niversityhicago magazine¦ HHrIs it news that a leading maker ofspacecraft a loys had a hand in dollingup Mildred Kinnes potting shed?It isn't really surprising that a single U.S. corporation pro-vided the métal for the outer skin of Mercury space capsules.It's perfectly natural to be called in on that kind of a job whenyou lead the nation in developing a line of alloys that resistextrême heat, wear and corrosion.You'd also expect that a leading producer of petrochemi-cals could develop a new base for latex paint— called "Ucar"latex— since paint makers are among its biggest customers.Now Mildred Kinne can paint right over a chalky surface with-out priming. It's dry in minutes. And her potting shed will looklike new for many New England summers and winters.But it might indeed be surprising if both thèse skillswere possessed by the same company. Unless thatCompany were Union Carbide.UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION, 270 PARK AVENUE, NEW YORK, NDivisions: Carbon Products, Chemicals, Consumer Products, International,UNIONCARBIDEUnion Carbide also leads in the production of polyethylene,and makes plastics for packaging, housewares, and floor cov-erings. It liquéfies gases, including oxygen and hydrogen thatwill power rockets to the moon. In carbon products, it has beencalled on for the largest graphite shapes ever made. It is thelargest producer of dry-cell batteries, marketed to millionsunder the trade mark "Eveready." And it is involved in moreatomic energy activities than any other private enterprise.In fact, few other corporations are so deeply involvedin so many différent skills and activities that will affect thetechnical and production capabilities of our nextcentury.It's already making things a great deal easier forMildred Kinne..Y. 10017. IN CANADA; UNION CARBIDE CANADA LIMITED, TORONTOLinde, Metals, Nuclear, Olefins, Ore, Plastics, Silicones, Stellite and ViskingVOL. LVIAPR1L 1964 Published for alumni and friends of The University of Chicago,and ail others interested in the pursuit of knowledge.Published since 1907IJniversityhicagoMAGAZINENO. 7Annual subscription $5.00Single copy 50 centsPublished monthly, October through June.Nine issues per year.HENRY H. HARTMANN, Editor(Mrs.) RONA MEARS, Editorial AssistantTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE5733 University Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637Téléphone: Mldway 3-0800, Extension 3241Area Code: 312Published monthly, October through June, by the Universityof Chicago Alumni Association, 5733 University Avenue,Chicago, Illinois 60637. Annual subscription price, $5.00.Single copies, 50 cents. Second class postage paid atChicago, Illinois. Advertising agent: American AlumniMagazines, 22 Washington Square, New York, New York.©Copyright 1964 The University of Chicago Magazine.Ail rights reserved. FEATURESJune ReunionLasting values and new perspectivesMoney and Higher Education: 2-Part Report1 . The Money behind the UniversityChicago Report2. The Money behind our CollègesNational ReportA comprehensive look at U.S. higher éducationFOTA: Festival of the Arts"Embarrassment of riches" 26The editors invite manuscripts and suggestions for feature storiesfrom alumni, faculty, staff and students. Topics should be relevantto the pursuit of knowledge and the exchange of ideas. Détailsupon request.DEPARTMENTSThrs IssueTower TopicsSchedule of Alumni EventsNews of AlumniMemorials 23282832LThis Issue . . .With June Reunion not so manyweeks away, the spécial Reunionprogram guide beginning on page 4,will be of timely interest to ourreaders.Our thanks to Richard P. Mc-Keon, Herbert A. Thelen, and Rus-sell J. Donnelly (3); to ail whomade possible the comprehensivestudy on The Money Behind OurCollèges (9) and who are speciallyidentified in the ED1TORIALPROJECTS FOR EDUCATIONlisting on page 24; to Dena M. Crizand other members of FOTA forbackground information on theFestival of the Arts (26).To make room for this month'sspécial report, several Magazinedepartments hâve been omittedfrom this issue; they will be re-sumed in the May Magazine. —Ed.The CoverEntries to the FOTA (Festival ofthe Arts) art exhibit. See story onpage 26. Photo by Ed.Other crédits: Art, layout, photogra-phy and typography for The MoneyBehind Our Collèges see listing onpage 24. Photos on pages 26, 27by Ed.ÎBooksi**Fine book printing is one of theimportant and prominent parts ofour production. For many years wehâve served publishers and assistedprivate presses in the printing ofScientific & Historical WorksBooks on Literature & LanguageManuals & Technical BooksEducational & Juvénile BooksDictionaries & EncyclopediasBibles & Religions WorksMaps • Charts • DirectoriesPhotopiire ss¦.1JJI^«1J!I.1.M1J!UCongress Expressway at Gardner RoadBROADVIEW, ILL. COlumbus 1-1420IN BRIEF . . .Whither the Libéral ArtsThe true function of the libéral arts, as their name suggests, is to liberatemen. They hâve performed this function in the past by adapting themselvesto the problems men hâve faced, and they hâve become obsolète and ineffective from time to time by elaborating old methods without considération ofnew facts or problems. New libéral arts must be devised for the problemsof the modem world.The libéral arts are instruments of activity. They liberate men frompassivity by removing false problems which obstruct, and by clarifyingtrue problems which open up inquiry and action.From a speech to the National Conférence on HigherEducation in Chicago April 20, 1964, by Richard P.McKeon, Charles F. Grey Distinguished ServiceProfessor of Philosophy and Greek, and chairmanof the University's Committee on Analysis of Ideasand Study of Methods.Progress in Educational Methods ChallengedEducators may be kidding themselves about making progress, saysHerbert A. Thelen, Ph.D.'44, professor in the Department of Education,in a recently published article in Administrator s Notebook, issued by theMidwest Administration Center. There seem to be as many bored youngstersand unimaginative teachers in the nation's classrooms as there were 40years ago.Innovation is not improvement; there can be plenty of the first withoutthe latter. New methods, even though they may prove worthless, tend to getbuilt into school Systems, because nobody has the initiative to throw them out.In the face of the most important révolutions in the history of mankind,says Mr. Thelen, we are spinning our wheels to stay in one place, to conductbusiness as usual, oblivious to dramatic changes in our society and in theclientèle of our schools.Mr. Thelen warns that enthusiasm for new approaches to teaching andlearning too frequently leads to vulgarization and spread. In the rush toimplement new approaches, innovations are "embalmed prematurely andpermanently."Lubricant for the FutureA University of Chicago physicist and two General Motors ResearchLaboratories' engineers hâve reported the first successful démonstration ofa new lubricating technique using a magnetic field to improve bearingperformance — magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) lubrication.In an experiment in the Hydromagnetic Laboratory at The Universityof Chicago's Institute for the Study of Metals, Associate Professor Rus-sell J. Donnelly of the Department of Physics, and Dennis C. Kuzma andE. Roland Maki of the Mechanical Development Department of the GeneralMotors Research Laboratories confirmed that a liquid métal — mercury lubricates better than oil of the same viscosity, when "stiffened" by astrong magnetic field.While the process is still impractical for gênerai application, it isexpected to become particularly useful where high températures or highradiation levels would cause the breakdown of currently available lubricants.The experiments involved the University's 35 ton magnet, which is partof one of the largest MHD facilities in the world. 3Published by The University of Chicago for its alumni; Henry H. Hartmann, Editor.Volume 30, Number 71964 Reunion HighlightsEven the weatherman likes June Reunion. Its most enduring symbol, theInterfraternity Sing, lias been often threatened but actually rained out onlytwice in 53 years. Reunion, in fair weather or bad, is a time of renewedfriendships and good fellowship, set on well recalled quadrangles.Two changes mark the 1964 program, both designed to improve your com-fort. After several years of attempting to serve a luncheon group larger thanthe capacity of any dining room on campus, two concurrent luncheons willbe served on Saturday, June 13, both in air-conditioned facilities. Each hasits own appeal. While the Alumni Association regrets that a single luncheonis no longer possible, it is pleased that increasing numbers of reunionersrequire the change.A second innovation is the establishment of two informai hospitality cen-ters, one in the Center for Continuing Education and the second in theReynolds Club, which will be open for your convenience that Saturday from9:30 a.m. through the day. Walking tours of new campus facilities will startfrom the hospitality centers and light refreshments will be available through-out the day.Highlighting your day back on the Midway will be:The 2 11 h \ lu m ni Honors Assembly Saturday, June 13The Quadrangle Club, 12:15 p.m. — Luncheon, $4.25Address by the Provost of The University, Edward H. LeviConferral of the Alumni Medal and the Alumni Citations for 1964In the Club's Gothic dining hall, the Provost will describe The Universityin a time of renewed growth, and the Association will honor 21 distinguished4 alumni. Members of '14 are guests of the Association upon this occasion.\ Roundtable on 1964 Election Issues Saturday, June 13"A Stale New Deal and a Warm Cold War"The Center for Continuing Education, 12:15 p.m. — Luncheon, $4.25Moderator: Robert E. Merriam, '39, A.M. '40Harry Kalven Jr., Professor, Law SchoolAlbert Rees, Professor and Chairman, Department of EconomiesPeter H. Rossi, Professor, Department of Sociology;Director, National Opinion Research CenterRichard C. Wade, Professor, Department of HistoryThe panelists, each expert on a major issue of thel964 national élections,will discuss the fortheoming campaign under the knowledgeable lead of Mr.Merriam. A lively question-and-answer period will ensue.An Apres-Midi Concert of Contemporary MusicSaturday, June 13Easley Blackwood, pianistThe Center for Continuing Education — 4 p.m. — $2.20Mr. Blackwood will play the world première of Caprice (1963) by JohnPerkins. The composer, a colleague of Mr. Blackwood's on the Music Department faculty at The University, wrote the composition for performanceby Mr. Blackwood. He will also perform Emerson by Charles Ives and SuiteOp. 25 by Arnold Schonberg.Easley Blackwood, at 31, has already established a national réputationas a composer. He has penned two symphonies and considérable chambermusic, much of it commissioned. In the past few years he has become in-creasingly well known as a concert pianist. 5Repeat PerformancesReunion classes of '14, '18, '24 and '39 each gather on campus for dinnerand festivities Friday evening, June 12th. Reunion réceptions for '04, '09,'19, '29, '34, '44, '49, '54, and '59 will be on Saturday afternoon, June 13.The 54th Annual Interfraternity Sing will overflow Hutchinson Court onSaturday evening at 8 p.m.Alumni of classes more than 50 years graduated will be welcomed at theannual Emeritus Club réception, Saturday morning at 10 in the ReynoldsClub Lounge.Professional-school and numerous other groups will convene their annualmeetings in the period June 4-13.There will be both time and opportunity for alumni to talk tomorrow'spolitics with the faculty and sing yesterday's songs with fraternity brothers;see new buildings and visit old haunts; to plan and to reminisce; to be stimu-lated and to relax; to learn and to be entertained.A detailed Reunion Program is being mailed separately to reunion classesand alumni in the Chicago metropolitan area. If you would like to receivethis program and are not included in thèse groups, please write:The Alumni AssociationThe University of Chicago5733 South University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637Comfortable overnight accommodations are available on campus at theUniversity's handsome new Center for Continuing Education. For réservations and/or a brochure describing rates and facilities write:The Center for Continuing EducationThe University of Chicago1307 East 60th Street6 Chicago, Illinois 60637The following pair of articles constitutes the great-est block of space given a single subject in thèsepages in nearly a décade. The subject: money.Every alumnus is used to hearing that his aimamater (along with everyone elsës) needs money. That' snot the point hère. We hâve tried instead to describethe total fiscal context of which gifts, tuitions, andendowments are a part.The second article, a national summary of educa-tional financing, is the latest product of a group ofalumni-magazine editors now organized as EditorialProjects for Education, Inc. Our then-editor, FeliciaAnthenelli Holton, '50, was among its founders in 1958. The MoneyBehindThe University of ChicagoThe public mind probably contains as many mythsas facts about the money behind The Universityof Chicago.For many years, people believed that John D. Rocke-feller, Sr., had endowed the University amply. Thispleasant fiction was never true; Mr. Rockefeller gavegreat sums for current opération and plant construction in 1890-1910, but relatively little for endowment.The endowment grew later, especially in the 1920's.A durable myth, long cherished by students, isthat the University pockets great profits from theopération of dormitories, dining halls, and the Book-store. The fact: in 1962-63 thèse auxiliary enterpriseslost 0.5% of gross receipts; in 1961-62 they gained0.3%.Another myth holds that universities today areadministration-happy, emphasizing peripheral activities at the expense of instruction and research. Thefacts are otherwise. Instruction, research, and librarywere 63% of the operational budget of The Universityof Chicago before World War II, but are 70% today.Every other expense area has been reduced in relativeweight. Administration and gênerai expense are now5%, down from the pre-war 8%.A fourth myth has it that universities are largely gift-supported. This was once true of Chicago, but isno longer. Currently usable gifts and endowmentincome together now total only 22% of the University'sincome. Just before World War II, 44% was soderived; before the Dépression, half to two-thirds.Today the University has six principal sources ofincome which totaled $75 million in 1962-63, nearlyseven times the budgets of pre-war years:Propor Proportion in tion inSource of Current Income 1939-40 1962-63Student Fées 23% 15%Endowment Income 28 11Gifts (currently usable) 16 11Auxiliary Enterprisesand Sundry 18 16Fées from Patients 15 18Government Contracts — 30Student FéesDespite steady— and painful— tuition increases, student fées today provide only 15% of the University'sAPRIL, 1964 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 7income, half the national average for private collègesand universities.The heavy subsidy to each student reflected in thisfact has other aspects. The University also providesmore than $3 million in student aid annually, onlyabout one-sixth of which is funded by endowments.Relative to income from students, this is half again asmuch as the University devoted to student aid in thepre-war years. Then it granted two dollars in aid forevery ten it received in fées; today the proportion isthree for ten.Student aid also cornes from outside agencies payingdirectly to students. There are, besides, Universityadministered loan fund balances totaling $1.5 millionavailable to U. of C. students.Endowment IncomeEndowment support of The University of Chicago,long among the best endowed American universities,vividly demonstrates an almost universal problem ofeducational financing in the past two décades.Earnings on endowment furnished roughly half theUniversity's operating income before the dépression ofthe 1930's. During that décade, endowment incomefell precipitously because the rate of yield on investedfunds dropped by one-third. But endowment still pro-vided 28% of current income as late as 1940.Today only 11% cornes from this source, despite endowment additions of $90 million ( book value ) .The practical meaning of having the fourth-largestuniversity endowment in America (exceeded by Harvard, Yale, and Princeton) is thus less than one wouldsuppose.If, however, we think of endowment income asbeing applied— as it is— mainly to instructional costsper se, its import is greater than thèse figures suggest.So construed, endowment income is still substantial,albeit reduced: 47% of instructional expense in 1939-40and 33% today.GiftsCurrently usable gifts to the University totaled $8million in 1962-63, 11% of current income comparedwith 16% before the war.Most of this money came from foundations and corporations, and about seven-eighths of it was for desig-nated purposes. Hère arises the strange problem of"starvation in the midst of plenty" which has plaguedadministrators in the post-war years.If you desperately want to increase library holdings,which serve the whole University and lie at the heartof éducation, there is a certain mixed pleasure in get-ting a designated gift for some other project which,while worthy, is number 637 on the list of priorities.This is why alumni giving has an importance far outof . proportion to its dollar total. Of ail the sources of8 THE UNIVERSITY OF gift support, only alumni regularly give sizeable sumsof undesignated money which the University cari usewhere it thinks the need is greatest.Auxiliary Enterprises and SundryThèse ancillary areas of University opération, thelargest éléments of which are the student résidences,the dining halls, the Press, and the Bookstore, hâveremained relatively stable in the post-war years. Theywere 18% of income before the war and are 16% now.Auxiliary-enterprises income is balanced off by analmost identical expense total.Fées From PatientsThe University is unusual in realizing a major shareof annual income from patients' fées. Reflecting thegreat expansion of The University of Chicago Hospi-tals and Clinics, such fées are now the second-largestsource of income.This income is, however, less than the expense ofstaffing and operating the médical complex.Government ContractsThe Metallurgical Laboratory in which University ofChicago scientists achieved the first sustained nuclearreaction on December 2, 1942, was a harbinger offinancial things to corne as well as atomic.In 1939-40, the University received about $4,000in fédéral research grants. Last year its fédéral contractreceipts totaled $97.4 million, the bulk of which ($75.1million) was for opération of the Argonne NationalLaboratory.The remaining $22.4 million in fédéral mornes com-prised nearly 30% of the University's current income,about the same proportion as at Harvard.Half of thèse funds were used in the Division ofBiological Sciences, primarily for médical research.Physical Sciences was the next-largest récipient; to-gether, thèse two divisions use 84% of the fédéralfunds directly expended for research.Fédéral contracts do not, however, aid the instructional budgets of the University. The government isbuying research quid pro quo, not underwriting educational expenses. The main effect of this money is toexpand research activities, although there are peripheral advantages in faculty recruiting, student aid,and ancillary facilities.Even thèse gains hâve their price, for the Universityactually conducts federal-contract research at a loss.Many fédéral agencies are prohibited by law fromreimbursing the University for ail indirect costs associ-ated with contract projects.Fédéral funds fall unevenly on American éducation.As detailed in the national report which follows, TheUniversity of Chicago is among the few universitieswith highly developed research facilities which get theprépondérant part of fédéral contracts today.— H.R.H.CHICAGO MAGAZINE APRIL, 1964TheMoneyBehindOur CollègesARE america's collèges and universities in good financial health—jtX or bad?Are they pricing themselves out of many students' reach? Or can— andshould— students and their parents carry a greater share of the cost ofhigher éducation?Can state and local governments appropriate more money for higheréducation? Or is there a danger that taxpayers may "revolt"?Does the fédéral government— now the third-largest provider of fundsto higher éducation— pose a threat to the freedom of our collèges anduniversities? Or is the "threat" groundless, and should higher éducationseek even greater fédéral support?Can private donors— business corporations, religious dénominations,foundations, alumni, and alumnae— increase their gifts to collègesand universities as greatly as some authorities say is necessary? Or hasprivate philanthropy gone about as far as it can go?There is no set of "right" answers to such questions. Collège anduniversity financing is complicated, confusing, and often controversial,and even the administrators of the nation's institutions of higher learningare not of one mind as to what the best answers are.One thing is certain: financing higher éducation is not a subject for"insiders," alone. Everybody has a stake in it.Thèse davs, most of America's collèges and universities manageto make ends meet. Some do not: occasionally, a collège shut$its doors, or changes its character, because in the jungle of educationalfinancing it has lost the fiscal fitness to survive. Certain others, qualifiedobservers suspect, hang onto life precariously, sometimes sacrificingeducational quality to conserve their meager resources. But most U.S.collèges and universities survive, and many do so with some distinction.On the surface, at least, they appear to be enjoying their best financialhealth in history.The voice of the bulldozer is heard in our land, as new buildings goup at a record rate. Faculty salaries in most institutions— at criticallylow levels not long ago — are, if still a long distance from the high-taxbrackets, substantially better than they used to be. Appropriations ofstate funds for higher éducation are at an all-time high. The fédéralgovernment is pouring money into the campuses at an unprecedentedrate. Private gifts and grants were never more numerous. More studentsthan ever before, paying higher fées than ever before, crowd the class-rooms.How real is this apparent prosperity? Are there danger signais? Onepurpose of this report is to help readers find out.Where U.S. collègesand universitiesget their income How do collèges and universities get the money they run on?By employing a variety of financing processes and philosophies.By conducting, says one participant, the world's busiest patchworkquilting-bee.U.S. higher education's balance sheets — the latest of which shows thecountry's collèges and universities receiving more than $7.3 billion incurrent-fund income — hâve been known to baffle even those men andwomen who are at home in the depths of a corporate financial state-ment. Perusing them, one learns that even the basic terms hâve lost theirold, familiar meanings."Private" institutions of higher éducation, for example, receive enor-mous sums of "public" money — including more fédéral research fundsthan go to ail so-called "public" collèges and universities.And "public" institutions of higher éducation own some of thelargest "private" endowments. (The endowment of the University ofTexas, for instance, has a higher book value than Yale's.)When the English language fails him so completely, can higher education's balance-sheet reader be blamed for his bafflement?In a récent year, U.S. collèges and universities got their current-fundincome in this fashion :20.7% came from student tuition and fées.18.9% came from the fédéral government.22.9% came from state goveraments.2.6% came from local governments.6.4% came from private gifts and grants.COPYRIGHT 1964 BY EDITORIAL PROJECTS FOR EDUCATION,9.4% was other educational and gênerai income, including incomefrom endowments.17.5% came from auxiliary enterprises, such as dormitories, cafétérias,and dining halls.1.6% was student-aid income.Such a breakdown, of course, does not match the income pictureat any actual collège or university. It includes institutions of many shapes,sizes, and financial policies. Some heat their classrooms and pay theirprofessors largely with money collected from students. Others receiverelatively little from this source. Some balance their budgets with largesums from governments. Others not only receive no such funds, but mayactively spurn them. Some draw substantial interest from their endowments and receive gifts and grants from a variety of sources."There is something very reassuring about this assorted group ofpatrons of higher éducation," writes a collège président. "They areail acknowledging the benefits they dérive from a strong System of collèges and universities. Churches that get clergy, communities that getbetter citizens, businesses that get better employées — ail share in thecosts of the productive machinery, along with the student . . . ."In the campus-to-campus variations there is often a deep significance;an institution's method of financing may tell as much about its philos-ophies as do the most éloquent passages in its catalogue. In this sensé,one should understand that whether a collège or university receivesenough income to survive is only part of the story. How and where itgets its money may hâve an equally profound effect upon its destiny. PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS:34.3% of their incomecornes from student fées.from Students 20.7 per centIast fall, some 4.4 million young Americans were enrolled in theJ nation's collèges and universities — 2.7 million in public institutions,1.7 million in private.For most of them, the enrollment process included a stop at a cashier'soffice, to pay tuition and other educational fées.How much they paid varied considerably from one campus to another.For those attending public institutions, according to a U.S. governmentsurvey, the médian in 1962-63 was $170 per year. For those attendingprivate institutions, the médian was $690 — four times as high.There were such différences as thèse:In public universities, the médian charge was $268.In public libéral arts collèges, it was $168.In public teachers collèges, it was $208.In public junior collèges, it was $113.Such educational fées, which do not include charges for meals or dormi- PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS:10% of their incomecornes from student fées.tory rooms, brought the nation's public institutions of higher éducation atotal of $415 million — one-tenth of their entire current-fund income.By comparison:In private universities, the médian charge was $1,038.In private libéral arts collèges, it was $751.In private teachers collèges, it was $575.In private junior collèges, it was $502.In 1961-62, such student payments brought the private collèges anduniversities a total of $1.1 billion — more than one-third of their entirecurrent-fund income.From ail students, in ail types of institution, America's collèges anduniversities thus collected a total of $1.5 billion in tuition and othereducational fées.No nation puts more stock in maximum collège attendance byits youth than does the United States," says an American reportto an international committee. "Yet no nation expects those receivinghigher éducation to pay a greater share of its cost."The leaders of both private and public collèges and universities areworried by this paradox.Private-institution leaders are worried because they hâve no désire tosee their campuses closed to ail but the sons and daughters of well-to-dofamilies. But, in effect, this is what may happen if students must continue to be charged more than a third of the costs of providing higheréducation — costs that seem to be eternally on the rise. (Since one-thirdis the average for ail private collèges and universities, the students'share of costs is lower in some private collèges and universities, con-siderably higher in others.)Public-institution leaders are worried because, in the rise of tuitionand other student fées, they see the eventual collapse of a cherishedAmerican dream : equal educational opportunity for ail. Making studentspay a greater part of the cost of public higher éducation is no mèretheoretical threat; it is already taking place, on a broad scale. Last year,half of the state universities and land-grant institutions surveyed bythe fédéral government reported that, in the previous 12 months, theyhad had to increase the tuition and fées charged to home-state students.More than half had raised their charges to students who came fromother states.Can the rise in tuition rates be stopped — at either public or private collèges and universities?A few vocal critics think it should not be; that tuition should, in fact,go up. Large numbers of students can afford considerably more thanthey are now paying, the critics say. ,"Just look at the student parking lots. You and I are helping to payfor those kids' cars with our taxes," one campus visitor said last faftAsked an editorial in a Tulsa newspaper:"Why should taxpayers, most of whom hâve not had the advantageof collège éducation, continue to subsidize students in state-supporteduniversities who hâve enrolled, generally, for the frank purpose ofeventually earning more than the average citizen?"An editor in Omaha had similar questions:"Why shouldn't tuition cover more of the rising costs? And whyshouldn't young people be willing to pay higher tuition fées, and ifnecessary borrow the money against their expected earnings? And whyshouldn't tuition charges hâve a direct relationship to the prospectiveearning power — less in the case of the poorer-paid professions andmore in the case of those which are most remunerative?"Such questions, or arguments-in-the-form-of-questions, miss themain point of tax-supported higher éducation, its supporters say."The primary beneficiary of higher éducation is society," says a jointstatement of the State Universities Association and the Association ofState Universities and Land-Grant Collèges."The process of making students pay an increasing proportion of thecosts of higher éducation will, if continued, be disastrous to Americansociety and to American national strength."It is based on the theory that higher éducation benefits only theindividual and that he should therefore pay immediately and directlyfor its cost — through borrowing if necessary. . . ."This is a false theory. . . . It is true that great économie and otherbenefits do accrue to the individual, and it is the responsibility of theindividual to help pay for the éducation of others on this account —through taxation and through voluntary support of collèges and universities, in accordance with the benefits received. But even from thenarrowest of économie standpoints, a gênerai responsibility rests onsociety to finance higher éducation. The businessman who has thingsto sell is a beneficiary, whether he attends collège or not, whether hischildren do or not . . . ."Says a university président: "I am worried, as are most educators,about the possibility that we will price ourselves out of the market."For private collèges — already forced to charge for a large part of thecost of providing higher éducation — the problem is particularly acute.As costs continue to rise, where will private collèges get the income tomeet them, if not from tuition?After studying 100 projections of their budgets by private libéralarts collèges, Sidney G. Tickton, of the Fund for the Advancement ofEducation, flatly predicted :"Tuition will be much higher ten years hence."Already, Mr. Tickton pointed out, tuition at many private collèges isbeyond the reach of large numbers of students, and scholarship aidisn't large enough to help. "Private collèges are beginning to realizethat they haven't been taking many impecunious students in récentyears. The figures show that they can be expected to take an even smallerproportion in the future. ?Xy%&>.¦3s S''.VS5o8c Pli H 88kKWi-»H;SS ¦^&:3fflW!§&: fi¦••'¦^^^^^^ ÉPJ'lilÉlx iv?§S*Or should studentscarry a heaviershare of the costs?CONTINUEDTUITION continuée!PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS:1.4% of their incomecornes from the states. "The facts are indisputable. Private collèges may not like to admitthis or think of themselves as educators of only the well-heeled, but thesigns are that they aren't likely to be able to do very much about it inthe décade ahead."What is the outlook at public institutions? Members of the Association of State Collèges and Universities were recently asked to makesome prédictions on this point. The consensus:They expect the tuition and fées charged to their home-state studentsto rise from a médian of $200 in 1962-63 to $230, five years later. Inthe previous five years, the médian tuition had increased from $150 to$200. Thus the rising-tuition trend would not be stopped, they felt — butit would be slowed.The only alternative to higher tuition, whether at public or privateinstitutions, is increased income from other sources — taxes, gifts,grants. If costs continue to increase, such income will hâve to in-crease not merely in proportion, but at a faster rate — if student chargesare to be held at their présent levels.What are the prospects for thèse other sources of income? See thepages that follow.22.9 per cent from StatesPUBLIC INSTITUTIONS:39.7% of their incomecornes from the states. Collèges and universities dépend upon many sources for their financial support. But one source towers high above ail the rest: theAmerican taxpayer.The taxpayer provides funds for higher éducation through ail levelsof government — fédéral, state, and local.Together, in the most récent year reported, governments supplied 44.4per cent of the current-fund income of ail U.S. collèges and universities—a grand total of $3.2 billion.This was more than twice as much as ail collège and university students paid in tuition fées. It was nearly seven times the total of ailprivate gifts and grants.By far the largest sums for educational purposes came from state andlocal governments: $1.9 billion, altogether. (Although the fédéralgovernment's over-all expenditures on collège and university campuseswere large— nearly $1.4 billion— ail but $262 million was earmarked forresearch.)States hâve had a financial interest in higher éducation since thenation's founding. (Even before independence, Harvard and othercolonial collèges had received government support.) The first state university, the University of Georgia, was chartered in 1785. As settlersmoved west, each new state received two townships of land from thefédéral government, to support an institution of higher éducation.But the true flourishing of publicly supported higher éducation cameafter the Civil War. State universities grew. Land-grant collèges werefounded, fostered by the Morrill Act of 1862. Much later, local governments entered the picture on a large scale, particularly in the junior-collège field.Today, the U.S. System of publicly supported collèges and universitiesis, however one measures it, the world's greatest. It comprises 743 institutions (345 local, 386 state, 12 fédéral), compared with a total of1 ,357 institutions that are privately controlled.Enrollments in the public collèges and universities are awesome, andcertain to become more so.As recently as 1950, half of ail collège and university students attendedprivate institutions. No longer— and probably never again. Last fall,the public collèges and universities enrolled 60 per cent — one millionmore students than did the private institutions. And, as more and moreyoung Americans go to collège in the years ahead, both the number andthe proportion attending publicly controlled institutions will soar.By 1970, according to one expert projection, there will be 7 millioncollège and university students. Public institutions will enroll 67 per centof them.By 1980, there will be 10 million students. Public institutions willenroll 75 per cent of them.The financial implications of such enrollments are enormous.Will state and local governments be able to cope with them?In the latest year for which figures hâve been tabulated, the current-fund income of the nation's public collèges and universities was $4.1billion. Of this total, state and local governments supplied more than$1.8 billion, or 44 per cent. To this must be added $790 million in capitaloutlays for higher éducation, including $613 million for new construction.In the fast-moving world of public-collège and university financing,such heady figures are already obsolète. At présent, reports the Commit-tee for Economie Development, expenditures for higher éducation arethe fastest-growing item of state and local-government financing. Be-tween 1962 and 1968, while expenditures for ail state and local-government activities will increase by about 50 per cent, expenditures for higheréducation will increase 120 per cent. In 1962, such expenditures repre-sented 9.5 per cent of state and local tax income; in 1968, they will take12.3 percent.Professor M.M. Chambers, of the University of Michigan, has tottedup each state's tax-fund appropriations to collèges and universities (seelist, next page). He cautions readers not to leap to interstate compari-sons; there are too many différences between the practices of the 50states to make such an exercise valid. But the différences do not obscure Will state taxesbe sufncient to meetthe rocketing demand?CONTINUEDSTATE FUNDS continuée!State Tax FundsFor Higher EducationFiscal 1963 Change from 1961Alabama $22,051,000 -$346,000 - 15%Alaska 3,301,000 + 978,000 +42%Arizona 20 422,000 + 4,604,000 +29%Arkansas 16,599,000 + 3,048,000 +22 5%California 243,808,000 +48,496,000 +25%Colorado 29,916,000 + 6,634,000 +28 25%Connecticut 15,948,000 + 2,868,000 +22%Delaware 5,094,000 + 1,360,000 +36 5%Flonda 46,043,000 + 8,780,000 +23 5%Georgia 32,162,000 + 4,479,000 +21%Hawaii 10,778,000 + 3,404,000 +46%Idaho 10,137,000 + 1,337,000 +15 25%Illinois 113,043 000 +24,903,000 +28 25%Indiana 62,709 000 +12,546,000 +25%lowa 38,914,000 +4,684,000 +13 5%Kansas 35,038,000 + 7,099,000 +25 5%Kentucky 29,573,000 +9,901,000 +50 25%Louisiana 46,760,000 + 2,203,000 + 5%Maine 7,429,000 + 1,830,000 +32 5%Maryland 29,809,000 +3,721,000 +20 5%Massachusetts 16,503,000 +3,142,000 +23 5%Michigan 104 082,000 + 6,066,000 + 6%Minnesota 44,058,000 + 5,808,000 +15 25%Mississippi 17,500,000 + 1,311,000 + 8%Missouri 33,253,000 + 7,612,000 +29 5%contmued opposite the fact that, between fiscal year 1961 and fiscal 1963, ail states exceptAlabama and Montana increased their tax-fund appropriations tohigher éducation The average was a whoppmg 24 5 per centCan states continue to increase appropriations? No one answer willserve from coast to coast .Poor states will hâve a particularly difficult problem The SouthernRégional Education Board, m a récent report, told why"Generally, the states which hâve the greatest potential demand forhigher éducation are the states which hâve the fewest resources to meetthe demand Rural states hke Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, andSouth Carohna hâve large numbers of college-age young people andrelatively small per-capita income levels " Such states, the repoit con-cluded, can achieve educational excellence only if they use a larger proportion of their resources than does the nation as a whoîeA leading Western educator summed up his state's problem as fol-lows"Our largest âge groups, nght now, are old people and youngstersapproachmg collège âge Both groups dépend heavily upon the pro-ducing, taxpaymg members of our economy The elderly demand state-financed welfare, the young demand state-financed éducation"At présent, however, the produemg part of our economy is composée largely of 'dépression babies' — a comparatively small group Forthe next few years, their per-capita tax burden will be pretty heavy, àiidit may be hard to get them to accept any big mereases "But the alternatives to more tax money for public collèges and universities — higher tuition rates, the turning away of good students — maybe even less acceptable to many taxpayers Such is the hope of thosewho believe in low-cost, public higher éducationEvery projection of future needs shows that state and local governments must merease their appropriations vastly, if the peopîe'sdemands for higher-education are to be met The capacity of a government to make such mereases, as a California study has pomted ont,dépends on three basic éléments1) The size of the "stream of income" from which the support forhigher éducation must be drawn,2) The efïiciency and effectiveness of the tax system, and3) The will of the people to dévote enough money to the purposeOf thèse éléments, the third is the hardest to analyze, m économieterms It may well be the most crucialHère is whyIn their need for increased state and local funds, collèges and universities will be m compétition with growmg needs for highways, urfoanrenewal, and ail the other services that citizens demand of their governments How the available tax funds will be allocated will dépend, inlarge measure, on how the people rank their demands, and how msist-ently they make the demands known."No one should know better than our alumni the importance ofhaving society invest its money and faith in the éducation of its youngpeople," Allan W. Ostar, director of the Office of Institutional Research,said recently. "Yet ail too often we find alumni of state universitieswho are not willing to provide the same opportunity to future générations that they enjoyed. Our alumni should be leading the fight foradéquate tax support of our public collèges and universities."If they don't, who will?" k.To some Americans, the growth of state-supported higher educa-tipn, compared with that of the private collèges and universities,has been disturbing for other reasons than its effects upoh the tax rate.One cause of their concern is a fear that government dollars inevitablywillbe accompanied by a dangerous sort of government control. Thefabric of higher éducation, they point out, is laced with xontf oversy,new ideas, and challenges to ail forms of the status quo. Facultymembers, to be effective teachers and researchers, must be free ofreprisai or fears of reprisai. Students must be encouraged to experiment,to question, to disagree.The best safeguard, say those who hâve studied the question, is légalautonomy for state-supported higher éducation: independent boardsof régents or trustées, positive protections against interférence by stateagencies, post-audits of accounts but no lirie-by-line political controlover budget proposais— -the latter being a device by which a législaturemight be able to eut the salary of an "offensive" professor or stifleanother's research. Several state constitutions already guarantee suchautonomy to state universities. But in some other states, collège anduniversity administrators must be as adept at politicking as at edu-cating, if thëir institutions are to thrive.Another concern has been voiced by many citizens. What will be theeffects upon the country's private collèges, they ask, if the public-higher-education establishment continues to expand at its présent rate?With state-financed institutions handling more and more students—and, generally, charging far lower tuition fées than the private institutions can afford— how can the small private collèges hope to survive?Président Robert IX Calkins, of the Brookirigs Institution) has said:"Thus far, no promising alternative to an increased relia nce onpublic institutions and public support has appeared as a means of-dealing with the expanding demand for éducation. The trend may be! checked, but there is nothing in sight to reverse it. ..."Many weak private institutions may hâve to face a choice betweeninsolvency, mediocrity, or qualifying as public institutions. But en-^larged opportunities for many private and public institutions will exist,bften through coopération. . . . By pooling resources, ail may be strength-xned.i,.. In viewofthe récent support the libéral arts collèges haveelicited,the more enterprising ones, at least, hâve an undisputed rôle for futureservice. / Fiscal 1963 Change from 1961Montana $11,161,000 -$ 70,000 - 0.5%Nebraska.... 17,078,000 +1,860,000 +12.25%Nevada 5,299,000 +1,192,000 +29%New Hampshire 4,733,000 + 627,000 +15.25%New Jersey... 34,079,000 +9,652,000 +39.5%New Mexico.. 14,372,000 +3,133,000 +28%New York... 156,556,000 +67,051,000 +75%North Carolina 36,532,000 + 6,192,000 +20.5%North Dakota. 10,386,000 +1,133,000 +12.25%Ohio 55,620,000 +10,294,000 +22.5%Oklahoma... 30,020,000 +3,000,000 +11%Oregon....... 33,423,000 +4,704,000 +16.25%Pennsylvania. 56,187,000 +12,715,000 +29.5%Rhodelsland. 7,697,000+2,426,000 +46%South Carolina 15,440,000 + 2,299,000 +17.5%South Dakota. 8,702,000 + 574,000 + 7%Tennessee.... 22,359,000 +5,336,000 +31.25%Texas 83,282,000 +16,327,000 +24.5%Utah 15,580,000 +2,441,000 +18.5%Vermont. .... 3,750,000 +351,000 +10.25%Virginia 28,859,000 + 5,672,000 +24.5%Washington... 51,757,000 + 9,749,000 +23.25%West Virginia. 20,743,000 +3,824,000 +22.5%Wisconsin.... 44,670,000 +7,253,000 +19:5%Wyoming 5,599,000 + 864,000 +18.25%TOTALS. . . . $1,808,825,000 +$357,499,000WEIGHTED AVERAGE +24.5%CONTINUED18.9 per cent from WashingtonPRIVATE INSTITUTIONS:19.1% of their incomecornes from Washington. Iseem to spend half my life on the jets between hère and Washington," said an officiai of a private university on the West Coast, notlong ago."We've decided to man a Washington office, full time," said thespokesman for a state university, a few miles away.For one in 20 U.S. institutions of higher éducation, the fédéral government in récent years has become one of the biggest facts of financiallife. For some it is the biggest. "The not-so-jolly long-green giant," oneman calls it.Washington is no newcomer to the campus scène. The différence,today, is one of scale. Currently the fédéral government spends betweenSI billion and $2 billion a year at collèges and universities. So vast arethe expenditures, and so diverse are the government channels throughwhich they flow to the campuses, that a précise figure is impossible tocome by. The U.S. Office of Education's latest estimate, covering fiscal1962, is that Washington was the source of $1.389 billion— or nearly19 per cent — of higher education's total current-fund income."It may readily be seen," said Congresswoman Edith Green of Oregon, in a report last year to the House Committee on Education andLabor, "that the question is not whether there shall be fédéral aid toéducation."Fédéral aid exists. It is big and is growing.PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS:18.6% of their incomecornes from Washington. The word aid, however, is misleading. Most of the fédéral govern-ment's expenditures in higher éducation — more than four and ahalf times as much as for ail other purposes combined — are for researchthat the government needs. Thus, in a sensé, the government is the pur-chaser of a commodity; the universities, like any other producer withwhom the government does business, supply that commodity. The re-lationship is one of quidpro quo.Congresswoman Green is quick to acknowledge this fact:"What has not been . . . clear is the dependency of the fédéral government on the educational System. The government relies upon the universities to do those things which cannot be done by government personnel in government facilities."It turns to the universities to conduct basic research in the fieldsof agriculture, défense, medicine, public health, and the conquest ofspace, and even for managing and staffing of many governmental research laboratories."It relies on university faculty to judge the merits of proposed research."It turns to them for the management and direction of its foreign aidprograms in underdeveloped areas of the world.It relies on them for training, in every conceivable field, of government personnel — both military and civilian."The full range of federal-government relationships with U.S. higher éducation can only be suggested in the scope of this report.Hère are some examples:Land-grant collèges had their origins in the Morrill Land Grant Collège Act of 1862, when the fédéral government granted public land s tothe states for the support of collèges "to teach such branches of learningas are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts," but not excludingscience and classics. Today there are 68 such institutions. In fiscal 1962,the fédéral government distributed $10.7 million in land-grant funds.The armed forces operate officers training programs in the collèges anduniversities — their largest source of junior officers.Student loans, under the National Défense Education Act, are themajor form of fédéral assistance to undergraduate students. They areadministered by 1,534 participating collèges and universities, whichsélect récipients on the basis of need and collect the loan repayments. Infiscal 1962, more than 170,000 undergraduates and nearly 15,000 gradu-ate students borrowed $90 million in this way."The success of the fédéral loan program," says the président of acollège for women, "is one of the most significant indexes of the important place the government has in financing private as well as publiceducational institutions. The women's collèges, by the way, used to scoffat the loan program. 'Who would marry a girl with a debt?' peopleasked. 'A girl's dowry shouldn't be a mortgage,' they said. But nowmore than 25 per cent of our girls hâve government loans, and theydon't seem at ail perturbed."Fellowship grants to graduate students, mostly for advanced work inscience or engineering, supported more than 35,000 persons in fiscal1962. Cost to the government: nearly $104 million. In addition, around20,000 graduate students served as paid assistants on government-sponsored university research projects.Dormitory loans through the collège housing program of the Housingand Home Finance Agency hâve played a major rôle in enabling collèges and universities to build enough dormitories, dining halls, studentunions, and health facilities for their burgeoning enrollments. Between1951 and 1961, loans totaling more than $1.5 billion were approved.Informed observers believe this program finances from 35 to 45 percent of the total current construction of such facilities.Grants for research facilities and equipment totaled $98.5 million infiscal 1962, the great bulk of which went to universities conductingscientific research. The National Science Foundation, the NationalInstitutes of Health, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Atomic Energy Commission are the principal sources ofsuch grants. A Department of Défense program enables institutions tobuild facilities and write off the cost.To help finance new classrooms, libraries, and laboratories, Congresslast year passed a $1.195 billion collège aid program and, said PrésidentFEDERAL FUNDS continued38%of Fédéral research fundsgo to thèse 10 institutions:U. of California U. of IllinoisMass. Inst. of Technology Stanford U.Columbia U. U. of ChicagoU. of Michigan U. of MinnesotaHarvard U. Cornell U. Johnson, thus was "on its way to doing more for éducation than anysince the land-grant collège bill was passed 100 years ago."Support for médical éducation through loans to students and funds forconstruction was authorized by Congress last fall, when it passed a $236million program.To strengthen the curriculum in various ways, fédéral agencies spentapproximately $9.2 million in fiscal 1962. Samples: A $2 million National Science Foundation program to improve the content of sciencecourses; a $2 million Office of Education program to help collèges anduniversities develop, on a matching-fund basis, language and area-studycenters; a $2 million Public Health Service program to expand, create,and improve graduate work in public health.Support for international programs involving U.S. collèges and universities came from several fédéral sources. Examples: Funds spent by thePeace Corps for training and research totaled more than $7 million. TheAgency for International Development employed some 70 institutionsto administer its projects overseas, at a cost of about $26 million. TheState Department paid nearly $6 million to support more than 2,500foreign students on U.S. campuses, and an additional $1.5 million tosupport more than 700 foreign professors.59%of Fédéral research fundsgo to the above 10 + thèse 15:U. of WisconsinU. of PennsylvaniaNew York U.Ohio State U.u. of WashingtonJohns Hopkins U.U. of Texas Yale U.Princeton U.lowa State U.Cal. Inst. of TechnologyU. of PittsburghNorthwestern U.Brown U.U. of Maryland But the greatest fédéral influence, on many U.S. campuses, cornesthrough the government's expenditures for research.As one would expect, most of such expenditures are made at universities, rather than at collèges (which, with some exceptions, conductlittle research).In the 1963 Godkin Lectures at Harvard, the University of California'sPrésident Clark Kerr called the fédéral government's support of research,starting in World War II, one of the "two great impacts [which], beyondail other forces, hâve molded the modéra American university Systemand made it distinctive." (The other great impact: the land-grant collègemovement.)At the institutions where they are concentrated, fédéral research fundshâve had marked effects. A self-study by Harvard, for example, revealedthat 90 per cent of the research expenditures in the university's physicsdepartment were paid for by the fédéral government; 67 per cent in thechemistry department; and 95 per cent in the division of engineering andapplied physics.Is this government-dollar dominance in many universities' researchbudgets a healthy development?After analyzing the rôle of the fédéral government on their campuses,a group of universities reporting to the Carnegie Foundation for theAdvancement of Teaching agreed that "the effects [of government expenditures for campus-based research projects] hâve, on balance, beensalutary."Said the report of one institution:"The opportunity to make expenditures of this size has permitted aresearch effort far superior to anything that could hâve been done without recourse to government sponsors. . . ."Any university that declined to participate in the growth of spon-sored research would hâve had to pay a high price in terms of the qualityof its faculty in the science and engineering areas. . . ."However, the university-government relationship is not without itsirritations.One of the most irksome, say many institutions, is the government'sfailure to reimburse them fully for the "indirect costs" they incur inconnection with federally sponsored research— costs of administration,of libraries, of operating and maintaining their physical plant. If thegovernment fails to cover such costs, the universities must— often bydrawing upon funds that might otherwise be spent in strengtheningareas that are not favored with large amounts of fédéral support, e.g .,the humanities.Some see another problem: faculty members may be attracted to certain research areas simply because fédéral money is plentiful there."This . . . may tend to channel their efforts away from other importantresearch and . . . from their teaching and public-service responsibilities,"one university study said.The government's emphasis upon science, health, and engineering,some persons believe, is another drawback to the fédéral research expenditures. "Between departments, a form of imbalance may resuit,"said a récent critique. "The science departments and their research maygrow and prosper. The departments of the humanities and social sciences may continue, at best, to maintain their status quo.""There needs to be a National Science Foundation for the humanities," says the chief académie officer of a Southern university which getsapproximately 20 per cent of its annual budget from fédéral grants."Certainly government research programs create imbalances withindepartments and between departments," said the spokesman for a leading Catholic institution, "but so do many other influences at work withina university Imbalances must be lived with and made the most of, ifa level of uniform mediocrity is not to prevail."The concentration of fédéral funds in a few institutions— usuallythe institutions which already are financially and educationallystrong— makes sensé from the standpoint of the quidpro quo philoso-phy that motivâtes the expenditure of most government funds. Thestrong research-oriented universities, obviously, can deliver the commodity the government wants.But, consequently, as a récent Carnegie report noted, "fédéral supportis, for many collèges and universities, not yet a décisive or even a highlyinfluential fact of académie life."Why, some persons ask, should not the government conduct equallywell-financed programs in order to improve those collèges and universities which are not strong— and thus raise the quality of U.S. higheréducation as a whole? 90%of Fédéral research fundsgo to the 25 opposite + thèse 75:Pennsylvania State U.Duke U.U. of Southern Cal.Indiana U.U. of RochesterWashington U.U. of ColoradoPurdue U.George Washington U.Western Reserve U.Florida State U.Yeshiva U.U. of FloridaU. of OregonU. of UtahTulane U.U. of N. CarolinaMichigan State U.Polytechnic Inst. ofBrooklynU. of MiamiU. of TennesseeU. of lowaTexas A. & M. Col.Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst.U. of KansasU. of ArizonaVanderbilt U.Syracuse U.Oregon State U.Ga. Inst. of TechnologyU. of VirginiaRutgers U.Louisiana State U.Carnegie I nst. of TechnologyU. of OklahomaN. Carolina State U.Illinois Inst. of Technology Wayne State U.Baylor U.U. of DenverU. of MissouriU. of GeorgiaU. of ArkansasU. of NebraskaTufts U.U. of AlabamaNew Mexico State U.Washington State U.Boston U.U. of BuffaloU. of KentuckyU. of CincinnatiStevens Inst. of TechnologyOklahoma State U.Georgetown U.Médical Col. of VirginiaMississippi State U.Colorado State U.Auburn U.Dartmouth Col.Emory U.U. of VermontBrandeis U.Marquette U.Jefferson Médical Col.Va. Polytechnic Inst.U. of LouisvilleKansas State U.St. Louis U.West Virginia U.U. of HawaiiU. of MississippiNotre Dame U.U. of New MexicoTemple U.CONTINUEDFEDERAL, FUNDS continuer!This question is certain to be warmly debated in years to come.Coupled with philosophical support or opposition will be this pressingpractical question: can private money, together with state and localgovernment funds, solve higher education's financial problems, withoutresort to Washington? Next fall, when the great, long-predicted "tidalwave" of students at last reaches the nation's campuses, the time oftesting will begin.6.4 per cent from Gifts and GrantsPRIVATE INSTITUTIONS:11.6% of their incomecornes from gifts and grants.PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS:2.3% of their incomecontes from gifts and grants. As a source of income for U.S. higher éducation, private gifts and. grants are a comparatively small slice on the pie charts: 11.6% forthe private collèges and universities, only 2.3% for public.But, to both types of institution, private gifts and grants hâve an importance far greater than thèse percentages suggest."For us," says a représentative of a public university in the Midwest,"private funds mean the différence between the adéquate and the excellent. The university needs private funds to serve purposes for whichstate funds cannot be used: scholarships, fellowships, student loans, thepurchase of rare books and art objects, research seed grants, expérimental programs.""Because the state provides basic needs," says another public-university man, "every gift dollar can be used to provide for a marginof excellence."Says the spokesman for a private libéral arts collège: "We must seekgifts and grants as we hâve never sought them before. They are our onehope of keeping educational quality up, tuition rates down, and thestudent body démocratie. 1*11 even go so far as to say they are our mainhope of keeping the collège, as we know it, alive."From 1954-55 through 1960-61, the independent Council for Financial Aid to Education has made a biennial survey of the country'scollèges and universities, to learn how much private aid they received.In four surveys, the institutions answering the council's questionnairesreported they had received more than $2.4 billion in voluntary gifts.Major private universities received $1,046 million.Private coeducational collèges received $628 million.State universities received nearly $320 million.Professional schools received $171 million.Private women's collèges received $126 million.Private men's collèges received $117 million.Junior collèges received $31 million.Municipal universities received nearly $16 million.Over the years covered by the CFAE's surveys, thèse increases tookplace:Gifts to the private universities went up 95.6%.Gifts to private coed collèges went up 82%.Gifts to state universities went up 184%.Gifts to professional schools went up 1 34%.Where did the money corne from? Gifts and grants reported to thecouncil came from thèse sources:General welfare foundations gave $653 million.Non-alumni donors gave $539.7 million.Alumni and alumnae gave $496 million.Business corporations gave $345.8 million.Religious dénominations gave $216 million.Non-alumni, non-church groups gave $139 million.Other sources gave $66.6 million.Ail seven sources increased their contributions over the period.But the records of past years are only préludes to the voluntarygiving of the future, experts feel.Dr. John A. Pollard, who conducts the surveys of the Council forFinancial Aid to Education, estimâtes conservatively that higher éducation will require $9 billion per year by 1969-70, for educational andgênerai expenditures, endowment, and plant expansion. This would be1.3 per cent of an expected $700 billion Gross National Product.Two billion dollars, Dr. Pollard believes, must corne in the form ofprivate gifts and grants. Highlights of his projections:Business corporations will increase their contributions to higher éducation at a rate of 16.25 per cent a year. Their 1969-70 total: $508 million.Foundations will increase their contributions at a rate of 14.5 percent a year. Their 1969-70 total: $520.7 million.Alumni will increase their contributions at a rate of 14.5 per cent ayear. Their 1969-70 total: $591 million.Non-alumni individuals will increase their contributions at a rate of12.6 per cent a year. Their 1969-70 total: $524.6 million.Religious dénominations will increase their contributions at a rate of12.7 per cent. Their 1969-70 total: $215.6 million.Non-alumni, non-church groups and other sources will increase theircontributions at rates of 4 per cent and 1 per cent, respectively. Their1969-70 total: $62 million."I think we must seriously question whether thèse estimâtes arerealistic," said a business man, in response to Dr. Pollard's estimate of1969-70 gifts by corporations. "Corporate funds are not a bottomlesspit; the support the corporations give to éducation is, after ail, one ofthe costs of doing business. . . . It may become moredifficult to providefor such support, along with other foreseeable increased costs, in settingproduct priées. We cannot assume that ail this money is going to beavailable simply because we want it to be. The more fruit you shakefrom the tree, the more difficult it becomes to find still more." Corning: a needfor $9 billiona year. Impossible?CONTINUEDBut others are more optimistic. Says the CFAE:"Fifteen years ago nofoody could safely hâve predicted the level ofvoluatary support of higher éducation in 1962. Its climb has been spec-tacular. . . ."So, on the record, it probably is safe to say that the potential ofvoluntary support of U.S. higher éducation has only been scratched.The people hâve developed a quenchless thirst for higher learning and,equally, the means and the will to support its institutions adequately."^lumnï and alumnae will hâve a critical rôle to play in determiningwhether the projections turn out to hâve been sound or unrealistic.Of basic importance, of course, are their own gifts to their aimawnaters. The American Alumni Council, in its most récent year' s compilation, reported that alumni support, as measured from the reportsof 927 collèges and universities, had totaled $196.7 million— a newrecord.Lest this figure cause alumni and alumnae to engage in unrestrainedseïf-congratulations, however, let them consider thèse words from oneof the country's vétéran (and most outspoken) alumni secretaries:"Of shocking concern is the lack of interest of most of the alumni. . . .The country over, only about one-fifth on the average pay dues to theiralumni associations; only one-fourth on the average contribute to theiralumni funds. There are, of. course, heartwarming instances whereparticipation reaches 70 and 80 per cent, but they are rare. . . ."Commenting on thèse remarks, a fund-raising consultant wrote:"The tact that about three-fourths of collège and university alumnido not contribute anything at ail to their aima maters seems to be astrong indication that they lack sufficient feeling of responsibility tosupport thèse institutions. There was a day when it could be arguedthat this support was not forthcoming because the common mansimply did not hâve funds to contribute to universities. While this argument is undoubtedly used today, it carries a rather hollow ring in anation owning nearly two cars for every family and so many pleasureboats that there is hardly space left for them on available water."Alumni support has an importance even beyond the dollars thatit yields to higher éducation. More than 220 business corporations willmatch their employées' contributions. And alumni support — particu-îarly the percentage of alumni who make gifts — is frequently used byother prospective donors as a guide to how much they should give.Most important, alumni and alumnae wear many hats. They are individual citizens, corporate leaders, voters, taxpayers, legislators, unionmembers, church leaders. In every rôle, they hâve an effect on collègeand university destinies. Hence it is alumni and alumnae, more than anyother group, who will détermine whether the financial health of U.S.higher éducation will be good or bad in years to corne.What will the verdict be? No reader can escape the responsibility ofrendering it. The report on this and the preceding 15pages is the product of a coopérative en-deavor in which scores of schools, collèges,and universities are taking part. It wasprepared under the direction of the grouplisted below, who form editorial projectsfor éducation, a non-profit organizationassociated with the American AlumniCouncil. (The editors, of course, speak forthemselves and not for their institutions.)Copyright © 1964 by Editorial Projects forEducation, Inc. Ail rights reserved; nopart may be reproduced without expresspermission of the editors. Printed in U.S. A.DENTON BEALCarnegie Insîitute of TechnologyDAVID A. BURRThe University of OklahomaDAN ENDSLEYStanford UniversityBEATRICE M. FIELDTulane UniversityMARALYN O. GILLESPIESwarthmore CollègeL. FRANKLIN HEALDThe University of New HampshireCHARLES M. HELMKENAmerican Alumni CouncilJOHN I. MATTILLMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyKEN METZLERThe University of OregonJOHN W. PATONWesleyan UniversityROBERT L. PAYTONWashington UniversityROBERT M. RHODESThe University of Pennsylvanie^VERNE A. STADTMANThe University of CaliforniaFREDERIC A. STOTTPhillips Academy, AndoverFRANK J. TATEThe Ohio State UniversityCHARLES E. WIDMAYERDartmouth CollègeDOROTHY F. WILLIAMSSimmons CollègeRONALD A. WOLKThe Johns Hopkins UniversityELIZABETH BOND WOODSweet Briar CollègeCHESLEY WORTHINGTONBrown UniversityCORBIN GWALTNEYExecutive EditorAcknowledgments: The editors acknowledge withthanks the help of Sally Adams, Washington StateUniversity; Harriet Coble, The University of Ne-braska; James Gunn, The University of Kansas;Jack McGuire, The University of Texas; Joe Sher-man, Clemson Collège; Howard Snethen, DukeUniversity; Jack Taylor, The University of Missouri.Photographs by Peter Dechert Associates: WalterHolt, Leif Skoogfors, Peter Dechert.GOOD MUERResearch chemist with a mission! He's changing the atomic arrangement of acomplex molecular structure. Objective: create an entirely new material with newproperties. Application: an improved adhesive for bonding metals together.He's one of more than 400 graduate engineers and scientists at the General MotorsResearch Laboratories, Détroit, who dévote full time to pure and applied research. . . seeking new information, new and better ways of using existing knowledge.Their work is not confined to discovering new products for GM or improving présentproducts. A good share of their time and talent is aimed at answering basic questions.How do metals wear out? What factors govern the properties of semiconductors?Why is one lubricant better than another? To make the unknown known in thesciences of physics, chemistry, mathematics, mechanical engineering, metallurgyand electronics — that's the continuing aim of the General Motors research team.GM's vitality is people— more than 600,000 employés, thousands of dealers andsuppliera and over a million shareholders. Today and in the future . . . the basicessential of GM is people.GENERAL MOTORS IS PEOPLE...fe*:-?::.r%"Our idea was not to import a festival," explainedHarold Haydon, associate professor in the Department of Art and director of the University's MidwayStudios. "Rather, we wanted to highlight unnoticedevents hère on campus by bringing together exhibits,contests, productions and so forth." Mr. Haydonis advisor to the student sponsored FOTA.From a four day event the first year, FOTA hasblossomed this year, its tenth anniversary, into fourweeks of performances, exhibits and lectures inmusic, poetry, art, films, drama and dance. "Anembarrassment of riches," said Dena Criz, fourthyear student in the Collège and this year's chairmanof FOTA.In music, there is a range from Russian liturgicalmusic to Chicago style blues.Editor's note: As the Magazine goes to pressnumerous FOTA events are in fuit swing. For detaïtedprogram information, readers are invited to contact:Festival of the Arts, Reynolds Club 2015706 South University AvenueChicago, Illinois 60637MI 3-0800, Extension 3569 or 3591 1«| The largest endeavor in the fine arts is an artshow open to artists between the âges of 19 and 35,who hâve not received any major prizes or heldone-man shows. Works include painting, graphies,sculpture and photography, displayed in variousgalleries on campus, with Lexington Hall as themain gallery. $1,500 in prizes has been raised by theWomen's Board and an additional $300 was givenby the Trustées' wives, specifically earmarked forstudents of the University.Young artists from the University LaboratorySchool, the Hyde Park Art Center and neighborhoodpublic schools hâve their own exhibit at Ida NoyésHall and Midway Studios has a spécial showing byfour Masters of Fine Arts candidates.Contemporary religious art is being exhibited atthe Baptist Graduate Student Center and the HillelFoundation is ofFering two successive exhibits ofsymbolic Hebraic art and artists of Israël.Concurrently with FOTA, the Renaissance Society announced the opening May 4, in GoodspeedHall, of the largest U.S. showing of Degas etchever collected in this country.The Sergel Drama Prize, the largest single dr26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE APRIL, ]FESTIVAL OFprize in the nation, opens during FOTA and runsthrough September 1. The prizes in 1962 totaled$3,000, with $2,000 as the first prize. The compétition is open to any unproduced, full-length play.There is no limitation regarding the author's production history or previous entrance into this compétition.From Mandel Hall, scène of the opening concert,to every part of the campus and as far afield asJimmy's New University Room for a spécial poetryreading, the "rejoicing in the Arts," as FOTA isaptly described, makes a mémorable harbingerof spring.nIllustrations—Opposite page: Entries awaiting the judges.Right: Photography judges (left to right) HughEdwards, curator of photography, the Art Instituteof Chicago; Fred Reckman, photographer dis-covered at a previous U. of C. Festival of the Arts;Aaron Siskind, photographer with I.I.T.'s Instituteof Design.APRIL, 1964 THE /RTSLeurrent J^clteduieof ^Arlumni C^veniSApril 30th: Annual Law School AlumniDinner, 5:30 p.m., Ambassador West Hôtel,Chicago. Speaker: Arthur L. Goodhart, former Master of University Collège, Oxford.Topic: "The Law and the Police."May 2nd: Convention, San Francisco BayArea Club, 2:30 to 9:00 p.m., SheratonPalace Hôtel, San Francisco. Guest Speaker: Stanley Mosk, '33, Attorney General ofthe State of California. Participants: ThomasW. Barbour, Richard Brody, W. H. Cowley,John W. Dyckman, Paul Ekman, Donald F.McLaughlin, William J. Simons. Topics:"Private Perceptions and Public Policy,""Education and Tomorrow's World," "Participation of Alumni in Académie Government," "Public Relations in Governmentand Business."May 13th: Dinner, Indianapolïs AlumniClub and English Speaking Union of In-dianapolis, 6:30 p.m., Indianapolis AthleticClub, informai. Speaker: Robert Cecil Bald,professor, Department of English.May 15th: Annual pre-show Dinner, Black-friars alumni, 7:00 p.m., 5751 S. Woodlawn,Chicago; Blackfriars show, "The Road toDunsinane," 8:30 p.m., Mandel Hall, 57thand University, Chicago.May 27 th.: Annual Dinner, Cleveland AreaAlumni Club, 5:30 p.m., Cleveland Engineering and Scientific Center, 3100 ChesterAvenue, Cleveland, Ohio. Speaker: EdwardW. Rosenheim, Jr., professor, Departmentsof English and Humanities, The Collège.Topic: "Humanities: 1966."June 4th: Alumni-Varsity Baseball Game,3:30 p.m., Stagg Field, Chicago.June 4th: Annual Order of the "C" Dinner,5:30 p.m., Quadrangle Club, 1155 E. 57thStreet, Chicago.June llth: 66th Annual Alumni Dinner,Graduate School of Business, 6:00 p.m.,Quadrangle Club, 1155 E. 57th Street, Chicago. Speaker: George J. Stigler, Charles R.Walgreen Distinguished Service Professor.Topic: "The Tactics of Economie Reform."June 1 1 th: Médical Alumni Reunion Banquet,6:15 p.m., The Great Hall, Pick-CongressHôtel, Chicago. Honored guests: the 1964graduating class of The University of Chicago Médical School and the 1914 graduâtes of Rush Médical Collège.June Î2th and 13th: All-Alumni Reunion onthe Campus of The University. See page 4of Tower Topics for détails.June 13th: Eighth Annual CommunicationDinner, 5:30 p.m., Quadrangle Club, 1155East 57th Street, Chicago.June 22nd: Médical Alumni Dinner, 6 p.m.,Empire Room, Sir Francis Drake Hôtel, SanFrancisco. N EWS O F the alumniup to 32BEHLING, GLENOLA, '13 see Rose-JENCKS, ZALIA, '13 see Rowe-ROSE, MRS. ROBERT E. (GLENOLABEHLING, '13), of Penn's Grove, N.J.,lias spent much time traveling and lectur-ing over the past 15 years. She spentlast winter in Egypt and previously hadvisited Europe, South Asia, Hawaii,Japan. Although she has not done asmuch lecturing during the past few years,she continues to take pictures during hertravels, and now has "slides and slidesand slides, reaching out in every directionfrom hère."ROWE, MRS. H. GORDON (ZALIAJENCKS, '13), is living in New Haven,Conn., where she is active in the International Students organization, AmericanAssociation of University Women, andthe Y.W.C.A. She also does reading forthe blind. Mrs. Rowe is the widow ofW. R. Gailey, and was married to Mr.Rowe in 1959. She is a former nationalprésident of Iota Sigma Pi, honorarysorority in chemistry, and taught inSeattle, England, and Hawaii.PRICE, MILES O., '14, and Mrs. Price,(FANNIE J. ELLIOTT, '13) went on aten weeks' cruise of the Mediterraneanand Black Sea last fall. Mr. Price hasbeen working on a foundation project inWashington, D.C., and also is indexingthe Spécial Study of the SecuritiesMarkets.McCAY, MISS HARRIET E., '15, whorésides in Miami, Fia., is a formerlibrarian.ADAMS, EVA, '18 see Sutherland-BARCLAY, MRS. ARTHUR J. (MARIONE. STEARNS, 18) and her husband, ofTampa, Fia., hâve taken two long tripssince Mrs. Barclay's retirement last Junefrom her position as county supervisorof home économies éducation. She re-cently served as adviser for a séries ofeight film strips, made through McGraw-Hill Book Co., correlated with the high school text Teen Guide to Homemaking,of which she is author.STEARNS, MARION E., 18 see Barclay-SUTHERLAND, MRS. WILLIS C. (EVAADAMS, 18), of Chicago finds amplefree time for her Indiana tree farm, sinceher retirement in June, 1963. Mrs.Sutherland retired after 39 years as assistant to the dean of the U of C GraduateSchool of Business, and associate directorof the Institute of Méat Packing. InDecember Mrs. Sutherland joined theAmerican Méat Institute as associate director of its center for continuing éducation, on a part-time basis.COWPER, FREDERICK A. G., PhD'20 andMrs. Cowper (MARY O. THOMPSON,'20), of Durham, N.C., spent threemonths in Europe last summer. Theyvisited several countries and attended theCongress of the International ArthurianSociety in Scotland.KING, MRS. JOSEPH F. (HELENPALMER, '27), of Chicago, is workingfull time for the State of Illinois at theMental Health Center in the section forretarded children.PALMER, HELEN, '27 see King-STEPHENSON, TOM B., '28, is wire newseditor for the Elkhart ( Ind. ) Daily Truth.He was formerly sports editor of thenewspaper for more than 30 years.GOSS, BERT C, AM'29, has been electedprésident of the Community Fund boardof directors, Bronxville, N.Y. He is président of the New York public relationsfirm of Hill and Knowlton, Inc.LOCKARD, DERWOOD W., '29, anthro-pologist at Harvard University, is associate director of the Center for MiddleEastern Studies. He will conduct theday-to-day affairs of the center during thenext two years while its director (SirHamilton A. R. Gibb ) is doing research.EDGREN, HARRY D., '30, AM'35, ofWest Lafayette, Ind., is co-author of twobooks published in the past two years:The Book of Outdoor Winter Activities,published by Association Press; and TheTeacher's Handbook of Indoor and Outdoor Games, by Prentice Hall.JOHNSON, MISS LILLIAN M., SM'32,PhD'38, has been named chairman of the28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE APRIL, 1964»J ;£ continued ™ // /newly-formed Council of Student Personnel Associations in Higher Education(CSPAHE). The council will study problems of collège students such as: expandedopportunities for Negroes in higher éducation; year-round académie calendar andaccelerated degree programs; studentfreedoms; student concern with socialissues. Miss Johnson is dean of studentsat the University of Cincinnati, Ohio.She is past président of the Ohio Association of Women Deans, Advisers andCounselors and of the National Association of Women Deans and Counselors.HAFEMANN, HENRIETTA E., '33 seeMiller-MILLER, MRS. FRANK (HENRIETTAE. HAFEMANN, '33), of Chicago, wasfeatured in Life magazine of March 1 inan article entitled "The Rewards of aGreat Teacher." Mrs. Miller teacheshistory at Senn High School in Chicago.Last fall she received the Kate MaremontDedicated Teacher Award, $500 towardsa summer trip of her choice. Last year,Mrs. Miller was a John Hay Fellow atthe University of California where shecompiled a course in advance placementin European history.GRAVER, GRACE C, '35 see Riddle-RIDDLE, MRS. JAMES M., JR. (GRACEC. GRAVER, '35), of Ambler, Pa., is theauthor of a book for children entitledCandy Lamb. The book, recently madeavailable at bookstores, is written underthe name Grayce Riddle.BROEN, HANNAH, AM'36 see Hoff-EBERT, ROBERT H., '36, MD'42, hasbeen appointed chief of médical servicesat Massachusetts General Hospital,Boston. He has also been named professor of clinical medicine at Harvard Médical School. Dr. Ebert formerly wasdirector of the department of medicineat University Hospitals, Cleveland, Ohio,and professor of medicine at the WesternReserve University School of Medicine.He had previously served on the staff atthe U of C. Dr. Ebert has been doingresearch in tuberculosis, checking theeffects of drugs on the disease. He wasa director of the Academy of Medicine ofCleveland from 1960 to 1963.HOFF, MRS. HANNAH (HANNAHBROEN, AM'36), of Moorhead, Minn.,is teaching the undergraduate courses insocial work at Concordia Collège, aLutheran collège in Moorhead.ABBOTT, MRS. VIRGINIA (VIRGINIAL. CLARK, '37), is in her second year as young adults director at the Saginaw(Mich.) YWCA.CLARK, VIRGINIA L., '37 see Abbott-GOLDBERG, MELVIN, PhD'37, of WestEnglewood, N.J., was appointed technicalservices manager of the research anddevelopment division of Lever BrothersCo., New York City. Mr. Goldberg joinedthe company in 1946 as a research chem-ist at the Pepsodent plant in Chicago, andlater became chief supervisor for productsresearch and then toilet goods productimprovement and development sectionchief.SLOSS, L. L, PhD'37, will address aninternational gathering of geologists inToronto, Canada in May. Mr. Sloss, professor of geology at Northwestern University, Evanston, 111., will speak at thefirst joint international convention of theAmerican Association of PetroleumGeologists, the Society for EconomiePaleontologists and Mineralogists and theGeological Association of Canada. Histopic will be the influence of ancient"basement" rocks of the U.S. upon thesedimentary younger rocks which overliethem. Mr. Sloss has been a pioneer insedimentology— the study and descriptionof the physical properties of sedimentaryrocks.VAN KOLKEN, PRESTON J., MD'38, ofGrand Haven, Mich., has been appointedchief of medicine at the American Hospital in Pago Pago, American Samoa.(The Samoan islands are in the SouthPacific, and are a U.S. trust territory. )Dr. Van Kolken spent five years in theCameroons, West Africa, as a médicalmissionary with the Presbyterian Churchbefore starting 16 years of private prac-tice of medicine and surgery in GrandHaven. He sends warm regards to histeachers and classmates of the U of C.SURKIN, MILTON J., '39, and his wife(NANCY M. ELLIOTT, '44), of SanFrancisco, Calif., returned to Chicago fora visit during the Christmas holidays and"found out why we moved to sunnyCalifornia— it was so cold! " Mr. Surkinis engaged in the real estate business inSan Francisco, and Mrs. Surkin recentlycompleted an area chairmanship for theMarch of Dimes. They hâve twodaughters.BORST, LYLE B., PhD'41, was Sigma Xinational lecturer during February andMarch. He delivered a lecture on "ADiatomic Theory of Liquid Hélium," at19 collèges, universities, and organiza-tions during the two months. Mr. Borstwas a member of the original U of Cgroup who worked on the uranium chainreaction; he worked with the late EnricoFermi in 1942 and supervised reactorresearch at Oak Ridge in 1943-46. He isalso an original member of the groupwhich founded Brookhaven NationalLaboratories and was in charge of thedesign, construction and opération of thereactor. In 1951 Mr. Borst returned toteaching at the University of Utah, New YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAW TREATTASTES BETTERWHEN IT'S . . .A product f Swift7409Phon< & CompanySo. State Streetne RAdcliffe 3-7400T. A. REHNQUPT C0 SidewalksFactory FloorsMachineFoundationsConcrète BreakingNOrmal 7-0433We operate our own dry cleaning plant1309 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Ml dway 3-0602 NO rmal 7-98581553 E. Hyde Parle Blvd. FAirfax 4-57591442 E. 57th Midway 30607GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLalce Street KEdzie 3-3186M0DEL CAMERA SH0PLeica - Bolex - Rolleiflex - Polaroid1342 L 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259NSA Discounts24-hour Kodachrome DevelopingHO Trams and Model SuppliesAPRIL, 1964 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 29BOYD & GOULDSINCE 188SHYDE PARK AWNING CO. INC.SINCE 1896NOW UNDER ONE MANAGEMENTAwnings and Canopîes for AH Purposes9305 South Western Phone: 239-1511BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave.. ChicagoRICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331 TéléphoneW. Jackson Blvd. MOnroe 6-3 1 92UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55th StreetMemberFédéral Deposit Insurance CorporationMUseum 4-1200Offset Printing • Imprinting • AddreesographingMultilithing • Copy Préparation • Automatic InsertingTypewriting • Addressing • Folding • MailingCHICAGO ADDRESSING & PRINTING COMPANY720 SOUTH DEARBORN STREET WAbflSll 2"4561 continued ¦¦York University and most recently at theState University of New York at Buffalo.PEARSON, ROBERT H., MBA'41, is director of employée relations for the Hartford Electric Light Co. He and his familylive in Glastonbury, Conn.WHITLOW, JAMES B., AM'41, is teaching French at Louisiana State University,New Orléans, and completing work on hisdoctorate at Stanford University.DE YOUNG, HARRY R., '42, has beennamed chairman of the Division of Evan-gelism of the United Presbyterian Church,U.S. A. Rev. De Young was formerly pas-tor of the Redford Presbyterian Church,Détroit, Mich. He began his new work,based in New York City, in February.During his fifteen years in Détroit, themembership of the Redford Church morethan tripled. Rev. De Young served forsix years on the United PresbyterianChurch's Commission on Evangelism,and represented the dénomination on theGeneral Board of the National Council ofChurches and on its Division of Evangelism.BAKER, HILLIER L., '44, MD'46, wasnamed a fellow of the American Collègeof Radiology at the group's annual meeting in Tucson, Ariz., in February. Thedegree of fellow is granted to radiologistswho hâve given distinguished service totheir specialty over a period of years andis held by less than 1000 of the Collèges5200 members. Dr. Baker is on the staffof Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.JONES, MISS GWYNETH, '45, is in theU. S. foreign service and has been sta-tioned in Paris for the past two years.She is now residing in Glendale, Calif. POND LETTER SERVICE, Inc.Everything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHigh est Quality Service Minimum PricesAH Phones: 2 1 9 W. Chicago Ave.Ml 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisMURRAY, M. THOMAS, '47, JD'51, 0fDayton, Ohio, was appointed assistantsecretary and assistant gênerai counselin the légal division of the National CashRegister Co. Mr. Murray was appointedto the légal staff of National Cash Register in 1960. Previously he was associatedwith the law firm of Smith and Schnackeand prior to that with his father underthe firm name of Murray and Murray,both in Dayton. Mr. and Mrs. Young(KATHERINE SHELBURNE, AM'51)hâve two children.SMITH, ROBERT W. L., '47, is assistantprofessor of English at the University ofSanta Clara, Santa Clara, Calif. Mr.Smith also présents a weekly télévisionprogram, "What's in a Word?" dealingwith the etymology of English words. Itis carried on educational télévision stations in New York, Boston, San Francisco,Sacramento and Chicago. In DecemberMr. Smith married Joan M. Brady andthey réside in Castro Valley, Calif.SWANTZ, H. EUGENE, JR., '47, MBA'50, is with Pacific Southwest Airlines ascontroller, having headquarters in SanDiego, Calif.CLEVELAND, CROMWELL C, '48, isteaching two courses at Texas Technolog-ical Collège, Lubbock, Texas, in additionto his full-time ministry at Bethany Christian Church, Lubbock. Last fall, Rev.Cleveland was commissioned a Kentuckycolonel by the Governor of Kentucky.FOWLER, MELVIN, AM'49, PhD'59, hasbeen awarded a senior post-doctoral fel-lowship for 1964-65 by the NationalScience Foundation. Mr. Fowler is assistant professor of anthropology at SouthernIllinois University, Carbondale, and cur-ator of North American archaeology atthe university's Muséum. His post-doctoralstudy will focus on the development offormative communities of the temple-town type of culture in two areas— theLower Mississippi River Valley and ineastern Puebla and central Vera Cruzin Mexico. He will study at HarvardUniversity and in Mexico. Mr. Fowlerhas engaged in survey and excavationwork in Mexico for five years, and hasdirected a coopérative Illinois Archaeo-logical Survey salvage program along theMississippi River near East St. Louis, 111.HAMILTON, STUART, MBA'50, of Deer-field, IlL, was elected vice président andauditor of the Northern Trust Co., Chicago. He joined the company in 1946and had been auditor since 1960. Mr.Hamilton is currently chairman of thenational audit commission of the NationalThe University of Chicago Alumni AssociationPHILIP C. WHITE, '35, Ph.D/38 ..PrésidentFERD KRAMER, '22 Chairman, The Alumni FundHAROLD R. HARDING, Executive Director • RUTH G. HALLORAN, Administrative AssistantHARRY SHOLL, Director, The Alumni Fund • FLORENCE MEDOW, Asst. Director, The Alumni FundJEAN HASK1N, Program DirectorEastern régional office: DAVID R. LEONETTI, Director,20 West 43rd Street, New York, N.Y. 10036 Téléphone: PEnnsylvania 6-0747Los Angeles représentative: (MRS.) MARIE STEPHENS,1195 Charles Street, Pasadena, Calif. 91103 Téléphone: SYcamore 3-4545 (after 3 P.M.)San Francisco représentative: MARY LEEMAN,Room 146, 420 Market Street, San Francisco, Calif. 94111 Téléphone: YUkon 1-1180Washington, D.C. représentative: (MRS.) SHIRLEY MECKLIN6216 Western Avenue, Chevy Chase, Mary land Téléphone: 656-0068Membership: Open to graduâtes and former students of The University of Chicago.One year, $5 single, $6 joint; three years, $12 single, $15 joint; Life, $100 single, $125joint (payable in five annual installments ) . Includes Magazine subscription.30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE APRIL. 1964î~\ I I continued ™ Ij }yAssociation of Bank Auditors and Comp-trollers, and treasurer of the U of CGraduate School of Business ExecutiveProgram.POWERS, SHANNON C, MBA'50, hasbeen named executive assistant to Mr. W.W. Sproul, Jr\, group vice président ofWestinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh,Pa. Prior to joining Westinghouse, Mr.Powers was associated with H. K. PorterCo., Inc., Pittsburgh, and the PeerlessElectric Co., Warren, Ohio, of which hewas président and gênerai manager priorto its merger with Porter. Mr. Powersand family live in the Pittsburgh suburbof Mt. Lebanon.FRAGNER, FRED, AM'51, of Richmond,Ind., is director of the Child GuidanceClinic of Wayne County (Ind.), and alsoteaches at Earlham Collège and theIndiana University Extension School.DAVIDSON, JAMES F., PhD'54, has beennamed dean of the faculty and professorof political science at Concord Collège,Athens, W. Va. Mr. Davidson formerlywas associate dean of the collège of libéral arts and professor of political scienceat the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.During 1962-63 while on leave from theUniversity of Tennessee, he was a Michi-gan fellow in collège administration at(he Center for the Study of Higher Education, the University of Michigan. Mr.Davidson, who went to Tennessee in1954, is the author of several articlespublished in professional journals. Hisrecreational interests include créativewriting and music, and he has writtenseveral short plays produced at the University of Tennessee.SCHECTER, ARNOLD, '54, '57, is en-gaged in research in électron microscopyand in teaching histology at HarvardUniversity Médical School. His most récent work involves the discovery of intra-cellular micro tubules in mammalianglomerular cells. Dr. Schecter receivedhis M.D. from Howard University andwas an intern at Boston City Hospitalfor three and a half months. Recently hewas married to Miss Martha JeanBerenson, a Radcliffe Collège student ofclassics and semantics.WILKINSON, JOHN, PhD'54, of SantaBarbara, Calif., is a staff member inphilosophy at the Center for the Studyof Démocratie Institutions, Santa Barbara.WILSON, WESLEY M., MBA'54, is theauthor of Labor Law Handbook, published recently by the Bobbs-Merrill Co.,Indianapolis, Ind. It covers the entirefield of fédéral and state laws afFecting labor, wages, hours, and employment.Emphasis is placed upon the NationalLabor Relations Board and the laws itadministers. Mr. Wilson is an attorneyfor the Board in the régional office,Seattle, Wash. Mrs. Wilson is MARJORIEMONTAGUE, MD'53.BERGER, ABRAHAM W., PhD'55, hasjoined Monsanto Research Corporation'sEverett, Mass., laboratories as a researchgroup leader. Previously he was chiefscientist with Maser Optics, Inc., Boston,Mass.FRIEDMAN, STANTON T., '55, SM'56,has been appointed fund raising chairman of the Indiana Chapter of the National Hemophilia Foundation. Mr. Fried-man, of 3946 Washington Blvd., Indianapolis, Indiana 46205, would like to hearfrom other parents of hemophiliacs.HORNER, JAMES E., MBA'55, has beenappointed to the new position of marketresearch director of Con-Gas ServiceCorp., with headquarters in Pittsburgh.Since 1959 Mr. Horner has been managerof gas engineering of the Middle WestService Co., Chicago, specializing in management studies and techno-economicassignments for utility clients. In his newposition he will prépare marketing studiesthat will help Consolidated Natural GasSystem to make forecasts of gas require-ments and sales for five to ten yearsahead.COLLIER, MISS JUANITA, PhD'56, waspromoted to the rank of associate professor at Wayne State University, Détroit, Mich. Miss Collier is in the fieldsof éducation and clinical psychology inthe university's Collège of Education.HARRISON, MICHAEL J., SM'56, PhD'60, was recently named associate professor of physics at Michigan State University, East Lansing.MANDEL, MAURICE S., '56, '57, and hiswife (CAROL A. KIBLINGER, '59) an-nounce the birth of a son, John Michael,on February 8. The Mandels live in PortWashington, N. Y.STRICKER, GEORGE, '56, and his wifeJoan, of Great Neck, N.Y., announcethe birth of a daughter, Jocelyn, onJanuary 24.ALLEN, RICHARD H., JD'59, has joinedthe légal department of Atlas ChemicalIndustries, Inc., Wilmington, Del., as anattorney. Before going to Atlas, Mr. Allenpracticed law with the Wilmington firmof Morris, Nichols, Arsht and Tunnell.He is vice président and a director of theBoys Home of Delaware Inc., and a director of the Prisoners Aid Society ofDelaware. He was recently appointedcounsel for the State Human RelationsCommission. While at the U of C Mr.Allen was associate editor of the LawReview.MOHAMED, SAMI KHALIL, AM'59, ofColumbus, Ohio, received his PhD degreefrom Ohio State University in December. Since 7878HANNIBAL, INC.Furnilure RepairingUpholilering • RefinîshingAntiques Resfored1919 N. Sheffleld Ave. • U 9-7180LOWER YOUR* COSTSIMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYEE TRAININ©WAGE INCENTIVESJOB EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURESROBERT B. SHAPIRO, '33, FOUNDERTHE NEW CHICAGO CHAIRAn attractive, sturdy, comfortablechair finished in jet black withgold trim and gold silk-screenedUniversity shield.$34.00Order from and make checks payable toTHE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION5733 University Ave., Chicago 37Chairs will be shipped express col-lect from Gardner, Mass. withinone month.APRIL, 1964 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE 31memorialsHOLMES, SAMUEL JACKSON, PhD'97,died in Oakland, Calif., on March 5. Mr.Holmes was professor emeritus of zoologyat the University of California, and apioneer in the field of eu génies. He wasinternationally known for his studies ofanimal behavior, heredity and évolution.Outspoken throughout his life, Mr. Holmesbecame noted in the early 1900's by pro-testing the trend among the educated andsuccessful to hâve small families. He alsoadvocated the teaching of évolution inschools, mercy killings, and a form of"social Darwinism." Mr. Holmes taughtin San Diego, at the Universities ofMichigan and Wisconsin and then at theUniversity of California from 1912 untilhe retired in 1939. In 1928 the Californiafaculty accorded him its highest honor—the faculty research lectureship. Mr.Holmes was the author of many books,and was président of several scientificsocieties.PRICE, MAURICE T., '10, AM15, PhD'24, of Washington, D.C., died on March3. Mr. Price, an authority on peoples andcultures of the Far East, was coursechairman for the State Department'srégional seminar on China.DINES, LLOYD L., PhD'll, died onFebruary 17 in Quincy, 111.SOBEL, BERNARD, 11, of New YorkCity, died on March 12. Mr. Sobel wasa chronicler of the burlesque stage anda theatrical press agent in the era ofFlorenz Ziegfeld— he was once described32 THE as "the only press agent in the world tohâve three collège degrees." Before en-tering the theatrical world, Mr. Sobel wasassistant professor of English at Pur dueUniversity in 1915-18, and also taughtat Indiana University and New York CityCollège. He helped promote the Ziegfeld"Follies" and Earl Carroll's "Vanities" aswell as the stars Billie Burke, VivienneSegal, Ann Pennnington, Will Rogers,Eddie Cantor and Léon Errol. His booksincluded: Burleycue: An UndergroundHistory of Burlesque Days; BroadwayHeartbeat; A Pictorial History of Burlesque; The Indiscreet Girl; and TheThéâtre Handbook, an encyclopédie dic-tionary of the theater.COOK, LESTER R., 13, of Chicago, diedon March 12. Mr. Cook retired six yearsago as a crédit accountant for CurtisCandy Co. Previously he had been acrédit accountant for Hill's Report, Inc.,Chicago, for 15 years.FASSETT, E. WILLARD, 15, of MenloPark, Calif., died on January 20.COLWELL, DONALD L., 16, died onMarch 5 at Lake Wales, Fia. Mr. Colwelllived in Shaker Heights, Ohio. He retiredin 1962 as vice président of the ApexSmelting Co., a division of AmericanMétal Climax Inc., Cleveland. However,he remained with the company in a Consulting capacity. In 1949 Mr. Colwellserved on the Economie Coopération Administration aluminum mission; in 1945he participated in a stratégie bombingsurvey in Japan for which he received anaward from the Navy.FALKENAU, ARLINE, 19, please seeRouse—GRIFFITH, MELVIN L., 19, JD'20, ofGolden City, Mo., died on August 26,1963.ROUSE, ARLINE (formerly Arline Falke-nau, 19), wife of the late Eugène F.Rouse, of Pasadena, Calif., died on February 3. Mrs. Rouse was active in CubScouts, Girl Scouts, Red Cross, HeartAssn., P.T.A., hospital and other civicaffairs.NICELY, JAMES M., '20, U of C trustéesince 1951, died on March 15. Mr. Nicelywas vice président and treasurer of theFord Foundation and lived in MountKisco, N.Y. He joined the Foundationafter a career in law and banking. Follow-ing law school at Harvard, he was lawclerk to the late Associate Justice OliverWendell Holmes of the U.S. SuprêmeCourt, and had a private law practice.He joined the National Bank of Commerce in 1927 and later went to theGuaranty Trust Co. of New York asvice président; and the First NationalCity Bank of New York as vice présidentand senior vice président. He resignedthere in 1961 to join the Ford Foundation. Since 1961, Mr. Nicely had alsobeen a director of Hart Schaffner & Marxclothing firm in Chicago.PLATT, ROBERT S., PhD'20, professoremeritus of geography at the U of C, died on March 1 in Chicago. Mr. Platt retiredfrom the University in 1957 after havingbeen a member of the faculty since1919 and chairman of the Department ofGeography from 1949 to 1957. He wasprésident of the American Association ofGeographers in 1945 and in retirementhe continued as editor of its Annals. Mr.Platt was an authority on the geographyof Latin America and had traveled ex-tensively there. His functional approachto the study of man and man's use of theearth's surface made him a pioneer in theacadémie aspects of géographie research.BARRETT, ELIZABETH, '25 please seeRisk-RISK, ELIZABETH (formerly ElizabethBarrett, '25), wife of the late Paul Risk,of West Lafayette, Ind., died on February4. She was active in community affairsincluding the Girl Scout Council, theSociety for Crippled Children and Adults,and the Mental Health Assn. She wasprecinct committeewoman for the Démocratie party, and served as président ofthe Women's Auxiliary to the IndianaState Dental Assn., in 1962. Her sisteris MRS. CLARENCE E. ALLEN(KATHERINE BARRETT, '25).EDWARDS, THOMAS J., JR., '28, JD'29,of Cleveland, Ohio, died on February 11.GOEDER, FRANK P., PhD'28, of FortCollins, Colo., died on June 28, 1963.KRIPNER, LOUISE KELLER, '29, wifeof Joseph Kripner, of Chicago, died in1963.SALKIND, VERNA (formerly Verna M.Sissman, '34), wife of WILLIAMSALKIND, MBA'40, of New York, N.Y.,died in September, 1963.SISSMAN, VERNA M., '34, please seeSalkind—MORGAN, CHARLES F., PhD'42, ofEdina, Minn., died on March 10. Mr.Morgan was a professor of anatomy atthe University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.He had been on the staff there since 1959.GRODZINS, MORTON, professor of political science at the U of C, died onMarch 7 at the âge of 46. A mémorialservice was held in Rockefeller Chapelon March 12. Mr. Grodzins was dean ofthe Division of Social Sciences in 1953and 1954 and chairman of the Department of Political Science from 1955-58.He had also been editor of the U of CPress in 1951-53; adviser to the U of Cchancellor; a research fellow at theCenter for Advanced Study of BehavioralSciences, Palo Alto, Calif.; and directorof the Council of State Governments. Hewas consultant to the Public Administration Clearing House and the NationalManpower Council, and in 1948, a member of the Hoover Commission for re-organization of the government. Mr.Grodzins was the author of AmericansBetrayed, and The Loyal and the Disloyal: Social Boundaries of Patriotism andTreason.UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE APRIL, 1964Before you buy insurance lookinto the'Blue Chip'companythat's low in net cost, tooTake two life policies. On the surface: same benefits and cost. But a doserlook shows one gives you many additional values-if it's written withConnecticut Mutual. That's the finding of astute men who hâveanalyzed and compared. For this 117-year-old institution has a recordfor investing most profitably. Our higher earnings corne back topolicyholders in higher dividends. This reduces insurance cost. Nowadd to low net cost the counseling services of professional insurancemen, company-trained to serve you. And add to that a choice of morethan 90 generous benefits and options to suit your own personalneeds. It ail adds up to insurance well worth looking into— CML BlueChip insurance. Low in cost, but second to none in value.Gonnecticut Mutual LifeINSURANCE COMPANY • HARTFORD AND 300 OFFICES FROM COAST TO COAST Your fellow alumni now with CMLJoseph H. AaronEdward B. Bâtes, CLUHarvey J. ButschGeorge P. DohertyPaul O. Lewis, CLUFred G. ReedRichard C. Shaw, M.D.Russell C. Whitney, CLU '27'40'38'28'33Grad. School'29 ChicagoHome OfficeChicagoIndianapolisChicagoChicagoHome OfficeChicagoGREAT MOMENTS AT CHICAGOIn 1925, Sir William Craigie joined the University of Chicago faculty to direct the compilation of the first dictionary of american english.* On his retirement in 1937, whenDr. James Root Hulbert took his place, Part I had been completed — "A" to "Baggage."For nearly two décades George Watson, supervising hundreds of assistants, worked aten-hour day and lunched on sandwiches at his desk.Then in 1944, the four volumes were completed — 2,500 sets, calculated as a five-yearsupply. They vanished overnight. A local meat-cutter bought two sets. Al Smith boughtsix. The price, $100.Big books or small, large readership or limited, works of key significance are the province of the university press. Hère are récent examples from Chicago.THE TYPOGRAPHIE BOOK 1450-1935Stanley Morison and Kenneth Day. A true collector'sitem — 378 reproductions illustrate a magnificentsurvey of the finest typography through five centuries. Index. Boxcd, $30.00THE BOOK OF LORD 5HANGTr. and ivith an intro. by J. J. L. Duyvendak. Thecode attributed to a merciless leader of the 4th-Century B.C. who gave the Chinese state its firstclear, publicly-proclaimed laws. Index. $6.50THE RISE OF THE WESTWilliam. H. McNeill. "...the most lucid présentationof world history in narrative form that I know." ARNOLD TOYNBEE.42,000 copies in print $12.50fNoiv available in 1963 reprint édition. $100.00 BEHAVIORISM AMD PHENOMENOLOGYEd. by T. W. Wann. Papers by distinguished psychol-ogists discuss two contrasting bases for modem psy-chology... disclose a surprising degree of conciliationbetween them. Rice University Semiccntennial Séries.$5.00MAN MUST EATSir William Slater. Very practical problems of feed-ing a growing population in adangerous world. $3.75THE COLONIAL WARS, 1BB3-17BEHoward H. Pcckham. What it meant to live on thefirst American frontier, at the mercy of the Indiansand the ambitious European powers. Chicago History of American Civilization. Illns. Index. $5.00UNIVERSITYOFCHICAGOPRESS