rhe University of Chicagomagazine November/December 1968 ^The Inauguration of Président Edward H. Levi„.'¦"-¦ ¦.*r^ ... m£¦¦>¦/;.> Àm'h', nfThe University of ChicagomagazineVolume LXI Number 3November/December 1968Published since 1907 byTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATION5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312) 643-0800, ext. 4291Fay Horton Sawyier, '44, PhD'64PrésidentConrad KulawasEditorREGIONAL OFFICES39 West 55 StreetNew York, New York 10019(212) 765-54803600 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 1510Los Angeles, California 90005(213) 387-2321485 Pacific AvenueSan Francisco, California 94133(415) 433-40501629 K Street, N.W., Suite 500Washington, D.C. 20006(202) 296-8100Published bimonthly in Jul/Aug,Sep/Oct, Nov/Dec, Jan/Feb,Mar/Apr, and May/Jun.Second-class postagepaid at Chicago, Illinois. Ailrights reserved. Copyright 1968 byThe University of Chicago Magazine. ARTICLES2 The Inauguration of Président Edward H. LeviA week, of cérémonial, civic, and cultural events4 Inaugural AddressEdward H. Levi8 The Woodlawn Child Health CenterWorking with a ghetto community near the University campus10 Great TeachersHelen H. Perlman16 Astronomy at Chicago: A New Look at YerkesNew equipment for the new challenges of man's "last frontier"DEPARTMENTS26 Quadrangle News32 People32 Alumni News36 ArchivesThe University of Chicago Magazine is published bimonthly for alumni, friends, and thefaculty of The University of Chicago. Letters and editorial contributions are welcomed.Front Cover: Président Edward H. Levi at the civic dinner held in his honor on November13. the evening before his inauguration (see Inauguration stery, page 2).Inside Cover: Looking west across campus from the tower of Rockefeller Mémorial Chapel.Photography Crédits: Front cover, inside cover. and pages 5, 16, 19. 20 left. 21-23,28, 31, and 32 by Uosis Juodvalkis; page 8 by Smart Kaminsky; other photographs byThe University of Chicago.The Inauguration ofPrésident Edward H. LeviWith the solemnity of a twelfth-century pageant, TheUniversity of Chicago inaugurated a twentieth-century manas its eighth Président at a spécial convocation in Rocke-feller Chapel on November 14.Edward Hirsch Levi, the first alumnus of the Universityto hold its top executive post, was installed in office byFairfax M. Cône, Chairman of the Board of Trustées, andthen delivered an inaugural address in which he questionedthe structure of graduate éducation.TJL he new Président told the brilliantly-robed members ofhis own faculty and the hundreds of delegates from collèges.universities, and learned societies in this country andabroad:"Much of the éducation at the graduate level — in someareas, not ail — is unnecessary, or even worse is disqualify-ing for professional work, as for example the undergraduateteaching for which it is required."He spoke from the high podium in the neo-gothicRockefeller Chapel under the richly woven hand-madebanners that once hung in the Vatican Pavillion at theNew York World's Fair.While stressing the University's involvement in the com-munity. Président Levi warned of becoming too service-oriented. "Each institution must find its own mission,"he said. "The mission of the University of Chicago isprimarily the intellectual search for truth and the transmission of intellectual values." (See p. 4 for complète textof Président Levi's address.)Following his address, Mr. Levi stood in front of theornate Présidents chair to award nine honorary degrees,his first officiai function in the University's highcst office.Mr. Levi succeeds George W. Beadle, 1958 Nobel Prizewinner and Président since 1961, who retired in his 65thyear. Besides Mr. Beadle, Robert Maynard Hutchins andLawrence Kimpton, two other past Chancellors of the University, participated in the ceremony.Approximately one hundred students stood outside theChapel in protest against the draft and the war in Vietnamas the procession marched from Ida Noyés to the ceremony. The students then adjourned across the street to Woodward Court where they and others held a meetingsponsored by the Hyde Park Anti-Draft Union.A student protest also took place the preceding night.when about forty students picketed outside the ConradHilton Hôtel, where two thousand friends of the Universityattended a civic dinner in Mr. Levi's honor. The dinnerwas addressed by McGeorge Bundy, Président of the FordFoundation; Mr. Kimpton, Vice-Président of Standard Oil(Indiana); George Stigler, the Charles R. Walgreen Dis-tinguished Service Professor in the Graduate School ofBusiness; and Mr. Levi. Several students walkedout duringthe speeches after shouting protests.Inauguration week began Monday, November 11, witha 5:00 P. M. réception for Mr. Levi by Law School alumniat the Mid-America Club in downtown Chicago. It wasan appropriate beginning to the activities since Mr. Leviserved for twelve years as Dean of the Law School, presid-ing over its rise to one of the pre-eminent centers for légalscholarship and éducation in the nation, and had servedon the faculty there since 1936.On Monday evening, a spécial preview was held of anexhibition of contemporary art from Chicago collectors.arranged by Harold Rosenberg, Professor in the Com-mittee on Social Thought. in honor of the President-elect.Rosenberg assembled forty-five major works, ranging fromAlberts and Albright to David Smith and Tanguy in theBergman Gallery in newly-restored Cobb Hall.On Wednesday afternoon, Mr. Levi was guest of honorat a séries of thrce réceptions. The first was held in theBergman Gallery, where. amid the new exhibit, the President-elect and Wayne Booth. Dean of the Collège, metand talked with undergraduate students. From the Gallery,Mr. Levi vvent to the Reynolds Club lounge where a similarréception was held for graduate students and their deans.The third réception attended by Mr. Levi was for studentsin the professional schools and was held in the lounge ofthe Social Service Administration Building.The nine honorary degrees presented by Président Leviduring the inaugural convocation honored individuals whohad distinguished themselves in fields as diverse as Englishliterature, chemistry, law, sociology, and art.Following the Convocation ceremony, the delegates,honorary degree récipients and other guestscrossed campusto Hutchinson Commons where they were addressed at2a luncheon by Mr. Beadle and Mr. Hutchins. Mr. Hutchins,in a brief talk that seemed to complément Mr. Levi's inaugural remarks, said:"The university, I suggest, is the institution that per-forms its highest, its unique service to society by decliningto do what the society thinks it wants, by refusing to beuseful, in the common acceptance of that word, and byinsisting instead that its task is understanding and criticism.It is a center of independent thought."Both men had put forward a thème that was carriedforward again by several persons during an afternoon paneldiscussion in Mandel Hall, during which a major paperby Edward Shils, Professor in the Committee on SocialThought, was examined.Shils wrote on "The Rôle and Future of the PrivateUniversity." Responding to his paper were Nathan Pusey,Président of Harvard University, and Father ThéodoreM. Hesburgh, Président of Notre Dame University. Alsoon the panel were three Chicago students: Michael Mussa.graduate student in économies; R. Bruce McPherson, graduate student in éducation; and Jerry Lipsch, an undergraduate and président of student government. EdwardW. Rosenheim, Professor of English and Collège Humani-ties, moderated in a fashion that recalled The Universityof Chicago Round Table sessions.At\.U floors of Ida Noyés hall were filled with tables andguests for faculty dinner, Thursday evening. After dinner,more than 1,200 guests crossed the street to RockefellerChapel for a spécial performance by the New York ProMusica, given by the Board of Trustées in honor of Mr.and Mrs. Levi.On Friday afternoon, under a cold gray sky. PrésidentLevi joined with Joseph Regenstein, Jr., a Trustée of theUniversity, Robert Streeter, Dean of the Division of theHumanities, and Herman H. Fussler, Director of the University Libraries, to lay the cornerstone of the $20.5 million Joseph Regenstein Library.Speaking under a striped green and white tent, Mr. Levistressed the interdisciplinary nature of the University andsaid that "no event was more symbolically important" to the University than the construction of the Library. Eachof the principal participants then wielded chrome-platedtrowels to christen the copper box with cernent beforemasons finished the job and a cornerstone was loweredover it.In the audience was Mrs. Joseph Regenstein, Sr., whosegift of $10 million from the Joseph and Helen RegensteinFoundation made the construction of the Library possible.Other guests included Mrs. C. Phillip Miller, Mr. andMrs. Albert Pick, Jr., Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Axelson.Mr. and Mrs. William McCormick Blair, Mr. and Mrs.James Brown, IV, Mr. and Mrs. Howard Goodman, Mrs.Meyer Kestnbaum, Mrs. Paul Russell, Frank Sulzberger.Mr. and Mrs. Gaylord Donnelley, and Mr. and Mrs.Albert H. Newman.The copper box contained, among other items, Mrs.Regenstein's letter to then Président George W. Beadleconfirming the gift and Mr. Beadle's reply. After the ceremony, the guests attended a réception in the ReynoldsClub.The National Cabinet of the Alumni Association metat the Center for Continuing Education Friday and Satur-day for a spécial session on "The Relations of Universitiesand Students." Alumni were joined by several studentsand faculty members. The first day of the meeting wasspent in small-group sessions, with about a dozen alumni,two faculty members and three students in each group.John Moscow Student Ombudsman, addressed the luncheon on Friday. At the Cabinet dinner on Friday evening,Eddie N. Williams, Assistant Vice Président for Development and Public Afîairs, spoke briefly, and Saul Bellowread sélections from works in progress.The Cabinet members met again in small groups Satur-day morning to summarize their findings from their previ-ous discussions and appoint a spokesman for the followinggênerai session, when the spokesmen from ail groupsformed a panel. At the concluding luncheon on Saturday.Président Levi addressed the Cabinet.Inauguration week festivities came to a close with aspécial musical program by University faculty membersand students at Mandel Hall on Saturday evening. Theprogram included performances by the University Sym-phony Orchestra, the Motet Choir of the Collegium Musi-cum, and the University Chorus. C3InauguralAddressEdward H. LeviI trust I will bc forgiven a personal vvord. I approachthis unlikely moment with many memories. I corne to italso with understandable concern. I do not misconceivethe importance of this office which has changed throughthe years. Rather the goals, achievement, and tradition ofthis University are disturbingly impressive. Our Universityhas had a standard of extraordinary leadership, difficultto maintain. I am grateful to Chancellor Hutchins, Chan-cellor Kimpton, and Président Beadle for their présencetoday. They will understand my anxiety. It is not that wefear mistakes. Perhaps vve should fear not to make them.Président Hutchins in his address — given forty years ago— spoke of the University's expérimental attitude, itswillingness to try out ideas, to undertake new venturcs,to pioneer. In some cases, he said, the contribution wasto show other universities what not to do. Let me say.with rueful pride, since that time wc hâve made man\similar contributions. I hope wc always will.It is natural for this University to believe it believes inpioneering. After ail, this University came into being as apioneering first modem University, borrowing ideas fromGermany and England, building upon the New EnglandEdward H. Levi, Président of The University of Chicago.made thèse remarks upon lus inauguration at RockefellerMémorial Chapel. November 14. 1968. Mr. Levi's élection asPresident-Designate was reported in the October, 1967, UCM.A profile of Mr. Levi appeared in the November. 1967, issue.To follow up this issue's présentation of Président Levi's inaugural address, more complète coverage of InaugurationWeek is being prepared for the January/ February issue, whenUCM, with a redesigned and expanded format, will beginregular distribution to ail alumni. collège, joining undergraduate instruction and a panoply ofgraduate research in what, some said, surely would be amonstrosity — ail this done with Middle-Western enthusi-asm and a confidence that the best could be obtained hereif only it could be paid for. Much has been written of thefinancial arrangements of those days, the créative use ofmaterial resources generously given. But the basic faithwas not in material resources. The faith was in the intellectual powers of the mind. It was considered important,more important than anything else in the world, to uncoverand understand the cultures of the past, to appreciate theworks of the mind, to penetrate the mysteries of the uni-verse, to know more about the environment, the societies,and the nature of man. The University's seriousness ofpurpose was proven from the first by its insistence uponfreedom of inquiry and discussion. Intellectual tests fortruth made other standards irrelevant. Schools for thepropagation of spécial points of view might exist, Harperwrote, but they could not be called universities. The em-phasis on the need to question and reexamine, both aspart of the inquiry of research and the inquiry of teaching,established a basic unity for ail of the University. The basisof that unity underscored the relationship between teachingand research. That unity encouraged discussion amongdisciplines. It supported the individual scholar as hecrossed accepted boundaries of knowledge. It made possible — even compelled — continuing debate concerning theplace of professional, specialized, gênerai, and libéral éducation within the University. It made the University self-cri tical."On an occasion such as this," as Mr. Kimpton statcdon a similar occasion, "the important rôles are not playedby those who are présent . . . Our efforts arc given importance by the opportunities and responsibilitics . . . weinherit." So I hâve stressed those virtues which from thebeginning and until now hâve characterized our institution:a willingness to experiment, a commitment for the intellectual search for truth, freedom of inquiry, and a concernfor the educational process as though the freedom of mandepended upon it. This is our inheritanec. It is an inheri-tance preserved and strengthened. indeed made possible,by the action and faith of manv who arc présent today.We mect in a time of great difficulty. The society isdivided. The conditions of public discussion hâve changed.4More people can take part and react because they can bereached. Both the numbers involved and the means of communication increase the likelihood — and certainly thepowers — of distortion. The problems are complex; thelimits of knowledge are agonizingly apparent in matters ofpublic policy. Meanwhile the investigations of the socialsciences hâve made clearer the non-rational components ofhuman behavior. The relevance and integrity of reasonare questioned at the same time as impatience emphasizesthe manipulative aspects of concepts and institutions.The outrage of this war continues.The view of the world as it is or could be is conditionedfor many by the protective walls or barriers of higher éducation. Formai éducation at both the collège and graduate level is highly regarded as the gateway to success. Morethan forty-five percent of our young people in the applicable âge group are in collège — an extraordinary changeand, with some qualifications, an extraordinary achieve-ment. But the joyous knowledge that the bank of knowledge is overstuffed, and can be drawn upon only with theassistance of the latest génération of computers, adds tothe impression of a technical industrialized society inwhich individual thought and concern are powerless — inwhich basic décisions appear to hâve been made in othertimes or by other people in other places. The very ideathat centers of éducation are for thoughtful, and thereforePersonal, considération of values, and for increased under-standing, is lost by those who insist that universities aremechanisms of service to be used in a variety of ways forthe interests of the larger community.There are many institutions for service in our society.Centers of learning and instruction hâve considérable dif-ficulty in performing their central tasks; one may questionthe wisdom of assigning to them additional duties. In anyevent, among collèges, schools, and universities there areimportant différences. Our history, capacity, and objectivesare not ail the same. Each institution must find its ownmission.The mission of The University of Chicago is primarilythe intellectual search for truth and the transmission ofintellectual values. The emphasis must be on the achieve-ment of that understanding which can be called discovery.Président Beadle has spoken, as is his spécial right to do,of "the incomparable thrill of original discovery." He hasreferred to the importance of having students participatein the process through which knowledge is reaffirmed andadditions to knowledge are made. This, of course, is theprocess of éducation — whatever the means used, and itapplies to the dialogue as well as to the experiment. Weshould reaffirm the close connection between the creativityof teaching and the creativity of research. And we shouldreaffirm also our commitment to the way of reason, withoutwhich a University becomes a menace and a caricature.It is of course easy to be in favor of reason. But thecommitment is somewhat more demanding and difficult.Président Harper in his decennial report took occasionto emphasize "that the principlc of complète freedom ofspeech on ail subjects has from the beginning been re-garded as fundamental to The University of Chicago." Atthe same time he repeated the policy that "The University,as such, does not appear as a disputant on either sideupon any public question and . . . utterances which anyprofessor may make in public are to be regarded as rep-resenting his opinion only." Académie freedom is strongernow than it was then. But the propricty of the corporateneutrality of the University on public policy issues havingmoral aspects has been seriously challenged. The positionquestions the power or persuasiveness of ideas in them-selves, recognizes the superior authority of officiai certification, or places reliance on other forms of power. Per-haps the position reflects the kind of frustration describedby Louis Wirth in 1936. Professor Wirth wrote: "At atime in human history like our own, when ail over theworld people are not merely ill at ease but are question-ing the bases of social existence, the validity of theirtruths, and the tenability of their norms, it should becomeclear that there is no value apart from interest and noobjectivity apart from agreement. Under such circum-stances it is difficult to hold tenaciously to what onebelieves to be the truth in the face of dissent, and one isinclined to question the very possibility of an intellectuallife. Despitc the fact that the Western world has beennourished by a tradition of hard-won intellectual freedomand integrity for over two thousand years, men are beginning to ask whether the struggle to achieve thèse was worththe cost if so many today accept complacently the threatto exterminate what rationality and objectivity hâve beenwon in human affairs. The widespread dépréciation of the value of thought, on the one hand, and its repression, onthe other, are ominous signs of the deepening twilight ofmodem culture."The issue raised is central to what a university shouldbe and what it should stand for. It is of course quite truethat the ideas of individual scholars in universities are notlikely to immediately sway the world, although some hâvehad considérable effect. The tasks which university facultyhâve undertaken, sometimes within, sometimes without theuniversities, should not obscure the fact that universitiesexist for the long run. They are the custodians not onlyof the many cultures of man, but of the rational processitself. Universities are not neutral. They do exist for thepropagation of a spécial point of view; namely, the worth-whileness of the intellectual pursuit of truth — using man'shighest powers, struggling against the irrelevancies whichcorrupt thought, and now standing against the impatienceof those who hâve lost faith in reason. This view does notremove universities from the problems of society. It does |not diminish, indecd it increases, the pressure for the création and exchange of ideas, popular or unpopular, whichremake the world. It does suggest that the greatest contribution of universities will be in that libération of the imind which makes possible what Kenneth Clark has called,the strategy of truth. "For," as he says, "the search for Itruth, while impotent without implementation in action,undergirds every other strategy in behalf of constructivesocial change." One would hope that this libération of themind would resuit from a libéral éducation at Chicago atboth the undergraduate and graduate level.One can well understand the impatience of those whoprefer a différent relcvancc of practical action. In someareas, implementation, leading to a more basic examina-tion of conséquences and meaning, has been made anappropriatc part of training and research. But this may beinsufficient to satisfy those who for the time being at least,and for laudable and understandable rcasons, would prefera différent way of life. Nevertheless they stay within theeducational System, caught by its pretense and rigidity.They fccl they must stay a long time. Not only has thenumber of years required for formai éducation steadilyincreased as collège and graduate work are treated asnecessitics, but the model presses for the total absorptionof the student's interest either in the curriculum or in6ancillary activities. We are set on a course which suggeststhat cvery young person up to the âge of twenty-fivc, everyyoung family really, should hâve an cducational institutionas a surrogate for the world. Quite apart from the factthat institutions of highcr learning should not be surro-gates for the world, the satisfaction with which this devel-opment is greeted should be tempered. This developmentin part is a rcsponse to distortions caused by the SélectiveService System. Much of the éducation at the graduatelevel — in some areas, not ail — is unnecessary, or evenworse is disqualifying for professional work, as for examplethe undergraduate teaching for which it is required. I donot expect agreement on that and I am probably wrong.For some areas I doubt whether the extended time can bejustified as a reflection of the increase in knowledge.Rather, it appears as an unimaginative response on thepart of the educational system to the existence of increasedleisure time within the economy. And if the goal of acollège éducation for everyone is to be met in a way todo the most good, the purposes and ways of that éducation, even the period of time involved, should be re-examined. I realize this has been done before, but perhapsit will not hurt too much to take another look. What I amtrying to suggest is that for those who are interested inpioneering, there is much to think about.The University is a member of many communities. Wecherish the relationship with other universities. We are amember of their world community. We are also an urbanuniversity on the South Side of Chicago. In many waysthrough many activities various members of the Universityfaculties and students are working within the community.We seek to be a good neighbor. Most of us are in factneighbors. The community has much to offer us. The factthat most of our faculty live hère has helped to maintainthe oneness and interdisciplinary character of this institution. It has made it possible to measure the effect of newenterprises and responsibilities upon the institution as awhole. This guideline enforecs self restraint. It is, I think,of benefit both to the community and to the University.New models for pédiatrie care, for counselling and psychiatrie assistance, and new approaches to the major prob-lems of urban éducation should émerge from the en-deavors which hâve been planned and developed with représentatives of the community. Thèse are not the only scholarly-service-training activities in which members ofthe faculty are engaged within the community which hâvesignificance far beyond the problems of one neighborhoodand which over time may well détermine the quality oflife in world urban centers. The work in the complexproblems of communities within the city is an encouragingcontinuation of historic research begun fifty years ago bythe Chicago school of sociology.In 1902 Président Harper referred to the firmly estab-lished policy of the trustées "that to the faculties belongto the fullest extent the care of educational administration.""The responsibility," he said, "for the seulement of educational questions rests with the faculty." On this policythe initial greatness of the University was built. The trustées, whether they agreed or not with particular décisions,hâve been the strongest advocates of this policy. And thefaculty have fulfilled this responsibility, protecting on theone hand the freedom of the individual scholar, and shep-herding at the same time, although not without some pain,some of the most interesting programs for both undergraduate and graduate instruction attempted in this coun-try. I stress the position of the faculty because obviouslythe quality of this University rests upon them and is createdby them. And the burdens upon them have increased because the conditions of éducation have changed. Sir EricAshby in a notable address at the University of Witwater-srand quoted from an essay on "The open Universities ofSouth Africa" as follows: "There is no substitute for theclash of mind between colleague and colleague, betweenteacher and student, between student and student . . . It ishère the half-formed idea may take shape, the groundlessbelief be shattered, the developing theory be tested . . .It is hère the controversy develops, and out of controversy,deeper understanding." Today when there is doubt andskepticism concerning the very tradition of intellectualfreedom and integrity upon which the intellectual pursuitof knowledge is based, it is important that the universitythrough its faculty meet thèse questions head on.This University has indeed been fortunate in the dedi-cation which throughout the years it has evoked. It hasbeen surrounded by a circle of friends, who by their aspirations for the University and their own self sacrifice haveassured its pursuit of quality and its inner integrity.I am proud to be in this place and I shall do my best. G7The WoodlawnChild Health CenterThere are thousands of doctors in Chicago, but veryfew in Woodlawn, the mostly-ghetto community just southof the University campus. In that neighborhood there areabout 80,000 families, with some 35,000 children underthe âge of 18. It is not a healthy place for children. Theinfant mortality rate is 54 per 1,000 births, more thantwice the national figure.The neighborhood is still growing, but most physicianshave left. There are one third fewer now than there werefifteen years ago — fewer doctors for more people. Someof the doctors left because they thought they could makemore money elsewhere, some because their patients hadmoved to the suburbs, some because they were white andfeared Iiving in a black neighborhood.In the summer of 1967 the University opened the Woodlawn Child Health Center, a clinic that makes no chargesfor its services. It is supported by a five-year grant fromthe Children's Bureau of the U.S. Department of Health,Education, and Welfare. The only stipulation attached toreceiving care at the Center is résidence within the community boundaries: from 60th to 67th Streets betweenMartin Luther King, Jr., Drive and Stony Island Ave.The initial request for pédiatrie service came from thepolitically-active TWO (The Woodlawn Organization).The Center functions with the help of an advisory boardof community leaders who are not at ail shy about expressing their opinions. In addition, a vital rôle as collab-orator is played by the Chicago Board of Health.The Center is at 936 East 63rd Street, located in a re-modelled building that once was a butcher shop. A com-fortable réception area now occupies the space formerlyreserved for display counters. In back are thirteen modemexamining rooms, an x-ray unit, and a small but well-equipped laboratory.Dr. John D. Maddcn, Assistant Professor of Pediatricsin The Pritzkcr School of Medicine, is Director of the Center. A youthful-looking father of five, he has deep feelingsabout the nced for préventive médical care."Hcre we arc," he said, referring to the University'smédical facilities, "and until recently a child three blocksaway couldn't get a sore throat treated.""Maybc people thought we'd corne in hère and find ailsorts of bizarre pathology," Dr. Madden commented, "butthe majority of cases have been simple things."A few were not simple. On at least two occasions patients who presented initial complaints of recurring coldswere found to have major congénital heart defects.Another problem is children who suffer from undiag-noscd lead poisoning, the rcsult of eating lead-based paintin old tenements. Such poisoning can cause brain damageand other complications, sometimes leading to death. This,however, Dr. Madden points out, is a problem that mustbe attacked not only from a médical standpoint but mustinclude a community awareness program as well.In addition to nutritional anémias and lack of properimmunizations, other common conditions include pneu-monia and recurring ear infections, which, if untreated,eventually cause deafness.A detailed médical history is recorded on each child,followed by a thorough physical examination. The findingsare discusscd at length with the parent, who is given nec-essary spécial instructions. If drugs are needed, they aredispensed on the premises, also at no charge. Should fur-ther care be necessary, other appointments are made anda case aide keeps track of developments.The organizational setup has remained flexible so theprogram can be altered to meet changing needs. The staffworks in three teams of physician, nurse, social worker,and case aide. The twenty-six staff members, who have be-come a smoothly functioning unit in a remarkable shorttime, include three fulltime physicians, an administrator,a coordinator, three clinic nurses, one public health nurse,three health aides, three community représentatives, threesocial workers, an x-ray technician, two laboratory tech-nicians, two secretaries, a file clerk, a custodian, and adriver for the clinic bus. In addition, four biomédicalcarecr students work part-time."We try to develop an attitude of caring," explains Dr.Madden. "Our désire is to interact with the community.We'rc not interested in any sort of colonialism. We'remaking an effort to participate as community members— to be primarily a service and not an extension of aresearch arm."That's the way it has worked. Because success so oftenis mcasured in terms of statistics, the clinic provides thèseon request. At the end of the Center's first year more than 3,000 patients were registered and over 6,000 patientvisits had been logged. The average case load is forty tofifty children a day and is increasing steadily.In addition to treating acute and chronic conditions inchildren and providing préventive médical care, the clinichas branched out into a few educational programs, mostlyfor mothers, on such subjects as infant feeding, skin infections, how to spend food dollars.Shortly after the Center opened, it became apparent thatyoung mothers, aged 17 to 22, shared certain problems. Ayoung social workers, Mrs. Eve Perlman, organized a clubfor thèse girls. They meet once a week to thrash out theirambivalent feelings about motherhood, exchange information, and generally give each other support. Occasionallythere are speakers, but the sessions usually are conductedon a question-and-answer basis. For many of thèse youngwomen, it is their first opportunity to get factual information from an expert source, and they make the most of it,according to Mrs. Perlman.The mothers' group has been so successful that there nowis demand for two others, for groups of mothers youngerand older than the original group.The clinic's efforts to achieve genuine community participation have gained it wide acceptance by local résidents. The people of Woodlawn were involved from thevery inception of the plan, when a survey was taken in thearea to see if résidents were interested in such a médicalfacility. The site sélection was a joint effort by ail involved.Such community participation was insisted upon by theChairman of the University's Department of Pediatrics andthe project's overall director, Dr. Albert Dorfman, theRichard T. Crâne Professor of Pediatrics and Director ofthe La Rabida/University of Chicago Institute. His broadview of the rôle médical and para-medical personnel atthe Center dovetails with that of Dr. Madden. "It is nolonger possible," Dorfman says, "to distinguish medicinefrom basic biology. The two are so closely interrelated that.for a department of pediatrics to function in any kind ofmodem fashion today, it must constantly be in the fore-front of investigation in the field of biology on the onehand and must be giving to biology the advantages of theknowledge of human beings — their behavior and theirdiseases — that accrue from clinical work." ?4Great TeachersHelen H. Perlman "The probability is," I said to myself, "that great teachers are born, not made. There is a charisma about them,a giftedness that is grounded in some sure sensé of self.There is in them some generativity joined with some gen-erosity of mind that is the resuit of an inner life so abun-dant that it spills over to give its content to others. Thereis some obvious plcasure in them in encounters with newideas and new people. But past thèse glowing descriptions," I thought, "is there any point in talking about goodteaching9 Such gifts of person cannot be learned from exhortations nor for the wishing. One cannot, alas, wakeup in the morning and say, Today I really must be créative!' nor can one adjure a colleague to 'Go develop asensé of humor' or 'Think imaginatively!' "I was mourning the death of Charlotte Towle, one ofThe University of Chicago's great teachers, pondering onhow, if at ail, good teachers can be made, reproduced.How shall a school or university know them when teachers are being recruited9 How shall they be shaped to meetthe needs of students, not just of scholarship? As forteachers themselves, they who would gladly teach so thattheir students would gladly learn, there is the perpétuaiquestion: how can I become a good teacher by the exercise of my conscious intentions and efforts?One remembers the attributes of great teachers as theyhave been recounted by their admiring or loving formerstudents. Of course those accounts that go into publishedessays on teaching are accounts by gifted or at least highlyliterate students. I sometimes wonder how the run-of-the-mill student perceivcd Socrates or Mark Hopkins or thosefabled Oxford dons who regularly tore their students toribbons and thus — so the stories suggest — produced mas-ters of logic and literary for m. One reads descriptions ofgreat teachers and at the moment of vicarious identificationwith them one gets some heady sensé that "I too have someHelen Harris (Mrs. Max S.) Perlman is Professor in theSchool of Social Service Administration of The Universityof Chicago. This article is condensed from a paper présentée!at a meeting of the Council on Social Work and published laslyear in the spring issue of the Journal of Education for SocialService. Charlotte Towle. referred to in the article, was Professor Lmeritus in the School of Social Service Administration:she died on October ! . 1966.10part of this — !" Then the book is closed, the class hourapproaches, there are butterflies in the stomach, yester-day's carefully developed notes look deadly and one thinks"— and gladly teach! But how?"So I turn from admiring the haloed models of greatteachers and ask myself a basic question, this: How doadults learn, anyhow? Most dynamic lcarning theory andmost educational theory stops short of adulthood. Students in graduate school — and thèse are Chicago's greatestnumber — are at least chronologically adult. Even if mostof them are still involved in the identity and rôle confusionsof adolescence or the natural work and love problems ofearly adulthood it is still probable that their learning pat-terns are fairly well set and their capacities for change areneither as flexible nor as plastic as they were before ailthose other teachers made their impress upon them. Buteven for the good learner, learning in graduate school holdssome psychological hazards that he has not before en-countered because he is learning now in a chosen course,in subject matters that he believes are décisive to his future, and he is being scrutinized and evaluated not onlyfor what he is doing at the moment but also for what hescems to be becoming. So the teacher of an adult — or anear-adult — faces the task of teaching someone with ailbut settled learning patterns and in a context of somecrucialness.Several récent perspectives on the dynamics of changebear upon the learning and teaching of adults. Crisis andstress studies show that at points of crucialness people aremost vulnérable to (or accessible to) influence from pow-erful others. "Powerful others" are those persons who areassumed to possess the means by which one's gratifications or goals can be achieved and who, further, proffer(or withhold) the nurture of love and safety and récognition along the way. Research into the core dynamics ofsocialization or learning in children ail point to the basicessential: a relationship that combines potency and affec-tivity, power and love.In graduate schools wc are concerned with learning inadults, it is truc, but it seems probable that hère too,though probably in diminished degree, power and lovewithin a context of crucialness. are the dynamics of bothunconscious changes and changes by conscious effort in our students. Power and love are — or are perceived bythe student to be — vested in the rôle of teacher. (The in-tensity and degree in which these attributes are felt orsought in the teacher will ditîcr, of course, from studentto student. ) One further conceptual perspective that hasbeen put forward by the psychologist Robert White: It isthe concept of an innate drive for compétence. It suggeststhat motivation in the human being consists not only offinding means to relieve tension and to quiet anxiety butthat it includes an insistent urge toward mastery, towardexperiencing the self as effective and compétent.These several ideas — of power, of love, and of compétence-motivation, ail combining at a time of crucialness— hold significance, I have corne to believe, for the teacherof adults, for what he must do and be.What is the nature of the power that students perceive,seek, or sometimes fear in a teacher? The power that isfeared is easy to identify. It is that the teacher has the rightand responsibility to assess the student. In a professionalschool this has heightened meaning because that assess-ment may shape the career goals of the student and affecthis future. So grades and évaluations become touchy thingsdespite the graduate student's having learned to say thathe knows grades don't really matter. But this feared evalu-ative power is not what infuses the student-teacher relationship with its major significance.The power that is held by him who is to be an influen-tial teacher is that of knowledge and know-how. He mustseem to possess knowledge of the subject matter he teaches,possess it in the sensé that he has not simply boned up onit but that he has made it his own. If I may use an inélégant physical analogy, he has incorporated his knowledge by long and careful tasting and smelling and chew-ing of it, by "listening" to the tastes and textures of thisfood for thought before he has swallowed and digested it.He has connected it with what he already knew and be-lieved, by a continuous process of mental shuttling betweenthe spécial subject matter of his knowing and the gêneraisubject matter of his field, and between these and theirrelation to man in his daily life. His knowledge. then. isnot a codified body of relevant tacts and théories whichspills forth on call like a tape from a computer machine.It is, rather, ordered. shaped, selected, lighted up. colored,11infused by the workover it is continuously undergoing inhis own mental and affect processes and in his interprétations of life expérience. That sentence is a mouthful. Itsintent is to express a person-fu\[ of knowledge, not simplywhat we call "a brain." A "knowing" teacher knows hissubject mentally and feelingly. He knows it not "by heart"but "//! the heart." He warms it and warms to it by hisexercise and play with it, by his caring about whether it iswell put together, by tending to its gaps and thin spots,trying to weave it whole. This kind of work to attain andexpand knowledge is akin to loving.In the académie situation the teacher is held to havepower when he "knows his stuff." His power of influencewidens when he can show his students how to know theirs,how to grasp what they reach for. In a professional schoola further considération marks the teacher of influence. It isthat knowledge must be actually demonstrated to havepower — that is, that it must have quick and apparentrelevance and application to the learner's aim, which is toput knowing into action. In the professional school, then,the teacher's power must include not only knowledge butknow-how. The student of social work for example, mustexpérience his teacher as someone who could, on call,interview skillfully by the principles of interviewing he isteaching, who could construct and conduct a researchproject in an area of social conffict, plan some social policyand program, advise or testify before a législative com-mittee on social policy. Nowhere more than in a professional school must there be the évidence that réfutes thedusty canard that says he who can does and he who cannot teaches.Charlotte Towle was a powerful teacher. She was alittle woman; physically she always had to look up to herstudents. She was modest and unassuming in her bearing.Fired by conviction and pushed by strong belief she wouldspeak out strong and clcar and without compromise, butthere were many times when she was uneertain or wearyor tentative or simply self-containcd. Yet I do not believethere was a single person among Charlotte Towle's students or colleagues who did not expérience her as a majorinfluence. Her power lay in her knowledge and her know-how. One could not be with Charlotte Towle for an hourwithout recognizing what wide and deep knowledge shepossessed about the individual personality and the humancondition, about ail the dynamic transactions between manand his social environment. Nor did she just "know" thesethings in a static way. What she knew was constantly atplay in her, lighted up by a continuously lively intelligenceand probing curiosity. It was continuously being added to,not in some monolithic accretion, but in sifted, reshuffled,reorganized, newly-connected ways, by her continuousstudy, wide and varied leisure reading, and her insightfultaking in of every new person and situation she met. Continuously she wove, ravelled and rewove her ideas and observations so that the fabric of her knowledge was elasticand continuously in growth and change.Charlotte Towle also had know-how. One knew thisnot simply because she could explain principles of treat-ment in the classroom or because she had been highly re-garded as a practitioner. One knew it with immediacy andvalidity in personal encounters with her whether as teacher,consultant, colleague. She knew how to draw out and tofeed into a person's own potentials and strengths, how tofree initiative in others, how to empathize and support,how to differ without rancor or threat, how to critieizewithout hedging but also without attacking. She had theknow-how, in short, to deal with another person in waysthat undergirded him at the same time as he was beingstimulated to change.Some of this power of knowledge and know-how ofcourse was inhérent and unique to the person of CharlotteTowle. But much of it was worked at by her, cultivatedover the years by self-disciplined, open-mindedness andresponsibility. It is this combination of self-disciplined,open-mindedness and scholarly responsibility that can beemulated and lcarned, I believe, by him who aspires to bea potent teacher. It does not matter that one may nevermatch one's model. What matters is that the essential at-tributes of the model are understood. Then they serve as aconstant inner touchstonc against which to test and changeone's own opérations as a learner-teacher.To be potent in changing the minds and behaviors ofadults there must combine with knowledge and know-how,12the power of love. In what sensé does a teacher "love" andshow "love"? At the least and fundamentally he must lovehis subject matter. He must care about it — he must feelstrongly that it is important or that it matters, or that ithas value. He must pour himself into it in some "heart-felt"ways. He must enjoy the pleasure of its company, of play-ing with it and examining it from ail perspectives. He mustsee its faults and lamenesses. But, like the parent whopensively views his less-than-perfect child, then forgiveshim for his imperfections and affirms his becoming moreand better than he is, so the teacher who loves his subjectmatter must be able to admit to and déplore its imperfections but at the same time to affirm and défend its présentand potential values.A teacher's loving investment in his subject matter is acontagious thing. Love is always contagious, warming tothe people who corne near to it even though they may notbe its direct récipients. Ail of us remember with warmthsome teacher who affected us in benign ways not becausehe was a brilliant theorist nor a charmer but because hewas so obviously in love with what he taught. And ail ofus remember with distaste the hack who found no furtherdelight nor interest in his subject matter and served it updead cold.A second aspect of loving infuses influential teaching,and that is the love of the learner. The teacher who loveshis student does so in ways appropriate of course to thisparticular rôle relationship. It begins with receptivity tothe person and the intent of the earner. It moves forwardwith the acceptance of his ambivalences (because ail newlearning tasks excite some "no" as well as "yes"), hisdoubts, his knowledge déficits. This acceptance is not total.It must combine with the expectation, held firm and clear,that the learner has the motivation and the capacity tograpple with subject and self. Loving involves affirmationof the person and his potentials. It involves feeding in tohim generously, with attention to his capacity for intakeand with willingness on the part of the loving teacherto invent ways to engage him. But in the teaching rôlethere can be no lowering of expectations and standards,because both teacher and student are, by their implicitcontract, engaged in an unalterable pursuit: the develop- ment of the student as an educated man. When a teacherinvests love both in the subject matter and the learner hisconstant endeavor is to bring them happily together.The influence of Charlotte Towle through thèse severalkinds of loving made its deep impress on those who learnedfrom her. She poured herself unstintingly into her courses.Her class préparation, her considération of how to meetstudent need, how so to sélect, shape and phrase herknowledge that it would be meaningful and retained foruse by the learner — these were her central concerns. Sometimes she was surprised at some particularly happy turnof concept or phrase she invented and she shared with herstudents her frank delight at having found some new connections or new way of imparting knowledge. Her dévotion and commitment to what she taught was open and apleasure to see.She loved learners as she loved learning. She gave continuously of her time, energy, and thinking to helpingothers work on their learning tasks. Her comments onstudent papers were running dialogues with them, praisingor taking issue as the case might be, never simply markingright or wrong, good or poor, yes or no, but spelling outthe issue that was overlooked, supplementing the under-developed idea, pointing the alternatives. Actually, shetook delight in ail growing things and their nurture, andher students were among them.Can loving be imitated and learned? Can a person whoundertakes to teach set his jaw and détermine that he isgoing to love his subject matter and his students and thengo do so? Certainly in only limited degree. Certainly thereare days for every one of us when the appearance of an-other book on our spécial subject-matter makes us recoilin self-defense, protesting that we want to know not onemore thing about penguins or people or poetry. There aredays when every one of us thinks that a university wouldbe a marvelous place to work in if only there were nostudents in it. But those are few and far-between times, orif they are not they are the surest signal to the teacher tofind his niche elsewhere. Perhaps this négative criterionis the most that one can say about the loving aspects ofteaching. One cannot command loving either of knowledgeor learners. One can only say quite surely that if there is13not a fairly continuous sensé that what one teaches is vitaland important and even beautiful in some ways, and if,from this, there is not some wish and urge to share thepleasure of this matter with others and to bring others towant it — if these feelings do not exist in the teacher hewill have very little influence upon his students. Perhapsin the hiring of prospective teachers deans should ask notjust "what do you know?" but "how do you feel aboutwhat you know? And about putting yourself out to bringothers, the sometimes reluctant or skeptical or ambivalentstudents, to want to involve themselves in learning?"The teacher's powers of knowledge and its uses and hisdemonstrated investment both in the learner and theirjoined field of cndeavor are, then, two major forces inmotivating the young adult to become a learner. The thirdforce drives within the student himself. But it needs theteacher's récognition, support, and stimulation to find itsfullest and most appropriate expression. I speak now ofthe drive for effectance, the motivation inhérent in eachof us to strive for mastery, self-actualization, compétence.The concept of the innate drive for compétence is par-ticularly uscful, it seems to me, in the educational situation. It cannot be explicated hère but, in essence, it affirmsthat young adult students, selccted because they haveproved their capacity to learn, carry within them strongthrusts to explore their world beyond what they have donethus far, to learn more and better, and for an avowedpurpose, to use their minds and complète selves either forthe pleasure it gives them now or for the promise of plea-surable compétence ahead, or both.How fully and pleasurably a student expériences theexercise of his powers of thought and action dépendsheavily upon his teachers. The opportunity he is affordedto take risks; the support he gcts for using his initiative;the respectful considération he gets for his ideas, far outthough they may be, not in uncritical acceptance of thembut in acceptance of his intentions while his notions arcsubjected to the light of greater knowledge or cooler reason; the expectation that he is capable and compétent asa learner until he proves otherwise, the freedom he is givento try himself provided that is within the boundaries ofhis rôle and purpose — ail these opportunities may be opened to the student by the teacher.Charlotte Towle knew this intuitively. Yet, in her usualdisciplined way, she lifted her bone-and-marrow knowledge to her conscious considération. When ego psycholo-gists were only beginning to put forward their propositionsabout the powers of the ego and its conflict-free functions,Charlotte Towle had already written "There is évidencein human behavior that, in contrast to the tendency toward résistance to change and régression to the past,there is also a strong and inévitable impulse toward progression ... the human personality in the process of ma-turing begins to rcach out beyond itself." Until some learning or self-management problem showed itself she tookher students to be motivated and able to work and reachbeyond themselves. Before the perception and affect-changing powers of cognition were given full récognitionby most psychologists or educators Charlotte Towle hadobserved ". . . in an educational situation the means to theend of effecting change in feeling is through the intellect.""New ideas, new intellectual orientation may bring achange in feeling, thinking, and action in the context of aninfluential rclationship." She did not for a moment, yousee, forget the dynamic matrix of the warming, supportingrelationship that provides the leamer's safety island. Herbelief in the "impulse toward progression" combined withher love for the learner. Never was the learner her créature; rather he was scen as a well-motivated source ofpotential self-realization. This is probably the truest markof the great teacher: that he gives generously of his knowledge and notions and attention to the student and then,having offered such nurture, he does no violence to theindependence of the learner; he leaves him frec to be himself. Partly it is caring for the individuality of the "other"that cnables a teacher to Icave his student free; partly it isbelief in the learner's own drive for compétence. CharlotteTowle combined this caring and belief.I return now to the question I poscd at the outset: isthere any point to studying the model of a great teacher?Is there any purpose in examining those forces and attri-butes that account for the quickening and illumination ofcommunication between teacher and learner? After ail,teachers. likc students, must cssentially be and act them-14selves. And teachers, usually older by some years than students, tend to be long-patterned in their ways of operating.But, I argue, it is also true that teachers, like students,are moved and shaped by powerful and loving relation-ships and by their own compétence motivation.The powerful "other" that moves the teacher is usuallyin the nature of a professional ego idéal. That ego idéalmay be incorporated in the living person of another, acolleague, for instance, who demonstrates and stands forwhat I would like to be able to do and be. I can neverreplicate him but I can emulate him. I can observe whathe does that is good, what scems useful, what is admirable,what makes him effective, and from his répertoire it maybe possible to borrow those parts that fit into mine andthat promise to enhance my own powers. Or the professional ego idéal may be shaped and colored by teachersin one's past, or even those we may only have read aboutwho, in their teaching rôle, acted in ways we held to beadmirable or potent. Through identification with themone's sensé of strength and of responsibility as teachergrows. When one looks closely at the great teachers, onesees not only their innate gifts of intellect and communionbut also their disciplined engagement with their subjectmatter and with its transmission. The "power" we imputeto the great teacher is some combined mastery of an areaof knowledge and mastery of the self as its interpréter.This is where love cornes in. It must be there to warmthe teacher's stretching powers. If he is to be an interpréterof the subject matter in which he has invested he must alsoinvest himself in attentive réception and nurture of thosewho are to receive his interprétations. He will need tobecome a match-maker, if you will, between his subjectmatter and his "object-matter," the students.To some degree love can be worked at. Indeed it mustbe, even that loving that leaps in us spontaneously as between a man and woman or parent and child. Even thereare those moments or even phases of relationship where,because of transient rejection or indifférence or antagon-ism, one must work at rearranging one's self, acting withpatience though one may feel only irritation, acting thewish to understand though one may feel only anger, reach-ing out to receive the other though one may feel like slamming a door shut. Ail love must be worked at nowand again. We do so when we feel that the effort will warmus and enhance the reciprocal relationship again. The be-haviors of feeling and actions that convey "love," or, ifyou prefer, "I like and value you," become infused withgenuine feeling when they are rewarded by responsiveness.When through these efforts the teacher achieves a happyengagement — when his student's eyes light up with newunderstanding, or he cries "aha!" or, less dramatically, hemerely affirms by his respectful attention and dogged studythat he has faith that this is good and useful — then theteacher gets his reward. He will find in himself some stirand change in his feeling toward the student or the student body that is embarrassingly close to love. The fact isthat we simply cannot help loving that upon which wehave had some benign influence — whether it is a homely,scraggly ivy plant on an office desk that finally puts fortha shoot because we have tended and watered it, or a thornystudent who suddenly lights up one day and becomes alearner. That small reward for the hard work that lovingoften requires is a powerful incentive for further effort onthe teacher's part.Ail of us, students and teachers alike, strive to be thecause of some "good" effects — the cause of some changesthat are held to be désirable. This is what the concept ofmotivation for compétence expresses. And this is whatpushes us as teachers to stretch our sights and our efforts— to read, study, discuss, wonder; to turn the mercilesslight of question upon cherished beliefs to see if they aretrue or only comfortable; to shake up and blow the dustoff old ideas to see if they are still relevant; to continuously answer the nagging questions of our subject'sutility and value to man's problems and aspirations. Thisis what makes us want to lend ourselves to the student andthen to support and stimulate him toward his full self-actualization. This idcal of ourselves as being a "cause" inthe development and change in a new génération, towardtheir achievement of what we hold to be good — this iswhat drives us to develop and change ourselves, to investourselves both in study and in students. This is what sendsus back year after year to ponder on teaching and, despitethe grind and the groaning, to gladly teach. ?15*4!M* V*. y' ^- Jyb*^il %MWë^-:"é.\ :301 • w^VJilpASTRONOMYATCHICAGO:A NEW LOOKATYERKESIn 1892 , Charles T. Yerkes gave the University ablank check for an astronomical observatory to containthe world' s large st and finest télescope. Five years la ter,Yerkes Observatory was a reality and the fledglingUniversity of Chicago was catapulted into worldleadership in astronomy .Situated in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, on a high bluffoverlooking Geneva Lake, the Observatory's Romanesquedômes and manicured grounds still suggest a 19th-centuryera of sedate, genteel science. But inside the buildingsthe idyllic setting gives way to gleamingelectronically-controlled télescopes, humming computerequipment, and lean, youthful-looking, shirtsleevedastronomers, engrossed in the exploration of what wecommonly refer to as man' s "last frontier."Poised in the southeast dôme is the new 41-inchreflector installed this year and going operational for thefirst time in the autumn quarter. This dôme once housedthe old 24-inch reflector created by George W. Ritchey,the eminent optician, and George E. Haie, the greattélescope builder and renowned astrophysicist who onceheaded the Department and for whom the 200-inchreflector at Palomar Mountain is named. The instrument,Facing Page: The west dôme of YerkesObservatory, seen through a fisheye lens. a direct ancestor of ail modem large reflectors, now restsin the Smithsonian Institution.The 41-inch reflector is an important addition to theObservatory's facilities. Like ail reflectors, it is superiorto refracting-type télescopes for spectrographic workbecause it has inherently less chromatic aberration — itfocuses différent colors with equal précision.Spectrographic analysis can détermine the surfacecomposition, température, pressure, radial motion, andsurrounding electrical and magnetic fields ofcelestial bodies.The new reflector' s price tag, complète with présentauxiliary equipment, was about $250,000 — "a bargain,"says the Observatory Director and Department Chairman,C. R. O'Dell. But a bargain in relative terms. The samesum in 1897 paid for the entire building and powerhouse, the land, and the lenses. mounting, and dôme forthe huge 40-inch refractor.O'Dell's efforts are concentrated on overcoming theold astronomers dictutn that "aperture isGod." Oncethe possessor of the world' s biggest télescope — the40-inch "great refractor," still the large st of its type — theDepartment of Astronomy was pre-eminent in its field.The eventual building of bigger instruments elsewhereinevitably somewhat diluted that status. (The mammothSoviet 236-inch reflector now under construction will17soon be the world's largest.) Now the emphasis hère is onquality, from the growth of the distinguished and robustfaculty to the création of new equipment in theYerkes machine shop.Even the old 40-inch refractor has a new look. In placeof a time-consuming, outmoded control System is anelectronic panel, festooned with buttons and néon readoutnumbers. The astronomer merely consults his tables, hitsa few buttons, and the twenty-ton, sixty-foot instrumentautomatically swings to the desired point in the sky.The great refractor is used principally for astrometry,the précise détermination of the positions of stars. Onestudy now in progress deals with the détermination oftrigonométrie parallaxes of low-luminosity stars, for whichvery Utile fundamental data exists. The technique isbasically simple , but requires extrême précision. Theastronomer measures the position of a star, then, sixmonths later, when the earth is on the other side of itsorbit, he plots it once again. Triangulation calculationsreveal the star's distance, making it possible to déterminethe absolute luminosity .In the northeast dôme once stood the 12-inchrefractor contributed to the Observatory byWilliam E. Haie, father of George E. Haie. He donatedthe télescope and other equipment from the family'sprivate astronomical station, the Kenwood Observatory,on 46th Street in Chicago. The dôme now houses anunusual axial-rotating 24-inch reflector for studyingmagnetic ftelds in deep space.Professor W . Albert Hiltner of Yerkes and John Hallof the U.S. Naval Observatory independently discoveredin 1948 that light reaching the earth from certain stars ispolarized by cosmic dust trapped by magnetic fields, andthe 24-inch reflector was designed to study the phenomena.By analyzing the polarity of the starlight, the dimensionand intensity of the magnetic field can be charted.Hiltner' s work has made important contributions to theunderstanding of our own galaxy, the Milky Way, whichprésents spécial difficulties in observation since we arelocated inside it. More recently it has been found thatcertain stars appear to émit intrinsically polarized light,opening an entirely new area of study. In the 1930' s, when the University was consideringbuilding a télescope in the Southwest, it instead enteredinto a coopérative program with the University of Texas,which had just received a large bequest fromWilliam J. McDonald for an astronomical observatory.Texas had no astronomy department in those days, soChicago astronomers helped build the McDonaldObservatory with its 82-inch reflector and, under theternis of a long-term agreement, still share its opérationand use . Yerkes astronomers also occasionally do studiesat the Kitt Peak National Observatory, which has an84-inch refractor. However, productive as thesearrangements may be, Department members cannot helpdreaming of one day having a mountain-top observatoryand a large-aperture reflector for their exclusive use.Not ail of Chicago' s astronomy faculty are in résidenceat Yerkes. The Department of Astronomy andAstrophysics has a staff of thirteen (see p. 24), about halfof whom remain on campus. Some of the faculty pursuetheoretical studies at the University's Laboratory forAstrophysics and Space Research or the Enrico FermiInstitute. Only graduate students are admitted to theDepartment (there are fourteen at présent), and theyspend their first two years on campus, interning at Yerkesduring the summer quarters. The Department alsopublishes the prestigious Astrophysical Journal, editedon campus by Professor S. Chandrasekhar and printed byThe University of Chicago Press.Looking to the future, the Department is developingprograms in the new fields of radio and x-ray astronomy.Studies are in progress on symbiotic stars, the dynamics ofgalaxies, improvements in spectral classification, theefjects of gênerai relativity in the évolution andinterprétation of quasars, geomagnetic fields and plasmasin space, and other significant areas of research. Man's"last f routier ," it appears, is but the threshold tounending frontiers to be explored, understood, and— possibly — conquered.The new 41-inch reflector. attendedby Research Assoeiate Michael S. Bessell.18IIJabove: IBM 1130 computer speeds analysis of research data.right: The unique, axial-rotating 24-inch reflector, used to studymagnetic fields by measuring polarization of starlight.far right: C. R. O'Dell, Director of Yerkes and Chairman of theDepartment of Astronomy and Astrophysics, stands beside thenebular spectrophotometer, located in a recently-built annex ahundred yards from the main observatory . Instrument is used tostudy nebidae and cornets.*Œfyi***fj&Esg&Êf* %.'k> *. i'-4 J5 1¦... s ¦¦¦%-left:Lewis M. Hobbs, Assistant Professor of Astronomy, standsbeside a specially-built interferometric spectrometer, used to studycosmic gas and dust. Instrument is taken to McDonald Observatoryand attached to the 82-inch reflector there whenexperiment is under way.below:After rénovation of its control System, the 40-inch "greatrefractor" has simplified appearance and a new electronicconsole mounted on lower end of tube. Comparewith photo before rénovation on following page.23THE ASTRONOMY ANDASTROPHYSICS FACULTYC. R. O'DELLChairman of the Department,Director of the Yerkes Observatory,and Professor of AstronomyS. CHANDRASEKHARThe Morton D. Hull DistinguishedService Professor ofTheoretical AstrophysicsW. ALBERT HILTNERProfessor of AstrophysicsWILLIAM W. MORGANThe Bernard E. and Ellen C. SunnyDistinguished ServiceProfessor of AstronomyEUGENE N. PARKERProfessor of Physicsand AstrophysicsDIMITRI MIHALASAssociate ProfessorRICHARD H. MILLERAssociate professorPETER O. VANDERVOORTAssociate ProfessorRICHARD L. BLAKEAssistant ProfessorLEWIS M. HOBBSAssistant ProfessorPATRICK E. PALMERAssistant ProfessorWILLIAM F. VAN ALTENAAssistant ProfessorGEORGE VAN BIESBROECKProfessor Emeritusright: A view of the 41-inch"great refractor" shortly beforethe modernization ofits control System.., ( ..&&&*"-- ¦ &¦&%<¦: ¦¦;'¦: mmm¦ ."S W -^m -pti*.mX ¦. ». ¦W§\ ':¦JsfeMlA-.'-'-a **^1K#« '.-^[• SsëQuadrangie News Campaign for ChicagoNears GoalThe University announced in November that its Campaign for Chicago hadpassed the $155,000,000 mark in giftsand pledges.The announcement was made by Gay-lord Donnelley, University Trustée andChairman of the Campaign, on the eveof the retirement November 14 ofGeorge W. Beadle, the University's sev-enth chief executive officer.The Campaign is a three-year effort toraise $160.000,000 and is scheduled forcompletion on December 31. It is thefirst step in a ten-year program aimed atsecuring $360,000,000 in gifts andpledges.Donnelley said the Campaign total asof October 31 was $155,400,000."This is a tremendous tribute to theleadership and inspiration that GeorgeBeadle has brought to this great University," he said. "We expect the mo-mentum generated during this drive willcarry us well over the $160,000,000 goalby the end of the year."There are more than 3,500 alumniand friends in over 250 cities working dil-igently to make the Campaign a success.We are aware of many hundreds of indi-viduals still planning to make gifts. Several alumni fund programs, includingthose in our professional schools, are justnow reaching their peaks."Président Beadle said that the Campaign volunteers deserve great crédit,adding:"Thanks to alumni — who have given$32,000.000— and to our many otherfriends, The University of Chicago hasalready passed any previous fund raisingeffort by any institution."A staggering list of needs remains tobe met, particularly in such areas as student aid, student housing, facultv support, and académie facilities. We arepositive that the enthusiasm and interestdcveloped during this first phase of theCampaign will help the University reach Caylord Donnelleyits $360,000,000 ten-year goal."Beadle pointed out that private éducation at Chicago and elsewhere is facing atime of great crisis."Costs are going up steadily," he said."Government support has slowed down.Private universities today face responsi-bilities and challenges that can only bemet through extraordinary efforts. One ofthese efforts must concern itself with securing a sound financial base."Fairfax M. Cône. Chairman of theUniversity's Board of Trustées, said:"Président Beadle retires having led theUniversity to within sight of the mostchallenging campaign goal in educationalhistory."The Campaign for Chicago and theten-year program for $360,000,000 arebased on a searching analysis of the University's minimal needs in this décade.Delightcd as we are at progress to date.we cannot pause in seeking the supportthis remarkable University must obtain.Charles U. Daly, Vice-Président forDevelopment and Public Affairs, com-mented:"Our immédiate task is to surpass theinitial goal by December 31 and meet thefull provisions of the Ford Foundation's$25,000,000 matching grant, $5,500,000of which remains to be earned by cashgifts on a three-to-one matching basis.Even beyond that, projections for theyears ahead indicate a huge task lies before us. Those who are doing so much tomake the current Campaign successfulalso are putting down a strong founda-tion on which we can build even greaterstrength into the University under theleadership of Edward H. Levi."Development and Public AffairsAssistant Vice-PrésidentsAppointedEddie N. Williams and Michael E.Claffey have been named Assistant VicePrésidents for Development and PublicAffairs at The University of Chicago. Theappointments, which were effective Oc-tober 15, were announced by Charles U.Daly, Vice-Président for Developmentand Public Affairs.Williams most recently was director ofthe Office of Equal Employment Oppor-tunity and spécial assistant to the deputyundersecretary for administration, UnitedStates Department of State. Claffey wasthe University's Director of Public Information.Williams will be responsible for thepublic affairs area of the University, in-cluding the Office of Public Information,Community Relations, the Radio andTélévision Office, and related activities.He will be Associate Director of the Center for Policy Study at the University,and he will be Acting Director of AlumniAffairs until a new Director is appointedto serve under his supervision.Claffey will be responsible for the University's development opérations, includ-ing the second stage of the University'sdrive to raise $36(3,000,000 in 10 vears.The first step, the $160,000,000 Campaign for Chicago, ends later this year.Daly, who also is Director of the Cen- Eddie N. Williamster for Policy Study at the University,said: "I have known Eddie Williams andMike Claffey for 10 years and haveworked closely with both of them oftenduring that period. They are men of ex-ceptional cnergy, talent, and understand-ing who will contribute much to the University and the community."Williams, a native of Memphis, Tennessee, received a BS degree in journalismfrom the University of Illinois in 1954and did graduate study in political science at Atlanta University and HowardUniversity. He has been a reporter withnewspapers in Memphis and Atlanta andwas managing editor of the MemphisStar Times. Following service as radarand executive officer with a U.S. Armyguided missile battery, Williams was afellow of the American Political ScienceAssociation, serving as an intern in theoffices of U.S. Représentative JamesRoosevelt (Democrat-California) and Sen-ator Hubert H. Humphrey (Democrat-Minnesota) during 1958-59.During 1959-60 Williams was a staffassistant to the Senate Committee onForeign Relations subcommittee on dis-armament. He was a research editor witha study group in the House of Represen- Michael E. Claffeytatives during 1960. Williams went to theState Department in 1961, serving fromthen until 1964 as a protocol officer inthe Office of the Chief of Protocol. During 1964-65 he was a staff assistant to theAssistant Secretary of State, Bureau ofNear Eastern and South Asian Affairs.In August, 1965, he was named to hiscurrent position. He is a member of theAmerican Foreign Service Association,Washington Urban League, Pi SigmaAlpha political science honor society, andSigma Delta Chi journalism fraternity.Claffey has been Director of PublicInformation since December, 1967. Hehas been at the University since 1964,serving first as editor of Chicago Todayand director of development publications.Before coming to Chicago, he workedin London and elsewhere in Europe withUnited Press International, and in theUnited States with the Associated Pressand The New York Journal- American.He served in the Marine Corps from1950 to 1952. A graduate of AdelphiCollège, Claffey holds an MS in journalism from Columbia University. He servedon the faculty of Hofstra University andhas been a consultant to members ofCongress.27C. Ranlet LincolnExtension Dean AppointedC. Ranlet Lincoln, Director of AlumniAffairs since January, 1965, has been appointed Dean of the University Extension. Lincoln also has been Assistant tothe Vice Président for Development andPublic Affairs, and he has been a lec-turer in the New Collegiate Division ofthe University's undergraduate collège.Sol Tax, who served as Dean of the University Extension since 1963, resigned todévote full time to teaching and researchas Professor of Anthropology.As Dean of the Extension Division,28 Lincoln will be responsible for four major areas: the program of evening créditcourses on the main campus; the down-town center, enrolling from 1,500 to2,000 students primarily in noncreditcourses; the Center for Continuing Education; and the coordination of the University's summer quarter program.Richard P. McKeon, the Charles F.Grey Distinguished Service Professor ofPhilosophy and Classical Languages andLiteratures and Chairman of the Boardof Adult Education, said:"There are extraordinary opportunitiesfor the Extension today. The rigidities ofcollège programs, the need for adult éducation programs, and the many problemsof urban society pose a set of challengesas great now as when William RaineyHarper first organized the Extension program. Chicago's program gains its great-est strength because it reflects centralprograms and interests of the faculty.This tradition has been greatly strength-ened under the leadership of Dean Tax.I believe we are most fortunate thatRanlet Lincoln, with his broad knowledge of the University, will carry on thistradition."Eddie N. Williams, the University'sAssistant Vice Président for Developmentand Public Affairs, will serve as ActingDirector of Alumni Affairs until a newDirector is appointed to serve under hissupervision.Study Shows School IntégrationGoing Well, Publicity UnfairA University of Chicago sociologisthas claimed as false the widely-held belief that school intégration involves un-avoidable, intense conflict and that con-flict is to be expected when a racial issueis raised.In The Politics of School Dcsegrega-tion (Aldine Publishing Co„ 1968), Robert L. Crain, Assistant Professor of So-ciology at the University and a SeniorStudy Director at the National OpinionResearch Center, wrotc:"Many racial issues have been raised and resolved in northern cities without abattle. The publicity given the few instances of violence does not présent afair picture of the whole."Crain's book is based on his analysisof school intégration policies in fifteenAmerican cities, eight in the north andseven in the south."The data gathered indicate," Crainwrote, "that civil rights leaders are notasking for anything that whites will ob-ject strongly to and that busing Negroesinto white schools is now common prac-tice in most of our cities with at most ashort-lived white backlash."Crain's survey also indicated that intégration in United States schools is in-fluenced far more by a city's schoolboard than by its school superintendent.The most important factor in determininghow a school board will act is the com-munity's "civic élite," the businessmenand other civic leaders who make thecommunity's décisions, he found."The common opinion," Crain wrote,"is that school superintendents exertmuch more influence over the policy ofthe school system than does the schoolboard, but just the opposite is true: theschool board sets the tone of the intégration décision and the superintendentplays a less important rôle."TThe "civic élite" which détermines howa school board will act comprises "aloosely organized class whose membersoperate as individuals seeking goalswhich the members of this class agréeupon," Crain said.Moreover, he said, in most cases schoolboard members responded by acting inaccordance to their prédispositions aboutcivil rights: libéral boards tended to in-tegrate, conservative boards did not.The study topples a number of othercommon, but erroneous, beliefs, Crainasserted. These include the myths thatcivil rights leaders want total intégrationimmediately and would rather demon-strate than negotiate, that school superintendents are narrow-minded autocrats,that school boards are représentatives ofa segregationist power structure, andthat white voters will rise up in arms ifNegroes are bused to white schools.If northern cities have experiencedmore controversy over school ségrégationthan in other areas of racial change, itis because of ideology.Crain wrote: "The parties to the schoolintégration controversy have chosen tokeep their dialogue on a highly ideologi-cal level. Conflict has more often brokenout over ideological issues than over theactual détails of the intégration plan.Once the board and the movement haveagreed in principle, both sides have dem-onstrated more lîexibility and willingnessto compromise."School intégration, Crain said, is ideological because of the high autonomy ofschool boards and the symbolic orientation of the civil rights movement."The autonomous school board," hesaid, "which participâtes in a narrowrange of décisions, has less to lose fromsocial conflict than does a mayor, whomust make décisions in a whole rangeof issues. The mayor must décide whatcombination of décisions over the several issues which he must handle willmaximize his chances for réélection andfurther the goals he holds for the city.He is very likely to décide that all-outwar over a racial issue, and the subséquent permanent loss of the Negro vote,is dangerous."On the other hand, the school boardis likely to have only one issue — schoolintégration — which is of public importance. If it loses the white vote, it cannotregain it by making a décision in someother area which will please this group.Further, if the school board member ispolitically ambitious, he can make schoolintégration into an attention-getting de-vice: thus social conflict is not necessarilyto the disadvantage of the school boardmember."Crain's study indicated that schoolboards are not only expected to committhemselves to nondiscrimination, but alsoto intentional intégration and to the principle that public bodies should go out oftheir way to help Negroes achieve equal- ity. Yet school boards, Crain pointed out,have been given little help in facing thesedemands.He said: "The educational professionhas not taken a position that would guidean individual school System. The fédéralcourts have not made décisions that giveguidance to the school boards, and thefédéral government has taken no action.The only help the school board has re-ceived in the form of a guideline policyhas been from state governments. Anumber of states have passed législationcommitting school boards to a policy offurthering intégration."Data collected and analyzed during thefifteen-city study indicated that the schoolintégration décision was not the complexbargaining arrangement — with elaboratenegotiations, threats, and counterthreats— that is commonly believed, but some-thing determined by the response of theboard members acting in accordance withtheir prédispositions about civil rights.The data disclosed also that the so-called "white power structure" and thecommunity's business class were the onesmost willing to break with traditions and"to innovate in order to meet the demands of the most oppressed group inour society."Crain's study indicated that politically-appointed school board members weremore conservative on racial matters andthat "the level of internai conflict withinthe school board is a factor in determin-ing how far the board will go to satisfythe civil rights movement. The conflict-ridden board has difficulty taking action."Crain said that, in both northern andsouthern cities, civil rights leaders werenot concerned with placing as many students as possible in integrated schools.Their main goal, he wrote, seems to bepersuading or forcing the school boardto make the strongest possible commitment to the concept of racial equality.He noted parallels between the current intégration conflict and the labor-management negotiations earlier in thecentury, when labor sought récognitionand the right to bargain collectively. He believes the government may play amuch stronger rôle in the settlement offuture desegregation controversies."One can imagine the N.A.A.C.P. andthe school board agreeing to bring in afédéral mediator just as they presentlyagrée to the appointment of a biracialcitizens' committee or to calling on thestate commissioner of éducation," hewrote.Other future developments. he said,include an increasing welfare-orientedapproach by civil rights leaders (the fédéral government has already defined partof the civil rights movement as a war onpoverty) and the présence of a nationalclimate of opinion which "will narrowthe range of alternatives open to schoolboards and thus dampen considerably theconflict they are now facing."Disorders Must Be Cured, NotContained, Hauser SaysWhile society must use force to over-come disorders, it must find and eliminatetheir causes before still greater disorderoccurs, Philip M. Hauser, the interna-tionally-renowned population expert, saidin Boston, August 28.Hauser, Professor of Sociology at theUniversity and Director of its PopulationResearch Center, spoke in the Sheraton-Boston Hôtel to the American Sociologi-cal Association at its 63rd annual meeting. He is the Association's outgoing président. In his address, titled "The ChaoticSociety: Product of the Social Morpho-logical Révolution," he said:"No matter how laudable the goals,when force is employed by labor andmanagement, by students, by advocates ofpeace, by minority groups. or in mostextrême form by nations at war, it is amechanism incompatible with the con-tinued viability of contemporary society.In fact, if society is to remain viable.when there is disorder, it has no alternative to the use of overwhelming collectiveforce for restoration of order. Of course.upon the restoration of order, the causesof disorder must be investigated and re-29moved or tensions may mount and produce even greater disorder."He said the chaos of the "morpho-logical révolution" had been caused bythe population explosion, technologicalchange, and the dense concentration inurban areas of people from différent racial, religions, and géographie back-grounds.Speaking of urban racial conflicts,Hauser said: "In the context of large,dense and heterogeneous population agglomérations, racism necessarily spellstrouble and conflict. It should not be toosurprising that white racism is now breed-ing or exacerbating black racism, and,therefore, intensified hostility and conflict. Furthermore, the paralysis of government in the United States . . . furthercompounds the crisis and offers littlehope of any short-run resolution of tension and conflict. This nation, on itsprésent course, may well be in for anindefinite period of guerrilla warfare onthe domestic as well as on the international front."Hauser blamed urban school Systemsfor part of the problem. "The kind oféducation we now have in our slums andghettos," he said, "is recycling the présentchaotic situation into perpetuity."He said that to overcome the problemsof the "chaotic society" people shouldstart looking at their taxes in a new way."Taxes in a mass society," he said, "arenot what the government takes awayfrom people but rather what people payfor essential services required for collective living in an interdependent societywhich, among many things, générâtesneeds which cannot be met by a freemarket."Institutionalized Aged FaceSix-Month Adaption CrisisThe major crisis for people in a homefor the aged cornes within the first sixmonths of entering the institution, ac-cording to Morton A. Lieberman, Associate Professor of Psychiatry in ThePritzker School of Medicine and in theCommittee on Human Development. Figures in a récent study conducted bythe University show that of 1,000 per-sons institutionalized, 24 percent diedwithin the first six months, whereas only10 percent of those awaiting entranceinto institutions but still living in a community setting died during the same six-month period.Lieberman added that in addition tothe 24 percent who died within the firstsix months, approximately 25 percent ofthe others had serious physiological orpsychological problems.However, those old people who passthe six-month mark, Lieberman said,"appear to be as well-adjusted as similarold people within the gênerai community."He indicated, therefore, that supportand encouragement are needed most insuch institutions during the first half yearto help the aged past the crisis.One of Lieberman's conclusions is thatmuch more ought to be done in workingwith old people before they enter an institution. As much as a year before theactual act, they should start preparingfor it.This préparation, he cautioned, shouldbe basically realistic. Denying that theevent will take place or seeing it as ajoyous prélude to heaven are equallydangerous.Lieberman's studies began with thedésire to find out what kind of persondoes not adjust to the life crisis situationof institutionalization.Through extensive psychological test-ing, interviews, and examination overseveral years, Lieberman and his col-leagues began to examine various long-standing hypothèses about vulnerability.Many proved false.First they found that the number ofmajor life crises a person had faced andhis previous ability to adapt to crises wasno great indication of how he would re-act to institutionalization. This was trueof ail but those old people with the verylowest intellect and capacity to adapt.Lieberman also found that hope wasan important factor in weathering thecrisis of institutionalization. Old people who can project into the future and cantalk about positive future events in whichthey will be involved, such as the wed-ding of a granddaughter, are likely toadapt.Lieberman emphasized that an olderperson about to enter an institution mightappear quite normal and content, butstill have little hope and be unpreparedfor what he will face.Lieberman is exploring the possibili-ties that the act of change, the meaningof the move to the person, and the diffi-culty in adapting to an unfamiliar setting may ail be factors in determininghow well he will adapt to being in aninstitution.A new study is underway on the effectsof supportive counseling for personswaiting to enter a home for the aged.Student Recruiting in Small HighSchools Yields Good ResultsPaula Poindexter didn't think she hadmuch chance of being admitted to thefreshman class this fall.But Paula had a few things going forher. For one thing, she was a NationalAchievement Scholarship Program Final-ist. She was the salutatorian of her highschool graduating class. And, she livedin a small town — Prairie View, Texas,population 3,000.That last fact — living in a small townand attending a small high school — madeher a good candidate for admission to theUniversity under its Small School TalentSearch Program.Now in its ninth year, the Small SchoolTalent Search Program seeks out promis-ing students in high schools within smallcommunities and encourages them to ap-ply for admission to a highly sélective,large urban university such as Chicago.From expérience, the University haslearned that many good students in smallrural high schools never think of applyingto such a place. Like Paula, many thinkthey haven't much chance of being admitted.But over the years it has been provedthat students from small town high schools,30even though often lacking much of thebasic collège préparation available to bigcity and suburban high school graduâtes,can succeed in a highly compétitive, urbanuniversity.This fall, forty-eight other small townhigh school graduâtes will join Paula asmembers of the freshman class of 735 inthe Collège. The chances are that they,like their predecessors of the last eightautumns, will make good at the University.Paula is the daughter of Professor andMrs. Alfred N. Poindexter, Jr., of Box2657, Prairie View. She was graduatedfrom Wallter (Texas) High School. Herfather is a practicing veterinarian andfaculty member at Prairie View Agri-cultural and Mechanical Collège.According to Margaret E. Perry, Associate Director of Admissions and Directorof the Small School Talent Search Program at the University: "We seek outgood students like Paula. We correspondwith principals and advisers in varioushigh schools across the country to learnof possible applicants, and we also visitmany of the schools personally. Sometimes we write directly to the students,often after alumni have told us aboutthem."Paula had read of the University andknew that it was highly sélective. "I didn'tfeel that I could get in, but thought Iwould apply for the heck of it. My intentions were strictly for self-satisfaction. Isimply wanted to see if I could get in toone of the 'top ten.' I guess I was prob-ably the happiest person in the worldwhen I learned of my acceptance."In récent years, students enrolled underthe Small School Talent Search Programhave made notable contributions to theUniversity. One was named a RhodesScholar, a large number have gone on tograduate study, and 18 have been appointed members of the University's Ma-roon Key Society.If Paula Poindexter is like her predecessors, she should have a fine futurewaiting for her at The University ofChicago. right: Paula PoindexterPeopleLéo A. Goodman, Professor of Statis-tics and of Sociology gave the fourth an-nual R. A. Fisher Mémorial Lecture before the Annual Joint Meetings of theAmerican Statistical Association and theBiométries Society, August 22, in Pitts-burgh. He spoke on "The Analysis ofCross Classified Data: Independence,Quasi-Independence and Interactions inContingency Tables With or WithoutMissing Entries." Goodman also delivereda paper, "How to Ransack Social Mo-bility Tables and Other Kinds of CrossClassification Tables," at the AmericanSociological Association Meeting in Boston, August 29.Cyril O. Houle, Professor of Education, has been reappointed to the NationalAdvisory Council on Extension and Con-tinuing Education.Dr. Léon O. Jacobson has been namedto the National Advisory Cancer Council by Dr. James A. Shannon, director ofthe National Institutes of Health, UnitedStates Department of Health, Education,and Welfare. Dr. Jacobson is the JosephRegenstein Professor of Biological andMédical Sciences and Dean of the Division of the Biological Sciences and ThePritzker School of Medicine.George Klein, Professor of Tumor Biology at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, received an honorary Doctor ofScience degree at the University's 324thConvocation, August 30. Klein is one ofthe world's foremost investigators oftumor progression in the biology of cancer.William J. Reid, Director of the Center for Social Casework Research of theCommunity Service Society of New York,has returned to the School of Social Service Administration as Associate Professor. Reid has served in his présent position in New York since 1965 and hasbeen responsible for the opération anddevelopment of the Center's program ofcasework research. From 1962 to 1965 hewas an Assistant Professor at SSA andduring 1960-1962 he was on the facultyof the Columbia University School of Social Work. Alumni NewsSuzanne KiferAlumni Program Director AppointedSuzanne Kifer (Mrs. Edward W. Kifer,Jr.) has been appointed Alumni ProgramDirector, replacing Jane Steele, who re-signed in September. Mrs. Kifer will beresponsible for the annual reunion andother alumni programs on campus andaround the country. She will assist localalumni clubs in organizing events in theirhome cities.Mrs. Kifer is a graduate of MuskingumCollège in New Concord, Ohio. Sheserved as a foreign service officer withthe United States Information Agency inMontevideo and Mexico City from 1963to 1967. Since then she was a personnelofficer with the Peace Corps in Washington, D.C. Mr. Kifer is a graduate studentat The University of Chicago.CLUB EVENTSChicagoNearly 700 Chicago area alumni andtheir guests attended a spécial AlumniNight performance of Shakespeare'sAs You Like It by the University's CourtThéâtre, August 30. DétroitDr. Robert S. Daniels, Associate Deanof Biological Sciences and Associate Professor of Psychiatry in The PritzkerSchool of Medicine, spoke on "The Modem University in an Urban Community"at the Hôtel Pontchartrain, September 29.A réception followed. Chairman for theevent was George J. Fulkerson. The program was co-sponsored by Détroit areamédical alumni, with Dr. Robert Am-brose as chairman.CLASS NOTES 19John S. Lundy, MDT9 (Rush), hasreceived the gold medal of the CanadianAnaesthetists Society "for meritoriousservice and many contributions to thespecialty of anaesthesia." Dr. Lundy isan emeritus professor of three universities : the University of Minnesota, Northwestern University, and the University ofWashington.In Memoriam: M. Frances Hunt, '19,died Apr. 29, 1968; Florence MasonKnapp, '19, has died. 26O. Irving Jacobsen, AM'26, has writtena new book, The Power of Your Mind(Parker Publishing Co.). 27Inez F. Humphrey, AM'27, has hadher autobiography, From the Prairies tothe Mountains, published by ExpositionPress.In Memoriam: George H. Dillon, '27,has died; Edmund Noyés, '27, has died;Anna B. Scott, '27, has died; Harry L.Shlaes, '27, died July 20, 1968. 30In Memoriam: Joseph R. Brady, '30,died June 16, 1968; Betty Hill Wilkin-son, '30, AM'32, died June 5, 1968;Laura Mason Geselbracht, '30, has died.32 33Daniel D. Williams, AM'33, a Roose-velt professor of systematic theology atUnion Theological Seminary in New YorkCity, spoke on "Process Philosophy andChristian Faith" at a spring lecture atManhattanville Collège, Purchase, N.Y.35In Memoriam: Meyer S. Agruss, PhD'35, died Apr. 28, 1968; Emma Amund-son Brown, '35, has died; Garnett M.Frye, MD'35, has died; Lucy H. Murray,PhD'35, has died.38In Memoriam: Ruth V. Ostlund, '38,died Jan. 4, 1968.39H. W. Straley, III, PhD'39, has beenappointed chief consultant for Exploration du Monde mining opérations inNorth and South America. 40In Memoriam: Everett E. Pettee, AM'40, died May 16, 1968; Edward L.Tullis, PhD'40, died May 15, 1968. 45Franz Schulze, PhB'45, professor ofart at Lake Forest (111.) Collège and artcritic for the Chicago Daily News, Art inAmerica, and Art International, spoke on"The Changing Concept of Reality inModem Art" at a summer colloquiumheld at Colorado Collège, ColoradoSprings, Colo.47 ~F. D. BIoss, '47, SM'49, PhD'51, hasbeen appointed professor of geology atVirginia Polytechnic Institute.Harold W. Pfautz, AM'47, PhD'54,professor of Sociology at Brown University, Providence, R.I., spoke on "Our Time— Values in Conflict and Change" on arécent panel discussion held at the Show-boat Inn in Greenwich, Conn., sponsored by the Brown and Pembroke Clubs ofWestchester and Fairfield Counties, Conn.Hardy Pelham, AM'47, has been namedPrésident of the Audio- Visual EducationAssociation of California. 48Frank G. St. Angel, AM'48, a memberof the Winnebago County (111.) Boardof Supervisors, has been awarded the in-signia, décoration, and diploma of Knightof the Order of Italian Solidarity by theprésident of the Republic of Italy. Theaward is given to persons of Italian an-cestry who have made outstanding civiccontributions to their communities.Cromwell C. Cleveland, X'48, is Min-ister of The Chapel of The Cathedral InThe Blue Grass, Lexington, Ky. His wife,the former Gène Rickey, X'41, is secre-tary for an engineering consulting firm inLexington, and their son, Cromwell C.Cleveland, Jr., who is nineteen, is attend-ing Centre Collège, Danville, Ky.Nat Eek, '48, director of the Universityof Oklahoma School of Drama, has beenelected first vice président of the International Children's Théâtre Association.James T. Gibson, Jr., PhB'48, JD'52,has been named treasurer of the International Minerais & Chemical Corporation,Skokie, 111.Linnea E. Henderson, AM'48, formerassistant dean of nursing at Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, hasbeen named nursing director at Kent(Ohio) State University's school of nursing.John M. Hirschfield, AM'48, PhD'57,has been appointed professor of historyof western culture at Park Collège, KansasCity, Mo.Wesley A. Hotchkiss, SM'48, PhD'50,gênerai secretary for the Board of Home-land Ministries of the United Church ofChrist, has been elected to the Ripon(Wis.) Collège board of trustées.Betty Hutchinson, AM'48, has beennamed director of Peace Corps activitiesin El Salvador, South America.William Lieberman, '48, MBA'50, anemployée of Armour and Co., Chicago, has been elected a Fellow of the AmericanSociety for Quality Control.James V. Mitchell, AB'48, AM'50,PhD'53, has been named associate deanfor graduate studies at the University ofRochester's Collège of Education.William E. Pauley, MBA'48, former director of materials at St. Mary's Hospital,Quincy, 111., has been appointed adminis-trator of Hamilton County Public Hospital, Webster City, Iowa.Milton Raskin, PhB'48, SB'49, MD'54,former research director at Norwich(Conn.) Hospital, has been named directorof research at Springfield State Hospital,Sykesville, Md.John H. Reynolds, SM'48, PhD'50, professor of physics at the University of California, has been awarded the J. LawrenceSmith Medal for outstanding achievementby the National Academy of Sciences.Samuel E. Stumpf, PhD'48, has beennamed président of Cornell Collège, Mt.Vernon, Iowa. He was the featured speaker at the University of Tennessee's commencement exercises.John R. Winterbotham III, SM'48, former assistant vice-président in the mort-gage department at the Michigan NationalBank of Chicago, has joined the sales staffin Baird and Warner's Lake Forest (111.)office.Austin M. Wright, AM'48, PhD'59, ateacher at the University of Cincinnati,received the 1967 Mrs. A.B. Cohen awardfor excellence in teaching on May 18,1967.George J. Zvirblis, MBA'48, has beennamed vice président at General IndustriesCo., Elyria, Ohio. 49Jerry B. Briscoe, AM'49, PhD'54, anassociate professor of social sciences atRaymond Collège, University of the Pacific, Forest Grove, Ore., recently partici-pated as a panelist on the "CommunityForum" at the Sacramento (Calif.) HighSchool.Margaret Carroll, AM'49, professor oféducation at Northern Illinois University,DeKalb, 111., discussed the Montessori and33Doman Delacatto method of spécial éducation and training for the perceptuallyhandicapped, at a spring PTA meeting ofthe Elmhurst (111.) Lincoln School.John I. Goodlad, PhD'49, is the newdean of the Graduate School of Education of the University of California atLos Angeles.Howard W. Polsky, '49, is the co-author with Daniel S. Claster of a newbook, The Dynamics of Residential Treat-ment: A Social System Analysis (NorthCarolina Press), a research study of problem adolescents.Kenton E. Stephens, '49, AM'56, PhD'64, has been appointed superintendentof Oak Park (111.) school District 97.In Memoriam: Walter W. Barker, AM'49, has died.Maurice J. Williams, AM'49, is assistant administrator of the Agency for International Development in the Near Eastand South Asia. 50Irving Friedman, PhD'50, a scientistwith the Denver Fédéral Center, has beenselected by the National Aeronautics andSpace Administration to be one of thescientists to conduct experiments with surface material brought back from themoon.Eugène F. Uretz, '50, SM'51, has beenpromoted to Senior Scientist with theComputer Sciences Division at HT Research Institute in Chicago.Larzer Ziff, AM'50, PhD'55, professorof English and vice-chairman of the de-partment of English at the University ofCalifornia, Berkeley, has received theChristian Gauss Award and the 1967 PhiBeta Kappa Award for his book, TheAmerican 1890s: Life and Times of aLost Génération (Viking Press). 51Lawrence V. Berman, AB'5 1 , has beennamed associate professor of religion atStanford University.Paul H. Bowman, PhD'51, an executivedirector of the Institute for Community Studies at Kansas City, Mo., was guestlecturer in the Mental Health in Education seminars sponsored last spring byCulver-Stockton Collège, Canton, Mo.,and the Sperry and Hutchison Foundation.Henry A. Campbell, Jr., DB'51, hasbeen appointed a minister for the UnitedChurch of Christ Congregational, Ames,Iowa.Ernest W. Cook, AM'51, has been appointed executive director of the Officeof Comprehensive Health Planning of theState of Rhode Island.Bernard O. Erf, MA'51, a vice-président of the Brewing Industries ResearchInstitute and co-owner of the Siebel Pub-lishing Co., wrote an article, "Public Relations: an évaluation and appraisal of theindustry's posture," for the March, 1967,issue of Brewers Digest of Chicago.Irving B. Fritz, PhD'51, has been appointed professor and chairman of theBanting and Best Department of MédicalResearch, University of Toronto, Ontario,Canada.Clifîord B. Reifler, AB'51, has beenpromoted to assistant professor of psy-chiatry at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine.Emanuel S. Savas, '51, SB'53, has beenappointed Deputy City Administrator byMayor John V. Lindsay of New York.He is the author of Computer Control ofIndustrial Processes.John B. Thomas, MD'51, is médicaldirector of the Child Guidance Clinic,Meriden, Conn.In Memoriam: Mary E. Evans, MD'51,has died; Michael Meiss, '51, died Feb.17, 1968; John M. Nelson, '51, has died;Jack E. Waterman, AM'51, has died. 54John J. Egan, MBA'54, an assistanttreasurer of Container Corporation in Chicago, was named the 1966 Lombard (111.)"Man of the Year" by the Lombard Jay-cees.Dewey A. Ganzel, Jr., AM'54, PhD'58,is the author of a new book, Mark TwainAbroad: The Cruisc of the Quaker City (University of Chicago Press). The bookreconstructs a Mediterranean cruise takenby Mark Twain in 1867.Cari Sagan, AB'54, SB'55, SM'56, PhD'60, has been appointed associate professor in Cornell University's AstronomyDepartment. He will work in Cornell'sCenter for Radiophysics and Space Research, which opérâtes the Arecibo Iono-spheric Observatory in Puerto Rico.In Memoriam: James W. Schaeffer,MBA'54, died May 28, 1968. 55Vernon W. Forsman, MBA'55, trustéeof the Texas Hospital Association, Austin,Tex., was profiled in the February, 1967,issue of Texas Hospitals.Stanton T. Friedman, SB'55, SM'56, aphysicist at Westinghouse AstronuclearLaboratory, Pittsburgh, Pa., and a lectureron UFO's, spoke on "Flying Saucers AreReal" at a récent student assembly atCarnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh,Pa. 56Gerhard E. Spiegler, DM'56, AM'60,PhD'61, has been named provost atHaverford Collège. 57John L. Bjork, MBA'57, has beennamed director of physical distributionfor Signode Corporation, a Chicago pro-ducer of industrial strapping and ma-chinery.G. A. Dobbert, AM'57, PhD'65, associate professor of history and sociologyat Youngstown (Ohio) University, pre-sented a research paper on "The Germansand the First World War" at the annualmeeting of the American Historical Association, Pacific Coast Branch, at StanfordUniversity this summer. 58Alan M. Charlens, '58, PhD'63, a member of the consulting firm of Rohrer,Hibler & Replogle of Chicago, spoke on34"Psychology in Crédit Management" at arécent meeting of the Fox Valley Créditand Financial Management Association,Aurora, 111.59Herman H. Kay, JD'59, an attorney andteacher at the University of CaliforniaLaw School, last spring was one of theprincipal speakers before the CaliforniaState Senate Judiciary Committee on be-half of the Beilenson Bill, a liberalizedabortion act.David Kleinerman, MBA'59, formercontroller and treasurer of Roosevelt University in Chicago, has been elected viceprésident of that institution.Joseph C. Maheras, '59, was graduatedfrom the University of Washington Schoolof Medicine in June, 1967. He and hiswife, Mary, are both interning at Henne-pin County General Hospital, Minneapo-lis, Minn.Lloyd E. Ohlin, PhD'59, associate director of Président Lyndon B. Johnson'sCommission on Law Enforcement andAdministration of Justice, has been appointed professor of criminology at Harvard Law School.Léonard J. Otten, Jr., MBA'59, colonelin the U.S. Air Force, has been namedDirector of Spécial Weapons at Kelly AirForce Base, San Antonio, Tex. 60Audrey Odell, AM'60, has been appointed assistant librarian at Lake Forest(111.) Collège.Ronald L. Piddington, '60, SM'63, PhD'65, has been appointed assistant professor of histology and embryology at theUniversity of Pennsylvania.61 ~Arnold M. Heiser, PhD'61, associateprofessor of physics and astronomy atVanderbilt University, and acting directorof the A. J. Dyer Observatory, spoke on"Our Solar System" at a récent convocation program at Illinois Collège, Jackson-ville, m. 62Richard C. Bennett, AM'62, a formerarea director of Lutheran Family Serviceof Oregon and a part-time teacher at theUniversity of Oregon's psychology départaient, has been named executive directorof Family Service Bureau, a United Fundagency, in Fort Worth, Tex.James S. Entringer, MBA'62, has beennamed assistant plant manager at A. O.Smith Corporation, Houston, Texas.David B. Goshien, JD'62, has been appointed professor in the University ofOklahoma Collège of Law in Norman.Annabelle Gould, AM'62, an educational diagnostician for School District162, Matteson, 111., is co-author of a newbook, Reading Activities for Primary andIntermediate Grades (F. A. Owen), a hand-book for elementary school teachers.66T. D. Wofford, Jr., MBA'66, an assistant chief engineer at Illinois Central Rail-road, was the featured speaker at the Chicago Technical College's June commencement exercises. 67Lawrence N. Reckles, MD'67, has beenappointed a résident in Orthopédie Sur-gery in the Mayo Graduate School ofMedicine, University of Minnesota atRochester.In MemoriamLyle M. Spencer, Trustée of TheUniversity of Chicago, died on August21, 1968, at the âge of 57.Born in Atlanta, Georgia, on May10, 1911, he received his B.A. in 1933and his M. A. in 1935, both from theUniversity of Washington. During theyears 1936-1937, he was selected byThe University of Chicago to fill theposition of fellow in Sociology. The subséquent académie year, he servedas a Marshall Field fellow. In thatyear, he also helped to found ScienceResearch Associates, an educationalpublishing firm, now a part of the International Business Machines corporation. In 1940, the Junior Chamberof Commerce named him one of theten outstanding young men of theyear.During the war, he served as a Lt.Colonel in the Army's "Informationand Education" division, and wasagain recognized for his achievements.He was a Fellow in the AmericanSociological Association, and a member of the New York Academy ofScience, Phi Beta Kappa, AmericanPsychological Association and theAmerican Statistical Association, andother professional associations. Hcgenerously contributed his unique talents to many civic and governmentalaffairs, such as the Economie AdvisoryCommittee of the Mayor's Committeefor Economie and Cultural Development, the Community Advisory Boardfor the Joint Youth DevelopmentCommittee, the Advisory Committeeon library research and training pro-jects for the U.S. Department ofHealth, Education and Welfare, theBusiness Leadership Advisory Councilof the Office of Economie Opportunityand the Chicago Urban League's Business Advisory Council. In 1958, heserved as a trustée for the NationalScholarship Service and Fund forNegro Students.Prior to his appointment as Trustéeof the University in 1966, Mr. Spencerserved on the Visiting Committee onthe Collège, the Citizens Board, andthe Alumni Foundation. He was thenalready deeply involved in the futureof higher éducation, and was servingas the board chairman of RooseveltUniversity, and a trustée of the Men-ninger Foundation, Midwest ResearchInstitute, Center for the Study ofDémocratie Institutions, and LawrenceCollège.3John Nuveen, Life Trustée of TheUniversity of Chicago, died on August8, 1968, at the âge of 72.An alumnus of the University, heserved as a Trustée of the Universityfor almost three décades. He wasdeeply involved in the functioning ofthe Budget Committee and the In-vestment Committee, as well as theVisiting Committee on Social Sciences, the Committee on Enrollment,and various committees dealing withAlumni Relations. He chaired the Visiting Committee on the Oriental Institute for years and was a valuablemember of a host of other workingcommittees. In June, 1966, John Nuveen became a Life Trustée of TheUniversity of Chicago.Professionally, John Nuveen was anexpert in investment banking. Following his graduation from The University of Chicago in 1919, he joined thefamily's investment company, becamea partner in 1923 and thirty yearslater, when the company was incor-porated, became the Chairman of theBoard.He served his country in many différent leadership positions. During theSecond World War he was the Chairman of the State Board of Public Wel-fare Commissioners and also the Chicago Régional Director of the WarProduction Board. After the war, heheaded the Marshall Plan missions toGreece, Belgium and Luxemburg.For ten years, he was the Présidentof the Chicago Sunday Evening Club.He served on the International Committee of the Y.M.C.A. for thirty-fiveyears. He was a member of the foreign policy committee of the U.S.Chamber of Commerce, and founderand chairman of the Foreign PolicyClearing House. He was involved inthe aid of the Dutch flood victims in1953. He served as the Chairman ofthe National Advisory Committee ofCARE, as a director of the AmericanFriends of the Middle East, and as atrustée of Morehouse Collège, Anato-lia Collège, Athens Collège, and theBaptist Theological Union. ARCHIVESNovember/December, 1893 — The University Extension, providing lecturecourses for the gênerai public, began itssecond year with much encouragementand publicity. Students were furnishedwith a syllabus, consisting of annotatedlecture outlines, reading lists, and discussion topics. Professor Charles Zeublintook his six-lecture American literaturecourse on the road, visiting each of fiveIllinois cities once a week for six weeks.The University of Chicago Weeklyjoined other members of the nation'scollège press in denouncing the rash ofanti-football stories appearing in met-ropolitan daily papers. Sportswriters wereattacking football, an exclusively colleg-iate sport, as brutal and degrading. Atleast six players died from injuries inthe 1893 season in the United States.Construction of Ryerson Physical Lab-oratory was completed in December.Built at a cost of $200,371, the buildingwas donated by Martin A. Ryerson, Président of the Board of Trustées, in memoryof his father, Martin Ryerson. The inter-ior was finished in cherry wood. Theequipment and furnishings, also donatedby Mr. Ryerson, were installed underthe direction of Albert A. Michelson,chairman of the Department of Physics.November/December, 1918 — The armistice célébrations were brief as the University turned its anticipations to the re- turn of the 1,800 Chicago men inmilitary service. Next to demobilization,what to do with post-war Germany wasthe prime topic of discussion, and acontroversy was brewing on the questionof pacifism versus militarism. The University branch of the Student Army TrainingCorps and other local military units weredemobilized before Christmas. One of thesigns of the return to normalcy was thelifting of restrictions on certain foods —especially sugar, long scarce in afternoontea.November/December, 1943 — The November 4 édition of Time hailed theUniversity's new radio séries, "HumanAdventure," for its "dramatizations offactual research going on in collèges anduniversities." The séries was created byUniversity Vice Président William Ben-ton, who also had originated the highlysuccessful "Round Table of the Air."Socialist leader Norman Thomas spokeat Mandel Hall, November 11. Hewarned that fascism stems from unem-ployment and called for an end to racialpréjudice at home and abroad.Orson Welles spoke to an overflowcrowd at the International House The-ater, December 3, on behalf of the FreeWorld Committee. Welles, who calledhimself "a radical and not a libéral," saidthat Americans should not let fascismtake advantage of the world's wartimedisunity.Sixty of the world's most thoughtfulscholars and students of the Chinesescène have joined their efforts tocreate this monumental library offacts and reasoned spéculations onChina's past, présent, and probablefuture. For scholar, governmentexpert, student, it is an unsurpassedréférence work.CHINAIN CRISISEdited by Ping-ti Hoand Tang TsouForeword by Charles U. Daly,Director of the Center for PolicyStudy at the University of Chicago,where the materials on which thesevolumes are based were firstpresented at the inauguralconférence.Volume I: CHINA'S HERITAGE ANDTHE COMMUNIST POLITICALSYSTEM (in two books). $20.00Volume II: CHINA'S POLICIES INASIA AND AMERICA'SALTERNATIVES. $10.00C0NTRIBUT0RSAlexander Eckstein • S. N. Eisenstadt • Ping-ti Ho • Francis L. K. Hsu • Chalmers Johnson• John W. Lewis • Kwang-Ching Liu • Ta-Chung Liu • Frank E. Armbruster • Davis B.Bobrow • Norton Ginsburg • Morton H. Hal-perin • Abraham M. Halpern • Roger Hilsman• Harold C. Hinton • Richard Lowenthal •Ruth T. McVey • Fians J. Morgenthau • DavidMozingo • Uri Ra'anan • Robert A. Scalapino• George E. Taylor • Wayne Wilcox • DonaldZagona • Franz Schurmann • Benjamin I.Schwartz • Tang Tsou • C. Martin Wilbur ¦C. K. YangWITH ADDITIONAL C0MMENTARY BYDerk Bodde • Jérôme Alan Cohen • HerrleeG. Creel • Robert Dernberger • Albert Feuer-werker • C. P. FitzGerald • Herbert Franke •Hsu Dau-lin • Philip Kuhn • James T. C. Liu• Michael Brecher • M. J. Desai • Richard A.Falk • Samuel B. Griffith II • George McT.Kahin • Morton A. Kaplan • Roderick Mac-Farquhar • Vincent D. Taylor • Paul A. Varg• Donald J. Munro • Marius B. Jansen • Michel Oksenberg • Dwight H. Perkins • StuartR. Schram • Peter Schran • Richard H. Sol-omon • Anthony M. Tang • S. Y. Teng • EzraF. Vogel • Wang Gungwu • Arthur FrederickWrightAt your bookstore, orfrom the publisherUNIVERSITY OFCHICAGO PRESS5750 Ellis Avenue, Chicago, lilincis 60637lLL" 60637