/; *->*_The University of Chicagomagazine February 196675th Anniversary Children's ConcertMolière'sThe Misanthr • •Produced and Directed byJohn ReichTranslated byRichard WilburPresented byThe University of ChicagoProfessional Théâtre Program &The Goodman ThéâtreFebruary 4-27The University of ChicagoLaw School Auditorium1121 East 60th StreetInformation and tickets:CE 6-2337/ Ml 3-0800, ext. 4400A 75th Anniversary EventThe University of ChicagomagazineVolume LVIIIISfumber 5February 196675th AnniversaryThe University of ChicagoPubiished since 1907 byTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOALUMNI ASSOCIATIONPhilip C. White, '35, PhD'38PrésidentC. Ranlet LincolnDirector of Alumni AffairsConrad KulawasEditorTHE ALUMNI FUNDErrett Van Nice, '31ChairmanHarry ShollDirectorREGIONAL REPRESENTATIVESDavid R. Leonetti39 West 55th StreetNew York, New York 10019PLaza 7-1473Marie Stephens1195 Charles StreetPasadena, California 91103SYcamore 3-4545Mary Leeman420 Market Street, Room 146San Francisco, California 94111YUkon 1-1180Pubiished monthly, October throughJune, by The University of ChicagoAlumni Association, 5733 UniversityAvenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637.Annual subscription price, $5.00.second class postage paid at Chicago,Ulmois. ©Copyright 1966 TheUniversity of Chicago Magazine.Ail rights reserved.Advertising rates on request. 12 75th Anniversary Children's ConcertCopland, Haydn, and instruments to holdTeaching the "Unteachable"by Willard J. CongreveNotes on the Future of Educationby Bruno Bettelheim15 The Way Teaching Isby Philip W. Jackson20 Why Teachers Teachby Carol LeFevre24 The U of C Professional Théâtre ProgramAn experiment in professional théâtre on campus26 Quadrangle News29 Sportshorts30 Profiles Nancy Chase, John Lion, Robert A. Wright32 Club News34 Alumni News43 Memorials44 University CalendarCrédits: Cover photo and photos on pages 2-5 by The University of Chicago;photos on pages 29-30 by Stan Karter; drawings on pages 21-23 by Wendy Kemp.Seventy-Fifth AnniversaryChildren's Concert"Before and after the performance, the childrenwere encouraged to look at the instruments, play them,talk to the musicians, and ask questions."Thus Richard Wernick, Conductor of The Universityof Chicago Symphony Orchestra, described theunique children's concert held at Ida Noyés Gymnasiumon Sunday afternoon, January 9. There was noadmission charge for the concert, held as part of theUniversity's 75th Anniversary célébration.The 80-member student symphony orchestra was seatedon chairs in the gymnasium, and the audience wasseated on the floor ail around. Conductor Wernickintroduced each instrument and briefly discussed theworks on the program: Copland's "Billy the Kid," andHaydn's "Toy Symphony." Members of the University'smusic faculty played the toy instruments for whichthe Haydn work was scored.The delighted children sprawled on the floor, watchingthe musicians with restless curiosity. After theperformance they eagerly crowded around the instruments,thrilled and awed at the rare treat of holdinga violin or a horn, or clashing a pair of cymbals.2i1 (f vt| H^^ j| RPV" t*4m 1 * ^1' 1 ¦ ufjUBT ^^ VV P^HHHft^tfL^X f**m375 th AnniversaryChildren's ConcertThemany violin had a spécial appeal jot' of the children.5Teaching the "Unteachable"by Willard J. CongreveIs there a boy in any of your classes whom you feel mightbe capable of significant scholastic improvement if only hecould be sufficiently motivated?T.A. hat question, sent to teachers at Chicago's Hyde ParkHigh School, marked the beginning of a unique, expérimental teaching project at The University of ChicagoLaboratory School which aimed at reaching and motivat-ing the youngsters that represent one of the greatest poten-tial wastes of human talent in our présent society: theapathetic learners.The idea for a spécial summer school for apathetic learners was conceived in the office of Francis V. Lloyd, Jr.,Director of the Laboratory School, in Mardi, 1965. Wordhad just been received from Morris Janowitz, Professor ofSociology at the University, that the Stern Family Fundwas interested in underwriting a spécial summer schoolprogram for high school students in spécial need, becauseof their limited cultural opportunities, of educational re-juvenation. A preliminary proposai developed by Mr.Lloyd and myself was studied and revised by ProfessorJanowitz, and by Bruce McPherson, of the University'sCommittee on Urban Education. On April 25, it was ap-proved by the Fund, and the Stern Spécial Summer School(SSSS) was born.From the beginning, SSSS was designed to focus on thosefreshman and sophomore high school students with whomthe conventional school is having the greatest difhculty.Thèse are the youngsters who hâve ability but are eitherapathetic or stubbornly refuse to use their ability in productive ways. They are not unintelligent, although theirgrade reports make them appear so. They usually hâvepoor behavior or attendance records, or both. Thèse arethe youngsters who cause teachers to grit their teeth andWilliard J. Congreve, PhD'57, Assistant Professor of Education, isPrincipal of the University High School and Assistant Director ofthe Laboratory Schools. He is-author of "The University of ChicagoProject," Chapter 3 of lndependent Study: Bold New Venture (Indi-ana University Press, 1965), and has written many articles foreducational journals. Mr. Congreve helped develop the original planfor the Stern Spécial Summer School, the subject of this article, andhe served as educational and administrative director of the projectduring its session last summer. Willard J. Congreve (left) with physics teacher Kenneth McClelland.clench their fists, youngsters who attract teacher concernat the beginning of the school year, but because of themany other demands placed on the teacher, soon becomelost. They are motivated, but not toward school goals. Theydo not see school as being useful to them in accomplishingtheir own ends.Originally we thought that our students would corne fromeconomically disadvantaged homes. Although most ofthem were economically deprived, we were to discoverthat lack of motivation is no respector of économie ad-6vamage. Ultimately, our students represented a variety ofhome and économie situations.We set out to design a program which, in a short term ofeight weeks, would help thèse youngsters to rekindle theirinterest in learning and to assist them to see that what theschool hopes for them and what they hope for themselvesare not mutually exclusive.Partly because, once permission to go ahead was given byThe Stern Family Fund, the program evolved so swiftly,English teacher Helen Lewis (standing) with students Davidflobinson, Lamont Smith, and David Field. Standing in back-ground is Ellen Orans, assistant teacher and student in the Collège. its essential quality was flexibility. Only its broadest aimsremained constant from inception to completion. Modes ofimplementation changed with the requirements of theweek, often of the day.In order to accomplish our goals, it seemed apparent tous that certain aspects of the educational environmentneeded to be intensified. First, a high proportion of teachers and assistant teachers would be required to ensure thatthe youngsters could not escape having a dynamic personalrelationship with the staff. When the program began, theratio of students to staff was 2 to 1 . Professor Janowitz hadsuggested that we use students from the Collège as assistantteachers, and this proved to be one of the most importantéléments in the design of the program. Without the collègestudents, the program might hâve failed. Second, a facultyof the highest quality would be necessary to ensure an ex-citing and interesting instructional program. Third, theprogram should be diversified, but it should be similar insome respects to that which the students expérience in anormal school setting. Therefore, we requested funds thatwould enable us to staff the program with four or fiveexperienced teachers, eight collège students who wouldserve as assistant teachers, a part-time director, and someconsultant services.Candidates for the teaching faculty were recommendedby southside Chicago school district superintendents andprincipals. Each candidate was asked to write a brief state-ment about how he would like to work in the program.He was then observed teaching, and finally interviewed.In each instance I was looking for enthusiastic teacherswho could excite the reluctant learner. Five teachers werechosen: Mr. Robert Long for Physical Education and Mr.James Bristow for Social Studies from Hyde Park HighSchool; Mr. Kenneth McClelland for Physics and Mathe-matics from Bowen High School; Miss Helen Lewis forEnglish from Harlan High School; and Mr. Ben Segal forArtistic Woodworking, from the Abraham Lincoln HighSchool in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Mr. Herbert Pear-son, Assistant Principal of U-High assisted me in administrative duties.The assistant teachers were recruited through an articlein the Chicago Maroon describing the program and invit-ing interested collège students to apply. Twenty-five applications were received. Each student who came forth wasinterviewed, and sélections were made on the basis of: (1)Personal attractiveness; (2) sincère interest in youngstersof this type; (3) expérience working with high school students; and (4) the expression of créative ideas regardingtheir probable function in the program. The Dean of Students of the Collège attested to the student's personality,character, behavior record and académie status.To eliminate boy-girl distractions we decided that onlyStudent Mark Lawson in the Artistic Woodworking shop.maie students would be included in this program. Such anarrangement would also allow us to concentrate on a seri-ous problem facing urban society today — the loss of manymen to a life of indifférence and poverty.For each student nominated, évidence of underachieve-ment and apathy as well as évidence of potential abilitywere supplied. The teachers to whom the nomination formswere sent were asked to give some évidence that the studenthad greater ability than he had demonstrated in class. Wepurposely did not rely on test data because we felt that many of the boys who could profit from this programwould, because of their négative attitudes and conséquentpoor académie backgrounds, not score very well on tests,About 1 00 students were nominated in two or three days,The students and their parents were contacted to assesstheir interest in the program. About forty youngsters re-sponded favorably and were invited, with their parents, tethe University High School for an interview. During theinterview, we attempted to explain quite clearly the natureof the program. We didn't promise the boys anything ex-cept our sincère désire to help them improve their attitudeand stimulate their interest in school. They were td re-ceive no crédit toward graduation for participating in theprogram. Lunch and carfare would be provided, and theywould receive a small living allowance for incidentals andspending money, provided they attended regularly. Theprogram would run a full day, from 8:30 to 2:30 for eightweeks. We asked them to commit themselves for the en-tire time.Thirty-two boys were selected from the forty who ap-peared for the interviews. They were notified by mail andin person. In spite of the efforts made to make sure theyreceived the message, some boys did not arrive on the firstday of the program and claimed they had not been in-formed of their acceptance. We found communication withthèse lads and their parents to be extremely difficult.? Te planned our first day very carefully. We wantedto make sure that the students got some flavor of the University, and we had to convince them that ail of us wereinterested in them. The faculty arrived early, met the students as they entered the building, and ushered them intothe Little Théâtre. I welcomed them to the program andintroduced each teacher, who, in turn, introduced the students he had interviewed. I also introduced the assistantteachers. I discussed the nature of the program, attempt-ing to elicit student interest, but, at the same time, makingquite clear the operational procédures. I pointed out thatrules are essential when two or more persons work to-gether, but that they must be functional to be of any value.The students were told that they were free to question therules and to présent recommendations for change, but that8they were expected to observe them until they werechanged. The students were then taken on a tour of thecampus by the assistant teachers, had ID pictures taken atthe bursar's office, and went to the High School cafétériafor lunch. The afternoon was devoted to short introductorymeetings of classes.On the second day three students failed to show up. Because I had assumed responsibility for attendance, I wantedto do something to convince thèse fellows that we cared.So I got into my car and went directly to the homes of thestudents to find out why they were absent. One had decidedto m to Harlan High School where he could play hisbassoon in the orchestra — which he could not do in ourprogram. The second had not been at home that night. Hewas visiting a friend. His father was surprised that hewasn't in school but even more surprised that the directorof the program would corne personally to find out why hisson was absent. The third had overslept, but he was dressedfor school so I brought him back with me.On thç third morning I received a message from one ofthe members of the group that another boy (who had notyet arrived) was not going to corne. I called the boy andin fifteen minutes was on my way to his house to pick himup. Two weeks later, when he was again on the verge ofdropping out, I accepted one of his friends to keep himinterested. I'm convinced that this gesture brought the boyinto the program and saved him from being dropped outof school. He was doing reasonably well at Hyde ParkHigh the last I heard.One boy came into the program quite unexpectedly: hejust appeared on the first day and we decided to admit him.One day, during the third week, we were informed that hewas being held in the Audy Home for juvéniles. He hadbeen involved in a car theft with another lad, and was tocorne up for a hearing the following Monday. The otherboy had admitted his guilt, but our boy was still implicatedand we were almost certain he would be sent to St. Charles.One of the assistant teachers volunteered to attend thehearing, and, to make a long story short, she brought theboy back with her. The judge assigned him to the IllinoisYouth Commission and deferred further action until afterthe close of our program. At that time, the assistant teacheragain appeared on his behalf , and the boy was placed on akind of probation until he was located in school or else- where. He joined the Job Corps and was sent to Tennessee.I talked with the boy when he returned home for Christ-mas, and the conversation was quite encouraging. He wasenjoying the Job Corps and was looking forward to thenew training in office management which he was1 about tobegin. It appears that the Job Corps is giving him an essen-„tial follow-through. I think the personalized attention wewere able to give that boy has paid ofï. I hope it is lasting.FJL. rom the moment the program was conceived everyonewas concerned about the curriculum. What will be taught?How will it be taught? "Curriculum" appeared on theagenda of every planning session, but it was rarely dis-cussed because it was very difficult, if not impossible, fojrthe teachers to do much advanced détail planning. Thestudents we had selected had rejected everything teachersnormally used in their regular classes during the schoolyear. Having accepted the charge, "You must keep thèseboys hère, regardless," the faculty lost the standard sanctions. For example, they could try to interest students in,but could not require homework in the usual sensé. Theycould no longer rely on such devices as suspension or détention to punish the non-working student. But this wasn'ttoo serious because thèse same students failed to respondto such sanctions in their regular school. Each teacherfinally developed a brief statement of content with whichhe would begin. Mr. McClelland decided to deal with themathematics and physics of straight line motion and accélération. Mr. Bristow expressed the désire to focus onurban culture. Miss Lewis hoped to integrate the readingand writing activities of English into whatever was beingstudied in the other subjects. Mr. Segal said that he wantedto involve the boys in woodworking. Mr. Long decided toteach tennis and archery, two sports that the youngsterscould not get at their regular schools. We ail realized thatplanning beyond such an outline stage was useless.Another problem confronting us was how to use the collège students. I had ne ver worked with them before andneither had the teachers. We decided that for the first week,two collège students would be assigned to each studentgroup. The would go to the classes and help out whereverthey could. At the end of the week they were frantic. They9didn't like what was being taught. They saw no continuity,no purpose. Furthermore, they didn't like their inactiverôle. They felt they had better answers to many problemsand they wanted a chance to prove it. So, I changed theirrôles. Those who wanted to teach were allowed to do so.Four elected to work in a tutorial capacity, moving witha group from class to class, but ail of them eventually tookon some teaching responsibilities in their activities program. But the interesting development was that, as soon asthey became involved in teaching, their complaints againstthe curriculum ceased. They soon realized the difficulty indeveloping a curriculum for youngsters of this type.Despite its essentially improvised character, one featureof the curriculum remained constant. In every class theboys were confronted with high-level content presented inan imaginative and exciting way. In English they readOthello, Catcher in the Rye, The Lottery, and The ShortHappy Life of Frances Macomber. In science and mathe-matics they carried out experiments which are a part ofthe regular Physical Science Study Committee course. InSocial Studies they considered some of the complex andprofound problems facing America's cities. Almost every-one discovered a previously latent talent for woodworking.And finally, the students gained considérable expertise intennis and archery — two sports which most of them hadonly read about. I must admit that the student responseswere not always high. Nevertheless, ail were being stretchedand many performed admirably in one or more subjects.Throughout the entire eight weeks, ail aspects of the program were subject to change whenever a réévaluation sug-gested the need for a différent approach. Our fréquent faculty meetings made it possible constantly to examine whatwe were doing. The schedule is one of the best examples ofthis flexibility. The original block schedule of 50-minuteclasses was scrapped after the first week, and a new rotat-ing schedule was instituted, under which the students didnot hâve the same subject at the same time each day. Timewas also provided for an activities period during whichthe assistant teachers offered instruction in areas wherethey had particular talent. The first period each morningwas reserved for large-group présentations by the entirestafï. After four weeks, it became apparent that the boysshould hâve time to do extra work in areas of strength andweakness. This need gave rise to a third and final schedule which set aside the entire afternoon for concentrated studyTo supplément the regular instruction, guest speakers dis-cussed their fields of specialization at spécial sessions, sev-eral mornings a week. Included among them were GeorgeW. Beadle, Président of the University; Julian Levi, Professor of Urban Studies and Executive Director of the SouthEast Chicago Commission; John Hope Franklin, Professor of History; and Francis V. Lloyd, Jr., Director of Pre-Collegiate Education. In addition, Wednesdays were reserved for field trips, and other time was scheduled forgroup discussion and for athletic contests.The assistant teachers gave instruction in eastern culture,urban problems, and how to listen to music. They estab-lished an instrumental combo and directed the students inpublishing a newspaper. Ail of thèse activities added to therichness of the îearning opportunities available to the students.The keystone of the program was personal contact. Theratio of two students to one staff member made it virtuallyimpossible for any boy to escape being integrally involvedin the program at a very personal level. Each day the staffhad several opportunities to establish a close rapport withthe students. It is impossible to relate ail of our wonderfulexpériences with thèse boys. Suffice it to say that theatmosphère created seemed idéal — we succeeded in con-vincing the boys that we cared. And, at the close of theprogram, when staff members were asked to write a state-ment about each student, no one found it necessary to report, "I guess I didn't get to know him very well."It is still too early to report final results. In fact, it mayalways.be too early. Many of the boys who participated inthe Stern Spécial Summer School may expérience delayedeffects for some time to corne. However, an intensive fol-low-up program is under way. Also, individual follow-through is being provided for certain boys, and will continue until the Stern grant is exhausted. The boys hâvereturned to the University campus three times for discussions and refreshments and they will hâve a party hèresometime this spring. During one of the return visits werecorded the following comments from two of the boys:"Before I came hère, my attendance was irregular, I wastardy and I never did any homework or anything. But sinceI came hère and I had close contact with the school andthe différent rules and the teachers they had hère, I hâve10a better appréciation, you know, of the way teachers feel.During the summer school we didn't just hâve work to dobut also had discussions every now and then where theteachers and students got together. This way I learned thatsometimes it is not always the teacher's fault that the student doesn't learn. It helped me because I had the idea thatwhenever something went wrong it was the teacher's faultand not mine, and I wouldn't look at it any other way. Ifound out that the teachers feel almost the same as we do.And also in attendance, the way it helped me was by com-ing hère every morning and knowing that I didn't hâve tocorne, and yet I still came. It showed me that even thoughyou don't get crédit for something and you go for your ownbenefit, it helps you a lot. That's the way I started lookingat school. I was going for my benefit and not for the teacher's or anyone else's benefit.""This program was supposed to make you bring up yourgrades. My grades for the most part didn't go up. Butgrades are just one form of saying what you hâve learned.I hâve gotten a lot more out of my classes than I got lastyear. I think I can attribute this to my listening to the in-strucîor and looking for what he is really saying, not justthe words. Thus I spent time learning what I want to learnand what would help me most, and not necessarily whatis on a test. I hope I hâve made my point, although it ishard to put it in words."AL JL preliminary follow-up indicates that the boys whoparticipated in the program hâve shown a gênerai improve-ment in their grades. Twelve improved their grade-pointaverage by 1.24, better than one letter-grade. Six hâveshown no significant change in their grades. And eight hâveshown a decrease of 0.50 in their grade-point average.Thèse are mid-year grades, and tend to be lower than finalgrades. We hope for further improvement when the finalgrades appear in June.Three of the boys hâve not continued in school. One ofthem is the boy who went to the Job Corps. Another boy —brilliant, but a poor académie performer — is employed byan excellent firm and is going to night school, but hisfuture seems uncertain. The third boy is trying to enter theMarine Corps, but has failed the entrance examination. He intends to try once again and then, if he fails, to return toschool. No conclusions can be made about his expériencewith the program.Statistical follow-ups, although necessary, can be mis-leading with so small a group; and statistics are devoid ofthe human circumstances which were the focus of the entireprogram. One économie fact is worth noting, however. Theprogram cost $25,000. If we hâve saved but one boy froma life on the relief rolls or in a pénal institution, the program will hâve been paid for in just a few years of thatboy's later contribution to the gross national product.The program touched deeply the lives of the boys and hasJordan Sandke (left), assistant teacher and student in theCollège, with students David Field and Fred Tilford.been unforgettable for those of us who worked with them.However, what we were able to do was far too little. Wehope that another such program can be undertaken, onewhich can be continued over a longer period of time. Moreattention should be given to curriculum development; anda consultant on learning theory is needed. We would wantto include teacher training as an intégral part of such aprogram. We should make better use of field trips. Professional counselling should be available, to the teachers aswell as students. Parents should be involved in the program at a more meaningful level, so that a student's ac-complishments at school are given just récognition at home,and so school itself is held in high regard. More must beaccomplished, with greater permanence. I believe we hâveshown that there is hope. ?11by Bruno BettelheimNotesontheFutureofEducation12 TJL- he most significant problem f acing any society thatis conscious of itself is to détermine what values it wishesto live by, and how to translate those values into everydaysocial action. Since I also believe that the preconditions foracquiring values start with the educational expérience frombirth on, and since this is my main field of interest, I shallfocus my remarks on éducation.I believe that the présent widespread concern with éducation deliberately addresses itself to pseudo-problems, so asto avoid the real ones. Or, as my friend Sidney Harris, indiscussing some of my writings, put it — much better thanI could — we are asking "non-questions" to avoid coming togrips with what are the real questions so that we won't beforced to act on what are the real answers. For example,most discussions of our schools, and of the training or re-training of our youth, approach thèse issues by asking thenon-question of "what they should learn," while the realquestion would be "what persons they should be." Witnessthe complaint that our schools fail to teach our children toread and write and spell. The real problem is, why don'twe give, even to those of our children who do know how toread, reading matter that would equip them to know how tolive in this world. Remember that Lee Harvey Oswald knewhow to read and write, and Hitler was the author of a book.A non-question I am often asked is: "Should my chiîd docertain chores around the house?" To answer, "yes, heshould do them," would imply forcing the child, which willonly arouse resentment. But "no" would imply that a childshould ne ver be expected to help around the house. Thetrue problem behind the non-question about chores mightbe several connected convictions and worries. One of themmight be: "If I do not hold my child to certain tasks froman early âge on, he will later in life shirk his duties." Orelse: "The example of how I attend to my own duties is notenough to set a pattern which my child will later copy, because he likes me, and the way I do things." Thus, whatBruno Bettelheim, the Stella M. Rowley Professor of Education andProfessor in the Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, is thePrincipal of the Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School for emotionallydisturbed children. This article is taken from Dr. Bettelheim's remarks at the Faculty Roundtable, part of the alumni reunion program on June 12, 1965. The Roundtable, which included questionsfrom the audience, was a discussion of significant issues facing oursociety now and in the next décade. Also participating were Profes-sors Philip M. Hauser, Hans J. Morgenthau, and the late SamuelK. Allison, with C. Ranlet Lincoln, Director of Alumni Affairs.looks like a question may turn out to be an expression of aparent's worry about how good an example he is setting,and whether his child will follow it even if no force isapplied.Another example of a non-question is "How can webeautify our cities and our superhighways?" The real question should be: "Why do we live in ways that make ourBruno Bettelheim (left) with the late Samuel K. Allison.cities so incredibly ugly?" We ask the non-question "Howcan we add beauty to our lives?" instead of asking "Whyis our life so devoid of it?" Art in the muséums, théâtres, oreven • a our public places is not much more than sugarcoat-ing of the real question of why beauty and dignity are lack-ing in our homes, in our schools, in the relations betweenus and our children.I believe most questions raised about éducation are non-questions, asked as a défense against recognizing the truequestions, because the true questions would force us toradically change our thinking about ourselves, the world,and the éducation of our children. Thèse questions are:"What kind of world do we really want to live in? Whatkind of person do we want our children to be, so that theywill create a world very différent from ours, a world inwhich they can live in accordance with their full potentialités, instead of having most of them stunted by the âge theyreach school?"Up to now Western man, bent on conquering poverty andillness, has concentrated on finding out how to deal with theMternal world. But the end of this period is fast approach-•ng. Although poverty is still with us, I think it is right tosay it is still with us only because we hâve not yet decidedm ail seriousness to do away with it.In the meantime our educational system still concentrâtes on teaching "know-how" and is woefully déficient in teaching "why?" and "what-for?" "Know-how" is a technologi-cal solution; the "why" and "what-for" are scientific andhuman questions. It remains an underlying assumption ofmuch of our éducation that we shall be dropped on a désertisland when we graduate, with nothing to rely on but thefactual knowledge we acquired in school. Actually, mostfactual knowledge is readily available to us in référencesources, and the job for which a student acquired skills inschool will, as likely as not, be obsolète by the time hegraduâtes. The important task is to develop in our studentsthe ability to ask the penetrating questions that the newreconstruction of man and society will require.t Y e are well into the scientific révolution, but we hâvehardly begun the psychological révolution. In order to usethe new freedoms made possible by technology we mustgain a much deeper understanding of ourselves and ourworld. Our éducation deals too much with things. When itdeals with people it too often deals with them as things too.We pipe knowledge into classrooms and expect wisdomand maturation to bloom. We are so ill-prepared to dealwith mass society and automation, even in the classroomswhere we teach about them, that it takes student revoltssuch as those of Berkeley to shock us alert. At least I hopeit has made us aware that many of our best students feelso alienated in society today that, in what is less a deliberateand more a desperate effort, they resort to four-letter words.They think in this way they will finally provoke us to someaction, so that they, and we too, will become real to them.Without knowing it, and motivated by their unconscious,they sélect words that refer, they believe, to something real,so as to make us aware how unreal and futile they feel iswhat we offer them in our schools.At our own University too, students ask again and again:"Why were we never told in school what life in our citiesis really like? Why weren't we told about the inner con-flicts we dimly felt in ourselves but could not grapple with,because nobody taught us the skill?"This they can ask openly, but only in secret do they askthe more devastating questions: "Why am I so lonely? Whycan I not corne close to anyone in my feelings? Why am I13afraid of my own feelings, desires, fantasies? Why are weso afraid to give freely of ourselves? Why can't we get closeeven to those who love us, and whom we love? Why do wesuppress our sensitivities?"I think one pressing problem of the coming décade is tochange our educational system so that ail thèse perturbingquestions will be asked, and those about the inequities stillin the world, their causes, and why we do not apply remédies that already exist. Most of ail, the schools ought toteach the true nature of man, teach about his troubles withhimself, his inner turmoils, and about his difficulties in liv-ing with others. They should teach the prevalence and thepower of both man's social and asocial tendencies, and howthe one can domesticate the other, without destroying hisindependence or self -love.I hope it is clear by now that I am talking about the acquisition of values as more important than the acquisition ofknowledge and skills. What is sorely lacking in our éducation, and will hâve to stand in the center of ail educationalefforts in the future, is the éducation of the émotions. Andthose cannot be educated without clear values. Certainlythe émotions cannot be educated by machines, nor inclasses of thirty or forty, nor by teachers who are forced tospend most of their time in filling out forms, or in givingand checking assignments. Nor by teachers who stay witha child for only a few months instead of several years, norby an educational system that is vilified in the press and byself-appointed public spokesmen. In short, it will hâve tobe an éducation that makes man less concerned with anever-increasing production of power, and more concernedwith the purpose for which he means to put that power touse.Such radical reform of our educational system will requirethat we give up worrying about the drawing of school district boundaries and the composition of the classroom. Itwill require us, instead, to concern ourselves with the quality of teaching, a teaching that will not be hamstrung byhaving to adhère to textbooks which contain mainly pseudoinformation, or which are directed toward collège entranceexaminations which tell nothing about the true merits of astudent.What I suggest, then, is that in the décade to cornewe take teaching seriously instead of being mainly concerned with matters of educational administration. To taketeaching seriously means, as even the most mixed-up stu dents at Berkeley realized, having schools organized on asmall, that is, human scale. It means high schools, for example, of only a few hundred students. It means smallclasses of only twelve to fifteen students, so that the teachercan know them ail personally and well. It means teacherswho will stay for several years with what then will be theirboys and girls, so that meaningful educational and humanrelations can develop. Most of ail, it means teachers whowill be free to spend ail their time in class, teaching. If weso organize our éducation, we won't hâve to worry aboutdropouts, or under-achievers, because it will be much moreexciting to stay in class, and to learn. True, such programswill be expensive, but much less so than the présent povertyprograms — -which we then won't need, since a so educatedgénération will not be confronted with problems of povertybecause it will not permit poverty in its midst. And it willbe incredibly less expensive than putting a man on themoon. Instead of a man on the moon it would give us agénération of truly educated, truly moral, and truly autono-mous men and women right on this earth.Dr. Bettelheim, you hâve referred to man's technologicalprogress, his growing ability to eliminate poverty. Eventuallyman will not be concerned with working to sus tain himselfphysically. My question is this: if we relieve man of this stimulus, what do we substitute— human psychology being whatit is—to keep him from becoming a total parasite?This has, of course, worried many of us, because it reallymeans a radical change in the capitalistic ethic, or whateveryou want to call it. I don't worry too much about it for mygénération and the génération of our children, because theywill hâve plenty to do in distributing our affluence moreequitably in this country and the rest of the world — and Ithink we both agrée that this would be désirable. One mighthope that if they really do that, they will find the servicerendered to their fellow men much more rewarding thanany accumulation for themselves. If I may wax theological:the spiritual satisfaction of such an enterprise of helpingone's fellow man, first economically, and later also emo-tionally, will be so much more rewarding that every manon earth will grow into an autonomous being, enjoyingsecurity and human dignity. This will be so much more rewarding that they won't go back to striving for those otherearthly rewards which can be gained by the methods of anacquisitive society. ?14by Philip W. JacksonTheWayTeachingIs XPhilip W. Jackson, Professor in the Department of Education, haswritten extensively in the areas of personality and creativity. He isco-author, with Jacob W. Getzels, Professor of Psychology andEducation, of Creativity and Intelligence. The présent article, re-printed from the November, 1965, issue of the NE A Journal, istaken from a paper delivered at the Seminar on Teaching sponsoredon campus last year by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development and the NEA Center for the Study of Instruction. . eaching, characteristically, is a moral enterprise. Theteacher, whether he admits it or not, is out to make theworld a better place and its inhabitants better people. Hemay not succeed of course, but his intention, nonetheless,is to benefit others.Given the teacher's moral stance and the social significanceof his work, it is not surprising to find that educational re-searchers, for years, hâve focused chiefly on the improve-ment of teaching — through attempting to identify the char-acteristics of good teachers or good methods — rather thanon a description of the process as it commonly occurs inclassrooms.But the moral cast of educational research — its concernwith "good" teachers and "good" methods — seems to bechanging slightly. Researchers are becoming increasinglyconcerned with what actually happens in classrooms, andsomewhat less concerned with what ought to be happening.No doubt there are several reasons for the shift, but twodeserve spécial mention. First is the lamentable, but unde-niable, fact that our search for the good doesn't seem tohâve paid off. For example, the few drops of knowledgethat can be squeezed out of a half century of research on thepersonality characteristics of good teachers are so low inintellectual food value that it is almost embarrassing to dis-cuss them.A second reason for the greater concern with teaching asit is dérives from the centrality of teaching in human affairs.Next to the family, the unit comprising the teacher and hisstudents is one of the most pervasive social arrangementsin our society. Therefore, anyone who is broadly interestedin man and his characteristic activities must sooner or laterturn to an examination of teaching. And when he does, hewill find that very little is known about this everyday event.Thus, the efforts of behavioral scientists to observe anddescribe what goes on in the classroom without thought ofchanging things begin to look understandable, perhaps evenlaudable.To date, attempts to describe the teaching process hâveconcentrated on what goes on during teaching sessions,when teachers and students are face-to-face. Although anexamination of thèse situations is necessary for our under-standing of the educational process, it would be a mistake,conceptually, to view the teacher's behavior during class asrepresenting ail the complexities of teaching.15Much that the teacher does before and after class, as aninstance, must be considered if we are to obtain a complètedescription of his professional activity. The teacher in anempty classroom may not appear to be a likely object ofstudy, but during thèse solitary moments he often perforaistasks and makes décisions that are vital to his overall effec-tiveness. We know very little, at présent, about this im-porant aspect of his work.Between the empty classroom and the full one are othergradations that require study. There are many times, forexample, when the teacher works individually with a student, with or without the présence of others. Although theteacher's activity during thèse tête-à-tête sessions differs inseveral way s from his behavior in front of the entire group,little is known so far about thèse différences.Much of the descriptive work to date has been based onobservation of "typical" classroom activities. Researchershâve avoided particularly eventful sessions, such as the firstday of class or the day after an examination. This avoid-ance has methodological advantages, but they are gainedat the cost of working with a very small and very blandsample from the total life history of a class.The tendency of descriptive research to be focused onrelatively calm teaching sessions, when several studentsare présent, is understandable from the standpoint of boththeory and practice. It is during such periods that classroomevents conform to our stereotyped notions of what teachingis ail about. Also, at such times teachers are more willingto tolerate observers. Yet we know from personal expérience as teachers and from the glimpse occasionally affordedus as observers that things are différent during the moreprivate moments of teaching. In the remainder of this article, I would like to speculate on the nature of some of thèsedifférences.Behavior relevant to the teaching task includes manythings, such as preparing lesson plans, arranging furnitureand equipment within the room, marking papers, studyingtest reports, reading sections of a textbook, and thinkingabout the aberrant behavior of a particular student. Indeed,thèse activities, most of which occur when the teacher isalone, are so crucial to the teacher's performance duringregular teaching sessions that they would seem to deservethe label "preactive" teaching. This désignation commandsour attention and helps us distinguish this class of behavior from the "interactive" teaching activities that occur vis-à-vis the students.One of the chief différences between preactive and interactive teaching behavior seems to be in the quality of theintellectual activity involved. Preactive behavior is more orless deliberative. Teachers, when grading exams, planninga lesson, or deciding what to do about a particularly diffi-cuit student, tend to weigh évidence, to hypothesize aboutthe possible outcome of certain action, and so forth. Atsuch times, teaching looks like a highly rational process.Contrast this with what happens when students enter theroom. In the interactive setting, the teacher's behavior ismore or less spontaneous. When students are in front ofhim, the teacher tends to do what he feels or knows is rightrather than what he reasons is right. This is not to say thatthought is absent when class is in session, but it is thoughtof quite a différent order.There appear to be two major reasons for this shift. Forone thing, by their questions, requests, and reactions, students, to some extent, control what the teacher does, andtherefore much that goes on during a teaching session ispredictable in only a gênerai way. The spécifies must bedealt with as they happen, and many of them do not call forprolonged and involved thought.Another reason for the différence in cognitive style between preactive and interactive teaching has to do with therapidity of events in the classroom. Research suggests thatthings happen rather quickly during a teaching session. Forexample, my own observations indicate that the elementaryteacher may change the focus of his concern as many as1,000 times daily. Amid ail this hustle and bustle, theteacher often has little time to think.T-A. hese différences in teacher behavior with and withoutstudents hâve relevance for conceptualizing the teachingtask, for justifying certain training requirements, and foridentifying the criteria of good teaching.Lately it has become popular to think of the teacher's activity in terms of problem solving or hypothesis testing. Thepreactive phase of teaching often fits this description. Asthe teacher décides what textbook to use or how to groupthe children for reading or whether to notify Sally's parents16of her poor performance in arithmetic, his behavior is atleast analyzable in terms that describe the rational problem-solver.At moments like this, concepts such as évaluation, prédiction, and feedbacks hâve real meaning for understandingwhat the teacher is doing. It is doubtful, however, that theyhâve similar meaning in the interactive setting.Another time at which the distinction between preactiveand interactive teaching is helpful is when we attempt tojustify certain teacher-preparation requirements. In tryingto demonstrate that a compulsory course, such as educational psychology, actually makes a différence in the quality of teaching performance, educators usually search forits effects in the interactive setting.But this may well be the wrong place to look. The majorcontribution of courses such as educational psychology maybe to increase the wisdom of the teacher's preactive décisions rather than to change the way he actually works withstudents. Even if the teacher's décisions with respect to thecourse content or the timing of certain activities are neverclearly visible to an observer in the classroom, they are animportant part of his work.JL T JLany teachers try to hâve some time alone with indi-vidual students, but the teacher-student dialogue is usuallypublic rather than private. In addition to the public andprivate settings of teaching, with the latter much less fréquent than the former, a "semiprivate" arrangement occursin many elementary classrooms. In this situation, theteacher works with one student while the others, thoughprésent, are expected to be engaged in some other activity.Little is known about the différences among thèse threeinstructional modes — public, semiprivate, and private —although common sensé would seem to tell us that the educational environment created by each might differ in important way s from those created by the other two. To givean obvious example: When a teacher is alone with a student, he is not f aced with the problems of control and management that frequently absorb a large portion of his énergies in a group setting.In addition to such an obvious différence between publicand private teaching, there are others a shade more subtle. For instance, most of the time in the group setting theteacher and his students are face-to-face. In private settings,however, teacher and student usually sit side-by-side, gaz-ing at a common object of study rather than at each other.Because of their proximity, the teacher is likely to speak inlower tones than when addressing the whole class.Another effect of proximity is that physical contact is morecommon. In tête-à-tête sessions, the teacher will often pata child on the head or lay a hand on his shoulder. My impression is that teachers also laugh and smile more frequently when working individually with students. There is,then, a much greater sensé of physical and psychologicalintimacy between teacher and student during thèse sessionsthan when the teacher is responding to the class as a group.The chief différence between private and semiprivate situations seems to be in the number of interruptions that occurin the latter. When a teacher attempts to perforai individualinstruction with other students présent, he often must stopwhat he is doing to respond to a request from some otherstudent or to deal with some déviation from expected behavior.The distinctions being drawn hère between private, semiprivate, and public instruction are not intended to implythat one form is superior tô the others. Rather, the point isthat qualitative différences among thèse three teaching arrangements are worthy of more attention than educationalresearchers hâve given them to date.The différences hâve a bearing on questions such as whatis the best class size. Obviously, we need to know muchmore than we do at présent about what happens as we movein small steps from the single student to the very smallgroup, to the typical class, to the lecture hall.In this regard, it is interesting to remind ourselves thatmost of what we call learning theory has been obtainedunder conditions of private instruction. Rarely if ever doesthe learning theorist deal with a group — a flock of pigeons,say. He may be justified in concentrating on one créatureat a time, but the things he learns by doing this are oflimited usefulness to the classroom teacher, one of whomdescribed her job as being "master of a twenty-five-ringcircus." Surely we cannot learn ail there is to know aboutteaching by analyzing what happens under conditions ofprivate study.Another aspect of teaching that deserves more attention17than it has received to date concerns the changes that takeplace in a classroom over a period of time. We resear chersusually visit before and after rather than during the eventsin which we claim to be interested. We don't visit a classroom, for example, until the teacher and his students hâvecorne to know each other rather well; until methods of dailyorganization and opération hâve become stabilized.Furthermore, when we arrive, we typically keep our eyesclosed or our tape recorder unplugged until the studentshâve settled themselves down to business and the teacherstands up in front of the room with chalk in hand. Ail thepreliminaries are merely background noise, we tell ourselves. But are they? The typical observer's sampling biasmakes sensé, but it does so at the expense of ignoring thepsychological reality of the classroom.The first day of school, as an instance, is différent from ailothers. It is then that initial impressions are formed and thefoundations of enduring attitudes established. During thosefirst few hours in the classroom, students are trying to décide whether their new teacher will be as good or as badas the last; teachers are trying to décide whether this willbe an easy or a difficult class to handle.Many hours in early September are spent on administrative détail. Rules are defined, expectations are set, over-views are given. During this get-acquainted period, studentstend to be on good behavior, and the bench in the principale office remains empty. Many teachers take advantageof this honeymoon period by attempting to arouse the students' interest to a level that will carry them through someof the more pedestrian sessions that lie ahead.An example of how interprétation of classroom events canbecome difficult when observers enter in the middle of theshow, as it were, involves a group of collège students whovisited schools about midway through the year as part of acourse in educational psychology. They visited two différentclasses, one taught by a teacher known for having a well-run classroom, the other taught by a teacher with the opposite réputation.When the collège students arrived, the pupils in the firstroom were hard at work whereas those in the second roomwere creating quite a disorder. What mystified the collègestudents was the fact that both teachers seemed to be goingabout their work in much the same way.A possibility that the collège students did not consider was that the différences in the pupils' behavior in the two roornsresulted not from what the teachers were doing at the timebut rather from what they had done at some earlier time. Istrongly suspect that if the observers had been in thèse twoclassrooms during the first few days of school, they wouldhâve seen striking différences in the teachers' behavior.Once expectations hâve become established and rulesunderstood, they tend to operate invisibly. Only violationsproduce reactions on the part of authorities; compliancerarely does. If we want to understand the forces that combine to produce a smoothly running classroom we cannotafford to limit our visits to the periods during which theclassroom is running smoothly.Si^Jo far I hâve tried to show that much can be learnedabout teaching by poking around in the corners of the classroom, as it were, and by sticking around after the dismissalbell has rang. Indeed, if we were to do more than that, if, inaddition to staying for longer periods in the classroom, educational researchers were to follow teachers and studentsout onto the playground, or into the library, or the teachers'lounge, there's no telling how many favorite notions aboutthe teaching process would hâve to be revised.Although other educational researchers may not takekindly to the comparison, it seems to me that we hâvetended to be tourists in the classroom. Of course, no onecan expect us to become natives, but we can be asked toextend and supplément our knowledge through more intensive and prolonged studies of classroom culture.The admonition to stay around and look is not new. Infact, it is old advice, and repeating it makes me feel uneasy,even though I believe in its essential soundness. Therefore,I will now abandon the stance of the proselytizer and specu-late about what might happen if we were to alter some ofour conventional formulations, including some of our rootmetaphors, of teaching.At présent, the dominant geist is to view teaching asthough the teacher's task were principally to produce spécifie changes within the student; as though there were anintimate and direct relation between teaching and learning.Yet when we try to use évidence of learning as a measureof good teaching, the results are discouraging, to say the18least. Hère again, we seem to hâve allowed our logical senséto interfère with our psychological sensitivity.At least in the elementary school classrooms I hâve visited(and usually thèse hâve been located in so-called advan-taged schools), the moments during which the teacher isdirectly involved in the business of bringing about desiredchanges in the students' behavior are relatively few.s More and more I hâve corne to think of the teachers' workas consisting primarily of maintaining involvement in theclassroom; of making an educated guess about what wouldbe a bénéficiai activity for a student or a group of studentsand then doing whatever is necessary to see that the participants remain engrossed in that activity.The teacher naturally hopes that the involvement will resuit in certain bénéficiai changes in the students, but learning is in this sensé a by-product or a secondary goal ratherthan the thing about which he is most directly concerned.If we allow ourselves to toy with the conséquences of sucha conception, we must ultimately face the possibility thatmost of the changes we hâve corne to think of as "classroomlearning" typically may not occur in the présence of ateacher. Perhaps it is during seatwork and homework sessions and other forms of solitary study that the major formsof any learning are laid down. The teacher's chief contribution may be that of choosing the solitary activity that hethinks will do the most good and then seeing to it that pupilsremain involved.Of course, the task of keeping pupils involved may entailexplanation, démonstration, définition, and other "logical"opérations that hâve corne to be thought of as the heart ofteaching. But it is also possible that the teacher might perforai this vital function by merely wandering around theroom while the pupils are engaged in seatwork. To arguethat he is not teaching at that moment is to be unnecessarilynarrow in our définition.V^/nce we hâve loosened the cenceptual bonds thathâve traditionally linked the teacher's work to the détails°f producing behavioral change, the effects might be felt infrany différent areas.Take, as an instance, questions of curriculum construction. So long as we think of the teacher as being personally and intimately involved in producing spécifie changes instudents' behavior, it is reasonable to admonish the teacherto define his objectives behaviorally. But do "good" teachers really take this kind of advice seriously? Not in my expérience. Rather, they choose an activity, such as a bookto read or a topic to discuss, on the basis of its overallrelevance to the subject matter under considération. Thesuccess of the activity is measured not so much by concrèteévidence of behavioral change as by the more fleeting andsubjective évidence of enthusiasm and involvement.Some curriculum workers may not like this description.And it is bound to upset many test-makers. But in the fieldof the curriculum, as elsewhere, it is probable that markedadjustments would hâve to be made if there were a shift ofconcern from the way teaching ought to be to the wayteaching is.A year or so ago I came across the following statementmade by the famous surgeon Sir William Osier: "No bub-ble is so iridescent or floats longer than that blown by thesuccessful teacher."Osler's metaphor intrigues me because it calls attentionto the fragile quality of the psychological condition that iscreated and maintained by the teacher. Class sessions, likebubbles, tend to be shortlived, and after a teaching sessionis finished, its residue, like that of a burst bubble, is almostinvisible.But we already hâve an abundance of root metaphors withwhich to consider the teacher's task; teachers hâve beenlikened to gardeners, potters, guides, and human engineers.Why add another? The reason is that we need to becomemore aware than we presently are of the fleeting and ephem-eral quality of much of the teacher's work. We need tolearn how to sit still and watch carefully as the teacher goesabout his work. I hope I am excused, therefore, if I suggestthat there might be some value in thinking of the teacheras a blower of bubbles.Of course, we know that a metaphor is valuable only solong as we treat it as a metaphor. When we begin to believethat the teacher really is a gardener, a porter, a humanengineer, or a blower of bubbles, we're in trouble. At thatpoint we leave ourselves wide open for the living, breath-ing, nonmetaphorical teacher to reply, "That's not the wayteaching is. That's not the way it is at ail. Corne into myclassroom tomorrow and see." ?19Why Teachers Teachby Carol LeFevreA,.sk us why we teach, and most of us can give good,sensible reasons everyone approves. On the surface, teaching seems to be one of those safe, sane professions open toalmost anyone who is not totally incompétent and canmanage to get through collège.Yet there may be many subtle reasons for our choice ofprofession — reasons of which we are unaware, and whichmay profoundly influence our behavior as teachers and thesatisfactions we find in teaching. For example, we do notallow ourselves to see that one of our strongest reasons forteaching may be our pleasure in being the center of attention in a roomfuîl of people, or the gratification we find inhumiliating a child as we were immiliated long ago. Weprefer to believe thatwe teach because we love children, orbecause teachers are so badly needed.We may hâve many excellent reasons for teaching. Butunless we are willing to look behind the reasons which weapprove, and include the reasons we fear to recognize, wemay find ourselves doing things in the classrooms whichwe do not intend, baffled at our own sudden display oftemper, cruelty, or jealousy. The needs and desires we refuse to recognize will inevitably find some means of expression. Only as we are able to accept as part of ourselves ailour feelings and wishes, approved and disapproved, will webe able to make them work for us, instead of against us.hat are some of thèse motives within ourselves thatlead us, often without our knowing it, into teaching? Onemotive may be a feeling of inadequacy in the adult world.Not quite comfortable with grownups, we may find greatsatisfaction in working with children. As a teacher we ac-quire an obvious adult rôle and status, yet live in the safetyof the children's world, participating in their activities bothactually and vicariously. Among children a certain im-maturity may be condoned. Hère it is ail right not to knoweverything or be able to do everything. In this world theCarol LeFevre, AM'48, MST'65, is a first grade teacher at TheUniversity of Chicago Laboratory Schools. Her husband is PerryD. LeFevre, DB'46, PhD'51, Professor of Constructive Theologyand Académie Dean at the Chicago Theological Seminary. Thisarticle is taken from the December, 1965, issue of The ElementarySchool Journal, pubiished by The University of Chicago Press withThe Department of Education of The University of Chicago. teacher can be less than a paragon of wisdom and skill andstill be a strong, loved, and admired person. Hère she (orhe) can feel secure and adéquate.Through teaching a woman can achieve a number ofmasculine prérogatives — status, independence, a dominantrôle — yet at the same time enjoy the féminine satisfactionsof nurtured and close human relationships. Conversely, amaie teacher may be nurturing, yet fulfill his basic masculine rôle. In the classroom she (or he) is mother, father, andteacher. She alone is responsibîe for many décisions, formanaging the class, for arranging the environment, and forthe kind of relationship she builds with the children. Theadministration may be just down the hall, but is seldomactually in the classroom. Parents and community hâve acertain respect for the teacher. They may even fear her.That thèse feelings may sometimes be expressed in effortsto undermine or unduly control her is one of the hazards ofthe profession.While teaching involves close human relationships, thedegree of closeness is limited by the large number of children involved, the différence in âge and rôle betweenteacher and children, and the distance the teacher herselfcréâtes. It is, therefore, a manageable, controllable closeness.For many people teaching may be one means to avoid be-coming too close to another person, and particularly toescape the closeness of the sexual relationship. There arestill a great many unmarried women, and even unmairiedmen, teachers. The faculty, especially in elementary school,is overwhelmingly female, and sex is conspicuous by itsabsence. Any kind of overt récognition of sex is avoided.Indeed, for the woman who cannot accept her own femi-ninity the classroom provides an idéal place to revenge herself by undermining the masculinity of the boys in her care.A teacher need not make love and bear children in orderto"hâve" children. And -her pupils, unlike children of herown, can be perpetually the right âge, the âge with whicîishe feels most comfortable. Such feelings and motives arenot, of course, confined solely to the unmarried.For others, the need that impels them to teaching may bethe désire to love and be loved. Young children, especialfyneed and respond to a warm, nurturing adult. The teacherwhose childhood was warm and satisfying may relive thishappy expérience with the children in her classroom. If shedid not receive the kind of warmth and acceptance she20wanted as a child, she may try to make life better for "her"children. Sharing their happier expériences, she indirectlyrepairs some of her own childhood's lack.This désire to give and receive love can be a powerfulmotive to good teaching and to a kind of relationship thatwill be especially bénéficiai to some children. But it also hasdangers. The teacher may overindulge the children in herdésire to make everything good for them, or she may blâmetheir parents as she blamed her own. She may reject thechild who does not respond to her loving care, or she maytry to keep the children dépendent on her and resent theirgrowing up. Her désire to possess the children may lead herto rivalry with the other adults who are important to them.Hatred can also be a motive for teaching. Unable to accept ourselves as good or worthy, we project our badnessonto our pupils and then make them suffer while we "rootout" the evil we put in them. We may do this by insisting onabsolute obédience and order, by small humiliations andemphasis on mistakes, or by blatant tyranny and dérogation. Sometimes we subtly and unconsciously "egg on" achild in his misbehavior, vicariously enjoying his naughti-ness and at the same time having the satisfaction of moralcondemnation. To the extent that we can learn to distin-guish between the self-discipline the child needs to acquireand our own needs for control projected on him, we canbegin to use this energy constructively.Success in school as a student, and successful teachingexpériences of some kind during childhood and adolescence, may be highly instrumental in the wish to enterteaching. Doing something well is extremely gratifying. Ifschool has been a particularly satisfying and happy expérience, we may feel a deep désire to continue to spend ourlives in this milieu.? Te may teach as part of a lifelong effort to please anadult of great significance in our lives, a parent or perhapsa teacher with whom we never quite succeeded. Our workwas never quite good enough to please the fifth-gradeteacher whose approval was so important to us. Now, atlast, as teacher, we can be the best "pupil" in the classroom,and can approve ourselves as she might hâve. Or we cansucceed vicariously through our good and compétent pupils.21When we behave as we know that teacher would hâve ap-proved, we feel better about our earlier failures. When wefail, we may condemn ourselves — and our children — be-yond ail apparent reason. The price we pay is trying to bewhat someone else wants us to be, rather than what weourselves really are. The self we really are will nonethelessinsist on gratification and repeatedly sabotage the false selfwe are trying to be.A teacher we particularly admired for qualities we wouldlike to hâve may inspire us to teach and become "just likeher," thus hopefully attaining the same admired qualities,and admiration, for ourselves. Or a strong teacher whom wefeared may appeal to us as a model. If only we can identifysufficiently to acquire her strength, we will no longer beweak and afraid. Indeed, we can hâve the satisfaction ofseeing that we are so strong that other people — our pupils— are afraid of us, and their fear, too, will help us masterour own. Perhaps they will even study harder and learnmore thoroughly because they fear our disapproval.Teaching may be a means of fulfilling our narcissisticneeds. We can enhance our self-love and self-admirationwith the love and admiration we receive from the children22 who look to us as teacher. We see ourselves as the centetof attention, the most important being. Our concern is withourselves and how we appear to others, rather than withothers as persons to be understood and taught. We mayhâve little patience for those whose response does not prop-erly reflect our image of ourselves.The désire to be the star pupil, to at last be able to com-pete successfully virtually ail the time in the classroom, maymotivate teaching. As this désire leads to thorough préparation and imaginative teaching, it is a positive force. Whenthis désire causes us to hold down the bright pupil whothreatens our own superiority, it is less benign. When thesame motive leads us to compete with other teachers in theschool, it may lead us to excel as teachers; at the same timeit may impel us to undermine the efforts of other teachers,impair our friendships with them, and lead us to push ourpupils unduly to be best.For some teachers, rébellion against authority and theadult world may be an important reason for teaching. Suchteachers identify closely with their pupils and their needsand desires, and side with them against the principal orother authority. The difficulty is to distinguish between thechildren's legitimate needs and the teacher's désire to subvert authority.Still another motive for teaching is to gain greater under-standing of ourselves through trying to understand children,their feelings and behavior. As we study the children in ourclasses, whose behavior and émotions are often more transparent than those of adults, and as we corne to know theirparents, we may gain greater insight into the forces thatshape human beings and especially ourselves.For those of us who turn to teaching as our own childrengrow up and no longer fully occupy our lives, other considérations enter in. Many times the need to earn a living isthrust upon a woman. The practical advantages of teaching,if she still has children at home, are so great they may out-weigh most other considérations. But when we chooseteaching simply because we hope it will be a satisfying andconstructive way to fill our lives, personal motives becomeof paramount importance.An some ways, teaching children, especially young children. is the nearest thing to continuing to be a mother. Ituses our years of expérience and calls on some of the mis-cellany of more or less amateur skills most mothers acquireover the years. To the extent that we hâve felt we were reallygood at working with children and derived deep satisfactionfrom them, teaching offers a needed and respectable way tocontinue to find this satisfaction and use this expérience.We hâve usually not kept up with the profession for whichwe were trained. Nearly half our adult working expérience,in this case motherhood, is not to be ignored in decidingwhat to do with the remaining half.The other side of the coin is that in mothering our ownchildren we saw ourselves failing again and again to be thekind of mother we wished to be. In that prolonged, intensivetry we were not able to overcome, or really repair, ail thedeficiencies of our own childhood. Often we stumbled atprecisely the same places our mothers had. In teaching, wecan try again with other people's children. Maybe we canbe more successful if we go through it again and again.Perhaps it will be easier to succeed when the demands aremore limited. In any event, the stake for our failures is notquite so high. We are not forming thèse children's lives in anything like the crucial way we influenced the lives of ourown children as a mother. Neither can success be quite soimportant.There may be other, deeply personal reasons for goinginto teaching at this stage of life, or at least for finding somekind of work to absorb us. As we see other women olderthan ourselves trying to pass their time with meaninglessactivities, becoming more and more dissatisfied, restless,and difficult to live with, it becomes a matter of some ur-gency to find something more meaningful to fill our lives.In my own case the identification with my mother as ateacher undoubtedly contributed greatly, without my beingaware of it, to my décision to become a teacher.How can we, as teachers, use our own powerful needsand desires to help, rather than exploit, others? Can we, inteaching, grow in insight and self-understanding, to ourown and others' benefit? Or will we close down in the compulsive répétition of more or less neurotic behavior? Asalways, it is much easier to talk about feelings and behaviorthan to change them. But recognizing what our conflictsand our motives really are helps bring the understandingthat may in time enlighten action. ?23The University of ChicagoProfessional Théâtre ProgramTA. he théâtre has long been a strong interest in the University and its neighboring communities. On the Quadranglesthere are the student-run University Théâtre and, for bothstudent and semi-professional actors, the Court Théâtre.The Laboratory Schools hâve an active student drama group.There are the traditional Blackfriars productions and theannual faculty plays. The past few years hâve seen dozensof campus and neighborhood productions by ad hoc groups.Near the campus are the newly-opened Harper Théâtre,with both professional and community productions; TheLast Stage, a small community théâtre supported by manyUniversity-connected persons; and a new southside branchof Hull House Théâtre.Now, as part of the 75th Anniversary célébration, TheUniversity of Chicago Professional Théâtre Program hasbeen launched. An experiment in professional théâtre oncampus, the program is partly financed by a $15,000 grantfrom the Rockefeller Foundation. It's première productionis Moliere's The Misanthrope, presented in collaborationwith the Goodman Théâtre of The Art Institute of Chicago.The play opened February 5 and will nm until February 27.PA. rovost Edward H. Levi said of the new théâtre program : "The University feels a genuine responsibility to assistin the further development of the performing and visual artsin our metropolitan area as well as in our immédiate community. Already the University has implemented interestingand expérimental programs in the field of music. It is theUniversity's hope to develop an expérimental théâtre groupof a high level and to bring excellent professional performances to the campus. We expect thèse steps to increase thestrength of existing organizations within our city and toadd a new dimension to the field of the performing arts.The new program of collaboration with the GoodmanThéâtre is thus a first step toward a larger development."William McCormick Blair, président of The Art Instituteof Chicago, said: "We concur with The University of Chicago in the opinion that a professional production of a greatplay would be a service not only to the University community but to the people of Chicago in gênerai, and thatmuch may be learned from the reactions of such an audiencefor the future of the performing arts. We also feel that, in24addition to extending the influence of the Goodman Théâtreto other areas of the community, this experiment may re-veal future possibilities for collaboration between the University and the Art Institute in the area of the performingarts."Robert E. Streeter, Dean of the Division of the Humanities,added, "For years it has been the hope of our Humanitiesfaculty that we some day, somehow could develop an ex-panded program in the performing arts on this campus.Such a program, centered on professional théâtre, wouldbring new excitement and challenge to our académie community and to existing théâtre. An audience of the naturewe hope to attract will provide a sympathetic but demandingenvironment in which the professional artist can offer hisbest."The Misanthrope is directed by John Reich, ProducingDirector of the Goodman Théâtre. The cast is headed byGeorge Grizzard, Barbara Baxley, Lee Richardson, andBrenda Forbes. George Grizzard starred in the TyroneGuthrie Théâtre productions of Hamlet, Henry V, Volpone,and The Three Sisters. He won the New York Drama CriticsCircle Award for his performance in The Desperate Hours,and he has starred in many Broadway productions. BarbaraBaxley appeared in last season's Actors Studio production ofThe Three Sisters both in New York and London. Her manyBroadway appearances hâve included rôles in Private Lives,The Dark at the Top of the Stairs, Flowering Peach, andPeriod of Adjustment. Other members of the cast for TheMisanthrope include Maurice Copeland, Geneva Bugbee,David Mink, and Arnold Wanda. The modem English versetranslation of the play is by Richard Wilbur, the prize-win-ning American poet.Performances of The Misanthrope are at 8:00 p. m., Tues-day through Sunday, with matinées on Saturday and Sundayat 2:00 p. m., at the Law School Auditorium, 1 121 E. 60thStreet. Tickets are $4.00 for evening performances and$3.00 for matinées, with discounts to faculty, students, andmembers of the Alumni Association. For further information, téléphone Mldway 3-0800, extension 4400.The sketch at left is designer James Maronek's plan for theMisanthrope set. Appearing in the photograph are BarbaraBaxley and George Grizzard in an early rehearsal. Thecostume sketches are by designer D. Hudson Sheffield.25Quadrangle NewsBells Herald the 75th - The Universityofficially opened its 75th Anniversarycélébrations on January 3rd with thepealing of the campus bells. A studentgroup called The University of ChicagoChange-Ringing Society played theMitchell Tower bells, accompanied bythe electrically-operated carillon ofRockefeller Chapel. Both performanceswere directed by Daniel Robins, theUniversity's carilloneur. The two half-hour performances inaugurated the officiai Anniversary célébrations, which willcontinue into 1967. During the Anniversary Year, prominent persons in académie and public life will visit thecampus to participate in a séries of conférences, cultural events, lectures, andbuilding dedications. Glen A. Lloyd, analumnus of the Law School and a Trustéeof the University, is chairman of theAnniversary Committee. Edward W.Rosenheim, Jr., Professor of English, isChairman of the Faculty Committee forthe 75th Anniversary, and Charles U.Daly, Vice-Président for Public Affairs,is in charge of administration for theAnniversary Year. The officiai date forthe founding of the University is July 1 ,1891, the date on which William RaineyHarper assumed office as the first président.Third Campus Landmark— A third site'on the University campus has beendesignated a Registered National Historié Landmark. The Midway Studios,at 6016 South Ingleside Avenue, theworkrooms where sculptor Lorado Taftdid most of his work, was one of 65significant sites and structures citedrecently by Secretary of the InteriorStewart Udall. Taft, who lived from1860 to 1936, was the sculptor of"The Fountain of Time" on the westend of the Midway Plaisance, "TheFountain of the Great Lakes" outsidethe Art Institute of Chicago, and "TheColumbia Fountain" in Washington,D.C. He is equally well-known as ateacher and author. His books includeThe History of American Sculpture (1903) and Modem Techniques inSculpture ( 1921 ) . Throughout his careerTaft drew young sculptors to Chicago,gave them housing and work, and en-couraged their artistic development.The Midway Studios now serves students in the Department of Art at theUniversity. Harold Haydon, AssociateProfessor of Art, is director. He says,"With this national récognition it is ap-propriate that Lorado Taft's studioscontinue to be a center for créative arts,where students enjoy the unequalledspace and light of studios built by artistsfor artists."Other campus National Landmarks areRobie House, designed by Frank LloydWright, at 5757 South Woodlawn Avenue, and the site on Stagg Field wherethe world's first self-sustaining nuclearreaction took place, December 2, 1942.New Astronomical Lab — A new astro-nomical laboratory and observatory thatwill house two small, modem télescopesfor highly specialized research is to beconstructed by The University of Chicago at its Yerkes Observatory inWilliams Bay, Wisconsin. The main observatory at Yerkes contains a 40-inchrefractor télescope, the largest in theworld. A new 40-inch reflecting télescope is being constructed with a $ 1 76,.000 grant from the National ScienceFoundation. But not ail astronomicalresearch requires such large-aperturetélescopes. Àccording to W. AlbertHiltner, Director of the Yerkes Observatory and Professor of Astronomy at theUniversity, "much important work canbe done most efficiently with smallerspecialized instruments." A primary taskof the new facility will be to develop newmethods in observational astronomy. Inaddition, scientists hope to study theprocesses in the formation of youngstars, the action thèse stars hâve on theirpredecessors, the material from whichthey are formed, the chemical composition of the interstellar médium, and thenature of the particles in the tails ofcornets. "There are many problems,"Hiltner says, "that can best be studied byconcentrating on new techniques. Although we are by no means disinterestedin the development of modem, largertélescopes, we believe the new facilitywill give us greater perspective in devis-ing such techniques."Président Beadle (left) with Philip Hampson, executive director of the McCormick Trust.$300,000 McCormick Gift-A gift of$300,000 has been made to the University by the Robert R. McCormick Charitable Trust. Announcement of the giftwas made December 22, by PrésidentBeadle, who said that it would be usedto honor the memory of the late ColonelRobert R. McCormick, editor and pub-lisher of the Chicago Tribune. Thespécifie use of the gift will be deter-mined at a later date. Philip Hampson,executive director of the Robert R. McCormick Charitable Trust, stated,"The trustées of the Trust made the giftof $300,000 to The University of Chicago to help advance the high intellec-tual standards which the Midwest, thenation, and, indeed, the world, hâvecorne to expect from this institution.The gift was made at this time in orderto provide impetus and inspiration tothe unique and dramatic campaign forChicago which the University has under-taken."26NWI7WC UN VtNpTiiftVT-jtya» wiimmrn ûrity -"«ri- • a çjpy A/jînxjW AYtf>umrttym'yfw nffrf "lîifayx' •' Ypyr • jlvwm iywf*J[ /HCiAni^iijiMC'fxxmt ntiycj)dd/»ycnnnpm • ntiic/jcÎu) vFArmiN nuuyiTîIJION TTtJIV. ^iAYWINTfNIYkjj*>Prayer Book Discovery— A n a n c i e n tChristian prayer book has been rescuedfrom the ruins of a Coptic monasteryin Egypt by the last expédition whichwill ever visit the site. The prayer booktells what appears to be an unpublishedstory from the oral tradition of earlyChristianity. It is entitled "The Word ofOur Saviour and Our Master Jésus theChrist to the Apostles Before He WasRaised to Heaven." A party led byGeorge Scanlon, a Research Associateat the University's Oriental Institute,found the book in a monk's cell of theabandoned monastary of Kasr al-Wizz,or the Palace of the Wild Goose, locatedabout 10 miles south of the Temple ofAbu Simbel. Waters rising behind thenew High Dam at Aswan soon wouldhâve destroyed the thousand-year-oldmanuscript. Written on animal skin inCoptic, the book is in perfect conditionand contains seventeen leaves of text andillustrations. The original has been takento Cairo, but photographs of its pageswere brought to the Oriental Institutefor study.The prayer book is divided into twoparts. The first relates a conversationbetween Jésus, Peter, and the otherApostles on the Mount of Olives afterthe résurrection and before the ascension. The second part is a Hymn to theCross, with antiphonal parts. George R.Hughes, Professor of Egyptology at theOriental Institute, copied the text of thePrayer book from the photographs andhas made a first translation by sight. HePointed out that, while it definitely isPart of the Christian tradition, there isno way of telling when it was first written. Nevertheless, Institute scholarsregard the discovery of the book as oneof the most exciting finds resulting fromthe salvage work at the site.Economie Forecasts —On December 8,1965, two University faculty membersjoined a Chicago banker in making theirannual économie prédictions. Walter D.Fackler, Dean of the Graduate School ofBusiness, and Irving Schweiger, Professor of Marketing, along with Béryl W.Sprinkel, vice-président of the HarrisTrust and Savings Bank, were membersof a panel at the annual Business Fore-cast Luncheon sponsored by the BusinessSchool's Executive Program Club. Thepanelists presented optimistic prédictions for 1966. Using the Gross National Product as a convenient économieindex, Messrs. Fackler, Schweiger, andSprinkel forecasted increases of 6.7%,7.3%, and 6.1%, respectively, over theexpected 1965 level of $672 billion.Président Beadle Speaks— P résidentGeorge W. Beadle addressed the annualmeeting of the American Association forthe Advancement of Science at the University of California at Berkeley, December 27. His address, "Genetics andCultural Change," outlined the state ofman's knowledge of the factors control-ling genetic and cultural inheritance andcited the far-reaching moral and ethicalquestions raised by this knowledge. Fol-lowing are some remarks extracted fromthe address:"Our knowledge is now such that wecan and do exercise a large measure of control and direction over the biologicalévolution of plants and animais in whichwe hâve cultural interests. The sameknowledge is applicable to man himself,but the moral and ethical questionsraised in contemplating any extensiveprogram of such control are frighten-ingly difficult."We now encourage certain measuresfor correcting the symptoms of geneticdisease (euphenics) and for reducingtheir frequencies (eugenics). Both measures can be extended, and should be—with a generous measure of discrétionand good judgment, especially in the caseof the latter."The more positive eugenic approachof encouraging preferential reproductionof persons of superior genetic constitutions— through the use of sperm banksand artificial insémination, for example— is fraught with the seemingly insuper-able difficulty of determining who décideson genetic superiority. With dairy cattleit is easy; we favor maximum milk production per unit cost. But what do wewant in man?"In contrast to the difficulties of modi-fying man's biological inheritance inacceptable ways, cultural inheritance inacquired anew each génération andtherefore theoretically could be easilyand quickly modified if the parent-to-child and generation-to-generation chainof transmission could be modified or re-placed. In practice, of course, this isdone to some extent in our formai educational Systems, but not the maximumextent possible for the reason that parental affection and influence, which areknown to be of great importance, areso subtle in nature that they are difficultto modify or replace without the possi-bility of lasting harmful effects. Nevertheless, modification of cultural patterns(cultural euphenics) is not only moreeasily and rapidly achieved than is genetic change, but for the same reasonscan be more readily reversed. Thus anymistake that might be made is moreeasily and quickly corrected."It is only within récent years that wehâve recognized the great significance ofcultural influences during the preschoolyears in determining the course of laterdevelopment. An understanding of thisis, of course, of basic importance inplanning educational programs that aimto change cultural patterns, whetherthèse programs are designed for develop-ing nations that désire cultural change,or for smaller population units in whichcultural enrichment and modification arethe goal. Our nationally supported Head-start Program is a significant and important attempt to achieve the latter."27Julian Tobias Memorial-Dr. Ralph W.Gérard, Dean of the Graduate Divisionof the University of California at Irvine,presented the first Julian Tobias Mémorial Lecture at the University on Dec.10, 1965, on "Computers and the Future Universities." Professor Julian M.Tobias, a noted neurophysiologist in theDepartment of Physiology at The University of Chicago, died in April, 1964at the âge of 53. A mémorial fund hasbeen established by his friends andstudents.Hartford Grant-The John A. HartfordFoundation, Inc., of New York City, hasawarded a renewal grant of $282,423to the University's Department of Physiology for continuation of studies onnormal and malignant growth. Thegrant was announced December 16th byRalph W. Burger, Président of the Hartford Foundation, and Dr. H. StanleyBennett, the Robert R. Bensley Professor of Biological and Médical Sciencesand Professor of Anatomy. The fundswill be used over a three year period tocontinue research on a séries of funda-mental problems, including the mech-anisms by which hormones influencegrowth. In a joint statement, Dr. Bennett and Mr. Burger said, "The investigations for which the grant is given areaimed primarily at gaining a better un-derstanding of the processes of normalcell and tissue growth, but they alsohâve a bearing on problems of the ab-normal growth of cancer and of diabètesand some other diseases." The researchhas been supported since January, 1963,by a previous grant of $233,168 fromthe Foundation. It is directed by foursenior members of the University'sscientific faculty: Dwight J. Ingle, Professor and Chairman of the Departmentof Physiology; Maurice E. Krahl andJohn O. Hutchens, Professors of Physiology; and Dr. Ira G. Wool, Professorof Physiology and Chemistry.Psychiatry Chairman — Dr. Daniel X.Freedman, professor of psychiatry atthe Yale University School of Medicine,has been named Professor and Chairman of the Department of Psychiatryat the University. His appointaient willbecome effective July 1, 1966. Dr.Freedman is well known for his studiesof the effects of certain drugs on brainfunction and behavior patterns. He isco-author of the forthcoming book, TheTheory and Practice of Psychiatry, andhas written more than 50 articles in hisspecialty, psychopharmacology. Dr. H.Stanley Bennett, the Robert R. Bensley Professor of Biological and MédicalSciences and Professor of Anatomy, saidof the new appointment: "We take greatpride in announcing the appointment ofDr. Daniel X. Freedman to lead ourDepartment of Psychiatry. Dr. Freedman is thoroughly trained in clinicalpsychiatry and in psychoanalysis and hasestablished his position as an outstand-ing psychiatrie clinician. He has, in addition, developed a vigorous and exceed-ingly productive expérimental programin the gênerai field of neuropharmacol-ogy, and brain research. He has clarifiedthe mechanisms of actions of some ofthe drugs which affect the minds andattitudes of people. He is a thoughtfulman of broad culture, with a strongsensé of leadership and with the capacityto enlist the enthusiastic coopérationDr. Daniel X. Freedmanof his associâtes. He is devoted to theadvance of the field of psychiatry andto servi ng mankind through the en-hancement of knowledge, good teaching, and superb patient care. His présence at The University of Chicago willinsure us a leading position in the fieldof psychiatry."Faculty Notes— Milton Friedman, thePaul Snowden Russell DistinguishedService Professor of Economies, wasrecently elected Président of the American Economie Association. He will takeoffice in December, 1966, and will servefor one year.Daniel Fuchs, Assistant Professor ofEnglish and of Collège Humanities, hasbeen awarded the Norman FoersterPrize by the Modem Language Association for the best article pubiished during1965 in American Literature, a researchjournal sponsored by the MLA. Hisarticle, "Ernest Hemingway, LiteraryCritic," deals with the late novelist'sfiction as criticism.Zvi Griliches, Professor of Economies,was awarded the John Bâtes Clark Medal of the American Economie Association at its annual meeting December29th. The medal is awarded by the AEAevery two years to an economist underthe âge of 40 who has made a "significantcontribution in économie thought andknowledge." Mr. Griliches has writtenextensively in the fields of econometricsproductivity and technical change, andagricultural économies. He has been amember of the University's faculty since1956.Gabrielle Martel has been appointedDirector of Nursing at the UC Hospitalsand Clinics and Assistant Professor ofNursing in the University's Division ofthe Biological Sciences. Miss Martel wasDirector of the School of Nursing andNursing Service at the Church Homeand Hospital, Baltimore, Md.Soia Mentschikoff, Professor of Law,has been appointed member of the National Advisory Committee on Law andPoverty for the Office of Economie Op-portunity. She was recently named byGovernor Kerner as Illinois représentative on the National Conférence of Com-missioners on Uniform State Laws. MissMentschikoff was the first woman professor of law at both Harvard Universityand The University of Chicago.Dr. Peter Vincent Moulder, Professorof Surgery, recently received from theUniversity of Notre Dame one of itscoveted "Centennial Awards."The awardhas been conferred only on those livingalumni of the Collège of Science whohâve achieved distinction in research,technology, or scientific attainment.Dr. Bruce L. Munger, formerly of theWashington University School of Medicine, has been appointed Associate Professor of Anatomy at the University.Dr. Mark M. Ravitch, an eminent pédiatrie surgeon, has been named Professorof Surgery and Chief of the Section ofPédiatrie Surgery in the University'sSchool of Medicine. Previously he taughtat Johns Hopkins University and waschief of surgery at Baltimore City Hospital. Dr. Ravitch has pubiished morethan 100 papers in scientific journals,and is editor of several journals and text-books in the field of pédiatrie surgery.He is a member of Alpha Oméga Alpha,the médical honorary society.William D. Wells, an authority on consumer attitudes and advertising, has beenappointed Professor of Psychology andMarketing in the Graduate School ofBusiness, effective July 1, 1966. In addition to his académie duties, Mr. Wellshas served as consultant to the advertising firm of Benton & Bowles, Inc. Hecornes to Chicago from Rutgers University.28SpjrtshprtsBasJa'tball-The University of Chicagohosted its 4th Annual Christmas Basket-ball Tournament, December 29-30. Par-ticipating in the tourney, in addition tothe Maroon team, were Colorado Collège, Grinnell Collège, and Knox Collège, the defending champion. Knox de-feated Colorado 69-64 on the first day,and Grinnell beat Chicago 54-45. In theconsolation game on December 30, theMaroons came from behind in the second half to defeat Colorado 63-56. Knoxsuccessfully defended its championshipthe siime night by beating Grinnell 67-58.The Maroons now hâve a 3-2 won-lostrecord for the season. They won theiropener with Lake Forest Collège 60-52,then lost to Iowa Wesleyan Collège 57-55. On January 8 they edged IllinoisInstitute of Technology 58-56, comingfrom behind to win in the final seconds.Gary Day, a second-year student fromBillings, Mont., the team's leading scorer,sank the winning basket just as the finalbuzzer sounded.Swi ining — The Maroon Frosh-Sophswimmers opened their season with twosolid victories. On December 1 , they de-feated Wilson Junior Collège of Chicago, 56-35. And in a dual meet withWright Junior Collège on December 3,they swamped the opposition 69-22. Inboth meets the Maroon natators wonthe opening event, the 400-yard medleyrelay. Against Wilson, Chicago took firstin six out of eleven events, and againstWright, another first was added. On December 8, Chicago was never behind asit captured six events in edging GeorgeWilliams Collège, 48-47.Awards - The University of Chicagoawarded major athletic letters to 22members of the varsity soccer and cross-country teams in a ceremony in the Bart-lett Trophy Room, December 9. Theawards were presented by soccer coachWilliam C. Vendl and cross-countrycoach Ted Haydon. Walter L. Hass, Director of Athletics, presided. Physical Fitness— Maie freshmen at TheUniversity of Chicago are stronger andmore agile this year than any freshmenin the previous décade, according to theUniversity's Department of PhysicalEducation. About 40 percent of the cur-rent freshmen placed in the top twocatégories of the Department's séries ofmotor ability tests. According to JosephM. Stampf, Associate Professor of Physical Education and Director of the Re-quired Physical Program, the figure rep-resents an increase of 16 percent overlast year's group.Track — On Thanksgiving day, the University of Chicago Track Club won theteam championship of the Central AAU 5,000 Meter Cross Country Event at RiisPark in Chicago. And on November 27,three varsity team members participatedin the NAAU Senior 10,000 MeterEvent in New York City. The UCTCplaced second behind the Toronto Olym-pic Club. A total of 287 athlètes fromschools and clubs in the Midwest areaparticipated in the 1 3th Annual HolidayTrack Meet, sponsored by the UCTC onDecember 18.Wrestling— Seven freshmen and onesophomore represented Chicago in theKnox Invitational Tournament at Gales-burg, 111., on December 10-11. Maroonmatmen competed in ail but two of tenweight divisions and took a 4th place inthe 115 lb. class.29ProfitesNANCY CHASEA second year student in the Collège,Nancy Chase is by her own admission acurious anomaly at The University ofChicago. While in high school in Port-land, Oregon, she was selected as "Ore-gon's Junior Miss," a distinction which,she says, "confirmed everybody's view ofme as 'The Idéal American Girl.' " AtChicago, in an atmosphère characterizedby lack of convention, she feels some-what like a "refugee from the Big Ten."She says, "When I came on campus, Ifelt I was looked upon as a typical prod-uct of a typical middle class high schoolof a typical middle class town. I wasun-happy and reluctant to begin any socialrelationships. But the University provided an atmosphère of libération whichallowed me to break out of my self-imposed mold. Now I'm very happy."Of course I've expanded, I've broad-ened my outlook. But a lot of my inter-ests hâve not changed since high school.I don't think I've rebelled against mybackground as much as other peoplehère. I do some very conventional things—like setting my hair. I participate inwhat some persons consider 'Big Ten'activities." Nancy is chairman of thisyear's Wash Prom Committee, a cheer-leader at basketball games, and a member of the Women's Àthletic Associationand the Quadrangle Women's Club. Shehas been active in SWAP, a student tu-toring project, and she has worked part-time at Ida Noyés Hall. Nancy takespride in "building friendships basedupon mutual acceptance and respect."At the moment she is working hard tomake Wash Prom a success. Until lastyear, she says, a formai gown was anobject of dérision to too many students. She would like to change the jeers toapplause by "making the Prom something worth going to. I feel that thereare too few social activities on campus,too few opportunities for faculty andstudents to meet in a social atmosphère.Perhaps a successful Prom can put somelife into what is, really, a neglected areaat Chicago."Adacemically, Nancy has pursued agênerai course of study. After graduation, she would like either to join theMAT program in Mathematics or to dograduate work in psychology.JOHN LIONFor John Lion, a fourth-year student inthe Collège majoring in English, theplay's the thing. Since the seventh gradehe has pursued an interest in dramawhich was originally prompted, he says,by "a childhood concern with fantasy."When he came to Chicago from his nativeBaltimore he was thinking of the theateras a sideline. He wanted primarily to writefor the Maroon and later to go into jour-nalism. But, he says, because Chicago hasan active theater program without a spécifie drama curriculum, there exists afreedom hère which he could not resist.Although he has written an occasionaldrama review for the Maroon, he hasspent most of his spare time on or near astage. In his four years hère he has actedthe rôles of Sagen in Rodney Phillips'John Lion (right) directing a rehearsal of Amedee.Aside From AU That, Tranio in TheTaming of the Shrew, Harcourt in TheCountry Wife, Mosca in Volpone, andthe father in Ionesco's Jack, or the Sub.mission. In addition he has directedGenet's Deathwatch and The Maids andAlfred Jarry's Ubu Roi. He is currentlypreparing for his most ambitious under-taking as a director: Ionesco's Amédée:or How To Get Rid of It, which will beperformed, for the first time in this country, at Mandel Hall in February.About Amédée he says: "It is thestory of a married couple who graduallydiscover that there's just nothing happening any more between them. The progression of their expanding consciousness ofthis fact is seen in terms of an accumulation of grotesque imagery on the stage.It is a three-act absurdist comedy, whichhas some unique technical problems: certain characters must fly; and there arelarge props, including a nine-foot-highshoe attached to a forty-foot body whichhas to be dragged across the stage. Weare using films and music to support theaction in various places, and thèse mustbe coordinated. It has a cast of overthirty. It's going to be an exciting production."John views the modem "Theater of theAbsurd" as having evolved in stagesfrom the disintegration of "the ration-ally conceived vision of the universe"and of the "nineteenth century notion ofman as a rational animal." First, he says,"there was a reaction: realism wasabandoned in art, and the non-rationalunderside of man came bursting to the30Robert A. Wright (left) with Président Beadle at the 3I2th Convocation.urfi c in mass cuits and movementssuch as Surrealism, Imagism, and Dada-ism. ln tne theater, each of thèse move-ments left its mark on technique, andthe révolution in form gained widespreadacceptance, notably in the work ofBrecht. But it was not until Artaud andCamus that it began to receive any philo-sophical support. Finally, in the fifties,Genêt, Beckett, and Ionesco went a stepfurther and adopted the form of thephilosophical content of their plays. Theirthenter not only lacks objectively validcha acters, it often lacks objectively validobjects. It neither expounds a thesis nordebates ideological propositions; it is atheater of situations rather than of eventsin séquence. But most important, it useslanguage based on patterns of imagesrather than didactic argument or discursive speech. The abandonment of theidea that logical discourse can offer validsolutions or reveal basic concepts is thefull realization of both artistic and socialnihilism." In a sensé John déplores thisdrift toward ultimate chaos and nihilismin the theater. He would wish instead fora s> nesis of the humanistic élément inthe oïd realism with the absurdist rejec-tion of the logic of personality. Chaoscan hâve meaning if it is informed withthe traditional regard for what is dis-tinctively human in man. This, he feels,has not yet been achieved.lohn's artistic interests range wide.His objectives include not only directingand acting in plays, but also writing—plays, poetry and criticism— and filmmaking. He would like to do graduatework, but not necessarily in a "dramaworl hop" setting. He does hope even-tuall to "go into theater," but his immédiate plans call for study in the fieldof literature. He belongs, he says, to the"people who care about art, not to thepoliticos or the social people. As soon asyou enter the social sphère you'reimmediately concerned with changingthings, with impinging your ideas ontocollectively held ideas, with making yourideas acceptable. But if you're an artperson, you do art, and you don't reallygive a damn what people think. I givemonev to beggars. That's my contribution !o the social sphère."ROBERT A. WRIGHTWhen he first came to The Universityof Chicago in 1906, Robert A. WrightPlanned to study medicine and to become a physician. But in 1909, with°nly one quarter remaining in his Bach-e'°r of Science program, he left Chicagoto answer "the call of the West" and to seek his fortune in Canada. Last yearMr. Wright returned to the Collège.After 56 years of success in business, hearranged, at the âge of 79, to complètethe requirements for his degree. He sub-mitted an original research paper en-titled "Cattle Industries of the UnitedStates and Canada," and on December17, 1965, was rewarded with his SB atthe University's 312th Convocation. Hecame back, Mr. Wright explained, because of "a belief in higher éducation.I believe that everyone should hâve acollège degree, and I just wanted to complète this neglected part of my life."Mr. Wright was born in Carroll, Iowain 1886. His father, a doctor, gave himan early interest in medicine. He was torelinguish this goal early, however, andwhen he left the University, it was tobuy land. His first property, in Saskatch-ewan, was purchased with borrowedfunds. He started by growing flax andturned later to raising cattle, sheep, andgrain. He became a Canadian citizen,and as his business interests expanded, hewas offered several professional and business appointments. From 1935 to 1942,he served as Agricultural Director of theBank of Canada. His other posts includ-ed the vice-presidency of the CanadianChamber of Commerce and the presi-dency of the Western Canada LivestockUnion. On two occasions he was sent toEurope by the Canadian government tostudy food marketing problems and toact as a consultant on Canada's wartimeproductivity.When he returned to the United Statesshortly after World War II, Mr. Wrightreclaimed his American citizenship. In1947, he acquired a motel in his hometown in Iowa, and another career waslaunched which culminated in his élection as président of the Iowa Hôtel Association in 1955, and of the NorthwestHôtel Association in 1959. He now liveswith his wife Estyl on a large ranch near Carroll where he is working as a farmerand cattle rancher. Mr. Wright stillspends three hours a day on horsebackinspecting his crops and livestock, andhe has continued to display his prizeanimais at the annual International Livestock Exposition at the Chicago Stock-yards.Last year Mr. Wright set out to complète what he calls "my procrastinateddegree." He was well prepared to writeabout the cattle industry. He says thatmuch of what went into his degree papercame from his extensive expérience as acattleman in Saskatchewan. The paperreflects Mr. Wright's conviction that itis of increasing importance that a judi-cious and farsighted program must de-velop between the United States andCanada if we are to continue to providethe necessary méat products, not onlyfor North America, but for the entireworld. "This country," he says, "has theroughage and grain to complète thegrowth of cattle; Canada has the calvesand the grass. Together the two coun-tries could feed much of the world.Thèse were some of the ideas I tried toexpress in my paper."Mr. Wright's 1 00-page treatise earnedhim an "A" from his faculty supervisor,Charles E. Olmsted, Professor andChairman of the Department of Botany,who described the paper as a "significantresearch document." Président GeorgeW. Beadle praised the paper for its org-anization and thorough documentation.He said, "Mr. Wright has definitelyearned his degree from The Universityof Chicago, where such degrees are noteasily won. His paper should serve assource material for graduate students."Mr. Wright's wife said her husband was"pretty excited about getting his di-ploma." Asked if he was planning to goon for his Master's, Mrs. Wright said:"I doubt it. One degree is enough for aman his âge."31HB/fivyfétetàNew YorkAlumni of the Graduate School ofBusiness held their fourth annual réception on December 18 at the PinnacleClub for 67 New York area collège students interested in the University's Business curriculum. Current GraduateSchool of Business students served asassistant hosts, and spécial faculty guestsincluded Dean George P. Schultz, Deanof Students Harold H. Metcalf, and Pro-fessors Walter D. Fackler, George H.Sorter, and Roman L. Weil, Jr. Chairman of the program was Joseph D. Reid.OmahaMilton Friedman, the Paul SnowdenRussell Distinguished Service Professorof Economies, joined Omaha alumni fora dinner meeting at the Northern Natu-ral Gas Building, then addressed over300 alumni and guests at the Joslyn ArtMuséum, December 9. Spécial guestswere Président George W. Beadle, whospoke informally at the dinner, and Richard F. O'Brien, Vice-Président for Planning and Development. Mr. Friedman'saddress, "Economie Policy: Intentionsvs. Results— or, What the Road to Hell isPaved With," was enthusiastically re-ceived by Omaha alumni, who respond-ed with a lively question session. Servingon the program committee for the eventwere Mr. and Mrs. John F. Merriam,chairmen, Mr. William W. Hill, Mr.Calvin M. Newman, Mr. and Mrs. William R. Oostenbrug, and Mr. AddisonW. Wilson.PhiladelphiaJohn Rewald, Professor of Art and consultant on acquisitions to the Muséumof Modem Art, was guest speaker at adinner meeting at the Alpha Club, Jan-uary 17. Mr. Rewald spoke on "For-geries in Modem Art." Spécial guests atthe affair included directors of Philadelphia art muséums and académies.Also présent were Philadelphia area highschool students interested in the Collège.Mrs. Richard Davis was chairman of theprogram. ChicagoThe 75th Anniversary Alumni Conférence on the Collège was held January28-30, bringing together a selected groupof more than 60 alumni from across thecountry and a dozen faculty members.Entitled "What Knowledge is MostWorth Having?", the conférence washeld at the Center for Continuing Education. The alumni, in Company withthe faculty members, engaged in a seri-ous, lively re-examination of the pur-poses and the actual achievements oftheir undergraduate éducation. A full report of the conférence will appear in theApril issue of the Magazine.Alumnae of the Quadranglers met fora holiday réception at the home of Mrs.Robert Rosenbacher on November 26.Fifteen undergraduate women, currentmembers of the Quadranglers, were spécial guests. The student group includedsecond-generation member Jane Coul-son, daughter of Jan Rinder (Mrs. JohnS.) Coulson. Also présent were Mrs.Karl Meyer (Helen Sinclair Baker) andMrs. Charles D. Schmidt (Jean Flet-cher) . Following the réception, the groupattended a dance program at the HarperThéâtre. Plans are underway for another meeting in the spring (contact GrâceOlsen Gilbert, téléphone ALpine \.4895).San FranciscoThe Bay Area Alumni Club was hostto twenty faculty members at a réception at the Mark Hopkins Hôtel, December 29. Over 70 alumni attended theaffair, held in honor of faculty memberswho were in San Francisco for the concurrent meetings of the American His-torical Association and the AmericanAssociation for the Advancement ofScience.DenverFifty Denver area high school studentsinterested in attending the Collège wereentertained with their parents at an informai réception at the Brown PalaceHôtel, December 28. Denver alumni and12 Denver area students in the Collègeserved as hosts. Spécial guests were RayKoppelman, Master of the CollegiateDivision of Biology, and Robert Bovin-ette, Collège Admissions Officer.Omaha: (below, left to right) John F. Merriam, Addison W. Wilson, Milton Friedman,William W. Hill, and Président George W.Beadle.32fW*HCOMING EVENTSNew York: March 2The University of Chicago Club of NewYork présents a dinner and theater benefit program. Dinner at the Williams Club,24 E 39th St., followed by a performance of James Goldman's A Lion inWint -, starring Robert Preston andRosemary Harris, and directed by NoëlWilliam, at the Ambassador Théâtre.For réservations, téléphone PEnnsyl-vania 6-0747.Chicago: March 11The Alumni Committee for the 75thAnniversary présents a "MediterraneanSupper" and a private showing of TheArt Institute of Chicago's new exhibit,The Matisse Rétrospective. ProfessorPaul B. Moses of the Art Departmentwill '^peak on the exhibit prior to thetour. Cocktails at 5:00 p.m. at the Main%er of Orchestra Hall, 200 S. Mich-igan Ave.; dinner at 6:00 p.m. at TheArt Institute's dining room; lecture at':30 p.m. and tour following. Attendre will be limited to the seating capac-ity of the lecture hall (Fullerton Hall).For réservations, contact The Univer-S1,y of Chicago Alumni Association,'733 University Ave., Chicago, 111.*637, téléphone Midway 3-0800, ext.«91. San Francisco: March 12Hans J. Morgenthau, the Albert A.Michelson Distinguished Service Professor in the Departments of PoliticalScience and History and Director of theCenter for the Study of American For-eign and Military Policy, speaks to SanFrancisco Bay area alumni at a luncheonmeeting. Professor Morgenthau's topicwill be "A New Foreign Policy for theUnited States." Time and place to beannounced. Réservations: Miss MaryLeeman, 420 Market Street, YU 1-1 180.Tulsa: March 16Tulsa area alumni, with the Friends ofthe Library, présent a lecture by novelistRichard G. Stern, Professor in the Department of English and in the Committee on General Studies in the Humanities. The program is part of the TulsaArts Festival. Dinner at 6:00 p.m. at theMayo Hôtel; lecture at 8:00 p.m. in thenew library's Alfred E. Aaronson Auditorium. For réservations, contact Mr.and Mrs. Raymond G. Feldman, 2120E. 46th St., Tulsa, téléphone RI 2-6463.St. Louis: March 23Harry Kalven, Jr., Professor of Law,will be guest speaker at a dinner meeting, time and place to be announced.Arrangements: Mr. J. Léonard Shermer,6 Ladue Manor, St. Louis, téléphoneWY 1-5556.Indianapolis: April 24The Alumni Club of Indianapolis, injoint sponsorship with the Open Forumof the Jewish Community Center Asso- Manila: Philip M. Hauser (above, right),Professor of Sociology and Director of theUniversity of Chicago's Population Research and Training Center, talked withFerdinand E. Marcos, Président of thePhilippines (center), about expanding thefunctions of the Population Institute andthe Statistical Center at the University ofthe Philippines. Mr. Hauser is accompaniedby Col. Antonio J. Henson of The University of Chicago Alumni Club in the Philippines and the Ayala Securities Corporation.dation, présents a lecture by MorrisJanowitz, Professor of Sociology andDirector of the Center for Social Organ-ization Studies. A dinner for alumni willprécède the lecture, time and place to beannounced. Lecture at 8:00 p.m. in theauditorium of the Jewish CommunityCenter, 6701 Hoover Road, Indianapolis.Arrangements: Mr. and Mrs. Jordan H.Leibman, 6808 N. Sherman Drive, Indianapolis, téléphone 253-3728.For information on coming events, orfor assistance in planning an event inyour community with a guest speakerfrom the University, contact Mrs. JeanHaskin, Program Director, The University of Chicago Alumni Association, 5733S. University Ave., Chicago, lll. 60637,téléphone Midway 3-0800, ext. 4291.33Alumni News 07Clarence A . Bâtes, '07, JD' 1 1 , of Jeffer-son City, Tenn., has been a lawyer for52 years. He writes of handling, at theâge of 82, "some of the largest cases ofmy life." Mr. Bâtes, a crack debater inhis undergraduate days, has provided inhis will for a scholarship, to go to a student interested in public speaking.13Samuel Epstein, '13, JD'15, a vétéranCircuit Court judge in Chicago, was hon-ored on November 1 9, 1 965, by the Congrégation Rodfei Zedek. The festivitiesmarked a triple milestone for Judge Epstein— the fiftieth anniversary of his graduation from the Law School, the eigh-teenth anniversary of his judicial career,and his birthday.16Mrs. Kate Parker Smith, '16, is authorof two Junior Collège texts on Drama.Frank S. Whiting, ' 1 6, président anddirector of the American Furniture Martin Chicago, has been presented with thenational silver plaquebrotherhoodawardby the Furniture Industry of Chicagoand the National Conférence of Chris-tians and Jews.18Arthur A. Baer, M 8, chairman of theboard of the Beverly Bank in Chicago,has been named member of the VisitingCommittee on the Humanities at TheUniversity of Chicago.William S. Hedges, '18, a former viceprésident of the National BroadcastingCompany, has been drafted by the Broad-cast Pioneers to take charge of its His-tory Project, which eventually will formthe nucleus of a référence library for thebroadcasting industry.19John S. Lundy, MD'19, of Seattle,Washington, was founder and head ofthe Section of Anesthesiology of theMayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. from1924 to 1952. He has been appointedclinical professor of anesthesiology in theUniversity of Washington School of Robert HalladayMedicine at Seattle. Dr. Lundy was professor of anesthesiology in the MayoGraduate School of Medicine of the University of Minnesota from 1934 to 1959and associate professor of surgery (anesthesiology) in the Northwestern University Médical School from 1959 to 1964.Mrs. Paul S. Russell, '19, whose latehusband was a member of the University's Board of Trustées, has been namedto the Visiting Committee on the Humanities at the University.22Robert T. Halladay, '22, a vétéran employée of the Illinois Bell TéléphoneCompany retired on November 1, 1965.He was a division traffic manager. Heand his wife hâve two sons and live inHinsdale, 111.Ferd Kramer, '22, président of Draper& Kramer Inc., a Chicago real estatefirm, was honored recently by the JointNegro Appeal. He was cited for his efforts in helping to shape intégration patterns at two Chicago housing develop-ments: Lake Meadows and PrairieShores. A former chairman of the UnitedNegro Collège Fund, Mr. Kramer is amember of the Présidents Committeeon Equal Housing. Mr. Kramer has longbeen âssociated with alumni affairs. Heserved as chairman of the Alumni Fundin 1964 and 1965, and currently is chairman of the President's Fund.Joseph Perlman, '22, has been promotedto président and chief executive of theHandy Button Machine Co.Harold P. Winter, '22, a vice présidentof the Union Central Life Insurance Co.,has been selected for a directorship. Mr.Winter is head of the company's SalesDepartment.23Ernest R. Wood, '23, has been appointed président of Frederick Collège,Portsmouth, Va.24Charles L. Dwinell, '24, is the new pas-tor of the First Christian Church inMarceline, Missouri. Called to the min-istry in 1961 after a 40-year career as a businessman, he is currently complet-ing graduate work for the BD at Missouri School of Religion in Columbia.Rev. Dwinell and his wife recently returned from a trip to Kenya as part ofa world mission tour known as the"Apostle to the Illiterates."Pearl Feltenstein, '24, of Chicago, isemployed by the State of Illinois Divisionof Unemployment Compensation as amethods and procédures advisor.Edwin H. Forkel, '24, retired on December 31,1 965, from the presidency ofContinental Casualty Company and fromthe vice-chairmanship of the NationalFire Insurance Company, both of Hartford, Conn.Mack Buckley Swearingen, AM'24,PhD'32, after teaching American His-tory as a visiting professor at AnkaraUniversity in the 50's, later returned toTurkey under a grant from the Rocke-feller Foundation. He is presently aprofessor of History at Elmira Collège inElmira, New York.25Leonidas H. Berry, '25, MD'30 (RushMédical), was made président, in 1965,of the National Médical Association.After spending three years in internaimedicine at Cook County, Provident,and Billings Hospitals, Dr. Berry joinedDr. Rudolf Schindler, who had devisedthe first practical gastroscope, for ayear's study of the new instrument. Amember of several professional soci-eties, Dr. Berry is currently the seniorattending physician at Michael Reeseand Provident Hospitals in Chicago. Hehas done research in the history of Afro-American medicine, a subject whichmédical authorities believe has not re-ceived the scholarly treatment it de-serves.Erling Dorf, '25, PhD'30, professor ofgeology at Princeton University, hasbeen elected to the Royal Danish Acad-emy of Sciences and Letters. A member•of the Princeton faculty since 1926, Mr.Dorf has also been its Curator of Paleo-botany for more than a quarter of a cen-tury. He is particularly interested in the34Edward Amessedii icntary rocks and fossil plants ofthe Rocky Mountain région and has ledmany expéditions to that section of thecountry.Melson Fuqua, '25, is an internationaladvertising consultant with headquartersin Paris. His principal avocation, however, is the discovery and encouragement of young French artists. Paintingsfrom his collection hâve been requestedfor loan by muséums in France, Ger-many, Italy, Switzerland, Norway andSweden.Bernice Shannon, '25, believes thereis considérable cause for optimism re-garding the literary level of the youngergénération. "Not ail of them read comicbooks and horror stories," she says.'And a good share don't drool overevery word in magazine stories on theBeatles. Young people are reading muchmore, and a good deal of their readingis in the classics and in critical works ofimportance." Miss Shannon speaks fromover 45 years of expérience as a librarianin seven cities. She will soon retire after13 years as head librarian in East Détroit.Herbert S. Wolfe, SM'25, PhD'30, isprofessor emeritus of fruit crops at theuniversity of Florida. He has writtenarticles on horticulture for several publications.26Edward C. Ames, '26, vice président forpublic relations of the AdministrativeDivision, Owens-Illinois, Inc., was re-elected at the gênerai élection in November to a 6-year term as member of theState Board of Education of Ohio fromtheNinth Congressional District. A résident of Toledo, he has served as anelected member of the State Board since1957. From 1945-1953 he was a member of the Toledo Board of Education,and in 1951 received a Citation fromThe University of Chicago Alumni Association.H. Gibson Caldwell, AM'26, has been"arned chairman of the 1965 alumni™nd campaign for the University inOttawa, Canada. He is assisted by L. Jack Cowen Walter MarksGladys Harvey, AM'26, and E. G. D.Maynard, MBA'60. Mr. Caldwell is anOttawa realtor.Nila Banton Smith, '26, a distinguishedservice professor at Glassboro (N. J.)State Collège, and one of the nation'sforemost educational authorities onreading, is to deliver a major address atTemple University's 23rd Annual Reading Institute. Miss Smith is author ofseveral professional books on readingfor teacher training. Her text, AmericanReading Instruction, is recognized as alandmark in the field.27Alice W. S. Brimsori, AM'27, is président of the Baptist Missionary TrainingSchool in Chicago. She has traveled ex-tensively in Latin America, Europe andthe Near East, and recently returnedfrom Japan.Jack P. Cowen, '27, MD'32, has accepted an appointment by GovernorOtto Kerner to the Illinois Committeefor the Réception of DistinguishedGuests, a branch of the State Depart-ment's Protocol Division. Dr. Cowenrecently returned from Turkey, wherehe lectured at the University of Istanbulon ophthalmology.Walter E. Marks, '27, chairman of theDepartment of Health, Physical Education, and Récréation at Indiana StateUniversity, was named last fall as Deanof the newly-established School ofHealth and Récréation. Mr. Marks hasbeen on the staff of the school for 38years. At the University he was a three-letter man and earned All-Americanhonorable mention as captain of the lastMaroon team to capture the Big Tenfootball title in 1924.28David H. Feldman, LLB'28, is a prac-ticing attorney with the firm of Feldmanand Feldman in Chicago.F. L. McCluer, PhD'28, has retiredafter serving as président of LindenwoodCollège, St. Charles, Mo., for 18 years.He began his 50-year career as a highschool teacher, after which he became afaculty member and then président of Westminster Collège in Fulton, Mo. Heholds honorary doctor of laws degreesfrom three universities and has beenactive in Missouri State politics and inthe Presbyterian church. Mr. McCluerand his wife will continue to réside in St.Charles.A . King McCord, '28, has been electedchairman and head of the executive committee of the Westinghouse Air BrakeCo. in Pittsburgh. He is married and hasthree children.Rufus Oldenburger, '28, SM'30, PhD'34, a faculty member of the Purdue University School of Engineering, has inventée! a new hydraulic governor thatwill act as an automatic throttle forequipment ranging from jet and marineengines to engines used in electric gen-erator plants. More than twenty yearsago, in the course of solving a fighterplane control problem, Mr. Oldenburgerdiscovered the optimal control approach—now the major field of automatic control research in the U.S., the U.S.S.R.,and elsewhere. He organized the International Fédération of Automatic Control,and the Automatic Control Center inthe Purdue School of Mechanical Engineering. One of his récent discoveries—a very rapid method of finding roots ofalgebraic équations— is now being usedto facilitate the design of control Systemsand other engineering equipment. He isa mathematician by training, yet ranksas an outstanding mechanical engineer.Mr. Oldenburger has received numerousprofessional awards for finding shortcutsolutions to engineering problems.W. Conway Pierce, PhD'28, professoremeritus of chemistry at the Universityof California (Riverside), received theAmerican Chemical Society's Award inChemical Education at the Society's1 50th National Meeting in Atlantic Cityin September, 1965.John Van Prohaska, '28, MD'34, of theUniversity faculty, has received a$15,000, one-year grant from the American Cancer Society for his project, "TheEndocrine Response of Mammary Car-cinoma Induced Under Varying Hormonal States."35Alexander Handel Luis AlvarezMrs. William Saphir, (Carol L. Hess,'28, SM'31), a member of the cabinetof the alumni association of The University of Chicago, was selected as "TheSweetest Woman of the Year" for 1965in Chicago. Sélection is made by a committee on the basis of charitable, philanthropie, and civic activities. Mrs. Saphirhas served as président of the ChicagoLeague of Women Voters and is activein the Chicago Council for CommunityNursing.Alvah Eugène Staley, PhD'28, is director of basic research for the International Development Center at theStanford Research Institute, Cal if. He isco-author of Modem Small Industry forDeveloping Countries (McGraw-Hill),an analysis of the rôle of small-scalemanufacturing in industrial development.Mr. Staley has served as small industryconsultant in India for the Ford Foundation, and his research at Stanford hassent him to countries around the world,including Tunisia, Colombia, and Pakistan.29 "Paul O. Lewis, '29, will observe his 25thanniversary with the Connecticut MutualLife Insurance Company on Dec. 10.He is an associate of the WilliamsonAgency of Chicago. He and his wife réside in Elmwood Park, 111.Mrs. Jesse Frank Schuett (Beth B.Schuett, SB'29, SM'47), counsels students at Homewood-Flossmoor HighSchool in Homewood, Illinois.30 ~Rev. John F. Stearns, AM'29, havingretired from his pastorate of twenty-oneyears at the Park Church (Congrega-tional) of Elmira, N. Y., is now servingas an intérim minister at the CommunityChurch, Syosset, N. Y.Ruth Weyand, '30, JD'32, a formerassistant gênerai counsel for the National Labor Relations Board, has beennamed the Associate General Counselfor the International Union of Electri-cal, Radio, and Machine Workers ( AFL-CIO-CIC). Miss Weyand's career has been distinguished by many accomplish-ments. She gained early récognition forher handling of the NLRB cases arisingout of the 1937 "Little Steel" strike. Herwork resulted in the reinstatement ofhundreds of workers, and payment ofmore than $1,000,000 in back pay. In1941 she was chosen one of ten out-standing American women by a committee of educators at the Babson Schoolof Finance and Business for Women.She is the mother of two children andthe widow of the Iate Leslie S. Perry, aformer NAACP législative représentative.31Alexander F. Handel, '31, AM'50, staffcoordinator for the Commission onStandards and Accréditation of Servicesfor the Blind, has been elected présidentof the Board of Trustées of the SocialWork Vocational Bureau. Formerly adean and professor at Adelphi University School of Social Work, he was aconsultant and lecturer at the Center forHuman Relations Studies at New YorkUniversity prior to joining the AmericanFédération for the Blind in 1954. He isa résident of Millbum, N. J.Grâce M. Henderson, SM'31, dean ofthe Collège of Home Economies at Penn-sylvania State University, retired December 31, 1965, after serving since 1946.Miss Henderson has served on manystatewide and national committees. In1962 she was national chairman for aconférence on the Continuing Educationfor Women sponsored by the AmericanCouncil on Education.James H. Smith, AM'31, deputy com-missioner of the Chicago Public Schools,has accepted a professorship in éducation at Loyola University in Chicago.Named Chicagoan of the year (1964)in Education by the Jaycees, Mr. Smithhas a long and notable record of servicein his field. At Loyola he will teachschool administration and school law.32Luis W. Alvarez, '32, SM'34, PhD'36,professor of Physics at the Universityof California (Berkeley), and a pioneer in cosmic ray, radar, and nuclear physicsstudies, received the Third Annual Albert A. Michelson Award at Case Institute of Technology, October 20, 1965.Jack L. Hough, '32, SM'34, PhD'40,research geologist and professor of geol-ogy at the University of Michigan, hasbeen elected président of the Society ofEconomie Paleontologists and Mineral-ogists. For seventeen years he was onthe faculty of the University of Illinois,and in 1 964 he went to Ann Arbor. Mr.Hough is a member of many geologicalorganizations and has pubiished exten-sively in periodicals both in the UnitedStates and abroad.Helen Schmidt, '32, a retired Latinteacher, has become interested in pho-tography. Miss Schmidt lives in Chicago.33Edward J. Brown, '33, AM'46, is professor and chairman of the Departmentof Slavic Languages and Literature atIndiana University.Mrs. F or r est G. Collins, (Elizabeth L.Freeman, '33) writes that her primaryinterest is in seeing her four childrenthrough collège and advanced degrees.Her oldest son, Frank (27), is finishinga PhD in Fluid Dynamics at Berkeley.William (24) is due to receive his SMfrom The University of Chicago; Sally(22) will soon graduate from IllinoisState; and John (18) is a freshman atButler University.Dorothy Leggitt, AM'33, teaches socialsciences at Palm Beach Junior Collègein Lake Park, Fia.Sidney Weinhouse, '33, PhD'36, waspresented the Fourth Annual Philadelphia Section Award by the AmericanChemical Society in October, 1965. Mr.Weinhouse, director of the Fels ResearchInstitute at the Temple University Médical School, was honored for his researchwith isotopic tracer techniques, by whichhe has discovered new actions of insuhnin the metabolism of glucose. His workhas revealed the mechanism whereby injection of insulin gives relief to diabetics.34 .Albert Howard Carter, '34, AM'3436Edwin RamseyPhD 40, whose poems hâve appeared infhe Nation, The New Republic, Christian Century and elsewhere, has returned, after a year as Fulbright Professor at the University of Munich, to hischairmanship of the Humanities Divisionof Florida Presbyterian Collège in St.Petersburg. His most récent book, Reading Récent American Literature, appeared last fall.Marshall R. Colberg, '34, AM'38,chairman of the Department of Economies at Florida State University, haspubiished a new book entitled HumanCapi. ! in Southern Development: 1932-1963 (University of North CarolinaPress).Robert C. Lee, '34, MBA'51, was recently elected président in charge of theTrust Division of the Chicago Title andTrust Company. He has served with thecompany since 1934.Albert W. Levi, AM'34, PhD'38, hasbeen named the David May Distinguished University Professor in the Humanities at Washington University, St.Louis. Mr. Levi has taught philosophy atWU nce 1952. He was the first récipient g the Phi Beta Kappa Award in History, Philosophy, and Religion for hisbook, Philosophy in the Modem World(1959), and he has received grants fromthe Rockefeller Foundation, the Fulbright Fellowship Committee, and theAmerican Philosophical Association.Harry T. Moore, '34, of Southern Illinois University, a nationally knownscholar and critic in the field of EnglishLiterature, has pubiished a new anthol-ogy of The Elizabethan Age (Dell) . Mr.Moore is the editor of the extensive"Crosscurrents" séries pubiished by theSouthern Illinois University Press.Herman M. Serota, '34, MD'38, PhD-'39, Professorial Lecturer in the University's Department of Psychiatry, is nowPrésident of the Chicago PsychoanalyticSociety and a recently appointed seniorattending Psychiatrist at Michael ReeseHospital. The March 13, 1964, issue ofScience included an article by Dr. Serota°n the value of home movies in psycho-analysis. Dr. Serota discovered that some of his patients were privately reviewinghome movies of themselves in earlychildhood, and he found it helpful, insome cases, to formally include viewingsessions into the psychoanalytic interviews.~35Franklin D. Carr, '35, has been namedchief administrator of the Detroit-Macomb Hospitals Association. He willcontinue as administrator of DétroitMémorial Hospital, a post he has heldsince 1954.Albert Parry, AM'35, PhD'38, is chairman of the Department of RussianStudies at Colgate University, Hamilton,N. Y. He recently delivered a guest lecture, "Contributions of the Soviet Society to National Power," at the U. S.Army War Collège, and another guestlecture, "A Political View of the Com-munist World," at the Inter -AmericanDéfense Collège (for Latin Americanofficers) in Washington, D. C.Edwin L. Ramsey, '35, of Los Angeles,Calif., has been appointed head of theRexall Drug Company of America.ZZZZI 36Ruth Anne Heisey Black, '36, strickenby polio in 1951, has devoted her time,she writes, "to discovering Chinese history and culture, learning Mandarin andcalligraphy, and practicing brush paint-ing." She has three sons: Michael (20)with the Army Security Agency in VietNam; Charles (18); and Thomas (16).She lives in Mountain View, Calif.,where she participâtes in many civic activities.Weston L. Krogman, '36, the University's Business Manager for CampusOpérations, retired in September 1965,ending a 37-year career at Chicago.Lewis V. Thomas, '36, AM'37, is professor of Oriental Languages at Princeton Univerity and a specialist in the history of languages in the Middle East.37 ~Théodore A. Chandler, AM'37, wasamong the contributors to the Octoberissue of The Instructor Magazine. Mr.Chandler's article, addressed to teachers, was on "Improving Your Tests." He isan assistant professor of Psychology atLindenwood Collège, St. Charles, Mo.Lloyd E. Harris, MD'37, is consultantin pediatrics in the Mayo Clinic, Roches-ter, Minn., and associate professor ofpediatrics in the May Graduate School,University of Minnesota at Rochester.He has been elected a member, for a six-year term, of the American Board ofPediatrics, Inc., as a représentative ofthe American Academy of Pediatrics.Dr. Harris has also served as an examiner for the board.Edward S. Judd, MD'37, is head of asection of surgery in the Mayo Clinic,Rochester, Minn., and professor of surgery in the Mayo Graduate School ofMedicine of the University of Minnesotaat Rochester. He received a Distinguished Alumnus Award from the Geis-inger Médical Center at Danville, Pa.,on September 11, 1965.E. Grosvenor Plowman, PhD'37, atransportation expert on the faculty ofNortheastern University in Boston iscommuting daily, by plane, to teachclasses in business logistics at the University of Maine.38 ~Miel de Sola Pool, '38, AM'39, PhD'52, MIT Political Science professor anddirector of the International Communications Program of the school's Centerfor International Studies, is working tolink computer analysis with the socialsciences. One of his current projects is"Crisiscom," a computer représentationof national decision-makers processinginformation during a crisis. Mr. Pool isinterested in opening communicationschannels with the people of the SovietUnion, and he believes that close study,with computers, of past internationalcommunication can improve our présent abilities in this area. Mr. Pool's wifeis the former Jean N. MacKenzie, PhD'53.Stanford Miller, JD'38, is président ofEmployers Reinsurance Corporation ofKansas City, where he has gained national prominence among health insur-ance executives. He lives with his wife37wêËl MMRobert Jamplisand two children in Mission Hills, asuburb of Kansas City.Gertrude E. Polcar, '38, JD'40, is aRepublican member of the Parma City,Ohio, City Council.Paul Wagner, '38, former président ofRollins Collège in Winter Park, Fia., hasbecome director of the Education Department of the international relationscounseling firm of Hill & Knowlton inNew York City. Mr. Wagner's careerhas included work in the fields of éducation and public relations. Besides hiswork as educational officer and advisorat the Naval War Collège during WorldWar II, he has served as a consultant toNewsweek magazine, président of theFilm Council of America (a FordFoundation affiliate), and director ofpublic relations for both Bell & Howelland the Magnavox Corporation. Hiswife, Paula, is an alumna (Paula Shaw,'40).39Laura C. L. Bergquist, '39, senior ed-itor of Look magazine and a formereditor of The University of ChicagoMagazine, married author Fletcher Kne-bel, July 24 in New York. Mr. Knebel, aWashington correspondent for CowesPublications for many years, co-authoredSeven Day s in May and Convention withCharles W. Baily II and has recentlywritten Night of Camp David.40J. Cotter Hirschberg, MD'40, has beenappointed associate director of the Children's Division of the Menninger Foundation in Topeka. Dr. Hirschberg wentto the Foundation in 1952 from Denver,where he had been director of the ChildGuidance and Mental Hygiène Clinicand professor of Child Psychiatry at theUniversity of Colorado Médical Center.Léonard Kent, MBA'40, PhD'50, hasjoined the faculty of the University ofIllinois at Chicago Circle. Mr. Kent, aformer vice président and director of research of Needham, Harper, and Steers,was named a professor of Economiesand Statistics. Virginia McGregor, AM'40, is a self-employed social worker in Mill Valley,Calif.James D. Wharton, MD'40, has beenappointed Chief of the Division of Community Health Services of the U. S. Public Health Service. Dr. Wharton résidesin Alexandria, Va., with his wife andfamily.41Cari Q. Christol, PhD'41, is professorof international law and political scienceat the University of Southern California.He also practices law in Los Angeles. Hehas held a Rockefeller Fellowship in International Law and Jurisprudence andhas co-authored a book, Introduction toPolitical Science. Mr. Christol is married and has two children.Robert Jamplis, SB'41, MD'44, ofAtherton, Calif., has been elected to theSports Illustrated "Silver AnniversaryAll-America." He takes his place amongthe 25 senior collegiate football playersof 25 years ago who, cited by their aimamaters for great accomplishment, hâvebeen elected to the roll of honor. Theirstories appeared in the December 20issue of SI. Dr. Jamplis is a faculty member of Stanford University's médical collège and has made numerous contributions in the field of cardiovascular surgery. He was a member of The Universityof Chicago's last football team during hisjunior year.David M. Pletcher, '41, AM'41, PhD'46, was recently named professor ofhistory at Indiana University.George Steinbrecher, Jr., '41, AM'42,PhD'53, is professor of English at theWright campus of the Chicago CityJunior Collège.42Donald C. Bergus, '42, who has spent23 years with the U. S. State Department in posts ail over the world, has beenselected as the first U. S. foreign serviceofficer to attend the University of Southern California on a State DepartmentSenior Fellowship. Mr. Bergus has, forthe last three years, served with theAmerican embassy in Cairo. He will study international relations at USC. Mr.Bergus is married and has three children.Paul L. Munson, PhD'42, formerly apharmacologist at the Harvard University School of Dental Medicine, has become chairman of the Department ofPharmacology at the University of NorthCarolina's School of Medicine. Mr.Munson is married to Dr. Mary EllenJones, '44, currently an associate professor of Biochemistry at Brandeis University, who will join the North Carolinafaculty in July. The Munsons hâve threechildren.Calvin Sawyier, '42, AM'42, a Chicagoattomey and a member of the University's Citizen's Board, has been named amember of the Visiting Committee onthe Humanities.George H. Watson, PhD'42, is the newDean of Students at Roosevelt University in Chicago. He has been a member ofthe Roosevelt faculty since 1946, andhas served as chairman of the depart-ment of Political Science and as directorof the University's Graduate Programin Public Administration.43Violet Bergquist, AM'43, former chairman of Evanston Township HighSchool's Foreign Language Department,has joined the faculty of the Universityof Illinois' Chicago Circle Campus asassociate professor of Spanish.Marie BorofJ, '43, AM'46, a poet andauthor of Sir Gawin and the GreenKnight (Yale University Press, 1962),was appointed professor of English atYale this spring. She is the second womanat Yale to gain the professor's rank.Aaron Brown, PhD'43, 1963 AlumniCitation winner and former président ofAlbany (Ga.) State Collège, has beenappointed spécial assistant to the provostof Long Island University's BrooklynCenter for urban educational opportunities. His work with the Center is mainlyconcerned with developing programs toprovide quality higher éducation forminority groups. Mr. Brown is a member of the New York City Board ofEducation.38Un; h Lambie, SM'43, served last summer as a spécial consultant to OpérationHeadstart for a seven-state région insoutheastern U.S. Headstart is the fédéral program designed to give preschooltraining to underprivileged children.Ruth Lambie is director of the laboratory nursery school at East CarolinaCollège, Greenville, N. C.William Letwin, '43, PhD'51, professor of économie history at MIT, haspubiished a book, Law and EconomiePolicy in America, tracing the effects ofthe Sherman Antitrust Act on the lifeand growth of the American economy.William Self, AB'43, is executive vice-président in charge of télévision at 20thCentury Fox film studios. Mr. Self isresponsible for the entire Fox télévisionopération, whose programs appear chief-ly on the ABC Télévision Network.Raymond C. Wanta, '43, a consultingmeteorologist who specializes in thestudy of air pollution and atmosphericturbulence, résides in Bedford, Mass.Mrs. John B. Young (Anniebeth Floyd,'43), is chairman of the Department ofForeign Languages at Baldwin JuniorHigh School, Baldwin, New York.44Marvin D. Homer, '44, JD'48, a LosAngeles attorney, was awarded $1,000by the Emil Brown Fund of BeverlyHills for an article on préventive lawpubiished in the University of SouthernCalifornia Law Review.Miss Shirley J. Peterson, '44, a self-employed pediatrician in Barrington,Illinois, indulges her interest in conservation on her Wisconsin tree farm.Mrs. Wolcott D. Street (Ann W. Pat-terson, '44), visited Greece and Italywith her husband last summer. Now sheis ready to start a business trip to Japan,Hong Kong, and Bangkok. Mrs. StreetWorks for the American Express Company.H 45Chalmer L. Cooper, PhD'45, will bewith the U. S. Geological Survey inJiddah, Saudi Arabia, for eighteen James V. Smithmonths. Mr. Cooper's task will be toset up a Public Division in the Ministryof Minerai Resources and to publishgeological reports.Mrs. Edward C. Dale ( Martha CarolynEricson, PhD'45), is assistant professorof home management and child development at Michigan State University.Richard D. Kershner, '45, MD'47, hasbeen elected chairman of the Department of Pediatrics of the médical anddental staff of the Good Samaritan Hospital of Santa Clara Valley, on the out-skirts of San José, Calif.John Frederick Nims, PhD'45, professor of English at the University of Illinoisat Chicago and former visiting professorat Harvard, Milan, Florence, and Madrid, has written and edited severalbooks. A poet and translator in his ownright, he has edited Arthur Golding's1567 verse translation of Ovid's Métamorphoses (Macmillan).Mrs. Edward Srnensky (Mildred Vrla,'45), is an administrative assistant forthe Wheat Flour Institute, which is aneducational division of the Flour MillersTrade Association.Malcolm Read Sutherland, Jr., BD'45,an ordained Unitarian clergyman, iscurrently the président of the MeadvilleTheological School of Lombard Collège.46Anna E. Blackwell, AM'46, is assistantprofessor of social work at West Virginia University.Barbara Lovett Cline, '46, has pubiisheda new book for young people, The Ques-tioners. It deals with the men at work inphysics during the first quarter of thiscentury. They questioned the establishedideas of the past, and in so doing con-tributed to the shaping of the théorieswhich reign in physics today— the rela-tivity and quantum théories.James V. Smith, '46, was elected assistant vice président in the financial andéconomie research department of theHarris Trust and Savings Bank in Chicago. A chartered financial analyst, Mr.Smith was research manager for the in- vestment firm of J. Henry Helser andCompany before joining the Harris Bankin 1962.47 ~Raymond A. Charles, MBA'47, hasbeen elected senior vice président incharge of the Prudential Insurance Com-pany's bond department. Mr. Charles ismarried, has two children, and lives inMorristown, N. J.Jay J. Jacoby, PhD'47, is the new headof the Department of Anesthesiology atthe Jefferson Médical Collège in Philadelphia.Ray Scherer, AM'47, has succeededJohn Chancellor as White House correspondent for the National BroadcastingCompany.Edward L. Pattulo, '47, has been appointed director of Harvard University'sCenter for the Behavioral Sciences inthe departments of Psychology and Social Relations. Mr. Pattullo returned toHarvard after two years as président ofYork University in Toronto. He liveswith his family in Winchester, Mass.48Richard C. Atkinson, '48, is professorof psychology and éducation at StanfordUniversity.Alan W. Barnett, '48, has been appointed assistant professor of humanities atSan José State Collège./. H. Bennett, '48, MBA'55, has beennamed manager of distribution planningin the Plastics Division of the DowChemical Company. He has been withthe company since 1954.Edward Ching-Te Chao, PhD'48, ofArlington, Va., was honored last fall byThe Franklin Institute for his outstand-ing contributions in the field of geology.Mr. Chao, who is with the U. S. Geological Survey, received a John PriéeWetherill Medal at formai cérémoniesin October, 1965.Gordon Donaldson, MBA'48, formerlya professor of business administration atHarvard Business School, has been appointed a director of the Basic ProductsCorporation in Mount Vernon, N. Y.James H. Evans, JD'48, has been named39Stephen Packer Donald Stewartas a trustée and elected as président ofthe Seaman's Bank for Savings in NewYork City. A former vice président ofDun and Bradstreet, Mr. Evans also ischairman of the executive board of theAmerican Red Cross in Greater NewYork.James E. Harper, '48, AM'53, PhD'62,has returned to Chicago from Californiato become assistant professor of Historyat Roosevelt University. After receivinghis AM, Mr. Harper spent a year inFrance as a Fulbright scholar at the University of Aix-Marseilles. He is a member of the Médiéval Academy of America and the American Historical Association.Col. Elizabeth A. Harth, '48, who en-tered the Women's Army Corps in 1943,is chief of the administrative branch inthe Office of the Deputy Chief of Stafffor Opérations and Training, Fifth ArmyHeadquarters, Chicago.Harry Moses, SM'48, is one of the col-laborators on a project at the ArgonneNational Laboratory to improve flightsafety by the use of a beam of gammaradiation, coupled with conventional radar, to obtain reflected signais from airin motion. The experiment is being car-ried out under the auspices of the Atom-ic Energy Commission.49Léonard Pearson, AM'49, PhD'56, hasbeen appointed associate professor, Department of Psychology, Western Reserve University. His wife is the formerAileen Divers, '56.Raymond A. Ulmer, SM'49, has beenappointed a counselor and assistant pro-fesor of Psychology at California StateCollège in Los Angeles.50 ~Robert N. Ginsburg, SM'50, PhD'53,has been appointed professor of geologyat Johns Hopkins University.Warren Lehman, '50, JD'64, is a newlyappointed assistant professor of law andassistant Dean of the Law School atWashington University in St. Louis.From 1950 to 1956 he held a variety ofjobs in industry and from 1956 to 1960 was human relations officer on the Chicago Commission on Human Relations.Since 1964 he has been an instructor inThe University of Chicago Law School.Mr. Lehman's wife Mary, '52, is also agraduate of the University.Robert J. Leider, '50, MD'55, has beennamed assistant professor of Psychiatryat the University of Illinois's Collège ofMedicine.David Lindsey, PhD'50, teaches historyat California State Collège in Los Angeles. In 1962-63, Lindsey was FulbrightProfessor of American Civilization atThe University of Athens. He has written several books, including AbrahamLincoln and Jefferson Davis (1960) andAndrew Jackson and Henry Clay(1963).Stephen B. Packer, AM'50, has beennamed manager of économie and salesanalysis for the Continental Can Co.Articles written by him hâve appeared inthe Financial Analysts Journal, Trustsand Estâtes, Barron's, and AmericanBanker. He lives with his wife and twochildren in Forest Hills, N. Y.Gerald A. Sanders, '50, is now a lec-turer in Linguistics at Indiana University.L. Singer, PhD'50, was one of twenty-five chemistry professors from Illinois,Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsinto participate in the fourth E. C. BrittonSymposium on Industrial Chemistry inMidland, Mich., held October 14-15,1965.Donald E. Stewart, '50, has been namedto the post of managing editor of theEncyclopaedia Britannica. He has beenwith the company since 1951.53Edith Arien, '53, MBA'54, is vice président of Social Research, Inc., a management consultant firm based in Chicago. Currently she is manager of thefirm's west coast office in Los Angeles.She is a member of several professionalorganizations and author of two books—Leadership and Human Relations (Chicago, 1957) and Industrial Research andthe Professional Employée (Chicago,1957). 57 _~~5. K. Aburish, '57, has joined the Ken-yon and Eckhardt Company in Bostonas a food account executive.Col. Norman C. Pardue, MBA'57, for-mer comptroller for the Army's Supplyand Maintenance Command in Washington, has been named commander of theInternational Logistics Center at theNew Cumberland Army Depot.58 ~~~Henry Carsch, AM'58, is assistant professor of sociology and anthropology atCarleton Collège in Northfield, Minn.Elizabeth Ginzburg Coleman, '58, isthe assistant dean of the New School forSocial Research in New York.Ronald L. Dzierbicki, JD'58, is theclerk for the year-old Michigan StateCourt of Appeals. In his brief term thecourt has become known as a model ofadministrative efficiency.S. Morris Eames, PhD'58, is one of theproject editors of The Collected Worksof John Dewey, the first volume of whichis scheduled for publication in 1967 bythe Southern Illinois University Press.Mr. Eames is an associate professor ofphilosophy at Southern Illinois. The édition of the early writings of the greatAmerican philosopher and educator willbe issued in five volumes, and will coverthe period 1882-1898, from the timeDewey pubiished his first article at theâge of twenty-two, through the important early works written while he waschairman of the Department of Philosophy at The University of Chicago.John W. Kalas, DB'58, assistant professor of philosophy and religion at LakeForest (111.) Collège, is one of threepanel members for the "Outline for Liv-ing" séries on radio station WMAQ inChicago each Sunday morning from10:05 to 10:30. Thèse inter-faith programs are produced by WMAQ in coopération with the Catholic Archdioceseof Chicago, the Chicago Board ofRabbis, and the Church Fédération ofGreater Chicago. The séries, on whichDr. Kalas is Protestant représentative,has been acclaimed for its interfaith ex-40s* /Charles Bill Lemuel Horton Cari Bussema Larry Rockwoodplongions and discussions of the Bibleand its application to contemporary life.Joseph R. Lancaster, MD'58, has joinedWest Virginia University's School ofMedicine as assistant professor of surgery.Marshall Petring, MBA'58, formerlyassistant director of Passavant MémorialHospital in Chicago, has been namedassociate director of Columbia Hospitalin Pittsburgh. He is a member of theAmerican Hospital Association and theAmerican Collège of Hospital Admin-istrators.Jam. v C. Reed, PhD'58, recently became associate professor of Psychologyat Indiana University.ht. Col. John R. Spalding, MBA'58,was at Fairchild AFB, Spokane, Wash.,for the Stratégie Air Command "WorldSéries" bombing and navigation compétition. Col. Spalding is spécial projectofficer for a B-52 Stratofortress. Herepresented Dyess AFB (Texas) duringthe September event.Fritz W. Wanzenberg, MBA'58, hasbeen named to the post of Principal-Man ;ement Informations Systems ofThe Oiebold Group, Inc., an international management consultant firm. Inthis capacity Mr. Wanzenberg will planand organize consulting projects, supervise the performance of client assign-ments, and develop new business on acontinuing basis. He is a member of nu-merous honor and professional societies,a fréquent guest speaker, author of several articles, and the holder of overtwenty foreign and domestic patents. Heis married, has four children, and livesin Larchmont, N. Y.Norma E. Werner, '58, AM'59, PhD'64, has been appointed assistant professor of psychology at San José State Collège^ 61Captain Charles G. Bill, MBA'61, ofDaytona Beach, Fia., has inauguratedthe only accredited collège program forUSAF personnel in Viet Nam. Duringhis off-duty hours at Bien Hoa Air Base,Capt. Bill is teaching one of two coursesconducted through the University of Maryland's Far East Division. In a smallclassroom next to the flightline, heteaches business enterprise four nights aweek to thirty-eight students.Lt. Col. Richard O. Kinder, MBA'61,recently received the USAF Certificateof Retirement at the Space Systems Division in Los Angeles. Col. Kinder, whohas more than twenty-two years of mili-tary duty, was decorated with the firstoak leaf cluster to the USAF Commen-dation Medal.Major Ralph L. Stegman, MBA'61, isattending the USAF Air Command andStaff Collège at Maxwell AFB, Ala.Major Stegman, a mechanical engineer,is one of 550 sélect government officiaisand officers from U. S. and allied armedforces enrolled in the intensive militarycourse in management, environment andemployment.62Major Lemuel D. Horton, MBA'62,has entered the Armed Forces Staff Collège at Norfolk, Va. He is among 270officers from the United States and alliednations specially selected to attend thefive-month Department of Défenseschool. The Collège, under the directsupervision of the Joint Chiefs of Staff,prépares students for staff positions injoint and combined commands of thearmed forces or allied organizations.Major Horton was previously assignedas a research and development engineerfor the directorate of science and tech-nology planning at Headquarters, AirForce Systems Command, AndrewsAFB, Md.~63Lt. Col. Thomas T. Luginbyhl, MBA'63, has entered the Air War Collège,the USAF senior professional school atMaxwell AFB, Ala.Gerald W. Mungerson, MBA'63, is thenew administrator of Boston Lying-InHospital. He was previously an administrative assistant of the Evanston (111.)Hospital.Gary Nolder, AM'63, for the past twoyears a Juvénile Court caseworker inSeattle, has been named executive direc tor of Big Brothers, an organizationwhich helps fatherless boys.64Mrs. Walter E. Deacon (Betty L.Power, AM'64), was married on May29, 1965. She is presently assistant professor of Social Work at the Universityof Oklahoma, and her husband is chief ofthe Contract Médical Care Bureau, Department of Indian Health, U. S. PublicHealth Service.Cari P. Marinacci, MBA'64, has beenappointed senior staff assistant for meritemployment in the Industrial RelationsDivision of the American Oil Company.He joined the company in 1964 as ananalyst in the employée relations department of the General Office in Chicago.A native of Uniontown, Pa., Mr. Marinacci is presently working toward a lawdegree at De Paul University.Lt. Col. Arthur F. Pottle, Jr., MBA'64,of the U. S. Army, has entered the AirWar Collège at Maxwell AFB, Ala.65 ~David L. Anderson, MBA'65, has beenappointed manager of distribution salesfor the Monsanto Company's PackagingDivision in St. Louis. Mr. Andersonjoined Monsanto in 1955 and has heldvarious marketing positions.Cari F. Bussema, MBA'65, has beenpromoted to field sales manager at Baxter Laboratories, Inc., a producer ofmédical equipment and pharmaceuticals.Mr. Bussema, who has been with thecompany for five years, will be respon-sible for the domestic field sales organization. He and his wife live in Lombard,111., with their four children.Lawrence J. Monroe, PhD'65, a former research assistant at The Universityof Chicago, is now assistant professor ofpsychology at the University of Illinois.Larry L. Rockwood, '65, after complet-ing his training, was sent, on September1, 1965, as a Peace Corps Volunteer toTogo, Africa. Larry and his fellow Vol-unteers will teach English, math, science,and art in an effort to expand the PeaceCorps éducation program in French-speaking Africa.41Says — MELVIN WEISZ, C.I.U., The Gold Agency, Détroit "I left a secure,satisfying job after 15 yearsfor a new and evenmore rewarding career!""NmbhB *| m ^*^^^WB**^B iK^^h. àt. i m"My 15 years as a high school teacherwere personally rewarding and now, asa représentative for Mass Mutual, I'mstill enjoying some of the satisfactionsof teaching. I'm now educating adultsin the art of solving their financial problems. Helping people save money, createestâtes, and guaranteeing their familiesthe resources they'd need in case of prématuré death.""Financially, the rewards of a career withMass Mutual hâve been gratifying, too. In fact, each of the 5 years I've been atit, I've put in force over $1 million inlife insurance! This has made possibleforeign travel, a new home, a collègeéducation for our son, and the leisuretime to participate more fully in community activities!""And Mass Mutual représentatives area skilled group of professionals whowork for themselves, but not by them-selves. Backing them is the prestige ofa company over 100 years old, with over S3 billion in assers."If you're looking for the same rewardsthat appealed to Mr. Weisz in his newcareer, write a personal letter to: CharlesH. Schaaff, Président, Mass Mutual,Springfield, Massachusetts. He's alwaysinterested in hearing from a good man!MASSACHUSETTS MUTUALLIFE INSURANCE COMPANYSpringfield, Massachusetts j organized 1851 kiSome of the University of Chicago alumni in Massachusetts Mutual service:Morris Landwirth, C.L.U., '28, PeoriaMaurice Hartman, '40, Chicago Petro L. Patras, '40, ChicagoThéodore E. Knock, '41, ChicagoJ. E. Way, '50, Waukegan Rolf E. G. Becker, C.L.U., OaklandJesseJ. Simoson, C.L.U., Niagara FallsJohn LeMay, '95, of Wichita, Kan.,died November 9, 1965. Before his re-tirement in 1944, Mr. LeMay was président of the Aurora (111.) Métal Co. anda specialist in the die casting of whitemétal alloys and of aluminum bronze.Victor F. Marshall, MD'98 (Rush), ofAppleton, Wis., died December 2, 1965.Mrs. D. T. Schoonover (May HainesBowen, '01), died November 14, 1965.'Henry T. Upson, PhD'03, of Buffalo,N. Y., died April 3, 1962.Irwin W. Cotton, SB'08, died November 16, 1965, in Indianapolis, Ind.Loraine R. Sherwood, '13, of LakeStevens, Wash., has died./. Roscoe Harry, MD'14 (Rush), SB'20, physician and surgeon on the staffof Henrotin hospital for 51 years, diedDecember 6, 1965. A new library andlounge at Henrotin will be dedicated toDr. Harry as a tribute to his long service.! Sophie A. Theilgaard, '15, a former district superintendent of Chicago publicschools, died December 14, 1965, inRochester, Minn.Unita Schaffner, '16, died October 23,1965, in Hingham, Mass.Howard D. Lightbody, SM'17, died inMena, Ark., November 1, 1965. A retired biochemist, he made an outstand-ing contribution during World War IIwith research in packaged foods forservicemen.Frances A. Starin, '17, SM'24, of LongBeach, Calif., died June 9, 1965.Donald J. Munroe, SM'21, died in Tal-lahassee, Fia., September 2, 1965.Maurice Turner, '23, JD'25, died June21, 1965, in Los Angeles.Harry E. Hickman, MD'25, of Mc-Allen, Tex., died November 14, 1965.HardinE. 0>erc,SB'26,MD'31 (Rush),died in Chicago December 26, 1965.Francis Lake Bower, '27, died Décerner 26, 1965, in New Vernon, N. J.] Albert M. Howard, JD'27, died in Chicago on July 18, 1965.William P. MacLean, '27, AM'30, ofNapa, Calif., died September 24, 1965.John C. Keenan, '28, died September22, 1965, in Chicago. Helen G. Echols (Gruner, '31), died inGreen ville, Del., in January of 1965.Charles H. See vers, PhD' 3 2, professorand chairman of Roosevelt University'sDepartment of Biology, died in Chicagoon December 4, 1965. Mr. Seevershelped establish Roosevelt in 1945 afterhaving taught since 1934 at CentralYMCA Collège. An international authority on the study of insects, he was acharter member of the American Societyfor the Study of Evolution and the Ento-mological Society of America and hadreceived several grants from the NationalScience Foundation. He is survived byhis wife Frances, who is the curator ofRoosevelt's biology department.Harold L Stickler, '33, JD'35, died during a vacation in Spain on October 10,1965.Franklin J. Moore, '34, MD'37 (Rush),died December 14, 1965, in Chicago. Hewas a staff member of the Little Company of Mary Hospital.Hannah E. C aster, '38, died December12, 1965, in Dyer, Indiana.Raymond M. Cook, AM'38, dean ofIllinois Teachers Collège South, diedDecember 21, 1965, in Chicago.Cari N. Fischer, '38, MD'38, of LaPorte, Ind., died in Chicago on June 2,1965.Anita K. Gilbert, AM'46, of Baltimore,Md., died September 6, 1965.Shirley S. Switzer (Shirley Ruth Silver,AM'46) of Glencoe, 111., died September18, 1965.Kimiko M. Mukaye, AM'47, died inLos Angeles on August 29, 1965.Clemens H. Deffner, AM'49, died July17, 1965.Edith Sherman Jay, PhD'50, died inNorwalk, Calif., December 6, 1965. Atthe time of her death she was actively en-gaged in research for the Arms Controland Disarmament Agency.Walter Earl Stuermann, PhD'50, diedAugust 9, 1965, in Grove, Okla.Harold R. Fosnet, MBA'51, died December 8, 1965, in Greenwich, Conn. He was the gênerai sales manager forA. M. F. Thermatool, Inc., manufactur-ers of high-frequency welding genera-tors.Frédéric W. Hastings, AM'51, of WallaWalla, Wash., died September 10, 1965.Eugène Becker, AM'52, died in Chicago on October 4, 1965.Léon E. Fuller, Jr., MBA'53, of the U.S. Steel Corp., died October 11, 1965.Mrs. Cyril M. Rappaport (DorothyPevsner, AM'54) died on October 8,1965. Mrs. Rappaport was a résident ofChicago.Robert H. Mountjoy, SM'55, PhD'64,an assistant professor of mathematics atthe University of Maryland, died in anauto accident near Philomont, Vt., onMay 23, 1965. He was a member of PhiBeta Kappa, Sigma XI, and the American Mathematics Society.Joan Williams, AM'58, died in March,1965.Eileen Tinkham, AM'61, died in Chicago on July 20, 1965.Harold A. White, PhD'62 died with hisfour-year-old son in a climbing accidenton July 27, 1965. Mr. White taughtmathematical biology at the Universityof Hawaii.The University of Chicago Magazinehas also been informed of the deathsof : Alice M. Sutherland, '24, of Norwich,Conn.; Edward D. O'Brien, '39, of Chicago; Everett W. Campbell, '23, MD'28,of Détroit, Mich., and John S. Carter,AM'39, PhD'41, of Chicago.Ernest Hatch Wilkins, président emeritus of Oberlin Collège and a leadingAmerican authority on Italian literatureand culture, died January 2, 1966, inNewton Centre, Mass. He taught Romance languages at Amherst, Harvard,and The University of Chicago prior tohis appointment to the Oberlin presi-dency in 1927. From 1923 to 1926 hewas dean of the Collège at Chicago.Among his many books were severalpubiished within the last few years onPetrarch. He is survived by a son, adaughter, and two grandchildren.43UNIVERSITYCALENDARthrough February 27The University's Professional ThéâtreProgram, in collaboration with theGoodman Théâtre of the Art Instituteof Chicago, présents Moliere's The Misanthrope. Law School Auditorium, Tues.-Sun., 8:00 PM; Sat.-Sun. matinée, 2:00PM. Tickets available through the Bur-sar's office on campus, the DowntownCenter, and the Goodman Théâtre.through March 11Department of Spécial Collections Exhibit: "The History of Bookbinding."Harper Library. February 11-12Inter-seminary conférence: "War,Peace, and Viet Nam in Theological Perspective." Speakers will include: HansJ. Morgenthau, Alan Geyer, Fr. GeraldG. Grant, S. J., John H. Yoder, andRobert Browne. Chicago TheologicalSeminary.February 11-13The American premier of Ionesco'sAmédée: or, How to G et Rid of It, direc-ted by John Lion. Mandel Hall, 8:30PM.February 11Noon Concert: The Musical Societyprésents a program of chamber music.Mandel Hall, 12:30 PM.Swimming Meet: UC vs. Illinois Wes-leyan University. Bartlett Gym, 3:30PM.Works of the Mind Lecture: "War inHomer and Thucydides," by DavidGrene, Lecturer in the Committee onSocial Thought. Downtown Center, 8 : 00PM.Documentary Film Group présentsAkira Kurasawa's "Men Who Tread onthe Tiger's Tail." SS 122, 7:15 & 9:15PM.February 12Track: University of Chicago TrackClub Open Meet. Field House, 2:00 PM.February 14Senator Paul Douglas (D-Ill.) in an address sponsored by the Student Government Speaker Séries. Mandel Hall,3:00 PM.Monday Lecture Séries: "Art and Science," by Elder Oison, Professor of English. Law School Auditorium, 8:00 PM.February 15Swimming: UC vs. Valparaiso University. Bartlett Gym, 3 : 30 PM.Doc Films présents Vincente Minelli's"An American in Paris" with GèneKelly. SS 122, 7:15 & 9:15 PM.Contemporary Chamber Players Concert with soprano soloist Neva Pilgrim.Sélections from the works of Bartok,Roschberg, Ives, and Dellapiccola. Man-del Hall, 8:30 PM.February 17Lecture: "Madison's Theory of Patriot-ism and Self -Interest," by Marvin Mey-ers, Professor of History, Brandeis University. Sponsored by the Collège SocialSciences I course. Mandel Hall, 3:00PM.February 18Lecture: "Civilization, Tradition, andLaw," by Malcolm Sharp, ProfessorEmeritus of Law, University of Chicago.Sponsored by the Collège Social Sciences I course. Mandel Hall, 3:00 PM.Swimming: UC vs. Bemidji State. Bartlett Gym, 4: 30 PM.Gymnastics: UC, Illinois State University, and Eastern Illinois. Bartlett Gym,7:30 PM.February 19Track Meet: UC, Illinois State, andWayne State University. Field House,1:00 PM.Gymnastics: UC vs. Bail State Teachers Collège. Bartlett Gym, 2:00 PM.Basketball: UC vs. MacMurray Collège. Field House, 8:00 PM.The 71st Annual Washington Promenade : dancing, Miss UC, midnight buffetsupper. Ida Noyés Hall, 9:00 PM. February 20Festival Oratorio Concert: Beethoven'sMissa Solemnis. Rockefeller Chapel,3:30 PM.February 21-25Bachelor of Fine Arts Student Exhibition: paintings, prints, and ceramics byElizabeth Wallace. Midway Studios. February 21Monday Lecture Séries: "The AtomicNucleus," by Hans A. Bethe. Law SchoolAuditorium, 8:00 PM.February 22Piano récital: Easley Blackwood in aprogram including Boulez' 2nd Sonataand Ives' 2nd Sonata ("Concord, Mass.1840-1860"). Mandel Hall, 8:30 PM. February 23Lecture: "Romanticism, Classicisrti,and die Sturm und Drang in Music," byBarry S. Brook, professor of musicQueens Collège, New York. Ida NoyésLibrary, 4:30 PM.February 25Noon Concert: the Musical Societyprésents a program of chamber music.Mandel Hall, 12:30 PM.Chamber Music Séries Concert: TheMarlboro Trio playing selected piècesby Mozart, Beethoven, and Dvorak.Mandel Hall, 8: 30 PM. 'February 26Russian Film Society présents "TheCrânes are Flying." Mandel Hall, 7:30&9:30 PM.Basketball: UC vs. Lake Forest Collège. Field House, 8:00 PM.The Collegium Musicum présents aconcert of Renaissance secular music.Bond Chapel, 8:30 PM.March 4Track: Chicago and Midwest Confer-ence Meet. Field House, 6:30 PM.March 5Swimming: Chicago IntercollegiateSwimming and Diving Championship.Bartlett Gym, 9:30 AM.Track: University of Chicago TrackClub Open. Field House, 2:00 PM.Basketball: UC vs. Western ReserveUniversity. Field House, 8:00 PM.Concert: the University SymphonyOrchestra, Richard Wernick, Conductor,in a program including Fine's SeriousSong for String Orchestra, Hindemith'sMathis the Maler, and Schumann's Sym-phony No. 4. Mandel Hall, 8:30 PM.March 9Track Meet: UC, Valparaiso University, and the University of Wisconsin.Field House, 6:00 PM. March 11-12The Annual Quadrangle Club FacultyRevels: satirical skits at Mandel Hall,8:30 PM; dinner and dancing at theQuadrangle Club. March 11 _The Alumni Committee for the 75thAnniversary sponsors a lecture by PaulB. Moses, Assistant Professor of Art atThe University of Chicago, on the art ofHenri Matisse. The lecture will be pre-ceded by a Mediterranean supper andfollowed by a private showing, for Chi-cago-area alumni, of The Matisse Rétrospective, the first complète survey of theartist's work since his death in 1954.The Art Institute of Chicago, 6:00 PM;For réservations, contact the AlumniAssociation, MI 3-0800, ext. 4291.44Which is rightfor you ?If your hearing is normal, the téléphone handseton the left is for you. It's what you use now.But if hearing is a problem, the one on theright may be a hclp.It's a transistorized handset for the hard ofhearing that has been developed by engineers atBell Téléphone Laboratories.The small, thumb-operated knob lets thehearer adjust the volume of the caller's voiceas on a radio, making it as loud as desired. Thehandset fits inconspicuously on any phone base,in any color. It's one of a number of téléphoneaids for the handicapped.For the speechless, there is an electronic arti-ficial larynx, also developed at Bell Laboratories.This provides a steady tone in the throat cavitywhich can be modulated into words by shapingmouth and lips. Several thousand bedfast children around thecountry keep in touch with classroom work fromhome or hospital via two-way Bell System ampli-fied téléphone circuits.For the blind, there are switchboards thatoperate by touch. Other devices for other im-pairments are being worked on.Some of this equipment looks like the regularthing — some doesn't.But the point of it ail is to give the handicapped service that's as close to the regular aswe can make it.If you'd like more information about any ofthèse helpful spécial services, just call a BellSystem Business Office, or ask a téléphone man.g\ Bell SystemAmerican Téléphone & Telegraphand Associated CompaniesA Book That Proposes a Cure...Gayle JanowitzHELPING HANDSVolunteer Work in EducationMany poor students in lower grades destined forfailure can become high school graduâtes if given theright help at the right time. In this excellent handbook,the author shows how study centers can be organizedto give the personal attention and reassuranceneeded to help the child catch up with his fellows.Thèse centers can be established by housewives,businessmen, the retired, collège students, or almostanybody with a few hours to invest in a child's future.Helping Hands provides the concrète information—about equipment, staff, goals and necessary attitudes—and the inspiration for their organization. "A mosttimely report on after school study centers .... I ammost favorably impressed by it."— BRUNO BETTELHEIM. Paper, $1.75136 pages Cloth, $3.95 "/f is impressive how hopeful elementary school children are, despite their difficulties in school . ... Ifthey can be reached when they are just beginning tofeel defeated — and before they hâve given up— thereshould be less need in later years for more expensiveand elaborate remédiai efforts.". . . and A Book That Prophesied a CrisisIn 1 939 Frazier wrote that Negroes "will crowd theslum areas of southern cities or make their way tonorthern cities where their family life will becomedisrupted and their poverty will force them to dépendon charity." E. Franklin FrazierTHE NEGRO FAMILYIN THE STATESForeword by NATHAN GLAZER. This classic study ofthe Negro family in America from slavery days to themid-twentieth century first appeared in 1939. Theauthor, E. Franklin Frazier, was an eminent Negrosociolugist and professor at Howard University. Although many of Frazier's conclusions were grimlyprophétie, he struck a note of optimism in demon-strating the Negroes' historié ability to evolve stablefamily forms out of a state of total dependence anddisruption. "Professor Frazier points his subject ona large canvas .... extremely well organized andengagingly written."-MELVILLE J. HERSKOVITS, TheNation. Paper, $2.45400 pages Cloth, $6.00THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESSChicago and London