r WLstUfrhe University of Chicagonagazine» September/October 1968 wm 121968 ElThe Quest at Loch Ness'?%>-:*:ï&&~«*m~A i ''îHmmhw<im. sac*WH *iv"ï**s£ 8***«!»i»l;Éal« V &.-IL" -V/VvARTICLESThe University of ChicagomagazineVolume LXI Number 2September/October 1968Published since 1907 byTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATION5733 University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637(312) 643-0800, ext. 4291Fay Horton Sawyier, '44, PhD'64PrésidentC. Ranlet LincolnDirector of Alumni AffairsConrad KulawasEditorREGIONAL OFFICES39 West 55 StreetNew York, New York 10019(212) 765-54803600 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 1510Los Angeles, California 90005(213) 387-2321485 Pacific AvenueSan Francisco, California 94133(415) 433-40501629 K Street, N.W., Suite 500Washington, D.C. 20006(202) 296-8100Published bimonthly in lul/Aug,Sep/Oct, Nov/Dec, Jan/Feb,Mar/Apr, and May/Iun.Second-class postagepaid at Chicago, Illinois. Ailrights reserved. Copyright 1968 byThe University of Chicago Magazine. 2 The Media and the CitiesThe responsibilities of news média in covering urban disorders8 The Quest at Loch NessA faculty member heads the scientific team searching for the fabled "Nessie"18 Biological Intervention in Human Life:The Moral IssuesDwight J. IngleDEPARTMENTS23 Quadrangle News25 People26 Profiles30 Alumni News36 ArchivesThe University of Chicago Magazine is published bimonthly for alumni, friends, and thefaculty of The University of Chicago. Letters and editorial contributions are welcomed.Front Cover: Loch Ness, Scotland, home of the fabled Loch Ness "monster" (see story, p. 8).Inside Cover: The Anatomy Building, looking west over the gargoyles of Hull Gâte.Photography Crédits: Inside cover and pages 24, 27, and 30 by Uosis Juodvalkis; frontcover courtesy of the British Travel Association; pages 14. 15, and bottom of 17 courtesyof Prof. Roy P. Mackal; pages 8 and 9 courtesy of the Hancock Library of Biology andOceanography of the University of Southern California; pages 12 and 18 by The University of Chicago.The Mediaandthe CitiesThis article is the edited transcription of a Round Tabletélévision program produced by WTTW , Channel 11 , Chicago, early this year. The Round Table is a séries producedin coopération with The University of Chicago. Discussionsare entirely without script, although participants meet inadvance to confer on topics for their program.The participants for "The Media and the Cities" were:— Martin S. Hayden, Editor-in-Chief of The DétroitNews.— Morris Janowitz, Prof essor and Chairman of the Department of Sociology at The University of Chicago andauthor of Social Control of Escalated Riots and otherworks.— William B. Monroe, Jr., Director of NBC News,Washington, D.C.— Kenneth J. Northcott (moderator), Professor of OlderGerman Literature and Dean of Students in the Divisionof the Humanities at The University of Chicago. Northcott: Two major issues brought to public attentionby the riots of the past few years are the responsibility ofthe média in covering urban disorders and the media's rôlein bringing about social and political change to rebuildthe cities. AU three of our panelists participated in a spécial conférence held by The University of Chicago Centerfor Policy Study which examined thèse issues. The Center'ssession was part of its two-year project on urban problems.Morris, I'm going to ask you the first question, sincewe're the only non-media men hère: Hâve the média, doyou think, fulfilled their responsibility in covering theurban crisis in récent years?Janowitz: No. I think that I would say that they hâvenot fulfilled their full responsibility. They hâve been grow-ing in fulfilling their responsibility. But I do not think thatfrom the point of view of describing and reporting on thedepth of the crisis that they fully anticipated and kept upwith the news and reported it in depth, so that the American people could know what was going on in the ghettoand how Negroes feel about their deprivation and discrimination.Hayden: I'd hâve to agrée with Morris that we hâve notfulfilled our maximum potential. But I hope that he wouldagrée with me that almost nobody else has fulfilled hispotential in meeting this racial explosion which has sud-denly hit us. I would submit that the académies did notprépare for it either. Editors weren't prepared for it. Wehad to learn while flying by the seat of our pants, andsometimes we were hitting tree tops while doing it. I dothink we're getting better.Northcott: What do you think is the responsibility of themédia in this time of crisis?Monroe: I think the responsibility is to report what ishappening and to try to figure a little bit ahead: what hasgot to happen next, and what might happen next, and whatshould happen next, and attempt to report a little bit inthis direction. And to learn something from you people atuniversities, and to learn something from politicians, andto try to get at what might happen as well as to report onwhat's happening now. It's not that easy to report what'shappening now. We hâve been taken by surprise, just asail other éléments in the country hâve been taken by surprise, with the possible exception of the blacks.Janowitz: Yes, I think the main responsibility of the2press is that of reporting the news in depth. I certainlywould agrée with the notion that the mass média has nospécial responsibility in the sensé that they hâve laggedbehind other institutions. It is just that I think that themass média is so critical in our big, mass, complicatedsociety. When one talks about responsibility for reporting,we mean reporting in depth, not only to cover top, news-worthy stories, but to cover the basic transformation inour society, thèse things that are not hard news. Publicunderstanding of thèse trends are what we're really con-cerned about when we talk about the information gap.Northcott: Which of the média is in a position to do thisin-depth reporting? Martin, do you think the newspapersare?Hayden: Well, I think we ail can do it; I think probablythe newspapers and télévision can do the better job. Ithink it's hard to get somebody to sit and listen long enoughon radio. Radio listeners are more transient, and I thinkthe newspapers and TV face a terribly difficult job. Forinstance, we even hâve a problem of semantics, of peoplenot understanding what one man is saying when he's talk-ing to another. Just as one example, we hâve this word"ghetto." What is a ghetto? The modem use no longer fitsthe traditional, historié définition. I discovered in one ofthe early conférences I went to that my Negro colleagueswere talking about a ghetto as being any all-Negro neigh-borhood, or essentially all-Negro. I had always thought ofit as a slum neighborhood. Now if you're going to take theidea that any all-Negro neighborhood regardless of prop-erty values is a ghetto, then you hâve to hâve anothername for the place that is inhabited by rats and diseaseand gouging landlords, and ail the rest of the horrors thatgo with the slums.Monroe: Yes, you hâve a problem that goes with theword "riots." There is a curious tendency now in ail médianot to call anything a riot thèse days unless it's been goingon for days and days and unless there's a hell of a disorderwith a great deal of shooting and fires breaking out andarson. And even then there's a tendency to try not to usethe word "riot." Fm not quite sure why. I think that it'spartly because there's a tendency to try to report things ina cool, accurate way without making anybody more excitedthan the bare facts necessitate. On the other hand, if youlook into the dictionary for a définition of "riot," the word applies to a great many things that hâve been going on thatwe hâve been trying to call by less inflammatory names,such as "disorders." The tendency is to seem to report it,and it's got to be reported, and I think we're getting awayfrom the idea that you can prevent a riot by not reportingit. But there's also a tendency to stay away from the word.Janowitz: Well, I think that that does raise a more con-troversial stibject. To what extent are the mass média re-sponsible for any riots? I don't think any of us wouldagrée that the mass média are responsible in causing riots.We ail agrée that a démocratie society has to be informed.But the question as to the best ways to cover riots is stilla controversial question. I agrée with the Kerner Commission and I think that most people who hâve thoughtabout conflict agrée that riots are rooted in discrimination and deprivation and a lack of access to the politicalprocess. But on the other hand, we do live in a setting inwhich the mass média accelerate the social process. Wecannot turn time back. But the very fact that the riots arevery extensively covered in the mass média, a fact thatwe can't deny, I think does hâve an indirect efïect uponsociety. It is a dilemma that we are caught up with. Thefact that riots are described in great détail in the massmédia in effect legitimatizes them. Of course, the médiahâve had a long tradition of emphasizing violence in oursociety. I think that the mass média hâve gone further thanperhaps necessary. I always like to draw the comparisonbetween the United States and Great Britain, where manyof our télévision shows are banned for being excessivelyviolent. I do not recommend censorship, but I am tryingnot to underplay this problem. I do not think that we hâvecorne to the final solution as to how riots should becovered or reported in mass média and on télévision.Hayden: Well, Morris, I'd be inclined to agrée with you.I certainly think that Detroit's riot was born in the télévision coverage of Newark, when thousands of Detroiterssat and watched this thing and thought, "Boy, wouldn't itbe fun if it started hère." Now, having said that and beforeBill jumps on me, I don't propose that anything be doneabout it. I think télévision is hère and vivid and, of course,this has been going on for a long time. As somebody ob-served, George III probably observed that if only he couldstop those guys who kept galloping up and down the coaston horseback with the news he might hâve kept the3American Révolution confined to Lexington and Concord.Monroe: I wouldn't agrée for a moment that télévisioncoverage of riots in Newark caused rioting in other places.I was — about 10 years ago — in New Orléans working asnews director for a télévision station there. It was obviousto me, and quite interesting, that as the sit-ins and thefreedom rides came into the Deep South, there was atendency in each city where thèse disorders came up forthe people in what is now familiarly called the power-structure to complain that there was no real discontent intheir own city and that the problem was "outside agitators"helped along by télévision. If télévision — and some blâmewas also attached to newspapers — would not pay any attention to those described as agitators, the whole troublewould go away. It was so apparently false back in thosecircumstances that I must say that I extend this reasoningto the présent situation, and I don't think that there is awhole lot of différence. I think that people who disapproveof the insistency of the Negro révolution hâve a tendencyto feel that the média which are portraying it are somehowto blâme, and that if they could turn it off — with a knobin the case of télévision — then it would go away and itwouldn't exist any more if you didn't hâve to look at it.Janowitz: Well, that is not my position. I was trying tosay, how can the mass média portray riots and handle theproblem in the most responsible way? I think that the massmédia themselves are moving toward a différent approachthan they had before. They are concerned with provocativeaction. In the past they did stage events in order to télévisethem or to photograph them. We certainly see much lessof that today and we are moving in the right direction.But even in the présent circumstances, the moving of atélévision van or the présence of a photographier is to somedegree provocative and a very careful linc has to be drawn.Many of the tactics can be changed. Instead of having alarge van, you can hâve an eyewitncss account. I thinkthat there are tactical questions which should not be over-looked. I am not in any sensé suggesting that a frec anddémocratie society can solve its problems by blaming themass média. However, I think that day-to-day efforts couldimprove the coverage for example, exaggerated amountsof reporting of destruction, excessive amounts of reportingon snipers. I am struck by the fact that when a riot takesplace people really do not know what goes on. To file a story quickly may be prématuré until the reporter has hadsome time to reflect on what actually happened in the riot.Monroe: There are certain techniques that hâve beendeveloped that are widely recognized as a resuit of theriots of last summer and techniques which were applied inApril after the death of Martin Luther King very success-fully in the riots in many cities of this country. They goalong the Unes that you already indicated. There is gêneraiagreement now that you don't bring a big van into a ghettoand try to be there with this obtrusive equipment and coverthat way. You use caméras that are as small as possible.You don't use lights where violence is going on. You treatthings soberly. You take great précautions not to spreadrumors. If you hâve something that sounds as if it might bea fact but may be inflammatory, you make sure of it beforeyou put it on the air. But you do put the news on the air.We hâve a duty to people on ail sides of the community,on ail sides of the controversy, to let them know what ishappening. It is expected of us; and this is what has gotto be done.Janowitz: Well, we certainly would agrée that the problem of the coverage of the riots is only a part of the responsibility of the press. We want to bring into our discussion the positive responsibility — the necessity of portrayingthe full situation. In particular it is crucial to make avail-able to the Negro community a vehicle of expressing itspoint of view. We talked about reporting the news. Butalso the newspapers and télévision are a place for reportingpoints of view. I think we'd ail agrée that the Negro pointof view has not been adequately represented in the massmédia.Northcott: Ycs, I think that this is a very important pointof view because after ail riots, even though they absorb agreat deal of news, really only represent a very small partof the year, in time. What do you do in periods of qui-escence? How do you build up Negro news. Or even duringthe riots — how often are they really reported from a Negropoint of view and not from a white point of view?Hayden: Well, of course, right herc we're getting intotrouble again. We're talking about the Negro point of view.This seems to be based on the assumption that the Negrorace is monolithic, that ail Negrocs go down the same roadat the same time. This was our great pre-riot mistake inDétroit. We thought there was a Negro point of view and4we thought there were Negro leaders who could tell uswhat it was and who could control their people and directthem. We discovered that those that we thought were theNegro leaders — middle-class businessmen, congressmen,and judges — not only couldn't control their Negro neigh-bors, but didn't know what was going on either. Whom doyou go to now for the Negro point of view? We are toldnot the modérâtes. Now there's a new approach that any-body who calls white people "honkies" and says "burn,baby, burn" has automatic documentation as a Negroleader. It is not the easiest thing to try and détermine whereis the voice of the Negro.Monroe: I think you hâve to go in many directions.Certainly you've got to include among the people you goto to speak for Negro sections of the population, you'vegot to go to a number of people who don't say things thatmake the white people particularly comfortable, becausethose people, even if they don't hâve so many card-carryingfollowers with them, hâve what might be described as anemotional constituency. They speak for a lot of Negroesbecause a lot of Negroes— most of them to some degree oranother— are angry. The whites hâve got to know about theexistence of the anger. But there are ail shades of opinionin the Negro community, as you mentioned, as well as inthe white community; and they've ail got to be covered asbest we can.Janowitz: This includes bringing Negro personnel intothe editorial staff and the TV staff. I don't think Negroesare the only ones who can report on the Negro community,but we've been slow at the universities and other parts ofthe society to train and to bring in Negroes on a profes-sional level. I think some steps are being taken in thisdirection.Hayden: It's been very slow as far as newspapers areconcerned. Until ten years ago, with just a couple of exceptions, such as Cari Rowan in Minneapolis, there wereno Negro reporters. I think there was maybe only oneNegro reporter around New York, and that was it for thewhole profession. Now, of course, at least on the majormetropolitan papers, everybody wants to find Negro reporters. And, as I hâve learned, if you get a good one,you'd better never take your eye ofï him or some othereditor will steal him.Monroe: If you get a good one, Fd like to know about it. Hayden: Yes, and our first good one, NBC stole, I mightsay.Northcott: For a long time there was some sort of préjudice against Negro news, wasn't there? I mean Negro newswasn't really news, but white news was news. Is thischanging?Hayden: I think that, for years, it was just ignored. Youremember the old line from "Front Page" back in the early1930's when Hildy Johnson, the police reporter, was ailexcited about a murder — and then it turns out to be blackand he just slams down the receiver. That was certainlytypical of that time and of the big cities. A Negro beingfound dead — well, it didn't excite the police, unfortunately.For a long period it was "them" and if "they" wanted tokill cach other, that was ail right. Those days are gone.Certainly now there is an effort to bring the Negro intothe full community.Janowitz: Yes, but I still think we're lagging behind —even with the big newspapers which hâve a constituencyin the inner city moving ahead. But I do think a lot of thesuburban newspapers, a lot of the radio stations, a lot ofthe média which are oriented toward the suburban, all-white area, still play down the basic events of the ghetto . . .Hayden: Of course . . .Janowitz: Or they just give a distorted view. The metropolitan area must be covered as a generic unit to see thèseproblems in the context of the fact that you cannot make asharp distinction between the inner city and the rest ofthe community. I still think we're lagging behind. It's veryhard to get the média to face up to thèse problems.Monroe: I think that we hâve to do something that'svery difficult that has always been looked on as non-news.We hâve to get away from the négative and the dramaticand the violent as news. We hâve gotten into a periodwhere we've convinced a lot of white people by coverageof riots that — and I'm not going to apologize for it, theriots hâve got to be covered — but we've convinced a lot ofwhite people that the Negro is a menacing, brick throwing,bottle throwing, looting person. A lot of white people, Ithink, hâve become resentful and fearful. There needs tobe some way, and I'm not quite sure how to do it, to getinto the ghetto and hâve reporters and cameramen get intothe ghetto and présent some of thèse people as people,who, in most cases, are just as fearful of the riots as whites5are and just as concerned about maintaining law and order— and, as a matter of fact, suffer more damage and tragedyas a resuit of the riots than whites do. Jimmy Breslin, forinstance, a newsman who gets into the ghetto quite a bit,has made the comment that thèse are not violent people,that when you know them you find that they're not violentpeople, that they're very décent, warm people who are atleast as law-abiding and who sometimes seem more law-abiding than whites. Now this is sort of unbelievable at thispoint to whites. To get over the fear that whites hâve nowgotten of Negroes, partly through the média — through anecessary job on the part of the média — there needs to besome reporting about thèse people as everyday ordinarypeople.Hayden: Well, bearing out your violence point, considerthe forty-three people killed in Détroit during our horribleriot last July. First, we were ail misled on the sniper story.It came from ail directions. Our own reporters were outand they were sure that they were being shot at by snipers.But then, when it was ail over and we did hâve a chanceto recapitulate, we can't pick one single case of the forty-three and say for certain he was killed by a sniper. Thegreat bulk were obviously killed by the police, as allegedlooters and arsonists, and in the committing of othercrime. One policeman was killed by another policeman. Anational guardsman was killed by another national guards-man. But it's apparent that most of the gunfire was fromthe national guard, and so were most of the deaths, includ-ing many that they had no intention of shooting. But youget down to the fact that there was one shoe-store ownerwho was beaten to death by a group of Negro youths whenhe tried to défend his store with a bayonet when they weregoing to loot it. He is the only one we can positively saywas killed by Negro rioters during what had to be theworst riot this country has ever seen of this nature.Monroe: As a resuit of this follow-up investigation youmade to find out what really happened, and having foundout that there was almost no violence that you could pindown that was perpetrated by Negroes against whites,such as sniping, ail of the press has been put on the alertto be very careful about the sniping stories. So far thisyear in the riots there has been great care taken to avoidthe use of sniper stories unless they are confirmed as beingaccurate. It has turned out so far this year that in riots there has been little or no sniping.Janowitz: I was just going to say that, on the positiveside, one of the things that needs to be done is to spell outin détail some of the types of programs that can and arebeing launched to change the situation and to point outthe fact that we are dealing with the problem of years andyears of neglect. I think that thus far the mass média hâvebeen proceeding in rather gênerai terms. I think we hâvegot to get more spécifie in types of programs and types ofactivities that can avoid further riots and to deal with theurban crisis.Northcott: You mean we're getting down to spécifiestories and not just telling stories about the ghetto as a riotarea but carrying stories about the ghetto in a positive way?Janowitz: Yes, and I'm also indicating, both in terms ofanalysis as well as advocacy, what changes hâve to bemade in American society in order to bring this about.Hayden: Do we know what changes hâve to be made atthis stage?Janowitz: Well, we probably don't hâve complète agree-ment but we begin to get some idea of the magnitude . . .Monroe: There've been two very positive stories thathâve been aired or printed in the last few weeks. Both ofthem hâve corne out of the riots in early April. One was inWatts and one was in Newark. Both of thèse stories in-volved a deliberate plan on the part of Negro militants inthèse two areas not to riot. In both cases the militant leaders cooled things and prevented riots, and in both casesit developed that the leaders were now beginning to feelthat they were getting hold of a little power. In Watts,they hâve their own organization, and to an extent— it wasnot true a few years ago— they're running their own community. In Newark, there is the beginning of some realpolitical power affecting the city of Newark that is beingshared with Negroes. They're beginning to feel as if theyhâve a little pièce of power. This would indicate a direction in which we hâve to go.Hayden: There's no doubt about that.Janowitz: I think the story in Chicago is very much thesame. Although there are many factors, one would certainlysay that on the South Side there is a greater involvementof the Negro community in political power and participation than the West Side, where there is, of course, almosttotal exclusion.6Monroe: In a sensé, what it amounts to is that this ideaof black power, which whites are so fearful of, may be asalvation for the community for whites as well as forblacks.Hayden: Well, Morris, wouldn't you agrée— you've beenat this much longer than the rest of us — one danger ispromising too much? For instance, I think that one of themost unfortunate things that Président Johnson ever didwas to say that he was going to abolish poverty. He hasn'tabolished poverty. I don't believe anybody's going toabolish poverty in our lifetime. When the poor are told,"in just a minute we're going to abolish poverty," youbuild up resentments . . .Janowitz: Yes . . .Hayden: I think we've got to be very careful not to gotoo far . . .Janowitz: Yes, I think the présent tensions are rooted inthe fact that people hâve been given promises and theyfeel that they've been lied to, that they've been promisedthings which hâve not been delivered. But in addition tosharing political power, we know that the welfare Systemin this country must be changed. We may not be preparedwith a spécifie plan for changing it, but we must recognizethat it is the welfare System rather than some cultural orracial factor which pauperizes thèse people. So you've gotto begin to discuss, seriously, a whole séries of proposaisfor changing the welfare System. I would say that, alongwith sharing political power and changing the welfareSystem, we've got to face up to the fact that people needto be given jobs.We've got to face up to the fact that the whole notion ofscreening, intelligence testing, and ail of those things, arebasically further middle-class barriers against employment.Other minority groups were able to get into the labormarket without this elaborate protocol. I think that wemust take risks and put people into jobs and train themafter they get their jobs.Northcott: Then is it the media's job to prépare peoplefor the acceptance of this?Hayden: I think we've got to tell the story as it is andcompletely. In this matter of jobs, for instance, in Détroitail the automobile companies are working on jobs for thehard-core unemployed. But the Ford Motor Companystory is interesting. They hâve taken 5,000 people in by lowering previous qualifications. That sounds good — if youstop right there. But then they report that 40 percent ofthem hâve quit. Now that sounds very bad unless you putin another figure, that in those low skills the normal turnover is 52 percent. So you're right back where the program looks good. But then cornes Henry Ford, who says,look, we hâve taken the best; thèse are the men who usedto work in car washes, etc., that hâve families that wereused to going to work and coming home each night. Hesaid it isn't going to be this successful when we move tothe next layer down, to the ones that hâve no expérience.The point is the story isn't meaningful unless you tell itail the way through.Janowitz: It isn't only meaningful, you hâve to tell it indepth. American industry for the first time is changing itstactics. Up until now it emphasized screening and gettingthe cream of the work force. Now it is starting to changeits viewpoint. This is a big story. Not ail the companieshâve done it, but many of them hâve done it. And this isnot only true of the industrial sector, it's also true in manyother areas, where you had necessity for advanced degreesand ail kinds of qualifications which I think are artificialwhite middle-class barriers against participation. In éducation, nursing, and the like we've gone too far in excessivespecialization in the educational System which works againstNegroes.Northcott: How do you envisage the télévision coverageof this sort of thing?Monroe: Documentaries hâve a limited effect becausepeople don't watch them to the same degree that they watchregular news programs. You can cover day-to-day news.I think the effects of the Huntley-Brinkley, Walter Cron-kite, Bob Young programs, regular, evening newseasts.are much more powerful in the long run, cumulativelypowerful, than the effects of individual documentaries.although documentaries are also important. But in termsof covering the people who hâve the solutions to theproblems Morris is talking about, this is being done, willincreasingly be done, and will focus thinking upon variouspossibilities of getting jobs and so forth.Janowitz: Well, we're not interested in having the pressjust push one solution, because we're not interested in justhaving one solution. It's a question of having alternativesolutions very carefully debated and discussed. C7sThe QuestatLoch NessNo group on earth is more sensitive to the hazards ofpursuing controversial research than The Loch NessPhenomena Investigation Bureau Limited. Bedeviled bycuriosity seekers and misleading reports, mischievouslybandied by the international press, scoffed at by skeptics,distrusted by a local citizenry anxious about its chief tour-ist attraction, struggling for funds, and still fighting aclimate of préjudice inherited from an old era of hoaxes,the Bureau is persistently accumulating a burden of évidence that the mysterious water of Loch Ness, Scotland,do indeed harbor a herd of sea monsters.However, the terms "sea monster" and "sea serpent"may soon be laid to rest, or at least finally divested of theirbizarre or supernatural connotations. The évidence col-lected at Loch Ness and elsewhere increasingly points toquite natural aquatic animais as the cause of the centuriesof superstition and sensation.The Bureau was founded in 1962 by a group of men ofdiverse backgrounds who wished to place the investigationof the Loch Ness phenomena on a firm scientific basis andto provide a clearing-house for the scattered évidence.Roy P. Mackal, SB'49, PhD'53, Research Associate (As-sociate Prof essor) in the Department of Biochemistry, isa member of the Bureau's board of directors and head ofthe scientific portion of the research team. He joined thegroup following a 1965 vacation visit to the loch and nowcommutes to give part of his time during what hâvebecome hectic summer quarters. The founder and chieforganizer is David James, also a director and a formerMember of Parliament.Left: Médiéval conception of a sea monster. from Book IV ofKonrad Gesner's Historiae Animalium, published about 1555 AD.9The work of the Bureau is nonprofit and chiefly volun-tary. Any financial proceeds from film, télévision, or pressrights go to The World Wildlife Fund. Supporters fromthis side of the Atlantic include the Chicago AdventurersClub, which made a vitally-needed donation in 1966, andField Enterprises of Chicago, publishers of the WorldBook Encyclopedia, which made major contributions tohelp pay for research expenses in 1967 and 1968. TheBureau also is supported by international subscribers, whoreceive newsletters and annual reports and are eligible tojoin in the field work, and by tourist contributions.The world's mythology and early literature is replètewith accounts of fantastic créatures of the deep whichpreyed on seafarers who ventured into uncharted waters.However, few persons outside nautical circles are awarethat reports by responsible persons of "sea serpents" continue to corne in with more or less regular frequency.Bernard Heuvelmans, the Belgian naturalist, says an aver-age of three reports per year hâve been made since 1800;about a third of thèse are written off as hoaxes or mistakes,leaving an average of two per year which may be con-sidered reliable. Heuvelmans' extensive study, Le GrandSerpent de Mer (Librairie Pion, 1965), has been trans-lated into English and is scheduled for October publication under the title, In the Wake of the Sea-Serpents (Hill& Wang, 1968). This 640-page compendium examineshundreds of sighting reports, punctures "monster" mythsthat go back to the biblical leviathan and the HomericScylla, and organizes the abundant évidence into a cogentargument for the existence of a handful of rare but realaquatic species.A sampling of "monster" sightings since the middle ofthe 19th century:— 1848. The captain and crew of H. M. S. Daedahts,sailing in the south Atlantic, observed an "enormous serpent," an estimated sixty feet of which was above water,pass within spitting distance of their ship.— 1893. A doctor and his wife, sailing in a small boatoff the Isle of Skye, saw a "saurian type" créature re-peatedly stick its mast-high neck out of the water less than200 yards away.— 1915. A German U-boat crew, watching a Britishsteamer it had just torpedoed go down off the west coastof France, saw an estimated sixty-fivc-foot "gigantic marine animal," shaped like a "crocodile," thrown into the airwith some wreckage from an underwater explosion.— 1947. The officers of the Santa Clara entered in theship's log (for which there was a $500 fine for a falseentry) that the vessel had inadvertently steamed over andwounded a large marine animal. Its body was describedas dark brown and cylindrical in shape, about three feetthick, with about thirty-five feet in length visible at thesurface of the water.— 1963. The director of a United States fish and wildlife research center and his colleagues observed an un-known forty-foot eel-like créature off the Atlantic coastof the United States.— 1964. A noted charter-boat skipper went fishing for"sea monsters" off the Bahamas, using specially-madeheavy-duty equipment. He hooked, but was unable toland, several créatures which towed his forty-foot boat forhours against the full power of its engines and on oneoccasion bit through the steel fishing line.A. Veports of strange créatures in fresh-water lakes areeven more numerous. Farmers living around the shores ofSkoradalsvatn, a lake in Iceland, repeatedly sighted acréature they called the "skrimsl" up until the end of the19th century. And local legends are still nourished by reliable contemporary reports of "monster" sightings in LakeOkanagan in British Columbia, lakes in Sweden and theSoviet Union, the loughs of Connemara, Ireland, andseveral "Lochs na Beiste" in Scotland.But it is the unexplained activity in Loch Ness whichhas captured the bulk of world interest in unknown créatures of the deep. The character of the loch makes it anidéal setting for an aquatic mystery. A picturesque moun-tain scène in fair weather, its waters take on a forbiddingand sinister aspect under a grey overcast. Beneath thesurface is a steep-walled canyon, a mile wide and over 700feet deep along much of its twenty-four-mile length. Thepeat-saturated waters admit no light bcyond two or threefeet from the surface, and the température of the lowerdcpths remains a chilly forty degrees ail year round. Un-nerved divers report clinging ribbons of slime below the10Above: Famous "surgeon' s photo," taken at Loch Ness by a Lon-don surgeon in 1934 and published in the Daily Mail. Calculationshased on factors such as caméra angle and lens focal length indi-cate that the neck protrudes six to eight feet out of the water.(Copyright by World Book Encyclopedia.)fifty-foot level, and they often décline to return to thecerie blackness.The largest body of fresh water in the British Isles, LochNess is part of an active waterway, the Caledonian Canal System, which cuts diagonally across the west Highlandsfrom the Atlantic to the North Sea. An arm of the sea5,000 to 7,000 years ago, the loch is now drained at itsnortheast end by the river Ness, controlled by a lockSystem before it enters Moray Firth and the North Sea atthe town of Inverness. The plankton content is low, butthe loch is well populated with fish and eels. The loch andriver Ness and the city of Inverness are said to hâve takentheir names from the water goddess, Nesa — which manytake as a clear indication that the région has been asso-11ciated with strange aquatic goings-on from very earlytimes.At the time of the reign of Macbeth the legend ofLoch Ness already was hundreds of years old. St. Adam-nan, in his 6th-century biography of St. Columba, wrote of"the driving away of a certain water monster by virtue ofprayer of the holy man," giving a vivid account of theby then century-old taie. Columba, Adamnan says, hap-pened upon the river Ness just in time to save a swimmerfrom the jaws of a "fierce monster" which had killedanother traveler only hours previously. Columba's com-mand, "Quick, go back!," caused the beast to fiée in terror— incidentally thereby moving several heathen to recon-sider their religious orientation.This first recorded encounter with "Nessie," as the LochNess créature is called by local inhabitants, is remarkablein that it contains the only description of ferociousness onthe part of an animal otherwise known for its extrêmeshyness. St. Columba is said to hâve had an unusuallypowerful voice, used to good advantage in reaching thewarlike men of the ancient Highlands. One modem interpréter of the Adamnan text notes that, discounting theunderstandable proselytizing, the story may reflect an incident wherein shouts or other noise startled the elusiveNessie into an abrupt retreat, a common feature of manymodem reports.X Messie thereafter was a permanent fixture in the localfolklore, doing occasional service as a convenient sermonicexample of infernal enterprise or a bogey for discipliningunruly youngsters. But despite the médiéval équivalent ofan image problem, Nessie never really was regarded as asupernatural being by those who lived around the loch.The citizens who were believers — and many weren't —tended to think of Nessie as a natural if somewhat fear-some créature. It was the press, excited tourists, and a fewhoaxters that were later to be responsiblc for the "monster"image.The flood of modem sightings and the rcal quest beganwhen, in 1933, construction of a new road was startcdalong the north shore of the loch, opening up areas of the precipitous shoreline which until then had been accessibleonly with difficulty. That summer, a couple driving alongthe new route early one morning were astonished to corneupon a huge beast with a long slender neck, lumberingacross the road toward the loch some twenty yards away.They were unable to see the creature's limbs because of adip in the road, but they described the body as about fourfeet high and, including the neck, about twenty-five feetlong.They were a reputable couple, a company director andhis wife, previously unaware of the legend of the loch,and their story caused great excitement in the press. Theirswas a rare land sighting, and several water sightings fol-lowed as the traffic on the road picked up. A few seriousinvestigators took interest, but, as the year wore on, thenumber of sightings swelled to a déluge, with many reports fancifully embroidered. The situation soon became acircus of spéculation, sensational publicity, elaborate trap-ping schemes, and reward offers. A hoaxter with a stuffedhippopotamus foot made some tracks in the mud besidethe loch and succeeded in fooling many enthusiasts beforethe deceit was exposed by experts from the British Muséum. That closed the matter for ail hitherto interestedscientists, who no longer dared associate themselves withan affair that had become the butt of every music-hallcomedian in the British Isles.A few small private expéditions went to the loch in 1933and 1934 but achieved virtually nothing. The most sub-stantial of them, backed and organized by Sir EdwardMountain, stationed twenty cameramen around the lochfor a month. They made several sightings but succeededonly in getting a few poor-quality photographs of thecréature or its wake at some distance. What the attemptdid prove was that, without extraordinary good fortune,the vital close-up photos could be obtained only by amajor expédition.Meanwhile, although science had turned its back, thetourist business was booming, and strict législation waspasscd to protect Nessie from harm. Reports of sightingsby responsible persons continued to corne in, but theworld's attention was focussed on the increasingly gravepolitical events in Europe. The Loch Ness mystery sub-sided to a local matter, not to be revived on the international scène for a quarter of a century.12-J.-W^W^^^ff^W^"..-Above: Photo taken in 1955 near Urquhart Caslle ruins at LochNess by P. A. MacNab. Top of tower is si.xty-four feet above waterlevel. (Copyright by World Book Encyclopedia.)The worthwhile évidence which turned up in the inter-vening years was not lost, however. Some spectacularphotos were picked up by the press, and a few publications by Iay persons were added to the literature. The firstof thèse, The Loch Ness Monster and Others by Commander R. T. Gould, was a careful attempt to review theexisting évidence, written by a man experienced in in-vestigating curious phenomena. But the book, appearingwithout professional countenance at the time of the hoaxesand early hysteria, went unnoticed by the scientific community.After the war years were comfortably outdistanced, thepublic once again began to pay attention to the Loch Nessphenomena. Science, too, was in a new mood. The Hima- layan expédition in search of the yeti, or "abominablesnowman," showed that adventure and the challenge ofunravelling an intriguing mystery might legitimately moti-vate a serious investigation— an attitude always close to thehearts of scientists, but much restrained, at least in public,since the Enlightenment.In 1954, Father J. A. Carruth, a monk at St. Benedict's,the abbey at Ft. Augustus at the southwestem end of theloch, published Loch Ness and Its Monster, a booklet con-taining, among other things, his translation of the Adamnan text. In 1957, Dr. Constance Whyte, wife of the canalmanager at Loch Ness, published More Than a Legend,containing a rich assortaient of ancient taies of encounterswith Nessie and many récent eyewitness accounts.The growing publicity came to a head in the summer of1960 when Tim Dinsdale, an aeronautical engineer, re-tumed to London with the first substantial film record.Dinsdale had become interested in the mystery after read-13ing an eyewitness story in a magazine. He collected theavailable literature and, having convinced himself thatthere was some truth to the matter, set off for the loch ona solo expédition, armed with a 16-mm movie caméra anda small telephoto lens. He was rewarded with a thirty-footfilm séquence that was subsequently shown on BBC télévision; a dark form in the water about a mile distant,moving away from the caméra at unusual speed and leav-ing a heavy wake, then submerging and travelling beneaththe surface, leaving a smaller but clearly discemible wake.Dinsdale had had the foresight to shoot, for comparisonpurposes and on the same roll, a small boat travelling thesame approximate route. Five years later, at the urging ofthe Bureau, the film was studied by British governmentphoto intelligence experts, whose report stated that thesubject matter "probably is an animate object." Dinsdalehad succeeded, as he said in his 1961 book, Loch NessMonster, in "grasping the monster by the tail."Many scientists now began to look on the Loch Nessmystery as due to "unexplained phenomena," a far cryfrom what was previously dismissed as hysteria, myth, orhoax. The Bureau was formed, and regular photographiesurveillance was instituted, at first only of the most promis-ing areas of the loch and increasing to this year's ninetypercent surface coverage throughout the five-month sum-mer season.The Bureau considers ail théories which might explainthe phenomena, such as gas bubbles (the loch is really ageological fault, still shifting, with rock strata on one sidedisplaced about sixty-five miles from matching strata onthe other side) or vegetable mats— "hardly capable oftravelling ten miles an hour," Mackal notes.The Bureau "leans over backwards," Mackal empha-sizes, to authenticate ail évidence. A record is kept of ailobjects moving on Loch Ness during the five-month surveillance. Thus the Bureau can quickly détermine if arash of sightings was caused by a floating log or if itshould investigate further. Tourists frequently mistake for"humps" the standing waves caused by the wake of a boatmeeting its wave train reflected from shore; consequentlyail such sightings within twenty minutes of the passageof a boat are discounted. The Bureau considers reportsonly from persons willing to fill out a questionnaire andgive their names and addresses. Mackal says that over half Typical caméra station, altended by Clem Lister Skelton, theBureau's résident technician. In center of rig is a 35-mm filmcaméra with a 1 ,000 -mm telephoto lens. Outboard caméras takestereo photos to show distance. Newer rigs hâve range fmders.the alleged sightings by the gênerai public are illusory,resulting from what might be a real sighting of an inani-mate object or commonplace animal "coupled with astrong psychological bias to observe the unusual." Thereal work of the Bureau, he says, is "to détermine thenature of the remaining phenomena, which cannot beexplained in thèse terms."Newspaper stories are becoming more responsible now,except for minor spurts of sensationalism or bloopers likementioning "the beach" at Loch Ness. "At least they'vestopped saying things like we're trying to heat up theloch," Mackal says.The improved publicity has helped recruit a long list ofresponsible volunteers, including collège students and pro-fessional people, many from countries as far away as theUnited States. Chosen for their "ability, seriousness, andpatience," thèse people provide their own transportationto the loch, join the Bureau (for $12), and pay a $15 fee.In retum they get a two-week working vacation at one ofthe seven caméra stations, with trailer accommodationsand food provided by the Bureau.A typical station has a 35-mm film caméra and range-14finding equipment. The caméra is fitted with a large telephoto lens, capable of identifying a milk carton in thewater at a distance of two and a half miles. Volunteerswork in crews of two, a System which reduces the tendency,sometimes encountered with a single observer, to exag-gerate sightings. The best conditions for an appearance byNessie are fair weather and a fiât calm, but reflectionsmake observing more difficult during thèse times. TheBureau has checked the dates of the most reliable pastsightings with meteorological records and found that thereis a close corrélation between prolonged sightings andhigh-pressure atmospheric conditions.The patient watching is paying off. In 1966, for example, eight out of the twenty-nine sightings "accepted"by the Bureau were made by its own personnel. On June13, 1967, an important film record was obtained of asighting. But Mackal is impatient to collect better évidencethan observational data. "What's needed is concrète évidence that can be studied, analyzed, measured."Besides the daytime photographie project, the Bureau isemploying nighttime float trips down the loch, with flash-equipped caméras and a spécial dart-gun, designed byMackal, capable of retrieving a tiny biopsy of Nessie'shide. The latter is especially important if it is ever to bedetermined conclusively that a living créature is involved.The University of Birmingham is mounting a sonar in-Loch Ness Caméra Stations vestigation of the loch, with equipment sensitive enoughto make out the size and shape of underwater objectswithin its range. Sonar was tried before, but the rockyunderwater walls of the loch produced multiple echoesthat scrambled the results. Plugged into the equipment thisyear is a computer which may be able to sort out thesignais.Nessie's characteristics, observed or inferred from dataover the years, are roughly as follows: about thirty-fivefeet long; body about six feet in diameter, frequentlydescribed as resembling an "upturned boat" in the water;slender neck about five to eight feet long and about onefoot in diameter; long tapering tail; at least two but possi-bly four flippers; small head and eyes; rough blackish-brown hide; swims by paddling and/or tail-action andable to achieve speeds up to ten miles an hour; often présents a multiple-humped appearance; probably feeds onfish or eels; easily frightened by noise; has no cry otherthan an occasionally heard swishing or breathing sound;makes rare (seven accounts in thirty-five years) excursionson land; prefers basking in the sun (up to forty minutesobserved) during mirror-calm early-morning conditions.Dinsdale suggests that Nessie may be a plesiosaur, agiant reptile left over from the mesozoic era of 100 to 200million years ago. The physical description fits moderatelywell, and the scientific world is not without examples ofliving things thought to be long extinct but "discovered"in modem times. The ginkgo tree growing at the northeastcorner of Botany Pond on the UC campus is one such"living fossil," known to paleobiologists only from fossilrecords going back 300 million years— until some seed-lings were brought back from China to be planted on university grounds and arboretums everywhere. And in récentyears the sea has yielded at least two such important dis-coveries, the coelacanth, a fish of the genus Latimeria, andNeopilina, a primitive mollusc, both previously knownonly as fossils even older than the ginkgo.Heuvelmans suggests that Nessie is a "long-necked sea-serpent," one of several new species he proposes from hisstatistical studies of 587 "monster" sightings from aroundthe world. Despite its formidable name, the long-neckedsea-serpent is but an extraordinarily large and long-neckedmember of the otherwise unextraordinary pinnipeds, theseals and walruses. The pinnipeds are fish-eaters and can15live with equal comfort in sait or fresh water. The newlong-necked species, Heuvelmans says, is "completelycosmopolitan," seen everywhere but in polar waters. Mostreports give its length as between fifteen and sixty-five feet,with only a few extravagant estimâtes going beyond thatrange. Aside from its satisfactory physical description, ithas a number of characteristics which make it a goodcandidate for the cause of the Loch Ness phenomena, ac-cording to Heuvelmans. The long-necked's loose-fitting,fat-layered hide may be deformed as the créature bends,producing the humped appearance so often reported. Itmay hâve small erectile breathing-tubes around its nostrils,permitting it to breathe with almost total concealment andaccounting for the occasional reports of "horns" on Nessie'shead.The long-necked sea-serpent, Heuvelmans says, is a"rising" species, being reported with increasing frequencysince its earliest sighting in 1846 and accounting for thegreatest share of "monster" sightings in modem times. Hesays the long-necked "looks like a récent species, in process of specialization, rather than an ancient one." In theWake of the Sea-Serpents only briefly discusses the LochNess phenomena, but Heuvelmans promises a new bookin the near future on unknown fresh-water animais,wherein he proposes to examine the Loch Ness créaturein more détail.Mackal feels that of the types of créatures that con-ceivably could account for the phenomena in Loch Ness —if, indeed, living créatures are responsible — the sirenians,or sea cows, and pinnipeds head the list. But he regardsthe sirenians as the more likely of the two because theyprésent fewer problems in cxplaining the évidence. (Mackalis somewhat put off by the disproportionately long neckand the knobby "horns" in Heuvelmans' drawing of hisproposed long-necked sea-serpent. The drawing exag-gerates Heuvelmans' own text, and so an over-zealousartist may share the blâme. However, Mackal says, thedrawing may needlessly give critics an opportunity to ridicule the proposai by alluding to "martian antennae.")Pinnipeds hâve a number of characteristics difficult toreconcile with data from Loch Ness. They are notoriouslybold and curious créatures that bark a lot, Mackal notes.Pinnipeds breed on land and spend a great deal of timeout of the water during their lives. They're hairy, short- necked animais, not known to exceed the 15-to-20-footlength of the largest spécimens of the éléphant seal.The sirenians, on the other hand, include a speciesknown as rhytina, or Steller's sea cow, which has beenobserved up to thirty-five feet long. Mackal says that apossible relative of this créature pro vides the best workinghypothesis for explaining the Loch Ness phenomena. Ex-cept for its thicker neck, rhytina closely matches Nessie'sphysical description, even to an "overturned boat" state-ment by G. W. Steller, the man who first described rhytinain 1753 and for whom it is given its full name, Rhytinastelleri. Steller measured a 24.7-foot spécimen on a beachof Bering Island. Its 4.3-foot neck would, if increasedproportionately, measure over 6 feet for a 35-foot spécimen. Thus, although a much thinner neck is reported forthe Loch Ness créature (8 to 12 inches, versus Steller'smeasurement of 26 inches), no drastic skeletal différencesneed be postulated.r>JL Vmytina has been observed only rarely for the past 150years — the most récent sighting an unconfirmed one by a1962 Soviet expédition to the Bering Sea — and little isknown of its swimming habits. However, the mode oflocomotion that can be deduced from its anatomy is highlycompatible with the évidence from Loch Ness. Sirenianshâve two flippered forelimbs and a horizontally flattenedtail. It is conceivable that an up-and-down swimmingmotion accounts for the reports of humps. Mackal saysit is more likely that the humps are merely two or morecréatures close together, inasmuch as there hâve beenmany reports and a film of two separate créatures. Besides,Mackal notes, if Nessie is a variety of rhytina, the humpsmight be a youngster riding on the back of a female, abehavior well established in sirenians. Also, sirenians areknown to position themselves vertically upright in thewater, a habit noted in some reports of the Loch Nesscréature and seen in the "surgeon's photo."The chief objection to the theory that Nessie is a sirenianis the matter of dict. Known sirenians are exclusivelyvegetable-caters, while Nessie, considering the ecology ofthe loch, is likely to be a fish-eater. However, Mackalsays, examples of striking adaptations to différent food16supplies are common in the animal world.In other respects Nessie's habits correspond well withthose of the commonly observed sirenians, the dugongsand the manatees. Dugong hunters in Australia describe thenecessity for silence in their work, and sensitivity of manatees to the human voice has been observed. Althoughprincipally salt-water animais, sirenians are known to beable to live comfortably in fresh water. Dugongs hâve beenkept in captivity in fresh water in India for a décade, andmanatees inhabit the Amazon and Orinoco river Systemsin South America. Sirenians are shy, surreptitious créatures, able to stay under water for up to half an hour andable to breathe by exposing only their nostrils above thesurface. They also exhibit the surface-basking behaviorobserved in the Loch Ness créature.Although the air-breathing sirenians are occasionallyfound stranded by the tide, there is no évidence that theknown marine forms voluntarily leave the water. However,a quote from Steller leaves room to suspect that amphibianbehavior should not be ruled out: Steller said that a "maiecame two days in succession to its female which was lyingdead on the beach as if he would inform himself about hercondition."Nessie has made relatively few appearances this year,probably due to the generally unfavorable weather duringthe surveillance season. Mackal, still primarily concemedwith the problem of getting concrète évidence, is lookingforward to some new approaches, now under discussion,that may prove fruitful. One plan is to dredge the bottomof the loch in the hope of bringing up some skeletal remains. Another is to initiate extended float trips, in a craftcapable of providing sleeping facilities, to improve possi-bilities of getting a biopsy or close-up photos.With so formidable an effort, the chances are good thatsooner or later the Loch Ness phenomena will be explainedto the satisfaction — or chagrin — of the most hardenedskeptic. Of course the irrational charm of this ancientmystery must be relinquished — a price frequently exactedby science, but just as often repaid in the richer specie offresh knowledge and its higher order of fascination. AsMackal says, "It would, of course, be gratifying if one'sown théories were substantiated. But I personally wouldprefer the final explanation to be something entirely new toscience." — CK Hypothetical "long-necked sea-serpent." according to BernardHeuvelmans, the Belgian naturalist. His statistical sludies of seamonster reports indicate likelihood of the existence of this fifteen-to-sixty-five-foot pinniped (seal and walrus family). The long-necked, Heuvelmans says, is a world-wide océan species and isprobably the créature in Loch Ness. (Copyright by Hill & Wang.)Hypothetical sirenian (sea cow family), according to Roy P. Mackalof the UC faculty, which may account for the Loch Ness phenomena. Mackel says sirenians présent the fewest diffiadties ofany known créature in explaining the data from Loch Ness. Rhytina, the largest sirenian, has been observed up to thirty-five feet long.17Biological Intervention inHnman Life: The Moral IssuesDwight J. IngleThe wise application of knowledge can free man fromseveral forms of biological enslavement; but it does involverisk.Because of the threats of nuclear war and overpopula-tion and because of concern for the freedom of individualsto pursue the indispensable goals of self-fulfillment andhappiness, the world is anxious that rights, freedoms, andthe ethics of intervention be clearly defined and safe-guarded.Because of risk, there always has been ambivalence to-ward the application of knowledge. Every surgeon — andhis patients — knows this well. The use of ail drugs involves the risk of overdosage or unwanted side effects. Afew deaths may occur from vaccinations which otherwisehâve almost wiped out some of man's great killing diseases.But it also must be recognized that the risk of interveningis balanced against the risk assumed by not intervening.Almost every new biological intervention has been op-posed by some individual or group fearful of a threat tofreedom. But cannot the same be said of social and political interventions?I accept the premise that man should evolve toward in-creasing freedom from cultural and genetic handicaps in acompétitive society that supports equal basic rights. Thèseinclude the right of the individual to advance according toabilitics, drives, interests, and assumption of duties. I accept the premise that the hopes of man must be compatiblewith his biological nature and that society must attend tobiological as well as social individuality.A science writer recently made the following prédictionabout the near future: "Expanding everyone's abilities willbe a chief concern of our national life. It is quite safe tosay that the avcragc studcnt of the year 2000 would beconsidered in today's terms, a gcnius." Yes, it is safe to saythis; one has only to speak the words, for it is not danger-ous to make false prophecies and it commonly leads toapplause if it is a prédiction that the listener wants to hear.But I believe that the writer meant that there was no riskof being wrong. I do not believe that society can moveDwight J. Ingle is Professor of Physiology and Editor ofPerspectives in Biology and Medicine. This article is the textof an address to the Conférence on Libéral Arts and the 20thCentury Cultural Révolution at St. Xavier Collège.18 very far in the direction of expanding abilities without attention to their biological bases. Politicians and social re-formers are trying to build a great society without consider-ing the biological roots of social problems.To what extent will it become possible to control émotions and behavior by psycho-pharmacologie drugs whichintervene with the chemical brain? Some drugs are usefulin the treating of the emotionally ill, but none is idéal. Thephenomena of escape from drug action, unfavorable sideeffects, adaptation, and some degree of addiction occurwith most of them.Many individuals voluntarily seek this form of intervention. Sir William Osier once stated that the principaldifférence between the lower animais and man is the tendency of the latter to seek drugs. I am not expert in thisfield and should be awed into silence by enthusiastic prédictions that human intelligence can be enhanced by "getsmart" pills, or that drugs will permit periods of "super-thought"; but, nevertheless, I proclaim skepticism.A review of the ability of neurophysiologists to affectthe behavior of animais and of man by wiring the brainwith électrodes has frightened some people who take seri-ously the prédictions of a few scientists that this will some-day be widely used to control behavior. Perhaps I misjudgethe risk, but the possibility that this form of interventionwill be extensively used or misused is not among my manyworries about the future.sLlome médical science writers and even a few médicalscientists with undisciplined imaginations hâve advised thepublic that the transplantation of human and animal organsto man and the use of artifïcial organs will fully replacedétective and diseased organs as a mechanic replaces theworn parts of a car. Such procédures for prolonging lifeand improving organ functions already represent remark-able skills and technology which will continue to improvebut will always scar the body and frequently the spirit. Itis unreasonable to suppose that organ transplants will everbe preferred to the prévention of diseasc.It is generally agreed that current and anticipated ratesof population growth threaten the future of man and thatthe alternative to famine, disease and wars as checks tooverpopulation is conception control. The barriers to population control do not arise out of science. Effective but notidéal means are known. Conception can be prevented bymechanical means or by chemicals which suppress eitherspermatogenesis or ovulation, prevent the union of thesperm and ova, prevent implantation of the fertilized ova,or cause reabsorption or expulsion of the embryo. It seemsprobable that both mechanical and chemical means of in-suring permanent sterility will be perfected.One of the greatest affronts to the taboos embraced byour religious, social, légal, and ethical Systems is the proposai that abortion be made freely available to terminateunwanted pregnancy. Garrett Hardin has eloquently ra-tionalized that abortion is a backstop for contraception,and that when properly done it produces a minimum ofundesirable side effects; présent methods used within twomonths following conception are only about one-sixth asdangerous as normal childbirth. The principal objection isthat the destruction of human life at any state is akin tomurder. Hardin asks: "Are ail human beings of whateverâge equally valuable? — What is at issue in abortion is areal conflict between the value of the mother (and to alesser extent her family) and the value of a 10-mm embryo."The embryo is not yet a developed individual but is abiologie blueprint of one. Prior to the maturation of itsnervous System the embryo can hâve no consciousness ofself, no will to live, no fear of death. The value of theembryo is judged by Hardin to be like that of the unjoinedegg and sperm — ail are alive but need not be salvaged.This is the gist of the argument that the décision to abortan unwanted embryo is the private concern of the hostand should be one of her basic freedoms. Is the use ofan abortifacient less ethical than the use of an antiovula-tory compound? I am chary of this step toward freeingwomen of the risk of bearing unwanted children but can-not rationalize my hésitation on biological grounds.I believe that, since man must limit his numbers, effortsto control conception should be focused on those who foreither cultural or biological reasons are unqualified forparenthood. Although négative eugenics relates to programs of family planning, they are not identical. The latterdo not necessarily aim to limit the size of the family and may be concerned with correction of infertility as well ascontrol of fertility. Programs of eugenics aim to regulatepopulation growth and to restrict reproduction to personsmost capable of endowing children with a reasonablechance to achieve happiness, self-sufficiency, and goodcitizenship.T-1 he impact that a program of négative eugenics couldhâve on the quality of a population would be determinedby the number of persons in the program and the reliabilityof the methods used to identify those unqualified to repro-duce. Since most deleterious gènes are récessive, it isusually accepted that négative eugenics would not soonhâve a conspicuous effect on the incidence of diseases, thecompétence, and the social welfare of a nation. For thisand other reasons, some critics argue that such a programshould not be tried.Some writers decry eugenics because of the supposedrisk that it would lead to an ebbing of the pool of désirablegènes, especially certain récessive defects that bestow in-creased fitness on the heterozygous carriers who are de-scribed as examples of hybrid vigor, or heterosis. The clas-sic example is the récessive gène for sickle-cell anémia,which is almost always lethal when homozygous but isclaimed to confer some protection against malaria whenheterozygous. This hypothesis is supported by strong évidence but is not considered firmly established by ail whoare interested in the problem. There are other examples ofheterosis, and it is supposed by some that they are com-mon, not rare. I, who hâve no compétence in this field, amnot convinced that heterosis is a true example of hybridvigor or that its réduction by eugenics would harm thebiological compétence of man.Those who fear that a program of eugenics would riskdepletion of the pool of désirable gènes should also be concerned by the probability that the practice of conceptioncontrol by the upper classes is removing prime gènes fromthe gène pool and thereby causing a relative réduction ofgenetic diversity.Education and counseling for mating and reproductioncan favorably affect health and happiness, and the pilot19programs that are currently possible will provide expérience needed to guide the évolution of eugenics. Forcedintervention that extends beyond current restrictions onmating seems not désirable unless procédures that shouldnot be entrusted to individual préférences are developed.For example, a simple means of controlling the sex of ouroffspring could threaten man's future.P-JL ositive eugenics has a far greater potential effect on thegenetic compétence of a population. H. J. Muller andJulian Huxley hâve recommended programs of upgradingbiological compétence which could — but need not —threaten genetic diversity. They hâve suggested that theentering wedge of positive sélection could be the increasedvoluntary use of artificial insémination among infertilecouples, who number about ten percent of the population.Since it can be kept viable and potent over long periods,sperm collected from great men who hâve a family historyof good health and achievement could be stored indefinitelyto await withdrawal by enlightened couples who désire thebest of human évolution. The name eutelegenesis was in-troduced for this process more than twenty-five years ago,but the technology has not been perfected.Would the process of freezing and thawing or the pro-longed exposure to background radiation increase thesperm's number of harmful mutations? It seems improbable that any technological barriers to the development ofeutelegenesis will remain unsolved.Other possible means of modifying and transferringgenetic information, such as directed mutations, the tailor-ing of a desired molécule of DNA, and transplants ofnuclei from one cell into an egg cell may someday bccomepossible but are currently not imminent. The issues raiscdby this and other possible means of improving man's genetic endowment arc as sensitive as those based on artificial insémination. Methods of genetic engineering, if perfected, will possibly be effective in dealing with singlc-genetraits only. A relativcly small number of rather rare dis-cases will be amcnable to such treatment; the hereditarycomponents of most human traits and diseases are poly-genic and far more responsive to change by sélectivebreeding. Why should man hesitate to intervene with known geneticcauses of human misery? It is sometimes claimed that tomanipulate the genetic endowment of man — as we do withthe lower animais — is distasteful and immoral. However,the almost random breeding of man is biologically similarto the way the animais breed; should not man wish bet-ter? Only when animal breeding is guided by human intelligence is genetic endowment rapidly improved. If tospeak against man playing God has any meaning, what rôleis played when one adopts laissez-faire in response to anopportunity to prevent human misery?The goals of individual eugenists vary widely. It is truethat some scientists concerned with the genetic future ofman aim for uniformity of some traits of physical and mental superiority. I agrée with critics of such proposais; manlacks the knowledge and wisdom to undertake more thansimple advisory programs of genetic counseling for thosewho volutarily seek guidance.Some scientists as well as nonscientists hold that theévolution of humanness is incompatible with the proposedpolicies of positive eugenics. Catherine Roberts, discussingthe scientific conscience and the dehumanizing conséquences of the eugenists' proposais, writes: "And I wouldsay that positive eugenists, despite their eamest intentions,know nothing — absolutely nothing — about the genetic ba-sis of love and virtue and that it is misleading to the worldat large to even include such human traits in a prospectusof their policy."-M^t is true that very little is known of the genetic basis oflove and virtue, but this does not mcan there is no biological basis or if one exists that it will remain undiscovered.There are no effective social, légal, or biological curbs onthe reproduction of antisocial individuals, and it is sometimes claimed that they have, on the average, more children than individuals exhibiting altruism and virtue. If thisis truc and if there are genetic bases of thèse traits, shouldsuch trends be allowcd, in the name of humanness, to continue unopposed? Further knowledge and debate areneeded.I disagree with Catherine Roberts' generalization that20"Whatever a man's genetic makeup, he is uniquely humanand therefore in possession of an immortal spark and aspiritual héritage." There are many persons, ill in mindand body because of poor biologie endowment, in whomspiritual qualities such as altruism, love of one's neighbor,and self-denial either do not exist or are masked by misery.A sound mind does not always require complète sound-ness of body, but there is a positive corrélation that can beseen by visiting the wards of hospitals, especially thosethat are public or custodial. I believe that programs ofeugenics can complément the évolution of humanness.V_^ther writers claim that molecular biologists of theforeseeable future will be able to control human develop-ment so that genetic defects can be corrected after conception (euphenics). I hâve heard the refrain before. When Ientered the field of endocrinology, some researchers werepredicting it would soon be possible to command ail phasesof development of physique and intellect by regulating thehormones. What happened was exciting and important tomedicine, but no disease or personality defect has beenabolished by advances in this field. Current prédictionsabout the future contributions of molecular biologists arefar more sophisticated than those of three décades ago andmay actually be fulfilled if sufficient time is allotted toman's future, but to claim that genetic defects can withinthe next few years be engineered out of man is not onlyfanciful, but requires unfamiliarity with the complexity ofthe human organism.There is abundant évidence that gènes play an importantrôle in the etiology of most diseases of animais and man.The sélective breeding of animais has produced strainsthat differ widely in susceptibility to diabètes, hypertension,cancers, and some infectious diseases. In man there is lessextensive but nevertheless strong évidence of genetic com-ponents of susceptibility to infectious diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular diseases, some mental diseases, and ofa genetic basis for gênerai well-being and longevity.In some instances a disease may be caused by a singledefective gène resulting in a metabolic error, but in gêneraithe causal pattern is complex and is based on an unknown number of gènes and nongenetic factors. Some who holdthat médical scientists will be able to correct genetic defectsby engineering or therapy of the developing organism ex-aggerate the successes of médical science. Few if any human diseases can be treated so successfully that the out-come in ail patients is the équivalent of its prévention.Diabètes is frequently mentioned as a genetically-baseddisease that can be fully corrected by therapy. It is instructive to examine the validity of this claim. Diabètes mellitusis not a simple disease; its pathologie physiology variesand is not always characterized by insulin deficiency. Manydiabetic patients live nearly normal lives and are happyand productive. Other patients are not spared the cardiovascular complications of diabètes despite rigid disciplineof their way of life. Psychiatrists who collaborate in theclinical management of diabetic patients know that in addition to those who are happy there are some who live insorrow and despair.The need for a program of eugenics is sometimes ra-tionalized by the claim that the pool of deleterious gènesis increasing among national populations. Conversely, déniai that the genetic compétence of our great populationsis being downgraded is frequently linked to the claim thatthis makes any form of eugenics unnecessary and inadvis-able. No one knows with certainty what is happening tothe pool of gènes that limit physique and intellect, exceptthat changes are probably slow. Genetic material has somecapacity for self-repair. Modem medicine is saving morelives, therefore defective gènes may be passed on to moreoffspring. There is a tendency for individuals of low intelligence to hâve larger than average families. On theother hand a smaller than average number of people withpoor genetic endowment mate and reproduce. Many conceptions fail to resuit in live births. Also, homogamy stillplays a significant rôle in mating. Natural sélection remains a powerful directive force in évolution.JL. X^egardless of what is happening to the size of gènepools, the genetic bases of great diseases and of incompétence are already among the causes of poverty, misery.21hopelessness, and sorrow. Man détermines his futurewhether he likes it or not. He may choose to plan purpose-fully, he may choose to act blindly, or he may chooselaissez-faire; whatever the décision, he détermines his future and cannot be free from the responsibility he haswrested from nature.It seems to me that knowledge of biology can be ap-plied toward increasing man's freedom from genetic handicaps in a way that will facilitate rather than impede moralefforts. Counseling on mating and reproduction by physi-cians trained in human genetics exists on a small scale, anda graduai expansion according to demand and gains inknowledge should be supported. It is predicted that meanswill be developed to detect carriers of récessive defects.Society may be slow to accept artificial insémination as amethod of eugenics, but fashions in morality are changing rapidly, and methods of positive eugenics may corneto be compatible with conscience.I believe that in the présent and foreseeable future intervention in reproduction should be voluntary. The médiaof mass communication could aid in informing ail peoplesof the state of knowledge and the availability of counselingby physicians. The underprivileged and the handicappedshould not be deprived of knowledge and services. Not ailinterested persons will agrée to my added recommendationthat barrenness be encouraged by subsidy among thosepeoples unable to endow children with a reasonable chanceto achieve good health, compétence, and happiness.The idea of forcing a program of eugenics on any population is a threat to basic freedoms. Some governmentalinterventions in basic freedoms at the social levcl are evennow models of injustice. Guided by social scientists, the-ologians, and jurists without compétence in testing claimsto knowledge, with little information and too little wisdom,governments are already fostering social malignancy, andwithout the gênerai consent of the populations. Biologistsare not enlightened by a greater wisdom; those asking forlarge-scale programs now, and especially for forced intervention through eugenics, should be rebuffed. Science deatsmore with probabilities than with certaintics and providesaids to décisions on moral values rather than the force tocompel décisions.Of course many of the problems of man — perhaps themost important and the greatest number — are of environ- mental origin, and some represent poor cultural héritage.There is no agreement as to the relative importance ofheredity and environment in determining individuality, fortheir interactions evolve into gestalts having no primarymarkers to identify their origins; the évidence on the relative importance of genetic endowment and the complicatedpattern of environmental causes is indirect. As emphasizedby Dobzhansky, problems of the management of humanévolution are as much sociological as biological. Con-versely, sociological interventions should be judged by theirbiological as well as social conséquences.JLn dealing with the causes of human problems it seemsreasonable for interventionists to steer a course betweenlaissez-faire and totalitarian methods of dealing with social and biomédical problems. What guides should be used?First, we must recognize that every action by an individualhas an impact, however feeble, on other individuals andsociety. The rights of individuals easily corne into conflict.Freedoms are not absolute; there are physical, biological,and social limitations on freedom. At the social level,rights and freedoms are linked to obligations and duties.Man should evolve toward increasing freedom from cultural and genetic handicaps; health is to be desired overillness, hope over despair, happiness over sorrow, self-sufficiency over dependency, and good citizenship oversocial malignancy. To reject means of reaching thèse goalsis a positive act toward preserving the causes of humanmisery.The aim to reduce biological diversity or to breed a raceof supermen will be reviewed again by future générationswho might hâve achieved the knowledge and wisdom re-quired to undertake more advanced interventions.Cautious steps toward négative eugenics and even theinercased use of artificial insémination can be taken now.The technology of eutelegenesis may be perfected withinthe next few years and at some indefinite time in the futureit may become possible to intervene directly in the geneticmaterial of the cell. As it becomes possible to prevent andreduce defects following conception, the methods will bewelcomed by physicians and society. Ail of this seems tobe compatible with rational direction and moral control. D22Quadrangie NewsCampaign Gifts and GrantsTotal gifts and pledges to the Campaignfor Chicago came to $146,867,432 as ofAugust 31. Gaylord Donnelley, Trustéeand National Chairman for the Campaign,called for renewed efforts in the finalmonths of the $160,000,000 drive "tomake this unprecedented Campaign anoverwhelming success."Some récent gifts and grants:—$450,000 from the Ford Foundationfor the University 's Population ResearchCcnter. Part of the grant will help provide fellowships for twenty students; partwill support the regular démographie research of the Center; and part will permitconsulting and liaison work with similarprograms at the University of Philippines,the University of Singapore, and Chula-longkorn University in Thailand.—$118,000 from the National ScienceFoundation for research in theoreticalstatistics and probability.—$25,000 from the Merck CompanyFoundation for the Division of the Biological Sciences and The Pritzker Schoolof Medicine. The gift will be used to de-velop comprehensive plans for a médicalteaching building now under considération. The Merck Foundation pledged atotal of $50,000 to the University; the re-maining $25,000 will be presented in1969.New Chamber Music SériesSix Friday concerts are planned for theUniversity's 1968-69 Chamber MusicSéries.I Madrigalisti di Venezia, the cele-brated ensemble from Italy which will bemaking its first concert tour of the UnitedStates, will perform on October 18. Thegroup, seven instrumentalists and threevocal soloists, was formed to keep alivemusical masterpieces of the past, espe-cially those of Claudio Monteverdi.The Allegri String Quartet will performon November 1.The Beaux Arts Trio of New York will perform on January 31. The Trio is com-posed of Menahem Pressler, piano; DanielGuilet, violin; and Bernard Greenhouse,cello.Jean-Pierre Rampai, flutist, and RobertVeyron-Lacroix, pianist, will play at arécital on February 14. The répertoire ofthèse French artists ranges from thebaroque to the modem.The Orford String Quartet will performon April 1 1. The members are four youngCanadians who formed the group atMount Orford, Ontario, the summer campof Les Jeunesses Musicales, an international organization headquartered in Paristhat helps train and promote young concert artists.The final concert on May 9 will be byLili Kraus, pianist. Miss Kraus, who hasbeen performing and recording for nearlyfour décades, is regarded by many as theforemost living interpréter of the Vienneseclassic tradition.Ail concerts will begin at 8:30 PM inMandel Hall, 1135 East 57th Street. Aséries ticket is priced at $13.00. Ticketsfor individual concerts are $4.00. Contactthe Chamber Music Séries Concert Office, 5835 South University Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, 60637.Key Hayfever Mechanism FoundA preliminary laboratory finding by aCalifornia pathologist may help explainthe mechanism by which people develophayfever and other respiratory allergies.The finding was reported at a spécialLabor Day weekend médical conférenceheld in the Center for Continuing Education and co-sponsored by the University.Making the report were Dr. A. A. Lie-bow, pathologist at the University ofCalifornia School of Medicine at SanDiego; K. G. Bensch of Yale University;and E. A. M. Dominguez of Argentina.Dr. Liebow's key finding was that largeprotein molécules can pass unchangedthrough the alveolar membrane, the mic-roscopic wall between the blood and theair breathed into the lungs. This membrane is where oxygen from the air enters the body and where carbon dioxide isremoved from the blood.A médical puzzle has been how we be-come allergie to airborne allergens, suchas ragweed pollen and dust. Our bodiesbecome allergie as part of a défensiveover-response. A bit of foreign substance,such as pollen, enters the body andlégions of défensive bodily éléments corneto the rescue. In allergie individuals, thèsesuperdefenses corne to the rescue ingreater abundance than needed, causingthe familiar symptoms of runny nose,sneezing, swelling, or hives.The big puzzle has been, how do theallergens get inside the body? Until now,it was thought that they could not passfrom inspired air through the alveolarmembrane without becoming altered byenzymes and other chemicals in the cells.Now, because of the experiments in dogsby Dr. Liebow and his colleagues, thiswas shown to be possible after ail.Dr. Liebow emphasizes that his experiments were not done with ragweedpollen or like allergens. He is going to tryexperiments with them later. Instead, heused proteins from the blood of otheranimais. And the proteins were notbreathed. as are pollens. They were in-cluded in a solution which was drippeddown the dogs' windpipes into their lungs.Dr. Liebow was quick to caution, in apress interview, that "this does not meanthat ragweed or other such proteins couldget through. But I don't see why theycouldn't."MiscellanySixty-six UC faculty members — morethan from any other institution — con-tributed to the new International Encyclo-pedia of the Social Sciences (MacmillanCo. and the Free Press). The seventeen-volume work took seven years to compile, and 1,505 scholars from thirty-threenations contributed.The September Playboy magazine ranksUC a middling eleventh in "A Swinger'sGuide to Academe," a twenty-five-school"survey" likely to hâve trustées and ad-ministrators scanning the standings from23Nearing completion is the Henry HindsLaboratory for the Gcophysical Sciences.The unique towers are functional, housingelevators and utilities. Caméra faces west,across Ellis Avenue from the new building.The late Henry Hinds, an alumnus,bequeathed $1 ,274,933 to the Campaignfor Chicago.W*àtaf <;'.; :~::K-rrr *>"* 'S'/Éii,¦.¦,'¦ .T*P^^WÊ0:the bottom up. The article's "campus action chart" rates UC as "the least frivolouscoed campus in the country."Scheduled for January publication isthe revised, twelfth édition of The University of Chicago Press Manual of Style,a widely-used standard for over sixtyyears. The Manual has been restructuredto follow the création of a book fromstart to finish and contains over ninetypercent new material.Altitude May Help Some Athlètesin Mexico City OlympicsMexico City's low-oxygen atmosphèremay improve the performance of someathlètes, especially in the short-distancetrack events, at the forthcoming Olympicgames.However, in longer races, low oxygenprobably will prevent record-breakingperformances because the athlètes will berequired to breathe continuously duringthe race.Thèse opinions were expressed by Dr.John B. West of Australia, who attendeda spécial conférence on pulmonary circulation at the University's Center for Con-tinuing Education early in September.Dr. West, a specialist in blood circulation in the lungs, believes that the thinneratmosphère in Mexico City may resuit inrecord-breaking performances in sprintsof 100 meters or less. At thèse short distances, he said, a runner complètes hisrace using basically the same air in hislungs as when he begins. Coupled withthe slight decrease in wind résistance because of the lower air pressure, new speedrecords may resuit, Dr. West continued.Counties with normally high altitudes,such as Ethiopia, will hâve a definite ad-vantage in the longer races. Athlètes fromother countries with mountainous areas,such as the United States and Russia, areovercoming part of the disadvantage bypracticing at high altitudes in their owncountries. Those from a country with nomountainous areas, such as England, willbe at a great disadvantage, however. Dr. West said he does not believe arti-ficially-inhaled oxygen would be of anyhelp to athlètes during the Olympic trackcompétition. It would not be needed forthe short distances, he pointed out, andwould hâve little effect in the longerraces.If records are set in the shorter trackevents, Dr. West believes they should beconsidered valid and not artificial. "Higheraltitudes are found around the world andare a natural part of the world environ-ment," he said. While athlètes from highaltitudes will hâve an advantage in MexicoCity, Dr: West thinks it is a perfectly fairadvantage since past Olympic compétitionhas given a reverse advantage to athlètesfrom low altitude countries. He addedthat a few days of training would help anathlète from a low-altitude country adjustto Mexico City, but several months wouldbe required to more fully overcome theenvironmental différences.PeopleSix faculty members received fellow-ships for 1968 from the John Simon Gug-genheim Mémorial Foundation: KlausBaer, Associate Professor of Egyptologyin the Oriental Institute and in the Department of Near Eastern Languages andCivilizations; Raghu Baj Bahadur, Professor of Statistics; Dr. Albert Dorfman,the Richard T. Crâne Professor of Pedi-atrics and Chairman of the Department,and Professor of Biochemistry; IsraëlNathan Herstein, Professor of Mathema-tics; Roger H. Hildebrand, Professor ofPhysics and in the Enrico Fermi Institute;and Norman Perrin, Associate Professor of New Testament in the Divinity School.Easley Blackwood, Assistant Professorof Music, wrote a Concerto for Flûte andOrchestra which received its world premier, July 28, at Dartmouth College'sHopkins Center in Hanover, N.H.Peter F. Dembowski, Associate Professor of French, has been appointed Deanof Students in the Division of the Hu-manities.Robert Dreeben, former Assistant Professor of Education at Harvard UniversityGraduate School of Education, has beenappointed Associate Professor of Education hère. He is the author of: "The Contribution of Schooling to the Learning ofNorms," Harvard Educational Review(1967), and On What Is Leamed inSchool (Addison-Wesley, 1968).Phillip H. Ginsberg has been appointedAssistant Professor of Law and Directorof the Edwin F. Mandel Légal AidClinic. Ginsberg, an attorney formerlywith the Chicago law firm of Ross, Hardies, O'Keefe, Babcock, McDugald, andParsons, is on the executive committee ofthe Returnee Organization of the American Field Service and is a director of theChicago Area Lay Movement and theNeighborhood Légal Assistance Center.Perspectives in Biology and Medicine,edited by Dwight J. Ingle, Professor ofPhysiology, for the second time has beenselected for the Honor Award in MédicalCommunications by the American Médical Writers Association.George H. Watkins, X'36, director andexecutive vice-président of U.S. Plywood-Champion Papers, Inc., has been electeda member of the Board of Trustées of theUniversity. He served as vice-président incharge of development at the Universityfrom 1951 to 1957. He is a vice-présidentof the board of trustées of the BaptistTheological Union, a member of theBoard of Governors of the InternationalHouse of Chicago, a member of theCitizens Board of the University, and aFounding Member of the Harper CourtFoundation. Watkins was vice-présidentof the Alumni Association from 1963through 1965.25ProfilesDaniel RobinsUniversity people hâve corne to takefor granted the sounds of Scarlatti, Bach,Handel, Purcell, Mozart — plus somemodem composers — emanating from thebell-tower of Rockefeller Chapel. Butperformances of masterworks on thecarillon are almost unique in this century. Once an instrument of high musicaldistinction, its répertoire had declined —until its récent revival — to folksy hymn-tunes and "pop" classics. Leading a Personal crusade to repair the public imageof the carillon and to revitalize its répertoire is University Carillonneur DanielRobins, one of a handful of similarlydedicated young masters of the instrument.Robins, a prodigy at the Dutch carillonschool and a prizewinner in internationalcarillon compétition, recalls the HollandFestival of 1963, where he was guestrecitalist: "I played the Bach 'Chaconne'and stunned a lot of people who thoughtit couldn't be done. The young studentswere very much taken by it, but thejudges gave first prize to a performanceof 'The Blue Danube.' That's exactly thestyle my career has been a revolt against.And that contest was my last."Robins was born in Eurêka, Kansas, in1937. By the âge of twenty-two he wasan accomplished organist, had spent twoyears in a seminary, and had studied theharpsichord with Bruce Prince-Joseph ofthe New York Philharmonie. It was thenthat he decided finally to become acarillonneur. "I knew I wanted a careerin music but could only be second-rateon a keyboard instrument such as theorgan or harpsichord. I was an 'adultbeginner' in music; that is, I didn't become seriously interested until the âgeof about fourteen, too late to developthe very highest capability with either ofthose instruments. On the other hand, Ifelt I had a physical aptitude for playingthe carillon, which has différent technicaldemands."Several seasons earlier, Robins had studied the carillon for a year withRonald Barnes at the University ofKansas. In 1959, soon after his décision,he was accepted as a student of Leen'tHart at the Stichting Nederlandse Beiaard-school, the Dutch National CarillonSchool, where he was the only Americanstudent. "When I went to Holland, I hadvery little money and couldn't speakDutch. There was nothing to do butpractice." The curriculum called for fouryears of study, but Beiaardschool policypermits taking exams at any time, onrequest. In June, 1960, after one year ofstudy, Robins passed the tests for theentire four years, becoming the first student to accomplish the feat and theschool's first American graduate. In Oc-tober, 1960, following a European concert tour, he accepted the post of University Carillonneur at Chicago.In the International Carillon Compétition at Rotterdam in 1960, Robins, theyoungest contestant, took second prize.He was guest recitalist at the RoyalPalace in Amsterdam in April, 1960,where he was the first American invitedto play the three-hundred-year-old instrument there. Some of his works forthe carillon hâve been published hèreand abroad. He is gênerai editor of theBibliotheca Campanologica, published inAmsterdam, a séries of reprints of earlybooks on the carillon. He also has writtenarticles on the carillon and has served aseditor of the journal of the Guild ofCarillonneurs in North America. Finally,Robins was the first carillonneur to perform the works of Bach and Scarlatti.One of the questions most often askedof Robins is how he got interested insuch an unusual instrument. "I hâve thefeeling — as does any committed musicianfor his instrument — that the carillon is,for me, the most beautiful of ail instruments and the most satisfying to play."To an observer, that playing has to beone of the unique expériences in theworld of music. First of ail, the playerliterally must climb inside the instrument. The bells of the Rockefeller Carillon are installed in two belfries near the top of the Chapel tower. The ClavierRoom, housing the clavier, or keyboard,is situated between the two belfries atabout the 175-foot level. Hère the playersits before an array of wooden bâtonsand pedals, connected to the bells bydirect mechanical linkage, a simple arrangement providing maximum controlof rhythmic nuance and dynamic gradation. The central location of the clavierpermits the most advantageous and short-est linkage System. Hère in the ClavierRoom also sit the few carillon afficionadoswilling to climb the tower for Robins'semi-weekly concerts. And, of course,hère near the bells, remote from streetnoises, the sound is best — pure and awe-somely grand.The playing itself is an "endurancetest," Robins says. "One can tell just bywatching a performer whether or not he'sgood. Almost immediately it becomes apparent whether he has command of theinstrument or if it is dominating him."The technique calls for striking thebâtons with close-fisted, ice-pick jabs.The touch is not light, and Robins' littlefingers are heavily calloused.The Laura Spelman Rockefeller Mémorial Carillon was presented to the University by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., as amémorial to his mother. The bells werecast by Gillett and Johnson, Croydon,England, over a period of two years, andthe finished instrument, considered to bethe masterpiece of its founder, was dedicated on Thanksgiving Day, 1932. It isthe second largest carillon in existence,exceeded only by its sister instrument atthe Riverside Church in New York City.The sonority of its bass bells is thoughtto be unmatched anywhere — "fabulouslyand incredibly beautiful," Robins says.The instrument cost $220,000 and isvalued at about $600,000 today, the rawbronze alone being worth more than theoriginal priée. The largest bell, the 36,-926-pound C# Bourdon, by itself wouldcost about $40,000 to replace.The carillon originated from the voor-slag, the chiming mechanism of the fa-miliar European tower clock. (Many26«Ilmucarillons, including the Rockefeller, stillincorporate this feature.) The first docu-mented installation of a clavier for handplaying is dated 1510. It was the firstkeyboard instrument with a dynamic, orsoft-loud, range under complète controlof the strength of touch, preceding by afull two centuries Cristofori's revolu-tionary clavicembalo col piano e forte("harpsichord with soft and loud"), whichtransformed the plucked-string harpsichord into a hammer-action piano withfull dynamic control.For reasons not clear to historians, thecarillon flourished mainly in the LowCountries. Robins suggests that trans-portation problems with the heavy bells,a simple matter with barges and canals,may hâve inhibited its spread to otherrégions. Moscow, Rome, and Jérusalemeach hâve only one carillon, and thèseare modem instruments, whereas Amsterdam alone has five. Portugal is the onlynation outside the Low Countries that hasan example of an early carillon, a uniqueinstallation of two complète instruments inthe twin-towered chapel of the palace atMafra. (The story goes, Robins says,that the princely buyer of the instruments,when first inquiring about the priée of acarillon, was a little miffed when told itwas "too expensive." Hc responded byordering two.)The instrument reached its peak during the 17th century, when the brothersPeter and François Hemony perfected theart of bell tuning. The Hemony princi-ples involve tuning precisely the five mostimportant harmonies of each bell in accord with ail the bells of the set. Withthe improvements in tuning and keyboard action came a proportionate growthin virtuosity of performance. "Judgingfrom the historié collections of musicwhich hâve been discovered," Robinssays, "the technique of the performers ofthat time was considérable."After the 18th century the carillonexperienced a décline in popularity whichwas not reversed until, in the early 1900's,Jef Denijn founded the Royal BelgianCarillon School and redesigned the keyboard action to further improve control.Denijn's musical tastes, however, favoredthe national folk idioms and the revivalhe inspired was oriented accordingly.The first carillon came to the UnitedStates in 1923. Now there are about 120instruments hère. "It is remarkable,"Robins says, "considering the cost in-volved— $50,000 to $250,000— that inless than fifty years this country hasacquired as many carillons as ail ofEurope."A carillonneur giving a récital on astrange instrument faces problems un-heard of elsewhere in music. Each carillon differs, with its own pitch, its own spécifications, and a clavier of uniquedimensions. "On concert tours," Robinssays, "you just hâve to blow the firstwork on the program while you becomefamiliar with the instrument. That's whya visiting carillonneur always chooses a'safe' number to open his récital."The lack of standardization in its physical spécifications is only one of severalproblems impeding growth of the instrument. "Because of its public nature, thecarillon itself cannot be used for re-hearsal, and no practice instrument hasbeen devised that adequately duplicatesthe real thing." (Robins practices in theChapel basement on a duplicate clavierlinked to a xylophone.) The lack of adéquate rehearsal facilities, in turn, afïectsthe gênerai level of performance. Robinssays that most carillonneurs in this country are not professionals — part-timersmostly, who view the carillon as a hobby.Robins once asked a member of theChicago Symphony what the feeling toward the carillon was among professionalmusicians. "It's a folk instrument," camethe reply, "costing a quarter of a milliondollars, played by amateurs, with noliterature, and no paying audience." Robins' own efforts réfute this criticism, andhe is adamant in his urging of others tofollow his example. "For the carillonto achieve status in the world of music,modem carillonneurs must work towardachieving an absolutely professional levelof performance — the highest standards oftaste in répertoire and impeccable performances."Robins notes that standards in the profession are rising, especially in the UnitedStates, where, he says, there are at leastfive carillonneurs — himself immodestlyincluded — better than any in Europe. Butmuch more needs to be done, particularlyin stimulating the growth of literature forthe instrument. "Until recently thereexisted three major areas in which not asingle important composition had beenconceived for the carillon: an atonalcomposition, a composition in the twelve-tone technique, and a jazz composition.Thèse are the main streams of musical28thought of the 20th century, and everyinstrument which wishes to remain on thescène musically today must own a literature in thèse styles."Robins' interest in contemporary musicfor the carillon has resulted in a numberof new works written for him by suchcomposers as Kees van Baaren, EasleyBlackwood, William Ferris, John MaclvorPerkins, Peter Schickele, Gunther Schul-ler, Ralph Shapey, Léo Sowerby, AlanStout, and Charles Wuorinen. The worksby Schuller, Shapey, van Baaren, andWuorinen were commissioned by theUniversity. "That means," Robins said,"the University paid them for their labors,instead of my having to badger them."Blackwood and Shapey, both distin-guished contemporary composers, aremembers of the UC music faculty, butShapey's commission was made before hecame hère.Besides his own compositions, Robinshas contributed to the literature of thecarillon by transcribing and arranging in-numerable works. The labor required isformidable — over an hour of transcribing for each minute of performance timebefore the long rehearsals can even be-gin, then more arranging as technical de-mands become apparent.If Robins' serious dedication to thecarillon suggests a certain somberness ofcharacter, that impression was toppled byhis two "musical extravaganzas" at Rockefeller Chapel in 1966 and 1967. Onhand as perfortning musicians for theproduction of May 12, 1967, attendedby an estimated 5,000 persons, was adazzling collection of socialites, distin-guished business leaders, University Trustées, prominent members of the ChicagoSymphony, and other celebrities. Combinée! with a host of volunteer professional musicians, the performers werescattered in groups about the Chapelgrounds, the roof, various balconies, andthe pennant-bedecked tower. The program for the evening included Mozart'sRondo alla Turc a, scored for the Chapelcarillon, portable carillon, calliope, tym-pani, four electric bass guitars, tambou rines, triangle, finger cymbals, and schel-lenbaum (a Turkish bell-staff); Wagner'sIsolde's Love-Death, scored for sixteentubas and the Chapel carillon; and Leo-pold Mozart's Cassatio in G Major (the"Toy Symphony"), scored for the Chapelcarillon and a spécial toy counter builtfor the occasion, complète with whistlesand cuckoo, and mounted on the Chapeltower. The grand finale, Sousa's Starsand Stripes Forever, scored for the complète ensemble and featuring Présidentand Mrs. Beadle on the presidential sidedrums, drew lusty cheers from the audience below when the climactic unfurlingof a giant 22-by-36-foot flag resulted inan unplanned but somehow appropriateclosing salute to the program. The flagwas released from the Chapel's highparapet, where a number of the performers were stationed. Unfurling majesti-cally, the flag was seized by a gust of windand sailed back over the parapet, whereit settled on the bass-drum section, caus-ing what Robins later described as"rhythmic inaccuracies." Although pre-senting nightmare recording problems dueto the arena-like dispersion of performers,the outdoor acoustics, and the crowdnoise, the program was taped for a Chicago FM radio station, whose staff stillrefer to it as one of the musical world'smost magnificient spoofs.Robins' innovation for this summerwas a (serious) "Festival of Tower Music,"with four evening performances in Julyand August of music scored for theChapel carillon and the instruments ofThe Chamber Brass Players. The program included works by Bach, Prokofiev,Giovanni Gabrielli, and Johann Pezel.The University audience is respondingwith increased attendance to Robins' efforts, and his outlook is optimistic. "Inthis century two obscure instruments hâvebeen revived to great interest: the harpsichord and the guitar. One of them, theguitar, has been restored to prominencedespite considérable limitations in its répertoire. There is, I believe, some possi-bility that the carillon will join thiscompany." — CK29Alumni NewsCLUB EVENTSRockfordThirty-one alumni from the Rockford,111., area spent a pleasant afternoon oncampus, September 14. The group char-tered a bus and arrived at noon for lunchat the Quadrangle Club. Afterward theytoured the University's new buildings andheard future plans outlined by spokesmenfrom the Department of Physical Planning. Co-chairmen for the program wereMrs. Eugène Pheiffer and Mr. and Mrs.Lawrence Schmidt.CLASS NOTES 96-16In Memoriam: Edward A. Miller, '96,died Jan. 7, 1968; Martha S. Allerdice,'02, has died; Arthur S. Bowers, MD'03,died Mar. 17, 1968; Katharine K. Adams,'04, has died; Nettie Powell, '04, has died;W. J. Bradley, Sr., AB'05, AM'05, hasdied; Ernest K. Matlock, X'05, died May13, 1968; James S. Riley, '05, died Apr.24, 1968; Daniel L. Marsh, X'07, diedMay 20, 1968; Margerite Scanlan Souer-bry, '07, has died; Walter S. Stern, X'07,died Dec. 12, 1967; Ralph V. Hinkle, '08,AM'16, died June 23, 1968; Adelaide A.Spohn, '08, SM'13, died July 23, 1968;Aima Stokey, PhD'08, has died; MarionL. Taylor, PhD'08, died Apr. 4, 1968;Grâce Tyley Harris, X'09, has died; Samuel D. Press, X'09, died in August, 1967;Cecil F. Charlton, MD'10, died Mar. 14,1968; George H. Lindsay, '10, died JuneFacing Page: Rockford alumni preparing toenter newly-renovated Cobb Hall duringtheir campus visit, October 21. 13, 1968; Joseph A. Nyberg, '10, SM'll,has died; Alvin L. Wagner, X'10, hasdied; Louise Field Magee Augustus, X'11,died July 24, 1968; Wilfred G. Binne-wies, AM'll has died; Ida Mack, X'11,has died; Cari W. Toepfer, '11, has died;Guy Y. Williams, SM'll, has died; Dor-othy Hinman Hind, '12, AM'37, has died;Grâce Mountcastle Martin, '12, died Mar.25, 1968; Blanche Hanley Sayer, '12, hasdied; Samuel D. Schwartz, '12, AM'13,died Mar. 22, 1968; Benjamin L. Dali,'13, has died; Devilla D. Edmonds,MDT4, died Apr. 6, 1968; Roll O.Grigsby, '14, MD'16, died Nov. 27, 1967;Lydia L. Pearce, '14, died Nov. 21, 1967;A. Sellew Roberts, AM'14, died Apr.24, 1968; Pauline Sperry, SM'14, PhD'16,has died; Bess I. Masten, AMT5, diedApr. 5, 1968; Charles A. Thomson,MD'15, died May 28, 1968; Norman J. S.Croft, '16, died June 6, 1968; EthelynMullarky Messner, '16, died June 24,1968; Florence Williams Nicholas, '16,AM'22, has died; Henry L. Orlov, '16,MD'18, died Jan. 20, 1967; Pearl Gard-ner Schumacher, '16, died Apr. 30, 1968. 17D. Jérôme Fisher, '17, SM'20, EmeritusProfessor in the Department of Geo-physical Sciences, writes that he and hiswife, the former Dorothy Dorsett, '19,moved into their new home in Phoenix,Arizona in September, 1968. He is doingresearch as Visiting Professor in the Department of Geology at Arizona StateUniversity in Tempe. He is the author ofThe 70 Years of the Department of Geology, University of Chicago, publishedin 1963.In Memoriam: Elmer N. Ascherman,'17, MD'19, died Mar. 5. 1968; FrankC. Buck, AM'17, died May 18, 1968;Paul J. Hawke, X'17, has died; MandelPerlman, X'17, died Dec. 1, 1967; GaleWillard, '17, died June 14, 1968. 24Henry Backus, AM'24, a former chem-istry teacher, has retired from the St. Louis school System after forty-threeyears of service. He is engaged in Ki-wanis work and is a volunteer at ChristianHospital Northwest.In Memoriam: Willis J. Potts, MD'24,died May 3, 1968. 26John A. Mourant, '26, PhD'40, is theco-author of Judaism and Christianity:Perspectives and Traditions (Allyn andBacon). He recently gave a lecture on"Augustine on Immortality" at the An-nual St. Augustine Lecture séries at Villa-nova University.In Memoriam: Harmon DeGraff, PhD'26, died in November, 1967; Gabriel E.Linden, MD'26, died Apr. 14, 1968;Albert M. Wolf, SB'26, MD'30, (Rush),former médical director of the MichaelReese Research Foundation, died August23, 1968. 28Junia McAlister, SM'28, a member ofthe chemistry department at NorthernArizona University, has received theAmerican Chemical Society's Distin-guished Teacher Award.In Memoriam: Rudolph Burgeson, '28,JD'30, died May 26, 1968; Edgar Koretz,'28, died May 18, 1968; Martha Martin,'28, AM'31, died June 6, 1968; HelenRiddick Wilson, '28, has died. 30Arthur H. Rosenblum, '30, SM'32, MD'35, writes that he has been in the privatepractice of pediatrics since 1937 andspecializes in pédiatrie allergy. He isSenior Attending physician in the department of pediatrics and allergy at MichaelReese Hospital and Médical Center, consultant in pédiatrie allergy at St. JamesHospital, Chicago Heights, 111., and isdoing research study on penicillin allergy. He is président of the ChicagoSociety of Allergy and chairman of thepenicillin study group of the AmericanAcademy of Allergy.31 31Earl V. Pullias, AM'31, is co-author,with James D. Young, of a new book,A Teacher Is Many Things ( Indiana University Press).Alberta Eisenberg Schultz, '31, hasbeen elected président of Beth TorahCongrégation sisterhood of Chicago.In Memoriam: Hazel Lees Forsythe,AM'31, has died; William R. Hewitt,MD'31, died Nov. 5, 1967; Donald B.Smith, '31, JD'32, has died; Alden B.Stevens, '31, died Apr. 28, 1968. 32J. Douglas Perry, AM'32, was honoredat a retirement dinner, June 8, at TempleUniversity by friends and former students.He was a faculty member there for thirty-two years and was head of the JournalismDepartment for the last nineteen years.In Memoriam: William H. Allman,MD'32, died May 10, 1968; Nathan J.Kinnally, '32, died July 20, 1968; JamesO. Wood, '32, died in April, 1968. 33Herman E. Ries, Jr., '33, PhD'36, isdoing research for American Oil's Whit-ing, Ind., refinery on a System designedto remove oils and other contaminantsfrom water surfaces. His work was fea-tured in an article in the April 15, 1968,issue of Chemical & Engineering News.In Memoriam: Clarence D. Alpert,X'33, has died; Earl F. Simmons, '33,ID'35, died June 19, 1968. 35Marie Cole Berger, '35, JD'38, a former Foreign Service Officer, is on a two-year assignment with the United Boardfor Christian Higher Education in Asia.In her first year she will spend threemonths in Taiwan and then approximatelya month each in Korea, Japan, HongKong, Indonesia, and the Philippines,teaching classes and giving public lecturesand seminars on économie developmentat collèges and universities related to the United Board. During the second yearshe will be a visiting professor of économies at Tunghai University at Taichung,Taiwan. She also will be a consultant tothe United Board Committee on Collègeand Society.Joseph J. Kwiat, '35, is a member ofthe advisory committee on American literature and American studies for theFulbright program's Conférence Boardof Associated Research Councils. He re-cently returned from a five-week worldtrip. While at Osmania University, Hy-derabad, India, he served as a consultantfor the American studies Research Centerand also attended a conférence on "Amer-ica's Cultural Corning of Age: A Viewfrom an American Studies Bridge." InJapan, Iran, and Greece he lectured andvisited university faculty members.Robert A. Preston, AM'35, chairmanof the Religion Department at BethanyCollège, is on sabbatical leave for 1968-69and will spend the autumn term at Cambridge University. 36Hyatt H. Waggoner, AM'36, has writ-ten a new book, American Poets: FromThe Puritans To Tlie Présent (HoughtonMifflin Company) .In Memoriam: Madeline Gilbert Christ-enson, X'36, died Jan. 17, 1967; CharlesA. Hayda, '36, JD'38, died May 17,1968; Thomas H. Marsh, AM'36, hasdied; Hildegard M. Von Poven, '36, diedMay 20, 1968; Laura E. Roos, '36, diedOct. 19, 1967; Arthur B. Sachs, '36,JD'38, died July 13, 1968. 37Henry Lemon, '37, director of theEugène C. Eppley Institute for Researchin Cancer and Allied Diseases at the University of Nebraska, was profiled in theMarch 14, 1968, édition of the WestOmaha Nebraska Sun.In Memoriam: Joseph H. Cooper, PhD'37, died May 22, 1968; Adolph W.Kozelka, MD'37, died Jan. 9, 1968; AnnaJ. Schwcitzer, '37, died July 18, 1968. 38Paul P. Pickering, '38, SM'39, MD'41,was elected vice président of the American Society of Plastic and ReconstructiveSurgeons in November, 1967. Dr. Pickering spoke on "New Aspects of Maxillo-facial Surgery" at a récent lecture sériessponsored by the University of CaliforniaSchool of Medicine. 39E. F. "Bud" Beyer, '39, recently wasinitiated into the Helms Hall of Famé atthe annual meeting of the National Association of Collège Gymnastic Coaches inTucson, Ariz. Beyer is associate professorof Physical Education at New York StateTechnical Collège, Plattsburgh, N.Y.Howard S. Greenlee, '39, AM'41, PhD'50, has been appointed dean of the facultyat Antioch Collège.In Memoriam: Erwin O. Krausz, MD'39, died Mar. 25, 1968.40Morris Abram, JD'40, is a member ofthe Paul. Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton &Garrison law firm in New York City. Herecently spoke before the Equal Employ-ment Opportunity Workshop at the 93rdannual convention of The American Bank-ers Association in New York City.Edwin H. Badger, '40, informs us thathe is a doctoral student in Higher Education at Indiana University in Blooming-ton. In 1966 he resigned as Rector of St.Giles' Episcopal Church, Northbrook,111., to résume graduate study.Ralph E. Lapp, '40, PhD'46, has writ-ten a new book, The Weapons Culture(W. W. Norton & Co.). He also is theauthor of Kill and Overkill, The NewPriesthood, and nine other books.Richard L. Longini, '40, is developinga reading machine for the blind, financedby a grant from the Health Research andService Foundation at Carnegie-MellonUniversity.Petro L. Patras, '40, is the new président of the Transportation Shrine Club ofChicago. Patras, an insurance broker,32recently was honored by the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Co. of Chicago as "Group Leader of the Year" ininsurance sales.Monrad G. Paulsen, '40, JD'42, hasbeen appointed dean of the University ofVirginia School of Law.John O. Punderson, SB'40, has beenpromoted to research associate in theFluorocarbons Division of Du Pont'sPlastics Department Expérimental Station, Wilmington, Del.41Théodore E. Klitzke, '41, PhD'53, hasbeen appointed dean of the collège atThe Maryland Institute Collège of Art,Baltimore, Md.Fredrick J. Stare, MD'41, is chairmanof the Department of Nutrition at Harvard University's School of Public Healthand author of a nationally syndicatedcolumn, "Food and Your Health."In Memoriam: Frank R. Neu, '41, hasdied. 42Ruby E. Stutts Lyells, AM'42, has hada library named in her honor by Prentiss(Miss.) Normal & Industrial Institute.Donald A. Pétrie, '42, JD'47, has beenelected to the Board of Trustées of Hof-stra University.Millard G. Roberts, DB'42, PhD'47,has been appointed vice président incharge of business development at Bryant& Stratton Business Institute in NewYork. His wife, the former Louise Acker,'37, AM'38, PhD'46, is professor of En-glish at City Collège in New York City.In Memoriam: George D. Blackwood,'42, AM'47, PhD'51, died July 13, 1968;Bess Williams, AM'42, died May 19,1968. 43Werner A. Baum, '43, SM'44, PhD'48,has been appointed Président of the University of Rhode Island.Arna Bontemps, AM'43, professor ofEnglish at the University of Illinois Chicago Circle Campus, spoke on "Old Myths, New Negroes" at a récent meeting of the Glencoe (111.) Human Relations Committee.David Hume, MD'43, with Dr. RichardR. Lower, performed the world's sixteenthheart transplant opération at the MédicalCollège of Virginia on May 26, 1968. In1961 Dr. Hume was among the firstphysicians to attempt a kidney transplant.Since 1962 he and his colleagues hâveperformed more than 140 kidney transplant opérations.John X. Jamrich, '43, has been appointed président of Northern MichiganUniversity.Sidney S. Kallick, '43, JD'49, wrote anarticle, "What's Happening Out West?,"for the March 15, 1968, issue of Vend.45Charles A. Messner, Jr., '45, is associate professor of Modem Languages atCarleton Collège.In Memoriam: Celia Hauck, '45, diedJanuary 31, 1968; Hugo C. Moeller, '45,MD'48, PhD'51, has died.46Albert H. Friedlander, '46, writes thathe is a lecturer at the Léo Baeck Collègein London (contemporary history) andserves as Rabbi to the Wembley LibéralSynogogue in a suburb of London. Hereceived his PhD at Columbia Universityin 1966. His book, Never Trust a GodOver 30 (McGraw-Hill, 1967), deals withreligion at Columbia University, wherehe served as Counsellor to the Jewishstudents for five years. His current book,Out of the Whirlwind: the Literature ofthe Holocaust (Doubleday and Company.1968), is a sélection of the CommentaryBook Club and will be used as a textbookin a number of Synogogue religiousschools. He is married to Evelyn Philipp,and they hâve two girls, Ariel andMichal.Howard Jenerick, PhB'46, PhD'51, hasbeen appointed program director for bio-physical sciences at the National Institute of General Médical Sciences, Be-thesda, Md. 47Evelyn West Ayrault, AM'47, has beenappointed psychological consultant to theErie (Pa. ) County Crippled Children'sSociety, an Easter Seal Agency. She is theauthor of two books: Take One Step andYou can Raise Your Handicapped Child.James Goldman, '47, AM'50, is theauthor of "The Lion in Winter," the playwhich had its Chicago-area première atthe Academy Playhouse this summer. ItsNew York première was in 1966 and itis listed among the top ten in the annualpublication of The Best Plays.Joseph S. Skom, PhB'47, SB'51, MD'52, has been named chairman of theIllinois State Médical Society's Committeeon narcotics and hazardous substances.Frederick D. Sulcer, '47, MBA'63, hasbeen appointed executive vice présidentand director of the New York division ofNeedham, Harper & Steers advertisingagency. 48John P. Armstrong, AM'48, PhD'53, aspecialist in the politics and foreign relations of Southeast Asia, has been appointed a Visiting Professor of Government for 1968-69 at Bowdoin Collège,Brunswick. Me.Alfred M. Palfi, '48, JD'51, has beenappointed Business Manager of the Chicago Theological Seminary./;; Memoriam: Angelica Choate Goff-man, '48, AM'50, has died; Michael P.Burns, AM'48, has died. 49Leroy G. Augenstein, '49, chairman ofthe biophysics department at MichiganState University, spoke on "The EugenicsRévolution — Who Shall Play God?" at arécent Rockford (111.) Collège convocationprogram.William H. Haie, PhD'49, président ofLangston University, spoke on "Values forToday's Children and Tomorrow's Parents" at a récent Family Night Program atMeridian School, Guthrie, Okla.33Michael Harrington, AM'49, has writ-ten a new book, Toward A DémocratieLeft (Macmillan).James K. Olsen, JD'49, was appointedPrésident of Paterson State Collège,Wayne, N.J., July 1. 50Walter M. Beattie, Jr., AM'50, hasbeen appointed to a four-year term onthe National Advisory Child Health andHuman Development Council.Albert E. Bruggemeyer, Jr., '50, MBA'52, has been elected a Director and amember of the Executive Committee ofCréole Petroleum Corporation, Caracas,Venezuela.Laurence I. Guthmann, '50, writes thattheir second son, Richard Alan, was bornon May 12, 1968. Guthmann is présidentof Suprême Finance Corporation in Chicago.Judson Jérôme, AM'50, has written anew book, Poetry: Premeditated Art(Houghton Mifflin Co.).R. P. Reuss, MBA'50, has been namedvice président for suburban opérations atIllinois Bell Téléphone Company. 51Gerald C. F. Allen, X'51, is Vice Président of Kau-Van Pietersom-Dunlap, Inc.,a Milwaukee advertising and public relations firm. He also teaches Marketing atthe University of Wisconsin.Israël S. Jacobs, SM'51, PhD'53, aphysicist at General Electric Research andDevelopment Center in New York, hasbeen appointed to a three-year term onthe board of editors of the Journal ofApplied Physics, published by the American Institute of Physics.John E. Peterson, MBA'51, has beenappointed managing director of the Valley Hospital, Ridgewood, N.J. 52Purnell H. Benson, PhD'52, a formerlecturer in marketing research for theNew School for Social Research in NewYork, has been appointed associate pro fessor of Business Administration forRutgers Graduate School of Business Administration in Newark, N.J.Mrs. Herbert J. Grossman, AM'52, hasbeen appointed psychiatrie social workerat the Winnetka (111.) Community Nursery School.John R. Morris, AM'52, has been appointed assistant professor of history atEastern New Mexico University.Paul D. Townsend, '52, has beennamed vice président for gênerai productsat Philip Morris Domestic in New YorkCity.53Robert J. Batson, AM'53, PhD'63, hasbeen appointed professor of politicalscience at Illinois State University atNormal.Marjorie Montelius, X'53, is executivedirector of San Francisco's Travelers AidSociety. The society has been conductinga study, under a $30,000 grant from theRosenberg Foundation, to détermine theneeds of the transient young people in thecity who hâve flocked there by the hun-dreds. The researchers reported that mostof the drifters were white, single, im-poverished high school dropouts who hadmoved several times. They fall into twomajor catégories — young adults frommiddle-class families who went to HaightAshbury and then left town, and pooreryouths who gravitated to the Tenderloindistrict and panhandled or hustled. MissMontelius has recommended the establishment of hôtels for mobile youths, low-cost résidence clubs for those who aretrying to settle there, a bank of job op-portunities for the unskilled, and an in-crease in apprenticeship programs.Frank W. Tate, AM'48, PhD'53, chairman of the Department of Psychology andprofessor of psychology and éducation atMidwestern Collège, Denison, Iowa, hasbeen named director of student affairs. 54Leroy S. Burwen, PhD'54, has beenappointed director of Institutional Studies at San Francisco State Collège. Paul J. Cohen, SM'54, PhD'58, mathe-matician and faculty member of StanfordUniversity, was awarded the NationalMedal of Science on February 13, 1968.Kenneth Haygood, AM'54, PhD'67,has been appointed Dean of ContinuingEducation at Cleveland State University. 55Hilda Steinweg, AM'55, librarian atthe University of Alabama in Mobile, hascompiled a history book for the GrâceLutheran Church of Mobile to honortheir lOOth anniversary.Earl Tapley, PhD'55, has been appointed Dean of Education at the University of Evansville in Indiana. 57Paul Eidelberg, AM'57, PhD'66, writesthat his first book, The Philosophy of theAmerican Constitution (Free Press), waspublished in April. In May he was appointed assistant professor of PoliticalScience at Kenyon Collège, Gambier,Ohio. His daughter, Sarah Elizabeth,was born on June 21.Nathan Hare, AM'57, PhD'62, hasbeen appointed coordinator for BlackStudies at San Francisco State Collège.Paul Jenkins, '57, MBA'58, has beennamed marketing manager of Prist FuelAdditive and other industrial products inChicago.Edward A. Kolodziej, AM'57, PhD'61,has been appointed chairman of theWoodrow Wilson Department of Government and Foreign Affairs at the University of Virginia.Lachlan P. MacDonald, AM'57, hasbeen named director of information services at California State Polytechnic Collège in San Luis Obispo. 58S. Morris Eames, PhD'58, recently waspromoted to professor of philosophy atSouthern Illinois University. He receivedhis LitD from Bethany (W. Va.) Collègeon May 25.34Millard Erickson, AM'58, has writtenhis first book, The New EvangelicalTheology (Revel). The book examinesthe content and purpose of the newevangelicalism and explains the historyand thought of the new movement.Howard E. Hallengren, MBA'58, hasbeen promoted to vice président of theFirst National Bank of Chicago.William D. Hatcher, MBA'58, has beenpromoted to colonel in the U.S. AirForce. He is commander of the 906thAir Refueling Squadron at Minot AirForce Base in North Dakota.Wilfred H. Heiman, MBA'58, has beenappointed assistant professor of économiesat Central Connecticut State Collège.Robert H. Puckett, AM'58, PhD'61,has been appointed associate professor ofPolitical Science at Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Ind. 59Mildred S. Dresselhaus, PhD'59, hasbeen named Abby Rockefeller MauzéVisiting Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Morton H. Goldstein, MD'59, writesthat he is entering into private practicein plastic and reconstructive surgery inNew Brunswick, New Jersey.Robert E. Lucas, Jr., '59, PhD'64, assistant professor of économies in the Grad-uate School of Industrial Administrationat Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pitts-burgh, has been awarded a grant from theNational Science Foundation for study-ing analysis methods on the économie behavior of industries. 60Joseph F. Bell, MBA'60, has been promoted to manufacturing manager at theAndrew Corp., an electronics firm inOrland Park, 111.Gareth H. Mitchell, MBA'60, has beenappointed Assistant Executive Director atAllegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh,Pa. In 1966-68, he served for two termsas président of the Cleveland Area University of Chicago Alumni Association. Robert L. Norgren, MCL'60, writesthat their fourth child, Nathaniel Heald,was born on March 1, 1968. Nathanielwas named for an ancestral relative, Capt.Nathan Heald, the commander of thegarrison at Ft. Dearborn at the time ofthe massacre. The Norgrens hâve threedaughters: Catherine, Kimberly, and Pris-cilla. They live in London, England.Robert L. Underbrink, AM'60, has beennamed head librarian at Blackburn Collège, Carlinville, III. 61Roland J. Barstow, MBA'61, has beenelected senior vice président of Bell Sav-ings and Loan Association, Chicago.C. Ellery Chrite, AM'61, is director ofthe International Afro-American Muséumin Détroit.Daniel Meerson, AM'61, PhD'67, hasbeen appointed assistant professor ofEnglish at Earlham Collège.Norman J. Treisman, MBA'61, hasbeen appointed Brand Manager for Ben-son & Hedges 100's and Benson &Hedges Deluxe, subsidiaries of PhilipMorris Incorporated in New York City.Théodore A. Will, SM'61, has joinedthe Grinnell Collège science faculty. 62Peter A. Biggins, MBA'62, has beenappointed director of financial planningfor the Chicago and North Western Rail-way Company.Jérôme H. Woolpy, '62, MS'65, PhD'67, has been appointed assistant professor of biology at Earlham Collège. 63Gerry J. Elman, '63, is a patent at-torney with the firm of Hubbell, Cohenand Stiefel in New York City.Richard Gordon, '63, has accepted apostdoctoral position in the BiophysicsDepartment of the University of Colorado Médical Center in Denver. He received his PhD in chemistry from theUniversity of Oregon in December, 1967. Charles Manaster, n, '63, MBA'66, hasbeen promoted to marketing specialistfor American National Bank and TrustCo. of Chicago.William B. Svoboda, MD'63, has beenappointed a résident in Pédiatrie Neu-rology in the Mayo Graduate School ofMedicine, University of Minnesota atRochester. 64Karen Borchers, AM'64, is administrative director for the Seguin School andTraining Center, Berwyn, III.Arthur S. Dover, '64, SM'65, writesthat he was graduated from the University of Southern California's School ofMedicine on June 6, 1968, and will beinterning at Children's Hospital of LosAngeles.Edward D. McCamy, AM'64, has beenappointed assistant professor in the Department of English and Humanities atState University Agricultural and Tech-nical Collège, Alfred, N.Y.Carrie K. Schopf, MD'64, has joinedthe internai medicine staff at St. Luke'sHospital, Lehigh Valley, Pa. 65Roberta Lesner, '65, and Charles B.Bernstein, '62, were married in Chicagoon August 7. Mrs. Bernstein is thedaughter of Samuel J. Lesner, ChicagoDaily News Film Critic, and Mrs. Lesner,the former Esther Malkin, '35. She is afrench teacher at Bowen High School inChicago. Mr. Bernstein, a Chicago at-torney, has served the University asbasketball press director and radio an-nouncer. His article, "Basketball at Chicago: Glory on the Rebound," appearedin the March, 1968, issue of the Magazine.Marden Paru, MA'65, has been namedassistant director of the Jewish Community Center, Syracuse, N.Y.Alfred Puchala, AM'65, has been appointed assistant professor of sociologyat Muskingum Collège, New Concord,Ohio.35Arnold W. Rachman, PhD'65, wasgraduated from the Postgraduate Centerfor Mental Health, in June, 1968. He issetting up private practice of psycho-therapy and psychoanalysis in New YorkCity. 66Vern L. Bengston, MA'66, PhD'67,has been appointed assistant professor inthe University of Southern California'ssociology and anthropology departmentand a research associate with the Ross-moor-Cortese Institute.M. Paul Hunt, MBA'66, has been appointed gênerai manager for strappingopérations at Interlake Steel Corporation^ Acme Products Division in Chicago. 67G. R. Bouwkamp, MBA'67, has beennamed vice président for opérations forthe Standard Screw Co. in Chicago.Philip C. kolin, AM'67, has been appointed an English instructor at IllinoisState University at Normal.Melburn E. Laundry, MCL'67, hasbeen appointed an attorney for Gulf OilCorporation in their Régional Chicagooffice in Park Ridge. He informs us thathe recently returned from a year of grad-uate law work at the University of Frank-furt, Germany under the Law School'sForeign Law Program. He wrote anarticle, "The GmbH Co. Kommandit-gescllschaft: German Partnership Vehiclefor Joint Ventures," concerning one ofthe most rapidly growing forms of German business organization. The articleappeared in the November, 1967, issueof Business Lawyer, an American BarAssociation publication.Michael J. Madden, AM'67, has beenappointed head of the Schaumburg (111.)Township Library.Richard A. Newman, MBA'67, hasbeen appointed marketing manager forthe Philco-Ford Corporation in theirMicroclectronics Division in Pennsylvania. ARCHIVESSeptember/ October, 1893— Walker Muséum was dedicated at the University 'sfourth convocation, October 2.The football team boarded together atthe Delta apartment-dorm, and training-table fare was strictly controlled by CoachStagg, who announced the following permanent menu: break fast — fruit, oatmeal,lamb chops, potatoes, dry toast, and oatmeal tea or water; dinner — mild soups,roast lamb or beef, potatoes, vegetable(tomatoes, beans, or corn), oatmeal, fruit,and water; supper — steaks or lamb chops,cggs on toast, potatoes, oatmeal, fruit, andwater. The team dropped the openinggame to Lake Forest Collège, but cameback to win its two other games in October over Northwestern and Michigan.A small controversy was in progress oncampus over whether the price of ticketsfor home games should be thirty-five orfifty cents.The great Yerkes télescope, with itsforty-inch lens, was a top attraction at theManufactures Building at the World'sFair. The instrument, the world's largestand the last of the big refractors, was ondisplay pending completion of the ob-servatory building at Lake Geneva.September/ October, 1918 — PrésidentHarry Pratt Judson, serving as Chairmanof the American Commission for Reliefin the Near East, was in Bombay onCommission business when the autumnquarter began.Although the end of the war appearedto be in sight, over 850 women attendeda rally at Mandel Hall, October 11, andwere inducted into the Woman StudentTraining Corps. Nineteen officers' commissions were made and a daily drillschedule was drawn up. A maie con tingent, the Student Army Training Corps,had been active on campus for some time,preparing students for induction into theregular Army.The influenza épidémie sweeping thecountry was felt only mildly on campus,where only two dozen cases were reported among students. Some other uni-versities had cases numbering over athousand, and a few schools were closedentirely. As precautionary measures, theUniversity closed its swimming pools, andmost social gatherings were postponed.Women students volunteered to make flumasks and to serve as nurses in homes inneighboring communities.September/ October, 1943 — A spécial ded-ication and inauguration at RockefellerChapel celebrated the formation of theTheological Fédération, October 25. TheFédération officially combined the facul-ties of the Divinity School and the threetheological schools associated with theUniversity: Chicago Theological Semi-nary, Meadville Theological School, andDisciples Divinity House.Women students outnumbered mentwo to one, Reynolds Club was closed forthe duration, and ail but five fraternitieswere dormant as the effects of the warwere felt on campus. However, despitethe moderated pace, student life continuedmuch as before. The Maroon publisheddire warnings to freshmen who might siton the "C" bench or otherwise breachcampus traditions; Merilyn McGurk waselected beauty queen; Bob Dille, namedprésident of the Interfraternity Council,announced plans for the IF Bail; and theannual freshman-senior tug-of-war acrossbotany pond ended in the expected muddystalemate.36An advertisement for Chicagochairs, with some little-known factson the birch tree, from theRoman Empire to the University. . .In the athletic contests of ancientRome, trophies of birch branches wereawarded to the victors, a practice whichlater spread to récognition of achieve-mentinotherareas. Intime, the "fasces"—a bundle of birch rods, sometimeswith a protruding axe — became a sym-bol of authority, carried through thestreets on civic occasions by lictors,the sheriffs of their day.In the New World, the birch had beenused extensively by Indians, notablyfor wigwam pôles and the bark canoë.But the earliest settlers largely ignoredthe tree in favor of softer woods whichlent themselves more easily to construction in primitive circumstances.Woodsmen often were discouraged bythe labor needed to hew down a birch,especially when they felled a treewhose toughness had kept it uprightlong past its useful âge for lumber.Most observers, deceived by thebirch's graceful appearance, were un-aware of its great strength. JamesRussell Lowell called it "the most shyand ladylike of trees."The sap and leaves of the birch yieldan oil similar in fragrance to winter-green, and one of the tree's early useswas in the flavoring of a soft drinkknown as birch béer. As the characterof its wood became apparent, the birchbegan to be used in the manufacture ofproducts where durability was important: tool handles, wagon-wheel hubs, ox yokes, barrel hoops, wooden-ware. Challenging oak and hickory forstrength, and excelling them in beauty,birch soon came to be favored by themakers of sleighs and carriages. And,finally, cabinetmakers adopted thewood for the finest furniture.Some of the first railroad tracks werespiked to birch crossties. In the earlydays of the automobile, birch was usedby some coach makers for the mainframe and other structural members.During the métal shortages of WorldWar II the British used the wood in themanufacture of airplanes —especiallyin the well-known mosquito bomber,constructed almost entirely of birchplywood. Tennis rackets and skis arestill made of birch.Some years ago, the Alumni Association found a century-old New Englandfurniture manufacturer who continuesto employ hand craftsmanship in theproduction of early American birchchairs. The firm, S. Bent & Brothers ofGardner, Mass., is still operated bythird and fourth génération descendentsof itsfounders. Hundredsof their piècesare now in the homes and offices ofalumni and —especially the sturdyarm-chairs— are found everywhere on campus, from the President's office to theQuadrangle Club.At least one United States Président,while in the White House, owned aBent & Brothers armchair, identical incolor, design, and construction to the model available through the AlumniAssociation.The designs for the Chicago chairsoriginated in colonial times and reachedtheir présent form in the period from1820 to 1850. The selected yellowbirch lumber cornes from New Brunswick, Canada, and from Vermont andNew Hampshire. Except for modern-day improvements in the adhesives andthe satin black finish, the chairs arefaithfully traditional.Identification with the University isachieved by a silk-screened goldChicago coat of arms on the backrest,complementing the antique gold détail stripings on the turnings. The armchair is available either with black ornatural cherry arms. Ail chairs areproduced on spécial order, requiring aminimum of four weeks for delivery,and are shipped express collect fromthe factory in Massachusetts.I The University of Chicago I| Alumni Association i5733 University Avenue¦ Chicago, Illinois 60637 II Enclosed is my check for $ , payable to ij The University of Chicago Alumni Associ- Jation, for the following Chicago chair(s): 1I Armchairs (cherry arms) at $42 each ¦I Armchairs (black arms) at $40 each Ii Boston rockers at $35 each 1I Side chairs at $25 each iName (please print)Address must be sent in by November 1 .ChristmasUi6 i?~\CHl^JO t T,„.Cii^Mao. 07^u. 6063 ?