'UNIVERSITY OF:CHICAGOmagazineSuddenly ...you have ason and heir!Gives a man pause. Makes him stop andthink. A new generation has fallen into line... and its future is in your hands.Many young husbands and fathers havefound this a good time to seek a businesslikeanswer to the practical question, "Howmuch and what kind of life insurance shouldI own?"You can get a businesslike answer to thisquestion by asking a Connecticut MutualLife man for a copy of the booklet that hasthis question as its title.A CML agent is a good man to do businesswith because he knows how-and has thetools-to fit life insurance to your require­ments. He doesn't tell you-he asks you:How much money do you want deliveredto whom and when and how often? A CMLman may be able to show you how yourpresent life insurance can be stretched toprovide more money at the right timeswithout increasing the cost one cent! Shouldn'tyou know such a man?Dividends paid to policyholdersfor 116 yearsOwned by its policyholders, CML providcs high qualitylife insurance at low cost and gives personal servicethrough more than 300 offices in the United Statcs.Connecticut Mutual JLifeINSURANCE COMPANY· HARTFORDYour fellow alumni nowwith CMLJoseph H. Aaron '27Edward B. Bates '40Chester F. Goss '52Robert A. Havens '50PaulO. Lewis, CLU '28Fred G. Reed '33Dan O. Sa bath '43Russell C. Whitney, CLU '29 ChicagoHome officeMiamiAlbuquerqueChicagoChicagoChicagoChicagoMISS MYRASecond Lady of D'Evereux Hall,Natchez, Miss., died August 23, 1961,at the age of 80 years, leaving her$500,000 estate to the University ofChicago.Miss Myra was not a belle from afamous southern plantation family. Shewas Myra Virginia Smith, '02, a Yankeefrom Chicago. For 19 years she hadtaught French at Senn High Schooluntil her retirement in 1941.The first lady of D'Evereux Hall wasthe wife of William St. John Elliot, awealthy cotton broker who built thestately mansion with its classic Greekcolumns in 1840.When Myra Smith discoveredD'Evereux in 1925 it was a grey andneglected "haunted house." Said MissSmith, "The galleries were sagging,plaster was coming down, rats hadeaten through the baseboards, silver­fish had devoured the wall paper, and200 panes of glass were needed."But I was entranced. The housewas delapidated but it had a grandeurJANUARY, 1962 and a perfection of proportion thatfascinated me."A truck fanner and his family werecamping out in it, using most of therooms for storing grain and sweet pota­toes. A mysterious sense of destinyseized me and I felt I had to own it."Within a month, Mis� Smith indeeddid own it.Using her summers and school holi­days, she began a vigorous period ofrenovation while the townsfolk smiledcynically. Who was this Yankee who,single-handedly proposed to bring backto life a mansion, dead for fifty years?In two years the smiles were nolonger cynical. During the years untilher retirement in 1941, Miss Smithcarted down Victorian furniture, someof it from her old home in Springfield,I11.-furnishings which had belonged toher grandmother.In October, 1927, her brother, Dr.Haymond Smith, a physician, and hiswife moved into D'Evereux and stayeduntil his death in 1935. Miss Smithmoved down in 1941.She became active in the community;helped found the Natchez PublicLibrary and was president of the board;and was one of the original membersof the Pilgrimage Garden Club. Theylater established an annual $500 schol­arship in her honor.Of course D'Evereux became amajor attraction of the famous NatchezPilgrimage-to be held March 3 throughApril 1, 1962. Miss Myra dressed in memo padMISS MYRA1200 visitorsD'EVEREUX HALLHaunted1an ante-bellum gown and. welcomed.400 visitors a day to D'Evereux, therecord: 1200 in one day.The original house had four roomsand a large hall on each of the twofloors, Today the first Hoar containsa large hall, two parlors, a dining room,kitchen, pantry, breakfast room, and abedroom; the second Hoar, four bed­rooms, two baths, and a screenedporch.The present estate has 56 acres with11 acres composing the mansiongrounds and gardens. In addition tothis estate Miss Smith left the Univer­sity:-a 400-acre cotton plantation nearCharleston, Miss., known as "Skyland;"-one-half interest in a 1,OOO-acreproperty adjoining Skyland known as"Idalia";-eleven acres of "mountain prop­erty" near Bat Cave, N.C.;-$273,191 in stocks and bonds and$65,728 In cash.The will provides for six scholarshipfunds honoring the memory of her par­ents, her brother, and herself. Thescholarships are to go to students from-Sedalia, Mo., where her father hadbeen superintendent of schools;-Springfield, Ill., where both par­ents taught school and her father wasschool superintendent;-Senn High School, Chicago.-Fort Smith, Ark., where her brotherwas a physician; and-Natchez, Miss.Each of the scholarship recipients isto be given the following letter:This scholarship, entitling you forone academic year to the privilegesoffered by the University of Chicago,has been given . . . to encourage andassist you in developing the qualitiesof a scholar. These qualities include:Honesty of thought, of word, ofdeed; courage, both moral and physical;humility;Generosity of cheerfulness as well asof service and of finanCial aid; toler­ance;Loyalty to institutions and to per­sons; patience w�th and respect forthe capacities, whether great or small,of others;Diligence in the search for truth;an insatiable curiosity;A sense or humor to help maintainyour mental equilibrium. under tryingcircumstances; respect for and obedi­ence to authority;And an appreciation of the duty ofparticipating in local, state, and fed­eral governments, at least to the extentof thoughtful exercise of the right tovote.It is inevitable that, in proportionto the extent you develop these qual-2 ities, your lile will become richer andlasting benefits will accrue to others.InventoryWe have just completed a member­ship study for the Association's edi­torial and membership committees. Afew figures may interest you.Chicago has 68,000 living alumni(not including the additional thousandswho paused on campus for a few grad­uate courses). Of these 68,000, thereare 6,383 for whom we have no goodaddresses; 4,000 who are married toalumnae; and 1,631 who live in for­eign countries.There are 11,180 dues-paying mem­bers of the Alumni Association. Fourthousand live in Chicago or the suburbs.The others are scattered through thefifty states (California, 1,110; Alaska,11; Hawaii, 28) and many foreigncountries.Foreign note: The Magazine travelsto 13 European countries includingYugoslavia, Austria, and Luxembourg;9 Asian centers including Indonesia,Malaya, and Turkey; to numerousAfrican communities including Leopold­ville, Kenya, and Ebolona; to six SouthAmerican countries, Cuba, and down­under Australia.In the following table I'm impressedwith the facts that 5% of our membersnever completed work for any degreeat Chicago while, at the other extreme,over 40% did only graduate work onthe Midway. When you combine thelast two figures you discover that 67%have higher degrees.Members with nodegrees 559 5.0%Bachelor degrees only 3,080 27.6%Bachelor plus higherdegree (s) 2,999 26.8%Higher degrees only 4,542 40.6%11,180 100.0%I won't bore you with more figuresexcept to add that one in every fivegraduates of law, business, and medi­cine are members and receive the Mag-azine every month. H.W.M.THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONPRESIDENL John F. Dille. Jr.EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Howard W. MortADMINISTRATIVE ASST •...... Ruth G. HellorenPROGRAMMING .MaryJeanne Cerlso«ALUMNI FOUNDATIONNational chairman C. E. McKittrickDirector Chet LacyChicago-Midwest Area Florence MedowREGIONAL OFFICESEastern Reqion W. Ronald Sims26 E. 38th StreetNew York 16, N. Y.MUrray Hill 3-1063Los Angeles M rs. Merle Stephens1195 Charles St., Pesedene 3After 3 P.M.-SYc�more 3-4545MEMBERSHIP RATES (Includinq Magazine)1 year, $5.00: 3 years, $12.00 UNIVE:R$ITVOFCHICAGO,•maoazme5733 University AvenueChicago 37, IllinoisMidway 3-0800; Extension 32JAEDITOR.............................. Merjorie BurkhardtEDITORIAL ASSISTANT Rona MearsFEATURES3 . __ . Who Speaks for Peace?4 -_. Scientists and Non-Scientists:A Fundamental ConflictD. Jerome Fisher.5 -- .. - Scientists and Non-Scientists:A Dilemma in ComrnunlcetlonWillard F. Libbi8 _ A movement for Abolishing WarLeo Szilard12 _ Views of the Old Hyde Park19 .. ___ . ___ .._ Public WelfareFrank R. BreulDEPARTMENTS1 ............................•...•.......•.•.•••...••.•.....• Memo PadI L _ News of the Quadrangles24 News of the Cl-esses31 .. - . ._. ._ _._ _ MemorialsCOVERThe disintegration of a silver nucleus in anuclear photographic emulsion is recorded inthe form of a "star," or more specifically, anumber of tracks emanating from a commoncenter. One of these nuclear splinters. a"hyperfragment," appears as a heavy trackending in a "Y" shape-marking its spon:+eneous disintegration. Riccardo Levi Settl,who furnished this photomicrograph for theMagazine, from his files at the Fermi Institute,describes hyperfrag ments as IIa nuclear frag�ment carrying a time bomb in its pocket.When the bomb goes off, so does the frag'ment and we can identify all its constituentsfrom the analysis of the shatters." Throughthese nuclei with their fleeting lifetime ofabout ten-billionth of a second, scientistshope to learn more about the forces whichhold atomic cores together.CREDITS12: James H. Smith, Chicago Historical So'ciety; Painting by J. E. McBurney, courtesyof Illinois Central Railroad; Chicago Hlstori:cal Society; 13-16: cyclorama courtesy Univer­sity Archives: 13: Chicago Historical Society;Illinois Central Railroad; same; 14: ChicagOHistorical Society; University Archives: AlvinaLenke. Kaufmann and Febrv: 15: UniversityArchives: 16: Kaufmann and Fabry; Sherwif'Murphy, Woodlawn Historical Society: Mil,dred Mead: same; 18: Daniel Lyon: 21: Rose"in Albany Times Union; Herblock in Wash'ington Post.Published monthly, October throuqh June, by th.eUniversity of Chlceqo Alumni Associe+lon. 5733 UrII'versity Avenue, Chicaqo 37. III. Annual subscriptio�price, $5.00. Sinqle copies, 25 cents. Entered 1I�second cless matter December I, 1934, at the po;Office of Chiceqo, III •. under the act of March i1879. Advertising aqent: The American AIUl"(1yCouncil. 22 WashinQton SQuare. New York. N. 'THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIN�� THE TOPIC: "I believe the int�llectual life of thewhole of western society is increasingly being splitI into two polar groups . . • Literary intellectuals atone pole-at the other scientists, and as the mostrepresentative, the physical scientists."-C. P. Snow"... the subject of the gap between the two cul­tures has been a common topic of conversation ...I do believe the gap exists."-George W. Beadle"There is a real conflict' between scientists andmany non-scientists."-D. Jerome FisherTHE SPEAKERS: Professor in the Department ofGeophysical Sciences, D. JEROME FISHER is re­tiring after 41 years at the University. In a con­vocation address last September he defined the"two cultures" as he sees them. WILLARD F.LIBBY, who won the Nobel prize in 1960 for hisdevelopment of the "atomic calendar" at the Uni­versity of Chicago, has served from 1954-59 onthe five-man U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.Previously, he was professor of chemistry at Chi­cago. Mr. Libby, who is now at University of Cal­ifornia at Los Angeles, stated in a lecture herethat he doesn't think scientists necessarily havethe kind of sound judgment needed in politics.Speaking a few days later-December 1, the 19thanniversary of the first chain reaction-LEO SZI­LARD replied: "Those who believe that shouldstay out of politics." Mr. Szilard, who is professorof biophysics here and participated in the achieve­ment of the first chain reaction, believes thatscientists - the only men who show an objectivemeasure of their achievements - should be thekey men in a movement to abolish war. The fol­lowing are excerpts from all three speeches:JANUARY, 1962 .....' .."J • .,,.It, \WHO SPEAKSFOR PEACE?Scientists assesstheir Role3SCIENTISTSANDNON-SCIENTISTS:AfUNDAMENTALCONfLICTD. Jerome fisher:My forty-odd years in science have convinced me thatthere is no conflict between science and religion, orscience and culture, but there is a real conflict betweenscientists and many non-scientists. Or maybe insteadof calling this a conflict, it could be better referred toas a schism; a nearly complete failure to understandone another in any fundamental way, the way menthink and act.The best definition of science to my mind is that itis the rational search for truth. Ah, yes, you say-butaren't we all searching for the truth? So I will further4 qualify it by saying we scientists do not expect to findthe truth through revelation, except as serendipity rna)'be of help to us. And if we have this aid, we do notstop here; we do not accept such revelation as beingof any value to us, unless we and all other qualifiedscientists can confirm its validity through experiment oroft-repeated experience. If it fails this test, it is nottruth-at least not the complete truth.All scientists make guesses and write papers contain'ing material that will later be shown to be erroneousin short, are completely fallible and (I wish I couldadd) reasonably human. This is the way that sciencegrows; painfully, slowly, taking wrong paths, buteventually reaching what we regard as the truth, be'cause more or less readily confirmed by all subsequenttechnically-competent experience.One hope for Society is that most scientists aresmarter than I am. Now I don't mean this in a practicalpersonal way, because in this sense no one can beatme-my life proves it. During my first year in theUniversity I took a course in geology under an inspiringteacher (who was a graduate student) and then knewwhat I wanted to be. As an undergraduate and (afterthe war) a post-graduate here, and in all my later years,I have come to feel that at no other place could I havehad such a near-ideal, happy, truly free, and in a minotway productive life. But to get back to the question otsmart scientists rather than smart individuals. Howattimes I have bungled my scientific workl Some ?aperShave required more than a year of my time in experi:mental and observational study. And yet, had I knownthe answers to begin with, I would presumably haveknown how to get them, and the work could have beenaccomplished in a month or two. In short, what I aJ11trying to emphasize is that even now at my age andwith my experience I can make no beeline to learnwhat is the truth. It is like climbing a cinder cone;two steps up while slipping back one.Now let us assume I am a representative averagerun-of-mine scientist of an almost past generation, andplease remember I am not talking about geniuses ofnear-geniuses. If this be true, it is certainly the casethat scientists are human. They have no supernaturalpowers. When they finally stumble on a truth, theyhave done it in a roundabout, time-consuming, more orless bumbling fashion, and generally at the expense otlong hours of concentrated thinking and action. Butwhat they attain, eventually and collectively, may betaken as the truth. No real scientist doubts that he hasmade mistakes or hesitates to admit them in the lightof later experience. A scientist eats, drinks, and sleepsthe truth; nothing else really matters. Most researchscientists come to feel they are working in the path ofGod; that the Almighty fashioned a universe whichwould ever fascinate the keenest minds; and that Hewanted mankind to sweat his way to the truth, therebyfulfilling his destiny.BUT what about non-scientists? Well, let us exceptall scholars, scientists or not; let us say they are seekersafter the truth, which ideally they certainly are. Wh�tabout lawyers, politicians, statesmen-the folks who 111THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIl'1�the main govern us in a representative society'? In thepresence of most of these people the scientist-if heacts as a scientist rather than as some other kind ofhuman being-is regarded as naive, impractical, andprobably a nuisance. Our government at all levels­and I mean at all levels-is run by people (with toofew exceptions) that play the game: you scratch myback and I'll scratch yours. This is often called theart of compromise. It is a world utterly foreign to thatof the pure scientist. The politician commonly attainshis ends by working deals. The scientist attainshis endsby repeated trial and error until the truth is found;mistakes are freely recognized. The scientist cannotcompromise; the politician cannot avoid it and he darenot admit his mistakes (unless they are utterly glaring).. If you doubt these statements, I urge you to peruse abit of the Senate proceedings in the CongressionalRecord. Here you will find considerable pap of a sortwhich would never get by the editor of a scientificjournal. And in fact in any ordinary rational body, aspeaker trying to inject some of this material would belaughed out of court. Let us hope that a people thatcondones such practice is in an intellectual sense at alow ebb of its existence. '" And now, if the spirit stillmoves you, try reading the papers and discussions givenat some scientific assembly. Since in both cases we areconcerned with what individuals say, the intellectuallevel will of course vary considerably, but I assure youther� . will be no difficulty in assessing the relativequalities. Often you will feel that the politician isusing words to mask his real "thinking." In contrastthe scientist tries to employ words so that his meaningcannot be mistaken. No scientist can understand atypical politician unless he gets out of his scientificframe of reference.All this may sound as though I am picking on ourCongressmen, or our state legislators or our local alder­�en; I wish to specifically disavow such an interpreta­tion. If I am picking on anyone, it is you, and you, andYOU. A successful legislator is not going to try to leadpeople to do or to expect things that he knows theycannot be led to do or expect. As long as too man)!people want little selfish things from our Congressmen,these they will get. Only when a significant numberdemands national integrity in our Congress will this beachieved. But instead of suggesting that anyone or anygroup be blamed for this state of affairs, let us ask whydoes it or how can it exist? Apparently our Congress­men must act the way they do in order to get re-elected;Without this, their lives become purposeless. Until thevoters have sufficient education and integrity to realizethis (assuming we remain a democracy) there is smallprobability that any but the occasional Congressmancan think and talk in the spirit of a true scientist.In short there is no chance of any important changefor the better over any short period of time in thisschism of the way men think. Outside of war there isno greater source of danger to our freedom than thisantiquated philosophy of the practical or politicallypossible. It tends to drive us towards the lowest com­lU?n �enominator. The best hope for the future to mymind IS that education may be increasingly dominatedby the spirit of science-notice I did not say "byscience." •JANUARY, 1962 SCIENTISTSANDNON-SCIENTISTS:ADILEMA INCOMMUNICATIONWillard F. Libby:Scientists vary in their administrative ability as muchas any other group. Many are good administrators,most are average, and a few are very poor. The natureof administration, especially expert administration, con­sisting as it does of attention to method and system, aswell as to principles of behavior and moral standardsis very different from science being much more o� anart than a science. Scientists usually are not trainedfor this work and therefore when made administrators,are forced to learn on the job. Being well above averagein intelligence, they can learn rapidly to their limit ofability and rise to a standard of performance proper totheir background rather quickly. .' .The budding administrator who is a graduate scientistusually either begins to like his [ob or to dislike it with5increasing intensity. In other words, there is a tend­ency to fall sharply into two classes: for a scientistto either be an above-average administrator or far, farbelow average. A matter of a few weeks or months willsuffice to show which category applies.SCIENCE IN ADMINISTRATIONOur future is inexorably linked with Science. Thedevelopment of atomic energy has opened to us a wholenew world which we will certainly find of the utmostimportance in the future. Atomic energy is not theonly area of great breakthrough. Space is another.Microbiology is a third. Human genetics probably willbe a fourth in the future, and there are probably otherslying along the way which we at this time can not see.Consider the example of atomic energy. We changethe whole fabric of our real existence by findingin granite rock the fuel value of an equivalent weightof coal and seeing the possibility of burning seawater to make electricity and heat. These miracles be­yond dreams are the substance of atomic energy. But itisn't only in the matter of atomic power that the atombenefits us. We need many things other than electricpower, and one of the things we need most is knowl­edge-knowledge of nature of matter, and its behavior.The Atom 'is extremely valuable in this regard, for itgives us a way of probing into the innermost secrets oflife through the technique of labeling or using isotopicforms of living material.In less dramatic and fundamental applications, iso­topes give great benefit to industry. In fact, we estimatethe total benefits through the use of radioactive isotopesnow return to the American taxpayer a good percent­age on his total investment in the Atomic Energy Com­mission. In other words, the benefits from isotopesalone are a considerable profit on the twenty billion ormore dollars which have been invested in atomic energy.Management requires technical knowledge, and manymanagement decisions can not be made without it. Con­sider the banker in charge of a trust fund, whose re­sponsibility is to insure with the greatest certainty con­tinuing income from invested capital. It is clear, is itnot, that atomic energy is a sound investment. Andyet the average banker in this country knows so littleabout it that he can not tell one atomic company fromanother. There is only one bank in the nation at thistime that has an atomic advisor. And I'm afraid thateven in this instance his advice is not always taken.There are no brokerage houses to my knowledge thathave any atomic experts in them.So, business administration and banking require tech­nical knowledge. The number of scientists is so smallthat we are forced to consider the question, "How canscientific advice be given to non-scientific administra­tors?" "Is it possible for an administrator to understandwhen a scientist is giving good scientific advice and whenhe is not?" In my experience, I would say that it isnot easy to bridge this gap. Most generally, it is a gambleas to whether the non-scientific administrator will fol­low sound technical advice. Particularly, it is unknown6 as to whether he will detect unsound scientific advice.We need desperately to develop a technique by whicbscientific and technical advice can be given in a fashiollso clearly unbiased that the administrator will havemore confidence. The medical doctors should havetaught us a lesson in this regard. One goes to one'sdoctor fully committed to the proposition of followinghis advice. Few people think of questioning, or tryingto go behind, his technical or medical reasoning. Thesame kind of attitude might well be taken by administrs'tors in the technical aspects of their decisions.Scientific consultants should be asked definite queS"tions-questions of sharp and clear form-and then beexpected to answer them if possible. A scientific CoIl'sultant should not be asked to answer non-technicalquestions unless he is competent in pertinent noll'scientific areas. One of the great fallacies of our tiIJleis that experts in one area are taken to be experts illanother. Nothing is less true, or less certain, thallthat a prominent capable scientist will have soundjudgment in non-scientific fields. He mayor may not,depending on the case or the individual. One thing isclear-he will be intelligent. But judgment is not, aswe all well know, primarily a matter of intelligence.In fact, there are worrisome examples we all recallof scientists who have made use of their prominentposition to obtain an opportunity to speak on politicalquestions. It certainly is every citizen's right to voteand every citizen's right to speak his mind. But it isnot, in my opinion, every citizen's right to control oreven have the opportunity to control or persuade mil"lions to follow a particular political course because thespeaker himself is a. first-rate scientist. Often admin­istrators ask scientific advisors the wrong questions, andoften they're more inclined to take the non-technicaladvice than they are, the technical. This is a greatdifficulty in our present system. The price we pay forthis type of inefficiency is beyond calculation.Much of the threat of the cold war is due to thisEither incorrect or inadequate estimations of positionshave been taken because of this; and unless a remedyis found, we certainly will continue in our present un­certain course. One of two examples may not be outof line.The atomic nuclear airplane was a project launchedin 1946. It has just been abandoned after great travail-after the expenditure of a billion dollars in an attemptto build it. Every scientist in the country probablyagrees that it would be wonderful to be able to fly if)an atomic-powered airplane. And yet, many of themembers of Congress who had their hearts set on thesuccessful completion of this project-feel that some"how or other the scientists sabotaged it. Nothing couldbe farther than the truth. The scientists found that thecold, hard technical facts were: They could not build it.Another example is a misunderstanding about theatomic weapons test ban. In the first instance, thescientists thought it would be possible to police £1nuclear test ban treaty. They were wrong; and whel1they found they were wrong, published this fact andmade it known to the world. At that moment, thepoliticians could well have reconsidered their wholepolicy, because the policy decision had been taken oJ')an incorrect technical basis, or rather, on advice th8tTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIN�Was mistaken. However, in the real political world,this would not have been taken as adequate reason, soa series of discussions which have now been carried onfor three years was continued in a meaningless hope­less way, leading us to come to know and accept astalemate, incidentally, which many people feel initself is good.SCIENCE fOR ADMINISTRATORSIt is perfectly clear that not all administrators can bescientists. It's even clearer that they should not be.But we are left with a very important question as tohow non-scientific administrators can know enoughabout science so that technical decisions are properlymade. There seems to be only one solution, and that'sto develop a working relationship between the scientificadviser, part-time as he is, and the full-time adminis­trator. A model for this relation is that between thefamily doctor and his patients, where the field of confi­dence is carefully defined, a sense of responsibility iscarried by the scientist, and full confidence in the adviceexists in the administrator.This requires a kind of self-discipline from bothgroups. The scientist, on the one hand, should not giveunasked advice in non-technical areas; and the admin­istrator, on the other hand, should not ask scientistsnon-technical questions. Strict self-discipline and at­tention to moral questions should exist: If this werethe rule, there would be a much easier and happierWay for scientific knowledge to be folded into ourdecision-making process. There should be a consciouseffort made on the part of professional scientists to seethat their members behave themselves as they should­not by formal regulation, but by all of the human wayswhich are used for persuasions.On the other hand, presidents and boards of direc­tors and heads of government agencies should notappoint scientists to non-scientific jobs, as a generalrule. There are too few of them, and their training isnot appropriate. If they do prove to be competentadministrators, it means a loss of very valued scientists.Of course, you may say that some scientists are burnedout and are no longer competent and might as welltake an administrative position. I would hasten to pointout, however, that these are the very last ones you wantas administrators usually. A very common mistake ismade by appointing scientists who cease to be inter­ested or competent in their own field to high administra­tive posts. Nine out of ten of these are dismal failures.In order that the administrative job be done, it is neces­sary to appoint virile and strong individuals.The development of a better working relationshipbetween scientists and administrators would greatlyhelp, and a strenuous effort to develop this relationship�hould be made. However, there is another point thatIS of equal importance. And that is: Non-technicaladministrators must learn some science. It is possiblefor them to do so. And there should be strong effortmade to train them. And this problem might as well betaken care of at the same time as the broader one ofadult education.Our new problem in education is that, in additionJANUARY, 1962 to the large- number of students of school age, we mustcontinue a vastly expanded program of adult education-the extension programs of the colleges and universi­ties. This must be done for many, many reasons. Per­haps the most important of them is keeping professionalpeople up to date. It would be possible for the collegesand universities to help companies and governmentagencies in educating their non-technical administrativepersonnel in technical matters, as well as doing as theynow do, in keeping professional personnel up to datewith refresher work. However, in addition to the effortsof the colleges and universities, it seems to me that thecompanies and agencies must undertake on their ownon-the-job training to fill this need.There are many aids to the task of education. Forexample, a systematic reading of the magazine ScientificAmerican would do a great deal of good for the averageadministrator if there were scientists handy to explainvarious terms and points which were not clear. But,fundamentally, there should be a system of on-the-jobtraining for non-technical administrators faced withtechnical decisions-particularly in new areas likeSpace, or Atomic Energy, for the books themselves inthe colleges and universities have not yet assimilatedthis material and put it into their courses.I have had the pleasure of such teaching twice-onceat V.C.L.A. last summer, when the 30 or so membersof the class were all vice-presidents of companies orthe heads of important Government departments. Forsix weeks they studied subjects all the way from com­puters to Atomic Energy, methods of managements, etc.H was a general up-dating, summer spree-not re­stricted entirely to technical matters by any means.But that part of the course devoted to technical matterswas necessarily presented in a way that the non-tech­nical class members could follow. Another example wasan intensive two-weeks course at one of our large oilcompanies which I gave two years ago. This was fortraining technical people in Atomic Energy.CONCLUSIONThe difficulties that have been caused by the kindof haphazard appointments and selections made in thepast have been great. Our present method of takingscientific advice in non-scientific fields often moreseriously than technical advice from the same technicalsources, is causing a great deal of difficulty. It isactually a hazard to our country and to the world as awhole. We should formalize our relations betweenscientists as advisors and responsible administrators andtry to train administrators in technical matters so thatthey are in a better position to follow and understandsound technical advice.If these things should be brought about, our affairs­both national and international-would be much im­proved, for our future is certainly in part scientific andtechnical-whether we wish it to be or not. The lawsof nature are not repealed by man, and we can onlyhope to live by obeying them. -7AMOVEMENTfORABOLISHINGWARLeo Szilard:For a number of years now, you have had an oppor­tunity to observe how we, as a nation, respond to theactions of the Russians, and how the Russians respondto our responses. Those of you who have watched thecourse of events in the past six months may have beenled to conclude that we are headed towards an all-outwar. I myself believe that we are and that our chancesof getting through the next ten years without war areslim.I, personally, find myself in rebellion against the fatethat history seems to have in store for us, and I suspectthat some of you may be equally rebellious. The ques­tion is, what can you do?War would indeed seem to be inevitable, unless it ispossible somehow to alter the pattern of behavior whichAmerica, as well as Russia, is exhibiting at present. You..as Americans, are not in a position to influence thebehavior of the Russian Government. It follows thatyou would have to bring about an adequate changein the attitude of the American Government which, intum, may bring about a similar change in the attitudeof the Russian Government.It is conceivable, that if a rebellious minority were totake effective political action, it could bring aboutsuch a change in the attitude of the American Govern­ment. But such a minority could take effective actiononly if it were possible to formulate a set of politicalobjectives on which they may enthusiastically agree.I shall try to outline to you today a set of political8 objectives and you shall be the judges of how satis­factory it may be.Next, I would like to discuss with you what kind ofpolitical action it would take to attain political objec­tives which would alter the course of events; cause thepresent danger of war to recede, and open the do ofto a constructive effort to abolish war.1 The central issue which will face the Kennedy Ad-ministration is whether America shall try to retainher strategic striking forces as a deterrent, or whethel'she is going to retain them merely as an insurance. Thisissue has been brought into focus by the present Berlincrisis.At present, voices are heard demanding that freeaccess to West Berlin shall be defended at all cost.Spokesmen of the Administration emphasize that, ifnecessary, we would drop the bomb on Russia. Weare told that our atomic striking forces are far superiorto those of Russia, that, at this time, Russia has only 50long-range rockets and only 150 long-range bomberplanes, and that we have many more than that. There"fore, many people believe that the superiority of ourstrategic striking forces may deter Russia from disre­garding what we claim to be our rights in Berlin.If we intend to drop our bombs on Russia in caseof war, and expect Russia to drop her bombs on us,so that both countries would be wholly devastated, thenour threat to drop bombs on Russia is tantamount toa threat of murder and suicide.A threat of murder and suicide is not a believablethreat, in the context of the Berlin conflict, and it wouldnot be a believable threat in the context of any similarconflict.The threat of dropping bombs on Russia, in case ofwar, would be a believable threat only if America'sstrategic striking forces were able to cripple most, if notall, of Russia's rocket and bomber bases by one suddensingle blow, and if it were America's intention to strikefirst, in case of war. Opinions differ on how successfulsuch a first strike would be today, and whether theRussian counterblow would demolish none, one, teoor twenty of our cities.Be that as it may, the Administration will have todecide in the next few years whether the strategicstriking forces of America shall be maintained at alevel where they would have an adequate first strikecapability, and whether America should adopt a "firststrike if necessary" policy.Let us pause for a moment to examine what such apolicy would involve. It would involve, first of all, agreat increase in the number of solid fuel long-rangerockets, and the development of more powerful hydro ...gen warheads for these rockets. This would be neces"sary because the Russians would, of course, harden rheirrocket bases.Secondly, it would involve the manufacture of a largenumber of rockets that would function as decoys, iIlorder to neutralize the anti-missile missiles, by meansof which the Russians may be expected to defend theirrocket bases.Further, since we could not expect to destroy everysingle Russian base and submarine in a first strike, weTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIN�would have to embark on a major development programin order to have adequate anti-missile missiles availablefor the defense of our cities.And lastly, we would be more or less forced to em­bark on an adequate shelter program involving anannual expenditure of perhaps $20 billion. The shelterswould have to protect not only against fall-out, but alsoagainst heat and blast. The problem of getting thepeople into the shelters at the right time would offerno major obstacle, since if we plan to strike first, theGovernment may be in a position to give adequatewarning and to get the people to take shelter at theright time.Only if such measures of defense are included in theprogram, would the maintenance of a first strike capa­bility permit America to retain the bomb as a deterrent.It is conceivable that America's strategic strikingforces could be boosted to the level where, for a limitedperiod of time, they would be capable of an adequatefirst strike. It is not likely that they could be maintainedindefinitely at such a level. Presumably periods whenAmerica has a first strike capability would alternatewith periods when she does not have such a capability.And if there were a major international crisis during aperiod when our strategic forces have a first strikecapability, the Government would be presumably understrong pressure to start a preventive war.The decision to start a preventive war would alwaysbe a very hard decision for any President to take, par­ticularly since he would never be quite certain justhow many of our cities would be hit. But in certaincircumstances, his hand could be forced by a com­mander of an overseas strategic base, or a submarinecapable of launching rockets."A general," Enrico Fermi once said, "is a man whotakes chances; usually, he takes a fifty-fifty chance; ifhe is successful on three successive occasions, he isregarded as a great general."If a commander of a strategic base or a submarineWere to drop bombs on, say, three Russian cities, then-in the absence of any clear understanding betweenAmerica and Russia of how to cope with such an un­authorized attack-the Russians would be expected tostrike back with all they have, and the President wouldhave no choice but to order an all-out first strike againstthe bases of the Russians.A "first strike if necessary" policy would mean anatomic arms race, with the sky as the limit, and I donot believe that America could be made secure by try­ing to keep ahead in such an arms race. I would be infavor of resisting the adoption of such a policu, if neces­sary through political action ....A clear policy decision to the effect that America isgoing to maintain an invulnerable second strike (butwould not try to maintain her strategic striking forcesat a level where they could knock out in a first strikemost of Russia's bases) would open the door to anagreement on arms control. This does not mean, how­ever, that there would be a good prospect for theconclusion of such an agreement in the near future.It is true that if America and Russia were to retainno more than, say, fifteen large hydrogen bombs each,and if the bases from which these bombs might belaunched were invulnerable, America and Russia eachJANUARY, 1962 could be reasonably sure that it would not be attackedby the other; neither of them could be assumed to bewilling to sacrifice fifteen of their cities for the sake ofattaining any of the controversial political objectives.An agreement on arms control would have to involve,however, not only Russia, but also China, and, as faras cities go, China is very much less vulnerable thaneither America or Russia.In the present circumstances, it might very well bethat in the immediate future, we ought to look to uni­lateral steps that America might take, in order to havethe danger of war recede, rather than to an agreementon arms control.What are, then, the unilateral steps that Americacould and should take?2 I believe that America could and should make twoimportant unilateral pledges.First of all, America should unilatemlly proclaim thatshe would not resort to any strategic bombing of citiesor bases (either by means of atomic bombs or conven­tional explosioes), except if American cities or bases areattacked by Russia, or if there is an unprovoked attackon cities or bases of one of America's allies.Soon after the war, the Soviet Union proposed thatthe atomic bomb be outlawed. Such an outlawing ofthe bomb could take the form of a unilateral pledge,given by each atomic power, that it would not resortto the use of atomic bombs, either for the purpose ofattacking cities or bases, or as a tactical weapon to beused against troops in combat.In discussing with Sulzberger the possibility of uni­lateral pledges, renouncing the "first use" of the bomb,Khrushchev stressed that if there were a war, and if atfirst only conventional weapons were used, subsequentlythe side which is about to lose the war would find itimpossible to abide by its pledge and would resort tothe use of the bomb.What Khrushchev said brings out what I believe tobe the crux of the issue. The crux of the issue is, thattoday it might still be possible to resist force with force,but the objective of the use of force can no longer bevictory. The objective can only be to exact a price(and of course, in order to exact a price, one must bewilling to pay a price).As long as force is used at all, the danger that wemay have an all-out war which neither side wants,can be reduced only if it is generally recognized thatthe use of force must not be aimed at victory, or any­thing approaching victory.If this is generally recognized, then it may be possiblefor America unilaterally to reduce the danger that theuse of force would end in all-out destruction. To thisend, America could and should proclaim that if, in caseof war, she were to use atomic bombs against troops incombat, she would do so only on her own side of thepre-war boundary. Obviously, this type of use ofatomic bombs would be a purely defensive operation,and it might be a rather effective defensive operationat that. (It would be even better if America wereadditionally to pledge not to use atomic weapons withina twenty-mile zone on her own side of the pre-warboundary.) America would be bound by this pledge.9in case of war, as long as Russia would impose a similarrestraint on her conduct of the war.Such a pledge would be no less clear and unequivocalthan the simple pledge of "no first use" but it would bevery much easier to keep and therefore it would be amore believable pledge. This pledge would imposecertain restrictions on the conduct of the war, but ifneither side would aim at anything approaching victory,then the pledge would greatly reduce the danger ofan all-out war.When I discussed this issue in Germany, three yearsago, the people there voiced the fear that if the groundforces of the western allies were pushed back to theRhine, and America used atomic bombs against troopsin combat between the Rhine and the Oder Neisse line,many West German cities would be destroyed byAmerican bombs. I do not know to what extent WestGerman cities could be spared by a judicious tacticaluse of atomic bombs by American forces, but I doknow that if America were to use bombs beyond thepre-war boundary, West Germany cities would be de­stroyed by Russian bombs ....3 America could and should unilaterally resolve thatatomic bombs and the means suitable for theirdelivery, which are supplied by her and which are sta­tioned in Europe, shall remain in the hands of Americanmilitary units which are under American command,rather than be placed under the control of NATO. Aslong as we are committed to defend Western Europe,there is no valid argument for turning over bombs tothe control of other Western European nations ....4 Nothing is gained by America winning meaninglessbattles in the cold war and a change of attitude inthis regard is urgently needed. Take the InternationalAtomic Energy Agency in Vienna, for instance. Thisorganization has at present no function whatsoever,and if it is maintained in existence at all, it should bemaintained as an exercise in cooperation among thenations and in the hope that sooner or later some func­tion for the organization may be found.The first director of this Agency was an Americanwhose term recently expired. Since next to America,the Soviet Union is the most important atomic power,we ought to have proposed that a Russian be the nextdirector of the Agency. Instead, we proposed a Swedewho was not acceptable to the Russians and since wehad the votes were able to win a victory in a meaning­less battle in the cold war.This "victory" has reduced the chances of findingsome useful function for this Agency. The Russiansresent being pushed around in this Agency and there isno way for us to force them to play ball if they don'twant to.I believe that it would be important for the Govern­ment to reach a major policy decision, and for thePresident to issue an Executive Order against fightingmeaningless battles in the Cold War. Political action insupport of such an Executive Order would be desirable.5 We have a cultural exchange program with theRussians but their State Department and our StateDepartment are playing a game of "if you hit our sci-10 entists, we'll hit your scientists." Accordingly, our StateDepartment imposes senseless travel restrictions on outRussian colleagues who visit this country. These travelrestrictions are not aimed at the safeguarding of an)'secrets, but are merely one way of hitting back at travelrestrictions which the Soviet Government rightly orwrongly imposes on American scientists who travelabout in Russia.The Russians have opened up their country to travelto a considerable extent, and if we wish to encouragethis development, as we probably ought to, then American tourists should not be approached by the CIA withspying assignments. Tourists make poor spies, and wewould be losing more than we would be gaining bytrying to use them as spies ....6 Not every issue can be solved by Congress passinga law and there are borderline issues where politicalaction alone can bring no solution, because the knowl:edge is lacking of how to go about a solution. The issueof general disarmament seems to be such a borderlineissue.I believe that at the present time little could be accomplished by bringing pressure on the Administrationto enter into formal negotiations with Russia on theissue of General Disarmament because-as they say"You can lead a horse to the water, but you can't makehim drink."I believe that no substantial progress will be madetowards disarmament, until Americans and Russiansfirst reach a meeting of the minds on the issue of howthe peace may be secured in a disarmed world.American reluctance to seriously contemplate gen'eral disarmament is largely due to uncertainty aboutthis point. If it became clear that a satisfactory solu­tion of this issue is possible, many Americans mightcome to regard general disarmament as a highly de'sirable goal.On the issue of how to secure the peace in a dis,armed world, progress could probably be made throughserious non-governmental discussions among Americansand Russians. I believe that such discussions ought tobe arranged through private initiative, but with theblessing of the Administration.It does not seem likely that the newly created Dis,armament Agency will be in a position to mobilize theimagination and resourcefulness which is required, andI believe that it may be necessary for an influentialprivate group to help them out or to prod them along-as the case may be. This mayor may not requirepolitical action of one sort or another.The Russians know very well that America is notready seriously to contemplate general disarmamentand this, to my mind, explains why, in spite of beingstrongly motivated toward general disarmament, theSoviet Union displays in its negotiations on this issuemuch the same attitude as does the American Govern'ment. So far as negotiations on general disarmamentare concerned, hitherto both governments have beef)mainly guided by the public relations aspect, ratherthan by the substantive aspect, of the issue.The Soviet Union's attitude in this regard migbtchange over night, however, if it became apparent thiltAmerica was becoming seriously interested in gener91THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIN�disarmament. The Russians are very much aware ofthe great benefits they would derive from general dis­armament, and I believe that the Soviet Union wouldbe willing to pay a commensurate price for obtainingit. It stands to reason that this should be so. The SovietUnion spends on defense a much larger fraction of herindustrial output than America does. Eliminating thecost of armaments would enable the Soviet Union tosolve many of her domestic economic problems, andalso to extend her influence, by giving economic aidto other nations on an unprecedented scale. . . .America is at present committed to protect certainterritories which are located in the geographical prox­imity of Russia. In the case of general disarmament,America would not be able to live up to any such com­mitment. General disarmament will, therefore, be po­litically acceptable to America only if it is possible forher to liquidate her present commitmeats-without lossof prestige and without seriously endangering theinterest of the other nations involved.Khrushchev seems to be very much aware of this.Therefore, it is likely that if it came to serious negotia­tions on the issue of general disarmament, and if itbecame manifestly necessary to reach a political settle­ment in order to permit America to liquidate her mili­tary commitments, then, under its present leadership,the Soviet Union would go a long way towards seekingan accommodation. The so-called Berlin -crisis, whichcenters around the commitments which America madeto West Berlin, might very well be a case in point,7 General disarmament, if we are lucky, will elimi­nate war, but it will not end the rivalry betweenAmerica and Russia.It is a foregone conclusion that American effortstowards creating an orderly and livable world will befrustrated in Southeast Asia and Africa because of ourfailure to devise forms of democracy which would beviable in these regions of the world. The task of de­vising forms of democracy which would be suitable tothe .needs of such areas is not a task that the Govern­ment could handle. Various forms of democracy. mayhave- -to be devised which are tailor-made to fit thevarious areas. An influential private group could tackleand ought to tackle this problem. If it is not solved,more and more underdeveloped nations will becomedictatorships; some of them may have a rapid successionof dictator after dictator and, in the end, the peoplewill have to choose between Chaos and Communism.It is a foregone conclusion that America's efforts toraise the standard of living of underdeveloped nationswill be frustrated in those areas where the birth rateis high, infant mortality is high, and there is littlearable land left. Improvement in the standard of livingwill initially lead to a fall in infant mortality, and ifthe birth rate remains high, the population will shootup so rapidly, that economic improvements will notbe able to catch up.Our failure to develop methods of birth control,suitable for the needs of such areas, is responsible forthis state of affairs. The development of such methodsis not a task which the Government could undertake.The Government could not create an Institute whichwould attract the kind of scientists who are ingeniousJANUARY, 1962 and resourceful enough to come up with an adequatesolution of the problem. The amount of money whichwould be involved is not much, and a maior privategroup could and should tackle this problem.If it should turn out that it is possible to formulatea set of political objectives on which reasonable peoplecould generally agree, and if these could count on theall-out support of a sizable minority-admittedly a verybig "if"-then I should be inclined to go further andI would go further along the following lines:1 would ask seven to twelve distinguished scientiststo form a Council-call it, if you wish, Council forAbolishing War. This Council could function as theBoard of Directors for a Lobby, which would have astaff of full-time employees. The Council (in closeconsultation with a panel of political advisors whoseidentity would be public knowledge) would, fromtime to time, formulate the political objectives that areto be pursued by the Lobby.The directives issued by the Council would be com­municated-perhaps in the form of a series of pamphlets-to all those whom the Council has reason to believemay be seriously interested.It seems to me that there ought to be no attempt tocreate a membership organization and to enlist thosewho are interested as members of such an organization.What one needs to create is not a membership organiza­tion, but a Movement-a Movement for AbolishingWar.Those who regularly receive the communications ofthe Council would be regarded as members of thisMovement, provided that they spend two percent oftheir income in support of the Movement. Only a smallfraction of this amount would go to the Council andwould be used for covering the operating expenses ofthe Lobby. The rest of it would be made up of thepolitical contributions made directly by the individual.involved.So that the members of the Movement may knowwhere their political contributions should go in orderto be most effective, they would be pledged to keepin close touch on this score with the Lobby. The Lobbywould keep them informed about the key contests forseats in Congress, and the members should have nodifficulty in figuring out where their contributionsshould go, even if the Lobby may not explicitly endorseanyone running for office,The members of the Movement who are articulatewould be expected to keep in touch not only with theirCongressmen and the Senators of their own states, but,also, each with at least one key member of the Houseor the Senate. Above all, the articulate members of theMovement would be expected to discuss the relevantissues with the editors of their newspapers and variouscolumnists, and other opinion makers, in their owncommunity. They would be pledged to vote in theprimaries as well as in the elections. And they wouldbe pledged to cast their vote--disregarding domesticissues-solely on the issue of war and peace.Concluded on page 2411� VIEWS OF THEOLD HYDE PARKon her loath annIversary,12 The centennial of Hyde Park is being celebrated thisyear, and an exhibit showing how this communitygrew from a wilderness of willows and scrub oak toone of the finest residential districts of Chicago has been as­sembled at Harper Library. It was prepared by Mrs. AnnBishop. t][ Using photographs, prints, paintings, maps, andother memorabilia, Mrs. Bishop depicts Hyde Park as a coun­try home community in the 1860's where many of the city'smost prominent families built lavish homes to enjoy "the ruralenvironment and the opportunities for outdoor recreation."In those days, horse cars ran as far south as 39th Street.When the Illinios Central Railroad was built, a subur- 9Jban service was inaugurated between Hyde Park andthe city. From then on the area developed rapidly.THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO i\'IAGAZIN�... In 1888 the resident of the 4800block on Cottage Grove wasraising geese in his front yard; as earlyas 1860 Illinois Central trains weremaking regular stops at 63rd, andschoolboys were playing marbles infront of the first Hyde Park High Schoolat 50th and lake Park. On 53rd street ,.there was a cable car (these commutersWere photographed in 1882). The "fam­ily resort" was at 55th Street and lakePark, looking west, in 1892; the buildingbelow was photographed in 1892 at57th and Lake Park before the IC tracksWere elevated. It stood until just a fewyears ago, last housing the ContinentalGourmet restaurant. Along the top ofthis and following pages is a cycloramaview of the University of Chicago build­ings taken less than 25 years after thefounding of the University. The view isfrom the center of the main �quadrangle.}ANDAHY, 196213..- A lot of horsepower was assem-bled the day work started onthe Midway area for the 1893 World'sColumbian Exposition; soon the GrealFerris Wheel (now in Vienna) would riseopposite the newly-built Foster Hall.Some years later (approximately 1910)Eagle Air Ship Number 2 made anemergency landing somewhere in HydePark; only this strange picture remainsto record the event. Below, in a viewlooking south are the State buildingsof the Columbian Exposition. The onlyExposition building still standing is nowthe Museum of Science and Industry; ilserved the Exposition as the Palace 01Fine Arts. And, Jackson Park beach in1903-chugging along the outer Drivea few years later there would be Clgood number of square-built blackFords. Lastly, one of the University'Sgallant football teams, and the enlistedmen of the Department of MilitaryScience and Tactics pose in front of theUniversity Press Building during WorldWar I. The artillery: a British 75 mrn.,an American 75 mm., and anAmerican 155 mm.14 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIN�I neluded in the exhibit are the Columbian Expo­sition of 1893, the old Washington Park RaceTrack, the gay White City Amusement Park, earlyscenes of the University of Chicago, and rare photo­graphs of buildings and streets in Hyde Park­Kenwood that have vanished through the years. One r:of the nostalgic posters advertises "daily captiveballoon ascensions 1300 feet high from 10 a.m. to10 p.m., weather permitting." It also lured patronsWith "grand concerts by a ladies' orchestra everyafternoon and evening." This outdoor attractiontook place at Cottage Grove and 50th Street in1892. fJlNamed for the Hyde Park district in Lon­don, this area south of the "loop" was the productof Paul Cornell, who saw the potential for realestate development and made a deal with the ICto run trains to the growing neighborhood. He wasalso a leader in planning the south park system ofJackson and Washington Parks, connected by theMidway Plaisance. The parks and transportation,in turn, made the area ideal for the ColumbianExposition.JANUARY 1962, ,15World War II brought Navy.. drills on the Midway. In thiS1942 picture, Harper Library and theUniversity Hospitals are in the bock,ground. The aftermath of the War waSreflected on campus in overflowinghousing facilities; this temporary hous'ing for students (the "prefabs") wc;/between University and Greenwoo,viewed northward from 61 st Street.Finally, the "Old Hyde Park" comestumbling down: only the garage in theleft foreground of this view west on55th Street from Lake Park remains.The photo was taken in the late '40's.And, last year, Beatrice-built at 57thand Dorchester to house visitors to theColumbian Exposition, and at one timea women's residence for the ....University-was demolished.16· THE UNIVEHSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIN}!:NEWS 0 F the quadranglescaused the faculty to re-examine theadult education program. The counciloverwhelmingly agreed it would bebetter to take the evening program backto campus.The main reasons for the decisionwere to put control of the program inthe hands of the campus faculties thathandle degree programs, and to have a"more aggressive, integrated program."He said more experimental programswould probably be offered when themove is made.The council, consisting of electedTHOSE COLLEGE YEARS-Statistics representatives of the senate (whichjust compiled indicate that fewer than includes all facultv members with thehalf of the 294 students who were rank of assistant professor and higher),graduated last spring took four years to can act for the facultv.complete their degree requirements. Mr. Kozloff admitted that some ofOnly 142 of the spring graduates the 8,000 students who now attend thespent four complete years here. Sixty- downtown courses might not be inter­nine accelerated, graduating in less than ested in traveling to the Midway atfour years. night. However, he said he was hope-Forty-eight of the graduates spent - f�d that the courses would be so attrac­five years here. Only about eight of tive the st�den�s ;"ould come, anyhow.these students had planned to spend The University s Downto� Centerfive years here. According to George has a faculty. of 200. Mo�t ?f Its .c?ursesPlaye, dean of undergraduates, one half are non-credit, al�hough It �s anticipatedthe remainder studied the extra vear that the emphasis may shift when thebecause they changed programs. "The program is transferred to the Midway.other half had to postpone graduationbecause of course failures and tem­porary withdrawals.Twenty-six of the 294 graduates com­pleted .their degree requirements inonly two years. Thirty-five of themcompleted their requirements in two tothree years.PLAN TO DROP LOOP CENTER­A recommendation that the Universitymove most of its downtown operationsto the South Side campus has beenmade by the council of the UniversitySenate. The recommendation is ex­pected to be approved by the trustees.The University's lease on the Down­town Center at 64 E. Lake will expirein June, when the Chicago Board ofEducation is expected to take over thebuilding for a junior college.. Lloyd M. KozloH, associate professorof biochemistry and official spokesmanfor the Senate council, said adult eve­ning courses in business, education andpOSSibly some other fields will still beoffered near the Loop. It is possiblethey will be given in the University'sGraduate School of Business on E.Delaware.Mr. KozloH said the fact the U niver­sity Was losing its lease at 64 E. LakeJANUARY, 1962 TEACHING RUSSIAN-The stepped­up effort to teach Russian in Americanschools is running into these kinds ofproblems:"... because of the lack of any sys­tematization in choice of beginningvocabulary, we get reflections of frus­tration and discouragement in largevariety among those studying Russian."". . . different texts studied by two.students from different schools cancarry an almost entirely different assort­ment of words."... teaching machines, to listen toand correct the sounds of the studentlearning Russian, could be built butsuch an electronic brain "would costastronomical sums, it would fill a largeroom, and it could be used only byone student at a time. So, lacking asmall inexpensive machine that couldcheck the student, we need to build intothe student himself the means of chec­ing himself.". . . apprehension sometimes arisesin a student "after he has encounteredthree or four of the Russian noun casesand wonders out loud, 'Will there bean end to all these cases?'"it is evident that skill inlanguage usage does not come with translation or mere knowledge of(word) equivalents, but with knowl­edge of cultural equivalents"; but howdo you create Russian cultural equiv­alents in the classroom?These were problems set forth insome of the work papers for a meetingat the Universitv to discuss the teach­ing of Russian to teenagers in the na­tion's high schools. The conference forthe teachers of high school Russianand other educators was held thisOctober.Among the proposals and possibilitiespresented in the work papers suppliedin advance to the participants as abasis for discussion were these:1. From Claire Walker, FriendsSchool, Boston: A representative groupof Russian-language teachers should beassembled to create some suggestionsfor standards for words to be learnedin each year's work, some useful formatof information surrounding these words,explanatory statements to help theteachers, and procedures for. complet­ing, producing, and distributing wordlists.2. From Edgar Mayer, associateprofessor of modem languages, Uni­versity of Buffalo: "A successful teach­ing machine (for Russian as well asother languages) -and I am certain thatone will be in use in the near future'-will make it possible for millions ofpeople to attain the truly native-likemastery of a second language that wehave always wanted but have so rarelyseen."Wayne D. Fisher, Assistant Professorof Education in Russian, of the Uni­versity of Chicago Graduate School ofEducation, was director of the confer­ence. He said, "Because Russian isrelatively new in the high school cur­riculum, changes in teaching methodswhich have come to other modem lan­guages since the end of World War IIhave generally not yet reachedRussian."Mr. Fisher also is president of theNational Council of High School Teach­ers in Russian, which, with the Uni­versity, is co-sponsor of the conference,under a contract with the U. S. Officeof Education. "Before 1958, only 16of the 10,000 high schools in the UnitedStates taught Russian. Today about500 schools teach the language," hesaid. However, he pointed out thatabout 100 schools had dropped thecourse because of inadequate prepara­tion.17APPOINTMENTS-RAY E. BROWN,former superintendent of the Universityof Chicago Hospitals, has been ap·pointed University vice president foradministration to act as chief financialofficer of the University. He will con­tinue to hold academic responsibilitiesas professor on the faculty of theGraduate School of Business, and di­rector of the Graduate Program ofHospital Administration. President Bea­dle said, he brings to his new position"national eminence in both the specialHeld of hospital administraton and hiswider concern with the problems ofbusiness organization and management."WESLEY C. CALEF, professor ofgeography, has been appointed chair­man of the Department of Geographyat the University. Mr. Calef succeedsGilbert White, the newly elected pres­ident of the Association of AmericanGeographers, who will devote full timeto research and teaching. Mr. Calefhas been on the faculty since 1947,and his areas of specialization includephysical geography, the conservation ofnatural resources, and the distributionof rural populations. 'ALBERT V. CREWE, has been nameddirector of the Argonne National Lab­oratory, one of the world's leading"atoms for peace" research centers, op­erated by the University for the U.S.Atomic Energy Commission. Mr. Crewe,who is 34, is an associate professor inthe Department of Physics and the En-: rico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Stud­ies, and has been director of theParticle Acceleration Division at Ar­gonne since September, 1958. He suc­ceeds Norman Hilberry, director of thelaboratory since 1956, who will retirein March, 1962. Mr. Crewe was edu­cated at the University of Liverpool,England, and joined the faculty herein 1955 as a research associate.HERMAN H. FUSSLER, has been ap­pointed acting dean of the GraduateLibrary Schoo). He succeeds Lester E.Asheim, associate professor and deanof the school, who resigned his posi­tions to become director of the inter­national relations office of the AmericanLibrary Association. Mr. Fussler isalso a professor in' the school and di­rector of the Unversity library.LEON O. JACOBSON, an authorityon the study and clinical use of radio­activity in medicine, has been appointedchairman of the Department of Medi­cine at the University. Dr. Jacobsonheads the Argonne Cancer ResearchHospital, which the University operateson campus for the U.S. Atomic EnergyCommisson, and is a professor of medi­cine. For the past seven months, he hasserved as acting chairman of the depart­ment. A member of the medical fac­ulty at the University for two decades,Dr. Jacobson is internationally knownfor his work on blood formation, dis­eases of the blood, and protectionagainst radiation injuries. Last April Dr. Wright R. Adams resigned from thechairmanship of the department tobecome associate dean of the Divisionof the Biological Sciences, dean of theclinical faculty, and chief of staff ofthe University Hospitals.WILLIAM H. McNEILL, has beenappointed chairman of the Departmentof History at the University. An au­thority on modern European history,Mr. McNeill succeeds Walter John­son, who has headed the departmentfor 11 years and is now returning tofull-time teaching and research. Amember of the faculty since 1947, Mr.McNeill is professor of history. Forthe past seven years he has engagedin research for his forthcoming book,The Rise of the 'Vest, an interpreta­tion of world history. The study isfinanced by a Carnegie Corporationgrant,THEODOHE O. YNTEMA, an ulum­nus and former faculty member of theUniversity, has been elected a memberof the Universitv's Board of Trustees.He is currently vice president and chair­man of the Finance Committee of FordMotor Co., Dearborn, Mich. Mr.Yntema holds two graduate degreesfrom the University, and served on thefaculty of the Graduate School of Busi­ness from 1923 until 1949 when bejoined Fore1. Currently, he is a merrrbe of the advisory council of the Grad­uate School of Business.LOOKtNG FOR an enthusiastic participating audience and a colorful selling,a local TV station came to campus last month for the taping of a folk­song program. At times the whole project seemed hopelessly ill-fated:when the local coeds appeared, the WBKB men sent for a busload of pro­fessional models; when they scheduled an evening of tapin:;! for HutchinsonCourt, it rained; when they planned an eight-hour session in Mandel Hall,a camera broke and it took two days; and (according to rumor, at least)the sponsor, a bakery, cut the song "Rum by Gum-the Song of the SalvationArmy"-because of the line "We never eat cookies because cookies haveyeast." Meanwhile, the students enjoyed seeing the performances of JoshWhite and the Chad Mitchell Trio shown here, as well as the Weavers andSecond City company.18 rJ�THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIPUBLIC WELFARE:Safeguard or Free Ride?Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare Abra­ham RibicofJ, '33, frequently refers to a goodtvelfare program as a "safeguard"-a safeguardto the children and adults, to the families in need.8owever, a much-publicized crackdown on welfareCases in Newburgh, N.Y. last July pictured recipi­ents as "chiselers" out for a "free ride." Writingtvithin the tradition of the public service orienta­tion of the School of Social Service Administration,Professor FRANK R. BREUL here discusses one ofthe country's grave social problems:Last June the city of Newburgh, New York, com­�anded headlines throughout the nation because itt,ad found a solution to the "welfare problem." Its�lty manager, Joseph Mitchell, claimed that this town?n the Hudson River was supporting five percent oflts population and spending $1,000,000 annually for�llblic relief. In addition he insisted that there wereto,any able-bodied men and women on the welfaretolls who should be put to work, that great numbersaf "undesirable newcomers" were infesting the city�nd demanding relief, and that so much fraud was111volved in the administration of public welfare thatthe "mustering" of recipients at the police station andt:gular review of assistance grants by the corpora­tlon counsel were necessary. Finally, he said that relief�oney was used to support and encourage immorality.4 eferring to the Aid to Dependent Children program,It said, "We don't believe it's moral to finance bastardy.they are off the public dole, that's their business.Jf\NUARY, 1962 If on the dole, that's our business." Mr. Mitchell laidthe blame for all these difficulties not only on federaland state laws and regulations, but also on the socialworkers administering the program: "We feel that thegreatest barrier to reducing cases is the thought barrier;that is, most of those involved in social work are notaware of where they're going to end up in the long run.The general direction of this is rather socialistic."To solve the "welfare problem" Mitchell, withthe approval of the City Council, promulgated hisnotorious thirteen rules. Although the New York Timesdescribed them both as violations of state and federallaw and "cruel and unusual punishment for the crimeof being poor," much of the press throughout thenation applauded Newburgh's action as a new andhopeful approach to a serious social problem. Thepolitical implications of the plan were apparent imme­diately. Senator Barry Goldwater lost no time in con­gratulating City Manager Mitchell. He described hisstand as "refreshing as breathing the clean air of mynative Arizona." "This took courage on your part," hewrote, "but it is the kind of courage that must bedisplayed across this nation if we are to survive. . . .My thanks to you as an American .... " GovernorNelson Rockefeller's reaction was the opposite. Heexpressed his belief that "the overwhelming majorityof the needy, the aged, the blind and infirm, widowsand dependent children are on public assistancethrough no fault of their own. In seeking to eliminate'chiseling' we must be careful to avoid the dangerof subjecting those truly in need to public humilia­tion. Certainly they would prefer to be self-reliantand they deserve sympathetic consideration and help."The "new approach" suggested by Newburgh is asold as poverty itself. Each of its punitive measureshas been attempted and discarded time and again atleast since the 16th Century when public responsibilityfor those in need was recognized by statute. Theyhave ranged from the branding, whipping, and ear­clipping of the 17th Century to the more sophisticatedpunishment of the workhouse-or-starvation alternativeadvocated by 19th Century liberals and social Dar­winists. The thirteen rules of Newburgh are in thistradition, displaying both a callousness toward thesuffering of others and an ignorance of the causesof poverty in the United States in the middle 20thCentury.CITY Manager Mitchell claimed that the city'sunusually heavy welfare burden was taking over 3019percent of its total budget because it was necessaryfor the working people to support the 5 percent of thepopulation which was on relief. According to the NewYork State Board of Social Welfare, less than 3 percentof Newburgh's citizens were receiving public assist­ance during 1960 and the cost to the city was only13 percent of its budget. He claimed that "chiselers"on relief were victimizing the taxpayers, yet not oneauthenticated instance of fraud has been found in theNewburgh caseload. He insisted that able-bodiedpersons on relief were "loafers" and should be forcedto work for any payments received. When, as a resultof his edict, the caseload was examined, only one able­bodied man was found-a steelworker between jobs-and it was agreed that he should stay at homebecause his wife was in the hospital and there wasno. one else to care for their five children. What aboutthe claim that the excessive relief burden is causedby "undesirable newcomers" mainly "immigrants fromthe South?" Although 16 percent of Newburgh's citi­zens are non-white and 40 percent of those on reliefare Negroes who in past years were recruited astemporary agricultural workers, only $205.00 was spentduring 1960 for relief to persons who had been in thestate less than one year, and this cost was met by thestate, not the city.Mr. Mitchell's laying the blame for what he considersto be the nation's and his city's welfare problem on theattitudes of professional social workers is equallyridiculous since 82 percent of those holding social workpositions in public assistance programs have had nosocial work education and only 36 percent have collegedegrees.The remedies which the City Manager proposes arequite as meaningless as the claims. He would solvewhat he considers to be a serious moral problem bysimply decreeing that all mothers of illegitimate chil­dren are to be advised that, should they have any morechildren out of wedlock, they shall be denied relief.In order to discourage the in-migration of "undesira­bles" his eighth rule commands that "all applicants forrelief who are new to the city must show evidencethat their plans in coming to the city involved a con­crete offer of employment, similar to that required offoreign immigrants. All such persons shall be limitedto two weeks of relief. Those who cannot show evi­dence shall be limited to one week of relief." In hisninth rule he applies similar pressure to residents ofthe city by ordering that no person can receive relieffor more than three months during any year. Fromthis edict he exempts the aged, the blind, and the dis­abled. But all others must be self-supporting duringnine months of the year even though there are nojobs available. For most recipients the only possibilityof gaining subsistence would be to move to anothercommunity.Three of the regulations are designed to test thewillingness to work of those who are able-bodiedduring the maximum of three months that they areable to receive assistance. These did not, of course,make much sense in Newburgh where only one able­bodied man was located, but they might appear to bepanaceas to other communities. All able-bodied maleswere to be assigned to the chief of building mainte-20 nance for work assignment on a forty hour week. Theywould not work at prevailing wages for an amountequal to their relief grant-this is the usual form ofwork relief which many communities employ-butwould' be required to work a full week for their allow­ances which are set at a bare subsistence level. Theother two rules would deny relief to anyone who lefta job voluntarily, no matter what the reason, or re­fused to accept a job offered him, no matter whattype of employment was involved.Further harrassment and humiliation are found inthe decrees which require recipients to report monthlyto department headquarters and which replace cashbenefits with vouchers for food, clothing and shelter.This latter is the most subtly pernicious of all, asvoucher relief payments tend to break down an indi­vidual's self-respect and ability to handle his ownaffairs and tag him as inferior to his neighbors althoughhe is probably without funds through no fault of hisown.By the middle of November, City Manager Mitchellwas admitting that he would never be able to put theprogram into operation as originally planned. "Thewhole philosophy of relief in the United States wi]!have to change first, away from more and more givingto less and less spending." The State Board of SocialWelfare had obtained an injunction restraining thecity from implementing its proposals. In its responseto the court the city had so interpreted the rules asto bring them into conformity with federal and statere gula tions.On a recent speaking tour M tic hell reported a newprocedure by which he maintained that relief costs itJNewburgh have been cut by one-third. He has replacedtrained welfare workers as they have quit with "collegegraduates without welfare training who are attuned toour philosophy" and has employed a special part-timeinvestigator, also untrained in welfare work, to checkup on recipients. Finally, he says that he has beenusing the tremendous publicity the town has beel}getting as a psychological weapon.If a 30 percent decrease in relief expenditures didoccur, it is not difficult to imagine why. The upturnin the economy which occurred during the summerand has continued into the autumn would, of course,account for some being able to locate employment andagain become self-supporting. Since fraud has notbeen a problem in Newburgh, any others who have leftthe public assistance rolls must have done so as �result of intimidation. Perhaps some have moved t�other communities where a "psychological weapon'will not be used against them. Others will suffer pri:vation rather than undergo the humiliation and harrass'ment inherent in the approach to human need whicl'the Newburgh philosophy implies.WE cannot dismiss the Newburgh controversy as 9minor rebellion which has been squashed nor as mereheadline seeking by a politically ambitious city man'ager. The favorable response to the plan was toLlwidespread to be ignored. The amount of attentio''which it received gives us some idea as to the amoun'of dissatisfaction there is with our present social wel'THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINtlfare system, particularly with public assistance. Wemay, therefore, expect Newburgh-like proposals toreceive considerable support in Congress and the statelegislatures during the next few years.The principal causes of this dissatisfaction are notvery difficult to identify. The most . important is thetremendous cost of these programs and the resultingtax burden. A second cause is the Aid to DependentChildren program itself, which has of recent years beencharacterized in newspapers and popular magazinesas providing public encouragement to irresponsibilityby fathers and immorality by mothers. Finally, thereare those who still believe that the very availability ofpublic assistance is an invitation to sloth and lazinessand that there is a large number of people who willnot work to support themselves and their familiesunless forced to by threats of starvation. For themthe social workers or "do gooders" just intensify theproblem by insisting that re�ief be adequate for sub­sistence and that it be administered in such a way asto preserve the dignity and self-respect of the re­cipients. Each of these sources of dissatisfaction needsto be examined separately.EVERY tax payer has reason to be concerned aboutthe high cost of public assistance and the way thecosts have been increasing, particularly during thelast decade. The total cost of public assistance, fromfederal, state, and local funds, in the fiscal year 1949-50was 2�� billion dollars. Since that time the cost hasincreased steadily to over 4 billion dollars during1959-60. Each month during that year IB� milliondollars was spent for public assistance by just theCook County Department of Public Aid.: Data suchas these are confusing to the average citizen who hasa regular job and is enjoying the highest standard ofliving in the world. He seems to be quite willing tospend huge sums for foreign aid and national defense,but he can't believe that the very economic and socialSystem which he wants to protect at all costs canbe operating so imperfectly that he must be asked tosupport so many who cannot find employment. Heaccepts the necessity for social security but can'tunderstand why Old Age, Survivors, and DisabilityInsurance and Unemployment Compensation do not:provide for all bona fide need. Since the economic andSocial system cannot be at fault the blame must restWith the individuals who require relief and those whoadminister the programs.Some of this resentment might be assuaged if thegeneral public knew more about the programs that are�eing criticized. The prototype of the person "onwelfare" is either an unemployed but able-bodied man?r a woman of questionable morals. In fact, however,tn July, 1961, over 50 percent of the total federal, state,and local expenditures for public assistance were re­quired by the Old Age Assistance program. The aver­age age of its recipients is well over 70 years. Theyare either ineligible for Old Age, Survivors, and Dis­ability Insurance or their benefits from that programare not sufficient to meet their needs. In that month�ver 15 percent of the expenditure for Old Age Assist­Il.nce was used to purchase medical care and we mayJANUARY, 1962 Rosen In The Albany Times-Union"Lobster a la Newburgh."Herblock In The Washlngton Post."I don't want my tax money spent on your kind."expect the medical bill for these people to rise in theyears ahead. Not only is the cost of medical careincreasing for those aged receiving assistance, but in1960 Congress added the new public assistance pro­gram, Medical Assistance for the Aged. This programwas instituted as a substitute for the proposal thatmedical care for the aged be provided as part ofsocial security and financed by an increase in thepayroll tax. By July, 1961, this new medical careprogram was taking over 10 million dollars per month21from the general revenues of federal, state, and localgovernments, and yet only ten of the fifty states weremaking any payments whatsoever under the program.Some decrease in the cost of Old Age Assistance couldbe achieved by increasing the benefits under the OldAge and Survivors and Disability Insurance programand providing the aged with some means by whichthey may obtain medical care on a prepayment basis.But the cost to the economy of caring for the aged isgoing to increase in any event. The Newburgh pro­posals would affect this group only by lowering theirself-respect and encouraging some to suffer rather thanask for aid.Less than 40 percent of all public assistance fundsis expended on the two programs most frequentlymaligned-s-Aid to Dependent Children and GeneralAssistance. Another 10 percent is devoted to Aidto the Blind and Aid to the Permanently and TotallyDisabled.One can be fairly certain, therefore, that even thegood citizens of Newburgh who support City ManagerMitchell would be unwilling to eliminate, or even cutdown, the expenditures which account for about 60percent of public assistance. In addition, those whoare disturbed about the way in which these publicassistance costs have been increasing may take somesolace from the fact that when considered as a per­centage of the gross national product total publicassistance costs have actually decreased since 1950,from .9 percent to .8 percent in 1959-60.OF all the public assistance programs Aid to De­pendent Children is the most defamed. It accounts forabout 30 percent of all public assistance payments.When the program was first instituted on a nationalbasis there was sympathetic understanding for theplight of the widow and dependent child. Since thattime, however, the number of widows receiving Aidto Dependent Children has been decreasing becauseof the decline in the number of paternal orphans inthe total population as a result of the improvementin medical knowledge and health conditions and theincreasing availability of insurance benefits for sur­viving children. At the present time only about 10percent are receiving aid because of the death of thefather. Now most of the families receiving such assist­ance are headed by a mother who has been separatedor divorced from her husband or who is unmarried.Although only 20 percent of the mothers receivingAid to Dependent Children are unmarried, much ofthe general public apparently conceives of the pro­gram as catering only to women of unstable emotionsand uncertain morals. As stated in a study made inCook County during 1960, the public image "is of amother who is shiftless and lazy, unwilling to work,promiscuous, and neglectful of her children. She isseen as spending her time and her ADC check in thelocal bar; she has child after child to increase herassistance payments; and she enjoys living on the publiclargesse." It is really only on the basis of an idea suchas this that one can account for the Newburgh outburst.22 It is difficult to prescribe a way in which this con­cept of the ADC mother may be changed. Until it is,however, we may expect continued attacks upon theprogram since she is infamous by statutory definition.For many, the fact that the ADC mother is not livingwith her husband is enough to brand the program asencouraging immorality. She has become, therefore,the scapegoat for much of the frustration of those whoresent their tax dollars being used to support others.It is not very reasonable to expect the administra­tors of public assistance to decide which applicants aremoral and which are immoral, although Newburghand some other cities attempt to make such a distinc­tion by employing special investigators to check up onthem at odd hours during the night. An approach toassessing the character of ADC mothers, however, wasmade in the Cook County study mentioned above. Itwas sponsored by the Board of County Commissioners,the Illinois Public Aid Commission, and the U. S.Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, andconducted by Greenleigh Associates of New York."Carefully structured interviews in depth" were con­ducted with a randomly selected sample of over1,000 ADC mothers. It was discovered that there arevery few mothers, no more than 3 percent, who fitthe image described above.The mothers were describedas follows:Almost all want to be self-sustaining. Well over half wantto work but because of ill health, lack of marketable skillsor adequate day care for their children, are prevented fromdoing so. Many have had illegitimate children, but not asa result of promiscuity. The majority of mothers give theirchildren good care, and they deny themselves in order togive the children nourishing food. The homes are clean,and there is family warmth and affection. If the motherleaves the home, she most frequently goes to PTA or church.She does not like being dependent. She feels the scorn ofher neighbors and the rejection of society. She doesn't wantmore children; and the more she has the deeper she has hadto go into debt. Like other mothers, she wants a better lifefor her children.No one really believes that those out to attack oursocial welfare programs will accept such research find­ings. Nor will they be particularly impressed by thefact that the average time ADC is received for chil­dren of unmarried mothers is less than 2�� years. Itcan also be stated for the record, at least, that about87 percent of all children born out of wedlock are notreceiving Aid to Dependent Children. But this truthwon't have much effect either. Just remember Mitchell'sdictum, "If they are off the public dole, that's theirbusiness."Two solutions to the "ADC problem" are usuallyoffered by critics of the Newburgh variety. They eitherwould take these children from their patently immoralmothers and place them in foster homes and institu­tions or would deny relief to women bearing illegiti­mate children. The first plan loses its attractivenesswhen the cost of institutional and foster care is cited.By permitting mothers to care for their own childrenat a bare subsistence level society is fulfilling itSresponsibility at bargain prices. The second proposal,of course, has the advantage of neatly avoiding re­sponsibility for these already underprivileged children.for they are the ones who really suffer from such actionTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZIN£It is not .necessary to describe here the' physical andemotional damage wrought when children are reared inconditions of abject poverty, since anyone who sup­ports this proposal must be immune to humanitarianconsiderations. Hopefully they can come to under­stand that the purpose of Aid to Dependent Childrenis not limited to providing an acceptable minimumstandard of living for these unfortunates. The programalso aims at strengthening family life and helpingneedy families attain the maximum economic andpersonal independence of which they are capable. Thesize and cost of the ADC program must be seen as asymptom rather than a cause of social disorganization.Only by helping these families to solve their problemswill the perpetuation of dependency be avoided.Rather than punishing the children, communities suchas Newburgh should seek to correct the economic and·social conditions which result in poverty and familybreak-up.I T is difficult to know how to overcome the objec­tions to public assistance which are premised on thebelief that there are many people who will 'not -workunless threatened with starvation and that the pro­vision of public aid to those in need will only en­courage idleness. Such ideas were particularly com­mon .during the 19th and early, years of the 20thCentury and until the 1930s much public social welfarepolicy was based upon them. The depression duringthose years made it plain to most people that unem­ployment is usually due to conditions beyond thecontrol of the individuals affected, and that society' hasa responsibility to help those for whom the economy Idoes not provide. All we can do is to hope that thereare not many who are so distrustful of their fellowman that they believe he would prefer to depend ona meagre public relief allowance than to be self­supporting and striving for an improved standard ofliving for himself and his family. .; The unemployment which we have been experienc­ing during the last decade is perhaps more difficult tounderstand and to accept than that of the 1930s. Al­though we have not had mass unemployment in recentyears, large numbers of our people have been affectedby "class" unemployment. As of October, 1961, 720,000persons had been jobless 27 weeks or more-220,000more than the year previous. Most of these may bedescribed as "hard core" unemployed. They are out ofwork because there are no jobs for which they canqualify. They are out of work because they are too oldto learn. new skills, because they are Negro and arediscriminated against, because their level of educationandtraining does not fit the demands of modern indus­trial processes. Since the number of youthful entrantsinto the labor force will rise by nearly 50 percent dur­ing the next ten years, such unemployment is likely tocontinue at high levels unless remedial and preventiveaction is taken.Neither resentment at having to provide for thosewho do not work nor a punitive relief policy is goingto lower the high cost of public assistance to those whoare able to W�)fJ< but can't find jobs. Work relief mayJANUARY, 1962, help. them to maintain their self-respect and accomplishuseful community projects but such work should bepaid for at going rates and care should' be exercisedso that such part-time work does not deprive some manof full-time employment. An easy way to avoid re­sponsibility for these long term unemployed is to reactas .did City Manager Mitchell and dub them as "un­desirable newcomers" and force them to move on tosome other place; the fact that most are Negro and"not deserving of a northern standard of living" willease the conscience of the community. In the long run,however, this problem will have to be solved in e\terylocality. Somehow sufficient jobs must be made avail­able and men without skills must be trained to fill them.In the meantime financial help must be provided forneedy persons in a way and manner to encourageself-respect and self-dependency. There is no questionbut that some communities and states are overbur­dened with the cost of general assistance. Federal aidfor the families of the unemployed is now temporarilyavailable under the 1961 amendment to the Aid toDependent Children legislation. Local reactions to thehigh cost of relief such as Newburgh's may be expected,.however, until nationwide standards and federal aidprotect and assist all those who are in need.To lay the blame for all these "welfare problems" onprofessional social workers is ludicrous if for no otherreason than because only 5 percent of� the social workstaff in public assistance agencies have had two ormore years of graduate study in social work. The needIS for more, not fewer, professional social workers.They, of course, do not advocate the "indiscriminategiving and giving" as claimed by Mr. Mitchell. Theirphilosophy towards public assistance is set forth inthe following joint statement made by the NationalAssociation of Social Workers and the Council onSocial Work Education in answer to . the Newburghallegations.Anyone . who will spend an hour reading. a social worktext book will discover that the philosophy of social work isdirected toward helping people arrange their affairs andresolve their personal and social problems so that they can beas fully as possible self-supporting, self-reliant, productivecitizens. This goal is achievable, at substantial savings totaxpayers, for many families who have exhausted their re­sources and temporarily must seek assistance. For others­children, the ill, the aged, and those for whom there are atpresent n9 jobs, this country has accepted the idea thatsociety has the responsibility to see that they shall not gohungry or without shelter.T HE "welfare proble�" will be with us for manyyears to come and the people of the United States mustbe willing to devote. a sizable portion of the nation'sincome to those who are unable to contribute directlyto its productivity. There are few social workers orothers who will insist that our public assistance andsocial insurance programs are adequate for the de­mands of today. No problems will be solved, however,by scuttling 'what we have in the manner suggested byNewburgh until constructive alternatives have beendeveloped and accepted. •23SZILARD-Continued from page 11The influence of the Lobby would be greatly en­hanced if it were able to say not only how manv votesit represents, in toto, but also how many votes it repre ..sents in each state and in each congressional district.So that the Lobby may not make false representations,concerning the votes it may be able to deliver, theCouncil shall from time to time ask all those who regu­larly receive its communications, to inform the Councilif they disagree with the political objectives formulatedby the Council, or if, for any other reason, they do notintend to perform, as members of the Movement areexpected to perform.The Lobby must not wield the power that it maypossess crudely. People in Washington want to be con­vinced, they do not want to be bribed or blackmailed.He who consistently gives financial support to certainkey members of Congress, may evoke their lastingfriendship and may count on their willingness to listento him, as long as he talks sense. He who talks tomembers of Congress, but does not make sense, wil1not accomplish anything of lasting value, even if hetemporarily sweeps some members of Congress off theirfeet by making huge political contributions to them.There are many intelligent men in Congress who haveinsight into what goes on. The Lobby could help thesemen to have the courage of their convictions. There areothers in Congress who are not capable of such insight.The only thing to do with them is not to return themto Congress, and to replace them with better men. Thismay make it necessary to persuade better men to run inthe primaries and to stand for election. To find suchbetter men must be one of the tasks that the Movementmust pursue, and the Lobby must be prepared to helpthe members of the Movement to perform this task.I did not come here to enlist you in such a Move­ment or to launch such a Movement, I came here toinvite you to participate in an experiment that oughtto show whether such a movement could be successfullylaunched ....In order to have a sufficiently large sample for thisexperiment, I shall speak, within the ten days allottedfor the purpose, at the Harvard Law School Forum, atSwarthmore, at the University of Chicago, and atWestern Reserve University. The audiences may varybetween a few hundred and a few thousand ....If the result of this experiment indicates that sucha movement could get off the ground, then one mightarrange for talks in front of large student audiences. Ifone could find fifty thousand students who would goall-out in support of this Movement, and if each suchstudent would, directly or indirectly, bring in his homecommunity ten other people into the Movement, thenthe Movement would attain five hundred thousandmembers within twelve months. This would representabout fifty million dollars per year in political contribu­tions, or two hundred million doIIars over a four-yearperiod. This is probably as much as one would wantto have.Whether such a movement could grow further andcould come to represent one or two million votes wouldthen prohahly depend on the future course of worldevents. •24 06-15CHARLES F. l\lcELROY, AM'06, )D'15,of Springfield, 111., made news last summerwhen he visited the Shakespeare Festivalat Stratford, Conn., and brought the totalnumber of Shakespeare plays he has seento 30 for a new record-passing the lateC. B. Shaw who had claimed 27. He sawhis 28th and 29th at Stratford, Ontario,on his way to Connecticut.HELEN POST WRIGHT, '06, AM'17, 3retired college teacher, is living in Brown'wood, Texas.ADELINE MEYER COOK, '07, of Jack'sonville, Fla., wrote us a summary of herrecent travels. In 1960 she went to Hous­ton and Seattle, and spent 19 days inAlaska. In 19.57 she visited seven conn'tries of South America by boat and plane,and in 1958, flew around the world in 54days.JOHNSON F. HAMMOND, '07, MD'lO,of Chicago, expects to retire from activeduty as editor of the Journal of the Ameri,...can Medical Association in December. Mr-'Hammond is a retired physician.HARRY JACKSON, '07, MD'07, of Chi'cago, is a surgeon and assistant professorat Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.,and on the staff at Michael Reese Hospitalin Chicago. He is a member of the 50·year:·dub of the Chicago and Illinois StateMedical Society, and has received theMichael Reese Hospital honor award fotmore than 30 years loyal and meritoriousservice to the hospital and humanity.JOHN F. MOULDS, '07, assistant to thepresident of Pomona College) Claremont,Calif., writes that he and his wife arCmoving into a house in Mount San AntonioGardens in Claremont, "a new and beauti­fll 1 community of senior citizens."ELTON J. MOULTON, '07, PhD'!3, andhis Wife, 'EDNA McCORMACK, '07, noWlive in Coral Gables, Fla. Mr. Moulton waSa visiting professor at the University ofMiami from 19.5.'3 to 1001 after retiringfrom Northwestern University, Evanston,Ill., where he was chairman of the mathe'matics department and dean of the Gradu'ate School. Last summer, the Moulton'Scelebrated their fiftieth wedding anni'versary at their summer home in Michigat)·HAROLD C. MOULTON, '07, PhD't4tLLD'37, of Charles Town, W.Va., preSi"dent emeritus of The Brookings InstitutiO�',Washington, D.C., was h0l!0red recentlyTHE UNIVEHSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAttr�t,when the institution's new $4,000,000library was named in his honor as Brook­ings' organizer and first president. Mr.Moulton's latest book is Can Inflation BeControlled, also published in Great Britain,Spain and Italy. He is a member of thefinance committee of the Variable Life In­surance Co. of America in Washington,'D.C.BLANCHE E. RIGGS, '07, AM'10, ofNew Brunswick, N.J., has been retiredfrom teaching for ten years, and is enjoy­ing club activities and travel.·ALFRED A. STRAUSS, '07, MD'08, ofChicago, is a physician and surgeon withStrauss Surgical Group.ERWIN A. ZEISLER, '07, a retired physi­cian of Winnetka, Ill., is presently engagedin research on a new biological agent forthe local treatment of thermal burns. Hewill also begin shortly a program for addi­tional research on the use of this agentin chemical burns of the eyes.: CARRIE NICHOLSON JORDAN, '10,lives in Chapel HiJI, N.C., where her hus­band is professor of educational psychol­ogy at the University of North Carolina.EMORY S. BOGARDUS, })hD'll, has re­tired as editor of Sociology and Social Re­search, an international journal, after beingits editor for 45 years. The magazine isthe second oldest major sociological jour­nal published in the U.S. and is publishedquarterly by the University of SouthernCalifornia. Mr. Bogardus retired from theUSC faculty in 1953 as dean emeritus ofthe Graduate School and professor emeri­tus of sociology. He founded the depart ..ment of sociology at USC in 1915, and in1921 started the School of Social Workof which he was the first dean. A formerpresident of the American Sociological.Assn., Mr. Bogardus founded Alpha KappaDelta, national sociology honor society in1920, and was first president of its unitedchapters._GERTRUDE L. CALLAHAN, '12, ofMadison, Wisc., retired in June as pro­fessor emeritus, Stout State College, Me­nomonie) Wisc.CARL A. GIESELER, '12, of Valparaiso,Ind., has begun his fourteenth school yearthis fall at Valparaiso University as aprofessor in the department of religion.Mr. Gieseler also served as preacher atSt. Peter's Lutheran Church in NorthJudson, Ind., during a recent pulpitvacancy.PAULINE GLEASON, '12, a retiredteacher, now living in Oak Park, IH., isworking as a sales representative forCurtis Circul�tion Co. in Oak J?ark.JANUARY, 1962 NEWS OF the alumniNELL C. HENRY, '12, SM'15, of Cleve­land, Ohio, went on a seven-week tour ofEurope during October and November.She is a volunteer worker with the Conn­cilon Human Relations in Cleveland.HAROLD KAYTON, '12, of San Antonio,Texas, is president of the Blossom Shop(florist shop). His last major office wasdirector of Interflora, the corporation whichcoordinates the florists' activities aroundthe world, with clearing houses in Detroit,r Zurich and London.ELISABETH A. KEENAN, '12, retiredhigh school teacher, of Chicago, III., ispresident of the Chicago College Club,vice president of the Highridge Toast­mistress Club, and also is active in theAssociation for the Blind. She takesSpanish and art appreciation courses andfinds time to "write a little."ALICE HERRICK MYERS, '12, of NewYork, N.Y., has been continuing her hus­hand's work at M. Lehmann & Co. (winebusiness ) , since his death recently. Thissummer she was in England for a monthand in France for another month includingvisits to the vineyards of Bordeaux andBurgundy, "revisiting old haunts and see­ing many old friends."BESS R. PEACOCK, '12, SM'23, of LosAngeles, Calif., who is retired, keeps busywith "science organizations and welfarework, with Retired Teachers Assn., andDelta Kappa Gamma." She also showsher many travel pictures to shut-ins.CHARLES M. RADEMACHER, '12, ofChicago, Ill., and his wife MABELBEEDLE, '22, like to spend most oftheir time "playing bridge at the SouthShore Country Club, and going here andthere by auto." Their annual auto mileagehas dwindled from an average 40,000 peryear down to 8,000 to 10,000, but theirhobby still is seeing 1912' ers both in C}1i­cago and across the country. Mr. Rade­macher, who is secretary of the class,adds, "Ours certainly has been a unitedand wonderful gang!"SAMUEL D. SCHWARTZ, '12, AM'13, ofChicago, completed 47 years of servicewith the Chicago Sinai Congregation, onSeptember 30. He is executive director ofthe congregation.H. RUSSELL STAPP, '12, of South Bend,Ind., is president of the Russell Stapp Co.(land developing) and a practicing archi­tect. He also still keeps up with his pianoplaying with which he "put himselfthrough the university." Mr. Stapp's wifeis EVA THOMPSON, '14.GRACE AMBROSE STERN, '12, is nowliving in Evanston, 1]). She is semi-retired, and working part time for an advertisingagency.MARION VAN CAMPEN, '12, receivedthe title of professor emeritus at KentState University, Kent, Ohio, when shecompleted 49 years of teaching at theclose of summer session, in August. Twenty ..three of those years were at Kent State,the past 16 as head of the elementary edu­cation department.GEORGE W. CALDWELL, '15, is livingin Orlando, Fla. He is associated with theOrlando Little Theatre where he has metEVELYN COLE DUCLOS, '14, who waspresident of the theatre in 1960. Mr.Caldwell also belongs to the First Presby­terian Church there, where he sings inthe chancel choir.17-23FREDERICK W. STAVELY, SM'17,PhD'22, retired in July as director of re­search for the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.Mr. Stavely, who directed the discoveryof the company's stereospecific syntheticrubbers, joined Firestone in 1922 and hadbeen research director since 1945. Hisinsistence on exploring the use of alkalimetals as catalysts led to the discovery ofCoral synthetic rubber, the first success­ful laboratory synthesis of the natural rub­ber structure. Mr. Stavely lkst becameinterested in rubber in 1917 when he sur­veyed the status of synthetic rubber as aportion of the work toward his master'sdegree at the U of C. He was chairmanof the American Chemical SOCiety divisionof rubber chemistry in 1950, and servedas director, vice president and presidentof the Industrial Research Institute. Mr.and Mrs. Stavely live in Akron, Ohio.HOWARD WAKEFIELD, '17, MD'24, ofChicago, was reelected a regent of theAmerican College of Physicians at the an­nual session of the group in May.EDWIN L. WEISL, '17, jD'19, has beenelected chairman of the executive com­mittee for Paramount Pictures Corporation.Mr. Weisl, who assumed the position inJ nne, is a partner in the law firm of Simp­son, Thacher and Bartlett in New York,and has been a director of Paramount for20 years. He is also a director of the OneWilliam Street Fund, the American NewsCo., the Union News Co., and the U.S.Vitamin Corp.AARON J. BRUMBAUGH, AM'18, PhD'29,of Clearwater, Fla., was awarded a cer­tificate of appreciation by the SouthernRegional Education Board for his "out-25SymbolofProgressTHIS pylon on our new plant marksa milestone in our thirty yearsof service to organizationsrequiring fine skills, latesttechniques and large capacity.Our work is as diversified as theneeds and products of our customersPhotop��.�.�OFFSET LITHOGRAPHVCongress Expressway at Gardner RoadBROADVIEW, ILL COlumbus 1·1420'V-- SidewalksFactory FloorsMachineFoundationsConcrete BreakingNOrm,,' 7-04:1:17� E�t«4We �We operate our own dry cleaning plant1309 East 57th St.MI dway 3·0602 5319 Hyde Park Blvd.NO rmal 7·98581553 E. Hyde Park Blvd.1442 E. 57th fAirfax 4-5759Midway 3-0607GEORGE ERHARDTand SONS. Inc.Painting-Decorating-Wood Finishing3123 PhoneLake Street KEdzie 3-3 186MODEL CAMERA SHOPleica - Bolex - Rolleiftex - Polaroid1342 E. 55th St. HYde Park 3-9259NSA Discounts24-hour Kodachrome DevelopingHO Trains and Mod.1 Suppli ••26 standing contributions to Southern highereducation." Mr. Brumbaugh is chairmanof the Florida Board of Control of Insti­tutions of Higher Learning. He has servedas consultant and member of the staff ofthe Regional Board, and has directed sev­eral studies of higher education, providing"sound counsel and advice for improvingthe quality and efficiency of the South'scolleges and universities." Mr. Brum­baugh's wife is RUTH SHERRICK, AM'43.His son, ROBERT S. BRUMBAUGH, '38,AM'38, PhD'42, and wife, ADA STEELE,'40, live in Hamden, Conn., where he isprofessor of philosophy at Yale University.LEILA VENABLE HAGER, '18, AM'26,of Tallahassee, Fla., toured Russia in Junefor 17 days and calls it a "very enlighten­ing experience."JAMES B. OSTERGREN, AM'18, '23, ofExcelsior, Minn. has retired. He was for­merly a minister.WINIFRED WAHD, '18, was recentlyawarded the second annual Zeta of theYear Award, by Zeta Phi Eta, nationalprofessional speech arts fraternity forwomen. Miss Ward was honored for "acareer of outstanding service in the fieldof speech," and particularly for her recentbook, Drama With and For Children, acomplete handbook on creative dramaticsfor children. Miss Ward retired in 1950after serving on the faculty of the Schoolof Speech at Northwestern University inEvanston, 111., for 32 years. In 1960, theAmerican Educational Theatre Assn., hon­ored her with the Eaves Junior TheatreAward. She is founder of the Children'sTheatre of Evanston, and co-founder ofthe national Children's Theatre Conferenceof the American Educational Theatre Assn.Since her retirement, she has been teachingsummer sessions, and conducting work­shops in creative dramatics for schools andcolleges across the country.JOSEPH E. WHEELER, '18, of Washing­ton Depot, Conn., retired recently for thesecond time, after serving for a year asloan officer with the Inter-American De­velopment Bank in Washington, D.C.ELEANOR BURGESS, '20, has returnedfrom overseas, where she spent eight anda half months in Africa and three and ahalf months in Europe. Her last slop wasAlgeria, where she came very close tosome of the revolution bombing. Shecame back on a return plane ticket justsix hours short of the year for which itwas valid. Miss Burgess, of Oak Park,111., is teaching in Austin High School thisyear.MARIAN CASTLE, '20, with her husband,has moved to Pomona, Calif., "to see howthey like it." The Castles have lived inDenver for years where Mrs. Castle wroteher numerous best-seller novels. Her latest,Silver Answer, has been made into a talkingbook for the blind; 12 LP records; tenhours listening time. It is an early Colo­rado pioneer novel.JOHN T. McNEILL, PhO'20, noted churchhistorian and scholar, was named by theU of C Divinity School as its "Man of the Year" recently. Mr. McNeill, who wasprofessor of European Christianity in theDivinity School from 1927-1944, has alsotaught at Queen's University, Kingston,'Ontario; Knox College, Toronto; and atUnion Theological Seminary as AuburnProfessor of Church History, a chair heheld until his retirement in 1953. Sincethen he has taught at theological schoolsthroughout the country. Considered by'many to be the foremost historian ofCalvinism in the English-speaking world,Mr. McNeill published in 1954, Tile His­tory and Character of Caloanism. He hasalso written over one hundred articles,monographs and books on the early medi­eval period through the Reformation, Eng­lish Puritanism, evangelicalism, and mod­ern movements in the church. The DivinitySchool's citation read, "To John T. Me­Neill, internationally renowned scholar,mentor of several generations of scholarsand clergymen; himself a devoted church­man and clergyman who always upheldthe highest academic standards in behalfof university and church." Mr. McNeill'sson is WILLIAM H. McNEILL, '38,AM'39, newly-appointed chairman of theDepartment of History at the U of C, whohas been on the faculty since 1947.ANSON HAYES, PhD'21, former vicepresident in charge of research for ArmcOSteel Corp., Middletown, Ohio, died 011July 25. Mr. Hayes joined Armco as chiefchemist in 1928, and became director ofresearch in 1929. In 1947 he was nameda consultant to the company. 'CLAHIBEL KENDALL, PhD'21, ofBoulder, Colo., has retired. She was for­merly professor of mathematics at the Uni­versity of Colorado.NORMAN C. MEIER, '21, AM'22, is reotiring this year from his position as pro­fessor of psychology at the State Univer-:sity of Iowa, Iowa City. He is presentlycompleting two additional sections of theMeier Art Tests, on aesthetic perceptionand creative imagination. After 1961, hewill continue his research and writing, andperhaps teach elsewhere.ALEXANDEH MONTO, '21, AM'25, hasretired from his position as professor atConcordia Theological Seminary in Spring­field, III.ORLANDO E. OVERN, AM'21, has re­tired from his position on the faculty ofthe University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee ..He is living in Madison, Wisc.RUSSELL BALLARD, '22, director ofHull House in Chicago, was awarded theThomas and Eleanor Wright MemorialAward by the Chicago Commission 011Human Relations in December, 1960. Mr.Ballard was honored as a professional per­son who has devoted his career to demon­strating the feasihility of integrated servicesin the interests of brotherhood. Beforebecoming director of Hull House, he waSsuperintendent of the Illinois State Train­ing School where he initiated plans forintegrating the boys and staff of tile school,making the same facilities available to aJl·In 1936, Mr. Ballard organized the LakeCounty (Indiana) Department of PublicTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEWelfare and instituted a tair employmentpractices policy in the department whichhas been maintained to date. Mr. Bal­lard's wife is ETHEL HORN, '21.ROBERT J. HAVIGHURST, '23, professorof education at the U of C, spent thespring and summer quarters of 1961 asa Fulbright Visiting Professor at the Uni­versity of Buenos Aires and the BrazilianGovernment Center for Educational Re­search, where he delivered a series of lec­tures on psychology and education. InJanuary he was a delegate of the Ameri­can Psychological Assn. to the WhiteHouse Conference on Aging and servedas chairman of the work group on Per­sonal and Social Adjustment in Old Age.CLARA M. KELLY, AM'23, has retiredfrom Eastern Michigan University. Shelives in Ypsilanti, Mich.NATHANIEL KLEITMAN, PhD'23, pro ...fessor emeritus of the department of physi­ology at U of C, gave the annual MurrayB. Gordon Lecture at the New York Down­state Medical Center in Brooklyn thisspring. His subject was "The 24-HourR.hythm in Man." Mr. Kleitman lives inSanta Monica, Calif. His wife is PAULENASCHWEIZER, '21.24-32HAROLD A. ANDERSON, '24, AM'26,associate professor of education at theU of C was in Pakistan last winter, asexecutive officer of the University's edu­cation project in that country.EDWARD L. COMPERE, SM'24, MD'27,chairman of the department of orthopedicsurgery at Northwestern University Med­ical School, Evanston, Ill., spoke beforethe convention of the International Col­lege of Surgeons held in May in Chicago.His topic was mass casualties and surviv�lin a nuclear attack. Mr. Com�ere and hISWife, VIRGINIA ODELL, 25, live inEvanston.WILLIAM D. MABIE, '24, was electedpresident of A. G. Becker & Co. Inc., in­vestment banking firm of New York, inJuly. Mr. Mabie joined the firm uponhis graduation from the U of C. He be­came a vice president in 1951 and a direc­tor in 1959. It was also announced inJuly that JOSEPH J. LEVIN, '17, wasnamed chairman of the company's execu­tive committee. Mr. Levin joined Becker& Co. in 1922, and for many years hasbeen a director and officer, most recentlyexecutive vice president.MAURICE R. MARCHELLO, '24, JD'26,attorney in Chicago, attended the RomeSymposium on Italian Migration as a dele­gate of the Justinian SOCiety of Advocates,held in May at Rome. Mr. Marchello wasalso in Rome in 1922 on a U of C Inter­national Institute of Education scholarshipat the University of Rome.HAROLD R. WILLOUGHBY, PhD'24,Professor Emeritus of New Testament andJANUARY, 1962 Early Christian Literature, has been electeda life fellow in the International Instituteof Arts and Letters. Mr. Willoughby liveson campus. He spent the summer inMaine using the new Moulton Library atBangor Seminary for research.RUSSELL E. PETTIT, '24, general man­ager of the Greater San Jose ( Calif. )Chamber of Commerce, was pleased tolearn recently from the National MunicipalLeague and Look magazine that San Josehas been selected an All-American Cityfor 1960.LUTHER A. ANDERSON, '27, an ac­countant with Armour & Co., Ironwood,Mich., writes outdoor books as his hobby.To date he has published three books:Hunting, Fishing and Camping; Huntingthe American Game Field; and How toHunt Deer and Small Game.MARJORIE BURRELL, '27, AM'37, of, Dundee, Ill., is principal of' Fairview Ele­mentary School in Carpentersville, Ill. Shesays it is one of the fastest growing schooldistricts in Illinois. She has opened threenew schools since she began work therein 1954.LEON M. DESPRES, '27, JD'29, haspracticed law in Chicago continuouslysince 1929. He is also city aldermanrepresenting the 5th Ward (which in­cludes the U of C). His wife, MARIANALSCHULER, '30, PhD'36, is chairmanof the Committee on Community Appear­ances of the Hyde Park-Kenwood Com ..munity Conference.CLARA A. KOSTLEVY, '27, first gradeteacher in Hinsdale, Ill., has been teachingin the Hinsdale school system for the past16 years.A. ROSS McINTYRE, '27, PhD'30, MD'3l,professor in the University of NebraskaCollege of Medicine, Omaha, spent thesummer in Europe with his family, andattended the international pharmacologymeetings in Stockholm.JULIAN A. NEWLANDER, '27, has re­tired from the U.S. Army as a colonel) andis living in Clearwater, Fla.ALEXANDER J. PIKIEL, '28, of Chicago,who has been admitted to all courts inthe State of Illinois and to the U.S.Supreme Court, is a specialist in mortgagework and corporation law, and has aprivate practice.CARL K. SCHMIDT, JR., '30, AM'48,took on a new position as deputy execu­tive director of the National Society forCrippled Children and Adults on May 15.For the past seven and one-half years Mr.Schmidt had been general superintendentof the Oak Forest Hospital of Cook Coun­ty, Ill. His work is primarily in strength­ening the organizational and administra­tive relationships of the more than 1,600state and local affiliates of the Society.Before becoming superintendent at OakForest, Mr. Schmidt was assistant directorof the Society in 1952, and prior to thathe served for four years as executive sec­retary of the Illinois Public Aid Commis­sion. Mr. Schmidt, who received an alumni RICHARD H. WEST CO.COMMERCIALPAINTING and DECORATING1331W. Jachon Blvd. TelephoneMOnroe 6.3192Since '878HANNIBAL, INC.Furniture RepairingUpholstering • RefinishingAntiques Restored1919 N. 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ChicagoPhone: REgent 1-3311The Old ReliableHyde Park Awning Co.INC.Awning. and Canopies lor All Purpo ....1142 E. 82nd StreetCHICAGO ADDRESSING & PRINTING CO.Camp'.'" Service lor Moil Adverti.ersPRINTING-LETTERPRESS & OFFSETlette.. • Copy Preparation • ImprlntlnqTypewrltinq Addreuinq MallinqQUALITY - ACCURACY - SPEED722 So. Dlirborn • ChiCleo 5 • WA 2-4511IMPROVED METHODSEMPLOYEE TRAININGWAGE INCENTIVESJOB EVALUATIONPERSONNEL PROCEDURES28 citation in H160, lives with his family inElmhurst, Ill.JOHN E. SHIELDS, AM'30, has retiredas grade school principal at Kaneville, 111.,and is now living in Canton, III.BERTIE WARREN, SM'30, of Amarillo,Texas, received one of the ten MinnieStevens Piper awards for outstandingteaching, in December, 1960. The awardsgo to ten college teachers in Texas. Sheteaches at Amarillo Junior College.I-IELEN FEINSTEIN ZIMNAVODA, '30,of Hollywood, Calif., has been appointedassistant professor of Russian languageat Los Angeles State College. During thesummer of 1960 she spent five weeks withthe Comparative Education Society tour­ing the U.S.S.R. The society was invitedthere by the Russian Union of Educa­tional Workers, and had many visits andconferences at various universities, peda­gogical institutes and other schools.RICHARD D. FLETCHER, JR., '31, presi­dent of Fletcher & Co. (market research),Washington, D.C., is presently putting thefinishing touches on a new biography ofMary Garden, opera singer and lecturer,who was with the Chicago Opera Com­pany from 1910 to 1932. CARL VANVECHTEN, '03, novelist and critic, willwrite a forward to the book. Mr. Fletcherlives in Landover Hills, Md.BESS SELTZER SONDEL, '31, PhD'38,lecturer in communications at the U of C,spoke at the final 1960-61 meeting of theAssociation of Chicago Bank Women inApril. Her topic was, "Words are YourMost Important Tools."CHESTER W. LAING, '32, president ofJohn Nuveen & Company, Chicago (mu­nicipal bonds), will be moving to Rye,N.Y., early in 1962 to make his head­quarters in the New York office of thccompany. Mr. Laing is a past presidentof the Alumni Association.33-48MICHAEL FERENCE, JB., '33, SI,,('34,PhD'37, is executive director of Ford Mo­tor Company's Scientific Laboratory, whichin May completed its first decade as aninstitution dedicated to research in thephysical sciences. The laboratory, locatedin Dearborn, Mich., conducts basic pro­grams in physics, chemistry, metallurgyand electronics, and has nearly 300 per­sons on its staff. Mr. Ference joined Fordas chief scientist of the scientific labora­tory in September, 1953, and was ap­pointed associate director in January,1955, and director in March, 1957. From1936 to 1946 he served on thc U of Cfaculty successively as instructor, assistantprofessor and associate professor of physicsand meteorology.WALTEB A. McCLENEGHAN, '33, hasretired from the Methodist ministry andis living in Tucson, Ariz. CLAHA G. KESSEL, '35, of Warsaw, III., Ihas retired as a high school Englishteacher.CLIFFORD G. MASSOTH, '35, publicrelations officer of the Illinois Central Rail­road, was elected a southern region viccopresident of the Railroad Public RelationsAssn., at the group's annual meeting inJune. He will hold the office for the year1961-62. Mr. Massoth lives in Harvey, Ill.JOHN D. McKEE, AM'35, is now on thcstaff of the development department ,Itthe College of Wooster (Wooster, Ohio)on a part-time basis, after official retire­ment from the alumni department as direc­tor and editor. Mr. Mckee's service atWooster began in 1920 and included ap'!)Ointments as assistant to the president,msiness manager, and director of publicrelations, in addition to his alumni work.AARON SA YVETZ, '35, PhD'39, formerlya professor of physical sciences at theU of C, this fall joincd the faculty at Al­fred University in New York. He is chair­man of the department of physical sciencesthere.TREVOR D. WEISS, '35, MBA'38, repre'sentative of Massachusetts Mutual LifeInsurance Co. in Chicago, is listed in theIH61 roster of the Million Dollar BoundTable of the National Association of LifeUnderwriters. Each member of the roundtable must have sold at least a milliondollars of life insurance in 1960 or haveattained life membership by having solda million yearly for three years in succes­sion. Fewer than one percent of theworld's life insurance agents are membersof the round tahle.HENHY M. WALTON, PhD'38, was r=:moted this summer to research associateat A. E. Staley Manufacturing Co., Deca­tur, III. Mr. Walton, who was formerlywith thc exploratory group and for thelast six months has been a member ofthe polymer group, joined Staley in 1957as a senior research chemist. He holdsdoctorate degrees in organic chemistry,law, and philosophy.HAHOLD H. WEBBER, '38, has beenelected consumer relations vice presidentof Lever Brothers Co., New York. Mr.Webber, whose election was effective Au­gust 15, is now supervising Lever's adver­tising, promotion, marketing research andpublic relations activities. He also serveSas a member of the company's marketingcommittee. Before joining Lever Bros­this summer, Mr. Webber was vice presi­dent and director of Cowles Magazinesand Broadcasting, Inc., and was formerlyexecutive vice president of Foote, Cone& Belding, advertisers.ABDELlA STAHKES, '40, AM'59, washonored in March by the PTA of WendellPhillips School, Kansas City, Mo., for herlong years of service to the school as IIteacher. Miss Starkes holds the distinctionof having taught at the school for 40 yearswithout one day of absence.DAVID M. AMATO, '41, vocational re­hahilitation advisor at the U.S. Interna­tional Cooperation Aduunistrutlon missionTHE UNIVEHSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEHAROLO J. GREEN, '27, JO'28, presenteda fund of $150,000 to the U of CLawSchool in October to furnish the lounge inthe newly-constructed law school center.Architect of the law buildings, the late EeroSaarinen, called the lounge, "the crossroadsof Law School life," and created the entireinterior decoration of the lounge, includingfurniture designs, to reflect the character ofan English barrister's club. His plans in­cluded fou r conversation groups in eachcorner of the lounge, with 12-foot sofas, a bench, octagonal marble-topped coffeetable and lamps. Two central groupingseach consist of a 9-foot table and 12 ac­companying chairs. The color motif will beset by the black leather upholstery of thesofas and chairs, and the wood-and-metalbenches.Mr. Green, who has practiced law inChicago since his graduation, said: "BothEdward Levi, dean of the Law School, andmyself feel that if law students can begiven some of the extras, perhaps even atouch of luxury, then the University can con­centrate with even more success on the aca­demic necessities of the profession."in Mexico City, was presented the Meri­torious Service Citation at a ceremonyheld at the Department of State in April.He received the award for his outstandingachievements in vocational rehabilitationwork for the past nine Jears in Mexico.The ceremonies were hel on Mr. Amato'sreturn to Washington, D.C., to attend aconference of the President's Committeefor Employment of the Physically Handi­capped. Mr. Amato promoted the organ­ization and development of the MexicanHehabilitation Assn., and through his guid­ance the concept of rehabilitating disabledpersons has spread to other Latin Amer­ican countries. The Mexican Associationhas nominated him for the Lasker Awardfor his contributions to the advancementof international rehabilitation. It is thefirst time a non-Mexican has received thisnomination.HOBERT B. SEHNERT, '41, past presi­dent of our Washington, D.C. Club, hasmoved to Southern California. He is withAtomics International.PAUL O. McGREW, PhD'42, is one ofthree authors who received the AmericanAssociation of Petroleum Geologist's GeorgeC. Matson Award in March. The award,made annually in recognition of the besttechnical paper presented at the Associa­tion's annual meeting, was given for 11paper written by Mr. McGrew with twoother authors. Formal presentation of theaward will be made at the next annualmeeting of the group in March, 1962. Mr.McGrew, professor of geology at the Uni­versity of Wyoming, is active in severallearned societies, and is especially notedfor his numerous publications on fossilmammals found in some of the youngerrocks of the Hocky Mountain region. Titleof the award winning paper was "Relation­ship of Latest Cretaceous and TertiaryDeposition and �eformati.on ,�o Oil andGas Occurrences m Wyommg.WILLIAM T. NELSON, '42, chemist withthe research laboratory of Phillips Petro­leum Co., Bartlesville, Okla., served as aleader on a Canadian canoe trip in July.MYHON HUSH, '42, PhD'51, member ofthe social science department of the RandCorporation in Santa Monica, Calif., spoketo the Institute of World Affairs at SanDiego State College on the subject of·'Khrushchev's Strategic Views." Mr. Rush}ANUAHY, 1962 is the author of The Rise of Khrushchev,published in 1958. Among others invitedto address the institute was Hans J. Mor­genthau, professor of political science atthe U of C and director of the Center forthe Study of American Foreign and Mili­tary Policy.CHARLES HUGGINS, '47, professor anddirector of Ben May Laboratory for CancerResearch at the U of C, has been namedto the 24-member President's Conferenceon Heart Disease and Cancer. During arecent trip to South America when hereceived the Orden del Sol del Peru, ClassGrand Officer award in Peru, Mr. Hugginsalso visited several schools including: theUniversity of San Marcos (Lima), theUniversity of Chile (Santiago), the Ar­gentine League Against Cancer (BuenosAires), and the University of Montevideo.Dr. Huggins was also made an honoraryprofessor of the University of Chile.JULIUS B. KAHN, JR., '47, SM'47,PhD'49, recently wrote us his change ofaddress from Greenhills, Ohio, to Win­netka, III. He added the following com­ment about the "Bug" (humor magazine)story which was in the June issue "Newsof the Quadrangles" and which began withthis quotation: "Then there's the UC manwho went to Northwestern and raised theIQ of both schools." Says Mr. Kahn, "SinceI will be in the Department of Pharma­cology of Northwestern University's Med­ical School, I would also like to seize thisopportunity to take some umbrage at thesnide quotation from "The Bug" whichappeared in the latest Magazine. It tookus 12 years to emigrate from the SouthSide to the North Side, via Oak Ridge,Cincinnati, and Switzerland, and it bugs usto have our new employer treated in sucha fashion. Surely even in my undergrad­uate days on the Midway, I would haveagreed that some good might have comefrom Northwestern. Among the many ad­vantages it can now claim are: a) a beau­tiful lakeside location; b) an attractivesuburban setting; c) a fine technologicalinstitute; and d) me. Can the Universityof Chicago claim as much? If you can­not curb the youthful indiscretions of yourcampus humor writers, we will be forcedto forbid them to come up to Evanstonand ogle the girls." Mr. Kahn adds thatin September he was in Sweden to give atalk at the First International Ph arm a- cological Congress. He was formerly withthe college of medicine at the Universityof Cincinnati. Mr. Kahn's wife is CARO­LYN SHADLEY, '48.KEITH E. CHAVE, '48, SM'51, PhD'52,was promoted to associate professor ofgeology at Lehigh University, Bethlehem,Pa., effective September 1. Formerly Mr.Chave was assistant professor there. Aspecialist in paleontology, paleoecologyand geochemistry, he has been at Lehighsince 1959. He is a member of Sigma Xi,national research honorary society and hashad several articles published in the Jour­nal of Geology. Mr. Chave is the son ofthe late ERNEST J. CHAVE, AM'20,PhD'24, who was professor emeritus, Fed­erated Theological faculty of the U of C.1950MITCHELL BROWEH, MBA'50, of NewYork City, was in Europe during Juneand July. Mr. Brower is company managerof the Pulitzer award winning play, Allthe Way Home.EIUC CONN, PhD'50, and LOUISEKACHEL CONN, '44, of Davis, Calif"announce the birth of a son, Michael Ericon June 11. Mr. Conn is on the facultyof the department of plant biochemistryat the University of California in Davis.WILLIAM H. FARICY, '50, AM'54, ofChicago, is now working for Follett Pub­lishing Co. Formerly he was associateeditor of National Underwriters Mapo:zITIR.MAURICE FRIEDMAN, PhD'50, gavethe opening lecture at a Lafayette Collegeconference on "Jew and Christian in Dia­logue," at Easton, Pa., in April. Mr. Fried­man, an authority on the life and thoughtof Martin Buber, Jewish philosopher, gavehis lecture on that topic. He is professorof philosophy at Sarah Lawrence College,where he has taught since 1951.JAMES I. GABBY, '50, AM'51, MD'53,of Hillsborough, Calif., is a consultingchild psychologist to the San Franciscopublic schools and has It private practiceof child psychiatry. His wife is OLGADEMAS, AM' 48.ARTHUH L. HAAHMEYER, MBA'50, ofSacramento, Calif., is an associate with29IVAN KLECKA, AM'56, a field operationsofficer of the U.S. Information Agency, isaccording to the Associated Press, "a dip­lomat in blue jeans and khakis who is fight­ing the war for the minds of the Laotianpeople with food, tools, medicine and newtechniques."As a field officer, Mr. Klecka regularlyhelps the Royal Laotian Army and govern­ment in its own information program, or­ganizes mobile movie teams, distributesinformational material whenever the govern­ment troops move in, interprets for Laotianofficers, and does countless other jobs.In the field, Mr. Klecka is recognized byhis bush hat, and prescription sunglasses(the natives disapprove of the weaknessshown by wearing glasses but they like sun­glasses, so he compromises), a pair of wornbone chopsticks protruding from his shirtpocket, and hanging on his neck, a goldenBuddha charm-he is a converted Buddhist.This summer in the "Valley of the HappyPig" Mr. Klecka had a prolonged stay with5,000 Laotian Meos, a tribe which had beendriven from their mountain dwellings to thenorth by rebel fighting, and were livingprecariously for a time on an American air­lift of food and medicine. Mr. Klecka super­vised food distribution, helped local medicsset up medical centers, and taught methodsof making tools.His co-workers consider Mr. Klecka aninvaluable asset to the U.S. in Laos. Saysthe local deputy director of USIA, "1 thinkhe has done more than anyone else in theway of people-to-people diplomacy. Ivanhas empathy running out of his ears." Anda veteran American pilot who has flown Mr.Klecka many times-once over rebel territoryunder gunfire-says, "Ivan is one of the fewAmericans out here doing a real job."Mr. Klecka is from Riverside, III., nearChicago, and he has not been home sinceChristmas, 1959. But when recently asked ifhe liked his job, his reply was firm: "very,very much!"30 the law firm of Bradford, Cross, Dahl &Hefner in the Forum Building, Sacra­mento. Mr. Haarmeyer is a member ofthe Barristers Club and the SacramentoCounty Bar Assn.HAHOLD H. HAHDING, '50, of Arling­ton, Va., received a Master's degree inphilosophy from the American University,Washington, D.C. in June. Mr. Hardingis assistant director of the American AlumniCouncil in Washington.MUHHAY HEHLIHY, AM'50, PhD'54,who has been a member of the LakeForest College faculty was recently ap­pointed chairman of the department ofeconomics. I-Ie has been involved in theadministrative details involving the school'sshift from a two-semester to a three-termsystem. Mr. Herlihy is director of ourInterfraternity Sing, held at the close ofJune Heunion each year.GEOHGE MAHHO, '50, exhibited hispaintings in a show at the Madison Galleryin New York, September 9 to 20.I-IILLEL A. SCHILLEH, AM'50, of NewYork, N.Y., is advertising, promotion andpublicity director of Meridian Books, aposition he has held since December, 1960.Meridian Books is the quality paperbackpublishing division of the World Publish­ing Co., Cleveland and New York. Meridianwas started independently by AHTI-IUHA. COHEN, '46, AM'48, who is now avice-president of World Publishing.51-61GEOHGE T. OKIT A, PhD'51, assistantprofessor in the department of pharma­cology at U of C, was in Austria in Mayto present a paper at the International Con­ference on Use of Tritium in the Physicaland Biological Sciences at Vienna.HELEN M. PEHKS, AM'51, has beenworking during the past four years forthe Board of Christian Education of theUnited Presbyterian Church as a publica­tion division field representative in thestates of Ohio, Indiana and Michigan. Shesays the work is both interesting and chal­lenging and quite frequently she runs intoa fellow alumnus or alumna and "soon ourtongues are wagging on our favorite sub­ject, the University of Chicago and itsmany progressive educational and physicalchanges." Miss Perks hopes to be backon campus at U of C in the fall of 1962for further graduate work.AMELIE OKSENBEHG HOHTY, '51, hasbeen appointed a lecturer in philosophy atDouglass College, the women's divisionof the State University of New Jersey.Mrs. Rorty had formerly been on the fac­ulties of Yale University and Wheaton Col­lege. She and her husbarid, RlCI-IAHD,'49, AM'52, who is on the faculty atWellesley College, live in Needham, Mass.HAHHY SCHILDCHOUT, AM'.'51, formerlya social worker in Chicago, has been appointed director of tbe Mental HealthAssociation of Delaware. He is living inWilmington, Del.ELIAS STEIN, '51, SM'53, PhD'55, assist­ant professor of mathematics, and JOHNTHOMPSON, SM'56, PhD'59, lecturer inmathematics at the U of C, were bothawarded Sloan Foundation grants-in-aid.HOBEHT H. WASZ, MBA'55, has becomeassistant vice president of Joseph T. Ryer­son & Son, Inc. of Chicago. Formerly gen­eral manager of the Hyerson plant in SanFrancisco, he will now be in the firm'sgeneral office in Chicago, and will be re­sponsible for administering the company'sfabricating and manufacturing activities.Mr. Wasz joined Hyerson in 1942 and wasdirector of the merchandise-procurementdivision at the time of his transfer to SanFrancisco as general manager in 1957.VIRGINIA P. GHEGORlUS, AM'56, ofDetroit, Mich., is working at Henry FordHospital as administrative supervisor in thedepartment of nursing.BAHBARA TAUBER LAS LETT, '56, '57,AM'59, is now living in Liverpool, Eng­land, where her husband, John, is with thedepartment of political theory and institu­tions at the University of Liverpool.PHILIP M. PHIBBS, AM'56, PhD'57, hasbeen named instructor in political scienceat Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass.Since 1958, Mr. Phibbs has been on activeduty with the U.S. Air Force, and for thelast two years also has been a part timemember of the faculty of the Universityof Maryland branch in London, England.He formerly taught at Illinois Institute ofTechnology, and is a specialist in the fieldof international relations.RICHARD W. POWER, JD'56, has beenappointed assistant professor in the St.Louis University Law School, St. Louis,Mo., this fall. Formerly assistant professorat Indiana University Law School, Mr.Power is tcaching courses in negotiableinstruments, estates and administrationand agency.HARVEY TREGEH, AM'56, a U.S. pro­bation officer of Chicago, has been electedsecretary of the Illinois Academy ofCriminology for 1961-62. During Februaryto June, 1961, he taught a course in socialproblems at the University of Indiana,and in April, he gave a paper on "TheAlcoholic Offender and the ProbationOfficer: A New Relationship," at theNortheast Federal Probation Officers In­Service Institute at West Point.I-IOWAHD L. BHESLEH, MD'57, hascompleted his service as a research fellowof the American Heart Assn., and hasentered private practice in Chicago.AGNES C. MOLONEY, AM'57, of Al­buquerque, N.M., was appointed assistantprofessor of nursing education at the Uni­versity of New Mexico, in September.MAHTIN HYAN, '57, formerly a researchsupervisor, has become assistant media di­rector of North Advertising, Inc., Chicago.IRVIN C. WILMOT, MBA'57, assistantTHE UNIVEHSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEsuperintendent of the University Clinicsand associate director of the Hosrita1Administration Program of the U 0 C,has moved to New York where he acceptedthe position of administrator at UniversitylIospital at the New York UniversityMedical Center.WILLIAM C. DURNING, PhD'58, wasnamed director of research and associateprofessor in the School of Dentistry at theUniversity of Detroit in Michigan. From1950 to 1960, Mr. Durning served with theRoyal New Zealand Dental Corps. Pre­viously he had taught at the U of C. Mr.Durning is a member of the Illinois Societyfor Medical Research, the New ZealandDental Society and the New ZealandAssociation of Scientists.ERNIE FITZ-HUGH, AM'58, of Glen­view, Ill., has been appointed full-timedirector of guidance and counseling atKendall College, Evanston, Ill. Mr. Fitz­lIugh is also associated with the CentralYMCA Counseling Center in Chicago, andthe Psychological Center of Morton Grove.lIe was formerly a clinical psychologist atChicago State Hospital.ROBERT A. DENTLER, PhD'60, formerlyof Lawrence, Kan., is now assistant pro­fessor of sociology at Dartmouth College,and living in Hanover, N.H. Mr. Dentlerformerly was assistant director of the Uni­versity of Kansas Bureau of Child Research.BARBARA A. LAVES, '60, of Chicago,Ill., enrolled this fall at Woman's MedicalCollege of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, tobegin studies toward her doctor of medi­cine degree.THOMAS R. MATHERLEE, MBA'60, for­merly of Olney, Ill., has taken a positionas administrative assistant with the ForsythMemorial Hospital, Winston-Salem, N.C.Mr. Matherlee also announces the birth ofa daughter, Jennifer Lynne, on June 8.ROBERT P. THAYER, AM'60, of LaGrange, Ill., now in the U.S. Army, re­cently went through basic training inFort Dix, N.J., and has been reassignedthere to advanced infantry training, N a­tional Guard.ARTHUR DOYLE, '61, formerly of Chi­cago, is now studying for his masters de­gree in physics on a fellowship at Dart­mouth, in Hanover, N.H., according toVIRGINIA DICKEY, '60, of Chicago.IUCHARD E. MAYNARD, PhD'61, andhis wife, educational representatives ofthe United Church Board for W or ldMinistries, Hew from New York this fallto resume their teaching posts at TarsusCollege, Tarsus, Turkey. Mr. Maynard isdirector of the school, and his wife teachesEnglish and supervises the college library.A.NNE BARNETT SHERE, '61, was mar­ried to Steven Shere on June 18. Theywill be living in the Chicago area whereMr. Shere is employed with GoldblattBros. Inc. Mrs. Shere's parents are MARKT. BARNETT, '31, JD'S2, and BETTYMESSINGER, '31, of Chicago. Mr. Barnettis a partner in Schwartzberg & Barnett,attorneys and counselors.JANUARY, 1962 EUGENE P. SCHOCH, PhD'02, profes­sor of chemistry and engineering at theUniversity of Texas, Austin, died onAugust 15, 1961. He was 89.GEORGE HALPERIN, MD'05, medicaljournalist and editor of Chicago, died onNovember 7, 1961. He was associate edi­tor of the Journal of the American M ed­ical Assn., and editor of its medicalabstracts section. He had joined the staffof the A-MA publication in- 1940, afterhaving a private practice in Chicago, andteaching at the University of Illinois andNorthwestern University medical schoolsand serving as attending surgeon at WesleyMemorial Hospital, Chicago.HELEN PUTNAM ANDREWS, '07, diedin July, 1961.JAMES McKEAG, JD'07, of Grinnell, la.,died on October 26, 1961.EDWARD F. ZOERB, MD'10, of Scotts­bluff, Neb., died on November 21, 1961.ANDREW D. COLLINS, '11, of Evanston,Ill., died about two years ago.WESLEY M. GEWEHR, '11, AM'12,PhD'22, retired chairman of the historydepartment and professor emeritus at theUniversity of Maryland, died on Septem­ber 20, 1961, in Washington, D.C. Mr.Gewehr had taught history for 49 years,most recently on the faculties of theAmerican University in Washington, D.C.;Columbus College, Columbia, S.C.; andthe University of Santa Barbara, as wellas the University of Maryland. He hadbeen retired from the Maryland facultysince 1958.GEORGE D. FULLER, SM'12, PhD'IS, abotanical scientist and professor emeritusof botany at the U of C, died in Chicagoon November 22, 1961, at the age of 92.Mr. Fuller was active on the U of Cfaculty until his retirement in 1934. Hethen took the post of curator of botanyfor the Illinois State Museum in Spring­field, Ill., until his second retirement in1956. He was internationally known forhis work on plant life in central Illinoisand the Indiana dunes.FREDERICK W. WHITESIDE, '12, ofCamden, Ark., has died.NINA WRIGHT WINSTON, '12, ofHinsdale, Il1., died on September 15, 1960.JANE HARRIS LAZEAR, '13, of Braden­ton, Fla., died on October 25, 1961.EDITH PUTNAM PARKER, '13, SM'21,who was on the geography faculty at theU of C from 1921 until her retirement in1951, died on October 20, 1961. She memorialsco-authored a series of elementary schoolgeography texts, and a book entitled,Developing the Science of Teaching Geog­raphy. In the past she had been presidentof the National Council of GeographyTeachers and educational director of thearmy map service, Corps of Army Engi­neers.IRA N. LOREN, '14, with the LaSalleNational Bank in Chicago, Ill., died onAugust 31.CHARLES A. BORROFF, '15, of Chi­cago, died on July 28.WALTER S. MONROE, PhD'15, of PaloAlto, Calif., died on October IS, 1961, atthe age of 79. Mr. Monroe was retiredprofessor of education and director ofeducational research at the University ofIllinois, a position he had held for 29years. He had written several books oneducational psychology, tests, and statistics,and edited two editions of the Encyclo­pedia of Educational Research. Mr. Monroehad lived in California since his retire­ment in 1950.JAMES H. SMITH, '1.5, AM'16, of Osh­kosh, Wise., died on September 20. Hewas director of teacher education andplacement at Wisconsin State College inOshkosh for 20 years previous to his retire­ment in 1954.LUIE H. BALL, '16, of Arlington, Va.,died on March 16, 1961.ELMER B. BROWN, AM'16, of Warrens­burg, Mo., died on October 5, 1961.RALPH E. HALL, PhD'16, of RehobothBeach, Del., died on May 2, 1961.EUNICE PEASE KNOX, '16, of HermosaBeach, Calif., died in May, 1960.RALPH G. LOMMEN, AM'16, MD'23,of Manton, Mich., died on October 4,1961.HAROLD T. MOORE, '16, retired presi­dent of the Tuthill Spring Co., died Octo­ber 22, 1961. On campus Mr. Moore hadbeen active in student affairs includingBlackfriars, 0 & S, and Psi Upsilon frater­nity. In 1952 he was cited by the Asso­ciation for his many civic activities. Hiswife, PORIS MacNEAL, '15, is remainingin their home in Hinsdale, Ill.LOTA KING WILEY, '16, died on July 4,1956. She had been county school super­intendent of Grays Harbor County, Wash.,for the past 16 years.PERCY W. ZIMMERMAN, '16, SM'17,PhD'25, who died in 1958, was named inOctober as co-recipient of the John PriceWetherill Medal, from the Franklin Insti­tute, Philadelphia, Pa. The medal, givenfor discovery or invention in the physicalsciences, was awarded posthumously to Mr.Zimmerman and to a fellow scientist fortheir research on the chemical factors con-31trolling the growth of plants. The twoplant physiologists were with Boyce Thomp­son Institute for Plant Research Inc".(Yonkers, N.Y.) when they revolution­ized agricultural practices with their dis­covery of 2, 4-D, the first potent selectiveherbicide. Among other awards given toMr. Zimmerman and his colleague werethe A. Cressy Morrison Award of the NewYork Academy of Sciences in 19�2) theAnnual Award of the American Associationfor the Advancement of Science in 1935,the Vaughan Award of the American So­ciety for Horticultural Science in 1946.Before joining Boyce Institute in 1925, Mr.Zimmerman was associate professor ofbotany and dean of the College of Agri­cultural at the University of Maryland.CHARLES R. CULLEN, AM'17, of Green­dale, Wise., died on June 1.ELMA LIEBENSTEIN ETTLINGER, '17,died on April SO, in Highland Park, Ill.J. WILL PIERCE, AM'17, of MarkedTree, Ark., died on September 3, at theage of 82. He had been superintendentof schools in Perryville, Malden, Wash­ington and West Plains, Mo., and Para­gould, Ark. He had been on the facultiesat Southwest Missouri State College atSpringfield and Southeast Missouri StateCollege at Cape Girardeau. For the past20lears Mr. Pierce had worked as teacheran supervisor in the Marked Tree PublicSchools.EDNA M. ROLSTON, '17, of Boulder,Colo., has died.CURT ROSENOW, PhD'17, of New York,N.Y., died in October, 1960.FRANCES MADDOCK SHEEHAN, '17,of Oak Park, Ill., died in June, 1960.JOHN F. WEBSTER, '17, of OklahomaCity, Okla., died on February 2, 1961.CLARENCE C. NEFF, '18, of Chicago,died on November 6, 1961. He had beenassociated with BeJIamy and Neff, Inc.He is survived by a brother, LELAND I.NEFF, '26, his wife, MARGARET DE­LANEY NEFF, '19, a son, JOHN, '47,MBA' 48, and two other children. Anotherbrother, JEROME P. NEFF, '22, diedin 1956.DAVID C. GRAHAM, AM'19, PhD'27, ofEnglewood, Colo., died on September 15.ALMA C. JOHNSON, '19, of Chicago,died on November 4, 196!.MARGARET WOOSTER CURTI, PhD'20,of Madison, Wisc., died on September 19.Mrs. Curti taught at Beloit College, SmithCollege" and Teachers College of Colum­bia from 1920 to 1942. She then lecturedat the University of Wisconsin and didprivate and consultant research. Mrs .. Curtiwas the author of Child Psychology, oneof the early textbooks in that field.SAMUEL J. JACOBSOHN, '20, SM'24, ofChicago, died on October 5, 1961.WILLIAM D. McNALLY, MD'20, ofMobile, Ala., died on June 29.HENRY M. WHISLER, '20, AM'21, ofDanville, Ind., died on September 10.32 BENSON L. BASKIN, '21, of Chicago,died on July 8.MARALYN MORTON, AM'21, associateprofessor of English at Idaho State Col­lege, Pocatello, Ida., died on Octoher 13,1961, in Pleasant Grove, Utah.RAE PREECE, '21, of Dallas, Texas, diedon September 10. He was a consultant inpetroleum geology.JOHN G. WHITEN, AM'21, of Rockford,Ill., died on August 7, 1961. He was aretired Baptist minister and had served aspastor of the First Baptist Church in Bel­videre, Ill., and held pastorates in severalchurches in Ohio and Canada.CLARA B. CORBETT, '22, of MountPleasant, Mich., has died.FRANCIS L. MARTLAND, '22, of Omaha,Neb., died on July 8.EDWARD L. MOYER, AM'22, of Wayne,Ohio, died on September 28.JAMES D. TRAHEY, '22, of Miami, Fla.,died on August 17, 1958.RUTH A. WAGNER, '22, of Chicago,died on May 14, 196!.ALMA BROWN, '23, of Pomona, Calif.,died on April 22, 1960.CHARLES W. CARNAHAN, '2S, JD'25,professor of law at Washington University,St. Louis, Mo., died on September 19. Mr.Carnahan was the author of several text­books, and contributed articles to numer­ous professional magazines.EDWARD H. DUNN, '2S, MD'26, ofElgin, Ill. , has died.ALICE MAY HAWKINS, '23, of GrandRapids, Mich., has died.WILLIAM H. STEAD, AM'23, died onJune 12, 1959, in Washington, D.C.MILDRED A. ERICKSON, '24, of Dear­born, Mich., died on October 30.ARTHUR P. LOCKE, PhD'24, of Braden­ton, Fla., died in April, 1961. He wasretired after many years of research atSt. Luke's Hospital, Chicago, and WestPenn Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pa. He hadalso been director of research at ZoniteCompany at New Brunswick, N.J. His latewife was ROSE BRENNWASSER, '24.VINCENT PAGLIARULO, PhD'24, ofLos Angeles, Calif., died on January 14,1961.ERNEST WIESLE, '24, AM'25, '26, PhD'28, of Rochester, N.Y., died on September19.EDWARD C. BROOKS, '25, JD'27, ofEvanston, Ill., died on October 19, 1961.ALBERT F. GILMAN, JR., '25, AM'27,SM'38, of Oak Park, Ill., died on October17. Mr. Gilman is a former teacher ofchemistry.MATTHEW MARGOLIS, '25, of Albany,N.Y., died October 18, 1961. He wasowner of Margolis Bros., wholesale floristsin Albany. For many years Mr. Margolishad served as chairman of the Albany fundcommittee for the Alumni Foundation. GRACE EARHART CHAFFEE, AM'21,of Iowa City, Ia., died on March 29, 1960;"She was a professor emeritus at the StateUniversity of Iowa.HOMER L. REEVES, AM'27, of EastChicago, Ind., died on August 7, 1960.WILLIAM C. FAIRBROTHER, MD'29,of Inglewood, Calif., died on July 28,1961.ALMA M. HUNNEMANN, '29, of Chi'cago, Ill., died on September 25. MisSHunnemann was a teacher.CARL W. HANSEN, AM'SO, professor stthe University of Cincinnati, Ohio, died of}May 21, 1961. He was professor of edu'cation, and director of student teachingand teacher placement for the University'Scollege of education.MAURICE J. HOILIEN, MD'SI, of Eo'reka, Calif., died on August 15, 196!.VERNON W. RICE, AM'31, died of}August 5, 1960, in Glenwood, Ia.CECIL COHEN SHEA, JD'31, of TUCS0l1,Ariz., died on December 23, 1960.ANNA B. TULL, 'SI, of Whiting, Ind.,died on September 17.FRANK M. JUSTIN, '32, AM'48, of Wash'ington, D,C." died on October 19.FRED .4. KRINNING, JR., 'S2, died oJ)July 26, 1960, in Sausalito, Calif.ARVID E. WESTERDAHL, MD'3S, ofElmhurst, Ill., died on September 6, 1961·DAVID H. JADWIN, '34, JD'S6, of Phil9'delphia, Pa., died on September 9, 1961·EDWARD SIGMAN, '34, of Glencoe, ru,has died.FLOSSIE A. VINER, '34, of Berwyn, III. ,died on August 29, 196!.MARION ROBINETTE, 'S8, of FortWayne, Ind., died on October 28, 1961,She had been head of the department fotphysically handicapped children at Brent ..wood School in Fort Wayne.DOUGLAS E. LAWSON, PhD'S9, of Cat'bondale, Ill., has died. Mr. Lawson waSprofessor of education at Southern IllinoisUniversity.MARION HETLEY WOLF, 'S9, SM'41,of Lafayette, La., died on August 5, 1961.MILTON D. STAREKOW, MD'40, ofThief River Falls, Minn., died on August20.DONALD E. WRAY, '40, AM'42, PhD'49,of Peoria, Ill., died on August 17, 1960.LUCILLE DAY McCLYMONDS, AM'41,of Good Hope, Ill. , died on July 18. Shewas a former teacher and social worker.�.iARGARET ROUTZAHN, AM'41, ofGreenwich, Conn., died on September 8.EDWARD N. CHAMBERLAIN. '42, ofPalo Alto, Calif., died on September 1. He,with his wife and four children, was killedin the crash of a TWA airliner near Chi ...cago. Mr. Chamberlain was an architect,PAUL HARRISON, JR., '42, and his wife,Mildred Keippel, who also attended theTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MAGAZINEU of C, both died in an automobile acci­dent in Paris, France, on November 3,1961. Mr. Harrison was a physicist withlhe Martin Craft Co. in Paris.JESSE MUBPHY McCORMICK, '42, ofBenton Harbor, Mich., died on May 27.DOROTHY C. LAUTERBACH, AM'46,of Cedar Rapids, Ia., died on May 3.CLAIR B. OWEN, JB., JO'48, of Jackson­ville, Fla., died in September, 1961. HeWas with the Florida National Bank inJacksonville.JOHN C. BROWN, PhO'49, who died in19.'59 while a member of the Cornell Col­lege faculty, Mount Vernon, Ia., was hon­orcd this fall when the scholarship fundin his memory reached the total whichassures continuance of a yearly scholarshipfor a Cornell history or political sciencestudent. Mr. Brown was active in stateand national politics as well as in educa- '0tion, Contributions to the John CottonBrown Scholarship Fund came from Cor­nell students and faculty, associates ofMr. Brown's from the U of C and theUniversity of Florida, and other friends.FRANCES FISHEH COl-lEN, '49, of Chi­(:ago, died recently,HAHMON CARTEH, '50, of Chicago, diedon February 16, 1961. He was a medicalconsultant with the Cook County Depart­ment of Public Welfare.MAHGAHET WALTEHS CAVANAUGH,PhO'50, of Bel Air, Md., died on April 22,1961. Her husband is DANIEL J. CA V A­NAUGI-I, PhD'50.The annual memorial service for faculty,staff, students and others affiliated with theU of C, who died during the past year,was held on Sunday, October 29 in Hocke­feller Memorial Chapel. The Rev. Dr.W. Barnett Blakemore, dean of RockefellerMemorial Chapel, conducted the serviceand the Rev. Dr. Jerald C. Brauer, deanof the Divinity School, preached the ser­mon. President George Wells Beadle gavethe Scripture reading.Among those for whom the service wasconducted were:Faculty members-Arthur G. Bovee, '07,assistant professor, romance languages;Ernest J. Chave, AM'20, PhD'24, professor,Divinity School; Fay-Cooper Cole, '12,LLD'55, professor, anthropology; John 1.Gross, MD'54, instructor, pediatrics; BerardHaile, resident associate, anthropology;Jeanette B. Obenchain, '06, PhD'24, resi­dent associate, anatomy; Arthur P. Scott,PhD'16, professor, history; and Yves H.Simon, professor, Committee on SocialThought.Widows of faculty-Olive Bliss (Mrs.Gilbert A.); May Garrison Breasted (Mrs.James H.); Anna M. Merrifield, '02(Mrs. Fred); Katherine Phernister, '07(Mrs. Dallas B.); Clara Stern (Mrs.David); and Annie Hathaway Williston(Mrs. Samuel).And John J. McDonough, '28, trustee;Meyer Kestnbaum, board of directors, In­ternational House; David B. Stern, '02,honorary trustee; and Lloyd n. Steere,former treasurer of the University. our colorful, distinctive sportwear forCRUISE OR SOUTHERN RESORT(shown) Odd Jacket oj an Exclusive Terylene andIrish Linen Blend. Bamboo or Straw, $50Our Exclusive Ascot-Attached Brooks-Clarney CasualShirts oj English Gingham in Red-Black, Blue-Blackor Gold-Black Tattersall Checks, $15.50Colorful India Madras Odd Jackets, $39.50Odd Trousers oj Terylene and Linen in Ivy Green, Rust,Bamboo or Straw, $25; in Dacron® Polyester and WoolTropical, $26Our Well-Tailored Bermuda Shorts, jrom $11.50Sport Shirts, jrom $11.50 . Knit Shirts, jrom $4.50ESTABLISHED 181874 E. MAIJISON ST., NEAR MICHIGAN AVE., CHICAGO 2, ILL.NEW YORK· HOSTON • prrrSnURGII • SAN FRA:-;CISCO • LOS A:-;GEI.ESExecutive Program LecturerRoger M. Blough/Chairman of the Board andChief Executive Officer/United States Steel CorporationTenth Annual Management ConferenceGraduate School of BusinessUniversity of ChicagoChicago 37, Illinois The Graduate School of Business& The Executive Program Clubpresentthetenth ann ualMANAGEMENTCONFERENCEWednesday I March 14, 1962McCormick Place I ChicagoWhen available (approximately January 20, 1962), please mail full in­formation and reservation forms covering the l Oth annual j\lIanagementConference to:Name .Address .City & State . PANEL SUBJECTSThe relevance to management ofgovernmen t pol icies towa rdrestrictive business practicesRecent developments in costaccounting and their relevanceto management, planning, andcontrolImpact of automated techniqueson process and production controlNew approaches to problems ofsmall businessEconomic forecasti ng and ma rkctresearch for .managemcnt planningWhat do we rcallv know ahoutmanagement development?Pitfalls and potential encounteredin growth hy acquisitionTrends in the use of new analyticalmethods in businessMarket potentials and competition ininternational tradeSignificant issues in labor policyand their long range implicationsfor managementREGISTRATIONfrom 11 am onFce/$20.00Session 1/5 concurrent meet ings/ I :30 p(11Session I] /5 concurrent meetings/4 :00 pill,Cocktails/6 :00-7 :00 pmDinner/7 :00-9 :00 prn