THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINE';MM'^2&&6S!i*THEUNIVERSITYOF CHICAGOMAGAZINEThey Call Themselves "The People"Alice & Jerry Bathke 2The Spillane PhenomenonJohn G. Cawelti 18Media and CultureWalter J. Ong, S.J. 25The World of Inner SpaceHumberto Fernindez-Morân 28Crisis and Responsibility: A Letter to AlumniEdward Rosenheim, Jr. 36The Sit-In: A ChronologySignificant events and documents of the récent sit-in 39Freedom from CoercionPhil C. Neal 4750 Quadrangle News54 People58 Alumni NewsVolume lxi Number 5March/April 1969The University of Chicago Magazineis published bimonthly foralumni and the faculty of TheUniversity of Chicago. Letters andeditorial contributions are welcomed.Published since 1907 byThe University of ChicagoAlumni Association5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312) 643-0800, ext. 4291Fay Horton Sawyier, '44, PhD'64PrésidentArthur R. NayerDirector of Alumni AffairsConrad Kulawas, '62Editor Régional Offices3600 Wilshire Blvd., Suite ijioLos Angeles, California 90005(213) 387-232139 West 55 StreetNew York, New York 100 19(212) 765-5480485 Pacific AvenueSan Francisco, California 94133(415) 433-40501 629 K Street, N.W., Suite 500Washington, D.C., 20006(202) 296-8100Published in July/August,September/October, November/December, January/February,March/April, and May/June.Second-class postage paid atChicago, 111. Copyright 1969 byThe University of Chicago.Cover: Electron micrograph of tranverse section through a photoreceptor from thecompound eye of the South American moth Erebus odora. The ordered, symmetricalstructure plays a key rôle in the remarkable capacity for analyzing polarized light andthe direction-finding ability of insects. (See "The World of Inner Space," page 28.)Alice & Jerry BathkeTheyCallThemselves'The People'Upon one wàll of our home among the ired rocks on theNavajo Indian Réservation in morthern Arizona there hangtwo calendars. Together they perhaps describe the total pastand future of the Navajo people, a story rich in culture andBeauty, yet accompanied by oppression, heartbreak, and greatmisunderstanding.On the left is a large Centennial calendar, designed to ac-quaint the observer swith the history of the Navajo, especiallysince the Long Walk to freedom in 1868 but including reproductions of centuries-old sandpaintings describing their pre-history. The calendar is rich in détail, every page a ratherthorough record of the events in previous times. But it fails totell that môst Americans krtow nothing of the Navajo story,Jerry Bathke, '63, JD'66, is Légal Assistant to the Navajo AreaOffice of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, United States Department of the Interior, at Windoiv Rock, Arizona. He was avista Volunteer on the Navajo Réservation in 1966-67, af terwhich he served as Deputy Dirêctor of the Economie Development, Program of the Navajo Tribe. His wife, Alice, agraduate of Colorado State University, is a member of the'Navajo Tribe. She was raised in traditional fashion on theRéservation, where she now serves as a Social Case Workerfor the Arizona Department of Welfare. Photographs byLaura Gilpin, from her récent book, The Enduring Navaho(University of Texas). and that of the f ew who do know something ail buta handfulhâve misunderstood. This calendar ends on December 31, 1968.To thé right of the 1968 Centennial calendar is another for1969 and thè days ahead. Whilei this calendar is laid out intypical fashion, it is written in a language foreign to theEnglish-speaking tongue. In place of January are thé wordsY as Nilt'ees, meaning "the thawing of snow for water."Tnplace of February the calendar reads Atsa 'Biyaazh, meaning"the eagle, its little ones," or, conceptually, the hatching ofyoung eagles. So it reads on, using the age-old Navajo termsfor the phenomena of nature's cycle to dénote the months oftheyear.This calendar can be seen as a significant clue to the charac-ter of the Navajo people. In taking the non-Nàvajo calendarthe Navajo may hâve accepted the fîve-day work week andalong with it such things as schedules, organization; the dead-line, the numbered existence. But the calendar also shows adétermination to préserve the significant features of the Navajo way of life, especially their ties to nature and their traditional belief that the Navajo people are part of the total création.We mean to explore this aspect ôf the character of^ theNavajo people and the limitations placed upon it. Through-;out the article we defer to the Navajo understanding of theïrhistory and prehistory as contained ;n their legends and sto-Luke Yazzie1ries, avoiding the often-popular anthropological approach.Above ail, we hope to promote an accurate sensé of under-standing about the Navajos themselves. While this cornes bestthrough intimate association, perhaps in this limited space wecan relate some of the more meaningful aspects of their history, beliefs, and hopes as we know them.The Emergence and the CréationThèse are the people whom the Spanish called "The Navajo."If they had only asked, the Spanish would hâve learned theirtrue name, for they call themselves "The People."There are living today on; the fifteen-million-acre NavajoRéservation in northern New Mexico, Arizona, and part ofUtah, approximately 120,000 Navajos. Yet, the Medicinementell us that according to the legends there was a time whenthere were only two; from them came ail the rest.As The People know of their birth, in the beginning therewas nothing but darkness and void. Then, from the moving,changing waters, the First World appeared. This was a redworld, and twelve insects were the first to occupy the land.Next came the dawn, the day, the evening, and again thedarkness. After a time of peaceful living, the ants and thebeetles began to quarrel. To end their quarrel they appealedto the Water Monster of the eastern océan to judge them. Headvised them to leave the First World and fly to another oneabove them. Doing so, they flew up and around until theyfound a small opening to the east through which they man-aged to crawl, whereupon they emerged in the Second World,the blue world of the Swallow People.As the legends relate, this was a wonderful world of Beautyand harmony, until strife developed among the animal créatures and the Swallow People ordered the Insect People toleave. They did so in a fashion similar to their first departure:crawling through an opening at the south part of the sky, theycame into the Third World, the yellow world of the Grass-hopper People.As before, they went through periods of peace and happi-ness, then . conflict and promiscuity, whereupon the InsectPeople were ordered to leave. They did so as in the past, butsome of the Grasshopper People went with them (that is whywe hâve grasshoppers in our world today). Through a cleft inthe western skies they emerged into the Fourth World— known as black, white, or black-and-white in variations of thelegend. vWhen they came to the surface they saw four great moun-tains, one standing at each of four directions, covered withsnow. As they were to learn later, thèse were the dwellingplaces of the Holy People.The messengers sent to explore the four mountains reportedseeing other animais and, at the northern mountain, strangebeings called the Kisani. As the Kisani were friendly towardthem they decided to remain, and soon the Kisani were show-ing them how to travel about their new world and live off theland. iLare in the autumn they heard strange sounds frorn theeastern mountain. As the sounds began to approach them, theysaw for the first time four strange and very tall beings knownas the Yei, The first of thèse Holy People had a white body,the second blue, the third yellow, and the fourth black. Forfour days thèse Holy People made strange gestures andseemed to want them to become more like the Holy Ones.One of the Holy People, Black Body, indicated that theHoly Ones desired them to become human-like. While theHoly Ones were away for twelve days, they were to cleansethemselvés~with Yucca suds and dry themselves with cornmeal(a custom still practiced today).The Holy People returned with buckskins and corn. Theylaid the new white buckskin on the ground and placed twoears of corn upon it— one a perfect ear of white corn and theother a perfect ear of yellow corn— with their tips pointing tothe east. Undeu the white corn they placed a white eagléfeather and under the yellow corn they placed a yellow feath-er. Placing the other buckskin over the top, they instructedeveryone to stand aside.As the Holy Winds blew into that place, the, White Windfrom the east, the Blue Wind from the south, the YellowWind from the west, and the Black Wind from the north,eight strange beings called the Mirage People came andwalked around the skins. The buckskin was lifted, and a manand a woman lay there together in place of the corn: the whitecorn had become a man and the yellow corn had become awoman.It was the Holy Wind which gave them life, and it is thewind which fills us and gives us life today. We can see themarks on our own skin, especially at our finger tips, where4there are signs of how the winds first blew over our ancestors.So it was that First Man and First Woman were born.When children were born to First Man and First Woman,they ail journeyed to the eastern mountain with the HolyOnes, where they learned the sacred songs, prayers, and cérémonies, including how to make the rain corne and the cropsgrow. Later the children married and went to live in thedifférent directions.At the foot of the black mountain,There amid the encircling mountains,the holy young man laid down his child,At the foot of the blue mountain,There amid the encircling mountains,the holy young woman laid down her child.Atop each mountain there were two gods,Who spoke aloud as They watched."Who learns our songsshall be our child."Song from the Mountain ChantSometime later there was trouble. While two little girls haddisappeared into the water and were later retrieved, Coyotehid two little Water Babies under his skin. Then strangethings began to happen, and the animais scurried around todiscover the nature of the calamity and to learn the nature ofthe white line along the eastern horizon. It was a wall ofwater, even hlgher than the mountains, and it was engulfingthe whole world.As The People rushed to the top of the highest mountain,the Squirrel People planted Juniper and pinon seeds, and as thetrees grew tall they climbed upon them. But after a while thetrees stopped growing and the water surged ail around. Then,as The People ail were gathered at the very top of the mountain, an older man planted seeds from among the seeds andearth in his buckskin bag. They watched as little reeds beganto grow and soon became one giant reed with an opening onthe eastern side, into which they ail crawled.After they were inside, the entrance was closed just in time.As the turkey was the last to enter, his tail feathers werecaught in the foaming waters and are white to this day. Whilethe reed swayed, The People climbed to the top, high abovethe waters and into the sky, crawling through a hole discov- ered by the hawk and emerging on an island in the middle ofa lake. Lynx, bear, badger, and coyote had clawed the holelarge so The People could crawl through it, but badger got hisfeet stuck in the black mud, and his feet are black to this day.First Man and First Woman led the way into the NewWorld, the présent world,- which still had the sacred mountains of the Fourth World. It was beautiful, and the FifthWorld was colored white. First Man liked to give names, sohe named the four mountains.Tsinnajinnie was to the east, and it was white because theyfound white shell and stone upon it. We know this today asMount Blanco in Colorado's Sangre de Cristo Range. HèreRock Crystal Boy and Rock Crystal Girl lived, along with thewhite animais like the dove. Tso d'tzil, the Great Mountain,was in the South (Mount Taylor, New Mexico). It was bluebecause turquoise and blue stone were upon it. Turquoise Boyand Turquoise Girl lived there, and so did the bluebirds.In the west stood Doko'slid (Humphrey's Peak, tallest of theSan Francisco Mountains in Arizona). It was yellow. WhiteCorn Boy and White Corn Girl lived there, as did yellowwarblers. And in the north stood Dibensta (Mount Hesperusof Colorado's La Plata Range), named for the sheep with largehorns which lived there. Black was its color, and GrasshopperGirl and Pollen Boy went there to live.In the place of their émergence,In the place where The People came up,In the Holy Mountains, in the place,where The People came up from the lower worldto this world,There were four mountains standing aright.In the east there stood a white mountain,In the south there stood a blue mountain,In the west there stood a yellow mountain, andIn the north there stood a black mountain.Song from the Mountain ChantA Time of BeautyIn the Fifth World, the présent world, The People made theirway according to the lessons of their ancestors and the HolyPeople. Their children, their children's children, and theirdescendants lived according to the way that they knew. This5was the Way of Beauty.It has been told that The People lived as their ancestorsbefore them lived, within sight of the four sacred 'mountainsand forever surrounded by rainbows and Beauty. It was hèrethat they lived and planted their crops. In rimes of need theycalled the Holy People for protection and guidance, and theysaw their protectors arrive standing upon a rainbow. Hèrethey lived as the Holy People had first showed them, at peacewith ail the animais and nature because ail were in harmonyone with another. This made everything Beautiful.But the Way of Beauty was not necessarily an easy way.The People lived in a harsh land, moving from région torégion in search of food. What they had they shared. Some-times they- would do without. But througfiout the day ThePeople would sing prayeçs of praisé wherever they went. In asensé, their life was a total religious expérience.Sometirhes The People would wander from the Way ofBeauty- and they would suffer sickness, disease, famine, evendeath. To correct thèse maladies and reorient themselves inthe way of their ancestors, The People would pérform therituals, cérémonies, prayers, and songs which the HolyPeople had passed down through the âges. If thèse cérémonieswere enacted perfectly, The People would be restored to theWay of Beauty. Many were very elaborate, requiring yearsof study for an aspiring Medicineman. The cérémonies hadnames such as The Shootingway, The Mountainway, thë RedAnt Way, The Beauty way, the Enemyway (referring to theenemy of disease, not war), The Starway, The Hailway, theWaterway, and others.O, I wish not the end,Of ail the nights!O, I wish not the end,Of ail the nights!May the last nightOf ail time endure forever!Song of the ôwl, as sung in the Beauty waystory of the night-day shoe game.In the prayers and songs, the prehistory of The People ispassed from génération to génération in great détail. Thèsesongs contain both serious and humorous éléments, including such legends as the Emergence, the Création; èven the timewhen the animais, whci had supernatural powers also, playedthe shoe game. This1 game was played to décide if the nightanimais would hâve their way and make the world darlç forever, or whethér the day animais would hâve the world helight forever. At the last moment in a cjose'matçhyamidjmuchsinging by each anitnàl singing his own song— so the fiêauty-way story gofes-rthe night animais cheated by withholding thestone. But, sùspecting a cheat, the day animais sent gopher totunnel under the moccasins to ascertain the présence of thestone. Confirming their suspicions, the day animais scoredtheir points with the helpof gopher, only to hâve the gameend in a tie at dâybreak. Thus, light and darkness remàinedforever alternatirig, as jt was in the beginning. .Slender and striped,Slender andstriped, \Look at him standing up there!He stand\s up there,So slender in his stripés,The squirrel in his little white shirt!Song of the ground squirrel as sung in theBeautyway story of the night-day shoe game.")¦',',So it was that The People lived from year to year, tendingthèir ^qcks of sheep and f arming small fields of squash andcorn amid the red rocks. Their dâily living and, indeed, theirtotal existence was infused with their religion and their culture, passed on to them through their ancestors from theoriginal lessons of the Holy People.The People . . . spread out ovet the land and rangedfrom high mountain to parched mesa, from broad valleyto deep canyon. Hère was a country free and operi, butalso harsh and unrelenting. But it was our land and our, fôfefathers challenged it with their strength, their patience, their adaptability and their endurance- MartinLink, editor of The Navajo Centennial, commemorativepublication, "Navajo: A Century of Progress"They lived in small bands or groups known today as camps.Theirs was a matf ilineal society; and great respect was paid by6Irène Yazzieail members to their kinship responsibilities and to assistingthose among themselves who were less fortunate. Since theywere related to everyone and everything, according to their/' religion, it was their duty to care for aM things and ail persons,taking for self or family only according to need.They also were an adventurous people, traveling into therégions of the Paiute, Ute, and Apache tribes. The older people tell us that, just as there were times of prosperity' andBeauty, so there were times of struggle. Surrounding tribessometimes would raid— or be raided— for livestock or women.Some say the Navajo acquired a réputation for their raidingprowess. At other times The People would trade for shells,turquoise, and other precious items with the same tribes andpeople whom they had fought. And they became skillful atfarming: the Tewa Indians called them the "cultivators of thesoil."Some say it was through such excursions in war and peacethat The People acquired the skill of weaving from the PuebloIndians to the east. But many Medicinemen hâve told us that,according to Navajo legend, First Lady herself learned theart from the Holy People, who told her that weaving was lifeitself and that through weaving one could understand ' themeaning of life as well as how to achieve self-sufficiency.Through weaving oné could help his children to understandthe way of life as Well as help care for and feed them. So itwas that the art of weaving Navajo rugs, blankets, and cloth-ing has passed on to the présent génération,It was during the period of intermittent encounters withhostile bands that the Spanish people arfived in the Southwest,bringing with them new ideas and the noble horse, the animalwhich surely must hâve bèen viewed as a gift from the HolyPeople. Stories of innumerable raids were left in the wake ofthe Spanish, but the visitors also left the art of fine silver-smithing and certain cpoking arts, both widespread in favorand skill among the Navajo today.Prologue To A Century of ProgressAs Anglo-Americans yiew the past, it was perhaps not untilthe içth century that any significant history was made or evenrecorded among The People. About that time the Spanishwere roaming the southwest in their search for gold and lostsoûls. Also, it was the beginning of the time when whitesettlers began moving westward across Indian country, and United States Government troops were deployed to protectthèse land-hungry innocents from the savages of the wildrégions west of the Mississippi.Of the slaves captured I hâve distributed, among littleones and wounded ones, n to individuals of this province and of that of Sonora.— Report to Governor ôf NewMexico by Lt. Narbona during the War of 1804 between _the Mexican Government and the Navajo People.By the beginning of the 1800's Spanish intentions for Navajo --lands became quite clear to The People. But because this wasthe ancestral land between the four sacred mountains, theNavajo people resisted fiercely. Time and time again fightingbroke out, causing great damage to the Navajo but neverbringing victory to the Spanish.Senor Commandante General: I hâve just returned from49 days of campaign, very painful due to the fury of theweather, always cruel hère and more so in the présentseason. The results hâve been the'killing of seven of the[Navajo] tribe, the capturing of two thousand and threehundred head of sheep and 73 saddle and pack animais,including three mules— Letter, Intérim Governor of NewMexico to Commanding General, December 18, 181 8.Then, in 1846, during a war with Mexico, United Statestroops moved into the vicinity of Santa Fe to oversee thesettlements along the Rio Grande River. But raids "against thesettlers were continued by the Navajo. Also, just as in the pastwith the Mexican and Spanish governments, the United Statesdid not know how to deal effectively with The People.An attempt to bring peace was made with the signing of atreaty at Bear Springs between Colonel Doniphan and variousNavajo headmen. But, following the return of the troops toSanta Fe, the raids continued. Like the Spanish and the Mexi-cans before them, the American soldiers knew nothing ofNavajo social organization, nothing of the importance of theirancestral land to The People, nothing of the wrath aroused inThe People by the présence of a foreign military force.The headmen who signed the treaty were not the leaders ofThe People, who were not a unified tribe and knew no centralorganization. The People shared the same héritage, customs,and beliefs, but lived in small bands, separate from one an-8other. In each band there usually were some Medicinemen andother individuals who were looked to for wisdom and leadership. Thèse persons did not hâve spécial authority, nor wastheir informai position one of élection or birth. Thus, even ifthèse headmen understood what they signed— and there issome évidence that they did not— they could only speak forthe few in their bands. Any overall tribal authority attributedto thèse headmen by the United States government when thetreaties were signed was purely fictional. Navajo social structure in those times simply had no mechanism by which ail ThePeople could be represented in the signing of a binding document. Communication was imperfect, the situation could notbe explained, and the United States government never understood.1 JÈIf; '¦¦•'-wk't Typical Navajo signature,commonplace eventoday— thumbprint with£¦ jf~/9/?& census number.In 1849 another treaty was signed, with similar misunder-standing and similar post-treaty results. That document re-ferred to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed by theMexican and United States governments in 1848, whereinNavajo and other Indian lands in the ceded territories wereplaced under the jurisdiction of the United States. Naturally,the Navajo people had no part in those proceedings. It was inthe twenty-year period before and after this date that thesovereign authority of the Navajo Indian Nation was of-fended, denigrated, whittled away, and eventually contained,never again to be f ully restored to its original state.A fort— appropriately named Fort Défiance— was built in theheart of Navajoland, and for the next twenty years ThePeople and the land knew no rest from their oppressors.Navajo résistance continued and, finally, government officiaisdecided that The People should no longer live in the land oftheir birth amid the four sacred mountains. Soldiers under thecommand of Colonel "Kit" Carson moved into the country-side, burning fields of corn, destroying homes and sheep, anddriving The People to fiée, surrender, or be killed.The massive slaughter in Canyon Del Muerto is but one example of the ruthless military tactics used. In one cave alone,high up the canyon wall, over ninety women and childrenwere killed as the soldiers ricocheted bullets off the cave roofdown onto The People. Finally starved into submission, thesurviving Navajos surrendered in the winter and spring of1864.It is said by the older people that nearly 7,000 Navajos madethe 300-mile trek from their homeland to Bosque Redondo, aréservation in New Mexico where Fort Sumner was shortlythereafter built. The People suffered greatly there, woundedin spirit and subjected to a foreign diet, disease, and Comancheraids. Nearly 2,000 died of pneumonia and dysentery. Thedry, alkaline soil resisted cultivation. Malnutrition was wide-spread. Firewood had to be back-packed for six to twelvemiles. Some who ran away were captured and enslaved by theMexicans. AU were deeply homesick. By the time The Peoplewere able to communicate their plight to Washington, theiroutdoor prison had deeply scarred their héritage.After more than four years of confinement at Bosque Redondo, The People learned that a délégation known as thePeace Commission was on its way from Washington to dis-cuss the possibility of permitting their return to their homeland. One of the headmen, Barboncito, was appointed to speakfor ail The People.Barboncito and other headmen met with General W. T.Sherman and Samuel F. Tappan at Fort Sumner on May 28,1868. Sherman asked for a briefing on life at Bosque Redondoand Barboncito responded with a moving description of theyears of struggle, desperation, and shame. His plea for theright to return home was eloquently simple.Barboncito: Our grandfathers had no idea of living inany other country except our own and we do not thinkit right for us to do so as we were never taught to. Whenthe Navajos were first created four mountains and fourrivers were pointed out to us inside of which we shouldlive; that was to be our country and was given to us bythe First Woman of the Navajo Tribe. . . .General Sherman: Our proposition now is to send someof you at the Governmenfs expense to the Indian Ter-ritory south of Kansas or if you want to go to y our owncountry you will be sent but not to the whole of it, onlya portion which must be well defined.9Barboncito: / hope to God you will not ask me tô go toany other country except my own.The next day ail The People were asked to assemble at thefort, where the Peace Commission instructed them to choosétheir first tribal leaders. Barboncito was elected chief— or, morej accurately» chief spokesman— and delegates were appointed toconclude the treaty. On the f ollowing day the commission andthe delegates met to détermine the boundaries of the qewréservation in their homeland, ànd the day after that, June i,1868, the treaty was signed. The United States Senate ratifiedthe treaty on July 25, and Président Andrew Johnson signedit on August 12. The Peiople at last were to return to theirhomeland between the four mountains.The Navdjo is no doitbt the best material in, the country 'for rapid progress in agriculture. As history proves thatfor several centuries they hâve been engagea in plantingand they are far in advance of other tribes in manufac-turing ' blankets, bridles, saddles, and other articles. Y etthey are savages and extremely super stitious— ThéodoreH. Dodd, U.S. Indian Agent for Navajo Lands,, Reportof May 30, 1868 .to the Peace Commission.A Century of ProgressThe 300-miIe journey across the désert country is indeliblyrecorded in Navajo history: The People refer to it as theLong Walk. What horsesand wagons were available. carriedthe young, the àged, and the infirrri. The rest travelled on foot.The hardships were severe, but, despite their weakened condition, The People had a strength of spirit they had notknownfor years. They were going home. And their new spirit wàsthe beginning of a century of progress.The first fifty years following the Treaty was a periodwithout fanfare, glamour, or spécial development, but it'wasa formative era. Times were not easy, and The People couldno longer roam the countryside as they had done in the past.The réservation contained far less land than they had pre-viously known. Some could not even return to their homeswhen thèse were outside the new boundaries. It was then ThePeople realized that if they were to survive, they had to adjust10 themselves to the new conditions while clinging to theWisefulfrom among the old. ;They continued their, tiadltional socialorganization, living in extended famih/groups, but they weremore settled and made attempts to farm the, soil, while receiv-ing certain supplies from the fédéral government according tothe terms of the Treaty. rô'' ¦',¦¦•Also in accordante with the Treaty terms, Schôols wereestablished in various parts of'the réservation, the first in 1869at Fort, Défiance,. At the same time, ah Indian Agent becamerésident at Fort Défiance, to assist both the Government andThe People. ' ¦ .,¦ f ; (;fTo many, the Indian Agent was but a symbol of an unwel-come government and its equally unwelcome ideas. Therewere incidents of résistance and bloodshed. Yet, the period ;was a kind of harsh but uncomplicatedliving according to theiNavajoVay. 'k, . y\\ > {Slowly the fédéral governrhent pe'rmitted the expansion ofthe réservation by the Navajo people. Tpday their lands comprise an area larger than West Virginia, totaling more thanfifteen million acres in Arizona, Utah, and New Mexico^but> still less than the Navajo claims to the land once occupied bytheir ancestors. Admittedly, the Navajo situation is unique:most tribes were given far less considération with respect totheir land claims. -Tfie réservation on the west borders the Grand Canyon, -and includes within its boundaries many national and tribalparks, including 34 tfout lakés and over 2,50p. cliff dwellings.The many toùrist sites include Monument Valley, with itstowering red rock formations; Canyon de Chelly, its.toweringwalls containing more than 2,000 cliff dwellings (wherè theAnasazi, the old people, lived); the cliff dwellings at Betatakin,a chamber large enough to. hôuse oui* national Capitol building; famous Rainbow Bridge; and ShipVock, a 2,100-foot lavaghost-ship riding a sea of sand. )A major portion of Navajoland lies within the scenic» àl-thoùgh barreh, Pamtèd Désert. A significant part of-the population still résides in this inhospitable région, living the old life,where, asThe People say, you "live with your snèep," meaning to stay a considérable distance from others so that one'ssheep do not graze on another's use area7 In other régions,however, mountains and plateaus are thick with forests andwildlife, with élévations ranging to nearly 1 1,000 feet.Francis Nakai and FamilyThe 1920's saw the beginning of many new developments.In 1927 a System of local community organizations were estab-lished, resembling in nature and achievement the townshiporganization of early America. This System has grown réservation- wide and is today the fundamental unit of the Navajogovernmental structure.The réservation is divided into 100 Chapters, geographicalareas with six hundred or more inhabitants, each with super-visory officiais and a delegate, or a shared délegate, to theTribal Council. With the discovery of valuable minerai re-sources, it became apparent that The People would need représentatives to act upon matters pertaining to the entire Tribe.With this impetus, an attempt was made to form an assemblyaccording to Article X of the Treaty, which states that theagreement of three-fourths of the adult maie population isrequired for action on matters relating to réservation prop-erty. When thèse attempts failed, a business council was estab-lished. Although the council was operationally clumsy and ofquestionable authority, it was a step forward and the Secretaryof the Interior established a set of rules to help guide it.With some refinement, the business council continued until1937 when it was reorganized to be an instrumentality of theSecretary of the Interior and not primarily an officiai tribalorganization. The action of the Secretary was part of an attempt to establish a constitutional type of government underthe Indian Reorganization Act, but the effort failed. Thus theNavajo Tribal Council, with seventy-four elected members,still opérâtes as the governmental authority of the NavajoTribe. A sample constitution has been prepared, but they arestill without a governing body acting at the wish of the peopleat large and according to the limitations of a written constitution.To be sure, the entire concept is non-Navajo. The very ideaof "tribe" in any organizational sensé is Anglo-imposed. TheNavajo are simply The People, with one héritage, bound tolive and act as one. When fair représentation and intimateknowledge of constituent needs are taken for granted, manysee little need for constitutional guarantees,The People seldom take any public action without a strongconsensus of opinion. In group délibération of any matter theytalk endlessly, until every voice has been heard. Only then isan action proposed, one acceptable to ail. If factions develop,they rarely resort to the device of passing a motion by aslender majority. The matter is simply shelved until further12 developments or new information suggest the liklihood ofwider agreement. This System appears unwieldy and agoniz-ingly slow to the Anglo observer, but it is the Navajo way.Moreover, as one of the purer examples of participatory de-mocracy, it may bear lessons for the more frenzied and fac-tion-ridden législative bodies of the Anglo world.Some hâve indicatçd that the federally-established Councilhas done well enough what had to be done. With the discovery of sizeable minerai deposits— oil in 1907 and 1 921, andlater gas, hélium, coaL and uranium— the Council has skillfullynegotiated the lease of minerai rights. Presently in opérationare two of the rtation's largëst open-pit coal mines, supplyingenough coal to operate three large power plants in the UpperColorado Basin which sell power to nine states. The westernrégion of the réservation has yet to be fully explored andtested for minerai deposits, although some are suspected.Primarily as a rësult of royalty payments, the Tribe, likeother governmental àuthorities, has at long last acquired amajor source of income. With some of thèse revenues theTribe has established itself in business and has made capitalinvestments throughout the réservation to create new oppor-tunitiès for employment: dams, roads, modem housing proj-ects, schoôls, a collège. Other revenue is used to build super-markets, motels, and façtories— such as the Fairchild Electronics Assembly Plant at Shiprock. The plant employs 850 Navajos and expects 1,500 byy 1970; while a General Dynamicsplant employs 250: in Fort Défiance.With still other revenues the Tribe_ has established an en-dowment fund to provide collège scholarship and loan assistance. Recently the Secretary of the Interior approved theinvestment of this $10 million éducation fund in commonstocks and other securities, under the management of profes-sional investment counselors. The plan is working and anadditional $20 million investment is Seing requestedTThe Tribe has established enterprises such as the NavajoHousing Authority, the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority, vâr-ious restaurants and motels, and the Navajo Forest ProductsIndustries (nfpi), which is harvesting 50 million board feet oflumber annually from the nearly 500,000-acre forests of theréservation^ high plateaus and mountains. Operating a mod-,ern and highly-automated sawmill, nfpi provides fair profit,stumpage payments, and over 350 jobs.Largely due to the guidance of the Bureau of Indian Affairsand the United States Public Health Services, the Tribe hasestablished its own welfare programs, including probation andparole services. The Navajo Police force is exceptionally efficient and has jurisdiction and responsibility throughout theentire réservation. As part of an éducation program, the Tribeannually supplies two outfits of clothing to each child en-rolled in school. To assist The People improve their homes theTribe has its own construction and design department, and itsupplies heavy equipment for road maintenance and construction. A légal aid service also is available.Neither are the Tribe's resources neglected. Livestock programs are provided. Hunting and fishing is supervised by aParks and Récréation Department, along with a forestry program. Water, minerais, land, and agriculture departments supervise the use of thèse valuable assets.Supplementing Tribal and Fédéral programs, the Office ofNavajo Economie Opportunity sponsors anti-poverty programs throughout the réservation, including 120 Head Startcenters and a Home Improvement Training Program in eachof the 100 Chapters. Additional programs include the LocalGommunity Development Program, a Migrant AgriculturalWorkers Program, a nationally-f amous community alcoholismworkers program, a business loan assistance center, a concen-trated employment program, a légal aid services program,vista, and others.In the next few years there are plans for expanded utilitySystems, supermarket facilities, power plants, major airports,additional roads, irrigation Systems, dams, tourist facilities,community centers, and others. Especially with the supple-mental funds from various fédéral programs, some parts ofNavajoland are as active as a boomtown. The Tribe's affairshâve become so complex that a computer is used in theiradministration.Personal income from on-reservation sources cornes main-ly from tribal and fédéral payrolls, mining and forestry employment, electronics factory employment, agricultural production, and the sale of native arts and crafts products. How-ever, only a minority works in the more skilled and lucrative areas first described, while most Navajos receive only ameagre and occasional income from agriculture and arts andcrafts.The attitude of The People toward the fédéral governmentduring the century of progress has been, at best, a mixed one.Bitter memories of the loss of the war, Bosque Redondo, theTreaty, and the Long Walk remained vividly alive in the Navajo mind long after thèse become forgotten pages in thenational archives. Although the government agencies werestaffed with some dedicated personnel, their policies and programs for the Navajo were characterized largely by paternal-ism and misunderstanding.The stock réduction program of the 1930's is an example ofa government plan that hardly could hâve been calculated fora more négative or bewildering impact upon The People. Theprogram was based on the premise that limited réservationland could graze only a limited number of sheep and livestockwithout causing excessive érosion. Hence, the reasoning went,the herds must be reduced. Now to The People, land andsheep are the Navajo way. Sheep especially were vital andwere valued more than money in the mostly-barter economy,for they provided both food and clothing. Even today it is notpossible to explain the program to the old people, who shaketheir heads as they recall seeing herds of thousands reduced tohundreds when the stock were rounded up, shot, burned ingreat heaps, and buried in long trenches. With better under-standing, the program might instead hâve been an effort toimprove the grazing land. But the understanding was lacking,and so the program, to the Navajo, was a disaster.With the exception of the éducation program provided forin the Treaty, it was not until the final décades of the longcentury of progress that fédéral agencies began to offer health,welfare, and other social services to any significant degree.Thèse services were strange to The People and the struggleto convince the Navajo to accept them is a long page in theirhistory. For her leadership and her work in pioneering thiscampaign among The People, Mrs. Annie D. Wauneka,daughter of the first Navajo Tribal Chairman, Mr. CheeDodge, was awarded the Présidents Freedom Medal by thelate John F. Kennedy in 1963. Today the Indian HealthService has established many hospitals and clinics upon andnear the réservation.TodayStatistics on the Navajo are grim. Unemployment ranges from60% to 70%. Literacy among adults is still uncommon: theaverage level of éducation is approximatelv fifth grade. Whileexperiencing the highest birth rate in the nation, The Peoplealso expérience a tragically high rate of infant mortality. Theaverage life expectancy is approximately 45 years, or roughly13the same figure for the United States a century earlier. Perhaps 80% of the population live in a one-roofn hogan— or whatthe government would call substandard .housing. Approxi-mately 90% of The People have.incomes below the povertylevel as determined by the Office of Economie Opportunity.Why?Perhaps it wobld be helpful to look back for a moment._Slightly morë than a century ago the Navajo were a strongpepple, living a hardy but idyllic existence on their own landaceprding to the dictâtes, of their own culture and with theirown spécial hopes and dreams. Suddenly they lost a war, suf-fered terrible hardship and tràgedy, and were forced into adebilitating dependency relationship with a foreigh culturethat hot only misunderstood them but pressured them to adoptalieh ways. The People measurèd lif e's values in one] way, the.Navajo way, while the fédéral government insistëd on an-other, the Anglo way. A handful succeeded in adjustihg to acompromise way, but most fell victim to spiritual, cultufal,and économie impoverishment.The pressure to adapt was relentless. Contairied within theréservation, The People could not simply move on when theearth waS unyielding to traditional agricultural practices:When they at last looked to non^Navaio skills for help, theydid so for one reason only: they had no choice. ~In a way, the children suffered the most. Sent to the whitemari's school— generally aboarding school far from home—they were taughf only the white man's éducation and the, white man's ways. They were given an Anglo name, had theirhàir eut short (contrary to tradition), and were punished ifthey spoke Navajo. The Anglo concept of classroom discipline could not hâve been more out of place. In the Navajoway one remains reserved in public, and it isv unthinkable tosubject someone to embarrassment. To be sure, many learnedtheir lessons, but at bitter expense.We know the story of one Navajo boy who some years agoappeared at school with mud on his face and hands and bits 6tfeathers and mud in his hair. The teacher, in predictableAnglo fashion, ordered him to get cleaned up. The boy,knowing only a few words of English, stood in silent shame,whereupon the teacher dragged him to a sink and scrubbedhim clean. It turned out that the boy had participatëd in aspécial religious ceremony for his sister, who was near death. , ¦,. :' •' ' ¦¦'¦ '¦¦,He and other participants wore mixed clays and otherJritualparaphernalia, applied to restore the hèalth of-the little girl. Inprematurely removing thèse éléments the ceremony wàs ne-gated. The girldied, and ne^ther the bpy nor anyjjf his familyevèr returned to an Anglo schooLToday many teachers are better prepared, and at least\insome schools there is a greater understanding— although itmight mère açcurately be dèseribed as perfunctory tolérance.By being away from their families the children were deniedthe opportunity to learn their ôwri culture and to learn thelessons of the Holy People, simply because the cérémonies, were almosr always performed,in the wintér months, the timewhen the children were away ât school. Neither did tiiëylearn their resporisibility toward fheir kinfolk and towardtheir own people. With this there was suddenly the bègin^ning of a new problem: a growing distance between the waysof the old and the young. , ¦The érosion of the old way is seen yividly in the diminish-:ing number of Medicinemen. The demands of formai éducation and rëgular employment make it increasingly difficult forah aspiring young Navajo to invest the ffvé, ten, or even fif-tçen years nécessary to learn the complex :' lessons and cérémonies. But without the Medicinemen to perform the Holycérémonies there willbë ho Navajo religion and the heaft of| Navajo culture will die. vModem; médical technology is making inroads too; as moreand more of The People accept the routine use of hospitalfacjlities, where available. However, even thé professionalmédical personnel on the réservation' recognize the capabilitiesof the Medicinemen in treating certain cases, particularly. incurables or those with emptional problems, À psychiatristspends a great deal of time building a relationship with hispatient. A Medicineman, howèver, has the patient's lifetime offaith immediately available to help fight the disease. The jargon differs, but it matters little if ;an ailment is blamed on evijspirits or anxiety neurosis, so long as the patient is restored tohealth. Those interested in psychosomatic medicine will perhaps not be surprised to learn that' accounts of cures such asthe arrest of cancer or the disappearance of gallstones follow-ing treatment by a Medicineman are not rare.i l Today, a great many of The People suffer the dilèmma thatbegan when they were school children: they vacillate both inH$}*$jifa0*-'Two Navajo Womenmind and geography between the Navajo and the Anglo_worlds. A good ïnany of the Navajo people hâve told us thatthey are uncertain about their identity. They speak and actlike the Anglos who taught them, They try to keep a job anda new car. Yet they cherish the rural existence and the olderway of life; they still participate in the old cérémonies./ am the child of Yei-ie.Turquoise for my body. Silvef for my soûl.I was united with beauty ail around me.As turquoise and silyer, I'm the jewel of brothertribes and worn with pride.The wilds of the animais are also my brothers.The bears, the deer, and the birds are a partof me and I am a part of them.As brothers, thé clouas are our long and sleek hair.The winds are our pure breath.As brothers, the rivers are our blood.The mountains are our ownselves.As brothers, the universe is our home, qndin it we walk with Beauty in our minds,with Beauty in our hedrts and withBeauty in our steps.In Beauty we were born.In Beauty we are living.In Beauty we will die.In Beauty we will be finish éd.Charles C. Long, "Yei-ie's Child"L ,To meet their spiritual needs, some of The People hâveturned to thè Native American Church, the onetime contro-versial religion incorporating the cérémonial use of peyote.The mild— by urban "drug-culture" standards— consciousness-expanding properties of the bud of the peyote cactus hâvebeen known in the Southwest for centuries. However, its reli-gious use by indians did not become significant until after1900, thé time when the decay of the old culture first wasstrongly f elt. A 1 960 state court décision legalized the use ofpeyote for N.A.C. members in Arizona, and the NavajoTribal Council legalized it on the réservation in 1967. Thesubject of the Native American Church remains a sensitivematter among The People. It may hâve helped some avoid thetragedy of alcoholism. It clearly has helped others deal withthe anguish felt in the void between two worlds.16 In many ways, the twp worlds are incompatible. DuringWorld War II many Navajo men entered military service orworked in war industries away from the réservation. (An all-Navajo communications 1 unit provided invaluable service tothe war effort. Serving on the front lines in the Pacifictheater, they transmitted top-seçrèt radio messages in theirnative torigue, a "code'' that enemy intelligence was unable todecipher, throughout the war.) As expècted, in their trainingand in their travels they acquired considérable familiarity.withthe npn'-Navajp world and acquired habits of the outside. culture. When they returned to the réservation they v^ere con-fusëd and had serious questions about their identity. Amongtheir families they were looked upon as having loStpart ôf theNavajo way. Sometimes the very worst that can possibly besaid of anyone Was said ta describe their condition: "He actsas if he hasnp family."When the legends die, the dreams end.When the dreams' end, there is no more greatness.When The Legends Die, a novel by Hal BorlandThe importance which the traditional culture place d.ttpdrithe values of the Beauty way, especially ih one's relations to hiskinfolk, could not be completely appreciated by many ofthose who hàd absorbed Anglo, culture. However, there weresome who were able to find a çomfortable middle ground,adopting features of both cultures. It is this "best of both"that a good number of the Navajo people are striving for to-/(lay' \ 'i C '¦The fédéral government's relations with The People hâveadded to their confusion., By playing the rôle of benevolentmaster for so many years, some government agencies hâve fos-tered a bèlief among The People that they are what they areonly because of the generosity of the Great White Father. Attimes there is'talk of "termination," the severing of tribal-fed-eral relations. Although desired by many Navajos, the threatof such action is nevertheless frightening because of concernthat the as yet unprepared tribe will be left to flounder.Interagency bickering and jealousies contribute to the con- ifusion. Private groups, the govemments of three states, andnumerous fédéral agencies are simultaneoûsly at work on theréservation, creating a tangle of jurisdictional problems, notinfrequently at odds with the aims and programs of the TribalCouncil. Coordination is clearly needed. Meanwhile, the first-hand lesson in government is a poor one indeed.The fashionable practice of attempting to identify what iscalled "the Navajo problem" still exists, just as it does withother minority groups. Observers cite alcoholism, unemploy-ment, ignorance. Unfortunately, the tendency is to treat thesymptoms instead of the disease, and innumerable programshâve been based on this f allacy. But The People know wherethey want to go and they hâve some idea of how to get there.Above ail, The People feel that their development must becompleted in the Navajo way, a way which by définition ex-cludes the picketing and démonstrations which figure soprominently in other minority struggles. The challenge beforeThe People is the challenge of any developing nation: theystrongly désire the opportunity to détermine the course oftheir own future.We know that it is your purpose that we shall not fail.The only limit to our realization of tomorrow will be ourdoubts of today— Raymond Nakai, Chairman of the Navajo Tribal Council, Inaugural Address, April 13, 1963.TomorrowWhat tomorrow will bring The People is not easy to foresee.It is significant that they hâve no word for time in their nativelanguage, no concept in this regard. In the Navajo way, onedoes not worry about tomorrows. Perhaps neither should we.If they do not deliberate and develop at a rate familiar tothe Anglo world, The People would say that thèse are simplyimposed values. The Navajo very much désire the opportunity to develop in their own manner and at their own pace,preserving the values of their proud héritage and, above ail,preserving unto their children the opportunity to becomewhatever they are capable of becoming, whether oriented tothe Navajo or the Anglo way of living.Today the Navajo still find their strength in the Beautywayof the Holy People, while they struggle to adapt that whichis meaningful and useful to them in the Anglo world.As the émergence myth relates, this is a new world for theNavajo just as it is a new world for the millions of immigrantswho hâve made this land the America of today. In the olddays, long before the Treaty of 1 868, The People encounteredother cultures, exchanged arts and skills and ideas with them,and emerged enriched. In their encounter with Anglo culture and its force-feeding ways, they hâve been injured and im-poverished. Hopefully, they will some day again feel enriched.With the confidence that The People will seize whatevermeaningful opportunities are available to them, we anticipatea Beautiful tomorrow. But if that day should corne it will like-ly be only when the full context of the Navajo way of life isAU the things that hâve harmed me,they will leave me.I walk with a cool body after they leave me.Inside of me today I will be well,ail fever will hâve corne out of me,and go away from me,and leave my head cool.I will h ear todayI will see todayI will be in my right mind today.Today l will walk outToday everything evil will leave meI will be as I was beforeI will hâve a cool breeze over my bodyI will walk with a light body.I will be happy forever,nothing will hinder me,1 will walk with Beauty before me.I will walk with Beauty behind me.I will walk with Beauty above me.I will walk with Beauty below me.1 will walk with Beauty ail around me.I will walk and speak Beautiful words.I will forever be one,Everything is Beautiful.Part of the Praver to Big Snake Man at Dropped-out Mountain, from the Beautyway Chant.understood by those around them. The People seek and, perhaps more than anything else, need honest respect for theirbasic human dignity. With such respect it is to be hoped thatunderstanding and coordination will corne, which togetherwill orchestrate a development of The People into a Beautifultomorrow, beyond even our most wonderful dreams, wherethe rainbows will forever shine and bring to ail people every-where that sensé of Justice, Harmonv, Peace, and Beautywhich is part of the common héritage of mankind. ?17I«HOWC-C'COOU>YOU?/? BABY,TO REAOH THEMASS REAXHNQ-AUDIENGE REQUlRESA SIMPLE FORMULAISFRAMEWORKHEIQ-HTENED BYQUASI- P0RNO6rRAPHY,VIOLENCE, ANDOTHER DÉVIDÉS OFEMOTION ALINTENSIFICATION.s* »John G. CaweltiThe Spillane PhenomenonBy most traditional literary or artistic standards, the works ofiMickey Spillane are atrocious. His characters and situationsnot only strain credulity to its limits, they frequently turn theStomach as well. Spillane's narrative technique is so "hard-hitting," as the reviewers say, that it has the expressiveness ofa blackjack. His style and dialogue are awkward, stilted, andwooden. His idea of a thème consists of a primitive right-wingdiatribe against some of the central principles of Americandemocracy and English law. Yet, despite thèse disadvantages(or perhaps they are advantages) Spillane's books hâve soldover 40 million copies. Among the thirty top best sellers from1 895-1 965, seven were by Spillane. Only such super best-sellers as Dr. Spock, Peyton Place, Gone with the Wind, andThe Carpetbaggers havé exceeded the sales of /, the Jury andThe Big KM. Such superb hard-boiled stories as Chandler'sFarewell, My Lovely and Hammett's The Maltese Falconhâve sold just over a million copies, while Spillane's booksaverage 4 to 5 million.Spillane's immense popularity is often attributed to an un-regenerate depravity and stupidity in the mass reading public.John G. Cawelti, Associate Prof essor of English, specializes inthe cultural history and the literature of America, especiallypopular culture. This article, extracted from a book in préparation on popular literary formulas, examines the formai aspects of the literary efforts of the phenomenally successfulMickey Spillane and also sheds some light on the characteris-tics of the mass reading audience. Mr. Cawelti is the author ofApostles of the Self -Made Man: Changing Concepts of Suc-cess in America and, with Alexander Kern and Marvin Mey-ers, of Sources of the American Republic. Since his closest sales competitors are hard-boiled writers likeBrett Helliday and Richard Prather, prolific hacks who more,or less imitate the Spillane recipe without adding much in theway of literary interest, one can envison mindless millions ofcrétins slobbering idiotically as Mike Hammer pistolwhipsanother naked female. However, such visions are too vagueand moralistic to be of much help in understanding the Spillane phenomenon. The mass audience and its motives are toocomplex for such simplistic generalization to do anything butrelieve the feelings of those who are distressed that such ques-tionable works of literature should attract so wide a public.Since the gênerai approach of this book is to analyze the workrather than the audience, I hope to shed some light on Spillane's popular success by considering the formai characteristicsof his work.Spillane's first and best-selling novel, 7, the Jury, shares withChandler's Farewell, My Lovely the basic characteristics ofthe hard-boiled formula. Both novels take the form of a per-sonal narrative by a tough private investigator. The hero pur-sues an investigation which leads him ever deeper into theperversion and evil endémie to the urban setting in which heopérâtes. In the process both Chandler's Philip Marlowe andSpillane's Mike Hammer become involved in an ambiguousrelationship with the police, a relationship which reveals thelimitations of the légal process in achieving "true" justice.Through this portrayal of the inefficiency and helplessness ofthe established authorities, the hero's own personal sensé ofjustice and his aggressive acting-out of his judgment are madeemotionally necessary and morallv righteous. Finally, bothheroes discover that the criminal they seek is a beautiful but19vicious woman who sexually tempted them earlier in the book.The différence between the two writers is nonetheless sub-stantial. Chandler fleshes this fable out with fairly complexcharacters and a richly symbolic action, but Spillane opérâtesby leaving the basic formulaic framework as simple and un-complicated as possible. Instead of adding human complexityto the skeleton, he heightens the pattern of the formulathrough violence, quasi-pornography, and other devices ofémotional intensification. Both the style and the larger structure of his novels manifest this kind of heightening. For example, in both /, the Jury and Farewell, My Lovely womenattempt to seduce the detective-hero. In Chandler's novel,however, the séduction is described in a relatively detachedand ironie fashion which emphasizes its sordidness, artificialityand pathos especially when, in the middle of the action, thetemptress' elderly husband wanders pathetically into thescène:She fell softly across my lap and I bent down over her faceand began to browse onit. She nxiorked her eyelâshes and madebutterfly kisses on my chëeks. When I got to her mouth it washalf open and burning and her tongue was a darting snake between her teeth.The door opened and Mr. Grayle stepped quietly into theroom. I was holding her and didrit hâve a chance to let go. Ilifted my face and looked at him. I felt as cold as Finnegan'sfeet, the day they buried him.The blonde in my arms didrit move, didrit even close herlips. She had a half-dreamy, hatf-sarcastic expression On herface.Mi*. Grayle cleared his throat slightly and said: "I beg y ourpardon, I'm sure," and went quietly out of the room. Therewas an infinité sadness in his eyes.However, when Spillane does a séduction scène, not a hint ofirony or pathos enters in, except unintentionally. In its placethere is a voyeuristic fascination with the woman's movemèntsand a f antasy of maie dominance as the woman extends hersexual invitation. Clearly Spillane's model hère as elsewhere inhis descriptions of sexual relations is not the actual encounterof men and women, but the conventionalized sexual ritual ofthe strip-tease:Mary drew her legs up under her on the divan and turnedon her side to face me. During the process the négligée fellopen, but she took her time to draw it shut. Deliberately , she let my eyes feast on her lovely bosom. What I could see of herstomach was smooth parallel rows of light muscles^ almost lïkea maris. I licked my lips . . .Her eyes were biazing into mine. They wére violet eyes, awild biazing violet. Her mouth looked soft and wet, and pro-vocative. She was making no attempt to keep~thè~negligee on.One shoulder had slipped down and her brownskin formed aninteresting contrast with the pirik. I wondered how she got hertan. There were no strap marks any where. She uncrossed herlegs deliberately and squirmed like an ôvergrown cat, lettihethe light pïay with the ripply muscles in her naked thighH.In coimparison with the Chandler scène where sexuality isopen, brutal, and a direct expression of character (the womancallous but driven, the détective reluctant and ironie) in Spillane, as in pornography, it is largely diyôrced from character.This abstract sexuality uses répétition and a drawing out orextension of the action to produce a heightened feeling in thereader. Interestingly enough, there is almost no description ofthe sexual act itself in Spillane. Indeed, in the passage citedabove, Mike Hammer refuses the lady's overtures at tfye lastminute and départs in righteous chastity. So in the case bf thestrip-teaser, the preliminaries are more important than thegoal. After the répétitive, teasing build-up of bumps andgrinds, the actual moment of nakedness is an anticlimax. Likethe strip-teaser, Spillane has his f emales endlessly ripple theirmuscles while letting their dresses hang open provocatively.Indeed one rriight almost say that most of his novels are struc-tured as elaborate strip teases in which Mike is increasinglytempted by a séries of sexy damsels; in the end, the tease almost reaches the point of passionate sexuality, but the finalteaser always turns out to be the murderess and consequentlymust be destroyed. In one of the central émotional rhythms inSpillane's work, sexual provocation leads to fulfillment in violence.Violence as orgasm is one main thème of Spillane's novels.Despite the prevalence of violence in the novels of Hammettand Chandler, one must look fairly hard to find instanceswhere the decteçtive-hero himself either hits or shoots anothercharacter. When they do, the incident is usually treated witha neutral terseness or with the ironie detachment that marksthe hero's character. For example, the Continental Op, detective-hero of Hammett's Red Harvest, shows an increasing dis-gtist and self-questioning as he manipulâtes the mounting violence of that novel. Only once does the Op actually shootsomebody in Red Harvest, and there the description is cold20and emotionless with no sensé of fulfillment in violence:Across the street, burly Nick had stepped out of a doorwayto pump slugs at us with both hands.I steadied my gun-arm on the floor. Nick's body showedover the front sight. I squeezed the gun. Nick stopped shoot-ing. He crossed his guns on his chest and went down in apile on the sidewalk.Nor does the Op enjoy banging people around in the mannerof Spillane's Mike Hammer. The one time he actually knocksanother character down, it is presented as a décent and hu-mane act:/ poked him to give him back some of his self-respect. Youknow, treated him as I would a man instead of a down-and-outer who could be slapped around by girls.Like Hammett's detective-hero, Chandler's Marlowe is rarelythe source of violence, though on thèse occasions, Chandlerdoes stylistically heighten the description of violence to agreater degree than Hammett. However, Marlowe's ironie re-luctance is still a part of the scène:- He whirled at me. Perhaps it would hâve bêen nice to allowhim another shot or two, just like a gentleman of the oldschool. But his gun was still up and I couldrit wait any longer.Not long enough to be a gentleman of the old school. I shothim four times, the Coït straining against my ribs. The gunjumped out of his hand as if it had been kicked. He reachedboth his hands for his stomach. I could hear them smack hardagainst his body. He fell like that, straight forward, holdinghimself together with his broad hands. He fell face down inthe wet gravel. And after that there wasrit a sound from him.In Spillane's novels, however, Mike Hammer is the mainsource of violence. His chief investigative technique consistslargely of beating up suspects to force their confession, andthis violence is described with a détail and intensity that leavesno doubt of the great émotional catharsis it brings to the hero:The goddamn bastards played right into my hands. Theythought they had me nice and cold and just as they were setto carve me into a raw mess of skin, 1 dragged out the .4$ andlet them look down the hole so they could see where suddendeath came from. It was the only kind of talk they knew. The little guy staredtoo long. He should hâve been watching my face. I snappedthe side of the rod across his jaw and laid the flesh open to thebone. He dropped the sap and staggered into the big boy witha scream starting to corne up out of his thr'oat only to get ileut off in the middle as I pounded his teeth back into hismouth with the end of the barrel . . . The punk was vomitingon the floor, trying to claw his way under the sink. For laughsI gave him a taste of his own sap on the back of his hand andfelt the bones go into splinters. He wasrit going to be usingany tools for a long time.Spillane makes the relationship between sexual teasing and violent catharsis a part of the basic texture of his stories. In hishands, the hard-boiled structural formula of increasing in-volvement in a web of corruption becomes an alternating pat-tern of sexual provocation and orgies of shooting or beatingwhich seem to function psychologically as a partial release ofthe émotional tension built up by the unconsummated sexualteasing. This structural pattern reaches its climax in the night-marish final scènes of Spillane's novels. Spillane has a remark-able ability to imagine and visualize scènes in which the dis-turbing émotions aroused by the mounting tensions of sexualteasing and orgiastic violence reach a cathartic culmination.The key to thèse scènes is a legitimated sadism which differen-tiates Spillane from most of the other hard-boiled writers. Asin the Western, the hard-boiled plot works toward a point inwhich the hero is justified in using extra-legal violence to capture or destroy the criminal. However, in Spillane's case, thealternate épisodes of sexual provocation by women and violence against men lead specifically to the infliction of pain anddeath upon women, often in connection with the sexual act.Three examples will indicate the way in which Spillane créâtesthe climactic sadism of his stories. In One Lonely Night, MikeHammer's chaste secretary-sweetheart, Velda, has been cap-tured by communist spies. When Mike breaks in on theirsecret hideout he finds that Velda has been strung up nakedand is being whipped. Although Mike then shoots the commierats it seems clear that one reason for his passionate destruction of her torturers is his own ambiguous delight in theflagellating of Velda:Then there was only beauty to the nakedness of her body.A beauty of the flesh that was more than the sensuous curveof her bips, more than the sharp curve of breasts drawn highunder the weight of her body, more than those long full legs,21more than the ebony of her hair. There was the beauty of theflesh that was the beauty of the soûl and the guy in the pork-pie bat grimaced with hâte and raised the rope to smash itdown while the rest slobbered with the lust and pleasure ofthis example of what was yet to corne, even drooled with thepassion that was death made slow in the fulfilbnent of thephilosophy that lived under a red flag.It is also worth noting that Spillane f requently, expresses suchpolitical or social attitudes in connection with the émotionsaroused by his porno-violence. In a number of his novels "pa-triotic" hostility toward "communism" and foreigners servesas part of the justification for Mike's participation in the cul-minating orgy of sadism and destruction.Another example of Spillane's way of bridging his two major thèmes of sexual provocation and violence together is theconclusion of The Big KM. Marshâ Lee, the beautifuLactresswho has been tempting Mike throughout the novel— "the softpink tones of her body softened the metallic glitter of thenylon gown that outlined her in bronze, flowirig smoothly upthe roundness of her thighs. . . ."— turns out to be a viciousblackmailer who is responsible for the killing of a man whoselittle boy Mike has been protecting. When Mike confrontsMarsha, she manages to get the drop on him, but just as she isabout to shoot, the little boy, who happens to be in the room,starts to play with Mike's forgotten gun. Providentially, thegun goes off and the bullet Aies across the room "with a horrible vengeance that ripped ail the evil from her face, turningit into a ghastly wet red mask that was really no face at ail."Hère, as in One Lonely Night, the sadism is ^lightly disguisédby attributing it to someone other. than the hero, but in /, theJury, Spillane's, first and most popular book, the climacticscène of sadistic masculine response to sexual provocation isbrutally overt. Mike confronts the beautiful blonde he hasdiscovered to be the murdering head of a dope-ring. In response to Mike's accusations, the lady slowly and proyoca-tively strips off her clothes until she stands naked ànd invitingbefore him. Then Mike shoots her. The final dialogue betweenthe lovers is devastatingly revealing of Mike's bitter hostilitytoward women.When I heard her fall I turned around. Her eyes had painin them now, the pain preceding death. Pain and unbelief."How c-could you?" she gasped.I only had a moment before talking to a corpse, but 1 got it in."It was easy," I said.Sirtce théy are built up out of this texture of sexual provocation and masculine violence climaxed by the infliction of painand death on the sexual object, Spillane's books are an extrêmeembodiment of the fear, hostility, artd ambiguity toward Society and particularly toward women which are built into thehard-boiled détective formula. However, where writers' likeHammett and Chandler qualify the endémie aggression andsadism of this formula with a considérable degree of irony andcomplexify, Spillane's skill as a popular writerlies precisely inhis ability to suppress characters and turns of plot whichmight confuse or enrich the essential émotional pattétn, and inhis capacity to invent incidents like the ritual strip-tease of/, the Jury which embody the central émotional thèmes of thçhard-boiled formula with primitive and vivid direetness. Eventhe detective-hero has highly simplified motives in the Spillanestory. Instead of Marlowe's complex reluctance, or the Continental Op's stoic professionalism, Mike Hammer invariablybeepmes involved in a case through a simple désiré for revenge. In I, the Jury the novel begins with the.murder orMike's best friend; the rest of Mike's actions are explicitlymotivated by a désire to avenge this death. In The Big KillMike witnesses the murder of the f ather of a young child 'Hebecomes temporarily the child's protector and swears toavenge the f ather. The action of One Lonely Night centersaround the capture of Mike's secretary, Velda, by communistagents. The story dérives from Mike's' violent désire to rescueVelda an,d/or destroy her tormentors. Once established,Mike's single dominant motive doès not change in the courseof the story, in contrast to Marlowe's constahtly shifting attitudes and redéfinitions of his mission. Similarly, there is afundamental simplicity and répétition about the basic structure of Spillane's narratives. As we hâve pointed out, thestories consist essentially pf alternating épisodes of sexualprovocation and masculine violence, reachihg toward a climaxin which sexuality and aggression become intertwined.One might well inquire why, if this is the central purpose ofhis version of the -hard-boiled formula. Spillane's readérs donot simply pref er straight sadistic pornography. This questionrequires a complex answer. Though I hâve argued that thehard-boiled formula expresses hostilities and résolves tensionswhich are particularly endémie to twentieth century "other-directed" mass society, and though the literary représentationof sadistic actions seems to satisfy some of thèse needs, it doesnot follow that straight pornography is better at relievingthèse tensions than pornographie thèmes embedded in anotherkind of narrative. First, there still exist strong légal and moralprohibitions against straight pornography. Even if currenttrends continue and pornography becomes more readilyavailable it is still quite likely that a major part of the masspublic will find pornography and aggression more acceptablewhen they are embedded in another narrative context. Notonly is straight pornography less morally acceptable to manypeople, it is usually very unsatisfying emotionally. Like thestrip-tease scènes in Spillane's books, pornography provokeswithout fulfilling; the réader is sexually aroused, but for re-lease and fulfillment he must go outside the book, unless thepornographie story is one of those rare cases where the cata-log of sexual activities which forms the pornographie structure becomes part of a larger human story. But to do this,sexual activity must be made a matter of serious moral signif-icance, a matter of basic choice or even of life and death.However, ascribing such quality to sexual activity tends tocontradict the sexual ideology of most contemporary pornography, which is that sex is an activity one should be able toindulge in freely without moral responsibility. This is also tosay that sex is without moral significance. Since it is onlywhen the issues raised by a story hâve a certain degree ofsignificance— even in the simplified manner of Spillane— thattheir resolution carries any degree of émotional catharsis, wecan see why sexual détail can be more effective and popular inthe context of another kind of story, even in a culture wherethere are few prohibitions against straight pornography.Erwin Panofsky greatly assists us in dealing with this prob-lem when, in an essay on "Style and Médium in the MotionPictures," he sums up the central characteristics of the "folkart mentality" as they became embodied in the early movies:They gratified—often simultané ously— first, a primitive senséof justice and décorum when virtue and industry were re-warded while vice and laziness were punished; second, plainsentimentality when "the thin trickle of a fictive love interest"took its course 'Hhrough somewhat serpentine channels" orwhen Father, dear F ather returned from the saloon to find hischild dying of diphtheria; third, a primordial instinct forbloodshed and cruelty when Andréas Hofer faced the firingsquad, or when (in a film of 1893-94) the head of MaryQueen of Scots actually came' off; fourth, a taste for mild por nography; and finally that crude sensé of himwr, graphicallydescribed as "slapstick," which feeds upon the sadistic and thepornographie instinct, either singly or in combination.The one improvement we might suggest for this fine enumera-tion of the central characteristics of folk and popular art is agreater emphasis on the relationship between the éléments. Forit is not simply the présence of sadism or pornography, buttheir careful and inextricable relationship with sentiment anda "primitive sensé of justice" that is important. Thus, MikeHammer's orgiastic sadism is acceptable and cathartic for amass audience because it is initiated by sentimental feelings,such as Mike's deep sorrow for a murdered friend, and justi-fied by the unpunished evil which his investigations uncoyer.Weighed against the individual and social evils he confronts,Mike's brutality is made to seem a necessary and even indispensable course of action. In an urban world dominated bygangsters, communist agents, and socialite dope-pushers, theonly person who can bring the élites of evil to their reckoningis Spillane's lone wolf of destruction. Spillane's social paranoia,with its hvsterical fears of urban sophistication, foreigners,and minority groups, therefore serves an important functionin justifying his hero's brutality. Similarly, Spillane's sentimentality and didacticism are given greater intensity through theireventuation in violence.This combination of sentimentality, pornography, and vio-lencei linked together by a delight in the extra-legal punish-ment of successful evil-doers and bv a profound, ambiguousfear of the temptations and wickedness of the city, hâve longbeen a staple of folklore, as Panofsky points out. Indeed, thisparticular combination has been endémie to the popular literature. of nineteenth and twentieth cènturv England and America, ranging in time— and quality— from Dickens and UvcleTon? s Cabhi to Peyton Place. If we look, however, for a nineteenth century analog to this combination of éléments, simplified and heightened in the fashion of Mickev Spillane, we findit in the immensely popular but now forgotten didactic tempérance novels written by such authors as T. S. Arthur, whoseTen Nights in a Bar room had the same kind of skeletal literary form as Spillane's novels. Moreover, there is enoughsimilarity of thème and attitude between thèse two literarytypes to make the comparison curious but revealing. In thetempérance novel, the hero, like Spillane's détective, en-counters the disturbing temptations of the sophisticated city:the corruptions of wealth, the destructive habits of tobaccoand alcohol (and the dangerous seductiveness of the ScarletWoman). Spillane, writing for a society that lias acceptedsmoking and drinking as part of its way of lif e, transmutes theanimus against liquor into a f ear of drugs. Howeveri the Scarlet Woman is a central figure in his stories. In addition, tempérance novels are full of tearful children who beg their wav-ering daddies to set aside the fatal glass of béer and cornehome. Similarly, Spillane frequently arouses his reader's feel-ings for the plight of the innocent child by having his détective hero protect children threatened by the surrounding cor-ruptipn. The tempérance novel even tends to manifest thesame pattern of social hostility as Spillane: the corruptorsrepresent sophisticated wealth on one side and non-white ornon-Protestant groups on the other. For the nineteenth century didactic novelists, popery plays the rôle assumed by com-munism in Spillane: a foreign conspiracy associafed withthreats to the sexual purity and moral asceticism of the American way of life. Finally the tempérance novels characteristi-cally end with a terrible providential vengeance against thecorrupters, just as Spillane's novels end with the violent deathof the Scarlet Woman. While Spillane does not suggest thathis Mike Hammer is an agent of divine providence, he doesfrequently imply that Mike is driven by forces larger thanhimself, that his brutality cornes from a sacred frenzy, againstthe rampant evils at large in the world. For exâmple, at onepoint Mike thinks that he might give up his crusade againstevil:/ ought to get out of it. I ought to take Velda and my officeand start up in real estate in some small community wheremurder and guns and dames didrit happen. Maybe I wopdd,at that. It was wonderful to be able to think straight àgain.No more crazy mad hatred that ped my insides into knots.No more hunting the scum that stood behind a trigger andshot at the world.But this is only a passing moment. In the next f ew pages Mikeis at it again, compulsively driven by his instinct for primitivejustice to wipe out more rotten gansters and foreigners.This comparison with the tempérance novel suggests thatbeyond his capacity to simplif y and emotionally heighten thebasic formula of the hard-boiled détective story, Spillane alsobrings to this formula something of the fervor and passion ofthe popular evangelical religious tradition which has long been a dominant élément in the culture of lower-middle and lowerclass America. It is certainiy no accident that this traditionalso exemplifies many of Spillane's primary/ social hpstilitîes: xrural suspicion of urban sophistication; nativist hatred of racialand ethnie minorities; the ambiguous hostility toward womenon the part of those anxious about their status and concernedabout the érosion of masculine dominance. But above ail it isthe similar intensity of passion, growing out of à bitter, over-powering hatred of the world as a sinful and corrupt placethat unités Spillane with the popular evangelical tradition. Inhis private life,. Spillane's own tempprary involvement iri thepassionate millennialism of the Jehovah's Witnesses suggeststhe extent to which his own view of the world is similar tothat of the evangelical tradition.Thus, Mickey Spillane's version of the hard-boiled détective formula has a spécial quality which cornes from two mainsources: first, there is SpillaneVâbiljty to construct a narrativewhich embodies in heightened form the pure skeletôn of theformula; ,'unlike more complex writers like Hammett orChandler, Spillane has a viscéral feel for the essential patternof action and thème which underlies the hard-boiled storyand is able to express this pattern with great simplicity andforce in highly colored épisodes and images. Second, Spillanehas always instinctivery recognized the connection- betweenhis narratives and the popular evangelical tradition and hasbeen able tô tap the great passion which many Americans hâveinvested in that tradition by embodying its central thèmes ofhostility toward the sinful city with its corrupt men of wealth,its degenerate foreigners, and its Scarlet Women. Of ail thehard-boiled writers, Spillane's art is closest in its mythicalsimplicity to the folk taie and in its passionate hatred and de-nunciations to the popular revivalist sermon. It is to its combination of thèse qualities and not simply to its préoccupationwith sex and violence that the work of Mickey Spillane owesits immense popularity. It is tempting to suggest that theStrained and hysterical violence of so much of his. work re-flects the fact that he is a prophet of the past, that his visionof the brutal redeemer Mike Hammer is the agonized but finaloutery of the evangëlistic subculture of rural America aboutto be swallowed up in the pluralistic, cosmopolitan world ofthe cities. The cool, bureaucratie style of Mike Hammer'ssuccessors, the Jairies Bonds and the Matt Helms, is certairuyfar removed from the passionate crusades of Spillane's bitterand violent hero. nHA\i:i»iit &OILTIIKEWalter J. Ong, S.J.Is télévision ruining the reading habits of children? Whetherit is or not, much of the disquiet back of such a question stemsfrom the fact that the relationship of print to other forms ofcommunication is not inaltérable but has in fact changed. Theprivileged position which the printed word had preerrtpted inthe past five centuries is no longer unchallenged. The newmédia bring us to reconsider what should be commonplace.Print was always a derivative form of verbal communication.Verbal communication is at root a nonscribal, nontypographi-cal phenomenon.Man communicates through ail his sensés, and in ways socomplicated that even at this late day many, and perhaps mostof them, hâve never adequately been described. But in somemysterious fashion, among ail forms of communication—through touch, taste, smell, sight, or what hâve you-com-munication through sound is paramount. Words hâve a pri-macy over ail other forms of communication. No matter howfamiliar we are with an object or a process, we do not feel thatwe hâve full mastery of it until we can verbalize it to others.And we do not enter into full communication with anotherperson without speech.Speech is essentially a spoken and heard phenomenon, amatter of voice and ear, an event in the world of sound.Words are sounds. Written words are substitutes for sound and are only marks on a surface until they are converted tosound again, either in the imagination or by actual vocaliza-tion.We know this, but we find it almost impossible to grasp itsfull implications. The spoken word has become entangledwith writing and print. When we talk about words, we areseldom sure whether we mean spoken words or written wordsor printed words or ail of thèse simultaneously.We hâve to make a suprême effort today to establish a senséof vocalization as such. And yet, if we lack this sensé, we can-not understand the development of communications Systemsin any real depth. For this reason, to get the roots of our condition today, we must indulge in a little history.Communication leading to technological culture has passedthrough three more or less clearly defined stages in the médiaby which the word is transmitted. The first was the spoken orthe voice-and-ear stage, when ail verbal communication wassimply oral. The second was the chirographic-typographicstage or script-and-print stage, which began with writing,most particularly the alphabet, and reached its fullest development with the invention of movable alphabetic type. Thethird is the electronic stage, in which we at présent live.If man has been on earth for 500,000 years— a fairly goodminimum working figure— he has been in the first or oral stageof the word for almost his entire existence. Writing is new:the first scripts date from only around 3500 b.c., less than6000 years ago, and the alphabet (which was invented onlyonce) from around 1500 b.c. Alphabetic type is about 500years old. We entered the third or electronic âge not muchWalter J. Ong, S.J., Visiting Willett Prof essor in the Humani-ties at The University of Chicago for the winter quarter, isProf essor of English at St. Louis University . This article waswritten by F ather Ong for the Magazine as a brief of his lecture, "The End of the Age of Literacy," the first of a séries offour presented recently in the Quantrell Auditorium underthe gênerai title "Word and Reality." Father Ong is the au-thor of numerous articles and books, including In the HumanGrain (Macmillan, 1961) and The Présence of the Word(Yale, 1961), two works dealing with material related to hisrécent lectures. His articles and books in the 19ÏO,s on the16th-century French philosopher Pierre de la Ramée openedthe study of the psychological and cultural effects of printwhich hâve been widely diffused and popularized in récentyears through the writings of Marshall McLuhan.^5more than one hundred years ago with thé telegraph. Thèseare tiny incréments in the 500,000-year history of mankind.It is common to view thèse stages in remis of the accumulation and diffusion of knowledge. A purely 'verbal culturecould not accumulate its expérience effectively at the con-scious level. Certain of the new inventions, most notablywriting, print, and finally electronic computers, make it possible to record knowledge, to "save" it. Thèse same inven-,dons, as well as others, too, hâve implemented diffusion. Inthis view, pur communications System is différent from that ofprimitive man, and better than his, because we hâve a greaterquantity of knowledge and can convey it more easily to alarger number of persons.Although this is true, such a view provides only a supërficialunderstanding of the development of communications média.We know now that when changes in the média take place, thepsychological structures or personality structures in a culturealso change. Oral cultures are traditional and tribal. In , them,knowledge develops slowly. Oral cultures must invest theirchief efforts not in development of new knowledge but in re-taining what knowledge is had. Without written records,knowledge threatens constantly to slip away. Words are al-ways thought of as fleeting, vanishing— Homer called them"winged words"— for they are only sounds.In an oral culture, there is no way to look up anything, tofind out when anyone was born or died, when a battle wâsfought, who won the battle, who is descended from whom.Ali one can do is ask another, and if he does not know,,asksomeone else. Knowledge would go out of existence if bardsdid not constantly sing and if the people did not constantlypass around by word of mouth what they know. Proverbs andmemory formulas are used by everyohe. Thinking meansspeaking and listening to othersi speak. The resuit is a certainkind of personality structure, highly communal, externalizedin a way, and conservative. Oral cultures hâve few if anyoriginal thinkers or discoverers. The group's thought developsmore or less together. No one can get ahead of the tribe.Writing, and particularly alphabetic writing, alters ail this.Writing gradually changed man from a traditionalist, largelydriven by communal forces, to a more internally-driven, re-flective, analytic individual. In an oral culture, the only way to"study" was to listen to someone who could talk. In a chiro-graphic or writing culture, a manuscript culture, one couldstudy alone without any sound at ail, with only a book. Iri thissetting, individuals began to "think for themselves," jand evèntually original discoverers appeared— Aristotle, Duns Sco-tus, Galileo, Einstein, and ail the others who learned by reading as well as by hëaring.But change was slow. Oral habits lingered long after the invention of writing. The ancient Greeks and Romans wrote agood deal, but they retained as their cultural idéal the oratoror public, speaker. GcerP spoke his orations first and wrotethem afterwards. Into the Middle Ages, reading was comrmonly done aloud, even whën reading to oheself . Although inmédiéval universities writing was use d a great deal in takingnotes and preparing lectures, it was not used to test knowledge. Testing was done in an oral disputation or other oraltrial. But if they were strongly oral still, the Middle Ages werealso far more chirographic than classical antiquity, for theireducational System had become largely a commentary onexisting books.The aloneness of reading withdrew man from the world ofsound into a world of silent space. Words remained soundsonly indirectly.-One had to imagine what the words soundedlike to understand reading but, deployed on the page, writingitself made no noise. Withdrawal into the world of. silentspace was reinforced by the most remarkable writing Systemof ail, the alphabet, the strange script which was so hard to invent that it was invented only once. There are many différentnon-alphabetic Systems of writing, or scripts, often of inde-pendent origin. But there is only one alphabet. Ail the alphabets in the world are in fact adaptations of the original alphabet which appeared among the Semitic peoples around1500 B.C.The alphabet undertakes to convert sound into space. Sounditself is not only perishable but always actually perishing.Sound exists only when it is going out of existence. When Ipronounce the word "existence," by the time I get to the"-tence" the "exis-" is gone, and has to be gone. I cannot stopa sound and still hâve a sound, as I might stop a moving pic-ture projector and hâve a still picture on the screen. If I stopsound, ail I hâve is its opposite, silence. The alphabet prétendsthat things are otherwise, that a word is présent ail at once. Itprétends that a word can be chopped up into little pièces ma-neuverable in space. The letters in a word can even be writtenbackwards and pronounced forwards. The alphabet seems tomake sound- independent of the unidirectional flow of time.The invention of alphabet letterpress printing in mid-fif-teenth century Europe is simply an extension or intensificationof the invention of the alphabet itself. Alphabetic type corn-mits the word to space even more than writing does. Writingmakes words by creating marks on surfaces. Alphabetic printmakes words out of pre-existing things— types, which arestored like nails or bricks in boxes, and made up into forms asbricks are made into houses.The émergence of alphabetic typography was associatedwith a great intensification of spatial awareness in the Euro-pean culture where alphabetic typography developed. The fif-teenth and subséquent centuries mark the âge of full linearperspective in painting, of maps and the concomitant sensé ofthe earth's surface as a spatial expanse to be covered by exploration, of Copernican cosmology and Newtonian physics,which plotted the universe with charts more than ever beforeand reduced the old nature philosophy in the physical sciencesto ineffectiveness. It was the âge which made an issue of observation— that is, of the application of sight, exalting this onesensé above ail the others.After the development of print in the mid-1400's, it wasseveral hundred years before the invention had its full effectin deadening the original sound world where the word has itsnatural habitat. By the mid-1800's, the effect of typographywas at its maximum. The old verbal culture had been highlypersonal, nonanalytic, dramatic, oratorical, and full of hostili-ties, some natural and others cultivated. The newer chiro-graphic culture, matured by typography and at long last rela-tively victorious, to a significant degree depersonalized theworld, made "objectivity" an unquestionable idéal.But twentieth-century man has to a degree left the "objective" world of space for new ventures in sound. Electroniccommunication has realigned the worlds of sound and sightand has brought the former into new prominence. Communication by letter and print is now supplemented and in manyareas overwhelmed by the telegraph, téléphone, radio, andtélévision, which give sound a new ascendancy. We evencatch fish by sonar. Significantly, the physical opérations central to ail thèse média, the moverfîtent of électrons, lie outsidethe range of sight.With our new implementation of the oral, there is in facta sensé in which it appears that the âge of literacy is ended.The manuscript or chirographic âge and the succeeding typographie âge hâve been superseded by a new âge, the âge ofelectronic communication. And yet we must be literate asnever before. When man began to write, he did not stopspeaking. His speech both lost and gained importance. It lostbecause it no longer monopolized the field, but it gained be cause it was something which could now be put into writing.It is entirely likely that the invention of writing brought manto speak more. When typography was invented, man did notcease writing. His writing both gained and lost in importance.It now no longer monopolized the field of verbal expression inspace, and in this sensé it lost, but it gained because of the in-creased dimension given to human expression by typography,to which writing is intimately related. Print indeed clearly re-inforced writing: only after print did the movement for uni-versal literacy establish itself. So today, with the arrivai of theelectronic média of communications, printing gives no realsigns of going out of existence. One of the products of computers is, in fact, called a print-out. Printing and the literacywhich goes with it hâve both lost and gained in importance.They are no longer so uniquely central as they once were.They hâve become part of a larger complex featuring theelectronic média which give human communication a neworganization hitherto unknown.The new electronic média hâve changed psychologicalstructures once more. We are living not merely with more information but with information in a différent state. Unlikeearlier man, we are in constant touch with what is going oneverywhere. We live in a world of global happenings. Booksgive access to what has already happened or else to abstractions and fixed truths. They do not give access to what isgoing on. Electronic média do. The man in touch with actual-ity today has constantly running through his head currenthappenings in Washington, Paris, Moscow, Rome, Cambridge,and any number of other places. Ail cultures are présent within us today simultaneously— if they are not, we are to that ex-tent today unrealized human beings. But our attention iscaught not merely in ail corners of space. It is likewise focusedthrough time in ways unknown to earlier man. We knowmore history than any earlier âge. We are still interiorized bywriting. But in the interiorized consciousness of each one of usnow, the whole world is jumping. Under such conditions, psychological structures hâve changed again.Much of the malaise in society today, both in the develop-ing countries and in more fully technologized ones, is due tothe unfamiliar pressures set up by the new psychologicalstructures. Our problem is understanding thèse pressures. Thismeans that we must direct massive scholarly effort not only tothe présent but also to the past, for the problems of modemman are the problems of adjusting the past which is withinhim with the présent which is also there. ?27The\X/brlcl of Inner Space;.i '..•¦¦ *Man is exploring a new universé— inneit space— through apowerful and promising instrument, the électron microscope, .;As does his countérpart, the astronomer, the electrqn micros- ;copist is using his technology to overcome the limitations of . ,his eyes. And, like the astronomer, he is attempting to findorder and meaning in the world of the infinité he observes.But the électron microscopist has one great potential ad-vàntage. An astronomer can only observe the planets, thestars, and the galaxies. The microscopist, however, not only ',> 'can look into his magnified world of atoms and molécules,but may soon begin to manipulate it. For éxampîej he maysomeday be able to alter the molécules that détermine man'sgenetic makeup and correct molecular def ects. He can also'jluse the devic'e like an inverted télescope, to condense massivelibraries onto a single page, or print electronic circuits' the,size of red blood cells to transmit information from withinthe human body.To understand the significance of the électron microscope, . !we need ta understand the principles of'magnification. Wesee an; object because light waves carry its image to our eyes. ;In exàmining the object in détail, we bring it closer to oureyes to spread out its features and niake it appear larger. '¦However, we cannot focus on obj ects less than about teninches from our eyes. 'We must then use an externàl lens, :such as in a maghifying glass, to further spread the features. fJThe optical microscope, which extends this principle, is ''basically a System! of glass lenses used in conjunction with asource of concentrated light that illuminâtes the objeCt to be J\viewed. Optical microscopes hâve been developed to a pointswhere they can magnify an object up to 2,000 times, andat the same time résolve features on it only 2,000 angstrdms J(À°) apart (one A-° equals 1/100,000,000 centimeter, or aboutthe diameter of an atom). This is about thé limit of optical 'microscopes because of the nature of light and distortiorisinhérent in the lenses. The central problem is that it is impossible to résolve points on an object that are closer togetherthan the length of the wave that is carrying the image.The limit was breached with the development of thé électron microscope a little, over thirty yèars ago. The uniqueHumberto Fernândez-Morân is the A/N.Pritzker Prof essorof Biophysics in the Division of the Bijological Sciences andThe Pritzker School of.Medicine of The University of Chicago. Dr. Mprân is one of the worlcCs foremost innovators inélectron microscopy. This article was written for ScienceYear, the World Book Science Animal for 1968, published byField Enterprises Educàtional Corporation.At right: New cryo-electron microscope, cooled by liquidhélium, takes advantage of the super conductivity of certain"materials at extremely low températures to produce strongmagnetic fields, at low power expenditure, fpr the instrumentas"lenses." ,Humberto Fernândez-MorânCl. high voltagecableb. électrongunC. électronbeamà. condenserlense. spécimenstagef. objectivelensg. projectionlensk. binocularmagnifierTHE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE properties of electrons-they are both electrically charged/particles and waves-permit them to be focused like light.,Because électron waves are several hundred thousand timesshorter than light waves, they can résolve much smaller ob-jects. Today's électron microscopes can, in practice, résolvepoints on an object only five A° apart, while magnifying theobjectas much as one million times.In the conventional électron microscope, the source of illumination is électrons, and the lenses are electromagneticfields existing in a vacuum. A beam of extemally genërated^high-voltagè électrons enters the microscope thrpugh a tubeat the top. After being concentrated by a condenser lens, itpasses through the spécimen to be viewed. This scatters theélectrons, which are thèn formed into an image by passingthrough a séries of focusing lenses. The beam, finally arrivesat a fluorescent screen near the bottom of the microscopewhere the electronic image is converted into a visuâT image.This greatly magnifiçd image is viewed through an observation windoW. /The électron microscope is a highly versatile instrument.Its illumination can be varied from a few to several millionélectron volts, and the lenses can be focused over a widerange. This versatility promises to let us look even fartherinto the world of atoms and molécules. Tp push back thefrontier, however, we must make improvements in threesmajor areas: (i) in the environment of opération, (2) in ourinstruments, and ( 3 ) in our préparation techniques.Because électron microscopes are extremely délicate, theyare adversely affected by many external factors. Chief amongthèse are electromagnetic interférence, vibration, and contamination. We hâve gone to great lengths to minimize thèsefactors at our nine-microscope laboratory at The Universityof Chicago. For example, to reduce electromagnetic disturb-ances, we use incandescent rather than fluorescent , lights.Also, ail the electrical wiring is shielded in grounded conduitsbehind the walls. Even the ventilator ducts are made of non-magnëtic stainless steel.To eliminate vibration, we mount the microscopes on indi-vidual concrète blocks that sit on springs in the floor and areinsulated by shock pads. The contamination problem is metby having as dirt-free a laboratory as possible. AU who enterthe air-conditioned laboratory must pass through a spécialanteroom where they stop to don white nylon coats. Em-ployees wear spécial shoes and visitors are furnished plasticbags to wear over their shoes.To improve the électron microscope itself, we must startwith the élimination of lens fluctuation. Ail electronic Systemsare subject to thermal noise caused by hot électrons movingthrough the circuits. In an électron microscope, this noisecauses variations in the focusing of the lenses. One way tosolve this problem is to place the windings of the electromagnetic lenses in a very cold environment— that of liquidhélium. At about 4.2° C above absolute zéro, the current goesinto a state of superconduction; that is, the power may beturned off and the current will continue to flow withoutmeeting electrical résistance. It thus sustains a very constantmagnetic field.Another avenue of instrument improvement is the development of high-voltage microscopes. Electrons are absorbed byvery thin layers of matter. Therefore, spécimen tissues mustbe sliced thin enough— from 50 to 100 A°— so that most électrons can pass through them. Living Systems, such as bacteria,are much thicker than this, and viewing them requires themore energetic high-voltage électrons. The primary advan-tage, however, lies in better resolution. As the voltage is in-creased, the wavelength of the électrons becomes smaller.High-voltage microscopes now being developed provide resolution approaching one A?Another goal in our technology is the improvement of theélectron beam itself. We would prefer a beam that is cohérent— ail the électron waves traveling in step with eachother, like an army on parade. This not only would improvethe resolution but, used in conjunction with superconductinglenses, would also make possible the technology of high resolution holography.Holography is a method of recording images on filmwithout a lens. It requires a cohérent illuminating beam, di-vided so that one part lights the object, while the other, calledthe référence beam, goes directly to the film. At the film, theréférence beam and the light from the object cause an interférence pattern that contains ail the information on the imagein three dimensions. The scène can then be reconstructed byviewing the developed film with another cohérent illumination source.This imaging System was, in fact, first proposed by a scien-tist working with électron microscopes. In 1948, Dennis Gabor, a Hungarian physicist then at the University of Lon-don's Impérial Collège of Science and Technology, had corneto believe that electromagnetic lenses could not be substan-tially improved. So he proposed taking magnified pictureswith an électron microscope by exposing a photographie filmto the électron waves from the spécimen before they werefocused, and reconstructing the jumbled image with visiblelight. Because light waves are much longer than électronwaves, the reconstructed image would be greatly magnified.With the invention of the laser, it became possible to makeholograms using visible light. This device provides the cohérent beam of light necessary for the successful imaging andreconstructing of realistic three dimensional scènes. In theélectron microscope, holography will reveal interatomic distances and show us structures in three dimensions. This application, however, must await the development of laserlikedevices that will provide a cohérent électron beam.An interesting variation on conventional electronic microscopes is being developed by Albert Crewe, working withanother group hère at The University of Chicago. In thismicroscope, a highly concentrated électron beam is focusedbefore reaching the spécimen, and is then scanned across it.The électrons that pass through the spécimen are collectedand compared with those that are scattered. The energy lostby the traversing électrons can be used to identify the spécimen. Thus the scanning électron microscope will be able toanalyze a material while simultaneously observing its atomsand molécules. And, because the électron beam examines asmaller portion of a spécimen at a time, it has a potential formuch improved resolution.Sharing importance with advances in the électron microscope are improvements in the techniques for preparingspécimens. One of the most encouraging developments in thisarea has been a System for precisely slicing spécimens intoultrathin sections. The System consists of a diamond knifeoperating in an evacuated microtome. It can be operated atvery low températures in order to keep rearrangement of themolécules in biological spécimens to a minimum.The idea for this System came to me while flying overAngel Falls in Venezuela. As I looked down on the beautifulcascading waters of the world's highest waterfall, I suddenlyrealized that our sectioning problem could be solved by adevice that provided a précise, circular motion in a smoothly/ 31recurring flow system. The resuit was the invention of theultramicrotome— a fine rotating slicing. machine similar to ameatslicer. ,Our précision machine needed an ultrasharp knife— sharperthan anything available. I ruled out steel because of the lirnitsto which it could be ground. Thën I thought of diamonds.Because they are chemically inert, they would not contami-nate organic spécimens. But even better, I knew, from havingstudied diamonds under the électron microscope, that theyare giant crystals composed of layers with atomically smoothknife edges. I began slowly and carefully to pare away thelayers of a diamond with the only tpol hard enough to do so—another diamond. After many hours of work, I was re-warded with the finest knife yet ittade.Also needed in this préparation system was a way to holdthe spécimens after they were sliced. For this, we devised aprotective chamber in which the spécimens are carefullysealed between layers of ultrathin graphite film throughwhich électrons can freely pass.One resuit of the improvements is the abjlity to makequantitative prédictions about the behavior of biological matter. Physicists can make prédictions because they can observeor measure basic components. For example, knowing thelength of a pipe in a pipe organ and the speedof sound inair, we can predict ail the tones and overtones that can beproduced. In biology, however, the basic components aremolécules, which we hâve not been able to see. Thus, We hâvehad to work with unpredictable group's of molécules.The ability to predict in the biological world will hâve important conséquences. Until recently, for example, we knewrelatively little about the nature of deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)— the substance that contains àll the data needed toprogram the construction of a man from his brain to his toe-nails., Although it is one of the largest molécules, DNA stillis extremely small. A human being contains approximately 50trillion cells, each of which contain 46 chromosomes, Thèsechromosomes, in turn, hâve more than 1,000 gènes, each con-taining vast numbers of minute DNA ribbons. With the électron microscope we are beginning to be able to view thisprogramming phenomenon, including the transfer of information from DNA to the building centers of the cells byribonucleic acid (RNA).Our primary goal, however, is to view the structure ofmolécules directly. This means entering the domain of one to two A0. In some materials we can already see the atoms in thecrystalline lattice arrangedto make up the incredibly complex organic molécules. We hâve ^lso been able tp observecell membranes. For example, in the subunit structure ofmyelin— a substance that forms part ôf the nerve fiber— wehâve actually watched cells in the process of rearranging theirmolecular structure. \Because the diamond knife can eut spécimens as thin as joA°, We can now do chemistry by cutting. We can eut up\astarch molécule in such a way that it becomes sugar. "M£e canslice a virus in half. Itimay even be possible to correct geneticerrors. Forexâmple, we can examine the DNA ribbon in thegène causing hemophilia. It may be' possible to )edit this rib- sbon— actually eut into the nucleotides and réarrangé them inproper order. The edited DNA, could then be copied in greatnumbers and inserted in a fémale ovum to crowd put thef aulty gènes. Since the genetic likelihood of a disease such ashemophilia is relatively easy to predict, this technique could,in a few générations,, eliminate the disease.,The use of the électron microscope in reverse— to demag- ,nify— also offers many fascinating possibilities. One is the storsâge and retrieval of information. Using grainless film developed in our laboratory, we can photographically reducepages, such as the one you are reading, to an almost invisibledot. Letters on such a page are only about 100 atoms high.With the électron microscope, the entire collection of theLibrary of Congress could be reduced to a single sheet, eightinches by ten inches, transferred 'tb micro-tape, and later dis-played, page by page, on a télévision screen.Further development of the électron mictoscope's potentîalin this direction could lead to its use in miniaturizéd computers. By printing electronic circuits on film and rëdùcingthem in the Same way pages of type are reduced, we.icouldprovide more compact, and thus more efficient, computers.The microscope may also teach us how to duplicate our own ,ultraminiaturized molecular information storage system— the.memory portion of the human brain. The packing density ofour brain— thé number bf working éléments in a given vol- 'urne— is 10 to 100 billion éléments per cubic inch. Packingdensities of présent computer components range up to : one ^Electron micrograph of myelin sheath segment from transverse section of frog sciatic nerve, showing concentriç array .of dense and intermediate layers.32X• «t t'V >*•*L r*Y. ' ? "^^sL ¦ : w * - 3** •<;*%•«É».i* '".*?" 4-V s#v g»-*£» '¦•r...'^m..^». # '-,•*-¦ Y*. <it «&£ :V i i.\ • : -ï*- >*•¦.million éléments per cubic inch. By improving this densitywith électron microscope techniques we would, among other; things, greatly enhance the speed of retrieving information.Holography with the électron microscope may also help?explain the memory apparatus of the human brain. Our abil-ity to summon words, sentences, and other behavioral se-l quénces from our expériences seems to be a random andi'nonlocalized process. We believe that human memory banksare highly répétitive— ail the data being stored in every portion of the brain.The retrieving mechanism may act somewhat like a reverse of holography in which the illuminating laser beam isyrriatched to a hologram to produce the référence beam, One( application for visible light holography envisions rapidlypassing an enormous file of fingerprints, stored on microfilm,past an illuminating beam that is shining through a hologram' of the fingerprint being sought. When the hologram matchesthe print on file, the référence beam flashes. If we could dem-onstrate that the brain uses a similar system to summon ourthoughts, we would begin to understand the phenomena ofperception. Also, we could experiment with the cells or cellVclusters responsible for storing sensory information.A fascinating application for ultrareduçed printed circuitscould be as a prosthetic sensor. Placed on a red blood cell, it:COuld then transmit information from within the humanbody. We hâve already successfully placed an amplifier circuit on a retinal rod— that portion of the eye that reacts tofaint light. Such de vices, only six microns (60,000 A") across,'Could be produced in large quantities and incorporated at keysites of the body where, for example, they could monitor theopération of the nervous system. They would, of course, hâveto hâve biosvnthcticallv produced protcin coats so they wouldnot be rejected by the immune responses of the body. Usingthe natural electricity in the body for power, thèse sensorswould transmit neurological electric impulses similar to thoserecorded by an electroencephalogram. But they would betransmitted by radio, eliminating the need for physical attach-ments to the body, and permitting the patient to be monitoredas he goes about his affairs.The électron microscope even has a potential for gainingElectron viicrograph of T-2 bacteriophage (bacterial virus):head membrane (HM), periodic sheath striations (SC), tailplate (BC), and kinked fibers (F).100 A1 information about the structure and organization of spacewhich, like life itself, is written in the atoms. Atoms throughout the universe obey the same laws, and interstellar dust isonly a few hundred atoms in diameter. Thus, much of whatwe will someday find in space will make sensé only if we canexamine it at the submicroscopic level. The électron microscope may become the primary tool with which we will definematter far beyond our présent concept.Beginning with Max Knoll and Ernest Ruska in Germanyduring the 1930's, the development of the électron microscopehas been an international achievement. Major advances weremade by Francis O. Schmidt and Cecil Hall at MassachusettsInstitute of Technology and a Rockefeller University groupunder the direction of Keith Porter and George Palade. High-voltage instruments were pioneered in France and Japan, andGabor's work in England, of course, resulted in holography.In our University of Chicago laboratory, we hâve scientistsand technicians from throughout the world, including Cuba,Italy, Japan, South America, and Sweden. I feel strongly thatthèse observations should continue to hâve an internationalcharacter. When a science acquires the unique capabilities weare approaching with the électron microscope, it should notbe held the property of one or a group of nations.The members of our laboratory also range widely in disciplines, covering both the physical and biological sciences. Ourability to see things that no one has seen before and to thinkabout them in a way no one has thought about them, willdépend on extending this range of disciplines. We will needscientists familiar with crystallography, modem mathematics,and quantum mechanics.The greatest need will be for highly skilled operators.Operating a microscope is much like playing a fine musicalinstrument. The quality of the performance, requiring intuitive and interpretive abilities, dépends on the talent of theperformer. He must then hâve a good ear, a good eye, a goodhand— and patience.This marvelous instrument has begun to show us how inti-mately man is linked to the domain of atoms and how minutematter in the universe influences his destiny. New conceptsin this technology will someday permit us not only to predict,but also to design life at the molecular level. Scientists willhâve a power more awesome than any ever imagined. In tum,they will hâve the grave responsibility of using this powerwisely. ?35Edward Rosenheim, Jr.Dear Fellow Alumni: The alumni of The University of Chicago deserve a careful and direct statement of principal factsand issues involved in thé disorders of the Winter Quarter,1969. You will find a documented, chronological account ofthèse events in this issUe. To that account I am adding this let-ter, hoping that it will emphasize certain facts about the diffi-cult circumstances the University has been facing and help toclarify the principles on which yôur University's décisionshâve been based. It has been suggested that I write this letterbecause I am the elected Spokesman of the Committee of theCouncil of the University Senate. Although I am happy toattempt this task, this does not mean that I "speak for": theentire faculty of the University, but only that I write as onewho, together with his colleagues on the Committee and theCouncil, has been closely associated with récent occurrencesand with the décisions that hâve had to be made.I think that the great majority of the faculty agrée that TheUniversity of Chicago exists for the pursuit and communication of knowledge. The successful conduct of this functionrequires an atmosphère of freedom, of rational discourse, andof respect for the individual and collective enterprisés bywhich inquiry and teaching are pursued. It requires as well afaculty which, while constantly responsive to ideas frommany sources (certainly including students and alumni),assumes continuing responsibility for basic décisions of académie policy.As many of you remember, there hâve in the past been36 threats to the freedom of the University and its faculty fromyàrious sources outside of the University. Thèse threats hâvebeen overcome by a faculty determined to relinquish neitherits freedom nor its responsibility. More recently, however,similar threats have.arisen within the University, itself . Theyhâve corne from a relatively small minority of students— andfrom some non-students— who do not share the traditionalconception of the University's purpose and who seek, bymeans including coercion and militancy, changes of a radicalcharacter.Change, however radical, is an apprôpriate matter for discussion and possible action within an académie community.Chicago has been notable among the nation's universities forits spirit of free and critical discussion as well as for its wilUingness tb experiment and innovate. In the awareness of manyproblems which students can fofmulate and help to résolveand of many changes that ought to be considéred, the University has recently made spécial efforts to encourage ongoing,systematic discussion between students and faculty. Even -before h,e became Président, Edward Levi sought to "instituationalize"1 channels for this kind of discourse; the student-faculty councils he initiated at the beginning of the year hâve,in fact, not only survived but flourished during the récentdisorders.But it is also clear that tactics-to whatever end they may bedirected-which disrupt the functioning of the University andinvade the freedom and privacy of its members hâve no partvin an académie institution which is dedicated as this one is.This has been the repeated opinion of the Council of the University Senate. In 1966 and twice during the current year, thatbody reaffirmed its conviction that "disruptive acts which gobeyond the legitimate means of communication or persuasionare prohibited, and that any student who engages in such anact be subjected to apprôpriate disciplinary action, not exclud-ing expulsion."In the light of the University's purpose and principles, sucha policy seems the only proper and honorable one to adopt. Itis, at the same time, one which, until recently, seemed un-necessary— for it anticipâtes a prbblem which should not arisein a trùe académie community. Disruption and coercion arealien to the tradition of a university, just as défense and disciplinary actipn are alien to the habits and training of its faculty. Not the least tragic aspect of the récent disorders is thedegree to which they drew students and teachers alike fromthose activities which are their reason for being in the University and confronted them with exhausting situations whichwere hopelessly remote from the processes of orderly inquiryand communication.That the situation was thus remote from the customarymanner in which University affairs are conducted was madeapparent by the ultimatum which îmmediately preceded thedisruptive démonstration, signed by a "Committee of 85"students and dated January 23, 1969. This document, aftercontemptuousïy dismissing the machinery which had beenestablished to review the matter of Mrs. Marlene Dixon's re-appointment to the faculty, presented the "issues" as follows:"We demand that (i) Marlene Dixon be rehired jointly inSociology and Human Development, and ( 2 ) the principle ofequal student control over hiring and rehiring of faculty, beaccepted by the University no later than 9:00 A.M., Wednes-day, January 29. Unless thèse demands are accepted by thistime, we will take militant action."It is important to note, however briefly, the character ofthe "militant action" which did, in fact, follow the University's refusai to meet thèse peremptory demands— especiallysince, in some quarters, that action has recently been glossed-over by the term "peaceful sit-in." The actual disorders beganon January 27 with the forcible invasion and seizure of theoffice of Dean D. Gale Johnson of the Division of Social Sciences, during which Dean Johnson was held captive for aperiod of two hours and his officiai files were opened.On January 30, the University Administration Building was seized by dissident students and occupied for a period of six-teen days. During this time, critical University opérations—including the processing of admission and scholarship applications, the maintenance of registrar's records, and the function-ing of the major offices of administration, finance, and development— were brought to a hait. The immédiate financial lossto the University— including destruction and loss of property,payment of nonworking personnel, security, and emergencyaccommodations to the situation— was $250,000.The occupation of the Administration Building was accom-panied or followed by various forms of harassment, threats,and disruptions of the académie process. Among the incidentsof this character were the disorderly invasion, by "guérillabands," of various University buildings and functions; theviolent disruption of hearings of the University DisciplinaryCommittee; the visitation and breaking-up of regular classesby dissident demonstrators and speech-makers; the abuse andphysical restraint of individual faculty members, both on andoff the campus; the assault upon the house of the Président, including the deliberate breaking and entering of his front door;and the forcible invasion, on the same evening, of the Quad-rangle Club.The seizure of the Administration Building, the expulsionof its proper occupants, and the prévention of their re-entryinto the building was declared disruptive by the Dean of Students and the Committee of the Council; indeed, a noticeanticipating the occupancy and declaring it disruptive hadbeen posted on the doors of the building prior to its invasion.In conséquence, the disciplinary procédures, authorized bythe Council were immediately put into effect. A UniversityDisciplinary Committee was appointed by the Committee ofthe Council and, wherever possible, students occupying theAdministration Building were served summonses to appearbefore it. Following the assault on the President's house andthe Quadrangle Club— by persons some of whom had failed torespond to summons to appear before the Disciplinary Committee— a second Disciplinary Committee was appointed tohear the cases of those involved in thèse disorders.The University has so far chosen, from the inception of thedisturbances, to employ its own resources in the préservationof security and enforcement of discipline. The alternative tosuch a course involves invoking, in any of several ways, thecivil aurhorities. It is an alternative which is entirely properand practical. It has always been open and remains so. Thereare those who argue that the University should hâve recourse37to the same légal procédures and sanctions that are géneràllyavailable throughout civil society and that this is the courseany one of us would pursue if confronted by violence orcoercion elsewhere than in the University. It is a course thatwould, in one sensé, be easier, since it would relieve the faculty of much of the responsibility for security and discipline.The University has chosen its présent coursé because thefaculty is charged, by statute and tradition, with the présentand' future conduct of the University's distinctive académieactivities— and for the préservation of those activities againstencroachment from whatever source. For this reason, the faculty is reluctant to delegate any task connected with the un-interrupted conduct of those activities to outside authorities,unless circumstances compel it to do so. For the same reason,it has not delegated disciplinary responsibilities, necessary forthe préservation of its function, to students, alumni, trustées,or others who may be presumed to share its interest in theUniversity. The disciplinary committees which haye actedover the past months hâve been composed of faculty members,charged with executing a painful, complex, and exhaustingtask which, nonetheless, arises from a responsibility which isthat of the faculty.I think it is important that we note the composition of thosecommittees— if only to recognize the names of the scholarsand scientists who sacrificed countless hours of labor, underdifficult and even dangerous circumstances, in order to préserve the integrity of the University. The first committee tobe appointed was chaired by Mr. Dallin Oaks, Professor ofLaw, and its members were Dr. Louis Cohen, Associate Professor of Medicine; Dr. Alexander Gottschalk, Professor ofRadiology; Mr. Gwin Kolb, Professor and Chairman, Department of English; Mr. Arthur Mann, Professor of History;Mr. Anthony Turkevich, James Franck Professor of Chem-istry; Mr. Karl Weintraub, Thomas E. Donnelley AssociateProfessor of History; Mr. Peter Vandervoort, Associate Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics; and Mr. LennardWharton, Associate Professor of Chemistry. The second committee to be appointed was chaired by Mr. Charles Shireman,Associate Professor in the School of Social Service Administration, and its other members were Mr. Mark G. Inghram,Professor and Chairman, Department of Physics, and Mr.Maynard C. Krueger, Professor of Economies in the Collège.In reaching their décisions, both of thèse committees tookinto account the degree and duration of each student's participation in disruptive activities as well as the student's willing- ness to adhère to established disciplinary procédures— the latrter a significant criterion, since there were students who ig^nored, evaded, defied, or actively disrupted the disciplinaryhearings themselves. In their décisions, the committees invokedthe only meaningful sanctions that are available to an académie institution: apprôpriate periods of probation or suspension, or expulsion from the University. They are sanctionswhose authorization by the Council was widely announced^before the disruptions began. They are the only means bywhich a university, seeking without outside interférence topréserve its integrity and its proper function, can protect itself against coercion from within.There are those who insist that, from the turbulence of thepast months, good things may émerge. Ail of us join PrésidentLevi in hoping that they are right. But for most members ofthe faculty who hâve been close to thèse disorders, the periodhas been one of tragedy. Violence, coercion, and' abuse areugly enough at best; in an académie community, they areshocking and incredible. When a campus is invaded, neitherteachers nor students recover easily— and perhaps they neverrecover entirely. The ultimate cost to the University in moneyand effort and time will probably never be accurately esti-mated. And perhaps most distressing is the degree to whichalmost ail of us hâve had to suspend our concern for thosequestions and undertakings which constitute our reason forbeing hère.,Yet we teachers hâve taken heart, during thèse past bittermonths, from one thing. This has been the spectacle of ourstudents— the huge majôrity of them— regularly and thpught-fully pursuing their work, filling the classrooms and librariesand laboratories, and responding with understanding to thesituations of those who hâve often had to labor under strangeand crippling circumstances. Thèse students hâve been farfrom indiffèrent to the crisis the University has been facing1.They hâve been keenly aware of issues— and energetic, critical,.and articulate in discussing them. But their response, thoughoften troubled, has been the response of rational men and wom-en-of people who understand the meaning of a university.Edward Rosenheim, Jr., AB'39, AM'46, phD'53Professor of English and HumanitiesSpokesman, Committee of the Council[The author emphasizes that he speaks for himself and as theelected spokesman of the Committee of the Council: his viewsare not necessarily those of the entire faculty or the AlumniAssociation.— Ed.]38THE SIT-IN: A GHRONOLOGYAt noon on January 30 a group of students occupied the University^ Administration Building in what was termed a disruptive démonstration. The occupation continued until Feb-ruary 14. Following is a chronology çf significant events re-lating to that épisode.ogtober 11, 1968: Président Edward H. Levi (then Provost)issued a communication supplementing earlier reports on student involvement published in the University Record onMardi 18, 1968, and May 3, 1968, asking each académie areaof the University to create an elected student council orreprésentative student committee to meet with faculty regu-larly.december 15: Marlene Dixon, Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology and in the Committee on Human Development, was notified that her contract, due to expire Sep-tember 30, 1969, would not be renewed.january 9, 1969: An ad hoc group of students called the"Committee of 85" demanded that ( 1 ) Mrs. Dixon be rehired,(2) the Division of the Social Sciences disclose publicly byJanuary 1 3 the criteria leading to the décision not to hire her,and (3) students share equally in ail future décisions on thehiring and firing of faculty.january 17': Dean D. Gale Johnson, William Henry (Professor and Chairman of the Committee on Human Development and Professor in the Department of Psychology), andMorris Janowitz (Professor and Chairman of the Departmentof Sociology) called a meeting to discuss the gênerai procédures for appointaient and reappointment of faculty members. Prior to the meeting, Dean Johnson announced that Mrs.Dixon's case would not be discussed and that Mrs. Dixon hadnot given written permission for her case to be discussed.When students at the meeting elected a student chairman andvoted a new agenda with Mrs. Dixon's case first and central tothat agenda, Dean Johnson and other faculty withdrew to another room where they continued the meeting they hadoriginally called.january 19: John T. Wilson, Vice-Président and Dean ofFaculties, at the request of Dean Johnson, appointed a committee to review the Marlene Dixon case. Hanna H. Gray,Associate Professor in the Department of History and in theCollège, was named chairman.january 21: Président Levi released a statement from theacadémie deans and endorsed by the Committee of the Council emphasizing the desirability of obtaining student views andopinions, endorsing the policy announced by Mr. Levi onOctober 11, 1968, and calling for formai institutionalization ofprocédures for obtaining student appraisal of individualteachers on a continuing basis rather than in the context ofimmédiate décisions. The statement said:"The relevance of student views on educational matters isclear. Students can bring to an understanding of académieissues knowledge that is outside the direct expérience of thefaculty, viewpoints that may counteract attitudes or un-examined premises that âge and institutional factors tend toperpetuate in a university, and ideas that mav hâve escapedeven the most inventive of faculties."Faculties within this University hâve alwavs recognized, ofcourse, the pertinence of student views in educational discussions, and through informai channels hâve availed themselvesof this resource. They hâve taken into account student judg-ments and ideas on a wide range of académie matters, including programs, requirements, and the performance of facultymembers. Décisions on such matters hâve often been impor-tantly influenced by what has been learned from students."Recognizing that the purpose of student consultation is toimprove the quality of éducation at The University of Chicago, and believing that this purpose is best served by rationaldiscussion and regular communication, we urge adhérence tothe following principles with respect to student participation39in the processes by which académie policies are determined:"i. The most apprôpriate and most productive modes ofeliciting student views, and indeed the extent to which thèseviews can contribute to ithe wise governance of the University, will vary from area to area within the University, de-pending upon the slze, traditions, and procédures within eacharea and the nature of the problems with which it is con-fronted at particular times in its development. Accordingly,the kind of student participation should reflect the educational situation within each Division, School, or other académieunit of the University."2. We endorse the policy of the Président to encouragethe élection within each académie unit (including, whererelevant, departments or degree-recommending committees)of a student council or àdvisory group to meet regularly witha committee of the faculty. We urge the several faculties todevelop thèse arrangements into significant instruments ofeducational policy. Although no single instrument or mode offaculty-student communication should be seen as exclusive oras sufficient in itself, we believe that the existence of suchcouncils can (1) provide continuity and responsibility instudent counsel, (2) deepen student understanding of educational problems confronting the University, and ( 3 ) offer accessible channels for the expression of diverse student opinion."3. Recommendations on académie appointments are theresponsibility of the several faculties. In reaching décisions onsuch a recommendation, the extent to which student appraisalof the effectiveness of a faculty member is taken into accountshould be determined by the particular faculty making therecommendation. Use of the évidence provided by studentappraisals is wholly consistent with the established appointiveprocesses of the University. To enhance the objectivity of thisévidence, the faculties should inform themselves of studentappraisals of individual instructors on a continuing basisrather than in the context of an immédiate décision. This procédure should be an institutionalized part of the process."4. In making use of the consultative processes describedabove, or any others, each faculty as a Ruling Body remainsresponsible under the University Statutes for the détermination of académie policies within its jurisdiction."january 23: Statement sent to Président Levi by the student "Committee of 85":"There has been no positive response by the University tothe demands of the open student meeting of Fridày, January15, that Professor Marlene Dixon be rehired and that studentshâve equal control with faculty in ail décisions on hiring and rehiring of faculty."We regard the formation of the Gray Committee as an inadéquate response to thèse demands. It is an excuse to wasterime and to divert attention from the main issues. Further, itwas irriproperly constituted. 1"We demand that 1) Marlene Dixon be rehired jointly inSociology and Human Development, and 2 ) the principle ofequal student control over hiring and rehiring of faculty, beaccepted by the University no later than 9:00 a.m., Wednes-day, January 29^"Unless thèse demands are accepted by this time, we willtake militant action." / ^january 24: Statement of the Council of the UniversitySenate: "The Président of the University, has called [thestatement of the Committee of 85] to the attention . of, , theCouncil for suçh response as the Council may wish to make."With respect to principles and procédures governing theemployment, rétention, and promotion of faculty, the Councilof the University Senate accepts and endorses the statementby the académie deans which was circulated among thefaculty under date of January 21, 1969."As, [that] statement makes clear, the University attaches,and will continue to attach, serious importance to the opinionsof its students, and it encourages their expression under ailcircumstances compatible with the continuing proper func-tioning of the University and the individual freedom of itsfaculty, students, and staff. However, for the benefit of thosewho are new to the University, the Council wishes to point tothe University's long-standing policy that disruptive àctswhich go beyond the legitknate means of communication orpersuasion are prohibited, and that students engaging in suchacts are subject to apprôpriate disciplinary action."january 27: Students staged a sit-iri in the office of theDean of the Division of the Social Sciences and made illégalentry into his locked office. The Gray Committee invited soldent organizations and individuals to submit, in writing, theirviews of the, issues involved in the Dixon case and their proposais for resolvjng thèse issues.january 29: At a meeting in Mandel Hall, 444 studentsvoted for some form of militant action, 430 voted against suchaction, and 85 abstained. At a second meeting later in the day,a smaller group voted to occupy the Administration Buildingby force on the following day at noon. During the day,Président Levi issued the following statement, addressed tothe students of the University and subsequently endorsed "inevery particular" by the Council of the University Senate:40"Some students, called the "Committee of 85," sent me amessage last week containing certain demands on the University. Because thèse demands in a central way concern académie matters, I brought the message to the attention of theAcadémie Council of the University for such response as theCouncil might wish to make. The Council did respond— andits response has been widely circulated. I agrée with theCouncil's response, but I should like to answer the two demands specifically. I should also like to make the same per-sonal plea to the students of the University which I made lastweek to the members of the faculties."The first demand is that Mrs. Dixon be reappointed jointlyin the Department of Sociology and in the Committee onHuman Development. As has been widely reported, thetenured members of the Sociology Department voted unani-mously not to recommend reappointment in Sociology. Itwould be a violation of a tradition with considérable historyif the président or dean of faculties at Chicago were toappoint someone to a faculty over the objections of the members of that faculty. The tenured members of the Committeeon Human Development voted unanimously to recommendreappointment but differed on the length of the new term. Inthis situation the Dean of the Division, who received thèserecommendations, decided against reappointment."In the discussion of this case it has been suggestëd that the-fact that Mrs. Dixon is a woman, or has certain political views,or approaches sociology within a certain political traditionmight hâve influenced the décision. It is also suggestëd thatsuperior teaching ability, and the response of students to thatability, might not hâve been given adéquate weight. BecauseI believe doubts of this kind must be taken seriously, I wasdelighted when Dean Johnson asked John Wilson, the Deanof Faculties, to appoint a committee to review his décision.This committee— in my view an excellent one— has as itschairman Mrs. Hannah Gray. It has already invited studentorganizations and individuals to présent their views to it. Thiscommittee gives every indication of moving quickly and withsome thoroughness to look into the relevant issues."The "Committee of 85" has indicated it does not thinkmuch of the Gray Committee, believes it to be an "inadéquate response," an "excuse to waste time and to divert attention." I hope the "Committee of 85" is wrong in this évaluation."It would be a matter of the gravest concern if a reappointment were not made because an assistant professor was awoman, or had certain political views, or because superior teaching ability were not given considérable weight."My response to the first demand is that we must wait forthe report of the Gray Committee."The second demand is that the principle of equal studentcontrol over hiring and rehiring of faculty be accepted by theUniversity. I do not endorse this principle, and I cannotrecommend its acceptance by the University. There is a différence between the rôle and responsibility of faculty andstudent because their function is différent even though bothmust learn. The différence is for their mutual benefit. I dobelieve that "the faculties should inform themselves of studentappraisals of individual instructors on a continuing basis" andthat this procédure should be institutionalized. I believe it isup to the faculty and students in the divisions, schools andThe Collège— in the departments and collegiate divisions— towork out the best procédures in their area consistent with theresponsibility which each faculty has as the ruling body forthe détermination of académie policies within its jurisdiction."I hâve been urging for some time the création of faculty-student committees in each of the areas. Thèse should become—I am certain they can become— as the deans and the councilhâve stated— "significant instruments of educational policy." Ihâve asked the help of the members of the faculties in imple-menting this policy."There will always be some différences among us. On somematters, some of us may never agrée. But we should agrée,because we are in a University, on the importance of makingthe effort to understand, to explain, to explore, to discover."I ask your help."january 30: At 7:30 a.m. Dean of Students Charles D.O'Connell posted notices on the doors of the AdministrationBuilding warning students that disruptive démonstrations wereprohibited and would resuit in disciplinary action, not exclud-ing expulsion, for participants. At noon, students began tooccupy the Administration Building. O'Connell issued a notice calling the student action diîruptive and stating that par-ticipating students would face disciplinary action, not ex-cluding expulsion. Summonses were distributed to participat-ing students who could be identified, asking them to appearbefore a University Disciplinary Committee within one hour."Concerned students" meeting in the evening opposed thesit-in by a vote of 400 to 100. In a second and closer vote, theycalled for amnesty for those participating.january 31: Members of the Gray Committee met withstudents to review the issues, and the Disciplinary Committeebegan hearings in the Law School. William Henry termed the4isit-in a disservice to the University and urged a continuationof discussion of issues by student-faculty committees.february i: The University Disciplinary Committee r'ec-ommended that 61 students who had been summoned but hadfailed to appear before the Committee be suspended untiltheir cases were heard by the Committee. Two statementsweré issued by the Committee on the Council, one reaffirmingthe University's long-standing policy prohibiting disruptiveacts (seê below)^ the othér endorsing Mr. Levi's January 29statement recommending open discussion between facultyand students, and reiterating the Council's insistence that bar--gaining wjth students will not bê conducted "under coercive,threatening, pr disorderly circumstances."The statement by the Committee on the Council said:"As elected représentatives of the Faculty Senate ôf TheUniversity ôf Chicago, the Committee of the Council wishesonce again to call the attention of faculty and students to thestatement, dated January 29, by Président Edward H. Levi. Itis a statement which the Committee endorses in every particular."Free and open discussion between faculty and students onissues of common concern is indispensable to the conduct ofan académie community. The Committee joins with thePrésident ôf the University in the affirmation of this principleand in the détermination that discussion of this character willcontinue. At the same time, it insists on the distinction between free and open discussion, on the one hand, and, on theother, bargaining, conducted under coercive, threatening, or' disorderly circumstances. The Committee will not engage inthe latter kind of discourse."february 2: Dean of Students, Charles D. O'Connell, re-ported that he had suspended 61 students. The DisciplinaryCommittee issued a public statement outlining its procédurefor student hearihgs.february 3: The Disciplinary Committee continued student hearings in the Law School, and a number of small student meetings were held to discuss the sit-in.february 5 : The number of students occupying the Administration Building was reported at 50 as another day ofsit-in began. Edward W. Rosenheim, Jr., Professor of Englishand spokesman for the Committee of the University Council,issued a statement pointing out the différences between legiti-mate discussion of issues and bargaining under coercion. Fif-teen members of the Sociology Department faculty reportedthat it would be detrimental to Marlene Dixon's best intereststo disclose particulars leading to the décision not to rehire42 her. Throughout the day, small groups of demonstràtors at-tempted to disrupt classes and win support/ for the sit-in. TheDepartment of Chemistry faculty issued a statement callingthe démonstration in the Administration Building "a threat tothe académie freedpm of this institution."february 7: Twenty-two faculty members entered theAdministration Building at 8:20 a.m. to issue additional sum-monses to sit-in students. At the Law School, some 60 studentsdemonstrated against the Disciplinary Committee hearings.The Committee of the Council issued a statement opposing"coercive tactics" and reasserting its faith in the University'sdisciplinary procédures.february 8: Demonstràtors disrupted a the LawSchool of the University Disciplinary Committee and the session was àdjourned. It convened again in a différent locationwhere Charles D. O'Connell, Dean of Students, read a 6-pagepaper reviewing the background of the student démonstrationand presenting évidence to prove that the actions were disruptive and frustfatëd the "civilized discourse to which this University is dedicated." Later„the Disciplinary Committee issuedan officiai announcement that actions in invoking disciplinaryprocédures had been correct.- .february n: A pétition signed by 1,708 students and 584employées called for an end to the sit-in. À statement by theCommittee of the Council and the Deàns of the Universitysaid: ' ¦.-'._"There is one overriding issue in the présent situation whichmust'be recoghized by ail who are genuinely concerned forthe présent life and future of this University: namely, thatthe University's primary commitment to the pursuit and communication pf knowledge must be maintained."Ail other issues are secondary to this central concern.Even problems of security and order and the termination ofthe occupation of the Administration Building cannot beallowed to divert our attention and énergies from the majorissue. :"Clearly, a uniVersity committed to the pursuit and communication of knowledge must be able to govern itself in adhérence to its own declared principles and praetices."To govem itself wisely, the University must také intoaccount the ideas and attitudes of its students. For manymonths efforts hâve been made to establish and strengthenchannels throngh which thèse ideas and attitudes can be com-municated freely and productively. On many topics, studentviews may indeed be conclusive, and in many areas of common concern they may effect fundamental change. Thus, thechannels for this kind of communication are open, and willremain open."However, it is entirely clear that, on a relatively smallnumber of issues which involve this University's distinguish-ing mission and indeed its very life, the faculty must acceptfull responsibility. Thus, whatever weight— and it should nor-mally be considérable— is given to student opinion regardingfaculty appointment and reappointment, ultimate responsibility on décisions of this character must be assumed by thefaculty. For example, the Gray committee— which, it shouldbe noted, was appointed prior to the current disruption— is anentirely apprôpriate exercise of this responsibility."Similarly, when the University's exercise of its centralfunction is threatened, the faculty must accept full responsibility for carrying through disciplinary procédures whichprotect the University and its freedom. This is what is nowbeing done in accordance with principles formulated and re-peatedly affirmed by the Council of the Senate."To disregard thèse principles would be an abdication offaculty responsibility. We are confident, however, that thefaculty will meet this responsibility."february 12: The Gray Committee report was released,recommending that Marlene Dixon's contract be extended forone year in the Committee on Human Development alone.Dean Johnson reported that he was informed by the Chairman of the Gray Committee that the appointment was terminal. He accepted the recommendation and forwarded it toJohn T. Wilson, Vice-Président and Dean of Faculties, whoconcurred. At noon, during a press conférence, Mrs. Dixonrefused the contract extension, saying that she could not "ingood conscience accept it."february 13: Dean of Students O'Connell reported thatanother 22 students had been suspended for failure to appearbefore the Disciplinary Committee in response to summonses,bringing the total to 80. About 50 students had arranged forindividual disciplinary hearings. Meanwhile, 50 Students meeting under the sponsorship of the Worker Student Alliance ofthe Students for a Démocratie Society (SDS) circulated apétition demanding: (1) "Construction, not destruction" between 6oth and 63rd Streets; (2) that more than 50 per centof the next entering class be working class students, with fullscholarships, living allowances and "no-flunk" status; (3) création of a working class student department; and (4) formation of a day-care center.february 14: Early ir the morning, occupants of the Administration Building too.c a vote to open the University files, but the vote failed because it lacked the necessary two-thirdsmajority. Later, the occupants voted to leave the buildingwithin 24, hours and dropped their demands for studentpower. At 3:00 p.m., the students held a rally on the steps ofthe Administration Building and left. During the day, Président Levi issued the following statement, addressed to facultyand students:"This is our University, in hard times as well as good. Someevents of the last two weeks, if taken by themselves, hâvethreatened to seriously injure our University, damage itsprésent condition, diminish its future. At the same time wecan take pride in the overwhelming response— a unique response— of faculty and students who hâve struggled to see theUniversity through this difficult period. There are some whobelieve this University will émerge as a better place. I trustthey are right. We must try to make this so."A University shows its character more clearly in hardtimes. Its nature and the value which it prizes most are thenmore clearly revealed. This University is committed to discussion, inquiry, and the importance of understanding. This isa difficult road. It requires self criticism, humility, and change.It requires also a commitment to the University as a spécialplace, capable of self détermination, and serious about its mission."There has been some expression of dismay because themore rational discussions of the last few weeks hâve revealedimportant différences among us about the proper aims andmethods of éducation, the relevance of that éducation to our-selves and to the larger societies. But thèse différences are notsurprising. They should be the beginning, not the end, of discussion. They should be the beginning, not the end, ofchange. And equally they should be the occasion for the reassertion of those values which distinguish one universityfrom another, and ail universities worthy of the name fromthe other institutions of modem life."The University has sought throughout this period, however imperfectly, to exemplify the values for which it stands.It has encouraged discussion through faculty and studentgroups. It has sought to institutionalize a process for widerparticipation. In a world of considérable violence, and one inwhich violence begets violence, it has emphasized the persuasive power of ideas. It has sought— and the unique response offaculty and students has made this possible— to handle its ownaffairs in a way consistent with its ideals. As I write thèse UnesI cannot help but wonder what our success has been andwhether the choice we made remains viable. But I do not be-43lieve success was the only measure of this choice."I must say with caution and candor there are other difficult conséquences which follow from this basic choice. Perhaps they would hâve followed from any alternative. Thèseconséquences to the University will be felt for a considérableperiod of time and will be disappointing to many. We mustmake the best of them., "I am informed that those occupying the building hâve de-cidéd to leave it. I hope this is true and that tactics whichshould be recognized as having no place on this campus willcease."Let it be said that this University, in its détermination andin its responsiveness, will continue worthy of its history."february 17: A group of about 50 suspended students re-quested a public hearing to présent a collective défense.february 18: The University Disciplinary Committeeissued a statement that "After thorough discussion of this re-questlfor a collective défense], the Committee has decided tocontinue its practice of individual hearings." Fifty-six studentshad already appeared before the Committee in individualhearings.february 19; Students and others met in Quantrell Auditorium. A proposed march on the Law Schooi building didnot materialize.february 20: About 200 students entéred the Law Schoolbuilding, where the University Disciplinary Committee wasconducting hearings. The students blocked the exit from thehearing room for more than an hour. Dallin H. Oaks, Committee Chairman, reported that 126 students had been issuedsummonses between January 30 and February 19. Of thèse,nine summonses had been cancelled for lack of évidence and86 students had been suspended for f ailure to respond to thesummonses. Of thèse, 21 appeared later and six of them hadhad their suspensions lifted. Of 53 who appeared, 19 had public hearings, 15 had private hearings, and 19 were scheduledfor hearings over the next two weeks.february 21: About 100 students held a rally on the eaststeps of the Administration Building, then adjourned to Kent107. After voring down motions to march on the Law Schooland to hold Dean of Students Charles D. O'Donnell captiveuntil he granted amnesty, the group adjourned. The onlydisciplinary case scheduled for the day was postponed at therequest of the défendant.february 24: Staff and employés returned to the recondi-tioned Administration Building after a 26-day absence. At5:15 p.m., students and others left a rally in Mandel Hall en masse to présent a pétition for collective défense to the Disciplinary Committee, which was meetinglh Abbott Hall. The,meeting had adjourned, and they were turned away by cam-pUs security. About 80 students then marched to the Présidents House, surrounded it, pounded on doors and Windowsand demanded that Président Levi receive their pétition. InPrésident Levi's absence, Dean O'Connell arrived to offer toreceive the pétition. He and University counsel RaymondKuby were shoved back, and O'Connell was grabbed by hiscoat and pulled from the steps. The glass exterior door to thePrésidents House was kicked in, and about 15 students rushedin to staple papers to the locked interior door. The studentsthen marched to the Quadrangle Club, entered the dinihgroom, ate some of the food, harassed faculty and guests, andmade speechés for about 30 minutes. As a resuit of both incidents, 38 students were identified for possible disciplinaryaction. Twenty-f our of thèse persons had been suspendedpreviously by the Oaks Committee.february 25: The Kalven Committee to Review Disciplinary Procédures issued an 1 1 -page report recommending thatstudents be represented equally with faculty on committeeshearing cases involving individual "offenses against University life" (alcohol, séx, drugs, etc.). It recommended a rôlefor student observers on all-University disciplinary committees hearing cases involving "offenses against the mission ofthe University," disruptive activities interfering with teach-, ing, research, administrative, or operational activities. Thenine-man faculty committee was headed by Harry Kalven,Professor of Law. The report had first been submitted shortlyafter the occupation of the Administration Building. DeanO'Connell referred the report to the Faculty-Student Advis-ory Committee on Campus Student Life for comment andreaction and, at the same time, requested the Kalven Committee to review its recommendations in the light of theevents of the past month and to submit any additional recommendations it saw fit.The following statement was unanimously adopted by theCouncil of the University Senate:"The Council is compelled to take note of continuing actsdirected against the privacy and safety of members of theUniversity and against the University's proper conduct of itsmission. Thèse acts hâve included an assault upon the Présidents house and upon the persons of two members of theUniversity, as well as the invasion of the Quadrangle Club-all of which occurred on February '.4, 1969. Moreover, thoseparticipating in thèse acts included a number of persons who44had previously been suspended by the University's Disciplinary Committee."It is increasingly likely that the security of the Universitycan be reestablished only by invoking civil authority— a coursethat is particularly suitable when, as has occurred, the University's own disciplinary procédures are defied. It is a coursewhich is always open and is entirely apprôpriate as long asthe University lies under the threat of violence and coercion.Before resorting to the civil authorities, the University willseek once again to deal with présent disorders through disciplinary means lying in its own jurisdiction. It must be rec-pgnized, however, that circumstances— including the refusaiof persons concerned to submit to University disciplinary action— may at any time make civil action necessary, and theCouncil reluctantly accepts this necessity."In the light of the foregoing facts, the Council of theSenate joins with the Committee of the Council in the following recommendation to the Dean of Students. The be-havior of those persons, known to be under suspension bythe Disciplinary Committee now sitting, and identified ashaving participated in the disruptive events of February 24,appropriately calls for immédiate expulsion. Accordingly,thèse persons should be summoned to appear before a University Disciplinary Committee, to be appointed by the Committee of the Council, and there to show cause why theyshould not be expelled forthwith. Summonses to this actionshould be issued immediately. Récipients of thèse summonsesshould be required to apply for an individual hearing beforethe Disciplinary Committee, this application to be in writing,sent by registered mail to the Dean of Students of the University. Such responses must be postmarked no later than5:00 p.m., Thursday, February 27, 1969. Failure so to respondwithin the time specified should automatically resuit in expulsion."february 26: A meeting of students under suspension washeld in Kent 107, where it was decided to employ guerrillatactics to "close down the University." The group left Kent.Near Woodward Dorms they sighted, followed, apprehended,shoved, and spat upon James M. Redfield, Master of the NewCollegiate Division, who had been invited to the dormitory byrésidents of Rickert House, a women's résidence hall.february 27: Several hundred students attended a rally atthe east steps of the Administration Building at 10:30 a.m.About 100 students marched on the Law School buildingwhich was locked. They then marched across the Midway tothe Reynolds Club and met in closed session for several hours. They met again at 5 p.m. in Kent 107, naming a new 15-mansteering committee and called for a rally the following day,again on the east steps of the Administration Building. Duringthe day, stink bombs were set off in at least seven classroombuildings. In the evening, Skip Landt, Director of StudentActivities, was cursed and manhandled by two leaders of thestudent demonstràtors while visiting a third student at a dormitory.february 28: A rally was held at noon on the east steps ofthe Administration Building. The students marched by a longroute to the Quadrangle Club, where they blew horns andmarched around the building. The Committee of the Councilnamed a second disciplinary committee to conduct hearingsfor those involved in the disruptive acts of February 24. Thecommittee is composed of Charles H. Shireman (chairman),Mark G. Inghram, and Maynard C. Krueger. The Oaks Committee announced it would take no further actions in cases ofstudents summoned before both committees until the Shireman Committee had acted.march 1: An ultimatum was delivered to Edward W.Rosenheim, spokesman of the Committee of the Council. Itdemanded, "1) That the récent expulsions be rescinded. 2)That ail cases pending before the disciplinary committees bedropped and sentences passed this quarter be rescinded. 3)That the Kalven Committee report be repudiated and con-signed to oblivion. 4) That existing disciplinary committeesbe dissolved." The ultimatum stated that, "Failure of theCommittee of the Council to respond satisfactorily to thèsedemands by Tuesday noon, March 4, will in and of itself con-stitute grounds for further militant action."march 3: The three-man Disciplinary Committee headedby Charles H. Shireman, Associate Professor in the School ofSocial Service Administration, began hearings on cases re-lated to disturbances at the Quadrangle Club and the Présidente house, including those of some students previouslysuspended by the Oaks Committee. The nine-man Disciplinary Committee, headed by Dallin H. Oaks, Professor ofLaw, continued its hearings related to the sit-in. About 65persons attended a rally on the Administration Building steps,then marched to protest the disciplinary hearings.march 5: A half-dozen female students disrupted an openhearing of the Shireman Committee. Their actions forced theChairman to order that the next two hearings be private. Anoon-hour rally drew about 50 persons. Some 30 marchedfrom the Administration Building steps to the Center forUrban Studies in Kelly Hall, but the office had been closed.45Dean of Students Charles D. O'Connell announced procédures for filing appeals from the ralings by the DisciplinaryCommittees and the guidelines under which hé intended toconsider them.march 6: Dean O'Connell annouced that as of 5:00 p.m. thepreceding day, 20 students had been expelled, n of them bythe Oaks Committee and 9 by his office for failing to appearbefore the Shireman Committee. The Shireman Committeeheld five hearings, two of them closed; the open hearings weremarked by occasional jeers and horn blowing, but were notcompletely disrupted as they had been the day before. TheOaks Committee held two .public hearings and one priyatehearing; there was some scuffling when a "guided tour" triedto push past guards into the hearing room. À rally of womenin the Reynolds Club at noon drew about 25 persons who de-manded that the University provide a day care center forchildren of its employées.march 7: The Women's "Radical Action Project (wrap)held a noon rally in Reynolds Club South to seek a day-careprogram. A group called the Indepéndent Action (Coalition(iac) met in Kent 107 to discuss disciplinary procédures.About 200 persons attended the meeting. The group decidedto propose to the University a student-f aculèy board ofappeals, with students voting, that would review actions takenby faculty disciplinary committees.march 9: A steering committee of the Indepéndent ActionCoalition met in Ghapel House to plan proposais for af aculty-student .appeals board in disciplinary cases.march ii: The Oaks Committee continued hearing disciplinary cases. A meeting at 4:30 p.m. of the "Committee of500 Plus" in Kent 107 drew about 150 persons; Leaders continued to argue in favôr of a plan by which large' numbers ofstudents would allège (signed complicity statemënts); thatthey had taken part in the occupation of the AdministrationBuilding, with the idea that the University would not expel orsuspend such large numbers. The signatures were to be pre-sented at 1:00 p.m. March 13. The group also voted to endorsemilitant action at the outset of the Spring Quarter.march 12: The Shireman Committee completed five hearings, the last of ail the cases assigned to it.march 13: In a meeting at j:oo p.m. in the Reynolds Club,the "Committee of 500 Plus" voted not to présent the 101signatures it had obtained in the mass complicity plan. Despiteurging by student radio station WHPK, only four studentvisitors attended a meeting of the Faculty-Student AdvisoryCommittee at 4:00 p.m. Harry Kalven, Professor of Law and46 chairman of the committee authoring the "Kalven Report" onstudent discipline, attended the meeting, which was- devotedmostly to discussing the rôle of appeals as presented in theKalven Report and the question of student représentation onail University 1 disciplinary committees.march 14: The Oaks Committee met for the fifth consecu- _— — _ ¦' ¦ ' .1tive day. Dallin H. Oaks, Professor ôf Law and committeechairman, announced that the committee expected to complète its scheduled business by March 19;april 8: Report from Charles D. O'Connell, Dean of Students, côncerning disciplinary and appeals décisions: M \"Although I ani, continuing to receive appeals from the disciplinary actions of the two University Disciplinary" Committees whiçh completed their work in the Winter Quarter,it seems apprôpriate to report on the présent status of thedisciplinary and appeal actions."Both the University Disciplinary Committee chaired byProfessor Dallin H. Oaks and the Committee1 chaired by Professor Charles H- Shireman liave submitted reports to theCotnmittee of the Council which will shortly be made public. '"165 persons were summoned to appear before the twoCommittees. Of thèse 165:"42 students hâve been expelled, 24 after appearance beforethe Committees, 18 on the basis of uncontested évidence before the Committees of participation in disruptive activities,intérim suspensions, and final warnings. Of the expelled stridents, 7 were not enrolled at the University in the WinterQuarter, ail men. Of the remaining 35, 24 are men, 11 women;30 are undergraduates, 5 graduate students."81 students hâve been suspended, of whom 12 were not enrolled at the University in the Winter Quarter.- Suspensionsaffecting 38 of the 81 students were operative for only theWinter Quarter, and so thèse 38 students were eligible torëgister for the Spring. Of the 43 students currendy suspended, 5 were not enrolled at the University in the WinterQuarter, 3 men and 2 women. Of the remaining 38, 26 aremen, 12 are women; 31 are undergraduates, 7 are graduatestudents."The original 81 disciplinary suspensions were as follows:8 students were suspended for six quartérs; 1 student was suspended for five quartérs; 4 students were suspended for fourquartérs; 5 students were suspended for threé quartérs; 15 students were suspended for two quartérs; some had a thirdquarter's suspended suspension; 17 students were suspendedfor one quarter; some had a second quarter's suspended suspension; 10 students were suspended for less than one quarter;none lost the quarter's crédit; 17 students were suspended forvarying lengths of time, but with the entire suspension suspended; 4 students are on indefinite suspension for failure toreport to a Disciplinary Committee."In addition, the Disciplinary Committees reached the following décisions: 1 student was fined the cost of a brokenwindow but given no other sanction; 3 students were put ondisciplinary probation for varying lengths of time, but withno suspension involved; 28 students were recommended for nodisciplinary action; 10 students had charges dropped in theircases for either mistaken identity or insufficient évidence."Both Disciplinary Committees based their individual décisions on the extent and degree of the student's involvement inthe disruptive incident or incidents for participation in whichhe was summoned to the Committee, the nature of the student's response to the summons, and, in some cases at least, thestudent's previous record of disciplinary involvement or lackof it during his time at the University."As for appeals to the Dean of Students for mitigation of the Disciplinary Committees' judgments, 33 students hâve filedwritten appeals as of April 7. Of thèse, 19 appeals hâve beenacted on, and 14— most of which hâve been received only inrécent days— are pending."Of the 19 appeals on which I hâve acted, ail from suspended students, the disciplinary judgments imposed by theCommittees ranged from a one-quarter suspension to an indefinite suspension. In the cases of five of thèse appeals, I didnot act to mitigate the Committees' décisions. In 14 cases, action of some kind was taken to mitigate the effects of theoriginal judgments. In one case, an indefinite suspension wasset aside completely. In three cases, a one-quarter suspensionwas suspended. In three cases, one quarter of a two-quartersuspension was suspended. In one case, a four-quarter suspension was reduced to three, and in another, a five-quarter suspension was reduced to three. Finally, in five cases, administrative actions were taken which, although they did not for-mally change the penalties imposed by the faculty committees,substantially mitigated their conséquences. DFREEDOM FROM COERCIONPhilC.We convene today, by ancient custom, to reaffirm cherishedvalues and renew our common purpose. The conf erring of de-grees is an act of witnessing tô the sovereign cause that ex-plains and justifies the university: the enlargement of the individual. The degrees to be awarded hère signify knowledgeacquired, tasks done, commitments made. But also and mostof ail they represent the bénédiction of the University, andthe hope that each in his own way has found hère some hintof a wider vision, some glimpse of the path to self -knowledgethat will help him find fulfillment and set him free.This should also be an occasion of mutual bénédiction— aPhil C. Neal, Professor and Dean of The University of Chicago Law School, delivered thèse remarks at the Winter Convocation, 21 March 1969, at Rockefeller Mémorial Chapel. Nealmoment in which those who join in giving and receiving degrees, and ail who share in the enterprise of self -fulfillmentthat is the university, may bestow upon the enterprise itselfthe thoughtful appréciation that gives it life and strength. Theuniversity is not to be taken for granted. Much of human history, and not merely the récent events across our country andin other parts of the world, should remind us that the idea ofthe university is never secure. It exists only as part of theprecarious flux of man's long quest to realize more fully thesecurity, freedom and dignity of the individual life. It thus be-hooves us to understand the conditions that make it possibleand the currents of thought in society that may underminethose conditions.It is in this spirit that I should like to consider briefly theproblem of coercion, a problem that appears to be crucial to-47day for law and society as well as for the universities. My suggestion is that deeper values are involved than what is ordi-narily suggestëd by the well- worn phrase "law and order,"and that a society must be on guard that those values are notequated with the mère absence of force and violence. A certain confusion and even ambivalence toward coercion in itsless violent but no less malignant forms can be seen as one ofthe ominous attitudes of our time. If so, it is not for want ofhumanity or sensitivity. The reverse is true. Intolérance ofevil is a mark of advancing society. The evils about us are ailtoo manifest, and hâve been made more so by the arousedconsciences of a younger génération. It is that very sensitivityto great wrongs— war, racial injustice, hunger, oppression—that has made more acute the ancient dilemma of ends andmeans. It is at such times that the commitment of a society tothe legitimacy of means is put to the severest test. Our présentcondition has brought into question, perhaps not for the firsttime in our history but on a wider front than before, ourattachment to freedom from coercion as a first principle of ahumane society.It might at first seem surprising that an idea as fundamentalas freedom from coercion is not enshrined in the rhetoric ofliberty, along with the great phrases of the Bill of Rights—freedom of speech and of the press, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly and of pétition. The answer, of course, isthat the Constitution and the Bill of Rights were addressed toa différent problem. They were framed to guard against theexcesses of officiai authority, not to préserve the freedom ofmen against the private conduct of f ellow men. The Founderswere able to take for granted that protection against privatecoercion, against the imposition of one man's arbitrary willupon another, had been the chief business and the great ac-complishment of the common law. They assumed a socialstructure in which coercion was acknowledged to be themonopoly of the state, and the problem set for them by theirown récent history was to fashion ways in which that monopoly could be made strong and permanent, yet consistent withthe freedom of its beneficiaries. Checks against arbitrary officiai power was their task. Due process of law was the historiésymbol of that objective, and the spécifie freedoms of the Billof Rights identified the values that expérience suggestëd werelikely to be the first victims of unchecked governmentalpower.Thus the principle of freedom from private coercion cornesdown to us without the benefit of a grand crystallizing phrase48i or document. Rather it is the sum of our légal development,the accretion of centuries of graduai working out of rightsand duties that may give each man a secure universe of hisown personality. Beginning with protection against crude andviolent inflictions, such as murder, assault, theft, the forcibledispossession of the tenant from his land, the law came slowlyto recognize more subtle and less palpable invasions. Thesecurity of the individual was widened to include protectionagainst defamation, déception, blackmail, the négligent inflic-tion of bodily harm, the intentional interférence with" con-tractual relationships. The development continues in our owntime, partly because of ever-widening conceptions of theessentials of human dignity, partly because the ingenuity ofman in devising affronts to that dignity constantly outruns thélégal system's définitions and machinery. Thus in our own daywe hâve seen the necessity for a whole séries of new fédérallaws and enforcement procédures to protect the black citizen,not merely against unjust laws, but against coercion, threats,and intimidation by private individuals and groups throughpractices associated with the hateful symbol of the Ku KluxKlan.A new phenomenon that has only begun to confront thelaw, but àppears likéfy to do so with increasing insistence, isthe coercion that may be implicit in or may be generated byorganized démonstration and protest. The problem is difficultfor the law and for the society, and for many reasons. Fore-most is the désire to préserve maximum room for emphaticand effective political expression. The use of public places as aforum for such expression is by now a deeply ingraine d partof our tradition. A good deal of inconvenience and discomfortis to be tolerated in support of that tradition. Moreover, it isnot easy to define the coercive circumstances or to separatethem from legitimate expression. There is a danger of over-kill, as through loosely drafted laws that place undue relianceon the discrétion of officiais or the instant judgment pf thepolice. The most obvious social evil to be averted is that ofviolence, but there is the countervailing fear of evoking violence through an appearance of suppression. There is the additional difficulty of technique in crowd control and the maintenance of police discipline. Finally, apart from the danger ofharms to persons or property, it is not clear that there is niuchto be feàred from the overtones of coercion in rtiàss protest.Our courts, législatures, and electorates are not thought to behighly vulnérable to intimidation. They are not easy targets.Thus many factors hâve tended to produce an attitude ofrestraint and tolérance on the part of the law, as well as manythoughtful men, toward tactics that often suggest a purpose toimpose one group's will upon its fellow men. The attitude isreinforced by the évident justice of many of the ends forwhich such tactics hâve been invoked. Sympathy for thoseends, and an acknowledgment that the rirotest has at timesbeen effective, hâve thus given some legitimacy to means thatwould otherwise seçm doubtful because of their implicitthreat or actual eff ects upon the rights of others. The ambivalence is most clearly illustrated, perhaps, by the SuprêmeCourt's unwillingness to vindicate the law of trespass asagainst the sit-ins protesting racial discrimination at lunchcounters in the South. That particular issue was fortunatelyresolved by new civil rights législation, but the Court's ownirrésolution symbolizes, and perhaps has encouraged, the un-certainty with which our society faces the larger question ofcoercion.The universities are now in the forefront of that largerquestion. For them the problem is both more immédiate in itsimpact and more difficult of solution than for the society atlarge. It must be made clear why ambivalence on this issue ismore dangerous for a university than for the society as awhole, and why its attitude must be uncompromising. Theissue for a university is not merely violence, nor disruptionand inconvenience, nor the préservation of civilities in therelations among men. Thèse are proper concerns of the university, as of the society about it. But the university's deepestconcern is to préserve itself as the place in society that sets thehighest value upon the integrity and freedom of the individual.If freedom from coercion is an aspiration of society, it is theessence of the university. The university coerces no one intoits membership, it imposes no views. It off ers to ail who quali-fy the opportunity to seek their own self -fulfillment throughknowledge, to f orm their own view of the world. It exacts noallegiance, except to the principle that ail others who make upthe community shall enjoy a like freedom.Such a society is vulnérable to illegitimate pressures in waysthat the larger community is not. It is vulnérable becausegreat costs can easily be imposed— costs not only in wastedresources, alienated support, time spent, and opportunities lost,but the grievous losses of momentum and spirit that nearly ailwho hâve been at this university during the past quarter musthâve felt. There is perhaps' no great danger that men's viewswill in fact be coerced, that the pursuit of truth will be côr-rupted or. the university's aims be altered. The greater danger is that men and women— students and faculty alike— who prizethe atmosphère of freedom that is a university will be drivento seek that freedom in other places and other ways, and thusby érosion rather than visible catastrophe the institution willlanguish.The university is also vulnérable because its défenses areweak, and because of its unique relationship to the law of thelarger community. The university does not possess or sharethe coercive power that belongs to the civil authority. Yet itcannot, except at great risk to its own values, f ully receive theprotection of that authority. It is in important ways a lawunto itself, yet without law. This is in part because of the verydifficulties and inadequacies the external community has ex-perienced in dealing with the phenomena of protest and coercion, and because of the violence that lurks in provocativenonviolence. Yet it is also because in a deep sensé law is aliento the spirit of thé university, whether in the form of externalauthority or internai rules. The university aims at a highercode of freedom and mutual restraint than the imperfectmechanism of law can provide. A university, like a home,which must fall back upon law to regulate the conduct of itsmembers has already lost its noblest quality.And so the university must remain vulnérable and fragile. Itcannot become a government; it cannot lightly turn for aidto external force. In setting the example of a community freefrom coercion, it must appeal to spirit and motive, those intangibles of conduct that no law can successfully detect orregulate. In the extrême, it must invoke that other cornerstoneof liberty recognized by our law,, the freedom of association.Président Levi has rightly said that the university belongs tono one. It does not follow that it belongs to everyone. It existsfor, it must be reserved for, those who are prepared to re-nounce not only force and the threat of forcé but the idea ofcoercion itself as a means of making their views prevail. Sucha community is not closed to change, for it is open to thepower of reason. But in such a community it will also berecognized that where men are uncoerced différences of viewwill often persist, and the withholding of assent will not bestigmatized as a refusai to listen. The perpétuation of thatspirit is both a necessary condition and the essential mission ofthe university.In troubled times, past and présent, this University has heldtrue to its own ways and to the idéal of the inquiring, uncoerced mind. The power of that idéal and the strength of itsown spirit will sustain it. ?49Quadrangle j\ewsTrustée Committee NamedTo Head $360,000,000 Drive . /A New Trustée Development Committeehas been formed to move ahead with plans forthe second phase of the University's ten-year program to raise at $360,000,000.Robert Gunness will serve as chairman.J. Harris Ward will be responsible for theCorporate Support effort, Emmett Dedmonwill lead the Almuni Fund, and James W.Button will héad the Presiderit's Fund.Other members of the Committee arePhilip D. Block, Fairfax M. Cône, GaylordDonnelley, Stanley G. Harris, Jr., Robert S.Ingërsoll, Edward H. Levi, George A. Ranney,Christopher W. Wilson, Joseph S. Wright,Robert P. Gwihn, Glen A. Llo^d, Jay A.Pritzker,' Joseph Regenstein, Jr., Hermon D.Smith, Sydney Stein, Jrl, and GardnerH. Stem. fThe 'first phase of the ten-year programwas the campaign for Chicago, the three-year,$160,000,000 drive \yhich was completedDecember 31 with a total of $160,500,000received iri gifts and pledges;. GaylordDonnelley was chairman of the Campaign.Major goals in thé second phase of the totalprogram include a $25,00,000 Faculty Fundto support faculty salaries and to create neW -Distinguished Service and Named Profes-sorships; $8,000,000 in'annual unrestrictedsupport; $15,000,000 for student housing; andfunds for several new building projects, ,including facilities for the biological sciences,the physical sciences, and music.$1,638,223 Ford GrantThree University of Chicago programs re-lating to population control research, action,and information hâve been awarded $1,638,223from the Ford Foundation. The Grantsinclude:—$929,995 for partial support of a five-yearprogram of training in reproductive biologyand research in ovulation, contraception, andimplantation directly relevant to fertilitycontrol. The research will be under thedirection of Dr. Frederick P. Zuspan, theJoseph Bolivar De Lee Professor and Chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gyne-cology in the University's Pritzker- School ofMedicine. It ranges from improved intra-uterinë devices to the rôle of stéroid hormonesin the developing ovarian follicle.—$418,770 for research that may lead todevelopment of antigens to control "uptakereceptors," proteins in the utérine cell thatattract estrogen. This research is uridej thedirection of Elwood V. Jensen,i the AmericanCancer Society Charles Hayderi FoundationResearch Professor in the Ben May Laboratoryfor Cancer Research and Professor of Physi-ologyjn The Pritzker School of Medicine.Dr. Jensen wiïl become directojr of the 'Ben May Laboratory in July, 1969.; y-$189,458 for a study of thé effect of oralcontraceptives on the epithelium in the utérine'cervix, under the direction of Dr. George L.Wied, the Blum-Riese Professor of Obstetricsand Gynecology and Professor of Pathologyin thé Pritzker School of Medicine and ofExf oliative Cytology.:',.:. ^ ¦''"Black Fellowships EstablishedThe University of Chicago has announced thecréation of a new $250,000 fellowship programto encourage and assist black students toenroll in any of its four graduate divisions. ,The program was announced by John T. 'Wilson, Vice-Président and Dean of Faculties,who said; "This is one of several steps theUniversity has taken and is continuing to taketo assure that capable black students are notdenied the opportunity for quality graduatetraining because of économie disadvantâge,rising tuition fées, or intensive compétition foi 'the limited funds available through regularUniversity programs."The fellowship program, which will beavailable to students entering the Universitynext fall, provides a minimum of $50,000annually for the next five years. Money forthe fellowships came from a spécial fund of theUniversity's Trustées."This is seed money which we hope will besupplemented by donations from friends ofthe University who are as committed as we are to increasing thé numbter of black scholarsavailable for teaching and research in this acountry," Wilson said. "If we are to rëfainbut tràditional réputation as a leading 'teacherof teachers,' " Wilson added, "we must takestèps to ease the spécial pains which handicapmany black Ameriçans."Charles D. O'Connell, Dean of Students, 1explained that the new fellowship program „is over and above our regular Universitystudent aid budget and the aid programs of '-'the Graduate Divisions of" the Humanitiès, theSocial Sciences, the Physical Sciences, andthe Biological Sciences. For the next five years,at least, black students will be able tp cbmpetefor thèse spécial funds as well as for the aidwhich is available to ail students." :There currently are about 286 black studentsenrolled in The University. of Chicago, outiof a total of 8,579 degree candidates. Dean*O'Connell said the University is involved iri anintensive recruiting campaign to identify andattract black and other minority groupapplicants. "Thèse efforts will be aided by theexistence at the University of observable,fînancial évidence of our intention to make a 7major contribution to the recognized shortageof black scholars," Dean p'Connell said.Technology Reducing Threatsof World Famine and OvérpopulationThe United States should not prbvide othernations with massive f ôqd aid programs, threeprominent agricultural economists said in adiscussion on world hungfer on a récentUniversity of Chicago Round Table. The three, called for the United States to maintain .a "fire brigade capacity" to deliver food in anemefgency anywhere in the world, such asBiafra. ,They also agreed that famine is no longera world-wide threat because of increasedagricultural technology and a décline in theworld's birth rate. But they citèd the severeproblems caUsed by pbekets of chronic hungerand malnutrition resulting from war andpolitical and social disorganization.Appearing on the public télévision discussionprogram were Forest F. Hill, chairman of <50the board of the International Rice Instituteand agriculture program adviser for the FordFoundation; D. Gale Johnson, Professor ofEconomies and Dean of the Division of theSocial Sciences at The University of Chicago;and Théodore W. Schultz, the Charles L.Hutchinson Distinguished Service Professor ofEconomies at the university.Schultz, explaining the effect of massive aid during the 1950's, said: "When yousupply a country with seven to ten per centof the grain it consumes, this has an effect onthe priées for which the wheat will sell to theconsumer and also an effect on the priéesthe farmer is going to get for the wheat heproduces. So, his incentive to produce moreis adversely affected."Johnson, agreeing that the U.S. should notmaintain large-scale massive food aids, added,"We should maintain our capacity to deliverfood to anywhere in the world very quicklyin case of a real emergency."In claiming that world-wide famine is nota realistic fear, Schultz said: "I would say no. . . except where there is war and politicaland social disorganization as we're seeing inEast Nigeria (Biafra) at the présent time. . . ."Schultz said: "Our policy has shifted to theself-help concept. This does imply bringing inthe varieties (new strains of plants) and thefertilizer and less on massive food. To thatextent, it's beginning to get the right thrust."Ail three predicted that the next censuswould show that the world's birth rate haddeclined, especially in developing nations.Johnson said: "It's only been really in thepast décade or less that there has been majorresearch in the whole problem of humanreproduction. It was virtually ignoredthroughout our history of médical researchand biological research until just a few yearsagb. The achievements that hâve been made,the 'pill' and other contraceptive devices inthis very brief period of time, I think, hold realpromise for what can be done now that weare investing a significant amount of ourresources in this type of activity."Schultz complimented the U.S. governmenton what it has been doing to relieve theworld's population problems: "The countries that asked for help on populations in the birthcontrol area are indeed going to hâve responsefrom our government. I must say Tm extraor-dinarily pleased the way Congress, representingthe rank and file- of the United States, is awareof this as a very important area of policyin which a contribution can be made at apublic level. I think the pressure of theCongress has been strong both within theUnited States, that is, in the whole populationbirth control area, as well as outside."Organ Transplants:Facing the Légal TangleAs organ transplants become more commonand more successful, légal aspects of transplantation will assume increasing importance,an attorney for The University of Chicagohas reported.Joseph P. Roth of the Office of LégalCounsel at the University spoke at a meetingon the présent status of heart transplantationheld in Chicago, December 10. The meetingwas sponsored by the American Collège ofCardiology and The Pritzker School ofMedicine of The University of Chicago.He pointed out légal difKculties ¦which canarise due to the jurisdiction of différent statesand the various statutes dealing with disposition of a body after death, while medicinehas no such boundaries."Physicïans in South Africa may developtechniques for transplanting vital organswhich, if medically sound, can be utilized withequal success in Chicago, New York, Paris orBombay. Our dilemma is largely that of aconflict of laws superimposed upon the taskof reconciling competing claims of interestin the deceased body," he said.As conditions now stand, légal tangles couldoccur even when an individual has givenwritten indication of his désire to be a donorupon his death."Suppose," Roth said, "that a résident ofState X, which expressly authorizes tissuèdonation by statute, desires to make a gift ofhis body after death. Accordingly, he hasprepared an apprôpriate instrument ofdonation, valid under the laws of State X; but he dies in State Y, which has no suchstatute and the common law precludes anante-mortem gift, binding upon the survivingspouse or next of kin. The question becomesone of which law will be applied, that ofState X or State Y."In an effort to deal with this area, theNational Conférence of Commissioners onUniform State Laws has drafted the UniformAnatomical Gift Act, which is being dis-tributed to the states for législative action.If enacted by ail, or even a large percentage of,the 50 states, such a law would be a long steptoward solving the conflict of laws questionand would help prevent many légal entangle-ments.Roth said law is necessarily a little behindthe times and has difficulty keeping pace withthe rapid advances of médical science. Heemphasized that the law is not establishingan entire set of new légal principles, butmerely applying existing ones to the problemsgenerated by organ transplantation. The sametheory is being used to develop a law ofouter space.Tracing the right of an individual to disposeof his body, Roth said that early Englishdécisions refused to recognize any propertyrights in such cases. Initially this rule wasadopted by the American courts, but graduallygave way to the rationale that a "quasi-property" right is vested in the survivingspouse or next of kin. Generally this waslimited to taking charge of the corpse andarranging for burial.As other transplant surgery, notably corneaopérations, became common, many statesenacted statutes allowing a person to disposeof his own body after death.However, Roth continued, even where sucha law is in effect and where the deceased hasclearly indicated his intent, physicians arefrequently reluctant to proceed with transplantsurgery if the next of kin objects strenuously.In organ transplants to date, most légalconcern has been to get properlv drawnauthorization from the family of the prospective donor.Roth said that, as heart transplants becomemore standard, it might be wise to lookcarefully at the légal rights of récipients.He suggestëd future consent forms signed bythe récipients of new hearts be carefully drawnto protect physicians.He indicated the importance "of insuring,insofar as possible, that the transplanted organis not a diseased or a malfunctioning heart."In at least two cases where the donor wasthe victim of homicide, défense artorneys^contended that the surgeons had caused thedeàth by removing the heart. Roth saidhe doubts that this point will affect theoutcome of the criminal trials in such cases.An idéal solution, he comrriented, might beto eliminate accident and homicide victimsas potential heart donors. But, he added, thisprobabfy is not feasible as thèse are the kindof cases where irréversible brain damagemost often is présent. y ;As to who détermines that an individualis dead, Roth indicated he thinks that suchdécisions should continue to be the task of thedonor's attending physician, who is not amember of thé transplant team.Roth also stated that something more thanadoption of the Uniform Act is needed. Heconcluded his remarks by urging that "Boththe légal and médical communities mustundertake to éducate the gênerai public to ;the problems of transplantation and introducethem to the solutions which the model lawaffords."Student Açtivism A FamilyMatter, Study ShowsStudent açtivism appears to bear little or norelationship to parental permissiveness, according to a PhD candidate hère.The findings are contained in a doctoraldissertation, entitled "Family Congruence onPolitical Orientations in Politically ActiveParents and Their College-Age Children," pre-pared by the Rev. Lamar E. Thomas, anordained Presbyterian minister.Thomas, who recéived his PhD from theCommittee on Human Development recently,rejects the widely held notion that "Spock-generation permissiveness" is a cause ofleft-wing student açtivism. He found that52 the greatest corrélation with student açtivismwas parental political causes, such as open (orclose J) occupahcy, civil rights and poverty.s Thomas studied sixty f amilies in Chicàgo'ssuburban Nôrth Shore area, including Wil-mette, Evahston, Glenview, Winnetka, Glen-coe, and Northfield-Northbrôok. Of theparents, thirty were libéral and thirty con-servative. AU had children between the âges ofeighteen and twenty-four who had attendedcollège at least one semester. One parentand one collegè-age child in each familywere interviewed. ;The parents ail were politically active. Mr.Thomas found that, for the most part, libéralparents activély supported open occùpancy,the peace movemeni:, and similar causes,while conservative parents activély supportedclosed occùpancy j patriotic organizations, etc.Other findings of his study include:— Overall, college-age childreh! of bothconservative and libéral f amilies retain thepolitical views of their parents. Mr. Thoriiasfound no instance where the child had changedfrom libéral to conservative or vice versa, \and there was only one change in politicalparty. Eighty, percent said they preferredthe same party as their parents, and nineteenpercent declared themselves indepéndent.— Generally, however, the conservative students were a little less conservative t,han theirparents— except for the subsample of studentactivists whose views were just about identicalwith those of their parents. According toMr. Thomas, "It seems that the collègeexpérience leads to modération of the parents'influence, except for those students whobecame activists in ,organizations such asStudents for a Démocratie Society (sds) andwho become even more polàrized than theirparents."—Family warmth as well as family permissiveness had little or no relationship to studentaçtivism, on the left or right. As a group,conservative parents were as permissivein child-rearing as libéral parents; but withineach group, the most permissive parents wereno more likely to hâve an activist child thanthe least permissive.— Of the thirty libéral children, sixteen i were activists— they participâtes in civil rightsprotests and/or joined.groups suçh as sds. 'Of the thirty conservative children, four wereactivists and joinëd.such groups as YoungAmericans for Freedom.—Libéral parents on the whole apprôved pfaçtivism, evén if it took some time fromstudy; while conservative parents thought rthat açtivism was ail right, but that their childshould wait : until he was out of school beforebecoming active. ¦—When asked if they would like td seetheir children more active, libéral parentsthought they would and conservatives thoughtthey wouldri't. , . ^"The students attended forty-one différent ''collèges and universities," Thomas said, "sowe can assume that the collèges weren't aspécial group. Very few, however, reportedright- wing activities in the last year, simply because there just haven't been many goingon." ITo explain his sélection of the Chicagonorth shore suburban "sample, Mr. Thomassaid that previous stùdies had shown mostactivist students came from homes where theparents had had some collège éducation. Inchoosing the north shore suburbs, he selected 'a fairly homegeneous population with regardtô social class, éducation, income, and status.Also, môst ôf the children in thèse suburbsgo to collège.- Thomas has joined the facvdty of theUniversity of Connecticut as assistant professor of child development and family relations.He will begin teaching there in the fall.In commenting on his study and finalreport, Berniçe L. Nëugarten, Professor inThe Committee on Human Development,said:"Mr. Thomas' study confirms our earlierfindings of continuities across générations* andthe fact that collège students share the political and social values of their parents,whether parents are on the left or on the',right. Instead of being rebels against parentalvalues, students seem to be new chips offthe old block, carrying out the family valuesystem in ways that refleét the 1960's ratherthan the 1940's."Of spécial interest is the finding that/açtivism in the child reflects, not permissivechild-rearing, but political açtivism on the partof the parent. Thus, whatever.else Dr. Spockmay be justly or unjustly accused of, it is nothis influence on child-rearing practices overthe past twenty years that explains the rise ofstudent açtivism. We must look to otherhistorical, social, and political forces if we areto understand why present-day collège youthare demanding a greater voice in the affairsof the universities and in the affairs of thenation."Richard Flacks, Assistant Professor ofSociology, commented:"Mr. Thomas' study is an important confirmation of our earlier research showing thatprésent student açtivism représenta a continuation of humanist and socially-concernedtraditions in the American middle class.It also suggests that student protest is rootedin the values and political concerns of studentsand has nothing to do with aberrant personality or the weakness of parental authority."University Modernizing Equipmentto Fight, Air PollutionThe University of Chicago will spend anestimated $2,265,000 by the end of 1971in an effort to help solve the air pollutionproblem in Hyde Park. The Committeeon Business Administration has approved aprogram of modernization, conversion, andexpansion of the University's central heatingplant at 6101 South Blackstone Avenue.The program includes replacing three of thefour boilers now in use in the heating plantand converting the fourth boiler to use gasand oil fuel. The use of coal as a fuel will beeliminated, and the entire plant will usea combination of gas and oil. In addition,the plant will be completely modernized withup-to-date equipment.The first new boiler should be deliveredin early summer of 1969 and be in service bymid-autumn, 1969. The second and third unitswould follow in the two succeeding years.Ail other modernization and equipmentinstallation will be initiated immediately, to beready by the time needed. The University has already converted more than two-thirdsof its buildings with separate heating plantsfrom coal to gas, and it is expected thatthe rest will be converted by 1971.In addition, a new compact trash disposaiunit is being installed in the UniversityHospitals and Clinics to replace the incineratornow being used. The unit will compress trashinto closed containers that will be removedby scavenger service. This method éliminâtesthe burning of trash.MiscellanyThis year's Folk Festival, held Feb. 8-10,brought the expected array of talent to theIda Noyés workshops and the Mandel Hallconcerts. On hand were: Sara Cleveland; DonReno, Bill Harrell, and the Tennessee Cutups;Jenkins and Jarrell; Ed and Lonnie Young;The Pennywhistlers; The New Lost CityRamblers; Franklin, George; Freddie King;Robert Shaw; Archie Green; and the peren-nial George Armstrong. If some of thèse arerelative unknowns, that's the way the Folklore Society likes it. One of its functions is tobring folk artists from obscure locales to theMandell Hall stage where, more often thannot, they are surprised to find themselvescheered to the rafters. Pete Seeger was onhand, billed as "folklorist" to indicate that he would participât* in the workshops and sharein emceeing duties but would not perform.Temptation proved too much, however: heunpacked his instruments and treated thewildly appréciative audience to a few songs.Numerous inquiries continue to corne inconcerning the University's former quarterly,Chicago Today. Its final issue was Summer1968, after which its name was retired and itseditorial policy and mailing list were incor-porated into The University of ChicagoMagazine. The Magazine has a redesigned andexpanded format and is published bimonthlyon a complimentary basis for alumni and thefaculty. It also is available on request to otherinterested persons.The Pritzker School of Medicine's first hearttransplant was made December 25 by asurgical team headed by Dr. C. FrederickKittle, Professor of Surgery and Chief of theSection of Thoracic and CardiovascularSurgery. The récipient, an eight-day old boysuffering from congénital heart defects, diedthe following day after being sustained byintermittent use of the heart-lung machine.The twelfth édition of the University ofChicago Press Manual of Style, just published,appears certain to retain its standing as theforemost référence of its kind in the Englishlanguage. Billed as "completely revised," thecurrent édition is in reality a totally new work,vastly expanded and restructured to followthe création of a book and guide decision-making not only on stylistic matters but at ailstages from original manuscript to final design.One reviewer noted: "to look for significantomissions could become a parlor game."The long section on spécimens of type(the Press 's own type catalog, largely re-stricted to local interest) has been eliminatedin favor of a briefer and more instructivedisplay of popular faces. The new Manualis available at $7.50 until June 30, after whichthe price goes up to $10.00. Write to TheUniversity of Chicago Press, 5750 Ellis Ave.,Chicago, 111. 60637.People-J» James S. F. Barker, an Australian ge-neticist, has been named Visiting Professor ofBiology. Mr. Barker, associate professor ofanimal genetics at the University of Sydney,is on a year's sabbatical to conduct researchhère on population biology.¦9»- Richard D. Brauer, the Perkins Professorof Mathematics at Harvard University, isserving as Visiting Professor, of Mathematicshère for the current académie year. Mr. Braueiis conducting a graduate seminâr in algebraicgroup theory. '-J» Richard M. Burridge, former senior viceprésident of the Northern Trust Company,Chicago, has been appointed UniversityTreasurer, succeeding J. Parker Hall, whoserved as Treasurer for almost twenty-thfeeyears. Mr. Burridge has been with Northern1Trust since graduation in 1951 from theUniversity of Colorado, where he majored infinance. He became a Chartered FinancialAnalyst in 1965 and has taught at the /\mericanInstitute of Banking. He is a past secretaryand a past mémber of the Board of Goverrtorsof the Investment Analysts Society of Chicago,and he currently serves on its Future PlansCommittee. Mr. Burridge is co-author ofPersonal Trust Financial Management and hascontributed articles to the Commercial andFinancial Chronicle. Mr. Burridge, his wife,Leslje Nan, and their three sons live inClarendon Hills, 111.¦»>¦ Alberto P. Calderon has been named theLouis Block Professor of Mathematics inthe Division of the Physical Sciences. Mr.Calderon received his PhD hère in 1950 andtaught at Ohio State University, the Institutefor Advanced Study at Princeton, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology before joiningthe Chicago faculty as Professor df Mathematics in 1959.¦?» Michael Esposito has been appointedAssistant Professor in the Department ofBiology. He received his doctorate in 1967at the University of Washington. He has heldteaching fellowships in botany and genetics54 at Brooklyn Collège1 and the University ofWashington. In 1967 and 1968 he was aNational Institutes of Health postdoctoralfellpw at the Molecular Biology Laboratory ofthe University of Wisconsin. Mr.Espositohas been doing research on the biochemicalrégulation of genetics of sexual cells andasexual spores and on mutations affectinggenetic recombination in yeast.l•5»- W. Albert Hiltner, Professor of Astro-physics, has beén elected président ôf theAssociation of Uhiyersities for Research in)Astrohomy, Inc. (aura), succeeding RupertWild of Yale University. Aura was incor-porated iri 1957 to further astronomicalresearch. The membership includes Harvard,Yale, Princeton, Ohio State, Michigan, Indiana,Wisconsin, and California, in addition toThe University of Chicago, which has a joint,membership with the University of Texas.-»> Daniel H. Janzen has been appointedAssistant Professor in the Department pfBiology. He received his doctorate in 1965at Berkeley. Since then he has served as coursecoordinator for the Organization for TropicalStudies in Costa Rica, coordinator of theUniversity of Kansas/Universidad ,je Oriente(Venezuela) Program, and assistant professorof entomology at the University of Kansas.He was président of the Kansas EntomologicalSociety in 1967-68. Mr. Janzen specializes intropical ecology. , >•J8- Arcadius Kahan, an econômist and-économie historian, has been naméd Masterof the Social Sciences Collegiate Divisionat the University, and Associate Dean of theCollège. He succeeds Donald N. Levure,Associate Professor of Sociology and of theSocial Sciences, who resigned to dévote moretime tb teaching 'and research.¦>»• Robert A. LeVine, Professor of Anthro-pology and Human Development, has beenappointed director of a Child DevelopmentResearch Unit at Ahmadu Bello University,Zaria, Nigeria, to be established under aCarnegie Corporation grant. The University '. - " '¦' ¦ ¦ > ¦•will furnish personnel, equipment,,. and supple7mentary financial suppprt;.' The proj écris 'intended to produce basic information onchildren and parents in the Northern States of.Nigeria that will help in planning health, véducation, and' welfare services; it also willfurther the development of training and research in the behavioral sciences at AhmaduBellp University. The proj ect will recruitNigérian students to serve as research appren-tices in field opérations. ' j ,_Mr. LeVine was rnarried Decembèr 8 to theformer; Eleanor Friedberger, the youngerdaùghter of the late William Howard DennisFriedberger and of Mjs. Friedberger, ofHollowéll Manor,, Northampton, England.Mr. and Mrs. LeVine met in Eastern Nigeria:she was teaching at the University of Nigeriaand he was engàged in anthropological•research.• ', ¦- ¦ - I '¦ "•$&¦ Asmund Lien is the Visiting Universityof Oslo Professor of Nôrwegian at theUniversity for 1968-69. Mr. Lien is LecturerinScandinavian Literature at the NûrgesLaerërhôgskole iri Trondheim, Norway. He>is doing research on the works of AkselSandemose, the cdntemporâry Nôrwegiannovelist. \-5»- George J. Metcalf received the RoyalOrder of the North Star from the SwedishConsul General in Chicago, Decembèr 4.One of the eiarliest récipients of the riiedaï wasCarolus Linnaeus, creator of the classificationSystem for biological speçies. Mr. Metcalf isprofessor 'of German Philologyiafid Chairmanof Germanie Languages and Literatures.-9»- James E. Miller, Jr., Professor of English,has been elected président of the NationalCouncil of Teachers of English.•5» Dr. Robert D. Moseley, Jr., has beennamed Director of the Biological SciencesComputor Facilities and Associate Director ofthe University Computation Center. Mr.Moseley is Professor and Chairman of theDepartment of Radiology jn The PritzkerSchool of Medicine. His new appointmentreflects plans to develop computer facilitiesfor the Clinics and for biological sciencesJ research. The added computer services willassume several functions: schedule patientappointments, store prescriptions and médicalrecords, and provide tabulation shortcuts inresearch.•J» Bernice L. Neugarten, Professor of HumanDevelopment, has been elected président ofthe Gerontological Society of America.•9»- Joseph Pedlosky has been appointedAssociate Professor of Meteorology in theDepartment of Geophysical Sciences. Hereceived his bachelor's, master's, and doctorateat Massachusetts Institute of Technology,where he has been assistant professor ofmathematics since 1963. Mr. Pedlosky isconcerned with constructing mathematicalmodels for phenomena which occur in rapidlyrotating fluids, especially in situations ofmeteorological and océanographie interest.->»- One of the world's foremost experts onstatistical mathematics, E. J. G. Pitman ofAustralia, is Visiting Professor of Statistics forthe autumn and winter quartérs, 1968-69.Mr. Pitman's contributions to the theory ofstatistical tests hâve resulted in a widely-usedconcept of testing generally called "Pitmanefficiency." In addition to his contributions tononparametric or distribution-free methods ofstatistics, he has made extensive contributionsto the technical theory of point estimation:a concept of his in this field is widely knownamong statisticians as "Pitman closeness."Mr. Pitman has taught at the Universities ofNew Zealand and Melbourne and at theUniversity of Tasmania, where he was professor of mathematics for thirty-six years 'untilhis retirement in 1962.•î»- Jay A. Pritzker, prominent Chicagobusinessman and philanthropist, has beenelected to the Board of Trustées. Mr. Pritzkerhas been a partner in the Chicago law firm ofPritzker and Pritzker since 1948. He also ischairman of the boards of Hyatt Corporation,Rockwood and Company, and Marmon Group, Inc. He is a partner in the ChicagoMill and Lumber company and the MichiganCalifornia Lumber Co. and is a director ofContinental Airlines. He also is a memberof the Board of Directors of Michael ReeseHospital and Médical Center in Chicago.Mr. Pritzker was born in Chicago onAugust 26, 1922. He was graduated fromNorthwestern University with an SB degreein 1941 and with a jd degree from North-western's law school in 1947. During WorldWar II, he was an aviator in the U.S. Navy.He is one of three sons of A. N. Pritzker,also a partner in the law firm of Pritzker andPritzker. The Pritzker family has been activelvassociated with a number of business enter-prises and with numerous charitable organizations in Chicago and elsewhere, as well aswith the légal profession.In June, 1968, the School of Medicineof The University of Chicago was renamedThe Pritzker School of Medicine of TheUniversity of Chicago in honor of the Pritzkerfamily. In addition to Jay A. Pritzker, thefamily includes his fàther, his uncle, Jack N.Pritzker, and his brothers, Robert A. Pritzker,and Donald N. Pritzker. Jay A. Pritzker andthe former Marian Friend, whose father wasthe late Judge Hugo M. Friend of Chicago,were married in 1947. They hâve two daugh-ters, Nancy and Jean, and three sons, Thomas,John, and Daniel. The family lives inWinnetka, Illinois.->J> John Schael, who has been coach ofundefeated wrestling teams for two seasonsat Miami University, Oxford, O., has joinedthe faculty hère as an instructor in physicaléducation, and wrestling coach.Schael, who holds sb and MEd degreesfrom Miami University, was voted Miami'soutstanding wrestler as an undergraduate, andwas the mid-American Conférence championin the 147-pound weight class for two years.He won three varsity letters in wrestlingand.was captain of the school's team in 1966.•>»¦ M. Brewster Smith, former professor ofpsychology at Berkeley, where he was directoiof the Institute of Human Development, has been appointed Professor and Chairman of theDepartment of Psychology. Mr. Smith alsohas taught at Harvard, Vassar, and New YorkUniversity. He earned international récognition for his discovery of and research on thecorrélation between pupil dilation and mentaland émotional activity, the field of pupil-lometrics. He also pioneered the exploration ofimprinting, the phenomenon of émotionalattachment of newborn fowl to parent-surro-gates. Mr. Smith is a former editor of theJournal of Social Issues and a former consult-ing editor of the International Journal ofSocial Psychology. He is co-author, withJérôme S. Bruner and Robert W. White, ofOpinions and Personality.-J5J- Robert E. Streeter, Professor of Englishand Dean of the Division of the Humanities,has been appointed chairman of the University's Arts Council, an interdepartmentalfaculty group which advises the Présidenton music, theater, and the graphie and plasticarts.-5» Hans Zeisel, Professor in the Law Schooland the Department of Sociology, has revisedand updated his book, Say h With Figures(Harper & Row), released in its fifth éditionin October.-5»- Kamil Zvelebil, Europe's foremost scholarof Dravidian language and culture, has beenappointed Visiting Professor of South AsianLanguages and Civilizations. Mr. Zvelebilteaches at Charles University in Prague, wherehe is head of the Tamil department in theFaculty of Philosophy, and is a member ofthe Oriental Institute of the CzechoslovakAcademy of Sciences. He also is vice présidentof the Academy of Tamil Culture, Madras,India, and gênerai secretary of the InternationalAssociation of Tamil Research. Mr. Svelebilis the author or co-author of six books andtranslator of nine volumes from classical andmodem Tamil, the Dravidian language ofsouthern India and northern Ceylon.55Vi <-fB" Po £v2. a«r oM Bb Pa g.CIO O<T> 3en BB* Pa>i^cra 3•¦* 3.c S,g-bS aB- <?¦P. Ws§'i-t BV3 P s a' w* ena- 3n pi^ *-*-U_, enilB —— O*> nien Oen b8 &SI g E *3. B"g Bs: *O i-il-f . Mp*«B PenJi o3 3.«¦ <B* 2w. en CL pS BP "'S P• BH* CO çnc s-& 3n' S.b aen OQP IB <?>Kl a"(l3 1.3..' m >a oB" §•'§¦'» ¦£: i*• O i-i£. M- «-<S"g aIS B¦B o T.T © r*°> 3 &"p ra °< .B "OP B. 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CJQtu CV 00.o a.'CNS K Œ i §22 CJ uSa11 •3 T3T3 >d C¦3 h<-< Sfî^ 3 s &O oen ojCJ PSO, eoen >-CJ SO S9 210 £ T3 ._d d2 sd Bi» +3<U •r'>-i &0h „•°" S3 EO 3CJ *"00 a;d CJC ait Set" —3 00¦â a§ SieuS ** Dh ca'C31) CJQQ caca E43 dd-i 3d 43o 0,iLs •s •p£< Sp caca ^2« 43Q HdË3CJ¦3b CJ43CJC-accaen3Ëcacj p 200 — <dO 4-|*3 —• <U Cca(Xd "«S « 23O -~ -O * CJ*" C 43 „> OnS ^¦S o\ca cjE"3P. oo dm o^3 S cj43.-*T3d dOene*CJCL,CJ43r»iH O01 rr>a CJ *Ha -o 01N! a¦^ u a^» l"SaT3ssa 01 •a43 uH Q h « > 43¦* "2 I Sd *îca -adcaosÇN-ap ^:ca ¦"*¦- <^i P .uCJ >H(N p u aQ &n +=¦So2S jj S¦a g» a.2 § pB i Eal ëO P o ca cjcj o,5 o. >^ -^b0^ ¦«.S « »ien . >fe Ë §> O J>T3 " *"¦m "3 *¦s &m45 Î3 ¦=u « cv.0 • Lunch & Alumni Awards, June 14: •# send me tickets at $5.00 each. •• Communications Dinner, lune 13: J• send me tickets at $7.50 each. •• Présidents Réception, June 14: •a send me complimentary tickets. •* Tour 1, June 13: send complimentary tickets. J• Tour 2, June 14: send complimentary tickets. •• Tour 3, June 14: send complimentary tickets. •• Tour 4, June 14: send complimentary tickets. •J Tour S, Tune. 14- send complimentary tickets. '• My check for $ is enclosed, payable to •. The University of Chicago Alumni Associati Dn.• caCJen• en• "• 0• d.2d "ïa• p a• c o _• CJ en f-t-i « m• CJ ¦¦ < NO• en O ,_; o• 5-'g«• llfi.a>•• nts,] 9.M Alu llinov ^D S. I— ': s « o• - ri u Ma .•- »* O h 43 o CJ• 'S u O 3 d «o• 3 P **-, r N. u 3 O U 43 •I "'-'>. Cl •••lsfor than ersit :nue — •••• ¦ation later Univ yAve• C o o> .ts••• rese onn:Th ivers nnt) Cei••• 'make scoup union 33Un easepime V.v:<L>T3 55r° 43 ,3 f- "S ^5 ^ -P QAlumni Director AppointedArthur R. Nayer, a former United StatesInformation Agency foreign service ofKcer,has been appointed Director of Alumni Affairs,Mr. Nayer's appointment fills the vacancy leftwhen C. Ranlet Lincoln, the former alumnidirector, was named Dean of the UniversityExtension.Mr. Nayer served ten years overseas, withthe usia in Argentina, Uruguay, East ,Pakistan, and Ecuador. His last assignmentin Washington was as deputy director ofprogram analysis in the Agency's Office ofPolicy and Research, which conducts programévaluation studies of the inf ormational andcultural activities at usia's twohundréd '•foreign posts. He -also has served as publicrelations director for the Airport OperatorsCouncil International in Washington.Eddie N. Williams, Assistant Vice Présidentfor Development and Public Affairs, inannouncing the appointment, said: "We arefortunate to hâve Mr. frayer as Director ofAlumni Affairs. His outstanding training andexpérience in public affairs ani programplanning will be a valuable asset in our alumniprogram."Mr. Nayer reecived his ab in 195 1 and hisam in 1956, both from New York University.He was associated with the Columbia Broad-càsting System in New York City from 1953to 1957. He is a member of, among others,the East Pakistan Press Club, the GuayaquilPress Club, and the Foreign Service Association. An amateur flutist, he once played firstflûte wit,h the Guayaquil Symphony. He andhis wife, Rose, and their two boys, Richard, 10,and David, 8, are living near the campusat 930 E. 55,th Street. Club Events/ -- .Alumni iri a number of cities orgàjiizëd partiesduring the Christmâs holidayS for high schpolstudents interested in The University ofChicago. Students presently enrolled in thecollège and members of the faculty attendedalso. Cities holding parties were Philadelphiâ, 'Boston, Los Angeles, New York, Pittsburgh, IAtlanta, Denver, and Washington, D.C.New York: Dr. Roderick Childers, AssistantProfessor in the Department of Medicine, .spoke on "The Rabelaisian Irish" at theWilliams Club, February 26. Dr. Childers^f rieiid and physician to Brendan Behan andhimself a raconteur of rare talent, spoke ofsome of his adventures with the volatile Behan.A dozen young alumni distributed copies ofthe Irish revolutionary song "Kevin Barry" ,(a favorite of Beharfs) and an outline of thedemands bf the students who had been démon 4stratirig on campus earlier in the rrionth.A shouting match developed between some ofthe older and younger alumni, endihg whenthe younger alumni, walked out of the meeting.Suggestions were made later that a subséquentmeeting be arranged in a format permittingyounger alumni to air their views.Phoenix: On February 27, Anthony T. G.Pallett, Director of Admissions and Aid of theCollège, and John Pazour, Assistant to theDirector, spoke with alumni and Phoenix areahigh school counselors concerning the Collègeand admissions. The occasion of their visit ,was a cocktail party held in the home ofMrs. John,Kruglick, Chairman of the PhoenixSchools Committee.San Diego: On January 29, Morton A. Kaplan,Professor of Political Science and Chairmanof the Committee on International Relations,spoke to San Diego alumni on "The NuclearNon-Proliferation Treaty." His talk wasfollowed by a réception. Chairman for theevent was C. Harléy Booth.San Francisco: Morton A. Kaplan, Professorof Political Science and Chairman of theCommittee on International Relations, spokeon "The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty"Class Notesat the Mark Hopkins on January 30. Aninformai réception rounded out the evening.South Bend & Elkhart, Indiana: Airs. EdwardRosenheim, Professor in the School of SocialService Administration, offered some "NewPerspectives on Naughty Children" at a dinnermeeting at Elkhart on Decembèr 16. TheLeague of Women Voters of Elkhart joinedalumni for the occasion. Mrs. Charles Boyntonserved as chairman.Washington: Two alumni, David S. Broder,national political Correspondent for TheWashington Post, and Rav Scherer, NBCWhite House Correspondent, spoke as"Eyewitnesses to History" at the NaturalHistory Muséum on January 9. Mrs. KajStrand served as chairman.Denver: William H. McNeill, Professor ofHistory and author of The Rise of the West,spoke to Denver area alumni on January 16.His talk on "Cities, Sin, and Socialism"followed a dinner and réception at theBoulevard Holiday Inn. Leslie Gross servedas chairman for the meeting.Puget Sound Area: Joseph A. Sittler, Professor of Theology at the Divinity School,joined Puget Sound area alumni for lunch onJanuary 28. He spoke on "Tissue Transplantation: An Ethical Reflection." Richard C.Reed served as chairman.vChicago: On March 7, Chicago area alumnienjoyed an Indian dinner at the QuadrangleClub, then heard a concert at Mandel Hall byAli Akbar Khan, recognized as one of theWorld's greatest sarodists. T ^ Léon Unger SB'13, MD'15. Dr. UngerJ was one of four doctors recentlycited by the National Médical Center inits eleventh annual "Salute to MédicalResearch." A specialist in allergies, Dr. Ungeiis an associate professor at the NorthwesternUniversity School of Medicine and seniorattending physician at Chicago WesleyMémorial Hospital.In Memoriam: Cliff ord P. McCullogh, SB'13;Millard S. Markle, SM'13.TX Arthur A. Baer, p!vbt8. The KiwanisClub of Southwest Chicago hashonored Mr. Baer as Outstanding Citizen ofthe Year for his work in behalf of theBeverly Art Center as well as for other civicendeavors and his contributions to banking.Mr. Baer is chairman of the Beverly Bank,Greenwood Bank, Alsip Bank, and Gary-Wheaton Bank.J. Arnold Bargen, sb'i8, md'2i. Dr. Bargen,who résides in Temple, Tex., is the author ofChronic Ulcerative Colitis- A Lifelong Study,recently published by the Charles C.Thomas Co., Springfield, 111.A. J. Brumbaugh, am'i8, phD'29. Mr.Brumbaugh writes from Atlanta, Georgia,that he is still active professionally in thefield of éducation. Although he retiredin July from his post as a staff member ofthe Southern Régional Education Board inAtlanta, he is still working as a consultanton spécial assignments for sreb and as aconsultant to collèges, universities, and boardsof higher éducation, mostly in the South.An honorary lld degree was conferredupon him last spring by Temple University.In Memoriam: Bertha Corman, phB'18;Olive Molander Hanson, ab'i8; Hugh GrantHarp, sb'i8; Susan Herïlenway, sb'i8; JohnLau, p1vb'i8; Florence Nesmith, p1vb'i8;Orville B. Rogers, pIib'i8; Chester K. Went-worth, sb'i8.^T Ruth Harris, phB'21, Miss Harris hasretired as an assistant superintendentof schools in St. Louis, Mo., after 44 years,with the educational system there. She isnow on the faculty of St. Louis University. In Memoriam: Arthur C. Bevan, phD'21;Pearl E. Brown, am'zi; Daniel Hannon, phB'21;Rollin D. Hemens, phB'21; Alicia C. Keeler,phB'21; Lrving C. Reynolds, phB'21; GeorgeE. Sheffer, am'h; Robert Joseph West, x'21.^*} Harold Korey, phB'22, AM'42, phD'57.Mr. Korey is principal of the MollieGoodman High School, operated by theZionist Organization of America in KfarSilver, Israël. He formerly was a districtsuperintendent of schools in Chicago.Ola Elizabeth Winslow, phD'22. MissWinslow's latest biography of a seventeenthcentury American figure is John Eiiot:"Apostle to the Indians" (Houghton MifflinCo.). For many years a professor of Englishat Goucher and Wellesley collèges, MissWinslow now lives in Sheepscot, Me., andspends her winters in Boston. Her studyof Jonathan Edwards won a Pulitzer Prizefor biography.In Memoriam: Lora M. Adams, phB'22;Mollie Hirsch Appelman, phB'22; W. H. Bail,SB'22; Helen Brown Burton, SB'22; VardisFisher, AM'22; Alger D. Goldfarb, phB'22;Roy L. Grogan, SM'22; Stena Hansen, PhB'22;Horace C. Levinson, phD'22; Sophy D. Parker,AM'22; Emily J. Raymond, phB'22; James S.Shipman, s.M'22; Lucy Simmoms, AM'22; AliceBloedell Simpelaar, phB'22; Robert H.Smuckler, MD'22.<J ^ Harold J. Noyés, phB'23, MD'33.J Dr. Noyés has been given a Distin-guished Alumnus Award by the Universityof Illinois Dental Alumni Association.Dr. Noyés is the retired dean of theUniversity of Oregon Dental School. Alumnichoose the récipient on the basis of his contribution to dentistry. Dr. Noyés is the ninthalumnus to be so honored. He lives inSanta Fe, N.M.In Memoriam: Richard S. Anderson, JD'23;Harold W. Barber, phB'23; Arthur E.Boroughf, JD'23; William F. Bvron, x'23;Ralph B. Draughon, x'23; Miriam Lvles(Mrs. Robert W.) Dunn, phB'23; WilliamI. Fishbein, MD'23; Dlemens Hedeen, phB'23;Lisette F. Henderson, LLB'23.59f\ A Léonard M. Blumenthal, sM'24.1* Mr. Blumenthal has been appointedthe first Luther Marion Defoe distinguishedprofessor of Mathematics at the Universityof Missouri at Columbia. He has been onthe faculty there since 1936. Mr. Blumenthal is the author of five books and sixtyseven scientific papers; his specialty isdistance geometry. He has held three Fùl-bright professorships and has won manyother honors.*yf\ Robert A. Carr, phB'26. Mr. Carr hasretired as chairman and chief executiveofficer of Dearborn Chemical Division, W.R.Grâce and Co. He joined Dearborn in 1934as manager of its Buenos Aires, Argenfina,branch. Among the many civic organizationsin which Mr. Carr is active is the CitizensBoard of The University of Chicago.Gordon E. Smith, phB'26. Mr. Smith hasjoined thé faculty of the Center for Jour-nalism at Bail State University. Mr. Smithretired recently as advertising directorof the Buffalo Evening News. He had heldthe post for ten years and had been associatedwith the newspaper for twenty-five years.Before that he headed the anti-rackets committee of the Chicago Better Business Bureau.He has been active in many civic organizations in Buffalo.In Memoriam: Theresa T. Cohen, phB'26;Wezette A. Hayden, phB'26; Ruth BoyceHersey, AM'26; Dean W. Hodges, SB'26;Harriet E. Ratliff, phB'2<5; Albert M. Wolf,SB'26.<y >H Marjorie Cooper, '27. Miss Cooper/ recently retired after forty years'service with the Camp Fire Girls, Inc. Herlast position was as national director of fundraising in New York. She also served inexecutive capacities in Kansas City, Cleveland,and Chicago.John D. Finley, SB'27. Mr. Finley has beennamed director of pricing for Penn CentralRailroad, Philadelphia, Pa. He was formerlygênerai manager for freight rates.John R. Russell, phB'27. Mr. Russell writesthat he has been appointed librarian at the American Collège of Switzerland in Leysin.He is spending the year there on leave fromthe University of Rochester, (N.Y.) , wherehe has been Director of Libraries since 1940.He plans to retire in July.In Memoriam: Helen L. Aliène, AM'27;James Black, phD'27; George H. Dillon, phB'27;Gordon Ebert, SB'27; Rufus G, Poole, ixB'27;Sidney Rosenberg, SB'27; James W. Smith,AM'27; Charlotte E. Starrs, phB'27; Ingram C.Taylor, SB'27.<^W Paul C. Hodge, jD'28. Mr. Hodge hasretired as vice président, gêneraicounsel, and secretary of the Fédéral ReserveBank of Chicago. He joined the bank's légalstaff in 1934.Rufus Oldenburger, SB'28, SM'30, phD'34.The American Society of MechanicalEngineers has established the Rufus Oldenburger Award, which consists of a medaland certificate to be given annually in per-petuity for outstanding service in the fieldof automatic control. Mr. Oldenburger wasthe first récipient. He also received a certificate from the society for being the "MostHonored Member of the Automatic ControlDivision," in récognition of his contributionsto the field of automatic control and forservice to the society as a "scholar, enginèerjinventor, educator, and author." Mr. Oldenburger is professor and director of theAutomatic Control Center, School ofMechanical Engineering, Purdue University.Betty Schoenberg, phB'28. The Ail-PhaseColor Corp. has named Miss Schoenberg itscolor coordinator. She is a nationally knowncolor consultant.In Memoriam: Ralph B. Coe, SB'28; EdwardN. McAIlister, SM'28; Kenneth A. Rouse, '28;Mary -A. Stanton, phB'28; Isabel K. Wallace,phD'28.Of) William C. Crow, AM'29. Mr. Crowy is director of the Transportationand Facilities Research Division of theAgricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. He has served as assistant to the administrator of the AgriculturalMarketing Service and also helped draft the Agricultural Marketing Aet of" 1946, thecharter for the major part of the Depart-ment's marketing programs.Walter J. Wahnsiedler, AM'29. Mr. Wahn-siedler has established a student loan fund atIndiana State University, Ëvansville, withan initial contribution of $20,000. Juniorsand Seniors in good académie standing' willbe eligible for the loans. Mr. Wahnsiedleris a retired head of the Social Studies Department at Central High School, Ëvansville.In Memoriam: Auval H. Brown, SM'29;Charles F. Cutter, phB'29; Mabel McConkeyDechent, phB'29; Harry E. Ingwersen, phB'29;Adrian J. Lkaasen, phB'29; Grâce Lindley,phB'29; Helen B. Main, LhB'29; Léon C. Marshall, SB'29; Margaret Pratt Palmer, SM'29;Marshall A. Pipin, JD'29; Myra Adams Whit-worth, x'29.^/"v Eugénie Beck Dowling, '30. Mrs.J Dowling has retired after more thanthirty-one years of teaching, the last twenty-five of which were spent at the LibertyCentral School, Liberty, N.Y. There she wasa member of the English Department, advisedthe staff of the student newspaper, tutoredspeech and public speaking, and directedthe junior class play. Mrs. Dowling has alsobeen very active in community and profes-sionàl organizations. Last year she was askedto serve on the writing committee for theEnglish Régents, State of New York. Shewas a founder of the Sullivan County EnglishTeachers Assn., and has served as régionaldirector for the Southeastern Zone, NewYork State English Council. Mrs. Dowling'sachievements were profiled in an article inthe Sullivan County Press on the occasionof her retirement.Robert W. Feyerharm, x'30. Mr. Feyer-harm will retire at the end of this académieyear from his post as Vice Président forFinance at Simpson Collège, Indianola, la.In honor of his retirement, a $1,000 scholarshipfind has been established, to be awarded to astudent majoring in business administration.Before coming to Simpson, Mr. Feyerharmwas an associate professor of économiesand assistant treasurer at Carleton Collège.60*y A Melvin Frank, phB'34. "Buona Sera,Jt Mrs. Campbell," is a new movie whichhas been written, directed, and producedby Mr. Frank. He has also worked as acomedy writer for Bob Hope and has written,often in collaboration, screenplays for suchfilms as "My Favorite Blond," "Star SpangledRhythm," "Mr. Blandings Builds His DreamHouse," "White Christmas," "L'il Abner,"and "The Facts of Life."J. N. Vonckx, AM'34. Mr. Vonckx hasjoined the English Department of TennesseeTemple Collège.Kirby P. Walker, AM'34. Mr. Walker isretiring at the end of this school year asSuperintendent of Schools in Jackson, Miss.,after more than thirty years in the post.When his retirement was announced, he wascommended by the président of the JacksonBoard of Education for his "immeasurable"contributions to the school system. Activein civic and professional organizations,Mr. Walker has served as président of theSouthern Assn. of Collèges and SecondarySchools, the Merit System Council of theMississippi State Board of Health, and theboards of Trustées of the R. V. PowersFoundation and the Big Eight Association.He was named "School Administrator of theYear" in Mississippi in 1955.In Memoriam: Nelson J. Anderson, phD'34;Robert W. Bain, AM'34; Edgar L. Burtis, '34;John Carrington, x'34; Myrtle E. Huff, phB'34;Howard R. Joseph '34; Cecil J. Metcalf,MD'34; Florence E. Robinson, PhB'34; EstherRuth (Mrs. Arthur) Votava, phB'34; GavinT. Walker, phB'34.*} £ Holger B. Bentsen, phD'35. Mr. Ben-J3 tsen is now Vice Président forDevelopment at Berea (Ky.) Collège. He hasbeen active in the financing area at thecollège since 1966, when he was appointedan assistant to the Président. He has direfctedthe Development and Public Relations Officesince 1967. Mr. Bentsen's past expérienceincludes twenty-seven years on the staff ofGeorge Williams Collège and administrativepositions with the Cleveland YMCA.William C. Norby, AB'35. Mr. Norby has been elected chairman of the board oftrustées at George Williams Collège, DownersGrove, 111. Mr. Norby is senior vice présidentof the Harris Trust & Savings Bank andactive in civic affairs in Chicago andLaGrange, 111.In Memoriam: John W. Devereux, MD'35;Rev. Henry B. Fairman, AB'35; Claire (Mrs.Gerson I.) Gluck, phB'35.^r\ Katherine Dunham, phB'36. The in-Jj ternationally known dancer andchoreographer is now a cultural affairsconsultant at Southern Illinois University.She is working with teenage minority groupchildren in a center she has established inEast St. Louis, 111., where she now makes herhome. The program provides training in thehumanities and the performing arts.Granville W. Larimore, MD'36. Dr. Lari-more is now state director of the FloridaRégional Médical Program, based in Tampa.He formerly was first deputy commissioner ofthe New York State Department of Health,with which he had been associated for twenty-one years. Dr. Larimore was noted for hiswork in the field of health éducation in thepublic school system and conducted a nationalstudy which resulted in upgrading of suchprograms in New York and other states.Barriss Mills, AM'36. Epigrams fromMartial, a reexamination of the works of theRoman poet of the First Century A.D., byMr. Mills, has been published by PurdueUniversity Studies. Mr. Mills teaches poetry,créative writing, and the classics in translation at Purdue, along with courses inAmerican literature and Shakespeare. He washead of the Purdue English Departmentfrom 1950 to 1962 and was previously headof the English Department at the Universityof Denver.*y *1 Hugo A. Anderson, jr. AB'37. Mr. An-J I derson has been appointed a memberof the faculty at the School of Business,Colorado State University. He had been avice président of the Rocky Mountain Bankand Trust Co. and président of four oil andgas or manufacturing companies during his business career. Mr. Anderson holds a master'sdegree from Colorado State.E. Grosvenor Plowman, ph.D'37. Mr. Plow-man, a leader in transportation researchfor both government and business, servedduring the winter quarter as James R. RileyProfessor of Transportation and BusinessLogistics at Ohio State University. He isprésident of the Transportation ResearchFoundation, Washington, D.C., and lectureson transportation at the University of Maine.He has served as a consultant in businesslogistics and has taught at a number ofother universities. He lives in Portland, Me.James R. Ware, AB'37. Mr. Ware has beennamed a senior vice président in the TrustDepartment of the Northwestern Trust Co.,Chicago. He joined the bank in 1954.*y Ç\ Paul J. Folino, AM'39. Rev. FolinoJ/ was recently installed as pastor ofthe Gomer United Church of Christ inGomer, Ohio. For the past four years he hasbeen minister and executive officer of theEastern Ohio Association of the UnitedChurch of Christ.Thomas S. Green, AM'39. Mr. Green hasbeen elected to the newly created post ofvice président, Personnel and Organizationat the Norton Co., Troy, N.Y. He hadbeen director of the firm's internationalsubsidiary, Norton S.P.A., in Milan, Italy.In the new position, he will be responsiblefor guiding corporate management and ailNorton divisions and subsidiaries on personnelmatters.Dr. Keith McKean, AM'39. Prof. McKeanis the new head of the Department of EnglishLanguage and Literature at the University ofNorthern Iowa in Cedar Falls. He previouslyhad been Professor of English at ElmiraCollège for seven years.Charlotte Seyffer, SM'39. Miss Seyffer isprofessor of Nursing and Head of theResearch program in the Department ofNursing, Pennsylvania State University. Shehad spent eight years as a senior nurseeducator for the World Health Organization.In Memoriam: J. Edward Goggin, '39;M. Alex Krembs, MD'39.61A ^ John P. Gallagher, MBA'47. Mr.l" / Gallagher has been elected président,chief operating officer, and a director of theChemetron Corp., leading producers ofindustrial and médical gases and relatedproducts, chemicals, métal products, andprocess equipment. Mr. Gallagher is a memberof the Council on the Graduate School ofBusiness of The University of Chicago. Hehad been a director and a member of themanaging committee of MeKinSey & Co., Inc.,international management consulting firm.Joseph H. Gqeke, '47. Mr. Goeke is viceprésident of the Opinion Research Corp. andis responsible for both client liaison andresearch direction. Hé has undertaken researchin the areas of management development,public relations, politics, and labor. An articleby him, "Association Publications:, À NewEra of Communication," recently was published in Association Management, a monthlymagazine.William Horbaly, AM'47, phD'51. Mr.Horbaly has been named agricultural attachéon the staff of the U.S. Embassy in Beirut,, Lebanon. He has been an agricultural econo-mist with the Department of Agriculture since1951. He served with the U.S. Embassy inMoscow for five years during this period, andlast year attended a senior seminar in foreignpolicy presènted by the State Department'sForeign Service Institute.Thomas D. Jarrett, ph.D'47. Mr- Jarrett hasbeen named Président of Atlanta University1.He has been associated with that institutionfor more than twerity years, starting on thefaculty as an assistant professor of English.He also has served as chairman of theDepartment of English, as Acting Dean ofthe School of Arts and Sciences, as chairmanof the intérim administrative committee, andas acting président. Mr. Jarrett has publishedarticles in numerous scholarly journals andhas lectured throughout the United States andEurope.Joseph Skom, phB'47, SB'51, MD'52. Dr. Skomrecently was reappointed chairman of theIllinois State Médical Society's committeeon narcotics and hazàrdous substances. Thecommittee conducts studies on the use and effects of narcotics, and disséminâtes information on the subject to both the public andmembers of the médical profession.William W. Tongue, phD'47. Mr- Tonguehas been named eonsulting economist to theTrust Investment Division of the La SalleNational Bank, Chicago. He is head of theéconomie and finance areas at the Collège ofBusiness Administration, University of Illinois,Chicago Circle Campus.Gordon Tullock, JD'47. Mr. Tullock hasjoined the faculty of the Virginia PolytéchrucInstitute, Blacksburg, Va., as professor oféconomies. He previously had been a memberof the faculty of Rice University.Grant W. Urry, '47, pb.D'53. Prof, Urry has,been appointed chairman of the Department 'of Chemistry at Tufts University, Medford,Mass. He has taught ât several other insti-\ 1tutions, including The University of Chicago.David W. Weiser, SM'47, phD'56. Mr. Weiserhas received the Distinguished Alumni ServiceAward of Drury Collège, Springfield; Mo.He is associate professor of Chemistry andDirector of the centers for ContinuingEducation and Curriculum Development atthe State University of New York, StonyBrook, L.I. ,thomas j. whitby, '47, AM'52. Mr. Whitbyhas been appointed associate professor in theGraduate School of Librarianship at theUniversity bf Denver.In Memoriam: Julius B. Kahn, SB'47,Oct. 18, 1968; Don Klein, MBA'47; Donald N.Noughan, AM'47, Nov. 16, 1968. */(X Ruth R. Benerito, phD'48. TheT" American Chemical Society's SouthernChemist Award has been presènted to MissBenerito, who is with the U.S. Departmentof Agriculture in New Orléans. She washonored for her research on the use of fattyliquids in intravenous feedihg, her contributions to the development and improvementof permanent press fàbrics, and her abilitiesas a teacher. She is author or co-author of 100scientific articles and patents,Riva L. Berkovitz, phB'48. Mrs. Berkovitzhas been appointed a teacher aide in theBelmont, Mass., elementary schools. George C. Rogers, Jr., a:m'48, phD'53.Mr. Rogers is associate editor of The Papers.of Henry Laurens, a thirteen-volume séries ofthe papers of the Wealthy South Carolinacolonial merchant and planter, RevolutipriàryWar patriot, and président of ; the ContinentalCongress. The first volume of the sériesappeared recently. Mr.' Rogers is Professor ofHistory at the University of South Carolina,and editor ôf the South Carolina HistoricalMagazine. tBéryl SprinKel, MBA'48, ptiD'52. Mr. Sprinkelhas been appointed to the School of Businessand Public Administration Advisory Councilat the University of Missouri. Mr. Sprinkelis vice président and director of research forthe Harris Trust and Savings Bank, Chicago.He has taught at The University of Chicago"and the University of Missouri.Ralph H. Turner, phD'48. Prof. Turner,who teaches Sociology at ucla, has beenelected président of the American SociologicalSociety. He succeeds Prof . Philip Hauser ofThe University of Chicago. ¦ 1In Memoriam: Arthur P. Kruse, phr>'48;Francis M. Martin, AM'48; Vincent M. Thrqop,'phD'48.\A Ç\ MONROE AcKERMAN, AB'49, JD'52.1/ Mr. Ackerman has retired as town-ship attorney in Hillside, N.J., where he alsohas served as mayor and police and firecommissioner. He is continuing his légalpractice as a specialist in matrimonial law withthe firm of Ridd, Ackerman and Brëitkopfof Elizabeth and Newark, N.).Michael E. Blaw, '49, MD'54. Theappointment of Dr. Blaw as Professor ofNeurology an4 Pediatrics at the Universityof Texas SouthwesternrMedical School hasbeen announced. Dr. Blaw is a nationallyknown leader in treatment of brain disordersof children. For the past eight years he hasbeen director of pédiatrie neurology trainîngand on th.e pediatrics and neurology facultyof the University of Minnesota School ofMedicine. He currently has a training grantin pédiatrie neurology from the NationalInstitute of Neurological Diseases andBlindness of the U.S. Public Health Service.62£/"\ Jack R. Baker, AB'50. Mr. Baker hasJ been named director of ManagementInformation Systems for the Premium ServiceCorp. of Minneapolis. He is in charge of aildata processing and associate Systems.James D. Barber, '50, AM'55. The promotion of Mr. Barber to the rank offull professor at Yale University has beenannounced. Prof. Barber, a political scientist,is an authority on législative process andexecutive leadership. He is spending this yearas a fellow of the Center for Advanced Studyin the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, Calif.Besides teaching, he has served as the firstdirector of the Yale Office for AdvancedPolitical Studies, and in other administrativeposts.Stanley A. Golden, phB'50, SB'50. Mr.Golden has joined the staff of the AerojectGeneral Corp., Azusa, Cal., as an associatescientist. He is a specialist in rocket radiationphenomena. In his new position, he heads thePlume Radiation Phenomenology Project inthe laser application laboratory.Charles M. Harper, MBA'50. The board ofdirectors of the Pillsbury Co., Minneapolis,Minn., has elected Mr. Harper vice président,research and engineering. Mr. Harper is amember of the American Management Association and the Industrial Research Institute.He has served as a village councilman inExcelsior, Minn., where he résides.Joseph B. Jérôme, phD'50. Mr. Jérômerecently collaborated in the writing of anarticle on the United States Adopted NamesCouncil in the Journal of the AmericanAssociation. The Council is an ama Committee on drug nomenclature. Mr. Jérôme isassistant director of the ama's department ofdrugs and secretary of the council. He isa member of many scientific organizationsand serves on the World Health Organ-ization's advisory panel on internai Pharma-copeia and pharmaceutical préparations.Eugène T. Sweeney, AM'50, pIid'ôi. Mr.Sweeney has been appointed Dean of StudentRelations at the University of Hartford. Inthe newly-created position, he will be incharge of student affairs and will reviewcurrent student programs in relation to future needs. Mr. Sweeney is an associate professorof History at Hartford and has served aschairman of the History Department.Maurice K. Townsend, AM'50, phD'54.Mr. Townsend has been appointed VicePrésident of Académie Affairs at Indiana StateUniversity, Terre Haute. He formerly wasDean of the Collège at Stanislaus State Collège,Turlock, Calif.Gregory B. Votaw, AM'50. Mr. Votawrecently was promoted to Deputy Director,South Asia Department, of the World Bank.His promotion was announced by Robert S.McNamara, président of the bank.William Wright, Jr., SM'50. Mr. Wrighthas joined the research staff in the PhysicsDepartment of the rand Corporation, SantaMonica, Cal.^T Bernard Brumner, phD'51. Dr. Brum-ej ner is on leave of absence from hisposition at De Paul University, Chicago,in order to write the screenplay for themotion picture version of his first novel,The Face of Night. His second novel,Uranium/, has just been published byFrederick Fell, Inc.John A. Jane, '51, MD'56, phD'67. Dr. Janerecently accepted the position of professor andchairman of the Department of Neurosurgeryat the University of Virginia. He had beenassociate professor of Neurosurgery at Case-Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleve-land.James K. Kindahl, '51, MBA'53, pfiD'58.Mr. Kindahl has been named a full professorand head of the Department of Economiesat the University of Massachusetts. Beforejoining the staff at Massachusetts, he wasa visiting associate professor at The Universityof Chicago in 1966-67.Joseph A. Orlicky, MBA'51. The SuccessfulComputer System: Its Planning, Developmentand Management in a Business Enterprise,by Mr. Orlicky, was scheduled for publicationby McGraw-Hill Book Co. last fall. Mr.Orlicky is industry consultant for the IBMCorp. in White Plains, N.Y. An excerpt fromhis book was published in the September issueof Ccrmputers and Automation. Peter G. Peterson, MBA'51. Mr. Peterson,chairman of the board of Bell & Howell,is author of a récent article titled "Speakingfor the 1960's and the Décade Ahead" in SalesManagement magazine. Mr. Peterson is aTrustée of The University of Chicago anda director of the First National Bank ofChicago.Charles Russ, Jr., JD'51. Mr. Russ has beennamed field personnel director for Mont-gomery Ward. He formerly was personnelmanager of Ward's Détroit metropolitandistrict. Mr. Russ is a director of The University of Chicago Law School Alumni Assn.Morton L. Schagrin, AB'51, SB'52, AM'53.The Language of Logic is the title of a newbook by Mr. Schagrin, published by RandomHouse. A programmed text, it deals exten-sively with the problems of interprétation andtranslation between English sentences andformulas of modem symbolic logic. Mr.Schagrin is an associate professor of Historyof Science at Denison University, Granville,Ohio.Alice Robbins Wickens, AM'51, phD'63. Mrs.Wickens is now associate professor of Communications at Bloomsburg State Collège,Bloomsburg, Pa.In Memoriam: Marshall G. S. Hodgson,phD'51; Russell B. Hurlburt II, AM'51.F*0 Norman Bilow, SM'52, phD'56. Mr.,3 Bilow has been elected a fellow of theAmerican Institute of Chemists. His biographywas included in the latest édition of Who'sWho in the West, , Vol. 2. Mr. Bilow is seniorstaff chemist at Hughes Aircraft Co., CulverCity, Calif.Clark Bouton, '52, AM'54, phD'59. Mr. Boutonis now teaching political science at San JoséState Collège in California, after resigningas an assistant professor at the University ofColorado. Mr. Bouton was the center ofa controversy in 1967, when régents disagreedover whether or not he should be grantedtenure. He finally was granted tenure on asplit vote. Mr. Bouton was faculty advisorfor Students for a Démocratie Society, andparticipated in démonstrations against CIArecruiting on the Colorado campus.63f O William R. Jacobsen, DB'59. Rev.J/ Jacobsen is now minister at theUnitarian Church in Bloomington, 111. Hepreviously had been minister at two churchesin Canton, Mass.Ronald À. Krider, SM'59. Major Kriderhas received his third award of the U.S.Air Force Commendation Medal at Tan SonNhut Air Base, Vietnam. He is chief fore-caster for the Southeast Asia Weather Centerthere.James Sipple, ÀM'59. Rev. Sipple is servingas associate chaplàin of the United CampusMinistry at Millersville State Collège, Lan-caster, Pa. He is part of an EcumenicalProtestant Ministry at the campus, togetherwith an Episcopalian priest serving there.Both are supported by an organization oflocal munsters and lay représentatives fromeight Protestant dénominations in the area.r\f\ James M. Hopper, mba'ôo. Mr. Hopperhas been appointed assistant to theDean with responsibilities for the developmentoffice at the Harvard University GraduateSchool of Education. In this position he isseeking unrestricted support for the school'sprograms with particular attention to corpo-rate relations. He formerly was a productmanager with W. R. Grâce and Co.Margaret Rachel McKay, ab'6o. MissMcKay is working toward a doctorate inEnglish Literature at the University ofColorado under a George Fullmer ReynoldsFellowship. The fellowship is designed to aidundergraduate teachers complète their pIid's.^T Robert Byrne, sm'ôi, phD'64. Mr.Byrne was the oceanographer in chargeof a récent study of the anatomy of theocéan wave, undertaken by the Land and SeaInteraction Laboratory at Norfolk, Va., oneof the research laboratories of the CommerceDepartment's Environmental Science ServicesAdministration. The résults of his studywill aid engineers concerned with shoreprotection structures and will provide insightinto the mechanisms by which sand is movedunder varying wave conditions.Léonard H. Kapelovitz, '61. Dr.TCapelovitz writes that he and his family are living inDenver, Colo., where hé is chief résident inPsychiatry at the University of Colorado,Médical Center and an instructor in Psychiatry at the University of Colorado MédicalSchool. In addition to clinical and administrative duties, he also is teaching an électivecourse for médical students and psychiatryrésidents.Vfyj Daniel S. McMahon, sm'62, pho'66.Mr. McMahon has joined the facultyof the California Institute of Technologyas an assistant professor of biology.John W. Montgomery, pho'62~ Mr. Mont-gomery is professor and Chairman of theDivision of Church History at TrinityEvangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, III.,and director of the Seminary's EuropéanProgram at the University of Strasbourg,France. Mr. Montgomery has taught atWittenberg University, The University ofChicago, and Waterloo Lutheran Universityin Canada. He also has served as head librarianat The University of Chicago's Swift Library.f\ ^ David D. Bissell, MD'63. Dr. Bissell hasJ begun private practice in pediatrics inBatavia, N.Y., after completing two years'service in the Air Force in Montana. He hadserved an internship and two years' residencyin pediatrics at Children's Hospital, Détroit,where he was chief résident in pediatrics in1965 and 1966. He and his wife, Edna, hâvetwo children.Pier C. Borra, MBA'63. Mr. Borra has beennamed manager of planning for the CampbellGroup, with headquarters in Détroit. Thefirm is composed of five construction-orientedcompanies that offer industrial and commercialbuilding services. The Group also has officesin New York, Chicago, and Stuttgart,Germany.Robert H. Brewer, phD'63. Mr. Brewerrecently joined the Biology Department atTrinity Collège, Hartford, Conn. For the pastthree years he was a research fellow at theWaite Agricultural Research Institute, University of Adelaide, South Australia, where heworked on the control of citrus pests. Gerry J. Elman, SB'63. Mr- Elman hasjoined the staff of Rohm and Haas Co.,Philadelphia, jnanuf acturer of plastics, çhemi-cals and fibers, as a- patent attorriey. Mr. Elmanalso has a master's degree in chemistry fromStanford and a law degree from Columbia.He is on the editorial bôard of the UnitedStates Trademark Assn.Doris Anita Evans, '63. Dr. Evans writesthat she is now an intern at Children's Hospitalof Philadelphia, a part of the University ofPennsylvania. She graduate d in June from theCase- Western Réserve University Médical ;School and was honored at graduation with a$500 award for excellence in patient care.Paul W. Franke, mba'cîj. Mr. Franke hasbeen named an officer in the trust departmentof the Continental Illinois National Bankand Trust Company of Chicago. ^Paul E. Hess, MBA'63. Mr. Hess is nowassociate administrator of St. Elizabeth Hospital, Lafayette, Ind. He is a fellow of theAmerican Collège of Hospital Administrators.He and his wife, Jane, hâve three children.Guy B. Oakes, AB'63. Mr. Oakes has joinedthe faculty of Monmouth Collège, West- LongBranch, N.J., as an assistant professor ofPhilosophy. Mr. Oakes was awarded his PhDdegree from Cornell University in October.Picture Crédits:Marc Belenchia: 18Laura Gilpin: 3, 7, n, 15Uosis Juodvalkis: 58, inside back cover-Lynn Martin: 29, 30Humberto Fernândez-Morân: cover, 33, 34Sander Wood Engraving Co.: 53design: Lynn MartinFacing Page: Antoine Pévsner's ConstructionSpatiale à la Troisième et à la QuatrièmeDimension and the Law School's reflectingpool.64:* 4&-4gÉi*k«S^f 'J0*fr-^rr^C^ -¦¦.., - m*** ¦£ 1 g» 1Z? <U *» <Ji t. j .*¦K- 1 ~- CO ^j- ¦¦¦» p* ** rsjuasg- fe >oc<onCQ• w H»H- _J UJa. uj h-lu O a: mQ O H su< «/} oQ O sOCC >— T.O I H _Jo o o< e—LU LOOC u. fin? * ?-1 LU O<! s <>~t > <J ao; »-i — < i-™«IUZH Xi/> 3 ih u:;fe• O'¦QiO- ^;oOl~-<gfe12).h