THEUNIVERSITYÔF CHICAGO"MAGAZINE'THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINECabinet Meeting in ChicagoA Symposium on the University and Society 2Four Searches for God in ManSamuel J. Beck 8Diagnoses of Student ProtestJoseph J. Schwab 14Revolt at JusticeGary J. Greenberg 2228 Quadrangle News3 2 Chicago Books and Authors34 Profile: Noël B. Gerson36 AlumniNews44 PeopleVolume lxii Number 5March/April 1970The University of Chicago Magazine,founded in 1907, is publishedbimonthly for alumni and thef aculty of The Universityof Chicago. Letters and editorialcontributions are welcomed.The University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60.637(312) 643-0800, ext. 4291John S. Coulson, '36PrésidentArthur R. NayerDirector of Alumni AffairsGabriella AzraelAssociate Editor Régional Offices1542 Riverside Drive, Suite FGlendale, California 91 201(213) 242-828839 West 55 StreetNew York, New York 100 19(212) 765-5480350 Green Street, Apt. 2San Francisco, California 94133(415) 781-23321629 K Street, N.W., Suite 500Washington, D.C. 20006(202) 296-81002nd class postage paid at Chicago,111.; additional entry at Madison,Wisc. © 1970, The University ofChicago. Published in July/August,September/October, November/December, January/February,March/April, and May/June.Cover: Formai portrait of the outgoïn'g président of the Alumni Association, FayHorton Sawyier, '44, PhD'64, and the incoming président, John S. Coulson, '36.CABINETMEETING TSCHICAGOthree thirty second definitions ofEducation by the three panelists:"Education is the process of coping ivith the every instance oflife in such a ivay that y ou touch the universal and can copewith future instances more effectively." Herbert thelanTo suffer the "oppressive freedom" of the University and utofind oneself in a neiv vûorldP roger hildebrandEducation is to challenge conventional wisdoms, to dispelmythologie s. kenneth prewittAN AGENÇATsaturday, february 288:00 a.m. Breakfast and business meeting; Vote on constitu-tional amendments; Election of officers9:00 a.m. Farewell address by outgoing Alumni AssociationPrésident Fay Horton Sawyier, '44, phD '6410:00 a.m. Panel Discussion, "The University and Society"with Dean of the Collège Roger Hildebrand; Kenneth Prewitt, Associate Prof essor of Political Science; and Herbert A.Thelan, Professor of Education12:00 noon Sherry and luncheon1:30 p.m. uThe University and the Community." Speaker,Walter Walker, Vice Président for Planning of the University2:30-5:00 p.m. Informai discussion groups meet to discuss thepanel topic6:30-8:30 p.m. Cocktails and dinner 8:30 p.m. Welcome by Edward H. Levi, l-re:>\^nt 0f tneUniversity8:45 p.m. "A Dream Play on Othello" multi-media adaptationof the Bard's play presented in Mandel Hallsunday, march i10:00 a.m. Summary session; spokesmen from the six discussion groups summarize conclusions12:00 noon Sherry and luncheon1 :oo p.m. Address by new Alumni Association Président, JohnS. Coulson3:00 p.m. Campus tourA REPORTThe Center for Continuing Education, fittingly, was thelocus, and the lionesque entry of March was the time. Theannual National Cabinet Meeting, February 28 to March 1,1970, was an interesting and strenuous weekend.There were some 100 Cabinet members in attendance, somethirty of them accompanied by their wives. They came fromtwenty-three states, and Washington, D.C. They were notan exclusively "middle-aged" "waspish" and "nostalgie"group as they were later accused of being. They were young(classes of the 1960's, many of them) as well as middle-aged.They were black as well as white. They were nowhere nearso interested in nostalgia as in the nitty gritty.The Saturday morning business session moved smoothlythrough various constitutional changes and élection of officersto the farewell address by the outgoing président of theAlumni Association, Fay Horton Sawyier. "Outgoing président" is regrettably a pun, in Mrs. Sawyier's case. During herthree years as Alumni Association président, Fay Sawyier hasgone out of her way to recast the Alumni Association andthe Cabinet in her own, more radical, image. She is partlyresponsible for the fact that the Cabinet's constituency basehas been expanded so that it corresponds to the above description, cross-generational, cross racial, etc. Looking young andundergraduate herself (though a phD, professor of philosophy,mother of four, a grandmother) Mrs. Sawyier told the meeting that she felt the organization had had and would continue2to hâve "a curiously interesting and useful job," that of bring-ing to the University an outside point of view, a point ofview, not "establishment," not "student," not "old fogey," not"radical" but ail of them, a truly independent point ôf view.While admitting that she had at times been discouraged bythe amount of attention paid to the Association's point ofview, she close d on a note of confidence that the Universitywould indeed continue to pay heed to the Association since,"an admittedly crass note on which to end," it had paid forthe weekend about to begin.While approaching the question "the University and Society" from radically differing points of view, the three panel-ists arrived at conclusions, much distilled, that were remark-ably similar: that the university 's duty was to the individual,who might or might not take social action within his society.For varying reasons, they ail found the concept of the University as "social engineer" a répugnant one.The lively discussion from the floor that ensued challengedail three men on this conclusion. A number of young alumniand students (a small group of stu dents currently in theCollège had been invited to participate in the weekend) ques-tioned the assumed "neutrality" of the University and raisedquestions about spécifie issues involving the University andthe Community (a subject about which they were to hear agreat deal more that afternoon): was it true that the University had practiced discriminatory racial policies in its housingand urban renewal; did not the University hâve the duty toofficially sanction the Moratorium; what was the Universitygoing to do about air pollution; was it going to transfer its33,000 shares of stock in Commonwealth Edison?The younger Cabinet members carried (or rather threw)the discussion bail until a mention was made of the WalgreenCase (see "Chicago Books and Authors" department) whichbrought the classes of the 1930's vociferously to their feet.The session closed with an éloquent statement by a self styled"reactionary" who praised the Collège as a place that could,if any place could, produce the "ten good men" to save oursociety.The informai discussion groups that met ail Saturday afternoon became so embroiled in the various issues raised by thepanel that the Association staff members had, mirabile dictu,virtually to drag the Cabinet members out of their discussionrooms for a coffee break.On bleak, black Sundây morning discussion leaders fromthe six discussion groups reported on the conclusions they had reached about "the University and Society." Again theyseemed to be in substantial agreement on three points: (a)the enormity of the subject had been, paradoxically, constrict-ing (b) that, on balance, they felt that the University shouldnot try to function as a corporate social engineer, that itshould focus instead on the individual but back him in hissingular efforts for society and (c) ail six lamented the factthat there had been so few students présent. Ail agreed thatthis would hâve been a good occasion for an intense but coolconfrontation with student protest and dissent.The summary session spun sharply away from agreement,however, when a Cabinet member from New York rose tochallenge the legitimacy of such a meeting having taken placeat ail. Calling the group "middle-aged" and "nostalgie," hesuggested that the group had no business addressing them-selves to such an enormous topic and the University had nobusiness paying for them to do so.The lawyer's somewhat cynical viewpoint was roundly re-jected, though he did not stay to hear this happen. The groupagreed again that the Alumni Association has an importantfunction to fill: as a lobby, perhaps, for the private universitywhich is indeed in dire financial straits, and that everythingthe alumni can do to inform themselves of what is going onat the University of Chicago, of what the prof essors are think-ing, of what the students are thinking is important in termsless of financial than moral support.It was to this goal that John S. Coulson pledged himselfthat afternoon and while the group agreed (again) that whileMrs. Sawyier's would be a "hard act to follow" they ailwished him luck.A PROFILEThe new président of the Alumni Association, John S. Coulson, might be called a quintessential University of Chicagoman. He is an alumnus, likewise his father, his father-in-law,his brother, and his brother-in-law. His wife is an alumna,likewise, his mother-in-law, sister-in-law, and two of hisdaughters. In the last ten years he has served on the Communications Dinner Committee, the Parents Committee ofthe Campaign for Chicago, the Alumni Fund Marketing Committee, the Citizens Board and the Cabinet. A man who mightseem to hâve eaten, lived and breathed nothing but the Uni-3of the - Association in a traditional way, helping to recruitstudents and make friends for the University, and in a not sotraditional way. He feels the Association should serve as anindependent observer, a loyal opposition perhaps, for theUniversity and that it should serve as an independent link tothe student body. He has met many students through his fourdaughters (who hâve led him, among other things, into acondition of "flaming feminism") and he has found them"attractive, reasonable, understanding." He hopes to continue,maintain, and expand those contacts with the student body asAssociation président. In short, he says, "I think it will befun."versity of Chicago ail of his life. Yet this is hardly the case.Coulson grew up in South Shore and attended UniversityHigh, uneventfully for the most part, except for one harrow-ing moment when he was almost kicked out. His father, anardent Christian Scientist, had not allowed him to be vac-cinated and the school viewed him as a walking small pox."Srnall and round I was," he says with a self deprecatinglaugh, "and not a terribly serious student." That may or maynot hâve been the case, for Coulson was selected for a smallhonors class in the Great Books with Hutchins and Adler.He was "terrorized" but enjoyed it.In the Collège, Coulson was an enthusiastic if highly un-likely member of a sports fraternity, an enthusiastic and likelyparticipant in Blackfriars. He studied English with ThorntonWilder and économies with Paul Douglas. Those "were greatclassroom expériences," he says, but when he graduated in1936, he ieft the University pretty thoroughly behind him forthe next twenty-five years.After a brief, unfelicitous association with a slot machinecompany, Coulson went ofT to Harvard Business School andgot his masters degree. In 1941, despite having taken theOxford Pledge (never to go to war) while in collège, he went,of course, to war, retiring as a lieutenant commander in theNavy.In 1950 Coulson joined the Léo Burnett Company, theadvertising agency, as a research supervisor and today he isits vice président in charge of research. As an expert inmarketing, he has served as président of the Chicago chapterof the American Marketing Association, is a member of theAmerican Association of Public Opinion Research, and is cur-rently a lecturer in marketing at Northwestern University.Fie has lived for many years in Oak Park with his wife andfour daughters.But to get back to the University of Chicago. It was in thesixties, when his daughters, without any arm twisting fromhim, one by one decided to corne to the University, that hebecame involved again in ail his fund raising and alumniactivities. First there was Jane, who graduated in 1968, thenNancy who also graduated in 1968 and is now a graduatestudent in history. Ann came next, and so on. Now Coulsonis very much a part of the University scène, is even an experton the best places for Sunday brunch.Like the mountain climber who climbed Everest "becauseit was there," Coulson took the presidency of the AlumniAssociation "because I was asked." He sees his rôle and that A HISTORYIn an early constitution of the Alumni Association, adoptedin 1900, the mandate of the organization was "to advance theinterests, influence, and efïiciency of the University of Chicago, to promote acquaintance among the graduâtes, and tostrengthen the connection between the alumni and their Aima Mater."Over a half century later, the goals remain intact. Theéxpanding alumni body, now in its fourth génération, hasgrown to more than 70,000 living members.In response to such growth, the ruling executive body ofthe Association has grown from a dozen members, ail livingin the Chicago area, to a national Cabinet numbering 148members. An Executive Committee, formed by the président,three yice-presidents and from five to seven directors, con-ducts the business of the Association between the annualmeetings of the entire Cabinet body in Chicago.It was a study committee convened in the early 1960's thatredrafted the constitution, calling for the élection, ratherthan appointment, of members to the Cabinet and that it beexpanded to its présent size and character as a représentativenational body pf almost 150 members. The constitution pro-vided for annual meetings of the Alumni Cabinet to be heldeach winter quarter.During the three years in which this rapid change in Cabinet structure took place, the Alumni Fund, once a part ofthe Association's duties, was removed to become part of theUniversity's other fund raising activities. The rôle of theAssociation then focused more sharply upon alumni involve-4ment in its more intangible rôle as a proselytizer of theChicago educational tradition. Through its Cabinet, theAlumni Association hopes to promote awareness throughoutAmerica of the benefits of private éducation and the Univer-sity's stature as a leading American educational institution.The new structure of the Cabinet is directed at reachingthe far-flung alumni graduating from the Collège as well asthe graduate and professional schools. Today, slightly morethan thirty-five per cent of the University of Chicago graduâtes réside in Illinois. The remainder live in almost everymetropolitan and rural area of America: 3,600 in New York,3,000 in Los Angeles, 2,100 in San Francisco, 860 in Boston,250 in Atlanta, 230 in Phoenix, and even 105 in Puerto Rico.About three per cent of its alumni are living abroad.The Cabinet fepresents the great géographie and professional diversity of its alumni, and it is they who hâve donethe most to support local club activities, schools committeework, national and régional alumni awards programs.The Cabinet elects, by ballot to ail of the alumni body, one-third of its members each year for three-year tefms. Howdoes it find nominees? Through its former and current Cabinet members and any interested alumnus who is willing totake the time to propose a candidate. A letter of nominationto the director of the Association giving the name and classof the alumnus or alumna is sufficient.AN ADDRESS"The University and the Community" by Walter Walker,Vice Président for Planning, The University of ChicagoThere are two surrounding communities to which the University of Chicago relates. The Hyde Park-Kenwood Community is an almost unique phenomenon on our nation'surban scène. It is an area of marked contrast, an area ofalmost endless variety: black people, white people, orientalpeople, as well as the highly educated, and those with noformai higher éducation. Hyde Park and Kenwood Streetsare traveled by the young and the old, the rich and the poor,by académies and businessmen, and by transients and peoplewho regard themselves as permanent résidents. The area hasmany characteristics of a company town. The présence of theUniversity of Chicago dominâtes much of the thinking and action that are characteristic of the community. I believethat it is fair to say that the community would not exist withits présent character if the University of 'Chicago was notlocated within its borders. Hyde Park is a politically independent community that prides itself on the level of activity,both political and social, that is generated by its inhabitants.The community is libéral in its persuasion, and at the sametime it is apprehensive about the financial and personal in-vestment that its members hâve made in the urban environ-ment. Its résidents are ambivalent about their community'srelationship to the University. There is an aspiration forindependence from the influence of the University that ac-tively competes with an often articulated demand that theUniversity of Chicago take an active part in the affairs ofthe community. For a number of years there has been aconfidence generated among the résidents of Hyde Park-Kenwood that the University would protect their interests.This faith is constantly tested. However, the relationship ofthe University to the Hyde Park-Kenwood Community hasbeen treated in a number of books and articles, and I won'tburden you further with my analysis of the past.What is more important to me, because of the innovativenature of the involvement, is the University of Chicago'srelationship to the Woodlawn Community. Woodlawn is ablack community with many of the characteristics that aresymptomatic of a combination of forces that represent theworst that is in America. The deteriorating housing stock,inadéquate médical care, schools with ail of the problemscommonly associated with urban éducation, police community relation difficulties and inadéquate income are ail symp-toms that hâve become ail too familiar on the urban scène.I left one significant characteristic out of the all-too-familiar description of urban black and brown communities.The omission was deliberate because it is that omission thatis the significant fact that sets Woodlawn apart as somethingspécial. I left out the notion of "powerlessness" deliberately,because there is a growing sensé of potency within the Woodlawn community that centers in organizations like TheWoodlawn Organization. The Woodlawn Organization hasbecome a factor to deal with on the political scène, as wellas a potent reflector of the aspirations of the Woodlawncommunity. two has thrust itself onto the urban scène withsuch force and vitality that it has successfully become abroker for the Woodlawn community. It can both humiliateand negotiate, fight or bargain, and confront as well as con-5struct.two was born in conflict and in suspicion of the intentionsof the University of Chicago. Its organizers capitalized on awidely held belief in Woodlawn that the University plannedto urban renew the entire area from 6oth to 67Û1 Streets andfrom Cottage Grove to Stony Island. The Organization usedaccusations of unethical business practices on 63rd Street tobuild a constituency before it was ready to challenge whatit perceived as the threat of the University to the north. Theconfrontation followed and instead of resulting in bitterhatred and continuing struggle that so often has been generated by confrontation, there developed between the University of Chicago and The Woodlawn Organization a newdéfinition of mutual self-interest. Both sides were impressedwith the power and créative capacities of the other side. Theresuit of this mutual décision is now a partnership, based onparity and mutual self-interest. Each side has a healthy respectfor the potency of the other side, as well as a healthy suspicion of the other's intentions. This partnership has nowbegun to bear fruit.One of the first accords reached between two and theUniversity was that the University would acquire and re-develop the area from Cottage Grove to Stony Island, andfrom 6oth Street to 61 st. This area is now known as SouthCampus. The renewal activities in South Campus in turngenerated the fédéral urban renewal crédits that made possible the clearance of the commercial strip along both sides ofCottage Grove between 6ist and 63rd. The decaying commercial uses that formerly occupied that ground are beingreplaced by a ûvt hundred unit apartment complex for lowand moderate income families that will be owned and man-aged by a corporation in which two has a controlling interest.This apartment complex will also house a shopping centerthat will provide an impetus for the rejuvenation of 63rdStreet, as well as an opportunity for two to get involved inthe management of several business enterprises.In September of 1969, the University of Chicago and twoannounced an agreement which has the potential of creating400 additional new units of low and middle income housingin the Woodlawn area. The University agreed to lease 8acres of our South Campus to The Woodlawn Organizationfor a period of 55 years. The area designated in the agreementis between 6oth and 6ist, the IC tracks and Stony IslandAvenue. In addition, the University agreed to provide tem-porary loans of up to a total of $500,000 to facilitate the development of plans, working drawings and related expensesprior to two's obtaining a 100% federally insured mortgage.This agreement is contingent on City and fédéral approval,and there is no reason to believe that this approval will notbe forthcoming. This new agreement was made possiblebecause of changes in the plan related to the proposedVétérans Hospital on the South Campus. Thus, in the spaceof a little more than five years, the University has beendirectly or indirectly involved in creating an opportunityfor 900 units of housing to be built in the Woodlawn areafor moderate and low income people.The Woodlawn Expérimental Schools Project is an experi-ment in community and University involvement in threepublic schools serving the Woodlawn area, including HydePark High School. Educational innovations are being testedwith a professional and indigenous staff being utilized tosupport the faculty in thèse schools in their efforts to edu-cate black children. The activities of the Woodlawn Expérimental Schools Project are under the auspices of fédéralmonies that are controlled by a board composed of Educationreprésentatives. There are many problems that hâve beenuncovered during the course of this project which speakdirectly to the issues involved in the notion of communitycontrol. Twice a month at public meetings this communityboard attempts to struggle with the issues of decentralization,purchasing, educational innovation and compliance with ajustice department directive mandating the intégration offaculties within the public school System. While the boardhas been struggling with thèse weighty problems, the stafïhas proceeded to implement the development of a new concept of éducation in the three schools under the board'sauspices. The children are learning. Teachers are learning,and the community is learning that community control isnot an unmixed blessing. The educational innovations thatare being tested are of particular interest to members ofthe University faculty. An évaluation of thèse innovationsmight well provide a national answer to the problems thatmany of our schools are trying to cope with.The Woodlawn Mental Health Clinic has been operatedunder the sanction of a community-based board for a numberof years. The center seeks to intervene early in the life ofchildren to enable them to deal successfully with their environnaient and with school. The center has done pioneeringwork in the utilization of paraprofessionals in mental healthteams. In addition, the staff of the center has made some6preliminary progress in identifying the f actors which mitigateagainst optimum performance on the part of children in theschool environment.The Woodlawn Child Health Center is a community basedfacility operating with the sanction of a community board.The center seeks to provide diagnoses, treatment and effectivereferral services for the children of the Woodlawn community. The staff of the center has for a number of years doneyeoman service in providing médical care for those childrenwho are the victims of malnutrition, lead poisoning and othermaladies that are common among today's urban poor. Thepersonnel and the board of the center hâve corne to theconclusion that an intervention in the health problems ofchildren is a major contribution to a concerted effort tobreak what has corne to be called the poverty cycle.The University 's Center for Urban Studies and membersof the Business School faculty hâve provided technical assistance to the Woodlawn community in the development ofplans in that area that seek to stimulate the development ofblack-owned businesses in Woodlawn. Feasibility studies,business leadership training sessions and liaison with govern-mental agencies hâve ail been central to the University'sparticipation in the development of new business opportuni-ties for black entrepreneurs in the Woodlawn area. ThePurchasing Department of the University has sought toencourage black businessmen from ail over the city to submitbids as pbtential vendors for the wide variety of goods andservices that the University buys locally. In connection withthis effort, the Purchasing Department is currently develop-ing a full directory of black entrepreneurs, who are currently in business, with a comprehensive statement of theircapacities, crédit resources, expérience, and potential forgrowth. This directory, while primarily for the use of ourPurchasing Department, could prove useful for others whoare interested in channeling their business to black entrepreneurs.The new Social Services Center that is being currentlyconstructed on the South Campus, promises to ofïer a co-ordinated and vastly improved range of social welfare servicesto the people of the Woodlawn community. Recently theState of Illinois agreed to certain organizational innovationsthat promise to furnish the basis for a significant revampingof such state supported services as public welfare, vocationalrehabilitation, and, the employment service. The new centerwill operate under the joint sanction of the University, the Woodlawn community and the State of Illinois. The Centerwill provide data for operational research and an opportunityto train social workers for the social work of the future. Theplanning for this facility has been going on for somethingjust under two years. The community-based board has de-veloped expertise over this period, ànd they are clearly in aposition to make a significant input into the new constellationof services that will be offered at the Social Services Center.Soine of you may be wondering why the University hascommitted its scarce resources to thèse locality-relevant activities. The question is particularly important during thisperiod where the University is facing an ominous réductionof income. There are two answers to this question. First, theUniversity's interest in helping to résolve the Woodlawncommunity's problems obviously is a selfish one. We areinterested in a viable and stable community on our southernborder. We recognize that the ability of the University tocarry on its educational and research activity is partiallycontingent upon the Woodlawn community's attempts toachieve économie, social and political viability. While thisreality has become obvions to us, we also hâve been cognizantof the principle that the resources of the University can onlybe effective in Woodlawn if they are utilized in activitieswhich are consistent with the interest of thé community asexpressed by the community résidents themselves. The Woodlawn Organization thus far has seen our activities in Woodlawn as a valuable adjunct to their own activities. It shouldbe rather obvious to ail of you that the Woodlawn community, operating through two, will let the University knowin no uncertain terms when our activities are not désirablefrom their point of view. The second rationale for ouractivities in Woodlawn is that there is much to learn ina rational attempt to solve typical urban problems. The par-ticular relationship between two and the University canitself be a prototype of successful relations between largeinstitutions and their disadvantaged and oppressed neighbors.If we can learn ail there is to learn about the positive andnégative factors associated with our efforts to assist in aviable solution to urban problems, then the diversion of partof the University's intellectual and financial resources to alocal set of problems will hâve positive implications for aviable solution to this nation's urban difficulties. If we aresuccessful, then the University of Chicago will be fulfilling apart of its mission as a developer of knowledgè for what wehope will be the ultimate benefit of mankind. ?7£ùkh.cM£,èSamuel J. BeckWith regard to God a state of high tension pervades muchof the world today. Is God dead? The thought grips peoplein a devastating anxiety. One symptom of this is the wide-spread rébellion of youth. Yet a close look at the rebellionsdiscloses the young as far from denying God. Rather theyare in search of one. To them God is still very much alive—but not the God of their fathers. That one they hâve repudi-ated with a non-negotiable finality. He had been an invention who had sanctioned what, in their eyes, had been con-duct in men that is ungodly, desecrations to the self. Trappedwithin that frustrating incongruity the young hâve brokenloose. Like the maddened Samson they hâve rent their bondsand in the process shattered the God that had been pillarsand wall of their captors.Where they are at a cross roads is on the question, whichis to be the God they will now follow and also honor theself? But hère they are in another predicament. On the spec-trum of the self a varie ty of color bands can be made out.Four of thèse are in the focus of the présent article. In whichself will they find the God whom they can trust? Before ex-ploring their alternatives one other question is in order. Why God? The distress at the word that God is deadmakes sénse. Men need gods, or a God, something évidentfrom the very old trait that it is in the human character. Itsroots trace back into our race's mentality as far as records,literate and preliterate, can be read.God is a human concept and belief. The animal races peo-pling the land and the seas show no signs of worshippingsome deity, one in whose image he created each species. Theymanage— when and where this earth's little lord lets themlive— to live very well without a God concept. They do inimportant respects better, on évidence from biologists, thanmen do. Yeats does project the God idea not only on to ouranimal relatives but even on to plant life in a poem in whichthe moorfowl, the lotus, the roebuck, and peacock speak theirminds concerning the Creator. In Yeat's vision,/ passed a little further on and heard a peacock say:Who made the grass and made the worms and mademy feathers gay,He is a monstrous peacock, and He waveth ail the nightHis languid tail above us, lit with myriad spots of light.By this logic, brontosaurus or triceratops knew that God wasa huge, lumbering monster in their shapes, and parameciumis certain that a one-celled creator has been before everything.No humans, no God. This is the hard logic in the historyof the idea. The knowledge, émotion borne, that one's Godis with him, or the fear that he is not, has made, or wrecked,individuals and societies. Deborah sang "Bless ye Jehovah"when she had stirred in the ancient Israélites the courage bywhich they routed Sisera's chariots. The Te Deums peal andare chanted in the cathedrals after our modem wars in whichthe strengths exerted by the people are their own. At thiswriting men hâve dared that formerly proverbial impossibil-ity— not just reached for the moon, reached it. As always insuch moments we render thanks unto God from whom ailblessings flow.How fast the bind can be between thè self and a belief ina god is neatly shown in a discomfiture befalling the Philis-tines' god, Dagon, and their management of it. As narratedin / Samuel y, the Philistines had captured the "Ark of Godand brought it into the house of Dagon, and set it by Dagon."On the two folio wing mornings they found their God on theground, sadly mutilated. Consternation in Ashdod. Yet thePhilistines' faith in their god was as strong as their need forhim. They sent the Ark back to Israël and thereafter theirgod remained whole. The historical verity of this narrativeis not the issue hère. It is of the structure of myth. What is of import is the Biblical redactor's belief in a god who was anartefact of men. Dagon repaired, the Philistines' faith in them-selves was now again whole, their self-confidence restored.With artless naiveté they were relocating god in his sphèreof his origin, within themselves.nThey of our younger world today feel themselves confrontedwith a repair task similar to that of the Philistines. They aretrying to put together the god whom, as they see it, theirparents hâve broken. As outwardly manifest, what they aretrying to save, whole, is the self. The préservation of the selfis the équivalent of life— or death— to us humans. When thatis threatened we expérience a pain distinctive for us. Animalspecies, with their less massive brains, survive by means ofSamuel J. Beck is professor lecturer emeritus in the Depart-ments of Fsychology and Fsychiatry at the University of Chicago. He has published seven books and more than ninetyarticles on the Rorschach test and psy chopathology . Mr. Beckhas written a number of articles related to this essay including:"Implications for Ego in Tillick's Ontology of Anxiety" and"Abraham, Kierkegaard: either, or."the simple device, fear. This is a normal response to dangerfrom outside us. The pricé of being human is that we mustever be wary of threats to existences in two sphères. Moreextrême than physical suffering or fear of death is the painwe sensé in any péril to our other existence, that within, tothe values which we honor as we do ourselves because theyare the self.Prince Andrei in Tolstoy's War and Peace provides oneexample of such hurt. Following Natasha's near-seduction byanother man he cannot forgive her. As his intimate friend,Pierre, earnestly pleads for her, "Prince Andrei eut himshort: . . . 'be magnanimous, and so on? Yes, that would bevery noble* but I am not equal to. . . .' " He loved her to thedepths, still did. That love was the measure of the wound tohis aristocrate self.At another personality level Sir Thomas More goes to theàxe-man's block rather than violate his conscience. He knewin his months in prison the punishment awaiting him for thefrustration he was visiting on the egocentric Henry. ForMore to hâve saved his life by conceding that any "lay rulercould hâve jurisdiction over the Church of Christ" wouldhâve involved a more unendurable suffering than physicaldeath. He went to that end with equanimity. The self that heknew himself to be remained whole.A jeopardy to the self is thus an extremity such that theturmoil now being roused by our young people is a normalreaction, one of the two alternatives open to any créature,animal or man, when so menaced— flight or fight. The wayof youth is to fight and ours are doing just thât. Their be-haviors, "crazy" as they look to their elders, are a tactic intheir battle. By their antics they are mirroring their views ofthe absurdities in their societies, an Aristophanean commen-tary. "This is the crazy world you are passing on to us," istheir message. The piety in Browning's Pippa "God's in hisheavén, / All's right with the world" would be ludicrous tothem if the facts before their young eyes were not startlinglyto the contrary. They could say "a plague on you," and with-dfaw. For that solution they are too strong. They are rebel-ling because they care. Whom they attack, they also love.mAmong the four searchers that are the subjects of this essayail both loved their societies and assailed them. Singularlycàlling to mind the unbridled excitement of today's youthwas the tormented course of one of them. Rending tensions, high idealisms, surrender of the world's boons marked thelife of Sorèn Kierkegaard. Out of his storm he reaped thatphilôsophy which is riding a high tide in our rimes and forwKich he has been identified as "the father of existentialism."Central to his attitude was the assertion of the primacy ofthe self. The freedom ôf the self from coercive pressures offixed social attitudes and materialist life objectives are thevalues for which our youth are in ihortal struggle.Their impasse— the urge to shatter their society in orderto préserve it— and the urge to revoit well replicates Kierke-gaard's despairing course. His faith in his Christian God in-vested the passionate man that he was with an inéluctabledevotional force. Of his illumination he writes in one t)f hisJournals with an ecstacy that recalls Paul's blinding light onthe road to Damascus, "I rejoice over my joy, in, by, at,on, through, of and with my joy." Yet the Christianity whichhe so intensely lived had to be his Christianity. His profoundreligious faith was faith in himself. The accent on his indi-vidualism was a character trait that Kierkegaard manifestedthroughout his life: pugnacious and cocksure as a child; way-ward and eccentric in his university days, a dissident evenfrom the viewpôints of his fellow students. Always he himself was the sphère of référence for his thinking and. hisactions.His mature life was a search within himself to find theGod that would accord rest to his soûl. To gain that rest,this self-assertive individualist resigned ail that has meaningto the individual. He proclaimed himself the "Knight ofInfinité Résignation," saying "in the infinité résignation thereis peace and rest." He lived this principle. In his middletwenties, at the height of his manhood and love urge, hebroke off his engagement with the woman he loved and wholoved him. Kierkegaard was affirming himself by resigningthe consummation of that which, on this earth, is our mostcomplète self-fulfillment. "To renounce the whole of thetemple to gain the Eternal; but this I do gain, and throughail Eternity I cannot renounce it," he writes (Fear andTrembling). "SufHcient unto the self." There was Kierke-gaard's God. As he explicitly states (Philosophie Fragments),"each individual is his own center and the entire view cen-ters in him because his self knowledge is his knowledge ofGod."During the closing years of his brief life (he died at 42)Sôren Kierkegaard was carrying on his véhément offensiveagainst the state church of his Denmark. That absolute for10which he frantically searched, the certainty that he wassufficient unto the self, eluded him. He died as he had lived,a soûl divided.The source of Kierkegaard's knowledge of his God washis émotions. A contemporary of his searched for and foundGod in another sphère of our mental life— reason. Hé wasa German philosopher, Ludwig Feuerbach (i 804-1 872). Theintellectual temper of his time was stirring up a confrontation—one which although much subsided today still emits polemi-cal sparks— between religion and science: révélation, author-ity, unqualified certainty in the one attitude; empiric meth-od, critical questioning, skeptical positions in the other.Feuerbach's logic achieved the marriage of the two as herecognized what was valid in each. He located God bothm the ethical tenets of religion and in the rationales of science.From this fusion his step was a short one to the God idea<as the équivalent of men's character. Thus in his The Essenceof Christianity ". . . as are a man's thoughts and dispositions,such is his God; so much worth as a man has and so muchand no more has his God. By his God, thou knowest theman, and by the man, his God; the two are identical. What-ever is God to a man, that is his heart and soûl; and con-versely, God is the manifested inward nature, the expressself of a man." In his Principles of Philosophy: "God, as anintellectual or abstrâcted being, is nôthing but the essence ofreason itself." This essence is, he qualified, subject to prag-matic test in our everyday lives: man approaches the "view-points of God" to the degree that he is a moral being.The essence of God is thus, to Feuerbach, ethical man.The God of any man Feuerbach knows by that man's acts,by how he lives. God is as man does.IVTwo objectives at polar opposites are the self which each oftwo heroes is undeviatingly pursuing as illuminated in twogreat poetic dramas. Each of thèse two men is unreservedlycertain of the truth of the God he is serving. Both suffershattering def eats. *They are Ibsen's Brand and his Peer Gynt.Brand is the uncompromising idealist priest. His rigid concept of his godliness, sincère as it is, shuts out ail humanwarmth and sympathy. His priest's dedication he uses infeeding his blind egotism. When his townspeople entreathim to be their priest, he rejects them: "I hâve a greatercalling I must speak to the world." Concerning love his ice-pure logic imprisons him: "What the world calls love, I neither know nor want.I know God's love, which is neither meek nor mild.It is hard, even unto the terror of death:Its caress is a scourge."His wife has value to him solely in the prop that she is,"You see how much I need you. It is I who say to you:do not leave me, Agnes." And after her death, blind to hisaccountability for it: "Oh, Agnes, Agnes, why did you failme?" His vision cramped by the "Ail or Nothing" principle,he could give nothing of himself to the other— not to hisdying mother, his son, his wife. God destroys him.In his moment of death he asks one desperate question:"How can man be redeemed?" The answer thunders uponhim out of an unrushing avalanche. "The God of Love"(Ibsen's italics), a word that Brand never understood.Peer lives ail his life by the pleasure principle. This hedoes with the glib certainty that he is being his self. Hiscareer is a séries of épisodes ranging from the cynically dis-honest and despicable to the criminal, allias he believes, inserving himself. In his mirror, he beholds"The Gyntish Self . . . it is a hostof appétit es, desires, and wishes;the Gyntish Self—it is a seaof fancies, cravings, and demands;in short— what stirs inside my breastand makes me live my life as Me."The world has ail the time been repaying Peer with perfidyof its own. As he cheats in amassing fortunes so he is cheatedout of each one. Even the désert strumpet, Anitra, cozenshim out of the jewels that were to be the bait for her séduction, cozens him out of his purse and escapes, cheating himalso out of the séduction.Peer is nearing his end when he is jolted by an incrediblejudgment on him: "You hâve never been yourself" (italicsin the text). He is to suffer his most abhorred of ends— amelting into nothingness. He pleads an alternative:"Let me be judged in the old-fashioned wayAnd sent down to the chap with the cloven hoof"He présents his case for eligibility, recounting his many, un-speakable sins. They do not impress the agent with thecloven hoof. Peer must swallow the judgment that the Gyntish self he has confidently lived does not even meet the minimum requirements for admission to Hell. That realm does nottake in just anybody.However, there was the woman, Solveig.11As he faces his final moments Peer knows how "unspeak-ably poor can the soûl return / through somber mists intonothingness." He will "let the snow drift over me / and therethey may write: 'Hère lies ... no one.' " But Peer's selflived. In the forest in which he is wandering, he sees a lightshining in a hut. Out of it floats a woman's song. He hears itin Solveig's voice:"In my faith, in my hopes, and in my love"The meaning that he had to Solveig was the Peer Gyntself that had lived, and would live on so long as she lived.This is Ibsen's vision of the human predicament. The selfis the meaning that we hâve to and within another. In thedrama it would appear therefore that Peer gains in the endthe guerdon he never earned— selfhood. To leave it so is tomisconstrue where Ibsen's search for God leads. Judgmenton Peer stands where it was finally pronounced: he has neverbéen himself. It is in Solveig that Ibsen finds God, a pointto which I return.vThe humane forbearance wherewith Ibsen warms to his menand women is today in deep submergence. A temper ofanother quality saturâtes our atmosphère. As in Pharoah'sdream in which the seven lean kine ate the seven fat ones—"and when they had eaten them up it could not be knownthat they had eaten them, so ill-favored were they"— just sohâve the perfectionist ideals of the nineteenth century beeninundated under the ethical régressions of our times.There was Ibsen's great contemporary, superb thinker,Nietzsche. His self demanded and found another God, onethat needs no introduction. His gospel of the Superman isonly too well known. A fine intellect, like many a boon, canbe an ambiguous blessing. Its owner can soar on it to thedivine and he can mobilize with it that primitive héritagein our dual personality, the demonic. The results may thenbe irréparable damage to the individual and to his people.Nietzsche writes in a style that is exciting, elated, infec-tious. A prophétie fervor carries him on. The pity and poign-ancy of it is that he throws overboard ail the values of theProphets and of their legacy in Christianity. In the historyof religions he has made his immortality: the anti-prophet.He formulâtes it explicitly in his subtitle to The Will toPower, "an attempted transvaluation of ail values." His at-tempt succeeds to the point of completely reversing thevalues by which the human race has managed to survive. Let him speak for himself. From Beyond Good and Evilhis contempt for everyday people:". . . the univers al green pasture—happiness of the herd;security, lack of danger, comfort and alleviation of life foreveryone. Their most frequently repeated songs and doctrinesare lequal rights' and 'compassion for ail that suffers? "Unmatched in philosophical writing possibly since Platoare the poetical heights to which Nietzsche is lifted in ThusSpake Zarathustra. Yet what a vision his ecstacy conjures up!"Ye hâve made your way from the worm to man, andmuch within you is still worm. Once were ye apes, and evenyet man is more of an ape than any of the apes"As for his reversai of our values:"Ye say it is the good cause which hallowetld even war7I say unto you: It is the good war which halloweth everycause"And is Nietzsche prophesying some three quarters of acentury ago the hurly-burly in our today 's urban and university scènes? Thus (in Beyond Good and Evil):"We imagine that hardness, violence, slavery, péril in thestreet and in the heart, concealment, Stoicism, temptation,and deviltry of every sort, every thing evil, frightful, tyran-nie al, brutal, and snake-like in man, serves as well for the ad-vancement of the species 'man'' as their opposite. In fact weare not even saying enough when we say this much.""Behold your God," Nietzsche is proclaiming.Speaking of the demonic, who created the Devil? And inwhose image? He too has human form. He was in factinvented by man and as for ail inventions, it was motheredby necessity. The Evil One, he is the spirit of that in uswhich we do not relish thinking as of us. It is so much morecomfortable to hâve on hand a "not me" and there lay theblâme for my breach of what I know to be the good. TheDevil is a convenient adaptive device. Without him our bur-den of guilt would be unbearably heavy. Man models himself in his God and mirrors himself in his Devil. "I myself amHeaven and Hell." The words are Satan's, one of the twoheroes in Milton's Paradise Lost.VIThèse then are four directions along which people todayhâve sought to find and to assert the self. The phenomenaattending the search by the young world is the liberatedenergy normal for that âge phase. Its violence is a measureof the threat they sensé. Are they to be stifled as individuals12under the depersonalizing which they sensé as inexorablycreeping up on them in the wheel and steel of the machine?For a society as a whole the crisis question arises: are itsleaders taking flight from the light being struck by theyoung? A society is doomed, it has been observed, whoseyoung do not rebel.When a people's leaders do see the light they are introuble. To follow it? A dilemma faces them. Having daz-zled the eyes of the young, is it necessarily the way of wis-dom? Too much light darkens, Pascal observes. One of thepitfalls of the young— truly a booby trap— is self-idolatry:they are so sure of their own absolûtes. It is narcissistic self-idolatry which as Freud sympathetically observes is healthyessence of youth, within limits. What they are too„slowlylearning, as they lose battles, and win some, is to ask themselves, at what point does the liberty for self- déterminationbecome license? and demolishes the very house it is eager toperfect?Which self, then, among the four is to be the God thatAmerica, and the other societies of our time, will be living?The fallacy of Kierkegaard's "Eternal" which rested on theabsolute sufficiency of his self is that it led him to an existence away from the too, too solid flesh that we ail live.Unable to endure his world as it was, unable to refashion it,he resigned it even as he asserted himself. He opted thus bothto be and not to be. This is existential death.The road on which Feuerbach's search takes him is one thatvery few people travel: the way of logic. He does abstractout an ethical idéal. But intellectual abstractions are pallidguides. An idea can be effective only when emotionally ener-gized. The idea is, to be sure, the directive. It must hold thecontrolling harness on the émotions. But the latter are thepower, the vitality, the biologie will. The intellect is theirtool. They utilize it to find the way. When they are in imbalance— too much affect as in Kierkegaard, ail intellect as inFeuerbach— the way will be lost; or the start will never bemade.Ibsen's search led him with lucid empathy into his persons'innermost selves. In his characters he walks not out of thisworld but on the very human ground on which each of usstands. Both in Brand and in Peer he pénétrâtes profoundlyinto our plight: how wide the gulf between the greatnessthat could be ours and the smallness that is.The contrast is a high one between Peer's cynically sordidGyntish self and the image that shines out in Solveig's love and hope. In her is where Ibsen locates God, in her livingfor Peer with faith in her vision of him. What Peer learnedin his dying moment was that the self we live in the idealsof others, inviolate, is the only self that lives— like God—after us. There only is our immortality.As to our youth, they are, in their search, in imbalance,obviously dominated by their feelings. In their liberatedenergy, too frequently undirected, they are manifesting thatrelease of the demonic which Nietzsche appotheosizes andwhich lives in ail of us. Their acting-out has evoked, as forceusually does, counterforce, the backlash being shrewdly ma-nipulated by opportunists on the political scène. With regardto America, appréhensions are presently justified that ourLa Vendée has found some leaders. La Vendée was a peasant-ry that in France had mounted a révolution against theFrench Révolution. It was a peasantry mentally at far re-move from, their Windows shut tight against, the intellectualfresh air then circulating in France and in Europe. Will thefresh air being agitated even though violently by our brightyoung people be free to ventilate America's minds? Or willour La Vendée be mobilized by its leaders into sealing offthe fresh currents?The question which by their outburst today's rebels areasking was put by the one character near the end of Dos-toievsky's Notes from the Underground: "Which is better—cheap happiness or exalted suffering? Well, which is better?"(Dostoievsky's italics). What they are achieving in the neardrunken passion with which they are discharging their un-steady inner state is to correct the old error with regard towhere to find God. Cutting loose from the God "out there,"they are discerning Him, alive, within. In so doing they arerediscovering the thought and spirit of the first Christian,Jésus of the Synoptic Gospels. "Yours is the Kingdom ofGod" (Luke 6, 20; and see Mat. 19, 24; and Mark 10, 14).The thought, with its affective loading, has its roots, somesix centuries earlier, in Jeremiah: "I will put my law in theirinward parts, and in their hearts will I write it" (31, 33).The apparent heresy finally in man's creating God in hisown, man's, image does not lessen the sublimity of the concept. Rather it enhances the stature of God's creator, man,and the superb heights to which he can aspire, however widemust remain the gulf between idéal and real. Only manamong the innumerable créatures supported by our earthhas so conceived his self. As the Psalmist measures him "Thouhast made him but little lower than the angels." , Qn¦ifcv-£ 3S?-'R^^??^S**£'^.ïte?£t-Vi"j"tiB» ^t^^1^?^^^^^*^1^' "- '-"^ - -^'^-» .¦_¦¦ .... -t... -•«- irijiBi -'¦*»¦*-- — - " ¥)Bi.fc2£ ss# i^sp ^^sto*?» va&Diagnosesof StudentProtestJoseph SchwabDiagnosis i Conditioned Paranoids ,There can be no doubt that some student activists are sick.A very few are very sick: incipient schizophrénies, psycho-pathic personalities, free-floating haters, and dépressives. Suchcases are beyond the compétence of a university or collège assuch. They are the business of admissions officers and psychia-trists. Equally clearly, however, such persons are a tiny per-centage of student activists.A larger percentage of the sick ones are mild paranoids andanxiety states. Thèse are the business of collège and universityas such. It takes very little scrutiny to see that the style andseverity of their symptoms closely resemble those of manyassistant professors approaching the up or out point of theircontractual tenures. It takes no more to see that the symptomsin the two groups arise from much the same sources. Studentactivists, like many assistant professors, do not know whomakes décisions. They do not know how décisions are madewell. They hâve only foggy and incomplète knowledge of thenumber and variety of considérations which go into themaking of good décisions.They do not know because, on the one hand, we hâve nottaught them and because, on the other hand, we hâve mis-taught them by making them on occasion both witness andvictim of bad décisions badly made.That we hâve mistaught them is patent enough. The "con-stitutional" student government whose actions are subject toreview and reversai at whim by a dean or other administrativeofficer is one case in point. Another, and worse, consists ofthe nearly universal existence of large numbers of électivecourses with names cryptic and catalog descriptions opaque,as far as students are concerned. A third, even more vicious inits side effects, consists in our widespread insistence on earlycommitment by students to a "major" or fîeld of concentration. A fourth and significant one: the neatness and air ofinevitability with which we invest our accounts in sciencetextbooks and lectures of the évidences which lead to currenttheory.Through opérations like the first of thèse— student government— we mock students. In effect, we tell them that they mayJoseph J. Schwab has been studying the students at the University of Chicago almost uninterruptedly for fort y years. Heis the William Rainey Harper Professor of Natural Sciencesand Professor of Education. The article was drawn from hisrecently published book, Collège Curriculum and Student Protest (The University of Chicago Press). play at decision-making as long as the outeomes agrée withours. The original reason for such a policy is clear enough:students, as treated currently, are put in no position to main-tain a respectable frequency of good décisions, and on gooddécisions the prosperity of the institution obviously rests. Indeed, students lack at least three crucial components of suchcompétence, (i) They are unaware of the bodies of factwhich link almost ail décisions on student life to the surround-ing community. They are almost equally unaware of the factsof diversity of interest and attitude among students and professors which constitutes an additional part of the problem ofdécision. (2) They are unskilled, because untrained, in waysof dealing with the numerous, concrète facts of actual situations, even where they know of them. (3) Perhaps most important, their "involvement" with the institution is inadéquate:that is, their felt sensé of its life expectancy does not exceedthe four years of their tenure; their sensé of the threat ofhaving to undergo the conséquences of a bad décision is paleand dilute by virtue of their merely peripheral membershipin the community and remote connection with those amongthe faculties whose membership is intimate and durable.Students need not, however, be forever treated as they noware. Their ignorance of the facts of institutional life, theirlack of prudential skill, their inadéquate affective involvementin the ongoing life of the collège or university are conditionswhich can be remedied in some, perhaps considérable, degreeby means which can be defended as legitimate parts of theiréducation. I shall presently suggest such means.Through the second of thèse misteachings— the profferingof opaque électives— we positively celebrate nonrationality ofdécision. Where électives exist for the earlier years of studenttenure, nearly ail are opaque and almost entirély so. Not eventhe names of subject fields convey much; course descriptionsconvey still less. Even in later years, the student has littlemore by which to judge. He may hâve some idea of what hewill learn about in a given course, but not much of what hewill learn about it. He cannot know what disciplines are re-quired by the problems of the course. ("Prerequisite: Economies 207" merely pushes the problem back to Economies207.) He has no way to know what disciplines he will acquire—or forever miss. He does not know whether he wants them,whether he ought to want them, or what they will do to him.Yet there the électives are, and elect he must.The third of thèse misteachings— insistence on early commitment to a major— is obviously damaging, in direct effectas well as side effect. Very few students— mainly those with15a conspicuous bent in one direction only— know enough abouttheir tastes, their talents, and the character of the académiefields to hâve the raw materials for a good décision.Consider, first, our failure to test talents and exhibit thecharacter of a field. Most high school and first-year collegiatecourses (especially surveys and gênerai courses) systemati-cally convey a false impression of the fields they representand the talents they require. They do so by almost universaluse of a single device. Instead of giving expérience of the kindsof problems and modes of enquiry characteristic of the field,they provide the student with the expérience of assimilating,applying, or otherwise using the fruits of enquiry in the field.Yet thèse two— assimilation and use as against pursuit of abody of knowledge— are often radically différent in the com-petences*they require and the satisfactions they afford. Consider, as a crude but telling example, the différence betweensolving a textbook problem in genetics as against charting thebreeding pattern which would discern an unknown mode ofinheritance, carrying out the indicated experiments, andprocessing the resulting data. Consider, again, the vast différence between glib use of a historical generalization to "throwlight" on a current problem as against the processes by whicha kind of fact appropriate to a kind of history is discriminatedamong the welter of kinds, the facts in their particularitysought for and found, and the generalizations constructedwith some responsibility.Tragically enough, in courses deliberately designed as aconspectus of fields leading to student choice, the situation isworse. The faculties involved in such courses often engage incompétitive séduction, each taking pains to make the "hard"easy and the complex simple, to replace mathematical équationwith spool model, to emphasize the "practical" applicationsand the économie value of the knowledge it purveys, and totrot out for brief exposure its Famous Name and most win-ning personalities. Through such devices we eliminate thepossibility of a realistic appraisal by the student of his talentsand their appropriateness to the available alternatives. Wemake the whole thing a matter of taste, of likes and dislikes;and even in regard to this factor we are remiss, since we donothing curricular to rectify students' prevailing false beliefsabout the nature and use of felt wants and likes.Thus the student is misled and discovers he is misled whenhe cornes to the later courses in the field. At this point, effectand side effect become the same. The student cornes to arealization of lost time, is haunted by a sensé of failure and futility, is unable to détermine how far he is at fault, howfar the institution.Thèse are remediable curricular sins. It is entirely possibleto construct and locate in the curriculum the kinds of courseswhich will represent the activities characteristic of a field andgive students a chance to test the talents they require.The fourth example of misteaching with respect to décision—the neatness and air of inevitability with which we investour accounts of science in textbooks and lectures— dignifiesby explicit treatment the aliénation of thought and action,theory and practice, which we purvey elsewhere by osmosis.By saying little or nothing about the data which point indirections différent from currently accepted theory and byour silence on phenomena not encompassed by current formulations, we give the impression that in science ail is un-equivocal, ail rational, sure, and matter of fact. Typical textbook rhetoric omits the uncertainties of scientific évidenceand is silent about the expediencies and prudential considérations which enter into décisions on évidence and prefermentsamong théories. In this way, it reinforces the popular view(popular among académies too) that the reasonable and rational estimation of better and worse among alternatives is apropertv of science, of the theoretical realm, and hence thatchoice in the realm of the practical is to be identified onlywith the nonrational— with whim, unexamined préférence,conformity or reaction to existing mores, or unarguable taste.Through opérations like student government, then, wemake fools of students. Through opaque électives we demandand celebrate nonrationality of décision. Through the demandfor ungrounded early commitment to specialization we mis-lead and encourage the student to mislead himself. Throughtextbook rhetoric in the sciences and through our silences weidentify the practical with the nonrational.Little wonder that anxieties, persécution feelings, and awearisome spate of intemperate, stereotyped protest shouldflood from students' mouths. Still less should we wonder thatthey so often cite their unexamined impulsions as sufficientground for choice and, indeed, confuse the one with theother.Diagnosis 2 A Poverty of ModelsTwo to three percent of student activists are vicious juniordémagogues and cornbelt stormtroopers bent on attaining afollowing by kicking their father surrogates in the teeth andtrying to usurp their functions. They are the counterparts of16Joseph Conrad's secret agent. They combine ignorance ofworldly conditions, handicaps of appearance and manner,considérable native ability and equally considérable interper-sonal incompétences in such a fashion as to produce an enor-mous greed for power and prestige, an infinité capacity forgenerating righteous indignation and the entirely correctconviction that only the destruction of public faith in legalityand the shattering of social order will produce the success towhich they are sure they are entitled. Thèse student activistsconstitute primarily a threat to the very existence of collègesand universities, by way of force and violence, of course, butalso by virtue of the administrative and faculty time andenergy which are thereby diverted from their proper use. Assuch, they are beyond the scope of this book. They alsoconstitute symptoms, however, which are very much ourbusiness. They raise the question of how and why they suc-ceed as well as they do in persuading other students to fighttheir battles for them— what needs they fill and what kinds ofappeals they find effective.In some institutions, their implosive success suggests a nearly complète vacuum. In others, where the success of thejunior démagogue is less spectacular, the character of thedemagoguery is seen to be of a similar and curiously significant kind: the démagogue créâtes not folio wers but imitators.His hearers tend to go out from his exhortations and récriminations not to do what he exhorts or to become backers,constituencies, cohorts, but to become leaders of their ownconstituencies, exhorters on a smaller scale, and seekers oflesser targets for their own lesser attacks. The erstwhile listen-er who finds himself a member of a committee of six attacksthree of them in a style appropriate to an absent enemy ofhundreds— the style of last night's model démagogue. Thechairman of a meeting of twenty amicable persons usesRoberts' Rules in ways appropriate to a large, unruly meetingof dissidents— the problem eff ectively met by last night's chair-la dy. The student who meets a five-cent rise in the price of acollège cafétéria hamburger sees the increase as one moreexploitation of downtrodden labor (namely, middle-class students), compares it with the exploitation of itinérant farmworkers, and finds the forces at work just as sinister.This enthusiastic tendency toward imitation, this absence ina revolutionary movement of "party discipline," as it wouldhâve been called thirty years ago, leaves little doubt aboutone vacuum the démagogues fill. It is an absence of maturerand better models, of adults visibly and palpably exemplify- ing styles of life, uses of talents and competencies, préoccupations, cultivated tastes and concerns which are sources ofenduring satisfaction to them and of usef ul outcomes to others.The scarcity of models is of two kinds. In some smallcollèges it is a literal poverty, a poverty of models as such.The faculty hâve no professional lives apart frôm their teach-ing. They make no music. They write no books. They un-cover no new knowledge. They forge no policies. They arenot conspicuously engaged in honorable public service. Theyadminister little apart from their homes and classrooms. Theyteach, to be sure, but their teaching is the full-time servicethey perform, not a flowering or a sharing of expertise orscholarship. In conséquence, the teaching, after a first fewyears, becomes dull for the students and by them seen to beunsatisfying to the teacher.In some multiversities, it is a literal poverty of another sort.The visible bulk of the faculty is very busy indeed but not attheir own business. They are not doing what flows from theirtalents but what is marketable. Hère, as in the occasional smallcollège, the intrinsic satisfactions are visibly low. The pay(in famé and power as well as money) is high but so is thevisible level of harassment, the intensity of compétition, andthe professorial consumption of amphétamines, barbiturates,and ethanol.In many other institutions, the scarcity of accessible modelsis not a poverty of moclels but of visibility. Men of researchor scholarly bent are plentiful. They lead lives of sensibilityor intellectual pursuit or both, and do so with durable satisfaction. Unfortunately, thèse lives and their satisfactions arenot visible to the undergraduate. The life of sensé and sensibility is led in one place and at one time of the day. The life ofteaching undergraduàtes is led in another. Administrativestructure, curriculum structure, the system of rewards andapprovals, précèdent, and sheer numbers each contribute theirshare to this séparation. The idea that undergraduate teachingmight be a sharing of the fruits of scholarship and sensibilityand an induction into the compétences of thoughtful andresponsible intellectual work is not rejected. It is not debated.It is simply that nobody brings it up.There is an intellectual community of sorts, but the studentsdon't belong to it, not even as second-class citizens. No wonder that they try to forge an emulative community of theirown, one whose model— the civil rights movement— is far lessrelevant to curricular revision than its origin: students' exclusion from the intellectual community.17There is exclusion from the possibility of a rôle in the intellectual community. An undergraduate curriculum which is amère inculcation of what I hâve elsewhere called a rhetoricof conclusions and of a body of rote methods for solving roteproblems is its excluding wall, and the exclusion has an objective as well as a subjective conséquence in relation to studentdemagoguery. It not only leads to protest and resentment, itresults in noneducation. The student démagogue employslogic chopping instead of logic, and the différence passes un-noticed by his student audience. He cites facts that are notfactual and omits facts that are facts and his student audienceagain does not notice. The student démagogue uses magiewords like "aliénation,' "power structure," and "commitment"without thought for their meanings, and the student audienceresponds to the words as does the subject of a tyranny to itsflag.This confusion of word, fact, and idea may on occasionbe knowingly and viciously used by the démagogue. Often,however, he is almost as innocent in his confusion as hisaudience. He does not know a fact when he sees one. Hedoes not even know how to look. How could he when hiséducation has usually been professorial récital, memorization,and re-recital? His professor of chemistry, biology, evenphysics, has expounded inference, interprétation, and theoryas if they were facts, and has exhibited facts, even laboratoryfacts, in such fashion that they appear to hâve presentedthemselves to the scientist wearing their meanings on theirsleeves. His teacher of literature has imposed a critical doctrine and recited interprétations of literary works. Often hehas not even revealed the existence of other doctrines, otherinterprétations, much less afforded students adéquate occasions for the testing of doctrines and interprétations; still lesshas he been concerned that students develop their own meas-ure of the compétences of interprétation and criticism. Somesocial science teachers hâve recited the plausibilities of socio-logical and political spéculation without référence to therichness of social fact which permits alternative plausibilities,while others, the self-styled hard-nosed, recite allegedly hardfacts without référence to the overriding fact that the rele-vance and meaning of hard facts is conferred by ideas.Little wonder then that many students are ready dupes ofstudent démagogues. Little wonder that meetings and studentprotests are Towers of Babel. Students are irresponsible aboutfacts and what thev mean, about words and their référence,about ideas and their relationship to facts, because we hâve left them ignorant of the complex structure of knowledge,innocent of the exacting work involved in a responsible con-cern for truth, and undisciplined in the discrimination ofmeaning and the estimation of probability. We now reap theconséquences of our failures, and I hope that we continue tobe harassed to the extent necessary to rouse us from our badhabits.There is a second, possibly significant, facet of this émulation of student démagogues— that the models are models ofpolitical-executive-administrative action. This feature may, ofcourse, be entirely accidentai, the enthusiastic émulation being due wholly to the scarcity of other models and not at ailto what is modeled. It is the case, however, that the obscurityof models of theoretical intellect and sensibility is accom-panied in our time by an unparalleled conspicuousness andpublic approval of executive-political-administrative models:our empire-building bureaucrats, such as the heads of nasa,nsf, Défense, nih, and fbi, our corporate executives, and ourpolitical executives, especially those who are sons of wealth.It is also the case that the académie administrator and not theprofessor is the more attractive campus target of studentactivists.Thèse items suggest that the behavior of students in re-sponse to their démagogues may indicate an unfilled need formodels of a particular kind as well as for models generally,that is, constructive workers whose materjals and outeomesare people and institutions, as well as those who work withideas and things. I shall return to this point later.Diagnosis 3 Privations of CompétenceIf a few student activists are sick and another 2 or 3 percentdémagogues, some 10 percent are in it for kicks. A few ofthèse are incorrigibly frivolous, pursuing the hostile or destructive act "for fun," for its own sake. Most of thèse represent accidents of childhood or simple emptiness of resources.There is little we can learn from this contingent and less thatwe can do for them.The rest of them, by far the larger proportion, are anothermatter. They are not hostile or destructive per se; they showévidence of possessed resources, untapped and undeveloped,but présent. They protest for kicks because they possess onlya few alternative sources of durable satisfaction. (In this respect they are exemplars of a privation which characterizesa large proportion of students generally.)18Their sources of satisfaction are mainly thèse: sex of course;certain forms of bodily control and use (dance, and oftensubtle controls of posture, voice, walk, and facial expressionused as média of communication and provocation); directionof others^ behayior and expressed attitudes; and an intenseand extensive orality— speech which is predominantly eristic,recriminative and provocative, or seductive.Thèse satisfactions (apart from sex) are among those whichwould dérive from the developed compétences discoveredand exercised in quite early childhood by way of the sparsemodels, approvals, and successful transactions afforded bymiddle-class parents. The sources of satisfaction which nor-mally would be instigated by models, approvals, and successful transactions at a later âge with persons in other thanparental relations and developed by way of the school cur-riculum are (except for the political-executive) conspicuousby their scarcity. Music is listened to but is heard only to bemoved by. (Indeed, a number of this group are under theimpression that their génération invented the protest song.)Reading is largely for reassurance— for vivid expression of thealready believed and arguments in its favor. Thinking is de-voted to the marshaling of reasons for and expressions of thèsesame belief s. "Making" in ail its aspects— crafts, constructions,manual compétences of ail sorts, not merely the fine arts—is virtually absent. Listening, looking, and reading for the dis-covery of form, structure, and cohérence, accompanied bysatisfaction in both the process and the outcome, are rare.Reading and thinking concerned with the dispassionate exam-ination of beliefs and for évidences against as well as for themare denigrated arts. In gênerai, then, listening, looking, reading, and thinking are taken as merely tedious means requiredby urgent ends, and not as sources of satisfaction.Even the arts which defîne student activism, the political-executive arts, are exercised in only truncated form. Thereis exhortation and debate of the affirmative-negative-rebuttalvariety. There is executive assignment of labors and reason-ably assiduous exécution of assignments. There is mass action.But missing are the genuinely practical arts— délibération andcalçulation— by which agreement on proximate ends is found,means evaluated, and coopération efïected without need forthreat, coercion, or force. Since thèse practical arts are oftenas scarce among professors as among students, a word of ex-planation is in order.The practical arts in their political aspect begin in twopremises: (i) that institutions are normally to be preserved and changed, not destroyed, since it is only through institutions that political life can go on and action be effected; (2)that legitimate différences of interest exist among men, sinceinstitutions imply différences of members' rôles and each rôlegénérâtes its peculiar needs. Given thèse premises, it followsthat practical reason operating within an institution must findits goals and sélect its actual stratégies in ways which préservethe institution by honoring and taking fullest possible accountof the diversifies of interest, talent, expérience, and habits ofthought which constitute its human resources. If it does other-wise, it must either lose the unhonored resources or try toreduce the persons exemplifying them to slavery. Neither ofthèse alternatives appears to be practicable in the long run.(The same rules on a larger scale apply also to the practicalopération of reasonableness among institutions.)With respect to goals, this means that proximate goals arehit upon by searching out and rehearsing a wide variety ofpossible goals to find the one or ones that yield to the greatestdegree the diverse goods needed and sought by the diverseinterests represented. Since each party to the search knowsand honors his need for the other talents présent, this usefulprocess is a workable one.Student activists know that there are such things as arts ofthe practical but they lack knowledge about them. Theyknow so little about them, indeed, that they are inclined togive them invidious names— logrolling, backscratching, compromise. They lack compétence in the exercise of thèse artsand consequently take no satisfaction in their use. Yet thestudents are engaged in political-executive action, and thisunion of inclination and incapacity constitutes one of themost alarming aspects of student activism: that desphe itsstudied disavowal of the doctrinaire it has been taken in bythe apparatus of doctrinalism. Instead of délibération, thereis debate. Stratégie and tactical positions are arrayed againstone another in the fashion appropriate to doctrines— one towin as true, the others to lose as f alsehoods. Instead of cherish-ing diversities of interest and talent, proponents of variouspositions are also arrayed against one another, good guy andbad guys, the bad to be dispensed with or, where they mustbe used, "used" in the worst sensé of the word— exploited aslong as useful, disarmed or immobilized, and then discarded.One student to another: "Let's talk this over somewhereelse, where we won't be interrupted by people who disagreewith us." It is this apparatus of doctrinalism that leads to thewholly impractical situation among the student activists them-19serves, as well as between students and others, in which hewho is not with us is against us, and one or another speciesof warfare is the only recourse.Most of thèse compétence deficiencies and satisfaction defi-ciencies point unmistakably and in the most conventional senséto deficiencies of curriculum. If most species of listening,looking, reading, and thinking are tedious to students who arepotentially compétent at listening, looking, reading, andthinking, it is because we hâve not discovered to them theexistence of their compétences or contributed to their suffi-cient development. If, as appears to be the case, students donot even know (even unformulatedly) that the discovery andexercise of well-developed compétences is a major source ofhuman satisfaction, the case is even worse, for one must con-clude that the expérience of discovery of a new potential andof its development has been too infrequent to hâve left aneffective memory trace.The practical compétences of délibération are not, ofcourse, traditional obligations of the académie curriculum. Ihâve tried to indicate, however, that there is every reason whythey should become so. The apparatus of doctrinalism, whichleads inevitably to the warfare of who-is-not-with-us-is-against-us, like the belief in felt wants as first défense of theself, is an error we cannot afford not to correct in studentsand in ourselves. Our Systems of lectures, lecture notes, pre-scribed readings, and examinations must make room for someexpérience of délibération and reasonable choice, of mutualcriticism, of a pooling of diversities of expérience and in-sights— and do so frequently enough and effectively enough toconstitute them as sources of durable satisfaction.Diagnosis 4 CommunityThe majority of student activists (85 percent on some cam-puses— rarely less than 50 percent, judging by newspaperstories, membership claims of sds, and word-of-mouth estimâtes from students and faculty members) are not sick, notdémagogues or imitators of démagogues, and not members ofthe new left. They are, to put it inaccurately for the moment,occasional prot esters. Some are moved to first participation bya particular issue. Many are originally moved by the ordinaryimpulse of any late adolescent to use an opportunity tothumb a nose at (not kick in the teeth) the parental génération. Another substantial group are first moved by a sensé ofgenerational loyalty. And some, of course, are mère sheep, afraid of what they are being led to do but following anyway,through greater fear of being left out.What is important about this large group of occasionalprotesters (the sheep excepted) is what makes the name in-accurate: they do not remain occasional. Many of them dis-cover something or are affected by something in the courseof their first participation, or their first few, which makesthem readier for further participation. For some, the discovered impulsion is obscure and probably various. For most it isone thing and very clear: thev discover community.Dozens of this group (from différent campuses) hâve said,in effect, "The sit-in was one of the deepest expériences of mylife. We were packed in those rooms and corridors with hard-ly room to breathe, talking the whole night through. We cameto no agreement but it was a great expérience just the same."Said others, "It was a religious expérience." "I will remem-ber it ail my life." "It was the greatest thing that ever hap-pened to me." "I didn't know you could feel that way."The lesson of thèse memories is very clear. To the question,"What did you talk about?" the answer (from highly capableyoung people) was a vague and lordly "Oh, everything," or"It doesn't matter" or "I don't remember" or "The administration." Such vague responses as thèse, together with theemphases on "expérience," "feeling," "happening," as well asclearer descriptions of what was felt, make it very clear thatthe appeal was not particularly cognitive, not to explicit valuebiases, not to resentments, not to latent symptoms, not even togenerational loyalty, but to community pure and simple. Sostarved of community are thèse young people that they sawnothing confie, even a week later, in a "deep expérience"which was mainly a sharing of stinks, of verbal exchangeswith little or no mémorable content, and with little conséquence apart from the wish for more.Hopefully this euphorie nostalgia is not permanent. Manyof the affected students turn out to be bright enough, evenaffectively sophisticated enough, to realize after a few weeksthat their expérience of community had something wrongwith it, that it lacked a history and a future, that there weremissing components as well as missing relations. (I do notmean to suggest that students know what is missing— onlythat they know something is. I shall return shortly to thequestion of what is missing, why community is much morethan a warm, crowded nest with lots of cheeping.) Theyrealize that its répétition would be unsatisfactory at best andeventually cloying. The expérience has revealed to them, how-20ever, the importance of community, and discovery of the in-adequacy of this particular expérience of community onlyconfirms them in their appetite for a more complète one.That many students hâve this hunger, even that it is a légitimât^ hunger, constitutes no necessary reason why we shouldassuage it. That the university is Aima Mater is no reason forher becoming Omna Mater. The university is only one ofmany agcncies that affect students' lives; it has a characterderived from its spécial functions; and this character can un-su it it to some other functions. I shall indicate presently, however, that it is appropriate for a university to be a communityin certain spécifie respects and to afTord students a member'srolc in the community.Diagnosis 5 Student Activists as StudentsIt has been stated or suggested by some that the dirïerentia-tion of student activists and other students is a differentiationof the best or better students from the poor and average. Ido not find this to be the case. On the contrary, student activists appear to be drawn from, and to represent well, almostthe entirc spectrum of student compétence. In short, studentactivists are students. They are drawn from the ranks neitherof superior students nor of inferior, but from the whole rangeof students generally.But an cxceedinglv important fact is implicated in this one.Included among student activists are some of our best students, best, moreover, with respect to mathematical as well asverbal compétence.Of spécial importance is their possession of a quality whicharises from the union of their high intelligence with the bentsthat lead them to protest: what is mère aliénation in the lesscapable and less stable is hère at least partially transformedinto cultural freedom. They are able to see some of the per-sonal and institutionai values of our génération from a clarify-ing distance. The same distance provides them with refreshedstandards by which to evaluate what they see. (The évaluation tends, of course, to emphasize vices radier than virtues,but this is a relatively small and réparable matter except tostufTed shirts.) Further, and perhaps of greater significance,precisely because they are to a degree différent from— aliento— the surrounding culture, they are forced to examine themselves. They are neither willing nor able to assume that theyare like the parental prototypes, chips ofT the old block-, hencethey must trv to see afresh what their potentials are, what their needs are, and the extent to which existing institutionsare and are not appropriate.The fruits of this examination are rotten in some cases, greenin many others, ripe in relatively few. In the first place, suchevaluative processes are among the most difficult of enquiries,and in the second place, thèse young people hâve been sys-tcmatically mistaught (or not taught) the methods and principes appropriate to such enquiries. Nevertheless, the poten-tial for such enquiries exists in the group to an extent vastlygreater than existed in our génération.If members of the group could (a) be inducted into a curriculum with intellectual content which (b) included a sub-srantial and mature practical component, which (c) existed ina community with place for students in it, and which (d)possessed a culture identifiable with the lives of its faculty andpotentially sharable by students, this small portion of theactivist body might well become a saving part. They couldbecome some of our finest allies in the continued developmentof such a community and culture and in the work of bring-ing it erïectivcly to hear on an increasing proportion of thestudent body, activist and nonactivist.The superior activists, however, are not capable, even withappropriate éducation, of alone fulfilling such a rôle, for thevery aliénation that confers their peculiar advantage also con-fers the disadvantage of crippling their readiness to collaboratewith elders and those firmly established. But consider whatmight émerge if the superior, adequately controlled, and de-cently educated activist students were indiscriminately com-bined with the substantially larger number of equally superior,better controlled, and decently educated not-so-activist members of the student body, the combined group to play a dis-tinguishable, needed, and honorable rôle in the collegiatecommunity vis-à-vis both their fellow students and the faculty.The smaller, activist constituency would supply a much needed yeast of challenge to set ways and those set in their ways;the larger constituency would supply needed discipline,needed résistance to easy change, and criticism uncolored bythe impulse toward change for the sake of différence; themembers of the combined group would constitute a potentand uniquely compétent force for learning, for teaching, andfor the establishment and maintenance of a collegiate community. Their unique compétence would arise from the con-spicuous ambiguity of the rôle they would play: constitutedof both studenthood and facultyhood and acting as a linkbetween the two. D21R E V 0 L TT JUSTIGary J. Greenberg ^ When a lawyer is admitted to the bar, he takes an oath tosupport the Constitution of the United States. When a lawyerjoins the Department of Justice, he takes another oath— thesame one that is taken by the Attorney General and, in fact,by ail fédéral employées.That oath reads: "I solemnly swear (or affirm) that I willsupport and défend the Constitution of the United Statesagainst ail enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear truefaith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligationfreely, and without any mental réservation or purpose of évasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the dutiesof the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God."It was largely because of this oath— and the pressures wewere under to violate it— that a majority of the attorneys fromthe Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice gath-ered in a Washington apartment last August. We wanted toascertain whether, under the Constitution, there was any légalargument which might conceivably support the Nixon Administration^ request, in a Mississippi courtroom, for a delayin implementing desegregation in 33 of that state's school districts. The assembled lawyers concluded that there was not.Thus was born the reluctant movement which the press wasto call "the revolt" in the Civil Rights Division.August 19, 1969, was an historié date in the field of civilrights. It was on that day that Robert H. Finch, the Secretaryof Health, Education and Welfare, in letters to the UnitedStates District Judges for the Southern District of Mississippiand to the Chief Judge of the United States Fifth CircuitCourt of Appeals, sought to withdraw school desegregationplans that his department had filed in the district court a weekearlier. It marked the first time— since the Suprême Court's1954 décision in Brown vs. Board of Education— that theUnited States had broken faith with the black children ofMississippi and aligned itself with the forces of delay on theissue of school desegregation.Less than a week later— on August 2 5th— Attorney GeneralJohn N. Mitchell placed the Department of Justice imprimatur on Finch's actions when Jerris Léonard, the AssistantAttorney General in charge of the Civil Rights Division,joined local officiais in a Mississippi district court to argue fora delay.The same day, in Washington, some of my colleagues inthe Civil Rights Division and I prepared and distributed amémorandum inviting the Division's attorneys to a meetingthe next evening to discuss thèse and other récent eventswhich had, in the words of the mémo, cast ominous shadowsover "the future course of law enforcement in civil rights."The meeting's purpose was "to détermine whether we hâve acommon position and what action, if any, would be appropriate to take."The 40 who attended the meeting that next night first hearddetailed factual accounts from those lawyers with first hand knowledge of the government's actions in school desegregation cases in Mississippi, Louisiana, and South Carolina. Wediscussed the légal principles at length. We could find, as lawyers, no grounds for thèse actions that did not run cross-grainto the Constitution. We concluded that the îequcst for delayin Mississippi was not only politically motivated but unsup-portable under the law we were sworn to uphold. I thenasked whether the attorneys in the Civil Rights Divisionshould protest the actions of Messrs. Mitchell, Finch, andLéonard. Much to my astonishment, the answer was an un-hesitating unequivocal, and unanimous call for action.But how? The group's immédiate, though probably unat-tainable, goal \\ as a reversai of the Justice Department's actions in Mississippi. Beyond that, however, we wanted toinsure that future Mississippi-type décisions would not bemade; we wanted guarantees that the Administration would,in the future, take the actions that were compelled by law,w ithout référence to the political exigencies. We hoped thatthe protest could serve as a déterrent to future political accommodation. We agreed to write a dignified and reasonablestatement of protest by which we could make our viewsknown and demonstrate our unity and résolve. We chose acommittee of six to draft the document.Two evenings later, on August 28th, we held another meeting to review the draft submitted by the committee. The 50attorneys in attendance discussed the draft, modified it some-what, and then adopted it unanimously. (It was later signedby 65 of the 74 non-supervisory attorneys in the Civil RightsDivision, some of whom had missed one or both of the meetings because they were out of town.)The four-paragraph, 400-word document expressed, inpainstaking language, the continuing concerns, motivations,and goals of the signatories. The last two paragraphs said:It is our fear that a policy which dictâtes that clear légalmandates are to be sacrifie ed to other considérations will seri-ously impair the ability of the Civil Rights Division, and ulti-mately the Judiciary, to attend to the \aith]ul exécution of thefédéral civil-rights statutes. Such an impairment, by erodingpublic faith in our constitution al institutions, is likely to damage the capacity of those institutions to accommodate confite tin g interests and insure the full enjoyment of f un dam entairights for ail.We recognize that, as members of the Department of Justice, we hâve an obligation to follow the directives of ourde partm entai superiors. However, we are compelled, in conscience, to urge that henceforth the enforcement policies ofthis Division be predicatcd solely upon relevant légal principles. W e further request that this Department vigorously en-The alumni news department received a terse note from theauthor in Deccmber, informing us of a change of address. Hewas taking a new position with a New York City law firm, hesaid quite bluntly, because he had just been fired. The articleex plains why.23force those laws protecting human dignity and equal rights forail persons and by its actions promptly assure concerned citi-zens that the objectives of those laws will be pursued.Why did the consciences of 65 fédéral employées compelthem to protest a government law -enforcement décision?Why did 65 members of a profession which generally attractsthe conservative and circumspect to its ranks— and reinforcesthèse characteristics in three years of académie training—launch the first "revolt" within the fédéral bureaucracy?Part of the answcr lies in the fact that the new Administration was elected largely by voters who expected— and, fromthe rhetoric of the campaign, had every reason to expect— aslowdown in fédéral civil-rights enforcement efforts. Thosepolitical debts ran counter to the dévotion and commitment ofthe attorneys in the Civil Rights Division. They had laboredlong and hard in civil-rights law enforcement, and had corneto realize by expérience that only unremitting pressure couldbring about compliance with the civil-rights statutes and theFourteenth Amendment. Yet this conflict of commitments didnot of itself lead to the revolt. There was no inevitability inthe situation.Certain other irritants played a part in creating an attitudeamong the attorneys which made "revolt" possible. Therewas Mr. Léonard himself, a politician from Wisconsin with nobackground in civil rights, and, indeed, very little as a lawyer.He was insensitive to the problems of black citizens and otherminority-group victims of discrimination. Almost from thebeginning, he distrusted the attorneys he found in the Division. He demonstrated that distrust by isolating himself fromthe line attorneys. Still another élément was the shock of hisineptitude as a lawyer. In marked contrast to the distinguishedlawyers who preceded him in his job, Mr. Léonard lacks theintellectual equipment to deal with the légal problems thatcorne across his desk.His handling of the Mississippi case enlarged this mood ofirritation and frustration. Secretary Finch's letter— drafted inpart, and approved in full, by Mr. Leonard-said that theHEW plans were certain to produce "a catastrophic educational setback" for the school children involved. Yet the Office of Education personnel who prepared the plans, and Dr.Gregory Anrig, who supervised their work, and the CivilRights Division attorneys who were preparing to défend them in court, had found no major flaws. Indeed, Dr. Anrig, intransmitting the plans to the district court on August uth,wrote that in his judgment "each of the enclosed plans is edu-cationally and administratively sound, both in terms of substance and in terms of timing." It was not until the afternoonof August 2oth, only hours before the attorneys were to défend the plans in court, that Mr. Léonard called them in Mississippi to infqrm them of the Administration's décision. Final-ly, in justifying the government's actions to his own super-visory attorneys— and in arranging that they, and not he,would inform the line attorneys of the reasons for the re-quested delay— Mr. Léonard could be no more candid thanto say that the chief educator in the country had made aneducational décision and that the Department of Justice hadto back him up.But, again, thèse superficial signs of malaise were not whatled to the lawyers' widespread revolt. Discontent only createdthe atmosphère for it.The revolt occurred for one paramount reason: the 65 attorneys had obligations to their profession and to the publicinterest. As lawyers, we are bound by the Canons of Profes-sional Fthics and by our oaths upon admission to the bar; asofficers of the United States, we were bound by our oaths ofoffice.Membership in the bar entails much more than a licenseto practice law. One becomes an officer of the courts, duty-bound to support the judiciary and to aid in every way in theadministration of justice. The scope of this duty was nicelysummarized by United States District Judge George M.Bourquin in the case of In re Kelly in 19 17, when he wrote:Counsel must remember that they, too, are officers of thecourts, administrators of justice, oath-bound servants of society; that their first duty is not to their clients, as many suppose, but is to the administration of justice; that to this theirclients' success is wholly subordinate; that their conduct oughtto and must be scrupulously observant of law and ethics; andto the extent that they fail therein, they injure themselves,wrong their brothers at the bar, bring reproach upon anhonorable profession, betray the courts, and defeat justice.The Canons of Ethics command that an attorney "obey hisown conscience" (Canon 15) and strive to improve the administration of justice (Canon 29). The Canons go on to échoJudge Bourquin's words:No . . . cause, civil or political, however important, is en-titled to receive, nor should any lawyer render, any serviceor advice involving disloyalty to the law whose ministers weare, or disrespect of the judicial office, which we are boundto uphold. . . . When rendering any such improper service. . . the lawyer invites and merits stem and just condemnation.. . . Above ail a lawyer will find his high est honor in a de-serve d réputation for fidelity to . . . public duty, as an honestman and as a patriotic and loyal citizen. (Canon 32)24Bearing thèse obligations in mind, examine for a momentthe situation which confronted the attorneys as a resuit of thedécision to seek delay in Mississippi.In May, 1954, the Suprême Court declared that "in the fieldof public éducation the doctrine of 'separate but equaP has noplace. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."One year later, the Court decreed that school officiais wouldbe required to make a "prompt and reasonable start" towardachieving the constitutional goal with "ail deliberate speed."Tragically, a décade went by and little was accomplished;that was the era of "massive résistance." In 1964, the SuprêmeCourt ruled that "the time for mère 'deliberate speed' has runout." In 1968, the Court held that school officiais were undera constitutional obligation to corne forward with desegregation plans that worked, and to do so unow." The Fifth CircuitCourt of Appeals interpreted that edict, in the summer of1968, to mean that the dual school System, with its raciallyidentifiable schools, had to be eliminated in ail of the stateswithin its jurisdiction by September, 1969. (Mississippi is oneof those states.)Secretary Finch's letter, besides suggesting the possibilityof a catastrophic educational setback if desegregation wereeffected at once, spoke of the certainty of chaos and confusionin the school districts if delay were not allowed. That allégation was based upon the uncontestable existence of hostilityto desegregation within the local communities. While therewas, and continues to be, a danger that chaos and confusionwill accompany the desegregation of public schools in Mississippi, the Suprême Court had ruled again and again that neither opposition to constitutional rights nor the likelihood ofa confrontation with those opposed to the constitutional im-perative may legally stand as a bar to the immédiate vindica-tion of those rights.*Thus, while pledged by our oaths to support and défendthe Constitution and bound by duty to follow our conscienceand adhère to the law, we faced a situation in which theAdministration had proposed to act in violation of the law.We knew that we could not remain silent, for silence, par-ticularly in this Administration, is interpreted as support oracquiescence. Only through some form of protest could welive up to our obligations as lawyers and as officers of theUnited States. The form that this protest should take emergedso clearly that it then became a matter of inevitability, ratherthan a "choice" made from among several alternatives.For the duty to serve the law, to promote the administration of justice, to support and défend the Constitution is morethan a négative command; it is more than a "thou shalt not."It is an affirmative duty to act in a manner which would bestserve and promote those interests. Thus, at the first group* On October 29th, of course, the Suprême Court unanimouslyrejected the Administration's efforts at delay by enunciating therule that the Constitution requires desegregation "at once." Thatruling is not a part of this narrative except as it demonstrated anewthat the position we had taken on the law was unassailable. meeting, we immediately and unanimously rejected the notion of mass résignation because it would hâve served nopositive purpose. It would only hâve removed us from association with the supporters of delay; it would not hâve fulfilledour obligation to act affirmatively to insure that constitutionalrights would be protected and that the civil-rights laws wouldbe vigorously enforced.Many of the attorneys thought that our obligation couldnot be met by merely drafting, signing, and delivering a protest statement. If delay for the purpose of mollifying a hostilecommunity did not comport with the Constitution— thus im-pelling us to raise our voices in protest— then we were likewise duty-bound not to support the Mitchell-Finch-Leonardposition through any of our officiai actions. The bureaucratieconcept of "loyalty" notwithstanding, some of us concludedthat we could not, for example, défend the government's position in court.The question arises as to whether the action taken by thegroup met the burden imposed upon us by our obligations tothe law and the public interest. Did our fidelity to thèse obligations demand more than the soft and lofty importunings ofthe protest statement? Should ail of the attorneys hâve ex-plicitly refused to défend in court the action taken in theMississippi case? Should the attorneys hâve embarked on amore direct course of action to block the government's effortsto win a year's delay for school desegregation in Mississippi?To begin with, we were hard pressed to corne up with someappropriate alternative to the protest statement as a vehicleto make the views of 6$ people known. But beyond that, itwas vitally important to préserve the appearance of dignityand professionalism if our protest were not to be dismissed asthe puérile rantings of a group of unresurrected idealists who,except for their attire, bore a close resemblance to theWeathermen and the Crazies, To generate the public supportwe thought vital to the success of the protest, we had to actin a responsible and statesmanlike manner. Furthermore, itseemed to us that the présentation of any statement signed bynearly ail of the attorneys in the Division would be a remark-able feat and that that démonstration of commitment wasmore important than the words actually used. In our view,the soft language implied everything that a blunter statementmight hâve said. It also had the virtue of not putting theAdministration up against a wall, thus forcing them to respondwith a hard-line position of their own.Though duty and conscience compelled a protest, reasondictated the nature of the protest. We did not merely seek anopportunity for catharsis; we sought to devise a course ofaction which had a chance to reap a harvest of practical re-sults. That being the overriding considération, the attorneyschose the course of a mildly worded group statement. Otherovert manifestations of disagreement were left open for indi-viduals to pursue as they saw fit.The group action we took— that is, the drafting and signingof the statement— was a "protest," if by that we mean a dis-*5sent from the actions of one's administrative superiors. Thelanguage of the statement did not move into the area of "revolt," if by that we mean an explicit refusai to obey the ordersof one's superiors— although the statement was intended toimply that "revolt" was in the air.Compelled by what they felt to be their obligations to thelaw, individual attorneys took a number of actions on theirown, most of them in that murky area where there is a confluence between "protest" and "revolt."Even before the first group meeting, the Division lawyersin Mississippi expressed their disinclination to présent thegovernment's case for delay in the district court. As a conséquence, Mr. Léonard made his first appearance in a fédéraldistrict court as Assistant Attorney General and argued themotion for delay himself. In mid-September, two Divisionattorneys (the author being one) appeared in fédéral courtsin other school desegregation cases. When pressed by thosecourts to reconcile the government's "desegregate-now" position in those cases with Mr. Leonard's position in Mississippi,both attorneys said they could not défend the government'saction in Mississippi.* Some of the Division's attorneys went* In my situation, I was in St. Louis before the Eighth CircuitCourt of Appeals, sitting en banc (i.e., the full seven judges of thecourt were présent), arguing that a delay granted by the districtcourt to an Arkansas school district for the desegregation of its highschools should be reversed. One of the judges asked whether I couldassure the court that the Attorney General would not "corne alongand pull the rug out from under" them if they ordered instant intégration. I was pressed to reconcile my request for immédiate intégration in Arkansas with the position taken in the Mississippi case.After the court listened to my attempts to distinguish between thetwo cases, one judge said it appeared to the court that the practicaleffect of the government's posture was that Mississippi was beinggiven spécial treatment. At this point, a number of judges calledupon me to state my personal views on the contradictory positionstaken by the government. I responded by saying I assumed that thecourt knew from the press accounts of the "revoit" what the feel-ings were in the Division. I indicated that, as a signatory of theprotest statement, I could not be expected to défend the government's action in Mississippi.26 a step further: they passed information along to lawyers forthe naacp Légal Défense Fund in order to aid their Mississippicourt battle against the delay requested by the Administration.Others spoke with the press to insure that the public was fullyaware of the rôle that political pressures had played in thedécision to seek delay.Thèse actions, while neither authorized nor approved bythe group as a whole, were individual responses to the samecrisis of conscience that led to the protest statement itself.One may hâve réservations as to the propriety of some or ailof thèse acts of défiance. (Indeed, I hâve doubts as towhether it was proper for a Division attorney to furnish information to the naacp after the government's action trans-formed it into an opposing party.) But it is important to rec-ognize that the demands of conscience compelled more thanjust the signing of a pièce of paper, and, in this sensé, theprotest was, realistically, a "revolt."When the storm clouds first began to gather within theCivil Rights Division, the hierarchy of the Department ofJustice, including the Attorney General and Mr. Léonard,reacted with a professed sensé of surprise, and even shock.Despite this, however, the Administration's actions were, atthe outset, nothing short of accommodating.The supervisory attorneys in the Division took the positionthat we had a perfect right, under the First Amendment, tomeet and discuss matters of mutual concern. Prior to oursecond meeting, Léonard Garment, Président Nixon's spécialconsultant for youth and minority problems, let it be knownthrough an intermediary that the Administration was likelyto respond favorably to a reasonable and responsible protest.Indeed, Mr. Garment and the Deputy Attorney General,Richard G. Kleindienst, facilitated the protest by allowing usto hold our second meeting behind closed doors in the Department of Justice.But later, when the Administration came to a fuller appréciation of the depth and unanimity of the protest, this attitudebegan to change.On September i8th, Mr. Léonard responded to the attorneys' statement for the Administration. We were informedthat the reply was a final articulation of policy and that if wedid not like what we read we should resign. The reply wascuriously unresponsive. Whereas the attorneys' statement wascarefully limited to questions concerning the intrusion ofpolitical influences into areas of law enforcement where onlyconsidérations of law belong, Mr. Leonard's reply oudinedhow the Administration would go about desegregating publicschools. To this extent the reply completely missed, oravoided, the point of the protest. We had never challengedthe discretionary authority of the Attorney General and thePrésident to détermine by what method the constitutionalobjective would be achieved. In matters where discrétion wasvested in the Attorney General to choose between policyalternatives, the attorneys did not challenge his right to makethe choice. But in the matter of enforcing constitutionallyrequired school desegregation in Mississippi, the AttorneyGeneral had no discrétion. He was bound to uphold the dictâtes of the law, an obligation that could not be squared withthe décision to seek delay.Aside from its non-responsiveness to the questions we hadraised, Mr. Leonard's reply was disturbing on two othercounts. First, it conceded, with delayed candor, that politicalpressures had played a rôle in the Mississippi décision. Second,it announced a new touchstone for civil-rights law-enforce-ment policies: future actions would be taken not on the basisof the law but, rather, on the basis of "soundness." Thus,when abm and other défense appropriations are thrown intothe balance, a décision to seek delay of school desegregationin Mississippi in return for the continued support of SenatorJohn Stennis (D-Miss.) in défense, matters can presumably becertified as a "sound" décision, notwithstanding its inconsis-tency with clear légal mandates.The attorneys decided that we would neither accept theresponse nor resign. But the situation demanded further action, and we chose to reiterate our commitment to the law.On September 25m, we delivered to the Attorney Generaland Mr. Léonard a new statement. It expressed our view thatMr, Leonard's reply "indicates an intention to continue withthe policy of civil-rights law enforcement toward which ourAugust 29th statement was directed, a policy which, in ourview, is inconsistent with clearly defined légal mandates."The Attorney General's patience was wearing thin. Thenext day he told the press that "policy is going to be made bythe Justice Department, not by a group of lawyers in theCivil Rights Division." At a news conférence three days later,Mr. Léonard said that he thought the position taken by theattorneys was wrong. He warned that the revolt would hâveto end as of that date.On October ist, Mr. Léonard called me to his office. Hetold me that he considered it to be the obligation of ail of hisattorneys to défend the government's Mississippi action incourt. He asked whether I would be able to do so in thefuture. I said that I could not and would not. Our obligationwas to represent the Attorney General, he said, and JohnMitchell had decided that delay was the appropriate courseto follow in Mississippi. I countered by explaining that myposition dictated that I represent the public interest in court,and my responsibility was to enforce the law. Mr. Léonardthen made his attitude on the meaning of law enforcementvery clear. "Around hère the Attorney General is the law,"he said. The différence of opinion was irreconcilable, and Iwas told to resign or be fired. I said I would forthwith sub-mit a letter of résignation, and did— effective immediately.Mr. Léonard concluded the meeting by heaping effusive praiseupon my abilities as a lawyer and off ering to write a glowingletter of recommendation if I requested one. I did not.Later that day, Mr. Léonard issue d a mémorandum whichbanned any "further unauthorized statement . . . regardingour work and our policies." He directed the attorneys to keep ail "discussions of our work and policies within this Department."Thus, the Administration^ officiai attitude boils down to anabsolute ban on any further protest activity. The public is tobe kept in the dark. Law-enforcement décisions are to bemade by John Mitchell, and the test for those décisions issoundness, including the relevant political considérations. Theattorney 's job is to artiçulate and défend the Attorney General's décisions in court, and that obligation applies withoutréférence to one's individual oath of office and the dictâtes ofconscience.As attorneys, I and my former colleagues who remain inthe Civil Rights Division cannot accept this point of view.The Justice Department lawyer's primary obligation must beto the Constitution. That should hold true whether thé attorney is John Mitchell, Jerris Léonard, or Gary Greenberg. Inhis rôle as an offieer of the United States, the Justice Department lawyer represents the public interest. While JerrisLéonard equates that obligation with obédience to the Président and the Attorney General, I and my former colleaguescould not. The Justice Department lawyer is not hired torepresent John Mitchell in court. He is hired to representthe United States.,The ban on future protest by attorneys is unreal. Indeed, itwould be self- déception for John Mitchell or Jerris Léonardto assume that the "massive résistance" in the Civil RightsDivision is over. The revolt may hâve been driven underground, but the attorneys remain within the System. Theyretain their voice and their ability to influence policy fromwithin. They continue to adhère to their view of the law, andthey see their obligation to the public, and under their oathof office, as paramount. The attorneys remain a potent andorganized déterrent ready to act should there be anotherMississippi.Whether or not the revolt achieved its long-range objectives one cannot yet judge. There are indications that in thearea of civil rights, as in other matters, the Attorney Generalis either unaware or contemptuous of the forces which con-flict with the politics of the Southern Strategy. The attorneysin the Civil Rights Division continue to take a hard line inindividual cases. They assume this posture every day in thepleadings and briefs they présent to the Attorney Generaland Mr. Léonard for approval. So long as the Administrationis kept in the position of having to say no— an attitude adoptedso far in only those few cases in which the political pressureswere intense— it is not likely that they can affect the whole-sale retreat on enforcement of the civil rights laws which theAdministration seems ready to permit in return for politicalsupport. But while it is vital that the revolutionaries remainwithin the Division, and while their présence within the System may deter future Mississippi-type décisions, there is somequestion whether their détermination will sustain them forthe next 3 e years. If not, the prospects for even the grudgingenforcement of civil rights laws are bleak indeed. D27Quadrangle ^SfewsFishbein ProfessorshipThe Morris Fishbein Professorship in theHistory of Science and Meclicine has beenestablished at the University of Chicago.The professorship and the new FishbeinCenter for the Study of the History of Scienceand Medicine will be funded from theAnna and Morris Fishbein Fund. The FishbeinFund also will be used to support a sériesof lectures in the history of medicine.Dr. Fishbein has been known for more thanfifty years as one of the world 's outstandingmédical writers and editors. For thirty-sevenyears, including twenty-six years as editor,he was on the editorial staff of the Journal ofthe American Médical Association (1924-61).Born in St. Louis, Missouri, on July 22, 1889,he received a b.s. degree from the Universityof Chicago in 1910 and an m.d. from RushMédical Collège in 191 2. He is the récipientof two honorary degrees— a d. Pharmacydegree from Rutgers, the State Universityof New Jersey, in 1942 and an ll.d. fromFlorida Southern Collège in 1957. TheUniversity of Chicago recently awarded himthe Jesse L. Rosenberger Medal for hïsachievements in public medicine and médicaléducation.A faculty search committee is now seekinga qualified scholar to be named to theprofessorship.Associates ProgramFive journaliste from Chicago, New York City,Newark, N. J., and Memphis, Tennessee,hâve been appointed associâtes of the Centerfor Policy Study of the University ofChicago. The Associates Program is designedto help working journalists broaden theirknowledge of urban problems.The associâtes are working closely withfaculty members doing research and teachingin the urban field. They audit courses dealingwith urban problems and attend weeklyseminars on urban affairs with specialists fromthe faculty and from outside the University.They are also working with such communityaction programs as the Woodlawn MentalHealth Clinic, the Woodlawn Child Health28 Center, the Urban Education Project, andthe Mandel Légal Aid Clinic. In addition, theywill participate in conférences sponsoredby the Center for Policy Study and projectssponsored by the "University's Center forUrban Studies.The Associates Program was created by theCenter in 1968 to help working journalistsunderstand the causes of urban unrestand problems of inner-city life and to enhancetheir ability to write or broadcast about thèsesubjects with more clarity, insight andpersuâsiveness.Applicants for associâtes awards must beemployed by a newspaper, magazine, radioor télévision station or network, be betweenthe âges of twenty-three and thirty-fïve,and be abîe to arrange for leaves of absencefrom^their jobs with the understanding thatthey will return to them when they hâvecompleted the Associates Program at theUniversity.Résident MastersTwo senior faculty members hâve beennamed to the newly created position ofRésident Master.They are.- Wayne C. Booth, the GeorgeM., Pullman Professor of English, to beRésident Master of Woodward Court, 5825South Woodlawn Avenue, and Kenneth J.Northcott, Professor of Older GermanLiterature and Chairman oi the Departmentof Germanie Languages and Iiiteratures, to beRésident Master of Pierce Tower, 5514South University Avenue.In his announcement Président Levi said:"Création of the new position of RésidentMaster and the appointments to it of Boothand Northcott are another step in theUniversity's program to encourage the activeparticipation of faculty members in theCollège House System of the University."Résident Masters will hâve gênerairesponsibility for encouraging the culturaland intellectual programs of their résidenceunits."Commenting on the appointments, RogerH. Hildebrand, Dean of the Collège, said: "Professors Booth and Northcott are two ofthe outstanding personalities on this campus.They are sought out by students andcolleagues because of their warmth, theirwisdom, and their intellectual enthusiasm."Pierce Tower accommodâtes 231 undergraduate men in four units, or houses. Thebuilding is ten stories high and was completedin i960. Woodward Court houses 333 undergraduate students in ûve houses for womenand one house for men. It was completedin 1958.A two-story apartment for Northcott andhis family will be added to Pierce Toweradjacent to its main entrance. Booth and hisfamily will live in an apartment that will beconstructed in the east dining room on thesecond floor of the central unit of WoodwardCourt. Construction on both apartments wasexpected to begin in February.A number of Résident Heads' apartmentshâve already been enlarged during the pastyear to make them suitable for marriedfaculty with children.(While some students hâve objected thatthe money might be better used to improvestudent rooms— soundproofing, création ofmore singles-the Maroon editorialized thatthe "quality and suitability of the two menwho will serve as house masters— WayneBooth and Kenneth Northcott— almost temptsus to leave our roachy but lovable apartmentsand return to the dormitories.")Médical Careers forthe DisadvantagedA million-dollar, six-year program to helpprépare minority and disadvantaged studentsfor careers in medicine has been proposedby a faculty-student committee at theUniversity of Chicago.The report, a year in the making, wasaddressed to Dr. Léon O. Jacobson, dean ofthe University's Division of the BiologicalSciences and the Pritzker School of Medicine.The report proposes that current admissionopportunities be broadened and that thedisadvantaged médical student be offeredspécial support "aimed at overcomingeducational deficiencies, financial problems,or socio-emotional impediments."The report also suggests that a biomédicalcareer conférence for minority and /ordisadvantaged students be conducted in uppergrade centers and high schools "to developthe students' interest in health careersand make them more attainable."Initial efforts would be focused on HydePark High School and Wadsworth UpperGrade Center, and the program would be acollaborative one with the WoodlawnExpérimental School Project.A "Smash"A Dream Play on Othello, a multi médiaadaptation of Shakespeare's drama, re-createdby Virgil Burnett, associate professor ofart and director of the Bergman Gallery,and James O'Reilly, director of UniversityThéâtre, sold out two nights in March at theLaw School Auditorium.Illinois Jail ReformIllinois has the "opportunity of the century"to correct the "squalor of its jails" throughthe Constitutional Convention, according toa report just released by the Center forStudies in Criminal Justice of the Universityof Chicago Law School, entitled Illinois Jails:Challenge and Opportunity for the i^oi's,compiled by Hans W. Mattick, co-directorof the Center, and Ronald W. Sweet, anattorney and director of the Illinois JailsProject.The survey calls on législative bodies toreview statutes and ordinances concerningdrunkenness, gambling, the use of drugs,sexual behavior between consenting adults,vagrancy and other "victimless crimes" withthe possibility of repealing them."To decriminalize such conduct," Mattickand Sweet write, "does not confer socialapproval; it hands it over to the moreappropriate agencies of medicine, publichealth and welfare. The jails of Illinois do notaddress the problems in such behavior, theyactively foster it." Concerning the judiciary and the jails'overcrowded conditions, the survey recom-mended that the Illinois Courts Commissionencourage judges to visit jails and perhapsspend the night in cells. The jails' squalidcondition might make for "a less ready resortto jailing as a disposition," the surveyasserts."The history of Illinois jails," the reportgoes on, "is one of entrenched recalcitrancethat resists nearly ail reform and consults onlyon its own convenience. A comparison offifty-five jails that were surveyed and ratedin 1910 and still existed to be resurveyedand re-rated in 1967-68, resulted in thefollowing assessment: fifteen had experienced'overall degeneration,' twenty-two hadexhibited 'only minor or no improvement,'and only two had merited a rating of'substantial improvement.' "Office of Service OpportunityThe University of Chicago's new Office ofService Opportunity was formed last Augustin an attempt to provide mterested Universitystudents with detailed and professionalinformation regarding volunteer work orpart-time job opportunities in established social welfare , agencies in Chicago. It acts as aclearing house between interested studentsand social service agencies that need studentassistance. The response from the variousagencies has been excellent. Twenty-fiveagencies throughout the city now hâveworking agreements with the oso, requestingas many as 400 students to assist them invarious ways.Among the agencies in which studentvolunteers are now working are the HydePark Neighborhood Club, the Chicago StateHospital, the Illinois State PsychiatrieInstitute, St. Thomas the Apostle ElementarySchool, the University of Chicago Hospitalsand Clinics, Hyde Park-Kenwood publicschools, and the Hyde Park-KenwoodCommunity Conférence.Trainers of TeacherTrainers ProgramA program, sponsored jointly by theUniversity's Graduate School of Educationand the Chicago Board of Education andfunded by a $292,500 grant from the UnitedStates Office of Education, was begun lastfall to Jhelp bridge a serious gap in teachertraining.Known as Trainers of Teacher Trainersprogram (rrr), the project has selected eightteachers from a South Shore School districtwho will study for four quarters at theUniversity, then return to their schools tobecome teacher trainers in résidence. Theywill organize training workshops, work withvarious community organizations, and recruitcommunity leaders and others to take agreater interest and often a direct hand, inimproving the éducation in local classrooms.Kevin A. Ryan, associate professor in theGraduate School of Education and directorof the ttt program, commented on theproject:"Many teachers going into inner-cityschools don't really understand the problemsthey will face, nor the people who live inthe inner cities. We are getting importantsuggestions about the qualifications which ateacher should hâve from housewives, workers,29and the children themselves. They are alsoquite frank in letting us know why theythink their kids aren't being educated in theway they think they should be educated."Our ttt program is an effort to updateteacher éducation, to develop new resourcesfor teacher training, and to interest peopleknown for their accomplishments in the artsand sciences, in business and other fields, totake a more active rôle in the préparationof teachers and the instruction of children."We are trying to train teachers throughthose who train teachers. Put another way, Wewant experienced teachers training thepeople who will train teachers. One of thedeficiencies of our school System has beenthat, once a teacher enters the school System,his training as a teacher ends. We are tryingto remedy that."Sit-in MémorialOn February 2, the Students for ViolentNon Action staged a mock mémorial,complète with mock minister, for last year'ssit-in at the Administration Building. Aboutforty students milled around on the steps ofthe building in the ten-degree cold, laughing,playing kazoos, fînally voting on a "oneminute mémorial, the shortest in history." Inthey went and out they came, exactly oneminute later, shouting "time for lunch, theRévolution is ppstponed!"Taped to the glass doors of the Administration Building was the stern warning:"Any student who takes part in such activitieswill be subject to disciplinary measures, notexcluding expulsion."Genetic TransformationGenetic transformation, the replacement ofa gène or set of gènes for another, is one ofthe ways in which heredity ean be controlled.Although geneticists cannot yet moldhuman progeny, they can control some aspectsof bacterial heredity, according to moîeculargeneticist Arnold W. Ravin.Ravin, professor of biology at the University of Chicago, can détermine successfully the genetic fate of uriborn bacteria byinjecting normal, bacterial cell cultures withgenetic material extracted from bacteria whichhâve acquired, by mutation, a résistanceto antibiotics such as streptomycin anderythromycin.Bacteria growing from cultures receivingthe genetic material, deoxyribonucleic acid(dna), from résistant bacteria also becomerésistant to antibiotics.Ravin, also associate dean of the Divisionof the Biological Sciences, said such transformations provide a way to study the chainof events underlying the passage of gènesfrom one cell to another, and hâve numerousmédical implications as well.For example, genetic defects and the cellularmalfunctions involved in such diseases ascancer and sugar diabètes could somedayconceivably be corrected."With few exceptions," Ravin said,"attempts to produce transformation in higherorganisms hâve not succeeded. However, wethink that the possibility still exists, but theright conditions under which transformationscan occur must be found.""Dr. Spock and the Case ofthe Vanishing Women Jurors"Odds are 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 (onequintillion) to 1 that Judge Francis J. W.Ford of the Fédéral Court of Massachusetts"did something" in the Spock trial to reducethe number of women in his pools ofprospective jurors, or venires, according toHans Zeisel, professor of law and sociologyat the University of Chicago.Zeisel shows that women comprised 15.6percent of 9 venires for that trial while theymade up 29 percent of the 37 venires for theother six judges in the district.Chances of this réduction by almost 50percent happening accidentally are 1 in1,000,000,000,000,000,000, Zeisel writes in"Dr. Spock and the Case of the VanishingWomen Jurors" in the new issue l}f TheUniversity of Chicago Law Review."The conclusion, therefore," Zeisel writes,"is virtually inescapable that the clerk must hâve drawn the venires for the trial judgefrom the central jury box in a fashion thatsomehow systematically reduced the proportion of women jurors."Dr. Spock and the codefendants were trie<and found guilty August 14, 1968. Theconvictions were reversed in January, 1969,by the United States Court of Appeals forthe First Circuit.Indian ConcertsIn late May the Asian Arts Séries of the Committee on Southern Asian Studies will présenttwo concerts. On Friday, May 22, Dr. LalmarMisra, playing vichitra vina, and Jnan PrakashGhosh, on tabla, will perform in a concertof North Indian instrumental music. OnSaturday, May 23, there will be a récital ofCarnatic (South Indian) vocal music withMiss V. Ranganayaki the vocalist and V. Thyagarajan and V. Ranganathan accompanyingher on the violin and mridangam (drum)respectively.Both concerts will be held in the Law SchocAuditorium, un East 6oth Street, beginningat 8:30 p.m. Tickets ($3,00 for gênerai admission, $2.00 for University of Chicagostudents) are available in person in 106 FosteiHall or may be ordered by mail from TheAsian Arts Séries, 106 Foster Hall, 1130 East59th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637.Student ParticipationDean Phil C. Neal of the University ofChicago Law School vigorously attacked theidea of student participation in the governancof law schools in a speech before theAmerican Association of Law Schools. Wiithe disclaimer that his conviction might be"benighted," he said "I see little reason tohope that our current absorption with theformai modes of student involvement in tlgovernance of law schools is a path towardthe improvement of légal éducation. I thinlit is a dreary road that leads to a dead end,one that exacts a heavy toll in time, uses tlleast important talents of our students andfaculty, and cardes us toward an environme30that is more stifling than invigorating."In support of this view he quoted HarryKalven, also a professor at the U of C LawSchool, who has said: "The heart of theactivity— what one studies, thinks about,teaches, does research on, those activitieswhich are the reason for his being at auniversity, are by a proud tradition placedvirtually beyond the reach of governance.Ideally, a university is a collection ofanarchists, each being allowed to pursuetruth in his own way. In a deep sensé, thebetter the university the less there is togovern. And the least interesting aspects ofuniversity life are those which are subject togovernance. The organizational principleof the university . . . is anarchy— the rightkind of anarchy."Witchcraft on CampusHigh noon was hexing hour at HutchinsonGommons one cold February day. Twelvewitches danced around in a circle chantingcurses against Men.We are your secretaries . . . maids . . . wivesWe arise now to reclaim our lives.Untenured, unlistened to, unrespectedUnhired, unhelped, undoneTo défend our sisters against your powerWe witches meet at this hexing hour.And on like that. Under the black hats,white painted faces and blàck cloaks, thewitches were students, graduate studentsprimarily, from the Women's LiberationUnion.PollutionBy 1971, no University of Chicago buildingsin the Hyde Park-Kenwood area will beheated by burning coal, completing aconversion program begun in the fall of 1967to help solve the air pollution program.The announcement was made by GilbertL. Lee, Jr., vice-président for business andfinance. According to Lee, the Universityowns 236 buildings in the area. A total of 118of thèse are heated by the University's steam plant at East 6ist Street and South BlackstoneAvenue. By September, 1970, the steam plantwill be using only gas and oil, not coal.Conversion of the steam plant to gas willcost more than $2,000,000. The annual cost ofheating the main quadrangles by gas will beapproximately $250,000 above that whichit has cost for heating by coal."The University's goal is élimination of airpollution," Lee said. "That goal will beachieved."Vigintuor Number 1The world première of a work by JeanMartinon, former music director of theChicago Symphony Orchestra, was performedby the Contemporary Chamber Players ofthe University of Chicago at a free concertat 8:30 p.m. Friday, February 27, in MandelHall. The work, Vigintuor Number 1, wasconducted by Ralph Shapey, professor ofmusic at the University and director of theContemporary Chamber Players, and wascommissioned in honor of Mr. and Mrs.Edward L. Ryerson. Ryerson is honorarydirector and former chairman of the boardof Inland Steel Co. and Joseph T. Ryerson &Son, Inc., steel manufacturer.Ryerson also is a life trustée of theUniversity and former chairman of its board.Prospective Olympics GymnastA possible member of the 1972 United StatesOlympics team is being groomed at theUniversity of Chicago.He is Ronald Keinigs, nineteen, a sophomorein the Collège of the University, regardedby his coach as the outstanding gymnast toenroll at the University in more than thirtyyears."Ron is in a class by himself," said hiscoach, Bill Simms. "We definitely regard himas a good Olympics prospect if he continuesto show improvement." Next year, CoachSimms plans to point Ron toward the 1971Pan-American games. How he does theremight well détermine his Olympics future,Simms said. Ron Keinigs enrolled at the University inthe autumn of 1968 as a Stagg Scholar. TheUniversity each year sélects three scholar-athletes for the Stagg Scholarship which offersa minimum of full tuition for four years inthe undergraduate Collège. Applicants for thescholarships must be in the top ten per centof their high school class.Victoria's WorldQueen Victoria ruled again for eight weeksof winter quarter.It ail began with a stunning exhibitionof Victorian photographs in Cobb Hall'sBergman Gallery that inspired the director,Virgil Burnett, and an assistant professorof English, Donald Herring, to see whatinterest in Victoriana they could scare up.The resuit was "Victoria's World," acultural séries that brought far-flung professors to Chicago to deliver lectures oneverything from Victorian literature toVictorian medicine, and brought early filmssuch as Alice in Wonderland and Dr. Jekylland Mr. Hyde and old dises of English musichall songs out of the bins of local Victorianabuffs. There were concerts and readings andplays, an "Evening of Gilbert and Sullivan"and an "Evening of Gilbert without Sullivan;Sullivan without Gilbert" (they should hâvestuck together).Had she seen this splendid re-creation ofher world, Victoria would surely not hâvereiterated her famous put-down, "we are notamused." We were.Folk FestivalThe tenth annual Folk Festival sponsoredby the University of Chicago FolkloreSociety was held the last weekend in January.A total of fourteen individual or groupperformers participated in the three-dayfestival. In addition to three evening concertsand ah afternoon one, the festival offeredfree lectures and workshopsN two films, ahootenanny, and a folk-dancing session.The Maroon called the festival "anexhausting oy."-KlQhicago ISooksand <ïjfuthorsChicago Sociology Today 1920- 192 3by Robert E. L. Faris,phB'28, ma' 30, phD'31When founder-president William RaineyHarper surveyed ail knowledge in the mannerof the virtuosos of the Renaissance and theeighteenth century, to see how he mightshape "the greatest university the world hasever known," ail forms of practical wisdomalso fell within his purview. Before any othermajor U.S. institution of higher learningcontemplated the same, Harper rescuedsociology from the nineteenth century moralphilosophers by luring Albion WoodburySmall away from his presidency at ColbyCollège to establish a department of sociologywhen the University opened its doors in1892. The department Dean Small built notonly dominated American sociology, but heldworld prééminence in this science throughthe middle 1930's. In a slim but well researchedvolume, Robert Faris, chairman of theUniversity of Washington's Department ofSociology, son of the prominent sociologistEllsworth Faris, has put together a history ofthis social science as it grew and flourishedin Chicago under the leadership of such menas Robert E. Park, Ernest W. Burgess,William Ogburn, Louis Wirth and EllsworthFaris. For our génération, in a great urbancrisis, it is particularly useful for its outline/ ofearly urban behavior and the developmentof social psychology. For the professionalsocial science researcher, a summary ofdoctoral and masters dissertations in sociologysubmitted at the University of Chicago from1893 to 1935 is appended to the volume.The Lives of William Bentonby Sidney Hyman,Senior Çellow of theAdlai Stevenson Instituteof International AffairsIt is hard to imagine a subject for a biographymore idéal than William Benton. He haslived not one life, as the title peints out, but many lives. He has been rich and he has beenpoor. He has been a salesman, a writer, abusinessman, an administrator, a politician, astatesman.He has lived in the "best of times, the worstof times:" he spans the twentieth centuryexactly.He is a witty man, a charming man, anirascible man, a self-knowledgeable man.He is an articulate, prolific man who haskept voluminous records, in ail forms, of hismany -lives. His biographer thus had anenviable task: a splendid subject who had ina sensé done much of the work for hisbiographer.But it is also hard to imagine a biographermore idéal than Sidney Hyman. A writer ofgrâce and fluency, Hyman has the intelligenceto grasp the intricacies of the financial andpolitical worlds and the ability to conveythose intricacies clearly. He has a dramaticsensitivity for the telling scène. He has anintuitive gift of synthesis, the ability to bringtogether seemingly incompatible éléments.He has insight into the complexities of thehuman being and the wisdom and restraint notto interlard those insights with embarrassing,sentimental or Freudian interprétations.Benton was born the son of a poor,academically undistinguished language professor and a fiercely ambitious, intellectualmother. After grim childhood winters spentat a military school in Minnesota and grimmersummers homesteading in Montana, Bentonfound himself a scholarship student at Yale.He spent his years there something of anoutsider, too poor to afford any social life,but working hard in économies, running thehumor magazine (prophetically, running itsnewsstand circulation up to the largest in anycollège) and debating on the debating team(again prophetically) with Robert MaynardHutchins, also a graduate of the class of '21.Fifteen years later, after steadily escalatingsuccesses in business and advertising, Bentonleft the flourishing Benton and BowlesAgency he had founded, a rich man. Thebusiness world was astounded. What for?He had other lives to lead. He wasn't sure which life at the time heleft Benton and Bowles, but Robert MaynardHutchins was sure. Hutchins, now in theprocess of restructuring the University ofChicago as part of a greater scheme forrestructuring higher éducation, needed apractical man of affairs to help him, and sohe convinced Benton to corne to the University to serve as Vice Président. And soBenton did, part time, for the next eightyears, with incredible energy and enthusiasm.Soaking up the "intellectual^ atmosphère likea blotter" ail the while, Benton applied thetechniques he had learned and /or invented inthe business world to the world of theUniversity: the use of alumni opinion surveys,the expansion and professionalization of theUniversity's educational radio programs, thebusinesslike acquisition of the EncyclopaediaBritannica, the promotion of Hutchins' GreatBooks Seminar into a massive adult éducationeffort. Perhaps his most génial public relationsalchemy he applied to the "Walgreen case."When Charles Walgreen, the drug store chainowner, charged the University with beinga hotbed of Communism and the newspaperswere pummeling the University breathless,Benton went to Walgreen and persuadedhim that if there were indeed defects in theUniversity, there were very simple therapeuticmeasures to be taken. And so the WalgreenFoundation for the Study of AmericanInstitutions was born, and Benton had notonly changed an enemy into a friend butearned the University half a million dollarsas well!While Benton's life at the University is ofcourse fascinating to anyone who has everbeen connected with it, the best part of thebook deals with what might be called lifenumber four, his life as the Senator fromConnecticut. For Benton, this was a short life(1949-52) but it was an exciting and, onemay say, a happy one. He saw the Senate as aplace "so poignantly human that it bore noresemblance to the facelessness government issupposed to hâve. . . . It was dignified anddisorderly, aristocratie and plebeian, harshand gêner ous, majestically indiffèrent and32sensitive to the slightest breeze. . . ; Perhapsthat is why he came to love the place so."It is in thèse pages on the Senate, in theportraits of his friends in battle, Lehman andHumphrey and Fulbright, in the story ofBenton's lonely and courageous and dramaticdenunciation of Joseph McCarthy that TheLives -of William Benton has its finestmoments. There is a passage on Benton'srelationship to young John Kennedy that, inan oblique way, is one of the most movingcomments ever written on the assassinatedPrésident.Happily and uniquely The Lives of WilliamBenton does not end with the obligatorygraveyard scène. It ends instead on a joyous.occasion on February i, 1968, when theUniversity of Chicago awarded him not anhonorary degree, for those are reserved forscholars (one of the few lives Benton has notled), but with the William Benton Medal,for his many services to the University as wellas to his country. It ends with the realizablehope that even at seventy, Benton may stilldo enough more to merit yet anotherbiography. Otherwise, this would indeed bethe définitive biography.Mr. Sammler's Planetby Saul Bellow,professor of EnglishTo just what literary school does SaulBellow belong? asked a young foreign studentto whom literary Catégories are Important.Well, mind racing wildly, one has to say theschool of the picaresque.Not so bad an answer because indeed agood case can be made. The Adventures ofAugie March, for example, is a textbookexample of the school— a roguish hero engagesin a séries of humorous épisodes that takeshim from place to place, country to country,and ultimately from truth to truth. Hendersonthe Rain King also qualifies: again a roguishhero roaring from adventure to adventurein an atmosphère that is at once farcical, satirical, at times hilarious, but ultimatelyserious.It was with Herzog, six years ago, thatsomething happened to Bellow's picaresquenovel. Herzog was less a novel than a forumfor what were then Bellow's political andphilosophical préoccupations. Mr. Sammler'sVianet is a metaphysical exercise in stasis.The odyssey is now confined to a bus ridefrom the 42 nd Street library to ColumbusCircle, to Riverside Drive, a limousine rideout to New Rochelle. The roguish hero isnow a ravaged old man. The adventuresbelong to the younger people aroundSammler, to whom he usually replies, I don'twant to hear about it. In place of hilarityand satire we hâve the metaphysics of aphilosophe.This is not to say that Mr. Sammler'splanet is devoid of life or lust. Mr. Sammler'scousin Angela is a nymphomaniac. Otheryoung relatives, ail loony in their own ways,ail full of hair brained schemes and plans,badger him constantly with life and embroilhim in intrigues. Sammler spots a blackpickpocket who exposes him to a bizarresexual encounter.Sammler's memories are vivid: pre warmemories of life as a journalist in England,erudite friend of H. G. Wells and theBloomsbury Set. Memories of wartime yearsin Poland as a Jew, the murder of his wife,life in the camps, the blood lust of killing aGerman soldier when his "heart felt lined withbrilliant, rapturous satin."Sammler's vision, though with one eye, issharp and clear. He sees and observes inrich photographie détail. He is not blind tothe legs and thighs and breasts of thewomen around him. Yet Sammler lives instasis. "He had had as much trouble in lifeas he wanted." Not for him the greatexpenditure of literary energy pressed onhim by his daughter. Not for him a passionateinvolvement with life. Not for him thevoyage to the moon that was even then takingplace. Like his old cracked shoes, he "hadhad it," He had not survive d the Naziholocjiust, he says, he just lasted. There is a very great différence. He is preoccupied withdeath.Yet paradoxically it is a confrontation withdeath that makes him know that this is nottrue. His nephew Gruner, who had broughthim to America out of the death pits ofPoland, lies dying in the hospital, and asSammler tries to care for Gruner at the end,he realizes that he has "corne back." He lovesand therefore he has survived. And so perhapswill humanity.So Mr. Sammler's Planet seems to be apicaresque novel after ail. A picaresque novelin reverse. Sammler proceeds backwardsthrough the terrible adventures of his lifearriving finally at "the truth of it— that we ailknow, God, that we know, that we know,we know, we know."It is a triumphal conclusion for Sammlerwho has spent his life with his books, hisstudies, his metaphysics, his lectures, trying toknow, trying to know, and yet somehow not.Mr. Sammler's Planet has some of thehumor too of the picaresque novel, the wit socharacteristic of the Bellow novel. There isa wild, lovely humor in the description ofthe loony d oings of Sammler's relatives, in hisludicrous adventure with his friend thepickpocket.Yet it is a strangely mournful, elegiac bookfor a man so young as Bellow to hâvewritten. It reads like a last novel; may itnot be so; it is the finest he has everwritten.33ProfileNoël B. Gerson has written one hundredbooks. Who's Who in America has neverseen fit to acknowledge his existence, but onehundred books are one hundred books.He was sitting in his hôtel, the AmbassadorEast, in Chicago, talking to New York, ashe did intermittently during the next threehours. He was irt Chicago to celebrate thepublication of his one hundredth book, TR,a biographical novel about Teddy Roosevelt,and was concerned about the way Chicagowas receiving its most prolific native son.It had so far received him with a cornucopiusbasket of fruit (opened) and two bottles ofliquôr (unopened) but as yet not muchelse by the way of attention, so we settleddown to try to remedy that situation.Gerson had pretty much lost his ties withChicago, since the death of his parents, butit was Chicago that f ormed him and the -University that trained him. His father SamGerson, the gênerai manager of the oldShubert Theater, while not being a collègeman himself, was eager for his son tomatriculate, so eager in fact that he got hisson started off as something of a Universityof Chicago "Whiz Kid." Noël Gerson enteredU High at the âge of twelve on scholarshipand the Collège at sixteen. It was by nowthat spécial and unique time, the HutchinsEra(i93i) and Gerson thrived on it anddefied it at the same time.(It was at about this time too that Gerson'salso defiiant cousin, Milton Mayer, the author,who had dropped out of the Collège, returnedto work as what he uneuphemistically definedas "Toady," or spécial assistant, to thePrésident.) Gerson thrived on the Universitybecause "they taught me how to think.""They" seem to hâve been primarily ThorntonWilder who taught a composition coursethat was a "weird hodge podge" the basicwisdom of which was that one ought to tearone's Writing up most of the time, whichcasts another astonishing light on Gerson'slater herculean productivity. "They" seemsalso tô hâve been Hutchins himself, withwhom Gerson took one of the first GreatBo*>Vs seminars that was ever given at the University of Chicago. "They" was also' JamesWeber ("Teddy") Linn, another professorof English, and a most popular figure oncampus greatly resembling. Théodore Roosevelt, hence the nickname.He was défiant of the atmosphère of theHutchins era in that though Hutchins took adim view of ail extracurricular activities,not just football, Gerson cjid not let hiswriting stop with his composition courses.He wrote a regular column for the Maroonand edited it as well; he wrote a collègearticle for the Morning Herald Examiner, hewrote dozens of plays for Blackfriars, andacted in them as well. With ail this, he stillhad his ma in English at the âge of twenty.In 1935 he was sent by the Hearst papers toEurope where he remained for two years,traveling around, to London and Paris, everywriter's dream, and so it was. In 1937 hereturned to Chicago to work for radio, by1939 finding himself the vice président incharge of programing at wgn."Let us draw a merciful veil over the nextfive years," he said, shifting to another positionthat made the photographer happier. "I hopeyour pictures won't turn out as grisly as most.Are you sure you won't hâve an apple?"The five years we were being asked to veilwere years working in military intelligence,the o.s.sIn 1945 he moved to New York andreturned at last to writing, again for radioand later for télévision. Those were good daysfor soap opéra; there was "Light of theWorld" (the day-to-day story of the Bible)and "David Harum" and "Front Page Farrell."He kept a bulletin board with his characters'names on it because it was the only way"to keep them ail straight."But he still hadn't really gotten started, nota line of the one hundred books that he wasto write had been written. That career waslaunched only in 1949, in the 21 Club, thescène of countless such launchings, when hewas handed a check and told to Write a bookabout colonial America, which he did.One hundred books ought to be publishers'hyperbole. In thjs case it is not. His books hâve been mainly historical novels andromances: Savage Gentleman, The Cumber-land Rifles, The Highwayman, The Emperor'sLadies. He does his research at night, writesfifteen pages a day regularly, and sometimestakes two weeks off to condense and rewrite apast book into a juvénile. If his new book,TR, historically accurate for the most part,does not completely illuminate the contra-.dictions of Roosevelt's character ("Théodoreis the only man on earth who can walk inopposite directions simultaneously, with a surefirm step," sâid Henry Adams) it is livelyreading, partly thanks to copious quotationsfrom Roosevelt himself.TR, Gerson says, is his last historical novel,not because he has exhausted ail historicalsubjects, though that might almost seem to bethe case. It is because the genre no longerinterests him. He is more interested in thingscontemporary. He has written, with others,Sex and the Adult Woman, Sex and theMature Man. He is now working on a novelcalled Warhead, a study of a munitionscommunity. Though he insists on assumingthe rôle of the philistine ("when Little OldLadies ask me in adenoidal voices where î getmy inspir-a-tion, I say 'I look at my check-book' ") , he clearly was inspired by thethème of Warhead.When we urged him to corne out to seethe University of Chicago, so changed sincehis day, he said he was afraid he'd be tootbusy. "I would hâve corne if they'd asked meto speak. But they didn't." He did promiseto work on getting his children to cornehowever. He failed with his eldest daughter,who is at Pembroke, but will "activelyproselytize" his eight year old son andthirteen year old daughter. "The ten year oldis the Bennington type, Fm afraid." And helaughed at his petite wife in Pucci tights lyingadmiringly on the bed. "Corne Sweetheart,we must go. WeVe got to get to that TalkShow."¦*¦-»• -7 HiiSJ fftffiI % % % "éfifi,<L/flumni D^ewsClub Events Class NotesBaltimore On Apnl 16, Jeremy R Azrael,professor of political science, spoke on thetopic "After the Thaw Freedom and Coercionin the USSR " Richard L Mandel served aschairman for the meetingChicago Chicago area alumni were invited toA Dream Play on Othello perf ormed m theLaw School auditorium on March 1 3 The playis a multi-media adaption produced by JamesO'Reilly, director of the University and CourtThéâtres, and Virgil Burnett, director of theBergman Gallery A réception followed theperformanceMembers of the Ementus Club, alumniwho received their degrees from the University more than fifty years ago, enjoyed a dayof activities on campus Apnl 4 Thev gatheredat the Quadrangle Club for coffee, then tooka tour of campus which featured the newHenry Hinds Laboratory for the GeophysicalSciences They returned to the QuadrangleClub for lunch followed by a talk by RobertN Clayton, professor of chemistry andgeophysical sciences and master of the PhysicalSciences Collegiate Division Professor Claytonis one of the principal scientists conductingresearch on the moon samples ^gathered bythe Apollo 1 1 missionKansas City George R Hughes, directorof the Oriental Instruite, mtroduced andcommented on the pnze-wmning film Thev Egyptologists at a meeting held on Apnl 8Philip Metzger served as chairman for theprogramLos Angeles On March 19, Walter LWalker, vice*president for planning andassociate professor at the School for SocialService Administration, spoke to alumniat a dinner held at the Wilshire Hyatt HouseThe topic of his talk was "The Universityand the Community " Alexander Pope is theprésident of the Los Angeles clubNew York On Apnl 6, alumni were invitedto a pnvate showing of the work of pamterJack Beal at the Allan Frumkm GalleryOn Apnl 13, Léonard B Meyer, chairman of the Department of Music, spoke on "ArtToday— and Tomorrow^" A cocktail hourpreceded the program A David Silver isprésident of the New York clubOmaha On February 19, the Omaha SchoolsCommittee hosted a réception for local highschool principals and counselors at the Wood-men Tower Anthony T G Pallett, directorof the Office of Collège Admissions and Aid,and Fred R Brooks, assistant director, wereon hand to meet alumni and their guestsMr and Mrs William Oostenbrug are chair-men of the Omaha Schools CommitteePhiladelphia Jeremy R Azrael, professor ofpolitical science, spoke to alumni at a meetingheld on Apnl 15 His topic was "After theThaw Freedom and Coercion m the USSR "Max Schiff served as chairman for the meetingPhoenix Richard G Stern, novelist andprofessor of English, discussed his latest novel1968 with alumni on March 19 RichardTotman is président of the Phoenix clubPittsburgh Edward W Rosenheim, Jr ,professor and associate chairman of theDepartment of English, asked alumni thequestion "Can Literaçy Survive?" at a meetingheld at Man's Restaurant on March 9M Thomas Murray, président of the Pittsburgh club, served as chairman for the meetingand also reported on the Alumni Cabinetmeeting which he attended on February 28and March 1San Francisco Walter L Walker, viceprésident for planning and associate professorat the School of Social Service Administration,spoke to alumni on the topic "The Universityand the Community" on March 20 A réceptionfollowed the program Président of theSan Francisco club is Alan Maremont fj T Due to the generosity of Ida LongGoodman, phB'21, AM'34, the town ofSt John, Kansas, has a new, combined eity andschool hbrary— the Ida Long GoodmanMémorial Library The idea of endowmga hbrary came to Mrs Goodman from insightsgamed durmg a teaching career which lasteduntil her retirement to St John m 1941"I recognized when a child was called 'dull,'it was because of a reading problem Myphilosophy is that therjs are no dull children "She celebrated her eighty-first birthday mDecemberWilliam W Watson, SB'21, SM'22, pfiD'24,professor ementus at Yale and noted atomicenergy scientist, was visiting lecturer atClinch Valley Collège (Va ) m FebruaryHis visit, sponsored by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the AmericanInstitute of Physics, was part of a broad,nationwide program to stimulate interest inphysics Professor Watson, who durmgWorld War II participated in the developmentof the atomic bomb at UC, retired fromYale in 1968 but is still actively at workon a research project mvolvmg isotopeséparationIn Memoriam Carroll Lane Fenton, SB'21,phD'26, A T G Remmert, SB'21, MD'25O A Zelma George, prm'24, prominent blackl sociologist, educator, diplomat., hu-manitanan, singer and actress, was guestspeaker at the Engineers Week banquetFebruary 27 m Charleston, W Va Executivedirector of the Cleveland Job Corps Centerfor Women, Dr George is récipient of the1969 Edwin T Dahlberg Peace Award and theDag Hammarskjold Award for contributionto international understandmg m 1961In Memoriam Simon G Kramer, AB'24,AM'26s} r* C Harrison Dwight, SM'25, is author3 of The Ftrst 75 Years of the PhysicsDepartment, a history of that departmentat the University of Cincinnati covenng theyears 1 883-1 958H Marjorie Caroli Johnson, phB'25, JD'27,a senior member of the Belvidere (111 ) law36firm Johnson, Johnson and Tobin, is nowlisted in Who's Who of American Women.Léo S. Shapiro, phB'25, has retired as viceprésident of advertising and sales promotionof Alpha Beta Acme Markets, La Habra, Calif .He had been with the firm since 1958.In Memoriam: Mari Bachrach DeCosta,phB'25; W. Norman Mitchell, AM'25.^ f\ Robert E. Landon, SB'26, phD'29, writesthat he will retire from Mobil OilCorp. to réside in Englewood, Colo. at3460 S. Race Street.s}*J S. L. Edelstein, pfiB'27, JD'29, gênerai/ counsel and corporate secretary ofArthur Rubloff and Co., Chicago-based realestate firm, has been named a vice président ofthe company.Arthur J. Lauff, phB'27, has been electedto the board of trustées of the PassavantMémorial Area Hospital Association, Jackson-ville, 111. Mr. Lauff is senior vice présidentand director of the Farmers State Bank andTrust Co. of Jacksonville.^ f\ Louis E. Evans, AM'29, has retiredX after forty-three years of social servicework. During the last seventeen of thèse he hasbeen with the Community Chest of AlleghenyCounty (Pa.), most recently as associateexecutive director. His plans for retirementinclude a few "busman's holidays" for theChest on a consultant basis.Nicholas J. Matsoukas, pliB'29, founder andexecutive secretary of "The 13 againstTriskedecaphobia," recently staged a per- sf ormance in défiance of superstition in theheart of Times Square in New York City.On Friday, February 13, at the i3th minuteof the i3th hour, he broke a mirror and, afterdiscarding any accumulated good luck charms,proceeded to walk under a ladder (incidentallybringing his total of mirrors broken in the lineof anti-superstition duty to more than 500and compounding for himself over 3,500 yearsof bad luck) . Proclaiming that mankind'sgreatest burden is superstition, Mr. Matsoukascites the findings of a Harvard anthropologistthat each Friday the i3th the U.S. suffers an économie loss of a quarter of a billiondollars through employée absenteeism, failureto concïude business transactions, an overallletdown in financial and business activity, etc.Mr. Matsoukas was born June 13, 1903, the1 3th child in a family of 1 3 children.i^ (~\ E. Harold Hallows, JD'30, was swornJ into office for a new ten-year termas chief justice of the Wisconsin SuprêmeCourt in January. Appointed to the court in1958 by the Wisconsin governor, he waselected to a full ten-year term in 1959 andhas been chief justice since January, 1968.Howard L. Willet, phB'30, président of theWillet Co. and Willet Motor Coach Co., forthe seventh consécutive year has been namedchairman of the Chicago Easter Seal FundDrive. Mr. Willet, who is chairman of theboard of the Easter Seal Society, is a formerwinner of the citation for public serviceof the University of Chicago.3T Eunice Verna Flock, SM'31, retiredin October from her posts of consultantin biochemistry in the Mayo Clinic andprofessor of biochemistry in the MayoGraduate School of Medicine, University ofMinnesota at Rochester. During her careerDr. Flock carried out extensive studies onphosphorus compounds in the liver of the ratand dog, the lymphatic System in its relationship to the liver, the metabolism of thyroxin •and related compounds and the metabolismof amino acids, particularly in hepatectomizedanimais.Robert B. Mayer, phB'31, président ofRothschild Enterprises and Rothschild Proper-ties in Chicago and already a trustée of LakeForest (111.) Collège, has been elected to theboard of trustées of Kenyon Collège, Gambier,Ohio. Mr. Mayer, whose collection of contemporary painting and sculpture is widelyacclaimed, serves as a member of the purchasing committee of twentieth century artat the Art Institute of Chicago and as treasurerand board member of Chicago's Muséum ofContemporary Art.In Memoriam: Olga Massias Gekas, pfiB'31,AM'45. ^ r\ Léo Segall, phB'32, JD'34, senior partnerJ in the Chicago law firm of Asher,Greenfield, Gubbins, and Segall, has beenelected to the board of directors of the Homefor Destitute Crippled Children, an affiliateof the University of Chicago hospitals andclinics.Minoru Tabuchi, AM'32, is the first Japaneseto be appointed vice président for financialaffairs in the twenty-one year history ofInternational Christian University in Tokyo.Ail of Mr. Tabuchi's predecessors hâve beenAmericans. Previously manager of the TokyoBureau of the Journal of Commerce, he isa member of the Working Committee of theUnited Nations Industrial DevelopmentOrganization and a trustée of the InternationalSociety of Economies and the Japan Societyof Economie Policy.In Memoriam: Ezra J. Camp, SM'32, pfiD'35.^ ^ Gardner Abbott, phB'33, has beenJ J5 named vice président in the commercialbanking department of the LaSalle NationalBank, Chicago. Mr. Abbott has served asprésident and chairman of Tractor SupplyCo. Industries.Reuben B. Gaines, MD'33, a urologist, hasbeen appointed to the médical staff ofCommunity Hospital in Geneva, 111. He isalso on the staff of Illinois Masonic Hospitalin Chicago.In Memoriam: Ruth E. Bradshaw, phB'33.^ A Donald M. Typer, AM'34, who retiredJy 1" recently from the presidency of theMississippi Valley Collège Association, hasaccepted a position with Robert E. NelsonAssociates, Inc., Elmhurst, 111., as consultantin the field of collège administration.In Memoriam: Rundle Donald- Campbell,MD'34; Paul G. Tobin, MD'34.^ F* Robert Holcomb Pease, phB'35, MBA'47,J*J new président of the Mortgage BankersAssociation, was profiled in the Decemberissue of The Mortgage Banker in an accountrunning from the days of his childhood inBaraboo, Wisc, when he had a job runningerrands for the tiger and éléphant trainers of37Ringling Bros. Circus, which headquarteredthere during the winter, on up to his présent,many-faceted career as mortgage banker,real estate executive, active participant incivic affairs, conscientious church worker, andavid sportsman. In 1952, Mr. Pease andhis wife, Esther Cook, phB'27, received fromthe University of Chicago the first CitizehsAward for Civic Accomplishment everawarded to a couple. The Peases live inHinsdale, 111.'î \\ Jay Berwanger, AB'36, has been namedJ by the Football Writers Associationof America to the All-Time All-Americaintercollegiate football team and was intro-duced with his All-Time teammates at theannual Sugar Bowl classic on New Year's Day.In honor of Mr. Berwanger's sélection, theChevrolet Co. has presented UC with ascholarship in his namè.Garrett Hardin, SB'36, professor of biologyat the University of California at Santa ¦=Barbara, spoke recently at a gênerai meetingof the American Association of UniversityWomen held in Santa Barbara on "The Crueltyof Holding Life Sacred," an introductionto the problems of évolution.Louis R. Miller, AB'36, JD'37, has beennamed vice président of Armour and Co.He will continue to serve as gênerai counciland secretary of the firm.Lucy Bellegay Reum, AB'36, is vice chairman of the législative committee for theIllinois Constitutional Convention. Mrs. Reumis active in the Leagùe of Women Votersand the American Association of UniversityWomen and has served as gop state committee-woman for her congressional district.^ W Andrew P. Dunlop, SB'38, director ofJ chemical research arid development atthe Quaker Oats Company 's John StuartResearch Laboratories in Chicago, is one ofthree récipients of this year's Fredus N. PetersAward for outstanding achievement in thefirm's research and development program. Heis inventor or co-inventor of some thirty-sevenpatents and co-authored The Furans, a bookconsidered to be tops in this field of chemistry. Nicholas J. Letang, SB'38, phD'40, has beenpromoted to assistant gênerai manager of theorganic chemicals department of the Du PontCo. in Wilmington, Del. He has been withDu Pont since 1940.Karl A. Qlsson, AM'38, phD'48, hasannounced his résignation, effective August 31,as président of the North Park Collège andTheological Seminary, Chicago, in order todévote himself to the search for "newapproaehes to the problems of Christianhigher éducation."M. Gordon Tiger, AB'38, has been nominatedfor promotion to Class Two in the ForeignService of the United States by PrésidentNixon. The promotion resulted from therecommendation by the 23rd Foreign ServiceSélection Boards.In Memoriam: Ellis Coffin Dwinell, phB'38;Thomas Howard Henderson, AM'38, phD'46.^r\ Daniel Glaser, AB'39, AM'47, phD,54»J y has joined the faculty pf the Universityof Southern California as a professor ofsociology. An authority on crime and narcoticsaddiction, Dr. Glaser for the last eighteenmonths has been director of research for theNew York State Narcotic Addiction ControlCommission, while also serving on the facultyof Rutgers University.Linnea C. Young, AB'39, nas Deen namedsenior executive of the Kemper InsuranceGroup where she heads the data processingdata control loss entry department. She hasbeen with Kemper since 1940.A f% William H. Easton, phD'40, professor¦ * of geological sciences at the University of Southern California, is the new président of the Paleôntological Society. Duringhis term in office, Dr. Easton will sponsor anexamination of the training of paleontologistswhich should provide more effective applications of paleontology in such fields as oil andgas exploration. "Development of practicallyail oil fields dépends directly or indirectlyupon paleontology," he commented. Arecognized authority on coral reefs* Dr.Easton is an accomplished skin and Scubadiver. James W. Harding, mba^o, executive viceprésident of the Kemper, Insurance Group,is chairman-elect of the Bank of Chicago, asubsidiary of KempercOj -Inc., a holding com-pany providing financial services in theUnited States and foreign markets. Mr.Harding has been associated with the KemperInsurance companies since 1940.A sy Félix Reichmann, AM'42, will retire1 in June after twenty-three years atCornell University where he is assistantdirector of libraries. Acclaimed f or bringingthe Cornell libraries "out of the Dark Agesinto modem times," he supervised themonumental job of switching Cornell froma homemade cataloguing system to the Libraryof Congress method. With an expertiseextending into ail f acets of the world of books—from the manuf acturing of paper to the salesand dissémination of the finished product—Mr. Reichmann has been described bycolleagues as "a complète bookman."jA f\ Anita Ford Allen, àm'46, wasI chosen in January as président of theWashington, D.C. Board of Education, thecity's only elected body. Mrs. Allen, appointedto the board in 1967 ànd winner of an at-largeseat in the first school board élection inNoverhber, 1968, wants "radical changes" inthe school system, but opposes the disruptivetactics advocated by a more militant factionof the board. She is employed by the U.S.Office of Education as head of the technicalassistance branch of the compensatoryéducation division.Arthur A. Cohen, AB'46, am'48, founder andformer président of Meridian Books, isauthor of The Myth of the Judéo-ChristianTradition, released in January by Harper andRow. In the book, which is a group ofessays written over a period of twenty years,Mr. Cohen challenges the existence of sucha "tradition." Christians and Jews, he says,to the extent that they are seriously Christiansand seriously Jews, are theological enemies.Jewel Stradford Lafontant, jd*46, seniorpartner in the Chicago law firm of Stradford,Lafontant, Gibson, Fisher, and Cousins, has3»been elected to the board of directors ofthe Home for Destitute Crippled Children,an affiliate of the University of Chicagohospitals and clinics. A member of the IllinoisCommission on the Status of Women and atrustée of Lake Forest Collège, Mrs. Lafontantwas recently appointed to the United StatesCommission on International Educational andCultural Affairs by Président Nixon.Wesley H. Tille y, AM'46, phD'64, will leaveNotre Dame Collège in N.Y. where he iscurrently chairman of the division ofhumanities to assume the vice presidency foracadémie affairs at the new Stockton Collège(Atlantic City, N. J.) when it opens itsdoors in September, 1971.In Memoriam: Leslie A. Gross, phB'46,jD'49; Bertram S. Kraus, am'4&, phD'49./A *J Alan J. Garber, phB'47, président of1 / the Crawford Department Stores,Chicago and Rolling Meadows, has beenelected to the board of directors of the Bankof Rolling Meadows.Noël E. LaSeur, sb'47, pIid^, professor ofmeteorology at Florida State University,has been elected to a three-year term on theCouncil of the American MeteorologicalSociety.Lyman C. Peck, SM'47, professor of mathe-matics at Miami University in Ohio, isauthor of Basic Mathematics for Managementand Economies, just released by the CollègeDivision of Scott, Foresman and Co. Thebook, Dr. Peck's fourth published work,provides a "survey approaçh" to mathematicsfor students who will be specializing in otherfields, particularly business.A W Aubrey P. Altshuller, sb'48, directorl of the division of chemistry and physicsof the National Air Pollution ControlAdministration in Cincinnati, has been elected1970 chairman of the American ChemicalSociety's Division of Water, Air and WasteChemistry ..Roscoe R. Braham, Jr., SM'48, phD'51,director of the Cloud Physics Laboratory,Department of the Geophysical Sciences atthe University of Chicago and professor of meteorology, was elected to a three-yearterm on the Council of the AmericanMeteorology Society. Professor Brahamwas in charge of the Weather Bureau'sThunderstorm Project following WorldWar II, and was a member of the NationalScience Foundation Advisory Panel, onWeather Modification.Lyle D. Calvin, SB'48, chairman of the1Department of Statistics School of Science atOregon State University, has been appointedto the Epidemiology and Biometry TrainingCommittee of the National Institute ofGeneral Médical Sciences, a component ofthe National Institutes of Health.Gordon Donaldson, MBA'48, an authorityon financial management and a member of theHarvard Business School faculty since 1955,was recently elected the first Willard ,Prescott Smith Professor.Robert H. Snyder, phD'48, has beenappointed director of product reliability forUniroyal Tire Co. With Uniroyal since1942, Mr. Snyder is a fellow of the AmericanInstitute of Chemists and was once chairmanof the Détroit Rubber and Plastics Group.Stephen B. Wood, phB'48, AM'54, phD'64,has been named to the new position of assistantvice président for académie affairs at theUniversity of Rhode Islaiid.A Ç\ George P. Cressman, phD'49, director1/ of the Weather Bureau, EnvironmentalScience Services Administration, Silver Spring,Md., has been elected to a three-year termon the Council of the American MeteorologicalSociety.Richard A. Dimpfl, MBA'49, has beenelected secretary of the corporation of UnitedAir Lines, with headquarters in Elk GroveTownship, 111. Mr. Dimpfl, whose associationwith United began in 1947 as a job analyst,is a member of the American Bar Associationand Phi Delta Thêta.B. A. Hindmarch, MBA'49, has retired asdirector of industrial relations for AmericanSteel Foundries to accept a faculty positionat Purdue University. He has been with asffor.twenty-seven years.Watts S. Humphrey, Jr., SB'49, MBA'51, has been named director of the ibm Corp.Systems Development Division Laboratoriesin Glendale Drive, West Endicott, N.Y.Mr. Humphrey holds several patents incomputer design and is the author of SwitchingCircuits with Computer Applications.In Memoriam: Elïzabeth Langford Green,AB'49, AM'50.[*r\ Albert Hunsicker, phD'50, head of3 the department of psychology atBradley University in Peoria, 111., has receivedthe Putnam Award for excellence. Theaward, consisting of a $500 cash award anda certificate of merit, is presented annually toan outstanding member of the Bradleyfaculty to provide stimulation for furthergrowth and development. Before coming toBradley in 1962, Professor Hunsicker taughtin rural high schools, had positions at KansasUniversity and the University of Chicago,and served as psychologist at différenthospitals and schools and with the U.S.Army.Erwin H. Kitzrow, AB'50, am'6i, will leavehis position as dean of faculty at EmmaWillard School, Troy, N.Y., in July tôbecome headmaster of Albany Academy forGirls, the oldest chartered school for girlsin the U.S. Mr. Kitzrow will be the firstmaie headmaster of the Albany Academysince 1880.5T VERN L. BULLOUGH, MA'51, PllD'54,professor of history at San FernandoState Collège and président of the facultythere, has been chosen from among the11,000 professors teaching in the Californiastate collège system as one of two récipientsof this year's Trustées' Outstanding ProfessorAward. Dr. Bullough is on the board ofdirectors of the American Civil LibertiesUnion of Southern Calif . and was f ounder ofthe Fair Housing Council of San FernandoValley.Patsy Takemoto Mink, JD'51, (Démocratie)représentative from Hawaii and chairmanof a House spécial éducation subcommittee,testified in] January before the SenateJudiciary Committee that the Carswell39àoSo. oo. ano .S<n -grn gctf <s>s I•s °w .2J J33 "oV 3S 2.. a> Swo ge 3o "" Bdoci* Se aUS <41 §.S 13S h.3 s« ot sH < T3OS -o°és "pt-i a>«- Cif se g*5-1c *Si CS <U "JF, •-'u uo OS 3 M SOS00 y.,— O2 a*"* w)M-l .2o oen.2 <n(J Ovë "SVS CA1 «o G.2 <na oOS o u«Qd ao. o a.oo «x55 i s •S Onuai»! ef'SesS"S•acesë °2 a ^¦g s<Il - •o o•S g3 "S60 <._,a o5 2Q o** «- Ôa h¦S -S «8 a t.2 °§*- Ses Oua * a•acesPi PU c-> US^ J3¦o yr! ™e °S S a .28 f« Q2 aS "g00 ~u t;U O a» .s3 .£:co§b" QuS T>3 c«u-a6 « S •Ë- 4) g- O J35 o u £ c55.9 ta S¦S 2 S!>¦» es .gT3 5* _B 13 32 S *a o 2o. o ges .2h .a uO -S T3k > efc _ esS §3lisA. 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Communications Dinner, June 13:send me tickets at $7.50 each.Lunch & Alumni Awards, June 13:send me tickets at $5.00 each. <&¦£&r*^J5ïw^>ïMy check for $ is enclosed,payable to The University of Chicago.Présidents Réception, June 13:send me complimentary tickets.Tours: June 12 from 3:30 to 4:30 p.m.Choice of Tours #1,2,3, or 4.send tickets for Tour # Tours: June 13 from 3:30 to 4:30 p.m.Choice of Tours #5,6,7,8,9, or 10.send tickets for Tour # i-aBO° E< g_ ô *cd c «S 3 '§c/î Oes -*-»eu _B „.2 "">B (U3 CCU 36 — >.s s« sI St oeu c- Oa3OO OcoU>% eu•¦3 3eu ^¦2 3 *euHco CU>'S triaKT/ijcon.CUHoH •a euSÛ a.Nnomination [for justice of the Suprême Court]"constitutes an affront to the women ofAmerica." A décision backed by Carswelldismissing the complaint of a woman who8 was denied employment because she hadpre-school âge children constituted a déniaiof her equal rights under the 1964 CivilRights Act prohibiting job discriminationbecause of sex, argued Rep. Mink. Thatdécision "in effect placed ail of [the fourmillion working môthers in this country whohâve children under the âge of six] outside theprotection of the laws of this land."C* A William Thomas Hudson, AM'54,J T became the ranking Negro in theorganizational structure of the Coast GuardService by virtue of his récent appointment aschief of their newly created Office of CivilRights. Mr. Hudson has been serving Secretaryof Transportation John A. Volpe asprincipal advisor on equal empolymentinternai programs. Prior to that he directedthe equal employment opportunity programof the Department of Health, Educationand Welfare.£ £ Eloise S. Cofer, phD'55, professor of33 iood science at North Carolina StateUniversity and director of the North CarolinaAgricultural Extension Service, is currentlydirecting a nationally funded program bywhich low income families in fifty-nine NorthCarolina counties are being providednutritional counseling by aides who are themselves from the low-income bracket and,hence, better able to cofnmùnicate with thosethey serve.C. Virgil Martin, MBA'55, new chairmanof the board and chief executive officer ofthe National Retail Merchants Association, inan interview reported by Wornerfs WearDaily, expressed amâzement aç the conser-vatism of retailers on matters relating to socialproblems and politics, when retailers aresome of the biggest crapshooters and gamblersin the world. "Retailers, as a social force,must move in the 1970's to help solvethe multitude of problems."Michael J. Scarpitto, pfiD'55, superintendent of schools in Stoneham, Mass. for the pastthirteen years, has announced his -décisionto retire in August. Dr. Scarpitto was anassistant superintendent in Joliet, 111. beforecoming to Stoneham.£r\ Vincent Harding, AM'56, phD'65, on3 leave from Spelman Collège wherehe is chairman of the department of historyand sociology, is acting director of the newMartin Luther King Mémorial Center inAtlanta. Originally planned as a Hbrary forDr. King's papers and other documents of thecivil rights movement, the mémorial centerhas been expanded into a combination shrineand center of knowledge, history, and cultureof black people.In Memoriam: Harold Pabich, mba^ô.r*^7 Càrl R. Dolmetsch, priD'57, has been3 / named chairman of the departmentof English at the Collège of William and Mary,Williamsburg, Va., effective in September,1970. A member of the faculty there since 1959,he was on leave as a Fulbright VisitingProfessor in American Studies at the FreeUniversity of Berlin between 1964 and 1966,and was guest lecturer in several Germanuni versifies during 1969. Professor Dolmetschis author of The Smart Set: A History andAnthology .James Q. Wilson, AM'57, phD'59, professorand chairman of the government departmentat Harvard and chairman of the student-f aculty committee on rights and responsibilitiesthere, has been appointed to the Board ofSyndics, editorial advisers to the HarvardUniversity Press. An authority on urbanpolitics, Dr. Wilson has published severalbooks, the most récent of which is Varietiesof Police Behavior (1968).r* W Barbara Paulus Donaho, AM'58, has3 been appointed director of nursingservice at Hartford (Conn.) Hospital effectiveJuly 1.William E. Dunning, AB'58 has beenappointed arts editor of The New Mexican,a Santa Fe daily newspaper. He will edit thepaper's Sunday feature section, Pasatiempo. George P. Haviland, mba'58, is directorof the Airframe Subsystems Directoràte,Aeronautical Systems Division, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base,- Ohio. Prior to hisassignment in Ohio, Colonel Havilandfollowed a tour in Southeast Asia.Abraham Morduchowitz, sm'58, phD'62, hasbeen promoted to research chemist by theTexaco Research Center in Beacon, N. Y. Amember of the American Chemical Society,Dr. Morduchowitz has been issued twopatents.CO JOSEPH L. Sax, JD'59, professor of lawJ/ at the University of Michigan, is thesingle représentative of the légal professionrecently named to a twelve-man panel ofexperts to ad vise the U.S. Senate Committeeon Public Works on matters of ecologicaland environmental policy. The panel,otherwise composed of top people in thenatural and physical sciences, will concernthemselves with programs and policies relatingto highway and related transportationproblems, water resources development, andthe gênerai problems of water and air pollutionand solid waste disposai. Professor Sax, wholast year received a Ford Foundation grantfor a study of the rôle of the courts inreviewing administrative décisions, is authorof the textbook Water Law, Planningand Policy.OO William D. Fosdick, jd'6o, has beennamed senior patent attorney with thePerkin-Elmer Corp. of Norwalk, Conn.Earl Johnson, Jr., jd'6ô, has accepted anappointment as associate" professor in the LawCenter otf the University of SouthernCalifornia.f\^ Edwin J. Maçon, md'62, has beenpromoted to assistant professor ofmedicine at the Woodruff Médical Center,Emory University, Atlanta, Ga.Hubert S. Stees, Jr., mba'62, a researchdirector at Ent Air Force Base, Colorado, hasbeen promoted to colonel in the U.S. AirForce. Colonel Stees is assigned to thé NorthAmerican Aerospace Défense Command.42r\^ Richard E Pyler, sb'63, has been3 named by the Southern BakersAssociation as récipient of the W E LongMent Award For Excellence m ResearchConsisting of a certificate of excellence and acheck for $500, the award is presented everyother year to encourage research in the fieldof bakmg technology and closely alhedcereal science Mr Pyler is a member of theAmerican Chemical Society and the ChemicalSociety of LondonStephen Wizner, JD'63, as a Légal Serviceslawyer operating on Manhattan's LowerEast Side, is part of a phenomenon spnngingfrom the Economie Opportunity Act of 1964which stipulated the need "to representindigent persons against unequal treatmentunder law" the phenomenon of younglawyers who are turning their backs' onprestigious law offices, big salaries, and goingto battle for the poor Or so he wascharactenzed in an article carned recentlym The Christian Science Monitor His officehandled 1,600 "légal problems" in 1969 rangingfrom heatless apartments to évictions, toconsumer fraud, to divorce, to homicide "Alot of the problems [of the poor] stem fromfamily tensions brought on by the physicalenvironment and the Welfare Department,"said Mr Wiznerr\ A Robert J Dold, MBA'64, vice président1 of the Rose Exterminator Co mChicago, has been elected président of theIllinois Pest Control AssociationRobert N Schulenberg, AB'64, an mtern mpediatncs at the University of MinnesotaHospitals, has been named a pédiatrie fellowat the University of Minnesota Articlesauthored by Dr Schulenberg m the pastcouple years hâve been carned in the Journalof the American Médical Association andm Developmental Medicine and ChildNeurologyArJ Frank Cicero, Jr, JD'65, a lawyer m3 the firm of Kirkland, Ellis, Hodson,Chaffetz and Masters, Chicago, is a memberof the style and drafting and revenuecommittees of the Illinois Constitutional Convention Mr Cicero has served as aide tothe governor of New Jersey, assistant tothe New Jersey Commissioner of Conservationand Economie Development and in theBureau of the Budget, Washington, d cAnne Rachel Keeney, am'65 is engaged toJames Francis Kelley, jd'66 The weddmgis planned for June 27 in Bond ChapelMiss Keeney is currently completmg work onher doctorate at UCGaylord A Kellow, MBA'65, has beenelected vice président of management servicesfor the Chicago, Milwaukee, St Paul andPacific Railroad He has been employed by theMilwaukee Road since 1935O O Charles C Bingaman, jd'66, assistantdirector of the Illinois Institute forContinuing Légal Education, has been awardedan honorable mention m the Illinois StateBar Association's Lincoln Award légal writingcontest for his paper "The Illinois Bar Exami-nation Time for a Change "Charles Gellert, ab'66 and ClaudiaLipschulty, SB'67, were married in Washington, d c on December 3 1 They are livingm Silver Sprmg, MdGeorge Psacharopoulos, am'66, p1id'68,has accepted a position with the HigherEducation Research Unit, the London Schoolof Economies and Political Sciencef\*7 Evgen D Franger, MBA'67, has been/ named gênerai merchandise controllcrfor Sears, Roebuck and Co, ChicagoJames W MacInnes, pho'67 has beenappointed assistant professor m the Institutefor Behavioral Genetics at the Universityof Colorado. A molecular biologist, he hasbeen domg neurobiological research onthe biochemistry of learning and memorystorageDavid L Passman, JD'67, is engaged m thegênerai practice of law as an associate ofthe Chicago firm of Arvey, Hodes andMantynbandKenneth E< Stender, MBA'67, has beenreleased from active duty m the U S AirForce and has accepted a position as districtconstruction manager for Kansas Quality Construction m Nashville, Tenn , a subsidiaryof Redman IndustriesIn Memoriam Thomas J Cernoch, Jr ,SM'67f\7\ Jacqueline Engel, mba'68, has beenpromoted to brand manager of AuntJemima Mixes and Syrup for the QuakerOats Co , Chicago Miss Engel jomed QuakerOats in 1966 as a média analystDavid A Klotz, ab'68, has been named anassistant in physics at Lafayette Collège,Easton, PaAllen H 4 Shapiro, jd'68, assistant professorof law at the University of Toledo, isRepublican candidate for US représentativefrom the Nmth (Ohio) Congressional DistrictIn his bid against the eight-term Démocratiemeumbent, Thomas L Ashley, Shapirot whoat twenty-five just meets the minimum âgerequirement set by the fédéral Constitution,purportedly has the backing of the localGOP Descnbing himself as middle-of-the-road, he says he is "pragmatic and interestedin solutions " Since November, 1968, he hasbeen consultant to the Ohio Judicial Conférence on Supervisory Rules, and onJune 6 was récipient of a joint TU-Ohio Boardof Régents one-year $16,000 grant to study"Governance of the Ohio Public University "f\T\ John R Drozd, mba'69, formerly/ manager of long range planning at theKroehler Manuf acturing Co , has been namedassistant to the président of Illinois BronzePowder and Paint Co in Lake Zurich, 111Edward S Todd, phD'69, has been appointedto the new position of vice président forînstructional development and planning atthe Rochester Institute of Technology inRochester, N Y He will oversee ail Computingactivities, hbrary functions, educationalsponsored research, and mstructional resourcesIn Memoriam Glenn J Ware, mba'6943People-$$£- Robert McC Adams, professor ofanthropology at the University of Chicago,has been appointed dean of the University'sDivision of the Social Sciences.While Adams' major schoiarly interest isthe historical and archaeological study of NearEastern agricultural development and thepatterns of urban growth and décline, he alsohas been interested in the comparative studyof the origin of early civilizations in CentralAmerica.From 1962 to 1968 he was director of theUniversity's Oriental Institute, an internation-ally respected institution for the study ofancient Near Eastern civilizations.When he announced the appointment,effective July 1, 1970, Président Levi said thathe was most delighted and encouraged byRobert Adams' acceptance of the deanship."It is an encouraging mark of the kind ofuniversity this is that he should be willing toundertake this responsibility in a period whichmay be marked by unusual difficultés, butwhich also has unusual promise. His appointment is in the great tradition of social sciencesdeans represented by Robert Redfield, RalphTyler, Chauncy Harris, and D. GaleJohnson."Adams was born July 23, 1926, in Chicago.He received a phB degree in 1947, an madegree in 1952, and a PhD degree in 1956, ailfrom the University of Chicago. He wasnamed assistant professor of anthropologyin 1957.Adams has written two books, Land BehindBaghdad (1965) and Evolution of UrbanSociety (1966).^ Samuel J. Beck, professorial lectureremeritus of psychology and psychiatry, hasreceived the first annual DistinguishedPsychological Award from the Clinical Section of the Illinois Psychological Association.Beck, an authority on the Rorschach test,also has been cited for his contributions toclinical psychology by the Division ofClinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association and by the Society forProjective Techniques and PersonalityAssessment. ^ Sidney Davidson, the Arthur YoungProfessor of Accounting and one of theworld's leading accounting scholars, has beennamed dean of the Graduate School ofBusiness of the University of Chicago. Hesucceeds George P. Shultz, who resigned asdean in January, 1969, to become secretaryof labor in Président Richard M. Nixon'scabinet.-5^- Dennis J. Hutchinson, a former Coloradonewsman, now a first year student in the LawSchool of the University of Chicago, hasbeen named a Rhodes Scholar. One of thirty-two Rhodes Scholars selected from ail overthe United States, he will begin his studiesat England's Oxford University next October.Since the program was started in 1902seventeen University of Chicago studentshâve been appointed Rhodes Scholars.^- Léonard B. Meyer, professor and chairman of the Department of Music, hasreceived the Gordon J. Laing Prize of theUniversity's Board of Publications for hisbook, Music, the Arts, and Ideas, published bythe University of Chicago Press. In the book,Meyer shows the patterns developing in2oth century culture and makes prédictionsconcerning style and théories of esthetics.•5^ Just published: The Honest PoliticiartsGuide to Crime Control by Norval Morris,the Julius Kreeger Professor of Law andCriminology, and Gordon Hawkins, seniorlecturer in criminology at the University ofSydney, Australia. The book offers a complèteprogram of précise recommendations forcrime control and condemns the Americancriminal justice system as a "moral busybody"that enforces private morality rather thanprevents crime. ,<¦$$&- Dr. Ralph F. Naunton, professor andchief of the Section of Otolaryngology inthe Pritzker School of Medicine, has beenappointed by the speaker of the IllinoisHouse of Représentatives to a two-year termon the Illinois Commission on Children.The Commission has thirty-six members, sixteen of whom are appointed by 4ie IllinoisGeneral Assembly. Among the Commission^many functions are making recommendationson needed législation on behaif of childrenand promoting adéquate educational servicesand training programs for children, includingexceptional children, in ail parts of the state.-^ Dr. Frederick P. Zuspan, the JosephBolivar DeLee Professor and chairman ofthe Department of Obstetrics and Gynecologyin the Pritzker School of Medicine, is therécipient of the 1970 Shirley A. SchneckAward from the Society for Clinical andExpérimental Hypnosis. The Society citedDr. Zuspan as "a physician who has madesignificant contributions to the developmentof médical hypnosis." Dr. Zuspan has usedhypnosis to alleviate pain.-$& Richard G. Swan, professor of mathematics at the University of Chicago, hasreceived the Frank Nelson Cole Prize inAlgebra, presented only every five years bythe American Mathematical Society, for hispaper, "Groups of Cohomological DimensionOne," which appeared in the Journal ofAlgebra in 1969. The prizes were presentedat a meeting of the American MathematicalSociety in San Antonio, Texas.Picture CréditsDavid Windsor: coverFranz Altschuler: 14Virgil Burnett: 29Linn Ehrlich: 35Lloyd Saunders: 45Lynn Martin: art direction and designAlmost fifty seven years after its dedication,the Stagg Field wall, the site of the world'sfirst nuclear chain reaction, came tujnblingdown to make way for the Regenstein Library,now under construction.44HUîbïC!|5B?««IOm.»^ ¦OQNI^i-4C!*"•*>dC/5noQO?-<»-«<OCoOsos-4