wf " f •* at • at aVTHE ENTERING STUDENTS, in a period of 15 days at theend of summer and the beginning of autumn, become''oriented' to the University. Perhaps, in the first definition of the word, this means that they turn to the east,that they face into the sun. On the other hand, if in thewelter of new faces, new experiences, new ideas that theUniversity presents, the students succeed in simply taking their bearings, the orientation program has achieveda noble end.The students are welcomed to campus, the community, and the city by the University president, his wife,deans, faculty, upperclassmen, a Senator, a Congressman, Alderman, and Mayor. They are also welcomed bya battery of the stiffest exams they have probably everencountered. Fortunately, every opportunity for recreation and relaxation is carefully guarded by the sympathetic orientation planners.THE AIMS OF EDUCATION is the title of a continuing seriesof lectures sponsored by the Orientation Board. As theOrientation Program drew to a close this fall, ChristianW. Mackauer, William Rainey Harper Professor of History, addressed the new students on this topic. Mr. Mackauer, who has been admired by 20 years of Chicagostudents, became emeritus at the age of 65 last year; he iscontinuing to teach this year. To the new students he offered a chance to draw together their many new experiences and ideas, to evaluatethem— and to look ahead towhat the University cancome to mean to them. Ashe said, "Let us think overtogether what the aims of aCollege education are, whyyou came here, and whatyou expect to happen to youduring the next four years.If we succeed in getting involved in this kind of encounter, this short hour willalready be some contribution to your education; itwill serve one essential aimof education: to start youon your way of clarifyingone important issue throughyour own intellectual effort."On the following pagesis Mr. Mackauer's talk, ashe has edited it for thealumni. U N I VERS ITY OFCHICAGOmagazine5733 University AvenueChicago 37, IllinoisMidway 3-0800; Extension 3244EDITOR Marjorie BurkhardtEDITORIAL ASSISTANT Rona MearsFEATURESI Entering Students2-- The Aims of EducationChristian W. Mackauer14.-- .....The Importance of ErrorW. Allen Wallis21. Mission to AlgiersDEPARTMENTSII. News of the Quadrangles17 Books by Faculty and Alumni20 Memo Pad23 News of the Alumni3 1 MemorialsCOVERThe freshmen move in: scene the NewDormitory.CREDITSCover, 2nd Cover, 1-9: Daniel Lyon; 12:Chicago Theological Seminary; 14: RaineyBennett in The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists; 16: J. L. Marchael; 21-22: TheodoreBerland.THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONPRESIDENT John F. Dille, Jr.EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Howard W. MortADMINISTRATIVE ASST Ruth S. HalloranPROGRAMMING MaryJeanne CarlsonALUMNI FOUNDATIONNational chairman C. E. McKittrickChicago-Midwest Area. ...Florence MedowREGIONAL OFFICESEastern Region 26 E. 38th StreetNew York 16, N. Y.MUrray Hill 3-1063After November I5....20 West 43rd StreetNew York 36, N. Y.PEnnsylvania 6-0747Los Angeles Mrs. Marie Stephens1195 Charles St., Pasadena 3After 3 P.M.— SYcamore 3-4545MEMBERSHIP RATES (Including Magazine)I year, $5.00; 3 years, $12.00Published monthly, October through June, by theUniversity of Chicago Alumni Association, 5733 University Avenue, Chicago 37, III. Annual subscriptionprice, $5.00. Single copies, 25 cents. Entered assecond class matter December I, 1934, at the PostOffice of Chicago, III., under the act of March 3,1879. Advertising agent: The American AlumniCouncil, 22 Washington Square, New York, N. Y.NOVEMBER, 1962 1A Talk to the Entering Students by Professor Christian W. MackauerTHE AIMS OF EDUCATIONI shall talk to you tonight about the aims of education as I see them. What I am going to say doesnot express any official philosophy of the College ofthe University of Chicago. But this College— throughits curriculum, through the methods of instruction itencourages, and through the atmosphere that pervadesthis campus — provides an excellent frame for what Ithink an education should be.I have no intention to lay down any law, to presentyou with any dogma. I shall be happy if I can stimulate your own thought, make you aware of some problems and of some possible answers that you mayaccept or reject.A recent inquiry has revealed that American students in general go to College with the following expectations and intentions:1% want "serious scholarly and scientific training;"2% expect "a more general intellectual education;"5% ask for "an introduction to upper-middlebrow culture and upper-middle-class conviviality, followed by a technically distinguished graduate training;"20% go in for a "technical and semiprofessionaltraining;"20% again look for "certification as an ambitiousand respectable potential employee;"and the rest of 50% "does not know what it wantsand never takes a degree."I assume that all of you fall into the first twocategories; if not, you have selected the wrong campus. And I hope that most of you would reject thisresearcher's too-exclusive classifications and would askfor membership in his second as well as in his firstslot; you consider the college a gateway not onlyto a profession but to life, and to the good life.What is the best preparation for this double end?This question — as almost all questions that reallymatter — was, in our Western civilization first consciously asked and rationally discussed by the Greeks,in Athens, in the 5th century B.C. At that time, thefirst professional educators for young adults emerged,the men we call 'Sophists,' and with them and againstthem the great questioner and scrutinizer arose, theman with whom a new epoch in the history of theWestern mind begins: Socrates.The excitement of these beginnings Plato has dramatically retained on the first pages of his dialogue Protagoras. Hippocrates, a young Athenian of goodfamily, pounds with his stick in the dark of the nighton the door of Socrates' house, storms into his bedroom and arouses him from his sleep. Protagoras, thecelebrated teacher, has arrived in Athens. Hippocrates wants to study with him and asks Socrates tointroduce and recommend him. Socrates calms hisyoung friend; it is too early to go and see the greatman. So they walk up and down in Socrates' smallcourtyard in the dim light of early dawn. And thenSocrates, through sly questions and with elegant irony,makes Hippocrates aware of what he is about to do.Does Hippocrates know what danger he is courting?He is entrusting himself, his life (his 'soul' as wetranslate not quite correctly) to a stranger withoutknowing what will happen to him. No prudent manbuys anything from a peddler or in the market without inspecting it carefully. But Hippocrates is eagerto buy an education from a stranger, merely on theprestige of his name. Does he know what risk he isrunning? He gambles with the most precious thinghe calls his own. So they go now to see Protagoras,but not to enroll Hippocrates but to inquire first whatthe education is like that he has to offer.And so starts the first discussion about the aims andmethods of what we call 'higher education.'In similar awareness of the seriousness of the problem and in a similar urgency of concern for the outcome of the adventure to which you are willing todevote four of the most precious years of your life,you now, I hope, are asking us and are asking yourselves what your education will be like. The answeris: a college education aims at the training and forming of the mind.To be sure, the college will provide for you ampleopportunities to lead a full life. Your emotions shouldnot be starved, your body should be kept healthy andshould be developed as the years of growth require.But these are side lines. The proper concern of acollege education, the purpose for which you havecome here, is the cultivation of your minds, and ofyour minds alone.I shall on the whole confine myself to the sector ofgeneral education. But a few words are necessary onthe place of professional training in the college program and on its relation to what — not quite exactly, Ithink, — is opposed to it as liberal education.Both are integral and legitimate parts of the collegeofferings. To a degree they may and do compete forthe student's time and energy. In the best of ourliberal arts colleges, two opposite dangers give seri-2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINETHE PLACEMENT EXAMS form the backbone of the orientation schedule. This extensive series of examinations is designed to place the students at their appropriate academic level— some place between the boredomof repeating work already mastered and "getting inover one's head" in courses one is not prepared for.The tests cover the range of general skills and fieldsof special information.NOVEMBER, 1962ous concern: the requirements for professional orpre-professional training have a tendency to elbowout the merely liberal' offerings, and, on the otherside, — perhaps less today than a decade ago — somehigh-minded and intellectually ambitious studentslook down upon professional courses as ignoble drudgery. But there is no avoiding the issue. Professional-ization and high specialization are the fate imposedupon us by our culture. We have neither a chancenor a right to escape from it. So we have to do ourjob well. Without highest competence in our chosenfield we shall be condemned to failure, or — what perhaps is worse than failure — to a life of mediocrity.There are always exceptions, but as a rule it holdstrue that in our society a man who is not good in hisprofession is not a good man.I shall come back to this towards the end of thistalk. I can see no serious objection to starting professional training early in a student's college careerand letting it run parallel to the liberal' courses —,if the student so early knows what he wants and whathe is able to do. But I can accept it only as a sadnecessity that — in the opinion of our scientists — itseems unavoidable for every student headed for professional work in some of the sciences to start hisspecialized courses in his freshman year. It should be— and, fortunately, in many fields it still is — one ofthe most important tasks of a general education togive help to the student in finding his proper nichein life, by offering him the opportunity of sampling,of trying out his interests and talents along differentlines, so that he will be able to make an enlightenedchoice and may be saved from the need for costlycorrections and an unnecessary sense of failure. Butwe laymen have to bow to the verdict of the experts.We now turn to the aims of the liberal or generalsector of the college education. The two terms arenot quite interchangeable. 'General' is that part of thecurriculum that is designed to meet the educationalneeds of all students without regard to their professional intentions. These needs may be served by required courses like our sacred, but no longer quitesacred, ten, or by 'electives' through which the studentmay broaden and deepen his non-professional interests.The word liberal' originally denoted what fits afree man, not a slave, or a serf, or what the Greekscalled a banausos, a nothing-but-craftsman who is condemned to a narrow and ignoble life. So the wordcarries with it some unfortunate memories of its originin ages of strict and arrogant social stratifications. Butit has slowly shifted its ground of discrimination fromthe social to the intellectual and even moral field. Today, a liberally educated man is one educated forfreedom and able to be free. One who carries hishead free and high, who looks wide around andquickly takes his bearings. He almost certainly willbe a trained specialist, but he will not be imprisonedby his job, he will always be able to break throughthe circle of the immediate. Whatever he undertakes,he will look out for a wider whole, see it as part ofsome value and purpose.What is the education that will help a man (or woman) to become a master in this sense? He needsthe free and effective use of his natural talents. Heneeds a knowledge of the world around him and ofhimself as a part of this world. And he has a right toall the support education can give him in his strivingto become himself, and so become one whole, consistent in his judgments, coherent in his inner structure,knowing what he admires and what he abhors, anddirecting his actions on this awareness of himself. Sohe needs skills, he needs knowledge, and he needshelp in developing into what, for lack of a betterword, I call 'a true person.'THE SECURE COMMAND OFCERTAIN TOOLSLists of the skills a college education should develop and refine have often been compiled. They all,in different words, contain the same items. Itake thelist of desiderata Jacques Barzun put together someyears ago in a report he wrote as dean of ColumbiaUniversity's Graduate Faculties. "It is assumed," hesaid, "that the first-year graduate student can readand write, can study without guidance and supervision, can use and translate from the foreign languages he 'offers' for the degree, and can articulatehis thoughts in oral discussions and written reports."In addition he is supposed to use mathematical symbols and carry out more elementary mathematicaloperations without too much hesitation. Barzun's reasonable and modest demands are followed by thesobering complaint: "AH this sounds elementary, yet itis a rare student who is proficient in these seven arts."So there can be no doubt, the college must trainthe students — better than it often does now — in acquiring a secure command of these skills. But these so-called skills are much more than technical tools thata student has to put in good shape in order to meetthe demands made upon him in the course of his laterprofessional training. Mastery of these skills is anessential part of the liberal education itself.'Reading' in the full sense of this word, means theability to comprehend a difficult text, to understandeach thought in its context, and to encompass withone look the essence of what the author wants to convey. Without this skill no honest and fruitful encounter is possible between mind and mind, betweenyour minds and those of the giants of the past or thespokesmen for the present.And the articulate expression of your thought indiscussion and in written exposition is not only theprecondition of successful communication with others;it is the only way in which your ideas can, for yourself, gain precision and definite meaning. It is true4 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEven of what are sometimes called mere 'tool-courses'n a somewhat disparaging tone — mathematics, Eng-ish, and foreign languages — that they are not onlyiractically indispensable, but are full and equal part-iers in the process of a liberal education.A College French course, to take this one example,s fundamentally different from a French course in aierlitz School. The student, to be sure, learns French,ind learns it well. But there is strong emphasis oneading original pieces of French literature, and thetruggle with the foreign text brings home to thetudent the experience of the hazards of any trans-ation and cautions him against the dangers to whichve all are exposed when we have to analyze in ouresearch a document, a philosophic system, a poemhat is not accessible to us in its original tongue. And:econdly, by patiently studying a foreign language the;tudent will gain the understanding of language — oflis own language as well — as an essential part of thejivilization of a nation, as not only the product, buthe molder of man; he will directly experience that —n Whitehead's words — "language is the incarnationif the mentality of the race that fashioned it." Andhirdly, one has to be acquainted with two languagesit least, i.e. with one foreign one in addition to one'slative tongue, to gain real insight into the nature ofanguage as such, as one of the symbolic forms — touse Cassirer's term — created by man in his attempt tonaster the chaos of his experiences and make himself human.THERE IS INFORMATION ANDTHERE IS KNOWLEDGEI turn to the second ingredient of a liberal education: knowledge. A man with a cultivated mind musthave a free outlook over the field in which he movesis a human being, he must have some clear and correct knowledge of — to use the rough classification thatunderlies the organization of our universities — theworld of nature and of himself as a piece of it, ofthe social world and of himself as its member, andof that third world that consists of the works of themind, the creations of human genius and the manifestations of human greatness in poetry, in literature,in music, in the plastic arts — that world that is explored and interpreted by that array of scholarlyendeavors that are very properly called the 'Humanities.'The word 'knowledge' as used here has to be correctly understood. The mere amassment of 'facts' is useless and worse than that. The mathematician andphilosopher Whitehead called "the merely well informed man . . . the most useless bore on God's earth."In my own work at universities," he said, "I haveNOVEMBER, 1962 been much struck by the paralysis of thought inducedin pupils by the aimless accumulation of precise knowledge, inert and unutilized." He advised his students:"Your learning is useless to you till you have lost yourtextbooks, burnt your lecture notes, and forgotten theminutiae which you learnt by heart for the examination." This was written many years before the quiz-craze of ignoble memory distorted for many themeaning of education and blurred for them the linedividing genuine knowledge from the sterile acrobatics of just remembering.You will not misunderstand Whitehead. He hadnothing against knowledge; few people possessed moreand more widespread knowledge than he did; stillfewer marshaled their stock of information with equalease and elegance. His emphasis is expressed by thequalifying adjectives: 'aimless,' 'inert,' 'unutilized.'Knowledge counts only when it has become an integral part of our active life. Much factual information serves just in a momentary function. We needit — exact and up-to-date — as the raw material onwhich our thinking goes to work, to solve problems,Christian W. Mackauer, William RaineyHarper, Professor of History, EmeritusThere is one other kind ofexam they all must face:the physical. Among otherthings, it measured a different kind of growth. Andthen: more placement tests.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEto establish rules, to gain comprehensive insight intoa process of life. When the job is done, the crudefactual knowledge must recede into the limbo, oftenvanish for good. We have to cultivate the art of forgetting exactly as that of retaining and recalling, orwe would be crushed under the weight of 'inert ideas'like the students Whitehead pitied at London andHarvard. Understanding, not recapitulating, is at theheart of the knowledge we are talking about. Suchknowledge springs from the awareness of the needfor it. To be puzzled is, according to Plato andAristotle, the beginning of all true insight.Take an example from the Humanities: It wouldbe a poor college course indeed that proclaimed asits 'aim' in teaching English literature that the studentshould have memorized the exact dates of every playof Shakespeare and that he should be able to jot downthe plot of every one. The first and the main task of aliberal' course in the humanities is to waken the student's sensitivities, to teach him the idioms of poetry andart, to make him aware that, as Archibald MacLeishhas said, poetry, too, is capable of knowledge, and ofa knowledge that science cannot impart — the knowledge of our direct, unreflected experience, in its forceand its fullness which our busy impatience and ourshallow attention slurs over and blurs and which onlythe poet can suddenly make hit our consciousness.I use as one more illustration my own field, history.Many people, even some who should know better, seein history as a College discipline nothing but thechronologically ordered enumeration of whatever hashappened to man or has been done by him. History,to them, is collective memory, and there it ends. Now,there can be no doubt that the student must acquiresome solid primitive knowledge of mere facts, somecommand of a minimum array of dates and data.Without this, all the rest would be swindle; but byitself it is not history. When we meet our studentsin our first class, we sometimes challenge them withCollingwood's verdict that "nothing capable of beinglearnt by heart, nothing capable of being memorizedis history." For the proper, the specific task of education through history I can think of no more precisedesignation than the admittedly vague term of thedevelopment of the student's historical sense, — theawakening and sharpening of his sensitivity for thehistorical dimension in all human experience. Thisincludes the ability to perceive historical distinctness,the peculiarity, the uniqueness of historical epochs,an awareness of the manifold realizations of the widerange of human potentialities in different cultures.It means as well a sense of development, the consciousness of continuous change, of man moving throughtime, from a dark past to a dark future through adimly lighted present. Thanks to this kind of 'knowledge,' an historically educated man has a fuller existence, lives a richer, more complete life than a mandeaf to the language of history. It is the same as withmusic, with the visual arts, with the delights of mathematical imagination. You can live without any ofthese experiences, but you will be inestimably poorer.The problem of the range and kind of knowledge that a college should give to its students has gaineda peculiar urgency in our own immediate present.Some of you may have read C. P. Snow's Rede Lecture of 1959 on The Two Cultures, or you may at leasthave heard of the challenge that Snow throws inthe face of those he calls "the intellectuals." The'scientific revolution' of the last three or four decades,Snow maintains, has burned the bridges between thosewho are scientists and those who are not. "The intellectual life of the whole Western society is increasingly being split into two polar groups." These groups"have almost ceased to communicate;" they havehardly anything in common any longer in their "intellectual, moral, and psychological climate." The intellectuals are "unscientific, even antiscientific." They"wish the future did not exist." "Over an immenserange of intellectual experience" they are "tone-deaf,"and "they don't know what they miss."Snow's picture, I am convinced, is a caricature. Butwith all its dangerous exaggerations, it points at aserious dilemma our culture is facing. Some of ourcolleagues who are teaching undergraduate sciencecourses for nonscientists assure us that they feel confronted with an almost impossible task. Since manyof the theories of contemporary science cannot beverbalized, but only expressed in the symbols of highermathematics, those who cannot handle these symbolsare condemned to remain in the anteroom of truth,and, at best, to be satisfied with poetic parables whichmay distort more than they reveal. But from conceding so much, it is a far cry to the resigned acceptanceof the picture of the two cultures in the full sense ofthis word, in which Snow means it.Some changes in content and form of our education, starting far down in the grades, may be necessary, so that a future generation of college studentsmay be better ready to listen to the message of thescientists. But we don't have, for this reason, to throwour whole inherited culture on the rubbish pile. Inmy own experience, our young future scientists arenot prevented by their esoteric knowledge from takingthe values and problems of our civilization as seriouslyas any students do. The best weapon against the opening of a real cultural cleavage as Snow imagines it,is to keep scientists and humanists and the adepts ofthe social sciences together in one student body aslong as possible, make them rub shoulders in workand in play, sit in the same classrooms, read the sameauthors and discuss the same problems — in somethinglike a common language, let's hope.TOWARD A CLEARER IDENTITY,A HIGHER INTEGRATIONI listed as the third aim of a College education thefurthering of the student's individual development, ofNOVEMBER, 1962 7his crystallization into, what I called, a 'true person.I cannot rigorously define what I mean by this, I canjust hint at it from different directions, and I trust, itwill hit a chord in your own minds. We all want tomake certain who and what we really are; we strivefor the establishment of a clearer identity, for a newand higher personal integration. We try to form andto maintain in ourselves an active center, to transforma lazy and chaotic multiplicity of impressions, reactions, accepted norms and felt desires into one orderedwhole through conscious and unconscious choice andrejection, — to turn an aggregate into something like anorganism. This involves and includes the cultivationof skills and the acquisition of knowledge, but it ismore than that, and it alone gives to the other twotheir full significance.You probably will object that what I just tried todescribe actually is the true content and form of ourlife itself, not just a job to be done, but a life-longprocess that will be never completed. I readily agree.But the college age is for most, if not for all youngmen and women a peculiar and critical stretch in theirlife line. An accelerated process of growth and maturing goes on during these years; some fateful choicesare made or bungled; the success of a life may dependon what happens — say between 16 and 20.If we accept this as correct, what can the collegedo? The task would be easy in a totalitarian society —taking this word in its widest meaning. In such asociety, a precise picture exists of what a good manis like, and it becomes the assigned duty of educationto cajole or dragoon the young into adjustment andconformity. We all reject this. So: what can we do?To spell out the superfluous : we certainly shall notpreach and not edify. A college is no Sunday school.The college should not do anything directly at all.But it must provide the young men and women whoentrust a piece of their lives to it with all the objectivehelp that might sharpen their awareness of their condition, that can intensify their dissatisfactions, clarifythe choices before them, and encourage their lonelyfight.But we cannot get around it, even such objectivehelp presupposes the existence of some kind of an'image' — I cannot avoid here this much degradedword — of what the student should grow into to become what he is meant to be. This image cannot bea synthetic product concocted by the self-assured wisdom of some educationalist or psychologist. We cannot make the image, .we have to discover it. It issomething we ourselves carry in our very bones, something that has slowly formed in an historical processover 3,000 years. In other words, we cannot and wewill not escape from our Western heritage.Just in brackets: I have to say here: whenever Iuse the word "Western" in this context, it is not tobe understood in the iron-curtain-slogan sense. Wherehistorical Russia would take her place in any con frontation of fundamental cultural divisions is not ourpresent concern. But what we deplore in actions andattitudes of the Bolsheviks we reject, I think, not asEastern virtues but as Western sins and heresies.So the image before us is that of modern West-em man. And in looking at this image, we shouldnot be disturbed and made unsure of ourselves bythe cries of 'parochialism' that will be raised againstus. We are not denying the existence of otherhuman forms worthy of loyal devotion by those whoseforms they are. But they are not our forms. I shallnot try to draw a picture of the ideal Western man inwhich all substantial details are fixed and uniform; —this is the privilege, as I just said, of totalitarians.Variety, individuality, discovering— and submitting to— one's personal equation are of the very essence ofour civilization. So the image we are seeking can bedescribed only in formal categories; the Western mind— to use an almost criminally oversimplifying formula— is active, rational, autonomous.These Western virtues are identical with what wemight call the scientific shape of mind: reaching outfor always new discoveries, subjecting all experiencesto strictly rational analysis, not bowing to authority,but insisting upon the researcher's own independentjudgment. This identity is no coincidence: it was theWestern kind of man who created what we considerscience and disciplined scholarship.The three distinctive marks of the Western mind —to be active, to be rational, to be autonomous — areso closely intertwined, are so much three facets of onementality that they hardly can be discussed separatelywithout overlapping and repetition.I take 'active* first. In the present context, the termshall denote the questioning frame of mind, that mental alertness and energy, which takes nothing forgranted and never finds a point of rest. The collegemust provide the training ground where this mentalityis stimulated and can freely develop and establishitself as a settled habit for the rest of life.The proper coat of arms for a college is the ques-tionmark. If the intellectuals as a group adopted asaint-protector as the craft-gilds in the Middle Agesdid, Socrates must be their household-saint, — the manwho first declared that the unquestioned life is notworth living and who drank the hemlock ratherthan to forego his right to question the Athenians andforce them to account to themselves for what theywere doing. From Socrates an unbroken line stretchesdown to our own days, say — to that prototype ofintellectual concern in Thomas Mann's Magic Mountain, Settembrini, who holds up before his naive protege Hans Castorp the motto placet experiri: man'sproper joy is to search, to ask, to question. Thephilosopher Charles Fraenkel assures us that "theproper function of higher education ... is not to solveproblems but to create them."Quite recently the Harvard historian Oscar Handlin8 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEA box supper picnic on thePromontory, 55th Street andLake Michigan, includingsquare dancing, folk singing,games, and Softball— and timeto think about a full twoweeks and the years ahead.'" -*wH§i!lp*£ilir^iiWBR^BHi^(lPHOTOS: DANIEL LYONNOVEMBER, 1962 9vented his concern over what he considers a dangerous failure of many American colleges in an articlewith the provocative title "Are the Colleges KillingEducation?" He is convinced they are by turning thecampus from a place of learning and free experimentation with values and concepts into what he callsa 'race track' where exaggerated emphasis on competitive grades based on knowledge of facts and command of technical methods stifles the students' inquisitive minds. "By the time they carry their diplomasaway," he says, "they will have missed an education —that experience which, by the exposure of one mindto the thinking of others, creates not answers but alifetime of questions!' To assure this effect, he demands, that the students "must learn after their ownfashion, even at the cost of false starts, errors, andlost time."The presupposition for the loosening of the student'smind and tongue, for his readiness to indulge in fearless intellectual experimentation is the priceless palladium of academic freedom, of which quite recentlyhe has been reassured by the Supreme Court of theUnited States in whose name Chief Justice Warrenproclaimed the American student's right "to inquire,to study, to evaluate" and to gain, by so doing "newmaturity and understanding."In any decent college the student knows that histeacher wants him to be wise in his own ( the student'sown) way, to put his own interpretations on the factshe studies, to strive to discover his own values andstandards. It must be an axiom that a student's gradesdo not depend on his ability to echo his teacher'sopinions or any socially accepted version of truth, butthat he is expected to develop and to defend his individual answers — whatever they are. There is nointellectual crime a student can commit in his legitimate college life except dishonesty, and, almost asbad, acceptance without inquiry of any — but any —prefabricated party line.So much on the active mind that the college hasa duty to foster. In discussing it, I could not avoiddrawing in the two other distinctive marks of theWestern spirit for which the college has to providethe proving ground. The exploring, the explaining,even the questioning itself, take the form of rationalthought and speculation. Only distinctly conceivedand exactly formulated questions can elicit fromnature or from the human mind an answer thatwill mean one small step forward on the way to the —infinitely distant— end, to that all-comprising, integrated expression of all possible experience in theforms of rational, conceptual thought. And nothingelse is the bold ambition of Western man.This promethean striving does not imply any disparagement of the nonrational dimensions of experienced reality. The method of rational investigationand interpretation extends with equal stringency to thefull range of what is given to us in whatever form and through whatever organs. Literary criticism and dog-matic theology — to say nothing of psychoanalysis— areas rational disciplines, and use as rational rules ofinquiry and construction, as do mathematics andphilosophy. They are all equally telling manifestations of the rational spirit of Western culture. Throughhis — however humble — participation in this giantcollective adventure of science and scholarship thecollege student serves his apprenticeship for full citizenry in this Western intellectual world. He not onlyacquires some proficiency in the technically correcthandling of the tools of rational inquiry — that belongsto the chapter on skills — but he cultivates the peculiarintellectual virtues that Socrates compressed into theone demand, that one must follow the Logos (theargument, the once-started chain of ideas) whereverthe Logos leads.I shall be equally short on autonomy. The widening of his horizon, the impact of the developing modesof relentless questioning and stringent rational thought,will force many a student to throw overboard moreand more of his prejudices' ( in the literal meaning ofthis word), of the judgments accepted without examination and proof that he has brought with himfrom home to the campus. But liberation from habitand constraint will prove a blessing only to those whocan replace the old directing forces with the will andthe ability to put themselves under self-given law.That is what autonomy means. The student must buildup his own image of world and life, he must discoverand raise into clear awareness the values he can reallycall his own, and he must dare to make his theoreticaland practical decisions in the bright daylight of conscious choice. Frequently, in the course of this process,old loyalties are shaken and new allegiances enteredinto. It is equally possible and often occurs that theyoung adult will retain, or will return to, the valueshe held in adolescence. But he now owns as a freeman what before he often just possessed throughroutine and caprice. And this alone matters.It cannot be overemphasized that the ultimate values— whatever they are— on which a man rests his vitalchoices are never and can never be 'scientific' values;they cannot be proved or disproved by rational arguments. They are accepted by a genuine act of faith.This problem has been most rigorously dissected bythe German sociologist Max Weber. He speaks ofpolitical choices in particular, but he leaves no doubtthat what he states will equally hold for all ultimatevalue decisions. No science, he says, can answer thequestion 'What should we do? How should we live?'The task of the scientist — in Weber's example of thepolitical scientist — can be no other than to lead thestudent to the point where he, guided by his ultimateideals, selects his place in the political struggle.The one positive contribution science and scholarship can make to a man's practical and personal lifeis the priceless gift of clarity. Weber illustrates thisConcluded on page 2210 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEn e w s o f fag quadranglesTEACHING COMMUNISM-Stu-dents should study communism in itshistoric setting, as part of a generalstudy of the evolution of all forms ofsocial structures, in order to be"doughty in the vindication of what isright," according to Professor of Political Science Herman Finer."To prescribe a specific course incommunism, separate from the studyof government in general, is like trying to teach a medical student how totreat cancer before he has masteredthe basic study of anatomy, physiologyand etiology." Mr. Finer's observations were presented this Septemberat the annual convention of the American Political Science Association inWashington, D.C."For example, the Florida coursesfor high school, to begin this verymonth, emphasize 'the ways to fightcommunism, the evils of communism,the fallacies of communism and thefalse doctrines of communism/"This is what many other programstend to be like, and in so far as theyreach this extreme they are damagingto the very purpose they allege theyare trying to achieve: understanding,not in the sense of forgiving or condoning evil, but of knowledge of bothgood and evil."Mr. Finer gave three reasons whycommunism should be taught now inAmerican high schools: One reason isthat a large part of the human raceis influenced by the philosophy ofcommunism. "What is best for the human racer' Is the American way oflife the 'last best hope?' We oughtto know, in order that we may choose,and to choose in order that theyounger generation may get to knowand be doughty in the vindication ofwhat is right."The two other reasons are: ". . . Theincentive, the impetus to study communism comes from a belief in the existence of a massive menace to Americaand its friends. And, to try to learnwhat it is in a system that was ableto brainwash a number of Americansoldiers during the Korean War. "Concern is the first impulse towards self-examination. What in our societycould have caused such a failure ofmorale? What in the promise of ahostile society could have been sowinning to so many— apparently?"Mr. Finer, at the beginning of histalk, stressed that he "despised" Premier Khrushchev of the Soviet Unionand "the main principles" of the Soviet Union. "But I must also add thatI do so after over 40 years of studyof the governmental systems and thepolitical behavior of nations and pre-nations extending over the whole rangeof human history, and all the varietiesof economic and political principlesthat have guided, inspired or injuredthe advance of mankind."He urged that students be taughtabout the constitutional system of theSoviet Union and its satellites, "theactual behavior of the political leadership, the political following, themasses, the two way responses ofleaders and people, and the economicsystem.CHICAGO POPULATION-The Population Research and Training Centerof the University has predicted thefollowing changes, based on currenttrends, in the eight-county region ofthe Chicago area during the next threedecades:—Rapid growth of the suburbs: an increase of 100 per cent. —Modest growth of the city itself: anincrease of less than six per cent.—Substantial changes in the composition of the population of both thecity and the suburbs.—New and severe social and economiceffects of these changes on the community.Donald J. Bogue, professor in theDepartment of Sociology in the University and associate director of theCenter, was the main author of thereport in which these observationswere made. Working with him wasDattatraya P. Dandekar, a graduatestudent from Dhandad in Bihar, India.Philip M. Hauser, chairman of theDepartment of Sociology of the University, is director of the Center. Thereport was made possible by a grantfrom the Rockefeller Foundation for astudy of basic research in demography.The report predicts that the population of the region will leap from 6.9million in 1960 to 10.3 million in1990, with the greatest increase inthe suburbs, which are expected tomore than double.In the consolidated area as a whole,73 per cent of the total populationincrease resulted from natural increaseand 27 per cent from in-migration.However, much of this natural increase was concentrated in the cityitself, because only 30 per cent ofthe suburban growth came from birthsand 70 per cent from migration."The overall picture one gets ... isthat of a moderately fertile centralcity population producing rather largecrops of children, but transporting allof this increase to the suburbs forsettlement because the central city isalready fully built up.""The suburbs themselves havegrown so rapidly that together theyare now almost as large as the Cityof Chicago itself. By 1%63 or 1964,if present trends continue, Chicagowill be less populous than the suburban areas."The suburban increase will be predominantly white, while the increasein the City of Chicago itself will belargely Negro. For the entire area,NOVEMBER, 1962 11A FACULTY QUADRANGLE of eight new townhouses is nearing completion at Dorchester Avenue and 58th Street. It has been commissioned by the Chicago Theological Seminary for its faculty. Thesestriking brick residences, designed by Chicago architect Edward D.Dart, are grouped in a quadrangle open to 58th Street and the viewto the south across the lab school playing fields and the Midway. Theground plan may be seen in the models at the top of the page. Themore detailed models just below show some of the individuality of thehomes on the Dorchester side of the quadrangle and their blend ofmodern design with an appearance of belonging to the more traditional community.Each home will face inward from the street toward a commongarden. Offstreet parking will be provided through creation of perimeter drive-ways while walks and the inner garden will provide maximum safety for children. Each house will be of three stories and willhave three or four bedrooms. An outstanding feature of each residence will be a large living room with a fireplace suitable for thestudent or faculty informal gatherings that go with educational life.Among the first occupants of the houses will be Professors Betz,Hoskins, LeFevre, Littell, Lys, and Snyder.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENegroes will represent about onequarter of the population by 1990, ascompared to about one sixth in 1960.The rapid growth of the Negropopulation is due to fertility ratesthat are 60 per cent higher than thosefor white populations. Birth rates ofthe white population in the City ofChicago are substantially higher thanthey were in 1950— an increase of 20per cent over 1950.Since these central city populationsrepresent the poorer residents of thearea, fertility increases have aggravated population pressures in theslums.The suburbs, with their unprecedented population expansion, will seea massive housing boom with some28,000 new units being built eachyear, rising steadily until some 54,000new units will be built annually by1990."Despite the very large size of housing growth, there appears to be adistinct possibility that real estate companies, subdivision and constructioncompanies, and individual speculatorshave collectively overestimated theimpact of future growth in their partof the metropolitan area.". . . it is quite likely that much ofthe land now being subdivided . . .located many miles from the nearestsuburban fringe, must wait decadesbefore it will actively be in demandfor living space."Within the city, the major housingbusiness "will be to knock down thelarge and growing supply of substandard housing and to replace itwith modern and adequate housing."This will create a great deal ofhousing activity, but will cause only amodest change in the total supply."By 1990, some 2.5 million persons—or about one quarter of the totalpopulation— will be Negro. At present, some one million Negroes livein the area.Much of this increase will be inthe City of Chicago itself, but someof the Negro expansion also will beinto the suburbs.*\ . . it must not be overlooked thata very definite suburban migration ofNegroes already is under way."As industry continues to decentralize, as suburban shopping centers offer service jobs to Negroes, and asthe supply of older obsolescent housing in the older suburbs increases, thismovement should grow in volume.This should take place even ifinter-ethnic attitudes remain at theirpresent level. If prejudice declines,the movement may be even faster. "Consequently, the population projections of this report anticipate amoderately stepped up pace in thesuburbanization of Negro residents."During the 1950-60 decades, a totalof 14,000 non-whites, mostly Negroes,moved to the suburbs.The expansion of the area-widelabor market during the 1960-80 periods will see some 1.4 million additional persons seeking jobs, almost onehalf of whom will be Negroes."In these days of automation anddeclining importance of unskilled manpower, it is extremely urgent thatthese new workers be kept in schooland trained to hold skilled jobs; otherwise, the economy of the entire metropolitan area can literally drown ina sea of unemployment and underemployment."If employment is not forthcominglocally, the result will be a huge exodus of the better educated and moretalented workers to other areas whereemployment is available."In the light of this impendingdevelopment, the comparatively highrates at which Negroes drop out ofschool, and the tendency for Negroesnot to go on to college, should becombatted with every means at thedisposal of the community.""Another possible source of employment difficulty in the coming decade is that the expansion of the Negrolabor force will consist to a substantial degree of persons who are alreadymature and migrate here with theirfamilies."In a substantial share of casesthese will be persons of modest education and comparatively little experience in industrial or commercialemployment."This points up the need for a continuing program for training and retraining workers who enter the metropolitan area seeking work but withoutthe qualifications necessary to findsteady employment."Yet since they have families theymust continue to receive substantialincome while they undergo training."This may require a greatly expanded and stepped up program of'night school' where the emphasis ison gaining industrial rather than academic knowledge."The solution is not to send themback South because Southern agriculture is itself undergoing a technological revolution that not only makestheir continued residence there uneconomic but absolutely impossible."Their northward migration, withre-training and re-absorption, is the correct long-run solution, even thoughit requires a comprehensive nationalprogram to acomplish it."APPOINTMENTS-Harry D. Bouras,painter and sculptor, will be the "Artist in Residence" for the Autumn andWinter Quarters, 1962-63, in the College. Mr. Bouras' work is on exhibition in galleries in New York City,Chicago, and most of the major citiesin the United States. He also hasexhibited at many shows.Mr. Bouras will have a seminar incontemporary painting during his twoquarters on the campus of the University. He may also have a studioon campus open for two to three hoursa day to students working on theirown projects. He will be doing someof his own work, and may have a showof his own work on the campus aswell as a show of other artists.He is the first painter to be an"Artist in Residence." The two whohave previously held this position,each for one quarter, are the writers,Ralph Ellison and Saul Bellow, whowere on the campus the Autumn andWinter Quarters, 1961-62, respectively.Professors from Britain, Australia,and Harvard will serve as visitingmembers of the faculty of the Graduate School of Business during the1962-63 academic year. They are:Raymond J. Chambers, professor ofaccounting in the University of Sydney, Australia;E. Robert Livernash, professor ofbusiness administration in the Graduate School of Business Administrationat Harvard University;Arthur A. Shenfield, economic director of the Federation of BritishIndustries.Richard C. Wade, an authority onthe urban history of the United Statesis joining the faculty of the Department of History. He will be professorof American history. Mr. Wade hasbeen professor of history and researchprofessor of the Institute for Urbanand Regional Studies at WashingtonUniversity, St. Louis, Missouri, since1961. From 1947 to 1961, Mr. Wadewas an assistant professor, associateprofessor and professor at the University of Rochester.He is the author of The UrbanFrontier; The Rise of Cities in theWest, 1790-1830 (Harvard UniversityPress, 1959). He also is the author ofthe forthcoming book, Bondage in theCities; Urban Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South, 1820-1860.NOVEMBER, 1962 13W. Allen Wallis, dean of the GraduateSchool of Business since 1956, deliveredthe convocation address this August. Itwas an occasion of the completion of oldtasks and the beginning of new for boththe graduates and their speaker, for Mr.Wallis was leaving to assume the presidency of the University of Rochester. Hewas leaving behind a school that hasgrown immensely in prestige and size(masters candidates in Business havetripled; PhD's have nearly quadrupled)under his administration. In retrospect,he had some thing— and not all serious-to say about the aims of education, andof convocation addresses. Here are someexcerpts :There are a good many of you whom I had thepleasure of greeting as you began the studies you havenow completed. One thing I said then was that manyof you will be in positions of responsibility in the nextmillenium. (That begins 38 years, 4 months, 8 hours,and 45 minutes from now.) If you find answers tothe problems you face then, you will not have learnedthem here. The answers to the questions you willponder are not known now; in fact, the questionsthemselves are not known. If you are able to copewith the questions that confront you in the future —I refer now not only to professional and public questions but also to personal and private ones, not onlyto questions that will arise in 38 years but also to onesthat will arise in 8 years — if you are able to copewith them, it will be partly on the basis of personalqualities that you brought with you when you camehere— your integrity, your intelligence, your initiative,your imagination, your energy, your perseverance,your ambition, your sensitivity, your taste, and yourfundamental mortality and humanity. And it will bepartly on the basis of things you learn after leavinghere. While here you should have cultivated yourpersonal qualities; acquired some of the accumulatedknowledge of the past; come to understand a littleof the methods and — above all — the spirit of inquiry,of science, of scholarship, of learning. You should havebecome dedicated in some degree to whole-heartedand single-minded pursuit of truth, and you shouldTHE IMPORTANCE OF ERROR14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEhave learned to reconcile that dedication with a clearrealization that final truth will never be attained byany man on this earth.In the light of what I have just said it will scarcelysurprise you if I fail to take commencement oratoryas seriously as some speakers I have heard. If edcua-tion is truly a life-long process, then on this occasioneven another Pericles' Funeral Oration or a Lincoln'sSecond Inaugural Address could not provide a guiding beacon for your next forty years. Nor am I underthe illusion that with any amount of effort I couldprovide even the first term of a Taylor-series approximation to such a message.Any grandiose notions I might otherwise have aboutthe impact of graduation speakers are shattered whenI think back (as commencement speakers invariablydo) to my own graduation from college. That wasjust thirty years ago — a period that seems to me, Iassure you, only a tiny fraction as long as it seemsto you and only a tiny fraction as long as the periodfrom now until 1992 seems to me. The surroundingsof my graduation differed somewhat from yours, inthis most magnificent of American college chapels. Mygraduation was held in one of America's most magnificent football stadiums (or stadia, for those of youin the humanities ) . I remember vividly the Presidenthanding out diplomas two at a time, one with eachhand, in a robot-like rhythm, while an assembly lineof clerks behind him fed the diplomas into his hands.He stared straight ahead with the expression of a manconcentrating on rubbing his stomach and patting hishead simultaneously, and a double file of anonymousgraduates marched in double time up to him then offto each side. As a matter of fact, what he handed outwere not even diplomas, but legal forms to be executedtestifying that we candidates had been present in person and not by proxy. The actual diplomas were dispatched later by mail after the legal certificates ofattendance had been received. (Even with severalthousand graduates you have to get them all thereif you want to fill even the curved end of a large football stadium.)I remember also, at my graduation, one dean presenting his candidates, by a slip of the tongue, forthe degree of "basters of science."As you can see, I have almost total recall of someparts of that ceremony thirty years ago. I do notlecall, however, the name of the speaker of the occasion. I do not recall the subject. In fact, for thelife of me, I cannot recall whether there was a speech.A few years ago I happened to read newspaperaccounts of about a hundred commencement speeches.They were given in different parts of the country,from Portland, Maine, to San Diego; from Seattle toMiami. They were given by different kinds of speakers: college professors and college presidents (to nametwo extremes); executives and engineers; physiciansand musicians; journalists and generals. They weregiven in different kinds of institutions : large and small;Catholic, Protestant, and nondenominational; liberalarts colleges and technical institutes; communityjunior colleges and great centers of research. But through all this diversity that is one of the glories ofAmerican higher education, ran one binding threadto which even the most individualistic commencementspeakers conformed. Every speaker advised the graduates to be nonconformists. Some came close torecommending that the Federal government establishstandards of nonconformity, perhaps to be enforcedby the Bureau of Standards or even by a new Bureauof Nonstandards.Well, I am not going to give you any advice. Howcan I? I certainly can't flaunt all that advice to be anonconformist. But if I were to apply it to the taskin which I am now engaged, what would it mean?It would mean that to be a non-conforming commencement speaker, I would have to advise you tobe conformists. I am going to duck the whole paradox, and just not impart any advice at all. I am simplygoing to change the subject for the remaining fewminutes.I had thought to devote my remaining time to adefense of the bad, the false, and the ugly. A frienddissuaded me, however, when he interpreted this as anintention to speak in a purely personal vein in defense of myself — a friend, I said, but I should havesaid a former friend. Instead, I will call your attention to the importance of error.The importance of error impresses me because ofmy interest in universities. Like most of you, I amat the end of my association with the University ofChicago. Like many of you, however, when I leavethe University of Chicago this afternoon, I will go toanother university. Most of you who receive bachelors degrees today will continue in graduate study,here or elsewhere. Many of you who receive mastersdegrees will continue for the doctorate. Most of youwho receive doctorates will enter careers of teachingand research in colleges and universities; indeed, manyhave already entered such careers. So it is safe topresume that most of you look forward, as I do, tocontinuing your participation in academic life. Ifthat is so, you ought to appreciate the importance oferror.Too often universities are justified by the self-sustaining nuclear reactions that they initiate, by theanaesthetics that they discover, by the principles ofcapital budgeting that they elucidate, by the understanding they bring of social ecology, by new theoriesof musicology, or new knowledge of some ancientcivilization. Universities are also justified too often bythe financial, literary, political, or professional successes of their graduates. In short, universities aretoo often justified by the demonstrable results theyachieve, particularly the tangible, material results. Ifdemonstrable results were the proper criterion of theirperformance, universities ought to take their standin the market place, alongside the Inland Steel Com-NOVEMBER, 1962 15pany, Standard Oil, Jewel Tea, International Harvester, Hart Schaffner and Marx, the Santa Fe, andthe Eskimo Pie Company.But universities ought to be judged not by resultsbut by processes, not by ends but by means. Science,scholarship, and learning were recognized as worthwhile activities in themselves, quite apart from theirresults, many centuries before material things came toplay so large a role in our scheme of values. Indeed,our material progress is in no small part a byproduct— a completely unforeseen, unsought, and still onlypartially understood byproduct — of universities andthe processes of learning, scholarship, and scientificinquiry cultivated by them. Seeking knowledge forknowledge's sake, and seeking it in lieu of materialgoods and services rather than as a means of attaining them, is the hallmark of the university. Indeed,knowledge is sought not even for its own sake somuch as for the sake of the search.The process of seeking knowledge is, in a greatuniversity, a way of life, with ethical ideals as loftyand aesthetic values as inspiring as exist in any aspectof our culture. What I hope you have obtained atthe University of Chicago, above all else, is at leasta comprehension, perhaps an appreciation, and possibly a sharing of the good and the beautiful that areinherent in the process of seeking truth.Now, the processes that lead to the good, the true,and the beautiful, in universities and elsewhere, inevitably generate also the bad, the false, and the ugly.If there is a free press, there will be propaganda; ifthere is free speech, lies; if there is free literature,obscenity; if there is free enterprise, waste; if thereare free elections, demagogery; if there is free science,poisons and explosives. The good, the true, and thebeautiful are arrived at largely through processes oftrial-and-error — and note that the phrase is "trial-and-error," not "trial-and-success." To attempt to eliminateerror would require the elimination of intellectualfreedom. It would substitute a new and greater setof evils for present ones, without the advantages offreedom. Freedom is both an end in itself and aneffective means to other worthwhile ends; but it doeshave some undesirable byproducts. Those byproductsof freedom are the errors that I defend: not the errorsthemselves, of course, but the process giving rise tothem.Freedom, of course, can never be absolute. Thatapplies to freedom of inquiry as much as to otherkinds of freedom. Each individual must have the internal constraint of his devotion to some higher principle than simply freedom. In a university he mustbe dedicated to science and scholarship as a way oflife; in other words, to the high ethical and aestheticstandards that characterize that way of life.Each individual is also constrained externally byother individuals. In a university he is periodicallysubjected to the evaluation of others, not only in connection with his appointments and promotions, butin the availability to him of resources, capable associates, and opportunities to communicate his views in16 scholarly publications or at meetings of scholars. Inuniversities it is more nearly true than in any otherinstitutions in modern life that these evaluations ofexperts are made by other experts on the sole criterionof expertness. The deviations from proper criteriaof evaluation that inevitably occur in any university,because of clashes of personalities, prejudices, or errorsin judgment, are in large degree offset by the independent judgments being made of the same man bymany universities, each eager to acquire the best menit can.The greatest universities are those with the greatestfaculties. The universities with the greatest facultiesare those that are most successful in evaluating menaccording to their professional competence, and thatare most successful in maintaining a free and exhilarating intellectual atmosphere. But even the greatest universities inevitably produce more error thantruth in the process of advancing knowledge. Thatis why I defend error: because it is inevitable in theprocess of discovering truth.The greatness of the University of Chicago — andyou and I who are about to leave will perhaps bepermitted so smug an expression if we do not use itoutside these walls — the greatness of the Universityof Chicago grows from its unswerving, alert, and evenaggressive adherence to the processes of seeking truth,in clear recognition that that means defending errorsometimes. More than half a century ago, the Trustees, in a tribute to the founder of the University,expressed the principle in these words: "Freedom ofopinion and expression is the vital breath of a university. While it is important that university professorsin their conclusions be correct, it is more importantthat in their teaching they be free." That is a principle that will prove eminently sound in the nextmillenium, as it has in the one now drawing toa close. ¦THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEBOOKS BY FACULTYAND ALUMNIACADEMIC ENCOUNTER, THEAMERICAN UNIVERSITY IN JAPANAND KOREA: by Martin Bronfen-brenner, PhD'39. The Free Press ofGlencoe, Inc., 1961, 251 pp., $6.00.Academic Encounter deals historical yand critically with 13 American university programs in Japan and four similarprograms in Korea (as of 1958), including those sponsored by the InternationalCooperation Administration, by Americaneducational foundations, and individualcolleges and universities. Two of Mr.Bronfenbrenner's conclusions from hispreface: ". . . the small scale, unpretentious program built up by universitypeople themselves has a better chanceof long run success in Japan than thegrandiose 'rush project' sponsored fromthe outside," and "it is better over thelong pull to train Japanese and Koreansrelatively slowly in America than to sendnumbers of American teachers or studentslor short periods to Japan or Korea."ALFARABI'S PHILOSOPHY OF PLATOAND ARISTOTLE: translated andintroduction by Muhsin Mahdi, PhD'54,assistant professor in the Departmentof Oriental Languages and Civilizations. The Free Press of Glencoe, 1962,156 pp., $4.75.Here in a new translation is the mostimportant philosophic work of Alfarabi(ca. 870-950), the Arab philosopher whoenjoyed the admiration of Moslem, Jewish, and Christian thinkers in the MiddleAges as one of the most intelligent andpenetrating students of Plato and Aristotle. The three works which constitutethis book were rediscovered in theiroriginal Arabic text, then brought together and translated into English byMr. Mahdi for the first time, especiallyfor this edition.THE AMATEUR DEMOCRAT: by JamesQ. Wilson, AM'57, PhD'59. The Uni versity of Chicago Press, 1962, 370pp., $6.95.James Wilson describes "a new kindof politician"— the amateur, who hasappeared in several of the biggest American cities since the Second World War.He defines the amateur as one who findspolitics intrinsically interesting becauseit expresses a conception of the publicinterest. The professional, on the otherhand is preoccupied with the outcomeof politics in terms of winning or losing,rarely brooding about his function.Mr. Wilson has made a comparativestudy of local amateur Democratic clubsin New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles,many the offshoots of the campaigns ofAdlai Stevenson. The author suggests thatat least in large American cities, democratic government may best be servedby professional rather than amateur politicians, and. that an amateur "politics ofprinciple" may be less suited than a professional "politics of interest" to realizecertain important social ends.THE AMERICAN PARTNERSHIP: byDaniel J. Elazar, AM'57, PhD'59. TheUniversity of Chicago Press, 1962, 349pp., $6.50.Mr. Elazar makes a strong case forhis belief that the American partnership—combining necessary national programswith effective state government— is not a20th century development, but has beena continuously evolving process. In particular by studying the actions of government in the 19th century United States,and by describing collaboration at formaland informal levels, he shows that federal-state relations were already those ofcooperative federalism at that time.AMERICAN RACE RELATIONS TODAY: edited by Earl Raab, with contributions by Morton Grodzins, professor of political science, and C. EricLincoln, '56. Doubleday and Co. Inc.Anchor Book, 1962, 190 pp., $.95.Ten previously published selections onrace relations by various authors makeup this volume which deals with "post-bigotry" problems. Mr. Raab asserts thatthe social remedies for discrimination areat hand and to varying degrees are beingapplied. But "the social objective allalong was not just equal opportunity anddesegregation but equal achievement andintegration; and it is also clear that theformer will not automatically— or perhapsswiftly enough— lead to the latter."Mr. Grodzins has contributed "TheMetropolitan Area as a Race Problem/' and Mr. Lincoln, an exerpt from his recent book, The Black Muslims in Amer-CAPITALISM AND FREEDOM: byMilton Friedman, AM'33, professor ofeconomics. The University of ChicagoPress, 1962, 202 pp., $3.95.Mr. Friedman expounds his view ofthe proper role of competitive capitalismas a device for achieving economic freedom and a necessary condition for political freedom. He states: "The politicaland economic philosophy elaborated inthis book should rightfully and properlybe labeled 'liberalism,' not, as it nowcommonly is, 'conservatism.' . . . theterm 'liberalism' is used in this book inits original sense— as the doctrines pertaining to a free man."After discussing the principles of aliberal society, Mr. Freidman then applies them to problems such as monetarypolicy, discrimination, education, licens-.ure, distribution of income, welfare andpoverty.COURSES TOWARD URBAN LIFE:edited by Robert J. Braidwood, PhD'43,professor of Old World archeology,and Gordon R. Willey. Aldine Publishing Co., 1962, 359 pp., $7.50.In Courses Toward Urban Life, expertstrace the history of man from primitivefood-collecting societies to the thresholdof the urban civilization. The book isconcerned with those archeological evidences that reveal the varying degreesof intensification of food-collecting, thetransition from food-collecting to partialor fully effective food production and theeventual emergence of, city life and civilization. Each expert has contributed achapter dealing with his geographicalarea of specialization.DARWIN AND THE DARWINIANREVOLUTION: by Gertrude Him-melfarb, AM'44, PhD'50. Doubledayand Co. Inc. Anchor Book, 1962, 504pp., $1.45.A paperback reprint of Miss Himmel-farb's study of Darwin's life and thedevelopment of his theory of evolution.DIALOGUES WITH MOTHERS: byBruno Bettelheim, professor of education, psychology and psychiatry, andprincipal, Sonia Shankman OrthogenicSchool. The Free Press of Glencoe,Inc., 1962, 216 pp., $3.50.The author of well-known studies ofNOVEMBER, 1962 17disturbed children (Love is Not Enoughand Truants from Life), here turns hisattention to normal children and to theordinary but inescapable difficulties thatface every parent. In a series of transcriptions of real discussions with parents,Mr. Bettelheim presents a "method ofinvestigating" child care problems whichevery parent can use. He shows how toget to the basis of a problem, thenevalute "what kind of child do I want?"and from there find a solution which isright for the individual family and situation, without the help of experts or books.THE DROP-OUTS: by Solomon O.Lichter, AM'41, Elsie B. Rapien,AM'46, Frances M. Seibert, Morris A.Sklansky. The Free Press of Glencoe, Inc., 1962, 294 pp., $5.50.Forty percent of all children in theU.S. fail to complete high school: TheDrop-outs explores this major problemin American education. It relates theexperience and findings of a three-yeartreatment study of intellectually capableChicago youngsters who wanted to leaveor left high school. In it, the authorsexamine the serious emotional problemsand difficulties at home which are theprimary reasons for dropping out ofschool.This study illustrates the usefulness ofprolonged counseling with drop-outs. Itdevelops a method for diagnosing personality difficulties, presents some newconcepts of the psychological meaning of school to students, and indicateshow school personnel can detect the earlysigns of emotional problems.EGGHEAD'S GUIDE TO AMERICA:by Wade Thompson, '46, AM'49. TheMacmillan Co., 1962, 148 pp., $3.50."A six-foot four-inch, red-bearded idolsmasher" takes a poke at some of America's more respected institutions: collegefraternities and football, the U.S. military posture, Norman Vincent Peale, theHouse Un-American Activities Committee, the F.B.I., the D.A.R. and others.These twelve essays are liberally seasoned with accounts of Mr. Thompson'spersonal adventures and are designedfor the edification and amusement of"Intellectuals, Martians, Foreign Observers and sundry Others not fully immersed in the Swim of Things as practiced in these glorious United States ofAmerica."ESSAYS ON POLITICS AND CULTURE: by John Stuart Mill; editedby Gertrude Himmelfarb, AM'44,PhD'50. Doubleday & Co. Inc., 1962,487 pp., $4.95.Many of the essays collected in thisvolume have long been unavailable andothers have never been reprinted in theiroriginal form. They include discussionsof mass culture and mass society, democracy, international aggression, religiousfaith— many showing a dramatic contrastto the more familiar sentiments of "On Liberty." Miss Himmelfarb comments:"The Mill of [these essays] is not soeasily labeled, his ideas are less systematic and he represents a mode of political thinking rather than a particularpolitical ideology."EXISTENTIALISM AND RELIGIOUSLIBERALISM: by John F. Hayward,PhD'49, associate professor of theologyat Meadville Theological School. Beacon Press, 1962, 127 pp., $3.95.Mr. Hayward offers a clarification ofthe modern philosophy of existentialism,and defines the tensions which exist between it and modern religious liberalism. This book will be of interest to liberals who want to take steps towarddeepening and revitalizing their religiouslife, and to those who would better understand religious liberalism.THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OFFOODS: by Ruth M. Griswold, SM'32,PhD'44. Houghton Mifflin Co., 1962,566 pp., $7.95.A basic foods textbook which gives abackground in current knowledge aboutfoods and introduces the student to experimental methods.Food is viewed here from the scientific as well as culinary point of view:the chemistry of cooking is analyzed, andthe reader gains an understanding of whyrecipes or food combinations bring aboutspecific results.A FRAGMENT OF AUTOBIOGRAPHY:by John Gunther, '22. Harper & Row,1962, 116 pp., $3.50.Mr. Gunther tells the reader something of his life and work on the "Inside" books. He relates anecdotes of hisexperiences on four continents and offerspointers and useful maxims for up-comingjournalists.Says Charles Poore of the New YorkTimes: "Telling us how he wrote the'Inside' books, he luckily can't help taking us on another of his careening ridesup and down the perilous and populousslopes of . . . contemporary history."GROWING UP IN RIVER CITY: byRobert J. Havighurst, professor of education, Paul Bowman, PhD'51, associate professor, Gordon P. Liddle, PhD'59, associate professor, (all membersof the Committee on Human Development), Charles V. Matthews, andJames V. Pierce, PhD'60. John Wileyand Sons, Inc., 1962, 186 pp., $4.50.What elements or factors in the makeup of boys and girls are most closelyrelated to their competence as youngadults?— this is the major question tackled by this book. The authors havefollowed a group of boys and girls in atypical midwestern community, as theygo through school, from age 11 to 20.They note which ones do well andwhich ones do poorly in school, whichones go to college, which ones becomedelinquent, which ones marry early. In the end, the members of the group arejudged against an "index of early adultcompetence," and the relative influenceof their intelligence, social adjustmentand family social background is assessed.JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER'S SECRETWEAPON: by Albert Z. Carr, '21. McGraw-Hill Book, Co., 1962, 383 pp.,$6.95.What was John D.'s secret weapon?The tank car, of course. How can yousell oil if you can't deliver it? And ifyou control the tank car how can yourcompetitor deliver his?The Union Tank Car Company madeall its records available to author Carrreserving only one right: to insert footnotes where the Company thought theauthor's account was misleading or inadequate. There aren't many footnotes butyou sometimes get this startling effect:a company footnote followed by theauthor's footnote to the footnote!But the Company lived up to its agreement to permit the author's use of a"broad canvas with the full spectrum ofcolors except whitewash." The book fullydescribes John D.'s adroit manipulationof his secret weapon within the law andthe effects on business tycoons and U.S.Presidents. H.W.M.THE KNIFE AND THE NEEDLE: byDiana Gaines, '33. Doubleday and Co.Inc., 1962, 336 pp., $4.95.The Knife and the Needle is a novelabout the void that exists between awife and her dedicated doctor husband.LETTING GO: by Philip Roth, AM'55.Random House, 1962, 630 pp., $5.95.The author of Goodbye, Columbus(National Book Award, 1960), and former UC faculty teacher has written a novel set primarily in Chicago,about a man desperately attempting "tofind a proper relationship between his ownworldly good fortune and the misfortuneof others." Mr. Roth, currently writer-in-residence at Princeton University, hasreceived grants from the GuggenheimFoundation and the National Institute ofArts and Letters. The two main characters in this novel are instructors at theUniversity of Chicago, and at least onereal-life U of C faculty member hascharacterized this book as "The Gripesof Roth."MENTAL HEALTH IN THE METROPOLIS: THE MIDTOWN MANHATTAN STUDY, VOLUME I: by LeoSrole, PhD'40, Thomas S. Langner,Stanley T. Michael, Marvin K. Opler,Thomas A. C. Rennie. McGraw-HillBook Co. Inc., 1962, 41.3 pp.This volume is the first of three basedon an eight-year study of Mjdtown, aresidential area in Manhattan, housingnon-Puerto Rican whites of nearly allsocial, economic and cultural levels. Thesocial scientists and psychiatrists conducting the study found among these18 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEpeople not only a full range of mentalconditions, but also gross intergroup differences in seeking and securing help.In its range and thoroughness thisstudy has been compared to Myrdal'sThe American Dilemma. Mr. Srole, professor of psychiatry at the State University of New York Medical Center haswritten or co-authored 15 of the book's18 chapters.MISS FRANCES OF DING DONGSCHOOL SELECTS STORIES ANDPOEMS TO ENJOY: by Frances R.Horwich, '29. Doubleday & Co. Inc.,1962, 128 pp., $3.95.Miss Frances, of the famous children'sTV program "Ding Dong School," haschosen her favorite stories and poems forboys and girls up to eight-years-old.There are classics and new stories,some written by Miss Frances herself.The volume is illustrated in color, andits lively tales and pictures will sparkthe young child's imagination while introducing him to some of the best inchildren's literature.MY SAMOAN CHIEF: by Fay G. Calkins, PhD'51. Doubleday Co. Inc.,1962, 207 pp. $4.50.The author tells of her adventures living in Samoa after courtship and marriage in the U.S. to a young Samoan.OF TIME, WORK, AND LEISURE: bySebastian de Grazia, '44, PhD'48. TheTwentieth Century Fund, New York,1962, 559 pp., $6.00.A fascinating book supported by scoresof surveys which add authority but neverget in the way of the reader.The subject is introduced by suchprovocative statements as: "Anybody canhave free time; not everyone can haveleisure." "Peace and prosperity are dangerous if a country doesn't know whatto do with leisure." And, "Never beforehave so many Americans had so littletime to call their own.""Are democracy and leisure compatible? The answer: No. In democracy today free time does exist though in lessquantity than is thought; of leisure thereis none."Advertising gets a long chapter. Itsells patent medicine to pep you up soyou can work more; encourages time payments which bring on "moonlighting"while the wife works. And the children:Much of assembly line work could behandled by twelve-year-olds— or chimpanzees, for that matter." H.W.M.THE POLITICS OF SCARCITY-PUBLIC PRESSURE AND POLITICALRESPONSE IN INDIA: by MyronWeiner, assistant professor of politicalscience. The University of ChicagoPress, 1962, 240 pp., $5.00.Mr. Weiner discusses the difficultiesof modernizing an underdeveloped coun try by democratic means, when thecountry's civilization is based not onplenty but on poverty. He describes therise of pressure groups out of the rightto form free associations and the conflicting demands which paralyze the government; and he offers suggestions forcontrol and the developing in the peopleof a concept of the public interest. Hisstudy is prefaced with this 10th centuryIndian aphorism: "Of what use if thebarren cow, which gives no milk? Ofwhat use is the king's grace, if he doesnot fulfill the hopes of suppliants?"A PORTRAIT OF JOAN, THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF JOAN CRAWFORD:with Jane Kesner Ardmore, '32. Double-day & Co., Inc., 1962, 239 pp., $4.50.Mrs. Ardmore was the not so veryincorporeal ghost writer of this autobiography which recounts the success storyof a movie star and businesswoman.PRICE THEORY-A PROVISIONALTEXT: by Milton Friedman, AM'33,professor of economics. Aldine Publishing Co., 1962, 285 pp., $6.00.Mr. Friedman has assembled notes,lectures and graph-diagrams from hisprice theory course at the U of C, towhich he has added some previouslywritten and published material. Also included: a reading list and selected problems.THE QUEST FOR UTOPIA, AN ANTHOLOGY OF IMAGINARY SOCIETIES: by Glenn Negley, PhD'39,and J. Max Patrick. Doubleday andCo. Inc. Anchor Book, 1962, 592 pp.,$1.95.The editors have compiled a representative sample of Utopian thought inWestern civilization since 1500. Twenty-five famous and often previously inaccessible examples are included, as wellas introductory comments by the editorswhich comprise a history of Utopianthought from 900 B.C. to the present.Selections appear in their original formexcept for modernization of obsoleteusage. Among the authors are: More,Bacon, Hertzka, Cabet, Wells.REASON IN SOCIETY: by Paul Dies-ing, AM'48, PhD'52. The Universityof Illinois Press, 1962, 255 pp., $5.75.The author's thesis is that there area number of types of decision makingcommonly found in social life which cannot be reduced readily to any one basicmodel of rationality. He distinguishesfive types of decision making: technicalrationality, economic rationality, socialrationality, legal rationality, and political rationality.Special attention is giv^n to specifictypes of action which cannot be governedby standards of efficiency, such as psychotherapy, labor arbitration, union-management negotiations, and politicalleadership. THE SEARCH FOR A COMMONLEARNING: GENERAL EDUCATION, 1800-1960: by Russell Thomas,AM'27, PhD'42, professor of humanities. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.,1962, 324 pp., $6.95.This listing is in correction of that inthe May book section. Mr. Thomas' studydiscusses the historical background of general education in American colleges from1800 to 1930, and investigates contemporary thought and practice in the areaas it is represented in the academic programs of 18 American colleges and universities. The author's emphasis is oninstitutions where general education hasreceived far less publicity than at Chicago.THE SEVEN STAIRS: by Stuart Brent,'37. Houghton Mifflin Co., 1962, 205pp., $3.75.A Chicago bookseller and TV personality writes his autobiography. It is primarily the story of his first bookstore,The Seven Stairs, and of the personalitieswhich make up his publishing and bookselling experiences.SOCIETY AND THE LAW: by F. JamesDavis, Henry H. Foster, Jr., LLM'60,C. Ray Jeffery, and E. Eugene Davis.The Free Press of Glencoe, Inc., 1962,477 pp., $6.95.This is the first systematic attempt toshow how the behavioral sciences cancontribute to an understanding of legalproblems and, conversely, how law canhelp solve social problems.SOL MYERS: by Judah Stampfer, '43,AM'44. The Macmillan Co., 1962, 215pp., $3.50.A novel about two friends in art schoolfrom a first-generation Jewish neighborhood in New York.TEACHING CHEMISTRY WITHMODELS: by Robert T. Sanderson,PhD'39. D. Van Nostrand Co. Inc.,1962.Mr. Sanderson outlines in considerabledetail, effective methods of making andusing atomic and molecular models inlecture, laboratory and other demonstrations.WILL ROGERS, A BIOGRAPHY: b)Donald Day, PhD'42. David McKayCo. Inc., 1962, 362 pp., $5.95.This best-selling biography of WillRogers is filled with wit and anecdote, forwherever possible Mr. Day has used WillRogers' own words to tell his story. Inaddition, it is an account of the Americathat formed Rogers and the Americandecade through which he lived."Will Rogers was America's most complete human document," said DamonRunyon. Mr. Day aims at "an unfolding,literally 'a reading' of that completehuman document' against the times,events and in relation to the people thatproduced it."NOVEMBER, 1962 19OUR "346" DEPARTMENTBrooks Brothers quality and generally lower pricesOur popular "346" Department offers young businessmen an excellent opportunity to become acquainted with Brooks Brothers distinctive stylingand quality at moderate prices. All our "346" suits,topcoats, sportwear and evening wear are made toour exacting specifications ... on our own exclusivemodels . . . mostly of materials woven especially forus. The suits— made on our traditional 3-button,single-breasted model, feature our comfortable andcorrect natural shoulders, trousers without pleats,and matching vests... in sizes 36 to 46, includingextra longs for the tall, slender man.Our "3 46" Suits, $90 to $ 1 05 • Sport Jackets, $65 to $75Topcoats, from $95 • Cotton Oxford Shirts, from $6Prices slightly higher west of the Rockies.ESTABLISHED 1818Mien's furnishings, Pats kinoes74 E. MADISON ST., NEAR MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 2, ILL.NEW YORK • BOSTON • PITTSBURGH • SAN FRANCISCO • LOS ANGELES memo padCHICAGO-TOP AND BOTTOM-I've just been studying a report onWho Uses Our Educated Manpower?published by the Council for Financial Aid to Education, Inc., September, 1961. (I'm behind in my reading!)Eighty-three alumni bodies werestudied. Nine of these were "MajorPrivate Universities"— Chicago, Columbia, Johns Hopkins, Pennsylvania,Princeton, Stanford, and Yale.In the report of these nine, Chicagoranked at the top in the percentageof its alumni in education: 36:9%;Princeton at the bottom: 7.3%. Inbusiness and industry, Chicago wasat the bottom with only 19.8%; Yaleat the top with 64.7%.This indicates that we are leadingthe pack in supplying our democracywith trained leadership in the criticalarea of education. But our businessmen and industrialists are in shortsupply compared with the Ivy League.Assuming that businessmen and industrialists have access to more money,the million-plus dollars raised annuallyby Chicago alumni carries a liberalportion of dedication and conviction.MEAT, 10c— Driving west on Garfield Boulevard Miss Ruth Halloran(administrative assistant) did a doubletake. The sign read:Jiffy Hamburgers 19cWith Meat 29cSPODE PLATES-Old timers will remember the gray Spode commemorative dinner plates sold by the Association in the thirties. They were insets of 12 with as many Universityscenes but they have been out of stocksince 1940. Recently a number ofalumni have expressed interest in securing sets.Now comes a letter from MissElilie Bursik, 3708 S. Clarence Avenue, Berwyn, Illinois, saying she hasa complete set of 12 "in perfect condition" which she will sell for $30.00.If you are interested get in touchwith her. H.W.M.20 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEMISSIONTO ALGIERSi^B ¦— " ¦rDr. George V. LeRoy¦ i •sA TEAM of six doctors from the University of Chicago servedduring the month of July as the first emergency squad in a CARE-MEDICO project in Algeria. The University medical specialists flew toAlgeria to help put into operation the new Beni-Massous Hospital, a1,200-bed municipal institution in the city of Algiers.In charge of the team was Dr. George V. LeRoy, specialist in internalmedicine and professor in the Department of Medicine. He had servedas chief of medical service at a series of Army hospitals in the SouthPacific during World War II. Also on the team were:Dr. Clifford W. Gurney, associate professor and John and Mary MarkleFoundation scholar in the Department of Medicine; Dr. Nels M. Strand-jord, associate professor in the Department of Radiology and James PickerFoundation scholar for Radiological Research; Dr. John E. Kasik, physicianand pharmacologist, assistant professor; Dr. Wynn A. Sayman, assistantprofessor in the Department of Surgery; Dr. Birdwell Finlayson, instructor Drs. Clifford Gurney and Birdwell Finlayson(above), and Dr. Wynn Sayman/NOVEMBER, 1962 21in Urology in the Department of Surgery.Serving on a third team during September, wereDr. Louis Cohen, assistant professor and AmericanHeart Association fellow, and his wife Emilie, whois a nurse.At the hospital the doctors found on their arrivalabout 1,000 patients were being cared for by aboutten doctors — six Algerian Moslem physicians, twoEuropean physicians and two French volunteer physicians. The surgical suite and two patient floors ofthe main building were vacant; the other three floorswere filled with tubercular patients. The new medicalbuilding was filled with pediatric patients, most ofwhom had been transferred from the Mustapha Hospital after it was bombed.There were no telephones working, but the principal services — kitchen, laundry, pharmacy and engineering — were functioning. The laboratories hadonly three technicians, as did the radiology unit. Thenursing service was short-handed.Against this background, Dr. Gurney posed thequestion of what a small group of American physicianscould accomplish. "In the first place, our presencewas a gesture of friendship. . . . The rapidity withwhich news of our arrival in Algiers spread was surprising and gratifying. 'Docteur Americain' was akind of password through every military blockade orother difficult situation I encountered, and so longas my identity was recognized, I never felt threatenedor exposed to danger."The second real gain that could be accomplishedby even a small group of people was realized byinformal on-the-job courses of instruction. Since malnutrition and poor sanitation were directly and indirectly responsible for a major proportion of theillnesses, it was possible in a short period of time toinstruct a number of people in ideas and conceptswhich we take for granted, but which Algerian nursing personnel found quite unique and revolutionary.... In particular, approaches and attitudes could beconveyed by example rather than by instruction. Inan area where life has always been cheap, the opportunity to observe an American physician or nursespending the entire night with a single sick child hadreal impact." ¦Drs. Nels Strandjord and John Kasik22 MACKAUER Continued from page 10cooperation between objective science and autonomouschoice by the detailed analysis of two human predicaments: How can science help us — first, in our attemptsto resolve the ever recurring conflict between ends andmeans, and, secondly, in our endeavor to get securehold of and give precision to our often vaguely conceived ideal ends?In the first case — the relation of means and ends —,scientific analysis will put before us the — alwayslimited number of — value-determined choices thatpresent themselves in a given practical situation. Itwill, in addition, tell us with authority which meanswould be proper for reaching each of the various ends.If you object to one of these means, because it violates one of your ideal values, you have to choosebetween your desired end and the — often unpleasant— means indispensable for its realization. The teachercan and must present to the student the necessity ofchoosing; his science can offer no more.In the second case, when a man is about to decideon a course of action, his scientific mentor can compelhim by rigorous demonstration to see that the intended decision can be logically derived from one —but not from any other — value position with innerconsistency and, therefore, with intellectual honesty.The teacher will hold his student in the grip of thevice until he accepts this and so accounts to himselffor the ultimate meaning of his action — in Weber'swords, until he becomes aware which god he willserve, and which god he will slight. The decision mustremain the personal — let's hope, fully conscious andfully responsible — choice of him who makes it.This actually is the end of what I intended to putbefore you for your — autonomous — consideration. Letme add only this: I hope it has become clear on ourway that the two aims of a college education I distinguished at the beginning — to serve as a gatewayto a profession and as a gateway to life and to thegood life — do not contradict each other but coincide.It is an inheritance left to us by that great bourgeoisage whose transformation into — we do not know what— we just are witnessing, that Western man strivesfor self-fulfilment not aside from but within andthrough his professional work. Such an attitude isfar from natural; it is quite peculiar. It has a religiousorigin in the Christian conviction that a professionis a calling, imposed upon each of us by God's will.This idea has long been secularized, but its metaphysical dignity remains untarnished. For us, ourchosen profession remains the arena in which we haveto prove ourselves, to fulfill ourselves, to become whatwe are.The former Chancellor of this University, RobertHutchins, once professed — echoing Aristotle — that"happiness lies in. the fullest use of one's highest powers." It is my sincere wish that the four years lyingahead of you may start you on your road towardssuch happiness. ¦THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINENEWS OF the alumni00-23EDA OHRENSTEIN MARINER, '00, ofBainbridge Island, Wash., is active incommunity activities and presently isserving as precinct committeewoman andmember of the county executive boardfor the Democratic Party. She alsoteaches persons with special adjustmentproblems.SARAH LINDSAY SCHMIDT, '00, resides in Fort Collins, Colo., and writesthat she still hears regularly from JULIAPIERCE CLARK, '00, who now lives inSanta Barbara, Calif.HERBERT F. HANCOX, 10, AMll, hasbeen named president-elect of the Phoenix Hospital Council, and is a trustee ofthe Arizona Hospital Assn., this year. Mr.Hancox is superintendent of the DesertMission, an out-patient health and welfare clinic of the United PresbyterianChurch in Phoenix, and administrator ofthe John C. Lincoln Hospital there.BENJAMIN F. (BEN) BILLS, 11,JD14, head of B. Franklin Bills & Associates, publishing and communicationsconsulting firm in Chicago, is starting anew service in "Bank Paper Problems andSolutions."WALTER C. EELLS, AMll, andTHOMAS E. BLACKWELL, '21, arewriting monographs for the Library ofEducation book series, a project of theCenter for Applied Research in Education, Inc., of New York. Mr. Eells, whois now retired is writing on "Degrees inEducation." He was formerly coordinator of the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards, executivesecretary of the American Association ofJunior Colleges, and chief of the ForeignEducation Division with the FederalGovernment in Washington, D.C. Mr.Blackwell, consultant to the board ofdirectors of Washington University, St.Louis, is writing "College and UniversityAdministration." He was formerly vice chancellor of Washington University andsecretary-treasurer of its board of directors.ISABEL F. JARVIS, 12, of Evanston,111., has been engaged in the uniquehobby of "collecting courthouses" since1952. Her first discovery was the courthouse in a small Ohio town— a buildingpart Moorish, part Grecian, part Victorian—a potpourri of architectural styles whichwas so amazing, that Miss Jarvis' firstthought was, "someone ought to do apainting of that." And thus began herunusual project of finding and paintingextraordinary examples of old (largelyturn^of-the-century ) courthouses. As ofDecember, 1961, the drawings numbered33, with 17 states represented in the series. The drawings are finely detailed anddone in ink and color wash by free handtechnique. Her ultimate goal is to drawa courthouse in almost every state, thoughthere will be more drawings than states,since she is often unable to resist threeor four specimens in a single state. Whenthe series is finished Miss Jarvis hopesto have it published in a portfolio, whichv/ill be a documentary— a record of America's first county courthouses. Miss Jarvis'work has been publicized in 22 newspaper articles including a full-page colorspread in the Chicago Tribune last fall.JOHN M. ALLISON, 15, is now servingas ad interim minister at the Congregational Church, Freehold, N.Y. He is"well and active, with a thankful spirit,47-plus years after graduation from theU of C."HOWARD MUMFORD JONES, AM15,has retired from his post as AbbotLawrence Lowell Professor of the Humanities at Harvard University. Hejoined the Harvard faculty in 1936 andserved in 1943-44 as dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Thisfall, Mr. Jones is teaching at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and hev/ill teach at the University of Michiganin the spring. In a recent discussion oneducation, Mr. Jones predicted changesin the pattern of general education. Inhis view, general education coursesshould be offered in the last two yearsof college "to tie together the informa tion that was piled up in the first twoyears of study."ERWIN C. CLINE, AM'16, retired inMay as supervisor of the Illinois statedivision of vocational rehabilitation. Mr.Cline retired following 17 years of stateservice. He began in 1945 as head ofthe agency's program for the blind andsoon after became the state supervisor.Among his achievements was the firstprogram for testing and evaluating theepileptic. He also pioneered in establishing rehabilitation training in tuberculosis sanitariums throughout Illinois.GEORGE M. FISTER, 16, MD18, aurologist of Ogden, Utah, was inaugurated this summer as president of theAmerican Medical Assn. After dedicating a lifetime to the practice of medicinein his home state of Utah, he now plansto make a full-time job of this new position, spending much of his time crisscrossing the country to attend medicalmeetings and make speeches to civic,service and other groups. Dr. Fister,who prefers research and writing scientific papers to the kind of limelight hewill now have as AMA president, hashad hundreds of articles published, including a score of scientific papers. Hehas practiced urology in Ogden since1928, also serving for 15 years as aclinical lecturer in urology at the University of Utah College of Medicine.{CATHERINE WHITE HOTCHKISS,16, of Redlands, Calif., says, "This, Iguess, is the 53rd year since I enteredthe University! And I just like to keepin touch, if only via the Magazine."LORNA LAVERY STAFFORD, 16,dean of graduate studies and interimacademic president of Mexico City College, has been elected president of theAssociation of Texas Graduate Schoolsfor 1963. Mexico City College is theonly extra-territorial member of this association to which 33 institutions belong.FREDERIKA BLANKNER, '22, AM'23,resident poet at Adelphi College in NewYork, said in a recent Chicago Sun-Timesinterview that she "would like to seepoets working in the State Department,in industry, in commerce and in govern-NOVEMBER, 1962 23Mark L. La Vine (at right) talks over details of a $250,000 sale with William Schroeder and Leo Nathan Bindman, key men whom heinsured for the Schroeder Distributing Company of Los Angeles.$18,000-a-year executive switches to selling life insuranceMark La Vine was vice-president of a tire companyfor nine years before he came to work with NewEngland Life. How did this well-established businessman do after changing careers? He sold one-and-a-third million dollars worth of life insurance inless than a year! That set an all-time record for hisLos Angeles agency: never before had an inexperienced man qualified for the Million Dollar RoundTable his first year! ¦ "Having contacts from my insurance," says Mark. "And my clients keep recommending me to other people they know, so I'vebeen very lucky. But I really like life insurance . . .and people sense my enthusiasm. I enjoy workingfor myself and feel I can be a real help to the peopleI deal with." ¦ Does a career like that of Mark LaVine appeal to you? If so, ask us to send you information about the opportunities that exist for menwho meet New England Life's requirements. Write toprevious business experience has NEW ENGLAND LIFE Vice President John Barker, Jr.,been very helpful to me in life NEW ENGLAND MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY: INDIVIDUAL AND GROUPLIFE INSURANCE. ANNUITIES AND PENSIONS, GROUP£St2X32Z 501 Boylston St., Boston 17, Mass.These Chicago University men are New England Life representatives:GEORGE MARSELOS, '34, Chicago JOHN R. DOWNS, C.L.U., '46, ChicagoROBERT P. SAALBACH, '39, Omaha HERBERT W. SIEGAL, '46, San AntonioAsk one of these competent men to tell you about the advantages of insuring in the New England Life.24 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmerit." She added that poetry couldinfluence legislation as well as the actionsof businesses, and that "we should takea page from the Greeks and a poemshould be written for each great event.""Poets," she said, "should have moreinterest in the state and the state shouldhave more interest in the poets. President Kennedy took a step in the rightdirection when he had Robert Frostat his inauguration. " Miss Blankner alsothinks that now that prayers are forbidden in the schools, each day's sessionmight start off with a poem, because "theclosest thing we have to prayers withoutbeing prayers is poetry."FRANCES ROTHSCHILD FRIEDMAN,'22, of Chicago, has given a $100 giftto the U of C which will be awardedas The Bonnie Harris Prize for Excelslence in Fine Arts during the next twoyears. A $50 award each year will begiven to an undergraduate or graduatestudent enrolled in the art department'sfine arts program who is selected by theMidway Studios faculty. The prize honors the late Bessie Harris (Mrs. FrankHarris) who took up painting late inlife. Her primitive paintings done underthe name Bonnie Harris, now hang inWalker Art Gallery and several othernationally important museums.EARLE LUDGIN, '22, was named Chicago's Advertising Man of the Year atthe annual awards banquet in May,of the Chicago Federated AdvertisingClub. Mr. Ludgin, chairman of theadvertising agency bearing his name,was cited for outstanding contributionsto the community, the advertising industry and his company. The "Man of theYear" award is considered the highesthonor the Chicago advertising fraternitybestows upon one of its members. Mr.Ludgin is a former chairman of theAmerican Association of AdvertisingAgencies, the most important organization in the agency field. He is also atrustee of the U of C, the Art Instituteof Chicago, the Planetarium Society, andthe American Federation of Arts. Mr.Ludgin is a leading art collector and theLudgin collection is considered one ofthe finest in the Midwest.CHARLES F. VAN CLEVE, AM'22, andBASIL M. SWINFORD, AM'26, areamong the professors retiring this yearfrom Ball State Teachers College, Mun-cie, Ind. Mr. Van Cleve had been amember of the English faculty since1937, is co-author of an English textbook, a history of Ball State, and iscurrently doing research on Shakespeare's"Midsummer Night's Dream." Mr. Swin-ford was on the business education faculty. He sponsored the Ball State chapterof Pi Omego Pi, national undergraduatecommerce honorary, and has been anofficer in the Delta Pi Epsilon nationalgraduate honorary in business teaching.DAVID E. ANDERSON, SM'23, hasbeen named associate professor emeritusof engineering materials at the University of Akron, Akron, Ohio. Mr. Andersonretired from active teaching service atthe end of the 1961-62 academic year,MARGARET MAUCH, SM'23, PhD'38,has been promoted from associate professor to professor of mathematics at theUniversity of Akron, Akron, Ohio. Hernew title was effective September 1.AVERY O. CRAVEN, PhD'24, has beenappointed a visiting professor in thehistory department at Western MichiganUniversity, Kalamazoo, for one year1962-63.ELSA E. SCHILLING, AM'26, wroteto us on August 12: "Tomorrow I starton the dream of a lifetime— a grand tourof Europe independently through tencountries, to be gone until December."Miss Schilling has made two previoustrips to Europe, the first was a summerof study at Grenoble, the second a ten-week jaunt through four countries. Sheadds, "Retirement is wonderful, especially if one is free of duties and alsoable to enjoy travel."DOROTHEA K. ADOLPH' 27, of Cleveland, Ohio, is teaching first grade atMalvern School in Shaker Heights, Ohio.ANTON B." BURG, '27, SM'28, PhD'31,received the Richard C. Tolman Medalfor outstanding achievement in chemistry,from the Southern California Section ofthe American Chemical Society, in April.The medal was awarded for Mr. Burg'sresearch, which led to a position of internationally recognized stature in the fieldof compounds of boron, and for his contribution to the chemical community ofSouthern California through his leadership in building the chemistry departmentat the University of Southern Californiato a position of national eminence whileserving as head of that department. Mr.Burg has served as chairman of theSouthern California Section of the Society, and has published over 73 technicalpapers. While at Chicago Mr. Burg initiated the first work in the U.S. in thethen new field of boron hydrides. Alsoduring his undergraduate days, he attained recognition as a champion highjumper. He was recognized as nationalchampion by both the NCAA and theAAU, winning five national AAU sponsored track meets.JACK P. COWEN, '27, MD'32, of Chicago, was awarded gold and silver medals(first and second prizes) for watercolorportraits at the 25th Annual Exhibit ofthe American Physicians' Art Assn., heldin Chicago during the recent AmericanMedical Assn. Convention in June. Theprize-winning entries, along with otherselected painting and sculpture, are beingexhibited in a national tour of 30 majorcities in the U.S. for the benefit of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, under construction in Southern California.THEODORE H. HARLEY, '27, and twoother U of C alumni were recently promoted to new positions at Harris Trustand Savings Bank in Chicago. Mr.Harley, formerly assistant cashier wasnamed assistant vice president in thebanking department at Harris Bank.MOLLY KRAMER, '42, MBA'55, andWALLACE G. WEISENBORN, MBA'56,were both promoted to assistant cashiers. Miss Kramer was with the bank'scredit department and Mr. Weisenborn,with the banking department. Mr. Weisenborn is on the U of C Graduate Schoolof Business Alumni Council. He and hisfamily reside in Arlington Heights.ARNOLD I. SHURE, '27, JD'29, Chicago attorney, has been elected presidentof the Midwest Advisory Board of theAmerican Medical Center, in Denver,Colo., The American Medical Center isa hospital and clinic for the treatmentof cancer and chronic chest diseases,and basic and clinical research in theseareas. It is supported solely by voluntarycontributions.LESLIE A. WHITE, PhD'27, professorof anthropology at the University ofMichigan, received an honorary Doctorof Science degree from the Universityof Buffalo in June. Mr. White has servedas chairman of the anthropology sectionof thfc Michigan Academy of Sciencesand president of the central states branchof the American Anthropological Assn.In 1957 he received the Faculty Awardfor Distinguished Achievement at theUniversity of Michigan, and in 1959,the Viking Fund Medal in General Anthropology.JOHN K. GERHART, '28, a general inthe U.S. Air Force, was recently namedCommander-in-Chief of the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD)and promoted to his present four-starrank. Mr. Gerhart assumed his NORADduties on August 1. In July he wasawarded the Distinguished Service Medalfor "exceptionally meritorious service ina position of great responsibility" for aperiod of five years in the Pentagon during which time he became the Air Force'sfirst Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans andPrograms, a position which he held fromJuly, 1957 until the beginning of hisNORAD assignment. Mr. Gerhart, amuch-decorated pioneer of long-rangestrategic bombing during World War II,has had previous assignments including:chief of staff for Joint Task Force 3which conducted the first thermonucleartests in the Pacific; advisor with thejoint chiefs of staff to the National Security Council; chief of the U.S. Military Assistance Advisory Group to theUnited Kingdom; and as commander ofthe U.S. Twelfth Air Force in Germany.OTIS L. ANDERSON, '31, was granteda Meritorious Performance Award in Mayfor sustained superior performance ofduties with the Bonneville Power Ad-NOVEMBER, 1962 25Offset Printing • Imprinting • AddressographingMultilithing • Copy Preparation • Automatic InsertingTypewriting • Addressing • Folding • MailingCHICAGO ADDRESSING & PRINTING COMPANY720 SOUTH DEARBORN STREET WAbllSll 2-4561YOUR FAVORITEFOUNTAIN TREATTASTES BETTERWHEN IT'S . . .MADE WITHSwifts^Ice Cream,A product f Swift & Comj7409 So. StatPhone RAdcliCompanyState Streetffe 3-7400-000Undivided ResponsibilityHere the conception of an ideacarried to its final printed formis made possible by each stepbeing performed under our own roof.Departments encompass art anddesign, photography, process color,plate making, single and multicolorpresswork, binding and shipping.Thus, the integrated operation ofthis organization backed with arecord of 30 years' reliability onmajor projects makes possible ourservice of undivided responsibilityPhotopress| INCORPORATtO¦¦HJ:UMIIJ!I.H:HJ!llCongress Expressway at Gardner RoadBROADVIEW, ILL. COIumbus 1-1420 ministration, Portland, Ore., which isunder the U.S. Department of the Interior. The award is granted to employees "of exceptional merit," and issupplemented with a monetary award.The Bonneville Administration marketsthe electric power from 17 Federal hydroelectric projects in the Northwest.LOUIS G. COWAN, '31, head of theBrandeis University Communications Center, directed a project this summer forthe State Department in which foreigncommunications officials studied American television and radio. Specialists inradio and TV from sixteen foreign countries met at Brandeis for a six-weekseminar where they studied Americanpolitical institutions and traditions, andheard many TV and radio authoritiesdiscuss problems of broadcasting. Theparticipants then went on field tripsthroughout the country for first-hand observation and study of TV and radioinstallations. At the seminar discussions,nearly all the representatives expressedmisgivings about the export of AmericanTV films that stress violence. Since theyare so inexpensive, foreign stations usethem to fill up time, when they wouldfar prefer better offerings which are tooexpensive. American programs mentionedmost often were "CBS Reports" and"NBC White Papers," which were widelypraised. Mr. Cowan commented thatwhatever the visitors had learned, hadbeen more than matched by the information gained by U.S. officials on the problems and needs in broadcasting of theseother countries.MARY KENNEDY, AM'31, PhD'50, hasbeen promoted from assistant professor toassociate professor of history at MoravianCollege, Bethlehem, Pa.BIRDIE VAUGHN OLDHAM, '33, retired in June, 1961, after more than fortyyears of teaching. At the time of herretirement she was principal of RochelleElementary School, Lakeland, Fla. Shehad formerly taught at Arkansas A. M. &N. College for twenty years where sheserved as critic teacher, principal of thelaboratory school and professor and director of the department of education. Shehad also taught at Muskogee, Okla., andChattanooga, Tenn.MORTON D. ZABEL, PhD'33, andJAMES C. PHILLIPS, '52, '55, SM'55,PhD'56, both members of the U of Cfaculty, have been awarded GuggenheimFoundation fellowships for study during1962-63. Mr. Zabel, professor of English,will do biographical and critical studiesof Joseph Conrad and Henrik Ibsen. Mr.Phillips, assistant professor of physics,will study electronic structure of metalsand semi-conductors. Also receiving Guggenheim fellowships were the followingU of C faculty members: George Haley,assistant professor of Spanish; AnneDraffkorn Kilmer, research assistant, Oriental Institute; and Kenneth D. Kopple,assistant professor of chemistry. DAVID A. McCAULAY, '34, SM'40,senior research associate with AmericanOil Co., Whiting, Ind., has been electedan officer of the Catalysis Club of Chicago. Mr. McCaulay will serve as program chairman of the group which ismade up of scientists in the Chicagoarea who are experts in catalysis— a fieldof research that has led to many of theprincipal processes used in manufacturing chemicals and refining petroleum.35-UJOHN F. DILLE, JR., '35, AM'56, president of the Alumni Association, has beenelected a member of the board of directors of the First National Bank of Elkhart, Ind. Other professional responsibilities include chairman of the board ofgovernors of the ABC-TV Affiliates Association, and member of editorializingcommittee of the National Association ofBroadcasters, the American Society ofNewspaper Editors, the Associated PressManaging Editors, a director of the HotelElkhart Corporation, and a member ofthe Young Presidents Organization.HOWARD P. HUDSON, '35, has resigned as director of Washington operations for Ruder & Finn, Inc., to formhis own public relations counseling service in New York City. He is also president of the Public Relations ReviewPublishing Corp., and editor of theQuarterly Review of Public Relationsfounded in 1955. Last year he was president of the Washington, D.C. Chapterof the Public Relations Society of America,(PRSA) and currently he is chairman ofthe national PRSA Education and Research Committee.CARL L. BYERLY, AM'36, PhD'46, ofDetroit, Mich., has recently been promoted to assistant superintendent of theDetroit Public Schools in charge of curriculum development and the improvement of instruction. Mr. Byerly has beenwith the Detroit school system for fouryears serving as district administrator.Prior to going to Detroit in 1958, he wasassociate superintendent of schools inClayton, Mo.ELLIS K. FIELDS, '36, PhD'38, andfamily (his wife is JEANETTE SHAMES,'42) are living in London, England thisyear where Mr. Fields is doing researchand teaching on the staff at King's College of the University of London. Mr.Fields was recently named senior researchassociate in the research department ofAmoco Chemicals Corp., Whiting, Ind.The Fieldses will return to the U.S. inAugust, 1963.ROBERT F. RUSHMER,' 36, MD'39, andCHARLES H. RAMMELKAMP, JR.,MD'37, have received DistinguishedAchievement Awards from the editors of26 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEModern Medicine, an international medical journal, for contributions which haveinfluenced current medical practice. Theawards are presented annually, and wentto 10 medical scientists this year. Alsoreceiving an award was Stephen Rothman,professor of dermatology emeritus in theU of C Department of Medicine. Dr.Bushmer, a cardiovascular physiologistand professor of physiology at the University of Washington, Seattle, hasheaded a team of scientists developingnew research equipment and conductingstudies in circulatory function and control. Dr. Rammelkamp, professor of medicine at Western Reserve University anddirector of research for Cleveland CityHospital, was cited for his leadership inthe study of streptococcal infections withemphasis on the prevention of rheumaticfever. He is currently directing fieldtrials in Santiago, Chile, where rheumaticfever is prevalent, to test whether penicillin will ward off development of rheumatic heart disease. Dr. Rothman wascited for his laboratory and clinical workrelating the basic sciences to dermatology.His book, Physiology and Biochemistryof the Skin, published in 1954, was abase and stimulus for the rapid increasein investigative dermatology which hasfollowed.ELIZABETH MARRIOTT COOPER,'38, is now in Chicago at the U of CHospitals as secretary for the division ofneurology. For the past 14 years she hadlived in Seattle, Wash.SEYMOUR MEYERSON, '38, has beenpromoted to research associate with theAmerican Oil Co., Whiting, Ind. Hejoined the laboratory staff there in 1946and has achieved wide recognition throughhis research with the mass spectrometer.ANDREW F. STEHNEY, '42, PhD'50,and his wife, VIRGINIA ALLEN, '42,have been in Geneva, Switzerland for thepast year where Mr. Stehney has workedat CERN, an inter-European laboratoryconcerned with research on the peacefuluses of atomic energy. Mrs. Stehneycomments that "Geneva is a lovely cityitself and is in a fine central locationfor making trips to other interestingplaces. We have enjoyed getting to knowpeople from various European countries."AARON BROWN, PhD'43, project director of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, Newvork City, was appointed a member ofthe Board of Education of New YorkCity by Mayor Wagner on April 25,1962, for a seven-year term. Mr. Brown,who is the only Negro on the nine-member board, has spent his life in thefield of education and has held numerousadministration jobs. From 1943 to 1954he was president of Albany State Collegein Georgia at which time he joined thePhelps-Stokes Fund.RUTH WERNER KATZ, '43, of Wilmington, Del., is "rather busy withC.J.K., [her husband, CHARLES, MD'37], Jeffry, 15, Jonathan, 12, Janet, 7, two German shepherds, a 17-year-oldcat acquired the first year of our marriage, and chamelions, horned toads,snakes, plus whatever flora and faunaturn up at a little farm we now have."U-52ETHEL E. RASMUSSON, '44, AM'47,who has been attending Brown University, Providence, R.I., received herPh.D. degree in American civilization atthe June commencement there. MissRasmusson wrote a thesis on "Capitalor, the Delaware: The Philadelphia UpperClass in Transition, 1789-1301."WILLIAM C. ZIEGERT, '44, managerof the Salina district of Standard Oil division of American Oil Co., has beenpromoted to the company's general officein Chicago. In his new position, Mr.Ziegert will be manager of the tires,batteries, accessories, and agriculturalchemicals department. He originallyjoined Standard Oil in 1940, and becameSalina district manager in 1960.ROBERT J. GNAEDINGER, JR., '45,SM'50, PhD'51, has been named directorot advanced development at AmericanMicro Devices, Inc., Phoenix, Ariz. Hisgroup will concentrate on advanced device and process development aimed atthe company's program to produce microcomputer diodes and integrated circuits.OWEN JENKINS, '45, AM'50, has beenpromoted to the rank of associate professor of English at Carleton College,Northfield, Minn. Mr. Jenkins, who joinedthe Carleton faculty in 1954, has alsobeen associated with the college's SummerProgram of Special Studies for the pastthree years, as a teacher or as directorof the program. He taught at Cornell University and Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta before going to Carleton.LOIS WELLS REED, '45, SM'51, hasmoved to Hamden, Conn., where herhusband has taken the position of curatorof mammals at the Peabody Museum,Yale University. Mrs. Reed, her husbandand their three sons are spending theyear (1962-63) "digging" in Egypt inthe Aswan Dam area. Her husband isworking under the sponsorship of Pea-body Museum and the National ScienceFoundation, and the Reeds are sponsoring the rest of the family's trip.FRANZ SCHULZE, '45, has been promoted to full professor of art at LakeForest College, Lake Forest, 111. Mr.Schulze, who is art editor of the ChicagoDaily News, joined the Lake Forest faculty as assistant professor in 1952 andbecame associate professor in 1955. Heserved as chairman of the art departmentfrom the time of his appointment until1959 when he asked to be relieved ofclassroom teaching and of administrativeresponsibilities to devote more time to DR. PAUL R. CANNON, PhD'21, MD'25, professor emeritus and formerchairman of the Department of Pathology, received a special scientific giftto mark his 70th birthday on August25. The gift is a specially publishedcollection of original scientific papersby more than a score of friends andformer students at the U of C andother institutions across the country.The papers, presented to Dr. Cannonin a leatherbound volume on October6, also appear in the October andNovember issues of the Archives ofPathology, of which he is a long-timeeditor.Among many contributors to thevolume are: ROBERT W. WISSLER,SM'43, PhD'46, MD'48, Dr. Cannon'ssuccessor as chairman of the Department of Pathology; ARTHUR J. VOR-WALD, PhD'31, MD'32, head of theDepartment of Industrial Medicine andHygiene, Wayne University, Detroit;ESMOND R. LONG, '11, PhD'19, MD'26, former head of the Henry PhippsInstitute, Philadelphia; CLARENCE C.LUSHBAUGH, '38, PhD'42, MD'48,member of the staff for medical research, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California; EDWINF. HIRSCH, PhD'14, MD'15, formerdirector, Henry Baird Favill Laboratory, St. Luke's Hospital, now Presby-terian-St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago.Dr. Cannon is known both for hisfundamental research on immunemechanisms, nutrition, and resistance toinfection, and for work that has influenced food and drug regulation overthe past 25 years. A member of theU of C faculty from 1926 until hisretirement in 1957, Dr. Cannon is currently a member of the new Commission on Drug Safety of the pharmaceutical industry, and chairman of theToxicology Study Section of the National Institutes of Health.NOVEMBER, 1962 27BROWN '43painting. He continued as a part-timemember of the faculty with the title ofartist-in-residence. Mr. Schulze has exhibited his paintings in Chicago, NewYork and at other galleries throughoutthe U.S. as well as in Munich wherehe studied during 1956-57 on a GermanGovernment Fellowship. In addition tohis Daily News position, he is currentlymid-west art editor of the ChristianScience Monitor and writes for theMonthly Art News.CLARENCE W. SORENSEN, AM'47,PhD'51, former dean of the Illinois StateNormal University Graduate School, hasaccepted the presidency of AugustanaCollege, Rock Island, 111., effective September 1. Augustana is a co-educational,church-related, liberal arts college ofabout 1,350 students. Mr. Sorensen joinedthe faculty at Illinois State Normal (inNormal, 111. ) in 1949 as professor ofgeography and 10 years later becamedean of the graduate school. A primaryresponsibility in that position was thedevelopment of new doctoral programsfor the preparation of college teachers.In 1951-52 Mr. Sorensen directed thepreparation of a new series of textbooksin government schools of Pakistan, andduring 1958 he visited the Soviet Unionwith a group of American professors,making an intensive study of Russianeducation. The author and co-author of15 books and many articles, Mr. Sorensenhas also served as educational consultantfor Encyclopaedia Britannica Films.W. ALLEN AUSTILL, '48, AM'51, ofLos Angeles, Calif., is in Amman, Jordan,serving as an educational consultant to theKingdom of Jordan, for the Ford Foundation. Mrs. Austill is JOAN SELLERY, '52.JAMES BENJAMIN, AM'48, has joinedthe staff of New York City's first educational television station, WNDT, as coordinator of special projects. Mr. Benjamin develops special programs for thestation, which went on the air in mid- SORENSON '47September. For the past seven years,Mr. Benjamin was a free-lance writer-producer with television networks. Heand his wife, MARILYN TALMAN,AM'50, and their two sons live in NorthTarrytown, N.Y.MARY GLEASON, '49, who has beenwith the Midway Music Co., in Chicagofor several years, moved to New Yorkwith the company on May 1. When sheisn't mastering her new guitar, which shebought in Spain last year, she does somefree-lance radio writing and an occasional assignment writing "liner notes"for record albums.NORMAN A. GRAEBNEB, PhD'49, professor and chairman of the history department at the University af Illinois,Urbana, delivered Louisiana State University's 1962 series of Walter LynwoodFleming Lectures in Southern History,during April. It was the 24th seriesof the lectures, and Mr. Graebner's topicwas "The Divided South, 1848."DAVID J. L. LUCK, '49, has beennamed research associate at the Bocke-feller Institute, New York City. Dr. Luckreceived his Ph.D. from the Institute inJune. For the previous five years he hasbeen associated with the MassachusettsGeneral Hospital as intern, assistant resident and resident physician, after receiving his M.D. degree from Harvard University School of Medicine in 1953.KATHEBINE A. KENDALL, PhD'50,received a distinguished service citationin April from the Louisiana State University School of Social We'fare. Shewas cited for her leadership as executivesecretary of the American Association ofSchools of Social Work, and later aseducational secretary and associate director of the Council on Social WorkEducation, and as secretary and memberof the executive board of the International Association of Schools of SocialWork. At the presentation it was stated:"To these responsibilities she brings LUCK '49breadth and depth of vision, objectivealertness to the demands of a changingsociety, and unwavering conviction as tothe goals and values of social workeducation."EDWABD F. KRISE, AM"50, PhD'58,major in the U.S. Army, recently completed the 34-week medical service officer career course at Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas.Before entering the army, Mr. Krise wasa consultant with the Public WelfareBoard of North Dakota.ROBERT LINDBLOM, '50, of Oildale,Calif., says Standard Oil of California iskeeping him busy at oil and gas huntingin the San Joaquin Valley. He is presently headquartered in Bakersfield.BEBTBAM KOSTANT, SM'51, PhD'54,has been named to a professorship in thedepartment of mathematics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. Since 1956, he has servedon the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley. During 1955-56 he wasHiggins Lecturer at Princeton University.He is the author of numerous articles andhas been the recipient of Guggenheim,Solan, Miller, Atomic Energy Commissionand National Science Foundation fellowships.CLAUS G. MANASSE, MBA'51, hasmoved to Fort Lee, N.J. and is now market planning administrator at the newly-established I.T.T. Data Processing Centerat the International Electric Corp., Para-mus, N.Y.DONALD GINSBERG, '52, '55, SM'58,a member of the staff of the physics department at the University of Illinois, hasbeen awarded a two-year grant from theAlfred P. Sloan Foundation, for basicresearch in the physical sciences. He willpursue pure research of his own choiceunder the grant which was effective inSeptember, 1962.28 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEJLkj \J v/ ? XjXiJljXlHe is a scientist. Dedicated, learned. He is inquisitive by nature. Exploring ishis business. He's one of more than six hundred thousand GM men and womenwhose talents, skills and training combine to create, plan and produce superiorproducts. You could find his counterpart at one of our great universities. You'llfind him, however, at General Motors Research Laboratories, where he and hisfellow scientists are engaged in two kinds of research — basic research, devoted tothe advancement of scientific knowledge; and applied research, carrying outGM's tradition of constant product improvement.The General Motors team also includes more than a million shareholders, plusthe many thousands of people who work for suppliers and dealers. These, too,are important parts of GM's greatest asset — people.GENERAL MOTORS IS PEOPLE .MAKING BETTERTHINGS FOR YOURICHARD GREENBAUM, '52, who iscompleting work for his doctoral degreein sociology from Harvard University,has been appointed to do a study of thenew ambulatory patient care programat the Peter Bent Brigham HospitalClinic in Boston, Mass. The clinic received a grant of $30,815 from the Medical Foundation, Inc. of Boston, to supportMr. Greenbaum's work. He will analyzethe effectiveness of the new clinic program in which patients receive continuous personal care by one doctor instead of the usual practice of having thepatient go to many separate clinics forthe treatment of multiple disorders.CHARLES F. McKIEL, JR., '52, wasawarded the $200 Rush Medical CollegeAward as the outstanding surgical resident at Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital,Chicago. Dr. and Mrs. McKiel live inGlencoe, 111.5^-61JOSEPH ROTMAN, '54, SM'56, PhD'59,of the University of Illinois mathematicsfaculty was one of 22 theoretical mathematicians invited to participate in the firstSymposium on Abelian Group Theory tobe held in the U.S. The meeting washeld in June at New Mexico State University.LLOYD A. CURRIE, PhD'55, a specialist in the field of nuclear chemistryand physical chemistry, has joined thestaff of the National Bureau of Standards,U.S. Department of Commerce. For thepast six years, Mr. Currie has been assistant professor of chemistry at Pennsylvania State University. At the Bureau,Mr. Currie will study nuclear reactionsusing an accelerator and investigate lowlevel radiochemical techniques. He willalso direct a program of accurate detection and separation of radio-nuclides atvery low levels of activity in the Radiation Physics Division.STANTON T. FRIEDMAN, '55, SM'56,of Alamo, Calif., presented an invitedpaper on "Preliminary Shield Design forNuclear Electric Space Power Plants," atthe summer general meeting of theAmerican Institute of Electrical Engineersin Denver on June 21. Mr. Friedman iswith Aerojet-General Nucleonics in SanRamon, Calif.WILLIAM A. SHACK, AM'57, professorof sociology and anthropology at ChicagoTeachers College North, was appointedto train a new Peace Corps unit for dutyin Ethiopia this summer. He directed atwo-month training program which beganin June at Georgetown University inWashington, D.C. Mr. Shack, whomPeace Corps head R. Sargent Shrivercalled, "the expert on Ethiopia," hadformerly served for two years as a con sultant to the Ethiopian ministry of education. The Corps members going toEthiopia are primarily secondary schoolteachers, plus some carpenters, mechanics and other technical workers. TheEthiopian unit numbers about 300 volunteers.BENJAMIN D. WRIGHT, PhD'57, associate professor of educational psychologyat the U of C, presented a paper at theannual meeting of the American Psychological Assn., in St. Louis, Mo. in September. The paper was entitled, "TheEffect of Color on Apparent Size, Distance and Movement."ROBERT A. DEVRIES, '58, MBA'61, isserving as assistant director of the MiamiValley Hospital in Dayton, Ohio— an 800-bed general hospital. Mr. DeVries had apaper on nursing education publishedlast spring in Torch, international professional men's organization journal.CARL W. TIPTON, MBA'58, a major inthe U.S. Air Force, is currently stationedat Whiteman Air Force Base near War-rensburg, Mo. Recently his temporarytours of duty have taken him to Rome;Majorca, Spain; and Garmisch, Germany.RONALD E. FRANK, MBA'59, PhD'60,faculty member at the Harvard University Graduate School of Business, haswritten a textbook with two other authorswhich is scheduled for publication duringthe fall of 1962 : Quantitative Techniquesin Marketing Analysis: Text and Readings.WILBUR R. GEMMEL, MBA'59, waschairman of the business and industrydivision for the 1962 Skokie ValleyUnited Crusade which serves the communities of Golf, Lincolnwood, MortonGrove, Niles, and Skokie, 111. Mr. Gem-mel is superintendent— operating, of Teletype Corp., Skokie. He is also vicepresident of the Skokie Valley IndustrialAssn., and a member of the WesternSociety of Engineers. He and his familylive in Glenview, 111.JOHN L. GIBSON, '59, of Iowa City,la., has been appointed a career foreignservice officer with the State Department.The appointment also makes him a viceconsul and a secretary in the DiplomaticService. Mr. Gibson is presently attending the Foreign Service Institute, inArlington, Va., in preparation for hisoverseas assignment.GERALD W. GILLETTE, AM'59, ofPrinceton, N.J., received a master oflibrary science degree from Rutgers University in June.ELIZABETH HUGHES, 59, receivedthe master of arts degree in philosophyfrom Brown University, Providence, R.I.,in June. Miss Hughes, originally of Cambridge, Mass., wrote a thesis entitled,"Brentano and the Nature of EthicalJudgments."RICHARD E. LARSON, MBA'60, nowof Scotia, N.Y., has taken a new positionwith International Business Machines. He is systems engineer in the data processing division and currently is workingout of the Albany office. Mr. Larson wasformerly with General Electric.MILTON C. LAUENSTEIN, JR.,MBA'60, has been elected president ofMetal Hydrides Inc., Beverly, Mass. Hewas previously affiliated with Bell &Howell Co., Chicago, as director of longrange planning. Mr. Lauenstein and hisfamily, who formerly lived in WesternSprings, 111., have moved to Wenham,Mass. Mr. Lauenstein has been a lecturer in business at the U of C GraduateSchool of Business.SYLVIA M. PANDOLFI, '60, of Home-wood, 111., was recently married to EmilioOrtiz'S of Mexico City, Mexico. Thecouple are presently in Europe whereMr. Ortiz'S is studying painting in Rome.Mrs. Ortiz'S studied at the Art Instituteof Chicago, and was a fellowship studentat the Institute de Allende, San Miguelde Allende, where she studied sculpture.DAVID F. PASKAUSKY, '60, formerly ofWaukegan, 111., has taken a position asinstructor in physics at Aquinas College,Grand Rapids, Mich.PHILIP B. CORN, '61, has been commissioned a second lieutenant in the U.S.Air Force upon graduation from officertraining school at Lackland Air ForceBase, Texas. Mr. Corn, who was selectedfor the training course through competitive examinations with other collegegraduates, has been assigned to KeeslerAir Force Base, Miss., to attend the communications officer course. Mr. Corn isoriginally from Chicago.ALAN J. GRILL, MBA'61, and ALEXANDER A. HUMULOCK, JR., MBA'61,are captains in the U.S. Air Force andrecently both completed specializedcourses. Mr. Grill graduated from thepilot instructor training course at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas, and hasbeen assigned to Webb Air Force Base,Texas as an instructor pilot. Mr. Humu-lock will remain at Wright Patterson AirForce Base, Ohio, where he recentlycompleted the cost accounting course atthe Air Force Institute of Technology'sLogistics School.JAMES HOGE, JR., AM'61, was marriedin June to Alice Patterson Albright inChicago. The Hoges will make theirhome in Washington, D.C, where Mr.Hoge has a fellowship from the AmericanPolitical Science Foundation.DAVID M. McCORMICK, PhD'61, isnow assistant professor of governmentat Idaho State College in Pocatello, Ida.,and was recently appointed a member orthe Idaho Advisory Committee to theU.S. Commission on Civil Rights.MILAN J. PACKOVICH, MD'61, hasbeen appointed a resident in internalmedicine at the Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minn. The Mayo Foundation is apart of the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota.30 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEmemorialsHARRY A. LIPSKY, '96, of Chicago, diedon May 25.ELMER E. TODD, '96, of Seattle, Wash.,died on August 30.ZELMA E. CLARK, '97, of Chicago,died in October, 1961.FRANCES HAY, '97, retired high schoolteacher, died on May 21 in Washington,D.C. From 1900 until her retirement in1938, Miss Hay taught English and geography at what is now Roosevelt HighSchool. She became head geographyteacher there in 1924.HENRY KLEIN, MD'97, died on May 11.[OHN W. BEARDSLEE, JR., AM'00,PhD'13, of New Brunswick, N.J., diedon May 10. He had been president ofthe New Brunswick Theological Seminaryfrom 1935 to 1947, after which he continued at the seminary as professor ofthe New Testament until his retirementeight years ago. Mr. Beardslee who wasordained by the Reformed Church in1910 was a former president of the General Synod, national body of the Reformed Church in America. He held adoctorate of theology degree from theFaculte Libre de Theologie Protestantede Paris which he received in 1936 whilehe occupied the pulpit at the AmericanChurch in Paris. Mr. Beardslee was aconsulting editor for the Interpreter'sBible andf was an early consultant on theRevised Standard Version of the Bible.RHODA CAPPS RAMMELKAMP, '00,of Jacksonville, 111., died on May 19. Shewas the widow of Charles H. Rammel-kamp, longtime president of Illinois College in Jacksonville. Following his deathin 1932, Mrs. Rammelkamp was namedalumni secretary of the college, a position which she held until 1947. In 1948,in recognition of a lifetime of service,the college awarded her the honorarydegree of Doctor of Humane Letters.Two of her sons are also U of C alumni:CHARLES H. RAMMELKAMP, JR.,MD'37, of Cleveland, Ohio, and THEODORE C. RAMMELKAMP, '41, of Jacksonville.ALMA GEEWE ULRICH, '00, of SanAntonio, Texas, died on September 20,1961. *A. WATSON BROWN, '02, retired minis-NOVEMBER. 1962 ter of National City, Calif., died on July19, 1959.REGINA K. CRANDALL, PhD'02, ofBriarcliff Manor, N.Y., died on June 5.AUSTIN Y. HOY, '02, of Westport,Conn., died on August 15 at the age of81. Mr. Hoy was founder of Austin Hoy& Co., makers of coal and metal miningequipment and headed the company until1939 when he retired. Formerly he hadworked for Sullivan Machinery Co. ofChicago, acting as its European managerand later European managing directorwhile residing in England.WILLIAM M. BURNS, '03, of Hinsdale,111., died on April 28.GENEVIEVE E. MONSCH, '03, ofWinter Park, Fla., died on June 1. Shetaught botany in the Chicago publicschools for many years before her retirement. Miss Monsch had moved to WinterPark 15 years ago.JOHN B. WATSON, PhD'03, of NewYork, N.Y., died on September 25, 1958.MARIE THOMPSON HILL, '04, ofPasadena, Calif., died on December 7,1961.ELIZABETH MUNGER, '06, of OldLyme, Conn., died on August 15, at theage of 79. A foremost figure in correctional work, Miss Munger had beensuperintendent of the State Farm forWomen in Niantic, Conn., for 21 years.She resigned from her duties in 1947because of poor health. She was a formervice president of the American PrisonAssn., secretary of the first prison reformcommission, and founder of the International Women's Police.HELEN E. WEBSTER, who attendedthe U of C in 1906 and who died inChicago March 30, 1961, left a provision in her will for a gift of $5000 tothe U of C cancer fund.ZELLA PERKINS EGDAHL, SM'07, ofRockford, 111., died on November 21,1961. She lived in Rockford for 43 years.During her teaching career she was headof the science department at Stout Institute in Menomonie, Wise, and taughtchemistry in Rockford and Chicago hospitals.WILLIAM A. McDERMID, '07, of New LOWER YOUR COSTSIMPROVED METHODS -^EMPLOYEE TRAININGWAGE INCENTIVESJOB EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURESROTERTB. SHAPIRO, ,'33, FOUNDERSidewalksFactory FloorsMachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrmal 7-0433We operate our own dry cleaning plant1309 East 57th St. 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.Ml dway 3-0602 NO rmal 7-98581553 E. Hyde Park Blvd. FAirfax 4-57591442 E. 57th Midway 3-0607GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS, Inc.Painting — Decorating — Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3186MODEL CAMERA SHOPLeica - Bolex - Rol leiflex - Polaroid1342 E. 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259NSA Discounts24-hour Kodachrome DevelopingHO Trains and Model SuppliesYork City, died on May 14. Mr. McDer-mid, an advertising and marketing consultant, founded W. A. McDermid andAssociates in the 1930's. He had formerly been a founder of Van Schmus,McDermid & Crawford, management consultant firm.ADOLPH G. PIERROT, '07, of ForestPark, IM., died on September 5. He wasthe first full time alumni secretary at31UNIVERSITY NATIONAL BANK1354 East 55fh StreetMemberFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationMUseum 4-1200POND LETTER SERVICE, Inc.Everything in LettersHooven Typewriting MimeographingMultigraphing_ AddressingAddressograph Service MailingHighest Quality Service Minimum PricesAll Phones: 2 1 9 W. Chicago Ave,Ml 2-8883 Chicago 10, IllinoisLEIGH'S GROCERY1327 EAST 57TH STREETServing the UniversityArea and Hyde PorkSince 1934DELIVERY SERVICEBOYD & GOULDSINCE 188&HYDE PARK AWNING CO. INC.SINCE 1896NOW UNDER ONE MANAGEMENTAwnings and Canopies for All Purposes9305 South Western Phone: 239-1511Since 7878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefmishingAntiques Restored1919 N. Sheffield Ave. • LI 9-7180RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331 TelephoneW. Jackson Blvd. MOnroe 6-3192BEST BOILER REPAIR & WELDING CO.24 HOUR SERVICELicensed • Bonded • InsuredQualified WeldersSubmerged Water HeatersHAymarket 1-79171404-08 S. Western Ave., Chicago Chicago-from 1919 to 1926. More recently he was on the faculties of Roosevelt University, the University of Colorado, George Williams College, and theCentral Y.M.C.A., Chicago.HEATH T. BYFORD, '08, of Marianna,Fla., died on July 1.HARRY R. JAMES, '08, of Chicago, diedon September 23.From the estate of STEPHANIE V.LOCKWOOD, '08, the U of C receivedan unrestricted gift of $2000. Miss Lock-wood, a French teacher who lived atthe Plaisance Hotel, Chicago, died February 2, 1961.MARY ELEANOR MOORE, '08, ofPrescott, Ariz., died on April 26 at theage of 102.ARTHUR L. HOOPER, '09, of Spokane,Wash., died in October, 1961.ARTHUR J. LEWIS, MD'09, of Henning,Minn., died on May 3.CHARLES A. PROCTOR, PhD'09, ofHanover, N.H., died in 1961.EDWARD BUCKMAN, 11, MD'13, ofChicago, died on June 29.E. CATHERINE BURKHOLDER, 11,retired college instructor, died on September 6 at the age of 91.BERNICE EDDY SHAKMANOFF, 14,of Newago, Mich., died on July 28.MARY MacDONALD LUDGIN, 15,died September 30, from injuries in anauto accident. She was the wife of alumnus-trustee Earle Ludgin, chairman ofEarle L. Ludgin & Co., Chicago (advertising). Mrs. Ludgin was a Nu Pi Sigma,Wyvern, Phi Beta Kappa, and University Aide and, at one time she was amember of the English department. Sheis survived by four sons and a daughter,three of whom have degrees from Chicago: EARLE LOUIS, '48; QUENTIN,'57; MARY BARBARA, '45; Donald, andRoger.ILSE SPINDLER FUIKS, 16, of Yon-kers, N.Y., died on May 14.JOSEPH L. SAMUELS, 17, of Chicago,died on September 22. He was presidentof Douglas Lumber Co.E. MARIE PUDER, '21, SM'25, of Chicago, died on February 27. For the past33 years she had been a member of thehistory department at Bowen High Schoolin Chicago.LEWIS J. FUIKS, '22, of New YorkCity, died on July 30. Mrs. Fuiks, 16,(above) died on May 14.JOHN H. BRADLEY, PhD'24, of Escon-dido, Calif., died August 18. Mr. Bradley, a geologist and geographer, had beenhead of the geology department of theUniversity of Southern California and didextensive research in California, theNorthwest and Alaska. He was theauthor of several books, and the discoverer of a fossil starfish estimated tobe 200 million years old which he found in the Inyo Mountains of Southern California, and which was subsequentlynamed for him.ROBERT W. LENNON, '25, MD'29, ofJoliet, 111., died October 3. Dr. LennOnwas an eye, ear, nose and throat specialist for 29 years there. He was formerchief of staff at St. Joseph Hospital,Joliet, and head of the hospital's eye,ear, nose and throat department.MARION REISSENWEBER, '27, of NewYork City, died on September 7. She wasclinical psychologist with the Institutefor Crippled and Handicapped Children.WALTER G. WILLIAMSON, '27, ofMount Vernon, N.Y., died on March 18.ELIA BENDELL HAYNES, '28, of Chicago, died in 1957.WILLIAM GARTSIDE, '30, of Los Angeles, Calif., died in June.MARGUERITE M. HARTMAN, JD'31,of Des Moines, la., died on August 2.WARREN B. CRANE, MD'37, of Kalamazoo, Mich., died on September 15.Dr. Crane had practiced medicine inKalamazoo since 1938, and was a member of hospital medical staffs at Bronsonand Borgess Hospitals there.GRAHAM FAIRBANK, '38, of Winnetka,111., died on October 9. Mr. Fairbank wasa partner in Nicholson Porter & List, areal estate firm in Chicago.LAVINIA W. GRAHAM, '38, of Chicago,died on February 6. She was a teacher.ELEANOR M. MacKIMM, AM'43, ofChicago, died on September 25. Mrs.MacKimm was a former U.S. governmentmedical social worker until her retirement in 1952.JOHN C. DOYLE, '50, of Park Forest,111., died in May.ARNOLD S. SHAPIRO, PhD'50, died onMay 1, in Newton, Mass.ELIZABETH SAWYER JORDAN, SM'52, of Tallahassee, Fla., died on July 25.Surviving her are her two young daughters and her husband, CHARLES L.JORDAN, '48, '49, SM'51, PhD'56.JACQUELINE REID, '55, AM'58, UnitedStates Information Agency (USIA) officer, died in Abidjan, Ivory Coast onSeptember 16. Miss Reid, 29, wasdrowned while on a beach outing. Shejoined the USIA as a secretary in 1960and several months later was appointeda career officer in the Agency's foreignservice and assigned to duty in Tehran.She was transferred to her Ivory Coastpost as program assistant in December,1961.THOMAS INKLEY, MBA'57, of Chicago, died on September 6. He was withChicago Title & Trust Co.EDWARD B. KRAINIK, MBA'58, lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army, diedin June. He was killed in an accidentin Japan where he was stationed withthe Army.32 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINE"Why I gave up asuccessful career at 40"^> -VxoJj-jLy VV^^Ukmj^ ..C.L.U.a 'Even though I was an executive, I was stillan employee'/ explains Mr. Newhouse.What I really wanted was my own business/"I had held various executive positions in big companiesand enjoyed a fine income. Yet something was missing.None of these jobs gave me the deep satisfaction of running my own show . . . of profiting in direct proportion tomy effort. I decided I'd look over the field and make achange."So, at the age of 40, I entered a totally new career,where I would be my own boss. And I found I could besuccessful, in terms of income, from the very start."But other rewards were equally important. I found inthe life insurance business an amazing number of 'plusses'.I had to make no investment. There was no inventory,no plant and no labor problem. And, in addition, I hadthe privilege of doing business with people I enjoy doingbusiness with."I picked Massachusetts Mutual as the company thatoffered me the very best opportunity. It has an outstanding reputation and its dynamic growth is reflectedin the fact it now has 2.6 billion dollars in assets. Solid,yet progressive — that sounded like the right combination."In my first twelve months of actual work, I met myown goal of a million dollars in sales . . . and Vve donebetter than that ever since."And our opportunities are steadily growing. U. S.families are being formed at the fastest sustained rate inhistory — parents are far more life insurance-consciousthan ever before. Business firms, too, are discovering thetremendous value in the variety of uses for business lifeinsurance."It's interesting to me to note that some men seemto think that it is a cinch to get into the life insurancebusiness. This is not true of Massachusetts Mutual!Far more applicants are rejected than are accepted. Onlyafter some searching examinations are individuals accepted for training by Massachusetts Mutual GeneralAgents. "Our business provides two kind of security: First, youreceive a steady income from earlier policies which youhave sold, as well as from new sales. Second, Massachusetts Mutual provides all of the so-called 'fringe' benefitsoffered by progressive firms today, including a fine retirement plan. Yet I am on my own — and it's an even betterfeeling than I had expected it would be."I work with people I like and respect. When I dealwith a company, I work with its top executives. When alarge estate is arranged, I deal not only with its owner — aman of substance — but with his attorney, his accountantand a bank trust officer. These business contacts oftendevelop into warm personal friendships, as well."My favorite sports are hunting, fishing, and skiing —and I am able to indulge in them when I wish. But, 1actually find more pleasure and satisfaction from mywork. I never thought I could make that statement beforeI entered this field."* * *Over a hundred Massachusetts Mutual men are nowaveraging $30,000 income a year . . . which means thatmany make substantially more. In our entire sales force,men with 5 years or more experience are averaging closeto $14,000.Are you being held back by office politics or slow advancement? Do you feel chained to a desk? Does businesstravel keep taking you away from your family? Or — areyou just plain bored with your work?Would you like to be in business for yourself?Would you like to switch to a new career— and be paidwhile you are trained!If so, the President of Massachusetts Mutual would likeyou to write him a personal letter about yourself. Address: Charles H. Schaaff, President, MassachusettsMutual Life Insurance Company, Springfield, Massachusetts.This could be the most important step you have evertaken. Like that big step taken by Stan Newhouse....suddenly, new hope in lifeA man lies on the operating table, crippled with the exhausting tremors of Parkinson's disease. The surgeonguides a slender tube deep inside the patient's brain until it reaches the target area. Then liquid nitrogen,at 320 degrees below zero F., is fed to the end of the tube. Suddenly the trembling stops. The unearthly coldkills the diseased cells . . . and a once desperate human being has been given a new chance in life. ? Medicalreports have indicated that not only Parkinson's disease but also other disorders causing tremor or rigidityhave responded to this new technique in brain surgery. The operation has been described as easier on thepatients than previous surgery, and they have been able to leave the hospital in a surprisingly short time.Also, encouraging results are reported on the use of cryosurgery, as it is called, to destroy diseased cells inother parts of the body. ? Through its division, Linde Company, Union Carbide was called upon by medicalscientists for help in designing and making equipment to deliver and control the critical cold required in thisnew surgery. This dramatic use of cryogenics, the science of cold, is an example of how research by thepeople of Union Carbide helps lead to a better tomorrow.A HAND IN THINGS TO COMEFor information describing the work in cryosurgery doneat the Neurosurgical Department of St. Barnabas Hospital, New York, write to:Union Carbide Corporation, 270 Park Avenue, New York 17, N. Y. In Canada: Union Carbide Canada Limited, TorontoUNIONCARBIDE