike to quote Waste Management and Control,a report of the Committee on Pollution, National Academy of Sciences' National ResearchCouncil, a report to the Fédéral Council forScience and Technology, 1966. The reportstates ( "Heat from Power and IndustrialPlants," page 13) "since the amount of dis-solved oxygen that water can contain decreaseswith increasing water température, the introduction of heat into a stream has an effectéquivalent to that of introducing oxygen con-suming waste. Conséquences for fish andaquatic life may be serious. Projections to theyear 2000 indicate a fivefold to tenfold growthin power capacity, with already vast quantitiesof heated water being returned to streams."Today the Great Lakes are on the point ofecological death. I wonder why Con Ed wantsto do one more thing that can only dégrade thelake water. If ail the power plants are built onLake Michigan that are supposed to be built upto the year 2000, some ecologists hâve esti-mated that there will be a considérable increasein the température of the lake, which meansthat lake life as we know it now will disappear.Fish, such as trout, for example, can live in awide range but will only reproduce in a narrowrange of heated water. In some parts of thelake, only the simplest forms of sludge wormsare alive. More heat may even kill them and nolife will exist in the lake at ail. Lake Erie nowhas more than 2,500 square miles of absolutelydead water, i.e., there is no oxygen in the water,consequently no life, plant or animal. Withail the chemicals in the lake, e.g., more thanseveral tons a month of oil are dumped intoLake Michigan, a little heat may start a chemical fermentation, which should really causeproblems. With a little imagination, Con Ed43could pipe the hot water to some city nearbyand sell it for heat. If it is not hot enough, thenthey could use the excess power at night toheat it.In conclusion, the truth has always foundvictims and it usually hurts, which may not bea prof ound truth but it seems to fit the case inpoint. If Con Ed f eels that its public image hasbeen "tarnished" by my brief article, ï suggestthat it start doing more research and advertis-ing less. Chicago is one of the most poilutedcities in the nation and perhaps the world.Spécial PleadingsTO THE EDITOR: I am sorry to tell you that Ifind The University of Chicago Magazine tohâve degenerated into an organ of spécialpleadings, written not to inf orm, but to persuade. , . . To illustrate: "The Miseducation ofWhite Children" [May/June 1970]. By anyobjective criterion, the "racial crisis" is a whiteand a black problem, and to single out eitherside for the entire blâme is simplistic, preju-diced nonsense.I, for one, am extremely bored with thisdreary récital of the mea culpa psychosis whichapparently has seized the spokesmen for aca-demia; they consider it fashionable to endlesslydenounce the middle-class white man, andblâme him for everything from air pollutionto tribal wars in Africa. . . .I was raised and brought to puberty in aplace and time when religious bigotry hadpeople by the throat. Otherwise sane citi2enswould denounce a man for his religious views,and this was the principal impetus which tookme to Chicago in the Pleistocene times of1942. There, I thought, reason held the citadel,not passion, name-calling, and cultism.Religion, happily, has virtually disappearedas a force to scramble men's wits, and bringthem shouting and clawing at one another. Butinto this vacuum has corne another hallucination, every bit as venomous and f oolish as theecclesiastic nonsense I endured as a kid. Thisis, of course, the current Libéral Ethic: downwith white men, down with the middle classand its values. It is just as bad, I think, to hâvea university controlled by political zealots as one run by Jesuits incessantly preachingagainst Darwin, and demanding Friday fish inthe Commons.It saddens and angers me to find a gang ofdevil hunters and demonologists running theMagazine.ROBERT W. BLAIR, X'43 (MD)Mesa, ArizonaTO THE EDITOR: "Call Back Yesterday"(July/October 1970) expressed some viewsthat appear to be endémie on campuses now-adays. . . . [For instance] why doesn't anybodyever stress the danger inhérent in Progress— inparticular, scientific Progress?Alfred Nobel yearned once for a weapon soterrible it would make war impossible. We'vegot his wish— and we know now it's a sighteasier to hand our species the means to commitsuicide than to find out how to live with thatmeans af terward.We know the vast majority of scientific andtechnological advances mean power— powerthat demands control if not to be used for ill.And we know that problems of control areextremely difficult, precarious in solution, anddeceptive in practice. So we break our neckadvancing Science and Technology faster thanever.Now add what we ail know about Progress.That despite any disarmament, when men wantweapons they work out how to make them (cf.the Molotov cocktail ) , That nearly any of thepowers of Science are capable of being turnedto destruction— and that, by and large, powersof protection will not keep up with powers ofdestruction. That the powers of Science willnot only multiply in number, but in destructivepotential and in universal availability.Do we want to keep riding that tiger, fromwhat we know of where he's going?I'm not an anti -Science crank. My field isbiochemistry ând medicine; I thoroughly en joynew work in those fields. My life would be farduller if Science stopped advancing. But îthink it should— until we find out how tohandle the problems it's bringing us.ALFREDB.MASON,SB'38 (MD)Brooklyn, New York Infinité Mercy or Justice?TO THE EDITOR: Most of the time, I veryfrankly en joy reading the Magazine. Greatnumbers of the articles are excellent whetheror not I go along. Then it's ail spoiled at theend.In the July/October issue ["Letters"], JackCatlin, AB'65, lobbed you a small curve. Youresponded with a machete. Can a new ideareally be that troublesome?JUDITH GREENBERG, AB'47New York, New YorkTO THE EDITOR: Your reply to Jack Catlin,AB*Ô5, w^s, I think, a classic.BILL KILKENNYKnox CollègeGalesburg, IllinoisPicture CréditsThe University of Chicago LibrarySpécial Collections: coverDanMorrill: 16-17,22-23,26-27,45Lynn Martin: art direction and design44,teO¦>]oQON^»>3coOnQOOO